Science.gov

Sample records for a2a receptor antagonist

  1. Adenosine A2A receptor antagonists are potential antidepressants: evidence based on pharmacology and A2A receptor knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Yacoubi, Malika El; Ledent, Catherine; Parmentier, Marc; Bertorelli, Rosalia; Ongini, Ennio; Costentin, Jean; Vaugeois, Jean-Marie

    2001-01-01

    Adenosine, an ubiquitous neuromodulator, and its analogues have been shown to produce ‘depressant' effects in animal models believed to be relevant to depressive disorders, while adenosine receptor antagonists have been found to reverse adenosine-mediated ‘depressant' effect. We have designed studies to assess whether adenosine A2A receptor antagonists, or genetic inactivation of the receptor would be effective in established screening procedures, such as tail suspension and forced swim tests, which are predictive of clinical antidepressant activity. Adenosine A2A receptor knockout mice were found to be less sensitive to ‘depressant' challenges than their wildtype littermates. Consistently, the adenosine A2A receptor blockers SCH 58261 (1 – 10 mg kg−1, i.p.) and KW 6002 (0.1 – 10 mg kg−1, p.o.) reduced the total immobility time in the tail suspension test. The efficacy of adenosine A2A receptor antagonists in reducing immobility time in the tail suspension test was confirmed and extended in two groups of mice. Specifically, SCH 58261 (1 – 10 mg kg−1) and ZM 241385 (15 – 60 mg kg−1) were effective in mice previously screened for having high immobility time, while SCH 58261 at 10 mg kg−1 reduced immobility of mice that were selectively bred for their spontaneous ‘helplessness' in this assay. Additional experiments were carried out using the forced swim test. SCH 58261 at 10 mg kg−1 reduced the immobility time by 61%, while KW 6002 decreased the total immobility time at the doses of 1 and 10 mg kg−1 by 75 and 79%, respectively. Administration of the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol (50 – 200 μg kg−1 i.p.) prevented the antidepressant-like effects elicited by SCH 58261 (10 mg kg−1 i.p.) in forced swim test whereas it left unaltered its stimulant motor effects. In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that A2A receptor antagonists prolong escape

  2. Adenosine A2A Receptor Antagonists and Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This Review summarizes and updates the work on adenosine A2A receptor antagonists for Parkinson’s disease from 2006 to the present. There have been numerous publications, patent applications, and press releases within this time frame that highlight new medicinal chemistry approaches to this attractive and promising target to treat Parkinson’s disease. The Review is broken down by scaffold type and will discuss the efforts to optimize particular scaffolds for activity, pharmacokinetics, and other drug discovery parameters. The majority of approaches focus on preparing selective A2A antagonists, but a few approaches to dual A2A/A1 antagonists will also be highlighted. The in vivo profiles of compounds will be highlighted and discussed to compare activities across different chemical series. A clinical report and update will be given on compounds that have entered clinical trials. PMID:22860156

  3. Therapeutic Opportunities for Caffeine and A2A Receptor Antagonists in Retinal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Boia, Raquel; Ambrósio, António Francisco; Santiago, Ana Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine, the major component of coffee, is the most consumed psychostimulant in the world. Caffeine is an adenosine analog and acts as a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist. The majority of the effects of caffeine are mainly mediated by the blockade of adenosine receptors, and the proved neuroprotective effects of caffeine in brain disorders have been mimicked by the blockade of adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR). A growing body of evidence demonstrates that microglia-mediated neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of brain and retinal diseases. Moreover, the control of microglia reactivity by blocking A2AR has been proposed to be the mechanism underlying the observed protective effects of caffeine. Hence, it is conceivable that caffeine and A2AR antagonists offer therapeutic value for the treatment of retinal diseases, mainly those involving microglia-mediated neuroinflammation. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Past, present and future of A2A adenosine receptor antagonists in the therapy of Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Armentero, Marie Therese; Pinna, Annalisa; Ferré, Sergi; Lanciego, José Luis; Müller, Christa E.; Franco, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Several selective antagonists for adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) are currently under evaluation in clinical trials (phases I to III) to treat Parkinson’s disease, and they will probably soon reach the market. The usefulness of these antagonists has been deduced from studies demonstrating functional interactions between dopamine D2 and adenosine A2A receptors in the basal ganglia. At present it is believed that A2AR antagonists can be used in combination with the dopamine precursor L-DOPA to minimize the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s patients. However, a considerable body of data indicates that in addition to ameliorating motor symptoms, adenosine A2AR antagonists may also prevent neurodegeneration. Despite these promising indications, one further issue must be considered in order to develop fully optimized anti-parkinsonian drug therapy, namely the existence of receptor (hetero)dimers/oligomers of G protein-coupled receptors, a topic currently the focus of intense debate within the scientific community. Dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) expressed in the striatum are known to form heteromers with A2A adenosine receptors. Thus, the development of heteromer-specific A2A receptor antagonists represents a promising strategy for the identification of more selective and safer drugs. PMID:21810444

  5. Striatal Pre- and Postsynaptic Profile of Adenosine A2A Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Quiroz, César; Beaumont, Vahri; Goldberg, Steven R.; Lluís, Carme; Cortés, Antoni; Franco, Rafael; Casadó, Vicent; Canela, Enric I.; Ferré, Sergi

    2011-01-01

    Striatal adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) are highly expressed in medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the indirect efferent pathway, where they heteromerize with dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs). A2ARs are also localized presynaptically in cortico-striatal glutamatergic terminals contacting MSNs of the direct efferent pathway, where they heteromerize with adenosine A1 receptors (A1Rs). It has been hypothesized that postsynaptic A2AR antagonists should be useful in Parkinson's disease, while presynaptic A2AR antagonists could be beneficial in dyskinetic disorders, such as Huntington's disease, obsessive-compulsive disorders and drug addiction. The aim or this work was to determine whether selective A2AR antagonists may be subdivided according to a preferential pre- versus postsynaptic mechanism of action. The potency at blocking the motor output and striatal glutamate release induced by cortical electrical stimulation and the potency at inducing locomotor activation were used as in vivo measures of pre- and postsynaptic activities, respectively. SCH-442416 and KW-6002 showed a significant preferential pre- and postsynaptic profile, respectively, while the other tested compounds (MSX-2, SCH-420814, ZM-241385 and SCH-58261) showed no clear preference. Radioligand-binding experiments were performed in cells expressing A2AR-D2R and A1R-A2AR heteromers to determine possible differences in the affinity of these compounds for different A2AR heteromers. Heteromerization played a key role in the presynaptic profile of SCH-442416, since it bound with much less affinity to A2AR when co-expressed with D2R than with A1R. KW-6002 showed the best relative affinity for A2AR co-expressed with D2R than co-expressed with A1R, which can at least partially explain the postsynaptic profile of this compound. Also, the in vitro pharmacological profile of MSX-2, SCH-420814, ZM-241385 and SCH-58261 was is in accordance with their mixed pre- and postsynaptic profile. On the basis of their preferential

  6. Allosteric interactions between agonists and antagonists within the adenosine A2A receptor-dopamine D2 receptor heterotetramer.

    PubMed

    Bonaventura, Jordi; Navarro, Gemma; Casadó-Anguera, Verònica; Azdad, Karima; Rea, William; Moreno, Estefanía; Brugarolas, Marc; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I; Lluís, Carme; Cortés, Antoni; Volkow, Nora D; Schiffmann, Serge N; Ferré, Sergi; Casadó, Vicent

    2015-07-07

    Adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) heteromers are key modulators of striatal neuronal function. It has been suggested that the psychostimulant effects of caffeine depend on its ability to block an allosteric modulation within the A2AR-D2R heteromer, by which adenosine decreases the affinity and intrinsic efficacy of dopamine at the D2R. We describe novel unsuspected allosteric mechanisms within the heteromer by which not only A2AR agonists, but also A2AR antagonists, decrease the affinity and intrinsic efficacy of D2R agonists and the affinity of D2R antagonists. Strikingly, these allosteric modulations disappear on agonist and antagonist coadministration. This can be explained by a model that considers A2AR-D2R heteromers as heterotetramers, constituted by A2AR and D2R homodimers, as demonstrated by experiments with bioluminescence resonance energy transfer and bimolecular fluorescence and bioluminescence complementation. As predicted by the model, high concentrations of A2AR antagonists behaved as A2AR agonists and decreased D2R function in the brain.

  7. Allosteric interactions between agonists and antagonists within the adenosine A2A receptor-dopamine D2 receptor heterotetramer

    PubMed Central

    Bonaventura, Jordi; Navarro, Gemma; Casadó-Anguera, Verònica; Azdad, Karima; Rea, William; Moreno, Estefanía; Brugarolas, Marc; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I.; Lluís, Carme; Cortés, Antoni; Volkow, Nora D.; Schiffmann, Serge N.; Ferré, Sergi; Casadó, Vicent

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) heteromers are key modulators of striatal neuronal function. It has been suggested that the psychostimulant effects of caffeine depend on its ability to block an allosteric modulation within the A2AR-D2R heteromer, by which adenosine decreases the affinity and intrinsic efficacy of dopamine at the D2R. We describe novel unsuspected allosteric mechanisms within the heteromer by which not only A2AR agonists, but also A2AR antagonists, decrease the affinity and intrinsic efficacy of D2R agonists and the affinity of D2R antagonists. Strikingly, these allosteric modulations disappear on agonist and antagonist coadministration. This can be explained by a model that considers A2AR-D2R heteromers as heterotetramers, constituted by A2AR and D2R homodimers, as demonstrated by experiments with bioluminescence resonance energy transfer and bimolecular fluorescence and bioluminescence complementation. As predicted by the model, high concentrations of A2AR antagonists behaved as A2AR agonists and decreased D2R function in the brain. PMID:26100888

  8. Antidepressant activity of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, istradefylline (KW-6002) on learned helplessness in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Koji; Kobayashi, Minoru; Shiozaki, Shizuo; Ohta, Teruko; Mori, Akihisa; Jenner, Peter; Kanda, Tomoyuki

    2014-07-01

    Istradefylline, an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, improves motor function in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD) and in patients with PD. In addition, some A2A antagonists exert antidepressant-like activity in rodent models of depression, such as the forced swim and the tail suspension tests. We have investigated the effect of istradefylline on depression-like behaviors using the rat learned helplessness (LH) model. Acute, as well as chronic, oral administration of istradefylline significantly improved the inescapable shock (IES)-induced escape deficit with a degree of efficacy comparable to chronic treatment with the tricyclic antidepressant desipramine and the selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine. Both the A1/A2A receptor nonspecific antagonist theophylline and the moderately selective antagonist CGS15943, but not the A1 selective antagonist DPCPX, ameliorated the IES-induced escape deficit. The enhancement of escape response by istradefylline was reversed by a local injection of the A2A specific agonist CGS21680 either into the nucleus accumbens, the caudate-putamen, or the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, but not by the A1 specific agonist R-PIA into the nucleus accumbens. Moreover, neither the 5-HT2A/2C receptor antagonist methysergide or the adrenergic α 2 antagonist yohimbine, nor the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol, affected the improvement of escape response induced by istradefylline. Istradefylline exerts antidepressant-like effects via modulation of A2A receptor activity which is independent of monoaminergic transmission in the brain. Istradefylline may represent a novel treatment option for depression in PD as well as for the motor symptoms.

  9. Crystal structure of the adenosine A2A receptor bound to an antagonist reveals a potential allosteric pocket

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bingfa; Bachhawat, Priti; Chu, Matthew Ling-Hon; Wood, Martyn; Ceska, Tom; Sands, Zara A.; Mercier, Joel; Lebon, Florence; Kobilka, Tong Sun; Kobilka, Brian K.

    2017-01-01

    The adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) has long been implicated in cardiovascular disorders. As more selective A2AR ligands are being identified, its roles in other disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, are starting to emerge, and A2AR antagonists are important drug candidates for nondopaminergic anti-Parkinson treatment. Here we report the crystal structure of A2A receptor bound to compound 1 (Cmpd-1), a novel A2AR/N-methyl d-aspartate receptor subtype 2B (NR2B) dual antagonist and potential anti-Parkinson candidate compound, at 3.5 Å resolution. The A2A receptor with a cytochrome b562-RIL (BRIL) fusion (A2AR–BRIL) in the intracellular loop 3 (ICL3) was crystallized in detergent micelles using vapor-phase diffusion. Whereas A2AR–BRIL bound to the antagonist ZM241385 has previously been crystallized in lipidic cubic phase (LCP), structural differences in the Cmpd-1–bound A2AR–BRIL prevented formation of the lattice observed with the ZM241385–bound receptor. The crystals grew with a type II crystal lattice in contrast to the typical type I packing seen from membrane protein structures crystallized in LCP. Cmpd-1 binds in a position that overlaps with the native ligand adenosine, but its methoxyphenyl group extends to an exosite not previously observed in other A2AR structures. Structural analysis revealed that Cmpd-1 binding results in the unique conformations of two tyrosine residues, Tyr91.35 and Tyr2717.36, which are critical for the formation of the exosite. The structure reveals insights into antagonist binding that are not observed in other A2AR structures, highlighting flexibility in the binding pocket that may facilitate the development of A2AR-selective compounds for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. PMID:28167788

  10. Crystal structure of the adenosine A 2A receptor bound to an antagonist reveals a potential allosteric pocket

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Bingfa; Bachhawat, Priti; Chu, Matthew Ling-Hon

    2017-02-06

    The adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) has long been implicated in cardiovascular disorders. As more selective A2AR ligands are being identified, its roles in other disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, are starting to emerge, and A2AR antagonists are important drug candidates for nondopaminergic anti-Parkinson treatment. Here we report the crystal structure of A2A receptor bound to compound 1 (Cmpd-1), a novel A2AR/N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subtype 2B (NR2B) dual antagonist and potential anti-Parkinson candidate compound, at 3.5 Å resolution. The A2A receptor with a cytochrome b562-RIL (BRIL) fusion (A2AR–BRIL) in the intracellular loop 3 (ICL3) was crystallized in detergent micelles using vapor-phasemore » diffusion. Whereas A2AR–BRIL bound to the antagonist ZM241385 has previously been crystallized in lipidic cubic phase (LCP), structural differences in the Cmpd-1–bound A2AR–BRIL prevented formation of the lattice observed with the ZM241385–bound receptor. The crystals grew with a type II crystal lattice in contrast to the typical type I packing seen from membrane protein structures crystallized in LCP. Cmpd-1 binds in a position that overlaps with the native ligand adenosine, but its methoxyphenyl group extends to an exosite not previously observed in other A2AR structures. Structural analysis revealed that Cmpd-1 binding results in the unique conformations of two tyrosine residues, Tyr91.35 and Tyr2717.36, which are critical for the formation of the exosite. The structure reveals insights into antagonist binding that are not observed in other A2AR structures, highlighting flexibility in the binding pocket that may facilitate the development of A2AR-selective compounds for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease.« less

  11. Reinforcing and neurochemical effects of cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists, but not cocaine, are altered by an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Justinová, Zuzana; Ferré, Sergi; Redhi, Godfrey H.; Mascia, Paola; Stroik, Jessica; Quarta, Davide; Yasar, Sevil; Müller, Christa E.; Franco, Rafael; Goldberg, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    Several recent studies suggest functional and molecular interactions between striatal adenosine A2A and cannabinoid CB1 receptors. Here we demonstrate that A2A receptors selectively modulate reinforcing effects of cannabinoids. We studied effects of A2A receptor blockade on the reinforcing effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and the endogenous CB1 receptor ligand anandamide under a fixed-ratio (FR) schedule of intravenous drug injection in squirrel monkeys. A low dose of the selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3 (1 mg/kg) caused downward shifts of THC and anandamide dose-response curves. In contrast, a higher dose of MSX-3 (3 mg/kg) shifted THC and anandamide dose-response curves to the left. MSX-3 did not modify cocaine or food-pellet self-administration. Also, MSX-3 neither promoted reinstatement of extinguished drug-seeking behavior nor altered reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior by non-contingent priming injections of THC. Finally, using in-vivo microdialysis in freely-moving rats, a behaviorally active dose of MSX-3 significantly counteracted THC-induced, but not cocaine-induced, increases in extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens shell. The significant and selective results obtained with the lower dose of MSX-3 suggest that adenosine A2A antagonists acting preferentially at presynaptic A2A receptors might selectively reduce reinforcing effects of cannabinoids that lead to their abuse. However, the appearance of potentiating rather than suppressing effects on cannabinoid reinforcement at the higher dose of MSX-3 would likely preclude the use of such a compound as a medication for cannabis abuse. Adenosine A2A antagonists with more selectivity for presynaptic versus postsynaptic receptors could be potential medications for treatment of cannabis abuse. PMID:21054689

  12. Novel Alexa Fluor-488 labeled antagonist of the A(2A) adenosine receptor: Application to a fluorescence polarization-based receptor binding assay.

    PubMed

    Kecskés, Miklós; Kumar, T Santhosh; Yoo, Lena; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Jacobson, Kenneth A

    2010-08-15

    Fluorescence polarization (FP) assay has many advantages over the traditional radioreceptor binding studies. We developed an A(2A) adenosine receptor (AR) FP assay using a newly synthesized fluorescent antagonist of the A(2A)AR (MRS5346), a pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidin-5-amine derivative conjugated to the fluorescent dye Alexa Fluor-488. MRS5346 displayed a K(i) value of 111+/-16nM in radioligand binding using [(3)H]CGS21680 and membranes prepared from HEK293 cells stably expressing the human A(2A)AR. In a cyclic AMP functional assay, MRS5346 was shown to be an A(2A)AR antagonist. MRS5346 did not show any effect on A(1) and A(3) ARs in binding or the A(2B)AR in a cyclic AMP assay at 10microM. Its suitability as a fluorescent tracer was indicated in an initial observation of an FP signal following A(2A)AR binding. The FP signal was optimal with 20nM MRS5346 and 150microg protein/mL HEK293 membranes. The association and dissociation kinetic parameters were readily determined using this FP assay. The K(d) value of MRS5346 calculated from kinetic parameters was 16.5+/-4.7nM. In FP competition binding experiments using MRS5346 as a tracer, K(i) values of known AR agonists and antagonists consistently agreed with K(i) values from radioligand binding. Thus, this FP assay, which eliminates using radioisotopes, appears to be appropriate for both routine receptor binding and high-throughput screening with respect to speed of analysis, displaceable signal and precision. The approach used in the present study could be generally applicable to other GPCRs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Ligand-, structure- and pharmacophore-based molecular fingerprints: a case study on adenosine A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 receptor antagonists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirci, Francesco; Goracci, Laura; Rodríguez, David; van Muijlwijk-Koezen, Jacqueline; Gutiérrez-de-Terán, Hugo; Mannhold, Raimund

    2012-11-01

    FLAP fingerprints are applied in the ligand-, structure- and pharmacophore-based mode in a case study on antagonists of all four adenosine receptor (AR) subtypes. Structurally diverse antagonist collections with respect to the different ARs were constructed by including binding data to human species only. FLAP models well discriminate "active" (=highly potent) from "inactive" (=weakly potent) AR antagonists, as indicated by enrichment curves, numbers of false positives, and AUC values. For all FLAP modes, model predictivity slightly decreases as follows: A2BR > A2AR > A3R > A1R antagonists. General performance of FLAP modes in this study is: ligand- > structure- > pharmacophore- based mode. We also compared the FLAP performance with other common ligand- and structure-based fingerprints. Concerning the ligand-based mode, FLAP model performance is superior to ECFP4 and ROCS for all AR subtypes. Although focusing on the early first part of the A2A, A2B and A3 enrichment curves, ECFP4 and ROCS still retain a satisfactory retrieval of actives. FLAP is also superior when comparing the structure-based mode with PLANTS and GOLD. In this study we applied for the first time the novel FLAPPharm tool for pharmacophore generation. Pharmacophore hypotheses, generated with this tool, convincingly match with formerly published data. Finally, we could demonstrate the capability of FLAP models to uncover selectivity aspects although single AR subtype models were not trained for this purpose.

  14. Imidazo[2,1-i]purin-5-ones and related tricyclic water-soluble purine derivatives: potent A(2A)- and A(3)-adenosine receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christa E; Thorand, Mark; Qurishi, Ramatullah; Diekmann, Martina; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Padgett, William L; Daly, John W

    2002-08-01

    A series of tricyclic imidazo[2,1-i]purinones and ring-enlarged analogues derived from xanthine derivatives have been prepared as adenosine receptor (AR) antagonists. In comparison with xanthines, the tricyclic compounds exhibit increased water solubility due to a basic nitrogen atom, which can be protonated under physiological conditions. Substituents were introduced that confer high affinity for A(2A) or A(3) ARs, respectively. A new capillary electrophoresis method was developed for the determination of the enantiomeric purity of selected chiral products using native and modified beta-cyclodextrins as chiral discriminators. The compounds were investigated in radioligand binding assays at rat brain A(1) and A(2A) ARs. Selected compounds were additionally investigated in radioligand binding assays at human recombinant A(3) ARs and in functional studies (adenylate cyclase assays) at A(1) ARs of rat fat cell membranes, A(2A) ARs of rat PC 12 cell membranes, and mouse A(2B) ARs of NIH 3T3 cell membranes. Structure-activity relationships were similar to those of corresponding xanthine derivatives. The 2-styrylimidazopurinones were less potent at A(2A) ARs as compared to 8-styrylxanthine derivatives. The most potent compound at A(2A) ARs was (S)-1,4-dimethyl-8-ethyl-2-styryl-imidazo[2,1-i]purinone (S-25) exhibiting a K(i) value of 424 nM at rat A(2A) ARs. The compound was highly selective for A(2A) receptors vs A(1) and A(3) ARs. Selectivity vs A(2B) ARs, however, was low. Among the 1-unsubstituted 2-phenyl-imidazo[2,1-i]purin-5-one derivatives, very potent and highly selective antagonists for human A(3) ARs were identified. The most potent A(3) antagonist of the present series was (R)-4-methyl-8-ethyl-2-phenyl-imidazo[2,1-i]purin-5-one (R-24) exhibiting a K(i) value of 2.3 nM and high selectivity for A(3) receptors vs all other AR subtypes.

  15. Unprecedented Therapeutic Potential with a Combination of A2A/NR2B Receptor Antagonists as Observed in the 6-OHDA Lesioned Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Anne; Downey, Patrick; Nicolas, Jean-Marie; Scheller, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    In Parkinson's disease, the long-term use of dopamine replacing agents is associated with the development of motor complications; therefore, there is a need for non-dopaminergic drugs. This study evaluated the potential therapeutic impact of six different NR2B and A2A receptor antagonists given either alone or in combination in unilateral 6-OHDA-lesioned rats without (monotherapy) or with (add-on therapy) the co-administration of L-Dopa: Sch-58261+ Merck 22; Sch-58261+Co-101244; Preladenant + Merck 22; Preladenant + Radiprodil; Tozadenant + Radiprodil; Istradefylline + Co-101244. Animals given monotherapy were assessed on distance traveled and rearing, whereas those given add-on therapy were assessed on contralateral rotations. Three-way mixed ANOVA were conducted to assess the main effect of each drug separately and to determine whether any interaction between two drugs was additive or synergistic. Additional post hoc analyses were conducted to compare the effect of the combination with the effect of the drugs alone. Motor activity improved significantly and was sustained for longer when the drugs were given in combination than when administered separately at the same dose. Similarly, when tested as add-on treatment to L-Dopa, the combinations resulted in higher levels of contralateral rotation in comparison to the single drugs. Of special interest, the activity observed with some combinations could not be described by a simplistic additive effect and involved more subtle synergistic pharmacological interactions. The combined administration of A2A/NR2B-receptor antagonists improved motor behaviour in 6-OHDA rats. Given the proven translatability of this model such a combination may be expected to be effective in improving motor symptoms in patients. PMID:25513815

  16. Protective effect of caffeine and a selective A2A receptor antagonist on impairment of memory and oxidative stress of aged rats.

    PubMed

    Leite, Marlon Régis; Wilhelm, Ethel A; Jesse, Cristiano R; Brandão, Ricardo; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne

    2011-04-01

    In this study, the effects of caffeine (CAF) and SCH58261, a selective A(2A) receptor antagonist, on memory impairment and oxidative stress generated by aging in rats were investigated. Young and aged rats were treated daily per 10 days with CAF (30 mg/kg p.o.) or SCH58261 (0.5mg/kg, p.o.) or vehicle (1 ml/kg p.o.). Rats were trained and tested in a novel object recognition task. After the behavioral test, ascorbic acid and oxygen and nitrogen reactive species levels as well as Na(+)K(+) ATPase activity were determined in rat brain. The results demonstrated that the age-related memory deficit was reversed by treatment with CAF or SCH58261. Treatment with CAF or SCH58261 significantly normalized oxygen and nitrogen reactive species levels increased in brains of aged rats. Na(+)K(+) ATPase activity inhibited in brains of aged rats was also normalized by CAF or SCH58261 treatment. A decrease in basal ascorbic acid levels in brains of aged rats was not changed by CAF or SCH58261. These results demonstrated that CAF and SCH58261, modulators of adenosinergic receptors, were able to reverse age-associated memory impairment and to partially reduce oxidative stress. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Selective A2A receptor antagonist prevents microglia-mediated neuroinflammation and protects retinal ganglion cells from high intraocular pressure-induced transient ischemic injury.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Maria H; Boia, Raquel; Elvas, Filipe; Martins, Tiago; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Ambrósio, António Francisco; Santiago, Ana Raquel

    2016-03-01

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of vision loss and blindness worldwide, characterized by chronic and progressive neuronal loss. Reactive microglial cells have been recognized as a neuropathologic feature, contributing to local inflammation and retinal neurodegeneration. In a recent in vitro work (organotypic cultures), we demonstrated that blockade of adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) prevents the neuroinflammatory response and affords protection to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) against exposure to elevated hydrostatic pressure (EHP), to mimic elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), the main risk factor for glaucoma development. Herein, we investigated whether a selective A2AR antagonist (SCH 58261) could modulate retinal microglia reactivity and their inflammatory response. Furthermore, we took advantage of the high IOP-induced transient ischemia (ischemia-reperfusion, I-R) animal model to evaluate the protective role of A2AR blockade in the control of retinal neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Primary microglial cell cultures were challenged either with lipopolysaccharide or with EHP, in the presence or absence of A2AR antagonist SCH 58261 (50 nM). In addition, I-R injury was induced in adult Wistar rats after intravitreal administration of SCH 58261 (100 nM, 5 μL). Our results showed that SCH 58261 attenuated microglia reactivity and the increased expression and release of proinflammatory cytokines. Moreover, intravitreal administration of SCH 58261 prevented I-R-induced cell death and RGC loss, by controlling microglial-mediated neuroinflammatory response. These results prompt the proposal that A2AR blockade may have great potential in the management of retinal neurodegenerative diseases characterized by microglia reactivity and RGC death, such as glaucoma and ischemic diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 2-n-Butyl-9-methyl-8-[1,2,3]triazol-2-yl-9H-purin-6-ylamine and analogues as A2A adenosine receptor antagonists. Design, synthesis, and pharmacological characterization.

