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Sample records for a2a receptor a2ar

  1. Adenosine A2A Receptors and A2A Receptor Heteromers as Key Players in Striatal Function

    PubMed Central

    Ferré, Sergi; Quiroz, César; Orru, Marco; Guitart, Xavier; Navarro, Gemma; Cortés, Antonio; Casadó, Vicent; Canela, Enric I.; Lluis, Carme; Franco, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    A very significant density of adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) is present in the striatum, where they are preferentially localized postsynaptically in striatopallidal medium spiny neurons (MSNs). In this localization A2ARs establish reciprocal antagonistic interactions with dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs). In one type of interaction, A2AR and D2R are forming heteromers and, by means of an allosteric interaction, A2AR counteracts D2R-mediated inhibitory modulation of the effects of NMDA receptor stimulation in the striatopallidal neuron. This interaction is probably mostly responsible for the locomotor depressant and activating effects of A2AR agonist and antagonists, respectively. The second type of interaction involves A2AR and D2R that do not form heteromers and takes place at the level of adenylyl cyclase (AC). Due to a strong tonic effect of endogenous dopamine on striatal D2R, this interaction keeps A2AR from signaling through AC. However, under conditions of dopamine depletion or with blockade of D2R, A2AR-mediated AC activation is unleashed with an increased gene expression and activity of the striatopallidal neuron and with a consequent motor depression. This interaction is probably the main mechanism responsible for the locomotor depression induced by D2R antagonists. Finally, striatal A2ARs are also localized presynaptically, in cortico-striatal glutamatergic terminals that contact the striato-nigral MSN. These presynaptic A2ARs heteromerize with A1 receptors (A1Rs) and their activation facilitates glutamate release. These three different types of A2ARs can be pharmacologically dissected by their ability to bind ligands with different affinity and can therefore provide selective targets for drug development in different basal ganglia disorders. PMID:21731559

  2. Binding of the Antagonist Caffeine to the Human Adenosine Receptor hA2AR in Nearly Physiological Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Ruyin; Rossetti, Giulia; Bauer, Andreas; CarIoni, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Lipid composition may significantly affect membrane proteins function, yet its impact on the protein structural determinants is not well understood. Here we present a comparative molecular dynamics (MD) study of the human adenosine receptor type 2A (hA2AR) in complex with caffeine—a system of high neuro-pharmacological relevance—within different membrane types. These are POPC, mixed POPC/POPE and cholesterol-rich membranes. 0.8-μs MD simulations unambiguously show that the helical folding of the amphipathic helix 8 depends on membrane contents. Most importantly, the distinct cholesterol binding into the cleft between helix 1 and 2 stabilizes a specific caffeine-binding pose against others visited during the simulation. Hence, cholesterol presence (~33%-50% in synaptic membrane in central nervous system), often neglected in X-ray determination of membrane proteins, affects the population of the ligand binding poses. We conclude that including a correct description of neuronal membranes may be very important for computer-aided design of ligands targeting hA2AR and possibly other GPCRs. PMID:25992797

  3. Regulation of fear responses by striatal and extrastriatal adenosine A2A receptors in forebrain.

    PubMed

    Wei, Catherine J; Augusto, Elisabete; Gomes, Catarina A; Singer, Philipp; Wang, Yumei; Boison, Detlev; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Yee, Benjamin K; Chen, Jiang-Fan

    2014-06-01

    Adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) are enriched in the striatum but are also present at lower levels in the extrastriatal forebrain (i.e., hippocampus, cortex), integrating dopamine, glutamate, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling, and are thus essential for striatal neuroplasticity and fear and anxiety behavior. We tested two brain region-specific A2AR knockout lines with A2ARs selectively deleted either in the striatum (st-A2AR KO) or the entire forebrain (striatum, hippocampus, and cortex [fb-A2AR KO]) on fear and anxiety-related responses. We also examined the effect of hippocampus-specific A2AR deletion by local injection of adeno-associated virus type 5 (AAV5)-Cre into floxed-A2AR knockout mice. Selectively deleting A2ARs in the striatum increased Pavlovian fear conditioning (both context and tone) in st-A2AR KO mice, but extending the deletion to the rest of the forebrain apparently spared context fear conditioning and attenuated tone fear conditioning in fb-A2AR KO mice. Moreover, focal deletion of hippocampal A2ARs by AAV5-Cre injection selectively attenuated context (but not tone) fear conditioning. Deletion of A2ARs in the entire forebrain in fb-A2AR KO mice also produced an anxiolytic phenotype in both the elevated plus maze and open field tests, and increased the startle response. These extrastriatal forebrain A2AR behavioral effects were associated with reduced BDNF levels in the fb-A2AR KO hippocampus. This study provides evidence that inactivation of striatal A2ARs facilitates Pavlovian fear conditioning, while inactivation of extrastriatal A2ARs in the forebrain inhibits fear conditioning and also affects anxiety-related behavior. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Pharmacological evidence for different populations of postsynaptic adenosine A2A receptors in the rat striatum

    PubMed Central

    Orrú, Marco; Quiroz, César; Guitart, Xavier; Ferré, Sergi

    2011-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) are highly concentrated in the striatum. Two pharmacological different functional populations of A2ARs have been recently described based on their different affinities for the A2AR antagonist SCH-442416. This compound has high affinity for A2ARs not forming heteromers or forming heteromers with adenosine A1 receptors (A1Rs) while showing very low affinity for A2ARs forming heteromers with dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs). It has been widely described that striatal A1R-A2AR heteromers are preferentially localized presynaptically in the glutamatergic terminals that contact GABAergic dynorphinergic neurons, and that A2AR-D2R heteromers are localized postsynaptically in GABAergic enkephalinergic neurons. In the present study we provide evidence suggesting that SCH-442416 also targets postsynaptic A2AR not forming heteromers with D2R, which are involved in the motor depressant effects induced by D2R antagonists. SCH-442416 counteracted motor depression in rats induced by the D2R antagonist raclopride at a dose that did not produce motor activation or that blocked motor depression induced by an A2AR agonist. Furthermore, we re-evaluated the recently suggested key role of cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1Rs) in the effects of A2AR antagonists acting at postsynaptic A2ARs. By recording locomotor activity and monitoring striatal glutamate release induced by cortical electrical stimulation in rats after administration of A2AR and CB1R antagonists, we did not find evidence for any significant role of endocannabinoids in the post- or presynaptic effects of A2AR antagonists. The present results further suggest the existence of at least two functionally and pharmacologically different populations of striatal postsynaptic A2ARs. PMID:21752341

  5. Alterations in ventral and dorsal striatal allosteric A2AR-D2R receptor-receptor interactions after amphetamine challenge: Relevance for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pintsuk, Julia; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Lai, Terence K Y; Liu, Fang; Fuxe, Kjell

    2016-10-29

    Striatal dopamine D2R homodimerization is increased in the dorsal striatum after acute amphetamine challenge and in the amphetamine-induced sensitized state, a well-known animal model of schizophrenia. Therefore, it was tested if the increase in D2R homoreceptor complexes found after acute amphetamine challenge in the saline or the amphetamine sensitized state leads to changes in the antagonistic adenosine A2AR-D2R interactions in the striatum. [(3)H]-raclopride binding was performed in membrane preparations from the ventral and dorsal striatum involving competition with the D2R like agonist quinpirole. In the ventral striatum CGS 21680 produced a significant increase of the KiH values (p<0.05) in the amphetamine sensitized group when expressed in percent versus the corresponding values in saline sensitized rats after amphetamine challenge. However, in the dorsal striatum a significant change did not develop in the KiH values when expressed in percent of the corresponding values in saline sensitized rats after amphetamine challenge. In fact, the non-significant change was in the opposite direction towards a reduction of the KiH values. Taken together, a reduced affinity of the high affinity D2 agonist binding site (KiH value) developed in the ventral but not in the dorsal striatum as a result of increased antagonistic allosteric A2AR-D2R interactions in the amphetamine-induced sensitized state versus the saline sensitized state after an acute amphetamine challenge. The selective reappearance of antagonistic A2AR-D2R receptor-receptor interactions in the ventral striatum after amphetamine challenge in the amphetamine sensitized rat may give one possible mechanism for the atypical antipsychotic-like actions of A2AR receptor agonists.

  6. Dissecting striatal adenosine-cannabinoid receptor interactions. New clues from rats over-expressing adenosine A2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Ferré, Sergi; Sebastião, Ana Maria

    2016-03-01

    This Editorial highlights a study by Chiodi et al. () showing that the effects mediated by cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) activation in the striatum are significantly reduced in rats with neuronal over-expression of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR). Two hypotheses are derived from that study. Hypothesis A: two subpopulations of pre-synaptic CB1R in corticostriatal glutamatergic terminals exist, one forming and another not forming heteromers with A2AR. Hypothesis B: CB1R are predominantly forming heteromers with A2AR. In the case of hypothesis A, the A2AR might be required for CB1R-A2AR heteromeric signaling, whereas non-heteromeric CB1R activity is inhibited by A2ARs. In the case of hypothesis B, up-regulation of A2ARs may perturb heteromeric stoichiometry, thus reducing CB1R functioning. In any case, pre-synaptic striatal A2AR-CB1R heteromers emerge as important targets of the effects of cannabinoids demonstrated at the neuronal and behavioral level. Read the highlighted article 'Striatal adenosine-cannabinoid receptor interactions in rats over-expressing adenosine A2A receptors' on page 907. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  7. Adenosine A2A Receptors in the Amygdala Control Synaptic Plasticity and Contextual Fear Memory.

    PubMed

    Simões, Ana Patrícia; Machado, Nuno J; Gonçalves, Nélio; Kaster, Manuella P; Simões, Ana T; Nunes, Ana; Pereira de Almeida, Luís; Goosens, Ki Ann; Rial, Daniel; Cunha, Rodrigo A

    2016-11-01

    The consumption of caffeine modulates working and reference memory through the antagonism of adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) controlling synaptic plasticity processes in hippocampal excitatory synapses. Fear memory essentially involves plastic changes in amygdala circuits. However, it is unknown if A2ARs in the amygdala regulate synaptic plasticity and fear memory. We report that A2ARs in the amygdala are enriched in synapses and located to glutamatergic synapses, where they selectively control synaptic plasticity rather than synaptic transmission at a major afferent pathway to the amygdala. Notably, the downregulation of A2ARs selectively in the basolateral complex of the amygdala, using a lentivirus with a silencing shRNA (small hairpin RNA targeting A2AR (shA2AR)), impaired fear acquisition as well as Pavlovian fear retrieval. This is probably associated with the upregulation and gain of function of A2ARs in the amygdala after fear acquisition. The importance of A2ARs to control fear memory was further confirmed by the ability of SCH58261 (0.1 mg/kg; A2AR antagonist), caffeine (5 mg/kg), but not DPCPX (0.5 mg/kg; A1R antagonist), treatment for 7 days before fear conditioning onwards, to attenuate the retrieval of context fear after 24-48 h and after 7-8 days. These results demonstrate that amygdala A2ARs control fear memory and the underlying process of synaptic plasticity in this brain region. This provides a neurophysiological basis for the association between A2AR polymorphisms and phobia or panic attacks in humans and prompts a therapeutic interest in A2ARs to manage fear-related pathologies.

  8. Binding of the Antagonist Caffeine to the Human Adenosine Receptor hA2AR in Nearly Physiological Conditions.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ruyin; Rossetti, Giulia; Bauer, Andreas; CarIoni, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Lipid composition may significantly affect membrane proteins function, yet its impact on the protein structural determinants is not well understood. Here we present a comparative molecular dynamics (MD) study of the human adenosine receptor type 2A (hA(2A)R) in complex with caffeine--a system of high neuro-pharmacological relevance--within different membrane types. These are POPC, mixed POPC/POPE and cholesterol-rich membranes. 0.8-μs MD simulations unambiguously show that the helical folding of the amphipathic helix 8 depends on membrane contents. Most importantly, the distinct cholesterol binding into the cleft between helix 1 and 2 stabilizes a specific caffeine-binding pose against others visited during the simulation. Hence, cholesterol presence (~33%-50% in synaptic membrane in central nervous system), often neglected in X-ray determination of membrane proteins, affects the population of the ligand binding poses. We conclude that including a correct description of neuronal membranes may be very important for computer-aided design of ligands targeting hA(2A)R and possibly other GPCRs.

  9. Angiotensin II type 1/adenosine A 2A receptor oligomers: a novel target for tardive dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Paulo A de; Dalton, James A R; López-Cano, Marc; Ricarte, Adrià; Morató, Xavier; Matheus, Filipe C; Cunha, Andréia S; Müller, Christa E; Takahashi, Reinaldo N; Fernández-Dueñas, Víctor; Giraldo, Jesús; Prediger, Rui D; Ciruela, Francisco

    2017-05-12

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a serious motor side effect that may appear after long-term treatment with neuroleptics and mostly mediated by dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs). Striatal D2R functioning may be finely regulated by either adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) or angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1R) through putative receptor heteromers. Here, we examined whether A2AR and AT1R may oligomerize in the striatum to synergistically modulate dopaminergic transmission. First, by using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, we demonstrated a physical AT1R-A2AR interaction in cultured cells. Interestingly, by protein-protein docking and molecular dynamics simulations, we described that a stable heterotetrameric interaction may exist between AT1R and A2AR bound to antagonists (i.e. losartan and istradefylline, respectively). Accordingly, we subsequently ascertained the existence of AT1R/A2AR heteromers in the striatum by proximity ligation in situ assay. Finally, we took advantage of a TD animal model, namely the reserpine-induced vacuous chewing movement (VCM), to evaluate a novel multimodal pharmacological TD treatment approach based on targeting the AT1R/A2AR complex. Thus, reserpinized mice were co-treated with sub-effective losartan and istradefylline doses, which prompted a synergistic reduction in VCM. Overall, our results demonstrated the existence of striatal AT1R/A2AR oligomers with potential usefulness for the therapeutic management of TD.

  10. Allosteric interactions between agonists and antagonists within the adenosine A2A receptor-dopamine D2 receptor heterotetramer.

    PubMed

    Bonaventura, Jordi; Navarro, Gemma; Casadó-Anguera, Verònica; Azdad, Karima; Rea, William; Moreno, Estefanía; Brugarolas, Marc; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I; Lluís, Carme; Cortés, Antoni; Volkow, Nora D; Schiffmann, Serge N; Ferré, Sergi; Casadó, Vicent

    2015-07-07

    Adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) heteromers are key modulators of striatal neuronal function. It has been suggested that the psychostimulant effects of caffeine depend on its ability to block an allosteric modulation within the A2AR-D2R heteromer, by which adenosine decreases the affinity and intrinsic efficacy of dopamine at the D2R. We describe novel unsuspected allosteric mechanisms within the heteromer by which not only A2AR agonists, but also A2AR antagonists, decrease the affinity and intrinsic efficacy of D2R agonists and the affinity of D2R antagonists. Strikingly, these allosteric modulations disappear on agonist and antagonist coadministration. This can be explained by a model that considers A2AR-D2R heteromers as heterotetramers, constituted by A2AR and D2R homodimers, as demonstrated by experiments with bioluminescence resonance energy transfer and bimolecular fluorescence and bioluminescence complementation. As predicted by the model, high concentrations of A2AR antagonists behaved as A2AR agonists and decreased D2R function in the brain.

  11. Basal adenosine modulates the functional properties of AMPA receptors in mouse hippocampal neurons through the activation of A1R A2AR and A3R

    PubMed Central

    Di Angelantonio, Silvia; Bertollini, Cristina; Piccinin, Sonia; Rosito, Maria; Trettel, Flavia; Pagani, Francesca; Limatola, Cristina; Ragozzino, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine is a widespread neuromodulator within the CNS and its extracellular level is increased during hypoxia or intense synaptic activity, modulating pre- and postsynaptic sites. We studied the neuromodulatory action of adenosine on glutamatergic currents in the hippocampus, showing that activation of multiple adenosine receptors (ARs) by basal adenosine impacts postsynaptic site. Specifically, the stimulation of both A1R and A3R reduces AMPA currents, while A2AR has an opposite potentiating effect. The effect of ARs stimulation on glutamatergic currents in hippocampal cultures was investigated using pharmacological and genetic approaches. A3R inhibition by MRS1523 increased GluR1-Ser845 phosphorylation and potentiated AMPA current amplitude, increasing the apparent affinity for the agonist. A similar effect was observed blocking A1R with DPCPX or by genetic deletion of either A3R or A1R. Conversely, impairment of A2AR reduced AMPA currents, and decreased agonist sensitivity. Consistently, in hippocampal slices, ARs activation by AR agonist NECA modulated glutamatergic current amplitude evoked by AMPA application or afferent fiber stimulation. Opposite effects of AR subtypes stimulation are likely associated to changes in GluR1 phosphorylation and represent a novel mechanism of physiological modulation of glutamatergic transmission by adenosine, likely acting in normal conditions in the brain, depending on the level of extracellular adenosine and the distribution of AR subtypes. PMID:26528137

  12. Allosteric mechanisms within the adenosine A2A-dopamine D2 receptor heterotetramer.

    PubMed

    Ferré, Sergi; Bonaventura, Jordi; Tomasi, Dardo; Navarro, Gemma; Moreno, Estefanía; Cortés, Antonio; Lluís, Carme; Casadó, Vicent; Volkow, Nora D

    2016-05-01

    The structure constituted by a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) homodimer and a G protein provides a main functional unit and oligomeric entities can be viewed as multiples of dimers. For GPCR heteromers, experimental evidence supports a tetrameric structure, comprised of two different homodimers, each able to signal with its preferred G protein. GPCR homomers and heteromers can act as the conduit of allosteric interactions between orthosteric ligands. The well-known agonist/agonist allosteric interaction in the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) heteromer, by which A2AR agonists decrease the affinity of D2R agonists, gave the first rationale for the use of A2AR antagonists in Parkinson's disease. We review new pharmacological findings that can be explained in the frame of a tetrameric structure of the A2AR-D2R heteromer: first, ligand-independent allosteric modulations by the D2R that result in changes of the binding properties of A2AR ligands; second, differential modulation of the intrinsic efficacy of D2R ligands for G protein-dependent and independent signaling; third, the canonical antagonistic Gs-Gi interaction within the frame of the heteromer; and fourth, the ability of A2AR antagonists, including caffeine, to also exert the same allosteric modulations of D2R ligands than A2AR agonists, while A2AR agonists and antagonists counteract each other's effects. These findings can have important clinical implications when evaluating the use of A2AR antagonists. They also call for the need of monitoring caffeine intake when evaluating the effect of D2R ligands, when used as therapeutic agents in neuropsychiatric disorders or as probes in imaging studies. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Purines in Neurodegeneration and Neuroregeneration'. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Optogenetic activation of intracellular adenosine A2A receptor signaling in the hippocampus is sufficient to trigger CREB phosphorylation and impair memory.

    PubMed

    Li, P; Rial, D; Canas, P M; Yoo, J-H; Li, W; Zhou, X; Wang, Y; van Westen, G J P; Payen, M-P; Augusto, E; Gonçalves, N; Tomé, A R; Li, Z; Wu, Z; Hou, X; Zhou, Y; IJzerman, A P; PIJzerman, Ad; Boyden, E S; Cunha, R A; Qu, J; Chen, J-F

    2015-11-01

    Human and animal studies have converged to suggest that caffeine consumption prevents memory deficits in aging and Alzheimer's disease through the antagonism of adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs). To test if A2AR activation in the hippocampus is actually sufficient to impair memory function and to begin elucidating the intracellular pathways operated by A2AR, we have developed a chimeric rhodopsin-A2AR protein (optoA2AR), which retains the extracellular and transmembrane domains of rhodopsin (conferring light responsiveness and eliminating adenosine-binding pockets) fused to the intracellular loop of A2AR to confer specific A2AR signaling. The specificity of the optoA2AR signaling was confirmed by light-induced selective enhancement of cAMP and phospho-mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-MAPK) (but not cGMP) levels in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells, which was abolished by a point mutation at the C terminal of A2AR. Supporting its physiological relevance, optoA2AR activation and the A2AR agonist CGS21680 produced similar activation of cAMP and p-MAPK signaling in HEK293 cells, of p-MAPK in the nucleus accumbens and of c-Fos/phosphorylated-CREB (p-CREB) in the hippocampus, and similarly enhanced long-term potentiation in the hippocampus. Remarkably, optoA2AR activation triggered a preferential p-CREB signaling in the hippocampus and impaired spatial memory performance, while optoA2AR activation in the nucleus accumbens triggered MAPK signaling and modulated locomotor activity. This shows that the recruitment of intracellular A2AR signaling in the hippocampus is sufficient to trigger memory dysfunction. Furthermore, the demonstration that the biased A2AR signaling and functions depend on intracellular A2AR loops prompts the possibility of targeting the intracellular A2AR-interacting partners to selectively control different neuropsychiatric behaviors.

  14. The Immunosuppressive Role of Adenosine A2A Receptors in Ischemia Reperfusion Injury and Islet Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Preeti; Linden, Joel; Lobo, Peter; Okusa, Mark Douglas; Brayman, Kenneth Lewis

    2014-01-01

    Activation of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) reduces inflammation by generally inhibiting the activation of pro-inflammatory cells, decreasing endothelial adhesion molecule expression and reducing the release of proinflammatory cytokine mediators. Numerous preclinical studies using selective A2AR agonists, antagonists, A2AR knockout as well as chimeric mice have suggested the therapeutic potential of A2AR agonists for the treatment of ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) and autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes the immunosuppressive actions of A2AR agonists in murine IRI models of liver, kidney, heart, lung and CNS, and gives details on the cellular effects of A2AR activation in neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, NKT cells, T effector cells and CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T regulatory cells. This is discussed in the context of cytokine mediators involved in inflammatory cascades. Whilst the role of adenosine receptor agonists in various models of autoimmune disease has been well-documented, very little information is available regarding the role of A2AR activation in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). An overview of the pathogenesis of T1DM as well as early islet graft rejection in the immediate peri-transplantation period offers insight regarding the use of A2AR agonists as a beneficial intervention in clinical islet transplantation, promoting islet graft survival, minimizing early islet loss and reducing the number of islets required for successful transplantation, thereby increasing the availability of this procedure to a greater number of recipients. In summary, the use of A2AR agonists as a clinical intervention in IRI and as an adjunct to clinical immunesuppressive regimen in islet transplantation is highlighted. PMID:22934547

  15. The Parkinson's disease-associated GPR37 receptor interacts with striatal adenosine A2A receptor controlling its cell surface expression and function in vivo.

    PubMed

    Morató, Xavier; Luján, Rafael; López-Cano, Marc; Gandía, Jorge; Stagljar, Igor; Watanabe, Masahiko; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Fernández-Dueñas, Víctor; Ciruela, Francisco

    2017-08-25

    G protein-coupled receptor 37 (GPR37) is an orphan receptor associated to Parkinson's disease (PD) neuropathology. Here, we identified GPR37 as an inhibitor of adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) cell surface expression and function in vivo. In addition, we showed that GPR37 and A2AR do oligomerize in the striatum. Thus, a close proximity of GPR37 and A2AR at the postsynaptic level of striatal synapses was observed by double-labelling post-embedding immunogold detection. Indeed, the direct receptor-receptor interaction was further substantiated by proximity ligation in situ assay. Interestingly, GPR37 deletion promoted striatal A2AR cell surface expression that correlated well with an increased A2AR agonist-mediated cAMP accumulation, both in primary striatal neurons and nerve terminals. Furthermore, GPR37-/- mice showed enhanced A2AR agonist-induced catalepsy and an increased response to A2AR antagonist-mediated locomotor activity. Overall, these results revealed a key role for GPR37 controlling A2AR biology in the striatum, which may be relevant for PD management.

  16. Neuroprotection by caffeine in the MPTP model of parkinson's disease and its dependence on adenosine A2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Xu, K; Di Luca, D G; Orrú, M; Xu, Y; Chen, J-F; Schwarzschild, M A

    2016-05-13

    Considerable epidemiological and laboratory data have suggested that caffeine, a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist, may protect against the underlying neurodegeneration of parkinson's disease (PD). Although both caffeine and more specific antagonists of the A2A subtype of adenosine receptor (A2AR) have been found to confer protection in animal models of PD, the dependence of caffeine's neuroprotective effects on the A2AR is not known. To definitively determine its A2AR dependence, the effect of caffeine on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetra-hydropyridine (MPTP) neurotoxicity was compared in wild-type (WT) and A2AR gene global knockout (A2A KO) mice, as well as in central nervous system (CNS) cell type-specific (conditional) A2AR knockout (cKO) mice that lack the receptor either in postnatal forebrain neurons or in astrocytes. In WT and in heterozygous A2AR KO mice caffeine pretreatment (25mg/kgip) significantly attenuated MPTP-induced depletion of striatal dopamine. By contrast in homozygous A2AR global KO mice caffeine had no effect on MPTP toxicity. In forebrain neuron A2AR cKO mice, caffeine lost its locomotor stimulant effect, whereas its neuroprotective effect was mostly preserved. In astrocytic A2AR cKO mice, both caffeine's locomotor stimulant and protective properties were undiminished. Taken together, these results indicate that neuroprotection by caffeine in the MPTP model of PD relies on the A2AR, although the specific cellular localization of these receptors remains to be determined.

  17. Habit Formation after Random Interval Training Is Associated with Increased Adenosine A2A Receptor and Dopamine D2 Receptor Heterodimers in the Striatum

    PubMed Central

    He, Yan; Li, Yan; Chen, Mozi; Pu, Zhilan; Zhang, Feiyang; Chen, Long; Ruan, Yang; Pan, Xinran; He, Chaoxiang; Chen, Xingjun; Li, Zhihui; Chen, Jiang-Fan

    2016-01-01

    Striatal adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) modulate striatal synaptic plasticity and instrumental learning, possibly by functional interaction with the dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) and metabotropic glutamate receptors 5 (mGluR5) through receptor-receptor heterodimers, but in vivo evidence for these interactions is lacking. Using in situ proximity ligation assay (PLA), we studied the subregional distribution of the A2AR-D2R and A2AR-mGluR5 heterodimer complexes in the striatum and their adaptive changes over the random interval and random ratio training of instrumental learning. After confirming the specificity of the PLA detection of the A2AR-D2R heterodimers with the A2AR knockout and D2R knockout mice, we detected a heterogeneous distribution of the A2AR-D2R heterodimer complexes in the striatum, being more abundant in the dorsolateral than the dorsomedial striatum. Importantly, habit formation after the random interval training was associated with the increased formation of the A2AR-D2R heterodimer complexes, with prominant increase in the dorsomedial striatum. Conversely, goal-directed behavior after the random ratio schedule was not associated with the adaptive change in the A2AR-D2R heterodimer complexes. In contrast to the A2AR-D2R heterodimers, the A2AR-mGluR5 heterodimers showed neither subregional variation in the striatum nor adaptive changes over either the random ratio (RR) or random interval (RI) training of instrumental learning. These findings suggest that development of habit formation is associated with increased formation of the A2AR-D2R heterodimer protein complexes which may lead to reduced dependence on D2R signaling in the striatum. PMID:28082865

  18. Calcium modulates calmodulin/α-actinin 1 interaction with and agonist-dependent internalization of the adenosine A2A receptor.

    PubMed

    Piirainen, Henni; Taura, Jaume; Kursula, Petri; Ciruela, Francisco; Jaakola, Veli-Pekka

    2017-04-01

    Adenosine receptors are G protein-coupled receptors that sense extracellular adenosine to transmit intracellular signals. One of the four adenosine receptor subtypes, the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR), has an exceptionally long intracellular C terminus (A2AR-ct) that mediates interactions with a large array of proteins, including calmodulin and α-actinin. Here, we aimed to ascertain the α-actinin 1/calmodulin interplay whilst binding to A2AR and the role of Ca(2+) in this process. First, we studied the A2AR-α-actinin 1 interaction by means of native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, isothermal titration calorimetry, and surface plasmon resonance, using purified recombinant proteins. α-Actinin 1 binds the A2AR-ct through its distal calmodulin-like domain in a Ca(2+)-independent manner with a dissociation constant of 5-12μM, thus showing an ~100 times lower affinity compared to the A2AR-calmodulin/Ca(2+) complex. Importantly, calmodulin displaced α-actinin 1 from the A2AR-ct in a Ca(2+)-dependent fashion, disrupting the A2AR-α-actinin 1 complex. Finally, we assessed the impact of Ca(2+) on A2AR internalization in living cells, a function operated by the A2AR-α-actinin 1 complex. Interestingly, while Ca(2+) influx did not affect constitutive A2AR endocytosis, it abolished agonist-dependent internalization. In addition, we demonstrated that the A2AR/α-actinin interaction plays a pivotal role in receptor internalization and function. Overall, our results suggest that the interplay of A2AR with calmodulin and α-actinin 1 is fine-tuned by Ca(2+), a fact that might power agonist-mediated receptor internalization and function.

  19. Therapeutic Opportunities for Caffeine and A2A Receptor Antagonists in Retinal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Boia, Raquel; Ambrósio, António Francisco; Santiago, Ana Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine, the major component of coffee, is the most consumed psychostimulant in the world. Caffeine is an adenosine analog and acts as a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist. The majority of the effects of caffeine are mainly mediated by the blockade of adenosine receptors, and the proved neuroprotective effects of caffeine in brain disorders have been mimicked by the blockade of adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR). A growing body of evidence demonstrates that microglia-mediated neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of brain and retinal diseases. Moreover, the control of microglia reactivity by blocking A2AR has been proposed to be the mechanism underlying the observed protective effects of caffeine. Hence, it is conceivable that caffeine and A2AR antagonists offer therapeutic value for the treatment of retinal diseases, mainly those involving microglia-mediated neuroinflammation. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. The caffeine-binding adenosine A2A receptor induces age-like HPA-axis dysfunction by targeting glucocorticoid receptor function

    PubMed Central

    Batalha, Vânia L.; Ferreira, Diana G.; Coelho, Joana E.; Valadas, Jorge S.; Gomes, Rui; Temido-Ferreira, Mariana; Shmidt, Tatiana; Baqi, Younis; Buée, Luc; Müller, Christa E.; Hamdane, Malika; Outeiro, Tiago F.; Bader, Michael; Meijsing, Sebastiaan H.; Sadri-Vakili, Ghazaleh; Blum, David; Lopes, Luísa V.

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine is associated with procognitive effects in humans by counteracting overactivation of the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR), which is upregulated in the human forebrain of aged and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients. We have previously shown that an anti-A2AR therapy reverts age-like memory deficits, by reestablishment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis feedback and corticosterone circadian levels. These observations suggest that A2AR over-activation and glucocorticoid dysfunction are key events in age-related hippocampal deficits; but their direct connection has never been explored. We now show that inducing A2AR overexpression in an aging-like profile is sufficient to trigger HPA-axis dysfunction, namely loss of plasmatic corticosterone circadian oscillation, and promotes reduction of GR hippocampal levels. The synaptic plasticity and memory deficits triggered by GR in the hippocampus are amplified by A2AR over-activation and were rescued by anti-A2AR therapy; finally, we demonstrate that A2AR act on GR nuclear translocation and GR-dependent transcriptional regulation. We provide the first demonstration that A2AR is a major regulator of GR function and that this functional interconnection may be a trigger to age-related memory deficits. This supports the idea that the procognitive effects of A2AR antagonists, namely caffeine, on Alzheimer’s and age-related cognitive impairments may rely on its ability to modulate GR actions. PMID:27510168

  1. The caffeine-binding adenosine A2A receptor induces age-like HPA-axis dysfunction by targeting glucocorticoid receptor function.

    PubMed

    Batalha, Vânia L; Ferreira, Diana G; Coelho, Joana E; Valadas, Jorge S; Gomes, Rui; Temido-Ferreira, Mariana; Shmidt, Tatiana; Baqi, Younis; Buée, Luc; Müller, Christa E; Hamdane, Malika; Outeiro, Tiago F; Bader, Michael; Meijsing, Sebastiaan H; Sadri-Vakili, Ghazaleh; Blum, David; Lopes, Luísa V

    2016-08-11

    Caffeine is associated with procognitive effects in humans by counteracting overactivation of the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR), which is upregulated in the human forebrain of aged and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We have previously shown that an anti-A2AR therapy reverts age-like memory deficits, by reestablishment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis feedback and corticosterone circadian levels. These observations suggest that A2AR over-activation and glucocorticoid dysfunction are key events in age-related hippocampal deficits; but their direct connection has never been explored. We now show that inducing A2AR overexpression in an aging-like profile is sufficient to trigger HPA-axis dysfunction, namely loss of plasmatic corticosterone circadian oscillation, and promotes reduction of GR hippocampal levels. The synaptic plasticity and memory deficits triggered by GR in the hippocampus are amplified by A2AR over-activation and were rescued by anti-A2AR therapy; finally, we demonstrate that A2AR act on GR nuclear translocation and GR-dependent transcriptional regulation. We provide the first demonstration that A2AR is a major regulator of GR function and that this functional interconnection may be a trigger to age-related memory deficits. This supports the idea that the procognitive effects of A2AR antagonists, namely caffeine, on Alzheimer's and age-related cognitive impairments may rely on its ability to modulate GR actions.

  2. Caffeine acts through neuronal adenosine A2A receptors to prevent mood and memory dysfunction triggered by chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Kaster, Manuella P; Machado, Nuno J; Silva, Henrique B; Nunes, Ana; Ardais, Ana Paula; Santana, Magda; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; Porciúncula, Lisiane O; Chen, Jiang Fan; Tomé, Ângelo R; Agostinho, Paula; Canas, Paula M; Cunha, Rodrigo A

    2015-06-23

    The consumption of caffeine (an adenosine receptor antagonist) correlates inversely with depression and memory deterioration, and adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) antagonists emerge as candidate therapeutic targets because they control aberrant synaptic plasticity and afford neuroprotection. Therefore we tested the ability of A2AR to control the behavioral, electrophysiological, and neurochemical modifications caused by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), which alters hippocampal circuits, dampens mood and memory performance, and enhances susceptibility to depression. CUS for 3 wk in adult mice induced anxiogenic and helpless-like behavior and decreased memory performance. These behavioral changes were accompanied by synaptic alterations, typified by a decrease in synaptic plasticity and a reduced density of synaptic proteins (synaptosomal-associated protein 25, syntaxin, and vesicular glutamate transporter type 1), together with an increased density of A2AR in glutamatergic terminals in the hippocampus. Except for anxiety, for which results were mixed, CUS-induced behavioral and synaptic alterations were prevented by (i) caffeine (1 g/L in the drinking water, starting 3 wk before and continued throughout CUS); (ii) the selective A2AR antagonist KW6002 (3 mg/kg, p.o.); (iii) global A2AR deletion; and (iv) selective A2AR deletion in forebrain neurons. Notably, A2AR blockade was not only prophylactic but also therapeutically efficacious, because a 3-wk treatment with the A2AR antagonist SCH58261 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) reversed the mood and synaptic dysfunction caused by CUS. These results herald a key role for synaptic A2AR in the control of chronic stress-induced modifications and suggest A2AR as candidate targets to alleviate the consequences of chronic stress on brain function.

  3. Caffeine acts through neuronal adenosine A2A receptors to prevent mood and memory dysfunction triggered by chronic stress

    PubMed Central

    Kaster, Manuella P.; Machado, Nuno J.; Silva, Henrique B.; Nunes, Ana; Ardais, Ana Paula; Santana, Magda; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E.; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S.; Porciúncula, Lisiane O.; Chen, Jiang Fan; Tomé, Ângelo R.; Agostinho, Paula; Canas, Paula M.; Cunha, Rodrigo A.

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of caffeine (an adenosine receptor antagonist) correlates inversely with depression and memory deterioration, and adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) antagonists emerge as candidate therapeutic targets because they control aberrant synaptic plasticity and afford neuroprotection. Therefore we tested the ability of A2AR to control the behavioral, electrophysiological, and neurochemical modifications caused by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), which alters hippocampal circuits, dampens mood and memory performance, and enhances susceptibility to depression. CUS for 3 wk in adult mice induced anxiogenic and helpless-like behavior and decreased memory performance. These behavioral changes were accompanied by synaptic alterations, typified by a decrease in synaptic plasticity and a reduced density of synaptic proteins (synaptosomal-associated protein 25, syntaxin, and vesicular glutamate transporter type 1), together with an increased density of A2AR in glutamatergic terminals in the hippocampus. Except for anxiety, for which results were mixed, CUS-induced behavioral and synaptic alterations were prevented by (i) caffeine (1 g/L in the drinking water, starting 3 wk before and continued throughout CUS); (ii) the selective A2AR antagonist KW6002 (3 mg/kg, p.o.); (iii) global A2AR deletion; and (iv) selective A2AR deletion in forebrain neurons. Notably, A2AR blockade was not only prophylactic but also therapeutically efficacious, because a 3-wk treatment with the A2AR antagonist SCH58261 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) reversed the mood and synaptic dysfunction caused by CUS. These results herald a key role for synaptic A2AR in the control of chronic stress-induced modifications and suggest A2AR as candidate targets to alleviate the consequences of chronic stress on brain function. PMID:26056314

  4. Crystal structure of the adenosine A2A receptor bound to an antagonist reveals a potential allosteric pocket

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bingfa; Bachhawat, Priti; Chu, Matthew Ling-Hon; Wood, Martyn; Ceska, Tom; Sands, Zara A.; Mercier, Joel; Lebon, Florence; Kobilka, Tong Sun; Kobilka, Brian K.

    2017-01-01

    The adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) has long been implicated in cardiovascular disorders. As more selective A2AR ligands are being identified, its roles in other disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, are starting to emerge, and A2AR antagonists are important drug candidates for nondopaminergic anti-Parkinson treatment. Here we report the crystal structure of A2A receptor bound to compound 1 (Cmpd-1), a novel A2AR/N-methyl d-aspartate receptor subtype 2B (NR2B) dual antagonist and potential anti-Parkinson candidate compound, at 3.5 Å resolution. The A2A receptor with a cytochrome b562-RIL (BRIL) fusion (A2AR–BRIL) in the intracellular loop 3 (ICL3) was crystallized in detergent micelles using vapor-phase diffusion. Whereas A2AR–BRIL bound to the antagonist ZM241385 has previously been crystallized in lipidic cubic phase (LCP), structural differences in the Cmpd-1–bound A2AR–BRIL prevented formation of the lattice observed with the ZM241385–bound receptor. The crystals grew with a type II crystal lattice in contrast to the typical type I packing seen from membrane protein structures crystallized in LCP. Cmpd-1 binds in a position that overlaps with the native ligand adenosine, but its methoxyphenyl group extends to an exosite not previously observed in other A2AR structures. Structural analysis revealed that Cmpd-1 binding results in the unique conformations of two tyrosine residues, Tyr91.35 and Tyr2717.36, which are critical for the formation of the exosite. The structure reveals insights into antagonist binding that are not observed in other A2AR structures, highlighting flexibility in the binding pocket that may facilitate the development of A2AR-selective compounds for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. PMID:28167788

  5. Human Adenosine A2A Receptor Binds Calmodulin with High Affinity in a Calcium-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Piirainen, Henni; Hellman, Maarit; Tossavainen, Helena; Permi, Perttu; Kursula, Petri; Jaakola, Veli-Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how ligands bind to G-protein-coupled receptors and how binding changes receptor structure to affect signaling is critical for developing a complete picture of the signal transduction process. The adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) is a particularly interesting example, as it has an exceptionally long intracellular carboxyl terminus, which is predicted to be mainly disordered. Experimental data on the structure of the A2AR C-terminus is lacking, because published structures of A2AR do not include the C-terminus. Calmodulin has been reported to bind to the A2AR C-terminus, with a possible binding site on helix 8, next to the membrane. The biological meaning of the interaction as well as its calcium dependence, thermodynamic parameters, and organization of the proteins in the complex are unclear. Here, we characterized the structure of the A2AR C-terminus and the A2AR C-terminus-calmodulin complex using different biophysical methods, including native gel and analytical gel filtration, isothermal titration calorimetry, NMR spectroscopy, and small-angle X-ray scattering. We found that the C-terminus is disordered and flexible, and it binds with high affinity (Kd = 98 nM) to calmodulin without major conformational changes in the domain. Calmodulin binds to helix 8 of the A2AR in a calcium-dependent manner that can displace binding of A2AR to lipid vesicles. We also predicted and classified putative calmodulin-binding sites in a larger group of G-protein-coupled receptors. PMID:25692595

  6. Neuroprotection by caffeine in the MPTP model of Parkinson’s disease and its dependence on adenosine A2A receptors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kui; Di Luca, Daniel Garbin; Orrú, Marco; Xu, Yuehang; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Schwarzschild, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Considerable epidemiological and laboratory data have suggested that caffeine, a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist, may protect against the underlying neurodegeneration of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Although both caffeine and more specific antagonists of the A2A subtype of adenosine receptor (A2AR) have been found to confer protection in animal models of PD, the dependence of caffeine’s neuroprotective effects on the A2AR is not known. To definitively determine its A2AR dependence, the effect of caffeine on MPTP neurotoxicity was compared in wild-type (WT) and A2AR gene global knockout (A2A KO) mice, as well as in CNS cell type-specific (conditional) A2AR knockout (cKO) mice that lack the receptor either in postnatal forebrain neurons or in astrocytes. In WT and in heterozygous A2AR KO mice caffeine pretreatment (25 mg/kg ip) significantly attenuated MPTP-induced depletion of striatal dopamine. By contrast in homozygous A2AR global KO mice caffeine had no effect on MPTP toxicity. In forebrain neuron A2AR cKO mice, caffeine lost its locomotor stimulant effect, whereas its neuroprotective effect was mostly preserved. In astrocytic A2AR cKO mice, both caffeine’s locomotor stimulant and protective properties were undiminished. Taken together, these results indicate that neuroprotection by caffeine in the MPTP model of PD relies on the A2AR, although the specific cellular localization of these receptors remains to be determined. PMID:26905951

  7. Reduced striatal adenosine A2A receptor levels define a molecular subgroup in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Villar-Menéndez, Izaskun; Díaz-Sánchez, Sara; Blanch, Marta; Albasanz, José Luis; Pereira-Veiga, Thais; Monje, Alfonso; Planchat, Luis Maria; Ferrer, Isidre; Martín, Mairena; Barrachina, Marta

    2014-04-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a mental disorder of unknown origin. Some scientific evidence seems to indicate that SZ is not a single disease entity, since there are patient groups with clear symptomatic, course and biomarker differences. SZ is characterized by a hyperdopaminergic state related to high dopamine D2 receptor activity. It has also been proposed that there is a hypoadenosynergic state. Adenosine is a nucleoside widely distributed in the organism with neuromodulative and neuroprotective activity in the central nervous system. In the brain, the most abundant adenosine receptors are A1R and A2AR. In the present report, we characterize the presence of both receptors in human postmortem putamens of patients suffering SZ with real time TaqMan PCR, western blotting and radioligand binding assay. We show that A1R levels remain unchanged with respect to age-matched controls, whereas nearly fifty percent of patients have reduced A2AR, at the transcriptional and translational levels. Moreover, we describe how DNA methylation plays a role in the pathological A2AR levels with the bisulfite-sequencing technique. In fact, an increase in 5-methylcytosine percentage in the 5' UTR region of ADORA2A was found in those SZ patients with reduced A2AR levels. Interestingly, there was a relationship between the A2A/β-actin ratio and motor disturbances as assessed with some items of the PANSS, AIMS and SAS scales. Therefore, there may be a subgroup of SZ patients with reduced striatal A2AR levels accompanied by an altered motor phenotype.

  8. Aberrant adenosine A2A receptor signaling contributes to neurodegeneration and cognitive impairments in a mouse model of synucleinopathy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qidi; Ren, Xiangpeng; Liu, Ya; Li, Zhihui; Zhang, Liping; Chen, Xingjun; He, Chaoxiang; Chen, Jiang-Fan

    2016-09-01

    Synucleinopathy is characterized by abnormal accumulation of misfolded α-synuclein (α-Syn)-positive cytoplasmic inclusions and by neurodegeneration and cognitive impairments, but the pathogenesis mechanism of synucleinopathy remains to be defined. Using a transmission model of synucleinopathy by intracerebral injection of preformed A53T α-Syn fibrils, we investigated whether aberrant adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) signaling contributed to pathogenesis of synucleinopathy. We demonstrated that intra-hippocampal injection of preformed mutant α-Syn fibrils triggered a striking and selective induction of A2AR expression which was closely co-localized with pSer129 α-Syn-rich inclusions in neurons and glial cells of hippocampus. Importantly, by abolishing aberrant A2AR signaling triggered by mutant α-Syn, genetic deletion of A2ARs blunted a cascade of pathological events leading to synucleinopathy, including pSer129 α-Syn-rich and p62-positive aggregates, NF-κB activation and astrogliosis, apoptotic neuronal cell death and working memory deficits without affecting motor activity. These findings define α-Syn-triggered aberrant A2AR signaling as a critical pathogenesis mechanism of synucleinopathy with dual controls of cognition and neurodegeneration by modulating α-Syn aggregates. Thus, aberrant A2AR signaling represents a useful biomarker as well as a therapeutic target of synucleinopathy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Adenosine A2A receptor activation stimulates collagen production in sclerodermic dermal fibroblasts either directly and through a cross-talk with the cannabinoid system.

    PubMed

    Lazzerini, Pietro Enea; Natale, Mariarita; Gianchecchi, Elena; Capecchi, Pier Leopoldo; Montilli, Cinzia; Zimbone, Stefania; Castrichini, Monica; Balistreri, Epifania; Ricci, Gianluca; Selvi, Enrico; Garcia-Gonzalez, Estrella; Galeazzi, Mauro; Laghi-Pasini, Franco

    2012-03-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disease characterised by exaggerated collagen deposition in the skin and visceral organs. Adenosine A2A receptor stimulation (A2Ar) promotes dermal fibrosis, while the cannabinoid system modulates fibrogenesis in vitro and in animal models of SSc. Moreover, evidence in central nervous system suggests that A2A and cannabinoid (CB1) receptors may physically and functionally interact. On this basis, we investigated A2Ar expression and function in modulating collagen biosynthesis from SSc dermal fibroblasts and analysed the cross-talk with cannabinoid receptors. In sclerodermic cells, A2Ar expression (RT-PCR, Western blotting) was evaluated together with the effects of A2A agonists and/or antagonists on collagen biosynthesis (EIA, Western blotting). Putative physical and functional interactions between the A2A and cannabinoid receptors were respectively assessed by co-immuno-precipitation and co-incubating the cells with the unselective cannabinoid agonist WIN55,212-2, and the selective A2A antagonist ZM-241385. In SSc fibroblasts, (1) the A2Ar is overexpressed and its occupancy with the selective agonist CGS-21680 increases collagen production, myofibroblast trans-differentiation, and ERK-1/2 phosphorylation; (2) the A2Ar forms an heteromer with the cannabinoid CB1 receptor; and (3) unselective cannabinoid receptor stimulation with a per se ineffective dose of WIN55,212-2, results in a marked anti-fibrotic effect after A2Ar blockage. In conclusion, A2Ar stimulation induces a pro-fibrotic phenotype in SSc dermal fibroblasts, either directly, and indirectly, by activating the CB1 cannabinoid receptor. These findings increase our knowledge of the pathophysiology of sclerodermic fibrosis also further suggesting a new therapeutic approach to the disease.

  10. Adenosine A2A receptor signaling attenuates LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine formation of mouse macrophages by inducing the expression of DUSP1.

    PubMed

    Köröskényi, Krisztina; Kiss, Beáta; Szondy, Zsuzsa

    2016-07-01

    Adenosine is known to reduce inflammation by suppressing the activity of most immune cells. Previous studies have shown that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated mouse macrophages produce adenosine, and the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) signaling activated in an autocrine manner attenuates LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine formation. It has been suggested that A2AR signaling inhibits LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production through a unique cAMP-dependent, but PKA- and Epac-independent signaling pathway. However, the mechanism of inhibition was not identified so far. Here we report that LPS stimulation enhances A2AR expression in mouse bone marrow derived macrophages, and loss of A2ARs results in enhanced LPS-induced pro-inflammatory response. Loss of A2ARs in A2AR null macrophages did not alter the LPS-induced NF-κB activation, but an enhanced basal and LPS-induced phosphorylation of MAP kinases (especially that of JNKs) was detected in A2AR null cells. A2AR signaling did not alter the LPS-induced phosphorylation of their upstream kinases, but by regulating adenylate cyclase activity it enhanced the expression of dual specific phosphatase (DUSP)1, a negative regulator of MAP kinases. As a result, lower basal and LPS-induced DUSP1 mRNA and protein levels can be detected in A2AR null macrophages. Silencing of DUSP1 mRNA expression resulted in higher basal and LPS-induced JNK phosphorylation and LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine formation in wild type macrophages, but had no effect on that in A2AR null cells. Our data indicate that A2AR signaling regulates both basal and LPS-induced DUSP1 levels in macrophages via activating the adenylate cyclase pathway.

  11. Expression, Purification and Crystallisation of the Adenosine A2A Receptor Bound to an Engineered Mini G Protein.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Byron; Tate, Christopher G

    2017-04-20

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) promote cytoplasmic signalling by activating heterotrimeric G proteins in response to extracellular stimuli such as light, hormones and nucleosides. Structure determination of GPCR-G protein complexes is central to understanding the precise mechanism of signal transduction. However, these complexes are challenging targets for structural studies due to their conformationally dynamic and inherently transient nature. We recently developed an engineered G protein, mini-Gs, which addressed these problems and allowed the formation of a stable GPCR-G protein complex. Mini-Gs facilitated the structure determination of the human adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) in its G protein-bound conformation at 3.4 Å resolution. Here, we describe a step by step protocol for the expression and purification of A2AR, and crystallisation of the A2AR-mini-Gs complex.

  12. Past, present and future of A2A adenosine receptor antagonists in the therapy of Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Armentero, Marie Therese; Pinna, Annalisa; Ferré, Sergi; Lanciego, José Luis; Müller, Christa E.; Franco, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Several selective antagonists for adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) are currently under evaluation in clinical trials (phases I to III) to treat Parkinson’s disease, and they will probably soon reach the market. The usefulness of these antagonists has been deduced from studies demonstrating functional interactions between dopamine D2 and adenosine A2A receptors in the basal ganglia. At present it is believed that A2AR antagonists can be used in combination with the dopamine precursor L-DOPA to minimize the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s patients. However, a considerable body of data indicates that in addition to ameliorating motor symptoms, adenosine A2AR antagonists may also prevent neurodegeneration. Despite these promising indications, one further issue must be considered in order to develop fully optimized anti-parkinsonian drug therapy, namely the existence of receptor (hetero)dimers/oligomers of G protein-coupled receptors, a topic currently the focus of intense debate within the scientific community. Dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) expressed in the striatum are known to form heteromers with A2A adenosine receptors. Thus, the development of heteromer-specific A2A receptor antagonists represents a promising strategy for the identification of more selective and safer drugs. PMID:21810444

  13. Arousal effect of caffeine depends on adenosine A2A receptors in the shell of the nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, Michael; Shen, Hai-Ying; Cherasse, Yoan; Qu, Wei-Min; Huang, Zhi-Li; Bass, Caroline E.; Winsky-Sommerer, Raphaelle; Semba, Kazue; Fredholm, Bertil B.; Boison, Detlev; Hayaishi, Osamu; Urade, Yoshihiro; Chen, Jiang-Fan

    2011-01-01

    Caffeine, the most widely used psychoactive compound, is an adenosine receptor antagonist. It promotes wakefulness by blocking adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) in the brain, but the specific neurons on which caffeine acts to produce arousal have not been identified. Using selective gene deletion strategies based on the Cre/loxP technology in mice and focal RNA interference to silence the expression of A2ARs in rats by local infection with adeno-associated virus carrying short-hairpin RNA, we report that the A2ARs in the shell region of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) are responsible for the effect of caffeine on wakefulness. Caffeine-induced arousal was not affected in rats when A2ARs were focally removed from the NAc core or other A2AR-positive areas of the basal ganglia. Our observations suggest that caffeine promotes arousal by activating pathways that traditionally have been associated with motivational and motor responses in the brain. PMID:21734299

  14. Direct or indirect stimulation of adenosine A2A receptors enhances bone regeneration as well as bone morphogenetic protein-2.

    PubMed

    Mediero, Aránzazu; Wilder, Tuere; Perez-Aso, Miguel; Cronstein, Bruce N

    2015-04-01

    Promoting bone regeneration and repair of bone defects is a need that has not been well met to date. We have previously found that adenosine, acting via A2A receptors (A2AR) promotes wound healing and inhibits inflammatory osteolysis and hypothesized that A2AR might be a novel target to promote bone regeneration. Therefore, we determined whether direct A2AR stimulation or increasing endogenous adenosine concentrations via purine transport blockade with dipyridamole regulates bone formation. We determined whether coverage of a 3 mm trephine defect in a mouse skull with a collagen scaffold soaked in saline, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2; 200 ng), 1 μM CGS21680 (A2AR agonist, EC50 = 160 nM), or 1 μM dipyridamole (EC50 = 32 nM) promoted bone regeneration. Microcomputed tomography examination demonstrated that CGS21680 and dipyridamole markedly enhanced bone regeneration as well as BMP-2 8 wk after surgery (60 ± 2%, 79 ± 2%, and 75 ± 1% bone regeneration, respectively, vs. 32 ± 2% in control, P < 0.001). Blockade by a selective A2AR antagonist (ZM241385, 1 μM) or deletion of A2AR abrogated the effect of CGS21680 and dipyridamole on bone regeneration. Both CGS21680 and dipyridamole treatment increased alkaline phosphatase-positive osteoblasts and diminished tartrate resistance acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts in the defects. In vivo imaging with a fluorescent dye for new bone formation revealed a strong fluorescent signal in treated animals that was equivalent to BMP-2. In conclusion, stimulation of A2AR by specific agonists or by increasing endogenous adenosine levels stimulates new bone formation as well as BMP-2 and represents a novel approach to stimulating bone regeneration. © FASEB.

  15. Sinomenine Protects against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice via Adenosine A2A Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Zhao, Li; He, Xie; Zeng, Yi-Jun; Dai, Shuang-Shuang

    2013-01-01

    Sinomenine (SIN) is a bioactive alkaloid extracted from the Chinese medicinal plant Sinomenium acutum, which is widely used in the clinical treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, its role in acute lung injury (ALI) is unclear. In this study, we investigate the role of SIN in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI in mice. After ALI, lung water content and histological signs of pulmonary injury were attenuated, whereas the PaO2/FIO2 (P/F) ratios were elevated significantly in the mice pretreated with SIN. Additionally, SIN markedly inhibited inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and IL-1β expression levels as well as neutrophil infiltration in the lung tissues of the mice. Microarray analysis and real-time PCR showed that SIN treatment upregulated adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) expression, and the protective effect of SIN was abolished in A2AR knockout mice. Further investigation in isolated mouse neutrophils confirmed the upregulation of A2AR by SIN and showed that A2AR-cAMP-PKA signaling was involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of SIN. Taken together, these findings demonstrate an A2AR-associated anti-inflammatory effect and the protective role of SIN in ALI, which suggests a potential novel approach to treat ALI. PMID:23555007

  16. Early synaptic deficits in the APP/PS1 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease involve neuronal adenosine A2A receptors

    PubMed Central

    Viana da Silva, Silvia; Haberl, Matthias Georg; Zhang, Pei; Bethge, Philipp; Lemos, Cristina; Gonçalves, Nélio; Gorlewicz, Adam; Malezieux, Meryl; Gonçalves, Francisco Q.; Grosjean, Noëlle; Blanchet, Christophe; Frick, Andreas; Nägerl, U Valentin; Cunha, Rodrigo A.; Mulle, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity in the autoassociative network of recurrent connections among hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells is thought to enable the storage of episodic memory. Impaired episodic memory is an early manifestation of cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the APP/PS1 mouse model of AD amyloidosis, we show that associative long-term synaptic potentiation (LTP) is abolished in CA3 pyramidal cells at an early stage. This is caused by activation of upregulated neuronal adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) rather than by dysregulation of NMDAR signalling or altered dendritic spine morphology. Neutralization of A2AR by acute pharmacological inhibition, or downregulation driven by shRNA interference in a single postsynaptic neuron restore associative CA3 LTP. Accordingly, treatment with A2AR antagonists reverts one-trial memory deficits. These results provide mechanistic support to encourage testing the therapeutic efficacy of A2AR antagonists in early AD patients. PMID:27312972

  17. Impact of purification conditions and history on A2A adenosine receptor activity: The role of CHAPS and lipids.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, Andrea N; McNeely, Patrick M; Katsaras, John; Robinson, Anne Skaja

    2016-08-01

    The adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) is a much-studied class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). For biophysical studies, A2AR is commonly purified in a detergent mixture of dodecylmaltoside (DDM), 3-(3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammoniopropane sulfonate (CHAPS), and cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHS). Here we studied the effects of CHAPS on the ligand binding activity and stability of wild type, full-length human A2AR. We also tested the cholesterol requirement for maintaining the active conformation of the receptor when solubilized in detergent micelles. To this end, the receptor was purified using DDM, DDM/CHAPS, or the short hydrocarbon chain lipid 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC, di-6:0PC). After solubilization in DDM, DDM/CHAPS, or DHPC micelles, although A2AR was found to retain its native-like fold, its binding ability was significantly compromised compared to DDM or DDM/CHAPS with CHS. It therefore appears that although cholesterol is not needed for A2AR to retain a native-like, α-helical conformation, it may be a critical component for high affinity ligand binding. Further, this result suggests that the conformational differences between the active and inactive protein may be so subtle that commonly used spectroscopic methods are unable to differentiate between the two forms, highlighting the need for activity measurements. The studies presented in this paper also underline the importance of the protein's purification history; i.e., detergents that interact with the protein during purification affect the ligand binding properties of the receptor in an irreversible manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of purification conditions and history on A2A adenosine receptor activity: The role of CHAPS and lipids

    DOE PAGES

    Naranjo, Andrea N.; McNeely, Patrick M.; Katsaras, John; ...

    2016-05-27

    The adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) is a much-studied class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). For biophysical studies, A2AR is commonly purified in a detergent mixture of dodecylmaltoside (DDM), 3-(3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammoniopropane sulfonate (CHAPS), and cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHS). Here we studied the effects of CHAPS on the ligand binding activity and stability of wild type, full-length human A2AR. We also tested the cholesterol requirement for maintaining the active conformation of the receptor when solubilized in detergent micelles. To this end, the receptor was purified using DDM, DDM/CHAPS, or the short hydrocarbon chain lipid 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC, di-6:0PC). After solubilization in DDM, DDM/CHAPS, ormore » DHPC micelles, although A2AR was found to retain its native-like fold, its binding ability was significantly compromised compared to DDM or DDM/CHAPS with CHS. It therefore appears that although cholesterol is not needed for A2AR to retain a native-like, α-helical conformation, it may be a critical component for high affinity ligand binding. Further, this result suggests that the conformational differences between the active and inactive protein may be so subtle that commonly used spectroscopic methods are unable to differentiate between the two forms, highlighting the need for activity measurements. Furthermore, the studies presented in this paper also underline the importance of the protein’s purification history; i.e., detergents that interact with the protein during purification affect the ligand binding properties of the receptor in an irreversible manner.« less

  19. Expressions of adenosine A2A receptors in coronary arteries and peripheral blood mononuclear cells are correlated in coronary artery disease patients.

    PubMed

    Gariboldi, Vlad; Vairo, Donato; Guieu, Régis; Marlingue, Marion; Ravis, Eléonore; Lagier, David; Mari, Alissa; Thery, Elsa; Collart, Frédéric; Gaudry, Marine; Bonello, Laurent; Paganelli, Franck; Condo, Jocelyne; Kipson, Nathalie; Fenouillet, Emmanuel; Ruf, Jean; Mottola, Giovanna

    2017-03-01

    Altered coronary blood flow occurs in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Adenosine strongly impacts blood flow mostly via adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) expressed in coronary tissues. As part of a systemic regulation of the adenosinergic system, we compared A2AR expression in situ, and on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in CAD patients. Aortic and coronary tissues, and PBMC were sampled in 20 CAD patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery and consecutively included. Controls were PBMC obtained from 15 healthy subjects. Expression and activity of A2AR were studied by Western blotting and cAMP measurement, respectively. A2AR expression on PBMC was lower in patients than in controls (0.83±0.31 vs 1.2±0.35 arbitrary units; p<0.01), and correlated with A2AR expression in coronary and aortic tissues (Pearson's r: 0.77 and 0.59, p<0.01, respectively). Basal and maximal cAMP productions following agonist stimulation of PBMC were significantly lower in patients than in controls (120±42 vs 191±65 and 360±113 vs 560±215pg/10(6) cells, p<0.05, respectively). In CAD patients, the increase from basal to maximal cAMP production in PBMC and aortic tissues was similar (+300% and +246%, respectively). Expression of A2AR on PBMC correlated with those measured in coronary artery and aortic tissues in CAD patients, A2AR activity of PBMC matched that observed in aorta, and A2AR expression and activity in PBMC were found reduced as compared to controls. Measuring the expression level of A2AR on PBMC represents a good tool to address in situ expression in coronary tissues of CAD patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. MOLECULAR DETERMINANTS OF A2AR-D2R ALLOSTERISM: ROLE OF THE INTRACELLULAR LOOP 3 OF THE D2R

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Dueñas, Víctor; Gómez-Soler, Maricel; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Kumar, T. Santhosh; Fuxe, Kjell; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O.; Ciruela, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    In the central nervous system (CNS), an antagonistic interaction has been shown between adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors (A2ARs and D2Rs) that may be relevant both in normal and pathological conditions (i.e. Parkinson’s disease). Thus, the molecular determinants mediating this receptor-receptor interaction have recently been explored, since the fine tuning of this target (namely the A2AR/D2R oligomer) could possibly improve the treatment of certain CNS diseases. Here, we used a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based approach to examine the allosteric modulation of the D2R within the A2AR/D2R oligomer and the dependence of this receptor-receptor interaction on two regions rich in positive charges on intracellular loop 3 (IL3) of the D2R. Interestingly, we observed a negative allosteric effect of the D2R agonist quinpirole on A2AR ligand binding and activation. However, these allosteric effects were abolished upon mutation of specific arginine residues (217–222 and 267–269) on IL3 of the D2R, thus demonstrating a major role of these positively-charged residues in mediating the observed receptor-receptor interaction. Overall, these results provide structural insights to better understand the functioning of the A2AR/D2R oligomer in living cells. PMID:22924752

  1. Chronic oral administration of MPEP, an antagonist of mGlu5 receptor, during gestation and lactation alters mGlu5 and A2A receptors in maternal and neonatal brain.

    PubMed

    López-Zapata, Antonio; León-Navarro, David Agustín; Crespo, María; Albasanz, José Luis; Martín, Mairena

    2017-03-06

    Antidepressant and anxiolytic drugs are widely consumed even by pregnant and lactating women. The metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP) exerts antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like actions. Given that treatment for anxiety and depression use to be prolonged in time, it is conceivable a possible modulation of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu receptors) after prolonged MPEP exposure, which could also modify adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) since functional cross-talk between them has been reported. Here we report that MPEP crosses placental barrier and reaches neonatal brain through maternal milk using LC-MS/MS methods. Therefore, we analyzed mGlu receptors, mainly mGlu5, and A2AR in both maternal and fetal brain after chronic maternal consumption of MPEP during gestation and/or lactation using radioligand binding, Western-blotting, real-time PCR and phospholipase C (PLC) activity assays. In maternal brain, chronic MPEP consumption caused a significant loss of mGlu, including mGlu5, and A2AR receptors level in plasma membrane. PLC activity assays showed that mGlu5 signaling pathway was desensitized. No variations on mRNA level coding A2AR, A1R and mGlu5 were found after MPEP treatments. In female neonatal brain, maternal consumption of MPEP caused a significant increase in mGlu, including mGlu5, and A2AR receptors level. Neither mGlu receptors nor A2AR were modified in male neonatal brain after maternal MPEP intake. Finally, neither molecular nor behavioral changes (anxiety- and depression-like behavior) were observed in 3-month-old female offspring. In summary, mGlu5 and A2AR are altered in both maternal and female neonatal brain after chronic maternal consumption of MPEP during gestation and/or lactation.

  2. NOX2 Activation of Natural Killer T Cells Is Blocked by the Adenosine A2A Receptor to Inhibit Lung Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashish K; LaPar, Damien J; Stone, Matthew L; Zhao, Yunge; Mehta, Christopher K; Kron, Irving L; Laubach, Victor E

    2016-05-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury after lung transplantation, which affects both short- and long-term allograft survival, involves activation of NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) and activation of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells to produce IL-17. Adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) agonists are known to potently attenuate lung IR injury and IL-17 production. However, mechanisms for iNKT cell activation after IR and A2AR agonist-mediated protection remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that NOX2 mediates IL-17 production by iNKT cells after IR and that A2AR agonism prevents IR injury by blocking NOX2 activation in iNKT cells. An in vivo murine hilar ligation model of IR injury was used, in which left lungs underwent 1 hour of ischemia and 2 hours of reperfusion. Adoptive transfer of iNKT cells from p47(phox-/-) or NOX2(-/-) mice to Jα18(-/-) (iNKT cell-deficient) mice significantly attenuated lung IR injury and IL-17 production. Treatment with an A2AR agonist attenuated IR injury and IL-17 production in wild-type (WT) mice and in Jα18(-/-) mice reconstituted with WT, but not A2AR(-/-), iNKT cells. Furthermore, the A2AR agonist prevented IL-17 production by murine and human iNKT cells after acute hypoxia-reoxygenation by blocking p47(phox) phosphorylation, a critical step for NOX2 activation. NOX2 plays a key role in inducing iNKT cell-mediated IL-17 production and subsequent lung injury after IR. A primary mechanism for A2AR agonist-mediated protection entails inhibition of NOX2 in iNKT cells. Therefore, agonism of A2ARs on iNKT cells may be a novel therapeutic strategy to prevent primary graft dysfunction after lung transplantation.

  3. Increased striatal adenosine A2A receptor levels is an early event in Parkinson's disease-related pathology and it is potentially regulated by miR-34b.

    PubMed

    Villar-Menéndez, Izaskun; Porta, Sílvia; Buira, Sandra P; Pereira-Veiga, Thais; Díaz-Sánchez, Sara; Albasanz, José Luis; Ferrer, Isidre; Martín, Mairena; Barrachina, Marta

    2014-09-01

    Adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) is a G-protein coupled receptor that stimulates adenylyl cyclase activity. In the brain, A2ARs are found highly enriched in striatal GABAergic medium spiny neurons, related to the control of voluntary movement. Pharmacological modulation of A2ARs is particularly useful in Parkinson's disease (PD) due to their property of antagonizing dopamine D2 receptor activity. Increases in A2AR levels have been described in PD patients showing an important loss of dopaminergic denervation markers, but no data have been reported about A2AR levels in incidental PD brains. In the present report, we show that increased A2ARs protein levels were also detected in the putamen of incidental PD cases (Braak PD stages 1-2) with respect to age-matched controls. By contrast, A2ARs mRNA levels remained unchanged, suggesting that posttranslational mechanisms could be involved in the regulation of A2ARs. It has been described how miR-34b/c downregulation is an early event in PD cases. We found that miR-34b levels are also significantly reduced in the putamen of incidental PD cases and along disease progression. Given that 3'UTR of A2AR contains a predicted target site for miR-34b, the potential role of this miRNA in protein A2AR levels was assessed. In vitro studies revealed that endogenous A2AR protein levels increased when miR-34b function was blocked using a specific anti-miR-34b. Moreover, using a luciferase reporter assay with point mutations in a miR-34b predicted binding site within the 3'UTR region of A2AR mRNA abolished the effect of the miRNA using a miR-34b mimic. In addition, we showed a reduced percentage of DNA methylation in the 5'UTR region of ADORA2A in advanced PD cases. Overall, these findings reveal that increased A2AR protein levels occur in asymptomatic PD patients and provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying A2AR expression levels along the progression of this neurodegenerative disease.

  4. Cocaine self-administration differentially affects allosteric A2A-D2 receptor-receptor interactions in the striatum. Relevance for cocaine use disorder.

    PubMed

    Pintsuk, Julia; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Pomierny, Bartosz; Wydra, Karolina; Zaniewska, Magdalena; Filip, Malgorzata; Fuxe, Kjell

    2016-05-01

    In the current study behavioral and biochemical experiments were performed to study changes in the allosteric A2AR-D2R interactions in the ventral and dorsal striatum after cocaine self-administration versus corresponding yoked saline control. By using ex vivo [(3)H]-raclopride/quinpirole competition experiments, the effects of the A2AR agonist CGS 21680 (100 nM) on the KiH and KiL values of the D2-like receptor (D2-likeR) were determined. One major result was a significant reduction in the D2-likeR agonist high affinity state observed with CGS 21680 after cocaine self-administration in the ventral striatum compared with the yoked saline group. The results therefore support the hypothesis that A2AR agonists can at least in part counteract the motivational actions of cocaine. This action is mediated via the D2-likeR by targeting the A2AR protomer of A2AR-D2-like R heteroreceptor complexes in the ventral striatum, which leads to the reduction of D2-likeR protomer recognition through the allosteric receptor-receptor interaction. In contrast, in the dorsal striatum the CGS 21680-induced antagonistic modulation in the D2-likeR agonist high affinity state was abolished after cocaine self-administration versus the yoked saline group probably due to a local dysfunction/disruption of the A2AR-D2-like R heteroreceptor complexes. Such a change in the dorsal striatum in cocaine self-administration can contribute to the development of either locomotor sensitization, habit-forming learning and/or the compulsive drug seeking by enhanced D2-likeR protomer signaling. Potential differences in the composition and stoichiometry of the A2AR-D2R heteroreceptor complexes, including differential recruitment of sigma 1 receptor, in the ventral and dorsal striatum may explain the differential regional changes observed in the A2A-D2-likeR interactions after cocaine self-administration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic blockade of adenosine A2A receptors induces cognitive impairments and anatomical changes related to psychotic symptoms in mice.