    PubMed

    Minetti, Patrizia; Tinti, Maria Ornella; Carminati, Paolo; Castorina, Massimo; Di Cesare, Maria Assunta; Di Serio, Stefano; Gallo, Grazia; Ghirardi, Orlando; Giorgi, Fabrizio; Giorgi, Luca; Piersanti, Giovanni; Bartoccini, Francesca; Tarzia, Giorgio

    2005-11-03

    Two types of adenosine receptor ligands were designed, i.e., 9H-purine and 1H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridines, to obtain selective A(2A) antagonists, and we report here their synthesis and binding affinities for the four adenosine receptor subtypes A(1), A(2A), A(2B) and A(3). The design was carried out on the basis of the molecular modeling of a number of potent adenosine receptor antagonists described in the literature. Three compounds (25b-d) showed an interesting affinity and selectivity for the A(2A) subtype. One of them, i.e., ST1535 (2-n-butyl-9-methyl-8-[1,2,3]triazol-2-yl-9H-purin-6-ylamine, 25b) (K(i) A(2A) = 6.6 nM, K(i) A(1)/A(2A) = 12; K(i) A(2B)/A(2A) = 58; K(i) A(3)/A(2A) > 160), was selected for in vivo study and shown to induce a dose-related increase in locomotor activity, suggestive of an A(2A) antagonist type of activity.

  19. Bitopic fluorescent antagonists of the A2A adenosine receptor based on pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidin-5-amine functionalized congeners.

    PubMed

    Duroux, Romain; Ciancetta, Antonella; Mannes, Philip; Yu, Jinha; Boyapati, Shireesha; Gizewski, Elizabeth; Yous, Said; Ciruela, Francisco; Auchampach, John A; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Jacobson, Kenneth A

    2017-08-01

    A pyrazolo[4,3- e ][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5- c ]pyrimidin-5-amine antagonist of the A 2A adenosine receptor (AR) was functionalized as amine congeners, fluorescent conjugates and a sulfonate, and the A 2A AR binding modes were predicted computationally. The optimal n -butyl spacer was incorporated into the following A 2A AR-selective ( K i , nM) conjugates: BODIPY630/650 derivative 11 (MRS7396, 24.6) and AlexaFluor488 derivative 12 (MRS7416, 30.3). Flow cytometry of 12 in hA 2A AR-expressing HEK-293 cells displayed saturable binding (low nonspecific) and inhibition by known A 2A AR antagonists. Water-soluble sulfonate 13 was a highly potent ( K i = 6.2 nM) and selective A 2A AR antagonist based on binding and functional assays. Docking and molecular dynamics simulations predicted the regions of interaction of the distal portions of these chain-extended ligands with the A 2A AR. The BODIPY630/650 fluorophore of 11 was buried in a hydrophobic interhelical (TM1/TM7) region, while AlexaFluor488 of 12 associated with the hydrophilic extracellular loops. In conclusion, we have identified novel high affinity antagonist probes for A 2A AR drug discovery and characterization.

  20. Chronic oral administration of MPEP, an antagonist of mGlu5 receptor, during gestation and lactation alters mGlu5 and A2A receptors in maternal and neonatal brain.

    PubMed

    López-Zapata, Antonio; León-Navarro, David Agustín; Crespo, María; Albasanz, José Luis; Martín, Mairena

    2017-03-06

    Antidepressant and anxiolytic drugs are widely consumed even by pregnant and lactating women. The metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu 5 ) antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP) exerts antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like actions. Given that treatment for anxiety and depression use to be prolonged in time, it is conceivable a possible modulation of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu receptors) after prolonged MPEP exposure, which could also modify adenosine A 2A receptors (A 2A R) since functional cross-talk between them has been reported. Here we report that MPEP crosses placental barrier and reaches neonatal brain through maternal milk using LC-MS/MS methods. Therefore, we analyzed mGlu receptors, mainly mGlu 5 , and A 2A R in both maternal and fetal brain after chronic maternal consumption of MPEP during gestation and/or lactation using radioligand binding, Western-blotting, real-time PCR and phospholipase C (PLC) activity assays. In maternal brain, chronic MPEP consumption caused a significant loss of mGlu, including mGlu 5 , and A 2A R receptors level in plasma membrane. PLC activity assays showed that mGlu 5 signaling pathway was desensitized. No variations on mRNA level coding A 2A R, A 1 R and mGlu 5 were found after MPEP treatments. In female neonatal brain, maternal consumption of MPEP caused a significant increase in mGlu, including mGlu 5 , and A 2A R receptors level. Neither mGlu receptors nor A 2A R were modified in male neonatal brain after maternal MPEP intake. Finally, neither molecular nor behavioral changes (anxiety- and depression-like behavior) were observed in 3-month-old female offspring. In summary, mGlu 5 and A 2A R are altered in both maternal and female neonatal brain after chronic maternal consumption of MPEP during gestation and/or lactation. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The adenosine A(2A) antagonistic properties of selected C8-substituted xanthines.

    PubMed

    Van der Walt, Mietha M; Terre'Blanche, Gisella; Petzer, Anél; Lourens, Anna C U; Petzer, Jacobus P

    2013-08-01

    The adenosine A2A receptor is considered to be an important target for the development of new therapies for Parkinson's disease. Several antagonists of the A2A receptor have entered clinical trials for this purpose and many research groups have initiated programs to develop A2A receptor antagonists. Most A2A receptor antagonists belong to two different chemical classes, the xanthine derivatives and the amino-substituted heterocyclic compounds. In an attempt to discover high affinity A2A receptor antagonists and to further explore the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of A2A antagonism by the xanthine class of compounds, this study examines the A2A antagonistic properties of series of (E)-8-styrylxanthines, 8-(phenoxymethyl)xanthines and 8-(3-phenylpropyl)xanthines. The results document that among these series, the (E)-8-styrylxanthines have the highest binding affinities with the most potent homologue, (E)-1,3-diethyl-7-methyl-8-[(3-trifluoromethyl)styryl]xanthine, exhibiting a Ki value of 11.9 nM. This compound was also effective in reversing haloperidol-induced catalepsy in rats, providing evidence that it is in fact an A2A receptor antagonist. The importance of substitution at C8 with the styryl moiety was demonstrated by the finding that none of the 8-(phenoxymethyl)xanthines and 8-(3-phenylpropyl)xanthines exhibited high binding affinities for the A2A receptor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Xanthines as Adenosine Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    The natural plant alkaloids caffeine and theophylline were the first adenosine receptor (AR) antagonists described in the literature. They exhibit micromolar affinities and are non-selective. A large number of derivatives and analogs have subsequently been synthesized and evaluated as AR antagonists. Very potent antagonists have thus been developed with selectivity for each of the four AR subtypes. PMID:20859796

  3. A2A receptor ligands: past, present and future trends.

    PubMed

    Clementina, Manera; Giuseppe, Saccomanni

    2010-01-01

    The adenosine A(2A) receptor is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family and mediates multiple physiological effects of adenosine, both at the central nervous system and at peripheral tissues. Increasing evidence relates the A(2A) receptor with several pathological conditions such as neurodegenerative disorders, inflammation, pharmacological stress, and wound healing renewing the interest in A(2A) receptor agonists and antagonists as promising leads for drugs. However some of them initially tested in clinical trials presented several side effects, short half-life, lower solubility, and in some cases a lack of effects, perhaps attributable to receptor desensitization or to low receptor density in the targeted tissue. For these reasons it is evident that additional rational chemical modifications of the existing A(2A) receptor ligands to improve their affinity/selectivity and bioavailability as well as further studies to get new template for A(2A)AR ligands are necessary. The purpose of this review is to analyze and summarize the past and the present aspects related to the medicinal chemistry of A(2A) receptor ligands. Moreover their current and possible therapeutic applications have been also highlighted.

  4. 6-(2-Furanyl)-9H-purin-2-amine derivatives as A2A adenosine antagonists.

    PubMed

    Kiselgof, Eugenia; Tulshian, Deen B; Arik, Leyla; Zhang, Hongtao; Fawzi, Ahmad

    2005-04-15

    Structure-activity relationships have been investigated through substitutions at the 9-position of the 2-amino-6-(2-furanyl) purine (5) to identify novel and selective A(2A) adenosine receptor antagonists. Several potent and selective antagonists were identified. In particular, compounds 20, 25, and 26 show very high affinity with excellent selectivity.

  5. The adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, istradefylline enhances anti-parkinsonian activity induced by combined treatment with low doses of L-DOPA and dopamine agonists in MPTP-treated common marmosets.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Shin-ichi; Soshiroda, Kazuhiro; Okita, Eri; Kawai-Uchida, Mika; Mori, Akihisa; Jenner, Peter; Kanda, Tomoyuki

    2015-11-05

    The adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, istradefylline improves motor function in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) optimally treated with a combination of L-DOPA and a dopamine agonist without increasing the risk of troublesome dyskinesia. However, the effects of istradefylline on motor function when administered in combination with low dose of L-DOPA and dopamine agonists as occurs in early PD are unknown. We investigated whether istradefylline enhances the combined anti-parkinsonian effects of a suboptimal dose of L-DOPA and a threshold dose of either the non-ergot dopamine agonist, ropinirole or the ergot dopamine agonist, pergolide in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated common marmoset. Threshold doses of ropinirole (0.025-0.075 mg/kg p.o.) and pergolide (0.01 mg/kg p.o.) produced a weak anti-parkinsonian effect. Co-administration of a suboptimal dose of L-DOPA (2.5mg/kg p.o.) with threshold doses of the dopamine agonists enhanced their anti-parkinsonian effect that led to increased 'ON' time without dyskinesia appearing. Administering istradefylline (10mg/kg p.o.) with the threshold doses of dopamine agonists and the suboptimal dose of L-DOPA in a triple combination caused a further enhancement of the anti-parkinsonian response but dyskinesia was still absent. In early PD, dopamine agonists are often used as first-line monotherapy, but efficacy is usually lost within a few years, at which time L-DOPA is added but with the risk of dyskinesia appearance. These results show that istradefylline is effective in improving motor function in combination with low dose dopaminergic drug treatment without provoking dyskinesia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. An update on adenosine A2A receptors as drug target in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Vallano, Antoni; Fernandez-Duenas, Victor; Pedros, Consuelo; Arnau, Josep Maria; Ciruela, Francisco

    2011-09-01

    Adenosine receptors are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that mediate the physiological functions of adenosine. In the central nervous system adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A)Rs) are highly enriched in striatopallidal neurons where they form functional oligomeric complexes with other GPCRs such us the dopamine D(2) receptor (D(2)R). Furthermore, it is assumed that the formation of balanced A(2A)R/D(2)R receptor oligomers are essential for correct striatal function as the allosteric receptor-receptor interactions established within the oligomer are needed for properly sensing adenosine and dopamine. Interestingly, A(2A)R activation reduces the affinity of striatal D(2)R for dopamine and the blockade of A(2A)R with specific antagonists facilitates function of the D(2)R. Thus, it may be postulated that A(2A)R antagonists are pro-dopaminergic agents. Therefore, A(2A)R antagonists will potentially reduce the effects associated with dopamine depletion in Parkinson's disease (PD). Accordingly, this class of compounds have recently attracted considerable attention as potential therapeutic agents for PD pharmacotherapy as they have shown potential effectiveness in counteracting motor dysfunctions and also displayed neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects in animal models of PD. Overall, we provide here an update of the current state of the art of these A(2A)R-based approaches that are under clinical study as agents devoted to alleviate PD symptoms.

  7. Synthesis and biological evaluation of metabolites of 2-n-butyl-9-methyl-8-[1,2,3]triazol-2-yl-9H-purin-6-ylamine (ST1535), a potent antagonist of the A2A adenosine receptor for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Piersanti, Giovanni; Bartoccini, Francesca; Lucarini, Simone; Cabri, Walter; Stasi, Maria Antonietta; Riccioni, Teresa; Borsini, Franco; Tarzia, Giorgio; Minetti, Patrizia

    2013-07-11

    The synthesis and preliminary in vitro evaluation of five metabolites of the A2A antagonist ST1535 (1) are reported. The metabolites, originating in vivo from enzymatic oxidation of the 2-butyl group of the parent compound, were synthesized from 6-chloro-2-iodo-9-methyl-9H-purine (2) by selective C-C bond formation via halogen/magnesium exchange reaction and/or palladium-catalyzed reactions. The metabolites behaved in vitro as antagonist ligands of cloned human A2A receptor with affinities (Ki 7.5-53 nM) comparable to that of compound 1 (Ki 10.7 nM), thus showing that the long duration of action of 1 could be in part due to its metabolites. General behavior after oral administration in mice was also analyzed.

  8. Animal models of Parkinson׳s disease: Effects of two adenosine A2A receptor antagonists ST4206 and ST3932, metabolites of 2-n-Butyl-9-methyl-8-[1,2,3]triazol-2-yl-9H-purin-6-ylamine (ST1535).

    PubMed

    Stasi, Maria Antonietta; Minetti, Patrizia; Lombardo, Katia; Riccioni, Teresa; Caprioli, Antonio; Vertechy, Mario; Di Serio, Stefano; Pace, Silvia; Borsini, Franco

    2015-08-15

    Antagonism of the adenosine A2A receptor represents a promising strategy for non-dopaminergic treatment of Parkinson׳s disease (PD). Previously, the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist ST1535 was shown to possess potential beneficial effects in animal models of PD. Two metabolites of ST1535, namely ST3932 and ST4206, were tested in vitro to assess their affinity and activity on cloned human A2A adenosine receptors, and their metabolic profile. Additionally, ST3932 and ST4206 were investigated in vivo in animal models of PD following oral/intraperitoneal administration of 10, 20 and 40mg/kg using ST1535 as a reference compound. ST3932 and ST4206 displayed high affinity and antagonist behaviour for cloned human adenosine A2A receptors. The Ki values for ST1535, ST3932 and ST4206 were 8, 8 and 12nM, respectively, and their IC50 values on cyclic AMP were 427, 450 and 990nM, respectively. ST1535, ST3932 and ST4206 antagonized (orally) haloperidol-induced catalepsy in mice, potentiated (intraperitoneally) the number of contralateral rotations induced by l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) (3mg/kg) plus benserazide (6mg/kg) in 6-Hydroxydopamine hydrobromide (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats, and increased mouse motor activity by oral route. Thus, ST3932 and ST4206, two ST1535 metabolites, show a pharmacological activity similar to ST1535, both in vitro and in vivo, and may be regarded as an interesting pharmacological alternative to ST1535. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Small molecule antagonists of integrin receptors.

    PubMed

    Perdih, A; Dolenc, M Sollner

    2010-01-01

    The complex and widespread family of integrin receptors is involved in numerous physiological processes, such as tissue remodeling, angiogenesis, development of the immune response and homeostasis. In addition, their key role has been elucidated in important pathological disorders such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases and in the pathogenesis of infectious diseases, making them highly important targets for modern drug design campaigns. In this review we seek to present a concise overview of the small molecule antagonists of this diverse and highly complex receptor family. Integrin antagonists are classified according to the targeted integrin receptor and are discussed in four sections. First we present the fibrinogen alpha(IIb)beta3 and the vitronectin alpha (V)beta(3) receptor antagonists. The remaining selective integrin antagonists are examined in the third section. The final section is dedicated to molecules with dual or multiple integrin activity. In addition, the use of antibodies and peptidomimetic approaches to modulate the integrin receptors are discussed, as well providing the reader with an overall appreciation of the field.

  10. Pharmacological characterisation and inhibitory effects of (2R,3R,4S,5R)-2-(6-amino-2-{[(1S)-2-hydroxy-1-(phenylmethyl)ethyl]amino}-9H-purin-9-yl)-5-(2-ethyl-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)tetrahydro-3,4-furandiol, a novel ligand that demonstrates both adenosine A(2A) receptor agonist and adenosine A(3) receptor antagonist activity.

    PubMed

    Bevan, Nicola; Butchers, Peter R; Cousins, Rick; Coates, Jill; Edgar, Emma V; Morrison, Val; Sheehan, Michael J; Reeves, Julian; Wilson, David J

    2007-06-14

    The pharmacological properties of the novel ligand, (2R,3R,4S,5R)-2-(6-amino-2-{[(1S)-2-hydroxy-1-(phenylmethyl)ethyl]amino}-9H-purin-9-yl)-5-(2-ethyl-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)tetrahydro-3,4-furandiol (I), at the human adenosine receptors were investigated using Chinese hamster ovary cell lines recombinantly expressing these receptors. Functional studies were performed using a cyclic AMP-coupled reporter gene system. Binding studies were performed using membranes from these cells. The effects of ligand (I) were also determined on functional responses of human neutrophils and eosinophils. Ligand (I) had a high affinity for the adenosine A(2A) receptor (pKi 7.8+/-0.2) and was a potent agonist at this receptor (pEC(50) 9.0+/-0.2). Ligand (I) had a similar affinity for the adenosine A(3) receptor (pKi 7.8+/-0.1) but displayed no agonist activity, acting instead as a competitive antagonist (pA(2) 8.3+/-0.04). Ligand (I) had lower affinity for adenosine A(1) and A(2B) receptors (pKireceptors (pEC(50) 7.1 at both receptors). Ligand (I) was a potent inhibitor of the generation of reactive oxygen species from human neutrophils and eosinophils (pEC(50) 9.7+/-0.1 and 9.4+/-0.2 respectively). The inhibitory effect of ligand (I) on the release of reactive oxygen species from neutrophils was antagonised competitively by the adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist 9-chloro-2-(2-furanyl)-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]quinazolin-5-amine (CGS15943) with a pA(2) value (10.03+/-0.44) consistent with an effect on adenosine A(2A) receptors. Ligand (I) also inhibited the release of granule proteins from neutrophils and eosinophils (pEC(50) 8.7 and 8.9 respectively), albeit less potently than as an inhibitor of reactive oxygen species generation. In summary, ligand (I) is a potent and selective agonist for the adenosine A(2A) receptor and a competitive antagonist at the adenosine A(3) receptor. Ligand (I) has potent anti-inflammatory effects on human

  11. Adenosine A(2A) receptor dynamics studied with the novel fluorescent agonist Alexa488-APEC.

    PubMed

    Brand, Frank; Klutz, Athena M; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Fredholm, Bertil B; Schulte, Gunnar

    2008-08-20

    G protein-coupled receptors, such as the adenosine A(2A) receptor, are dynamic proteins, which undergo agonist-dependent redistribution from the cell surface to intracellular membranous compartments, such as endosomes. In order to study the kinetics of adenosine A(2A) receptor redistribution in living cells, we synthesized a novel fluorescent agonist, Alexa488-APEC. Alexa488-APEC binds to adenosine A(2A) (K(i)=149+/-27 nM) as well as A(3) receptors (K(i)=240+/-160 nM) but not to adenosine A(1) receptors. Further, we characterized the dose-dependent increase in Alexa488-APEC-induced cAMP production as well as cAMP response element binding (CREB) protein phosphorylation, verifying the ligand's functionality at adenosine A(2A) but not A(2B) receptors. In live-cell imaging studies, Alexa488-APEC-induced adenosine A(2A) receptor internalization, which was blocked by the competitive reversible antagonist ZM 241385 and hyperosmolaric sucrose. Further, internalized adenosine A(2A) receptors co-localized with clathrin and Rab5, indicating that agonist stimulation promotes adenosine A(2A) receptor uptake through a clathrin-dependent mechanism to Rab5-positive endosomes. The basic characterization of Alexa488-APEC described here showed that it provides a useful tool for tracing adenosine A(2A) receptors in vitro.

  12. Adenosine A(2A) receptors are necessary and sufficient to trigger memory impairment in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Pagnussat, N; Almeida, A S; Marques, D M; Nunes, F; Chenet, G C; Botton, P H S; Mioranzza, S; Loss, C M; Cunha, R A; Porciúncula, L O

    2015-08-01

    Caffeine (a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist) prevents memory deficits in aging and Alzheimer's disease, an effect mimicked by adenosine A2 A receptor, but not A1 receptor, antagonists. Hence, we investigated the effects of adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists on memory performance and scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. We determined whether A2 A receptors are necessary for the emergence of memory impairments induced by scopolamine and whether A2 A receptor activation triggers memory deficits in naïve mice, using three tests to assess short-term memory, namely the object recognition task, inhibitory avoidance and modified Y-maze. Scopolamine (1.0 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.) impaired short-term memory performance in all three tests and this scopolamine-induced amnesia was prevented by the A2 A receptor antagonist (SCH 58261, 0.1-1.0 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.) and by the A1 receptor antagonist (DPCPX, 0.2-5.0 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.), except in the modified Y-maze where only SCH58261 was effective. Both antagonists were devoid of effects on memory or locomotion in naïve rats. Notably, the activation of A2 A receptors with CGS 21680 (0.1-0.5 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.) before the training session was sufficient to trigger memory impairment in the three tests in naïve mice, and this effect was prevented by SCH 58261 (1.0 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.). Furthermore, i.c.v. administration of CGS 21680 (50 nmol) also impaired recognition memory in the object recognition task. These results show that A2 A receptors are necessary and sufficient to trigger memory impairment and further suggest that A1 receptors might also be selectively engaged to control the cholinergic-driven memory impairment. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. Adenosine A2A receptors are necessary and sufficient to trigger memory impairment in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Pagnussat, N; Almeida, A S; Marques, D M; Nunes, F; Chenet, G C; Botton, P H S; Mioranzza, S; Loss, C M; Cunha, R A; Porciúncula, L O

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Caffeine (a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist) prevents memory deficits in aging and Alzheimer’s disease, an effect mimicked by adenosine A2A receptor, but not A1 receptor, antagonists. Hence, we investigated the effects of adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists on memory performance and scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. Experimental Approach We determined whether A2A receptors are necessary for the emergence of memory impairments induced by scopolamine and whether A2A receptor activation triggers memory deficits in naïve mice, using three tests to assess short-term memory, namely the object recognition task, inhibitory avoidance and modified Y-maze. Key Results Scopolamine (1.0 mg·kg−1, i.p.) impaired short-term memory performance in all three tests and this scopolamine-induced amnesia was prevented by the A2A receptor antagonist (SCH 58261, 0.1–1.0 mg·kg−1, i.p.) and by the A1 receptor antagonist (DPCPX, 0.2–5.0 mg·kg−1, i.p.), except in the modified Y-maze where only SCH58261 was effective. Both antagonists were devoid of effects on memory or locomotion in naïve rats. Notably, the activation of A2A receptors with CGS 21680 (0.1–0.5 mg·kg−1, i.p.) before the training session was sufficient to trigger memory impairment in the three tests in naïve mice, and this effect was prevented by SCH 58261 (1.0 mg·kg−1, i.p.). Furthermore, i.c.v. administration of CGS 21680 (50 nmol) also impaired recognition memory in the object recognition task. Conclusions and Implications These results show that A2A receptors are necessary and sufficient to trigger memory impairment and further suggest that A1 receptors might also be selectively engaged to control the cholinergic-driven memory impairment. PMID:25939452

  14. Medicinal Chemistry of Competitive Kainate Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Kainic acid (KA) receptors belong to the group of ionotropic glutamate receptors and are expressed throughout in the central nervous system (CNS). The KA receptors have been shown to be involved in neurophysiological functions such as mossy fiber long-term potentiation (LTP) and synaptic plasticity and are thus potential therapeutic targets in CNS diseases such as schizophrenia, major depression, neuropathic pain and epilepsy. Extensive effort has been made to develop subtype-selective KA receptor antagonists in order to elucidate the physiological function of each of the five subunits known (GluK1−5). However, to date only selective antagonists for the GluK1 subunit have been discovered, which underlines the strong need for continued research in this area. The present review describes the structure−activity relationship and pharmacological profile for 10 chemically distinct classes of KA receptor antagonists comprising, in all, 45 compounds. To the medicinal chemist this information will serve as reference guidance as well as an inspiration for future effort in this field. PMID:22778857

  15. Muscarinic Receptor Antagonists: Effects on Pulmonary Function

    PubMed Central

    Buels, Kalmia S.

    2014-01-01

    In healthy lungs, muscarinic receptors control smooth muscle tone, mucus secretion, vasodilation, and inflammation. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma, cholinergic mechanisms contribute to increased bronchoconstriction and mucus secretion that limit airflow. This chapter reviews neuronal and nonneuronal sources of acetylcholine in the lung and the expression and role of M1, M2, and M3 muscarinic receptor subtypes in lung physiology. It also discusses the evidence for and against the role of parasympathetic nerves in asthma, and the current use and therapeutic potential of muscarinic receptor antagonists in COPD and asthma. PMID:22222705

  16. Development of Kappa Opioid Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, F. Ivy; Carlezon, William A.

    2013-01-01

    Kappa opioid receptors (KORs) belong to the G-protein coupled class of receptors (GPCRs). They are activated by the endogenous opioid peptide dynorphin (DYN) and expressed at particularly high levels within brain areas implicated in modulation of motivation, emotion, and cognitive function. Chronic activation of KORs in animal models has maladaptive effects including increases in behaviors that reflect depression, the propensity to engage in drug-seeking behavior, and drug craving. The fact that KOR activation has such a profound influence on behaviors often triggered by stress has led to interest in selective KOR antagonists as potential therapeutic agents. This perspective provides a description of preclinical research conducted in the development of several different classes of selective KOR antagonists, a summary of the clinical studies conducted thus far, and recommendations for the type of work needed in the future to determine if these agents would be useful as pharmacotherapies for neuropsychiatric illness. PMID:23360448

  17. Adenosine receptor antagonists effect on plasma-enhanced killing.

    PubMed

    Bauzá, Gustavo; Moitra, Rituparna; Remick, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that naive plasma has inherent capabilities to enhance bacterial opsonization and phagocyte killing, but not all plasma is equally effective. This raised the question of whether plasma constituents other than opsonins may play a role. Adenosine receptor antagonists have been shown to modulate cytokine response and survival in mice after a bacterial challenge. We investigated whether selective adenosine receptor blockade would influence the ability of naive plasma to effectively control bacterial growth. Colonic bacteria- and thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages and neutrophils were obtained from naive mice. Stock murine plasma from naive was purchased and categorized as having high plasma-enhanced bacterial killing capacity using our previously described methods. Bacteria and plasma were incubated to allow for opsonization and then added to macrophages previously exposed to selected adenosine receptor antagonists: ZM 241385: A2A, MRS1754: A2B, DPCPX: A1, and MRS1220: A3. The final mixture was plated on blood agar plates in aerobic and anaerobic conditions and bacterial colony-forming units quantified after 24 h. This study demonstrated that exogenous adenosine was able to significantly decrease phagocyte killing of cecal bacteria. Blocking adenosine receptors with selective antagonists altered the bacterial killing capacity of plasma. Selectively blocking the A1, A2A, or A2B receptors proved most beneficial at reversing the effect of adenosine. Consistent with previous work, only macrophage killing of bacteria could be modulated by adenosine receptor blockade because neutrophils were unaffected. These data demonstrate that adenosine decreases macrophage killing of enteric bacteria and that this effect is mediated through the adenosine receptors.

  18. Azines as histamine H4 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Lazewska, Dorota; Kiec-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    Since 2000, when the histamine H4 receptor (H4R) was cloned, it has constituted an interesting target for drug development. Pharmacological studies suggest the potential utility of histamine H4R antagonists/inverse agonists in the treatment of inflammatory diseases, e.g. allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, colitis, or pruritus. The first H4R ligands were non-selective compounds, but intensive chemical and pharmacological work has led to the discovery of highly potent and selective H4R antagonists (e.g. JNJ7777120, CZC-13788, PF-2988403, A-940894, A-987306). The first compound (UR-63325) has finally entered into clinical studies for the treatment of allergic respiratory diseases (completing the phase I ascending dose trial) and has been found to be safe and well tolerated. The number of scientific publications and patent applications in the H4 field is increasing annually. Among the diverse chemical structures of the H4R antagonists described a 2-aminopyrimidine scaffold is repeatedly found. This review looked at recent advances in the search for H4R antagonists as reflected in patent applications/patents and peer-reviewed publications over the last two years. The work concerns azines (mono-, di-, triazines) and their fused analogues. The chemistry and pharmacology has been described.

  19. Rational discovery of novel nuclear hormone receptor antagonists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schapira, Matthieu; Raaka, Bruce M.; Samuels, Herbert H.; Abagyan, Ruben

    2000-02-01

    Nuclear hormone receptors (NRs) are potential targets for therapeutic approaches to many clinical conditions, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological diseases. The crystal structure of the ligand binding domain of agonist-bound NRs enables the design of compounds with agonist activity. However, with the exception of the human estrogen receptor-, the lack of antagonist-bound "inactive" receptor structures hinders the rational design of receptor antagonists. In this study, we present a strategy for designing such antagonists. We constructed a model of the inactive conformation of human retinoic acid receptor- by using information derived from antagonist-bound estrogen receptor-α and applied a computer-based virtual screening algorithm to identify retinoic acid receptor antagonists. Thus, the currently available crystal structures of NRs may be used for the rational design of antagonists, which could lead to the development of novel drugs for a variety of diseases.

  20. Adenosine A2A Receptors Modulate Acute Injury and Neuroinflammation in Brain Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Pedata, Felicita; Pugliese, Anna Maria; Coppi, Elisabetta; Dettori, Ilaria; Maraula, Giovanna; Cellai, Lucrezia; Melani, Alessia

    2014-01-01

    The extracellular concentration of adenosine in the brain increases dramatically during ischemia. Adenosine A2A receptor is expressed in neurons and glial cells and in inflammatory cells (lymphocytes and granulocytes). Recently, adenosine A2A receptor emerged as a potential therapeutic attractive target in ischemia. Ischemia is a multifactorial pathology characterized by different events evolving in the time. After ischemia the early massive increase of extracellular glutamate is followed by activation of resident immune cells, that is, microglia, and production or activation of inflammation mediators. Proinflammatory cytokines, which upregulate cell adhesion molecules, exert an important role in promoting recruitment of leukocytes that in turn promote expansion of the inflammatory response in ischemic tissue. Protracted neuroinflammation is now recognized as the predominant mechanism of secondary brain injury progression. A2A receptors present on central cells and on blood cells account for important effects depending on the time-related evolution of the pathological condition. Evidence suggests that A2A receptor antagonists provide early protection via centrally mediated control of excessive excitotoxicity, while A2A receptor agonists provide protracted protection by controlling massive blood cell infiltration in the hours and days after ischemia. Focus on inflammatory responses provides for adenosine A2A receptor agonists a wide therapeutic time-window of hours and even days after stroke. PMID:25165414

  1. Antiallergic effects of H1-receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Baroody, F M; Naclerio, R M

    2000-01-01

    The primary mechanism of antihistamine action in the treatment of allergic diseases is believed to be competitive antagonism of histamine binding to cellular receptors (specifically, the H1-receptors), which are present on nerve endings, smooth muscles, and glandular cells. This notion is supported by the fact that structurally unrelated drugs antagonize the H1-receptor and provide clinical benefit. However, H1-receptor antagonism may not be their sole mechanism of action in treating allergic rhinitis. On the basis of in vitro and animal experiments, drugs classified as H1-receptor antagonists have long been recognized to have additional pharmacological properties. Most first-generation H1-antihistamines have anticholinergic, sedative, local anaesthetic, and anti-5-HT effects, which might favourably affect the symptoms of the allergic response but also contribute to side-effects. These additional properties are not uniformly distributed among drugs classified as H1-receptor antagonists. Azatadine, for example, inhibits in vitro IgE-mediated histamine and leukotriene (LT) release from mast cells and basophils. In human challenge models, terfenadine, azatadine, and loratadine reduce IgE-mediated histamine release. Cetirizine reduces eosinophilic infiltration at the site of antigen challenge in the skin, but not the nose. In a nasal antigen challenge model, cetirizine pretreatment did not affect the levels of histamine and prostaglandin D2 recovered in postchallenge lavages, whereas the levels of albumin, N-tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester (TAME) esterase activity, and LTs were reduced. Terfenadine, cetirizine, and loratadine blocked allergen-induced hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. In view of the complexity of the pathophysiology of allergy, a number of H1 antagonists with additional properties are currently under development for allergic diseases. Mizolastine, a new H1-receptor antagonist, has been shown to have additional actions that should help reduce the

  2. Pharmacological evidence for different populations of postsynaptic adenosine A2A receptors in the rat striatum

    PubMed Central

    Orrú, Marco; Quiroz, César; Guitart, Xavier; Ferré, Sergi

    2011-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) are highly concentrated in the striatum. Two pharmacological different functional populations of A2ARs have been recently described based on their different affinities for the A2AR antagonist SCH-442416. This compound has high affinity for A2ARs not forming heteromers or forming heteromers with adenosine A1 receptors (A1Rs) while showing very low affinity for A2ARs forming heteromers with dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs). It has been widely described that striatal A1R-A2AR heteromers are preferentially localized presynaptically in the glutamatergic terminals that contact GABAergic dynorphinergic neurons, and that A2AR-D2R heteromers are localized postsynaptically in GABAergic enkephalinergic neurons. In the present study we provide evidence suggesting that SCH-442416 also targets postsynaptic A2AR not forming heteromers with D2R, which are involved in the motor depressant effects induced by D2R antagonists. SCH-442416 counteracted motor depression in rats induced by the D2R antagonist raclopride at a dose that did not produce motor activation or that blocked motor depression induced by an A2AR agonist. Furthermore, we re-evaluated the recently suggested key role of cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1Rs) in the effects of A2AR antagonists acting at postsynaptic A2ARs. By recording locomotor activity and monitoring striatal glutamate release induced by cortical electrical stimulation in rats after administration of A2AR and CB1R antagonists, we did not find evidence for any significant role of endocannabinoids in the post- or presynaptic effects of A2AR antagonists. The present results further suggest the existence of at least two functionally and pharmacologically different populations of striatal postsynaptic A2ARs. PMID:21752341

  3. Cannabinoid receptor antagonists: pharmacological opportunities, clinical experience, and translational prognosis.

    PubMed

    Janero, David R; Makriyannis, Alexandros

    2009-03-01

    The endogenous cannabinoid (CB) (endocannabinoid) signaling system is involved in a variety of (patho)physiological processes, primarily by virtue of natural, arachidonic acid-derived lipids (endocannabinoids) that activate G protein-coupled CB1 and CB2 receptors. A hyperactive endocannabinoid system appears to contribute to the etiology of several disease states that constitute significant global threats to human health. Consequently, mounting interest surrounds the design and profiling of receptor-targeted CB antagonists as pharmacotherapeutics that attenuate endocannabinoid transmission for salutary gain. Experimental and clinical evidence supports the therapeutic potential of CB1 receptor antagonists to treat overweight/obesity, obesity-related cardiometabolic disorders, and substance abuse. Laboratory data suggest that CB2 receptor antagonists might be effective immunomodulatory and, perhaps, anti-inflammatory drugs. One CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist, rimonabant, has emerged as the first-in-class drug approved outside the United States for weight control. Select follow-on agents (taranabant, otenabant, surinabant, rosonabant, SLV-319, AVE1625, V24343) have also been studied in the clinic. However, rimonabant's market withdrawal in the European Union and suspension of rimonabant's, taranabant's, and otenabant's ongoing development programs have highlighted some adverse clinical side effects (especially nausea and psychiatric disturbances) of CB1 receptor antagonists/inverse agonists. Novel CB1 receptor ligands that are peripherally directed and/or exhibit neutral antagonism (the latter not affecting constitutive CB1 receptor signaling) may optimize the benefits of CB1 receptor antagonists while minimizing any risk. Indeed, CB1 receptor-neutral antagonists appear from preclinical data to offer efficacy comparable to or better than that of prototype CB1 receptor antagonists/inverse agonists, with less propensity to induce nausea. Continued

  4. Reduced adenosine A2a receptor-mediated efferent arteriolar vasodilation contributes to diabetes-induced glomerular hyperfiltration.

    PubMed

    Persson, Patrik; Hansell, Peter; Palm, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is associated with increased risk for development of kidney disease, and an increased glomerular filtration rate is an early indication of altered kidney function. Here we determine whether reduced adenosine A2a receptor-mediated vasodilation of the efferent arteriole contributes to the increased glomerular filtration rate in diabetes. The glomerular filtration rate, renal blood flow, and proximal tubular stop flow pressure were investigated in control and streptozotocin-diabetic rats during baseline and after administration of the adenosine A2a receptor antagonist ZM241385 or the adenosine A2a receptor agonist CGS21680. The diabetes-induced glomerular hyperfiltration was reduced by 24% following A2a receptor stimulation but was unaffected by A2a receptor inhibition. Contrarily, glomerular filtration rate in controls increased by 22% after A2a receptor inhibition and was unaffected by A2a stimulation. The increased glomerular filtration rate after A2a receptor inhibition in controls and decreased glomerular filtration rate after A2a receptor activation in diabetics were caused by increased and decreased stop flow pressure, respectively. None of the interventions affected renal blood flow. Thus, the normal adenosine A2a receptor-mediated tonic vasodilation of efferent arterioles is abolished in the diabetic kidney. This causes increased efferent arteriolar resistance resulting in increased filtration fraction and hyperfiltration.

  5. Multiple Targeting Approaches on Histamine H3 Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Khanfar, Mohammad A.; Affini, Anna; Lutsenko, Kiril; Nikolic, Katarina; Butini, Stefania; Stark, Holger

    2016-01-01

    With the very recent market approval of pitolisant (Wakix®), the interest in clinical applications of novel multifunctional histamine H3 receptor antagonists has clearly increased. Since histamine H3 receptor antagonists in clinical development have been tested for a variety of different indications, the combination of pharmacological properties in one molecule for improved pharmacological effects and reduced unwanted side-effects is rationally based on the increasing knowledge on the complex neurotransmitter regulations. The polypharmacological approaches on histamine H3 receptor antagonists on different G-protein coupled receptors, transporters, enzymes as well as on NO-signaling mechanism are described, supported with some lead structures. PMID:27303254

  6. Allosteric mechanisms within the adenosine A2A-dopamine D2 receptor heterotetramer

    PubMed Central

    Ferré, Sergi; Bonaventura, Jordi; Tomasi, Dardo; Navarro, Gemma; Moreno, Estefanía; Cortés, Antonio; Lluís, Carme; Casadó, Vicent; Volkow, Nora D.

    2017-01-01

    The structure constituted by a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) homodimer and a G protein provides a main functional unit and oligomeric entities can be viewed as multiples of dimers. For GPCR heteromers, experimental evidence supports a tetrameric structure, comprised of two different homodimers, each able to signal with its preferred G protein. GPCR homomers and heteromers can act as the conduit of allosteric interactions between orthosteric ligands. The well-known agonist/agonist allosteric interaction in the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) heteromer, by which A2AR agonists decrease the affinity of D2R agonists, gave the first rationale for the use of A2AR antagonists in Parkinson’s disease. We review new pharmacological findings that can be explained in the frame of a tetrameric structure of the A2AR-D2R heteromer: first, ligand-independent allosteric modulations by the D2R that result in changes of the binding properties of A2AR ligands; second, differential modulation of the intrinsic efficacy of D2R ligands for G protein-dependent and independent signaling; third, the canonical antagonistic Gs-Gi interaction within the frame of the heteromer; and fourth, the ability of A2AR antagonists, including caffeine, to also exert the same allosteric modulations of D2R ligands than A2AR agonists, while A2AR agonists and antagonists counteract each other’s effects. These findings can have important clinical implications when evaluating the use of A2AR antagonists. They also call for the need of monitoring caffeine intake when evaluating the effect of D2R ligands, when used as therapeutic agents in neuropsychiatric disorders or as probes in imaging studies. PMID:26051403

  7. Interaction between Antagonist of Cannabinoid Receptor and Antagonist of Adrenergic Receptor on Anxiety in Male Rat.

    PubMed

    Komaki, Alireza; Abdollahzadeh, Fatemeh; Sarihi, Abdolrahman; Shahidi, Siamak; Salehi, Iraj

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety is among the most common and treatable mental disorders. Adrenergic and cannabinoid systems have an important role in the neurobiology of anxiety. The elevated plus-maze (EPM) has broadly been used to investigate anxiolytic and anxiogenic compounds. The present study investigated the effects of intraperitoneal (IP) injection of cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist (AM251) in the presence of alpha-1 adrenergic antagonist (Prazosin) on rat behavior in the EPM. In this study, the data were obtained from male Wistar rat, which weighing 200- 250 g. Animal behavior in EPM were videotaped and saved in computer for 10 min after IP injection of saline, AM251 (0.3 mg/kg), Prazosin (0.3 mg/kg) and AM251 + Prazosin, subsequently scored for conventional indices of anxiety. During the test period, the number of open and closed arms entries, the percentage of entries into the open arms of the EPM, and the spent time in open and closed arms were recorded. Diazepam was considered as a positive control drug with anxiolytic effect (0.3, 0.6, 1.2 mg/kg). Diazepam increased the number of open arm entries and the percentage of spent time on the open arms. IP injection of AM251 before EPM trial decreased open arms exploration and open arm entry. Whereas, Prazosin increased open arms exploration and open arm entry. This study showed that both substances in simultaneous injection have conflicting effects on the responses of each of these two compounds in a single injection. Injection of CB1 receptor antagonist may have an anxiogenic profile in rat, whereas adrenergic antagonist has an anxiolytic effect. Further investigations are essential for better understanding of anxiolytic and anxiogenic properties and neurobiological mechanisms of action and probable interactions of the two systems.

  8. Diphenyl purine derivatives as peripherally selective cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Fulp, Alan; Bortoff, Katherine; Zhang, Yanan; Seltzman, Herbert; Mathews, James; Snyder, Rodney; Fennell, Tim; Maitra, Rangan

    2012-11-26

    Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) antagonists are potentially useful for the treatment of several diseases. However, clinical development of several CB1 antagonists was halted due to central nervous system (CNS)-related side effects including depression and suicidal ideation in some users. Recently, studies have indicated that selective regulation of CB1 receptors in the periphery is a viable strategy for treating several important disorders. Past efforts to develop peripherally selective antagonists of CB1 have largely targeted rimonabant, an inverse agonist of CB1. Reported here are our efforts toward developing a peripherally selective CB1 antagonist based on the otenabant scaffold. Even though otenabant penetrates the CNS, it is unique among CB1 antagonists that have been clinically tested because it has properties that are normally associated with peripherally selective compounds. Our efforts have resulted in an orally absorbed compound that is a potent and selective CB1 antagonist with limited penetration into the CNS.

  9. Diphenyl Purine Derivatives as Peripherally Selective Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Fulp, Alan; Bortoff, Katherine; Zhang, Yanan; Seltzman, Herbert; Mathews, James; Snyder, Rodney; Fennell, Tim; Maitra, Rangan

    2015-01-01

    Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) antagonists are potentially useful for the treatment of several diseases. However, clinical development of several CB1 antagonists was halted due to central nervous system (CNS)-related side effects including depression and suicidal ideation in some users. Recently, studies have indicated that selective regulation of CB1 receptors in the periphery is a viable strategy for treating several important disorders. Past efforts to develop peripherally selective antagonists of CB1 have largely targeted rimonabant, an inverse agonist of CB1. Reported here are our efforts toward developing a peripherally selective CB1 antagonist based on the otenabant scaffold. Even though otenabant penetrates the CNS, it is unique among CB1 antagonists that have been clinically tested because it has properties that are normally associated with peripherally selective compounds. Our efforts have resulted in an orally absorbed compound that is a potent and selective CB1 antagonist with limited penetration into the CNS. PMID:23098108

  10. Prostanoid receptor antagonists: development strategies and therapeutic applications

    PubMed Central

    Jones, RL; Giembycz, MA; Woodward, DF

    2009-01-01

    Identification of the primary products of cyclo-oxygenase (COX)/prostaglandin synthase(s), which occurred between 1958 and 1976, was followed by a classification system for prostanoid receptors (DP, EP1, EP2 …) based mainly on the pharmacological actions of natural and synthetic agonists and a few antagonists. The design of potent selective antagonists was rapid for certain prostanoid receptors (EP1, TP), slow for others (FP, IP) and has yet to be achieved in certain cases (EP2). While some antagonists are structurally related to the natural agonist, most recent compounds are ‘non-prostanoid’ (often acyl-sulphonamides) and have emerged from high-throughput screening of compound libraries, made possible by the development of (functional) assays involving single recombinant prostanoid receptors. Selective antagonists have been crucial to defining the roles of PGD2 (acting on DP1 and DP2 receptors) and PGE2 (on EP1 and EP4 receptors) in various inflammatory conditions; there are clear opportunities for therapeutic intervention. The vast endeavour on TP (thromboxane) antagonists is considered in relation to their limited pharmaceutical success in the cardiovascular area. Correspondingly, the clinical utility of IP (prostacyclin) antagonists is assessed in relation to the cloud hanging over the long-term safety of selective COX-2 inhibitors. Aspirin apart, COX inhibitors broadly suppress all prostanoid pathways, while high selectivity has been a major goal in receptor antagonist development; more targeted therapy may require an intermediate position with defined antagonist selectivity profiles. This review is intended to provide overviews of each antagonist class (including prostamide antagonists), covering major development strategies and current and potential clinical usage. PMID:19624532

  11. Fosinopril H(2)-receptor antagonists interaction studies by derivative spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Najma; Arayne, M Saeed; Sana, Aisha

    2007-01-01

    Fosinopril sodium, a phosphinic acid derivative is an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, which had been employed for the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure; long tem use of ACE inhibitor often result in stress ulcers due to which H(2) receptor antagonists are also concurrently prescribed. The later compete with histamine for H(2) receptors and block gastric acid secretion and some cardiovascular effects of histamine. Our studies are focused on the in vitro availability of fosinopril in presence of commonly used H(2) receptor antagonists. Derivative spectroscopy has been employed for the quantitation of fosinopril and H(2) receptor antagonists followed by linear regression analysis. These studies were carried out in buffers of pH 7.4 and 9 at 37, 48 and 60( masculine)C. Stability constant and thermodynamic function had also been calculated in order to evaluate the reaction mechanism. Commonly prescribed H(2) receptor antagonists like cimetidine, ranitidine and famotidine were used in these studies. Present study clearly indicated that most of the H(2) receptor antagonists studied decreased the availability of fosinopril which conclude that availability of fosinopril can be affected by the concurrent administration of H(2) receptor antagonists.

  12. A2A adenosine receptor ligand binding and signalling is allosterically modulated by adenosine deaminase.

    PubMed

    Gracia, Eduard; Pérez-Capote, Kamil; Moreno, Estefanía; Barkešová, Jana; Mallol, Josefa; Lluís, Carme; Franco, Rafael; Cortés, Antoni; Casadó, Vicent; Canela, Enric I

    2011-05-01

    A2ARs (adenosine A2A receptors) are highly enriched in the striatum, which is the main motor control CNS (central nervous system) area. BRET (bioluminescence resonance energy transfer) assays showed that A2AR homomers may act as cell-surface ADA (adenosine deaminase; EC 3.5.4.4)-binding proteins. ADA binding affected the quaternary structure of A2ARs present on the cell surface. ADA binding to adenosine A2ARs increased both agonist and antagonist affinity on ligand binding to striatal membranes where these proteins are co-expressed. ADA also increased receptor-mediated ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2) phosphorylation. Collectively, the results of the present study show that ADA, apart from regulating the concentration of extracellular adenosine, may behave as an allosteric modulator that markedly enhances ligand affinity and receptor function. This powerful regulation may have implications for the physiology and pharmacology of neuronal A2ARs.

  13. Histamine H4 receptor antagonists: the new antihistamines?

    PubMed

    Fung-Leung, Wai-Ping; Thurmond, Robin L; Ling, Ping; Karlsson, Lars

    2004-11-01

    Antihistamines (histamine H1 receptor antagonists) are a mainstay treatment for atopic allergy, yet they are only partially effective in relieving the symptoms of the disease. They also have very limited value for the treatment of asthma, despite the well-characterized bronchoconstrictory effects of histamine. The recent discovery of a fourth histamine receptor (H4), and the realization that it is exclusively expressed on hematopoietic cell types that are most implicated in the development and symptomatology of allergy and asthma, suggests that pharmacological targeting of the H4 receptor, either alone or in combination with H1 receptor antagonists, may prove useful for treating both allergy and asthma. Here we review the known biology associated with the H4 receptor, as well the effects of a highly selective H1 receptor antagonist.

  14. Prevention of Stimulant Induced Euphoria with an Opioid Receptor Antagonist

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0510 TITLE: Prevention of Stimulant Induced Euphoria with an Opioid Receptor Antagonist PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Prevention(of(Stimulant(Induced(Euphoria(with(an( Opioid (Receptor(Antagonist(( 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...naltrexone(in(medication(naïve(young(adults((age(18#30)(who(exhibit(a(euphoric( response(to(methylphenidate(administered(on(the(“ Drug (Feeling(Visit

  15. A role for a specific cholesterol interaction in stabilizing the Apo configuration of the human A(2A) adenosine receptor.

    PubMed

    Lyman, Edward; Higgs, Chris; Kim, Byungchan; Lupyan, Dmitry; Shelley, John C; Farid, Ramy; Voth, Gregory A

    2009-12-09

    The function of G-protein-coupled receptors is tightly modulated by the lipid environment. Long-timescale molecular dynamics simulations (totaling approximately 3 mus) of the A(2A) receptor in cholesterol-free bilayers, with and without the antagonist ZM241385 bound, demonstrate the instability of helix II in the apo receptor in cholesterol-poor membrane regions. We directly observe that the effect of cholesterol binding is to stabilize helix II against a buckling-type deformation, perhaps rationalizing the observation that the A(2A) receptor couples to G protein only in the presence of cholesterol (Zezula and Freissmuth, 2008). The results suggest a mechanism by which the A(2A) receptor may function as a coincidence detector, activating only in the presence of both cholesterol and agonist. We also observed a previously hypothesized conformation of the tryptophan "rotameric switch" on helix VI in which a phenylalanine on helix V positions the tryptophan out of the ligand binding pocket.