    PubMed

    Moscoso-Castro, Maria; Gracia-Rubio, Irene; Ciruela, Francisco; Valverde, Olga

    2016-07-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic severe mental disorder with a presumed neurodevelopmental origin, and no effective treatment. Schizophrenia is a multifactorial disease with genetic, environmental and neurochemical etiology. The main theories on the pathophysiology of this disorder include alterations in dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in limbic and cortical areas of the brain. Early hypotheses also suggested that nucleoside adenosine is a putative affected neurotransmitter system, and clinical evidence suggests that adenosine adjuvants improve treatment outcomes, especially in poorly responsive patients. Hence, it is important to elucidate the role of the neuromodulator adenosine in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. A2A adenosine receptor (A2AR) subtypes are expressed in brain areas controlling motivational responses and cognition, including striatum, and in lower levels in hippocampus and cerebral cortex. The aim of this study was to characterize A2AR knockout (KO) mice with complete and specific inactivation of A2AR, as an animal model for schizophrenia. We performed behavioral, anatomical and neurochemical studies to assess psychotic-like symptoms in adult male and female KO and wild-type (WT) littermates. Our results show impairments in inhibitory responses and sensory gating in A2AR KO animals. Hyperlocomotion induced by d-amphetamine and MK-801 was reduced in KO animals when compared to WT littermates. Moreover, A2AR KO animals show motor disturbances, social and cognitive alterations. Finally, behavioral impairments were associated with enlargement of brain lateral ventricles and decreased BDNF levels in the hippocampus. These data highlight the role of adenosine in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and provide new possibilities for the therapeutic management of schizophrenia.

  6. Histamine H3 Receptor Activation Counteracts Adenosine A2A Receptor-Mediated Enhancement of Depolarization-Evoked [3H]-GABA Release from Rat Globus Pallidus Synaptosomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    High levels of histamine H3 receptors (H3Rs) are found in the globus pallidus (GP), a neuronal nucleus in the basal ganglia involved in the control of motor behavior. By using rat GP isolated nerve terminals (synaptosomes), we studied whether H3R activation modified the previously reported enhancing action of adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) stimulation on depolarization-evoked [3H]-GABA release. At 3 and 10 nM, the A2AR agonist CGS-21680 enhanced [3H]-GABA release induced by high K+ (20 mM) and the effect of 3 nM CGS-21680 was prevented by the A2AR antagonist ZM-241385 (100 nM). The presence of presynaptic H3Rs was confirmed by the specific binding of N-α-[methyl-3H]-histamine to membranes from GP synaptosomes (maximum binding, Bmax, 1327 ± 79 fmol/mg protein; dissociation constant, Kd, 0.74 nM), which was inhibited by the H3R ligands immepip, clobenpropit, and A-331440 (inhibition constants, Ki, 0.28, 8.53, and 316 nM, respectively). Perfusion of synaptosomes with the H3R agonist immepip (100 nM) had no effect on K+-evoked [3H]-GABA release, but inhibited the stimulatory action of A2AR activation. In turn, the effect of immepip was blocked by the H3R antagonist clobenpropit, which had no significant effect of its own on K+-induced [3H]-GABA release. These data indicate that H3R activation selectively counteracts the facilitatory action of A2AR stimulation on GABA release from striato-pallidal projections. PMID:24884070

  7. Continuous adenosine A2A receptor antagonism after focal cerebral ischemia in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Fronz, Ulrike; Deten, Alexander; Baumann, Frank; Kranz, Alexander; Weidlich, Sarah; Härtig, Wolfgang; Nieber, Karen; Boltze, Johannes; Wagner, Daniel-Christoph

    2014-02-01

    Antagonism of the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) has been shown to elicit substantial neuroprotective properties when given immediately after cerebral ischemia. We asked whether the continuous application of a selective A2AR antagonist within a clinically relevant time window will be a feasible and effective approach to treat focal cerebral ischemia. To answer this question, we subjected 20 male spontaneously hypertensive rats to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion and randomized them equally to a verum and a control group. Two hours after stroke onset, the animals received a subcutaneous implantation of an osmotic minipump filled with 5 mg kg(-1) day(-1) 8-(3-chlorostyryl) caffeine (CSC) or vehicle solution. The serum level of CSC was measured twice a day for three consecutive days. The infarct volume was determined at days 1 and 3 using magnetic resonance imaging. We found the serum level of CSC showing a bell-shaped curve with its maximum at 36 h. The infarct volume was not affected by continuous CSC treatment. These results suggest that delayed and continuous CSC application was not sufficient to treat acute ischemic stroke, potentially due to unfavorable hepatic elimination and metabolization of the pharmaceutical.

  8. A1R-A2AR heteromers coupled to Gs and G i/0 proteins modulate GABA transport into astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Cristóvão-Ferreira, Sofia; Navarro, Gemma; Brugarolas, Marc; Pérez-Capote, Kamil; Vaz, Sandra H; Fattorini, Giorgia; Conti, Fiorenzo; Lluis, Carmen; Ribeiro, Joaquim A; McCormick, Peter J; Casadó, Vicent; Franco, Rafael; Sebastião, Ana M

    2013-09-01

    Astrocytes play a key role in modulating synaptic transmission by controlling extracellular gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels via GAT-1 and GAT-3 GABA transporters (GATs). Using primary cultures of rat astrocytes, we show here that a further level of regulation of GABA uptake occurs via modulation of the GATs by the adenosine A1 (A1R) and A2A (A2AR) receptors. This regulation occurs through A1R-A2AR heteromers that signal via two different G proteins, Gs and Gi/0, and either enhances (A2AR) or inhibits (A1R) GABA uptake. These results provide novel mechanistic insight into how GPCR heteromers signal. Furthermore, we uncover a previously unknown mechanism where adenosine, in a concentration-dependent manner, acts via a heterocomplex of adenosine receptors in astrocytes to significantly contribute to neurotransmission at the tripartite (neuron-glia-neuron) synapse.

  9. NF-κB Is Activated in CD4+ iNKT Cells by Sickle Cell Disease and Mediates Rapid Induction of Adenosine A2A Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jennifer C.; Ken, Ruey; Neuberg, Donna; Nathan, David G.; Linden, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Reperfusion injury following tissue ischemia occurs as a consequence of vaso-occlusion that is initiated by activation of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells. Sickle cell disease (SDC) results in widely disseminated microvascular ischemia and reperfusion injury as a result of vaso-occlusion by rigid and adhesive sickle red blood cells. In mice, iNKT cell activation requires NF-κB signaling and can be inhibited by the activation of anti-inflammatory adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs). Human iNKT cells are divided into subsets of CD4+ and CD4- cells. In this study we found that human CD4+ iNKT cells, but not CD4- cells undergo rapid NF-κB activation (phosphorylation of NF-κB on p65) and induction of A2ARs (detected with a monoclonal antibody 7F6-G5-A2) during SCD painful vaso-occlusive crises. These findings indicate that SCD primarily activates the CD4+ subset of iNKT cells. Activation of NF-κB and induction of A2ARs is concordant, i.e. only CD4+ iNKT cells with activated NF-κB expressed high levels of A2ARs. iNKT cells that are not activated during pVOC express low levels of A2AR immunoreactivity. These finding suggest that A2AR transcription may be induced in CD4+ iNKT cells as a result of NF-κB activation in SCD. In order to test this hypothesis further we examined cultured human iNKT cells. In cultured cells, blockade of NF-κB with Bay 11–7082 or IKK inhibitor VII prevented rapid induction of A2AR mRNA and protein upon iNKT activation. In conclusion, NF-κB-mediated induction of A2ARs in iNKT cells may serve as a counter-regulatory mechanism to limit the extent and duration of inflammatory immune responses. As activated iNKT cells express high levels of A2ARs following their activation, they may become highly sensitive to inhibition by A2AR agonists. PMID:24124453

  10. GPR88 in A2AR Neurons Enhances Anxiety-Like Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Meirsman, Aura Carole; Robé, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Abstract GPR88 is an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor highly expressed in striatal dopamine D1 (receptor) R- and D2R-expressing medium spiny neurons. This receptor is involved in activity and motor responses, and we previously showed that this receptor also regulates anxiety-like behaviors. To determine whether GPR88 in D2R-expressing neurons contributes to this emotional phenotype, we generated conditional Gpr88 knock-out mice using adenosine A2AR (A2AR)-Cre-driven recombination, and compared anxiety-related responses in both total and A2AR-Gpr88 KO mice. A2AR-Gpr88 KO mice showed a selective reduction of Gpr88 mRNA in D2R-expressing, but not D1R-expressing, neurons. These mutant mice showed increased locomotor activity and decreased anxiety-like behaviors in light/dark and elevated plus maze tests. These phenotypes were superimposable on those observed in total Gpr88 KO mice, demonstrating that the previously reported anxiogenic activity of GPR88 operates at the level of A2AR-expressing neurons. Further, A2AR-Gpr88 KO mice showed no change in novelty preference and novelty-suppressed feeding, while these responses were increased and decreased, respectively, in the total Gpr88 KO mice. Also, A2AR-Gpr88 KO mice showed intact fear conditioning, while the fear responses were decreased in total Gpr88 KO. We therefore also show for the first time that GPR88 activity regulates approach behaviors and conditional fear; however, these behaviors do not seem mediated by receptors in A2AR neurons. We conclude that Gpr88 expressed in A2AR neurons enhances ethological anxiety-like behaviors without affecting conflict anxiety and fear responses. PMID:27570825

  11. METABOTROPIC GLUTAMATE TYPE 5, DOPAMINE D2 AND ADENOSINE A2A RECEPTORS FORM HIGHER-ORDER OLIGOMERS IN LIVING CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Cabello, Nuria; Gandía, Jorge; Bertarelli, Daniela C. G.; Watanabe, Masahiko; Lluís, Carme; Franco, Rafael; Ferré, Sergi; Luján, Rafael; Ciruela, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors are known to form homo- and heteromers at the plasma membrane, but the stoichiometry of these receptor oligomers are relatively unknown. Here, by using bimolecular fluorescence complementation, we visualized for the first time the occurrence of heterodimers of metabotropic glutamate mGlu5 receptors (mGlu5R) and dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) in living cells. Furthermore, the combination of bimolecular fluorescence complementation and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer techniques, as well as the sequential resonance energy transfer (SRET) technique, allowed us to detect the occurrence receptor oligomers containing more than two protomers, mGlu5R, D2R and adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR). Interestingly, by using high-resolution immunoelectron microscopy we could confirm that the three receptors co-distribute within the extrasynaptic plasma membrane of the same dendritic spines of asymmetrical, putative glutamatergic, striatal synapses. Also, co-immunoprecipitation experiments in native tissue demonstrated the existence of an association of mGlu5R, D2R and A2AR in rat striatum homogenates. Overall, these results provide new insights into the molecular composition of G protein-coupled receptor oligomers in general and the mGlu5R/D2R/A2AR oligomer in particular, a receptor oligomer that might constitute an important target for the treatment of some neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:19344374

  12. Chronic and acute adenosine A2A receptor blockade prevents long-term episodic memory disruption caused by acute cannabinoid CB1 receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Mouro, Francisco M; Batalha, Vânia L; Ferreira, Diana G; Coelho, Joana E; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E; Lopes, Luísa V; Ribeiro, Joaquim A; Sebastião, Ana M

    2017-05-01

    Cannabinoid-mediated memory impairment is a concern in cannabinoid-based therapies. Caffeine exacerbates cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R)-induced memory deficits through an adenosine A1 receptor-mediated mechanism. We now evaluated how chronic or acute blockade of adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) affects long-term episodic memory deficits induced by a single injection of a selective CB1R agonist. Long-term episodic memory was assessed by the novel object recognition (NOR) test. Mice received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of the CB1/CB2 receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 (1 mg/kg) immediately after the NOR training, being tested for novelty recognition 24 h later. Anxiety levels were assessed by the Elevated Plus Maze test, immediately after the NOR. Mice were also tested for exploratory behaviour at the Open Field. For chronic A2AR blockade, KW-6002 (istradefylline) (3 mg/kg/day) was administered orally for 30 days; acute blockade of A2ARs was assessed by i.p. injection of SCH 58261 (1 mg/kg) administered either together with WIN 55,212-2 or only 30 min before the NOR test phase. The involvement of CB1Rs was assessed by using the CB1R antagonist, AM251 (3 mg/kg, i.p.). WIN 55,212-2 caused a disruption in NOR, an action absent in mice also receiving AM251, KW-6002 or SCH 58261 during the encoding/consolidation phase; SCH 58251 was ineffective if present during retrieval only. No effects were detected in the Elevated Plus maze or Open Field Test. The finding that CB1R-mediated memory disruption is prevented by antagonism of adenosine A2ARs, highlights a possibility to prevent cognitive side effects when therapeutic application of CB1R drugs is desired.

  13. Ligands and therapeutic perspectives of adenosine A(2A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Diniz, C; Borges, F; Santana, L; Uriarte, E; Oliveira, J M A; Gonçalves, J; Fresco, P

    2008-01-01

    Adenosine A(2A) receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor family and mediate multiple physiological effects of adenosine, both at the central nervous system (CNS) and at peripheral tissues, by activating several pathways or interacting with other receptors or proteins. Increasing evidence relate A(2A) receptors with pharmacological stress testing, neurodegenerative disorders (such as Parkinson's disease) and inflammation, renewing the interest in these receptors, increasingly viewed as promising therapeutic targets. Series of agonists and antagonists have been developed by medicinal chemistry artwork either by structure activity relationship (SAR) or quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) studies. These studies have allowed identification of the structural and electrostatic requirements for high affinity A(2A) receptor binding and, therefore, contributing to the rational design of A(2A) receptor ligands. Additional rational chemical modifications of the existing A(2A) receptor ligands may further improve their affinity/selectivity. The purpose of this review is to analize and summarize aspects related to the medicinal chemistry of A(2A) receptor ligands, their present and potencial therapeutic applications by exploring the molecular structure and physiological and pathophysiological roles of A(2A) receptors.

  14. Physiological roles of A1 and A2A adenosine receptors in regulating heart rate, body temperature, and locomotion as revealed using knockout mice and caffeine

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiang-Ning; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Fredholm, Bertil B.

    2009-01-01

    Heart rate (HR), body temperature (Temp), locomotor activity (LA), and oxygen consumption (O2C) were studied in awake mice lacking one or both of the adenosine A1 or A2A receptors (A1R or A2AR, respectively) using telemetry and respirometry, before and after caffeine administration. All parameters were lower during day than night and higher in females than males. When compared with wild-type (WT) littermates, HR was higher in male A1R knockout (A1RKO) mice but lower in A2ARKO mice and intermediate in A1-A2AR double KO mice. A single dose of an unselective β-blocker (timolol; 1 mg/kg) abolished the HR differences between these genotypes. Deletion of A1Rs had little effect on Temp, whereas deletion of A2ARs increased it in females and decreased it in males. A1-A2ARKO mice had lower Temp than WT mice. LA was unaltered in A1RKO mice and lower in A2ARKO and A1-A2ARKO mice than in WT mice. Caffeine injection increased LA but only in mice expressing A2AR. Caffeine ingestion also increased LA in an A2AR-dependent manner in male mice. Caffeine ingestion significantly increased O2C in WT mice, but less in the different KO mice. Injection of 30 mg/kg caffeine decreased Temp, especially in KO mice, and hence in a manner unrelated to A1R or A2AR blockade. Selective A2B antagonism had little or no effect. Thus A1R and A2AR influence HR, Temp, LA, and O2C in mice in a sex-dependent manner, indicating effects of endogenous adenosine. The A2AR plays an important role in the modulation of O2C and LA by acute and chronic caffeine administration. There is also evidence for effects of higher doses of caffeine being independent of both A1R and A2AR. PMID:19218506

  15. Ex vivo Perfusion with Adenosine A2A Receptor Agonist Enhances Rehabilitation of Murine Donor Lungs after Circulatory Death

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Mathew L.; Sharma, Ashish K.; Mas, Valeria. R.; Gehrau, Ricardo C.; Mulloy, Daniel P.; Zhao, Yunge; Lau, Christine L.; Kron, Irving L.; Laubach, Victor E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) enables assessment and rehabilitation of marginal donor lungs prior to transplantation. We previously demonstrated that adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) agonism attenuates lung ischemia-reperfusion injury. The current study utilizes a novel murine EVLP model to test the hypothesis that A2AR agonist enhances EVLP-mediated rehabilitation of donation after circulatory death (DCD) lungs. Methods Mice underwent euthanasia and 60 min warm ischemia, and lungs were flushed with Perfadex and underwent cold static preservation (CSP, 60 min). Three groups were studied: no EVLP (CSP), EVLP with Steen solution for 60 min (EVLP), and EVLP with Steen solution supplemented with ATL1223, a selective A2AR agonist (EVLP+ATL1223). Lung function, wet/dry weight, cytokines and neutrophil numbers were measured. Microarrays were performed using the Affymetrix GeneChip Mouse Genome 430A 2.0 Array. Results EVLP significantly improved lung function versus CSP, which was further, significantly improved by EVLP+ATL1223. Lung edema, cytokines and neutrophil counts were reduced after EVLP and further, significantly reduced after EVLP+ATL1223. Gene array analysis revealed differential expression of 1,594 genes after EVLP, which comprise canonical pathways involved in inflammation and innate immunity including IL-1, IL-8, IL-6 and IL-17 signaling. Several pathways were uniquely regulated by EVLP+ATL1223 including the downregulation of genes involved in IL-1 signaling such as ADCY9, ECSIT, IRAK1, MAPK12 and TOLLIP. Conclusion EVLP modulates pro-inflammatory genes and reduces pulmonary dysfunction, edema and inflammation in DCD lungs, which are further reduced by A2AR agonism. This murine EVLP model provides a novel platform to study rehabilitative mechanisms of DCD lungs. PMID:26262504

  16. Ex Vivo Perfusion With Adenosine A2A Receptor Agonist Enhances Rehabilitation of Murine Donor Lungs After Circulatory Death.

    PubMed

    Stone, Matthew L; Sharma, Ashish K; Mas, Valeria R; Gehrau, Ricardo C; Mulloy, Daniel P; Zhao, Yunge; Lau, Christine L; Kron, Irving L; Huerter, Mary E; Laubach, Victor E

    2015-12-01

    Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) enables assessment and rehabilitation of marginal donor lungs before transplantation. We previously demonstrated that adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) agonism attenuates lung ischemia-reperfusion injury. The current study utilizes a novel murine EVLP model to test the hypothesis that A2AR agonist enhances EVLP-mediated rehabilitation of donation after circulatory death (DCD) lungs. Mice underwent euthanasia and 60 minutes warm ischemia, and lungs were flushed with Perfadex and underwent cold static preservation (CSP, 60 minutes). Three groups were studied: no EVLP (CSP), EVLP with Steen solution for 60 minutes (EVLP), and EVLP with Steen solution supplemented with ATL1223, a selective A2AR agonist (EVLP + ATL1223). Lung function, wet/dry weight, cytokines and neutrophil numbers were measured. Microarrays were performed using the Affymetrix GeneChip Mouse Genome 430A 2.0 Array. Ex vivo lung perfusion significantly improved lung function versus CSP, which was further, significantly improved by EVLP + ATL1223. Lung edema, cytokines, and neutrophil counts were reduced after EVLP and further, significantly reduced after EVLP + ATL1223. Gene array analysis revealed differential expression of 1594 genes after EVLP, which comprise canonical pathways involved in inflammation and innate immunity including IL-1, IL-8, IL-6, and IL-17 signaling. Several pathways were uniquely regulated by EVLP + ATL1223 including the downregulation of genes involved in IL-1 signaling, such as ADCY9, ECSIT, IRAK1, MAPK12, and TOLLIP. Ex vivo lung perfusion modulates proinflammatory genes and reduces pulmonary dysfunction, edema, and inflammation in DCD lungs, which are further reduced by A2AR agonism. This murine EVLP model provides a novel platform to study rehabilitative mechanisms of DCD lungs.

  17. FGF acts as a co-transmitter through Adenosine A2A receptor to regulate morphological and physiological synaptic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Flajolet, Marc; Wang, Zhongfeng; Futter, Marie; Shen, Weixing; Nuangchamnong, Nina; Bendor, Jacob; Palaszewski, Iwona; Nairn, Angus C.; Surmeier, D. James; Greengard, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Summary Abnormalities of striatal function have been implicated in several major neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and depression. Adenosine, by activation of A2A receptors, antagonizes dopamine signaling at D2 receptors and A2A receptor antagonists have been tested as therapeutic agents for Parkinson's disease. We report here a direct physical interaction between the G protein-coupled A2A receptor and the receptor tyrosine kinase FGF receptor. Concomitant activation of these two classes of receptors, but not individual activation of either one alone, causes a robust activation of the MAPK/ERK pathway, differentiation and neurite extension of PC12 cells, spine morphogenesis in primary neuronal cultures, and cortico-striatal plasticity induced by a novel A2AR/FGFR-dependent mechanism. The discovery of a direct physical interaction between the A2A and FGF receptors and the robust physiological consequences of this association shed light on the mechanism underlying FGF functions as a co-transmitter and open new avenues for therapeutic interventions. PMID:18953346

  18. Cognitive impairments associated with alterations in synaptic proteins induced by the genetic loss of adenosine A2A receptors in mice.

    PubMed

    Moscoso-Castro, Maria; López-Cano, Marc; Gracia-Rubio, Irene; Ciruela, Francisco; Valverde, Olga

    2017-11-01

    The study of psychiatric disorders usually focuses on emotional symptoms assessment. However, cognitive deficiencies frequently constitute the core symptoms, are often poorly controlled and handicap individual's quality of life. Adenosine receptors, through the control of both dopamine and glutamate systems, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of several psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Indeed, clinical data indicate that poorly responsive schizophrenia patients treated with adenosine adjuvants show improved treatment outcomes. The A2A adenosine receptor subtype (A2AR) is highly expressed in brain areas controlling cognition and motivational responses including the striatum, hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Accordingly, we study the role of A2AR in the regulation of cognitive processes based on a complete cognitive behavioural analysis coupled with the assessment of neurogenesis and sub-synaptic protein expression in adult and middle-aged A2AR constitutional knockout mice and wild-type littermates. Our results show overall cognitive impairments in A2AR knockout mice associated with a decrease in new-born hippocampal neuron proliferation and concomitant changes in synaptic protein expression, in both the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus. These results suggest a deficient adenosine signalling in cognitive processes, thus providing new opportunities for the therapeutic management of cognitive deficits associated with psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Toll-like receptors, NF-κB, and IL-27 mediate adenosine A2A receptor signaling in BTBR T(+) Itpr3(tf)/J mice.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Sheikh F; Ansari, Mushtaq A; Nadeem, Ahmed; Bakheet, Saleh A; Al-Ayadhi, Laila Yousef; Attia, Sabry M

    2017-10-03

    Autism is a predominant neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired communication, social deficits, and repetitive behaviors. Recent research has proposed that the impairment of innate immunity may play an important role in autism. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are potential therapeutic targets against neuroinflammation. The BTBR T(+) Itpr3(tf/)J (BTBR) mouse is a well-known model of autism, showing repetitive behaviors such as cognitive inflexibility and increased grooming as compared to C57BL/6 (B6) mice. Adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) signaling is involved in inflammation, brain injury, and lymphocyte infiltration into the CNS, but the role of A2AR in autism remains unknown. We investigated the effect of A2AR antagonist SCH 5826 (SCH) and agonist CGS 21680 (CGS) on the expression levels of TLRs, IL-27, NF-κB p65, and IκBα in BTBR mice. Treatment of BTBR mice with SCH increased the percentage of splenic CD14(+)TLR2(+) cells, CD14(+)TLR3(+) cells, CD14(+)TLR4(+) cells, and decreased the percentage of CD14(+)IL-27(+) cells, as compared to the untreated BTBR mice. Our results reveal that BTBR mice treated with CGS had reversal of SCH-induced immunological responses. Moreover, mRNA and protein expression analyses confirmed increased expression of TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, and NF-κB p65 in brain tissue, and decreased IL-27 and IκBα expression following SCH treatment, as compared to the untreated-BTBR and CGS-treated BTBR mice. Together, these results suggest that the A2AR agonist corrects neuroimmune dysfunction observed in BTBR mice, and thus has the potential as a therapeutic approach in autism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Adenosine Transporter ENT1 Regulates the Acquisition of Goal-Directed Behavior and Ethanol Drinking Through A2A Receptor in the Dorsomedial Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Hyung Wook; Hinton, David J.; Kang, Na Young; Kim, Taehyun; Lee, Moonnoh R.; Oliveros, Alfredo; Adams, Chelsea; Ruby, Christina L.; Choi, Doo-Sup

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine signaling has been implicated in the pathophysiology of many psychiatric disorders including alcoholism. Striatal adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) play an essential role in both ethanol drinking and the shift from goal-directed action to habitual behavior. However, direct evidence for a role of striatal A2AR signaling in ethanol drinking and habit development has not been established. Here, we identified that decreased A2AR-mediated CREB activity in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) enhanced initial behavioral acquisition of goal-directed behaviors and the vulnerability to progress to excessive ethanol drinking during operant conditioning in mice lacking ethanol-sensitive adenosine transporter ENT1 (ENT1−/−). Utilizing mice expressing β-galactosidase (lacZ) under the control of seven-repeated CRE sites in both genotypes (CRE-lacZ/ENT1+/+ mice and CRE-lacZ/ENT1−/− mice) as well as dnCREB (dominant negative form of CREB), we found that reduced CREB activity in the DMS is causally associated with decreased A2AR signaling and increased goal-directed ethanol drinking. Finally, we demonstrated that A2AR antagonist (ZM241385) dampened PKA-activity mediated signaling in the DMS and promoted excessive ethanol drinking in ENT1+/+ mice, but not in ENT1−/− mice. Taken together, our studies indicate that A2AR-mediated CREB signaling in the DMS is a key determinant to enhance the development of goal-directed ethanol drinking in mice. PMID:23467349

  1. Caffeine Reverts Memory But Not Mood Impairment in a Depression-Prone Mouse Strain with Up-Regulated Adenosine A2A Receptor in Hippocampal Glutamate Synapses.

    PubMed

    Machado, Nuno J; Simões, Ana Patrícia; Silva, Henrique B; Ardais, Ana Paula; Kaster, Manuella P; Garção, Pedro; Rodrigues, Diana I; Pochmann, Daniela; Santos, Ana Isabel; Araújo, Inês M; Porciúncula, Lisiane O; Tomé, Ângelo R; Köfalvi, Attila; Vaugeois, Jean-Marie; Agostinho, Paula; El Yacoubi, Malika; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Gomes, Catarina A

    2017-03-01

    Caffeine prophylactically prevents mood and memory impairments through adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) antagonism. A2AR antagonists also therapeutically revert mood and memory impairments, but it is not known if caffeine is also therapeutically or only prophylactically effective. Since depression is accompanied by mood and memory alterations, we now explored if chronic (4 weeks) caffeine consumption (0.3 g/L) reverts mood and memory impairment in helpless mice (HM, 12 weeks old), a bred-based model of depression. HM displayed higher immobility in the tail suspension and forced swimming tests, greater anxiety in the elevated plus maze, and poorer memory performance (modified Y-maze and object recognition). HM also had reduced density of synaptic (synaptophysin, SNAP-25), namely, glutamatergic (vGluT1; -22 ± 7 %) and GABAergic (vGAT; -23 ± 8 %) markers in the hippocampus. HM displayed higher A2AR density (72 ± 6 %) in hippocampal synapses, an enhanced facilitation of hippocampal glutamate release by the A2AR agonist, CGS21680 (30 nM), and a larger LTP amplitude (54 ± 8 % vs. 21 ± 5 % in controls) that was restored to control levels (30 ± 10 %) by the A2AR antagonist, SCH58261 (50 nM). Notably, caffeine intake reverted memory deficits and reverted the loss of hippocampal synaptic markers but did not affect helpless or anxiety behavior. These results reinforce the validity of HM as an animal model of depression by showing that they also display reference memory deficits. Furthermore, caffeine intake selectively reverted memory but not mood deficits displayed by HM, which are associated with an increased density and functional impact of hippocampal A2AR controlling synaptic glutamatergic function.

  2. Cocaine-Induced Changes of Synaptic Transmission in the Striatum are Modulated by Adenosine A2A Receptors and Involve the Tyrosine Phosphatase STEP

    PubMed Central

    Chiodi, Valentina; Mallozzi, Cinzia; Ferrante, Antonella; Chen, Jiang F; Lombroso, Paul J; Di Stasi, Anna Maria Michela; Popoli, Patrizia; Domenici, Maria Rosaria

    2014-01-01

    The striatum is a brain area implicated in the pharmacological action of drugs of abuse. Adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) are highly expressed in the striatum and mediate, at least in part, cocaine-induced psychomotor effects in vivo. Here we studied the synaptic mechanisms implicated in the pharmacological action of cocaine in the striatum and investigated the influence of A2ARs. We found that synaptic transmission was depressed in corticostriatal slices after perfusion with cocaine (10 μM). This effect was reduced by the A2AR antagonist ZM241385 and almost abolished in striatal A2AR-knockout mice (mice lacking A2ARs in striatal neurons, stA2ARKO). The effect of cocaine on synaptic transmission was also prevented by the protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) inhibitor sodium orthovanadate (Na3VO4). In synaptosomes prepared from striatal slices, we found that the activity of striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) was upregulated by cocaine, prevented by ZM241385, and absent in synaptosomes from stA2ARKO. The role played by STEP in cocaine modulation of synaptic transmission was investigated in whole-cell voltage clamp recordings from medium spiny neurons of the striatum. We found that TAT-STEP, a peptide that renders STEP enzymatically inactive, prevented cocaine-induced reduction in AMPA- and NMDA-mediated excitatory post-synaptic currents, whereas the control peptide, TAT-myc, had no effect. These results demonstrate that striatal A2ARs modulate cocaine-induced synaptic depression in the striatum and highlight the potential role of PTPs and specifically STEP in the effects of cocaine. PMID:23989619

  3. Cocaine-induced changes of synaptic transmission in the striatum are modulated by adenosine A2A receptors and involve the tyrosine phosphatase STEP.

    PubMed

    Chiodi, Valentina; Mallozzi, Cinzia; Ferrante, Antonella; Chen, Jiang F; Lombroso, Paul J; Di Stasi, Anna Maria Michela; Popoli, Patrizia; Domenici, Maria Rosaria

    2014-02-01

    The striatum is a brain area implicated in the pharmacological action of drugs of abuse. Adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) are highly expressed in the striatum and mediate, at least in part, cocaine-induced psychomotor effects in vivo. Here we studied the synaptic mechanisms implicated in the pharmacological action of cocaine in the striatum and investigated the influence of A2ARs. We found that synaptic transmission was depressed in corticostriatal slices after perfusion with cocaine (10 μM). This effect was reduced by the A2AR antagonist ZM241385 and almost abolished in striatal A2AR-knockout mice (mice lacking A2ARs in striatal neurons, stA2ARKO). The effect of cocaine on synaptic transmission was also prevented by the protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) inhibitor sodium orthovanadate (Na3VO4). In synaptosomes prepared from striatal slices, we found that the activity of striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) was upregulated by cocaine, prevented by ZM241385, and absent in synaptosomes from stA2ARKO. The role played by STEP in cocaine modulation of synaptic transmission was investigated in whole-cell voltage clamp recordings from medium spiny neurons of the striatum. We found that TAT-STEP, a peptide that renders STEP enzymatically inactive, prevented cocaine-induced reduction in AMPA- and NMDA-mediated excitatory post-synaptic currents, whereas the control peptide, TAT-myc, had no effect. These results demonstrate that striatal A2ARs modulate cocaine-induced synaptic depression in the striatum and highlight the potential role of PTPs and specifically STEP in the effects of cocaine.

  4. Caffeine consumption prevents memory impairment, neuronal damage, and adenosine A2A receptors upregulation in the hippocampus of a rat model of sporadic dementia.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Janaína; Rocha, Andreia; Nunes, Fernanda; Costa, Marcelo S; Schein, Vanessa; Kazlauckas, Vanessa; Kalinine, Eduardo; Souza, Diogo O; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Porciúncula, Lisiane O

    2013-01-01

    Intracerebroventricular (icv) streptozotocin (STZ) administration induces pathological and behavioral alterations similar to those observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is thus considered an experimental model of sporadic AD. Since caffeine (an adenosine receptor antagonist) and selective antagonists of adenosine A2A receptors modify the course of memory impairment in different amyloid-β-based experimental models of AD, we now tested the impact of caffeine on STZ-induced dementia and associated neurodegeneration in the hippocampus as well as on the expression and density of adenosine receptors. Adult male rats received a bilateral infusion of saline or STZ (3 mg/kg, icv), which triggered memory deficits after four weeks, as gauged by impaired object recognition memory. This was accompanied by a reduced NeuN immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA1 region and an increased expression and density of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR), but not A1R, in the hippocampus. Caffeine consumption (1 g/L in the drinking water starting 2 weeks before the STZ challenge) prevented the STZ-induced memory impairment and neurodegeneration as well as the upregulation of A2AR. These findings provide the first demonstration that caffeine prevents sporadic dementia and implicate the control of central A2AR as its likely mechanism of action.

  5. Baicalin attenuates chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension via adenosine A2A receptor-induced SDF-1/CXCR4/PI3K/AKT signaling.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoying; Wu, Peiliang; Huang, Feifei; Xu, Min; Chen, Mayun; Huang, Kate; Li, Guo-Ping; Xu, Manhuan; Yao, Dan; Wang, Liangxing

    2017-08-03

    Baicalin, an important flavonoid in Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi extracts, exerts a variety of pharmacological effects. In this study, we explored the effects of baicalin on chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and investigated the mechanism underlying these effects. Moreover, we examined whether the inflammatory response was mediated by the A2A receptor (A2AR) and stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4)-induced phosphatidyl inositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling in vivo. We established a hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (HPH) mouse model by subjecting wild-type (WT) and A2AR knockout (A2AR(-/-)) animals to chronic hypoxia, and we examined the effects of a 4-week treatment with baicalin or the A2AR agonist CGS21680 in these animals. Invasive hemodynamic parameters, the right ventricular hypertrophy index, pulmonary congestion, the pulmonary arterial remodeling index, blood gas parameters, A2AR expression, and the expression of SDF-1/CXCR4/PI3K/protein kinase B (PKB; AKT) signaling components were measured. Compared with WT mice, A2AR(-/-) mice exhibited increased right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), right ventricle-to-left ventricle plus septum [RV/(LV + S)] ratio, RV weight-to-body weight (RV/BW) ratio, and lung wet weight-to-body weight (Lung/BW) ratio in the absence of an altered mean carotid arterial pressure (mCAP). These changes were accompanied by increases in pulmonary artery wall area and thickness and reductions in arterial oxygen pressure (PaO2) and hydrogen ion concentration (pH). In the HPH model, A2AR(-/-) mice displayed increased CXCR4, SDF-1, phospho-PI3K, and phospho-AKT expression compared with WT mice. Treating WT and A2AR(-/-) HPH mice with baicalin or CGS21680 attenuated the hypoxia-induced increases in RVSP, RV/(LV + S) and Lung/BW, as well as pulmonary arterial remodeling. Additionally, baicalin or CGS21680 alone could reverse the hypoxia-induced increases in CXCR4

  6. Effects of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist SCH 58621 on cyclooxygenase-2 expression, glial activation, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor availability in a rat model of striatal neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Minghetti, Luisa; Greco, Anita; Potenza, Rosa Luisa; Pezzola, Antonella; Blum, David; Bantubungi, Kadiombo; Popoli, Patrizia

    2007-05-01

    Inhibition of adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) is neuroprotective in several experimental models of striatal diseases. However, the mechanisms elicited by A2AR blockade are only partially known, and critical aspects about the potential beneficial effects of A2AR antagonism in models of neurodegeneration still await elucidation. In the present study, we analyzed the influence of the selective A2AR antagonist SCH 58261 in a rat model of striatal excitotoxicity obtained by unilateral intrastriatal injection of quinolinic acid (QA). We found that SCH 58261 differently affected the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) induced by QA in cortex and striatum. The antagonist enhanced COX-2 expression in cortical neurons and prevented it in striatal microglia-like cells. Similarly, SCH 58261 differently regulated astrogliosis and microglial activation in the 2 brain regions. In addition, the A2AR antagonist prevented the QA-induced increase in striatal brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels. Because COX-2 activity has been linked to excitotoxic processes and because brain-derived neurotrophic factor depletion has been observed in mouse models as well as in patients with Huntington disease, we suggest that the final outcome of A2AR blockade (namely neuroprotection vs neurodegeneration) is likely to depend on the balance among its various and region-specific effects.

  7. Caffeine Inhibits the Activation of Hepatic Stellate Cells Induced by Acetaldehyde via Adenosine A2A Receptor Mediated by the cAMP/PKA/SRC/ERK1/2/P38 MAPK Signal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wanzhi; Wang, Qi; Zhao, Han; Yang, Feng; Lv, Xiongwen; Li, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation is an essential event during alcoholic liver fibrosis. Evidence suggests that adenosine aggravates liver fibrosis via the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR). Caffeine, which is being widely consumed during daily life, inhibits the action of adenosine. In this study, we attempted to validate the hypothesis that caffeine influences acetaldehyde-induced HSC activation by acting on A2AR. Acetaldehyde at 50, 100, 200, and 400 μM significantly increased HSC-T6 cells proliferation, and cell proliferation reached a maximum at 48 h after exposure to 200 μM acetaldehyde. Caffeine and the A2AR antagonist ZM241385 decreased the cell viability and inhibited the expression of procollagen type I and type III in acetaldehyde-induced HSC-T6 cells. In addition, the inhibitory effect of caffeine on the expression of procollagen type I was regulated by A2AR-mediated signal pathway involving cAMP, PKA, SRC, and ERK1/2. Interestingly, caffeine’s inhibitory effect on the expression of procollagen type III may depend upon the A2AR-mediated P38 MAPK-dependent pathway. Conclusions: Caffeine significantly inhibited acetaldehyde-induced HSC-T6 cells activation by distinct A2AR mediated signal pathway via inhibition of cAMP-PKA-SRC-ERK1/2 for procollagen type I and via P38 MAPK for procollagen type III. PMID:24682220

  8. The adenosine A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680 decreases ethanol self-administration in both non-dependent and dependent animals.

    PubMed

    Houchi, Hakim; Persyn, Wolfgang; Legastelois, Rémi; Naassila, Mickaël

    2013-09-01

    There is emerging evidence that the adenosinergic system might be involved in drug addiction and alcohol dependence. We have already demonstrated the involvement of A2A receptors (A2AR) in ethanol-related behaviours in mice. Here, we investigated whether the A2AR agonist CGS 21680 can reduce ethanol operant self-administration in both non-dependent and ethanol-dependent Wistar rats. To rule out a potential involvement of the A1R in the effects of CGS 21680, we also tested its effectiveness to reduce ethanol operant self-administration in both heterozygous and homozygous A1R knockout mice. Our results demonstrated that CGS 21680 (0.065, 0.095 and 0.125 mg/kg, i.p.) had a bimodal effect on 10% ethanol operant self-administration in non-dependent rats. The intermediate dose was also effective in reducing 2% sucrose self-administration. Interestingly, the intermediate dose reduced 10% ethanol self-administration in dependent animals more effectively (75% decrease) when compared with non-dependent animals (57% decrease). These results suggest that the A2AR are involved in CGS 21680 effects since the reduction of ethanol self-administration was not dependent upon the presence of A1R in mice. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated the effectiveness of the A2AR agonist CGS 21680 in a preclinical model of alcohol addiction and suggested that the adenosinergic pathway is a promising target to treat alcohol addiction.

  9. Adenosine A2A Receptors Mediate Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Electroacupuncture on Synovitis in Mice with Collagen-Induced Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qi-hui; Xie, Wen-xia; Li, Xiao-pei; Huang, Ka-te; Du, Zhong-heng; Cong, Wen-jie; Zhou, Long-hua; Ye, Tian-shen; Chen, Jiang-Fan

    2015-01-01

    To study the role of adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) in mediating the anti-inflammatory effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on synovitis in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), C57BL/6 mice were divided into five treatment groups: Sham-control, CIA-control, CIA-EA, CIA-SCH58261 (A2AR antagonist), and CIA-EA-SCH58261. All mice except those in the Sham-control group were immunized with collagen II for arthritis induction. EA treatment was administered using the stomach 36 and spleen 6 points, and stimulated with a continuous rectangular wave for 30 min daily. EA treatment and SCH58261 were administered daily from days 35 to 49 (n = 10). After treatment, X-ray radiography of joint bone morphology was established at day 60 and mouse blood was collected for ELISA determination of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels. Mice were sacrificed and processed for histological examination of pathological changes of joint tissue, including hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry of A2AR expression. EA treatment resulted in significantly reduced pathological scores, TNF-α concentrations, and bone damage X-ray scores. Importantly, the anti-inflammatory and tissue-protective effect of EA treatment was reversed by coadministration of SCH58261. Thus, EA treatment exerts an anti-inflammatory effect resulting in significant protection of cartilage by activation of A2AR in the synovial tissue of CIA. PMID:25784951

  10. The stimulation of adenosine A2A receptors ameliorates the pathological phenotype of fibroblasts from Niemann-Pick type C patients.

    PubMed

    Visentin, Sergio; De Nuccio, Chiara; Bernardo, Antonietta; Pepponi, Rita; Ferrante, Antonella; Minghetti, Luisa; Popoli, Patrizia

    2013-09-25

    Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) disease is a rare neurovisceral disorder characterized by intracellular accumulation of unesterified cholesterol, sphingolipids, and other lipids in the lysosomal compartment. A deregulation of lysosomal calcium has been identified as one of the earliest steps of the degenerative process. Since adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) control lysosome trafficking and pH, which closely regulates lysosomal calcium, we hypothesized a role for these receptors in NPC1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the A2AR agonist CGS21680 on human control and NPC1 fibroblasts. We show that CGS21680 raises lysosomal calcium levels and rescues mitochondrial functionality (mitochondrial inner membrane potential and expression of the complex IV of the mitochondrial respiratory chain), which is compromised in NPC1 cells. These effects are prevented by the selective blockade of A2ARs by the antagonist ZM241385. The effects of A2AR activation on lysosomal calcium are not mediated by the cAMP/PKA pathway but they appear to involve the phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Finally, CGS21680 reduces cholesterol accumulation (Filipin III staining), which is the main criterion currently used for identification of a compound or pathway that would be beneficial for NPC disease, and such an effect is prevented by the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM. Our findings strongly support the hypothesis that A2AR agonists may represent a therapeutic option for NPC1 and provide insights on their mechanisms of action.

  11. Stimulation of adenosine A2A receptors reduces intracellular cholesterol accumulation and rescues mitochondrial abnormalities in human neural cell models of Niemann-Pick C1.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, A; De Nuccio, C; Pepponi, R; Visentin, S; Martire, A; Bernardo, A; Minghetti, L; Popoli, P

    2016-04-01

    Niemann Pick C 1 (NPC1) disease is an incurable, devastating lysosomal-lipid storage disorder characterized by hepatosplenomegaly, progressive neurological impairment and early death. Current treatments are very limited and the research of new therapeutic targets is thus mandatory. We recently showed that the stimulation of adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) rescues the abnormal phenotype of fibroblasts from NPC1 patients suggesting that A2AR agonists could represent a therapeutic option for this disease. However, since all NPC1 patients develop severe neurological symptoms which can be ascribed to the complex pathology occurring in both neurons and oligodendrocytes, in the present paper we tested the effects of the A2AR agonist CGS21680 in human neuronal and oligodendroglial NPC1 cell lines (i.e. neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y and oligodendroglial MO3.13 transiently transfected with NPC1 small interfering RNA). The down-regulation of the NPC1 protein effectively resulted in intracellular cholesterol accumulation and altered mitochondrial membrane potential. Both effects were significantly attenuated by CGS21680 (500 nM). The protective effects of CGS were prevented by the selective A2AR antagonist ZM241385 (500 nM). The involvement of calcium modulation was demonstrated by the ability of Bapta-AM (5-7 μM) in reverting the effect of CGS. The A2A-dependent activity was prevented by the PKA-inhibitor KT5720, thus showing the involvement of the cAMP/PKA signaling. These findings provide a clear in vitro proof of concept that A2AR agonists are promising potential drugs for NPC disease.

  12. Molecular Determinants of CGS21680 Binding to the Human Adenosine A2A Receptor.

    PubMed

    Lebon, Guillaume; Edwards, Patricia C; Leslie, Andrew G W; Tate, Christopher G

    2015-06-01

    The adenosine A2A receptor (A(2A)R) plays a key role in transmembrane signaling mediated by the endogenous agonist adenosine. Here, we describe the crystal structure of human A2AR thermostabilized in an active-like conformation bound to the selective agonist 2-[p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenylethyl-amino]-5'-N-ethylcarboxamido adenosine (CGS21680) at a resolution of 2.6 Å. Comparison of A(2A)R structures bound to either CGS21680, 5'-N-ethylcarboxamido adenosine (NECA), UK432097 [6-(2,2-diphenylethylamino)-9-[(2R,3R,4S,5S)-5-(ethylcarbamoyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-tetrahydrofuran-2-yl]-N-[2-[[1-(2-pyridyl)-4-piperidyl]carbamoylamino]ethyl]purine-2-carboxamide], or adenosine shows that the adenosine moiety of the ligands binds to the receptor in an identical fashion. However, an extension in CGS21680 compared with adenosine, the (2-carboxyethyl)phenylethylamino group, binds in an extended vestibule formed from transmembrane regions 2 and 7 (TM2 and TM7) and extracellular loops 2 and 3 (EL2 and EL3). The (2-carboxyethyl)phenylethylamino group makes van der Waals contacts with side chains of amino acid residues Glu169(EL2), His264(EL3), Leu267(7.32), and Ile274(7.39), and the amine group forms a hydrogen bond with the side chain of Ser67(2.65). Of these residues, only Ile274(7.39) is absolutely conserved across the human adenosine receptor subfamily. The major difference between the structures of A(2A)R bound to either adenosine or CGS21680 is that the binding pocket narrows at the extracellular surface when CGS21680 is bound, due to an inward tilt of TM2 in that region. This conformation is stabilized by hydrogen bonds formed by the side chain of Ser67(2.65) to CGS21680, either directly or via an ordered water molecule. Mutation of amino acid residues Ser67(2.65), Glu169(EL2), and His264(EL3), and analysis of receptor activation either in the presence or absence of ligands implicates this region in modulating the level of basal activity of A(2A)R.

  13. Agonist Derived Molecular Probes for A2A Adenosine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Pannell, Lewis K.; Ji, Xiao-duo; Jarvis, Michael F.; Williams, Michael; Hutchison, Alan J.; Barrington, William W.; Stiles, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    The adenosine agonist 2-(4-(2-carboxyethyl)phenylethylamino)-5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS21680) was recently reported to be selective for the A2A adenosine receptor subtype, which mediates its hypotensive action. To investigate structurelactivity relationships at a distal site, CGS21680 was derivatized using a functionalized congener approach. The carboxylic group of CGS21680 has been esterified to form a methyl ester, which was then treated with ethylenediamine to produce an amine congener. The amine congener was an intermediate for acylation reactions, in which the reactive acyl species contained a reported group, or the precursor for such. For radioiodination, derivatives of p-hydroxyphenylpropionic, 2-thiophenylacetic, and p-aminophenylacetic acids were prepared. The latter derivative (PAPA-APEC) was iodinated electrophilically using [125I]iodide resulting in a radioligand which was used for studies of competition of binding to striatal A, adenosine receptors in bovine brain. A biotin conjugate and an aryl sulfonate were at least 350-fold selective for A, receptors. For spectroscopic detection, a derivative of the stable free radical tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO) was prepared. For irreversible inhibition of receptors, meta- and para-phenylenediisothiocyanate groups were incorporated in the analogs. We have demonstrated that binding at A2A receptors is relatively insensitive to distal structural changes at the 2-position, and we report high affinity molecular probes for receptor characterization by radioactive, spectroscopic and affinity labelling methodology. PMID:2561548

  14. Effect of Caffeine Chronically Consumed During Pregnancy on Adenosine A1 and A2A Receptors Signaling in Both Maternal and Fetal Heart from Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Inmaculada; Albasanz, Jose Luis; Martín, Mairena

    2014-12-01

    Background: Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive substance in the world, even during pregnancy. Its stimulatory effects are mainly due to antagonism of adenosine actions by blocking adenosine A1 and A2A receptors. Previous studies have shown that caffeine can cross the placenta and therefore modulate these receptors not only in the fetal brain but also in the heart. Methods: In the present work, the effect of caffeine chronically consumed during pregnancy on A1 and A2A receptors in Wistar rat heart, from both mothers and their fetuses, were studied using radioligand binding, Western-blotting, and adenylyl cyclase activity assays, as well as reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results: Caffeine did not significantly alter A1R neither at protein nor at gene expression level in both the maternal and fetal heart. On the contrary, A2AR significantly decreased in the maternal heart, although mRNA was not affected. Gi and Gs proteins were also preserved. Finally, A1R-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity did not change in the maternal heart, but A2AR mediated stimulation of this enzymatic activity significantly decreased according to the detected loss of this receptor. Conclusions: Opposite to the downregulation and desensitization of the A1R/AC pathway previously reported in the brain, these results show that this pathway is not affected in rat heart after caffeine exposure during pregnancy. In addition, A2AR is downregulated and desensitized in the maternal heart, suggesting a differential modulation of these receptor-mediated pathways by caffeine.

  15. Effect of Caffeine Chronically Consumed During Pregnancy on Adenosine A1 and A2A Receptors Signaling in Both Maternal and Fetal Heart from Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias, Inmaculada; Albasanz, Jose Luis

    2014-01-01

    Background: Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive substance in the world, even during pregnancy. Its stimulatory effects are mainly due to antagonism of adenosine actions by blocking adenosine A1 and A2A receptors. Previous studies have shown that caffeine can cross the placenta and therefore modulate these receptors not only in the fetal brain but also in the heart. Methods: In the present work, the effect of caffeine chronically consumed during pregnancy on A1 and A2A receptors in Wistar rat heart, from both mothers and their fetuses, were studied using radioligand binding, Western-blotting, and adenylyl cyclase activity assays, as well as reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results: Caffeine did not significantly alter A1R neither at protein nor at gene expression level in both the maternal and fetal heart. On the contrary, A2AR significantly decreased in the maternal heart, although mRNA was not affected. Gi and Gs proteins were also preserved. Finally, A1R-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity did not change in the maternal heart, but A2AR mediated stimulation of this enzymatic activity significantly decreased according to the detected loss of this receptor. Conclusions: Opposite to the downregulation and desensitization of the A1R/AC pathway previously reported in the brain, these results show that this pathway is not affected in rat heart after caffeine exposure during pregnancy. In addition, A2AR is downregulated and desensitized in the maternal heart, suggesting a differential modulation of these receptor-mediated pathways by caffeine. PMID:25538864

  16. Caffeine promotes anti-tumor immune response during tumor initiation: Involvement of the adenosine A2A receptor.

    PubMed

    Eini, Hadar; Frishman, Valeria; Yulzari, Robert; Kachko, Leonid; Lewis, Eli C; Chaimovitz, Cidio; Douvdevani, Amos

    2015-11-01

    Epidemiologic studies depict a negative correlation between caffeine consumption and incidence of tumors in humans. The main pharmacological effects of caffeine are mediated by antagonism of the adenosine receptor, A2AR. Here, we examine whether the targeting of A2AR by caffeine plays a role in anti-tumor immunity. In particular, the effects of caffeine are studied in wild-type and A2AR knockout (A2AR(-/-)) mice. Tumor induction was achieved using the carcinogen 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MCA). Alternatively, tumor cells, comprised of 3-MCA-induced transformed cells or B16 melanoma cells, were inoculated into animal footpads. Cytokine release was determined in a mixed lymphocyte tumor reaction (MLTR). According to our findings, caffeine-consuming mice (0.1% in water) developed tumors at a lower rate compared to water-consuming mice (14% vs. 53%, respectively, p=0.0286, n=15/group). Within the caffeine-consuming mice, tumor-free mice displayed signs of autoimmune alopecia and pronounced leukocyte recruitment intocarcinogen injection sites. Similarly, A2AR(-/-) mice exhibited reduced rates of 3-MCA-induced tumors. In tumor inoculation studies, caffeine treatment resulted in inhibition of tumor growth and elevation in proinflammatory cytokine release over water-consuming mice, as depicted by MLTR. Addition of the adenosine receptor agonist, NECA, to MLTR resulted in a sharp decrease in IFNγ levels; this was reversed by the highly selective A2AR antagonist, ZM241385. Thus, immune response modulation through either caffeine or genetic deletion of A2AR leads to a Th1 immune profile and suppression of carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis. Taken together, our data suggest that the use of pharmacologic A2AR antagonists may hold therapeutic potential in diminishing the rate of cancer development.

  17. Adenosine A2A receptors induced on iNKT and NK cells reduce pulmonary inflammation and injury in mice with sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Kori L.

    2010-01-01

    We showed previously that pulmonary function and arterial oxygen saturation in NY1DD mice with sickle cell disease (SCD) are improved by depletion of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells or blockade of their activation. Here we demonstrate that SCD causes a 9- and 6-fold induction of adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) mRNA in mouse pulmonary iNKT and natural killer (NK) cells, respectively. Treating SCD mice with the A2AR agonist ATL146e produced a dose-dependent reversal of pulmonary dysfunction with maximal efficacy at 10 ng/kg/minute that peaked within 3 days and persisted throughout 7 days of continuous infusion. Crossing NY1DD mice with Rag1−/− mice reduced pulmonary injury that was restored by adoptive transfer of 106 purified iNKT cells. Reconstituted injury was reversed by ATL146e unless the adoptively transferred iNKT cells were pretreated with the A2AR alkylating antagonist, FSPTP (5-amino-7-[2-(4-fluorosulfonyl)phenylethyl]-2-(2-furyl)-pryazolo[4,3-ϵ]-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidine), which completely prevented pro-tection. In NY1DD mice exposed to hypoxia-reoxygenation, treatment with ATL146e at the start of reoxygenation prevented further lung injury. Together, these data indicate that activation of induced A2ARs on iNKT and NK cells in SCD mice is sufficient to improve baseline pulmonary function and prevent hypoxia-reoxygenation–induced exacerbation of pulmonary injury. A2A agonists have promise for treating diseases associated with iNKT or NK cell activation. PMID:20798237

  18. Activation of adenosine A2A receptor signaling regulates the expression of cytokines associated with immunologic dysfunction in BTBR T(+) Itpr3(tf)/J mice.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Mushtaq A; Attia, Sabry M; Nadeem, Ahmed; Bakheet, Saleh A; Raish, Mohammad; Khan, Tajdar H; Al-Shabanah, Othman A; Ahmad, Sheikh F

    2017-07-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by stereotypical repetitive behavior, impaired social interaction, and deficits in communication. The BTBR T(+) Itpr3(tf)/J (BTBR) mice have been extensively used as an animal model of the ASD-like phenotype. Adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) are considered potential targets in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we used the A2AR antagonist SCH 5826 (SCH) and the A2AR agonist CGS 21680 (CGS) to investigate the activation of A2AR signaling in immune cells. Further, we examined the effects of A2ARs on the expression of the cytokines interleukin 2 (IL-2), IL-6, IL-9, interferon gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) in the spleen and in splenic CD4(+) T cells. In addition, we assessed the mRNA and protein expression levels of these cytokines in the brain tissue. Our results showed that the levels of IL-2(+), IL-6(+), IL-9(+), IFN-γ(+), and TNF-α(+) were significantly lower, whereas the levels of TGF-β(+) in the spleen and in splenic CD4(+) T cells were significantly higher in the CGS-treated mice than in the BTBR control and SCH-treated mice. In addition, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis showed a decrease in the mRNA and protein expression levels of IL-2, IL-6, IL-9, IFN-γ(+), and TNF-α(+) and an increase in the mRNA and protein expression levels of TGF-β in the CGS-treated mice, while treatment with BTBR alone and SCH resulted in increased Th1 levels and decreased Th2 levels in the brain tissue. Our results suggest that treatment the A2AR agonist CGS may be a promising therapeutic option for neuroimmune dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Adenosine A2A Receptor Gene Knockout Prevents l-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine-Induced Dyskinesia by Downregulation of Striatal GAD67 in 6-OHDA-Lesioned Parkinson’s Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Su-bing; Zhang, Xiao-guang; Chen, Shuang; Yang, Wen-ting; Zheng, Xia-wei; Zheng, Guo-qing

    2017-01-01

    l-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) remains the primary pharmacological agent for the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the development of l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) limits the long-term use of l-DOPA for PD patients. Some data have reported that adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) antagonists prevented LID in animal model of PD. However, the mechanism in which adenosine A2AR blockade alleviates the symptoms of LID has not been fully clarified. Here, we determined to knock out (KO) the gene of A2AR and explored the possible underlying mechanisms implicated in development of LID in a mouse model of PD. A2AR gene KO mice were unilaterally injected into the striatum with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in order to damage dopamine neurons on one side of the brain. 6-OHDA-lesioned mice were then injected once daily for 21 days with l-DOPA. Abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) were evaluated on days 3, 8, 13, and 18 after l-DOPA administration, and real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry for glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 65 and GAD67 were performed. We found that A2AR gene KO was effective in reducing AIM scores and accompanied with decrease of striatal GAD67, rather than GAD65. These results demonstrated that the possible mechanism involved in alleviation of AIM symptoms by A2AR gene KO might be through reducing the expression of striatal GAD67. PMID:28377741

  20. Sesamin protects against renal ischemia reperfusion injury by promoting CD39-adenosine-A2AR signal pathway in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Gong, Xia; Kuang, Ge; Jiang, Rong; Wan, Jingyuan; Wang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is a leading cause of acute kidney injury with high morbidity and mortality due to limited therapy. Here, we examine whether sesamin attenuates renal IRI in an animal model and explore the underlying mechanisms. Male mice were subjected to right renal ischemia for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h with sesamin (100 mg/kg) during which the left kidney was removed. Renal damage and function were assessed subsequently. The results showed that sesamin reduced kidney ischemia reperfusion injury, as assessed by decreased serum creatinine (Scr) and Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), alleviated tubular damage and apoptosis. In addition, sesamin inhibited neutrophils infiltration and pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β production in IR-preformed kidney. Notably, sesamin promoted the expression of CD39, A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR), and A2BAR mRNA and protein as well as adenosine production. Furthermore, CD39 inhibitor or A2AR antagonist abolished partly the protection of sesamin in kidney IRI. In conclusion, sesamin could effectively protect kidney from IRI by inhibiting inflammatory responses, which might be associated with promoting the adenosine-CD39-A2AR signaling pathway.

  1. Sesamin protects against renal ischemia reperfusion injury by promoting CD39-adenosine-A2AR signal pathway in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ke; Gong, Xia; Kuang, Ge; Jiang, Rong; Wan, Jingyuan; Wang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is a leading cause of acute kidney injury with high morbidity and mortality due to limited therapy. Here, we examine whether sesamin attenuates renal IRI in an animal model and explore the underlying mechanisms. Male mice were subjected to right renal ischemia for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h with sesamin (100 mg/kg) during which the left kidney was removed. Renal damage and function were assessed subsequently. The results showed that sesamin reduced kidney ischemia reperfusion injury, as assessed by decreased serum creatinine (Scr) and Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), alleviated tubular damage and apoptosis. In addition, sesamin inhibited neutrophils infiltration and pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β production in IR-preformed kidney. Notably, sesamin promoted the expression of CD39, A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR), and A2BAR mRNA and protein as well as adenosine production. Furthermore, CD39 inhibitor or A2AR antagonist abolished partly the protection of sesamin in kidney IRI. In conclusion, sesamin could effectively protect kidney from IRI by inhibiting inflammatory responses, which might be associated with promoting the adenosine-CD39-A2AR signaling pathway. PMID:27347331

  2. Initial Evaluation of a Novel Adenosine A2A Receptor Ligand, (11)C-Preladenant, in Healthy Human Subjects.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Muneyuki; Ishibashi, Kenji; Imai, Masamichi; Wagatsuma, Kei; Ishii, Kenji; Zhou, Xiaoyun; de Vries, Erik F; Elsinga, Philip H; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Toyohara, Jun

    2017-03-09

    (11)C-Preladenant is a novel selective antagonist for mapping of cerebral adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) by positron emission tomography (PET). This is a first-in-human study to examine the safety, radiation dosimetry, and brain imaging of (11)C-preladenant in healthy human subjects. Methods: Dynamic (11)C-preladenant PET scans (90 min) were performed in 5 healthy male subjects. During the scan, arterial blood was sampled at various time intervals, and the fraction of the parent compound in plasma was determined. For anatomic coregistration, T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed. The total distribution volume (VT) was estimated using one- and two-tissue compartment models (1T and 2T, respectively). Distribution volume ratio (DVR) was calculated from VT of target and reference region, and obtained with a non-invasive Logan graphical reference tissue method (LGRM) (t* = 30 min). The applicability of a shortened protocol as an alternative to the 90 min PET scan was investigated. Tracer biodistribution and dosimetry were determined in 3 healthy male subjects, using serial whole-body PET scan acquired over 2 h post (11)C-preladenant injection. Results: There were no serious adverse events in any of the subjects throughout the study period. (11)C-Preladenat readily entered the brain, with a peak uptake in the putamen and head of the caudate nucleus 30-40 min after tracer injection. Other brain regions showed rapid clearance of radioactivity. The regional distribution of (11)C-preladenant was consistent with known A2AR densities in the brain. At pseudoequilibrium (reached at 40 min after injection), stable target-to-cerebellar cortex ratios of around 3.8-10.0 were obtained. The 2T fit better than the 1T in the low-density A2AR regions. In contrast, there were no significant differences between 1T and 2T in the high A2AR density regions. DVRs in putamen and head of the caudate nucleus were around 3.8-10.3 when estimated using a LGRM with cerebellum as the

  3. Presymptomatic and symptomatic ALS SOD1(G93A) mice differ in adenosine A1 and A2A receptor-mediated tonic modulation of neuromuscular transmission.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Filipe; Sebastião, Ana M; Ribeiro, Joaquim A

    2015-12-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disease leading to neuromuscular transmission impairment. A2A adenosine receptor (A2AR) function changes with disease stage, but the role of the A(1) receptors (A1Rs) is unknown and may have a functional cross-talk with A2AR. The role of A1R in the SOD1(G93A) mouse model of ALS in presymptomatic (4-6 weeks old) and symptomatic (12-14 weeks old) phases was investigated by recording endplate potentials (EPPs), miniature endplate potentials (MEPPs), and quantal content (q.c.) of EPPs, from Mg(2+) paralyzed hemidiaphragm preparations. In presymptomatic mice, the A1R agonist, N (6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) (50 nM), decreased mean EPP amplitude, MEPP frequency, and q.c. of EPPs, an effect quantitatively similar to that in age-matched wild-type (WT) mice. However, coactivation of A2AR with CGS 21680 (5 nM) prevented the effects of CPA in WT mice but not in presymptomatic SOD1(G93A) mice, suggestive of A1R/A2AR cross-talk disruption in this phase of ALS. DPCPX (50 nM) impaired CGS 21680 facilitatory action on neuromuscular transmission in WT but not in presymptomatic mice. In symptomatic animals, CPA only inhibited transmission if added in the presence of adenosine deaminase (ADA, 1 U/mL). ADA and DPCPX enhanced more transmission in symptomatic mice than in age-matched WT mice, suggestive of increase in extracellular adenosine during the symptomatic phase of ALS. The data documents that at the neuromuscular junction of presymptomatic SOD1(G93A) mice, there is a loss of A1R-A2AR functional cross-talk, while in symptomatic mice there is increased A1R tonic activation, and that with disease progression, changes in A1R-mediated adenosine modulation may act as aggravating factors during the symptomatic phase of ALS.

  4. Dopamine D2 receptor dysfunction is rescued by adenosine A2A receptor antagonism in a model of DYT1 dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Napolitano, Francesco; Pasqualetti, Massimo; Usiello, Alessandro; Santini, Emanuela; Pacini, Giulia; Sciamanna, Giuseppe; Errico, Francesco; Tassone, Annalisa; Di Dato, Valeria; Martella, Giuseppina; Cuomo, Dario; Fisone, Gilberto; Bernardi, Giorgio; Mandolesi, Georgia; Mercuri, Nicola B.; Standaert, David G.; Pisani, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    DYT1 dystonia is an inherited disease linked to mutation in the TOR1A gene encoding for the protein torsinA. Although the mechanism by which this genetic alteration leads to dystonia is unclear, multiple lines of clinical evidence suggest a link between dystonia and a reduced dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) availability. Based on this evidence, herein we carried out a comprehensive analysis of electrophysiological, behavioral and signaling correlates of D2R transmission in transgenic mice with the DYT1 dystonia mutation. Electrophysiological recordings from nigral dopaminergic neurons showed a normal responsiveness to D2-autoreceptor function. Conversely, postsynaptic D2R function in hMT mice was impaired, as suggested by the inability of a D2R agonist to re-establish normal corticostriatal synaptic plasticity and supported by the reduced sensitivity to haloperidol-induced catalepsy. Although an in situ hybridization analysis showed normal D1R and D2R mRNA expression levels in the striata of hMT mice, we found a significant decrease of D2R protein, coupled to a reduced ability of D2Rs to activate their cognate Go/i proteins. Of relevance, we found that pharmacological blockade of adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) fully restored the impairment of synaptic plasticity observed in hMT mice. Together, our findings demonstrate an important link between torsinA mutation and D2R dysfunction and suggest that A2AR antagonism is able to counteract the deficit in D2R-mediated transmission observed in mutant mice, opening new perspectives for the treatment of this movement disorder. PMID:20227500

  5. Striatal adenosine-cannabinoid receptor interactions in rats over-expressing adenosine A2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Chiodi, Valentina; Ferrante, Antonella; Ferraro, Luca; Potenza, Rosa Luisa; Armida, Monica; Beggiato, Sarah; Pèzzola, Antonella; Bader, Michael; Fuxe, Kjell; Popoli, Patrizia; Domenici, Maria Rosaria

    2016-03-01

    Adenosine A2A receptors (A2 A Rs) and cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1 Rs) are highly expressed in the striatum, where they functionally interact and form A2A /CB1 heteroreceptor complexes. We investigated the effects of CB1 R stimulation in a transgenic rat strain over-expressing A2 A Rs under the control of the neural-specific enolase promoter (NSEA2A rats) and in age-matched wild-type (WT) animals. The effects of the CB1 R agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN) were significantly lower in NSEA2A rats than in WT animals, as demonstrated by i) electrophysiological recordings of synaptic transmission in corticostriatal slices; ii) the measurement of glutamate outflow from striatal synaptosomes and iii) in vivo experiments on locomotor activity. Moreover, while the effects of WIN were modulated by both A2 A R agonist (CGS 21680) and antagonists (ZM 241385, KW-6002 and SCH-442416) in WT animals, the A2 A R antagonists failed to influence WIN-mediated effects in NSEA2A rats. The present results demonstrate that in rats with genetic neuronal over-expression of A2 A Rs, the effects mediated by CB1 R activation in the striatum are significantly reduced, suggesting a change in the stoichiometry of A2A and CB1 receptors and providing a strategy to dissect the involvement of A2 A R forming or not forming heteromers in the modulation of striatal functions. These findings add additional evidence for the existence of an interaction between striatal A2 A Rs and CB1 Rs, playing a fundamental role in the regulation of striatal functions. We studied A2A -CB1 receptor interaction in transgenic rats over-expressing adenosine A2A receptors under the control of the neuron-specific enolase promoter (NSEA2A ). In these rats, we demonstrated a reduced effect of the CB1 receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 in the modulation of corticostriatal synaptic transmission and locomotor activity, while CB1 receptor expression level did not change with respect to WT rats. A reduction in the expression of A2A -CB1

  6. Treatment with A2A receptor antagonist KW6002 and caffeine intake regulate microglia reactivity and protect retina against transient ischemic damage.

    PubMed

    Boia, Raquel; Elvas, Filipe; Madeira, Maria H; Aires, Inês D; Rodrigues-Neves, Ana C; Tralhão, Pedro; Szabó, Eszter C; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E; Tomé, Ângelo R; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Ambrósio, António F; Santiago, Ana R

    2017-10-05

    Transient retinal ischemia is a major complication of retinal degenerative diseases and contributes to visual impairment and blindness. Evidences indicate that microglia-mediated neuroinflammation has a key role in the neurodegenerative process, prompting the hypothesis that the control of microglia reactivity may afford neuroprotection to the retina against the damage induced by ischemia-reperfusion (I-R). The available therapeutic strategies for retinal degenerative diseases have limited potential, but the blockade of adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) emerges as candidate strategy. Therefore, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of a selective A2AR antagonist (KW6002) against the damage elicited by I-R. The administration of KW6002 after I-R injury reduced microglia reactivity and inflammatory response and afforded protection to the retina. Moreover, we tested the ability of caffeine, an adenosine receptor antagonist, in mediating protection to the retina in the I-R injury model. We demonstrated that caffeine administration dually regulated microglia reactivity and cell death in the transient retinal ischemic model, depending on the reperfusion time. At 24 h of reperfusion, caffeine increased microglial reactivity, inflammatory response and cell death elicited by I-R. However, at 7 days of reperfusion, caffeine administration decreased microglia reactivity and reduced the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and cell death. Together, these results provide a novel evidence for the use of adenosine A2AR antagonists as potential therapy for retinal ischemic diseases and demonstrate the effect of caffeine on the regulation of microglia-mediated neuroinflammation in the transient ischemic model.