  16. In silico binding characteristics between human histamine H1 receptor and antagonists.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojian; Yang, Qian; Li, Minyong; Yin, Dali; You, Qidong

    2010-09-01

    It is widely acknowledged that the H(1) receptor antagonists have important therapeutic significance in the treatment of various allergic disorders, but little was known about the binding mode between the receptor and antagonists since the crystal structure of G-protein coupling receptors (GPCRs) were hard to obtain. In this paper, a theoretical three-dimensional model of human histamine H(1) receptor (HHR1) was developed on the basis of recently reported high resolution structures of human A(2A) adenosine receptor, human beta(2)-adrenoceptor and turkey beta(1)-adrenoceptor. Furthermore, three representative H(1) receptor antagonists were chosen for docking studies. Subsequently, a qualitative pharmacophore model was developed by Hiphop algorithm based on the docking conformations of these three antagonists. In this paper, active environment, certain key residues, and the corresponding pharmacophore features of H(1) receptor were identified by such combinations of receptor-based and ligand-based approaches, which would give sufficient guidance for the rational design of novel antihistamine agents.

  17. GDNF control of the glutamatergic cortico-striatal pathway requires tonic activation of adenosine A2A Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Catarina A.R.V.; Simões, Patrícia F.; Canas, Paula M.; Quiroz, César; Sebastião, Ana M.; Ferré, Sergi; Cunha, Rodrigo A.; Ribeiro, Joaquim A.

    2009-01-01

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) affords neuroprotection in Parkinson’s disease in accordance with its ability to bolster nigrostriatal innervation. We previously found that GDNF facilitates dopamine release in a manner dependent on adenosine A2A receptor activation. Since motor dysfunction also involves modifications of striatal glutamatergic innervation, we now tested if GDNF and its receptor system, Ret (rearranged during transfection) and GFRα1 (GDNF family receptor alpha 1) controlled the cortico-striatal glutamatergic pathway in an A2A receptor-dependent manner. GDNF (10 ng/ml) enhanced (by ≈13%) glutamate release from rat striatal nerve endings, an effect potentiated (up to ≈ 30%) by the A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680 (10 nM) and prevented by the A2A receptor antagonist, SCH 58261 (50 nM). Triple immunocytochemical studies revealed that Ret and GFRα1 were located in 50% of rat striatal glutamatergic terminals (immunopositive for vesicular glutamate transporters-1/2), where they were found to be co-located with A2A receptors. Activation of the glutamatergic system upon in vivo electrical stimulation of the rat cortico-striatal input induced striatal Ret phosphoprylation that was prevented by pre-treatment with the A2A receptor antagonist, MSX-3 (3 mg/kg). The results provide the first functional and morphological evidence that GDNF controls cortico-striatal glutamatergic pathways in a manner largely dependent on the co-activation of adenosine A2A receptors. PMID:19141075

  18. 3H-[1,2,4]-Triazolo[5,1-i]purin-5-amine derivatives as adenosine A2A antagonists.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Lisa S; Caldwell, John P; Greenlee, William J; Kiselgof, Eugenia; Matasi, Julius J; Tulshian, Deen B; Arik, Leyla; Foster, Carolyn; Bertorelli, Rosalia; Monopoli, Angela; Ongini, Ennio

    2007-03-15

    A novel series of 3-substituted-8-aryl-[1,2,4]-triazolo[5,1-i]purin-5-amine analogs related to Sch 58261 was synthesized in order to identify potent adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists with improved selectivity over the A(1) receptor, physiochemical properties, and pharmacokinetic profiles as compared to those of Sch 58261. As a result of structural modifications, numerous analogs with excellent in vitro binding affinities and selectivities were identified. Moreover, compound 27 displayed both superior in vitro and highly promising in vivo profiles.

  19. The effect of H₁ and H₂ receptor antagonists on melanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Anbar, Tag S; Westerhof, Wiete; Badawy, Nafisa A; Abdel-Rahman, Amal T; Abd El-Raheem, Talal A; Sayed, Saadea R; Ali, Azza H; Salem, Hossam

    2012-01-01

    Histamine was found to stimulate melanogenesis in cultured human melanocytes specifically mediated by histamine H 2 receptors via protein kinase A activation. Based on this finding, the effect of topically applied H 2 antagonist on UVB-irradiated Guinea pigs' skin was examined and found to be suppressive on the post-irradiation melanogenesis. In this study, we tried to explore the role of topically applied H 1 and H 2 receptor antagonists, in inhibition of UVB-induced melanization. The effect of topically applied H 1 and H 2 receptor antagonists in inhibition of melanization was done clinically and histochemically using Fontana Masson and DOPA reactions compared with placebo. The post-irradiation pigmentation was found to be brownish/black instead of the original light brown color. This color change occurred below the shaved orange-red fur suggesting a switch of melanogenesis from pheomelanin to eumelanin. The induced pigmentation was suppressed by topically applied H 2 antagonist while both H 1 antagonist and vehicle had no effect. The microscopic examination showed that the keratinocytes in the H 2 antagonist-treated areas contained few melanosomes while the nearby dendrites are full of them. H 2 antagonists' inhibition of UVB-induced pigmentation is not only due to suppression of melanization but also due to a specific action on melanosomes' transfer.

  20. Effect of H2-receptor antagonists on bile acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Shindo, K; Fukumura, M

    1995-04-01

    Several reports have been presented concerning pronounced overgrowth of bacteria in gastric juices of patients treated with H2-receptor antagonists. However, there has been no report concerning influence of H2-receptor antagonists on jejunal flora. Thus, to investigate the influence and its effect on bile acid metabolism, this study was performed: 1) to examine whether patients with gastric ulcers who have been treated with H2-receptor antagonists have positive bile acid breath tests due to bacterial overgrowth in their jejuna; 2) to verify that these bacteria, isolated and identified, have deconjugation ability; and 3) to determine whether the changes in the gastric pH are related to bacterial overgrowth. The methods used were detection of deconjugation of bile acids in early phase by a bile acid breath test using 5 muCi of oral glycine-1-14C labeled glycocholate, aspiration of jejunal fluids by a double lumen tube with a rubber cover on the tip, and examination of deconjugation ability by thin layer chromatography. Expired breath samples from all 18 patients after administration of H2-receptor antagonists showed a significant increase in 14CO2 specific activity compared with those before administration of H2-receptor antagonist and the normal controls, and bacterial overgrowth was found in the jejunal fluid of the patients after administration of H2-receptor antagonist. The administration of tetracycline to the 18 patients reduced the 14CO2 specific activity significantly. The following species were identified in the jejunal fluid samples obtained from the patients: Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, enterococcus, Lactobacillus bifidus, Bacteroides vulgatus, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides uniformis, Eubacterium lentum, and Eubacterium parvum. All of the species identified except for Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans deconjugated bile acids. There were significant correlations between the 14CO2

  1. Non-NMDA receptor antagonist-induced drinking in rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Z.; Johnson, A. K.

    1998-01-01

    Glutamate has been implicated in the central control of mechanisms that maintain body fluid homeostasis. The present studies demonstrate that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of the non-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists 6, 7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX) and 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3 dione (CNQX) induce drinking in rats. The dipsogenic effect of i.c.v. DNQX was antagonized by the non-NMDA receptor agonist alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA). The water intake induced by DNQX was also blocked by pretreatment with a NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, but not by angiotensin type 1 (AT1) or acetylcholine muscarinic receptor antagonists (losartan and atropine). The results indicate that non-NMDA receptors may exert a tonic inhibitory effect within brain circuits that control dipsogenic activity and that functional integrity of NMDA receptors may be required for the non-NMDA receptor antagonists to induce water intake. Copyright 1998 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  2. Adenosine A2A receptor ligand recognition and signaling is blocked by A2B receptors.

    PubMed

    Hinz, Sonja; Navarro, Gemma; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel; Seibt, Benjamin F; Ammon, York-Christoph; de Filippo, Elisabetta; Danish, Azeem; Lacher, Svenja K; Červinková, Barbora; Rafehi, Muhammad; Fuxe, Kjell; Schiedel, Anke C; Franco, Rafael; Müller, Christa E

    2018-03-02

    The adenosine receptor (AR) subtypes A 2A and A 2B are rhodopsin-like G s protein-coupled receptors whose expression is highly regulated under pathological, e.g. hypoxic, ischemic and inflammatory conditions. Both receptors play important roles in inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases, are blocked by caffeine, and have now become major drug targets in immuno-oncology. By Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET), bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and proximity ligation assays (PLA) we demonstrated A 2A -A 2B AR heteromeric complex formation. Moreover we observed a dramatically altered pharmacology of the A 2A AR when co-expressed with the A 2B AR (A 2B ≥ A 2A ) in recombinant as well as in native cells. In the presence of A 2B ARs, A 2A -selective ligands lost high affinity binding to A 2A ARs and displayed strongly reduced potency in cAMP accumulation and dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) assays. These results have major implications for the use of A 2A AR ligands as drugs as they will fail to modulate the receptor in an A 2A -A 2B heteromer context. Accordingly, A 2A -A 2B AR heteromers represent novel pharmacological targets.

  3. Third Generation Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists; Why We Need a Fourth

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Sanchez, Elise

    2015-01-01

    The first mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist, spironolactone, was developed almost 60 years ago to treat primary aldosteronism and pathological edema. Its use waned in part due to its lack of selectivity. Subsequently knowledge of the scope of MR function was expanded along with clinical evidence of the therapeutic importance of MR antagonists to prevent the ravages of inappropriate MR activation. Forty-two years elapsed between the first and MR-selective second generation of MR antagonists. Fifteen years later, despite serious shortcomings of the existing antagonists, a third generation antagonist has yet to be marketed. Progress has been slowed by the lack of appreciation of the large variety of cell types that express the MR and its diverse cell-type-specific actions, as well as its uniquely complex interactions actions at the molecular level. New MR antagonists should preferentially target the inflammatory and fibrotic effects of MR and perhaps its excitatory effects on sympathetic nervous system, but not the renal tubular epithelium or neurons of the cortex and hippocampus. This review briefly describes efforts to develop a third generation MR antagonist and why fourth generation antagonists and selective agonists based on structural determinants of tissue and ligand-specific MR activation should be contemplated. PMID:26466326

  4. Endothelin receptor antagonists influence cardiovascular morphology in uremic rats.

    PubMed

    Nabokov, A V; Amann, K; Wessels, S; Münter, K; Wagner, J; Ritz, E

    1999-02-01

    In is generally held that renal failure results in blood pressure (BP)-independent structural changes of the myocardium and the vasculature. The contribution, if any, of endothelin (ET) to these changes has been unknown. We morphometrically studied random samples of the left ventricle myocardium and small intramyocardial arteries in subtotally (5/6) nephrectomized (SNx) male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with either the selective ETA receptor antagonist BMS182874 (30 mg/kg/day) or the nonselective ETA/ETB receptor antagonist Ro46-2005 (30 mg/kg/day) in comparison with either sham-operated rats, untreated SNx, or SNx rats treated with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor trandolapril (0.1 mg/kg/day). Eight weeks later, systolic BP was lower in trandolapril-treated SNx compared with untreated SNx animals. No decrease in BP was seen following either ET receptor antagonist at the dose used. A significantly increased volume density of the myocardial interstitium was found in untreated SNx rats as compared with sham-operated controls. Such interstitial expansion was prevented by trandolapril and either ET receptor antagonist. SNx caused a substantial increase in the wall thickness of small intramyocardial arteries. The increase was prevented by trandolapril or BMS182874 treatment. The arteriolar wall:lumen ratio was significantly lower in all treated groups when compared with untreated SNx. In contrast, only trandolapril, but not the ET receptor antagonists, attenuated thickening of the aortic media in SNx animals. The ETA-selective and ETA/ETB-nonselective receptor antagonists appear to prevent development of myocardial fibrosis and structural changes of small intramyocardial arteries in experimental chronic renal failure. This effect is independent of systemic BP.

  5. Histamine 2 Receptor Antagonists and Proton Pump Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Brinkworth, Megan D; Aouthmany, Mouhammad; Sheehan, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Within the last 50 years, the pharmacologic market for gastric disease has grown exponentially. Currently, medical management with histamine 2 receptor antagonist and proton pump inhibitors are the mainstay of therapy over surgical intervention. These are generally regarded as safe medications, but there are growing numbers of cases documenting adverse effects, especially those manifesting in the skin. Here we review the pharmacology, common clinical applications, and adverse reactions of both histamine 2 receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors with a particular focus on the potential for allergic reactions including allergic contact dermatitis.

  6. Teratogenicity with angiotensin II receptor antagonists in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Boix, E; Zapater, P; Picó, A; Moreno, O

    2005-12-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II (AT-II)-receptor-antagonists have been demonstrated to cause fetotoxicity when administered to women during the second and third trimester of pregnancy. Although use of ACE inhibitors during the first trimester of pregnancy seems to be safe, with no associated teratogenicity, there is not sufficient information regarding the safety of first-trimester exposure to AT-II-receptor-antagonists. We report a case of exencephaly and unilateral renal agenesia in a fetus of a diabetic woman who became pregnant while taking irbesartan.

  7. Adenosine A(2A) agonist and A(2B) antagonist mediate an inhibition of inflammation-induced contractile disturbance of a rat gastrointestinal preparation.

    PubMed

    Michael, Sebastian; Warstat, Claudia; Michel, Fabien; Yan, Luo; Müller, Christa E; Nieber, Karen

    2010-03-01

    Adenosine can show anti-inflammatory as well as pro-inflammatory activities. The contribution of the specific adenosine receptor subtypes in various cells, tissues and organs is complex. In this study, we examined the effect of the adenosine A(2A) receptor agonist CGS 21680 and the A(2B)R antagonist PSB-1115 on acute inflammation induced experimentally by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) on rat ileum/jejunum preparations. Pre-incubation of the ileum/jejunum segments with TNBS for 30 min resulted in a concentration-dependent inhibition of acetylcholine (ACh)-induced contractions. Pharmacological activation of the A(2A)R with CGS 21680 (0.1-10 microM) pre-incubated simultaneously with TNBS (10 mM) prevented concentration-dependently the TNBS-induced inhibition of the ACh contractions. Stimulation of A(2B)R with the selective agonist BAY 60-6583 (10 microM) did neither result in an increase nor in a further decrease of ACh-induced contractions compared to the TNBS-induced inhibition. The simultaneous pre-incubation of the ileum/jejunum segments with TNBS (10 mM) and the selective A(2B)R antagonist PSB-1115 (100 microM) inhibited the contraction-decreasing effect of TNBS. The effects of the A(2A)R agonist and the A(2B)R antagonist were in the same range as the effect induced by 1 microM methotrexate. The combination of the A(2A)R agonist CGS 21680 and the A(2B)R antagonist PSB-1115 at subthreshold concentrations of both agents found a significant amelioration of the TNBS-diminished contractility. Our results demonstrate that the activation of A(2A) receptors or the blockade of the A(2B) receptors can prevent the inflammation-induced disturbance of the ACh-induced contraction in TNBS pre-treated small intestinal preparations. The combination of both may be useful for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases.

  8. Indications for the use of parenteral H2-receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J C; Walker, J P

    1984-11-19

    Development of acute mucosal ulceration is a complex series of catabolic interactions. Hospitalized patients with duodenal or gastric ulcer, pathologic gastric hypersecretory states (such as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome), gastric outlet obstruction, esophagitis, severe gastritis or duodenitis, sepsis, trauma (particularly head injury or burns), and some patients receiving high-dose corticosteroids are at risk of developing acute stress ulcers. Treatment should be initiated as soon as the patient is identified as being at risk, because measures designed to prevent bleeding or perforation are more effective than those designed to stop bleeding once it supervenes and the cascade of multiple organ failure commences. The presence of acid will trigger the onset of this condition; however, ulceration will not occur if the intraluminal pH can be maintained above 5 by periodic antacid treatment or by H2-receptor blockade. The dosing regimen of antacid or of H2-receptor antagonist should not be fixed, but should be sufficient to keep the gastric pH higher than 5. Antagonists administered via a nasogastric tube are the first line of defense, but 30 to 50 percent of the most ill patients will also be treated parenterally with H2-receptor antagonists. Parenteral H2-receptor blockade therapy is indicated in these patients when the risk of acute or continued ulceration of esophageal, gastric, or duodenal mucosa is high and the oral administration of medication is either not possible or the response to such therapy is unreliable. Parenteral H2-receptor antagonists are rarely administered alone.

  9. Neuroprotection by NMDA receptor antagonists in a variety of neuropathologies.

    PubMed

    Palmer, G C

    2001-09-01

    Because of adverse reactions, early efforts to introduce high affinity competitive or use-dependent NMDA receptor antagonists into patients suffering from stroke, head trauma or epilepsy met with failure. Later it was discovered that both low affinity use-dependent NMDA receptor antagonists and compounds with selective affinity for the NR2B receptor subunit met the criteria for safe administration into patients. Furthermore, these low affinity antagonists exhibit significant mechanistic differences from their higher affinity counterparts. Success of the latter is attested to the ability of the following low affinity compounds to be marketed: 1) Cough suppressant-dextromethorphan (available for decades); 2) Parkinson's disease--amantadine, memantine and budipine; 3) Dementia--memantine; and 4) Epilepsy--felbamate. Moreover, Phase III clinical trials are ongoing with remacemide for epilepsy and Huntington's disease and head trauma for HU-211. A host of compounds are or were under evaluation for the possible treatment of stroke, head trauma, hyperalgesia and various neurodegenerative disorders. Despite the fact that other drugs with associated NMDA receptor mechanisms have reached clinical status, this review focuses only on those competitive and use-dependent NMDA receptor antagonists that reached clinical trails. The ensuing discussions link the in vivo pharmacological investigations that led to the success/mistakes/ failures for eventual testing of promising compounds in the clinic.

  10. Endothelin-1 and endothelin receptor antagonists in cardiovascular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Kirchengast, M; Münter, K

    1999-09-01

    Endothelins build a peptide family composed of three isoforms, each of them containing 21 amino acids. Endothelin-1 is the isoform mainly responsible for any cardiovascular action and therefore the sole scope of this review. Endothelin-1 is the most potent endogenous vasoconstrictor known; in addition it acts as a potent (co)mitogen. There is a substantial body of experimental evidence that endothelin-1 may contribute not only to sustained vasoconstriction, but also to remodeling within the cardiovascular system. Thus, with the help of endothelin receptor antagonists (available for a few years) the involvement of mainly ETA receptors in structural diseases such as heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, atherosclerosis, restenosis, systemic hypertension, and chronic renal failure has been shown. These data make endothelin receptor antagonists, and especially those selective for the ETA receptor, promising agents for the treatment of chronic cardiovascular diseases associated with remodeling. Currently several chemically distinct, orally available members of this novel class of therapeutic agents are under clinical investigation.

  11. Disubstituted piperidines as potent Orexin (hypocretin) receptor antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Rong; Song, Xinyi; Bali, Purva; Smith, Anthony; Bayona, Claudia Ruiz; Lin, Li; Cameron, Michael D.; McDonald, Patricia H.; Kenny, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    A series of orexin receptor antagonists was synthesized based on a substituted piperidine scaffold. Through traditional medicinal chemistry structure activity relationships (SAR), installation of various groups at the 3–6-positions of the piperidine led to modest enhancement in receptor selectivity. Compounds were profiled in vivo for plasma and brain levels in order to identify candidates suitable for efficacy in a model of drug addiction. PMID:22617492

  12. The plant hormone zeatin riboside inhibits T lymphocyte activity via adenosine A2A receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Lappas, Courtney M

    2015-01-01

    Cytokinins are plant hormones that play an integral role in multiple aspects of plant growth and development. The biological functions of cytokinins in mammalian systems are, however, largely uncharacterized. The naturally occurring cytokinin zeatin riboside has recently been demonstrated to activate the mammalian adenosine A(2A) receptor, which is broadly expressed by various cell types including immune system cells, with the activation of the A(2A)R playing a role in the regulation of cells involved in both innate and adaptive immunity. We show for the first time that zeatin riboside modulates mammalian immune system activity via an A(2A)R-dependent mechanism. Specifically, zeatin riboside treatment induces the production of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) by T lymphocytes and inhibits the production by CD3(+)CD4(+) T cells of interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-2, tumor-necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-4 and IL-13, and the production by CD3(+)CD8(+) T cells of IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF-α. Additionally, the upregulation of CD25, CD69 and CD40L by activated T lymphocytes is modulated by zeatin riboside. Zeatin riboside treatment also potently inhibits thioglycollate-induced peritoneal leukocytosis. The immunomodulatory activities of zeatin riboside are blocked by co-treatment with the selective A(2A)R antagonist ZM241385. These data suggest that zeatin riboside possesses therapeutic potential as a mammalian immunomodulatory agent.

  13. Attenuation in rats of impairments of memory by scopolamine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, by mecamylamine, a nicotinic receptor antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Newman, L. A.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Scopolamine, a muscarinic antagonist, impairs learning and memory for many tasks, supporting an important role for the cholinergic system in these cognitive functions. The findings are most often interpreted to indicate that a decrease in postsynaptic muscarinic receptor activation mediates the memory impairments. However, scopolamine also results in increased release of acetylcholine in the brain as a result of blocking presynaptic muscarinic receptors. Objectives The present experiments assess whether scopolamine-induced increases in acetylcholine release may impair memory by overstimulating postsynaptic cholinergic nicotinic receptors, i.e., by reaching the high end of a nicotinic receptor activation inverted-U dose-response function. Results Rats tested in a spontaneous alternation task showed dose-dependent working memory deficits with systemic injections of mecamylamine and scopolamine. When an amnestic dose of scopolamine (0.15 mg/kg) was co-administered with a subamnestic dose of mecamylamine (0.25 mg/kg), this dose of mecamylamine significantly attenuated the scopolamine-induced memory impairments. We next assessed the levels of acetylcholine release in the hippocampus in the presence of scopolamine and mecamylamine. Mecamylamine injections resulted in decreased release of acetylcholine, while scopolamine administration caused a large increase in acetylcholine release. Conclusions These findings indicate that a nicotinic antagonist can attenuate impairments in memory produced by a muscarinic antagonist. The nicotinic antagonist may block excessive activation of nicotinic receptors postsynaptically or attenuate increases in acetylcholine release presynaptically. Either effect of a nicotinic antagonist—to decrease scopolamine-induced increases in acetylcholine output or to decrease post-synaptic acetylcholine receptor activation—may mediate the negative effects on memory of muscarinic antagonists. PMID:26660295

  14. Up-regulation of striatal adenosine A2A receptors with iron deficiency in rats. Effects on locomotion and cortico-striatal neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Quiroz, César; Pearson, Virginia; Gulyani, Seema; Allen, Richard; Earley, Christopher; Ferré, Sergi

    2010-01-01

    Brain iron deficiency leads to altered dopaminergic function in experimental animals, which can provide a mechanistic explanation for iron deficiency-related human sensory-motor disorders, such as Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS). However, mechanisms linking both conditions have not been determined. Considering the strong modulation exerted by adenosine on dopamine signaling, one connection could involve changes in adenosine receptor expression or function. In the striatum, presynaptic A2A receptors are localized in glutamatergic terminals contacting GABAergic dynorphinergic neurons and their function can be analyzed by the ability of A2A receptor antagonists to block the motor output induced by cortical electrical stimulation. Postsynaptic A2A receptors are localized in the dendritic field of GABAergic enkephalinergic neurons and their function can be analyzed by studying the ability of A2A receptor antagonists to produce locomotor activity and to counteract striatal ERK1/2 phosphorylation induced by cortical electrical stimulation. Increased density of striatal A2A receptors was found in rats fed during three weeks with an iron-deficient diet during the post-weaning period. In iron-deficient rats, the selective A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3, at doses of 1 and 3 mg/kg, was more effective at blocking motor output induced by cortical electrical stimulation (presynaptic A2A receptor-mediated effect) and at enhancing locomotor activation and blocking striatal ERK phosphorylation induced by cortical electrical stimulation (postsynaptic A2A receptor-mediated effects). These results indicate that brain iron deficiency induces a functional up-regulation of both striatal pre- and postsynaptic A2A receptor, which could be involved in sensory-motor disorders associated with iron deficiency such as RLS. PMID:20385128

  15. Up-regulation of striatal adenosine A(2A) receptors with iron deficiency in rats: effects on locomotion and cortico-striatal neurotransmission.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, César; Pearson, Virginia; Gulyani, Seema; Allen, Richard; Earley, Christopher; Ferré, Sergi

    2010-07-01

    Brain iron deficiency leads to altered dopaminergic function in experimental animals, which can provide a mechanistic explanation for iron deficiency-related human sensory-motor disorders, such as Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS). However, mechanisms linking both conditions have not been determined. Considering the strong modulation exerted by adenosine on dopamine signaling, one connection could involve changes in adenosine receptor expression or function. In the striatum, presynaptic A(2A) receptors are localized in glutamatergic terminals contacting GABAergic dynorphinergic neurons and their function can be analyzed by the ability of A(2A) receptor antagonists to block the motor output induced by cortical electrical stimulation. Postsynaptic A(2A) receptors are localized in the dendritic field of GABAergic enkephalinergic neurons and their function can be analyzed by studying the ability of A(2A) receptor antagonists to produce locomotor activity and to counteract striatal ERK1/2 phosphorylation induced by cortical electrical stimulation. Increased density of striatal A(2A) receptors was found in rats fed during 3 weeks with an iron-deficient diet during the post-weaning period. In iron-deficient rats, the selective A(2A) receptor antagonist MSX-3, at doses of 1 and 3 mg/kg, was more effective at blocking motor output induced by cortical electrical stimulation (presynaptic A(2A) receptor-mediated effect) and at enhancing locomotor activation and blocking striatal ERK phosphorylation induced by cortical electrical stimulation (postsynaptic A(2A) receptor-mediated effects). These results indicate that brain iron deficiency induces a functional up-regulation of both striatal pre- and postsynaptic A(2A) receptor, which could be involved in sensory-motor disorders associated with iron deficiency such as RLS. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Progesterone receptor isoforms, agonists and antagonists differentially reprogram estrogen signaling.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Hari; Greene, Marianne E; Zarnke, Allison L; Laine, Muriel; Al Abosy, Rose; Chang, Ya-Fang; Dembo, Anna G; Schoenfelt, Kelly; Vadhi, Raga; Qiu, Xintao; Rao, Prakash; Santhamma, Bindu; Nair, Hareesh B; Nickisch, Klaus J; Long, Henry W; Becker, Lev; Brown, Myles; Greene, Geoffrey L

    2018-01-12

    Major roadblocks to developing effective progesterone receptor (PR)-targeted therapies in breast cancer include the lack of highly-specific PR modulators, a poor understanding of the pro- or anti-tumorigenic networks for PR isoforms and ligands, and an incomplete understanding of the cross talk between PR and estrogen receptor (ER) signaling. Through genomic analyses of xenografts treated with various clinically-relevant ER and PR-targeting drugs, we describe how the activation or inhibition of PR differentially reprograms estrogen signaling, resulting in the segregation of transcriptomes into separate PR agonist and antagonist-mediated groups. These findings address an ongoing controversy regarding the clinical utility of PR agonists and antagonists, alone or in combination with tamoxifen, for breast cancer management. Additionally, the two PR isoforms PRA and PRB, bind distinct but overlapping genomic sites and interact with different sets of co-regulators to differentially modulate estrogen signaling to be either pro- or anti-tumorigenic. Of the two isoforms, PRA inhibited gene expression and ER chromatin binding significantly more than PRB. Differential gene expression was observed in PRA and PRB-rich patient tumors and PRA-rich gene signatures had poorer survival outcomes. In support of antiprogestin responsiveness of PRA-rich tumors, gene signatures associated with PR antagonists, but not PR agonists, predicted better survival outcomes. The better patient survival associated with PR antagonists versus PR agonists treatments was further reflected in the higher in vivo anti-tumor activity of therapies that combine tamoxifen with PR antagonists and modulators. This study suggests that distinguishing common effects observed due to concomitant interaction of another receptor with its ligand (agonist or antagonist), from unique isoform and ligand-specific effects will inform the development of biomarkers for patient selection and translation of PR

  17. Progesterone receptor isoforms, agonists and antagonists differentially reprogram estrogen signaling

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Hari; Greene, Marianne E.; Zarnke, Allison L.; Laine, Muriel; Al Abosy, Rose; Chang, Ya-Fang; Dembo, Anna G.; Schoenfelt, Kelly; Vadhi, Raga; Qiu, Xintao; Rao, Prakash; Santhamma, Bindu; Nair, Hareesh B.; Nickisch, Klaus J.; Long, Henry W.; Becker, Lev; Brown, Myles; Greene, Geoffrey L.

    2018-01-01

    Major roadblocks to developing effective progesterone receptor (PR)-targeted therapies in breast cancer include the lack of highly-specific PR modulators, a poor understanding of the pro- or anti-tumorigenic networks for PR isoforms and ligands, and an incomplete understanding of the cross talk between PR and estrogen receptor (ER) signaling. Through genomic analyses of xenografts treated with various clinically-relevant ER and PR-targeting drugs, we describe how the activation or inhibition of PR differentially reprograms estrogen signaling, resulting in the segregation of transcriptomes into separate PR agonist and antagonist-mediated groups. These findings address an ongoing controversy regarding the clinical utility of PR agonists and antagonists, alone or in combination with tamoxifen, for breast cancer management. Additionally, the two PR isoforms PRA and PRB, bind distinct but overlapping genomic sites and interact with different sets of co-regulators to differentially modulate estrogen signaling to be either pro- or anti-tumorigenic. Of the two isoforms, PRA inhibited gene expression and ER chromatin binding significantly more than PRB. Differential gene expression was observed in PRA and PRB-rich patient tumors and PRA-rich gene signatures had poorer survival outcomes. In support of antiprogestin responsiveness of PRA-rich tumors, gene signatures associated with PR antagonists, but not PR agonists, predicted better survival outcomes. The better patient survival associated with PR antagonists versus PR agonists treatments was further reflected in the higher in vivo anti-tumor activity of therapies that combine tamoxifen with PR antagonists and modulators. This study suggests that distinguishing common effects observed due to concomitant interaction of another receptor with its ligand (agonist or antagonist), from unique isoform and ligand-specific effects will inform the development of biomarkers for patient selection and translation of PR

  18. Clinical Development of Histamine H4Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Thurmond, Robin L; Venable, Jennifer; Savall, Brad; La, David; Snook, Sandra; Dunford, Paul J; Edwards, James P

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of the histamine H 4 receptor (H 4 R) provided a new avenue for the exploration of the physiological role of histamine, as well as providing a new drug target for the development of novel antihistamines. The first step in this process was the identification of selective antagonists to help unravel the pharmacology of the H 4 R relative to other histamine receptors. The discovery of the selective H 4 R antagonist JNJ 7777120 was vital for showing a role for the H 4 R in inflammation and pruritus. While this compound has been very successful as a tool for understanding the function of the receptor, it has drawbacks, including a short in vivo half-life and hypoadrenocorticism toxicity in rats and dogs, that prevented advancing it into clinical studies. Further research let to the discovery of JNJ 39758979, which, similar to JNJ 7777120, was a potent and selective H 4 R antagonist and showed anti-inflammatory and anti-pruritic activity preclinically. JNJ 39758979 advanced into human clinical studies and showed efficacy in reducing experimental pruritus and in patients with atopic dermatitis. However, development of this compound was terminated due to the occurrence of drug-induced agranulocytosis. This was overcome by developing another H 4 R antagonist with a different chemical structure, toreforant, that does not appear to have this side effect. Toreforant has been tested in clinical studies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, or psoriasis. In conclusions there have been many H 4 R antagonists reported in the literature, but only a few have been studied in humans underscoring the difficulty in finding ligands with all of the properties necessary for testing in the clinic. Nevertheless, the clinical data to date suggests that H 4 R antagonists can be beneficial in treating atopic dermatitis and pruritus.

  19. Interactions between Calmodulin, Adenosine A2A, and Dopamine D2 Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Gemma; Aymerich, Marisol S.; Marcellino, Daniel; Cortés, Antoni; Casadó, Vicent; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I.; Agnati, Luigi; Woods, Amina S.; Fuxe, Kjell; Lluís, Carmen; Lanciego, Jose Luis; Ferré, Sergi; Franco, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    The Ca2+-binding protein calmodulin (CaM) has been shown to bind directly to cytoplasmic domains of some G protein-coupled receptors, including the dopamine D2 receptor. CaM binds to the N-terminal portion of the long third intracellular loop of the D2 receptor, within an Arg-rich epitope that is also involved in the binding to Gi/o proteins and to the adenosine A2A receptor, with the formation of A2A-D2 receptor heteromers. In the present work, by using proteomics and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) techniques, we provide evidence for the binding of CaM to the A2A receptor. By using BRET and sequential resonance energy transfer techniques, evidence was obtained for CaM-A2A-D2 receptor oligomerization. BRET competition experiments indicated that, in the A2A-D2 receptor heteromer, CaM binds preferentially to a proximal C terminus epitope of the A2A receptor. Furthermore, Ca2+ was found to induce conformational changes in the CaM-A2A-D2 receptor oligomer and to selectively modulate A2A and D2 receptor-mediated MAPK signaling in the A2A-D2 receptor heteromer. These results may have implications for basal ganglia disorders, since A2A-D2 receptor heteromers are being considered as a target for anti-parkinsonian agents. PMID:19632986

  20. Exploring an interaction of adenosine A2A receptor variability with coffee and tea intake in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Tan, E K; Lu, Z Y; Fook-Chong, S M C; Tan, E; Shen, H; Chua, E; Yih, Y; Teo, Y Y; Zhao, Y

    2006-09-05

    Caffeine is an adenosine receptor A1 and A2A receptor antagonist and a putative functional genetic variant of the A2A receptor (2592C > Tins) mediates caffeine-induced anxiety. Here we investigated the potential interaction of this A2A genetic variant with the quantity of coffee and tea intake and their relationship with the risk of PD. A total of 441 subjects consisting of 222 PD and 219 race, gender and age matched controls were included. A multivariate analysis of the variables including the 2592C > Tins A2A genotypes, age of onset, gender, and the quantity of tea and coffee intake, interaction of the A2A genotypes with coffee intake, interaction of A2A genotypes with tea intake demonstrated the quantity of coffee intake to be significantly associated with PD (P < 0.0005, OR = 0.922, 95% CI: 0.881, 0.964). However, there was no significant interaction of the A2A genotypes with the quantity of coffee and tea intake in modulating the risk of PD. The dose dependent protective effect of coffee intake in PD was independent of the 2592C > Tins A2A genotype suggesting that the pharmacogenetic action of caffeine in PD may be mediated differently from other caffeine-induced neurologic syndromes.

  1. Ligand-dependent oligomerization of dopamine D(2) and adenosine A(2A) receptors in living neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Vidi, Pierre-Alexandre; Chemel, Benjamin R; Hu, Chang-Deng; Watts, Val J

    2008-09-01

    Adenosine A(2A) and dopamine D(2) receptors (A(2A) and D(2)) associate in homo- and heteromeric complexes in the striatum, providing a structural basis for their mutual antagonism. At the cellular level, the portion of receptors engaging in homo- and heteromers, as well as the effect of persistent receptor activation or antagonism on the cell oligomer repertoire, are largely unknown. We have used bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) to visualize A(2A) and D(2) oligomerization in the Cath.a differentiated neuronal cell model. Receptor fusions to BiFC fluorescent protein fragments retained their function when expressed alone or in A(2A)/A(2A), D(2)/D(2), and A(2A)/D(2) BiFC pairs. Robust fluorescence complementation reflecting A(2A)/D(2) heteromers was detected at the cell membrane as well as in endosomes. In contrast, weaker BiFC signals, largely confined to intracellular domains, were detected with A(2A)/dopamine D(1) BiFC pairs. Multicolor BiFC was used to simultaneously visualize A(2A) and D(2) homo- and heteromers in living cells and to examine drug-induced changes in receptor oligomers. Prolonged D(2) stimulation with quinpirole lead to the internalization of D(2)/D(2) and A(2A)/D(2) oligomers and resulted in decreased A(2A)/D(2) relative to A(2A)/A(2A) oligomer formation. Opposing effects were observed in cells treated with D(2) antagonists or with the A(2A) agonist 5'-N-methylcarboxamidoadenosine (MECA). Subsequent radioreceptor binding analysis indicated that the drug-induced changes in oligomer formation were not readily explained by alterations in receptor density. These observations support the hypothesis that long-term drug exposure differentially alters A(2A)/D(2) receptor oligomerization and provide the first demonstration for the use of BiFC to monitor drug-modulated GPCR oligomerization.

  2. μ Opioid receptor: novel antagonists and structural modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaserer, Teresa; Lantero, Aquilino; Schmidhammer, Helmut; Spetea, Mariana; Schuster, Daniela

    2016-02-01

    The μ opioid receptor (MOR) is a prominent member of the G protein-coupled receptor family and the molecular target of morphine and other opioid drugs. Despite the long tradition of MOR-targeting drugs, still little is known about the ligand-receptor interactions and structure-function relationships underlying the distinct biological effects upon receptor activation or inhibition. With the resolved crystal structure of the β-funaltrexamine-MOR complex, we aimed at the discovery of novel agonists and antagonists using virtual screening tools, i.e. docking, pharmacophore- and shape-based modeling. We suggest important molecular interactions, which active molecules share and distinguish agonists and antagonists. These results allowed for the generation of theoretically validated in silico workflows that were employed for prospective virtual screening. Out of 18 virtual hits evaluated in in vitro pharmacological assays, three displayed antagonist activity and the most active compound significantly inhibited morphine-induced antinociception. The new identified chemotypes hold promise for further development into neurochemical tools for studying the MOR or as potential therapeutic lead candidates.

  3. Adenosine receptor A2A deficiency in leukocytes increases arterial neointima formation in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Zhang, Weiyu; Tang, Rong; Zhu, Chuhong; Bucher, Christoph; Blazar, Bruce R; Geng, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Chunxiang; Linden, Joel; Wu, Chaodong; Huo, Yuqing

    2010-05-01

    To use the mice deficient in both adenosine receptor A(2A)(A(2A)R(-/-)) and apolipoprotein E (apoE(-/-)) to investigate the role of A(2A)R in mediating the interactions of leukocytes with injured arterial walls and the formation of arterial neointima induced by a guide wire. In apoE(-/-) mice, A(2A)R deficiency increased the size of the arterial neointima in injured carotid arteries by 83%. Arterial neointima formation was also enhanced in chimeric mice that underwent bone marrow transplantation (these mice lacked A(2A)R in their bone marrow-derived cells). Epifluorescence intravital microscopy showed that neutrophil rolling and adherence to the injured arterial area were enhanced by 80% and 110% in A(2A)R(-/-)/apoE(-/-) mice, respectively. This phenomenon occurred even though the protein levels of homing molecules on A(2A)R-deficient neutrophils were unchanged from those of wild-type neutrophils. A(2A)R-deficient neutrophils exhibited an increase in the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) clustering, and the affinity of b(2) integrins. The inhibition of p38 phosphorylation abrogated the increased PSGL-1 clustering and beta(2) integrin affinity, thus reversing the increased homing ability of A(2A)R-deficient leukocytes. A(2A)R plays a complex role in inflammation and tissue injury. The deficiency of A(2A)R enhances the homing ability of leukocytes and increases the formation of the arterial neointima after injury. A(2A)R antagonists are being tested for the treatment of neurodegenerative and other chronic diseases. An evaluation of the effect of A(2A)R antagonists on arterial restenosis after arterial angioplasty should be conducted.

  4. Optimization of Bicyclic Lactam Derivatives as NMDA Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Espadinha, Margarida; Dourado, Jorge; Lajarin-Cuesta, Rocio; Herrera-Arozamena, Clara; Gonçalves, Lidia M D; Rodríguez-Franco, María Isabel; de Los Rios, Cristobal; Santos, Maria M M

    2017-04-06

    N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are fundamental for the normal function of the central nervous system (CNS), and play an important role in memory and learning. Over-activation of these receptors leads to neuronal loss associated with major neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and epilepsy. In this study, 22 novel enantiopure bicyclic lactams were designed, synthesized, and evaluated as NMDA receptor antagonists. Most of the new compounds displayed NMDA receptor antagonism, and the most promising compound showed an IC 50 value on the same order of magnitude as that of memantine, an NMDA receptor antagonist in clinical use for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Further biological evaluation indicated that this compound is brain permeable (determined by an in vitro assay) and non-hepatotoxic. All these results indicate that (3S,7aS)-7a-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(4-hydroxybenzyl)tetrahydropyrrolo[2,1-b]oxazol-5(6H)-one (compound 5 b) is a potential candidate for the treatment of pathologies associated with the over-activation of NMDA receptors. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Metabolism-based identification of a potent thrombin receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Clasby, Martin C; Chackalamannil, Samuel; Czarniecki, Michael; Doller, Dario; Eagen, Keith; Greenlee, William; Kao, Grace; Lin, Yan; Tsai, Hsingan; Xia, Yan; Ahn, Ho-Sam; Agans-Fantuzzi, Jacqueline; Boykow, George; Chintala, Madhu; Foster, Carolyn; Smith-Torhan, April; Alton, Kevin; Bryant, Matthew; Hsieh, Yunsheng; Lau, Janice; Palamanda, Jairam

    2007-01-11

    The metabolism of our prototypical thrombin receptor antagonist 1, Ki = 2.7 nM, was studied and three major metabolites (2, 4, and 5) were found. The structures of the metabolites were verified independently by synthesis. Compound 4 was shown to be a potent antagonist of the thrombin receptor with a Ki = 11 nM. Additionally, compound 4 showed a 3-fold improvement in potency with respect to 1 in an agonist-induced ex-vivo platelet aggregation assay in cynomolgus monkeys after oral administration; this activity was sustained with 60% inhibition observed at 24 h post-dose. Compound 4 was highly active in functional assays and showed excellent oral bioavailability in rats and monkeys. Compound 4 showed a superior rat enzyme induction profile relative to compound 1, allowing it to replace compound 1 as a development candidate.

  6. Glutamate receptor antagonists with the potential for migraine treatment.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Anna; Rustichelli, Cecilia; Baraldi, Carlo

    2017-12-01

    Preclinical, clinical, and other (e.g., genetic) evidence support the concept that migraine susceptibility may at least partially result from a glutamatergic system disorder. Therefore, the receptors of the glutamatergic system are considered relatively new targets for investigational drugs to treat migraine. Investigational and established glutamate receptor antagonists (GluRAs) have been shown to possess antinociceptive properties in preclinical models of trigeminovascular nociception and have been evaluated in clinical trials. This review focuses on preclinical and clinical studies of GluRAs for the treatment of migraine. Areas covered: A PubMed database search (from 1987 to December 2016) and a review of published studies on GluRAs in migraine were conducted. Expert opinion: All published clinical trials of investigational GluRAs have been unsuccessful in establishing benefit for acute migraine treatment. Clinical trial results contrast with the preclinical data, suggesting that glutamate (Glu) does not play a decisive role after the attack has already been triggered. These antagonists may instead be useful for migraine prophylaxis. Improving patient care requires further investigating and critically analyzing the role of Glu in migraine, designing experimental models to study more receptors and their corresponding antagonists, and identifying biomarkers to facilitate trials designed to target specific subgroups of migraine patients.

  7. Deoxycholic acid conjugates are muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Raufman, Jean-Pierre; Chen, Ying; Zimniak, Piotr; Cheng, Kunrong

    2002-08-01

    In the course of examining the actions of major human bile acids on cholinergic receptors, we discovered that conjugates of lithocholic acid are partial muscarinic agonists. In the present communication, we report that conjugates of deoxycholic acid (DC) act as cholinergic muscarinic receptor antagonists. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing rat M3-muscarinic receptors were used to test bile acids for inhibition of radioligand [N- (3)H-methylscopolamine ((3)H-NMS)] binding; alteration of inositol phosphate (IP) formation; mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase phosphorylation and cell toxicity. We observed approximately 18.8, 30.3 and 37.1% inhibition of (3)H-NMS binding with DC and its glycine (DCG) and taurine (DCT) conjugates, respectively (all 100 micromol/l, p < 0.01). DCT and DCG inhibited acetylcholine-induced increases in IP formation and MAP kinase phosphorylation (p44 and p42 ERK). DCG and DCT did not alter trypan blue exclusion or lactate dehydrogenase release from CHO-M3 cells. We observed the following rank order of potency (IC(50) micromol/l) for inhibition of (3)H-NMS by muscarinic antagonists and bile acids: NMS (0.0004) > 4-DAMP (0.009) > atropine (0.012) > DCT (170) > DCG (250). None of the bile acids tested were hydrolyzed by recombinant cholinesterase. At concentrations achieved in human bile, DC derivatives are natural muscarinic antagonists. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. Discovery of dopamine D₄ receptor antagonists with planar chirality.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Fabrizio; Ortner, Birgit; Hübner, Harald; Löber, Stefan; Tschammer, Nuska; Gmeiner, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Employing the D4 selective phenylpiperazine 2 as a lead compound, planar chiral analogs with paracyclophane substructure were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to bind and activate dopamine receptors. The study revealed that the introduction of a [2.2]paracyclophane moiety is tolerated by dopamine receptors of the D2 family. Subtype selectivity for D4 and ligand efficacy depend on the absolute configuration of the test compounds. Whereas the achiral single-layered lead 2 and the double-layered paracyclophane (R)-3 showed partial agonist properties, the enantiomer (S)-3 behaved as a neutral antagonist. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. LASSBio-897 Reduces Lung Injury Induced by Silica Particles in Mice: Potential Interaction with the A2A Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Vinicius F.; Ferreira, Tatiana P. T.; de Arantes, Ana C. S.; Noël, François; Tesch, Roberta; Sant’Anna, Carlos M. R.; Barreiro, Eliezer J. L.; Fraga, Carlos A. M.; Rodrigues e Silva, Patrícia M.; Martins, Marco A.

    2017-01-01

    Silicosis is a lethal fibro-granulomatous pulmonary disease highly prevalent in developing countries, for which no proper therapy is available. Among a small series of N-acylhydrazones, the safrole-derived compound LASSBio-897 (3-thienylidene-3, 4-methylenedioxybenzoylhydrazide) raised interest due to its ability to bind to the adenosine A2A receptor. Here, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic potential of LASSBio-897, exploring translation to a mouse model of silicosis and the A2A receptor as a site of action. Pulmonary mechanics, inflammatory, and fibrotic changes were assessed 28 days after intranasal instillation of silica particles in Swiss–Webster mice. Glosensor cAMP HEK293G cells, CHO cells stably expressing human adenosine receptors and ligand binding assay were used to evaluate the pharmacological properties of LASSBio-897 in vitro. Molecular docking studies of LASSBio-897 were performed using the genetic algorithm software GOLD 5.2. We found that the interventional treatment with the A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680 reversed silica particle-induced airway hyper-reactivity as revealed by increased responses of airway resistance and lung elastance following aerosolized methacholine. LASSBio-897 (2 and 5 mg/kg, oral) similarly reversed pivotal lung pathological features of silicosis in this model, reducing levels of airway resistance and lung elastance, granuloma formation and collagen deposition. In competition assays, LASSBio-897 decreased the binding of the selective A2A receptor agonist [3H]-CGS21680 (IC50 = 9.3 μM). LASSBio-897 (50 μM) induced modest cAMP production in HEK293G cells, but it clearly synergized the cAMP production by adenosine in a mechanism sensitive to the A2A antagonist SCH 58261. This synergism was also seen in CHO cells expressing the A2A, but not those expressing A2B, A1 or A3 receptors. Based on the evidence that LASSBio-897 binds to A2A receptor, molecular docking studies were performed using the A2A receptor

  10. Functionalized Congeners of P2Y1 Receptor Antagonists:

    SciTech Connect

    de Castro, Sonia; Maruoka, Hiroshi; Hong, Kunlun

    2010-01-01

    The P2Y{sub 1} receptor is a prothrombotic G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activated by ADP. Preference for the North (N) ring conformation of the ribose moiety of adenine nucleotide 3',5'-bisphosphate antagonists of the P2Y{sub 1} receptor was established by using a ring-constrained methanocarba (a bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane) ring as a ribose substitute. A series of covalently linkable N{sup 6}-methyl-(N)-methanocarba-2'-deoxyadenosine-3',5'-bisphosphates containing extended 2-alkynyl chains was designed, and binding affinity at the human (h) P2Y{sub 1} receptor determined. The chain of these functionalized congeners contained hydrophilic moieties, a reactive substituent, or biotin, linked via an amide. Variation of the chain length and position of anmore » intermediate amide group revealed high affinity of carboxylic congener 8 (K{sub i} 23 nM) and extended amine congener 15 (K{sub i} 132 nM), both having a 2-(1-pentynoyl) group. A biotin conjugate 18 containing an extended {epsilon}-aminocaproyl spacer chain exhibited higher affinity than a shorter biotinylated analogue. Alternatively, click coupling of terminal alkynes of homologous 2-dialkynyl nucleotide derivatives to alkyl azido groups produced triazole derivatives that bound to the P2Y{sub 1} receptor following deprotection of the bisphosphate groups. The preservation of receptor affinity of the functionalized congeners was consistent with new P2Y{sub 1} receptor modeling and ligand docking. Attempted P2Y{sub 1} antagonist conjugation to PAMAM dendrimer carriers by amide formation or palladium-catalyzed reaction between an alkyne on the dendrimer and a 2-iodopurine-derivatized nucleotide was unsuccessful. A dialkynyl intermediate containing the chain length favored in receptor binding was conjugated to an azide-derivatized dendrimer, and the conjugate inhibited ADP-promoted human platelet aggregation. This is the first example of attaching a strategically functionalized P2Y receptor antagonist to a PAMAM

  11. NMDA receptor antagonists extend the sensitive period for imprinting.

    PubMed

    Parsons, C H; Rogers, L J

    2000-03-01

    Filial imprinting in the domestic chick occurs during a sensitive period of development. The exact timing of this period can vary according to the methods used to measure imprinting. Using our imprinting paradigm, we have shown that normal, dark-reared chicks lose the ability to imprint after the second day post-hatching. Further, we reported that chicks treated 10 h after hatching with a mixture of the noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine (55 mg/kg) and the alpha(2)-adrenergic receptor agonist xylazine (6 mg/kg) were able to imprint on day 8 after hatching, whereas controls treated with saline did not imprint. We now show that the effect of the ketamine-xylazine mixture can be mimicked by treating chicks with ketamine alone or with another noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 (5 mg/kg). Treating chicks with a single dose of ketamine (55 mg/kg) or with a single dose of xylazine (6 mg/kg) failed to produce the effect on the sensitive period. However, prolonging the action of ketamine by treating chicks with two doses of ketamine (at 10 and 12 h after hatching) did allow imprinting on day 8. In contrast, prolonging the action of xylazine had no effect on the sensitive period for imprinting. Chicks treated with MK-801 were also able to imprint on day 8. Thus, we have evidence that the NMDA receptor system is involved in the mechanisms that control the sensitive period for imprinting.