  7. Understanding the Functional Plasticity in Neural Networks of the Basal Ganglia in Cocaine Use Disorder: A Role for Allosteric Receptor-Receptor Interactions in A2A-D2 Heteroreceptor Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O.; Wydra, Karolina; Pintsuk, Julia; Narvaez, Manuel; Corrales, Fidel; Zaniewska, Magdalena; Agnati, Luigi F.; Franco, Rafael; Tanganelli, Sergio; Filip, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Our hypothesis is that allosteric receptor-receptor interactions in homo- and heteroreceptor complexes may form the molecular basis of learning and memory. This principle is illustrated by showing how cocaine abuse can alter the adenosine A2AR-dopamine D2R heterocomplexes and their receptor-receptor interactions and hereby induce neural plasticity in the basal ganglia. Studies with A2AR ligands using cocaine self-administration procedures indicate that antagonistic allosteric A2AR-D2R heterocomplexes of the ventral striatopallidal GABA antireward pathway play a significant role in reducing cocaine induced reward, motivation, and cocaine seeking. Anticocaine actions of A2AR agonists can also be produced at A2AR homocomplexes in these antireward neurons, actions in which are independent of D2R signaling. At the A2AR-D2R heterocomplex, they are dependent on the strength of the antagonistic allosteric A2AR-D2R interaction and the number of A2AR-D2R and A2AR-D2R-sigma1R heterocomplexes present in the ventral striatopallidal GABA neurons. It involves a differential cocaine-induced increase in sigma1Rs in the ventral versus the dorsal striatum. In contrast, the allosteric brake on the D2R protomer signaling in the A2AR-D2R heterocomplex of the dorsal striatopallidal GABA neurons is lost upon cocaine self-administration. This is potentially due to differences in composition and allosteric plasticity of these complexes versus those in the ventral striatopallidal neurons. PMID:27872762

  8. Adenosine A2A receptor modulates neuroimmune function through Th17/retinoid-related orphan receptor gamma t (RORγt) signaling in a BTBR T(+) Itpr3(tf)/J mouse model of autism.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Mushtaq A; Nadeem, Ahmed; Attia, Sabry M; Bakheet, Saleh A; Raish, Mohammad; Ahmad, Sheikh F

    2017-08-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by abnormal social interactions, repetitive behaviors that impair social communication, and circumscribed interests. BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) inbred mice are generally used as a model for ASD, as they show repetitive behaviors and social deficits that resemble signs of ADS in humans. Adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) are considered as potential targets in the treatment of immune, inflammatory, and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of the A2A adenosine receptor (A2AR) antagonist SCH 5826 (SCH) and agonist CGS 21680 (CGS) on behavior (self-grooming), hot plate test results, and expression levels of IL-17A(+), RORγt(+), Foxp3(+), and IL-10(+) in CD4(+) T spleen cells in BTBR and C57BL/6 (B6) mice. We also assessed IL-17A, RORγt, Stat3, pStat3, Foxp3, and IL-10 mRNA and protein expression levels in the brain tissue. The CGS-treated mice showed a significantly altered self-grooming score and a reduced response to the hot plate test. The results further revealed that the SCH efficiently increased the IL-17A(+) and RORγt(+) expression levels and decreased the Foxp3(+) and IL-10(+) expression levels in CD4(+) cells. However, the treatment with CGS significantly reversed these effects. In addition, CGS significantly decreased the IL-17A, RORγt, Stat3, and pStat3 levels and increased the Foxp3 and IL-10 mRNA and protein expression levels as compared with the BTBR control and SCH treatments. Our results clearly indicate that the CGS A2AR agonist may represent a unique target for future therapeutic strategies for neuroimmune dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Remodeling of striatal NMDA receptors by chronic A(2A) receptor blockade in Huntington's disease mice.

    PubMed

    Martire, Alberto; Ferrante, Antonella; Potenza, Rosa Luisa; Armida, Monica; Ferretti, Roberta; Pézzola, Antonella; Domenici, Maria Rosaria; Popoli, Patrizia

    2010-01-01

    Excitotoxicity plays a major role in the pathogenesis of Huntington disease (HD), a fatal neurodegenerative disorder. Adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A)Rs) modulate excitotoxicity and have been suggested to play a pathogenetic role in HD. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of A(2A)R blockade on the expression and functions of NMDA receptors in the striatum of HD mice (R6/2). We found that 3 weeks' treatment with SCH 58261 (0.01 mg/kg/day i.p. from the 8th week of age) modified NR1 and NR2A/NR2B expression in the striatum of R6/2 (Western blotting) while had no effect on NMDA-induced toxicity in corticostriatal slices (electrophysiological experiments). In conclusion, in vivo A(2A)R blockade induced a remodeling of NMDA receptors in the striatum of HD mice. Even though the functional relevance of the above effect remains to be fully elucidated, these results add further evidence to the modulatory role of A(2A)Rs in HD.

  10. Potential therapeutic interest of adenosine A2A receptors in psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Rodrigo A; Ferré, Sergi; Vaugeois, Jean-Marie; Chen, Jiang-Fan

    2008-01-01

    The interest on targeting adenosine A(2A) receptors in the realm of psychiatric diseases first arose based on their tight physical and functional interaction with dopamine D(2) receptors. However, the role of central A(2A) receptors is now viewed as much broader than just controlling D(2) receptor function. Thus, there is currently a major interest in the ability of A(2A) receptors to control synaptic plasticity at glutamatergic synapses. This is due to a combined ability of A(2A) receptors to facilitate the release of glutamate and the activation of NMDA receptors. Therefore, A(2A) receptors are now conceived as a normalizing device promoting adequate adaptive responses in neuronal circuits, a role similar to that fulfilled, in essence, by dopamine. This makes A(2A) receptors particularly attractive targets to manage psychiatric disorders since adenosine may act as go-between glutamate and dopamine, two of the key players in mood processing. Furthermore, A(2A) receptors also control glia function and brain metabolic adaptation, two other emerging mechanisms to understand abnormal processing of mood, and A(2A) receptors are important players in controlling the demise of neurodegeneration, considered an amplificatory loop in psychiatric disorders. Current data only provide an indirect confirmation of this putative role of A(2A) receptors, based on the effects of caffeine (an antagonist of both A(1) and A(2A) receptors) in psychiatric disorders. However, the introduction of A(2A) receptors antagonists in clinics as anti-parkinsonian agents is hoped to bolster our knowledge on the role of A(2A) receptors in mood disorders in the near future.

  11. Functional efficacy of adenosine A2A receptor agonists is positively correlated to their receptor residence time

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dong; Mulder-Krieger, Thea; IJzerman, Adriaan P; Heitman, Laura H

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The adenosine A2A receptor belongs to the superfamily of GPCRs and is a promising therapeutic target. Traditionally, the discovery of novel agents for the A2A receptor has been guided by their affinity for the receptor. This parameter is determined under equilibrium conditions, largely ignoring the kinetic aspects of the ligand-receptor interaction. The aim of this study was to assess the binding kinetics of A2A receptor agonists and explore a possible relationship with their functional efficacy. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We set up, validated and optimized a kinetic radioligand binding assay (a so-called competition association assay) at the A2A receptor from which the binding kinetics of unlabelled ligands were determined. Subsequently, functional efficacies of A2A receptor agonists were determined in two different assays: a novel label-free impedance-based assay and a more traditional cAMP determination. KEY RESULTS A simplified competition association assay yielded an accurate determination of the association and dissociation rates of unlabelled A2A receptor ligands at their receptor. A correlation was observed between the receptor residence time of A2A receptor agonists and their intrinsic efficacies in both functional assays. The affinity of A2A receptor agonists was not correlated to their functional efficacy. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS This study indicates that the molecular basis of different agonist efficacies at the A2A receptor lies within their different residence times at this receptor. PMID:22324512

  12. MC5r and A2Ar Deficiencies During Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis Identifies Distinct T cell Polarization Programs and a Biphasic Regulatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Darren J.; Preble, Janine; Lee, Stacey; Foster, C. Stephen; Taylor, Andrew W.

    2016-01-01

    Autoantigen-specific regulatory immunity emerges in the spleen of mice recovering from experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU), a murine model for human autoimmune uveoretinitis. This regulatory immunity provides induced tolerance to ocular autoantigen, and requires melanocortin 5 receptor (MC5r) expression on antigen presenting cells with adenosine 2 A receptor (A2Ar) expression on T cells. During EAU it is not well understood what roles MC5r and A2Ar have on promoting regulatory immunity. Cytokine profile analysis during EAU revealed MC5r and A2Ar each mediate distinct T cell responses, and are responsible for a functional regulatory immune response in the spleen. A2Ar stimulation at EAU onset did not augment this regulatory response, nor bypass the MC5r requirement to induce regulatory immunity. The importance of this pathway in human autoimmune uveitis was assayed. PBMC from uveitis patients were assayed for MC5r expression on monocytes and A2Ar on T cells, and comparison between uveitis patients and healthy controls had no significant difference. The importance for MC5r and A2Ar expression in EAU to promote the induction of protective regulatory immunity, and the expression of MC5r and A2Ar on human immune cells, suggests that it may be possible to utilize the melanocortin-adenosinergic pathways to induce protective immunity in uveitic patients. PMID:27886238

  13. MC5r and A2Ar Deficiencies During Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis Identifies Distinct T cell Polarization Programs and a Biphasic Regulatory Response.

    PubMed

    Lee, Darren J; Preble, Janine; Lee, Stacey; Foster, C Stephen; Taylor, Andrew W

    2016-11-25

    Autoantigen-specific regulatory immunity emerges in the spleen of mice recovering from experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU), a murine model for human autoimmune uveoretinitis. This regulatory immunity provides induced tolerance to ocular autoantigen, and requires melanocortin 5 receptor (MC5r) expression on antigen presenting cells with adenosine 2 A receptor (A2Ar) expression on T cells. During EAU it is not well understood what roles MC5r and A2Ar have on promoting regulatory immunity. Cytokine profile analysis during EAU revealed MC5r and A2Ar each mediate distinct T cell responses, and are responsible for a functional regulatory immune response in the spleen. A2Ar stimulation at EAU onset did not augment this regulatory response, nor bypass the MC5r requirement to induce regulatory immunity. The importance of this pathway in human autoimmune uveitis was assayed. PBMC from uveitis patients were assayed for MC5r expression on monocytes and A2Ar on T cells, and comparison between uveitis patients and healthy controls had no significant difference. The importance for MC5r and A2Ar expression in EAU to promote the induction of protective regulatory immunity, and the expression of MC5r and A2Ar on human immune cells, suggests that it may be possible to utilize the melanocortin-adenosinergic pathways to induce protective immunity in uveitic patients.

  14. Adenosine A2A receptor antagonism and neuroprotection: mechanisms, lights, and shadows.

    PubMed

    Popoli, Patrizia; Minghetti, Luisa; Tebano, Maria Teresa; Pintor, Annita; Domenici, Maria Rosaria; Massotti, Marino

    2004-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptor antagonists are regarded as potential neuroprotective drugs, although the mechanisms underlying their effects remain to be elucidated. In this review, quinolinic acid (QA)-induced striatal toxicity was used as a tool to investigate the mechanisms of the neuroprotective effects of A2A receptor antagonists. After having examined the effects of selective A2A receptor antagonists toward different mechanisms of QA toxicity, we conclude that (1) the effect elicited by A2A receptor blockade on QA-induced glutamate outflow may be one of the mechanisms of the neuroprotective activity of A2A receptor antagonists; (2) A2A receptor antagonists have a potentially worsening influence on QA-dependent NMDA receptor activation; and (3) the ability of A2A receptor antagonists to prevent QA-induced lipid peroxidation does not correlate with the neuroprotective effects. These results suggest that A2A receptor antagonists may have either potentially beneficial or detrimental influence in models of neurodegeneration that are mainly due to increased glutamate levels or enhanced sensitivity of NMDA receptors, respectively.

  15. Membrane cholesterol access into a G-protein-coupled receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guixà-González, Ramon; Albasanz, José L.; Rodriguez-Espigares, Ismael; Pastor, Manuel; Sanz, Ferran; Martí-Solano, Maria; Manna, Moutusi; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Hildebrand, Peter W.; Martín, Mairena; Selent, Jana

    2017-02-01

    Cholesterol is a key component of cell membranes with a proven modulatory role on the function and ligand-binding properties of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Crystal structures of prototypical GPCRs such as the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) have confirmed that cholesterol finds stable binding sites at the receptor surface suggesting an allosteric role of this lipid. Here we combine experimental and computational approaches to show that cholesterol can spontaneously enter the A2AR-binding pocket from the membrane milieu using the same portal gate previously suggested for opsin ligands. We confirm the presence of cholesterol inside the receptor by chemical modification of the A2AR interior in a biotinylation assay. Overall, we show that cholesterol's impact on A2AR-binding affinity goes beyond pure allosteric modulation and unveils a new interaction mode between cholesterol and the A2AR that could potentially apply to other GPCRs.

  16. Membrane cholesterol access into a G-protein-coupled receptor

    PubMed Central

    Guixà-González, Ramon; Albasanz, José L.; Rodriguez-Espigares, Ismael; Pastor, Manuel; Sanz, Ferran; Martí-Solano, Maria; Manna, Moutusi; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Hildebrand, Peter W.; Martín, Mairena; Selent, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Cholesterol is a key component of cell membranes with a proven modulatory role on the function and ligand-binding properties of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Crystal structures of prototypical GPCRs such as the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) have confirmed that cholesterol finds stable binding sites at the receptor surface suggesting an allosteric role of this lipid. Here we combine experimental and computational approaches to show that cholesterol can spontaneously enter the A2AR-binding pocket from the membrane milieu using the same portal gate previously suggested for opsin ligands. We confirm the presence of cholesterol inside the receptor by chemical modification of the A2AR interior in a biotinylation assay. Overall, we show that cholesterol's impact on A2AR-binding affinity goes beyond pure allosteric modulation and unveils a new interaction mode between cholesterol and the A2AR that could potentially apply to other GPCRs. PMID:28220900

  17. A2A-D2 receptor-receptor interaction modulates gliotransmitter release from striatal astrocyte processes.

    PubMed

    Cervetto, Chiara; Venturini, Arianna; Passalacqua, Mario; Guidolin, Diego; Genedani, Susanna; Fuxe, Kjell; Borroto-Esquela, Dasiel O; Cortelli, Pietro; Woods, Amina; Maura, Guido; Marcoli, Manuela; Agnati, Luigi F

    2017-01-01

    Evidence for striatal A2A-D2 heterodimers has led to a new perspective on molecular mechanisms involved in schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. Despite the increasing recognition of astrocytes' participation in neuropsychiatric disease vulnerability, involvement of striatal astrocytes in A2A and D2 receptor signal transmission has never been explored. Here, we investigated the presence of D2 and A2A receptors in isolated astrocyte processes prepared from adult rat striatum by confocal imaging; the effects of receptor activation were measured on the 4-aminopyridine-evoked release of glutamate from the processes. Confocal analysis showed that A2A and D2 receptors were co-expressed on the same astrocyte processes. Evidence for A2A-D2 receptor-receptor interactions was obtained by measuring the release of the gliotransmitter glutamate: D2 receptors inhibited the glutamate release, while activation of A2A receptors, per se ineffective, abolished the effect of D2 receptor activation. The synthetic D2 peptide VLRRRRKRVN corresponding to the receptor region involved in electrostatic interaction underlying A2A-D2 heteromerization abolished the ability of the A2A receptor to antagonize the D2 receptor-mediated effect. Together, the findings are consistent with heteromerization of native striatal astrocytic A2A-D2 receptors that via allosteric receptor-receptor interactions could play a role in the control of striatal glutamatergic transmission. These new findings suggest possible new pathogenic mechanisms and/or therapeutic approaches to neuropsychiatric disorders. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  18. Inosine, an Endogenous Purine Nucleoside, Suppresses Immune Responses and Protects Mice from Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis: a Role for A2A Adenosine Receptor.

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Stella Célio; Dos Santos Coelho, Igor; Lieberknecht, Vicente; Cunha, Mauricio Peña; Calixto, João B; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; Santos, Adair Roberto Soares; Dutra, Rafael Cypriano

    2016-04-30

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a T cell autoimmune, inflammatory, and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Currently available therapies have partially effective actions and numerous side reactions. Inosine, an endogenous purine nucleoside, has immunomodulatory, neuroprotective, and analgesic properties. Herein, we evaluated the effect of inosine on the development and progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an experimental model of MS. Inosine (1 or 10 mg/kg, i.p.) was administrated twice a day for 40 days. Immunological and inflammatory responses were evaluated by behavioral, histological, immunohistochemical, ELISA, RT-PCR, and Western blotting analysis. The administration of inosine exerted neuroprotective effects against EAE by diminishing clinical signs, including thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia, as well as weight loss typical of the disease. These beneficial effects of inosine seem to be associated with the blockade of inflammatory cell entry into the CNS, especially lymphocytes, thus delaying the demyelinating process and astrocytes activation. In particular, up-regulation of IL-17 levels in the secondary lymphoid tissues, a result of EAE, was prevented by inosine treatment in EAE mice. Additionally, inosine consistently prevented A2AR up-regulation in the spinal cord, likely, through an ERK1-independent pathway. Altogether, these results allow us to propose that this endogenous purine might be a putative novel and helpful tool for the prevention of autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases, such as MS. Thus, inosine could have considerable implications for future therapies of MS, and this study may represent the starting point for further investigation into the role of inosine and adenosinergic receptors in neuroinflammation processes. Graphical Abstract Preventive treatment with inosine inhibits the development and progression of EAE in C57Bl/6 mice. Furthermore, neuroinflammation and demyelinating processes

  19. Adenosine A2a receptors and O2 sensing in development

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Reduced mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, via activation of adenylate kinase and the resulting exponential rise in the cellular AMP/ATP ratio, appears to be a critical factor underlying O2 sensing in many chemoreceptive tissues in mammals. The elevated AMP/ATP ratio, in turn, activates key enzymes that are involved in physiologic adjustments that tend to balance ATP supply and demand. An example is the conversion of AMP to adenosine via 5′-nucleotidase and the resulting activation of adenosine A2A receptors, which are involved in acute oxygen sensing by both carotid bodies and the brain. In fetal sheep, A2A receptors associated with carotid bodies trigger hypoxic cardiovascular chemoreflexes, while central A2A receptors mediate hypoxic inhibition of breathing and rapid eye movements. A2A receptors are also involved in hypoxic regulation of fetal endocrine systems, metabolism, and vascular tone. In developing lambs, A2A receptors play virtually no role in O2 sensing by the carotid bodies, but brain A2A receptors remain critically involved in the roll-off ventilatory response to hypoxia. In adult mammals, A2A receptors have been implicated in O2 sensing by carotid glomus cells, while central A2A receptors likely blunt hypoxic hyperventilation. In conclusion, A2A receptors are crucially involved in the transduction mechanisms of O2 sensing in fetal carotid bodies and brains. Postnatally, central A2A receptors remain key mediators of hypoxic respiratory depression, but they are less critical for O2 sensing in carotid chemoreceptors, particularly in developing lambs. PMID:21677265

  20. Neuroprotection by adenosine A2A receptor blockade in experimental models of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Ken; Kurokawa, Masako; Aoyama, Shiro; Kuwana, Yoshihisa

    2002-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptors are abundant in the caudate-putamen and involved in the motor control in several species. In MPTP-treated monkeys, A2A receptor-blockade with an antagonist alleviates parkinsonian symptoms without provoking dyskinesia, suggesting this receptor may offer a new target for the antisymptomatic therapy of Parkinson's disease. In the present study, a significant neuroprotective effect of A2A receptor antagonists is shown in experimental models of Parkinson's disease. Oral administration of A2A receptor antagonists protected against the loss of nigral dopaminergic neuronal cells induced by 6-hydroxydopamine in rats. A2A antagonists also prevented the functional loss of dopaminergic nerve terminals in the striatum and the ensuing gliosis caused by MPTP in mice. The neuroprotective property of A2A receptor antagonists may be exerted by altering the packaging of these neurotoxins into vesicles, thus reducing their effective intracellular concentration. We therefore conclude that the adenosine A2A receptor may provide a novel target for the long-term medication of Parkinson's disease, because blockade of this receptor exerts both acutely antisymptomatic and chronically neuroprotective activities.

  1. Guanosine may increase absence epileptic activity by means of A2A adenosine receptors in Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk rats.

    PubMed

    Lakatos, Renáta Krisztina; Dobolyi, Árpád; Todorov, Mihail Ivilinov; Kékesi, Katalin A; Juhász, Gábor; Aleksza, Magdolna; Kovács, Zsolt

    2016-06-01

    The non-adenosine nucleoside guanosine (Guo) was demonstrated to decrease quinolinic acid(QA)-induced seizures, spontaneously emerged absence epileptic seizures and lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-evoked induction of absence epileptic seizures suggesting its antiepileptic potential. It was also described previously that intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 20 and 50mg/kg Guo decreased the number of spike-wave discharges (SWDs) in a well investigated model of human absence epilepsy, the Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats during 4th (20mg/kg Guo) and 3rd as well as 4th (50mg/kg Guo) measuring hours. Guanosine can potentially decrease SWD number by means of its putative receptors but absence epileptic activity changing effects of Guo by means of increased extracellular adenosine (Ado) cannot be excluded. An increase in the dose of i.p. injected Guo is limited by its low solubility in saline, therefore, we addressed in the present study whether higher doses of Guo, diluted in sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution, have more potent antiepileptic effect in WAG/Rij rats. We confirmed that i.p. 50mg/kg Guo decreased but, surprisingly, i.p. 100mg/kg Guo enhanced the number of SWDs in WAG/Rij rats. Combined i.p. injection of a non-selective Ado receptor antagonist theophylline (5mg/kg) or a selective Ado A2A receptor (A2AR) antagonist SCH 58261 (7-(2-phenylethyl)-5-amino-2-(2-furyl)-pyrazolo-[4,3-e]-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidine) (1mg/kg) and a cyclooxygenase 1 and 2/COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitor indomethacin (10mg/kg) with 100mg/kg Guo decreased the SWD number compared to i.p. 100mg/kg Guo alone. The results suggest that i.p. 100mg/kg Guo can increase SWD number by means of the adenosinergic system.

  2. A critical evaluation of adenosine A2A receptors as potentially "druggable" targets in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Popoli, Patrizia; Blum, David; Domenici, Maria Rosaria; Burnouf, Sylvie; Chern, Yijuang

    2008-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of a polymorphic CAG trinucleotide repeat encoding a poly-glutamine tract within the Huntingtin protein. GABAergic enkephalin neurons of the basal ganglia, which show the highest levels of expression of adenosine A(2A) receptors, are the most vulnerable in HD. Such a selective neuronal vulnerability, which occurs despite ubiquitous expression of mutant and normal Huntingtin, has suggested that adenosine A(2A) receptors might play a pathogenetic role in HD. In agreement, changes in A(2A) receptor expression and signaling have been reported in various experimental models of HD. The interpretation of the functional significance of the aberrant A(2A) receptor phenotype in HD mice is however complicated by the conflicting data so far reported on the potential neuroprotective and neurodegenerative effects of these receptors in the brain, with some data suggesting a potential pathogenetic role and some other data suggesting activation of trophic or protective pathways in neurons. The same complex profile has emerged in experimental models of HD, in which both A(2A) receptor agonists and antagonists have shown beneficial effects. The main aim of this review is to critically evaluate whether adenosine A(2A) receptors may represent a suitable target to develop drugs against HD.

  3. GABAergic involvement in motor effects of an adenosine A(2A) receptor agonist in mice.

    PubMed

    Khisti, R T; Chopde, C T; Abraham, E

    2000-04-03

    Adenosine A(2A) agonists are known to induce catalepsy and inhibit dopamine mediated motor hyperactivity. An antagonistic interaction between adenosine A(2A) and dopamine D(2) receptors is known to regulate GABA-mediated neurotransmission in striatopallidal neurons. Stimulation of adenosine A(2A) and dopamine D(2) receptors has been shown to increase and inhibit GABA release respectively in pallidal GABAergic neurons. However, the role of GABAergic neurotransmission in the motor effects of adenosine A(2A) receptors is not yet known. Therefore in the present study the effect of GABAergic agents on adenosine A(2A) receptor agonist (NECA- or CGS 21680) induced catalepsy and inhibition of amphetamine elicited motor hyperactivity was examined. Pretreatment with GABA, the GABA(A) agonist muscimol or the GABA(B) agonist baclofen potentiated whereas the GABA(A) antagonist bicuculline attenuated NECA- or CGS 21680-induced catalepsy. However, the GABA(B) antagonists phaclophen and delta-aminovaleric acid had no effect. Administration of NECA or CGS 21680 not only reduced spontaneous locomotor activity but also antagonized amphetamine elicited motor hyperactivity. These effects of NECA and CGS 21680 were potentiated by GABA or muscimol and antagonized by bicuculline. These findings provide behavioral evidence for the role of GABA in the motor effects of adenosine A(2A) receptor agonists. Activation of adenosine A(2A) receptors increases GABA release which could reduce dopaminergic tone and induce catalepsy or inhibit amphetamine mediated motor hyperactivity.

  4. The importance of the adenosine A(2A) receptor-dopamine D(2) receptor interaction in drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Filip, M; Zaniewska, M; Frankowska, M; Wydra, K; Fuxe, K

    2012-01-01

    Drug addiction is a serious brain disorder with somatic, psychological, psychiatric, socio-economic and legal implications in the developed world. Illegal (e.g., psychostimulants, opioids, cannabinoids) and legal (alcohol, nicotine) drugs of abuse create a complex behavioral pattern composed of drug intake, withdrawal, seeking and relapse. One of the hallmarks of drugs that are abused by humans is that they have different mechanisms of action to increase dopamine (DA) neurotransmission within the mesolimbic circuitry of the brain and indirectly activate DA receptors. Among the DA receptors, D(2) receptors are linked to drug abuse and addiction because their function has been proven to be correlated with drug reinforcement and relapses. The recognition that D(2) receptors exist not only as homomers but also can form heteromers, such as with the adenosine (A)(2A) receptor, that are pharmacologically and functionally distinct from their constituent receptors, has significantly expanded the range of potential drug targets and provided new avenues for drug design in the search for novel drug addiction therapies. The aim of this review is to bring current focus on A(2A) receptors, their physiology and pharmacology in the central nervous system, and to discuss the therapeutic relevance of these receptors to drug addiction. We concentrate on the contribution of A(2A) receptors to the effects of different classes of drugs of abuse examined in preclinical behavioral experiments carried out with pharmacological and genetic tools. The consequences of chronic drug treatment on A(2A) receptor-assigned functions in preclinical studies are also presented. Finally, the neurochemical mechanism of the interaction between A(2A) receptors and drugs of abuse in the context of the heteromeric A(2A)-D(2) receptor complex is discussed. Taken together, a significant amount of experimental analyses provide evidence that targeting A(2A) receptors may offer innovative translational strategies

  5. Effects of adenosine A2A receptor stimulation on cocaine-seeking behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Bachtell, Ryan K; Self, David W

    2009-10-01

    Dopamine (DA) receptor stimulation in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays an important role in regulating cocaine-seeking behavior. Adenosine receptors antagonize the effects of DA receptor stimulation on intracellular signaling, neuronal output, and behavior. The goal of the present study is to determine the effects of adenosine A(2A) receptor stimulation on reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior in rats. Rats were trained to lever press for cocaine in daily self-administration sessions on a fixed-ratio 1 schedule for 3 weeks. After 1 week of abstinence, lever pressing was extinguished in six daily extinction sessions. We subsequently assessed the effects of the adenosine A(2A) receptor agonist, CGS 21680, on cocaine-, quinpirole (D(2) agonist)-, and cue-induced reinstatement to cocaine seeking. We also assessed the effects of CGS 21680 on sucrose seeking in rats extinguished from sucrose self-administration. Pretreatment of CGS 21680 dose-dependently blunted cocaine-induced reinstatement (15 mg/kg, i.p.). Pretreatment with CGS 21680 (0.03 mg/kg, i.p.) also attenuated quinpirole- and cue-induced reinstatement. A minimally effective dose of CGS 21680 failed to alter cocaine-induced locomotor activity or sucrose seeking. Stimulation of adenosine A(2A) receptors antagonizes reinstatement of cocaine seeking elicited by cocaine, DA D(2)-receptor stimulation, and cocaine-conditioned cues. These findings suggest that adenosine A(2A) receptor stimulation may oppose DA D(2) receptor signaling in the NAc that mediates cocaine relapse.

  6. Adenosine A2A Receptors Modulate Acute Injury and Neuroinflammation in Brain Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Pedata, Felicita; Pugliese, Anna Maria; Coppi, Elisabetta; Dettori, Ilaria; Maraula, Giovanna; Cellai, Lucrezia; Melani, Alessia

    2014-01-01

    The extracellular concentration of adenosine in the brain increases dramatically during ischemia. Adenosine A2A receptor is expressed in neurons and glial cells and in inflammatory cells (lymphocytes and granulocytes). Recently, adenosine A2A receptor emerged as a potential therapeutic attractive target in ischemia. Ischemia is a multifactorial pathology characterized by different events evolving in the time. After ischemia the early massive increase of extracellular glutamate is followed by activation of resident immune cells, that is, microglia, and production or activation of inflammation mediators. Proinflammatory cytokines, which upregulate cell adhesion molecules, exert an important role in promoting recruitment of leukocytes that in turn promote expansion of the inflammatory response in ischemic tissue. Protracted neuroinflammation is now recognized as the predominant mechanism of secondary brain injury progression. A2A receptors present on central cells and on blood cells account for important effects depending on the time-related evolution of the pathological condition. Evidence suggests that A2A receptor antagonists provide early protection via centrally mediated control of excessive excitotoxicity, while A2A receptor agonists provide protracted protection by controlling massive blood cell infiltration in the hours and days after ischemia. Focus on inflammatory responses provides for adenosine A2A receptor agonists a wide therapeutic time-window of hours and even days after stroke. PMID:25165414

  7. Activation of Adenosine A2A Receptors Inhibits Neutrophil Transuroepithelial Migration ▿

    PubMed Central

    Säve, Susanne; Mohlin, Camilla; Vumma, Ravi; Persson, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    Adenosine has been identified as a significant inhibitor of inflammation by acting on adenosine A2A receptors. In this study, we examined the role of adenosine and A2A receptors in the transmigration of human neutrophils across an in vitro model of the transitional bladder urothelium. Human uroepithelial cells (UROtsa) were grown on transwell inserts; uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and neutrophils were added to the transwell system; and the number of migrating neutrophils was evaluated. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry were used to investigate the expression of adenosine receptors, the epithelial adhesion molecule ICAM-1, and the neutrophil integrin CD11b. Levels of proinflammatory interleukin-8 (IL-8) and phosphorylated IκBα were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and Luminex assays, respectively. The neutrophils expressed all four adenosine receptor subtypes (A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 receptors), but A3 receptors were not expressed by UROtsa cells. UPEC stimulated neutrophil transuroepithelial migration, which was significantly decreased in response to the specific A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680. The inhibitory effect of CGS 21680 on neutrophil migration was reversed by the A2A receptor antagonist SCH 58261. The production of chemotactic IL-8 and the expression of the adhesion molecule ICAM-1 or CD11b were not significantly affected by CGS 21680. However, a significant decrease in the level of phosporylated IκBα was revealed in response to CGS 21680. In conclusion, UPEC infection in vitro evoked neutrophil migration through a multilayered human uroepithelium. The UPEC-evoked neutrophil transmigration decreased in response to A2A receptor activation, possibly through inhibition of NF-κB signaling pathways. PMID:21646447

  8. Structure of an agonist-bound human A2A adenosine receptor.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fei; Wu, Huixian; Katritch, Vsevolod; Han, Gye Won; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Cherezov, Vadim; Stevens, Raymond C

    2011-04-15

    Activation of G protein-coupled receptors upon agonist binding is a critical step in the signaling cascade for this family of cell surface proteins. We report the crystal structure of the A(2A) adenosine receptor (A(2A)AR) bound to an agonist UK-432097 at 2.7 angstrom resolution. Relative to inactive, antagonist-bound A(2A)AR, the agonist-bound structure displays an outward tilt and rotation of the cytoplasmic half of helix VI, a movement of helix V, and an axial shift of helix III, resembling the changes associated with the active-state opsin structure. Additionally, a seesaw movement of helix VII and a shift of extracellular loop 3 are likely specific to A(2A)AR and its ligand. The results define the molecule UK-432097 as a "conformationally selective agonist" capable of receptor stabilization in a specific active-state configuration.

  9. Triggering neurotrophic factor actions through adenosine A2A receptor activation: implications for neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Sebastião, Ana M; Ribeiro, Joaquim A

    2009-01-01

    G protein coupled receptors and tropomyosin-related kinase (Trk) receptors have distinct structure and transducing mechanisms; therefore, cross-talk among them was unexpected. Evidence has, however, accumulated showing that tonic adenosine A2A receptor activity is a required step to allow synaptic actions of neurotrophic factors, namely upon synaptic transmission at both pre- and post-synaptic level as well as upon synaptic plasticity. An enhancement of A2A receptor tonus upon ageing may partially compensate the loss of TrkB receptors, rescuing to certain degree the facilitatory action of brain derived neurotrophic factor in aged animals, which might prove particularly relevant in the prevention of neurodegeneration upon ageing. A2A receptors also trigger synaptic actions of other neurotrophic factors, such as glial derived neurotrophic factor at dopaminergic striatal nerve endings. The growing evidence that tonic adenosine A2A receptor activity is a crucial step to allow actions of neurotrophic factors in neurones will be reviewed and discussed in the light of therapeutic strategies for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:19508402

  10. Involvement of adenosine A2A receptors in depression and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Koji; Kobayashi, Minoru; Kanda, Tomoyuki

    2014-01-01

    When administered to normal healthy patients, a nonselective adenosine A1/A2A antagonist, caffeine, tended to improve anxiety and depression at low doses and to exacerbate anxiety at high doses. Caffeine also appears to enhance anxiety-related symptoms in patients with panic disorder, and A2A receptor-deficient mice have been reported to exhibit higher anxiety-like behaviors, as well as a lower incidence of depression-like behaviors. Some selective A2A antagonists were reported to ameliorate anxiety-like behaviors in rodents, while others did not affect these behaviors. In addition, most A2A antagonists showed inhibitory effects on depression-like behaviors. The mechanisms underlying the relationship between A2A receptor antagonists and anxiety and depression remain unclear at the present time, although many studies have produced hypotheses. Given that a selective A2A receptor antagonist has recently become available for use in humans, research on the role of A2A receptors in the treatment of mental illness should progress in the near future. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Adenosine A2A receptors play a role in the pathogenesis of hepatic cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Edwin S L; Montesinos, Maria Carmen; Fernandez, Patricia; Desai, Avani; Delano, David L; Yee, Herman; Reiss, Allison B; Pillinger, Michael H; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Schwarzschild, Michael A; Friedman, Scott L; Cronstein, Bruce N

    2006-01-01

    Adenosine is a potent endogenous regulator of inflammation and tissue repair. Adenosine, which is released from injured and hypoxic tissue or in response to toxins and medications, may induce pulmonary fibrosis in mice, presumably via interaction with a specific adenosine receptor. We therefore determined whether adenosine and its receptors contribute to the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis. As in other tissues and cell types, adenosine is released in vitro in response to the fibrogenic stimuli ethanol (40 mg dl−1) and methotrexate (100 nM). Adenosine A2A receptors are expressed on rat and human hepatic stellate cell lines and adenosine A2A receptor occupancy promotes collagen production by these cells. Liver sections from mice treated with the hepatotoxins carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) (0.05 ml in oil, 50 : 50 v : v, subcutaneously) and thioacetamide (100 mg kg−1 in PBS, intraperitoneally) released more adenosine than those from untreated mice when cultured ex vivo. Adenosine A2A receptor-deficient, but not wild-type or A3 receptor-deficient, mice are protected from development of hepatic fibrosis following CCl4 or thioacetamide exposure. Similarly, caffeine (50 mg kg−1 day−1, po), a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist, and ZM241385 (25 mg kg−1 bid), a more selective antagonist of the adenosine A2A receptor, diminished hepatic fibrosis in wild-type mice exposed to either CCl4 or thioacetamide. These results demonstrate that hepatic adenosine A2A receptors play an active role in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis, and suggest a novel therapeutic target in the treatment and prevention of hepatic cirrhosis. PMID:16783407

  12. New chromene scaffolds for adenosine A(2A) receptors: synthesis, pharmacology and structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Areias, Filipe; Costa, Marta; Castro, Marián; Brea, José; Gregori-Puigjané, Elisabet; Proença, M Fernanda; Mestres, Jordi; Loza, María I

    2012-08-01

    In silico screening of a collection of 1584 academic compounds identified a small molecule hit for the human adenosine A(2A) receptor (pK(i) = 6.2) containing a novel chromene scaffold (3a). To explore the structure-activity relationships of this new chemical series for adenosine receptors, a focused library of 43 2H-chromene-3-carboxamide derivatives was synthesized and tested in radioligand binding assays at human adenosine A(1), A(2A), A(2B) and A(3) receptors. The series was found to be enriched with bioactive compounds for adenosine receptors, with 14 molecules showing submicromolar affinity (pK(i) ≥ 6.0) for at least one adenosine receptor subtype. These results provide evidence that the chromene scaffold, a core structure present in natural products from a wide variety of plants, vegetables, and fruits, constitutes a valuable source for novel therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Astrocytic adenosine receptor A2A and Gs-coupled signaling regulate memory

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Anna G.; Hsiao, Edward C.; Wang, Max M.; Ho, Kaitlyn; Kim, Daniel H.; Wang, Xin; Guo, Weikun; Kang, Jing; Yu, Gui-Qiu; Adame, Anthony; Devidze, Nino; Dubal, Dena B.; Masliah, Eliezer; Conklin, Bruce R.; Mucke, Lennart

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytes express a variety of G protein-coupled receptors and might influence cognitive functions, such as learning and memory. However, the roles of astrocytic Gs-coupled receptors in cognitive function are not known. We found that humans with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) had increased levels of the Gs-coupled adenosine receptor A2A in astrocytes. Conditional genetic removal of these receptors enhanced long-term memory in young and aging mice, and increased the levels of Arc/Arg3.1, an immediate-early gene required for long-term memory. Chemogenetic activation of astrocytic Gs-coupled signaling reduced long-term memory in mice without affecting learning. Similar to humans with AD, aging mice expressing human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) showed increased levels of astrocytic A2A receptors. Conditional genetic removal of these receptors enhanced memory in aging hAPP mice. Together, these findings establish a regulatory role for astrocytic Gs-coupled receptors in memory and suggest that AD-linked increases in astrocytic A2A receptor levels contribute to memory loss. PMID:25622143

  14. BDNF prevents NMDA-induced toxicity in models of Huntington's disease: the effects are genotype specific and adenosine A2A receptor is involved.

    PubMed

    Martire, Alberto; Pepponi, Rita; Domenici, Maria Rosaria; Ferrante, Antonella; Chiodi, Valentina; Popoli, Patrizia

    2013-04-01

    NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity is thought to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease (HD). The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is also highly involved in HD and whose effects are modulated by adenosine A2 ARs, influences the activity and expression of striatal NMDA receptors. In electrophysiology experiments, we investigated the role of BDNF toward NMDA-induced effects in HD models, and the possible involvement of A2ARs. In corticostriatal slices from wild-type mice and age-matched symptomatic R6/2 mice (a model of HD), NMDA application (75 μM) induced a transient or a permanent (i.e., toxic) reduction of field potential amplitude, respectively. BDNF (10 ng/mL) potentiated NMDA effects in wild-type, while it protected from NMDA toxicity in R6/2 mice. Both effects of BDNF were prevented by A2 AR blockade. The protective effect of BDNF against NMDA-induced toxicity was reproduced in a cellular model of HD. These findings may have very important implications for the neuroprotective potential of BDNF and A2 AR ligands in HD.

  15. The A2a adenosine receptor modulates the reinforcement efficacy and neurotoxicity of MDMA.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Medina, Jessica; Ledent, Catherine; Carretón, Olga; Valverde, Olga

    2011-04-01

    Adenosine is an endogenous purine nucleoside that plays a neuromodulatory role in the central nervous system. A2a adenosine receptors have been involved in reward-related processes, inflammatory phenomena and neurotoxicity reactions. In the present study, we investigated the role of A2a adenosine receptors on the acute pharmacological effects, reinforcement and neuroinflammation induced by MDMA administration. First, the acute effects of MDMA on body temperature, locomotor activity and anxiety-like responses were measured in A2a knockout mice and wild-type littermates. Second, MDMA reinforcing properties were evaluated using the intravenous self-administration paradigm. Finally, we assessed striatal astrogliosis and microgliosis as markers of MDMA neurotoxicity. Our results showed that acute MDMA produced a biphasic effect on body temperature and increased locomotor activity and anxiogenic-like responses in both genotypes. However, MDMA reinforcing properties were dramatically affected by the lack of A2a adenosine receptors. Thus, wild-type mice maintained MDMA self-administration under a fixed ratio 1 reinforcement schedule, whereas the operant response appeared completely abolished in A2a knockout mice. In addition, the MDMA neurotoxic regime produced an enhanced inflammatory response in striatum of wild-type mice, revealed by a significant increase in glial expression, whereas such activation was attenuated in mutant mice. This is the first report indicating that A2a adenosine receptors play a key role in reinforcement and neuroinflammation induced by the widely used psychostimulant.

  16. Dual blockade of the A1 and A2A adenosine receptor prevents amyloid beta toxicity in neuroblastoma cells exposed to aluminum chloride.

    PubMed

    Giunta, Salvatore; Andriolo, Violetta; Castorina, Alessandro

    2014-09-01

    In a previous work we have shown that exposure to aluminum (Al) chloride (AlCl3) enhanced the neurotoxicity of the amyloid beta(25-35) fragment (Abeta(25-35)) in neuroblastoma cells and affected the expression of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related genes. Caffein, a compound endowed with beneficial effects against AD, exerts neuroprotection primarily through its antagonist activity on A2A adenosine receptors (A2AR), although it also inhibits A1Rs with similar potency. Still, studies on the specific involvement of these receptors in neuroprotection in a model of combined neurotoxicity (Abeta(25-35)+AlCl3) are missing. To address this issue, cultured SH-SY5Y cells exposed to Abeta(25-35)+AlCl3 were assessed for cell viability, morphology, intracellular ROS activity and expression of apoptosis-, stress- and AD-related proteins. To define the role of A1R and A2ARs, pretreatment with caffein, specific receptor antagonists (DPCPX or SCH58261) or siRNA-mediated gene knockdown were delivered. Results indicate that AlCl3 treatment exacerbated Abeta(25-35) toxicity, increased ROS production, lipid peroxidation, β-secretase-1 (BACE1) and amyloid precursor protein (APP). Interestingly, SCH58261 successfully prevented toxicity associated to Abeta(25-35) only, whereas pretreatment with both DPCPX and SCH58261 was required to fully avert Abeta(25-35)+AlCl3-induced damage, suggesting that A1Rs might also be critically involved in protection during combined toxicity. The effects of caffein were mimicked by both N-acetyl cysteine, an antioxidant, and desferrioxamine, likely acting through distinct mechanisms. Altogether, our data establish a novel protective function associated with A1R inhibition in the setting of combined Abeta(25-35)+AlCl3 neurotoxicity, and expand our current knowledge on the potential beneficial role of caffein to prevent AD progression in subjects environmentally exposed to aluminum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Adenosine A2A receptors are necessary and sufficient to trigger memory impairment in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Pagnussat, N; Almeida, A S; Marques, D M; Nunes, F; Chenet, G C; Botton, P H S; Mioranzza, S; Loss, C M; Cunha, R A; Porciúncula, L O

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Caffeine (a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist) prevents memory deficits in aging and Alzheimer’s disease, an effect mimicked by adenosine A2A receptor, but not A1 receptor, antagonists. Hence, we investigated the effects of adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists on memory performance and scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. Experimental Approach We determined whether A2A receptors are necessary for the emergence of memory impairments induced by scopolamine and whether A2A receptor activation triggers memory deficits in naïve mice, using three tests to assess short-term memory, namely the object recognition task, inhibitory avoidance and modified Y-maze. Key Results Scopolamine (1.0 mg·kg−1, i.p.) impaired short-term memory performance in all three tests and this scopolamine-induced amnesia was prevented by the A2A receptor antagonist (SCH 58261, 0.1–1.0 mg·kg−1, i.p.) and by the A1 receptor antagonist (DPCPX, 0.2–5.0 mg·kg−1, i.p.), except in the modified Y-maze where only SCH58261 was effective. Both antagonists were devoid of effects on memory or locomotion in naïve rats. Notably, the activation of A2A receptors with CGS 21680 (0.1–0.5 mg·kg−1, i.p.) before the training session was sufficient to trigger memory impairment in the three tests in naïve mice, and this effect was prevented by SCH 58261 (1.0 mg·kg−1, i.p.). Furthermore, i.c.v. administration of CGS 21680 (50 nmol) also impaired recognition memory in the object recognition task. Conclusions and Implications These results show that A2A receptors are necessary and sufficient to trigger memory impairment and further suggest that A1 receptors might also be selectively engaged to control the cholinergic-driven memory impairment. PMID:25939452

  18. Mechanisms of the adenosine A2A receptor-induced sensitization of esophageal C fibers

    PubMed Central

    Brozmanova, M.; Mazurova, L.; Ru, F.; Tatar, M.; Hu, Y.; Yu, S.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies indicate that adenosine contributes to esophageal mechanical hypersensitivity in some patients with pain originating in the esophagus. We have previously reported that the esophageal vagal nodose C fibers express the adenosine A2A receptor. Here we addressed the hypothesis that stimulation of the adenosine A2A receptor induces mechanical sensitization of esophageal C fibers by a mechanism involving transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1). Extracellular single fiber recordings of activity originating in C-fiber terminals were made in the ex vivo vagally innervated guinea pig esophagus. The adenosine A2A receptor-selective agonist CGS21680 induced robust, reversible sensitization of the response to esophageal distention (10–60 mmHg) in a concentration-dependent fashion (1–100 nM). At the half-maximally effective concentration (EC50: ≈3 nM), CGS21680 induced an approximately twofold increase in the mechanical response without causing an overt activation. This sensitization was abolished by the selective A2A antagonist SCH58261. The adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin mimicked while the nonselective protein kinase inhibitor H89 inhibited mechanical sensitization by CGS21680. CGS21680 did not enhance the response to the purinergic P2X receptor agonist α,β-methylene-ATP, indicating that CGS21680 does not nonspecifically sensitize to all stimuli. Mechanical sensitization by CGS21680 was abolished by pretreatment with two structurally different TRPA1 antagonists AP18 and HC030031. Single cell RT-PCR and whole cell patch-clamp studies in isolated esophagus-specific nodose neurons revealed the expression of TRPA1 in A2A-positive C-fiber neurons and demonstrated that CGS21682 potentiated TRPA1 currents evoked by allylisothiocyanate. We conclude that stimulation of the adenosine A2A receptor induces mechanical sensitization of nodose C fibers by a mechanism sensitive to TRPA1 antagonists indicating the involvement of TRPA1. PMID:26564719

  19. Mechanisms of the adenosine A2A receptor-induced sensitization of esophageal C fibers.

    PubMed

    Brozmanova, M; Mazurova, L; Ru, F; Tatar, M; Hu, Y; Yu, S; Kollarik, M

    2016-02-01

    Clinical studies indicate that adenosine contributes to esophageal mechanical hypersensitivity in some patients with pain originating in the esophagus. We have previously reported that the esophageal vagal nodose C fibers express the adenosine A2A receptor. Here we addressed the hypothesis that stimulation of the adenosine A2A receptor induces mechanical sensitization of esophageal C fibers by a mechanism involving transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1). Extracellular single fiber recordings of activity originating in C-fiber terminals were made in the ex vivo vagally innervated guinea pig esophagus. The adenosine A2A receptor-selective agonist CGS21680 induced robust, reversible sensitization of the response to esophageal distention (10-60 mmHg) in a concentration-dependent fashion (1-100 nM). At the half-maximally effective concentration (EC50: ≈3 nM), CGS21680 induced an approximately twofold increase in the mechanical response without causing an overt activation. This sensitization was abolished by the selective A2A antagonist SCH58261. The adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin mimicked while the nonselective protein kinase inhibitor H89 inhibited mechanical sensitization by CGS21680. CGS21680 did not enhance the response to the purinergic P2X receptor agonist α,β-methylene-ATP, indicating that CGS21680 does not nonspecifically sensitize to all stimuli. Mechanical sensitization by CGS21680 was abolished by pretreatment with two structurally different TRPA1 antagonists AP18 and HC030031. Single cell RT-PCR and whole cell patch-clamp studies in isolated esophagus-specific nodose neurons revealed the expression of TRPA1 in A2A-positive C-fiber neurons and demonstrated that CGS21682 potentiated TRPA1 currents evoked by allylisothiocyanate. We conclude that stimulation of the adenosine A2A receptor induces mechanical sensitization of nodose C fibers by a mechanism sensitive to TRPA1 antagonists indicating the involvement of TRPA1.

  20. Chemical Modification and Irreversible Inhibition of Striatal A2a Adenosine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    JACOBSON, KENNETH A.; STILES, GARY L.; JI, XIAO-DUO

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The ligand recognition site of A2a-adenosine receptors in rabbit striatal membranes was probed using non-site-directed labeling reagents and specific affinity labels. Exposure of membranes to diethylpyrocarbonate at a concentration of 2.5 mm, followed by washing, was found to inhibit the binding of [3H]CGS 21680 and [3H]xanthine amine congener to A2a receptors, by 86 and 30%, respectively. Protection from diethylpyrocarbonate inactivation by an adenosine receptor agonist, 5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine, and an antagonist, theophylline, suggested the presence of two histidyl residues on the receptor, one associated with agonist binding and the other with antagonist binding. Binding of [3H]CGS 21680 or [3H]xanthine amine congener was partially restored after incubation with 250 mm hydroxylamine, further supporting histidine as the modification site. Preincubation with disulfide-reactive reagents, dithiothreitol or sodium dithionite, at >5 mm inhibited radioligand binding, indicating the presence of essential disulfide bridges in A2a receptors, whereas the concentration of mercaptoethanol required to inhibit binding was >50 mm. A number of isothiocyanate-bearing affinity labels derived from the A2a-selective agonist 2-[(2-aminoethylamino)carbonylethylphenylethylamino]-5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (APEC) were synthesized and found to inhibit A2a receptor binding in rabbit and bovine striatal membranes. Binding to rabbit A1 receptors was not inhibited. Preincubation with the affinity label 4-isothiocyanatophenylaminothiocarbonyl-APEC (100 nm) diminished the Bmax for [3H]CGS 21680 binding by 71%, and the Kd was unaffected, suggesting a direct modification of the ligand binding site. Reversal of 4-isothiocyanatophenylaminothiocarbonyl-APEC inhibition of [3H]CGS 21680 binding with hydroxylamine suggested that the site of modification by the isothiocyanate is a cysteine residue. A bromoacetyl derivative of APEC was ineffective as an affinity label at

  1. Functions, dysfunctions and possible therapeutic relevance of adenosine A2A receptors in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Popoli, Patrizia; Blum, David; Martire, Alberto; Ledent, Catherine; Ceruti, Stefania; Abbracchio, Maria P

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize and critically discuss the complex role played by adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A)Rs) in Huntington's disease (HD). Since A(2A)Rs are mainly localized on the neurons, which degenerate early in HD, and given their ability to stimulate glutamate outflow and inflammatory gliosis, it was hypothesized that they could be involved in the pathogenesis of HD, and that A(2A)R antagonists could be neuroprotective. This was further sustained by the demonstration that A(2A)Rs and underlying signaling systems undergo profound changes in cellular and animal models of HD. More recently, however, the equation A(2A) receptor blockade=neuroprotection has appeared too simplistic. First, it is now definitely clear that, besides mediating 'bad' responses (for example, stimulation of glutamate outflow and excessive glial activation), A(2A)Rs also promote 'good' responses (such as trophic and antinflammatory effects). This implies that A(2A)R blockade results either in pro-toxic or neuroprotective effects according to the mechanisms involved in a given experimental model. Second, since HD is a chronically progressive disease, the multiple mechanisms involving A(2A)Rs may play different relative roles along the degenerative process. Such different mechanisms can be influenced by A(2A)R activation or blockade in different ways, even leading to opposite outcomes depending on the time of agonist/antagonist administration. The number, and the complexity, of the possible scenarios is further increased by the influence of mutant Huntingtin on both the expression and functions of A(2A)Rs, and by the strikingly different effects mediated by A(2A)Rs expressed by different cell populations within the brain.

  2. Multiple sclerosis lymphocytes upregulate A2A adenosine receptors that are antiinflammatory when stimulated.

    PubMed

    Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Corciulo, Carmen; Targa, Martina; Merighi, Stefania; Gessi, Stefania; Casetta, Ilaria; Gentile, Mauro; Granieri, Enrico; Borea, Pier Andrea; Varani, Katia

    2013-08-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune-mediated inflammatory disease characterized by multifocal areas of demyelination. Experimental evidence indicates that A2A adenosine receptors (ARs) play a pivotal role in the inhibition of inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of A2A ARs in the inhibition of key pro-inflammatory mediators for the pathogenesis of MS. In lymphocytes from MS patients, A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 ARs were analyzed by using RT-PCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence, and binding assays. Moreover the effect of A2A AR stimulation on proinflammatory cytokine release such as TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-17, and on lymphocyte proliferation was evaluated. The capability of an A2A AR agonist on the modulation of very late antigen (VLA)-4 expression and NF-κB was also explored. A2A AR upregulation was observed in lymphocytes from MS patients in comparison with healthy subjects. The stimulation of these receptors mediated a significant inhibition of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-17, and cell proliferation as well as VLA-4 expression and NF-κB activation. This new evidence highlights that A2A AR agonists could represent a novel therapeutic tool for MS treatment as suggested by the antiinflammatory role of A2A ARs in lymphocytes from MS patients.

  3. Pre-synaptic adenosine A2A receptors control cannabinoid CB1 receptor-mediated inhibition of striatal glutamatergic neurotransmission.

    PubMed

    Martire, Alberto; Tebano, Maria Teresa; Chiodi, Valentina; Ferreira, Samira G; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Köfalvi, Attila; Popoli, Patrizia

    2011-01-01

    An interaction between adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A) Rs) and cannabinoid CB(1) receptors (CB(1) Rs) has been consistently reported to occur in the striatum, although the precise mechanisms are not completely understood. As both receptors control striatal glutamatergic transmission, we now probed the putative interaction between pre-synaptic CB(1) R and A(2A) R in the striatum. In extracellular field potentials recordings in corticostriatal slices from Wistar rats, A(2A) R activation by CGS21680 inhibited CB(1) R-mediated effects (depression of synaptic response and increase in paired-pulse facilitation). Moreover, in superfused rat striatal nerve terminals, A(2A) R activation prevented, while A(2A) R inhibition facilitated, the CB(1) R-mediated inhibition of 4-aminopyridine-evoked glutamate release. In summary, the present study provides converging neurochemical and electrophysiological support for the occurrence of a tight control of CB(1) R function by A(2A) Rs in glutamatergic terminals of the striatum. In view of the key role of glutamate to trigger the recruitment of striatal circuits, this pre-synaptic interaction between CB(1) R and A(2A) R may be of relevance for the pathogenesis and the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders affecting the basal ganglia.

  4. Neuroprotection by caffeine and A(2A) adenosine receptor inactivation in a model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, J F; Xu, K; Petzer, J P; Staal, R; Xu, Y H; Beilstein, M; Sonsalla, P K; Castagnoli, K; Castagnoli, N; Schwarzschild, M A

    2001-05-15

    Recent epidemiological studies have established an association between the common consumption of coffee or other caffeinated beverages and a reduced risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD). To explore the possibility that caffeine helps prevent the dopaminergic deficits characteristic of PD, we investigated the effects of caffeine and the adenosine receptor subtypes through which it may act in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) neurotoxin model of PD. Caffeine, at doses comparable to those of typical human exposure, attenuated MPTP-induced loss of striatal dopamine and dopamine transporter binding sites. The effects of caffeine were mimicked by several A(2A) antagonists (7-(2-phenylethyl)-5-amino-2-(2-furyl)-pyrazolo-[4,3-e]-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidine (SCH 58261), 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine, and (E)-1,3-diethyl-8 (KW-6002)-(3,4-dimethoxystyryl)-7-methyl-3,7-dihydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione) (KW-6002) and by genetic inactivation of the A(2A) receptor, but not by A(1) receptor blockade with 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, suggesting that caffeine attenuates MPTP toxicity by A(2A) receptor blockade. These data establish a potential neural basis for the inverse association of caffeine with the development of PD, and they enhance the potential of A(2A) antagonists as a novel treatment for this neurodegenerative disease.

  5. Synthesis and SAR evaluation of 1,2,4-triazoles as A(2A) receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Alanine, Alexander; Anselm, Lilli; Steward, Lucinda; Thomi, Stefan; Vifian, Walter; Groaning, Michael D

    2004-02-09

    The synthesis and in vitro structure-activity relationships (SAR) of a series of triazoles as A(2A) receptor antagonists is reported. This resulted in the identification of potent, selective and permeable 1,2,4-triazoles such as 42 for further optimization and evaluation in vivo.

  6. Ligand-, structure- and pharmacophore-based molecular fingerprints: a case study on adenosine A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 receptor antagonists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirci, Francesco; Goracci, Laura; Rodríguez, David; van Muijlwijk-Koezen, Jacqueline; Gutiérrez-de-Terán, Hugo; Mannhold, Raimund

    2012-11-01

    FLAP fingerprints are applied in the ligand-, structure- and pharmacophore-based mode in a case study on antagonists of all four adenosine receptor (AR) subtypes. Structurally diverse antagonist collections with respect to the different ARs were constructed by including binding data to human species only. FLAP models well discriminate "active" (=highly potent) from "inactive" (=weakly potent) AR antagonists, as indicated by enrichment curves, numbers of false positives, and AUC values. For all FLAP modes, model predictivity slightly decreases as follows: A2BR > A2AR > A3R > A1R antagonists. General performance of FLAP modes in this study is: ligand- > structure- > pharmacophore- based mode. We also compared the FLAP performance with other common ligand- and structure-based fingerprints. Concerning the ligand-based mode, FLAP model performance is superior to ECFP4 and ROCS for all AR subtypes. Although focusing on the early first part of the A2A, A2B and A3 enrichment curves, ECFP4 and ROCS still retain a satisfactory retrieval of actives. FLAP is also superior when comparing the structure-based mode with PLANTS and GOLD. In this study we applied for the first time the novel FLAPPharm tool for pharmacophore generation. Pharmacophore hypotheses, generated with this tool, convincingly match with formerly published data. Finally, we could demonstrate the capability of FLAP models to uncover selectivity aspects although single AR subtype models were not trained for this purpose.

  7. Inhibition of small HA fragment activity and stimulation of A2A adenosine receptor pathway limit apoptosis and reduce cartilage damage in experimental arthritis.

    PubMed

    Campo, Giuseppe M; Micali, Antonio; Avenoso, Angela; D'Ascola, Angela; Scuruchi, Michele; Pisani, Antonina; Bruschetta, Antongiulio; Calatroni, Alberto; Puzzolo, Domenico; Campo, Salvatore

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies have found that the inactivation of small hyaluronan (HA) fragments originating from native HA during inflammation reduced the inflammatory response in models of experimental arthritis. The stimulation of adenosine receptors A2A reduced inflammation by inhibiting NF-kB activation. The combination of both treatments was significantly more effective than either of the individual treatments. The aim of this study was to further investigate the effects of a combined treatment using the HA inhibitor Pep-1 and a selective A2AR agonist (CV-1808) on the structure and ultrastructure of the articular cartilage and on apoptosis in a model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. Arthritic mice were treated with Pep-1 and/or CV-1808 intraperitoneally daily for 20 days. At day 35, the hind limbs were processed for light microscopy (hematoxylin/eosin and Safranin-O-Fast Green) and for transmission and scanning electron microscopy. CIA increased IL-6, caspase-3 and caspase-7 mRNA expression and the related protein levels in arthritic articular cartilage, and significantly increased concentrations of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), while B cell-lymphoma-2 protein (Bcl-2) was markedly reduced. The combined Pep-1/CV-1808 treatment significantly reduced CIA injury, particularly at the highest doses, demonstrated by the presence of Safranin-O-positive cartilage, with a smooth surface and normal chondrocytes in the superficial, intermediate and deep zones. Morphological data and histological scoring were strongly supported by the reduction in inflammation and apoptotic markers. The results further support the role of HA degradation and A2A receptors in arthritis.

  8. Involvement of cAMP-PKA pathway in adenosine A1 and A2A receptor-mediated regulation of acetaldehyde-induced activation of HSCs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yaru; Wang, He; Lv, Xiongwen; Wang, Qi; Zhao, Han; Yang, Feng; Yang, Yan; Li, Jun

    2015-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the mechanism by which adenosine receptors (ARs)-mediated the cAMP/PKA/CREB signal pathway regulates the activation of acetaldehyde-induced hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Primary HSCs were isolated from SD rats, cultured in vitro, and activated with different concentrations of acetaldehyde at different time points. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to quantify both protein and mRNA levels of the four AR (A1R, A2AR, A2BR, and A3R) in rat HSCs. Selective inhibitors of PDEs and the Gi/o protein pathway, general AR agonists, and AR subtype specific agents were used to study the AR signaling. The level of cAMP was measured by radio-immunoassay, and the expression of α-SMA, collagen type I and III, PKA and p-CREB were also detected by Western blotting. Acetaldehyde could significantly promote HSC proliferation, with a maximum stimulatory effect observed at 48 h after exposure to 200 μM acetaldehyde. All four AR subtypes could be present in rat HSCs, and the mRNA and protein expression levels for A2AR and A1R in much greater abundance than those for A2BR and A3R. The expression of A2AR and A1R was significantly increased in acetaldehyde-induced HSCs as compared with that of control group, whereas the expression of A2BR and A3R remained unaffected by the addition of acetaldehyde. Curiously, there is coupling of A2AR to the Gs-AC signaling, as well as coupling of A1R to the Gi/o-AC signaling pathway in acetaldehyde-induced HSCs. Both the A2AR and A1R antagonists could suppress the activation of HSC, although they have opposing effects on cAMP signal transduction. These results suggested that a combination of cAMP/PKA/CREB signals via A2AR and A1R likely mediate the activation of acetaldehyde-induced HSCs, and A1R coupled to the Gi/o-AC signaling pathway may be masked by the more predominant A2AR that coupled to the Gs-AC signaling pathway.

  9. A covalent antagonist for the human adenosine A2A receptor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue; Dong, Guo; Michiels, Thomas J M; Lenselink, Eelke B; Heitman, Laura; Louvel, Julien; IJzerman, Ad P

    2016-12-03

    The structure of the human A2A adenosine receptor has been elucidated by X-ray crystallography with a high affinity non-xanthine antagonist, ZM241385, bound to it. This template molecule served as a starting point for the incorporation of reactive moieties that cause the ligand to covalently bind to the receptor. In particular, we incorporated a fluorosulfonyl moiety onto ZM241385, which yielded LUF7445 (4-((3-((7-amino-2-(furan-2-yl)-[1, 2, 4]triazolo[1,5-a][1, 3, 5]triazin-5-yl)amino)propyl)carbamoyl)benzene sulfonyl fluoride). In a radioligand binding assay, LUF7445 acted as a potent antagonist, with an apparent affinity for the hA2A receptor in the nanomolar range. Its apparent affinity increased with longer incubation time, suggesting an increasing level of covalent binding over time. An in silico A2A-structure-based docking model was used to study the binding mode of LUF7445. This led us to perform site-directed mutagenesis of the A2A receptor to probe and validate the target lysine amino acid K153 for covalent binding. Meanwhile, a functional assay combined with wash-out experiments was set up to investigate the efficacy of covalent binding of LUF7445. All these experiments led us to conclude LUF7445 is a valuable molecular tool for further investigating covalent interactions at this receptor. It may also serve as a prototype for a therapeutic approach in which a covalent antagonist may be needed to counteract prolonged and persistent presence of the endogenous ligand adenosine.

  10. [Adenosine A2A receptor as a drug target for treatment of sepsis].

    PubMed

    Sivak, K V; Vasin, A V; Egorov, V V; Tsevtkov, V B; Kuzmich, N N; Savina, V A; Kiselev, O I

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is a generalized infection accompanied by response of the body that manifests in a clinical and laboratory syndrome, namely, in the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) from the organism to the infection. Although sepsis is a widespread and life-threatening disease, the assortment of drugs for its treatment is mostly limited by antibiotics. Therefore, the search for new cellular targets for drug therapy of sepsis is an urgent task of modern medicine and pharmacology. One of the most promising targets is the adenosine A(2A) receptor (A(2A)AR). The activation of this receptor, which is mediated by extracellular adenosine, manifests in almost all types of immune cells (lymphocytes, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells) and results in reducing the severity of inflammation and reperfusion injury in various tissues. The activation of adenosine A(2A) receptor inhibits the proliferation of T cells and production of proinflammatory cytokines, which contributes to the activation of the synthesis of anti-inflammatory cytokines, thereby suppressing the systemic response. For this reason, various selective A(2A)AR agonists and antagonists may be considered to be drug candidates for sepsis pharmacotherapy. Nevertheless, they remain only efficient ligands and objects of pre-clinical and clinical trials. This review examines the molecular mechanisms of inflammatory response in sepsis and the structure and functions of A(2A)AR and its role in the pathogenesis of sepsis, as well as examples of using agonists and antagonists of this receptor for the treatment of SIRS and sepsis.

  11. A2A Adenosine Receptor Antagonism Enhances Synaptic and Motor Effects of Cocaine via CB1 Cannabinoid Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Tozzi, Alessandro; de Iure, Antonio; Marsili, Valentina; Romano, Rosaria; Tantucci, Michela; Di Filippo, Massimiliano; Costa, Cinzia; Napolitano, Francesco; Mercuri, Nicola Biagio; Borsini, Franco; Giampà, Carmen; Fusco, Francesca Romana; Picconi, Barbara; Usiello, Alessandro; Calabresi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Background Cocaine increases the level of endogenous dopamine (DA) in the striatum by blocking the DA transporter. Endogenous DA modulates glutamatergic inputs to striatal neurons and this modulation influences motor activity. Since D2 DA and A2A-adenosine receptors (A2A-Rs) have antagonistic effects on striatal neurons, drugs targeting adenosine receptors such as caffeine-like compounds, could enhance psychomotor stimulant effects of cocaine. In this study, we analyzed the electrophysiological effects of cocaine and A2A-Rs antagonists in striatal slices and the motor effects produced by this pharmacological modulation in rodents. Principal Findings Concomitant administration of cocaine and A2A-Rs antagonists reduced glutamatergic synaptic transmission in striatal spiny neurons while these drugs failed to produce this effect when given in isolation. This inhibitory effect was dependent on the activation of D2-like receptors and the release of endocannabinoids since it was prevented by L-sulpiride and reduced by a CB1 receptor antagonist. Combined application of cocaine and A2A-R antagonists also reduced the firing frequency of striatal cholinergic interneurons suggesting that changes in cholinergic tone might contribute to this synaptic modulation. Finally, A2A-Rs antagonists, in the presence of a sub-threshold dose of cocaine, enhanced locomotion and, in line with the electrophysiological experiments, this enhanced activity required activation of D2-like and CB1 receptors. Conclusions The present study provides a possible synaptic mechanism explaining how caffeine-like compounds could enhance psychomotor stimulant effects of cocaine. PMID:22715379

  12. Adenosine A2A receptor signaling affects IL-21/IL-22 cytokines and GATA3/T-bet transcription factor expression in CD4(+) T cells from a BTBR T(+) Itpr3tf/J mouse model of autism.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Sheikh F; Ansari, Mushtaq A; Nadeem, Ahmed; Bakheet, Saleh A; Almutairi, Mashal M; Attia, Sabry M

    2017-10-15

    Autism is a complex heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder; previous studies have identified altered immune responses among individuals diagnosed with autism. An imbalance in the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and transcription factors plays a role in neurodevelopmental behavioral and autism disorders. BTBR T(+) Itpr3tf/J (BTBR) mice are used as a model for autism, as they exhibit social deficits, communication deficits, and repetitive behaviors compared with C57BL/6J (B6) mice. The adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) appears to be a potential target for the improvement of behavioral, inflammatory, immune, and neurological disorders. We investigated the effects of the A2AR antagonist SCH 5826 (SCH) and agonist CGS 21680 (CGS) on IL-21, IL-22, T-bet, T-box transcription factor (T-bet), GATA3 (GATA Binding Protein 3), and CD152 (CTLA-4) expression in BTBR mice. Our results showed that BTBR mice treated with SCH had increased CD4(+)IL-21(+), CD4(+)IL-22(+), CD4(+)GATA3(+), and CD4(+)T-bet(+) and decreased CD4(+)CTLA-4(+) expression in spleen cells compared with BTBR control mice. Moreover, CGS efficiently decreased CD4(+)IL-21(+), CD4(+)IL-22(+), CD4(+)GATA3(+), and CD4(+)T-bet(+) and increased CD4(+)CTLA-4 production in spleen cells compared with SCH-treated and BTBR control mice. Additionally, SCH treatment significantly increased the mRNA and protein expression levels of IL-21, IL-22, GATA3, and T-bet in brain tissue compared with CGS-treated and BTBR control mice. The augmented levels of IL-21/IL-22 and GATA3/T-bet could be due to altered A2AR signaling. Our results indicate that A2AR agonists may represent a new class of compounds that can be developed for use in the treatment of autistic and neuroimmune dysfunctions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Role of Adenosine Receptor A2A in Traumatic Optic Neuropathies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    in Traumatic Optic Neuropathies ” PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Gregory I. Liou, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Georgia Health Sciences...Adenosine Receptor A2A in Traumatic Optic Neuropathies 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0046 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...ABSTRACT Our goal is to develop an early therapeutic intervention before the progression of traumatic optic neuropathy (TON), a vision-threatening

  14. Association between A2a receptor gene polymorphisms and caffeine-induced anxiety.

    PubMed

    Alsene, Karen; Deckert, Jürgen; Sand, Philipp; de Wit, Harriet

    2003-09-01

    The adenosine receptor system, which mediates the psychoactive effects of caffeine, is also thought to be involved in the regulation of anxiety. In this study, we examined the association between variations in anxiogenic responses to caffeine and polymorphisms in the A1 and A2a adenosine receptor genes. Healthy, infrequent caffeine users (N=94) recorded their subjective mood states following a 150 mg oral dose of caffeine freebase or placebo in a double-blind study. We found a significant association between self-reported anxiety after caffeine administration and two linked polymorphisms on the A2a receptor gene, the 1976C>T and 2592C>Tins polymorphisms. Individuals with the 1976T/T and the 2592Tins/Tins genotypes reported greater increases in anxiety after caffeine administration than the other genotypic groups. The study shows that an adenosine receptor gene polymorphism that has been associated with Panic Disorder is also associated with anxiogenic responses to an acute dose of caffeine.