  12. Characterization of a novel non-steroidal glucocorticoid receptor antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Qun-Yi; Zhang, Meng; State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai

    2010-01-15

    Selective antagonists of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) are desirable for the treatment of hypercortisolemia associated with Cushing's syndrome, psychic depression, obesity, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and glaucoma. NC3327, a non-steroidal small molecule with potent binding affinity to GR (K{sub i} = 13.2 nM), was identified in a high-throughput screening effort. As a full GR antagonist, NC3327 greatly inhibits the dexamethasone (Dex) induction of marker genes involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis, but has a minimal effect on matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), a GR responsive pro-inflammatory gene. Interestingly, the compound recruits neither coactivators nor corepressors to the GR complex but competes with glucocorticoids formore » the interaction between GR and a coactivator peptide. Moreover, NC3327 does not trigger GR nuclear translocation, but significantly blocks Dex-induced GR transportation to the nucleus, and thus appears to be a 'competitive' GR antagonist. Therefore, the non-steroidal compound, NC3327, may represent a new class of GR antagonists as potential therapeutics for a variety of cortisol-related endocrine disorders.« less

  13. A Role for a Specific Cholesterol Interaction in Stabilizing the Apo Configuration of the Human A2A Adenosine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Lyman, Edward; Higgs, Chris; Kim, Byungchan; Lupyan, Dmitry; Shelley, John C.; Farid, Ramy; Voth, Gregory A.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The function of G-protein coupled receptors is tightly modulated by the lipid environment. Long timescale molecular dynamics simulations (totaling ~3 microsec) of the A2A receptor in cholesterol-free bilayers, with and without the antagonist ZM241385 bound, demonstrate an instability of helix II in the apo receptor in cholesterol-poor membrane regions. We directly observe that the effect of cholesterol binding is to stabilize helix II against a buckling type deformation, perhaps rationalizing the observation that the A2A receptor couples to G-protein only in the presence of cholesterol (Zezula and Freissmuth, 2008). The results suggest a mechanism by which the A2A receptor may function as a coincidence detector, activating only in the presence of both cholesterol and agonist. We also observed a previously hypothesized conformation of the tryptophan “rotameric switch” on helix VI in which a phenylalanine on helix V positions the tryptophan out of the ligand binding pocket. PMID:20004169

  14. Reduced response to the formalin test and lowered spinal NMDA glutamate receptor binding in adenosine A2A receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Hussey, Martin J; Clarke, Geoffrey D; Ledent, Catherine; Hourani, Susanna M O; Kitchen, Ian

    2007-06-01

    Adenosine is a neuromodulator with complex effects on pain pathways. Mice lacking the adenosine A2A receptor are hypoalgesic, and have altered analgesic responses to receptor-selective opioid agonists. These and other findings suggest a role for the adenosine A2A receptor in sensitizing afferent fibres projecting to the spinal cord. To test this hypothesis formalin (20 microl, 5%) was injected into the paw and nociceptive responses were measured in wildtype and adenosine A2A receptor knockout mice. There was a significant reduction in nociception associated with sensory nerve activation in the knockout mice as measured by time spent biting/licking the formalin-injected paw and number of flinches seen during the first phase, but only the number of flinches was reduced during the second inflammatory phase. In addition, the selective adenosine A2A antagonist SCH58261 (3 and 10 mg/kg) also antagonised both phases of the formalin test. We also labelled NMDA glutamate and NK1 receptors in spinal cord sections as an indirect measure of nociceptive transmission from peripheral sites to the spinal cord. [3H]-Substance P binding to NK1 receptors was unaltered but there was a substantial reduction in binding of [3H]-MK801 to NMDA glutamate receptors in all regions of the spinal cord from knockout mice. The decrease in NMDA glutamate receptor binding may reflect reduced peripheral sensory input to the spinal cord during development and could relate to the hypoalgesia in this genotype. These results support a key role for the adenosine A2A receptor in peripheral nociceptive pathways.

  15. Blockade of adenosine A2A receptors reverses short-term social memory impairments in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Prediger, Rui D S; Fernandes, Daniel; Takahashi, Reinaldo N

    2005-04-30

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) exhibit impairment across several cognitive domains such as attention, short-term memory and spatial reference memory. These cognitive deficits have been variously attributed to disrupted dopaminergic, cholinergic and adenosinergic neurotransmitter function. However, social memory in SHR has not been investigated. In the present study, we therefore evaluated whether SHR exhibit altered short-term social memory abilities compared to normotensive Wistar rats (WIS) through two experimental paradigms (social recognition and habituation-dishabituation tests). We also compared the performance of SHR and WIS rats in the object recognition test. SHR exhibited significantly impaired performance in both models of social memory, but not in the object recognition test, demonstrating a selective deficit in the ability to recognize a juvenile rat after a short period of time. The administration of acute doses of the non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist caffeine (3.0 or 10.0 mg/kg, i.p.) and the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist 4-(2-[7-amino-2-[2-furyl][1,2,4]triazolo-[2,3-a][1,3,5]triazin-5-yl-amino]ethyl) phenol (ZM241385, 0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) but not the adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX, 1.0 or 3.0 mg/kg, i.p.) reversed this social memory impairment in SHR, but these treatments did not alter the hypertension state. These results demonstrate an impairment of short-term social memory in SHR and the involvement of the adenosine A2A receptors in this alteration.

  16. Adenosine A2A Receptors in the Amygdala Control Synaptic Plasticity and Contextual Fear Memory

    PubMed Central

    Simões, Ana Patrícia; Machado, Nuno J; Gonçalves, Nélio; Kaster, Manuella P; Simões, Ana T; Nunes, Ana; Pereira de Almeida, Luís; Goosens, Ki Ann; Rial, Daniel; Cunha, Rodrigo A

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of caffeine modulates working and reference memory through the antagonism of adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) controlling synaptic plasticity processes in hippocampal excitatory synapses. Fear memory essentially involves plastic changes in amygdala circuits. However, it is unknown if A2ARs in the amygdala regulate synaptic plasticity and fear memory. We report that A2ARs in the amygdala are enriched in synapses and located to glutamatergic synapses, where they selectively control synaptic plasticity rather than synaptic transmission at a major afferent pathway to the amygdala. Notably, the downregulation of A2ARs selectively in the basolateral complex of the amygdala, using a lentivirus with a silencing shRNA (small hairpin RNA targeting A2AR (shA2AR)), impaired fear acquisition as well as Pavlovian fear retrieval. This is probably associated with the upregulation and gain of function of A2ARs in the amygdala after fear acquisition. The importance of A2ARs to control fear memory was further confirmed by the ability of SCH58261 (0.1 mg/kg; A2AR antagonist), caffeine (5 mg/kg), but not DPCPX (0.5 mg/kg; A1R antagonist), treatment for 7 days before fear conditioning onwards, to attenuate the retrieval of context fear after 24–48 h and after 7–8 days. These results demonstrate that amygdala A2ARs control fear memory and the underlying process of synaptic plasticity in this brain region. This provides a neurophysiological basis for the association between A2AR polymorphisms and phobia or panic attacks in humans and prompts a therapeutic interest in A2ARs to manage fear-related pathologies. PMID:27312408

  17. Crystal Structure of Antagonist Bound Human Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptor 1

    PubMed Central

    Chrencik, Jill E.; Roth, Christopher B.; Terakado, Masahiko; Kurata, Haruto; Omi, Rie; Kihara, Yasuyuki; Warshaviak, Dora; Nakade, Shinji; Asmar-Rovira, Guillermo; Mileni, Mauro; Mizuno, Hirotaka; Griffith, Mark T.; Rodgers, Caroline; Han, Gye Won; Velasquez, Jeffrey; Chun, Jerold; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Lipid biology continues to emerge as an area of significant therapeutic interest, particularly as the result of an enhanced understanding of the wealth of signaling molecules with diverse physiological properties. This growth in knowledge is epitomized by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), which functions through interactions with six cognate G protein-coupled receptors. Herein we present three crystal structures of LPA1 in complex with antagonist tool compounds selected and designed through structural and stability analysis. Structural analysis combined with molecular dynamics identified a basis for ligand access to the LPA1 binding pocket from the extracellular space contrasting with the proposed access for the sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor. Characteristics of the LPA1 binding pocket raise the possibility of promiscuous ligand recognition of phosphorylated endocannabinoids. Cell-based assays confirmed this hypothesis, linking the distinct receptor systems through metabolically related ligands with potential functional and therapeutic implications for treatment of disease. PMID:26091040

  18. Histamine H4 receptor antagonists are superior to traditional antihistamines in the attenuation of experimental pruritus.

    PubMed

    Dunford, Paul J; Williams, Kacy N; Desai, Pragnya J; Karlsson, Lars; McQueen, Daniel; Thurmond, Robin L

    2007-01-01

    Histamine is a potent mediator of itch in humans, yet histamine H(1) receptor antagonists have been shown to be of limited use in the treatment of certain chronic pruritic diseases. The histamine H(4) receptor is a recently described histamine receptor, expressed on hematopoietic cells, linked to the pathology of allergy and asthma. The contribution of the novel histamine H(4) receptor to histaminergic and allergic pruritus was investigated. Histamine and a selective histamine H(4) receptor agonist caused scratching responses in mice, which were almost completely attenuated in histamine H(4) receptor knockout mice or by pretreatment with the selective histamine H(4) receptor antagonist, JNJ 7777120. Pruritus induced by allergic mechanisms was also potently inhibited with histamine H(4) receptor antagonist treatment or in histamine H(4) receptor knockout mice. In all cases, the inhibitory effect of histamine H(4) receptor antagonist was greater than those observed with histamine H(1) receptor antagonists. The histamine H(4) receptor-mediated pruritus was shown to be independent of mast cells or other hematopoietic cells and may result from actions on peripheral neurons. These results demonstrate that the histamine H(4) receptor is involved in pruritic responses in mice to a greater extent than the histamine H(1) receptor. Histamine H(4) receptor antagonists may have therapeutic utility for treating chronic pruritic diseases in humans where histamine H(1) receptor antagonists are not effective.

  19. Anti-inflammatory effects of inosine in allergic lung inflammation in mice: evidence for the participation of adenosine A2A and A 3 receptors.

    PubMed

    da Rocha Lapa, Fernanda; de Oliveira, Ana Paula Ligeiro; Accetturi, Beatriz Golega; de Oliveira Martins, Isabelli; Domingos, Helory Vanni; de Almeida Cabrini, Daniela; de Lima, Wothan Tavares; Santos, Adair Roberto Soares

    2013-09-01

    Inosine, a naturally occurring purine formed from the breakdown of adenosine, is associated with immunoregulatory effects. Evidence shows that inosine modulates lung inflammation and regulates cytokine generation. However, its role in controlling allergen-induced lung inflammation has yet to be identified. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of inosine and adenosine receptors in a murine model of lung allergy induced by ovalbumin (OVA). Intraperitoneal administration of inosine (0.001-10 mg/kg, 30 min before OVA challenge) significantly reduced the number of leukocytes, macrophages, lymphocytes and eosinophils recovered in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of sensitized mice compared with controls. Interestingly, our results showed that pre-treatment with the selective A2A receptor antagonist (ZM241385), but not with the selective A2B receptor antagonist (alloxazine), reduced the inhibitory effects of inosine against macrophage count, suggesting that A2A receptors mediate monocyte recruitment into the lungs. In addition, the pre-treatment of mice with selective A3 antagonist (MRS3777) also prevented inosine effects against macrophages, lymphocytes and eosinophils. Histological analysis confirmed the effects of inosine and A2A adenosine receptors on cell recruitment and demonstrated that the treatment with ZM241385 and alloxazine reverted inosine effects against mast cell migration into the lungs. Accordingly, the treatment with inosine reduced lung elastance, an effect related to A2 receptors. Moreover, inosine reduced the levels of Th2-cytokines, interleukin-4 and interleukin-5, an effect that was not reversed by A2A or A2B selective antagonists. Our data show that inosine acting on A2A or A3 adenosine receptors can regulate OVA-induced allergic lung inflammation and also implicate inosine as an endogenous modulator of inflammatory processes observed in the lungs of asthmatic patients.

  20. Selecting an optimal number of binding site waters to improve virtual screening enrichments against the adenosine A2A receptor.

    PubMed

    Lenselink, Eelke B; Beuming, Thijs; Sherman, Woody; van Vlijmen, Herman W T; IJzerman, Adriaan P

    2014-06-23

    A major challenge in structure-based virtual screening (VS) involves the treatment of explicit water molecules during docking in order to improve the enrichment of active compounds over decoys. Here we have investigated this in the context of the adenosine A2A receptor, where water molecules have previously been shown to be important for achieving high enrichment rates with docking, and where the positions of some binding site waters are known from a high-resolution crystal structure. The effect of these waters (both their presence and orientations) on VS enrichment was assessed using a carefully curated set of 299 high affinity A2A antagonists and 17,337 decoys. We show that including certain crystal waters greatly improves VS enrichment and that optimization of water hydrogen positions is needed in order to achieve the best results. We also show that waters derived from a molecular dynamics simulation - without any knowledge of crystallographic waters - can improve enrichments to a similar degree as the crystallographic waters, which makes this strategy applicable to structures without experimental knowledge of water positions. Finally, we used decision trees to select an ensemble of structures with different water molecule positions and orientations that outperforms any single structure with water molecules. The approach presented here is validated against independent test sets of A2A receptor antagonists and decoys from the literature. In general, this water optimization strategy could be applied to any target with waters-mediated protein-ligand interactions.

  1. Discovery of Novel Proline-Based Neuropeptide FF Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thuy; Decker, Ann M; Langston, Tiffany L; Mathews, Kelly M; Siemian, Justin N; Li, Jun-Xu; Harris, Danni L; Runyon, Scott P; Zhang, Yanan

    2017-10-18

    The neuropeptide FF (NPFF) system has been implicated in a number of physiological processes including modulating the pharmacological activity of opioid analgesics and several other classes of drugs of abuse. In this study, we report the discovery of a novel proline scaffold with antagonistic activity at the NPFF receptors through a high throughput screening campaign using a functional calcium mobilization assay. Focused structure-activity relationship studies on the initial hit 1 have resulted in several analogs with calcium mobilization potencies in the submicromolar range and modest selectivity for the NPFF1 receptor. Affinities and potencies of these compounds were confirmed in radioligand binding and functional cAMP assays. Two compounds, 16 and 33, had good solubility and blood-brain barrier permeability that fall within the range of CNS permeant candidates without the liability of being a P-glycoprotein substrate. Finally, both compounds reversed fentanyl-induced hyperalgesia in rats when administered intraperitoneally. Together, these results point to the potential of these proline analogs as promising NPFF receptor antagonists.

  2. 8-Azaxanthine derivatives as antagonists of adenosine receptors.

    PubMed

    Franchetti, P; Messini, L; Cappellacci, L; Grifantini, M; Lucacchini, A; Martini, C; Senatore, G

    1994-09-02

    A series of 1,3-dimethyl- and 1,3-dipropyl-8-azaxanthines, substituted at the N8 or N7 position with substituents which usually increase the affinity of the xanthines for the adenosine receptors, was synthesized and studied in radioligand binding experiments. The substitution of CH with N at the 8-position of both theophylline and caffeine dramatically reduced the affinity, as demonstrated by the fact that 8-azatheophylline and 8-azacaffeine were inert. The introduction of a methyl group at 8-position of 8-azatheophylline restored the antagonistic activity at A2 receptors, while a 8-cycloalkyl substituent increased the affinity for both receptor subtypes. A more favorable effect on affinity was produced by the substitution of the 7-methyl group in 8-azacaffeine with cycloalkyl groups. 7-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethyl-8-azaxanthine was 3 times more potent than caffeine at A1 receptors and 6 times less active at A2 receptors. On the contrary, the 7-cyclohexyl-1,3-dimethyl-8-azaxanthine was more potent than caffeine at A2 receptors. The substitution of 1- and 3-methyl groups with propyl in both 7- and 8-substituted 8-azatheophylline increased remarkably the affinity for A1 receptors. The 7-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropyl-8-azaxanthine appears to be one of the most potent and selective among 7-alkyl-substituted xanthines at A1 receptors so far known. Because the 8-aza analogues of 8-substituted 1,3-dialkylxanthine were in any case less active than the corresponding xanthine derivatives, it was confirmed that the hydrogen atom at the 7-position of xanthines plays an important role in the binding to adenosine receptors.

  3. Toxicological Differences Between NMDA Receptor Antagonists and Cholinesterase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaodong; Lin, Xiaotian; Hu, Rui; Sun, Nan; Hao, Jingru; Gao, Can

    2016-08-01

    Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs), represented by donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine, used to be the only approved class of drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. After the approval of memantine by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonists have been recognized by authorities and broadly used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Along with complementary mechanisms of action, NMDA antagonists and ChEIs differ not only in therapeutic effects but also in adverse reactions, which is an important consideration in clinical drug use. And the number of patients using NMDA antagonists and ChEIs concomitantly has increased, making the matter more complicated. Here we used the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System for statistical analysis , in order to compare the adverse events of memantine and ChEIs. In general, the clinical evidence confirmed the safety advantages of memantine over ChEIs, reiterating the precautions of clinical drug use and the future direction of antidementia drug development. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Adenosine A2a receptors and O2 sensing in development

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Reduced mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, via activation of adenylate kinase and the resulting exponential rise in the cellular AMP/ATP ratio, appears to be a critical factor underlying O2 sensing in many chemoreceptive tissues in mammals. The elevated AMP/ATP ratio, in turn, activates key enzymes that are involved in physiologic adjustments that tend to balance ATP supply and demand. An example is the conversion of AMP to adenosine via 5′-nucleotidase and the resulting activation of adenosine A2A receptors, which are involved in acute oxygen sensing by both carotid bodies and the brain. In fetal sheep, A2A receptors associated with carotid bodies trigger hypoxic cardiovascular chemoreflexes, while central A2A receptors mediate hypoxic inhibition of breathing and rapid eye movements. A2A receptors are also involved in hypoxic regulation of fetal endocrine systems, metabolism, and vascular tone. In developing lambs, A2A receptors play virtually no role in O2 sensing by the carotid bodies, but brain A2A receptors remain critically involved in the roll-off ventilatory response to hypoxia. In adult mammals, A2A receptors have been implicated in O2 sensing by carotid glomus cells, while central A2A receptors likely blunt hypoxic hyperventilation. In conclusion, A2A receptors are crucially involved in the transduction mechanisms of O2 sensing in fetal carotid bodies and brains. Postnatally, central A2A receptors remain key mediators of hypoxic respiratory depression, but they are less critical for O2 sensing in carotid chemoreceptors, particularly in developing lambs. PMID:21677265

  5. Classification and virtual screening of androgen receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiazhong; Gramatica, Paola

    2010-05-24

    Computational tools, such as quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR), are highly useful as screening support for prioritization of substances of very high concern (SVHC). From the practical point of view, QSAR models should be effective to pick out more active rather than inactive compounds, expressed as sensitivity in classification works. This research investigates the classification of a big data set of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs)-androgen receptor (AR) antagonists, mainly aiming to improve the external sensitivity and to screen for potential AR binders. The kNN, lazy IB1, and ADTree methods and the consensus approach were used to build different models, which improve the sensitivity on external chemicals from 57.1% (literature) to 76.4%. Additionally, the models' predictive abilities were further validated on a blind collected data set (sensitivity: 85.7%). Then the proposed classifiers were used: (i) to distinguish a set of AR binders into antagonists and agonists; (ii) to screen a combined estrogen receptor binder database to find out possible chemicals that can bind to both AR and ER; and (iii) to virtually screen our in-house environmental chemical database. The in silico screening results suggest: (i) that some compounds can affect the normal endocrine system through a complex mechanism binding both to ER and AR; (ii) new EDCs, which are nonER binders, but can in silico bind to AR, are recognized; and (iii) about 20% of compounds in a big data set of environmental chemicals are predicted as new AR antagonists. The priority should be given to them to experimentally test the binding activities with AR.

  6. The Corticostriatal Adenosine A2A Receptor Controls Maintenance and Retrieval of Spatial Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhihui; Chen, Xingjun; Wang, Tao; Gao, Ying; Li, Fei; Chen, Long; Xue, Jin; He, Yan; Li, Yan; Guo, Wei; Zheng, Wu; Zhang, Liping; Ye, Fenfen; Ren, Xiangpeng; Feng, Yue; Chan, Piu; Chen, Jiang-Fan

    2018-03-15

    Working memory (WM) taps into multiple executive processes including encoding, maintenance, and retrieval of information, but the molecular and circuit modulation of these WM processes remains undefined due to the lack of methods to control G protein-coupled receptor signaling with temporal resolution of seconds. By coupling optogenetic control of the adenosine A 2A receptor (A 2A R) signaling, the Cre-loxP-mediated focal A 2A R knockdown with a delayed non-match-to-place (DNMTP) task, we investigated the effect of optogenetic activation and focal knockdown of A 2A Rs in the dorsomedial striatum (n = 8 to 14 per group) and medial prefrontal cortex (n = 16 to 22 per group) on distinct executive processes of spatial WM. We also evaluated the therapeutic effect of the A 2A R antagonist KW6002 on delayed match-to-sample/place tasks in 6 normal and 6 MPTP-treated cynomolgus monkeys. Optogenetic activation of striatopallidal A 2A Rs in the dorsomedial striatum selectively at the delay and choice (not sample) phases impaired DNMTP performance. Optogenetic activation of A 2A Rs in the medial prefrontal cortex selectively at the delay (not sample or choice) phase improved DNMTP performance. The corticostriatal A 2A R control of spatial WM was specific for a novel but not well-trained DNMTP task. Focal dorsomedial striatum A 2A R knockdown or KW6002 improved DNMTP performance in mice. Last, KW6002 improved spatial WM in delayed match-to-sample and delayed match-to-place tasks of normal and dopamine-depleted cynomolgus monkeys. The A 2A Rs in striatopallidal and medial prefrontal cortex neurons exert distinctive control of WM maintenance and retrieval to achieve cognitive stability and flexibility. The procognitive effect of KW6002 in nonhuman primates provides the preclinical data to translate A 2A R antagonists for improving cognitive impairments in Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Modulation of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors in C6 glioma cells during hypoxia: involvement of endogenous adenosine.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Carlos A; León, David; Ruiz, María Angeles; Albasanz, José Luis; Martín, Mairena

    2008-06-01

    During hypoxia, extracellular adenosine levels are increased to prevent cell damage, playing a neuroprotective role mainly through adenosine A(1) receptors. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of hypoxia in both adenosine A(1) and A(2A) receptors endogenously expressed in C6 glioma cells. Two hours of hypoxia (5% O(2)) caused a significant decrease in adenosine A(1) receptors. The same effect was observed at 6 h and 24 h of hypoxia. However, adenosine A(2A) receptors were significantly increased at the same times. These effects were not due to hypoxia-induced alterations in cells number or viability. Changes in receptor density were not associated with variations in the rate of gene expression. Furthermore, hypoxia did not alter HIF-1alpha expression in C6 cells. However, HIF-3alpha, CREB and CREM were decreased. Adenosine A(1) and A(2A) receptor density in normoxic C6 cells treated with adenosine for 2, 6 and 24 h was similar to that observed in cells after oxygen deprivation. When C6 cells were subjected to hypoxia in the presence of adenosine deaminase, the density of receptors was not significantly modulated. Moreover, DPCPX, an A(1) receptor antagonist, blocked the effects of hypoxia on these receptors, while ZM241385, an A(2A) receptor antagonist, was unable to prevent these changes. These results suggest that moderate hypoxia modulates adenosine receptors and cAMP response elements in glial cells, through a mechanism in which endogenous adenosine and tonic A(1) receptor activation is involved.

  8. Caffeine acts through neuronal adenosine A2A receptors to prevent mood and memory dysfunction triggered by chronic stress

    PubMed Central

    Kaster, Manuella P.; Machado, Nuno J.; Silva, Henrique B.; Nunes, Ana; Ardais, Ana Paula; Santana, Magda; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E.; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S.; Porciúncula, Lisiane O.; Chen, Jiang Fan; Tomé, Ângelo R.; Agostinho, Paula; Canas, Paula M.; Cunha, Rodrigo A.

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of caffeine (an adenosine receptor antagonist) correlates inversely with depression and memory deterioration, and adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) antagonists emerge as candidate therapeutic targets because they control aberrant synaptic plasticity and afford neuroprotection. Therefore we tested the ability of A2AR to control the behavioral, electrophysiological, and neurochemical modifications caused by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), which alters hippocampal circuits, dampens mood and memory performance, and enhances susceptibility to depression. CUS for 3 wk in adult mice induced anxiogenic and helpless-like behavior and decreased memory performance. These behavioral changes were accompanied by synaptic alterations, typified by a decrease in synaptic plasticity and a reduced density of synaptic proteins (synaptosomal-associated protein 25, syntaxin, and vesicular glutamate transporter type 1), together with an increased density of A2AR in glutamatergic terminals in the hippocampus. Except for anxiety, for which results were mixed, CUS-induced behavioral and synaptic alterations were prevented by (i) caffeine (1 g/L in the drinking water, starting 3 wk before and continued throughout CUS); (ii) the selective A2AR antagonist KW6002 (3 mg/kg, p.o.); (iii) global A2AR deletion; and (iv) selective A2AR deletion in forebrain neurons. Notably, A2AR blockade was not only prophylactic but also therapeutically efficacious, because a 3-wk treatment with the A2AR antagonist SCH58261 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) reversed the mood and synaptic dysfunction caused by CUS. These results herald a key role for synaptic A2AR in the control of chronic stress-induced modifications and suggest A2AR as candidate targets to alleviate the consequences of chronic stress on brain function. PMID:26056314

  9. N-Benzylpiperidine Derivatives as α7 Nicotinic Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Criado, Manuel; Mulet, José; Sala, Francisco; Sala, Salvador; Colmena, Inés; Gandía, Luis; Bautista-Aguilera, Oscar M; Samadi, Abdelouahid; Chioua, Mourad; Marco-Contelles, José

    2016-08-17

    A series of multitarget directed propargylamines, as well as other differently susbstituted piperidines have been screened as potential modulators of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Most of them showed antagonist actions on α7 nAChRs. Especially, compounds 13, 26, and 38 displayed submicromolar IC50 values on homomeric α7 nAChRs, whereas they were less effective on heteromeric α3β4 and α4β2 nAChRs (up to 20-fold higher IC50 values in the case of 13). Antagonism was concentration dependent and noncompetitive, suggesting that these compounds behave as negative allosteric modulators of nAChRs. Upon the study of a series of less complex derivatives, the N-benzylpiperidine motif, common to these compounds, was found to be the main pharmacophoric group. Thus, 2-(1-benzylpiperidin-4-yl)-ethylamine (48) showed an inhibitory potency comparable to the one of the previous compounds and also a clear preference for α7 nAChRs. In a neuroblastoma cell line, representative compounds 13 and 48 also inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, cytosolic Ca(2+) signals mediated by nAChRs. Finally, compounds 38 and 13 inhibited 5-HT3A serotonin receptors whereas they had no effect on α1 glycine receptors. Given the multifactorial nature of many pathologies in which nAChRs are involved, these piperidine antagonists could have a therapeutic potential in cases where cholinergic activity has to be negatively modulated.

  10. The importance of the adenosine A(2A) receptor-dopamine D(2) receptor interaction in drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Filip, M; Zaniewska, M; Frankowska, M; Wydra, K; Fuxe, K

    2012-01-01

    Drug addiction is a serious brain disorder with somatic, psychological, psychiatric, socio-economic and legal implications in the developed world. Illegal (e.g., psychostimulants, opioids, cannabinoids) and legal (alcohol, nicotine) drugs of abuse create a complex behavioral pattern composed of drug intake, withdrawal, seeking and relapse. One of the hallmarks of drugs that are abused by humans is that they have different mechanisms of action to increase dopamine (DA) neurotransmission within the mesolimbic circuitry of the brain and indirectly activate DA receptors. Among the DA receptors, D(2) receptors are linked to drug abuse and addiction because their function has been proven to be correlated with drug reinforcement and relapses. The recognition that D(2) receptors exist not only as homomers but also can form heteromers, such as with the adenosine (A)(2A) receptor, that are pharmacologically and functionally distinct from their constituent receptors, has significantly expanded the range of potential drug targets and provided new avenues for drug design in the search for novel drug addiction therapies. The aim of this review is to bring current focus on A(2A) receptors, their physiology and pharmacology in the central nervous system, and to discuss the therapeutic relevance of these receptors to drug addiction. We concentrate on the contribution of A(2A) receptors to the effects of different classes of drugs of abuse examined in preclinical behavioral experiments carried out with pharmacological and genetic tools. The consequences of chronic drug treatment on A(2A) receptor-assigned functions in preclinical studies are also presented. Finally, the neurochemical mechanism of the interaction between A(2A) receptors and drugs of abuse in the context of the heteromeric A(2A)-D(2) receptor complex is discussed. Taken together, a significant amount of experimental analyses provide evidence that targeting A(2A) receptors may offer innovative translational strategies

  11. Neuroprotection by caffeine in the MPTP model of parkinson's disease and its dependence on adenosine A2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Xu, K; Di Luca, D G; Orrú, M; Xu, Y; Chen, J-F; Schwarzschild, M A

    2016-05-13

    Considerable epidemiological and laboratory data have suggested that caffeine, a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist, may protect against the underlying neurodegeneration of parkinson's disease (PD). Although both caffeine and more specific antagonists of the A2A subtype of adenosine receptor (A2AR) have been found to confer protection in animal models of PD, the dependence of caffeine's neuroprotective effects on the A2AR is not known. To definitively determine its A2AR dependence, the effect of caffeine on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetra-hydropyridine (MPTP) neurotoxicity was compared in wild-type (WT) and A2AR gene global knockout (A2A KO) mice, as well as in central nervous system (CNS) cell type-specific (conditional) A2AR knockout (cKO) mice that lack the receptor either in postnatal forebrain neurons or in astrocytes. In WT and in heterozygous A2AR KO mice caffeine pretreatment (25mg/kgip) significantly attenuated MPTP-induced depletion of striatal dopamine. By contrast in homozygous A2AR global KO mice caffeine had no effect on MPTP toxicity. In forebrain neuron A2AR cKO mice, caffeine lost its locomotor stimulant effect, whereas its neuroprotective effect was mostly preserved. In astrocytic A2AR cKO mice, both caffeine's locomotor stimulant and protective properties were undiminished. Taken together, these results indicate that neuroprotection by caffeine in the MPTP model of PD relies on the A2AR, although the specific cellular localization of these receptors remains to be determined. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. All rights reserved.

  12. Efficacy of leukotriene receptor antagonist with anti-H1 receptor antagonist plus anti-H2 receptor antagonist for treatment of refractory chronic idiopathic urticaria.

    PubMed

    Wan, Kong-Sang; Chang, Yung-Sen

    2014-12-01

    The efficacy of the combination of leukotriene receptor antagonist (LRA) and H1 antihistamine was similar to the synergistic regimen of H1 and H2 antihistamine for treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU). However, the effective rates of these two regimens were only 53.3% and 63.3%, respectively. A total of 50 with two combined therapeutic regimens treatment ineffective patients were evaluated. Patients were single blinded and randomly assigned to one of two medication groups that received the following regimens for 4 weeks: Group A (n = 30), combination of LRA, H1 antihistamine and H2 antihistamine. Group B (n = 20) continued with the previously taken two combination regimens. The treatment efficacy was measured by daily urticaria activity score (UAS) of wheal and itch. A positive therapeutic response was defined as a reduction to <25% of baseline weekly UAS, while a relapse was a return to >75% of baseline weekly UAS. At the end of 4 weeks, the UAS response to treatment of Group A was decreased from 35.2% to 21.2%, and the Group B was persisted with 33.9% as before the treatment. The combination of LRA, H2 antihistamine and H1 antihistamine is promising for the refractory CIU cases, which were refractory for two combined therapeutic regimens.

  13. Structure-Activity Relationships of the Sustained Effects of Adenosine A2A Receptor Agonists Driven by Slow Dissociation Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Hothersall, J. Daniel; Guo, Dong; Sarda, Sunil; Sheppard, Robert J.; Chen, Hongming; Keur, Wesley; Waring, Michael J.; IJzerman, Adriaan P.; Hill, Stephen J.; Dale, Ian L.

    2017-01-01

    The duration of action of adenosine A2A receptor (A2A) agonists is critical for their clinical efficacy, and we sought to better understand how this can be optimized. The in vitro temporal response profiles of a panel of A2A agonists were studied using cAMP assays in recombinantly (CHO) and endogenously (SH-SY5Y) expressing cells. Some agonists (e.g., 3cd; UK-432,097) but not others (e.g., 3ac; CGS-21680) demonstrated sustained wash-resistant agonism, where residual receptor activation continued after washout. The ability of an antagonist to reverse pre-established agonist responses was used as a surrogate read-out for agonist dissociation kinetics, and together with radioligand binding studies suggested a role for slow off-rate in driving sustained effects. One compound, 3ch, showed particularly marked sustained effects, with a reversal t1/2 > 6 hours and close to maximal effects that remained for at least 5 hours after washing. Based on the structure-activity relationship of these compounds, we suggest that lipophilic N6 and bulky C2 substituents can promote stable and long-lived binding events leading to sustained agonist responses, although a high compound logD is not necessary. This provides new insight into the binding interactions of these ligands and we anticipate that this information could facilitate the rational design of novel long-acting A2A agonists with improved clinical efficacy. PMID:27803241

  14. Managing resistant hypertension: focus on mineralocorticoid-receptor antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Yugar-Toledo, Juan Carlos; Modolo, Rodrigo; de Faria, Ana Paula; Moreno, Heitor

    2017-01-01

    Mineralocorticoid-receptor antagonists (MRAs) have proven to be effective in some types of hypertension, especially in resistant hypertension (RHTN). In this phenotype of hypertension, the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone pathway plays an important role, with MRAs being especially effective in reducing blood pressure. In this review, we show the relevance of aldosterone in RHTN, as well as some clinical characteristics of this condition and the main concepts involving its pathophysiology and cardiovascular damage. We analyzed the mechanisms of action and clinical effects of two current MRAs – spironolactone and eplerenone – both of which are useful in RHTN, with special attention to the former. RHTN represents a significant minority (10%–15%) of hypertension cases. However, primary-care physicians, cardiologists, nephrologists, neurologists, and geriatricians face this health problem on a daily basis. MRAs are likely one of the best pharmacological options in RHTN patients; however, they are still underused. PMID:29081661

  15. Nucleus accumbens and effort-related functions: behavioral and neural markers of the interactions between adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Farrar, A M; Segovia, K N; Randall, P A; Nunes, E J; Collins, L E; Stopper, C M; Port, R G; Hockemeyer, J; Müller, C E; Correa, M; Salamone, J D

    2010-04-14

    Nucleus accumbens dopamine (DA) is a critical component of the brain circuitry regulating work output in reinforcement-seeking behavior and effort-related choice behavior. Moreover, there is evidence of an interaction between DA D(2) and adenosine A(2A) receptor function. Systemic administration of adenosine A(2A) antagonists reverses the effects of D(2) antagonists on tasks that assess effort related choice. The present experiments were conducted to determine if nucleus accumbens is a brain locus at which adenosine A(2A) and DA D(2) antagonists interact to regulate effort-related choice behavior. A concurrent fixed ratio 5 (FR5)/chow feeding procedure was used; with this procedure, rats can choose between completing an FR5 lever-pressing requirement for a preferred food (i.e., high carbohydrate operant pellets) or approaching and consuming a freely available food (i.e., standard rodent chow). Rats trained with this procedure spend most of their time pressing the lever for the preferred food, and eat very little of the concurrently available chow. Intracranial injections of the selective DA D(2) receptor antagonist eticlopride (1.0, 2.0, 4.0 microg) into nucleus accumbens core, but not a dorsal control site, suppressed FR5 lever-pressing and increased consumption of freely available chow. Either systemic or intra-accumbens injections of the adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist MSX-3 reversed these effects of eticlopride on effort-related choice. Intra-accumbens injections of eticlopride also increased local expression of c-Fos immunoreactivity, and this effect was attenuated by co-administration of MSX-3. Adenosine and DA systems interact to regulate instrumental behavior and effort-related processes, and nucleus accumbens is an important locus for this interaction. These findings may have implications for the treatment of psychiatric symptoms such as psychomotor slowing, anergia and fatigue. Copyright 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dihydromorphine-peptide hybrids with delta receptor agonistic and mu receptor antagonistic actions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.B.; Medzihradsky, F.; Woods, J.H.

    1986-03-05

    The actions of two morphine derivatives with short peptide side chains were evaluated upon the contraction of the isolated mouse vas deferens and upon displacement of /sup 3/H-etorphine from rat brain membranes. NIH-9833 (N-(6,14-endoetheno-7,8-dihydromorphine-7-alpha-carbonyl)-L-phenylalanyl-L-leucine ethyl ester HCl) was a potent agonist upon the vas deferens. Its EC50 for inhibition of the twitch was 1.2 +/- 0.1 nM. Both naltrexone (10/sup -7/ M) a relatively nonselective opioid antagonist, and ICI-174864 (10/sup -/' M) a highly selective delta receptor antagonist, blocked the actions of NIH-9833 which indicates that this drug is a delta receptor agonist. In contrast, NIH-9835 (N-(6,14-endoetheno-7,8-dihydromorphine-7-alpha-carbonyl)-L-glycyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-leucine ethyl ester HCl),more » which differs from NIH-9835 by the presence of a single amino acid residue, was devoid of opioid agonistic activity but was a potent antagonist of the inhibitory actions on the vas deferens of morphine and sufentanil. NIH-9833 and NIH-9835 were potent displacers of /sup 3/H-etorphine from rat cerebral membranes with EC50's of 0.58 nM and 1.7 nM, respectively. The observation that addition of a single glycyl group changes a dihydromorphine-peptide analog from a potent delta receptor agonist to an equally potent mu receptor antagonist suggests that the two receptor sites might be structurally quite similar.« less

  17. Histamine and histamine receptor antagonists in cancer biology.

    PubMed

    Blaya, Bruno; Nicolau-Galmés, Francesca; Jangi, Shawkat M; Ortega-Martínez, Idoia; Alonso-Tejerina, Erika; Burgos-Bretones, Juan; Pérez-Yarza, Gorka; Asumendi, Aintzane; Boyano, María D

    2010-07-01

    Histamine has been demonstrated to be involved in cell proliferation, embryonic development, and tumour growth. These various biological effects are mediated through the activation of specific histamine receptors (H1, H2, H3, and H4) that differ in their tissue expression patterns and functions. Although many in vitro and in vivo studies of the modulatory roles of histamine in tumour development and metastasis have been reported, the effect of histamine in the progression of some types of tumours remains controversial; however, recent findings on the role of histamine in the immune system have shed new light on this question. This review focuses on the recent advances in understanding the roles of histamine and its receptors in tumour biology. We report our recent observations of the anti-tumoural effect of H1 histamine antagonists on experimental and human melanomas. We have found that in spite of exogenous histamine stimulated human melanoma cell proliferation, clonogenic ability and migration activity in a dose-dependent manner, the melanoma tumour growth was not modulated by in vivo histamine treatment. On the contrary, terfenadine-treatment in vitro induced melanoma cell death by apoptosis and in vivo terfenadine treatment significantly inhibited tumour growth in murine models. These observations increase our understanding of cancer biology and may inspire novel anticancer therapeutic strategies.

  18. Interactions of histamine H1-receptor agonists and antagonists with the human histamine H4-receptor.

    PubMed

    Deml, Karl-Friedrich; Beermann, Silke; Neumann, Detlef; Strasser, Andrea; Seifert, Roland

    2009-11-01

    The human histamine H(4)-receptor (hH(4)R) possesses high constitutive activity and, like the human H(1)-receptor (hH(1)R), is involved in the pathogenesis of type-I allergic reactions. The study aims were to explore the value of dual H(1)/H(4)R antagonists as antiallergy drugs and to address the question of whether H(1)R ligands bind to hH(4)R. In an acute murine asthma model, the H(1)R antagonist mepyramine and the H(4)R antagonist 1-[(5-chloro-1H-indol-2-yl)carbonyl]-4-methyl-piperazine (JNJ 7777120) exhibited synergistic inhibitory effects on eosinophil accumulation in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. At the hH(4)R expressed in Sf9 insect cells, 18 H(1)R antagonists and 22 H(1)R agonists showed lower affinity to hH(4)R than to hH(1)R as assessed in competition binding experiments. For a small number of H(1)R antagonists, hH(4)R partial agonism was observed in the steady-state GTPase assay. Most compounds were neutral antagonists or inverse agonists. Twelve phenylhistamine-type hH(1)R partial agonists were also hH(4)R partial agonists. Four histaprodifen-type hH(1)R partial agonists were hH(4)R inverse agonists. Dimeric histaprodifen was a more efficacious hH(4)R inverse agonist than the reference compound thioperamide. Suprahistaprodifen was the only histaprodifen acting as hH(4)R partial agonist. Suprahistaprodifen was docked into the binding pocket of inactive and active hH(4)R models in two different orientations, predominantly stabilizing the active state of hH(4)R. Collectively, the synergistic effects of H(1)R and H(4)R antagonists in an acute asthma model and the overlapping interaction of structurally diverse H(1)R ligands with hH(1)R and hH(4)R indicate that the development of dual H(1)R/H(4)R antagonists is a worthwhile and technically feasible goal for the treatment of type-I allergic reactions.

  19. Adenosine receptor antagonist and augmented vasodilation during hypoxic exercise

    PubMed Central

    Madery, Brandon D.; Pike, Tasha L.; Eisenach, John H.; Dietz, Niki M.; Joyner, Michael J.; Wilkins, Brad W.

    2009-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that adenosine contributes to augmented skeletal muscle vasodilation during hypoxic exercise. In separate protocols, subjects performed incremental rhythmic forearm exercise (10% and 20% of maximum) during normoxia and normocapnic hypoxia (80% arterial O2 saturation). In protocol 1 (n = 8), subjects received an intra-arterial administration of saline (control) and aminophylline (adenosine receptor antagonist). In protocol 2 (n = 10), subjects received intra-arterial phentolamine (α-adrenoceptor antagonist) and combined phentolamine and aminophylline administration. Forearm vascular conductance (FVC; in ml·min−1·100 mmHg−1) was calculated from forearm blood flow (in ml/min) and blood pressure (in mmHg). In protocol 1, the change in FVC (ΔFVC; change from normoxic baseline) during hypoxic exercise with saline was 172 ± 29 and 314 ± 34 ml·min−1·100 mmHg−1 (10% and 20%, respectively). Aminophylline administration did not affect ΔFVC during hypoxic exercise at 10% (190 ± 29 ml·min−1·100 mmHg−1, P = 0.4) or 20% (287 ± 48 ml·min−1·100 mmHg−1, P = 0.3). In protocol 2, ΔFVC due to hypoxic exercise with phentolamine infusion was 313 ± 30 and 453 ± 41 ml·min−1·100 mmHg−1 (10% and 20% respectively). ΔFVC was similar at 10% (352 ± 39 ml·min−1·100 mmHg−1, P = 0.8) and 20% (528 ± 45 ml·min−1·100 mmHg−1, P = 0.2) hypoxic exercise with combined phentolamine and aminophylline. In contrast, ΔFVC to exogenous adenosine was reduced by aminophylline administration in both protocols (P < 0.05 for both). These observations suggest that adenosine receptor activation is not obligatory for the augmented hyperemia during hypoxic exercise in humans. PMID:19661449

  20. Anticonvulsant effects of isomeric nonimidazole histamine H3 receptor antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Sadek, Bassem; Saad, Ali; Schwed, Johannes Stephan; Weizel, Lilia; Walter, Miriam; Stark, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Phenytoin (PHT), valproic acid, and modern antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), eg, remacemide, loreclezole, and safinamide, are only effective within a maximum of 70%–80% of epileptic patients, and in many cases the clinical use of AEDs is restricted by their side effects. Therefore, a continuous need remains to discover innovative chemical entities for the development of active and safer AEDs. Ligands targeting central histamine H3 receptors (H3Rs) for epilepsy might be a promising therapeutic approach. To determine the potential of H3Rs ligands as new AEDs, we recently reported that no anticonvulsant effects were observed for the (S)-2-(4-(3-(piperidin-1-yl)propoxy)benzylamino)propanamide (1). In continuation of our research, we asked whether anticonvulsant differences in activities will be observed for its R-enantiomer, namely, (R)-2-(4-(3-(piperidin-1-yl)propoxy)benzylamino)propaneamide (2) and analogs thereof, in maximum electroshock (MES)-, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-, and strychnine (STR)-induced convulsion models in rats having PHT and valproic acid (VPA) as reference AEDs. Unlike the S-enantiomer (1), the results show that animals pretreated intraperitoneally (ip) with the R-enantiomer 2 (10 mg/kg) were moderately protected in MES and STR induced models, whereas proconvulsant effect was observed for the same ligand in PTZ-induced convulsion models. However, animals pretreated with intraperitoneal doses of 5, 10, or 15 mg/kg of structurally bulkier (R)-enantiomer (3), in which 3-piperidinopropan-1-ol in ligand 2 was replaced by (4-(3-(piperidin-1-yl)propoxy)phenyl)methanol, and its (S)-enantiomer (4) significantly and in a dose-dependent manner reduced convulsions or exhibited full protection in MES and PTZ convulsions model, respectively. Interestingly, the protective effects observed for the (R)-enantiomer (3) in MES model were significantly greater than those of the standard H3R inverse agonist/antagonist pitolisant, comparable with those observed for PHT, and

  1. Histamine H4 receptor antagonists as potent modulators of mammalian vestibular primary neuron excitability

    PubMed Central

    Desmadryl, G; Gaboyard-Niay, S; Brugeaud, A; Travo, C; Broussy, A; Saleur, A; Dyhrfjeld-Johnsen, J; Wersinger, E; Chabbert, C

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Betahistine, the main histamine drug prescribed to treat vestibular disorders, is a histamine H3 receptor antagonist. Here, we explored the potential for modulation of the most recently cloned histamine receptor (H4 receptor) to influence vestibular system function, using a selective H4 receptor antagonist JNJ 7777120 and the derivate compound JNJ 10191584. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH RT-PCR was used to assess the presence of H4 receptors in rat primary vestibular neurons. In vitro electrophysiological recordings and in vivo behavioural approaches using specific antagonists were employed to examine the effect of H4 receptor modulation in the rat vestibular system. KEY RESULTS The transcripts of H4 and H3 receptors were present in rat vestibular ganglia. Application of betahistine inhibited the evoked action potential firing starting at micromolar range, accompanied by subsequent strong neuronal depolarization at higher concentrations. Conversely, reversible inhibitory effects elicited by JNJ 10191584 and JNJ 7777120 began in the nanomolar range, without inducing neuronal depolarization. This effect was reversed by application of the selective H4 receptor agonist 4-methylhistamine. Thioperamide, a H3/H4 receptor antagonist, exerted effects similar to those of H3 and H4 receptor antagonists, namely inhibition of firing at nanomolar range and membrane depolarization above 100 µM. H4 receptor antagonists significantly alleviated the vestibular deficits induced in rats, while neither betahistine nor thioperamide had significant effects. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS H4 receptor antagonists have a pronounced inhibitory effect on vestibular neuron activity. This result highlights the potential role of H4 receptors as pharmacological targets for the treatment of vestibular disorders. PMID:22624822

  2. Receptors and Channels Targeted by Synthetic Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists and Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Pertwee, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    It is widely accepted that non-endogenous compounds that target CB1 and/or CB2 receptors possess therapeutic potential for the clinical management of an ever growing number of disorders. Just a few of these disorders are already treated with Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol or nabilone, both CB1/CB2 receptor agonists, and there is now considerable interest in expanding the clinical applications of such agonists and also in exploiting CB2-selective agonists, peripherally restricted CB1/CB2 receptor agonists and CB1/CB2 antagonists and inverse agonists as medicines. Already, numerous cannabinoid receptor ligands have been developed and their interactions with CB1 and CB2 receptors well characterized. This review describes what is currently known about the ability of such compounds to bind to, activate, inhibit or block non-CB1, non-CB2 G protein-coupled receptors such as GPR55, transmitter gated channels, ion channels and nuclear receptors in an orthosteric or allosteric manner. It begins with a brief description of how each of these ligands interacts with CB1 and/or CB2 receptors. PMID:20166927

  3. Benzodiazepine calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonists: optimization of the 4-substituted piperidine.

    PubMed

    Burgey, Christopher S; Stump, Craig A; Nguyen, Diem N; Deng, James Z; Quigley, Amy G; Norton, Beth R; Bell, Ian M; Mosser, Scott D; Salvatore, Christopher A; Rutledge, Ruth Z; Kane, Stefanie A; Koblan, Kenneth S; Vacca, Joseph P; Graham, Samuel L; Williams, Theresa M

    2006-10-01

    In our continuing effort to identify CGRP receptor antagonists for the acute treatment of migraine, we have undertaken a study to evaluate alternative 4-substituted piperidines to the lead dihydroquinazolinone 1. In this regard, we have identified the piperidinyl-azabenzimidazolone and phenylimidazolinone structures which, when incorporated into the benzodiazepine core, afford potent CGRP receptor antagonists (e.g., 18 and 29). These studies produced a potent analog (18) which overcomes the instability issues associated with the lead structure 1. A general pharmacophore for the 4-substituted piperidine component of these CGRP receptor antagonists is also presented.

  4. Applicability of DPI formulations for novel neurokinin receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Kumon, M; Yabe, Y; Kasuya, Y; Suzuki, M; Kusai, A; Yonemochi, E; Terada, K

    2008-05-22

    A novel triple neurokinin receptor antagonist (TNRA) could have pharmaceutical efficacy for asthma and/or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. TNRA is potentially developed as inhalation medicine. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the applicability of dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulation for TNRA. DPI formulation containing lactose was used for this feasibility study. Mechanofusion process for surface modification was applied on lactose particles to prepare four different DPI formulations. The mixture of TNRA and lactose was administered to rats intratracheally using an insufflator. The deposition pattern and blood concentration profile of TNRA were evaluated. Although there was no significant difference in deposition on deep lungs between the four formulations, DPI formulations containing mechanofusion-processed lactose showed longer T(max) and t(1/2) and higher AUC(0-infinity) and MRT compared to that containing intact lactose. On the other hand, the contact angle measurement showed that the mechanofusion process decreased the polar part of the surface energy of the lactose. Therefore, the prolongation of the wetting of the formulated powder mixture seemed to delay the dissolution of TNRA deposited in respiratory tract. It was concluded that DPI formulation containing mechanofusion-processed lactose could be suitable for inhalation of TNRA.

  5. Side Effects of Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists in Asthmatic Children.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Semiha Bahceci; Nacaroglu, Hikmet Tekin; Unsal Karkiner, Canan Sule; Gunay, Ilker; Can, Demet

    2015-10-01

    Leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) are drugs which have been widely used more than ten years. As the use of LTRAs increases, our knowledge with respect to their side effects increases as well. The objective of our study was to evaluat the observed side effects of LTRAs used in patients with astma. 1024 patients treated only with LTRAs owing to asthma or early wheezing were included in the study for a five-year period. The observed side effects of LTRAs in these patients were retrospectively investigated. The side effects were divided into two parts as psychiatric and non-psychiatric. Among the 1024 cases included in the study, 67.5% of the patients out of 41 with side effects were male, 32.5% were female and the average age was 6.5 years. The rate of patients with asthma was 63.41% and 36.58% of the patients had early wheezing. It was determined that sex, age and diagnosis (early wheezing or asthma) of the patients were ineffective in the emergence of side effects. The average period for the emergence of side effects was the first month. It was observed that hyperactivity was the most frequently observed psychiatric side effect and that abdominal pain was the non-psychiatric side effect. The side effects of LTRAs were common in children. Therefore, patients must be informed at the beginning of the treatment and they must be evaluated at certain intervals.

  6. Adenosine A(2A) receptor modulation of hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapse plasticity during associative learning in behaving mice.