  15. Adenosine A2A receptors enable the synaptic effects of cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the rodent striatum.

    PubMed

    Tebano, Maria Teresa; Martire, Alberto; Chiodi, Valentina; Pepponi, Rita; Ferrante, Antonella; Domenici, Maria Rosaria; Frank, Claudio; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Ledent, Catherine; Popoli, Patrizia

    2009-09-01

    Adenosine A(2A), cannabinoid CB(1) and metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu(5)) receptors are all highly expressed in the striatum. The aim of the present work was to investigate whether, and by which mechanisms, the above receptors interact in the regulation of striatal synaptic transmission. By extracellular field potentials (FPs) recordings in corticostriatal slices, we demonstrated that the ability of the selective type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB(1)R) agonist WIN55,212-2 to depress synaptic transmission was prevented by the pharmacological blockade or the genetic inactivation of A(2A)Rs. Such a permissive effect of A(2A)Rs towards CB(1)Rs does not seem to occur pre-synaptically as the ability of WIN55,212-2 to increase the R2/R1 ratio under a protocol of paired-pulse stimulation was not modified by ZM241385. Furthermore, the effects of WIN55,212-2 were reduced in slices from mice lacking post-synaptic striatal A(2A)Rs. The selective mGlu(5)R agonist (RS)-2-chloro-5-hydroxyphenylglycine (CHPG) potentiated the synaptic effects of WIN55,212-2, and such a potentiation was abolished by A(2A)R blockade. Unlike the synaptic effects, the ability of WIN55,212-2 to prevent NMDA-induced toxicity was not influenced by ZM241385. Altogether, these results show that the state of activation of A(2A)Rs regulates the synaptic effects of CB(1)Rs and that A(2A)Rs may control CB(1) effects also indirectly, namely through mGlu(5)Rs.

  16. Clinical/pharmacological aspect of adenosine A2A receptor antagonist for dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Tomoyuki; Uchida, Shin-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine replacement therapy using the dopamine precursor, l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA), with a peripheral dopa decarboxylase inhibitor is the most effective treatment currently available for the symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the long-term use of dopaminergic therapies for PD is often limited by the development of motor response complications, such as dyskinesia. Adenosine A2A receptors are a promising nondopaminergic target for the treatment of PD. The treatment of motor response complications involves combinations of regular and controlled release L-DOPA, perhaps with the addition of a COMT inhibitor or the use of a longer-acting dopamine agonist. However, when dyskinesia is already established, the increase in dopaminergic load produced by the addition of a dopamine agonist can result in an increase in the severity and duration of dyskinesia. Currently, there are no well-tolerated antidyskinesia agents available. Amantadine, which may exert its effects through the inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, shows some effects on established dyskinesia. Dyskinesia has a negative impact on the quality of life of patients, sometimes being more disabling than PD itself. Although some patients prefer experiencing dyskinesia than being in the OFF state and unable to move, alternative, more effective therapies are still required for severe disabling dyskinesia to afford patients an improved quality of life while in the ON state. The mechanisms causing and maintaining the dyskinesia have not been clarified. The application of a nondopaminergic approach to modify the basal ganglial activity would be helpful to better understand and treat dyskinesia. The use of an adenosine A2A receptor may provide one such approach. In this literature review, we will summarize the current knowledge from both clinical and nonclinical studies on the effects of adenosine A2A receptor blockade on dyskinesia.

  17. Effect of low frequency electromagnetic fields on A2A adenosine receptors in human neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Varani, Katia; Gessi, Stefania; Merighi, Stefania; Iannotta, Valeria; Cattabriga, Elena; Spisani, Susanna; Cadossi, Ruggero; Borea, Pier Andrea

    2002-01-01

    The present study describes the effect of low frequency, low energy, pulsing electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) on A2A adenosine receptors in human neutrophils.Saturation experiments performed using a high affinity adenosine antagonist [3H]-ZM 241385 revealed a single class of binding sites in control and in PEMF-treated human neutrophils with similar affinity (KD=1.05±0.10 and 1.08±0.12 nM, respectively). Furthermore, after 1 h of exposure to PEMFs the receptor density was statistically increased (P<0.01) (Bmax =126±10 and 215±15 fmol mg−1 protein, respectively).The effect of PEMFs was specific to the A2A adenosine receptors. This effect was also intensity, time and temperature dependent.In the adenylyl cyclase assays the A2A receptor agonists, HE-NECA and NECA, increased cyclic AMP accumulation in untreated human neutrophils with an EC50 value of 43 (40 – 47) and 255 (228 – 284) nM, respectively. The capability of HE-NECA and NECA to stimulate cyclic AMP levels in human neutrophils was increased (P<0.01) after exposure to PEMFs with an EC50 value of 10(8 – 13) and 61(52 – 71) nM, respectively.In the superoxide anion (O2−) production assays HE-NECA and NECA inhibited the generation of O2− in untreated human neutrophils, with an EC50 value of 3.6(3.1 – 4.2) and of 23(20 – 27) nM, respectively. Moreover, in PEMF-treated human neutrophils, the same compounds show an EC50 value of 1.6(1.2 – 2.1) and of 6.0(4.7 – 7.5) nM respectively.These results indicate the presence of significant alterations in the expression and in the functionality of adenosine A2A receptors in human neutrophils treated with PEMFs. PMID:11976268

  18. Endothelial adenosine A2a receptor-mediated glycolysis is essential for pathological retinal angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiping; Yan, Siyuan; Wang, Jiaojiao; Xu, Yiming; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Shuya; Xu, Xizhen; Yang, Qiuhua; Zeng, Xianqiu; Zhou, Yaqi; Gu, Xuejiao; Lu, Sarah; Fu, Zhongjie; Fulton, David J; Weintraub, Neal L; Caldwell, Ruth B; Zhang, Wenbo; Wu, Chaodong; Liu, Xiao-Ling; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Ahmad, Aftab; Kaddour-Djebbar, Ismail; Al-Shabrawey, Mohamed; Li, Qinkai; Jiang, Xuejun; Sun, Ye; Sodhi, Akrit; Smith, Lois; Hong, Mei; Huo, Yuqing

    2017-09-19

    Adenosine/adenosine receptor-mediated signaling has been implicated in the development of various ischemic diseases, including ischemic retinopathies. Here, we show that the adenosine A2a receptor (ADORA2A) promotes hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1 (HIF-1)-dependent endothelial cell glycolysis, which is crucial for pathological angiogenesis in proliferative retinopathies. Adora2a expression is markedly increased in the retina of mice with oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). Endothelial cell-specific, but not macrophage-specific Adora2a deletion decreases key glycolytic enzymes and reduces pathological neovascularization in the OIR mice. In human primary retinal microvascular endothelial cells, hypoxia induces the expression of ADORA2A by activating HIF-2α. ADORA2A knockdown decreases hypoxia-induced glycolytic enzyme expression, glycolytic flux, and endothelial cell proliferation, sprouting and tubule formation. Mechanistically, ADORA2A activation promotes the transcriptional induction of glycolytic enzymes via ERK- and Akt-dependent translational activation of HIF-1α protein. Taken together, these findings advance translation of ADORA2A as a therapeutic target in the treatment of proliferative retinopathies and other diseases dependent on pathological angiogenesis.Pathological angiogenesis in the retina is a major cause of blindness. Here the authors show that adenosine receptor A2A drives pathological angiogenesis in the oxygen-induced retinopathy mouse model by promoting glycolysis in endothelial cells via the ERK/Akt/HIF-1α pathway, thereby suggesting new therapeutic targets for disease treatment.

  19. Hydration Site Thermodynamics Explain SARs for Triazolylpurines Analogues Binding to the A2A Receptor

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A series of triazolylpurine analogues show interesting and unintuitive structure−activity relationships against the A2A adenosine receptor. As the 2-substituted aliphatic group is initially increased to methyl and isopropyl, there is a decrease in potency; however, extending the substituent to n-butyl and n-pentyl results in a significant gain in potency. This trend cannot be readily explained by ligand−receptor interactions, steric effects, or differences in ligand desolvation. Here, we show that a novel method for characterizing solvent thermodynamics in protein binding sites correctly predicts the trend in binding affinity for this series based on the differential water displacement patterns. In brief, small unfavorable substituents occupy a region in the A2A adenosine receptor binding site predicted to contain stable waters, while the longer favorable substituents extend to a region that contains several unstable waters. The predicted binding energies associated with displacing water within these hydration sites correlate well with the experimental activities. PMID:24900189

  20. Analysis of Adenosine A2a Receptor Stability: Effects of Ligands and Disulfide Bonds

    PubMed Central

    O'Malley, Michelle A.; Naranjo, Andrea N.; Lazarova, Tzvetana; Robinson, Anne S.

    2010-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs)1 constitute the largest family of integral membrane proteins present in all eukaryotic cells, yet relatively little information is known pertaining to their structure, folding, and stability. In this work, we describe several approaches to characterize conformational stability of the human adenosine A2a receptor (hA2aR). Thermal and chemical denaturation were not reversible, yet clear differences in the unfolding behavior were observed upon ligand binding via circular dichroism and fluorescence spectrometry. We found that the stability of hA2aR was increased upon incubation with the agonist N6-cyclohexyladenosine or the antagonist theophylline. When extracellular disulfide bonds were reduced with a chemical reducing agent, the ligand-binding activity decreased by ~40%, but reduction of these bonds did not compromise the unfolding transition observed via urea denaturation. Overall, these approaches offer a general strategy for characterizing the effect of surfactant and ligand effects on the stability of GPCRs. PMID:20853839

  1. Investigation of the conformational dynamics of the apo A2A adenosine receptor

    PubMed Central

    Caliman, Alisha D; Swift, Sara E; Wang, Yi; Miao, Yinglong; McCammon, J Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The activation/deactivation processes for G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been computationally studied for several different classes, including rhodopsin, the β2 adrenergic receptor, and the M2 muscarinic receptor. Despite determined cocrystal structures of the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AAR) in complex with antagonists, agonists and an antibody, the deactivation process of this GPCR is not completely understood. In this study, we investigate the convergence of two apo simulations, one starting with an agonist-bound conformation (PDB: 3QAK)14 and the other starting with an antagonist-bound conformation (PDB: 3EML)11. Despite the two simulations not completely converging, we were able to identify distinct intermediate steps of the deactivation process characterized by the movement of Y2887.53 in the NPxxY motif. We find that Y2887.53 contributes to the process by forming hydrogen bonds to residues in transmembrane helices 2 and 7 and losing these interactions upon full deactivation. Y1975.58 also plays a role in the process by forming a hydrogen bond only once the side chain moves from the lipid interface to the middle of the helical bundle. PMID:25761901

  2. Behavioural and neurochemical characterization of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist ST1535.

    PubMed

    Galluzzo, Mariangela; Pintor, Anita; Pèzzola, Antonella; Grieco, Rosa; Borsini, Franco; Popoli, Patrizia

    2008-01-28

    ST1535 (2-butyl-9-methyl-8-(2H-1,2,3-triazol 2-yl)-9 H-purin-6-ylamine) is a novel compound showing a preferential adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist profile. To explore the potential neuroprotective profile of this compound, we evaluated whether ST1535 prevented quinolinic acid (QA)-induced glutamate outflow in the rat striatum (a reliable index of neuroprotective activity in vivo). Microdialysis experiments were performed in naive Wistar rats. In these experiments, a behaviourally active and inactive doses of ST1535 were used. Both doses significantly prevented QA-induced glutamate outflow in the striatum. These results show that ST1535 protects towards striatal excitotoxicity, even though its reduced A(2A)/A(1) selectivity might limit its actual neuroprotective potential.

  3. Adenosine A2A receptors in ventral striatum, hypothalamus and nociceptive circuitry. Implications for drug addiction, sleep and pain

    PubMed Central

    Ferré, S.; Diamond, I.; Goldberg, S.R.; Yao, L.; Hourani, S.M.O.; Huang, Z.L.; Urade, Y.; Kitchen, I.

    2007-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptors localized in the dorsal striatum are considered as a new target for the development of antiparkinsonian drugs. Co-administration of A2A receptor antagonists has shown a significant improvement of the effects of L-DOPA. The present review emphasizes the possible application of A2A receptor antagonists in pathological conditions other than parkinsonism, including drug addiction, sleep disorders and pain. In addition to the dorsal striatum, the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens) contains a high density of A2A receptors, which presynaptically and postsynaptically regulate glutamatergic transmission in the cortical glutamatergic projections to the nucleus accumbens. It is currently believed that molecular adaptations of the cortico-accumbens glutamatergic synapses are involved in compulsive drug seeking and relapse. Here we review recent experimental evidence suggesting that A2A antagonists could become new therapeutic agents for drug addiction. Morphological and functional studies have identified lower levels of A2A receptors in brain areas other than the striatum, such as the ventrolateral preoptic area of the hypothalamus, where adenosine plays an important role in sleep regulation. Although initially believed to be mostly dependent on A1 receptors, here we review recent studies that demonstrate that the somnogenic effects of adenosine are largely mediated by hypothalamic A2A receptors. A2A receptor antagonists could therefore be considered as a possible treatment for narcolepsy and other sleep-related disorders. Finally, nociception is another adenosine-regulated neural function previously thought to mostly involve A1 receptors. Although there is some conflicting literature on the effects of agonists and antagonists, which may partly be due to the lack of selectivity of available drugs, the studies in A2A receptor knockout mice suggest that A2A receptor antagonists might have some therapeutic potential in pain states, in particular where

  4. Mass spectrometry-based ligand binding assays on adenosine A1 and A2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Massink, A; Holzheimer, M; Hölscher, A; Louvel, J; Guo, D; Spijksma, G; Hankemeier, T; IJzerman, A P

    2015-12-01

    Conventional methods to measure ligand-receptor binding parameters typically require radiolabeled ligands as probes. Despite the robustness of radioligand binding assays, they carry inherent disadvantages in terms of safety precautions, expensive synthesis, special lab requirements, and waste disposal. Mass spectrometry (MS) is a method that can selectively detect ligands without the need of a label. The sensitivity of MS equipment increases progressively, and currently, it is possible to detect low ligand quantities that are usually found in ligand binding assays. We developed a label-free MS ligand binding (MS binding) assay on the adenosine A(1) and A(2A) receptors (A(1)AR and A(2A)AR), which are well-characterized members of the class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Radioligand binding assays for both receptors are well established, and ample data is available to compare and evaluate the performance of an MS binding assay. 1,3-Dipropyl-8-cyclopentyl-xanthine (DPCPX) and 4-(2-((7-amino-2-(furan-2-yl)-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]-[1,3,5]triazin-5-yl)amino)ethyl)phenol (ZM-241,385) are high-affinity ligands selective for the A(1)AR and A(2A)AR, respectively. To proof the feasibility of MS binding on the A(1)AR and A(2A)AR, we first developed an MS detection method for unlabeled DPCPX and ZM-241,385. To serve as internal standards, both compounds were also deuterium-labeled. Subsequently, we investigated whether the two unlabeled compounds could substitute for their radiolabeled counterparts as marker ligands in binding experiments, including saturation, displacement, dissociation, and competition association assays. Furthermore, we investigated the accuracy of these assays if the use of internal standards was excluded. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the MS binding assay, even in the absence of a deuterium-labeled internal standard, and provide great promise for the further development of label-free assays based on MS for other GPCRs.

  5. Identification of Novel Adenosine A2A Receptor Antagonists by Virtual Screening

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Virtual screening was performed against experimentally enabled homology models of the adenosine A2A receptor, identifying a diverse range of ligand efficient antagonists (hit rate 9%). By use of ligand docking and Biophysical Mapping (BPM), hits 1 and 5 were optimized to potent and selective lead molecules (11–13 from 5, pKI = 7.5–8.5, 13- to >100-fold selective versus adenosine A1; 14–16 from 1, pKI = 7.9–9.0, 19- to 59-fold selective). PMID:22250781

  6. Physical origins of remarkable thermostabilization by an octuple mutation for the adenosine A2a receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajiwara, Yuta; Ogino, Takahiro; Yasuda, Satoshi; Takamuku, Yuuki; Murata, Takeshi; Kinoshita, Masahiro

    2016-07-01

    It was experimentally showed that the thermal stability of a membrane protein, the adenosine A2a receptor, was remarkably enhanced by an octuple mutation. Here we theoretically prove that the energy decrease arising from the formation of protein intramolecular hydrogen bonds and the solvent-entropy gain upon protein folding are made substantially larger by the mutation, leading to the remarkable enhancement. The solvent is formed by hydrocarbon groups constituting nonpolar chains of the lipid bilayer within a membrane. The mutation modifies geometric characteristics of the structure so that the solvent crowding can be reduced to a larger extent when the protein folds.

  7. Untangling dopamine-adenosine receptor-receptor assembly in experimental parkinsonism in rats

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Dueñas, Víctor; Taura, Jaume J.; Cottet, Martin; Gómez-Soler, Maricel; López-Cano, Marc; Ledent, Catherine; Watanabe, Masahiko; Trinquet, Eric; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Luján, Rafael; Durroux, Thierry; Ciruela, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a dopaminergic-related pathology in which functioning of the basal ganglia is altered. It has been postulated that a direct receptor-receptor interaction – i.e. of dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) with adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) (forming D2R-A2AR oligomers) – finely regulates this brain area. Accordingly, elucidating whether the pathology prompts changes to these complexes could provide valuable information for the design of new PD therapies. Here, we first resolved a long-standing question concerning whether D2R-A2AR assembly occurs in native tissue: by means of different complementary experimental approaches (i.e. immunoelectron microscopy, proximity ligation assay and TR-FRET), we unambiguously identified native D2R-A2AR oligomers in rat striatum. Subsequently, we determined that, under pathological conditions (i.e. in a rat PD model), D2R-A2AR interaction was impaired. Collectively, these results provide definitive evidence for alteration of native D2R-A2AR oligomers in experimental parkinsonism, thus conferring the rationale for appropriate oligomer-based PD treatments. PMID:25398851

  8. Key Modulatory Role of Presynaptic Adenosine A2A Receptors in Cortical Neurotransmission to the Striatal Direct Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Quiroz, César; Luján, Rafael; Uchigashima, Motokazu; Simoes, Ana Patrícia; Lerner, Talia N.; Borycz, Janusz; Kachroo, Anil; Canas, Paula M.; Orru, Marco; Schwarzschild, Michael A.; Rosin, Diane L.; Kreitzer, Anatol C.; Cunha, Rodrigo A.; Watanabe, Masahiko; Ferré, Sergi

    2010-01-01

    Basal ganglia processing results from a balanced activation of direct and indirect striatal efferent pathways, which are controlled by dopamine D1 and D2 receptors, respectively. Adenosine A2A receptors are considered novel anti-parkinsonian targets, based on their selective postsynaptic localization in the indirect pathway, where they modulate D2 receptor function. The present study provides evidence for the existence of an additional functionally significant segregation of A2A receptors at the presynaptic level. Using integrated anatomical, electrophysiological and biochemical approaches, we demonstrate that presynaptic A2A receptors are preferentially localized in cortical glutamatergic terminals that contact striatal neurons of the direct pathway, where they exert a selective modulation of cortico-striatal neurotransmission. Presynaptic striatal A2A receptors could provide a new target for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:19936569

  9. Key modulatory role of presynaptic adenosine A2A receptors in cortical neurotransmission to the striatal direct pathway.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, César; Luján, Rafael; Uchigashima, Motokazu; Simoes, Ana Patrícia; Lerner, Talia N; Borycz, Janusz; Kachroo, Anil; Canas, Paula M; Orru, Marco; Schwarzschild, Michael A; Rosin, Diane L; Kreitzer, Anatol C; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Watanabe, Masahiko; Ferré, Sergi

    2009-11-18

    Basal ganglia processing results from a balanced activation of direct and indirect striatal efferent pathways, which are controlled by dopamine D1 and D2 receptors, respectively. Adenosine A2A receptors are considered novel antiparkinsonian targets, based on their selective postsynaptic localization in the indirect pathway, where they modulate D2 receptor function. The present study provides evidence for the existence of an additional, functionally significant, segregation of A2A receptors at the presynaptic level. Using integrated anatomical, electrophysiological, and biochemical approaches, we demonstrate that presynaptic A2A receptors are preferentially localized in cortical glutamatergic terminals that contact striatal neurons of the direct pathway, where they exert a selective modulation of corticostriatal neurotransmission. Presynaptic striatal A2A receptors could provide a new target for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  10. Agonist Dynamics and Conformational Selection during Microsecond Simulations of the A2A Adenosine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Young; Lyman, Edward

    2012-01-01

    The G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a ubiquitous family of signaling proteins of exceptional pharmacological importance. The recent publication of structures of several GPCRs cocrystallized with ligands of differing activity offers a unique opportunity to gain insight into their function. To that end, we performed microsecond-timescale simulations of the A2A adenosine receptor bound to either of two agonists, adenosine or UK432097. Our data suggest that adenosine is highly dynamic when bound to A2A, in stark contrast to the case with UK432097. Remarkably, adenosine finds an alternate binding pose in which the ligand is inverted relative to the crystal structure, forming relatively stable interactions with helices I and II. Our observations suggest new experimental tests to validate our predictions and deepen our understanding of GPCR signaling. Overall, our data suggest an intriguing hypothesis: that the 100- to 1000-fold greater efficacy of UK432097 relative to adenosine arises because UK432097 stabilizes a much tighter neighborhood of active conformations, which manifests as a greater likelihood of G-protein activation per unit time. PMID:22824275

  11. In vitro metabolism studies of new adenosine A 2A receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Marucci, Gabriella; Finaurini, Sara; Buccioni, Michela; Lammi, Carmen; Kandhavelu, Meenakshisundaram; Volpini, Rosaria; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Angeli, Piero; Commandeur, Jan N M; Cristalli, Gloria

    2008-12-01

    Evidence, obtained in rodent and primate models of Parkinson's disease (PD) and in preliminary clinical trials, indicates that adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists might represent a promising non-dopaminergic therapeutic tool for the treatment of PD. Recently, we have reported the biological evaluation of 8-substituted 9-ethyladenines (ANR) as new A(2A) receptor antagonists, three of which (ANR 82, ANR 94, and ANR 152) showed high efficacy in in vivo models for Parkinson's. Understanding the metabolic pathways of new drug candidates is an important aspect of drug discovery. The ANR compounds have been investigated in order to clarify their activity on rat liver microsomes, and more specifically on recombinant human cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6). The metabolites of all three compounds were detected by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The results indicate that this class of 9-ethyladenines is metabolized only to a fraction of 1.5-5%. These compounds also act as potent mechanism-based inhibitors of CYP450 and in particular of human isoform CYP2D6. Kinetic-analysis of enzyme inactivation was used to describe the effect of these time-dependent inhibitors and to derive the inhibition parameters K(inact) and K(i) defined with respect to the O-demethylation of dextromethorphan.

  12. Potential therapeutic relevance of adenosine A2B and A2A receptors in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Popoli, Patrizia; Pepponi, Rita

    2012-09-01

    Adenosine A2B and, much more importantly, adenosine A2A receptors modulate many physiological and pathological processes in the brain. In this review, the most recent evidence concerning the role of such receptors and their potential therapeutic relevance is discussed. The low affinity of A2B receptors for adenosine implies that they might represent a good therapeutic target, since they are activated only under pathological conditions (when adenosine levels raise up to micromolar concentrations). The availability of selective ligands for A2B receptors would allow exploration of such an hypothesis. Since adenosine A2A receptors mediate both potentially neuroprotective and potentially neurotoxic effects, their role in neurodegenerative diseases is highly controversial. Nevertheless, A2A receptor antagonists have shown clear antiparkinsonian effects, and a great interest exists on the role of A2A receptors in Alzheimer's disease, brain ischaemia, spinal cord injury, drug addiction and other conditions. In order to establish whether such receptors represent a target for CNS diseases, at least two conditions are needed: the full comprehension of A2A-dependent mechanisms and the availability of ligands capable of discriminating among the different receptor populations.

  13. Polydeoxyribonucleotides (PDRNs) From Skin to Musculoskeletal Tissue Regeneration via Adenosine A2A Receptor Involvement.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, Francesca; Dallari, Dante; Sabbioni, Giacomo; Carubbi, Chiara; Martini, Lucia; Fini, Milena

    2017-09-01

    Polydeoxyribonucleotides (PDRNs) are low molecular weight DNA molecules of natural origin that stimulate cell migration and growth, extracellular matrix (ECM) protein production, and reduce inflammation. Most preclinical and clinical studies on tissue regeneration with PDRNs focused on skin, and only few are about musculoskeletal tissues. Starting from an overview on skin regeneration studies, through the analysis of in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies (1990-2016), the present review aimed at defining the effects of PDRN and their mechanisms of action in the regeneration of musculoskeletal tissues. This would also help future researches in this area. A total of 29 studies were found by PubMed and www.webofknowledge.com searches: 20 were on skin (six in vitro, six in vivo, one vitro/vivo, seven clinical studies), while the other nine regarded bone (one in vitro, two in vivo, one clinical studies), cartilage (one in vitro, one vitro/vivo, two clinical studies), or tendon (one clinical study) tissues regeneration. PDRNs improved cell growth, tissue repair, ECM proteins, physical activity, and reduced pain and inflammation, through the activation of adenosine A2A receptor. PDRNs are currently used for bone, cartilage, and tendon diseases, with a great variability regarding the PDRN dosage to be used in clinical practice, while the dosage for skin regeneration is well established. PDRNs are usually administered from a minimum of three to a maximum of five times and they act trough the activation of A2A receptor. Further studies are advisable to confirm the effectiveness of PDRNs and to standardize the PDRN dose. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 2299-2307, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Postsynaptic Adenosine A2A Receptors Modulate Intrinsic Excitability of Pyramidal Cells in the Rat Basolateral Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Rau, Andrew R.; Ariwodola, Olusegun J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The basolateral amygdala plays a critical role in the etiology of anxiety disorders and addiction. Pyramidal neurons, the primary output cells of this region, display increased firing following exposure to stressors, and it is thought that this increase in excitability contributes to stress responsivity and the expression of anxiety-like behaviors. However, much remains unknown about the underlying mechanisms that regulate the intrinsic excitability of basolateral amygdala pyramidal neurons. Methods: Ex vivo gramicidin perforated patch recordings were conducted in current clamp mode where hyper- and depolarizing current steps were applied to basolateral amygdala pyramidal neurons to assess the effects of adenosine A2A receptor modulation on intrinsic excitability. Results: Activation of adenosine A2A receptors with the selective A2A receptor agonist CGS-21680 significantly increased the firing rate of basolateral amygdala pyramidal neurons in rat amygdala brain slices, likely via inhibition of the slow afterhyperpolarization potential. Both of these A2A receptor-mediated effects were blocked by preapplication of a selective A2A receptor antagonist (ZM-241385) or by intra-pipette infusion of a protein kinase A inhibitor, suggesting a postsynaptic locus of A2A receptors on basolateral amygdala pyramidal neurons. Interestingly, bath application of the A2A receptor antagonist alone significantly attenuated basolateral amygdala pyramidal cell firing, consistent with a role for tonic adenosine in the regulation of the intrinsic excitability of these neurons. Conclusions: Collectively, these data suggest that adenosine, via activation of A2A receptors, may directly facilitate basolateral amygdala pyramidal cell output, providing a possible balance for the recently described inhibitory effects of adenosine A1 receptor activation on glutamatergic excitation of basolateral amygdala pyramidal cells. PMID:25716780

  15. Past, present and future of A(2A) adenosine receptor antagonists in the therapy of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Armentero, Marie Therese; Pinna, Annalisa; Ferré, Sergi; Lanciego, José Luis; Müller, Christa E; Franco, Rafael

    2011-12-01

    Several selective antagonists for adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A)R) are currently under evaluation in clinical trials (phases I to III) to treat Parkinson's disease, and they will probably soon reach the market. The usefulness of these antagonists has been deduced from studies demonstrating functional interactions between dopamine D₂ and adenosine A(2A) receptors in the basal ganglia. At present it is believed that A(2A)R antagonists can be used in combination with the dopamine precursor L-DOPA to minimize the motor symptoms of Parkinson's patients. However, a considerable body of data indicates that in addition to ameliorating motor symptoms, adenosine A(2A)R antagonists may also prevent neurodegeneration. Despite these promising indications, one further issue must be considered in order to develop fully optimized antiparkinsonian drug therapy, namely the existence of (hetero)dimers/oligomers of G protein-coupled receptors, a topic that is currently the focus of intense debate within the scientific community. Dopamine D₂ receptors (D₂Rs) expressed in the striatum are known to form heteromers with A(2A) adenosine receptors. Thus, the development of heteromer-specific A(2A) receptor antagonists represents a promising strategy for the identification of more selective and safer drugs.

  16. A2A adenosine receptors are up-regulated in lymphocytes from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Corciulo, Carmen; Targa, Martina; Casetta, Ilaria; Gentile, Mauro; Granieri, Enrico; Borea, Pier Andrea; Popoli, Patrizia; Varani, Katia

    2013-09-01

    Adenosine, a purine nucleoside interacting with A1, A2A, A2B and A3 adenosine receptors (ARs), is a potent endogenous modulator of inflammatory and neuronal processes involved in the pathophysiology of several neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, ARs were investigated in lymphocytes from patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and compared with age-matched healthy subjects. In ALS patients A2AARs were analysed by using RT-PCR, Western blotting and saturation binding experiments. The effect of A2AAR stimulation on cyclic AMP levels was evaluated in lymphocytes from ALS patients and healthy subjects. An up-regulation of A2AARs was observed in ALS patients with respect to healthy subjects while A1, A2B and A3AR affinity and density did not change. In ALS patients, the A2AAR density values correlated with the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) scores. Furthermore, the stimulation of A2AARs mediated a significant increase in cyclic AMP levels in lymphocytes from ALS patients, with a higher potency than in lymphocytes from healthy subjects. In conclusion, the positive correlation between A2AAR density and ALSFRS-R scores could indicate a possible protective effect of this receptor subtype, representing an interesting starting point for the study of alternative therapeutic approaches for ALS based on A2AAR modulation.

  17. New adenosine A2A receptor antagonists: actions on Parkinson's disease models.

    PubMed

    Pinna, Annalisa; Volpini, Rosaria; Cristalli, Gloria; Morelli, Micaela

    2005-04-11

    The 8-substituted 9-ethyladenine derivatives: 8-bromo-9-ethyladenine (ANR 82), 8-ethoxy- 9-ethyladenine (ANR 94), and 8-furyl-9-ethyladenine (ANR 152) have been characterized in vitro as adenosine receptor antagonists. Adenosine is deeply involved in the control of motor behaviour and substantial evidences indicate that adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists improve motor deficits in animal models of Parkinson's disease. On this basis, the efficacy of ANR 82, ANR 94, and ANR 152 in rat models of Parkinson's disease was evaluated. All compounds tested reversed the catalepsy induced by haloperidol. However, in unilaterally 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats, only ANR 94 and ANR 152 potentiated l-dihydroxy-phenylalanine (l-DOPA) effect on turning behaviour and induced contralateral turning behaviour in rats sensitised to l-DOPA. Taken together the results of this study indicate that some 8-substituted 9-ethyladenine derivatives ameliorate motor deficits in rat models of Parkinson's disease, suggesting a potential therapeutic role of these compounds.

  18. A2A adenosine receptor regulates the human blood brain barrier permeability

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do-Geun; Bynoe, Margaret S.

    2015-01-01

    The blood brain barrier (BBB) symbolically represents the gateway to the central nervous system. It is a single layer of specialized endothelial cells that coats the central nervous system (CNS) vasculature and physically separates the brain environment from the blood constituents, to maintain the homeostasis of the CNS. However, this protective measure is a hindrance to the delivery of therapeutics to treat neurological diseases. Here, we show that activation of A2A adenosine receptor (AR) with an FDA-approved agonist potently permeabilizes an in vitro primary human brain endothelial barrier (hBBB) to the passage of chemotherapeutic drugs and T cells. T cell migration under AR signaling occurs primarily by paracellular transendothelial route. Permeabilization of the hBBB is rapid, time-dependent and reversible and is mediated by morphological changes in actin-cytoskeletal reorganization induced by RhoA signaling and a potent down-regulation of Claudin-5 and VE-Cadherin. Moreover, the kinetics of BBB permeability in mice closely overlaps with the permeability kinetics of the hBBB. These data suggest that activation of A2A AR is an endogenous mechanism that may be used for CNS drug delivery in human. PMID:25262373

  19. Adenosine A2A and A2B Receptors Differentially Modulate Keratinocyte Proliferation: Possible Deregulation in Psoriatic Epidermis.

    PubMed

    Andrés, Rosa M; Terencio, María Carmen; Arasa, Jorge; Payá, Miguel; Valcuende-Cavero, Francisca; Navalón, Pedro; Montesinos, María Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Adenosine is a potent regulator of inflammation and immunity, but the role of adenosine receptors in keratinocytes remains controversial. We determined that in addition to A2B receptors, human epidermal keratinocytes also express A2A receptors, although to a lower extent. Through the use of selective adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists, we showed that physiological concentrations of adenosine activate A2B receptors in normal human keratinocytes, inducing cell cycle arrest through the increase of intracellular calcium but not through cAMP signaling. In contrast, the selective activation of A2A receptors by CGS-21680 induces keratinocyte proliferation via p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. Adenosine and selective A2A and A2B agonists presented anti-inflammatory profiles independent of adenosine receptors but mediated by membrane phosphatase activation. Finally, keratinocyte exposure to diverse inflammatory cytokines altered adenosine receptor expression by reducing A2B and increasing A2A, a pattern also observed in psoriatic epidermis. Because increased epidermal turnover and inflammatory response are characteristics of psoriatic disease, further studies are needed to assess the role and consequences of the altered adenosine receptor expression in lesional and nonlesional psoriatic keratinocytes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Selective adenosine A2A receptor agonists and antagonists protect against spinal cord injury through peripheral and central effects

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Permanent functional deficits following spinal cord injury (SCI) arise both from mechanical injury and from secondary tissue reactions involving inflammation. Enhanced release of adenosine and glutamate soon after SCI represents a component in the sequelae that may be responsible for resulting functional deficits. The role of adenosine A2A receptor in central ischemia/trauma is still to be elucidated. In our previous studies we have demonstrated that the adenosine A2A receptor-selective agonist CGS21680, systemically administered after SCI, protects from tissue damage, locomotor dysfunction and different inflammatory readouts. In this work we studied the effect of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist SCH58261, systemically administered after SCI, on the same parameters. We investigated the hypothesis that the main action mechanism of agonists and antagonists is at peripheral or central sites. Methods Spinal trauma was induced by extradural compression of SC exposed via a four-level T5-T8 laminectomy in mouse. Three drug-dosing protocols were utilized: a short-term systemic administration by intraperitoneal injection, a chronic administration via osmotic minipump, and direct injection into the spinal cord. Results SCH58261, systemically administered (0.01 mg/kg intraperitoneal. 1, 6 and 10 hours after SCI), reduced demyelination and levels of TNF-α, Fas-L, PAR, Bax expression and activation of JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) 24 hours after SCI. Chronic SCH58261 administration, by mini-osmotic pump delivery for 10 days, improved the neurological deficit up to 10 days after SCI. Adenosine A2A receptors are physiologically expressed in the spinal cord by astrocytes, microglia and oligodendrocytes. Soon after SCI (24 hours), these receptors showed enhanced expression in neurons. Both the A2A agonist and antagonist, administered intraperitoneally, reduced expression of the A2A receptor, ruling out the possibility that the neuroprotective effects

  1. GDNF control of the glutamatergic cortico-striatal pathway requires tonic activation of adenosine A2A Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Catarina A.R.V.; Simões, Patrícia F.; Canas, Paula M.; Quiroz, César; Sebastião, Ana M.; Ferré, Sergi; Cunha, Rodrigo A.; Ribeiro, Joaquim A.

    2009-01-01

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) affords neuroprotection in Parkinson’s disease in accordance with its ability to bolster nigrostriatal innervation. We previously found that GDNF facilitates dopamine release in a manner dependent on adenosine A2A receptor activation. Since motor dysfunction also involves modifications of striatal glutamatergic innervation, we now tested if GDNF and its receptor system, Ret (rearranged during transfection) and GFRα1 (GDNF family receptor alpha 1) controlled the cortico-striatal glutamatergic pathway in an A2A receptor-dependent manner. GDNF (10 ng/ml) enhanced (by ≈13%) glutamate release from rat striatal nerve endings, an effect potentiated (up to ≈ 30%) by the A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680 (10 nM) and prevented by the A2A receptor antagonist, SCH 58261 (50 nM). Triple immunocytochemical studies revealed that Ret and GFRα1 were located in 50% of rat striatal glutamatergic terminals (immunopositive for vesicular glutamate transporters-1/2), where they were found to be co-located with A2A receptors. Activation of the glutamatergic system upon in vivo electrical stimulation of the rat cortico-striatal input induced striatal Ret phosphoprylation that was prevented by pre-treatment with the A2A receptor antagonist, MSX-3 (3 mg/kg). The results provide the first functional and morphological evidence that GDNF controls cortico-striatal glutamatergic pathways in a manner largely dependent on the co-activation of adenosine A2A receptors. PMID:19141075

  2. Adenosine A(2A)-cannabinoid CB(1) receptor interaction: an integrative mechanism in striatal glutamatergic neurotransmission.

    PubMed

    Tebano, Maria Teresa; Martire, Alberto; Popoli, Patrizia

    2012-10-02

    The striatum is a subcortical area involved in sensorimotor, cognitive and emotional processes. Adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A)Rs) are highly expressed in the striatum, and their ability to establish functional and molecular interactions with many other receptors attributes to a pivotal role in the modulation and integration of striatal neurotransmission. This review will focus on the interaction between A(2A)Rs and cannabinoid CB(1) receptors (CB(1)Rs), taking it as a paradigmatic example of synaptic integration. Indeed, A(2A)Rs can exert an opposite (permissive vs. inhibitory) influence on CB1-dependent synaptic effect. These apparently irreconcilable functions could depend on a different role of pre- vs. postsynaptic A(2A)Rs, on their interaction with other receptors (namely adenosine A(1), metabotropic glutamate 5 and dopamine D2 receptors), and on whether A(2A)Rs form or not heteromers with CB(1)Rs. Besides providing a good example of the intricate pattern of events taking place in striatal synapses, the A(2A)/CB(1)R interaction proves very informative to understand the physiology of the basal ganglia and the mechanisms of related diseases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Brain Integration.

  3. Characterization of [125I]ZM 241385 binding to adenosine A2A receptors in the pineal of sheep brain.

    PubMed

    Yan, X; Koos, B J; Kruger, L; Linden, J; Murray, T F

    2006-06-22

    Adenosine is a ubiquitous neuromodulator and homeostatic regulator that exerts its physiologic actions through activation of A(1), A(2A), A(2B) and A(3) adenosine receptor subtypes. In the central nervous system, adenosine's action in neurons is manifested in its modulation of tonic inhibitory control. Adenosine released in the brain during hypoxia has critical depressant effects on breathing in fetal and newborn mammals, an action suggested to be mediated by A(2A) receptors in the posteromedial thalamus. In an effort to more accurately define the spatial distribution of adenosine A(2A) receptors in fetal sheep diencephalon, we have used a receptor autoradiographic technique utilizing an iodinated radioligand [(125)I]ZM 241385, which has greater sensitivity and resolution than the tritiated compound. The distribution of ligand binding sites in the fetal sheep diencephalon indicated that the highest levels of binding were in select thalamic nuclei, including those implicated in hypoxic depression of fetal breathing, and the pineal. Given the high density of labeled A(2A) receptors in the pineal, these sites were characterized more fully in homogenate radioligand binding assays. These data indicate that [(125)I]ZM 241385 binding sites display a pharmacological signature consistent with that of adenosine A(2A) receptors and are expressed at similar levels in fetal, lamb and adult ovine brain. The adenosine A(2A) receptor pharmacologic signature of the [(125)I]ZM 241385 binding site in pineal cell membranes generalized to the site characterized in membranes derived from other portions of the lamb thalamus, including the sector involved in hypoxic inhibition of fetal breathing. These results have important implications for the functional roles of adenosine A(2A) receptors in the thalamus and pineal of sheep brain.

  4. Macrophage A2A Adenosinergic Receptor Modulates Oxygen-Induced Augmentation of Murine Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    D’Alessio, Franco R.; Eto, Yoshiki; Chau, Eric; Avalos, Claudia; Waickman, Adam T.; Garibaldi, Brian T.; Mock, Jason R.; Files, Daniel C.; Sidhaye, Venkataramana; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y.; Powell, Jonathan; Horton, Maureen; King, Landon S.

    2013-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) causes significant morbidity and mortality. Exacerbating factors increasing the risk of ARDS remain unknown. Supplemental oxygen is often necessary in both mild and severe lung disease. The potential effects of supplemental oxygen may include augmentation of lung inflammation by inhibiting anti-inflammatory pathways in alveolar macrophages. We sought to determine oxygen-derived effects on the anti-inflammatory A2A adenosinergic (ADORA2A) receptor in macrophages, and the role of the ADORA2A receptor in lung injury. Wild-type (WT) and ADORA2A−/− mice received intratracheal lipopolysaccharide (IT LPS), followed 12 hours later by continuous exposure to 21% oxygen (control mice) or 60% oxygen for 1 to 3 days. We measured the phenotypic endpoints of lung injury and the alveolar macrophage inflammatory state. We tested an ADORA2A-specific agonist, CGS-21680 hydrochloride, in LPS plus oxygen-exposed WT and ADORA2A−/− mice. We determined the specific effects of myeloid ADORA2A, using chimera experiments. Compared with WT mice, ADORA2A−/− mice exposed to IT LPS and 60% oxygen demonstrated significantly more histologic lung injury, alveolar neutrophils, and protein. Macrophages from ADORA2A−/− mice exposed to LPS plus oxygen expressed higher concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and cosignaling molecules. CGS-21680 prevented the oxygen-induced augmentation of lung injury after LPS only in WT mice. Chimera experiments demonstrated that the transfer of WT but not ADORA2A−/− bone marrow cells into irradiated ADORA2A−/− mice reduced lung injury after LPS plus oxygen, demonstrating myeloid ADORA2A protection. ADORA2A is protective against lung injury after LPS and oxygen. Oxygen after LPS increases macrophage activation to augment lung injury by inhibiting the ADORA2A pathway. PMID:23349051

  5. A1 and A2a receptors mediate inhibitory effects of adenosine on the motor activity of human colon.

    PubMed

    Fornai, M; Antonioli, L; Colucci, R; Ghisu, N; Buccianti, P; Marioni, A; Chiarugi, M; Tuccori, M; Blandizzi, C; Del Tacca, M

    2009-04-01

    Experimental evidence in animal models suggests that adenosine is involved in the regulation of digestive functions. This study examines the influence of adenosine on the contractile activity of human colon. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed A(1) and A(2a) receptor expression in colonic neuromuscular layers. Circular muscle preparations were connected to isotonic transducers to determine the effects of 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX; A(1) receptor antagonist), ZM 241385 (A(2a) receptor antagonist), CCPA (A(1) receptor agonist) and 2-[(p-2-carboxyethyl)-phenethylamino]-5'-N-ethyl-carboxamide-adenosine (CGS 21680; A(2a) receptor agonist) on motor responses evoked by electrical stimulation or carbachol. Electrically evoked contractions were enhanced by DPCPX and ZM 241385, and reduced by CCPA and CGS 21680. Similar effects were observed when colonic preparations were incubated with guanethidine (noradrenergic blocker), L-732,138, GR-159897 and SB-218795 (NK receptor antagonists). However, in the presence of guanethidine, NK receptor antagonists and N(omega)-propyl-L-arginine (NPA; neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), the effects of DPCPX and CCPA were still evident, while those of ZM 241385 and CGS 21680 no longer occurred. Carbachol-induced contractions were unaffected by A(2a) receptor ligands, but they were enhanced or reduced by DPCPX and CCPA, respectively. When colonic preparations were incubated with guanethidine, NK antagonists and atropine, electrically induced relaxations were partly reduced by ZM 241385 or NPA, but unaffected by DPCPX. Dipyridamole or application of exogenous adenosine reduced electrically and carbachol-evoked contractions, whereas adenosine deaminase enhanced such motor responses. In conclusion, adenosine exerts an inhibitory control on human colonic motility. A(1) receptors mediate direct modulating actions on smooth muscle, whereas A(2a) receptors operate through inhibitory nitrergic nerve pathways.

  6. Synthesis of [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrazines as adenosine A2A receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Dowling, James E; Vessels, Jeffrey T; Haque, Serajul; Chang, He Xi; van Vloten, Kurt; Kumaravel, Gnanasambandam; Engber, Thomas; Jin, Xiaowei; Phadke, Deepali; Wang, Joy; Ayyub, Eman; Petter, Russell C

    2005-11-01

    Potent and selective antagonists of the adenosine A2A receptor often contain a nitrogen-rich fused-ring heterocyclic core. Replacement of the core with an isomeric ring system has previously been shown to improve target affinity, selectivity, and in vivo activity. This paper describes the preparation, by a novel route, of A2A receptor antagonists containing the [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrazine nucleus, which is isomeric with the [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidine core of a series of known A2A antagonists with in vivo activity in animal models of Parkinson's disease.

  7. An Update on Adenosine A2A-Dopamine D2 receptor interactions. Implications for the Function of G Protein-Coupled Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ferré, S.; Quiroz, C.; Woods, A. S.; Cunha, R.; Popoli, P.; Ciruela, F.; Lluis, C.; Franco, R.; Azdad, K.; Schiffmann, S. N.

    2008-01-01

    Adenosine A2A-dopamine D2 receptor interactions play a very important role in striatal function. A2A-D2 receptor interactions provide an example of the capabilities of information processing by just two different G protein-coupled receptors. Thus, there is evidence for the coexistence of two reciprocal antagonistic interactions between A2A and D2 receptors in the same neurons, the GABAergic enkephalinergic nens. An antagonistic A2A-D2 intramembrane receptor interaction, which depends on A2A-D2 receptor heteromerization and Gq/11-PLC signaling, modulates neuronal excitability and neurotransmitter release. On the other hand, an antagonistic A2A-D2 receptor interaction at the adenylyl-cyclase level, which depends on Gs/olf- and Gi/o- type V adenylyl-cyclase signaling, modulates protein phosphorylation and gene expression. Finally, under conditions of upregulation of an activator of G protein signaling (AGS3), such as during chronic treatment with addictive drugs, a synergistic A2A-D2 receptor interaction can also be demonstrated. AGS3 facilitates a synergistic interaction between Gs/olf- and Gi/o- coupled receptors on the activation of types II/IV adenylyl cyclase, leading to a paradoxical increase in protein phosphorylation and gene expression upon co-activation of A2A and D2 receptors. The analysis of A2-D2 receptor interactions will have implications for the pathophysiology and treatment of basal ganglia disorders and drug addiction. PMID:18537670

  8. Adenosine A2A receptor blockade differentially influences excitotoxic mechanisms at pre- and postsynaptic sites in the rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Tebano, Maria Teresa; Pintor, Annita; Frank, Claudio; Domenici, Maria Rosaria; Martire, Alberto; Pepponi, Rita; Potenza, Rosa Luisa; Grieco, Rosa; Popoli, Patrizia

    2004-07-01

    Adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists are being regarded as potential neuroprotective drugs, although the mechanisms underlying their effects need to be better studied. The aim of this work was to investigate further the mechanism of the neuroprotective action of A(2A) receptor antagonists in models of pre- and postsynaptic excitotoxicity. In microdialysis studies, the intrastriatal perfusion of the A(2A) receptor antagonist ZM 241385 (5 and 50 nM) significantly reduced, in an inversely dose-dependent way, the raise in glutamate outflow induced by 5 mM quinolinic acid (QA). In rat corticostriatal slices, ZM 241385 (30-100 nM) significantly reduced 4-aminopyridine (4-AP)-induced paired-pulse inhibition (PPI; an index of neurotransmitter release), whereas it worsened the depression of field potential amplitude elicited by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA; 12.5 and 50 microM). The A(2A) antagonist SCH 58261 (30 nM) mimicked the effects of ZM 241385, whereas the A(2A) agonist CGS 21680 (100 nM) showed a protective influence toward 50 microM NMDA. In rat striatal neurons, 50 nM ZM 241385 did not affect the increase in [Ca(2+)](i) or the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) induced by 100 and 300 microM NMDA, respectively. The ability of ZM 241385 to prevent QA-induced glutamate outflow and 4-AP-induced effects confirms that A(2A) receptor antagonists have inhibitory effects on neurotransmitter release, whereas the results obtained toward NMDA-induced effects suggest that A(2A) receptor blockade does not reduce, or even amplifies, excitotoxic mechanisms due to direct NMDA receptor stimulation. This indicates that the neuroprotective potential of A(2A) antagonists may be evident mainly in models of neurodegeneration in which presynaptic mechanisms play a major role.

  9. A tail of two signals: the C terminus of the A(2A)-adenosine receptor recruits alternative signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Gsandtner, Ingrid; Freissmuth, Michael

    2006-08-01

    G protein-coupled receptors are endowed with carboxyl termini that vary greatly in length and sequence. In most instances, the distal portion of the C terminus is dispensable for G protein coupling. This is also true for the A(2A)-adenosine receptor, where the last 100 amino acids are of very modest relevance to G(s) coupling. The C terminus was originally viewed mainly as the docking site for regulatory proteins of the beta-arrestin family. These beta-arrestins bind to residues that have been phosphorylated by specialized kinases (G protein-coupled receptor kinases) and thereby initiate receptor desensitization and endocytosis. More recently, it has become clear that many additional "accessory" proteins bind to C termini of G protein-coupled receptors. The article by Sun et al. in the current issue of Molecular Pharmacology identifies translin-associated protein-X as yet another interaction partner of the A(2A) receptor; translin-associated protein allows the A(2A) receptor to impinge on the signaling mechanisms by which p53 regulates neuronal differentiation, but the underlying signaling pathways are uncharted territory. With a list of five known interaction partners, the C terminus of the A(2A) receptor becomes a crowded place. Hence, there must be rules that regulate the interaction. This allows the C terminus to act as coincidence detector and as signal integrator. Despite our ignorance about the precise mechanisms, the article has exciting implications: the gene encoding for translin-associated protein-X maps to a locus implicated in some forms of schizophrenia; A(2A) receptor agonists are candidate drugs for the treatment of schizophrenic symptoms. It is of obvious interest to explore a possible link.

  10. Enhancement of AMPA currents and GluR1 membrane expression through PKA-coupled adenosine A(2A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Dias, Raquel B; Ribeiro, Joaquim A; Sebastião, Ana M

    2012-02-01

    Phosphorylation of glutamate α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors by Protein Kinase A (PKA) is known to regulate AMPA receptor (AMPAR) trafficking and stabilization at the postsynaptic membrane, which in turn is one of the key mechanisms by which synaptic transmission and plasticity are tuned. However, not much is known as to how Gs-coupled receptors contribute to endogenous PKA-mediated regulation of AMPA receptor function. Here we report that activation of the excitatory A(2A) adenosine receptor by 2-[4-(2-p-carboxyethyl)phenylamino]-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS 21680, 1-30 nM) facilitates AMPA-evoked currents in CA1 pyramidal neurons, by a mechanism dependent on PKA activation, but not on protein synthesis. This modulation of AMPA currents was mimicked by forskolin (1 μM) and did not occur in stratum radiatum interneurons. Superfusion of the A(2A) receptor agonist also caused an increase in the amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs), as well as in the membrane levels of GluR1 subunits phosphorylated at the PKA site (Ser845). The impact of this increase on GluR1-containing AMPA receptor expression was evidenced by the potentiation of LTP at the CA3-CA1 synapse that followed brief activation of A(2A) receptors. We thus propose that in conditions of increased adenosine availability, A(2A) receptor activation is responsible for setting part of the endogenous GluR1 Ser-845 phosphorylation tonus and hence, the availability of the GluR1-containing AMPA receptor extrasynaptic pool for synaptic insertion and reinforcement of synaptic strength.

  11. A differential role for the adenosine A2A receptor in opiate reinforcement vs opiate-seeking behavior.

    PubMed

    Brown, Robyn Mary; Short, Jennifer Lynn; Cowen, Michael Scott; Ledent, Catherine; Lawrence, Andrew John

    2009-03-01

    The adenosine A(2A) receptor is specifically enriched in the medium spiny neurons that make up the 'indirect' output pathway from the ventral striatum, a structure known to have a crucial, integrative role in processes such as reward, motivation, and drug-seeking behavior. In the present study we investigated the impact of adenosine A(2A) receptor deletion on behavioral responses to morphine in a number of reward-related paradigms. The acute, rewarding effects of morphine were evaluated using the conditioned place preference paradigm. Operant self-administration of morphine on both fixed and progressive ratio schedules as well as cue-induced drug-seeking was assessed. In addition, the acute locomotor response to morphine as well as sensitization to morphine was evaluated. Decreased morphine self-administration and breakpoint in A(2A) knockout mice was observed. These data support a decrease in motivation to consume the drug, perhaps reflecting diminished rewarding effects of morphine in A(2A) knockout mice. In support of this finding, a place preference to morphine was not observed in A(2A) knockout mice but was present in wild-type mice. In contrast, robust cue-induced morphine-seeking behavior was exhibited by both A(2A) knockout and wild-type mice after a period of withdrawal. The acute locomotor response to morphine in the A(2A) knockout was similar to wild-type mice, yet A(2A) knockout mice did not display tolerance to chronic morphine under the present paradigm. Both genotypes display locomotor sensitization to morphine, implying a lack of a role for the A(2A) receptor in the drug-induced plasticity necessary for the development or expression of sensitization. Collectively, these data suggest a differential role for adenosine A(2A) receptors in opiate reinforcement compared to opiate-seeking.

  12. A2A receptor antagonists do not induce dyskinesias in drug-naive or L-dopa sensitized rats.

    PubMed

    Jones, N; Bleickardt, C; Mullins, D; Parker, E; Hodgson, R

    2013-09-01

    L-dopa, the precursor to dopamine, is currently the gold standard treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, chronic exposure is associated with L-dopa-induced dyskinesias (LIDs), a serious side effect characterized by involuntary movements. Adenosine A2A receptor antagonists have been studied as a novel non-dopaminergic PD treatment. Because A2A receptor antagonists do not act on dopamine receptors, it has been hypothesized that they will not induce dyskinesias characteristic of L-dopa. To test this hypothesis in a rodent model, the A2A receptor antagonists SCH 412348 (3 mg/kg), vipadenant (10 mg/kg), caffeine (30 mg/kg), or istradefylline (3 mg/kg) were chronically (19-22 days) administered to Sprague Dawley rats, and dyskinetic behaviors were scored across this chronic dosing paradigm. Unlike L-dopa, there was no evidence of dyskinetic activity resulting from any of the four A2A receptor antagonists tested. When delivered to animals previously sensitized with L-dopa (6 mg/kg), SCH 412348, vipadenant, caffeine or istradefylline treatment produced no dyskinesias. When administered in combination with L-dopa (6 mg/kg), SCH 412348 (3 mg/kg) neither exacerbated nor prevented the induction of LIDs over the course of 19 days of treatment. Collectively, our data indicate that A2A receptor antagonists are likely to have a reduced dyskinetic liability relative to L-dopa but do not block dyskinesias when coadministered with L-dopa. Clinical studies are required to fully understand the dyskinesia profiles of A2A receptor antagonists.

  13. A2A Adenosine Receptor (A2AAR) as a Therapeutic Target in Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Ahmed S.; El-shishtawy, Mamdouh M.; Zhang, Wenbo; Caldwell, Ruth B.; Liou, Gregory I.

    2011-01-01

    In diabetic retinopathy (DR), abnormalities in vascular and neuronal function are closely related to the local production of inflammatory mediators whose potential source is microglia. A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR) has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties that have not been studied in DR. Here, we evaluate the role of A2AAR and its underlying signaling in retinal complications associated with diabetes. Initial studies in wild-type mice revealed that the treatment with the A2AAR agonist resulted in marked decreases in hyperglycemia-induced retinal cell death and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α release. To further assess the role of A2AAR in DR, we studied the effects of A2AAR ablation on diabetes-induced retinal abnormalities. Diabetic A2AAR−/− mice had significantly more terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling-positive cells, TNF-α release, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression compared with diabetic wild-type mice. To explore a potential mechanism by which A2AAR signaling regulates inflammation in DR, we performed additional studies using microglial cells treated with Amadori-glycated albumin, a risk factor in diabetic disorders. The results showed that activation of A2AAR attenuated Amadori-glycated albumin-induced TNF-α release in a cAMP/exchange protein directly activated by cAMP-dependent mechanism and significantly repressed the inflammatory cascade, C-Raf/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), in activated microglia. Collectively, this work provides pharmacological and genetic evidence for A2AAR signaling as a control point of cell death in DR and suggests that the retinal protective effect of A2AAR is mediated by abrogating the inflammatory response that occurs in microglia via interaction with C-Raf/ERK pathway. PMID:21514428

  14. High salt diet exacerbates vascular contraction in the absence of adenosine A2A receptor

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Isha; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Ledent, Catherine; Mustafa, S. Jamal; Falck, John R.; Nayeem, Mohammed A

    2014-01-01

    High salt (4%NaCl, HS) diet modulates adenosine-induced vascular response through adenosine A2A-receptor (A2AAR). Evidence suggests A2AAR stimulates cyp450-epoxygenases, leading to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) generation. The aim of this study was to understand the vascular reactivity to HS and underlying signaling mechanism in the presence or absence of A2AAR. Therefore, we hypothesized that HS enhances adenosine-induced relaxation through EETs in A2AAR+/+, but exaggerates contraction in A2AAR−/−. Organ-bath and Western-blot experiments were conducted in HS and normal salt (NS, 0.18% NaCl)-fed A2AAR+/+ and A2AAR−/− mice aortae. HS produced concentration-dependent relaxation to non-selective adenosine analog, NECA in A2AAR+/+, whereas contraction was observed in A2AAR−/− mice and this was attenuated by A1AR antagonist (DPCPX). CGS-21680 (selective A2AAR-agonist) enhanced relaxation in HS-A2AAR+/+ vs. NS-A2AAR+/+, that was blocked by EETs antagonist (14,15-EEZE). Compared to NS, HS significantly upregulated expression of vasodilators A2AAR and cyp2c29, while vasoconstrictors A1AR and cyp4a in A2AAR+/+ were downregulated. In A2AAR−/− mice, however, HS significantly downregulated the expression of cyp2c29, while A1AR and cyp4a were upregulated compared to A2AAR+/+ mice. Hence, our data suggest that in A2AAR+/+, HS enhances A2AAR-induced relaxation through increased cyp-expoxygenases-derived EETs and decreased A1AR levels, whereas in A2AAR−/−, HS exaggerates contraction through decreased cyp-epoxygenases and increased A1AR levels. PMID:24390173

  15. Genetic polymorphism of the adenosine A2A receptor is associated with habitual caffeine consumption.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, Marilyn C; El-Sohemy, Ahmed; Campos, Hannia

    2007-07-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed stimulant in the world, and individual differences in response to its stimulating effects may explain some of the variability in caffeine consumption within a population. We examined whether genetic variability in caffeine metabolism [cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) -163A-->C] or the main target of caffeine action in the nervous system [adenosine A(2A) receptor (ADORA2A) 1083C-->T] is associated with habitual caffeine consumption. Subjects (n=2735) were participants from a study of gene-diet interactions and risk of myocardial infarction who did not have a history of hypertension. Genotype frequencies were examined among persons who were categorized according to their self-reported daily caffeine intake, as assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire. The ADORA2A, but not the CYP1A2, genotype was associated with different amounts of caffeine intake. Compared with persons consuming <100 mg caffeine/d, the odds ratios for having the ADORA2A TT genotype were 0.74 (95% CI: 0.53, 1.03), 0.63 (95% CI: 0.48, 0.83), and 0.57 (95% CI: 0.42, 0.77) for those consuming 100-200, >200-400, and >400 mg caffeine/d, respectively. The association was more pronounced among current smokers than among nonsmokers (P for interaction = 0.07). Persons with the ADORA2A TT genotype also were significantly more likely to consume less caffeine (ie, <100 mg/d) than were carriers of the C allele [P=0.011 (nonsmokers), P=0.008 (smokers)]. Our findings show that the probability of having the ADORA2A 1083TT genotype decreases as habitual caffeine consumption increases. This observation provides a biologic basis for caffeine consumption behavior and suggests that persons with this genotype may be less vulnerable to caffeine dependence.

  16. Structure of the adenosine A(2A) receptor in complex with ZM241385 and the xanthines XAC and caffeine.

    PubMed

    Doré, Andrew S; Robertson, Nathan; Errey, James C; Ng, Irene; Hollenstein, Kaspar; Tehan, Ben; Hurrell, Edward; Bennett, Kirstie; Congreve, Miles; Magnani, Francesca; Tate, Christopher G; Weir, Malcolm; Marshall, Fiona H

    2011-09-07

    Methylxanthines, including caffeine and theophylline, are among the most widely consumed stimulant drugs in the world. These effects are mediated primarily via blockade of adenosine receptors. Xanthine analogs with improved properties have been developed as potential treatments for diseases such as Parkinson's disease. Here we report the structures of a thermostabilized adenosine A(2A) receptor in complex with the xanthines xanthine amine congener and caffeine, as well as the A(2A) selective inverse agonist ZM241385. The receptor is crystallized in the inactive state conformation as defined by the presence of a salt bridge known as the ionic lock. The complete third intracellular loop, responsible for G protein coupling, is visible consisting of extended helices 5 and 6. The structures provide new insight into the features that define the ligand binding pocket of the adenosine receptor for ligands of diverse chemotypes as well as the cytoplasmic regions that interact with signal transduction proteins.

  17. Deletion of striatal adenosine A(2A) receptor spares latent inhibition and prepulse inhibition but impairs active avoidance learning.

    PubMed

    Singer, Philipp; Wei, Catherine J; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Boison, Detlev; Yee, Benjamin K

    2013-04-01

    Following early clinical leads, the adenosine A(2A)R receptor (A(2A)R) has continued to attract attention as a potential novel target for treating schizophrenia, especially against the negative and cognitive symptoms of the disease because of A(2A)R's unique modulatory action over glutamatergic in addition to dopaminergic signaling. Through (i) the antagonistic interaction with the dopamine D(2) receptor, and (ii) the regulation of glutamate release and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor function, striatal A(2A)R is ideally positioned to fine-tune the dopamine-glutamate balance, the disturbance of which is implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, the precise function of striatal A(2A)Rs in the regulation of schizophrenia-relevant behavior is poorly understood. Here, we tested the impact of conditional striatum-specific A(2A)R knockout (st-A(2A)R-KO) on latent inhibition (LI) and prepulse inhibition (PPI) - behavior that is tightly regulated by striatal dopamine and glutamate. These are two common cross-species translational tests for the assessment of selective attention and sensorimotor gating deficits reported in schizophrenia patients; and enhanced performance in these tests is associated with antipsychotic drug action. We found that neither LI nor PPI was significantly affected in st-A(2A)R-KO mice, although a deficit in active avoidance learning was identified in these animals. The latter phenotype, however, was not replicated in another form of aversive conditioning - namely, conditioned taste aversion. Hence, the present study shows that neither learned inattention (as measured by LI) nor sensory gating (as indexed by PPI) requires the integrity of striatal A(2A)Rs - a finding that may undermine the hypothesized importance of A(2A)R in the genesis and/or treatment of schizophrenia.

  18. Caffeine and adenosine A(2a) receptor antagonists prevent beta-amyloid (25-35)-induced cognitive deficits in mice.

    PubMed

    Dall'Igna, Oscar P; Fett, Paulo; Gomes, Marcio W; Souza, Diogo O; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Lara, Diogo R

    2007-01-01

    Consumption of caffeine, an adenosine receptor antagonist, was found to be inversely associated with the incidence of Alzheimer's disease. Moreover, caffeine protects cultured neurons against beta-amyloid-induced toxicity, an effect mimicked by adenosine A(2A) but not A(1) receptor antagonists. We now tested if caffeine administration would prevent beta-amyloid-induced cognitive impairment in mice and if this was mimicked by A(2A) receptor blockade. One week after icv administration of the 25-35 fragment of beta-amyloid (Abeta, 3 nmol), mice displayed impaired performance in both inhibitory avoidance and spontaneous alternation tests. Prolonged treatment with caffeine (1 mg/ml) had no effect alone but prevented the Abeta-induced cognitive impairment in both tasks when associated with acute caffeine (30 mg/kg) 30 min treatment before Abeta administration. The same protective effect was observed after subchronic (4 days) treatment with daily injections of either caffeine (30 mg/kg) or the selective adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist SCH58261 (0.5 mg/kg). This provides the first direct in vivo evidence that caffeine and A(2A) receptor antagonists afford a protection against Abeta-induced amnesia, which prompts their interest for managing Alzheimer's disease.

  19. Membrane omega-3 fatty acids modulate the oligomerisation kinetics of adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guixà-González, Ramon; Javanainen, Matti; Gómez-Soler, Maricel; Cordobilla, Begoña; Domingo, Joan Carles; Sanz, Ferran; Pastor, Manuel; Ciruela, Francisco; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Selent, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Membrane levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA), are decreased in common neuropsychiatric disorders. DHA modulates key cell membrane properties like fluidity, thereby affecting the behaviour of transmembrane proteins like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). These receptors, which have special relevance for major neuropsychiatric disorders have recently been shown to form dimers or higher order oligomers, and evidence suggests that DHA levels affect GPCR function by modulating oligomerisation. In this study, we assessed the effect of membrane DHA content on the formation of a class of protein complexes with particular relevance for brain disease: adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptor oligomers. Using extensive multiscale computer modelling, we find a marked propensity of DHA for interaction with both A2A and D2 receptors, which leads to an increased rate of receptor oligomerisation. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) experiments performed on living cells suggest that this DHA effect on the oligomerisation of A2A and D2 receptors is purely kinetic. This work reveals for the first time that membrane ω-3 PUFAs play a key role in GPCR oligomerisation kinetics, which may have important implications for neuropsychiatric conditions like schizophrenia or Parkinson’s disease.

  20. Membrane omega-3 fatty acids modulate the oligomerisation kinetics of adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Guixà-González, Ramon; Javanainen, Matti; Gómez-Soler, Maricel; Cordobilla, Begoña; Domingo, Joan Carles; Sanz, Ferran; Pastor, Manuel; Ciruela, Francisco; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Selent, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Membrane levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA), are decreased in common neuropsychiatric disorders. DHA modulates key cell membrane properties like fluidity, thereby affecting the behaviour of transmembrane proteins like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). These receptors, which have special relevance for major neuropsychiatric disorders have recently been shown to form dimers or higher order oligomers, and evidence suggests that DHA levels affect GPCR function by modulating oligomerisation. In this study, we assessed the effect of membrane DHA content on the formation of a class of protein complexes with particular relevance for brain disease: adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptor oligomers. Using extensive multiscale computer modelling, we find a marked propensity of DHA for interaction with both A2A and D2 receptors, which leads to an increased rate of receptor oligomerisation. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) experiments performed on living cells suggest that this DHA effect on the oligomerisation of A2A and D2 receptors is purely kinetic. This work reveals for the first time that membrane ω-3 PUFAs play a key role in GPCR oligomerisation kinetics, which may have important implications for neuropsychiatric conditions like schizophrenia or Parkinson’s disease. PMID:26796668

  1. Blunted dynamics of adenosine A2A receptors is associated with increased susceptibility to Candida albicans infection in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Lisa; Miranda, Isabel M.; Andrade, Geanne M.; Mota, Marta; Cortes, Luísa; Rodrigues, Acácio G.; Cunha, Rodrigo A.; Gonçalves, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Opportunistic gut infections and chronic inflammation, in particular due to overgrowth of Candida albicans present in the gut microbiota, are increasingly reported in the elder population. In aged, adult and young mice, we now compared the relative intestinal over-colonization by ingested C. albicans and their translocation to other organs, focusing on the role of adenosine A2A receptors that are a main stop signal of inflammation. We report that elderly mice are more prone to over-colonization by C. albicans than adult and young mice. This fungal over-growth seems to be related with higher growth rate in intestinal lumen, independent of gut tissues invasion, but resulting in higher GI tract inflammation. We observed a particularly high colonization of the stomach, with increased rate of yeast-to-hypha transition in aged mice. We found a correlation between A2A receptor density and tissue damage due to yeast infection: comparing with young and adults, aged mice have a lower gut A2A receptor density and C. albicans infection failed to increase it. In conclusion, this study shows that aged mice have a lower ability to cope with inflammation due to C. albicans over-colonization, associated with an inability to adaptively adjust adenosine A2A receptors density. PMID:27590517

  2. Crystal structures of the A2A adenosine receptor and their use in medicinal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Kenneth A

    2013-12-20

    New insights into drug design are derived from the X-ray crystallographic structures of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), and the adenosine receptors (ARs) are at the forefront of this effort. The 3D knowledge of receptor binding and activation promises to enable drug discovery for GPCRs in general, and specifically for the ARs. The predictability of modeling based on the X-ray structures of the A2AAR has been well demonstrated in the identification, design and modification of both known and novel AR agonists and antagonists. It is expected that structure-based design of drugs acting through ARs will provide new avenues to clinically useful agents.

  3. Adenosine A2A receptors in diffuse dermal fibrosis: pathogenic role in human dermal fibroblasts and in a murine model of scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Chan, E S L; Fernandez, P; Merchant, A A; Montesinos, M C; Trzaska, S; Desai, A; Tung, C F; Khoa, D N; Pillinger, M H; Reiss, A B; Tomic-Canic, M; Chen, J F; Schwarzschild, M A; Cronstein, B N

    2006-08-01

    Adenosine regulates inflammation and tissue repair, and adenosine A2A receptors promote wound healing by stimulating collagen matrix production. We therefore examined whether adenosine A2A receptors contribute to the pathogenesis of dermal fibrosis. Collagen production by primary human dermal fibroblasts was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction, 14C-proline incorporation, and Sircol assay. Intracellular signaling for dermal collagen production was investigated using inhibitors of MEK-1 and by demonstration of ERK phosphorylation. In vivo effects were studied in a bleomycin-induced dermal fibrosis model using adenosine A2A receptor-deficient wild-type littermate mice, C57BL/6 mice, and mice treated with adenosine A2A receptor antagonist. Morphometric features and levels of hydroxyproline were determined as measures of dermal fibrosis. Adenosine A2A receptor occupancy promoted collagen production by primary human dermal fibroblasts, which was blocked by adenosine A2A, but not A1 or A2B, receptor antagonism. Adenosine A2A receptor ligation stimulated ERK phosphorylation, and A2A receptor-mediated collagen production by dermal fibroblasts was blocked by MEK-1 inhibitors. Adenosine A2A receptor-deficient and A2A receptor antagonist-treated mice were protected from developing bleomycin-induced dermal fibrosis. These results demonstrate that adenosine A2A receptors play an active role in the pathogenesis of dermal fibrosis and suggest a novel therapeutic target in the treatment and prevention of dermal fibrosis in diseases such as scleroderma.

  4. 2-Aralkynyl and 2-heteroalkynyl derivatives of adenosine-5'-N-ethyluronamide as selective A2a adenosine receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Cristalli, G; Camaioni, E; Vittori, S; Volpini, R; Borea, P A; Conti, A; Dionisotti, S; Ongini, E; Monopoli, A

    1995-04-28

    A series of new 2-aralkynyl and 2-heteroaralkynyl derivatives of NECA were synthesized and studied in binding and functional assays to assess their potency for the A2a compared to A1 adenosine receptors. Compounds bearing an aromatic or heteroaromatic ring, conjugated to the triple bond, showed generally weaker activity at the A2a receptor and lower selectivity (A2a vs A1) than the alkylakynyl derivatives previously reported. However, the (4-formylphenyl)-ethynyl derivative 17 showed affinity in the low nanomolar range and high selectivity (about 160-fold) for the A2a receptor. The presence of heteroatoms improved vasorelaxant activity, the 2-thiazolylethynyl derivative 30 being the most potent in the series. Introduction of methylene groups between the triple bond and the phenyl ring favored the A2a binding affinity, and the 5-phenyl-1-pentynyl derivative 24 was found to be highly potent and selective (about 180-fold) at A2a receptors. With regard to antiplatelet activity, the presence of aromatic or heteroaromatic rings decreased potency in comparison with that of NECA and of N-ethyl-1'-deoxy-1'-(6-amino-2-hexynyl-9H-purin-9-yl)-beta-D-ribofura nuronamide (HENECA). Introduction of a methylene group was effective in increasing antiaggregatory potency only when this group is linked to a heteroatom (31-35). From these data and those previously reported, the structure-activity relationships derived for the 2-alkynyl-substituted ribose uronamides would indicate that potentiation of A2a receptor affinity could be obtained by aromatic rings not conjugated with the triple bond or by heteroaromatic groups. As for A2a receptors on platelets, the presence of aromatic rings, either conjugated or unconjugated to the triple bond, is detrimental for the antiaggregatory activity. However, the introduction of polar groups alpha to the triple bond strongly increases the potency when steric hindrance is avoided. Some of the compounds included in this series retain interesting

  5. A new ethyladenine antagonist of adenosine A(2A) receptors: behavioral and biochemical characterization as an antiparkinsonian drug.

    PubMed

    Pinna, Annalisa; Tronci, Elisabetta; Schintu, Nicoletta; Simola, Nicola; Volpini, Rosaria; Pontis, Silvia; Cristalli, Gloria; Morelli, Micaela

    2010-03-01

    Adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists have emerged as an attractive non-dopaminergic target in clinical trials aimed at evaluating improvement in motor deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD). Moreover, preclinical studies suggest that A(2A) receptor antagonists may slow the course of the underlying neurodegeneration of dopaminergic neurons. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of the new adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist 8-ethoxy-9-ethyladenine (ANR 94) in parkinsonian models of akinesia and tremor. In addition, induction of the immediate early gene zif-268, and neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of ANR 94 were evaluated. ANR 94 was effective in reversing parkinsonian tremor induced by the administration of tacrine. ANR 94 also counteracted akinesia (stepping test) and sensorimotor deficits (vibrissae-elicited forelimb-placing test), as well as potentiating l-dopa-induced contralateral turning behavior in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion model of PD. Potentiation of motor behavior in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats was not associated with increased induction of the immediate early gene zif-268 in the striatum, suggesting that ANR 94 does not induce long-term plastic changes in this structure. Finally, in a subchronic 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD, ANR 94 protected nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons from degeneration and counteracted neuroinflammatory processes by contrasting astroglial (glial fibrillary acidic protein, GFAP) and microglial (CD11b) activation. A(2A) receptor antagonism represents a uniquely realistic opportunity for improving PD treatment, since A(2A) receptor antagonists offer substantial symptomatic benefits and possibly disease-modifying activity. The characterization of ANR 94 may represent a further therapeutic opportunity for the treatment of PD with this new class of drugs.

  6. Activation of A1, A2A, or A3 adenosine receptors attenuates lung ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Gazoni, Leo M.; Walters, Dustin M.; Unger, Eric B.; Linden, Joel; Kron, Irving L.; Laubach, Victor E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Adenosine and the activation of specific adenosine receptors are implicated in the attenuation of inflammation and organ ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. We hypothesized that activation of A1, A2A, or A3 adenosine receptors would provide protection against lung IR injury. Methods Using an isolated, ventilated, blood-perfused rabbit lung model, lungs underwent 18 hours cold ischemia followed by 2 hours reperfusion. Lungs were administered either vehicle, adenosine, or selective A1, A2A, or A3 receptor agonists (CCPA, ATL-313, or IB-MECA, respectively) alone or with their respective antagonists (DPCPX, ZM241385, or MRS1191) during reperfusion. Results Compared to the vehicle-treated control group, treatment with A1, A2A, or A3 agonists significantly improved function (increased lung compliance and oxygenation and decreased pulmonary artery pressure), decreased neutrophil infiltration by myeloperoxidase activity, decreased edema, and reduced TNF-α production. Adenosine treatment was also protective but not to the level of the agonists. When each agonist was paired with its respective antagonist, all protective effects were blocked. The A2A agonist reduced pulmonary artery pressure and myeloperoxidase activity and increased oxygenation to a greater degree than the A1 or A3 agonists. Conclusions Selective activation of A1, A2A, or A3 adenosine receptors provides significant protection against lung IR injury. The decreased elaboration of the potent proinflammatory cytokine, TNF-α, and decreased neutrophil sequestration likely contribute to the overall improvement in pulmonary function. These results provide evidence for the therapeutic potential of specific adenosine receptor agonists in lung transplant recipients. PMID:20398911

  7. A2A Adenosine Receptor Antagonism Reverts the Blood-Brain Barrier Dysfunction Induced by Sleep Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado-Alvarado, Gabriela; Domínguez-Salazar, Emilio; Velázquez-Moctezuma, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Chronic sleep restriction induces blood-brain barrier disruption and increases pro-inflammatory mediators in rodents. Those inflammatory mediators may modulate the blood-brain barrier and constitute a link between sleep loss and blood-brain barrier physiology. We propose that adenosine action on its A2A receptor may be modulating the blood-brain barrier dynamics in sleep-restricted rats. We administrated a selective A2A adenosine receptor antagonist (SCH58261) in sleep-restricted rats at the 10th day of sleep restriction and evaluated the blood-brain barrier permeability to dextrans coupled to fluorescein (FITC-dextrans) and Evans blue. In addition, we evaluated by western blot the expression of tight junction proteins (claudin-5, occludin, ZO-1), adherens junction protein (E-cadherin), A2A adenosine receptor, adenosine-synthesizing enzyme (CD73), and neuroinflammatory markers (Iba-1 and GFAP) in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, basal nuclei and cerebellar vermis. Sleep restriction increased blood-brain barrier permeability to FITC-dextrans and Evans blue, and the effect was reverted by the administration of SCH58261 in almost all brain regions, excluding the cerebellum. Sleep restriction increased the expression of A2A adenosine receptor only in the hippocampus and basal nuclei without changing the expression of CD73 in all brain regions. Sleep restriction reduced the expression of tight junction proteins in all brain regions, except in the cerebellum; and SCH58261 restored the levels of tight junction proteins in the cortex, hippocampus and basal nuclei. Finally, sleep restriction induced GFAP and Iba-1 overexpression that was attenuated with the administration of SCH58261. These data suggest that the action of adenosine on its A2A receptor may have a crucial role in blood-brain barrier dysfunction during sleep loss probably by direct modulation of brain endothelial cell permeability or through a mechanism that involves gliosis with subsequent inflammation and

  8. Controlling the Dissociation of Ligands from the Adenosine A2A Receptor through Modulation of Salt Bridge Strength.

    PubMed

    Segala, Elena; Guo, Dong; Cheng, Robert K Y; Bortolato, Andrea; Deflorian, Francesca; Doré, Andrew S; Errey, James C; Heitman, Laura H; IJzerman, Adriaan P; Marshall, Fiona H; Cooke, Robert M

    2016-07-14

    The association and dissociation kinetics of ligands binding to proteins vary considerably, but the mechanisms behind this variability are poorly understood, limiting their utilization for drug discovery. This is particularly so for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) where high resolution structural information is only beginning to emerge. Engineering the human A2A adenosine receptor has allowed structures to be solved in complex with the reference compound ZM241385 and four related ligands at high resolution. Differences between the structures are limited, with the most pronounced being the interaction of each ligand with a salt bridge on the extracellular side of the receptor. Mutagenesis experiments confirm the role of this salt bridge in controlling the dissociation kinetics of the ligands from the receptor, while molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate the ability of ligands to modulate salt bridge stability. These results shed light on a structural determinant of ligand dissociation kinetics and identify a means by which this property may be optimized.

  9. The GS Protein-coupled A2a Adenosine Receptor Controls T Cell Help in the Germinal Center.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Robert K; Silva, Murillo; Labuda, Jasmine; Thayer, Molly; Cain, Derek W; Philbrook, Phaethon; Sethumadhavan, Shalini; Hatfield, Stephen; Ohta, Akio; Sitkovsky, Michail

    2017-01-27

    T follicular helper (TFH) cells have been shown to be critically required for the germinal center (GC) reaction where B cells undergo class switch recombination and clonal selection to generate high affinity neutralizing antibodies. However, detailed knowledge of the physiological cues within the GC microenvironment that regulate T cell help is limited. The cAMP-elevating, Gs protein-coupled A2a adenosine receptor (A2aR) is an evolutionarily conserved receptor that limits and redirects cellular immunity. However, the role of A2aR in humoral immunity and B cell differentiation is unknown. We hypothesized that the hypoxic microenvironment within the GC facilitates an extracellular adenosine-rich milieu, which serves to limit TFH frequency and function, and also promotes immunosuppressive T follicular regulatory cells (TFR). In support of this hypothesis, we found that following immunization, mice lacking A2aR (A2aRKO) exhibited a significant expansion of T follicular cells, as well as increases in TFH to TFR ratio, GC T cell frequency, GC B cell frequency, and class switching of GC B cells to IgG1. Transfer of CD4 T cells from A2aRKO or wild type donors into T cell-deficient hosts revealed that these increases were largely T cell-intrinsic. Finally, injection of A2aR agonist, CGS21680, following immunization suppressed T follicular differentiation, GC B cell frequency, and class switching of GC B cells to IgG1. Taken together, these observations point to a previously unappreciated role of GS protein-coupled A2aR in regulating humoral immunity, which may be pharmacologically targeted during vaccination or pathological states in which GC-derived autoantibodies contribute to the pathology.

  10. Ultraslow Water-Mediated Transmembrane Interactions Regulate the Activation of A2A Adenosine Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yoonji; Kim, Songmi; Choi, Sun; Hyeon, Changbong

    2016-09-01

    Water molecules inside G-protein coupled receptor have recently been spotlighted in a series of crystal structures. To decipher the dynamics and functional roles of internal waters in GPCR activity, we studied A$_{\\text{2A}}$ adenosine receptor using $\\mu$sec-molecular dynamics simulations. Our study finds that the amount of water flux across the transmembrane (TM) domain varies depending on the receptor state, and that the water molecules of the TM channel in the active state flow three times slower than those in the inactive state. Depending on the location in solvent-protein interface as well as the receptor state, the average residence time of water in each residue varies from $\\sim\\mathcal{O}(10^2)$ psec to $\\sim\\mathcal{O}(10^2)$ nsec. Especially, water molecules, exhibiting ultraslow relaxation ($\\sim\\mathcal{O}(10^2)$ nsec) in the active state, are found around the microswitch residues that are considered activity hotspots for GPCR function. A continuous allosteric network spanning the TM domain, arising from water-mediated contacts, is unique in the active state, underscoring the importance of slow waters in the GPCR activation.

  11. Increased non-rapid eye movement sleep by cocaine withdrawal: possible involvement of A2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shu-Long; Han, Jin-Yi; Kim, Yun-Bae; Nam, Sang-Yoon; Song, Sukgil; Hong, Jin Tae; Oh, Ki-Wan

    2011-02-01

    This study attempted to clarify whether cocaine withdrawal altered sleep architecture and the role of adenosine receptors in this process. Cocaine (20 mg/kg) was administered subcutaneously once per day for 7 days to rat implanted with sleep/wake recording electrode. Polygraphic signs of undisturbed sleep/wake activities were recorded for 24 h before cocaine administration (basal recording as control); withdrawal-day 1 (after 1 day of repeated cocaine administration), withdrawal-day 8 (after 8 days of repeated cocaine administration), and withdrawal-day 14 (after 14 days of repeated cocaine administration), respectively. On cocaine withdrawal-day 1, wakefulness was significantly increased, total sleep was decreased, non-rapid eye movement sleep was markedly reduced, and rapid eye movement sleep was enhanced. Sleep/wake cycles were also increased on cocaine withdrawal day 1. However, non-rapid eye movement sleep was increased on withdrawal-day 8 and 14, whereas rapid eye movement sleep was decreased and no significant changes were observed in the total sleep and sleep/wake cycles during these periods. Adenosine A(2A) receptors expression was increased on withdrawal-day 8 and 14, whereas A(1) receptors levels were reduced after 14 days of withdrawal and the A(2B) receptors remained unchanged. Our findings suggest that alterations of sleep and sleep architecture during cocaine subacute and subchronic withdrawals after repeated cocaine administration may be partially involved in A(2A) receptors over-expression in the rat hypothalamus.

  12. Integrating Pharmacophore into Membrane Molecular Dynamics Simulations to Improve Homology Modeling of G Protein-coupled Receptors with Ligand Selectivity: A2A Adenosine Receptor as an Example.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lingxiao; Guan, Mengxin; Jin, Hongwei; Liu, Zhenming; Zhang, Liangren

    2015-12-01

    Homology modeling has been applied to fill in the gap in experimental G protein-coupled receptors structure determination. However, achievement of G protein-coupled receptors homology models with ligand selectivity remains challenging due to structural diversity of G protein-coupled receptors. In this work, we propose a novel strategy by integrating pharmacophore and membrane molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to improve homology modeling of G protein-coupled receptors with ligand selectivity. To validate this integrated strategy, the A2A adenosine receptor (A2A AR), whose structures in both active and inactive states have been established, has been chosen as an example. We performed blind predictions of the active-state A2A AR structure based on the inactive-state structure and compared the performance of different refinement strategies. The blind prediction model combined with the integrated strategy identified ligand-receptor interactions and conformational changes of key structural elements related to the activation of A2 A AR, including (i) the movements of intracellular ends of TM3 and TM5/TM6; (ii) the opening of ionic lock; (iii) the movements of binding site residues. The integrated strategy of pharmacophore with molecular dynamics simulations can aid in the optimization in the identification of side chain conformations in receptor models. This strategy can be further investigated in homology modeling and expand its applicability to other G protein-coupled receptor modeling, which should aid in the discovery of more effective and selective G protein-coupled receptor ligands. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Adenosine A(2A) receptor activation prevents progressive kidney fibrosis in a model of immune-associated chronic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Gabriela E; Truong, Luan D; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Johnson, Richard J; Feng, Lili

    2011-08-01

    Crescentic glomerulonephritis (GN) in Wistar-Kyoto rats progresses to lethal kidney failure by macrophage (Mφ)-mediated mechanisms. Mφs in nephritic glomeruli express adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A)Rs), the activation of which suppresses inflammation. Here, we pharmacologically activated the A(2A)Rs with a selective agonist, CGS 21680, and inactivated them with a selective antagonist, ZM241385, to test the effects on established GN. When activation was delayed until antiglomerular basement membrane GN and extracellular matrix deposition were established, glomerular Mφ infiltration was reduced by 83%. There was also a marked improvement in glomerular lesion histology, as well as decreased proteinuria. A(2A)R activation significantly reduced type I, III, and IV collagen deposition, and E-cadherin expression was restored in association with a reduction of α-smooth muscle actin-positive myofibroblasts in the interstitium and glomeruli. In contrast, pharmacological inactivation of A(2A)Rs increased glomerular crescent formation, type I, III, and IV collagen expression, and enhanced E-cadherin loss. Activation of A(2A)Rs suppressed the expression of the Mφ-linked glomerular damage mediators, transforming growth factor-β, osteopontin-1, thrombospondin-1, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1. Thus, A(2A)R activation can arrest GN and prevent progressive fibrosis in established pathological lesions.

  14. Chronic methamphetamine treatment induces oxytocin receptor up-regulation in the amygdala and hypothalamus via an adenosine A2A receptor-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zanos, Panos; Wright, Sherie R; Georgiou, Polymnia; Yoo, Ji Hoon; Ledent, Catherine; Hourani, Susanna M; Kitchen, Ian; Winsky-Sommerer, Raphaelle; Bailey, Alexis

    2014-04-01

    There is mounting evidence that the neuropeptide oxytocin is a possible candidate for the treatment of drug addiction. Oxytocin was shown to reduce methamphetamine self-administration, conditioned place-preference, hyperactivity and reinstatement in rodents, highlighting its potential for the management of methamphetamine addiction. Thus, we hypothesised that the central endogenous oxytocinergic system is dysregulated following chronic methamphetamine administration. We tested this hypothesis by examining the effect of chronic methamphetamine administration on oxytocin receptor density in mice brains with the use of quantitative receptor autoradiographic binding. Saline (4ml/kg/day, i.p.) or methamphetamine (1mg/kg/day, i.p.) was administered daily for 10 days to male, CD1 mice. Quantitative autoradiographic mapping of oxytocin receptors was carried out with the use of [(125)I]-vasotocin in brain sections of these animals. Chronic methamphetamine administration induced a region specific upregulation of oxytocin receptor density in the amygdala and hypothalamus, but not in the nucleus accumbens and caudate putamen. As there is evidence suggesting an involvement of central adenosine A2A receptors on central endogenous oxytocinergic function, we investigated whether these methamphetamine-induced oxytocinergic neuroadaptations are mediated via an A2A receptor-dependent mechanism. To test this hypothesis, autoradiographic oxytocin receptor binding was carried out in brain sections of male CD1 mice lacking A2A receptors which were chronically treated with methamphetamine (1mg/kg/day, i.p. for 10 days) or saline. Similar to wild-type animals, chronic methamphetamine administration induced a region-specific upregulation of oxytocin receptor binding in the amygdala and hypothalamus of A2A receptor knockout mice and no genotype effect was observed. These results indicate that chronic methamphetamine use can induce profound neuroadaptations of the oxytocinergic receptor

  15. Adenosine is required for sustained inflammasome activation via the A2A receptor and the HIF-1α pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Xinshou; Ghani, Ayaz; Malik, Ahsan; Wilder, Tuere; Colegio, Oscar Rene; Flavell, Richard Anthony; Cronstein, Bruce Neil; Mehal, Wajahat Zafar

    2013-12-01

    Inflammasome pathways are important in chronic diseases; however, it is not known how the signalling is sustained after initiation. Inflammasome activation is dependent on stimuli such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ATP that provide two distinct signals resulting in rapid production of interleukin (IL)-1β, with the lack of response to repeat stimulation. Here we report that adenosine is a key regulator of inflammasome activity, increasing the duration of the inflammatory response via the A2A receptor. Adenosine does not replace signals provided by stimuli such as LPS or ATP but sustains inflammasome activity via a cAMP/PKA/CREB/HIF-1α pathway. In the setting of the lack of IL-1β responses after previous exposure to LPS, adenosine can supersede this tolerogenic state and drive IL-1β production. These data reveal that inflammasome activity is sustained, after initial activation, by A2A receptor-mediated signalling.

  16. Adenosine A1 and A2A receptors are not upstream of caffeine's dopamine D2 receptor-dependent aversive effects and dopamine-independent rewarding effects

    PubMed Central

    Sturgess, Jessica E; Ting-A-Kee, Ryan A; Podbielski, Dominik; Sellings, Laurie HL; Chen, Jiang-Fan; van der Kooy, Derek

    2010-01-01

    Caffeine is widely consumed throughout the world, yet little is known about the mechanisms underlying its rewarding and aversive properties. We show that pharmacological antagonism of dopamine not only blocks conditioned place aversions to caffeine, but reveals dopamine blockade-induced conditioned place preferences. These aversions are mediated by the dopamine D2 receptor since knockout mice showed conditioned place preferences to doses of caffeine that C57Bl/6 mice found aversive. Further, these aversions appear to be centrally-mediated since a quaternary analogue to caffeine failed to produce conditioned place aversions. While the adenosine A2A receptor is important for caffeine's physiological effects, this receptor seems only to modulate the appetitive and aversive effects of caffeine. A2A receptor knockout mice showed stronger dopamine-dependent aversions to caffeine than C57Bl/6 animals, which partially obscured the dopamine- and A2A receptor-independent preferences. Additionally, the A1 receptor, alone or in combination with the A2A receptor, does not seem to be important for caffeine's rewarding or aversive effects. Finally, excitotoxic lesions of the tegmental pedunculopontine nucleus revealed that this brain region is not involved in dopamine blockade-induced caffeine reward. This data provides surprising new information on the mechanism of action of caffeine, indicating that adenosine receptors do not mediate caffeine's appetitive and aversive effects. We show that caffeine has an atypical reward mechanism, independent of the dopaminergic system and the tegmental pedunculopontine nucleus and provide additional evidence in support of a role for the dopaminergic system in aversive learning. PMID:20576036

  17. Promotion of Wound Healing by an Agonist of Adenosine A2A Receptor Is Dependent on Tissue Plasminogen Activator.

    PubMed

    Montesinos, M Carmen; Desai-Merchant, Avani; Cronstein, Bruce N

    2015-12-01

    Impaired wound healing, as it occurs in diabetes mellitus or long-term corticoid treatment, is commonly associated with disability, diminished quality of life, and high economic costs. Selective agonists of the A2A receptor subtype of adenosine, an endogenous regulator of inflammation, promote tissue repair in animal models, both healthy and with impaired healing. Plasmin-mediated proteolysis of fibrin and other matrix proteins is essential for cell migration at sites of injury. Since adenosine A2A receptor activation increases plasminogen activator release from macrophages and mast cells, we studied the effect of a selective agonist, CGS-21680, on full-thickness excisional wound closure in wild-type, urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA)-deficient, and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-deficient mice. Wound closure was impaired in tPA- and uPA-deficient mice as compared with wild-type mice, and topical application of CGS-21680 significantly increased the rate at which wounds closed in wild-type mice and uPA-deficient mice, but not in tPA-deficient mice. Immunostaining of tissue sections showed that tPA was present in endothelial cells and histiocytes by day 3 post-wound and also by day 6. In contrast, uPA was more prominent in these cell types only by day 6 post-wound. Our results confirm that plasminogen activation contributes to wound repair and are consistent with the hypothesis that adenosine A2A receptor activation promotes wound closure by a mechanism that depends upon tPA, but not uPA. Moreover, our results suggest that topical adenosine A2A receptor agonists may be useful in promotion of wound closure in patients with impaired wound healing.

  18. The Role of Adenosine A2A Receptor, CYP450s, and PPARs in the Regulation of Vascular Tone

    PubMed Central

    Khayat, Maan T.

    2017-01-01

    Adenosine is an endogenous mediator involved in a myriad of physiologic functions, including vascular tone regulation. It is also implicated in some pathologic conditions. Four distinct receptor subtypes mediate the effects of adenosine, such as its role in the regulation of the vascular tone. Vascular tone regulation is a complex and continuous process which involves many mechanisms and mediators that are not fully disclosed. The vascular endothelium plays a pivotal role in regulating blood flow to and from all body organs. Also, the vascular endothelium is not merely a physical barrier; it is a complex tissue with numerous functions. Among adenosine receptors, A2A receptor subtype (A2AAR) stands out as the primary receptor responsible for the vasodilatory effects of adenosine. This review focuses on important effectors of the vascular endothelium, including adenosine, adenosine receptors, EETs (epoxyeicosatrienoic acids), HETEs (hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids), PPARs (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors), and KATP channels. Given the impact of vascular tone regulation in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology, better understanding of the mechanisms affecting it could have a significant potential for developing therapeutic agents for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:28884118

  19. Calcium-mediated modulation of the quaternary structure and function of adenosine A2A-dopamine D2 receptor heteromers

    PubMed Central

    Ferré, Sergi; Woods, Amina S.; Navarro, Gemma; Aymerich, Marisol; Lluís, Carme; Franco, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    The adenosine A2A-dopamine D2 receptor heteromer is one of the most studied receptor heteromers. It has important implications for basal ganglia function and pathology. Recent studies using Bioluminescence and Sequential Resonance Energy Transfer techniques shed light on the role of Ca2+ in the modulation of the quaternary structure of the A2A-D2 receptor heteromer, which was found to depend on the binding of calmodulin (CaM) to the carboxy terminus of the A2A receptor in the A2A-D2 receptor heteromer. Importantly, the changes in quaternary structure correlate with changes in function. A Ca2+/CaM-dependent modulation of MAPK signaling upon agonist treatment could only be observed in cells expressing A2A-D2 receptor heteromers. These studies provide a first example of a Ca2+-mediated modulation of the quaternary structure and function of a receptor heteromer. PMID:19896897

  20. Binding mode similarity measures for ranking of docking poses: a case study on the adenosine A2A receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anighoro, Andrew; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    We report an investigation designed to explore alternative approaches for ranking of docking poses in the search for antagonists of the adenosine A2A receptor, an attractive target for structure-based virtual screening. Calculation of 3D similarity of docking poses to crystallographic ligand(s) as well as similarity of receptor-ligand interaction patterns was consistently superior to conventional scoring functions for prioritizing antagonists over decoys. Moreover, the use of crystallographic antagonists and agonists, a core fragment of an antagonist, and a model of an agonist placed into the binding site of an antagonist-bound form of the receptor resulted in a significant early enrichment of antagonists in compound rankings. Taken together, these findings showed that the use of binding modes of agonists and/or antagonists, even if they were only approximate, for similarity assessment of docking poses or comparison of interaction patterns increased the odds of identifying new active compounds over conventional scoring.

  1. Sinomenine protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice via adenosine A(2A) receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Zhao, Li; He, Xie; Zeng, Yi-Jun; Dai, Shuang-Shuang

    2013-01-01

    Sinomenine (SIN) is a bioactive alkaloid extracted from the Chinese medicinal plant Sinomenium acutum, which is widely used in the clinical treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, its role in acute lung injury (ALI) is unclear. In this study, we investigate the role of SIN in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI in mice. After ALI, lung water content and histological signs of pulmonary injury were attenuated, whereas the PaO2/FIO2 (P/F) ratios were elevated significantly in the mice pretreated with SIN. Additionally, SIN markedly inhibited inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and IL-1β expression levels as well as neutrophil infiltration in the lung tissues of the mice. Microarray analysis and real-time PCR showed that SIN treatment upregulated adenosine A(2A) receptor (A(2A)R) expression, and the protective effect of SIN was abolished in A(2A)R knockout mice. Further investigation in isolated mouse neutrophils confirmed the upregulation of A(2A)R by SIN and showed that A(2A)R-cAMP-PKA signaling was involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of SIN. Taken together, these findings demonstrate an A(2A)R-associated anti-inflammatory effect and the protective role of SIN in ALI, which suggests a potential novel approach to treat ALI.

  2. Structure-Activity Relationships of the Sustained Effects of Adenosine A2A Receptor Agonists Driven by Slow Dissociation Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Hothersall, J. Daniel; Guo, Dong; Sarda, Sunil; Sheppard, Robert J.; Chen, Hongming; Keur, Wesley; Waring, Michael J.; IJzerman, Adriaan P.; Hill, Stephen J.; Dale, Ian L.

    2017-01-01

    The duration of action of adenosine A2A receptor (A2A) agonists is critical for their clinical efficacy, and we sought to better understand how this can be optimized. The in vitro temporal response profiles of a panel of A2A agonists were studied using cAMP assays in recombinantly (CHO) and endogenously (SH-SY5Y) expressing cells. Some agonists (e.g., 3cd; UK-432,097) but not others (e.g., 3ac; CGS-21680) demonstrated sustained wash-resistant agonism, where residual receptor activation continued after washout. The ability of an antagonist to reverse pre-established agonist responses was used as a surrogate read-out for agonist dissociation kinetics, and together with radioligand binding studies suggested a role for slow off-rate in driving sustained effects. One compound, 3ch, showed particularly marked sustained effects, with a reversal t1/2 > 6 hours and close to maximal effects that remained for at least 5 hours after washing. Based on the structure-activity relationship of these compounds, we suggest that lipophilic N6 and bulky C2 substituents can promote stable and long-lived binding events leading to sustained agonist responses, although a high compound logD is not necessary. This provides new insight into the binding interactions of these ligands and we anticipate that this information could facilitate the rational design of novel long-acting A2A agonists with improved clinical efficacy. PMID:27803241

  3. Down-regulation of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors in peripheral cells from idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus patients.

    PubMed

    Casati, Martina; Arosio, Beatrice; Gussago, Cristina; Ferri, Evelyn; Magni, Lorenzo; Assolari, Lara; Scortichini, Valeria; Nani, Carolina; Rossi, Paolo Dionigi; Mari, Daniela

    2016-02-15

    Idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a neurological disease that usually develops in the elderly. Natural history of iNPH is still unknown. It has been hypothesized that cerebrovascular diseases could have a role in etiology of chronic hydrocephalus and studies show an increased prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in iNPH patients. Moreover, evidences show a possible alteration of immune system in iNPH patients. Adenosine (Ado) is a metabolite produced in response to metabolic stress and injury. Adenosine and its receptors play an important role in vascular protection and in the modulation of inflammatory reactions and neuroinflammation. Our aim is to evaluate gene and protein expression of A1R and A2AR in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from iNPH patients compared to control subjects. We investigate if Ado system, that plays an important role in central nervous system, in vascular system, and also in inflammation, is involved in pathophysiology of iNPH disease. Our analysis showed that A1R mRNA levels and A1R density in PBMCs from iNPH patients were significantly lower than CT subjects (0.84 ± 0.12 and 2.42 ± 0.42, p<0.001 and 0.31 ± 0.02 and 0.42 ± 0.04, p=0.043; respectively). About A2AR, the gene expression in PBMCs was significantly lower in iNPH than CT (0.65 ± 0.09 and 1.5 ± 0.14, p<0.001) as well as there was a trend in protein expression: iNPH and CT (0.51 ± 0.05 and 0.62 ± 0.03; p=0.172). This preliminary study underlines the involvement of Ado system in iNPH disease whose pathophysiology is still unclear.

  4. Adenosine A2A Receptor Blockade Prevents Rotenone-Induced Motor Impairment in a Rat Model of Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Fathalla, Ahmed M.; Soliman, Amira M.; Ali, Mohamed H.; Moustafa, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacological studies implicate the blockade of adenosine receptorsas an effective strategy for reducing Parkinson’s disease (PD) symptoms. The objective of this study is to elucidate the possible protective effects of ZM241385 and 8-cyclopentyl-1, 3-dipropylxanthine, two selective A2A and A1 receptor antagonists, on a rotenone rat model of PD. Rats were split into four groups: vehicle control (1 ml/kg/48 h), rotenone (1.5 mg/kg/48 h, s.c.), ZM241385 (3.3 mg/kg/day, i.p) and 8-cyclopentyl-1, 3-dipropylxanthine (5 mg/kg/day, i.p). After that, animals were subjected to behavioral (stride length and grid walking) and biochemical (measuring concentration of dopamine levels using high performance liquid chromatography, HPLC). In the rotenone group, rats displayed a reduced motor activity and disturbed movement coordination in the behavioral tests and a decreased dopamine concentration as foundby HPLC. The effect of rotenone was partially prevented in the ZM241385 group, but not with 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine administration. The administration of ZM241385 improved motor function and movement coordination (partial increase of stride length and partial decrease in the number of foot slips) and an increase in dopamine concentration in the rotenone-injected rats. However, the 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine and rotenone groups were not significantly different. These results indicate that selective A2A receptor blockade by ZM241385, but not A1 receptor blockadeby 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, may treat PD motor symptoms. This reinforces the potential use of A2A receptor antagonists as a treatment strategy for PD patients. PMID:26973484

  5. mGlu5, Dopamine D2 and Adenosine A2A Receptors in L-DOPA-induced Dyskinesias.

    PubMed

    Morin, Nicolas; Morissette, Marc; Grégoire, Laurent; Di Paolo, Thérèse

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) receiving L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA, the gold-standard treatment for this disease) frequently develop abnormal involuntary movements, termed L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias (LID). Glutamate overactivity is well documented in PD and LID. An approach to manage LID is to add to L-DOPA specific agents to reduce dyskinesias such as metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGlu receptor) drugs. This article reviews the contribution of mGlu type 5 (mGlu5) receptors in animal models of PD. Several mGlu5 negative allosteric modulators acutely attenuate LID in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) monkeys and 6-hydroxydopamine(6-OHDA)-lesioned rats. Chronic administration of mGlu5 negative allosteric modulators to MPTP monkeys and 6-OHDA rats also attenuates LID while maintaining the antiparkinsonian effect of L-DOPA. Radioligand autoradiography shows an elevation of striatal mGlu5 receptors of dyskinetic L-DOPA-treated MPTP monkeys but not in those without LID. The brain molecular correlates of the long-term effect of mGlu5 negative allosteric modulators treatments with L-DOPA attenuating development of LID was shown to extend beyond mGlu5 receptors with normalization of glutamate activity in the basal ganglia of L-DOPA-induced changes of NMDA, AMPA, mGlu2/3 receptors and VGlut2 transporter. In the basal ganglia, mGlu5 receptor negative allosteric modulators also normalize the L-DOPA-induced changes of dopamine D2receptors, their associated signaling proteins (ERK1/2 and Akt/GSK3β) and neuropeptides (preproenkephalin, preprodynorphin) as well as the adenosine A2A receptors expression. These results show in animal models of PD reduction of LID with mGlu5 negative allosteric modulation associated with normalization of glutamate, dopamine and adenosine receptors suggesting a functional link of these receptors in chronic treatment with L-DOPA.

  6. mGlu5, Dopamine D2 and Adenosine A2A Receptors in L-DOPA-induced Dyskinesias

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Nicolas; Morissette, Marc; Grégoire, Laurent; Di Paolo, Thérèse

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) receiving L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA, the gold-standard treatment for this disease) frequently develop abnormal involuntary movements, termed L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias (LID). Glutamate overactivity is well documented in PD and LID. An approach to manage LID is to add to L-DOPA specific agents to reduce dyskinesias such as metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGlu receptor) drugs. This article reviews the contribution of mGlu type 5 (mGlu5) receptors in animal models of PD. Several mGlu5 negative allosteric modulators acutely attenuate LID in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) monkeys and 6-hydroxydopamine(6-OHDA)-lesioned rats. Chronic administration of mGlu5 negative allosteric modulators to MPTP monkeys and 6-OHDA rats also attenuates LID while maintaining the anti-parkinsonian effect of L-DOPA. Radioligand autoradiography shows an elevation of striatal mGlu5 receptors of dyskinetic L-DOPA-treated MPTP monkeys but not in those without LID. The brain molecular correlates of the long-term effect of mGlu5 negative allosteric modulators treatments with L-DOPA attenuating development of LID was shown to extend beyond mGlu5 receptors with normalization of glutamate activity in the basal ganglia of L-DOPA-induced changes of NMDA, AMPA, mGlu2/3 receptors and VGlut2 transporter. In the basal ganglia, mGlu5 receptor negative allosteric modulators also normalize the L-DOPA-induced changes of dopamine D2 receptors, their associated signaling proteins (ERK1/2 and Akt/GSK3β) and neuropeptides (preproenkephalin, preprodynorphin) as well as the adenosine A2A receptors expression. These results show in animal models of PD reduction of LID with mGlu5 negative allosteric modulation associated with normalization of glutamate, dopamine and adenosine receptors suggesting a functional link of these receptors in chronic treatment with L-DOPA. PMID:26639458

  7. Adenosine A2A receptor deletion affects social behaviors and anxiety in mice: Involvement of anterior cingulate cortex and amygdala.

    PubMed

    López-Cruz, Laura; Carbó-Gas, Maria; Pardo, Marta; Bayarri, Pilar; Valverde, Olga; Ledent, Catherine; Salamone, John D; Correa, Mercè

    2017-03-15

    Blockade of adenosine A2A receptors can potentiate motivation to work for natural reinforcers such as food. Conspecific interaction is a potent natural reinforcer in social animals that can be manifested as preference for social exploration versus other sources of novel stimulation. Deficiencies in this type of motivated behavior (social withdrawal) have been seen in several pathologies such as autism and depression. However, the role of A2A receptors in motivation for social interaction has not been widely explored. Social interaction paradigms evaluate the natural preference of animals for exploring other conspecifics, and the ability to differentiate between familiar versus novel ones. Anxiety is one of the factors that can induce avoidance of social interaction. In the present study, adenosine A2A knockout (A2AKO) and wild-type (WT) mice were assessed for social and anxiety-related behaviors. c-Fos immunoreactivity was evaluated as a measure of neuronal activation in brain areas involved in different aspects of motivation and emotional processes. Although A2AKO mice showed an anxious profile, they displayed higher levels of sociability and were less sensitive to social novelty. WT mice displayed a typical pattern of social recognition 24h later, but not A2AKO mice, which explored equally both conspecifics. There were no differences between strains in aggressiveness, perseverance or social odor preferences. c-Fos immunoreactivity in A2AKO mice was higher in anterior cingulate and amygdala compared to WT mice. Thus, A2A receptors appear to be potential targets for the improvement of pathologies related to social function.

  8. Attenuation of gastric mucosal inflammation induced by indomethacin through activation of the A2A adenosine receptor in rats

    PubMed Central

    Koizumi, Shigeto; Otaka, Michiro; Jin, Mario; Linden, Joel; Watanabe, Sumio; Ohnishi, Hirohide

    2010-01-01

    Background Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as indomethacin induce gastric mucosal lesions in part by the activation of inflammatory cells and the production of proinflammatory cytokines. The activation of adenosine A2A receptors inhibits inflammation by increasing cyclic AMP in leukocytes and reducing both the production of various proinflammatory cytokines and neutrophil chemotaxis. The aim of present study was to determine whether administration of an orally active adenosine A2A receptor agonist (4-[3-[6-amino-9-(5-cyclopropylcarbamoyl-3,4-dihydroxy-tetrahydro-furan-2-yl)-9H-purin-2-yl]-prop-2-ynyl]-piperidine-1-carboxylic acid methyl ester; ATL-313) ameliorated indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal lesions in rats. Methods Gastric lesions were produced by oral gavage of indomethacin (30 mg/kg). ATL-313 (1–10 μg/kg) was given orally just before the indomethacin administration. Results The ulcer index induced by indomethacin was significantly (>50%) reduced by pretreatment with ATL-313 and this effect was blocked completely by the addition of equimolar ZM241385, a selective A2A receptor antagonist. The gastric content of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and proinflammatory cytokines was significantly reduced by 10 μg/kg ATL-313, but gastric mucosal prostaglandin 2 (PGE2) was not affected. Conclusion We conclude that ATL-313 does not inhibit the mucosal damaging effect of indomethacin, but it does block secondary injury due to stomach inflammation. A2A agonists may represent a class of new therapeutic drugs for NSAID-induced gastric ulcers. PMID:19333545

  9. Striatal adenosine A2A and cannabinoid CB1 receptors form functional heteromeric complexes that mediate the motor effects of cannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Carriba, Paulina; Ortiz, Oskar; Patkar, Kshitij; Justinova, Zuzana; Stroik, Jessica; Themann, Andrea; Müller, Christa; Woods, Anima S; Hope, Bruce T; Ciruela, Francisco; Casadó, Vicent; Canela, Enric I; Lluis, Carme; Goldberg, Steven R; Moratalla, Rosario; Franco, Rafael; Ferré, Sergi

    2007-11-01

    The mechanism of action responsible for the motor depressant effects of cannabinoids, which operate through centrally expressed cannabinoid CB1 receptors, is still a matter of debate. In the present study, we report that CB1 and adenosine A2A receptors form heteromeric complexes in co-transfected HEK-293T cells and rat striatum, where they colocalize in fibrilar structures. In a human neuroblastoma cell line, CB1 receptor signaling was found to be completely dependent on A2A receptor activation. Accordingly, blockade of A2A receptors counteracted the motor depressant effects produced by the intrastriatal administration of a cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist. These biochemical and behavioral findings demonstrate that the profound motor effects of cannabinoids depend on physical and functional interactions between striatal A2A and CB1 receptors.

  10. Influence of CGS 21680, a selective adenosine A(2A) receptor agonist, on NMDA receptor function and expression in the brain of Huntington's disease mice.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, Antonella; Martire, Alberto; Armida, Monica; Chiodi, Valentina; Pézzola, Antonella; Potenza, Rosa Luisa; Domenici, Maria Rosaria; Popoli, Patrizia

    2010-04-06

    The effect of chronic treatment with the selective adenosine A(2A) receptor agonist CGS 21680 on N-Methyl-d-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor function and expression has been studied in the striatum and cortex of R6/2 mice, a genetic mouse model of Huntington's disease (HD). Starting from 8weeks of age, R6/2 and wild type (WT) mice were treated daily with CGS 21680 (0.5mg/kg i.p.) for 3weeks and the expression levels of NMDA receptor subunits were then evaluated. In addition, to study CGS 21680-induced changes in NMDA receptor function, NMDA-induced toxicity in corticostriatal slices from both R6/2 and WT mice was investigated. We found that CGS 21680 increased NR2A subunit expression and the NR2A/NR2B ratio in the cortex of R6/2 mice, having no effect in WT mice. In the striatum, CGS 21680 reduced NR1 expression in both R6/2 and WT mice while the effect on NR2A and NR2/NR2B expression was genotype-dependent, reducing and increasing their expression in WT and R6/2 mice, respectively. On the contrary, NMDA-induced toxicity in corticostriatal slices was not modified by the treatment in WT or HD mice. These results demonstrate that in vivo activation of A(2A) receptors modulates the subunit composition of NMDA receptors in the brain of HD mice.

  11. Adenosine through the A2A adenosine receptor increases IL-1β in the brain contributing to anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Gabriel S.; Darmody, Patrick T.; Walsh, John P.; Moon, Morgan L.; Kwakwa, Kristin A.; Bray, Julie K.; McCusker, Robert H.; Freund, Gregory G.

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety is one of the most commonly reported psychiatric conditions, but its pathogenesis is poorly understood. Ailments associated with activation of the innate immune system, however, are increasingly linked to anxiety disorders. In adult male mice, we found that adenosine doubled caspase-1 activity in brain by a pathway reliant on ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels, protein kinase A (PKA) and the A2A adenosine receptor (AR). In addition, adenosine-dependent activation of caspase-1 increased interleukin (IL)-1β in the brain by two-fold. Peripheral administration of adenosine in wild-type (WT) mice led to a 2.3-fold increase in caspase-1 activity in the amygdala and to a 33% and 42% reduction in spontaneous locomotor activity and food intake, respectively, that were not observed in caspase-1 knockout (KO), IL-1 receptor type 1 (IL-1R1) KO and A2A AR KO mice or in mice administered a caspase-1 inhibitor centrally. Finally, adenosine administration increased anxiety-like behaviors in WT mice by 28% in the open field test and by 55% in the elevated zero-maze. Caspase-1 KO mice, IL-1R1 KO mice, A2A AR KO mice and WT mice treated with the KATP channel blocker, glyburide, were resistant to adenosine-induced anxiety-like behaviors. Thus, our results indicate that adenosine can act as an anxiogenic by activating caspase-1 and increasing IL-1β in the brain. PMID:24907587

  12. Selecting an optimal number of binding site waters to improve virtual screening enrichments against the adenosine A2A receptor.

    PubMed

    Lenselink, Eelke B; Beuming, Thijs; Sherman, Woody; van Vlijmen, Herman W T; IJzerman, Adriaan P

    2014-06-23

    A major challenge in structure-based virtual screening (VS) involves the treatment of explicit water molecules during docking in order to improve the enrichment of active compounds over decoys. Here we have investigated this in the context of the adenosine A2A receptor, where water molecules have previously been shown to be important for achieving high enrichment rates with docking, and where the positions of some binding site waters are known from a high-resolution crystal structure. The effect of these waters (both their presence and orientations) on VS enrichment was assessed using a carefully curated set of 299 high affinity A2A antagonists and 17,337 decoys. We show that including certain crystal waters greatly improves VS enrichment and that optimization of water hydrogen positions is needed in order to achieve the best results. We also show that waters derived from a molecular dynamics simulation - without any knowledge of crystallographic waters - can improve enrichments to a similar degree as the crystallographic waters, which makes this strategy applicable to structures without experimental knowledge of water positions. Finally, we used decision trees to select an ensemble of structures with different water molecule positions and orientations that outperforms any single structure with water molecules. The approach presented here is validated against independent test sets of A2A receptor antagonists and decoys from the literature. In general, this water optimization strategy could be applied to any target with waters-mediated protein-ligand interactions.

  13. Adenosine A2A receptors and uric acid mediate protective effects of inosine against TNBS-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Rahimian, Reza; Fakhfouri, Gohar; Daneshmand, Ali; Mohammadi, Hamed; Bahremand, Arash; Rasouli, Mohammad Reza; Mousavizadeh, Kazem; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2010-12-15

    Inflammatory bowel disease comprises chronic recurrent inflammation of gastrointestinal tract. This study was conducted to investigate inosine, a potent immunomodulator, in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced chronic model of experimental colitis, and contribution of adenosine A(2A) receptors and the metabolite uric acid as possible underlying mechanisms. Experimental colitis was rendered in rats by a single colonic administration of 10 mg of TNBS. Inosine, potassium oxonate (a hepatic uricase inhibitor), SCH-442416 (a selective adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist), inosine+potassium oxonate, or inosine+SCH-442416 were given twice daily for 7 successive days. At the end of experiment, macroscopic and histopathologic scores, colonic malondialdehyde (MDA), Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) levels, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were assessed. Plasma uric acid level was measured throughout the experiment. Both macroscopic and histological features of colonic injury were markedly ameliorated by either inosine, oxonate or inosine+oxonate. Likewise, the elevated amounts of MPO and MDA abated as well as those of TNF-α and IL-1β (P<0.05). SCH-442416 partially reversed the effect of inosine on theses markers, while inosine+oxonate showed a higher degree of protection than each treatment alone (P<.0.05). No significant difference was observed between TNBS and SCH-442416 groups. Uric acid levels were significantly higher in inosine or oxonate groups compared to control. Inosine+oxonate resulted in an even more elvelated uric acid level than each treatment alone (P<0.05). Inosine elicits notable anti-inflammatory effects on TNBS-induced colitis in rats. Uric acid and adenosine A(2A) receptors contribute to these salutary properties.

  14. Dipyridamole attenuates ischemia reperfusion induced acute kidney injury through adenosinergic A1 and A2A receptor agonism in rats.

    PubMed

    Puri, Nikkita; Mohey, Vinita; Singh, Manjinder; Kaur, Tajpreet; Pathak, Devendra; Buttar, Harpal Singh; Singh, Amrit Pal

    2016-04-01

    Dipyridamole (DYP) is an anti-platelet agent with marked vasodilator, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory activity. The present study investigated the role of adenosine receptors in DYP-mediated protection against ischemia reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in rats. The rats were subjected to bilateral renal ischemia for 40 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h. The renal damage induced by ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) was assessed by measuring creatinine clearance, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, plasma potassium, fractional excretion of sodium, and microproteinuria in rats. The oxidative stress in renal tissues was assessed by quantification of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, superoxide anion generation, and reduced glutathione level. The hematoxylin-eosin staining was carried out to observe histopathological changes in renal tissues. DYP (10 and 30 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, i.p.) was administered 30 min before subjecting the rats to renal IRI. In separate groups, caffeine (50 mg/kg, i.p.), an adenosinergic A1 and A2A receptor antagonist was administered with and without DYP treatment before subjecting the rats to renal IRI. The ischemia reperfusion-induced AKI was demonstrated by significant changes in serum as well as urinary parameters, enhanced oxidative stress, and histopathological changes in renal tissues. The administration of DYP demonstrated protection against AKI. The prior treatment with caffeine abolished DYP-mediated reno-protection suggesting role of A1 and A2A adenosine receptors in DYP-mediated reno-protection in rats. It is concluded that adenosine receptors find their definite involvement in DYP-mediated anti-oxidative and reno-protective effect against ischemia reperfusion-induced AKI.

  15. Caffeine, Adenosine Receptors and Estrogen in Toxin Models of Parkinson’s Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    potential modulator of psychostimulant of dopamine receptors in the nucleus accumbens and sensitization and as an attractive therapeutic target . A2ARs of...well as therapeutic strategies for this neurodegenerative disorder . Additional key findings have helped establish novel methodological approaches to the...1 AAV-cre) for targeting the selective elimination of striatal A 2A receptors in floxed A 2A mice. Figure 4A shows successful cre expression (with

  16. GPCR 3D homology models for Ligand Screening: Lessons Learned from Blind Predictions of Adenosine A2a Receptor complex

    PubMed Central

    Katritch, Vsevolod; Rueda, Manuel; Lam, Polo Chun-Hung; Yeager, Mark; Abagyan, Ruben

    2009-01-01

    Proteins of the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family present numerous attractive targets for rational drug design, but also a formidable challenge for identification and conformational modeling of their 3D structure. A recently performed assessment of blind predictions of adenosine A2a receptor (AA2AR) structure in complex with ZM241385 (ZMA) antagonist provided a first example of unbiased evaluation of the current modeling algorithms on a GPCR target with ~30% sequence identity to the closest structural template. Several of the 29 groups participating in this assessment exercise (Michino et al., doi:10.1038/nrd2877) successfully predicted the overall position of the ligand ZMA in the AA2AR ligand binding pocket, however models from only three groups captured more than 40% of the ligand-receptor contacts. Here we describe two of these top performing approaches, in which all-atom models of the AA2AR were generated by homology modeling followed by ligand guided backbone ensemble receptor optimization (LiBERO). The resulting AA2AR-ZMA models, along with the best models from other groups are assessed here for their virtual ligand screening (VLS) performance on a large set of GPCR ligands. We show that ligand guided optimization was critical for improvement of both ligand-receptor contacts and VLS performance as compared to the initial raw homology models. The best blindly predicted models performed on par with the crystal structure of AA2AR in selecting known antagonists from decoys, as well as from antagonists for other adenosine subtypes and AA2AR agonists. These results suggest that despite certain inaccuracies, the optimized homology models can be useful in the drug discovery process. PMID:20063437

  17. Adenosine A(2A) receptor gene (ADORA2A) variants may increase autistic symptoms and anxiety in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Freitag, Christine M; Agelopoulos, Konstantin; Huy, Ellen; Rothermundt, Matthias; Krakowitzky, Petra; Meyer, Jobst; Deckert, Jürgen; von Gontard, Alexander; Hohoff, Christa

    2010-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are heterogeneous disorders presenting with increased rates of anxiety. The adenosine A(2A) receptor gene (ADORA2A) is associated with panic disorder and is located on chromosome 22q11.23. Its gene product, the adenosine A(2A) receptor, is strongly expressed in the caudate nucleus, which also is involved in ASD. As autistic symptoms are increased in individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, and large 22q11.2 deletions and duplications have been observed in ASD individuals, in this study, 98 individuals with ASD and 234 control individuals were genotyped for eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms in ADORA2A. Nominal association with the disorder was observed for rs2236624-CC, and phenotypic variability in ASD symptoms was influenced by rs3761422, rs5751876 and rs35320474. In addition, association of ADORA2A variants with anxiety was replicated for individuals with ASD. Findings point toward a possible mediating role of ADORA2A variants on phenotypic expression in ASD that need to be replicated in a larger sample.

  18. Role of adenosine A2A receptor signaling in the nicotine-evoked attenuation of reflex cardiac sympathetic control.

    PubMed

    El-Mas, Mahmoud M; El-Gowilly, Sahar M; Fouda, Mohamed A; Saad, Evan I

    2011-08-01

    Baroreflex dysfunction contributes to increased cardiovascular risk in cigarette smokers. Given the importance of adenosinergic pathways in baroreflex control, the hypothesis was tested that defective central adenosinergic modulation of cardiac autonomic activity mediates the nicotine-baroreflex interaction. Baroreflex curves relating changes in heart rate (HR) to increases or decreases in blood pressure (BP) evoked by i.v. doses (1-16μg/kg) of phenylephrine (PE) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), respectively, were constructed in conscious rats; slopes of the curves were taken as measures of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). Nicotine (25 and 100μg/kg i.v.) dose-dependently reduced BRS(SNP) in contrast to no effect on BRS(PE). BRS(SNP) was also attenuated after intracisternal (i.c.) administration of nicotine. Similar reductions in BRS(SNP) were observed in rats pretreated with atropine or propranolol. The combined treatment with nicotine and atropine produced additive inhibitory effects on BRS, an effect that was not demonstrated upon concurrent exposure to nicotine and propranolol. BRS(SNP) was reduced in preparations treated with i.c. 8-phenyltheophylline (8-PT, nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist), 8-(3-Chlorostyryl) caffeine (CSC, A(2A) antagonist), or VUF5574 (A(3) antagonist). In contrast, BRS(SNP) was preserved after blockade of A(1) (DPCPX) or A(2B) (alloxazine) receptors or inhibition of adenosine uptake by dipyridamole. CSC or 8-PT abrogated the BRS(SNP) depressant effect of nicotine whereas other adenosinergic antagonists were without effect. Together, nicotine preferentially impairs reflex tachycardia via disruption of adenosine A(2A) receptor-mediated facilitation of reflex cardiac sympathoexcitation. Clinically, the attenuation by nicotine of compensatory sympathoexcitation may be detrimental in conditions such as hypothalamic defense response, posture changes, and ventricular rhythms.

  19. A2a and a2b adenosine receptors affect HIF-1α signaling in activated primary microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Merighi, Stefania; Borea, Pier Andrea; Stefanelli, Angela; Bencivenni, Serena; Castillo, Carlos Alberto; Varani, Katia; Gessi, Stefania

    2015-05-15

    Microglia are central nervous system (CNS)-resident immune cells, that play a crucial role in neuroinflammation. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), the main transcription factor of hypoxia-inducible genes, is also involved in the immune response, being regulated in normoxia by inflammatory mediators. Adenosine is an ubiquitous nucleoside that has an influence on many immune properties of microglia through interaction with four receptor subtypes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether adenosine may affect microglia functions by acting on HIF-1α modulation. Primary murine microglia were activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with or without adenosine, adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists and HIF-1α accumulation and downstream genes regulation were determined. Adenosine increased LPS-induced HIF-1α accumulation leading to an increase in HIF-1α target genes involved in cell metabolism [glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1)] and pathogens killing [inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS)] but did not induce HIF-1α dependent genes related to angiogenesis [vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)] and inflammation [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)]. The stimulatory effect of adenosine on HIF-1α and its target genes was essentially exerted by activation of A2A through p44/42 and A2B subtypes via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and Akt phosphorylation. Furthermore the nucleoside raised VEGF and decreased TNF-α levels, by activating A2B subtypes. In conclusion adenosine increases GLUT-1 and iNOS gene expression in a HIF-1α-dependent way, through A2A and A2B receptors, suggesting their role in the regulation of microglial cells function following injury. However, inhibition of TNF-α adds an important anti-inflammatory effect only for the A2B subtype. GLIA 2015.

  20. Up-regulation of striatal adenosine A2A receptors with iron deficiency in rats. Effects on locomotion and cortico-striatal neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Quiroz, César; Pearson, Virginia; Gulyani, Seema; Allen, Richard; Earley, Christopher; Ferré, Sergi

    2010-01-01

    Brain iron deficiency leads to altered dopaminergic function in experimental animals, which can provide a mechanistic explanation for iron deficiency-related human sensory-motor disorders, such as Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS). However, mechanisms linking both conditions have not been determined. Considering the strong modulation exerted by adenosine on dopamine signaling, one connection could involve changes in adenosine receptor expression or function. In the striatum, presynaptic A2A receptors are localized in glutamatergic terminals contacting GABAergic dynorphinergic neurons and their function can be analyzed by the ability of A2A receptor antagonists to block the motor output induced by cortical electrical stimulation. Postsynaptic A2A receptors are localized in the dendritic field of GABAergic enkephalinergic neurons and their function can be analyzed by studying the ability of A2A receptor antagonists to produce locomotor activity and to counteract striatal ERK1/2 phosphorylation induced by cortical electrical stimulation. Increased density of striatal A2A receptors was found in rats fed during three weeks with an iron-deficient diet during the post-weaning period. In iron-deficient rats, the selective A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3, at doses of 1 and 3 mg/kg, was more effective at blocking motor output induced by cortical electrical stimulation (presynaptic A2A receptor-mediated effect) and at enhancing locomotor activation and blocking striatal ERK phosphorylation induced by cortical electrical stimulation (postsynaptic A2A receptor-mediated effects). These results indicate that brain iron deficiency induces a functional up-regulation of both striatal pre- and postsynaptic A2A receptor, which could be involved in sensory-motor disorders associated with iron deficiency such as RLS. PMID:20385128

  1. Up-regulation of striatal adenosine A(2A) receptors with iron deficiency in rats: effects on locomotion and cortico-striatal neurotransmission.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, César; Pearson, Virginia; Gulyani, Seema; Allen, Richard; Earley, Christopher; Ferré, Sergi

    2010-07-01

    Brain iron deficiency leads to altered dopaminergic function in experimental animals, which can provide a mechanistic explanation for iron deficiency-related human sensory-motor disorders, such as Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS). However, mechanisms linking both conditions have not been determined. Considering the strong modulation exerted by adenosine on dopamine signaling, one connection could involve changes in adenosine receptor expression or function. In the striatum, presynaptic A(2A) receptors are localized in glutamatergic terminals contacting GABAergic dynorphinergic neurons and their function can be analyzed by the ability of A(2A) receptor antagonists to block the motor output induced by cortical electrical stimulation. Postsynaptic A(2A) receptors are localized in the dendritic field of GABAergic enkephalinergic neurons and their function can be analyzed by studying the ability of A(2A) receptor antagonists to produce locomotor activity and to counteract striatal ERK1/2 phosphorylation induced by cortical electrical stimulation. Increased density of striatal A(2A) receptors was found in rats fed during 3 weeks with an iron-deficient diet during the post-weaning period. In iron-deficient rats, the selective A(2A) receptor antagonist MSX-3, at doses of 1 and 3 mg/kg, was more effective at blocking motor output induced by cortical electrical stimulation (presynaptic A(2A) receptor-mediated effect) and at enhancing locomotor activation and blocking striatal ERK phosphorylation induced by cortical electrical stimulation (postsynaptic A(2A) receptor-mediated effects). These results indicate that brain iron deficiency induces a functional up-regulation of both striatal pre- and postsynaptic A(2A) receptor, which could be involved in sensory-motor disorders associated with iron deficiency such as RLS.

  2. Salidroside attenuates chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension via adenosine A2a receptor related mitochondria-dependent apoptosis pathway.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoying; Zou, Lizhen; Yu, Xiaoming; Chen, Mayun; Guo, Rui; Cai, Hui; Yao, Dan; Xu, Xiaomei; Chen, Yanfan; Ding, Cheng; Cai, Xueding; Wang, Liangxing

    2015-05-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by pulmonary arterial remodeling mainly due to excess cellular proliferation and apoptosis resistance of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Salidroside, an active ingredient isolated from Rhodiola rosea is proposed to exert protective effects against PAH. However, the function of salidroside in PAH has not been investigated systematically and the underlying mechanisms are not clear. To investigate the effects of salidroside on PAH, the mice in chronic hypoxia model of PAH were given by an increasing concentration of salidroside (0, 16 mg/kg, 32 mg/kg, and 64 mg/kg). After salidroside treatment, the chronic hypoxia-induced right ventricular hypertrophy and pulmonary arterial remodeling were attenuated, suggesting a protective role played by salidroside in PAH. To explore the potential mechanisms, the apoptosis of PASMCs after salidroside treatment under hypoxia conditions were determined in vivo and in vitro, and also the mitochondria-dependent apoptosis factors, Bax, Bcl-2, cytochrome C, and caspase 9 were examined. The results revealed that salidroside reversed hypoxia-induced cell apoptosis resistance at least partially via a mitochondria-dependent pathway. In addition, salidroside upregulated the expression of adenosine A2a receptor (A2aR) in lung tissues of mice and in PASMCs in vitro after hypoxia exposure. Combined the evidence above, we conclude that salidroside can attenuate chronic hypoxia-induced PAH by promoting PASMCs apoptosis via an A2aR related mitochondria dependent pathway.

  3. High-salt diet enhances mouse aortic relaxation through adenosine A2A receptor via CYP epoxygenases.

    PubMed

    Nayeem, Mohammed A; Ponnoth, Dovenia S; Boegehold, Matthew A; Zeldin, Darryl C; Falck, John R; Mustafa, S Jamal

    2009-03-01

    We hypothesize that A(2A) adenosine receptors (A(2A) AR) promote aortic relaxation in mice through cytochrome P450 (CYP)-epoxygenases and help to avoid salt sensitivity. Aortas from male mice maintained on a high-salt (HS; 7% NaCl) or normal-salt (NS; 0.45% NaCl) diet for 4-5 wks were used. Concentration-response curves (10(-11)-10(-5) M) for 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA; a nonselective adenosine analog) and CGS 21680 (A(2A) AR agonist) were obtained with different antagonists including ZM 241385 (A(2A) AR antagonist; 10(-6) M), SCH 58261 (A(2A) AR antagonist; 10(-6) M), N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; endothelial nitric oxide synthase inhibitor; 10(-4) M) and inhibitors including methylsulfonyl-propargyloxyphenylhexanamide (MS-PPOH; CYP epoxygenases inhibitor; 10(-5)M), 14,15-epoxyeicosa-5(z)-enoic acid (14,15-EEZE; EET antagonist; 10(-5)M), dibromo-dodecenyl-methylsulfimide (DDMS; CYP4A inhibitor; 10(-5)M), and HET0016 (20-HETE inhibitor; 10(-5)M). At 10(-7) M of NECA, significant relaxation in HS (+22.58 +/- 3.12%) was observed compared with contraction in NS (-10.62 +/- 6.27%, P < 0.05). ZM 241385 changed the NECA response to contraction (P < 0.05) in HS. At 10(-7) M of CGS 21680, significant relaxation in HS (+32.04 +/- 3.08%) was observed compared with NS (+10.45 +/- 1.34%, P < 0.05). SCH 58261, l-NAME, MS-PPOH, and 14,15-EEZE changed the CGS 21680-induced relaxation to contraction (P < 0.05) in HS. Interestingly, DDMS and HET0016 changed CGS 21680 response to relaxation (P < 0.05) in NS; however, there was no significant difference found between DDMS, HET0016-treated HS and NS vs. nontreated HS group (P > 0.05). CYP2C29 protein was 55% and 74% upregulated in HS vs. NS (P < 0.05) mice aorta and kidney, respectively. CYP4A protein was 30.30% and 35.70% upregulated in NS vs. HS (P < 0.05) mice aorta and kidneys, respectively. A(1) AR was downregulated, whereas A(2A) AR was upregulated in HS compared with NS. These data suggest that HS

  4. High-salt diet enhances mouse aortic relaxation through adenosine A2A receptor via CYP epoxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Nayeem, Mohammed A.; Ponnoth, Dovenia S.; Boegehold, Matthew A.; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Falck, John R.; Mustafa, S. Jamal

    2009-01-01

    We hypothesize that A2A adenosine receptors (A2A AR) promote aortic relaxation in mice through cytochrome P450 (CYP)-epoxygenases and help to avoid salt sensitivity. Aortas from male mice maintained on a high-salt (HS; 7% NaCl) or normal-salt (NS; 0.45% NaCl) diet for 4–5 wks were used. Concentration-response curves (10−11–10−5 M) for 5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA; a nonselective adenosine analog) and CGS 21680 (A2A AR agonist) were obtained with different antagonists including ZM 241385 (A2A AR antagonist; 10−6 M), SCH 58261 (A2A AR antagonist; 10−6 M), Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; endothelial nitric oxide synthase inhibitor; 10−4 M) and inhibitors including methylsulfonyl-propargyloxyphenylhexanamide (MS-PPOH; CYP epoxygenases inhibitor; 10−5M), 14,15-epoxyeicosa-5(z)-enoic acid (14,15-EEZE; EET antagonist; 10−5M), dibromo-dodecenyl-methylsulfimide (DDMS; CYP4A inhibitor; 10−5M), and HET0016 (20-HETE inhibitor; 10−5M). At 10−7 M of NECA, significant relaxation in HS (+22.58 ± 3.12%) was observed compared with contraction in NS (−10.62 ± 6.27%, P < 0.05). ZM 241385 changed the NECA response to contraction (P < 0.05) in HS. At 10−7 M of CGS 21680, significant relaxation in HS (+32.04 ± 3.08%) was observed compared with NS (+10.45 ± 1.34%, P < 0.05). SCH 58261, l-NAME, MS-PPOH, and 14,15-EEZE changed the CGS 21680-induced relaxation to contraction (P < 0.05) in HS. Interestingly, DDMS and HET0016 changed CGS 21680 response to relaxation (P < 0.05) in NS; however, there was no significant difference found between DDMS, HET0016-treated HS and NS vs. nontreated HS group (P > 0.05). CYP2C29 protein was 55% and 74% upregulated in HS vs. NS (P < 0.05) mice aorta and kidney, respectively. CYP4A protein was 30.30% and 35.70% upregulated in NS vs. HS (P < 0.05) mice aorta and kidneys, respectively. A1 AR was downregulated, whereas A2A AR was upregulated in HS compared with NS. These data suggest that HS may activate CYP2

  5. An Anti-Parkinson's Disease Drug via Targeting Adenosine A2A Receptor Enhances Amyloid-β Generation and γ-Secretase Activity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Cui, Jin; Li, Xiaohang; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Yue; Yang, Wenjuan; Chen, Ming; Zhao, Jian; Pei, Gang

    2016-01-01

    γ-secretase mediates the intramembranous proteolysis of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and determines the generation of Aβ which is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we identified that an anti-Parkinson's disease drug, Istradefylline, could enhance Aβ generation in various cell lines and primary neuronal cells of APP/PS1 mouse. Moreover, the increased generation of Aβ42 was detected in the cortex of APP/PS1 mouse after chronic treatment with Istradefylline. Istradefylline promoted the activity of γ-secretase which could lead to increased Aβ production. These effects of Istradefylline were reduced by the knockdown of A2AR but independent of A2AR-mediated G protein- or β-arrestin-dependent signal pathway. We further observed that A2AR colocalized with γ-secretase in endosomes and physically interacted with the catalytic subunit presenilin-1 (PS1). Interestingly, Istradefylline attenuated the interaction in time- and dosage-dependent manners. Moreover the knockdown of A2AR which in theory would release PS1 potentiated both Aβ generation and γ-secretase activity. Thus, our study implies that the association of A2AR could modulate γ-secretase activity. Istradefylline enhance Aβ generation and γ-secretase activity possibly via modulating the interaction between A2AR and γ-secretase, which may bring some undesired effects in the central nervous system (CNS).

  6. An Anti-Parkinson’s Disease Drug via Targeting Adenosine A2A Receptor Enhances Amyloid-β Generation and γ-Secretase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaohang; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Yue; Yang, Wenjuan; Chen, Ming; Zhao, Jian; Pei, Gang

    2016-01-01

    γ-secretase mediates the intramembranous proteolysis of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and determines the generation of Aβ which is associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here we identified that an anti-Parkinson’s disease drug, Istradefylline, could enhance Aβ generation in various cell lines and primary neuronal cells of APP/PS1 mouse. Moreover, the increased generation of Aβ42 was detected in the cortex of APP/PS1 mouse after chronic treatment with Istradefylline. Istradefylline promoted the activity of γ-secretase which could lead to increased Aβ production. These effects of Istradefylline were reduced by the knockdown of A2AR but independent of A2AR-mediated G protein- or β-arrestin-dependent signal pathway. We further observed that A2AR colocalized with γ-secretase in endosomes and physically interacted with the catalytic subunit presenilin-1 (PS1). Interestingly, Istradefylline attenuated the interaction in time- and dosage-dependent manners. Moreover the knockdown of A2AR which in theory would release PS1 potentiated both Aβ generation and γ-secretase activity. Thus, our study implies that the association of A2AR could modulate γ-secretase activity. Istradefylline enhance Aβ generation and γ-secretase activity possibly via modulating the interaction between A2AR and γ-secretase, which may bring some undesired effects in the central nervous system (CNS). PMID:27835671

  7. Novel Alexa Fluor-488 labeled antagonist of the A(2A) adenosine receptor: Application to a fluorescence polarization-based receptor binding assay.

    PubMed

    Kecskés, Miklós; Kumar, T Santhosh; Yoo, Lena; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Jacobson, Kenneth A

    2010-08-15

    Fluorescence polarization (FP) assay has many advantages over the traditional radioreceptor binding studies. We developed an A(2A) adenosine receptor (AR) FP assay using a newly synthesized fluorescent antagonist of the A(2A)AR (MRS5346), a pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidin-5-amine derivative conjugated to the fluorescent dye Alexa Fluor-488. MRS5346 displayed a K(i) value of 111+/-16nM in radioligand binding using [(3)H]CGS21680 and membranes prepared from HEK293 cells stably expressing the human A(2A)AR. In a cyclic AMP functional assay, MRS5346 was shown to be an A(2A)AR antagonist. MRS5346 did not show any effect on A(1) and A(3) ARs in binding or the A(2B)AR in a cyclic AMP assay at 10microM. Its suitability as a fluorescent tracer was indicated in an initial observation of an FP signal following A(2A)AR binding. The FP signal was optimal with 20nM MRS5346 and 150microg protein/mL HEK293 membranes. The association and dissociation kinetic parameters were readily determined using this FP assay. The K(d) value of MRS5346 calculated from kinetic parameters was 16.5+/-4.7nM. In FP competition binding experiments using MRS5346 as a tracer, K(i) values of known AR agonists and antagonists consistently agreed with K(i) values from radioligand binding. Thus, this FP assay, which eliminates using radioisotopes, appears to be appropriate for both routine receptor binding and high-throughput screening with respect to speed of analysis, displaceable signal and precision. The approach used in the present study could be generally applicable to other GPCRs.

  8. Homology modelling of the human adenosine A2B receptor based on X-ray structures of bovine rhodopsin, the β2-adrenergic receptor and the human adenosine A2A receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherbiny, Farag F.; Schiedel, Anke C.; Maaß, Astrid; Müller, Christa E.

    2009-11-01

    A three-dimensional model of the human adenosine A2B receptor was generated by means of homology modelling, using the crystal structures of bovine rhodopsin, the β2-adrenergic receptor, and the human adenosine A2A receptor as templates. In order to compare the three resulting models, the binding modes of the adenosine A2B receptor antagonists theophylline, ZM241385, MRS1706, and PSB601 were investigated. The A2A-based model was much better able to stabilize the ligands in the binding site than the other models reflecting the high degree of similarity between A2A and A2B receptors: while the A2B receptor shares about 21% of the residues with rhodopsin, and 31% with the β2-adrenergic receptor, it is 56% identical to the adenosine A2A receptor. The A2A-based model was used for further studies. The model included the transmembrane domains, the extracellular and the intracellular hydrophilic loops as well as the terminal domains. In order to validate the usefulness of this model, a docking analysis of several selective and nonselective agonists and antagonists was carried out including a study of binding affinities and selectivities of these ligands with respect to the adenosine A2A and A2B receptors. A common binding site is proposed for antagonists and agonists based on homology modelling combined with site-directed mutagenesis and a comparison between experimental and calculated affinity data. The new, validated A2B receptor model may serve as a basis for developing more potent and selective drugs.

  9. Adenosine A2A receptor and ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 are upregulated in hippocampal astrocytes of human patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE).

    PubMed

    Barros-Barbosa, Aurora R; Ferreirinha, Fátima; Oliveira, Ângela; Mendes, Marina; Lobo, M Graça; Santos, Agostinho; Rangel, Rui; Pelletier, Julie; Sévigny, Jean; Cordeiro, J Miguel; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo

    2016-12-01

    Refractoriness to existing medications of up to 80 % of the patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) prompts for finding new antiepileptic drug targets. The adenosine A2A receptor emerges as an interesting pharmacological target since its excitatory nature partially counteracts the dominant antiepileptic role of endogenous adenosine acting via inhibitory A1 receptors. Gain of function of the excitatory A2A receptor has been implicated in a significant number of brain pathologies commonly characterized by neuronal excitotoxicity. Here, we investigated changes in the expression and cellular localization of the A2A receptor and of the adenosine-generating enzyme, ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73, in the hippocampus of control individuals and MTLE human patients. Western blot analysis indicates that the A2A receptor is more abundant in the hippocampus of MTLE patients compared to control individuals. Immunoreactivity against the A2A receptor predominates in astrocytes staining positively for the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). No co-localization was observed between the A2A receptor and neuronal cell markers, like synaptotagmin 1/2 (nerve terminals) and neurofilament 200 (axon fibers). Hippocampal astrogliosis observed in MTLE patients was accompanied by a proportionate increase in A2A receptor and ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 immunoreactivities. Given our data, we hypothesize that selective blockade of excessive activation of astrocytic A2A receptors and/or inhibition of surplus adenosine formation by membrane-bound ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 may reduce neuronal excitability, thus providing a novel therapeutic target for drug-refractory seizures in MTLE patients.

  10. Effect of adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists on L-DOPA-induced hydroxyl radical formation in rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Gołembiowska, Krystyna; Dziubina, Anna; Kowalska, Magdalena; Kamińska, Katarzyna

    2009-02-01

    A(2A) adenosine receptor antagonists have been proposed as a new therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). Since oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of PD, we studied the effect of the selective A(2A) adenosine receptor antagonists 8-(3-chlorostyryl)caffeine (CSC) and 4-(2-[7-amino-2-(2-furyl)[1,2,4]triazolo[2,3-a][1,3,5]triazin-5-ylamino]ethyl)phenol (ZM 241385) on L: -3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L: -DOPA)-induced hydroxyl radical generation using in vivo microdialysis in the striatum of freely moving rats. L: -DOPA (100 mg/kg; in the presence of benserazide, 50 mg/kg) given acutely or repeatedly for 14 days generated a high level of hydroxyl radicals, measured by HPLC with electrochemical detection, as the product of their reaction with p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PBA). CSC (1 mg/kg) and ZM 241385 (3 mg/kg) decreased haloperidol (0.5 mg/kg)-induced catalepsy, while at low doses of 0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg, respectively, they did not display an effect. CSC (1 and 5 mg/kg) and ZM 241385 (3 and 9 mg/kg) given acutely, or CSC (1 mg/kg) and ZM 241385 (3 mg/kg) given repeatedly, increased the production of hydroxyl radicals in dialysates from rat striatum. Both acute and repeated administration of CSC (0.1 and 1 mg/kg) and ZM 241385 (3 mg/kg) decreased L: -DOPA-induced generation of hydroxyl radicals. However, a high single dose of either CSC (5 mg/kg) and ZM 241385 (9 mg/kg) markedly potentiated the effect of L: -DOPA on hydroxyl radical production. The increase in hydroxyl radical production by acute and chronic injection of CSC and ZM 241385 may be related to the increased release of dopamine (DA) and its metabolism in striatal dialysates. Similarly, increased DA release following a single high dose of CSC or ZM 241385 appears to be responsible for augmentation of L: -DOPA-induced hydroxyl radical formation. Conversely, the inhibition of L: -DOPA-induced production of hydroxyl radical by single and repeated low doses of CSC or repeated low doses of ZM

  11. Binding of the novel nonxanthine A2A adenosine receptor antagonist [3H]SCH58261 to coronary artery membranes.

    PubMed

    Belardinelli, L; Shryock, J C; Ruble, J; Monopoli, A; Dionisotti, S; Ongini, E; Dennis, D M; Baker, S P

    1996-12-01

    This study demonstrates quantification of A2A adenosine receptors (A2AAdoRs) in membranes prepared from porcine coronary arteries, porcine striatum, and PC12 cells. Radioligand binding assays were performed using the new selective A2AAdoR antagonist radioligand [3H]-5-amino-7-(2-phenylethyl)-2-(2-furyl)-pyrazolo [4,3-epsilon]-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-c)pyrimidine ([3H]SCH58261). Binding of the radioligand to membranes was rapid, reversible, and saturable. The densities of A2AAdoRs in membranes prepared from porcine coronary arteries, porcine striatum, and PC12 cells were 900 +/- 61, 892 +/- 35, and 959 +/- 76 fmol/mg protein, respectively. Equilibrium dissociation constants (Kd values) calculated from results of saturation binding assays were 2.19, 1.20, and 0.81 nmol/L, and Kd values calculated from results of association and dissociation assays were 2.42, 1.01, and 0.40 nmol/L for [3H]SCH58261 binding to membranes prepared from porcine coronary arteries, porcine striatum, and PC12 cells, respectively. The specific binding of [3H]SCH58261 as a percentage of total binding at a radioligand concentration equal to the Kd value was 65% to 90% in the three membrane preparations. The order of ligand potencies determined by assay of competition binding to sites in porcine coronary membranes using [3H]SCH58261, unlabeled antagonists (SCH58261, 8-(3-chlorostyryl)caffeine [CSC], and xanthine amine congener [XAC]), and unlabeled agonists ([3H]2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)-phenethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoaden osine [CGS 21680], 2-hexynyl-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine [HE-NECA], [3H]5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine [NECA], and R(-)N6-(2-phenylisopropyl)adenosine [R-PIA]) was SCH58261 > HE-NECA = CSC = CGS 21680 = XAC > NECA = R-PIA. The Hill coefficients of displacement by A2AAdoR ligands of [3H]SCH58261 binding were not significantly different from unity, indicating that [3H]SCH58261 bound to a group of homogeneous noninteracting sites in all membrane preparations. The order of ligand

  12. Involvement of NADPH oxidase in A2A adenosine receptor-mediated increase in coronary flow in isolated mouse hearts.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhichao; Rajamani, Uthra; Labazi, Hicham; Tilley, Stephen L; Ledent, Catherine; Teng, Bunyen; Mustafa, S Jamal

    2015-06-01

    Adenosine increases coronary flow mainly through the activation of A2A and A2B adenosine receptors (ARs). However, the mechanisms for the regulation of coronary flow are not fully understood. We previously demonstrated that adenosine-induced increase in coronary flow is in part through NADPH oxidase (Nox) activation, which is independent of activation of either A1 or A3ARs. In this study, we hypothesize that adenosine-mediated increase in coronary flow through Nox activation depends on A2A but not A2BARs. Functional studies were conducted using isolated Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production was measured in isolated coronary arteries from WT, A2AAR knockout (KO), and A2BAR KO mice using dichlorofluorescein immunofluorescence. Adenosine-induced concentration-dependent increase in coronary flow was attenuated by the specific Nox2 inhibitor gp91 ds-tat or reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger EUK134 in both WT and A2B but not A2AAR KO isolated hearts. Similarly, the A2AAR selective agonist CGS-21680-induced increase in coronary flow was significantly blunted by Nox2 inhibition in both WT and A2BAR KO, while the A2BAR selective agonist BAY 60-6583-induced increase in coronary flow was not affected by Nox2 inhibition in WT. In intact isolated coronary arteries, adenosine-induced (10 μM) increase in H2O2 formation in both WT and A2BAR KO mice was attenuated by Nox2 inhibition, whereas adenosine failed to increase H2O2 production in A2AAR KO mice. In conclusion, adenosine-induced increase in coronary flow is partially mediated by Nox2-derived H2O2, which critically depends upon the presence of A2AAR.

  13. Modulation of Ca2+-currents by sequential and simultaneous activation of adenosine A1 and A 2A receptors in striatal projection neurons.

    PubMed

    Hernández-González, O; Hernández-Flores, T; Prieto, G A; Pérez-Burgos, A; Arias-García, M A; Galarraga, E; Bargas, J

    2014-01-01

    D(1)- and D(2)-types of dopamine receptors are located separately in direct and indirect pathway striatal projection neurons (dSPNs and iSPNs). In comparison, adenosine A(1)-type receptors are located in both neuron classes, and adenosine A(2A)-type receptors show a preferential expression in iSPNs. Due to their importance for neuronal excitability, Ca(2+)-currents have been used as final effectors to see the function of signaling cascades associated with different G protein-coupled receptors. For example, among many other actions, D(1)-type receptors increase, while D(2)-type receptors decrease neuronal excitability by either enhancing or reducing, respectively, CaV1 Ca(2+)-currents. These actions occur separately in dSPNs and iSPNs. In the case of purinergic signaling, the actions of A(1)- and A(2A)-receptors have not been compared observing their actions on Ca(2+)-channels of SPNs as final effectors. Our hypotheses are that modulation of Ca(2+)-currents by A(1)-receptors occurs in both dSPNs and iSPNs. In contrast, iSPNs would exhibit modulation by both A(1)- and A2A-receptors. We demonstrate that A(1)-type receptors reduced Ca(2+)-currents in all SPNs tested. However, A(2A)-type receptors enhanced Ca(2+)-currents only in half tested neurons. Intriguingly, to observe the actions of A(2A)-type receptors, occupation of A(1)-type receptors had to occur first. However, A(1)-receptors decreased Ca(V)2 Ca(2+)-currents, while A(2A)-type receptors enhanced current through Ca(V)1 channels. Because these channels have opposing actions on cell discharge, these differences explain in part why iSPNs may be more excitable than dSPNs. It is demonstrated that intrinsic voltage-gated currents expressed in SPNs are effectors of purinergic signaling that therefore play a role in excitability.

  14. A2A adenosine receptor and its modulators: overview on a druggable GPCR and on structure-activity relationship analysis and binding requirements of agonists and antagonists.

    PubMed

    Cristalli, G; Lambertucci, C; Marucci, G; Volpini, R; Dal Ben, D

    2008-01-01

    Since the discovery of the biological effects of adenosine, the development of potent and selective agonists and antagonists of adenosine receptors has been the subject of medicinal chemistry research for several decades, even if their clinical evaluation has been discontinued. Main problems include side effects due to the ubiquity of the receptors and the possibility of side effects, or to low brain penetration (in particular for the targeting of CNS diseases), short half-life of compounds, lack of effects. Furthermore, species differences in the affinity of ligands make difficult preclinical testing in animal models. Nevertheless, adenosine receptors continue to represent promising drug targets. A(2A) receptor has proved to be a promising pharmacological target for small synthetic ligands, and while A(2A) agonists are undergoing clinical trials for myocardial perfusion imaging and as anti-inflammatory agents, A(2A) antagonists represent an attractive field of research to discover new drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease. Furthermore, the information coming from bioinformatics and molecular modeling studies for the A(2A) receptor has made easier the understanding of ligand-target interaction and the rational design of agonists and antagonists for this subtype. The aim of this review is to show an overview of the most significant steps and progresses in developing A(2A) adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists.

  15. Dependence of P2-nucleotide receptor agonist-mediated endothelium-independent relaxation on ectonucleotidase activity and A2A-receptors in rat portal vein

    PubMed Central

    Guibert, Christelle; Loirand, Gervaise; Vigne, Paul; Savineau, Jean-Pierre; Pacaud, Pierre

    1998-01-01

    The mechanism of action of P2 nucleotide receptor agonists that produce endothelium-independent relaxation and the influence of ecto-ATPase activity on this relaxing effect have been investigated in rat portal vein smooth muscle.At 25°C, ATP, 2-methylthioATP (2-MeSATP) and 2-chloroATP (2-ClATP), dose-dependently inhibited spontaneous contractile activity of endothelium-denuded muscular strips from rat portal vein. The rank order of agonist potency defined from the half-inhibitory concentrations was 2-ClATP (2.7±0.5 μM, n=7)>ATP (12.9±1.1 μM, n=9)⩾2-MeSATP (21.9±4.8 μM, n=4). In the presence of αβ-methylene ATP (αβ-MeATP, 200 μM) which itself produced a transient contractile effect, the relaxing action of ATP and 2-MeSATP was completely abolished and that of 2-ClATP strongly inhibited.The non-selective P2-receptor antagonist pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2′,4′-disulphonic acid (PPADS, 100 μM) did not affect the relaxation induced by ATP, 2-MeSATP, and 2-ClATP.The A2A-adenosine receptor antagonist ZM 241385 inhibited the ATP-induced relaxation in a concentration-dependent manner (1–100 nM). In the presence of 100 nM ZM 241385, the relaxing effects of 2-MeSATP and 2-ClATP were also inhibited.ADP, AMP and adenosine also produced concentration-dependent inhibition of spontaneous contractions. The relaxing effects of AMP and adenosine were insensitive to αβ-MeATP (200 μM) but were inhibited by ZM 241385 (100 nM).Simultaneous measurements of contraction and ecto-ATPase activity estimated by the degradation of [γ-32P]-ATP showed that muscular strips rapidly (10–60 s) hydrolyzed ATP. This ecto-ATPase activity was abolished in the presence of EDTA and was inhibited by 57±11% (n=3) by 200 μM αβ-MeATP.These results suggest that ATP and other P2-receptor agonists are relaxant in rat portal vein smooth muscle, because ectonucleotidase activity leads to the formation of adenosine which activates A2A-receptors. PMID

  16. Neuroprotective potential of adenosine A2A and cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists in an animal model of Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Cerri, Silvia; Levandis, Giovanna; Ambrosi, Giulia; Montepeloso, Elena; Antoninetti, Gian Filippo; Franco, Rafael; Lanciego, José Luis; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E; Pinna, Annalisa; Blandini, Fabio; Armentero, Marie Therese

    2014-05-01

    The development of nondopaminergic therapeutic strategies that may improve motor and nonmotor deficits, while possibly slowing down the neurodegenerative process and associated neuroinflammation,is a primary goal of Parkinson disease (PD) research. We investigated the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory potential of combined and single treatment with adenosine A2A and cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists MSX-3 and rimonabant, respectively, in a rodent model of PD. Rats bearing a unilateral intrastriatal 6-hydroxydopamine lesion were treated chronically with MSX-3 (0.5or 1 mg/kg/d) and rimonabant (0.1 mg/kg/d) given as monotherapy or combined. The effects of the treatments to counteract dopaminergic cell death and neuroinflammation were assessed by immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase and glial cell markers, respectively. Both rimonabant and MSX-3 (1 mg/kg/d) promoted dopaminergic neuron survival in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) when given alone; this effect was weakened when the compounds were combined. Glial activation was not significantly affected by MSX-3 (1 mg/kg/d), whereas rimonabant seemed to increase astrocyte cell density in the SNc. Our findings demonstrate the neuroprotective potential of single treatments and suggest that glial cells might be involved in this protective effect. The results also indicate that the neuroprotective potential of combined therapy may not necessarily reflect or promote single-drug effects and point out that special care should be taken when considering multidrug therapies in PD.

  17. Both MC5r and A2Ar are required for protective regulatory immunity in the spleen of post-experimental autoimmune uveitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Darren J.; Taylor, Andrew W.

    2013-01-01

    The ocular microenvironment uses a poorly defined melanocortin 5 receptor (MC5r)-dependent pathway to recover immune tolerance following intraocular inflammation. This dependency is seen in experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU), a mouse model of endogenous human autoimmune uveitis, with the emergence of autoantigen-specific regulatory immunity in the spleen that protects the mice from recurrence of EAU. In this new study, it was found that the MC5r-dependent regulatory immunity was an increase of CD11b+ F4/80+ Ly-6Clow Ly-6G+ CD39+ CD73+ APC in the spleen of post-EAU mice. These MC5r-dependent APC require adenosine 2A receptor (A2Ar) expression on T cells to activate EAU-suppressing CD25+ CD4+ FoxP3+ Treg cells. Therefore, in the recovery from autoimmune disease the ocular microenvironment induces tolerance through a melanocortin mediated expansion of Ly-6G+ regulatory APC in the spleen that utilize the adenosinergic pathway to promote activation of autoantigen-specific Treg cells. PMID:24043903

  18. Selected C8 two-chain linkers enhance the adenosine A1/A2A receptor affinity and selectivity of caffeine.

    PubMed

    van der Walt, M M; Terre'Blanche, G

    2017-01-05

    Recent research exploring C8 substitution on the caffeine core identified 8-(2-phenylethyl)-1,3,7-trimethylxanthine as a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist. To elaborate further, we included various C8 two-chain-length linkers to enhance adenosine receptor affinity. The results indicated that the unsubstituted benzyloxy linker (1e A1Ki = 1.52 μM) displayed the highest affinity for the A1 adenosine receptor and the para-chloro-substituted phenoxymethyl (1d A2AKi = 1.33 μM) linker the best A2A adenosine receptor affinity. The position of the oxygen revealed that the phenoxymethyl linker favoured A1 adenosine receptor selectivity over the benzyloxy linker and, by introducing a para-chloro substituent, A2A adenosine receptor selectivity was obtained. Selected compounds (1c, 1e) behaved as A1 adenosine receptor antagonists in GTP shift assays and therefore represent selective and non-selective A1 and A2A adenosine receptor antagonists that may have potential for treating neurological disorders.

  19. Deletion of adenosine A1 or A2A receptors reduces L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine-induced dyskinesia in a model of Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Danqing; Cassin, Jared J.; Healy, Brian; Burdett, Thomas C.; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Fredholm, Bertil B.; Schwarzschild, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptor antagonism provides a promising approach to developing nondopaminergic therapy for Parkinson’s disease (PD). Clinical trials of A2A antagonists have targeted PD patients with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA)-induced dyskinesia (LID) in an effort to improve parkinsonian symptoms. The role of adenosine in the development of LID is little known, especially regarding its actions via A1 receptors. We aimed to examine the effects of genetic deletion and pharmacological blockade of A1 and/or A2A receptors on the development of LID, on the induction of molecular markers of LID including striatal preprodynorphin and preproenkephalin (PPE), and on the integrity of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons in hemiparkinsonian mice. Following a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion A1, A2A and double A1-A2A knockout (KO) and wild-type littermate mice, and mice pretreated with caffeine (an antagonist of both A1 and A2A receptors) or saline were treated daily for 18–21 days with a low dose of L-DOPA. Total abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs, a measure of LID) were significantly attenuated (p<0.05) in A1 and A2A KOs, but not in A1-A2A KOs and caffeine-pretreated mice. An elevation of PPE mRNA ipsilateral to the lesion in WT mice was reduced in all KO mice. In addition, neuronal integrity assessed by striatal dopamine content was similar in all KOs and caffeine-pretreated mice following 6-hydroxydopamine lesioning. Our findings raise the possibility that A1 or A2A receptors blockade might also confer a disease-modifying benefit of reduced risk of disabling LID, whereas the effect of their combined inactivation is less clear. PMID:20828543

  20. Persistent reduction of cocaine seeking by pharmacological manipulation of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors during extinction training in rats

    PubMed Central

    O’Neill, Casey E.; Hobson, Benjamin D.; Levis, Sophia C.; Bachtell, Ryan K.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Adenosine receptor stimulation and blockade has been shown to modulate a variety of cocaine related behaviors. Objectives These studies identify the direct effects of adenosine receptor stimulation on cocaine seeking during extinction training and the persistent effects on subsequent reinstatement to cocaine seeking. Methods Rats self-administered cocaine on a fixed-ratio 1 schedule in daily sessions over 3 weeks. Following 1 week withdrawal, the direct effects of adenosine receptor modulation were tested by administering the adenosine A1 receptor agonist, CPA (0.03 mg/kg and 0.1 mg/kg), the adenosine A2A agonist, CGS 21680 (0.03 mg/kg and 0.1 mg/kg), the presynaptic adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, SCH 442416 (0.3 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg, and 3 mg/kg), or vehicle prior to each of 6 daily extinction sessions. The persistent effects of adenosine receptor modulation during extinction training were subsequently tested on reinstatement to cocaine seeking induced by cues, cocaine, and the dopamine D2 receptor agonist, quinpirole. Results All doses of CPA and CGS 21680 impaired initial extinction responding, however only CPA treatment during extinction produced persistent impairment in subsequent cocaine- and quinpirole-induced seeking. Dissociating CPA treatment from extinction did not alter extinction responding or subsequent reinstatement. Administration of SCH 442416 had no direct effects on extinction responding, but produced dose-dependent persistent impairment of cocaine- and quinpirole-induced seeking. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that adenosine A1 or A2A receptor stimulation directly impair extinction responding. Interestingly, adenosine A1 receptor stimulation or presynaptic adenosine A2A receptor blockade during extinction produces lasting changes in relapse susceptibility. PMID:24562064

  1. Adenosine A2a blockade prevents synergy between mu-opiate and cannabinoid CB1 receptors and eliminates heroin-seeking behavior in addicted rats.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lina; McFarland, Krista; Fan, Peidong; Jiang, Zhan; Ueda, Takashi; Diamond, Ivan

    2006-05-16

    Relapse is the most serious limitation of effective medical treatment of opiate addiction. Opiate-related behaviors appear to be modulated by cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1) through poorly understood cross-talk mechanisms. Opiate and CB1 receptors are coexpressed in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and dorsal striatum. These regions also have the highest density of adenosine A2a receptors (A2a) in the brain. We have been investigating the postsynaptic signaling mechanisms of mu-opiate receptors (MORs) and CB1 receptors in primary NAc/striatal neurons. In this article, we present evidence that MOR and CB1 act synergistically on cAMP/PKA signaling in NAc/striatal neurons. In addition, we find that synergy requires adenosine and A2a. Importantly, an A2a antagonist administered either directly into the NAc or indirectly by i.p. injection eliminates heroin-induced reinstatement in rats trained to self-administer heroin, a model of human craving and relapse. These findings suggest that A2a antagonists might be effective therapeutic agents in the management of abstinent heroin addicts.

  2. Adenosine A2a blockade prevents synergy between μ-opiate and cannabinoid CB1 receptors and eliminates heroin-seeking behavior in addicted rats

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Lina; McFarland, Krista; Fan, Peidong; Jiang, Zhan; Ueda, Takashi; Diamond, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Relapse is the most serious limitation of effective medical treatment of opiate addiction. Opiate-related behaviors appear to be modulated by cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1) through poorly understood cross-talk mechanisms. Opiate and CB1 receptors are coexpressed in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and dorsal striatum. These regions also have the highest density of adenosine A2a receptors (A2a) in the brain. We have been investigating the postsynaptic signaling mechanisms of μ-opiate receptors (MORs) and CB1 receptors in primary NAc/striatal neurons. In this article, we present evidence that MOR and CB1 act synergistically on cAMP/PKA signaling in NAc/striatal neurons. In addition, we find that synergy requires adenosine and A2a. Importantly, an A2a antagonist administered either directly into the NAc or indirectly by i.p. injection eliminates heroin-induced reinstatement in rats trained to self-administer heroin, a model of human craving and relapse. These findings suggest that A2a antagonists might be effective therapeutic agents in the management of abstinent heroin addicts. PMID:16684876

  3. Beneficial effects of a novel agonist of the adenosine A2A receptor on monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats

    PubMed Central

    Alencar, Allan K N; Pereira, Sharlene L; Montagnoli, Tadeu L; Maia, Rodolfo C; Kümmerle, Arthur E; Landgraf, Sharon S; Caruso-Neves, Celso; Ferraz, Emanuelle B; Tesch, Roberta; Nascimento, José H M; de Sant'Anna, Carlos M R; Fraga, Carlos A M; Barreiro, Eliezer J; Sudo, Roberto T; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by enhanced pulmonary vascular resistance, right ventricular hypertrophy and increased right ventricular systolic pressure. Here, we investigated the effects of a N-acylhydrazone derivative, 3,4-dimethoxyphenyl-N-methyl-benzoylhydrazide (LASSBio-1359), on monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats. Experimental Approach PAH was induced in male Wistar rats by a single i.p. injection of MCT (60 mg·kg−1) and 2 weeks later, oral LASSBio-1359 (50 mg·kg−1) or vehicle was given once daily for 14 days. Echocardiography was used to measure cardiac function and pulmonary artery dimensions, with histological assay of vascular collagen. Studies of binding to human recombinant adenosine receptors (A1, A2A, A3) and of docking with A2A receptors were also performed. Key Results MCT administration induced changes in vascular and ventricular structure and function, characteristic of PAH. These changes were reversed by treatment with LASSBio-1359. MCT also induced endothelial dysfunction in pulmonary artery, as measured by diminished relaxation of pre-contracted arterial rings, and this dysfunction was reversed by LASSBio-1359. In pulmonary artery rings from normal Wistar rats, LASSBio-1359 induced relaxation, which was decreased by the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, ZM 241385. In adenosine receptor binding studies, LASSBio-1359 showed most affinity for the A2A receptor and in the docking analyses, binding modes of LASSBio-1359 and the A2A receptor agonist, CGS21680, were very similar. Conclusion and Implications In rats with MCT-induced PAH, structural and functional changes in heart and pulmonary artery were reversed by treatment with oral LASSBio-1359, most probably through the activation of adenosine A2A receptors. PMID:23530610

  4. Wound healing effects of noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) leaves: a mechanism involving its PDGF/A2A receptor ligand binding and promotion of wound closure.

    PubMed

    Palu, Afa; Su, Chen; Zhou, Bing-Nan; West, Brett; Jensen, Jarakae

    2010-10-01

    Morinda citrifolia L. (Rubiaceae) commonly known as noni, has been used in Polynesia by traditional healers for the treatment of cuts, bruises and wounds. Our objective was to investigate the wound-healing mechanisms of the noni leaf. The investigations of its wound-healing mechanisms were carried out using fresh noni leaf juice (NLJ), noni leaf ethanol extract (NLEE) and its methanol (MFEE) and hexane (HFEE) fractions on the PDGF and A(2A) receptors in vitro and topically in mice. Fresh noni leaf juice showed significant affinity to PDGF receptors, and displayed 166% binding inhibition of the ligand binding to its receptors, while at the same concentration, it only had 7% inhibition of the ligand binding to the A(2A) receptors. NLEE, HFEE and MFEE showed significant affinity to A(2A) receptors, concentration dependently, with IC(50) values of 34.1, 42.9 and 86.7 μg/mL, respectively. However, MFEE significantly increased wound closure and reduced the half closure time in mice with a CT(50) of 5.4 ± 0.2 days compared with control (p < 0.05). These results suggest that noni leaf significantly accelerated wound healing in mice via its ligand binding to the PDGF and A(2A) receptors as its probable mechanisms of wound-healing and also support its traditional usage for wound-healing in Polynesia.

  5. Potentiation by tonic A2a-adenosine receptor activation of CGRP-facilitated [3H]-ACh release from rat motor nerve endings.

    PubMed Central

    Correia-de-Sá, P.; Ribeiro, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    1. The effect of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on [3H]-acetylcholine ([3H]-ACh) release from motor nerve endings and its interaction with presynaptic facilitatory A2a-adenosine and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors was studied on rat phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparations loaded with [3H]-choline. 2. CGRP (100-400 nM) increased electrically evoked [3H]-ACh release from phrenic nerve endings in a concentration-dependent manner. 3. The magnitude of CGRP excitation increased with the increase of the stimulation pulse duration from 40 microseconds to 1 ms, keeping the frequency, the amplitude and the train length constants. With 1 ms pulses, the evoked [3H]-ACh release was more intense than with 40 microseconds pulse duration. 4. Both the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium, and the A2a adenosine receptor agonist, CGS 21680C, increased evoked [3H]-ACh release, but only CGS 21680C potentiated the facilitatory effect of CGRP. This potentiation was prevented by the A2a adenosine receptor antagonist, PD 115,199. 5. Adenosine deaminase prevented the excitatory effect of CGRP (400 nM) on [3H]-ACh release. This effect was reversed by the non-hydrolysable A2a-adenosine receptor agonist, CGS 21680C. 6. The nicotinic antagonist, tubocurarine, did not significantly change, whereas the A2-adenosine receptor antagonist, PD 115,199, blocked the CGRP facilitation. The A1-adenosine receptor antagonist, 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine, potentiated the CGRP excitatory effect. 7. The results suggest that the facilitatory effect of CGRP on evoked [3H]-ACh release from rat phrenic motor nerve endings depends on the presence of endogenous adenosine which tonically activates A2a-adenosine receptors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8004402

  6. Caffeine, Adenosine Receptors and Estrogen in Toxin Models of Parkinson’s Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-30

    Aim #2 – to localize the region within brain through which caffeine or A2A receptor inactivation produces its neuroprotective effect in the MPTP...astrocytes) are required for caffeine’s protective effect in chronic pesticides model of PD. Hypothesis M1: Caffeine acts through blockade of brain A2A...KO itself (>50% attenuation of the dopaminergic lesion) could mask a persistent protective effect of caffeine in the absence of brain A2ARs. In other

  7. Human monocytes respond to extracellular cAMP through A2A and A2B adenosine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Sciaraffia, Ester; Riccomi, Antonella; Lindstedt, Ragnar; Gesa, Valentina; Cirelli, Elisa; Patrizio, Mario; De Magistris, Maria Teresa; Vendetti, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we test the hypothesis that cAMP, acting as an extracellular mediator, affects the physiology and function of human myeloid cells. The cAMP is a second messenger recognized as a universal regulator of several cellular functions in different organisms. Many studies have shown that extracellular cAMP exerts regulatory functions, acting as first mediator in multiple tissues. However, the impact of extracellular cAMP on cells of the immune system has not been fully investigated. We found that human monocytes exposed to extracellular cAMP exhibit higher expression of CD14 and lower amount of MHC class I and class II molecules. When cAMP-treated monocytes are exposed to proinflammatory stimuli, they exhibit an increased production of IL-6 and IL-10 and a lower amount of TNF-α and IL-12 compared with control cells, resembling the features of the alternative-activated macrophages or M2 macrophages. In addition, we show that extracellular cAMP affects monocyte differentiation into DCs, promoting the induction of cells displaying an activated, macrophage-like phenotype with reduced capacity of polarized, naive CD4+ T cells into IFN-γ-producing lymphocytes compared with control cells. The effects of extracellular cAMP on monocytes are mediated by CD73 ecto-5′-nucleotidase and A2A and A2B adenosine receptors, as selective antagonists could reverse its effects. Of note, the expression of CD73 molecules has been found on the membrane of a small population of CD14+CD16+ monocytes. These findings suggest that an extracellular cAMP-adenosine pathway is active in cells of the immune systems. PMID:24652540

  8. Adenosine A2A receptor agonist prevents cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive male rats after myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Jaqueline S; Gabriel-Costa, Daniele; Sudo, Roberto T; Wang, Hao; Groban, Leanne; Ferraz, Emanuele B; Nascimento, José Hamilton M; Fraga, Carlos Alberto M; Barreiro, Eliezer J; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele

    2017-01-01

    Background This work evaluated the hypothesis that 3,4-methylenedioxybenzoyl-2-thienylhydrazone (LASSBio-294), an agonist of adenosine A2A receptor, could be beneficial for preventing cardiac dysfunction due to hypertension associated with myocardial infarction (MI). Methods Male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were randomly divided into four groups (six animals per group): sham-operation (SHR-Sham), and myocardial infarction rats (SHR-MI) were treated orally either with vehicle or LASSBio-294 (10 and 20 mg.kg−1.d−1) for 4 weeks. Echocardiography and in vivo hemodynamic parameters measured left ventricle (LV) structure and function. Exercise tolerance was evaluated using a treadmill test. Cardiac remodeling was accessed by LV collagen deposition and tumor necrosis factor α expression. Results Early mitral inflow velocity was significantly reduced in the SHR-MI group, and there was significant recovery in a dose-dependent manner after treatment with LASSBio-294. Exercise intolerance observed in the SHR-MI group was prevented by 10 mg.kg−1.d−1 of LASS-Bio-294, and exercise tolerance exceeded that of the SHR-Sham group at 20 mg.kg−1.d−1. LV end-diastolic pressure increased after MI, and this was prevented by 10 and 20 mg.kg−1.d−1 of LASSBio-294. Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase levels were restored in a dose-dependent manner after treatment with LASSBio-294. Fibrosis and inflammatory processes were also counteracted by LASSBio-294, with reductions in LV collagen deposition and tumor necrosis factor α expression. Conclusion In summary, oral administration of LASSBio-294 after MI in a dose-dependent manner prevented the development of cardiac dysfunction, demonstrating this compound’s potential as an alternative treatment for heart failure in the setting of ischemic heart disease with superimposed chronic hypertension. PMID:28293100

  9. Hyperthermia-induced seizures alter adenosine A1 and A2A receptors and 5'-nucleotidase activity in rat cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    León-Navarro, David Agustín; Albasanz, José L; Martín, Mairena

    2015-08-01

    Febrile seizure is one of the most common convulsive disorders in children. The neuromodulator adenosine exerts anticonvulsant actions through binding adenosine receptors. Here, the impact of hyperthermia-induced seizures on adenosine A1 and A2A receptors and 5'-nucleotidase activity has been studied at different periods in the cerebral cortical area by using radioligand binding, real-time PCR, and 5'-nucleotidase activity assays. Hyperthermic seizures were induced in 13-day-old rats using a warmed air stream from a hair dryer. Neonates exhibited rearing and falling over associated with hindlimb clonus seizures (stage 5 on Racine scale criteria) after hyperthermic induction. A significant increase in A1 receptor density was observed using [(3) H]DPCPX as radioligand, and mRNA coding A1 was observed 48 h after hyperthermia-induced seizures. In contrast, a significant decrease in A2A receptor density was detected, using [(3) H]ZM241385 as radioligand, 48 h after hyperthermia-evoked convulsions. These short-term changes in A1 and A2A receptors were also accompanied by a loss of 5'-nucleotidase activity. No significant variations either in A1 or A2A receptor density or 5'-nucleotidase were observed 5 and 20 days after hyperthermic seizures. Taken together, both regulation of A1 and A2A receptors and loss of 5'-nucleotidase in the cerebral cortex suggest the existence of a neuroprotective mechanism against seizures. Febrile seizure is one of the most common convulsive disorders in children. The consequences of hyperthermia-induced seizures (animal model of febrile seizures) on adenosine A1 and A2A receptors and 5'-nucleotidase activity have been studied at different periods in cerebral cortical area. A significant increase in A1 receptor density and mRNA coding A1 was observed 48 h after hyperthermia-induced seizures. In contrast, a significant decrease in A2A receptor density and 5'-nucleotidase activity was detected 48 h after convulsions evoked by hyperthermia

  10. A novel conjugated agent between dopamine and an A2A adenosine receptor antagonist as a potential anti-Parkinson multitarget approach.

    PubMed

    Dalpiaz, Alessandro; Cacciari, Barbara; Vicentini, Chiara Beatrice; Bortolotti, Fabrizio; Spalluto, Giampiero; Federico, Stephanie; Pavan, Barbara; Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Borea, Pier Andrea; Varani, Katia

    2012-03-05

    We propose a potential antiparkinsonian prodrug DP-L-A(2A)ANT (2) obtained by amidic conjugation of dopamine (1) via a succinic spacer to a new triazolo-triazine A(2A) adenosine receptor (AR) antagonist A(2A)ANT (3). The affinity of 2 and its hydrolysis products-1, 3, dopamine-linker DP-L (4) and A(2A)ANT-linker L-A(2A)ANT (5)-was evaluated for hA(1), hA(2A), hA(2B) and hA(3) ARs and rat striatum A(2A)ARs or D(2) receptors. The hydrolysis patterns of 2, 4 and 5 and the stabilities of 1 and 3 were evaluated by HPLC analysis in human whole blood and rat brain homogenates. High hA(2A) affinity was shown by compounds 2 (K(i) = 7.32 ± 0.65 nM), 3 (K(i) = 35 ± 3 nM) and 5 (K(i) = 72 ± 5 nM), whose affinity values were similar in rat striatum. These compounds were not able to change dopamine affinity for D(2) receptors but counteracted the CGS 21680-induced reduction of dopamine affinity. DP-L (4) was inactive on adenosine and dopaminergic receptors. As for stability studies, compounds 4 and 5 were not degraded in incubation media. In human blood, the prodrug 2 was hydrolyzed (half-life = 2.73 ± 0.23 h) mainly on the amidic bound coupling the A(2A)ANT (3), whereas in rat brain homogenates the prodrug 2 was hydrolyzed (half-life > eight hours) exclusively on the amidic bound coupling dopamine, allowing its controlled release and increasing its poor stability as characterized by half-life = 22.5 ± 1.5 min.

  11. Diadenosine diphosphate (Ap₂A) delays neutrophil apoptosis via the adenosine A2A receptor and cAMP/PKA pathway.

    PubMed

    Pliyev, Boris K; Dimitrieva, Tatyana V; Savchenko, Valery G

    2014-10-01

    Diadenosine polyphosphates have been shown to inhibit neutrophil apoptosis, but mechanisms of the antiapoptotic effect are not known. Diadenosine diphosphate (Ap2A) is the simplest naturally occurring diadenosine polyphosphate, and its effect on neutrophil apoptosis has not previously been investigated. Here we report that Ap2A delays spontaneous apoptosis of human neutrophils, and the effect is reversed by the adenosine A2A receptor antagonists SCH442416 and ZM241385. Ap2A induced an elevation of intracellular cAMP and the elevation was blocked by the adenosine A2A receptor antagonists. The antiapoptotic effect of Ap2A was abrogated by 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine, an inhibitor of adenylyl cyclase, and Rp-8-Br-cAMPS, an inhibitor of type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). Together, these results demonstrate that Ap2A delays neutrophil apoptosis via the adenosine A2A receptor and cAMP/PKA signaling axis.

  12. 2-Amino-N-pyrimidin-4-ylacetamides as A2A receptor antagonists: 2. Reduction of hERG activity, observed species selectivity, and structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Slee, Deborah H; Moorjani, Manisha; Zhang, Xiaohu; Lin, Emily; Lanier, Marion C; Chen, Yongsheng; Rueter, Jaimie K; Lechner, Sandra M; Markison, Stacy; Malany, Siobhan; Joswig, Tanya; Santos, Mark; Gross, Raymond S; Williams, John P; Castro-Palomino, Julio C; Crespo, María I; Prat, Maria; Gual, Silvia; Díaz, José-Luis; Jalali, Kayvon; Sai, Yang; Zuo, Zhiyang; Yang, Chun; Wen, Jenny; O'Brien, Zhihong; Petroski, Robert; Saunders, John

    2008-03-27

    Previously we have described a series of novel A 2A receptor antagonists with excellent water solubility. As described in the accompanying paper, the antagonists were first optimized to remove an unsubstituted furyl moiety, with the aim of avoiding the potential metabolic liabilities that can arise from the presence of an unsubstituted furan. This effort identified a series of potent and selective methylfuryl derivatives. Herein, we describe the further optimization of this series to increase potency, maintain selectivity for the human A 2A vs the human A 1 receptor, and minimize activity against the hERG channel. In addition, the observed structure-activity relationships against both the human and the rat A 2A receptor are reported.

  13. Adenosine receptor neurobiology: overview.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiang-Fan; Lee, Chien-fei; Chern, Yijuang

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine is a naturally occurring nucleoside that is distributed ubiquitously throughout the body as a metabolic intermediary. In the brain, adenosine functions as an important upstream neuromodulator of a broad spectrum of neurotransmitters, receptors, and signaling pathways. By acting through four G-protein-coupled receptors, adenosine contributes critically to homeostasis and neuromodulatory control of a variety of normal and abnormal brain functions, ranging from synaptic plasticity, to cognition, to sleep, to motor activity to neuroinflammation, and cell death. This review begun with an overview of the gene and genome structure and the expression pattern of adenosine receptors (ARs). We feature several new developments over the past decade in our understanding of AR functions in the brain, with special focus on the identification and characterization of canonical and noncanonical signaling pathways of ARs. We provide an update on functional insights from complementary genetic-knockout and pharmacological studies on the AR control of various brain functions. We also highlight several novel and recent developments of AR neurobiology, including (i) recent breakthrough in high resolution of three-dimension structure of adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) in several functional status, (ii) receptor-receptor heterodimerization, (iii) AR function in glial cells, and (iv) the druggability of AR. We concluded the review with the contention that these new developments extend and strengthen the support for A1 and A2ARs in brain as therapeutic targets for neurologic and psychiatric diseases. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Role of adenosine A(2A) receptors in modulating synaptic functions and brain levels of BDNF: a possible key mechanism in the pathophysiology of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Tebano, Maria Teresa; Martire, Alberto; Chiodi, Valentina; Ferrante, Antonella; Popoli, Patrizia

    2010-09-01

    In the last few years, accumulating evidence has shown the existence of an important cross-talk between adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A)Rs) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Not only are A(2A)Rs involved in the mechanism of transactivation of BDNF receptor TrkB, they also modulate the effect of BDNF on synaptic transmission, playing a facilitatory and permissive role. The cAMP-PKA pathway, the main transduction system operated by A(2A)Rs, is involved in such effects. Furthermore, a basal tonus of A(2A)Rs is required to allow the regulation of BDNF physiological levels in the brain, as demonstrated by the reduced protein levels measured in A(2A)Rs KO mice. The crucial role of adenosine A(2A)Rs in the maintenance of synaptic functions and BDNF levels will be reviewed here and discussed in the light of possible implications for Huntington's disease therapy, in which a joint impairment of BDNF and A(2A)Rs seems to play a pathogenetic role.

  15. Differential Expression of Adenosine A1 and A2A Receptors After Upper Cervical (C2) Spinal Cord Hemisection in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Theodor; Kreipke, Christian; Alilain, Warren; Nantwi, Kwaku D

    2007-01-01

    Background: In an animal model of spinal cord injury, a latent respiratory motor pathway can be pharmacologically activated via adenosine receptors to restore respiratory function after cervical (C2) spinal cord hemisection that paralyzes the hemidiaphragm ipsilateral to injury. Although spinal phrenic motoneurons immunopositive for adenosine receptors have been demonstrated (C3–C5), it is unclear if adenosine receptor protein levels are altered after C2 hemisection and theophylline administration. Objective: To assess the effects of C2 spinal cord hemisection and theophylline administration on the expression of adenosine receptor proteins. Methods: Adenosine A1 and A2A receptor protein levels were assessed in adult rats classified as (a) noninjured and theophylline treated, (b) C2 hemisected, (c) C2 hemisected and administered theophylline orally (3× daily) for 3 days only, and (d) C2 hemisected and administered theophylline (3× daily for 3 days) and assessed 12 days after drug administration. Assessment of A1 protein levels was carried out via immunohistochemistry and A2A protein levels by densitometry. Results: Adenosine A1 protein levels decreased significantly (both ipsilateral and contralateral to injury) after C2 hemisection; however, the decrease was attenuated in hemisected and theophylline-treated animals. Attenuation in adenosine A1 receptor protein levels persisted when theophylline administration was stopped for 12 days prior to assessment. Adenosine A2A protein levels were unchanged by C2 hemisection; however, theophylline reduced the levels within the phrenic motoneurons. Furthermore, the decrease in A2A levels persisted 12 days after theophylline was withdrawn. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that theophylline mitigates the effects of C2 hemisection by attenuating the C2 hemisection–induced decrease in A1 protein levels. Furthermore, A2A protein levels are unaltered by C2 hemisection but decrease after continuous or interrupted theophylline

  16. Involvement of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors in the adenosinergic modulation of the discriminative-stimulus effects of cocaine and methamphetamine in rats.

    PubMed

    Justinova, Zuzana; Ferre, Sergi; Segal, Pavan N; Antoniou, Katerina; Solinas, Marcello; Pappas, Lara A; Highkin, Jena L; Hockemeyer, Jorg; Munzar, Patrik; Goldberg, Steven R

    2003-12-01

    Adenosine, by acting on adenosine A1 and A2A receptors, is known to antagonistically modulate dopaminergic neurotransmission. We have recently reported that nonselective adenosine receptor antagonists (caffeine and 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine) can partially substitute for the discriminative-stimulus effects of methamphetamine. In the present study, by using more selective compounds, we investigated the involvement of A1 and A2A receptors in the adenosinergic modulation of the discriminative-stimulus effects of both cocaine and methamphetamine. The effects of the A1 receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA; 0.01-0.1 mg/kg) and antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine (CPT; 1.3-23.7 mg/kg) and the A2A receptor agonist 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine hydrochloride (CGS 21680; 0.03-0.18 mg/kg) and antagonist 3-(3-hydroxypropyl)-8-(3-methoxystyryl)-7-methyl-1-propargylxanthin phosphate disodium salt (MSX-3; 1-56 mg/kg) were evaluated in rats trained to discriminate either 1 mg/kg methamphetamine or 10 mg/kg cocaine from saline under a fixed-ratio 10 schedule of food presentation. The A1 and A2A receptor antagonists (CPT and MSX-3) both produced high levels of drug-lever selection when substituted for either methamphetamine or cocaine and significantly shifted dose-response curves of both psychostimulants to the left. Unexpectedly, the A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680 also produced drug-appropriate responding (although at lower levels) when substituted for the cocaine-training stimulus, and both CGS 21680 and the A1 receptor agonist CPA significantly shifted the cocaine dose-response curve to the left. In contrast, both agonists did not produce significant levels of drug-lever selection when substituted for the methamphetamine-training stimulus and failed to shift the methamphetamine dose-response curve. Therefore, adenosine A1 and A2A receptors appear to play important but differential roles in the modulation of the

  17. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of dual acting ligands targeting the adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors for the potential treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Jörg, Manuela; May, Lauren T; Mak, Frankie S; Lee, Kiew Ching K; Miller, Neil D; Scammells, Peter J; Capuano, Ben

    2015-01-22

    A relatively new strategy in drug discovery is the development of dual acting ligands. These molecules are potentially able to interact at two orthosteric binding sites of a heterodimer simultaneously, possibly resulting in enhanced subtype selectivity, higher affinity, enhanced or modified physiological response, and reduced reliance on multiple drug administration regimens. In this study, we have successfully synthesized a series of classical heterobivalent ligands as well as a series of more integrated and "drug-like" dual acting molecules, incorporating ropinirole as a dopamine D2 receptor agonist and ZM 241385 as an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist. The best compounds of our series maintained the potency of the original pharmacophores at both receptors (adenosine A2A and dopamine D2). In addition, the integrated dual acting ligands also showed promising results in preliminary blood-brain barrier permeability tests, whereas the classical heterobivalent ligands are potentially more suited as pharmacological tools.

  18. Differential effects of presynaptic versus postsynaptic adenosine A2A receptor blockade on Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) self-administration in squirrel monkeys.

    PubMed

    Justinová, Zuzana; Redhi, Godfrey H; Goldberg, Steven R; Ferré, Sergi

    2014-05-07

    Different doses of an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3 [3,7-dihydro-8-[(1E)-2-(3-ethoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-7 methyl-3-[3-(phosphooxy)propyl-1-(2 propynil)-1H-purine-2,6-dione] were found previously to either decrease or increase self-administration of cannabinoids delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or anandamide in squirrel monkeys. It was hypothesized that the decrease observed with a relatively low dose of MSX-3 was related to blockade of striatal presynaptic A2A receptors that modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission, whereas the increase observed with a higher dose was related to blockade of postsynaptic A2A receptors localized in striatopallidal neurons. This hypothesis was confirmed in the present study by testing the effects of the preferential presynaptic and postsynaptic A2A receptor antagonists SCH-442416 [2-(2-furanyl)-7-[3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propyl]-7H-pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidin-5-amine] and KW-6002 [(E)-1, 3-diethyl-8-(3,4-dimethoxystyryl)-7-methyl-3,7-dihydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione], respectively, in squirrel monkeys trained to intravenously self-administer THC. SCH-442416 produced a significant shift to the right of the THC self-administration dose-response curves, consistent with antagonism of the reinforcing effects of THC. Conversely, KW-6002 produced a significant shift to the left, consistent with potentiation of the reinforcing effects of THC. These results show that selectively blocking presynaptic A2A receptors could provide a new pharmacological approach to the treatment of marijuana dependence and underscore corticostriatal glutamatergic neurotransmission as a possible main mechanism involved in the rewarding effects of THC.

  19. Adenosine A2A receptor antagonists improve deficits in initiation of movement and sensory motor integration in the unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Pinna, Annalisa; Pontis, Silvia; Borsini, Franco; Morelli, Micaela

    2007-08-01

    Evidence obtained in rodent and primate models of Parkinson's disease (PD) and preliminary clinical trials, indicates that adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists might represent a promising nondopaminergic therapeutic tool for the treatment of PD. Those studies demonstrated the ability of adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists to potentiate l-dopa-mediated motor improvement, whereas very little is known about counteraction of specific motor deficits and on the effects of these compounds when administered alone. To this aim we evaluated the effects of different adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists on initiation of movement deficits, gait impairment and sensory-motor deficits, induced in rats by a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons. The following tests were used: (1) initiation time of stepping; (2) adjusting step (stepping with forelimb was measured as the forelimb was dragged laterally); (3) vibrissae-elicited forelimb placing (as index of sensory-motor integration deficits). Acute administration of the A(2A) receptor antagonists SCH 58261 (5 mg/kg i.p.) and ST 1535 (20 mg/kg i.p.) similarly to l-dopa (6 mg/kg i.p.) counteracted the impairments in the initiation time of stepping test, in the adjusting step and in the vibrissae-elicited forelimb placing induced by the lesion. The intensity of the effect was l-dopa > SCH 58261 > ST 1535. The results provide the first evidence that blockade of A(2A) receptors is effective in antagonizing specific motor deficit induced by DA neuron degeneration, such as initiation of movement and sensory-motor integration deficits, even without l-dopa combined administration.

  20. Adenosine A2A receptor antagonism and genetic deletion attenuate the effects of dopamine D2 antagonism on effort-based decision making in mice.

    PubMed

    Pardo, M; Lopez-Cruz, L; Valverde, O; Ledent, C; Baqi, Y; Müller, C E; Salamone, J D; Correa, M

    2012-04-01

    Brain dopamine (DA) and adenosine interact in the regulation of behavioral activation and effort-related processes. In the present studies, a T-maze task was developed in mice for the assessment of effort-related decision making. With this task, the two arms of the maze have different reinforcement densities, and a vertical barrier is positioned in the arm with the higher density (HD), presenting the animal with an effort-related challenge. Under control conditions mice prefer the HD arm, and climb the barrier to obtain the larger amount of food. The DA D(2) receptor antagonist haloperidol decreased selection of the HD arm and increased selection of the arm with the low density of reinforcement. However, the HD arm was still the preferred choice in haloperidol-treated mice trained with barriers in both arms. Pre-feeding the mice to reduce food motivation dramatically increased omissions, an effect that was distinct from the actions of haloperidol. Co-administration of theophylline, a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist, partially reversed the effects of haloperidol. This effect seems to be mediated by the A(2A) receptor but not the A(1) receptor, since the A(2A) antagonist MSX-3, but not the A(1) antagonist CPT, dose dependently reversed the effects of haloperidol on effort-related choice and on c-Fos expression in the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens. In addition, adenosine A(2A) receptor knockout mice were resistant to the effects of haloperidol on effort-related choice in the maze. These results indicate that DA D(2) and adenosine A(2A) receptors interact to regulate effort-related decision making and effort expenditure in mice.

  1. Synergistic Up-Regulation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression in Murine Macrophages by Adenosine A2A Receptor Agonists and Endotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Leibovich, Samuel Joseph; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Pinhal-Enfield, Grace; Belem, Paula C.; Elson, Genie; Rosania, Anthony; Ramanathan, Madhuri; Montesinos, Carmen; Jacobson, Marlene; Schwarzschild, Michael A.; Fink, J. Stephen; Cronstein, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Under normoxic conditions, macrophages from C57BL mice produce low levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Hypoxia stimulates VEGF expression by ∼500%; interferon-γ (IFN-γ) with endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] also stimulates VEGF expression by ∼50 to 150% in an inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-dependent manner. Treatment of normoxic macrophages with 5′-N-ethyl-carboxamido-adenosine (NECA), a nonselective adenosine A2 receptor agonist, or with 2-[p-(2-carboxyethyl)-phenylethyl amino]-5′-N-ethyl-carboxamido-adenosine (CGS21680), a specific adenosine A2A receptor agonist, modestly increases VEGF expression, whereas 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyl adenosine (CCPA), an adenosine A1 agonist, does not. Treatment with LPS (0 to 1000 ng/ml), or with IFN-γ (0 to 300 U/ml), does not affect VEGF expression. In the presence of LPS (EC50 < 10 ng/ml), but not of IFN-γ, both NECA and CGS21680 synergistically up-regulate VEGF expression by as much as 10-fold. This VEGF is biologically active in vivo in the rat corneal bioassay of angiogenesis. Inhibitors of iNOS do not affect this synergistic induction of VEGF, and macrophages from iNOS−/− mice produce similar levels of VEGF as wild-type mice, indicating that NO does not play a role in this induction. Under hypoxic conditions, VEGF expression is slightly increased by adenosine receptor agonists but adenosine A2 or A1 receptor antagonists 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargyl xanthine (DMPX), ZM241385, and 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DCPCX) do not modulate VEGF expression. VEGF expression is also not reduced in hypoxic macrophages from A3−/− and A2A−/− mice. Thus, VEGF expression by hypoxic macrophages does not seem to depend on endogenously released or exogenous adenosine. VEGF expression is strongly up-regulated by LPS/NECA in macrophages from A3−/− but not A2A−/− mice, confirming the role of adenosine A2A receptors in this pathway. LPS with NECA strongly up-regulates VEGF expression by

  2. A(2A) adenosine receptors are differentially modulated by pharmacological treatments in rheumatoid arthritis patients and their stimulation ameliorates adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats.

    PubMed

    Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Padovan, Melissa; Targa, Martina; Corciulo, Carmen; Giacuzzo, Sarah; Merighi, Stefania; Gessi, Stefania; Govoni, Marcello; Borea, Pier Andrea; Varani, Katia

    2013-01-01

    A(2A) adenosine receptors (ARs) play a key role in the inhibition of the inflammatory process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the modulation of A(2A)ARs in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients after different pharmacological treatments and to investigate the effect of A(2A)AR stimulation in a rat model of arthritis. We investigated A(2A)AR density and functionality in RA progression by using a longitudinal study in RA patients before and after methotrexate (MTX), anti-TNFα agents or rituximab treatments. A(2A)ARs were analyzed by saturation binding assays in lymphocytes from RA patients throughout the 24-month study timeframe. In an adjuvant-induced arthritis model in rats we showed the efficacy of the A(2A)AR agonist, CGS 21680 in comparison with standard therapies by means of paw volume assessment, radiographic and ultrasonographic imaging. Arthritic-associated pain was investigated in mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia tests. IL-10 release following A(2A)AR stimulation in lymphocytes from RA patients and in serum from arthritic rats was measured. In lymphocytes obtained from RA patients, the A(2A)AR up-regulation was gradually reduced in function of the treatment time and the stimulation of these receptors mediated a significant increase of IL-10 production. In the same cells, CGS 21680 did not affected cell viability and did not produced cytotoxic effects. The A(2A)AR agonist CGS 21680 was highly effective, as suggested by the marked reduction of clinical signs, in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis and associated pain. This study highlighted that A(2A)AR agonists represent a physiological-like therapeutic alternative for RA treatment as suggested by the anti-inflammatory role of A(2A)ARs in lymphocytes from RA patients. The effectiveness of A(2A)AR stimulation in a rat model of arthritis supported the role of A(2A)AR agonists as potential pharmacological treatment for RA.

  3. Protein kinase A mediates adenosine A2a receptor modulation of neurotransmitter release via synapsin I phosphorylation in cultured cells from medulla oblongata.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Joao Paulo Pontes; Almeida, Marina Gomes; Castilho-Martins, Emerson Augusto; Costa, Maisa Aparecida; Fior-Chadi, Debora Rejane

    2014-08-01

    Synaptic transmission is an essential process for neuron physiology. Such process is enabled in part due to modulation of neurotransmitter release. Adenosine is a synaptic modulator of neurotransmitter release in the Central Nervous System, including neurons of medulla oblongata, where several nuclei are involved with neurovegetative reflexes. Adenosine modulates different neurotransmitter systems in medulla oblongata, specially glutamate and noradrenaline in the nucleus tractussolitarii, which are involved in hypotensive responses. However, the intracellular mechanisms involved in this modulation remain unknown. The adenosine A2a receptor modulates neurotransmitter release by activating two cAMP protein effectors, the protein kinase A and the exchange protein activated by cAMP. Therefore, an in vitro approach (cultured cells) was carried out to evaluate modulation of neurotransmission by adenosine A2a receptor and the signaling intracellular pathway involved. Results show that the adenosine A2a receptor agonist, CGS 21680, increases neurotransmitter release, in particular, glutamate and noradrenaline and such response is mediated by protein kinase A activation, which in turn increased synapsin I phosphorylation. This suggests a mechanism of A2aR modulation of neurotransmitter release in cultured cells from medulla oblongata of Wistar rats and suggest that protein kinase A mediates this modulation of neurotransmitter release via synapsin I phosphorylation.

  4. A novel class of fluorinated A2A adenosine receptor agonist with application to last step enzymatic [18F]fluorination for PET imaging.

    PubMed

    O'Hagan, David; Lowe, Phillip T; Dall'Angello, Sergio; Zanda, Matteo; Ijzerman, Adriaan P; Mulder-Krieger, Thea

    2017-08-29

    The A2A adenosine receptor belongs to a family of G-coupled protein receptors that have been subjected to extensive investigation over the last few decades. Due to their prominent role in the biological functions of the heart, lungs, CNS and brain, they have become a target for the treatment of illnesses ranging from cancer immunotherapy to Parkinson's disease. The imaging of such receptors using positron emission tomography (PET) has also been of interest, potentially providing a valuable tool to analyse and diagnose various myocardial and neurodegenerative disorders, as well as offering support to drug discovery trials. Reported herein is the design, synthesis and evaluation of two novel 5'-fluorodeoxy-adenosine (FDA) based receptor agonists (FDA-PP1 and FDA-PP2), each substituted at the C-2 position with a terminally functionalised ethynyl unit. The structures enable a synthesis of 18F-labelled analogues via direct, last-step, radiosynthesis from chlorinated precursors using the fluorinase enzyme (5'-fluoro-5'-deoxyadenosine synthase) which catalyses a transhalogenation reaction. This delivers a new class of A2A adenosine receptor agonist which can be directly radiolabelled for exploration in PET studies. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Suppression of adenosine 2a receptor (A2aR)-mediated adenosine signaling improves disease phenotypes in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Seng kah; Higashimori, Haruki; Tolman, Michaela; Yang, Yongjie

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressing neurodegenerative disease in which the majority of upper and lower motor neurons are degenerated. Despite intensive efforts to identify drug targets and develop neuroprotective strategies, effective therapeutics for ALS remains unavailable. The identification and characterization of novel targets and pathways remain crucial in the development of ALS therapeutics. Adenosine is a major neuromodulator that actively regulates synaptic transmission. Interestingly, adenosine levels are significantly elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of progressing human ALS patients. In the current study, we showed that adenosine 2a receptor (A2aR), but not adenosine 1 receptor (A1R), is highly enriched in spinal (motor) neurons. A2aR expression is also selectively increased at the symptomatic onset in the spinal cords of SOD1G93A mice and end-stage human ALS spinal cords. Interestingly, we found that direct adenosine treatment is sufficient to induce embryonic stem cell-derived motor neuron (ESMN) cell death in cultures. Subsequent pharmacological inhibition and partial genetic ablation of A2aR (A2aR+/−) significantly protect ESMN from SOD1G93A+ astrocyte-induced cell death and delay disease progression of SOD1G93A mice. Taken together, our results provide compelling novel evidence that A2aR-mediated adenosine signaling contributes to the selective spinal motor neuron degeneration observed in the SOD1G93A mouse model of ALS. PMID:25779930

  6. Suppression of adenosine 2a receptor (A2aR)-mediated adenosine signaling improves disease phenotypes in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ng, Seng Kah; Higashimori, Haruki; Tolman, Michaela; Yang, Yongjie

    2015-05-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressing neurodegenerative disease in which the majority of upper and lower motor neurons are degenerated. Despite intensive efforts to identify drug targets and develop neuroprotective strategies, effective therapeutics for ALS remains unavailable. The identification and characterization of novel targets and pathways remain crucial in the development of ALS therapeutics. Adenosine is a major neuromodulator that actively regulates synaptic transmission. Interestingly, adenosine levels are significantly elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of progressing human ALS patients. In the current study, we showed that adenosine 2a receptor (A2aR), but not adenosine 1 receptor (A1R), is highly enriched in spinal (motor) neurons. A2aR expression is also selectively increased at the symptomatic onset in the spinal cords of SOD1G93A mice and end-stage human ALS spinal cords. Interestingly, we found that direct adenosine treatment is sufficient to induce embryonic stem cell-derived motor neuron (ESMN) cell death in cultures. Subsequent pharmacological inhibition and partial genetic ablation of A2aR (A2aR(+/-)) significantly protect ESMN from SOD1G93A(+) astrocyte-induced cell death and delay disease progression of SOD1G93A mice. Taken together, our results provide compelling novel evidence that A2aR-mediated adenosine signaling contributes to the selective spinal motor neuron degeneration observed in the SOD1G93A mouse model of ALS.

  7. Role and Function of A2A and A₃ Adenosine Receptors in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis, Psoriatic Arthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ravani, Annalisa; Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Bortoluzzi, Alessandra; Padovan, Melissa; Pasquini, Silvia; Gessi, Stefania; Merighi, Stefania; Borea, Pier Andrea; Govoni, Marcello; Varani, Katia

    2017-03-24

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) are chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases that affect joints, causing debilitating pain and disability. Adenosine receptors (ARs) play a key role in the mechanism of inflammation, and the activation of A2A and A₃AR subtypes is often associated with a reduction of the inflammatory status. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of ARs in patients suffering from early-RA (ERA), RA, AS and PsA. Messenger RNA (mRNA) analysis and saturation binding experiments indicated an upregulation of A2A and A₃ARs in lymphocytes obtained from patients when compared with healthy subjects. A2A and A₃AR agonists inhibited nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activation and reduced inflammatory cytokines release, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6. Moreover, A2A and A₃AR activation mediated a reduction of metalloproteinases (MMP)-1 and MMP-3. The effect of the agonists was abrogated by selective antagonists demonstrating the direct involvement of these receptor subtypes. Taken together, these data confirmed the involvement of ARs in chronic autoimmune rheumatic diseases highlighting the possibility to exploit A2A and A₃ARs as therapeutic targets, with the aim to limit the inflammatory responses usually associated with RA, AS and PsA.

  8. Creatine, similarly to ketamine, affords antidepressant-like effects in the tail suspension test via adenosine A₁ and A2A receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Mauricio P; Pazini, Francis L; Rosa, Julia M; Ramos-Hryb, Ana B; Oliveira, Ágatha; Kaster, Manuella P; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2015-06-01

    The benefits of creatine supplementation have been reported in a broad range of central nervous systems diseases, including depression. A previous study from our group demonstrated that creatine produces an antidepressant-like effect in the tail suspension test (TST), a predictive model of antidepressant activity. Since depression is associated with a dysfunction of the adenosinergic system, we investigated the involvement of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors in the antidepressant-like effect of creatine in the TST. The anti-immobility effect of creatine (1 mg/kg, po) or ketamine (a fast-acting antidepressant, 1 mg/kg, ip) in the TST was prevented by pretreatment of mice with caffeine (3 mg/kg, ip, nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist), 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX) (2 mg/kg, ip, selective adenosine A1 receptor antagonist), and 4-(2-[7-amino-2-{2-furyl}{1,2,4}triazolo-{2,3-a}{1,3,5}triazin-5-yl-amino]ethyl)-phenol (ZM241385) (1 mg/kg, ip, selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonist). In addition, the combined administration of subeffective doses of creatine and adenosine (0.1 mg/kg, ip, nonselective adenosine receptor agonist) or inosine (0.1 mg/kg, ip, nucleoside formed by the breakdown of adenosine) reduced immobility time in the TST. Moreover, the administration of subeffective doses of creatine or ketamine combined with N-6-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA) (0.05 mg/kg, ip, selective adenosine A1 receptor agonist), N-6-[2-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-(methylphenyl)ethyl]adenosine (DPMA) (0.1 mg/kg, ip, selective adenosine A2A receptor agonist), or dipyridamole (0.1 μg/mouse, icv, adenosine transporter inhibitor) produced a synergistic antidepressant-like effect in the TST. These results indicate that creatine, similarly to ketamine, exhibits antidepressant-like effect in the TST probably mediated by the activation of both adenosine A1 and A2A receptors, further reinforcing the potential of targeting the purinergic system to the management of mood disorders.

  9. Physiological roles of A1 and A2A adenosine receptors in regulating heart rate, body temperature, and locomotion as revealed using knockout mice and caffeine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiang-Ning; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Fredholm, Bertil B

    2009-04-01

    Heart rate (HR), body temperature (Temp), locomotor activity (LA), and oxygen consumption (O(2)C) were studied in awake mice lacking one or both of the adenosine A(1) or A(2A) receptors (A(1)R or A(2A)R, respectively) using telemetry and respirometry, before and after caffeine administration. All parameters were lower during day than night and higher in females than males. When compared with wild-type (WT) littermates, HR was higher in male A(1)R knockout (A(1)RKO) mice but lower in A(2A)RKO mice and intermediate in A(1)-A(2A)R double KO mice. A single dose of an unselective beta-blocker (timolol; 1 mg/kg) abolished the HR differences between these genotypes. Deletion of A(1)Rs had little effect on Temp, whereas deletion of A(2A)Rs increased it in females and decreased it in males. A(1)-A(2A)RKO mice had lower Temp than WT mice. LA was unaltered in A(1)RKO mice and lower in A(2A)RKO and A(1)-A(2A)RKO mice than in WT mice. Caffeine injection increased LA but only in mice expressing A(2A)R. Caffeine ingestion also increased LA in an A(2A)R-dependent manner in male mice. Caffeine ingestion significantly increased O(2)C in WT mice, but less in the different KO mice. Injection of 30 mg/kg caffeine decreased Temp, especially in KO mice, and hence in a manner unrelated to A(1)R or A(2A)R blockade. Selective A(2B) antagonism had little or no effect. Thus A(1)R and A(2A)R influence HR, Temp, LA, and O(2)C in mice in a sex-dependent manner, indicating effects of endogenous adenosine. The A(2A)R plays an important role in the modulation of O(2)C and LA by acute and chronic caffeine administration. There is also evidence for effects of higher doses of caffeine being independent of both A(1)R and A(2A)R.

  10. The adenosine A2A receptor antagonist ZM241385 enhances neuronal survival after oxygen-glucose deprivation in rat CA1 hippocampal slices

    PubMed Central

    Pugliese, AM; Traini, C; Cipriani, S; Gianfriddo, M; Mello, T; Giovannini, MG; Galli, A; Pedata, F

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Activation of adenosine A2A receptors in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices during oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), a model of cerebral ischaemia, was investigated. Experimental approach: We made extracellular recordings of CA1 field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fepsps) followed by histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques coupled to Western blots. Key results: OGD (7 or 30 min duration) elicited an irreversible loss of fepsps invariably followed by the appearance of anoxic depolarization (AD), an unambiguous sign of neuronal damage. The application of the selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, ZM241385 (4-(2-[7-amino-2-{2-furyl}{1,2,4}triazolo{2,3-a}{1,3,5}triazin-5-ylamino]ethyl)phenol; 100–500 nmol·L−1) prevented or delayed AD appearance induced by 7 or 30 min OGD and protected from the irreversible fepsp depression elicited by 7 min OGD. Two different selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonists, SCH58261 and SCH442416, were less effective than ZM241385 during 7 min OGD. The extent of CA1 cell injury was assessed 3 h after the end of 7 min OGD by propidium iodide. Substantial CA1 pyramidal neuronal damage occurred in untreated slices, exposed to OGD, whereas injury was significantly prevented by 100 nmol·L−1 ZM241385. Glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) immunostaining showed that 3 h after 7 min OGD, astrogliosis was appreciable. Western blot analysis indicated an increase in GFAP 30 kDa fragment which was significantly reduced by treatment with 100 nmol·L−1 ZM241385. Conclusions and implications: In the CA1 hippocampus, antagonism of A2A adenosine receptors by ZM241385 was protective during OGD (a model of cerebral ischaemia) by delaying AD appearance, decreasing astrocyte activation and improving neuronal survival. PMID:19422385

  11. Hydrophilic Side Chains in the Third and Seventh Transmembrane Helical Domains of Human A2A Adenosine Receptors Are Required for Ligand Recognition

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, QIAOLING; VAN RHEE, A. MICHIEL; KIM, JEONGHO; YEHLE, SUSAN; WESS, JüRGEN; JACOBSON, KENNETH A.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Hydrophilic residues of the G protein-coupled human A2A adenosine receptor that are potentially involved in the binding of the ribose moiety of adenosine were targeted for mutagenesis. Residues in a T88QSS91 sequence in the third transmembrane helical domain (TM3) were individually replaced with alanine and other amino acids. Two additional serine residues in TM7 that were previously shown to be involved in ligand binding were mutated to other uncharged, hydrophilic amino acids. The binding affinity of agonists at T88 mutant receptors was greatly diminished, although the receptors were well expressed and bound antagonists similar to the wild-type receptor. Thus, mutations that are specific for diminishing the affinity of ribose-containing ligands (i.e., adenosine agonists) have been identified in both TM3 and TM7. The T88A and T88S mutant receptor fully stimulated adenylyl cyclase, with the dose-response curves to CGS 21680 highly shifted to the right. A Q89A mutant gained affinity for all agonist and antagonist Iigands examined in binding and functional assays. Q89 likely plays an indirect role in ligand binding. S9OA, S91A, and S277C mutant receptors displayed only moderate changes in ligand affinity. A 5281 N mutant gained affinity for all adenosine denyatives (agonists), but antagonist affinity was generally diminished, with the exception of a novel tetrahydnobenzothiophenone derivative. PMID:8794889

  12. A genetic variation in the adenosine A2A receptor gene (ADORA2A) contributes to individual sensitivity to caffeine effects on sleep.

    PubMed

    Rétey, J V; Adam, M; Khatami, R; Luhmann, U F O; Jung, H H; Berger, W; Landolt, H-P

    2007-05-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used stimulant in Western countries. Some people voluntarily reduce caffeine consumption because it impairs the quality of their sleep. Studies in mice revealed that the disruption of sleep after caffeine is mediated by blockade of adenosine A2A receptors. Here we show in humans that (1) habitual caffeine consumption is associated with reduced sleep quality in self-rated caffeine-sensitive individuals, but not in caffeine-insensitive individuals; (2) the distribution of distinct c.1083T>C genotypes of the adenosine A2A receptor gene (ADORA2A) differs between caffeine-sensitive and -insensitive adults; and (3) the ADORA2A c.1083T>C genotype determines how closely the caffeine-induced changes in brain electrical activity during sleep resemble the alterations observed in patients with insomnia. These data demonstrate a role of adenosine A2A receptors for sleep in humans, and suggest that a common variation in ADORA2A contributes to subjective and objective responses to caffeine on sleep.

  13. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor mediates neuroprotection against Aβ-induced toxicity through a mechanism independent on adenosine 2A receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Jerónimo-Santos, André; Fonseca-Gomes, João; Guimarães, Diogo Andrade; Tanqueiro, Sara Ramalho; Ramalho, Rita Mira; Ribeiro, Joaquim Alexandre; Sebastião, Ana Maria; Diógenes, Maria José

    2015-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes neuronal survival through TrkB-FL activation. The activation of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) is essential for most of BDNF-mediated synaptic actions, such as synaptic plasticity, transmission and neurotransmitter release. We now aimed at evaluating the A2AR influence upon BDNF-mediated neuroprotection against Aβ25-35 toxicity in cultured neurons. Results showed that BDNF increases cell survival and reduces the caspase-3 and calpain activation induced by amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, in a mechanism probably dependent on PLCγ pathway. This BDNF-mediated neuroprotection is not affected by A2AR activation or inhibition. Moreover neither activation nor inhibition of A2AR, per se, significantly influenced Aβ-induced neuronal death on calpain-mediated cleavage of TrkB induced by Aβ. In conclusion, these results suggest that, in opposition to the fast synaptic actions of BDNF, the neuroprotective actions of this neurotrophin against a strong Aβ insult do not require the activation of A2AR.

  14. Opposite effects of the A2A receptor agonist CGS21680 in the striatum of Huntington's disease versus wild-type mice.

    PubMed

    Martire, Alberto; Calamandrei, Gemma; Felici, Fabio; Scattoni, Maria Luisa; Lastoria, Giusi; Domenici, Maria Rosaria; Tebano, Maria Teresa; Popoli, Patrizia

    2007-04-24

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder. Adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A)Rs) are involved in excitotoxic/neurodegenerative processes, and A(2A)R ligands may be neuroprotective in models of HD. However, changes in the transcription, expression and function of A(2A)Rs have been reported to occur in HD models. The aim of the present work was to verify whether A(2A)R-mediated effects are altered in the striatum of transgenic HD (R6/2) versus wild-type (WT) mice. Extracellular field potentials (FPs) were recorded in corticostriatal slices from R6/2 mice in early (7-8 weeks) or frankly (12-13 weeks) symptomatic phases, and age-matched WT. In 12-13 weeks aged WT animals, the application of 75 microM NMDA induced a transient disappearance of the FP followed by an almost complete recovery at washout. In slices from HD mice, the mean FP recovery was significantly reduced (P<0.01 versus WT). A(2A)R activation oppositely modulated NMDA-induced toxicity in the striatum of HD versus WT mice. Indeed, the A(2A)R agonist CGS21680 reduced the FP recovery in slices from WT mice, while it significantly increased it in slices from R6/2 mice. In early symptomatic (7-8 weeks) mice, no differences were observed between WT and HD animals in terms of basal synaptic transmission and response to NMDA. At the same age, the behavioural effects elicited by CGS21680 were qualitatively identical in WT and HD mice. These findings may have very important implications for the neuroprotective potential of A(2A)R ligands in HD.

  15. The role of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors in the caffeine effect on MDMA-induced DA and 5-HT release in the mouse striatum.

    PubMed

    Górska, A M; Gołembiowska, K

    2015-04-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") popular as a designer drug is often used with caffeine to gain a stronger stimulant effect. MDMA induces 5-HT and DA release by interaction with monoamine transporters. Co-administration of caffeine and MDMA may aggravate MDMA-induced toxic effects on DA and 5-HT terminals. In the present study, we determined whether caffeine influences DA and 5-HT release induced by MDMA. We also tried to find out if adenosine A1 and A2A receptors play a role in the effect of caffeine by investigating the effect of the selective adenosine A1 and A2A receptor antagonists, DPCPX and KW 6002 on DA and 5-HT release induced by MDMA. Mice were treated with caffeine (10 mg/kg) and MDMA (20 or 40 mg/kg) alone or in combination. DA and 5-HT release in the mouse striatum was measured using in vivo microdialysis. Caffeine exacerbated the effect of MDMA on DA and 5-HT release. DPCPX or KW 6002 co-administered with MDMA had similar influence as caffeine, but KW 6002 was more potent than caffeine or DPCPX. To exclude the contribution of MAO inhibition by caffeine in the caffeine effect on MDMA-induced increase in DA and 5-HT, we also tested the effect of the nonxanthine adenosine receptor antagonist CGS 15943A lacking properties of MAO activity modification. Our findings indicate that adenosine A1 and A2A receptor blockade may account for the caffeine-induced exacerbation of the MDMA effect on DA and 5-HT release and may aggravate MDMA toxicity.

  16. Activation of Th1 and Tc1 cell adenosine A2A receptors directly inhibits IL-2 secretion in vitro and IL-2-driven expansion in vivo.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Andreas A; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Jung, Unsu; Foley, Jason; Borenstein, Todd; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Fowler, Daniel H

    2005-06-15

    To evaluate the direct effect of adenosine on cytokine-polarized effector T cells, murine type 1 helper T cells (Th1) and type 1 cytotoxic T lymphocytes (Tc1) and Th2/Tc2 cells were generated using an antigen-presenting cell (APC)-free method. Tc1 and Tc2 cells had similar adenosine signaling, as measured by intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) increase upon adenosine A(2A) receptor agonism by CGS21680 (CGS). CGS greatly reduced Tc1 and Tc2 cell interleukin 2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) secretion, with nominal effect on interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) secretion. Tc2 cell IL-4 and IL-5 secretion was not reduced by CGS, and IL-10 secretion was moderately reduced. Agonist-mediated inhibition of IL-2 and TNF-alpha secretion occurred via A(2A) receptors, with no involvement of A(1), A(2B), or A(3) receptors. Adenosine agonist concentrations that abrogated cytokine secretion did not inhibit Tc1 or Tc2 cell cytolytic function. Adenosine modulated effector T cells in vivo, as CGS administration reduced CD4(+)Th1 and CD8(+)Tc1 cell expansion to alloantigen and, in a separate model, reduced antigen-specific CD4(+) Th1 cell numbers. Remarkably, agonist-mediated T-cell inhibition was abrogated by in vivo IL-2 therapy. Adenosine receptor activation therefore preferentially inhibits type I cytokine secretion, most notably IL-2. Modulation of adenosine receptors may thus represent a suitable target primarily for inflammatory conditions mediated by Th1 and Tc1 cells.

  17. Ethanol and Caffeine Effects on Social Interaction and Recognition in Mice: Involvement of Adenosine A2A and A1 Receptors.

    PubMed

    López-Cruz, Laura; San-Miguel, Noemí; Bayarri, Pilar; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E; Salamone, John D; Correa, Mercé

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol and caffeine are frequently consumed in combination and have opposite effects on the adenosine system: ethanol metabolism leads to an increase in adenosine levels, while caffeine is a non-selective adenosine A1/A2A receptor antagonist. These receptors are highly expressed in striatum and olfactory tubercle, brain areas involved in exploration and social interaction in rodents. Ethanol modulates social interaction processes, but the role of adenosine in social behavior is still poorly understood. The present work was undertaken to study the impact of ethanol, caffeine and their combination on social behavior, and to explore the involvement of A1 and A2A receptors on those actions. Male CD1 mice were evaluated in a social interaction three-chamber paradigm, for preference of conspecific vs. object, and also for long-term recognition memory of familiar vs. novel conspecific. Ethanol showed a biphasic effect, with low doses (0.25 g/kg) increasing social contact and higher doses (1.0-1.5 g/kg) reducing social interaction. However, no dose changed social preference; mice always spent more time sniffing the conspecific than the object, independently of the ethanol dose. Ethanol, even at doses that did not change social exploration, produced amnestic effects on social recognition the following day. Caffeine reduced social contact (15.0-60.0 mg/kg), and even blocked social preference at higher doses (30.0-60.0 mg/kg). The A1 antagonist Cyclopentyltheophylline (CPT; 3-9 mg/kg) did not modify social contact or preference on its own, and the A2A antagonist MSX-3 (1.5-6 mg/kg) increased social interaction at all doses. Ethanol at intermediate doses (0.5-1.0 g/kg) was able to reverse the reduction in social exploration induced by caffeine (15.0-30.0 mg/kg). Although there was no interaction between ethanol and CPT or MSX-3 on social exploration in the first day, MSX-3 blocked the amnestic effects of ethanol observed on the following day. Thus, ethanol impairs the

  18. Ethanol and Caffeine Effects on Social Interaction and Recognition in Mice: Involvement of Adenosine A2A and A1 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    López-Cruz, Laura; San-Miguel, Noemí; Bayarri, Pilar; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E.; Salamone, John D.; Correa, Mercé

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol and caffeine are frequently consumed in combination and have opposite effects on the adenosine system: ethanol metabolism leads to an increase in adenosine levels, while caffeine is a non-selective adenosine A1/A2A receptor antagonist. These receptors are highly expressed in striatum and olfactory tubercle, brain areas involved in exploration and social interaction in rodents. Ethanol modulates social interaction processes, but the role of adenosine in social behavior is still poorly understood. The present work was undertaken to study the impact of ethanol, caffeine and their combination on social behavior, and to explore the involvement of A1 and A2A receptors on those actions. Male CD1 mice were evaluated in a social interaction three-chamber paradigm, for preference of conspecific vs. object, and also for long-term recognition memory of familiar vs. novel conspecific. Ethanol showed a biphasic effect, with low doses (0.25 g/kg) increasing social contact and higher doses (1.0–1.5 g/kg) reducing social interaction. However, no dose changed social preference; mice always spent more time sniffing the conspecific than the object, independently of the ethanol dose. Ethanol, even at doses that did not change social exploration, produced amnestic effects on social recognition the following day. Caffeine reduced social contact (15.0–60.0 mg/kg), and even blocked social preference at higher doses (30.0–60.0 mg/kg). The A1 antagonist Cyclopentyltheophylline (CPT; 3–9 mg/kg) did not modify social contact or preference on its own, and the A2A antagonist MSX-3 (1.5–6 mg/kg) increased social interaction at all doses. Ethanol at intermediate doses (0.5–1.0 g/kg) was able to reverse the reduction in social exploration induced by caffeine (15.0–30.0 mg/kg). Although there was no interaction between ethanol and CPT or MSX-3 on social exploration in the first day, MSX-3 blocked the amnestic effects of ethanol observed on the following day. Thus, ethanol

  19. Spatiotemporal brain dynamics of emotional face processing modulations induced by the serotonin 1A/2A receptor agonist psilocybin.

    PubMed

    Bernasconi, Fosco; Schmidt, André; Pokorny, Thomas; Kometer, Michael; Seifritz, Erich; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2014-12-01

    Emotional face processing is critically modulated by the serotonergic system. For instance, emotional face processing is impaired by acute psilocybin administration, a serotonin (5-HT) 1A and 2A receptor agonist. However, the spatiotemporal brain mechanisms underlying these modulations are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the spatiotemporal brain dynamics underlying psilocybin-induced modulations during emotional face processing. Electrical neuroimaging analyses were applied to visual evoked potentials in response to emotional faces, following psilocybin and placebo administration. Our results indicate a first time period of strength (i.e., Global Field Power) modulation over the 168-189 ms poststimulus interval, induced by psilocybin. A second time period of strength modulation was identified over the 211-242 ms poststimulus interval. Source estimations over these 2 time periods further revealed decreased activity in response to both neutral and fearful faces within limbic areas, including amygdala and parahippocampal gyrus, and the right temporal cortex over the 168-189 ms interval, and reduced activity in response to happy faces within limbic and right temporo-occipital brain areas over the 211-242 ms interval. Our results indicate a selective and temporally dissociable effect of psilocybin on the neuronal correlates of emotional face processing, consistent with a modulation of the top-down control. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Interleukin-1beta but not tumor necrosis factor-alpha potentiates neuronal damage by quinolinic acid: protection by an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Stone, Trevor W; Behan, Wilhelmina M H

    2007-04-01

    Quinolinic acid is an agonist at glutamate receptors sensitive to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). It has been implicated in neural dysfunction associated with infections, trauma, and ischemia, although its neurotoxic potency is relatively low. This study was designed to examine the effects of a combination of quinolinic acid and the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Compounds were administered to the hippocampus of anesthetized male rats, animals being allowed to recover for 7 days before histological analysis of the hippocampus for neuronal damage estimated by counting of intact, healthy neurons. A low dose of quinolinic acid or IL-1beta produced no damage by itself, but the two together induced a significant loss of pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus. Higher doses produced almost total loss of pyramidal cells. Intrahippocampal TNF-alpha produced no effect alone but significantly reduced the neuronal loss produced by quinolinic acid. The adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist ZM241385 reduced neuronal loss produced by the combinations of quinolinic acid and IL-1beta. The results suggest that simultaneous quinolinic acid and IL-1beta, both being induced by cerebral infection or injury, are synergistic in the production of neuronal damage and could together contribute substantially to traumatic, infective, or ischemic cerebral damage. Antagonism of adenosine A(2A) receptors protects neurons against the combination of quinolinic acid and IL-1beta.

  1. In search of novel ligands using a structure-based approach: a case study on the adenosine A2A receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenselink, Eelke B.; Beuming, Thijs; van Veen, Corine; Massink, Arnault; Sherman, Woody; van Vlijmen, Herman W. T.; IJzerman, Adriaan P.

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we present a case study to explore the challenges associated with finding novel molecules for a receptor that has been studied in depth and has a wealth of chemical information available. Specifically, we apply a previously described protocol that incorporates explicit water molecules in the ligand binding site to prospectively screen over 2.5 million drug-like and lead-like compounds from the commercially available eMolecules database in search of novel binders to the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AAR). A total of seventy-one compounds were selected for purchase and biochemical assaying based on high ligand efficiency and high novelty (Tanimoto coefficient ≤0.25 to any A2AAR tested compound). These molecules were then tested for their affinity to the adenosine A2A receptor in a radioligand binding assay. We identified two hits that fulfilled the criterion of 50 % radioligand displacement at a concentration of 10 μM. Next we selected an additional eight novel molecules that were predicted to make a bidentate interaction with Asn2536.55, a key interacting residue in the binding pocket of the A2AAR. None of these eight molecules were found to be active. Based on these results we discuss the advantages of structure-based methods and the challenges associated with finding chemically novel molecules for well-explored targets.

  2. The effect of caffeine to increase reaction time in the rat during a test of attention is mediated through antagonism of adenosine A2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Guy A; Grzelak, Michael E; Pond, Annamarie J; Cohen-Williams, Mary E; Hodgson, Robert A; Varty, Geoffrey B

    2007-12-11

    Caffeine produces effects on cognitive function particularly relating to aspects of attention such as reaction time. Considering the plasma exposure levels following regular caffeine intake, and the affinity of caffeine for known protein targets, these effects are likely mediated by either the adenosine A(1) or A(2A) receptor. In the present studies, two rat strains [Long-Evans (LE) and CD] were trained to asymptote performance in a test of selective attention, the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT). Next, the effects of caffeine were compared to the selective A(2A) antagonists, SCH 412348 and KW-6002 (Istradefylline), and the A(1) antagonist, DPCPX. Further studies compared the psychostimulant effects of each drug. Finally, we tested the A(2A) agonist, CGS-21680, on 5-CSRTT performance and given the antipsychotic potential of this drug class, studied the interaction between CGS-21680 and amphetamine in this task. Caffeine (3-10mg/kg IP) increased reaction time in both LE and CD rats, with no effect on accuracy, an effect replicated by SCH 412348 (0.1-1mg/kg PO) and KW-6002 (1-3mg/kg PO), but not DPCPX (3-30 mg/kg PO). At least with SCH 412348, these effects were at doses that were not overtly psychostimulant. In contrast, CGS-21680 (0.03-0. 3mg/kg IP) slowed reaction speed and increased omissions. Interestingly, at a comparatively low dose of 0.03 mg/kg, CGS-21680 attenuated the increased premature responding produced by amphetamine (1mg/kg IP). The present results suggest that the attention-enhancing effects of caffeine are mediated through A(2A) receptor blockade, and selective A(2A) receptor antagonists may have potential as therapies for attention-related disorders. Furthermore, the improvement in response control in amphetamine-treated rats following CGS-21680 pretreatment supports the view that A(2A) agonists have potential as novel antipsychotics.

  3. Polydeoxyribonucleotide, an Adenosine-A2A Receptor Agonist, Preserves Blood Testis Barrier from Cadmium-Induced Injury

    PubMed Central

    Squadrito, Francesco; Micali, Antonio; Rinaldi, Mariagrazia; Irrera, Natasha; Marini, Herbert; Puzzolo, Domenico; Pisani, Antonina; Lorenzini, Cesare; Valenti, Andrea; Laurà, Rosaria; Germanà, Antonino; Bitto, Alessandra; Pizzino, Gabriele; Pallio, Giovanni; Altavilla, Domenica; Minutoli, Letteria

    2017-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) impairs blood-testis barrier (BTB). Polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN), an adenosine A2A agonist, has positive effects on male reproductive system. We investigated the effects of PDRN on the morphological and functional changes induced by Cd in mice testes. Adult Swiss mice were divided into four groups: controls administered with 0.9% NaCl (1 ml/kg, i.p., daily) or with PDRN (8 mg/kg, i.p. daily), animals challenged with Cd chloride (CdCl2; 2 mg/kg, i.p, daily) and animals challenged with CdCl2 (2 mg/kg, i.p., daily) and treated with PDRN (8 mg/kg, i.p., daily). Experiments lasted 14 days. Testes were processed for biochemical, structural, and ultrastructural evaluation and hormones were assayed in serum. CdCl2 increased pERK 1/2 expression and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH) levels; it decreased testosterone (TE) and inhibin-B levels and induced structural damages in extratubular compartment and in seminiferous epithelium, with ultrastructural features of BTB disruption. Many TUNEL-positive germ cells were present. CdCl2 increased tubular TGF-β3 immunoreactivity and reduced claudin-11, occludin, and N-cadherin immunoreactivity. PDRN administration reduced pERK 1/2 expression, FSH, and LH levels; it increased TE and inhibin-B levels, ameliorated germinal epithelium changes and protected BTB ultrastructure. Few TUNEL-positive germ cells were present and the extratubular compartment was preserved. Furthermore, PDRN decreased TGF-β3 immunoreactivity and enhanced claudin-11, occludin, and N-cadherin immunoreactivity. We demonstrate a protective effect of PDRN on Cd-induced damages of BTB and suggest that PDRN may play an important role against Cd, particularly against its harmful effects on gametogenesis. PMID:28119612

  4. Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic plant-derived cannabinoid, decreases inflammation in a murine model of acute lung injury: role for the adenosine A(2A) receptor.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Alison; Ferraz-de-Paula, Viviane; Pinheiro, Milena L; Vitoretti, Luana B; Mariano-Souza, Domenica P; Quinteiro-Filho, Wanderley M; Akamine, Adriana T; Almeida, Vinícius I; Quevedo, João; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Hallak, Jaime E; Zuardi, Antônio W; Crippa, José A; Palermo-Neto, João

    2012-03-05

    Acute lung injury is an inflammatory condition for which treatment is mainly supportive because effective therapies have not been developed. Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic cannabinoid component of marijuana (Cannabis sativa), has potent immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, we investigated the possible anti-inflammatory effect of cannabidiol in a murine model of acute lung injury. Analysis of total inflammatory cells and differential in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was used to characterize leukocyte migration into the lungs; myeloperoxidase activity of lung tissue and albumin concentration in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were analyzed by colorimetric assays; cytokine/chemokine production in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was also analyzed by Cytometric Bead Arrays and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). A single dose of cannabidiol (20mg/kg) administered prior to the induction of LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-induced acute lung injury decreases leukocyte (specifically neutrophil) migration into the lungs, albumin concentration in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, myeloperoxidase activity in the lung tissue, and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF and IL-6) and chemokines (MCP-1 and MIP-2) 1, 2, and 4days after the induction of LPS-induced acute lung injury. Additionally, adenosine A(2A) receptor is involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of cannabidiol on LPS-induced acute lung injury because ZM241385 (4-(2-[7-Amino-2-(2-furyl)[1,2,4]triazolo[2,3-a][1,3,5]triazin-5-ylamino]ethyl)phenol) (a highly selective antagonist of adenosine A(2A) receptor) abrogated all of the anti-inflammatory effects of cannabidiol previously described. Thus, we show that cannabidiol has anti-inflammatory effects in a murine model of acute lung injury and that this effect is most likely associated with an increase in the extracellular adenosine offer and signaling through adenosine A(2A) receptor.

  5. Modulation of dopamine-mediated facilitation at the neuromuscular junction of Wistar rats: A role for adenosine A1/A2A receptors and P2 purinoceptors.

    PubMed

    Elnozahi, Neveen A; AlQot, Hadir E; Mohy El-Din, Mahmoud M; Bistawroos, Azza E; Abou Zeit-Har, Mohamed S

    2016-06-21

    This study aims to understand how dopamine and the neuromodulators, adenosine and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) modulate neuromuscular transmission. Adenosine and ATP are well-recognized for their regulatory effects on dopamine in the central nervous system. However, if similar interactions occur at the neuromuscular junction is unknown. We hypothesize that the activation of adenosine A1/A2A and/or P2 purinoceptors may influence the action of dopamine on neuromuscular transmission. Using the rat phrenic nerve hemi-diaphragm, we assessed the influence of dopamine, adenosine and ATP on the height of nerve-evoked muscle twitches. We investigated how the selective blockade of adenosine A1 receptors (2.5nM DPCPX), adenosine A2A receptors (50nM CSC) and P2 purinoceptors (100μM suramin) modified the effects of dopamine. Dopamine alone increased indirect muscle contractions while adenosine and ATP either enhanced or depressed nerve-evoked muscle twitches in a concentration-dependent manner. The facilitatory effects of 256μM dopamine were significantly reduced to 29.62±2.79% or 53.69±5.45% in the presence of DPCPX or CSC, respectively, relative to 70.03±1.57% with dopamine alone. Alternatively, the action of 256μM dopamine was potentiated from 70.03±1.57, in the absence of suramin, to 86.83±4.36%, in the presence of suramin. It can be concluded that the activation of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors and P2 purinoceptors potentially play a central role in the regulation of dopamine effects at the neuromuscular junction. Clinically this study offers new insights for the indirect manipulation of neuromuscular transmission for the treatment of disorders characterized by motor dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pharmacokinetic modelling of the haemodynamic effects of the A2a adenosine receptor agonist CGS 21680C in conscious normotensive rats.

    PubMed Central

    Mathôt, R A; Cleton, A; Soudijn, W; IJzerman, A P; Danhof, M

    1995-01-01

    1. The aim of the present investigation was to determine the relationship between the blood concentration and haemodynamic effects of the adenosine A2a receptor agonist, CGS 21680C (the sodium salt of 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenylethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadeno sin e) in conscious normotensive rats. 2. Chronically cannulated rats were randomly assigned to three groups which received 300, 1000 or 3000 micrograms kg-1 (0.56, 1.9 or 5.6 mumol kg-1) of CGS 21680C intravenously over 15 min. The mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were monitored continuously during the experiment and serial arterial blood samples were taken for analysis of drug concentration. The ratio MAP/HR was also calculated, which may reflect changes in total peripheral resistance on the assumption that no changes in stroke volume occur. 3. For each individual rat the reduction in mean arterial pressure was related to the blood concentration according to the sigmoidal Emax model. The concentration-effect relationships were consistent for the different treatment groups. The potency based on free drug concentrations (EC50,u) was 5.8 ng ml-1 (11 nM) (mean +/- s.e.; n = 19) and correlated well with the reported adenosine A2a receptor affinity (Ki 19 nM). In comparison with the reduction in blood pressure, CGS 21680C exhibited a greater potency for the reduction of the ratio MAP/HR. 4. It is concluded that estimates can be obtained for the potency and intrinsic activity of adenosine A2a receptor agonists in vivo by pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analysis of mean arterial pressure data in a rat model.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7773536

  7. 2-Amino-N-pyrimidin-4-ylacetamides as A2A receptor antagonists: 1. Structure-activity relationships and optimization of heterocyclic substituents.

    PubMed

    Slee, Deborah H; Chen, Yongsheng; Zhang, Xiaohu; Moorjani, Manisha; Lanier, Marion C; Lin, Emily; Rueter, Jaimie K; Williams, John P; Lechner, Sandra M; Markison, Stacy; Malany, Siobhan; Santos, Mark; Gross, Raymond S; Jalali, Kayvon; Sai, Yang; Zuo, Zhiyang; Yang, Chun; Castro-Palomino, Julio C; Crespo, María I; Prat, Maria; Gual, Silvia; Díaz, José-Luis; Saunders, John

    2008-03-27

    Previously we have described a novel series of potent and selective A 2A receptor antagonists (e.g., 1) with excellent aqueous solubility. While these compounds are efficacious A 2A antagonists in vivo, the presence of an unsubstituted furyl moiety was a cause of some concern. In order to avoid the potential metabolic liabilities that could arise from an unsubstituted furyl moiety, an optimization effort was undertaken with the aim of replacing the unsubstituted furan with a more metabolically stable group while maintaining potency and selectivity. Herein, we describe the synthesis and SAR of a range of novel heterocyclic systems and the successful identification of a replacement for the unsubstituted furan moiety with a methylfuran or thiazole moiety while maintaining potency and selectivity.

  8. Inosine reduces pain-related behavior in mice: involvement of adenosine A1 and A2A receptor subtypes and protein kinase C pathways.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Francisney P; Figueredo, Sonia M; Marcon, Rodrigo; Martins, Daniel F; Macedo, Sérgio J; Lima, Denise A N; Almeida, Rúbia C; Ostroski, Rosana M; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; Santos, Adair Roberto Soares

    2010-08-01

    Inosine, an endogenous purine, is the first metabolite of adenosine in a reaction catalyzed by adenosine deaminase. This study aimed to investigate the antinociceptive effects of inosine against several models of pain in mice and rats. In mice, inosine given by systemic or central routes inhibited acetic acid-induced nociception. Furthermore, inosine also decreased the late phase of formalin-induced licking and the nociception induced by glutamate. Inosine produced inhibition (for up to 4 h) of mechanical allodynia induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injected into the mouse's paw. Given chronically for 21 days, inosine reversed the mechanical allodynia caused by CFA. Moreover, inosine also reduced the thermal (cold stimuli) and mechanical allodynia caused by partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL) for 4 h; when inosine was chronically administered, it decreased the mechanical allodynia induced by PSNL for 22 days. Antinociception caused by inosine in the acetic acid test was attenuated by treatment of mice with 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX; a selective adenosine A(1) receptor antagonist), 8-phenyltheophylline (8-PT; a nonselective adenosine A(1) receptor antagonist), and 4-{2- [7-amino-2-(2-furyl)[1,2,4]triazolo-[2,3-a][1,3,5]triazin-5-yl- amino]ethyl}phenol (ZM241385; a selective adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist). In rats, inosine inhibited the mechanical and heat hyperalgesia induced by bradykinin and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, without affecting similar responses caused by prostaglandin E(2) or forskolin. These results indicate that inosine induces antinociceptive, antiallodynic, and antihyperalgesic effects in rodents. The precise mechanisms through which inosine produces antinociception are currently under investigation, but involvement of adenosine A(1) and A(2A) receptors and blockade of the protein kinase C pathway seem to largely account for inosine's antinociceptive effect.

  9. Potent, Metabolically Stable 2-Alkyl-8-(2H-1,2,3-triazol-2-yl)-9H-adenines as Adenosine A2A Receptor Ligands.

    PubMed

    Pace, Silvia; Brogin, Giandomenico; Stasi, Maria Antonietta; Riccioni, Teresa; Borsini, Franco; Capocasa, Francesca; Manera, Francesco; Tallarico, Carlo; Grossi, Pietro; Vacondio, Federica; Bassi, Michele; Bartoccini, Francesca; Lucarini, Simone; Piersanti, Giovanni; Tarzia, Giorgio; Cabri, Walter; Minetti, Patrizia

    2015-07-01

    Inhibition of adenosine A2A receptors has been shown to elicit a therapeutic response in preclinical animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD). We previously identified the triazolo-9H-purine, ST1535, as a potent A(2A)R antagonist. Studies revealed that ST1535 is extensively hydroxylated at the ω-1 position of the butyl side chain. Here, we describe the synthesis and evaluation of derivatives in which the ω-1 position has been substituted (F, Me, OH) in order to block metabolism. The stability of the compounds was evaluated in human liver microsomes (HLM), and the affinity for A(2A)R was determined. Two compounds, (2-(3,3-dimethylbutyl)-9-methyl-8-(2H-1,2,3-triazol-2-yl)-9H-purin-6-amine (3 b) and 4-(6-amino-9-methyl-8-(2H-1,2,3-triazol-2-yl)-9H-purin-2-yl)-2-methylbutan-2-ol (3 c), exhibited good affinity against A(2A)R (Ki =0.4 nM and 2 nM, respectively) and high in vitro metabolic stability (89.5% and 95.3% recovery, respectively, after incubation with HLM for two hours).

  10. Adenosine A2(A) receptor gene polymorphism (1976C>T) affects coronary flow reserve response during vasodilator stress testing in patients with non ischemic-dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Andreassi, Maria Grazia; Laghi Pasini, Franco; Picano, Eugenio; Capecchi, Pier Leopoldo; Pompella, Gerarda; Foffa, Ilenia; Borghini, Andrea; Sicari, Rosa

    2011-08-01

    Patients with non ischemic-dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) are characterized by an activation of the adenosinergic system and reduced coronary flow reserve (CFR) evaluated by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography during vasodilator adenosinergic stress (dipyridamole administration). The aim of this study was to assess whether genetic polymorphisms (263C>T and 1976C>T) of the A2(A) receptor gene affect CFR response in patients with DCM. We enrolled a group of 80 patients with DCM (55 male; age, 62±10.3 years) and 162 healthy volunteers (55 male; age, 45.1±9.5 years). Doppler-derived CFR (high-dose dipyridamole coronary diastolic peak flow velocity to resting coronary peak flow velocity ratio) of distal left anterior descending artery was determined in DCM. A2(A) receptor genotyping was determined in all patients by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The expression of A2(A) protein and mRNA was also assessed in healthy controls. The genotype distribution of the 263C>T (P=0.5) and 1976C>T (P=0.8) polymorphisms was not significantly different between patients and controls. Patients with 1976TT genotype had significantly lower CFR value than 1976CC patients (2.3±0.7, 2.0±0.5 and 1.9±0.4, P<0.05 for CC, CT and TT genotypes, respectively). Controls who were heterozygous (P=0.02) or homozygous (P=0.001) for the T1976 allele showed a significant increase in A2(A) receptor protein. These data demonstrate that A2(A) 1976C>T polymorphism is associated with a blunted coronary vasodilatory response in patients with DCM, and support a direct consequences of this single nucleotide polymorphism for protein expression. Additional studies are needed to better define the functional role of this genetic variant as well as to clarify the potential clinical impact of genetics during pharmacological stress cardiac imaging.

  11. The antidepressant-like effect of inosine in the FST is associated with both adenosine A1 and A 2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Kaster, Manuella P; Budni, Josiane; Gazal, Marta; Cunha, Mauricio P; Santos, Adair R S; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2013-09-01

    Inosine is an endogenous purine nucleoside, which is formed during the breakdown of adenosine. The adenosinergic system was already described as capable of modulating mood in preclinical models; we now explored the effects of inosine in two predictive models of depression: the forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). Mice treated with inosine displayed higher anti-immobility in the FST (5 and 50 mg/kg, intraperitoneal route (i.p.)) and in the TST (1 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) when compared to vehicle-treated groups. These antidepressant-like effects started 30 min and lasted for 2 h after intraperitoneal administration of inosine and were not accompanied by any changes in the ambulatory activity in the open-field test. Both adenosine A1 and A2A receptor antagonists prevented the antidepressant-like effect of inosine in the FST. In addition, the administration of an adenosine deaminase inhibitor (1 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) also caused an antidepressant-like effect in the FST. These results indicate that inosine possesses an antidepressant-like effect in the FST and TST probably through the activation of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors, further reinforcing the potential of targeting the purinergic system to the management of mood disorders.

  12. Adenosine A2a receptor stimulation blocks development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in mice by multilevel inhibition of signals that cause immunolipotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Alchera, Elisa; Rolla, Simona; Imarisio, Chiara; Bardina, Valentina; Valente, Guido; Novelli, Francesco; Carini, Rita

    2016-12-06

    Lipotoxicity and immunoinflammation are associated with the evolution of steatosis toward nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). This study reports the ability of adenosine A2a receptor (A2aR) activation to inhibit NASH development by modulating the responses of CD4(+) T-helper (Th) cells to avoid an immuno-mediated potentiation of lipotoxicity. The effect of the A2aR agonist CGS21680 on immunoinflammatory signals, CD4(+)Th cell infiltration and immunolipotoxicity was analyzed in steatotic C57BL/6 mice fed with a methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet and in mouse hepatocytes exposed to palmitic acid (PA). CGS21680 inhibited NASH development in steatotic mice and decreased cytokines and chemokines involved in Th cell recruitment or polarization (namely CXCL10, CCL2, tumor necrosis factor alfa [TNFα], tumor growth factor [TGFβ], and IL-12). CGS21680 also reduced the expansion of Th17, Th22, and Th1 cells and increased the immunosuppressive activity of T regulatory cells. In PA-treated mice hepatocytes, CGS21680 inhibited the production of CXCL10, TNFα, TGFβ, IL-12, and CCL2; CGS21680 also prevented JNK-dependent lipotoxicity and its intensification by IL-17 or IL-17 plus IL-22 through Akt/PI3-kinase stimulation and inhibition of the negative regulator of PI3-kinase, (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted from chromosome 10 (PTEN), which is upregulated by IL-17. In MCD livers, CGS21680 reduced JNK activation and PTEN expression and increased Akt phosphorylation. In conclusion, A2aR stimulation inhibited NASH development by reducing Th17 cell expansion and inhibiting the exacerbation of the IL-17-induced JNK-dependent lipotoxicity. These data promote the implementation of further studies to evaluate the potential clinical application of A2aR agonists that, by being able to function as both cytoprotective and immunomodulatory agents, could efficiently antagonize the multi-faced pathogenesis of NASH.

  13. Genetic deletion of the adenosine A(2A) receptor prevents nicotine-induced upregulation of α7, but not α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor binding in the brain.

    PubMed

    Metaxas, Athanasios; Al-Hasani, Ream; Farshim, Pamela; Tubby, Kristina; Berwick, Amy; Ledent, Catherine; Hourani, Susanna; Kitchen, Ian; Bailey, Alexis

    2013-08-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A)Rs) modulate cholinergic neurotransmission, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) function, and nicotine-induced behavioural effects. To explore the interaction between A(2A) and nAChRs, we examined if the complete genetic deletion of adenosine A(2A)Rs in mice induces compensatory alterations in the binding of different nAChR subtypes, and whether the long-term effects of nicotine on nAChR regulation are altered in the absence of the A(2A)R gene. Quantitative autoradiography was used to measure cytisine-sensitive [¹²⁵I]epibatidine and [¹²⁵I]α-bungarotoxin binding to α4β2* and α7 nAChRs, respectively, in brain sections of drug-naïve (n = 6) or nicotine treated (n = 5-7), wild-type and adenosine A(2A)R knockout mice. Saline or nicotine (7.8 mg/kg/day; free-base weight) were administered to male CD1 mice via subcutaneous osmotic minipumps for a period of 14 days. Blood plasma levels of nicotine and cotinine were measured at the end of treatment. There were no compensatory developmental alterations in nAChR subtype distribution or density in drug-naïve A(2A)R knockout mice. In nicotine treated wild-type mice, both α4β2* and α7 nAChR binding sites were increased compared with saline treated controls. The genetic ablation of adenosine A(2A)Rs prevented nicotine-induced upregulation of α7 nAChRs, without affecting α4β2* receptor upregulation. This selective effect was observed at plasma levels of nicotine that were within the range reported for smokers (10-50 ng ml⁻¹). Our data highlight the involvement of adenosine A(2A)Rs in the mechanisms of nicotine-induced α7 nAChR upregulation, and identify A(2A)Rs as novel pharmacological targets for modulating the long-term effects of nicotine on α7 receptors.

  14. Tetanic depression is overcome by tonic adenosine A2A receptor facilitation of L-type Ca2+ influx into rat motor nerve terminals

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Laura; Timóteo, M Alexandrina; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo

    2004-01-01

    Motor nerve terminals possess multiple voltage-sensitive calcium channels operating acetylcholine (ACh) release. In this study, we investigated whether facilitation of neuromuscular transmission by adenosine generated during neuronal firing was operated by Ca2+ influx via ‘prevalent’ P-type or via the recruitment of ‘silent’ L-type channels. The release of [3H]ACh from rat phrenic nerve endings decreased upon increasing the stimulation frequency of the trains (750 pulses) from 5 Hz (83 ± 4 × 103 disintegrations per minute per gram (d.p.m. g−1); n = 11) to 50 Hz (30 ± 3 × 103 d.p.m. g−1; n = 5). The P-type Ca2+ channel blocker, ω-agatoxin IVA (100 nm) reduced (by 40 ± 10%; n = 6) the release of [3H]ACh evoked by 50-Hz trains, while nifedipine (1 μm, an L-type blocker) was inactive. Tetanic depression was overcome (88 ± 6 × 103 d.p.m. g−1; n = 12) by stimulating the phrenic nerve with 50-Hz bursts (five bursts of 150 pulses, 20 s interburst interval). In these conditions, ω-agatoxin IVA (100 nm) failed to affect transmitter release, but nifedipine (1 μm) decreased [3H]ACh release by 21 ± 7% (n = 4). Inactivation of endogenous adenosine with adenosine deaminase (ADA, 0.5 U ml−1) reduced (by 54 ± 8%, n = 5) the release of [3H]ACh evoked with 50-Hz bursts. This effect was opposite to the excitatory actions of adenosine (0.5 mm), S-(p-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine (5 μm, an adenosine uptake blocker) and CGS 21680C (3 nm, a selective A2A receptor agonist); as the A1 receptor agonist R-N6-phenylisopropyl adenosine (R-PIA, 300 nm) failed to affect the release of [3H]ACh, the results indicate that adenosine generated during 50-Hz bursts exerts an A2A-receptor-mediated tonus. The effects of ADA (0.5 U ml−1) and CGS 21680C (3 nm) were prevented by nifedipine (1 μm). Blocking tonic A2A receptor activation, with ADA (0.5 U ml−1) or 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargyl xanthine (10 μm, an A2A antagonist), recovered ω-agatoxin IVA (100 nm) inhibition and

  15. Oral administration of Japanese sake yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae sake) promotes non-rapid eye movement sleep in mice via adenosine A2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yoshitaka; Midorikawa, Tatsuyuki; Monoi, Noriyuki; Kimura, Eriko; Murata-Matsuno, Ayumi; Sano, Tomomi; Oka, Kengo; Sugafuji, Toshihiro; Uchiyama, Akira; Murakoshi, Michiaki; Sugiyama, Keikichi; Nishino, Hoyoku; Urade, Yoshihiro

    2016-12-01

    We have demonstrated previously that Japanese sake yeast improves sleep quality in humans. In the present study, we examined the molecular mechanisms of sake yeast to induce sleep by monitoring locomotor activity, electromyogram and electroencephalogram in mice. Oral administration of Japanese sake yeast (100, 200, and 300 mg kg(-1) ) decreased the locomotor activity by 18, 46 and 59% and increased the amount of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep by 1.5-, 2.3- and 2.4-fold (to 37 ± 6, 57 ± 8, and 60 ± 4 min from 25 ± 6 min in the vehicle-administered group, respectively) in a dose-dependent manner for 4 h after oral administration. However, Japanese sake yeast did not change the amount of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, the electroencephalogram power density during NREM sleep or show any adverse effects, such as rebound of insomnia, during 24 h postadministration and on the next day. An intraperitoneal pretreatment with an adenosine A2A receptor-selective antagonist, ZM241385 (15 mg kg(-1) ), reduced the amount of NREM sleep of sake yeast-administered mice to the basal level, without changing basal amount of sleep. Conversely, an A1 receptor-selective antagonist, 8-cyclopentyltheophylline (10 mg kg(-1) ), did not affect the sleep-promoting effect of Japanese sake yeast. Thus, Japanese sake yeast promotes NREM sleep via activation of adenosine A2A but not A1 receptors.

  16. Andrographolide protects liver cells from H2O2 induced cell death by upregulation of Nrf-2/HO-1 mediated via adenosine A2a receptor signalling.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Smriti P K; Khole, Swati; Jagadish, Nidhi; Ghosh, Debjani; Gadgil, Vijay; Sinkar, Vilas; Ghaskadbi, Saroj S

    2016-11-01

    Andrographolide, principle constituent of Andrographis paniculata Nees is used in traditional medicine in Southeast Asia and is known to exhibit various biological activities. Its antioxidant activity is due to its ability to activate one of the antioxidant enzymes, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) which is regulated transcriptionally through Nrf-2. However, molecular mechanism underlying activation of Nrf-2/HO-1 has not yet been clearly understood. Protective effect of andrographolide against H2O2 induced cell death, reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation was observed in HepG2 cells. Ability of andrographolide to modulate G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) mediated signalling was determined using in silico docking and gene expression was analyzed by qRT-PCR, confocal microscopy and western blot analysis. We clearly show that andrographolide via adenosine A2A receptor signalling leads to activation of p38 MAP kinase, resulting in upregulation of Nrf-2, its translocation to nucleus and activation of HO-1. Additionally, it activates adenylate cyclase resulting in cAMP formation which in turn activates protein kinase A leading to inhibition of GSK-3β by phosphorylation. Inactivated GSK-3β leads to retention of Nrf-2 in the nucleus leading to sustained expression of HO-1 by binding to its antioxidant response element (ARE). Thus, andrographolide probably by binding to adenosine A2a receptor activates Nrf-2 transcription and also inhibits its exclusion from the nucleus by inactivating GSK-3β, together resulting in activation of HO-1. We speculate that andrographolide can be used as a therapeutic drug to combat oxidative stress implicated in pathogenesis of various diseases such as diabetes, osteoporosis, neurodegenerative diseases etc. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Pharmacological postconditioning of the rabbit heart with non-selective, A1 , A2A and A3 adenosine receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Bibli, Sophia-Iris; Iliodromitis, Efstathios K; Lambertucci, Catia; Zoga, Anastasia; Lougiakis, Nikolaos; Dagres, Nikolaos; Volpini, Rosaria; Dal Ben, Diego; Kremastinos, Dimitrios Th; Tsantili Kakoulidou, Anna; Cristalli, Gloria; Andreadou, Ioanna

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the effects of novel selective and non-selective adenosine receptor agonists (ARs) on cardioprotection. Male rabbits divided into six groups were subjected to 30-min heart ischaemia and 3-h reperfusion: (1) control group, (2) postconditioning (PostC) group, (3) group A: treated with the non-selective agonist (S)-PHPNECA, (4) group B: treated with the A1 agonist CCPA, (5) group C: treated with the A2A agonist VT 7 and (6) group D: treated with the A3 agonist AR 170. The infarcted (I) and the areas at risk (R) were estimated as %I/R. In additional rabbits of all groups, heart samples were taken for determination of Akt, eNOS and STAT 3 at the 10th reperfusion minute. (S)-PHPNECA and CCPA reduced the infarct size (17.2 ± 2.9% and 17.9 ± 2.0% vs 46.8 ± 1.9% in control, P < 0.05), conferring a benefit similar to PostC (26.4 ± 0.3%). Selective A2A and A3 receptor agonists did not reduce the infarct size (39.5 ± 0.8% and 38.7 ± 3.5%, P = NS vs control). Akt, eNOS and STAT 3 were significantly activated after non-selective A1 ARs and PostC. Non-selective and A1 but not A2A and A3 ARs agonists are essential for triggering cardioprotection. The molecular mechanism involves both RISK and the JAK/STAT pathways. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  18. Modulation of GABA transport by adenosine A1R-A2AR heteromers, which are coupled to both Gs- and G(i/o)-proteins.

    PubMed

    Cristóvão-Ferreira, Sofia; Navarro, Gemma; Brugarolas, Marc; Pérez-Capote, Kamil; Vaz, Sandra H; Fattorini, Giorgia; Conti, Fiorenzo; Lluis, Carmen; Ribeiro, Joaquim A; McCormick, Peter J; Casadó, Vicent; Franco, Rafael; Sebastião, Ana M

    2011-11-02

    Astrocytes play a key role in modulating synaptic transmission by controlling the available extracellular GABA via the GAT-1 and GAT-3 GABA transporters (GATs). Using primary cultures of rat astrocytes, we show here that an additional level of regulation of GABA uptake occurs via modulation of the GATs by the adenosine A(1) (A(1)R) and A(2A) (A(2A)R) receptors. This regulation occurs through a complex of heterotetramers (two interacting homodimers) of A(1)R-A(2A)R that signal via two different G-proteins, G(s) and G(i/o), and either enhances (A(2A)R) or inhibits (A(1)R) GABA uptake. These results provide novel mechanistic insight into how G-protein-coupled receptor heteromers signal. Furthermore, we uncover a previously unknown mechanism in which adenosine, in a concentration-dependent manner, acts via a heterocomplex of adenosine receptors in astrocytes to significantly contribute to neurotransmission at the tripartite (neuron-glia-neuron) synapse.

  19. Time and Sex-Dependent Effects of an Adenosine A2A/A1 Receptor Antagonist on Motivation to Self-Administer Cocaine in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Susan E.; Breslin, Florence J.; Rieger, Jayson M.; Beauglehole, Anthony; Lynch, Wendy J.

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine is an important neuromodulator, known to interact with both dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems to influence psychostimulant action. In the present study, we examined the effects of ATL444, a novel adenosine receptor antagonist, on motivation for cocaine in male and female rats. Adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to self-administer cocaine (1.5 mg/kg/infusion) on a fixed-ratio 1 schedule with a daily maximum of 20 infusions. Following 5 consecutive sessions during which all 20 available infusions were obtained, motivation for cocaine (0.5 mg/kg/infusion) was assessed under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule, and once responding stabilized, the effect of treatment with ATL444 (0, 15, and 30 mg/kg, i.p.) was examined. As a control, we also assessed its effects on PR responding for sucrose. Binding studies revealed that ATL 444 was 3-fold, 25-fold, and 400-fold more selective for the A2A receptor as compared to A1, A2B, and A3 receptors, respectively. ATL444 produced a significant increase in motivation for cocaine on the day of treatment in females with a trend for an increase in males. In addition, over the two PR sessions following ATL444 treatment a significant decrease in responding was observed in males but not females. Responding for sucrose was unaffected by ATL444 treatment. Our results reveal that adenosine receptor blockade may mediate both acute increases in the reinforcing effects of cocaine, and longer term inhibitory effects on cocaine reinforcement that differ according to sex. PMID:22579716

  20. Lidocaine relaxation in isolated rat aortic rings is enhanced by endothelial removal: possible role of Kv, KATP channels and A2a receptor crosstalk.

    PubMed

    Arsyad, Aryadi; Dobson, Geoffrey P

    2016-12-03

    Lidocaine is an approved local anesthetic and Class 1B antiarrhythmic with a number of ancillary properties. Our aim was to investigate lidocaine's vasoreactivity properties in intact versus denuded rat thoracic aortic rings, and the effect of inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO), prostenoids, voltage-dependent Kv and KATP channels, membrane Na(+)/K(+) pump, and A2a and A2b receptors. Aortic rings were harvested from adult male Sprague Dawley rats and equilibrated in an organ bath containing oxygenated, modified Krebs-Henseleit solution, pH 7.4, 37 °C. The rings were pre-contracted sub-maximally with 0.3 μM norepinephrine (NE), and the effect of increasing lidocaine concentrations was examined. Rings were tested for viability after each experiment with maximally dilating 100 μM papaverine. The drugs 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), glibenclamide, 5-hydroxydecanoate, ouabain, 8-(3-chlorostyryl) caffeine and PSB-0788 were examined. All drugs tested had no significant effect on basal tension. Lidocaine relaxation in intact rings was biphasic between 1 and 10 μM (Phase 1) and 10 and 1000 μM (Phase 2). Mechanical removal of the endothelium resulted in further relaxation, and at lower concentrations ring sensitivity (% relaxation per μM lidocaine) significantly increased 3.5 times compared to intact rings. The relaxing factor(s) responsible for enhancing ring relaxation did not appear to be NO- or prostacyclin-dependent, as L-NAME and indomethacin had little or no effect on intact ring relaxation. In denuded rings, lidocaine relaxation was completely abolished by Kv channel inhibition and significantly reduced by antagonists of the MitoKATP channel, and to a lesser extent the SarcKATP channel. Curiously, A2a subtype receptor antagonism significantly inhibited lidocaine relaxation above 100 μM, but not the A2b receptor. We show that lidocaine relaxation in rat thoracic aorta was biphasic and significantly enhanced by endothelial removal, which did not appear to be NO or

  1. The effect of adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists on hydroxyl radical, dopamine, and glutamate in the striatum of rats with altered function of VMAT2.

    PubMed

    Gołembiowska, Krystyna; Dziubina, Anna

    2012-08-01

    It has been shown that a decreased vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) function and the disruption of dopamine (DA) storage is an early contributor to oxidative damage of dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). In our previous study, we demonstrated that adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists suppressed oxidative stress in 6-hydroxydopamine-treated rats suggesting that this effect may account for neuroprotective properties of drugs. In the present study, rats were injected with reserpine (10 mg/kg sc) and 18 h later the effect of the adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists 8-(3-chlorostyryl)caffeine (CSC) and 4-(2-[7-amino-2-(2-furyl)[1,2,4]triazolo[2,3-a][1,3,5]triazin-5-ylamino]ethyl)phenol (ZM 241385) on extracellular DA, glutamate and hydroxyl radical formation was studied in the rat striatum using in vivo microdialysis. By disrupting VMAT2 function, reserpine depleted DA stores, and increased glutamate and hydroxyl radical levels in the rat striatum. CSC (1 mg/kg) but not ZM 241385 (3 mg/kg) increased extracellular DA level and production of hydroxyl radical in reserpinised rats. Both antagonists decreased the reserpine-induced increase in extracellular glutamate. L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) (25 mg/kg) significantly enhanced extracellular DA, had no effect on reserpine-induced hydroxyl radical production and decreased extracellular glutamate concentration. CSC but not ZM 241385 given jointly with L-DOPA increased the effect of L-DOPA on extracellular DA and augmented the reserpine-induced hydroxyl radical production. CSC and ZM 241385 did not influence extracellular glutamate level, which was decreased by L-DOPA. It seems that by decreasing the MAO-dependent DA metabolism rate, CSC raised cytosolic DA and by DA autoxidation, it induced hydroxyl radical overproduction. Thus, the methylxanthine A(2A) receptor antagonists bearing properties of MAO-B inhibitor, like CSC, may cause a risk of oxidative stress resulting from dysfunctional DA storage

  2. Ex vivo lung perfusion with adenosine A2A receptor agonist allows prolonged cold preservation of lungs donated after cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Cynthia E; Pope, Nicolas H; Charles, Eric J; Huerter, Mary E; Sharma, Ashish K; Salmon, Morgan D; Carter, Benjamin T; Stoler, Mark H; Lau, Christine L; Laubach, Victor E; Kron, Irving L

    2016-02-01

    Ex vivo lung perfusion has been successful in the assessment of marginal donor lungs, including donation after cardiac death (DCD) donor lungs. Ex vivo lung perfusion also represents a unique platform for targeted drug delivery. We sought to determine whether ischemia-reperfusion injury would be decreased after transplantation of DCD donor lungs subjected to prolonged cold preservation and treated with an adenosine A2A receptor agonist during ex vivo lung perfusion. Porcine DCD donor lungs were preserved at 4°C for 12 hours and underwent ex vivo lung perfusion for 4 hours. Left lungs were then transplanted and reperfused for 4 hours. Three groups (n = 4/group) were randomized according to treatment with the adenosine A2A receptor agonist ATL-1223 or the dimethyl sulfoxide vehicle: Infusion of dimethyl sulfoxide during ex vivo lung perfusion and reperfusion (DMSO), infusion of ATL-1223 during ex vivo lung perfusion and dimethyl sulfoxide during reperfusion (ATL-E), and infusion of ATL-1223 during ex vivo lung perfusion and reperfusion (ATL-E/R). Final Pao2/Fio2 ratios (arterial oxygen partial pressure/fraction of inspired oxygen) were determined from samples obtained from the left superior and inferior pulmonary veins. Final Pao2/Fio2 ratios in the ATL-E/R group (430.1 ± 26.4 mm Hg) were similar to final Pao2/Fio2 ratios in the ATL-E group (413.6 ± 18.8 mm Hg), but both treated groups had significantly higher final Pao2/Fio2 ratios compared with the dimethyl sulfoxide group (84.8 ± 17.7 mm Hg). Low oxygenation gradients during ex vivo lung perfusion did not preclude superior oxygenation capacity during reperfusion. After prolonged cold preservation, treatment of DCD donor lungs with an adenosine A2A receptor agonist during ex vivo lung perfusion enabled Pao2/Fio2 ratios greater than 400 mm Hg after transplantation in a preclinical porcine model. Pulmonary function during ex vivo lung perfusion was not predictive of outcomes after transplantation. Copyright

  3. Photomodulation of G protein-coupled adenosine receptors by a novel light-switchable ligand.

    PubMed

    Bahamonde, María Isabel; Taura, Jaume; Paoletta, Silvia; Gakh, Andrei A; Chakraborty, Saibal; Hernando, Jordi; Fernández-Dueñas, Víctor; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Gorostiza, Pau; Ciruela, Francisco

    2014-10-15

    The adenosinergic system operates through G protein-coupled adenosine receptors, which have become promising therapeutic targets for a wide range of pathological conditions. However, the ubiquity of adenosine receptors and the eventual lack of selectivity of adenosine-based drugs have frequently diminished their therapeutic potential. Accordingly, here we aimed to develop a new generation of light-switchable adenosine receptor ligands that change their intrinsic activity upon irradiation, thus allowing the spatiotemporal control of receptor functioning (i.e., receptor activation/inactivation dependent on location and timing). Therefore, we synthesized an orthosteric, photoisomerizable, and nonselective adenosine receptor agonist, nucleoside derivative MRS5543 containing an aryl diazo linkage on the N(6) substituent, which in the dark (relaxed isomer) behaved as a full adenosine A3 receptor (A3R) and partial adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) agonist. Conversely, upon photoisomerization with blue light (460 nm), it remained a full A3R agonist but became an A2AR antagonist. Interestingly, molecular modeling suggested that structural differences encountered within the third extracellular loop of each receptor could modulate the intrinsic, receptor subtype-dependent, activity. Overall, the development of adenosine receptor ligands with photoswitchable activity expands the pharmacological toolbox in support of research and possibly opens new pharmacotherapeutic opportunities.

  4. Photomodulation of G Protein-Coupled Adenosine Receptors by a Novel Light-Switchable Ligand

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The adenosinergic system operates through G protein-coupled adenosine receptors, which have become promising therapeutic targets for a wide range of pathological conditions. However, the ubiquity of adenosine receptors and the eventual lack of selectivity of adenosine-based drugs have frequently diminished their therapeutic potential. Accordingly, here we aimed to develop a new generation of light-switchable adenosine receptor ligands that change their intrinsic activity upon irradiation, thus allowing the spatiotemporal control of receptor functioning (i.e., receptor activation/inactivation dependent on location and timing). Therefore, we synthesized an orthosteric, photoisomerizable, and nonselective adenosine receptor agonist, nucleoside derivative MRS5543 containing an aryl diazo linkage on the N6 substituent, which in the dark (relaxed isomer) behaved as a full adenosine A3 receptor (A3R) and partial adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) agonist. Conversely, upon photoisomerization with blue light (460 nm), it remained a full A3R agonist but became an A2AR antagonist. Interestingly, molecular modeling suggested that structural differences encountered within the third extracellular loop of each receptor could modulate the intrinsic, receptor subtype-dependent, activity. Overall, the development of adenosine receptor ligands with photoswitchable activity expands the pharmacological toolbox in support of research and possibly opens new pharmacotherapeutic opportunities. PMID:25248077

  5. Selective A2A receptor antagonist SCH 58261 modulates striatal oxidative stress and alleviates toxicity induced by 3-Nitropropionic acid in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Bortolatto, Cristiani F; Reis, Angélica S; Pinz, Mikaela P; Voss, Guilherme T; Oliveira, Renata L; Vogt, Ane G; Roman, Silvane; Jesse, Cristiano R; Luchese, Cristiane; Wilhelm, Ethel A

    2017-08-09

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of SCH58261, a selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, on striatal toxicity induced by 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) in rats. The experimental protocol consisted of 10 administrations (once a day) of SCH58261 (0.01 or 0.05 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneal, i.p.). From 7th to 10th day, 3-NP (20 mg/kg/day, i.p.) was injected 1 h after SCH58261 administration. Twenty-four hours after the last 3-NP injection, the body weight gain, locomotor activity (open-field test), motor coordination (rotarod test), striatal succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity and parameters linked to striatal oxidative status were evaluated in rats. The marked body weight loss resulting from 3-NP injections in rats was partially protected by SCH 58261 at both doses. SCH 58261 at the highest dose was effective against impairments on motor coordination and locomotor activity induced by 3-NP. SCH 58261 was unable to restore the inhibition of SDH activity caused by 3-NP. In addition, the increase in striatal reactive species (RS) levels, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) content and stimulation of glutathione reductase (GR) activity provoked by 3-NP injections were alleviated by both doses of SCH 58261. The highest dose of SCH 58261 was also effective in attenuating the increase of protein carbonyl levels as well as the inhibition of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in rats exposed to 3-NP. Our results revealed that reduction of oxidative stress in rat striatum by adenosine A2A receptor antagonism contributes for alleviating 3-NP-induced toxicity.

  6. Effect of adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists and L-DOPA on hydroxyl radical, glutamate and dopamine in the striatum of 6-OHDA-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Gołembiowska, Krystyna; Dziubina, Anna

    2012-02-01

    A(2A) adenosine receptor antagonists have been proposed as a new therapy of PD. Since oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of PD, we studied the effect of the selective A(2A) adenosine receptor antagonists 8-(-3-chlorostyryl)caffeine (CSC) and 4-(2-[7-amino-2-(2-furyl)[1,2,4]triazolo[2,3-a][1,3,5]triazin-5-ylamino]ethyl)phenol (ZM 241385) on hydroxyl radical generation, and glutamate (GLU) and dopamine (DA) extracellular level using a microdialysis in the striatum of 6-OHDA-treated rats. CSC (1 mg/kg) and ZM 241385 (3 mg/kg) given repeatedly for 14 days decreased the production of hydroxyl radical and extracellular GLU level, both enhanced by prior 6-OHDA treatment in dialysates from the rat striatum. CSC and ZM 241385 did not affect DA and its metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanilic acid (HVA) extracellular levels in the striatum of 6-OHDA-treated rats. L-DOPA (6 mg/kg) given twice daily for two weeks in the presence of benserazide (3 mg/kg) decreased striatal hydroxyl radical and glutamate extracellular level in 6-OHDA-treated rats. At the same time, L-DOPA slightly but significantly increased the extracellular levels of DOPAC and HVA. A combined repeated administration of L-DOPA and CSC or ZM 241385 did not change the effect of L-DOPA on hydroxyl radical production and glutamate extracellular level in spite of an enhancement of extracellular DA level by CSC and elevation of extracellular level of DOPAC and HVA by ZM 241385. The data suggest that the 6-OHDA-induced damage of nigrostriatal DA-terminals is related to oxidative stress and excessive release of glutamate. Administration of L-DOPA in combination with CSC or ZM 241385, by restoring striatal DA-glutamate balance, suppressed 6-OHDA-induced overproduction of hydroxyl radical.

  7. Adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonism reverses the effects of dopamine receptor antagonism on instrumental output and effort-related choice in the rat: implications for studies of psychomotor slowing.

    PubMed

    Farrar, Andrew M; Pereira, Mariana; Velasco, Francisco; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E; Salamone, John D

    2007-04-01

    Organisms frequently make effort-related decisions based upon assessments of motivational value and response costs. Energy-related dysfunctions such as psychomotor slowing and apathy are critically involved in some clinical syndromes. Dopamine (DA), particularly in the nucleus accumbens, regulates effort-related processes. Dopamine antagonism and accumbens dopamine depletions cause rats performing on choice tasks to reallocate their behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements. There is evidence of a functional interaction between DA and adenosine A(2A) receptors in the neostriatum and nucleus accumbens. The present experiments were conducted to determine if adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonism could reverse the effects of dopamine receptor antagonism on instrumental behavior and effort-related choice. The adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist MSX-3 was investigated for its ability to reverse the effects of the dopamine receptor antagonist haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg) on fixed ratio 5 instrumental lever-pressing and on response allocation using a concurrent lever-pressing/chow-feeding choice task. Haloperidol significantly suppressed fixed ratio 5 responding, and with rats responding on the concurrent choice task, it altered choice behavior, significantly reducing lever-pressing for food and increasing chow intake. Injections of MSX-3 (0.5-2.0 mg/kg) produced a dose-related attenuation of the effects of 0.1 mg/kg haloperidol on both tasks. The high dose of MSX-3, when administered in the absence of haloperidol, did not significantly affect responding on either task. Adenosine and dopamine systems interact to regulate instrumental behavior and effort-related processes, which may have implications for the treatment of psychiatric symptoms such as psychomotor slowing or anergia.

  8. Protective effect of caffeine and a selective A2A receptor antagonist on impairment of memory and oxidative stress of aged rats.

    PubMed

    Leite, Marlon Régis; Wilhelm, Ethel A; Jesse, Cristiano R; Brandão, Ricardo; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne

    2011-04-01

    In this study, the effects of caffeine (CAF) and SCH58261, a selective A(2A) receptor antagonist, on memory impairment and oxidative stress generated by aging in rats were investigated. Young and aged rats were treated daily per 10 days with CAF (30 mg/kg p.o.) or SCH58261 (0.5mg/kg, p.o.) or vehicle (1 ml/kg p.o.). Rats were trained and tested in a novel object recognition task. After the behavioral test, ascorbic acid and oxygen and nitrogen reactive species levels as well as Na(+)K(+) ATPase activity were determined in rat brain. The results demonstrated that the age-related memory deficit was reversed by treatment with CAF or SCH58261. Treatment with CAF or SCH58261 significantly normalized oxygen and nitrogen reactive species levels increased in brains of aged rats. Na(+)K(+) ATPase activity inhibited in brains of aged rats was also normalized by CAF or SCH58261 treatment. A decrease in basal ascorbic acid levels in brains of aged rats was not changed by CAF or SCH58261. These results demonstrated that CAF and SCH58261, modulators of adenosinergic receptors, were able to reverse age-associated memory impairment and to partially reduce oxidative stress. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cannabidiol provides long-lasting protection against the deleterious effects of inflammation in a viral model of multiple sclerosis: a role for A2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Mecha, M; Feliú, A; Iñigo, P M; Mestre, L; Carrillo-Salinas, F J; Guaza, C

    2013-11-01

    Inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) is a complex process that involves a multitude of molecules and effectors, and it requires the transmigration of blood leukocytes across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the activation of resident immune cells. Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychotropic cannabinoid constituent of Cannabis sativa, has potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. Yet, how this compound modifies the deleterious effects of inflammation in TMEV-induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD) remains unknown. Using this viral model of multiple sclerosis (MS), we demonstrate that CBD decreases the transmigration of blood leukocytes by downregulating the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), chemokines (CCL2 and CCL5) and the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β, as well as by attenuating the activation of microglia. Moreover, CBD administration at the time of viral infection exerts long-lasting effects, ameliorating motor deficits in the chronic phase of the disease in conjunction with reduced microglial activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Adenosine A2A receptors participate in some of the anti-inflammatory effects of CBD, as the A2A antagonist ZM241385 partially blocks the protective effects of CBD in the initial stages of inflammation. Together, our findings highlight the anti-inflammatory effects of CBD in this viral model of MS and demonstrate the significant therapeutic potential of this compound for the treatment of pathologies with an inflammatory component.

  10. Synthesis and SAR studies of analogues of 4-(3,3-dimethyl-butyrylamino)-3,5-difluoro-N-thiazol-2-yl-benzamide (Lu AA41063) as adenosine A2A receptor ligands with improved aqueous solubility.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, Gitte Kobberøe; Langgård, Morten; Schrøder, Tenna Juul; Kreilgaard, Mads; Jørgensen, Erling B; Brandt, Guillaume; Griffon, Yann; Boffey, Ray; Bang-Andersen, Benny

    2015-03-15

    An adenosine A2A receptor antagonist may be useful for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Synthesis and structure-activity studies starting from 4-(3,3-dimethylbutyrylamino)-3,5-difluoro-N-thiazol-2-yl-benzamide (Lu AA41063, 4) led to a novel series of human (h) A2A receptor antagonists with improved aqueous solubility. Compound 22 was identified as a key representative from the series, displaying submicromolar hA2A receptor affinity and excellent aqueous solubility. Compound 22 also displayed good in vitro pharmacokinetic properties and is considered a good starting point for further lead optimisation toward hA2A receptor antagonists with improved druggability properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Modulation by salt intake of the vascular response mediated through adenosine A(2A) receptor: role of CYP epoxygenase and soluble epoxide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Nayeem, Mohammed A; Zeldin, Darryl C; Boegehold, Matthew A; Morisseau, Christophe; Marowsky, Anne; Ponnoth, Dovenia S; Roush, Kevin P; Falck, John R

    2010-07-01

    High-salt intake can change the effect of adenosine on arterial tone in mice. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanism by which this occurs. Using aortas from mice fed a 4% NaCl (HS) or 0.45% NaCl (NS) diet for 4-5 wks, concentration-response curves for ACh, 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA; adenosine analog) and 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine hydrochloride hydrate [CGS-21680; A(2A) adenosine receptor (A(2A) AR) agonist] were obtained with N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; nitric oxide inhibitor, 10(-4) M), methylsulfonyl-propargyloxyphenylhexanamide [MS-PPOH; a CYP (cytochrome P-450) epoxygenase blocker, 10(-5) M including CYP2J2], 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)dodecanoic acid [AUDA; soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) blocker, 10(-5) M], dibromo-dodecenyl-methylsulfimide [DDMS; CYP omega-hydroxylase (CYP4A blocker), 10(-5) M], glibenclamide (K(ATP) channel blocker; 10(-5) M) and 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD; mitochondrial-K(ATP) channel blocker, 10(-4) M). HS dose response to ACh (10(-7) - 10(-5) M) was not different from NS (P > 0.05). Relaxation to 10(-6) M NECA was greater in the HS group (28.4 +/- 3.9%) than in the NS group (4.1 +/- 2.3%). Relaxation to 10(-6) M CGS-21680 was also greater in HS (27.9 +/- 4.5%) than in NS (4.9 +/- 2.2%). L-NAME was able to block the dose response of ACh (10(-7) - 10(-5) M) equally in both HS and NS (P > 0.05), whereas L-NAME did not block CGS-21680-induced response in HS. In HS the CGS-21680 response was greatly reduced by MS-PPOH (to 4.7 +/- 2.0%) and 5-HD (to 8.9 +/- 2.2%), and also abolished by glibenclamide (-1.0 +/- 5.9%). In NS, the CGS-21680 response was increased by AUDA (to 26.3 +/- 3.4%) and DDMS (to 27.2 +/- 3.0%). Compared with NS, HS vessels showed increased CYP2J2 and A(2A) AR expression (46 and 74% higher, respectively) but decreased sEH, CYP4A, and A(1) AR expression (75, 30, and 55% lower, respectively). These data suggest that in mice fed NS-containing diet

  12. Modulation by salt intake of the vascular response mediated through adenosine A2A receptor: role of CYP epoxygenase and soluble epoxide hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Zeldin, Darryl C.; Boegehold, Matthew A.; Morisseau, Christophe; Marowsky, Anne; Ponnoth, Dovenia S.; Roush, Kevin P.; Falck, John R.

    2010-01-01

    High-salt intake can change the effect of adenosine on arterial tone in mice. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanism by which this occurs. Using aortas from mice fed a 4% NaCl (HS) or 0.45% NaCl (NS) diet for 4–5 wks, concentration-response curves for ACh, 5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA; adenosine analog) and 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine hydrochloride hydrate [CGS-21680; A2A adenosine receptor (A2A AR) agonist] were obtained with Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; nitric oxide inhibitor, 10−4 M), methylsulfonyl-propargyloxyphenylhexanamide [MS-PPOH; a CYP (cytochrome P-450) epoxygenase blocker, 10−5 M including CYP2J2], 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)dodecanoic acid [AUDA; soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) blocker, 10−5 M], dibromo-dodecenyl-methylsulfimide [DDMS; CYP ω-hydroxylase (CYP4A blocker), 10−5 M], glibenclamide (KATP channel blocker; 10−5 M) and 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD; mitochondrial-KATP channel blocker, 10−4 M). HS dose response to ACh (10−7 − 10−5 M) was not different from NS (P > 0.05). Relaxation to 10−6 M NECA was greater in the HS group (28.4 ± 3.9%) than in the NS group (4.1 ± 2.3%). Relaxation to 10−6 M CGS-21680 was also greater in HS (27.9 ± 4.5%) than in NS (4.9 ± 2.2%). l-NAME was able to block the dose response of ACh (10−7 − 10−5 M) equally in both HS and NS (P > 0.05), whereas l-NAME did not block CGS-21680-induced response in HS. In HS the CGS-21680 response was greatly reduced by MS-PPOH (to 4.7 ± 2.0%) and 5-HD (to 8.9 ± 2.2%), and also abolished by glibenclamide (−1.0 ± 5.9%). In NS, the CGS-21680 response was increased by AUDA (to 26.3 ± 3.4%) and DDMS (to 27.2 ± 3.0%). Compared with NS, HS vessels showed increased CYP2J2 and A2A AR expression (46 and 74% higher, respectively) but decreased sEH, CYP4A, and A1 AR expression (75, 30, and 55% lower, respectively). These data suggest that in mice fed NS-containing diet, upregulation of

  13. L-DOPA disrupts adenosine A(2A)-cannabinoid CB(1)-dopamine D(2) receptor heteromer cross-talk in the striatum of hemiparkinsonian rats: biochemical and behavioral studies.

    PubMed

    Pinna, Annalisa; Bonaventura, Jordi; Farré, Daniel; Sánchez, Marta; Simola, Nicola; Mallol, Josefa; Lluís, Carme; Costa, Giulia; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E; Cortés, Antoni; McCormick, Peter; Canela, Enric I; Martínez-Pinilla, Eva; Lanciego, José L; Casadó, Vicent; Armentero, Marie-Therese; Franco, Rafael

    2014-03-01

    Long-term therapy with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), still the most effective treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD), is associated with severe motor complications such as dyskinesia. Experimental and clinical data have indicated that adenosine A2A receptor antagonists can provide symptomatic improvement by potentiating L-DOPA efficacy and minimizing its side effects. It is known that the G-protein-coupled adenosine A2A, cannabinoid CB1 and dopamine D2 receptors may interact and form functional A2A-CB1-D2 receptor heteromers in co-transfected cells as well as in rat striatum. These data suggest that treatment with a combination of drugs or a single compound selectively acting on A2A-CB1-D2 heteromers may represent an alternative therapeutic treatment of PD. We investigated the expression of A2A-CB1-D2 receptor heteromers in the striatum of both naïve and hemiparkinsonian rats (HPD-rats) bearing a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion, and assessed how receptor heteromer expression and biochemical properties were affected by L-DOPA treatment. Radioligand binding data showed that A2A-CB1-D2 receptor heteromers are present in the striatum of both naïve and HPD-rats. However, behavioral results indicated that the combined administration of A2A (MSX-3 or SCH58261) and CB1 (rimonabant) receptor antagonists, in the presence of L-DOPA does not produce a response different from administration of the A2A receptor antagonist alone. These behavioral results prompted identification of heteromers in L-DOPA-treated animals. Interestingly, the radioligand binding results in samples from lesioned animals suggest that the heteromer is lost following acute or chronic treatment with L-DOPA.

  14. A2A Adenosine Receptors Are Differentially Modulated by Pharmacological Treatments in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients and Their Stimulation Ameliorates Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Padovan, Melissa; Targa, Martina; Corciulo, Carmen; Giacuzzo, Sarah; Merighi, Stefania; Gessi, Stefania; Govoni, Marcello; Borea, Pier Andrea; Varani, Katia

    2013-01-01

    A2A adenosine receptors (ARs) play a key role in the inhibition of the inflammatory process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the modulation of A2AARs in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients after different pharmacological treatments and to investigate the effect of A2AAR stimulation in a rat model of arthritis. We investigated A2AAR density and functionality in RA progression by using a longitudinal study in RA patients before and after methotrexate (MTX), anti-TNFα agents or rituximab treatments. A2AARs were analyzed by saturation binding assays in lymphocytes from RA patients throughout the 24-month study timeframe. In an adjuvant-induced arthritis model in rats we showed the efficacy of the A2AAR agonist, CGS 21680 in comparison with standard therapies by means of paw volume assessment, radiographic and ultrasonographic imaging. Arthritic-associated pain was investigated in mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia tests. IL-10 release following A2AAR stimulation in lymphocytes from RA patients and in serum from arthritic rats was measured. In lymphocytes obtained from RA patients, the A2AAR up-regulation was gradually reduced in function of the treatment time and the stimulation of these receptors mediated a significant increase of IL-10 production. In the same cells, CGS 21680 did not affected cell viability and did not produced cytotoxic effects. The A2AAR agonist CGS 21680 was highly effective, as suggested by the marked reduction of clinical signs, in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis and associated pain. This study highlighted that A2AAR agonists represent a physiological-like therapeutic alternative for RA treatment as suggested by the anti-inflammatory role of A2AARs in lymphocytes from RA patients. The effectiveness of A2AAR stimulation in a rat model of arthritis supported the role of A2AAR agonists as potential pharmacological treatment for RA. PMID:23326596

  15. Effect of subtype-selective adenosine receptor antagonists on basal or haloperidol-regulated striatal function: studies of exploratory locomotion and c-Fos immunoreactivity in outbred and A(2A)R KO mice.

    PubMed

    Pardo, M; López-Cruz, L; Valverde, O; Ledent, C; Baqi, Y; Müller, C E; Salamone, J D; Correa, M

    2013-06-15

    Behavioral activation is regulated by dopamine (DA) in striatal areas. At low doses, while typical antipsychotic drugs produce psychomotor slowing, psychostimulants promote exploration. Minor stimulants such as caffeine, which act as adenosine receptor antagonists, can also potentiate behavioral activation. Striatal areas are rich in adenosine and DA receptors, and adenosine A2A receptors are mainly expressed in the striatum where they are co-localized with DA D2 receptors. Adenosine antagonists with different receptor-selectivity profiles were used to study spontaneous or haloperidol-impaired exploration and c-Fos expression in different striatal areas. Because A2A antagonists were expected to be more selective for reversing the effects of the D2 antagonist haloperidol, A2A receptor knockout (A2ARKO) mice were also assessed. CD1 and A2ARKO male mice were tested in an open field and in a running wheel. Only the A1/A2A receptor antagonist theophylline (5.0-15.0 mg/kg) and the A2A antagonist MSX-3 (2.0 mg/kg) increased spontaneous locomotion and rearing. Co-administration of theophylline (10.0-15.0 mg/kg), and MSX-3 (1.0-3.0 mg/kg) reversed haloperidol-induced suppression of locomotion. The A1 antagonist CPT was only marginally effective in reversing the effects of haloperidol. Although adenosine antagonists did not affect c-Fos expression on their own, theophylline and MSX-3, but not CPT, attenuated haloperidol induction of c-Fos expression. A2ARKO mice were resistant to the behavioral effects of haloperidol at intermediate doses (0.1 mg/kg) in the open field and in the running wheel. A2A receptors are important for regulating behavioral activation, and interact with D2 receptors in striatal areas to regulate neural processes involved in exploratory activity.

  16. The 1,2,4-Triazolo[4,3-a]pyrazin-3-one as a Versatile Scaffold for the Design of Potent Adenosine Human Receptor Antagonists. Structural Investigations to Target the A2A Receptor Subtype.

    PubMed

    Falsini, Matteo; Squarcialupi, Lucia; Catarzi, Daniela; Varano, Flavia; Betti, Marco; Dal Ben, Diego; Marucci, Gabriella; Buccioni, Michela; Volpini, Rosaria; De Vita, Teresa; Cavalli, Andrea; Colotta, Vittoria

    2017-07-13

    In this work, we describe the identification of the 1,2,4-triazolo[4,3-a]pyrazin-3-one as a new versatile scaffold for the development of adenosine human (h) receptor antagonists. The new chemotype ensued from a molecular simplification approach applied to our previously reported 1,2,4-triazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one series. Hence, a set of novel 8-amino-2-aryl-1,2,4-triazolopyrazin-3-one derivatives, featured by different substituents on the 2-phenyl ring (R) and at position 6 (R6), was synthesized with the main purpose of targeting the hA2A adenosine receptor (AR). Several compounds possessed nanomolar affinity for the hA2A AR (Ki = 2.9-10 nM) and some, very interestingly, also showed high selectivity for the target. One selected potent hA2A AR antagonist (12, R = H, R6 = 4-methoxyphenyl) demonstrated some ability to counteract MPP(+)-induced neurotoxicity in cultured human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, a widely used in vitro Parkinson's disease model. Docking studies at hAR structures were performed to rationalize the observed affinity data.

  17. Molecular Docking and Prediction of Pharmacokinetic Properties of Dual Mechanism Drugs that Block MAO-B and Adenosine A2A Receptors for the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Faizul; Madi, Arwa M.; Ali, Hamed I.

    2012-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitory potential of adenosine A2A receptor (AA2AR) antagonists has raised the possibility of designing dual-target–directed drugs that may provide enhanced symptomatic relief and that may also slow the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD) by protecting against further neurodegeneration. To explain the dual inhibition of MAO-B and AA2AR at the molecular level, molecular docking technique was employed. Lamarckian genetic algorithm methodology was used for flexible ligand docking studies. A good correlation (R2= 0.524 and 0.627 for MAO-B and AA2AR, respectively) was established between docking predicted and experimental Ki values, which confirms that the molecular docking approach is reliable to study the mechanism of dual interaction of caffeinyl analogs with MAO-B and AA2AR. Parameters for Lipinski's “Rule-of-Five” were also calculated to estimate the pharmacokinetic properties of dual-target–directed drugs where both MAO-B inhibition and AA2AR antagonism exhibited a positive correlation with calculated LogP having a correlation coefficient R2 of 0.535 and 0.607, respectively. These results provide some beneficial clues in structural modification for designing new inhibitors as dual-target–directed drugs with desired pharmacokinetic properties for the treatment of PD. PMID:23112538

  18. A study of the possible association between adenosine A2A receptor gene polymorphisms and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder traits.

    PubMed

    Molero, Y; Gumpert, C; Serlachius, E; Lichtenstein, P; Walum, H; Johansson, D; Anckarsäter, H; Westberg, L; Eriksson, E; Halldner, L

    2013-04-01

    The adenosine A2A receptor (ADORA2A) is linked to the dopamine neurotransmitter system and is also implicated in the regulation of alertness, suggesting a potential association with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) traits. Furthermore, animal studies suggest that the ADORA2A may influence ADHD-like behavior. For that reason, the ADORA2A gene emerges as a promising candidate for studying the etiology of ADHD traits. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between ADORA2A gene polymorphisms and ADHD traits in a large population-based sample. This study was based on the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS), and included 1747 twins. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder traits were assessed through parental reports, and samples of DNA were collected. Associations between six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and ADHD traits were examined, and results suggested a nominal association between ADHD traits and three of these SNPs: rs3761422, rs5751876 and rs35320474. For one of the SNPs, rs35320474, results remained significant after correction for multiple comparisons. These results indicate the possibility that the ADORA2A gene may be involved in ADHD traits. However, more studies replicating the present results are warranted before this association can be confirmed. Genes, Brain and Behavior © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  19. Molecular Docking and Prediction of Pharmacokinetic Properties of Dual Mechanism Drugs that Block MAO-B and Adenosine A(2A) Receptors for the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Azam, Faizul; Madi, Arwa M; Ali, Hamed I

    2012-07-01

    Monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitory potential of adenosine A(2A) receptor (AA(2A)R) antagonists has raised the possibility of designing dual-target-directed drugs that may provide enhanced symptomatic relief and that may also slow the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD) by protecting against further neurodegeneration. To explain the dual inhibition of MAO-B and AA(2A)R at the molecular level, molecular docking technique was employed. Lamarckian genetic algorithm methodology was used for flexible ligand docking studies. A good correlation (R(2)= 0.524 and 0.627 for MAO-B and AA(2A)R, respectively) was established between docking predicted and experimental K(i) values, which confirms that the molecular docking approach is reliable to study the mechanism of dual interaction of caffeinyl analogs with MAO-B and AA(2A)R. Parameters for Lipinski's "Rule-of-Five" were also calculated to estimate the pharmacokinetic properties of dual-target-directed drugs where both MAO-B inhibition and AA(2A)R antagonism exhibited a positive correlation with calculated LogP having a correlation coefficient R(2) of 0.535 and 0.607, respectively. These results provide some beneficial clues in structural modification for designing new inhibitors as dual-target-directed drugs with desired pharmacokinetic properties for the treatment of PD.

  20. Adenosine Type A2A Receptor in Peripheral Cell from Patients with Alzheimer's Disease, Vascular Dementia, and Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus: A New/Old Potential Target.

    PubMed

    Arosio, Beatrice; Casati, Martina; Gussago, Cristina; Ferri, Evelyn; Abbate, Carlo; Scortichini, Valeria; Colombo, Elena; Rossi, Paolo Dionigi; Mari, Daniela

    2016-09-06

    As the European population gets older, the incidence of neurological disorders increases with significant impact on social costs. Despite differences in disease etiology, several brain disorders in the elderly (e.g., Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, normal pressure hydrocephalus) share dementia as a common clinical feature. The current treatment for the majority of these diseases is merely symptomatic and does not modify the course of the illness. Symptoms of normal pressure hydrocephalus are the only ones that can be modified if they are recognized in time and treated appropriately. Therefore, an important clinical strategy may be disclosed by pathogenic pathways that can be modified and to find drugs that can slow down or even arrest disease progression. Possibly a way to answer this question could be by re-examining all the molecules which have so far succeeded in improving many aspects of cognitive deterioration in some neurodegenerative conditions, that were not considered because of controversial opinions. The main purpose of this summary is to further substantiate the hypothesis that the pathway of adenosine type A2A receptor could be used as a potential target to develop new/old therapeutic strategies.

  1. Molecular docking studies of 1-(substituted phenyl)-3-(naphtha [1, 2-d] thiazol-2-yl) urea/thiourea derivatives with human adenosine A(2A) receptor.

    PubMed

    Azam, Faizul; Prasad, Medapati Vijaya Vara; Thangavel, Neelaveni; Ali, Hamed Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Computational assessment of the binding interactions of drugs is an important component of computer-aided drug design paradigms. In this perspective, a set of 30 1-(substituted phenyl)-3-(naphtha[1, 2-d] thiazol-2-yl) urea/thiourea derivatives showing antiparkinsonian activity were docked into inhibitor binding cavity of human adenosine A(2A) receptor (AA2AR) to understand their mode of binding interactions in silico. Lamarckian genetic algorithm methodology was employed for docking simulations using AutoDock 4.2 program. The results signify that the molecular docking approach is reliable and produces a good correlation coefficient (r(2) = 0.483) between docking score and antiparkinsonian activity (in terms of % reduction in catalepsy score). Potent antiparkinsonian agents carried methoxy group in the phenyl ring, exhibited both hydrophilic and lipophilic interactions with lower energy of binding at the AA(2A)R. These molecular docking analyses should, in our view, contribute for further development of selective AA(2A)R antagonists for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  2. Molecular docking studies of 1-(substituted phenyl)-3-(naphtha [1, 2-d] thiazol-2-yl) urea/thiourea derivatives with human adenosine A2A receptor

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Faizul; Prasad, Medapati Vijaya Vara; Thangavel, Neelaveni; Ali, Hamed Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Computational assessment of the binding interactions of drugs is an important component of computer-aided drug design paradigms. In this perspective, a set of 30 1-(substituted phenyl)-3-(naphtha[1, 2-d] thiazol-2-yl) urea/thiourea derivatives showing antiparkinsonian activity were docked into inhibitor binding cavity of human adenosine A2A receptor (AA2AR) to understand their mode of binding interactions in silico. Lamarckian genetic algorithm methodology was employed for docking simulations using AutoDock 4.2 program. The results signify that the molecular docking approach is reliable and produces a good correlation coefficient (r2 = 0.483) between docking score and antiparkinsonian activity (in terms of % reduction in catalepsy score). Potent antiparkinsonian agents carried methoxy group in the phenyl ring, exhibited both hydrophilic and lipophilic interactions with lower energy of binding at the AA2AR. These molecular docking analyses should, in our view, contribute for further development of selective AA2AR antagonists for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. PMID:21814389

  3. A2A adenosine-receptor-mediated facilitation of noradrenaline release in rat tail artery involves protein kinase C activation and betagamma subunits formed after alpha2-adrenoceptor activation.

    PubMed

    Fresco, Paula; Oliveira, Jorge M A; Kunc, Filip; Soares, Ana Sofia; Rocha-Pereira, Carolina; Gonçalves, Jorge; Diniz, Carmen

    2007-07-01

    This work aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in the interaction of alpha2-adrenoceptors and adenosine A2A-receptor-mediated facilitation of noradrenaline release in rat tail artery, namely the type of G-protein involved in this effect and the step or steps where the signalling cascades triggered by alpha2-adrenoceptors and A2A-receptors interact. The selective adenosine A2A-receptor agonist 2-p-(2-carboxy ethyl) phenethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS 21680; 100 nM) enhanced tritium overflow evoked by trains of 100 pulses at 5 Hz. This effect was abolished by the selective adenosine A2A-receptor antagonist 5-amino-7-(2-phenyl ethyl)-2-(2-furyl)-pyrazolo-[4,3-e]-1,2,4-triazolo [1,5-c]pyrimidine (SCH 58261; 20 nM) and by yohimbine (1 microM). CGS 21680-mediated effects were also abolished by drugs that disrupted G(i/o)-protein coupling with receptors, PTX (2 microg/ml) or NEM (40 microM), by the anti-G(salpha) peptide (2 microg/ml) anti-G(betagamma) peptide (10 microg/ml) indicating coupling of A2A-receptors to G(salpha) and suggesting a crucial role for G(betagamma) subunits in the A(2A)-receptor-mediated enhancement of tritium overflow. Furthermore, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA; 1 microM) or forskolin (1 microM), direct activators of protein kinase C and of adenylyl cyclase, respectively, also enhanced tritium overflow. In addition, PMA-mediated effects were not observed in the presence of either yohimbine or PTX. Results indicate that facilitatory adenosine A2A-receptors couple to G(salpha) subunits which is essential, but not sufficient, for the release facilitation to occur, requiring the involvement of G(i/o)-protein coupling (it disappears after disruption of G(i/o)-protein coupling, PTX or NEM) and/or G(betagamma) subunits (anti-G(betagamma)). We propose a mechanism for the interaction in study suggesting group 2 AC isoforms as a plausible candidate for the interaction site, as these isoforms can integrate inputs from G

  4. Effect of caffeine on the expression of cytochrome P450 1A2, adenosine A2A receptor and dopamine transporter in control and 1-methyl 4-phenyl 1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine treated mouse striatum.

    PubMed

    Singh, Seema; Singh, Kavita; Gupta, Satya Prakash; Patel, Devendra Kumar; Singh, Vinod Kumar; Singh, Raj Kumar; Singh, Mahendra Pratap

    2009-08-04

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons of the nigrostriatal pathway. Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse relationship between coffee consumption and susceptibility to PD. Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) is involved in caffeine metabolism and its clearance. Caffeine, on the other hand, antagonizes adenosine A(2A) receptor and regulates dopamine signaling through dopamine transporter (DAT). The present study was undertaken to investigate the expression of CYP1A2, adenosine A(2A) receptor and DAT in mouse striatum and to assess their levels in 1-methyl 4-phenyl 1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropryridine (MPTP) treated mouse striatum with and without caffeine treatment. The animals were treated intraperitoneally daily with caffeine (20 mg/kg) for 8 weeks, followed by MPTP (20 mg/kg)+caffeine (20 mg/kg) for 4 weeks or vice versa, along with respective controls. Tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity, levels of dopamine and 1-methyl 4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+)), expressions of CYP1A2, adenosine A(2A) receptor and DAT and CYP1A2 catalytic activity were measured in control and treated mouse brain. Caffeine partially protected MPTP-induced neurodegenerative changes and modulated MPTP-mediated alterations in the expression and catalytic activity of CYP1A2, expression of adenosine A(2A) receptor and DAT. The results demonstrate that caffeine alters the striatal CYP1A2, adenosine A(2A) receptor and DAT expressions in mice exposed to MPTP.

  5. Salt modulates vascular response through adenosine A(2A) receptor in eNOS-null mice: role of CYP450 epoxygenase and soluble epoxide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Nayeem, Mohammed A; Zeldin, Darryl C; Boegehold, Matthew A; Falck, John R

    2011-04-01

    High salt (HS) intake can change the arterial tone in mice, and the nitric oxide (NO) acts as a mediator to some of the receptors mediated vascular response. The main aim of this study was to explore the mechanism behind adenosine-induced vascular response in HS-fed eNOS(+/+) and eNOS(-/-) mice The modulation of vascular response by HS was examined using aortas from mice (eNOS(+/+) and eNOS(-/-)) fed 4% (HS) or 0.45% (NS) NaCl-diet through acetylcholine (ACh), NECA (adenosine-analog), CGS 21680 (A(2A) AR-agonist), MS-PPOH (CYP epoxygenase-blocker; 10(-5) M), AUDA (sEH-blocker; 10(-5) M), and DDMS (CYP4A-blocker; 10(-5) M). ACh-response was greater in HS-eNOS(+/+) (+59.3 ± 6.3%) versus NS-eNOS(+/+) (+33.3 ± 8.0%; P < 0.05). However, there was no response in both HS-eNOS(-/-) and NS-eNOS(-/-). NECA-response was greater in HS-eNOS(-/-) (+37.4 ± 3.2%) versus NS-eNOS(-/-) (+7.4.0 ± 3.8%; P < 0.05). CGS 21680-response was also greater in HS-eNOS(-/-) (+45.4 ± 5.2%) versus NS-eNOS(-/-)(+5.1 ± 5.0%; P < 0.05). In HS-eNOS(-/-), the CGS 21680-response was reduced by MS-PPOH (+7.3 ± 3.2%; P < 0.05). In NS-eNOS(-/-), the CGS 21680-response was increased by AUDA (+38.2 ± 3.3%; P < 0.05) and DDMS (+30.1 ± 4.1%; P < 0.05). Compared to NS, HS increased CYP2J2 in eNOS(+/+) (35%; P < 0.05) and eNOS(-/-) (61%; P < 0.05), but decreased sEH in eNOS(+/+) (74%; P < 0.05) and eNOS(-/-) (40%; P < 0.05). Similarly, CYP4A decreased in HS-eNOS(+/+) (35%; P < 0.05) and HS-eNOS(-/-) (34%; P < 0.05). These data suggest that NS causes reduced-vasodilation in both eNOS(+/+) and eNOS(-/-) via sEH and CYP4A. However, HS triggers possible A(2A)AR-induced relaxation through CYP epoxygenase in both eNOS(+/+) and eNOS(-/-).

  6. Adenosine receptors: Modulators of lipid availability that are controlled by lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Leiva, Andrea; Guzmán-Gutiérrez, Enrique; Contreras-Duarte, Susana; Fuenzalida, Bárbara; Cantin, Claudette; Carvajal, Lorena; Salsoso, Rocío; Gutiérrez, Jaime; Pardo, Fabián; Sobrevia, Luis

    2017-06-01

    Adenosine as well as agonists and antagonists for the four adenosine receptor subtypes (A1R, A2AR, A2BR and A3R) play a role in several key physiological and pathophysiological processes, including the regulation of vascular tone, thrombosis, immune response, inflammation, and angiogenesis. This review focuses on the adenosine-mediated regulation of lipid availability in the cell and in the systemic circulation as well in humans and animal models. Therefore, adenosine, mainly by acting on A1R, inhibits lipolysis activity, leading to reduction of the circulating fatty acid levels. This nucleoside can also participate in the early development of atherosclerosis by inhibiting the formation of foam cells via stimulation of cholesterol efflux through A2AR expressed on macrophages and reduction of the inflammatory process by activating A2AR and A2BR. Adenosine also appears to modulate intracellular cholesterol availability in Niemann-Pick type C1 disease and Alzheimer disease via A2AR and A3, respectively. Remarkably, the role of adenosine receptors in the regulation of plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride levels has been studied in animal models. Thus, an anti-atherogenic role for A2BR as well as a pro-atherogenic role of A2AR and A1 have been proposed; A3R has not been shown to participate in the control of lipid levels or the development of atherosclerosis. Surprisingly, and despite the role of A2A in the inhibition of foam cell formation among isolated cells, this receptor appears to be pro-atherogenic in mice. Remarkably, the role of adenosine receptors in human dyslipidaemia and atherosclerosis must to be elucidated. Additionally, it has been reported that increased lipid levels impair the effects of adenosine/adenosine receptors in controlling vascular tone, and we speculate on the possibility that this impairment could be due to alterations in the composition of the membrane microdomains where the adenosine receptors are located. Finally, a possible role for

  7. N9-benzyl-substituted 1,3-dimethyl- and 1,3-dipropyl-pyrimido[2,1-f]purinediones: synthesis and structure-activity relationships at adenosine A1 and A2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Drabczyńska, Anna; Müller, Christa E; Karolak-Wojciechowska, Janina; Schumacher, Britta; Schiedel, Anke; Yuzlenko, Olga; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2007-07-15

    Synthesis and physicochemical properties of N-benzyl pyrimido[2,1-f]purinediones are described. These derivatives were synthesized by the cyclization of 7-chloropropylo-8-bromo-1,3-dimethyl- or 1,3-dipropyl xanthine derivatives with corresponding (un)substituted benzylamines. Dipropyl derivatives were obtained under microwave irradiation conditions either. The obtained compounds (1-20) were evaluated for their affinity to adenosine A1 and A2A receptors, selected compounds were additionally investigated for affinity to the A3 receptor subtype. The results of the radioligand binding assays to A1 and A2A adenosine receptors showed that most of the 1,3-dimethyl-9-benzylpyrimidopurinediones exhibited selective affinity to A2A receptors at micromolar or submicromolar concentrations (for example, derivative 9 with o-methoxy substituent displayed a Ki value of 0.699 microM at rat A2A receptor with more than 36-fold selectivity). Contrary to previously described arylpyrimido[2,1-f]purinediones dipropyl derivatives (compounds 15-20) showed affinity to both kinds of receptors increased, however A1 affinity increased to a larger extent, with the result that A2A selectivity was abolished. The best adenosine A1 receptor ligand was m-chlorobenzyl derivative 18 (Ki=0.089 microM and 5-fold A1 selectivity). Structure-activity relationships were discussed with the analysis of lipophilic and spatial properties of the investigated compounds. Pharmacophore model of adenosine A1 receptor antagonist was adopted for this purpose.

  8. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of [(14)C]-tozadenant (SYN-115), a novel A2a receptor antagonist ligand, in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Mancel, Valérie; Mathy, François-Xavier; Boulanger, Pierre; English, Stephen; Croft, Marie; Kenney, Christopher; Knott, Tarra; Stockis, Armel; Bani, Massimo

    2016-09-02

    1. This phase-I study (NCT02240290) was designed to investigate the human absorption, disposition and mass balance of (14)C-tozadenant, a novel A2a receptor antagonist in clinical development for Parkinson s disease. 2. Six healthy male subjects received a single oral dose of tozadenant (240 mg containing 81.47 KBq of [(14)C]-tozadenant). Blood, urine and feces were collected over 14 days. Radioactivity was determined by liquid scintillation counting or accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Tozadenant and metabolites were characterized using HPLC-MS/MS and HPLC-AMS with fraction collection. 3. At 4 h, the Cmax of tozadenant was 1.74 μg/mL and AUC(0-t) 35.0 h μg/mL, t1/2 15 h, Vz/F 1.82 L/kg and CL/F 1.40 mL/min/kg. For total [(14)C] radioactivity, the Cmax was 2.29 μg eq/mL at 5 h post-dose and AUC(0-t) 43.9 h μg eq/mL. Unchanged tozadenant amounted to 93% of the radiocarbon AUC(0-48h). At 312 h post-dose, cumulative urinary and fecal excretion of radiocarbon reached 30.5% and 55.1% of the dose, respectively. Unchanged tozadenant reached 11% in urine and 12% of the dose in feces. Tozadenant was excreted as metabolites, including di-and mono-hydroxylated metabolites, N/O dealkylated metabolites, hydrated metabolites. 4. The only identified species circulating in plasma was unchanged tozadenant. Tozadenant was primarily excreted in urine and feces in the form of metabolites.

  9. In silico study of naphtha [1, 2-d] thiazol-2-amine with adenosine A 2A receptor and its role in antagonism of haloperidol-induced motor impairments in mice.

    PubMed

    Luthra, Pratibha Mehta; Prakash, Amresh; Barodia, Sandeep Kumar; Kumari, Rita; Mishra, Chandra Bhushan; Kumar, J B Senthil

    2009-10-09

    Loss of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons in the substantia nigra leads to Parkinson's disease (PD). Adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A)Rs) have been anticipated as novel therapeutic target for PD. A(2A)Rs potentiate locomotor behavior and are predominantly expressed in striatum. Naphtha [1, 2-d] thiazol-2-amine (NATA), a tricyclic thiazole have been studied as new anti-Parkinsonian compound. AutoDock analysis and pharmacophore study of NATA with known A(2A)R antagonists explicit its efficacy as a possible adenosine receptor antagonist. In vivo pharmacology of NATA showed reduction of haloperidol (HAL)-induced motor impairments in Swiss albino male mice. Relatively elevated levels of dopamine in NATA pre-treated mice are suggestive of its possible role as neuromodulator in PD.

  10. Combining selectivity and affinity predictions using an integrated Support Vector Machine (SVM) approach: An alternative tool to discriminate between the human adenosine A(2A) and A(3) receptor pyrazolo-triazolo-pyrimidine antagonists binding sites.

    PubMed

    Michielan, Lisa; Bolcato, Chiara; Federico, Stephanie; Cacciari, Barbara; Bacilieri, Magdalena; Klotz, Karl-Norbert; Kachler, Sonja; Pastorin, Giorgia; Cardin, Riccardo; Sperduti, Alessandro; Spalluto, Giampiero; Moro, Stefano

    2009-07-15

    G Protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) selectivity is an important aspect of drug discovery process, and distinguishing between related receptor subtypes is often the key to therapeutic success. Nowadays, very few valuable computational tools are available for the prediction of receptor subtypes selectivity. In the present study, we present an alternative application of the Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Support Vector Regression (SVR) methodologies to simultaneously describe both A(2A)R versus A(3)R subtypes selectivity profile and the corresponding receptor binding affinities. We have implemented an integrated application of SVM-SVR approach, based on the use of our recently reported autocorrelated molecular descriptors encoding for the Molecular Electrostatic Potential (autoMEP), to simultaneously discriminate A(2A)R versus A(3)R antagonists and to predict their binding affinity to the corresponding receptor subtype of a large dataset of known pyrazolo-triazolo-pyrimidine analogs. To validate our approach, we have synthetized 51 new pyrazolo-triazolo-pyrimidine derivatives anticipating both A(2A)R/A(3)R subtypes selectivity and receptor binding affinity profiles.

  11. Salt modulates vascular response through adenosine A2A receptor in eNOS-null mice: role of CYP450 epoxygenase and soluble epoxide hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Zeldin, Darryl C.; Boegehold, Matthew A.; Falck, John R.

    2011-01-01

    High salt (HS) intake can change the arterial tone in mice, and the nitric oxide (NO) acts as a mediator to some of the receptors mediated vascular response. The main aim of this study was to explore the mechanism behind adenosine-induced vascular response in HS-fed eNOS+/+ and eNOS−/− mice The modulation of vascular response by HS was examined using aortas from mice (eNOS+/+ and eNOS−/−) fed 4% (HS) or 0.45% (NS) NaCl-diet through acetylcholine (ACh), NECA (adenosine-analog), CGS 21680 (A2A AR-agonist), MS-PPOH (CYP epoxygenase-blocker; 10−5 M), AUDA (sEH-blocker; 10−5 M), and DDMS (CYP4A-blocker; 10−5 M). ACh-response was greater in HS-eNOS+/+ (+59.3 ± 6.3%) versus NS-eNOS+/+ (+33.3 ± 8.0%; P < 0.05). However, there was no response in both HS-eNOS−/− and NS-eNOS−/−. NECA-response was greater in HS-eNOS−/− (+37.4 ± 3.2%) versus NS-eNOS−/− (+7.4.0 ± 3.8%; P < 0.05). CGS 21680-response was also greater in HS-eNOS−/− (+45.4 ± 5.2%) versus NS-eNOS−/−(+5.1 ± 5.0%; P < 0.05). In HS-eNOS−/−, the CGS 21680-response was reduced by MS-PPOH (+7.3 ± 3.2%; P < 0.05). In NS-eNOS−/−, the CGS 21680-response was increased by AUDA (+38.2 ± 3.3%; P < 0.05) and DDMS (+30.1 ± 4.1%; P < 0.05). Compared to NS, HS increased CYP2J2 in eNOS+/+ (35%; P < 0.05) and eNOS−/− (61%; P < 0.05), but decreased sEH in eNOS+/+ (74%; P < 0.05) and eNOS−/− (40%; P < 0.05). Similarly, CYP4A decreased in HS-eNOS+/+ (35%; P < 0.05) and HS-eNOS−/− (34%; P < 0.05). These data suggest that NS causes reduced-vasodilation in both eNOS+/+ and eNOS−/− via sEH and CYP4A. However, HS triggers possible A2AAR-induced relaxation through CYP epoxygenase in both eNOS+/+ and eNOS−/−. PMID:21161333

  12. Synthesis and in vivo Evaluation of Fluorine-18 and Iodine-123 Pyrazolo[4,3-e]-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidine Derivatives as PET and SPECT Radiotracers for Mapping A2A Receptors.

    PubMed

    Vala, Christine; Morley, Thomas J; Zhang, Xuechun; Papin, Caroline; Tavares, Adriana Alexandre S; Lee, H Sharon; Constantinescu, Cristian; Barret, Olivier; Carroll, Vincent M; Baldwin, Ronald M; Tamagnan, Gilles D; Alagille, David

    2016-09-06

    Imaging agents that target adenosine type 2A (A2A ) receptors play an important role in evaluating new pharmaceuticals targeting these receptors, such as those currently being developed for the treatment of movement disorders like Parkinson's disease. They are also useful for monitoring progression and treatment efficacy by providing a noninvasive tool to map changes in A2A receptor density and function in neurodegenerative diseases. We previously described the successful evaluation of two A2A -specific radiotracers in both nonhuman primates and in subsequent human clinical trials: [(123) I]MNI-420 and [(18) F]MNI-444. Herein we describe the development of both of these radiotracers by selection from a series of A2A ligands, based on the pyrazolo[4,3-e]-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidine core of preladenant. Each of this series of 16 ligands was found to bind to recombinant human A2A receptor in the low nanomolar range, and of these 16, six were radiolabeled with either fluorine-18 or iodine-123 and evaluated in nonhuman primates. These initial in vivo results resulted in the identification of 7-(2-(4-(4-(2-[(18) F]fluoroethoxy)phenyl)piperazin-1-yl)ethyl)-2-(furan-2-yl)-7H-pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidin-5-amine ([(18) F]MNI-444) and 7-(2-(4-(2-fluoro-4-[(123) I]iodophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)ethyl)-2-(furan-2-yl)-7H-imidazo[1,2-c]pyrazolo[4,3-e]pyrimidin-5-amine ([(123) I]MNI-420) as PET and SPECT radiopharmaceuticals for mapping A2A receptors in brain.

  13. Leukocyte Expression of Type 1 and Type 2 Purinergic Receptors and Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines during Total Sleep Deprivation and/or Sleep Extension in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Chennaoui, Mounir; Arnal, Pierrick J.; Drogou, Catherine; Leger, Damien; Sauvet, Fabien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle

    2017-01-01

    The purinergic type P1 (adenosine A1 and A2A) receptors and the type P2 (X7) receptor have been suggested to mediate physiological effects of adenosine and adenosine triphosphate on sleep. We aimed to determine gene expression of A1R (receptor), A2AR, and P2RX7 in leukocytes of healthy subjects during total sleep deprivation followed by sleep recovery. Expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α were also determined as they have been characterized as sleep regulatory substances, via P2RX7 activation. Blood sampling was performed on 14 young men (aged 31.9 ± 3.9) at baseline (B), after 24 h of sleep deprivation (24 h-SD), and after one night of sleep recovery (R). We compared gene expression levels after six nights of habitual (22.30–07.00) or extended (21.00–07.00) bedtimes. Using quantitative real-time PCR, the amount of mRNA for A1R, A2AR, P2RX7, TNF-α, and IL-1β was analyzed. After 24 h-SD compared to B, whatever prior sleep condition, a significant increase of A2AR expression was observed that returned to basal level after sleep recovery [day main effect, F(2, 26) = 10.8, p < 0.001]. In both sleep condition, a day main effect on P2RX7 mRNA was observed [F(2, 26) = 6.7, p = 0.005] with significant increases after R compared with 24 h-SD. TNF-α and IL-1β expressions were not significantly altered. Before 24 h-SD (baseline), the A2AR expression was negatively correlated with the latency of stage 3 sleep during the previous night, while that of the A1R positively. This was not observed after sleep recovery following 24 h-SD. This is the first study showing increased A2AR and not A1 gene expression after 24 h-SD in leukocytes of healthy subjects, and this even if bedtime was initially increased by 1.5 h per night for six nights. In conclusion, prolonged wakefulness induced an up-regulation of the A2A receptor gene expression in leukocytes from healthy subjects. Significant correlations between baseline expression of A1 and A2A receptors

  14. Optimization of 6-Heterocyclic-2-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-N-(pyridin-2-yl)pyrimidin-4-amine as Potent Adenosine A2A Receptor Antagonists for the Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the motor symptoms of bradykinesia, tremor, and rigidity. Current therapies are based mainly on dopaminergic replacement strategies by administration of either dopamine agonists or dopamine precursor levodopa (L-Dopa). These treatments provide symptomatic relief without slowing or stopping the disease progression, and long-term usage of these drugs is associated with diminished efficacy, motor fluctuation, and dyskinisia. Unfortunately, there had been few novel treatments developed in the past decades. Among nondopaminergic strategies for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, antagonism of the adenosine A2A receptor has emerged to show great potential. Here we report the optimization of a new chemical scaffold, which achieved exceptional receptor binding affinity and ligand efficiency against adenosine A2A receptor. The leading compounds demonstrated excellent efficacy in the haloperidol induced catalepsy model for Parkinson’s disease. PMID:24922583

  15. Effects of adenosine and a selective A2A adenosine receptor agonist on hemodynamic and thallium-201 and technetium-99m-sestaMIBI biodistribution and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Mekkaoui, Choukri; Jadbabaie, Farid; Dione, Donald P; Meoli, David F; Purushothaman, Kailasnath; Belardinelli, Luiz; Sinusas, Albert J

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare a selective A(2A) adenosine receptor agonist (regadenoson) with adenosine in clinically relevant canine models with regard to effects on hemodynamics and thallium-201 ((201)Tl) and technetium-99m ((99m)Tc)-sestaMIBI biodistribution and kinetics. The clinical application of vasodilator stress for perfusion imaging requires consideration of the effects of these vasodilating agents on systemic hemodynamics, coronary flow, and radiotracer uptake and clearance kinetics. Sequential imaging and arterial blood sampling was performed on control, anesthetized closed-chest canines (n = 7) to evaluate radiotracer biodistribution and kinetics after either a bolus administration of regadenoson (2.5 microg/kg) or 4.5-min infusion of adenosine (280 microg/kg). The effects of regadenoson on coronary flow and myocardial radiotracer uptake were then evaluated in an open-chest canine model of a critical stenosis (n = 7). Results from ex vivo single-photon emission computed tomography were compared with tissue well-counting. The use of regadenoson compared favorably with adenosine in regard to the duration and magnitude of the hemodynamic effects and the effect on (201)Tl and (99m)Tc-sestaMIBI biodistribution and kinetics. The arterial blood clearance half-time was significantly faster for (99m)Tc-sestaMIBI (regadenoson: 1.4 +/- 0.03 min; adenosine: 1.5 +/- 0.08 min) than for (201)Tl (regadenoson: 2.5 +/- 0.16 min, p < 0.01; adenosine: 2.7 +/- 0.04 min, p < 0.01) for both vasodilator stressors. The relative microsphere flow deficit (0.34 +/- 0.02%) during regadenoson stress was significantly greater than the relative perfusion defect with (99m)Tc-sestaMIBI (0.69 +/- 0.03%, p < 0.001) or (201)Tl (0.53 +/- 0.02%, p < 0.001), although (201)Tl tracked the flow deficit within the ischemic region better than (99m)Tc-sestaMIBI. The perfusion defect score was larger with (201)Tl (22 +/- 2.8% left ventricular) than with (99m)Tc-sestaMIBI (17 +/- 1

  16. Altered expression of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors in the carotid body and nucleus tractus solitarius of adult male and female rats following neonatal caffeine treatment.

    PubMed

    Bairam, Aida; Joseph, Vincent; Lajeunesse, Yves; Kinkead, Richard

    2009-09-01

    Neonatal caffeine treatment (adenosine receptor antagonist, 15 mg/kg/day, between postnatal days 3 and 12) affects respiratory patterns in adult male but not female rats as shown by an increase in the respiratory frequency in the early phase of response to hypoxia and an increase in the tidal volume in the late phase of response. Here, we tested the hypothesis that these changes are correlated with modified expression of adenosine receptors in the chemoreflex pathway. Carotid bodies, nucleus tractus solitarii, and superior cervical ganglia were collected from 3-month-old male and female rats that were either naive (not manipulated during the neonatal period) or treated with caffeine (NCT) or water (NWT) between postnatal days 3 and 12 by gavage. Western blot analysis was used to assess the expression of adenosine A(1) and A(2A) receptors and tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme for dopamine synthesis. In male rats, there was a 37% increase in the level of A(2A) receptor and a 17% decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase in the carotid body of NCT (p<0.001) as compared to NWT rats. In the nucleus tractus solitarius, we found a 13% and 19% decrease in A(1) receptor expression in NWT and NCT rats (p<0.01), respectively, compared to naive rats. In the superior cervical ganglion, there was no change in A(1) receptor, A(2A) receptor, and tyrosine hydroxylase expression. In female rats, the only changes observed were decreases of 12% and 15% in A(1) receptor levels in the nucleus tractus solitarius of NWT and NCT rats (p<0.01), respectively, compared to naive rats. We conclude that NCT induces long-term changes in the adenosine receptor system. These changes may partially explain the modifications of the respiratory pattern induced by NCT in adults. The increased expression of the adenosine A(2A) receptor (specific to male rats), combined with the decreased tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the carotid body, suggests that NCT affects adenosine-dopamine interactions

  17. Nicotine and ethanol activate protein kinase A synergistically via G(i) betagamma subunits in nucleus accumbens/ventral tegmental cocultures: the role of dopamine D(1)/D(2) and adenosine A(2A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yuichiro; Yao, Lina; Hopf, F Woodward; Fan, Peidong; Jiang, Zhan; Bonci, Antonello; Diamond, Ivan

    2007-07-01

    Tobacco and alcohol are the most commonly used drugs of abuse and show the most serious comorbidity. The mesolimbic dopamine system contributes significantly to nicotine and ethanol reinforcement, but the underlying cellular signaling mechanisms are poorly understood. Nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptors are highly expressed on ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons, with relatively low expression in nucleus accumbens (NAcb) neurons. Because dopamine receptors D(1) and D(2) are highly expressed on NAcb neurons, nicotine could influence NAcb neurons indirectly by activating VTA neurons to release dopamine in the NAcb. To investigate this possibility in vitro, we established primary cultures containing neurons from VTA or NAcb separately or in cocultures. Nicotine increased cAMP response element-mediated gene expression only in cocultures; this increase was blocked by nACh or dopamine D(1) or D(2) receptor antagonists. Furthermore, subthreshold concentrations of nicotine with ethanol increased gene expression in cocultures, and this increase was blocked by nACh, D(2) or adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists, Gbetagamma or protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitors, and adenosine deaminase. These results suggest that nicotine activated VTA neurons, causing the release of dopamine, which in turn stimulated both D(1) and D(2) receptors on NAcb neurons. In addition, subthreshold concentrations of nicotine and ethanol in combination also activated NAcb neurons through synergy between D(2) and A(2A) receptors. These data provide a novel cellular mechanism, involving Gbetagamma subunits, A(2A) receptors, and PKA, whereby combined use of tobacco and alcohol could enhance the reinforcing effect in humans as well as facilitate long-term neuroadaptations, increasing the risk for developing coaddiction.

  18. Novel 8-(furan-2-yl)-3-benzyl thiazolo [5,4-e][1,2,4] triazolo [1,5-c] pyrimidine-2(3H)-thione as selective adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Barodia, Sandeep Kumar; Mishra, Chandra Bhushan; Prakash, Amresh; Senthil Kumar, J B; Kumari, Namrata; Luthra, Pratibha Mehta

    2011-01-13

    Adenosine A(2A) receptor (A(2A)R) antagonists have emerged as potential drug candidates to alleviate progression and symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), and reduce the dopaminergic side effects. The synthesis of novel compound 8-(furan-2-yl)-3-benzyl thiazolo [5,4-e][1,2,4] triazolo [1,5-c] pyrimidine-2-(3H)-thione (BTTP) was carried out to evaluate the potential of BTTP as A(2A)R antagonist using SCH58261, a standard A(2A)R antagonist. The strong interaction of BTTP with A(2A)R (ΔG=-12.46kcal/mol and K(i)=0.6nM) in silico analysis was confirmed by radioligand receptor binding studies showing high affinity (K(i)=0.004nM) and selectivity with A(2A)R (A(2A)/A(1)=1155-fold). The effect of CGS21680 (selective A(2A)R agonist) induced cAMP concentration (0.1pmol/ml) in HEK293 cells was antagonized with BTTP (0.065pmol/ml) and SCH58261 (0.075pmol/ml). Furthermore, BTTP pre-treated (5, 10 and 20mg/kg) haloperidol-induced mice demonstrated significant attenuation in catalepsy and akinesia. BTTP induced elevation in the striatal dopamine concentration (2.90μM/mg of tissue) was comparable to SCH58261 (2.92μM/mg of tissue) at the dose of 10mg/kg. The results firmly articulate that BTTP possesses potential A(2A)R antagonist activity and can be further explored for the treatment of PD. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazin-8-amine core for the design of new adenosine receptor antagonists: Structural exploration to target the A3 and A2A subtypes.

    PubMed

    Poli, Daniela; Falsini, Matteo; Varano, Flavia; Betti, Marco; Varani, Katia; Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Pugliese, Anna Maria; Pedata, Felicita; Dal Ben, Diego; Thomas, Ajiroghene; Palchetti, Ilaria; Bettazzi, Francesca; Catarzi, Daniela; Colotta, Vittoria

    2017-01-05

    The imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazine ring system has been chosen as a new decorable core skeleton for the design of novel adenosine receptor (AR) antagonists targeting either the human (h) A3 or the hA2A receptor subtype. The N(8)-(hetero)arylcarboxyamido substituted compounds 4-14 and 21-30, bearing a 6-phenyl moiety or not, respectively, show good hA3 receptor affinity and selectivity versus the other ARs. In contrast, the 8-amino-6-(hetero)aryl substituted derivatives designed for targeting the hA2A receptor subtype (compounds 31-38) and also the 6-phenyl analogues 18-20 do not bind the hA2A AR, or show hA1 or balanced hA1/hA2A AR affinity in the micromolar range. Molecular docking of the new hA3 antagonists was carried out to depict their hypothetical binding mode to our refined model of the hA3 receptor. Some derivatives were evaluated for their fluorescent potentiality and showed some fluorescent emission properties. One of the most active hA3 antagonists herein reported, i.e. the 2,6-diphenyl-8-(3-pyridoylamino)imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazine 29, tested in a rat model of cerebral ischemia, delayed the occurrence of anoxic depolarization caused by oxygen and glucose deprivation in the hippocampus and allowed disrupted synaptic activity to recover. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Adenosine A2A receptor regulates expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in feto-placental endothelium from normal and late-onset pre-eclamptic pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Acurio, Jesenia; Herlitz, Kurt; Troncoso, Felipe; Aguayo, Claudio; Bertoglia, Patricio; Escudero, Carlos

    2017-03-01

    We aim to investigate whether A2A/nitric oxide-mediated regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression is impaired in feto-placental endothelial cells from late-onset pre-eclampsia. Cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human placental microvascular endothelial cells (hPMECs) from normal and pre-eclamptic pregnancies were used. Assays by using small interference RNA (siRNA) for A2A were performed, and transfected cells were used for estimation of messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of VEGF, as well as for cell proliferation and angiogenesis in vitro. CGS-21680 (A2A agonist, 24 h) increases HUVEC and hPMEC proliferation in a dose response manner. Furthermore, similar to CGS-21680, the nitric oxide donor, S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine oxide (SNAP), increased cell proliferation in a dose response manner (logEC50 10(-9.2) M). In hPMEC, CGS-21680 increased VEGF protein levels in both normal (∼1.5-fold) and pre-eclamptic pregnancies (∼1.2-fold), an effect blocked by the A2A antagonist, ZM-241385 (10(-5) M) and the inhibitor of NO synthase, N ω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME). Subsequently, SNAP partially recovered cell proliferation and in vitro angiogenesis capacity of cells from normal pregnancies exposed to siRNA for A2A. CGS-21680 also increased (∼1.5-fold) the level of VEGF mRNA in HUVEC from normal pregnancies, but not in pre-eclampsia. Additionally, transfection with siRNA for A2A decrease (∼30 %) the level of mRNA for VEGF in normal pregnancy compared to untransfected cells, an effect partially reversed by co-incubation with SNAP. The A2A-NO-VEGF pathway is present in endothelium from microcirculation and macrocirculation in both normal and pre-eclamptic pregnancies. However, NO signaling pathway seems to be impaired in HUVEC from pre-eclampsia.

  1. Adenosine 2A receptor agonism: A single intrathecal administration attenuates motor paralysis in experimental autoimmune encephalopathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Loram, Lisa C; Strand, Keith A; Taylor, Frederick R; Sloane, Evan; Van Dam, Anne-Marie; Rieger, Jayson; Maier, Steven F; Watkins, Linda R

    2015-05-01

    A single intrathecal dose of adenosine 2A receptor (A2AR) agonist was previously reported to produce a multi-week reversal of allodynia in two different models of neuropathic pain in addition to downregulating glial activation markers in the spinal cord. We aimed to determine whether a single intrathecal administration of an A2AR agonist was able to attenuate motor symptoms induced by experimental autoimmune encephalopathy. Two A2AR agonists (CGS21680 and ATL313) significantly attenuated progression of motor symptoms following a single intrathecal administration at the onset of motor symptoms. OX-42, a marker of microglial activation, was significantly attenuated in the lumbar spinal cord following A2AR administration compared to vehicle. Therefore, A2AR agonists attenuate motor symptoms of EAE by acting on A2AR in the spinal cord.

  2. Adenosine A2A receptor mediated protective effect of 2‐(6‐cyano‐1‐hexyn‐1‐yl)adenosine on retinal ischaemia/reperfusion damage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Konno, T; Sato, A; Uchibori, T; Nagai, A; Kogi, K; Nakahata, N

    2006-01-01

    Aims To determine the effect of 2‐(6‐cyano‐1‐hexyn‐1‐yl)adenosine (2‐CN‐Ado), an adenosine A2A receptor agonist, on retinal ischaemia/reperfusion damage in rats. Methods Retinal ischaemia/reperfusion damage was induced by elevating the intraocular pressure of one eye to 130 mm Hg for 60 minutes and returning it to normal. 7 days later, retinal ischaemia/reperfusion damage was histologically quantified by measuring the thickness of retinal layers. Intraocular pressure was measured by pressure transducer. Results Retinal ischaemia/reperfusion caused cell loss in the ganglion cell layer and thinning of the inner plexiform and nuclear layer. Both ocular topical and intravenous administration of 2‐CN‐Ado caused a reduction of retinal ischaemia/reperfusion damage. A selective A2A receptor antagonist, 1,3,7‐trimethyl‐8‐(3‐chlorostyryl) xanthine (CSC), but not a selective A1 receptor antagonist, 8‐cyclopentyl‐1,3‐dipropylxanthine (DPCPX), or a selective A2B receptor antagonist, alloxazine, reduced the protective effect of 2‐CN‐Ado. While ocular topical administration of 2‐CN‐Ado caused a sustained reduction of intraocular pressure, intravenous administration of 2‐CN‐Ado showed a transient ocular hypotensive effect. Conclusions These results suggest that 2‐CN‐Ado attenuates retinal ischaemia/reperfusion damage, and at least some of this protective effect of 2‐CN‐Ado might be mediated via activation of the adenosine A2A receptor. PMID:16613921

  3. A Novel Method for Screening Adenosine Receptor Specific Agonists for Use in Adenosine Drug Development

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Karlie R.; Choi, Uimook; Gao, Ji-Liang; Thompson, Robert D.; Rodman, Larry E.; Malech, Harry L.; Kang, Elizabeth M.

    2017-01-01

    Agonists that target the A1, A2A, A2B and A3 adenosine receptors have potential to be potent treatment options for a number of diseases, including autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Because each of these adenosine receptors plays a distinct role throughout the body, obtaining highly specific receptor agonists is essential. Of these receptors, the adenosine A2AR and A2BR share many sequence and structural similarities but highly differ in their responses to inflammatory stimuli. Our laboratory, using a combination of specially developed cell lines and calcium release analysis hardware, has created a new and faster method for determining specificity of synthetic adenosine agonist compounds for the A2A and A2B receptors in human cells. A2A receptor expression was effectively removed from K562 cells, resulting in the development of a distinct null line. Using HIV-lentivector and plasmid DNA transfection, we also developed A2A and A2B receptor over-expressing lines. As adenosine is known to cause changes in intracellular calcium levels upon addition to cell culture, calcium release can be determined in these cell lines upon compound addition, providing a functional readout of receptor activation and allowing us to isolate the most specific adenosine agonist compounds. PMID:28317879

  4. Culture as a mediator of gene-environment interaction: Cultural consonance, childhood adversity, a 2A serotonin receptor polymorphism, and depression in urban Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dressler, William W; Balieiro, Mauro C; Ferreira de Araújo, Luiza; Silva, Wilson A; Ernesto Dos Santos, José

    2016-07-01

    Research on gene-environment interaction was facilitated by breakthroughs in molecular biology in the late 20th century, especially in the study of mental health. There is a reliable interaction between candidate genes for depression and childhood adversity in relation to mental health outcomes. The aim of this paper is to explore the role of culture in this process in an urban community in Brazil. The specific cultural factor examined is cultural consonance, or the degree to which individuals are able to successfully incorporate salient cultural models into their own beliefs and behaviors. It was hypothesized that cultural consonance in family life would mediate the interaction of genotype and childhood adversity. In a study of 402 adult Brazilians from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds, conducted from 2011 to 2014, the interaction of reported childhood adversity and a polymorphism in the 2A serotonin receptor was associated with higher depressive symptoms. Further analysis showed that the gene-environment interaction was mediated by cultural consonance in family life, and that these effects were more pronounced in lower social class neighborhoods. The findings reinforce the role of the serotonergic system in the regulation of stress response and learning and memory, and how these processes in turn interact with environmental events and circumstances. Furthermore, these results suggest that gene-environment interaction models should incorporate a wider range of environmental experience and more complex pathways to better understand how genes and the environment combine to influence mental health outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Adenosine receptor targets for pain.

    PubMed

    Sawynok, J

    2016-12-03

    The main focus for the development of adenosine targets as analgesics to date has been A1Rs due to its antinociceptive profile in various preclinical pain models. The usefulness of systemic A1R agonists may be limited by other effects (cardiovascular, motor), but enhanced selectivity for pain might occur with partial agonists, potent and highly selective agonists, or allosteric modulators. A2AR agonists exhibit some peripheral pronociceptive effects, but also act on immune cells to suppress inflammation and on spinal glia to suppress pain signaling and may be useful for inflammatory and neuropathic pain. A2BR agonists exhibit peripheral proinflammatory effects on immune cells, but also spinal antinociceptive effects similar to A2AR agonists. A3Rs are now demonstrated to produce antinociception in several preclinical neuropathic pain models, with mechanistic actions on glial cells, and may be useful for neuropathic pain. Endogenous adenosine levels can be augmented by inhibition of metabolism (via adenosine kinase) or increased generation (via nucleotidases), and these approaches have implications for pain. Endogenous adenosine contributes to antinociception by several pharmacological agents, herbal remedies, acupuncture, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, exercise, joint mobilization, and water immersion via spinal and/or peripheral effects, such that this system appears to constitute a major pain regulatory system. Finally, caffeine inhibits A1-, A2A- and A3Rs with similar potency, and dietary caffeine intake will need attention in trials of: (a) agonists and/or modulators acting at these receptors, (b) some pharmacological and herbal analgesics, and (c) manipulations that enhance endogenous adenosine levels, all of which are inhibited by caffeine and/or A1R antagonists in preclinical studies. All adenosine receptors have effects on spinal glial cells in regulating nociception, and gender differences in the involvement of such cells in chronic

  6. Immune Alterations in CD8(+) T Cells Are Associated with Neuronal C-C and C-X-C Chemokine Receptor Regulation Through Adenosine A2A Receptor Signaling in a BTBR T(+) Itpr3(tf)/J Autistic Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Sheikh F; Ansari, Mushtaq A; Nadeem, Ahmed; Bakheet, Saleh A; Mohammad, Raish; Attia, Sabry M

    2017-04-18

    Associative studies on a range of neurodevelopmental disorders have identified relationships between behavioral deficits and immune system function. The BTBR T(+) Itpr3(tf)/J (BTBR) mouse strain displays aberrant characteristics in its social behavior and immune responses, providing a significant opportunity to examine the relationship between behavior and the immune system. This study investigated the influence of adenosine A2A receptor activity on C-C and C-X-C chemokine receptors involved in autism in the BTBR mouse model. A2A receptors have previously been targeted in clinical trials by potential therapeutics with neuroprotective, immunomodulatory, and analgesic properties. In this study, we examined the effects of A2A receptor antagonist SCH5826 (SCH) and A2A receptor agonist CGS21680 (CGS) on C-C and C-X-C chemokine receptors (CCR3, CCR4, CCR5, CCR6, CCR7, CXCR3, CXCR4, and CXCR5) on splenic CD8(+) T cells in the BTBR autistic mouse model. We also assessed the C-C and C-X-C chemokine receptors mRNA levels in brain tissue. Our results showed that CCR3(+), CCR4(+), CCR5(+), CCR6(+), CCR7(+), CXCR3(+), CXCR4(+), and CXCR5(+) production in splenic CD8(+) T cells decreased significantly in BTBR-CGS-treated mice in comparison with that in BTBR control and BTBR-SCH-treated mice. In addition, RT-PCR analysis revealed decreased gene expression levels for C-C and C-X-C chemokine receptors in the brain tissue of BTBR-CGS-treated mice, whereas these levels were significantly increased in BTBR control and BTBR-SCH-treated mice. Our results suggest that treating BTBR mice with CGS decreases C-C and C-X-C chemokine receptor signaling and might therefore provide a unique avenue for developing future therapies for autism and neuroimmunological disorders.

  7. Maternal caffeine ingestion during gestation and lactation influences respiratory adaptation to acute alveolar hypoxia in newborn rats and adenosine A2A and GABA A receptor mRNA transcription.

    PubMed

    Picard, N; Guénin, S; Larnicol, N; Perrin, Y

    2008-10-15

    Caffeine is a widely used psychostimulant freely crossing the placental barrier. At the doses usually absorbed, it acts as an antagonist of both A1 and A2A adenosine receptors. Pregnant women are generally not advised to limit their caffeine consumption and thus expose their progeny to the drug during the whole of gestation and lactation. The possibility that such caffeine exposure may have long-term consequences on brain development has led to several behavioral investigations on animal models. Despite the crucial role played by adenosine receptor systems in neonatal breathing control, few studies in vitro have been concerned with the consequences of maternal caffeine absorption on breathing, and none in the unrestrained intact animal. The present investigation analyzed the influence of caffeine exposure via placental and milk transfer on resting ventilation and on the response to moderate alveolar hypoxia of 0 to 2-day-old newborn rat (P0-P2) together with the possible underlying mechanisms. Dams absorbed caffeine (46+/-3 mg/kg/day) via drinking fluid (0.2 g/L) throughout gestation, in conditions mimicking moderate human consumption. Caffeine exposure did not significantly affect basal respiratory parameters. In contrast, it attenuated both the early increase and the secondary decrease in ventilation triggered by moderate alveolar hypoxia (11% O2 inhaled). The abolition of Fos protein expression evoked by hypoxia suggested that caffeine exposure may decrease the activity of O2-sensing peripheral chemoreceptor pathway. From real-time PCR data, those functional alterations were associated to increases in A2A adenosine receptor and alpha2 GABA(A) receptor subunit mRNAs in the medulla. This indicates that, even at moderate doses, maternal caffeine consumption may induce a series of subtle developmental alterations that may affect modulation of breathing control in the neonate in pathological situations such hypoxia.

  8. Blockade of striatal adenosine A2A receptor reduces, through a presynaptic mechanism, quinolinic acid-induced excitotoxicity: possible relevance to neuroprotective interventions in neurodegenerative diseases of the striatum.

    PubMed

    Popoli, Patrizia; Pintor, Annita; Domenici, Maria Rosaria; Frank, Claudio; Tebano, Maria Teresa; Pèzzola, Antonella; Scarchilli, Laura; Quarta, Davide; Reggio, Rosaria; Malchiodi-Albedi, Fiorella; Falchi, Mario; Massotti, Marino

    2002-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether, and by means of which mechanisms, the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist SCH 58261 [5-amino-7-(2-phenylethyl)-2-(2-furyl)-pyrazolo[4,3-e]-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidine] exerted neuroprotective effects in a rat model of Huntington's disease. In a first set of experiments, SCH 58261 (0.01 and 1 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally to Wistar rats 20 min before the bilateral striatal injection of quinolinic acid (QA) (300 nmol/1 microl). SCH 58261 (0.01 but not 1 mg/kg, i.p.) did reduce significantly the effects of QA on motor activity, electroencephalographic changes, and striatal gliosis. Because QA acts by both increasing glutamate outflow and directly stimulating NMDA receptors, a second set of experiments was performed to evaluate whether SCH 58261 acted by preventing the presynaptic and/or the postsynaptic effects of QA. In microdialysis experiments in naive rats, striatal perfusion with QA (5 mm) enhanced glutamate levels by approximately 500%. Such an effect of QA was completely antagonized by pretreatment with SCH 58261 (0.01 but not 1 mg/kg, i.p.). In primary striatal cultures, bath application of QA (900 microm) significantly increased intracellular calcium levels, an effect prevented by the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 [(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo [a,d] cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate]. In this model, bath application of SCH 58261 (15-200 nm) tended to potentiate QA-induced calcium increase. We conclude the following: (1) the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist SCH 58261 has neuroprotective effects, although only at low doses, in an excitotoxic rat model of HD, and (2) the inhibition of QA-evoked glutamate outflow seems to be the major mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effects of SCH 58261.

  9. Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields Increased the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of A2A and A3 Adenosine Receptors in Human T/C-28a2 Chondrocytes and hFOB 1.19 Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Targa, Martina; Corciulo, Carmen; Gessi, Stefania; Merighi, Stefania; Setti, Stefania; Cadossi, Ruggero; Goldring, Mary B.; Borea, Pier Andrea; Varani, Katia

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine receptors (ARs) have an important role in the regulation of inflammation and their activation is involved in the inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine release. The effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) on inflammation have been reported and we have demonstrated that PEMFs increased A2A and A3AR density and functionality in different cell lines. Chondrocytes and osteoblasts are two key cell types in the skeletal system that play important role in cartilage and bone metabolism representing an interesting target to study the effect of PEMFs. The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate if PEMF exposure potentiated the anti-inflammatory effect of A2A and/or A3ARs in T/C-28a2 chondrocytes and hFOB 1.19 osteoblasts. Immunofluorescence, mRNA analysis and saturation binding assays revealed that PEMF exposure up-regulated A2A and A3AR expression. A2A and A3ARs were able to modulate cAMP production and cell proliferation. The activation of A2A and A3ARs resulted in the decrease of some of the most relevant pro-inflammatory cytokine release such as interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8, following the treatment with IL-1β as an inflammatory stimuli. In human chondrocyte and osteoblast cell lines, the inhibitory effect of A2A and A3AR stimulation on the release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), an important lipid inflammatory mediator, was observed. In addition, in T/C-28a2 cells, the activation of A2A or A3ARs elicited an inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion. In hFOB 1.19 osteoblasts, PEMF exposure determined an increase of osteoprotegerin (OPG) production. The effect of the A2A or A3AR agonists in the examined cells was enhanced in the presence of PEMFs and completely blocked by using well-known selective antagonists. These results demonstrated that PEMF exposure significantly increase the anti-inflammatory effect of A2A or A3ARs suggesting their potential therapeutic use in the therapy of inflammatory bone and joint disorders

  10. Rapid Computational Prediction of Thermostabilizing Mutations for G Protein-Coupled Receptors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are highly dynamic and often denature when extracted in detergents. Deriving thermostable mutants has been a successful strategy to stabilize GPCRs in detergents, but this process is experimentally tedious. We have developed a computational method to predict the position of the thermostabilizing mutations for a given GPCR sequence. We have validated the method against experimentally measured thermostability data for single mutants of the β1-adrenergic receptor (β1AR), adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) and neurotensin receptor 1 (NTSR1). To make these predictions we started from homology models of these receptors of varying accuracies and generated an ensemble of conformations by sampling the rigid body degrees of freedom of transmembrane helices. Then, an all-atom force field function was used to calculate the enthalpy gain, known as the “stability score” upon mutation of every residue, in these receptor structures, to alanine. For all three receptors, β1AR, A2AR, and NTSR1, we observed that mutations of hydrophobic residues in the transmembrane domain to alanine that have high stability scores correlate with high experimental thermostability. The prediction using the stability score improves when using an ensemble of receptor conformations compared to a single structure, showing that receptor flexibility is important. We also find that our previously developed LITiCon method for generating conformation ensembles is similar in performance to predictions using ensembles obtained from microseconds of molecular dynamics simulations (which is computationally hundred times slower than LITiCon). We improved the thermostability prediction by including other properties such as residue-based stress and the extent of allosteric communication by each residue in the stability score. Our method is the first step toward a computational method for rapid prediction of thermostable mutants of GPCRs. PMID:25400524

  11. Targeting the adenosine 2A receptor enhances chimeric antigen receptor T cell efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Beavis, Paul A.; Henderson, Melissa A.; Giuffrida, Lauren; Mills, Jane K.; Sek, Kevin; Cross, Ryan S.; Davenport, Alexander J.; John, Liza B.; Mardiana, Sherly; Slaney, Clare Y.; Johnstone, Ricky W.; Trapani, Joseph A.; Stagg, John; Loi, Sherene; Kats, Lev; Gyorki, David; Kershaw, Michael H.; Darcy, Phillip K.

    2017-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have been highly successful in treating hematological malignancies, including acute and chronic lymphoblastic leukemia. However, treatment of solid tumors using CAR T cells has been largely unsuccessful to date, partly because of tumor-induced immunosuppressive mechanisms, including adenosine production. Previous studies have shown that adenosine generated by tumor cells potently inhibits endogenous antitumor T cell responses through activation of adenosine 2A receptors (A2ARs). Herein, we have observed that CAR activation resulted in increased A2AR expression and suppression of both murine and human CAR T cells. This was reversible using either A2AR antagonists or genetic targeting of A2AR using shRNA. In 2 syngeneic HER2+ self-antigen tumor models, we f