    PubMed

    Fontinha, Bruno M; Delgado-García, José M; Madroñal, Noelia; Ribeiro, Joaquim A; Sebastião, Ana M; Gruart, Agnès

    2009-06-01

    Previous in vitro studies have characterized the electrophysiological and molecular signaling pathways of adenosine tonic modulation on long-lasting synaptic plasticity events, particularly for hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). However, it remains to be elucidated whether the long-term changes produced by endogenous adenosine in the efficiency of synapses are related to those required for learning and memory formation. Our goal was to understand how endogenous activation of adenosine excitatory A(2A) receptors modulates the associative learning evolution in conscious behaving mice. We have studied here the effects of the application of a highly selective A(2A) receptor antagonist, SCH58261, upon a well-known associative learning paradigm-classical eyeblink conditioning. We used a trace paradigm, with a tone as the conditioned stimulus (CS) and an electric shock presented to the supraorbital nerve as the unconditioned stimulus (US). A single electrical pulse was presented to the Schaffer collateral-commissural pathway to evoke field EPSPs (fEPSPs) in the pyramidal CA1 area during the CS-US interval. In vehicle-injected animals, there was a progressive increase in the percentage of conditioning responses (CRs) and in the slope of fEPSPs through conditioning sessions, an effect that was completely prevented (and lost) in SCH58261 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) -injected animals. Moreover, experimentally evoked LTP was impaired in SCH58261-injected mice. In conclusion, the endogenous activation of adenosine A(2A) receptors plays a pivotal effect on the associative learning process and its relevant hippocampal circuits, including activity-dependent changes at the CA3-CA1 synapse.

  7. Dipyridamole attenuates ischemia reperfusion induced acute kidney injury through adenosinergic A1 and A2A receptor agonism in rats.

    PubMed

    Puri, Nikkita; Mohey, Vinita; Singh, Manjinder; Kaur, Tajpreet; Pathak, Devendra; Buttar, Harpal Singh; Singh, Amrit Pal

    2016-04-01

    Dipyridamole (DYP) is an anti-platelet agent with marked vasodilator, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory activity. The present study investigated the role of adenosine receptors in DYP-mediated protection against ischemia reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in rats. The rats were subjected to bilateral renal ischemia for 40 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h. The renal damage induced by ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) was assessed by measuring creatinine clearance, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, plasma potassium, fractional excretion of sodium, and microproteinuria in rats. The oxidative stress in renal tissues was assessed by quantification of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, superoxide anion generation, and reduced glutathione level. The hematoxylin-eosin staining was carried out to observe histopathological changes in renal tissues. DYP (10 and 30 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, i.p.) was administered 30 min before subjecting the rats to renal IRI. In separate groups, caffeine (50 mg/kg, i.p.), an adenosinergic A1 and A2A receptor antagonist was administered with and without DYP treatment before subjecting the rats to renal IRI. The ischemia reperfusion-induced AKI was demonstrated by significant changes in serum as well as urinary parameters, enhanced oxidative stress, and histopathological changes in renal tissues. The administration of DYP demonstrated protection against AKI. The prior treatment with caffeine abolished DYP-mediated reno-protection suggesting role of A1 and A2A adenosine receptors in DYP-mediated reno-protection in rats. It is concluded that adenosine receptors find their definite involvement in DYP-mediated anti-oxidative and reno-protective effect against ischemia reperfusion-induced AKI.

  8. Advantages of histamine H4 receptor antagonist usage with H1 receptor antagonist for the treatment of murine allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Ayuko; Seike, Masahiro; Okawa, Haruka; Kadawaki, Yayoi; Ohtsu, Hiroshi

    2012-09-01

    Histamine facilitates development of eczematous lesions in chronic allergic contact dermatitis. In addition to the well-known corticosteroid treatments, H1 receptor (H1R) antagonists also have been used. This study observed effects of histamine H4 receptor (H4R) antagonist usage with H1R antagonist in a murine chronic allergic contact dermatitis model, developed by repeated percutaneous challenge to the dorsal skin with 2,4,6-trinitro-1-chlorobenzene (TNCB). The H1R antagonist olopatadine hydrochloride and/or the H4R antagonist JNJ7777120 was then administered. Combination therapy was more effective than H1R antagonist monotherapy. Serum IgE and levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-6 (Th2 cytokines) in eczematous lesions decreased with combined therapy. Combined therapy with H1R and H4R antagonists counteracts the disadvantages of each as monotherapeutic agents and potentially represents a new strategy for the treatment of chronic allergic contact dermatitis. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. The NK1 receptor antagonist L822429 reduces heroin reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Barbier, Estelle; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Schlosburg, Joel E; Edwards, Scott; Juergens, Nathan; Park, Paula E; Misra, Kaushik K; Cheng, Kejun; Rice, Kenner C; Schank, Jesse; Schulteis, Gery; Koob, George F; Heilig, Markus

    2013-05-01

    Genetic deletion of the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) has been shown to decrease the reinforcing properties of opioids, but it is unknown whether pharmacological NK1R blockade has the same effect. Here, we examined the effect of L822429, a rat-specific NK1R antagonist, on the reinforcing properties of heroin in rats on short (1 h: ShA) or long (12 h: LgA) access to intravenous heroin self-administration. ShA produces heroin self-administration rates that are stable over time, whereas LgA leads to an escalation of heroin intake thought to model important dependence-related aspects of addiction. L822429 reduced heroin self-administration and the motivation to consume heroin, measured using a progressive-ratio schedule, in both ShA and LgA rats. L822429 also decreased anxiety-like behavior in both groups, measured on the elevated plus maze, but did not affect mechanical hypersensitivity observed in LgA rats. Expression of TacR1 (the gene encoding NK1R) was decreased in reward- and stress-related brain areas both in ShA and LgA rats compared with heroin-naïve rats, but did not differ between the two heroin-experienced groups. In contrast, passive exposure to heroin produced increases in TacR1 expression in the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. Taken together, these results show that pharmacological NK1R blockade attenuates heroin reinforcement. The observation that animals with ShA and LgA to heroin were similarly affected by L822429 indicates that the SP/NK1R system is not specifically involved in neuroadaptations that underlie escalation resulting from LgA self-administration. Instead, the NK1R antagonist appears to attenuate acute, positively reinforcing properties of heroin and may be useful as an adjunct to relapse prevention in detoxified opioid-dependent subjects.

  10. The NK1 Receptor Antagonist L822429 Reduces Heroin Reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Barbier, Estelle; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Schlosburg, Joel E; Edwards, Scott; Juergens, Nathan; Park, Paula E; Misra, Kaushik K; Cheng, Kejun; Rice, Kenner C; Schank, Jesse; Schulteis, Gery; Koob, George F; Heilig, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Genetic deletion of the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) has been shown to decrease the reinforcing properties of opioids, but it is unknown whether pharmacological NK1R blockade has the same effect. Here, we examined the effect of L822429, a rat-specific NK1R antagonist, on the reinforcing properties of heroin in rats on short (1 h: ShA) or long (12 h: LgA) access to intravenous heroin self-administration. ShA produces heroin self-administration rates that are stable over time, whereas LgA leads to an escalation of heroin intake thought to model important dependence-related aspects of addiction. L822429 reduced heroin self-administration and the motivation to consume heroin, measured using a progressive-ratio schedule, in both ShA and LgA rats. L822429 also decreased anxiety-like behavior in both groups, measured on the elevated plus maze, but did not affect mechanical hypersensitivity observed in LgA rats. Expression of TacR1 (the gene encoding NK1R) was decreased in reward- and stress-related brain areas both in ShA and LgA rats compared with heroin-naïve rats, but did not differ between the two heroin-experienced groups. In contrast, passive exposure to heroin produced increases in TacR1 expression in the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. Taken together, these results show that pharmacological NK1R blockade attenuates heroin reinforcement. The observation that animals with ShA and LgA to heroin were similarly affected by L822429 indicates that the SP/NK1R system is not specifically involved in neuroadaptations that underlie escalation resulting from LgA self-administration. Instead, the NK1R antagonist appears to attenuate acute, positively reinforcing properties of heroin and may be useful as an adjunct to relapse prevention in detoxified opioid-dependent subjects. PMID:23303056

  11. Anti-idiotypic antibody: A new strategy for the development of a growth hormone receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Lan, Hainan; Zheng, Xin; Khan, Muhammad Akram; Li, Steven

    2015-11-01

    In general, traditional growth hormone receptor antagonist can be divided into two major classes: growth hormone (GH) analogues and anti-growth hormone receptor (GHR) antibodies. Herein, we tried to explore a new class of growth hormone receptor (GHR) antagonist that may have potential advantages over the traditional antagonists. For this, we developed a monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody growth hormone, termed CG-86. A series of experiments were conducted to characterize and evaluate this antibody, and the results from a competitive receptor-binding assay, Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) and epitope mapping demonstrate that CG-86 behaved as a typical Ab2β. Next, we examined its antagonistic activity using in vitro cell models, and the results showed that CG-86 could effectively inhibit growth hormone receptor-mediated signalling and effectively inhibit growth hormone-induced Ba/F3-GHR638 proliferation. In summary, these studies show that an anti-idiotypic antibody (CG-86) has promise as a novel growth hormone receptor antagonist. Furthermore, the current findings also suggest that anti-idiotypic antibody may represent a novel strategy to produce a new class of growth hormone receptor antagonist, and this strategy may be applied with other cytokines or growth factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Successful treatment of hereditary angioedema with bradykinin B2-receptor antagonist icatibant.

    PubMed

    Krause, Karoline; Metz, Martin; Zuberbier, Torsten; Maurer, Marcus; Magerl, Markus

    2010-04-01

    The bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist icatibant has recently become available for treating hereditary angioedema. Our observations demonstrate icatibant to be effective and safe for the treatment of both, abdominal and cutaneous attacks in a practice setting beyond clinical studies.

  13. Crystal structure of human glycine receptor-α3 bound to antagonist strychnine.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin; Chen, Hao; Michelsen, Klaus; Schneider, Stephen; Shaffer, Paul L

    2015-10-08

    Neurotransmitter-gated ion channels of the Cys-loop receptor family are essential mediators of fast neurotransmission throughout the nervous system and are implicated in many neurological disorders. Available X-ray structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic Cys-loop receptors provide tremendous insights into the binding of agonists, the subsequent opening of the ion channel, and the mechanism of channel activation. Yet the mechanism of inactivation by antagonists remains unknown. Here we present a 3.0 Å X-ray structure of the human glycine receptor-α3 homopentamer in complex with a high affinity, high-specificity antagonist, strychnine. Our structure allows us to explore in detail the molecular recognition of antagonists. Comparisons with previous structures reveal a mechanism for antagonist-induced inactivation of Cys-loop receptors, involving an expansion of the orthosteric binding site in the extracellular domain that is coupled to closure of the ion pore in the transmembrane domain.

  14. Caffeine reverses age-related deficits in olfactory discrimination and social recognition memory in rats. Involvement of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Prediger, Rui D S; Batista, Luciano C; Takahashi, Reinaldo N

    2005-06-01

    Caffeine, a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist, has been suggested as a potential drug to counteract age-related cognitive decline since critical changes in adenosinergic neurotransmission occur with aging. In the present study, olfactory discrimination and short-term social memory of 3, 6, 12 and 18 month-old rats were assessed with the olfactory discrimination and social recognition tasks, respectively. The actions of caffeine (3.0, 10.0 and 30.0 mg/kg, i.p.), the A1 receptor antagonist DPCPX (1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg, i.p.) and the A2A receptor antagonist ZM241385 (0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) in relation to age-related effects on olfactory functions were also studied. The 12 and 18 month-old rats exhibited significantly impaired performance in both models, demonstrating deficits in their odor discrimination and in their ability to recognize a juvenile rat after a short period of time. Acute treatment with caffeine or ZM241385, but not with DPCPX, reversed these age-related olfactory deficits. The present results suggest the participation of adenosine receptors in the control of olfactory functions and confirm the potential of caffeine for the treatment of aged-related cognitive decline.

  15. High-throughput screening of antagonists for the orphan G-protein coupled receptor GPR139.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Zhu, Lin-yun; Liu, Qing; Hentzer, Morten; Smith, Garrick Paul; Wang, Ming-wei

    2015-07-01

    To discover antagonists of the orphan G-protein coupled receptor GPR139 through high-throughput screening of a collection of diverse small molecules. Calcium mobilization assays were used to identify initial hits and for subsequent confirmation studies. Five small molecule antagonists, representing 4 different scaffolds, were identified following high-throughput screening of 16 000 synthetic compounds. The findings provide important tools for further study of this orphan G-protein coupled receptor.

  16. High-throughput screening of antagonists for the orphan G-protein coupled receptor GPR139

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia; Zhu, Lin-yun; Liu, Qing; Hentzer, Morten; Smith, Garrick Paul; Wang, Ming-wei

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To discover antagonists of the orphan G-protein coupled receptor GPR139 through high-throughput screening of a collection of diverse small molecules. Methods: Calcium mobilization assays were used to identify initial hits and for subsequent confirmation studies. Results: Five small molecule antagonists, representing 4 different scaffolds, were identified following high-throughput screening of 16 000 synthetic compounds. Conclusion: The findings provide important tools for further study of this orphan G-protein coupled receptor. PMID:26027661

  17. Persistent reduction of cocaine seeking by pharmacological manipulation of adenosine A1 and A 2A receptors during extinction training in rats.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Casey E; Hobson, Benjamin D; Levis, Sophia C; Bachtell, Ryan K

    2014-08-01

    Adenosine receptor stimulation and blockade have been shown to modulate a variety of cocaine-related behaviors. These studies identify the direct effects of adenosine receptor stimulation on cocaine seeking during extinction training and the persistent effects on subsequent reinstatement to cocaine seeking. Rats self-administered cocaine on a fixed ratio one schedule in daily sessions over 3 weeks. Following a 1-week withdrawal, the direct effects of adenosine receptor modulation were tested by administering the adenosine A1 receptor agonist, N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA, 0.03 and 0.1 mg/kg), the adenosine A2A agonist, CGS 21680 (0.03 and 0.1 mg/kg), the presynaptic adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, SCH 442416 (0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg), or vehicle prior to each of six daily extinction sessions. The persistent effects of adenosine receptor modulation during extinction training were subsequently tested on reinstatement to cocaine seeking induced by cues, cocaine, and the dopamine D2 receptor agonist, quinpirole. All doses of CPA and CGS 21680 impaired initial extinction responding; however, only CPA treatment during extinction produced persistent impairment in subsequent cocaine- and quinpirole-induced seeking. Dissociating CPA treatment from extinction did not alter extinction responding or subsequent reinstatement. Administration of SCH 442416 had no direct effects on extinction responding but produced dose-dependent persistent impairment of cocaine- and quinpirole-induced seeking. These findings demonstrate that adenosine A1 or A2A receptor stimulation directly impair extinction responding. Interestingly, adenosine A1 receptor stimulation or presynaptic adenosine A2A receptor blockade during extinction produces lasting changes in relapse susceptibility.

  18. Differential effects of presynaptic versus postsynaptic adenosine A2A receptor blockade on Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) self-administration in squirrel monkeys.

    PubMed

    Justinová, Zuzana; Redhi, Godfrey H; Goldberg, Steven R; Ferré, Sergi

    2014-05-07

    Different doses of an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3 [3,7-dihydro-8-[(1E)-2-(3-ethoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-7 methyl-3-[3-(phosphooxy)propyl-1-(2 propynil)-1H-purine-2,6-dione] were found previously to either decrease or increase self-administration of cannabinoids delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or anandamide in squirrel monkeys. It was hypothesized that the decrease observed with a relatively low dose of MSX-3 was related to blockade of striatal presynaptic A2A receptors that modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission, whereas the increase observed with a higher dose was related to blockade of postsynaptic A2A receptors localized in striatopallidal neurons. This hypothesis was confirmed in the present study by testing the effects of the preferential presynaptic and postsynaptic A2A receptor antagonists SCH-442416 [2-(2-furanyl)-7-[3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propyl]-7H-pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidin-5-amine] and KW-6002 [(E)-1, 3-diethyl-8-(3,4-dimethoxystyryl)-7-methyl-3,7-dihydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione], respectively, in squirrel monkeys trained to intravenously self-administer THC. SCH-442416 produced a significant shift to the right of the THC self-administration dose-response curves, consistent with antagonism of the reinforcing effects of THC. Conversely, KW-6002 produced a significant shift to the left, consistent with potentiation of the reinforcing effects of THC. These results show that selectively blocking presynaptic A2A receptors could provide a new pharmacological approach to the treatment of marijuana dependence and underscore corticostriatal glutamatergic neurotransmission as a possible main mechanism involved in the rewarding effects of THC.

  19. Thrombin-receptor antagonist vorapaxar in acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Tricoci, Pierluigi; Huang, Zhen; Held, Claes; Moliterno, David J; Armstrong, Paul W; Van de Werf, Frans; White, Harvey D; Aylward, Philip E; Wallentin, Lars; Chen, Edmond; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Pei, Jinglan; Leonardi, Sergio; Rorick, Tyrus L; Kilian, Ann M; Jennings, Lisa H K; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Bode, Christoph; Cequier, Angel; Cornel, Jan H; Diaz, Rafael; Erkan, Aycan; Huber, Kurt; Hudson, Michael P; Jiang, Lixin; Jukema, J Wouter; Lewis, Basil S; Lincoff, A Michael; Montalescot, Gilles; Nicolau, José Carlos; Ogawa, Hisao; Pfisterer, Matthias; Prieto, Juan Carlos; Ruzyllo, Witold; Sinnaeve, Peter R; Storey, Robert F; Valgimigli, Marco; Whellan, David J; Widimsky, Petr; Strony, John; Harrington, Robert A; Mahaffey, Kenneth W

    2012-01-05

    Vorapaxar is a new oral protease-activated-receptor 1 (PAR-1) antagonist that inhibits thrombin-induced platelet activation. In this multinational, double-blind, randomized trial, we compared vorapaxar with placebo in 12,944 patients who had acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation. The primary end point was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, stroke, recurrent ischemia with rehospitalization, or urgent coronary revascularization. Follow-up in the trial was terminated early after a safety review. After a median follow-up of 502 days (interquartile range, 349 to 667), the primary end point occurred in 1031 of 6473 patients receiving vorapaxar versus 1102 of 6471 patients receiving placebo (Kaplan-Meier 2-year rate, 18.5% vs. 19.9%; hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85 to 1.01; P=0.07). A composite of death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke occurred in 822 patients in the vorapaxar group versus 910 in the placebo group (14.7% and 16.4%, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.81 to 0.98; P=0.02). Rates of moderate and severe bleeding were 7.2% in the vorapaxar group and 5.2% in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.58; P<0.001). Intracranial hemorrhage rates were 1.1% and 0.2%, respectively (hazard ratio, 3.39; 95% CI, 1.78 to 6.45; P<0.001). Rates of nonhemorrhagic adverse events were similar in the two groups. In patients with acute coronary syndromes, the addition of vorapaxar to standard therapy did not significantly reduce the primary composite end point but significantly increased the risk of major bleeding, including intracranial hemorrhage. (Funded by Merck; TRACER ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00527943.).

  20. Oxycodone combined with opioid receptor antagonists: efficacy and safety.

    PubMed

    Davis, Mellar; Goforth, Harold W; Gamier, Pam

    2013-05-01

    A mu receptor antagonist combined with oxycodone (OXY) may improve pain control, reduce physical tolerance and withdrawal, minimizing opioid-related bowel dysfunction and act as an abuse deterrent. The authors cover the use of OXY plus ultra-low-dose naltrexone for analgesia and the use of sustained-release OXY plus sustained-release naloxone to reduce the opioid bowel syndrome. The authors briefly describe the use of sustained-release OXY and naltrexone pellets as a drug abuse deterrent formulation. Combinations of ultra-low-dose naltrexone plus OXY have been in separate trials involved in patients with chronic pain from osteoarthritis and idiopathic low back pain. High attrition and marginal differences between ultra-low-dose naltrexone plus OXY and OXY led to discontinuation of development. Prolonged-release (PR) naloxone combined with PR OXY demonstrates a consistent reduction in opioid-related bowel dysfunction in multiple randomized controlled trials. However, gastrointestinal side effects, including diarrhea, were increased in several trials with the combination compared with PR OXY alone. Analgesia appeared to be maintained although non-inferiority to PR OXY is not formally established. There were flaws to trial design and safety monitoring. Naltrexone has been combined with OXY in individual pellets encased in a capsule. This combination has been reported in a Phase II trial and is presently undergoing Phase III studies. Due to the lack of efficacy the combination of altered low-dose naltrexone with oxycodone should cease in development. The combination of sustained release oxycodone plus naloxone reduces constipation with a consistent benefit. Safety has been suboptimally evaluated which is a concern. Although the drug is commercially available in several countries, ongoing safety monitoring particularly high doses would be important.

  1. Efficacy and safety of histamine-2 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    van der Pol, Rachel; Langendam, Miranda; Benninga, Marc; van Wijk, Michiel; Tabbers, Merit

    2014-10-01

    Histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) are frequently used in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in children; however, their efficacy and safety is questionable. To systematically review the literature to assess the efficacy and safety of H2RAs in pediatric GERD. PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane database were searched for randomized clinical trials investigating the efficacy and safety of H2RAs in pediatric GERD. Two reviewers independently extracted data from the included articles. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the Grades of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. When possible, infants and children were analyzed separately. Eight studies with a total of 276 children (0-15 years of age) were included. Compared with the placebo, H2RAs were more effective in the reduction of symptoms in terms of histologic healing and increasing gastric pH and had a larger overall treatment effect. In infants, H2RAs were only more effective in terms of histologic healing. Comparing H2RAs with antacids, H2RAs were more effective in symptom reduction in only 1 study. H2RAs compared with proton pump inhibitors were not significantly different in any of the outcome measures. For safety analysis, data were not reported in a quantitative manner and for all outcomes, the quality of evidence was very low. Evidence to support the efficacy and safety of H2RAs in infants and children is limited and of poor quality. Well-designed placebo-controlled trials are needed before thorough conclusions can be drawn.

  2. Icatibant, a new bradykinin-receptor antagonist, in hereditary angioedema.

    PubMed

    Cicardi, Marco; Banerji, Aleena; Bracho, Francisco; Malbrán, Alejandro; Rosenkranz, Bernd; Riedl, Marc; Bork, Konrad; Lumry, William; Aberer, Werner; Bier, Henning; Bas, Murat; Greve, Jens; Hoffmann, Thomas K; Farkas, Henriette; Reshef, Avner; Ritchie, Bruce; Yang, William; Grabbe, Jürgen; Kivity, Shmuel; Kreuz, Wolfhart; Levy, Robyn J; Luger, Thomas; Obtulowicz, Krystyna; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Bull, Christian; Sitkauskiene, Brigita; Smith, William B; Toubi, Elias; Werner, Sonja; Anné, Suresh; Björkander, Janne; Bouillet, Laurence; Cillari, Enrico; Hurewitz, David; Jacobson, Kraig W; Katelaris, Constance H; Maurer, Marcus; Merk, Hans; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Feighery, Conleth; Floccard, Bernard; Gleich, Gerald; Hébert, Jacques; Kaatz, Martin; Keith, Paul; Kirkpatrick, Charles H; Langton, David; Martin, Ludovic; Pichler, Christiane; Resnick, David; Wombolt, Duane; Fernández Romero, Diego S; Zanichelli, Andrea; Arcoleo, Francesco; Knolle, Jochen; Kravec, Irina; Dong, Liying; Zimmermann, Jens; Rosen, Kimberly; Fan, Wing-Tze

    2010-08-05

    Hereditary angioedema is characterized by recurrent attacks of angioedema of the skin, larynx, and gastrointestinal tract. Bradykinin is the key mediator of symptoms. Icatibant is a selective bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist. In two double-blind, randomized, multicenter trials, we evaluated the effect of icatibant in patients with hereditary angioedema presenting with cutaneous or abdominal attacks. In the For Angioedema Subcutaneous Treatment (FAST) 1 trial, patients received either icatibant or placebo; in FAST-2, patients received either icatibant or oral tranexamic acid, at a dose of 3 g daily for 2 days. Icatibant was given once, subcutaneously, at a dose of 30 mg. The primary end point was the median time to clinically significant relief of symptoms. A total of 56 and 74 patients underwent randomization in the FAST-1 and FAST-2 trials, respectively. The primary end point was reached in 2.5 hours with icatibant versus 4.6 hours with placebo in the FAST-1 trial (P=0.14) and in 2.0 hours with icatibant versus 12.0 hours with tranexamic acid in the FAST-2 trial (P<0.001). In the FAST-1 study, 3 recipients of icatibant and 13 recipients of placebo needed treatment with rescue medication. The median time to first improvement of symptoms, as assessed by patients and by investigators, was significantly shorter with icatibant in both trials. No icatibant-related serious adverse events were reported. In patients with hereditary angioedema having acute attacks, we found a significant benefit of icatibant as compared with tranexamic acid in one trial and a nonsignificant benefit of icatibant as compared with placebo in the other trial with regard to the primary end point. The early use of rescue medication may have obscured the benefit of icatibant in the placebo trial. (Funded by Jerini; ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00097695 and NCT00500656.)

  3. Icatibant, a New Bradykinin-Receptor Antagonist, in Hereditary Angioedema

    PubMed Central

    Cicardi, M.; Banerji, A.; Bracho, F.; Malbrán, A.; Rosenkranz, B.; Riedl, M.; Bork, K.; Lumry, W.; Aberer, W.; Bier, H.; Bas, M.; Greve, J.; Hoffmann, T.K.; Farkas, H.; Reshef, A.; Ritchie, B.; Yang, W.; Grabbe, J.; Kivity, S.; Kreuz, W.; Levy, R.J.; Luger, T.; Obtulowicz, K.; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P.; Bull, C.; Sitkauskiene, B.; Smith, W.B.; Toubi, E.; Werner, S.; Anné, S.; Björkander, J.; Bouillet, L.; Cillari, E.; Hurewitz, D.; Jacobson, K.W.; Katelaris, C.H.; Maurer, M.; Merk, H.; Bernstein, J.A.; Feighery, C.; Floccard, B.; Gleich, G.; Hébert, J.; Kaatz, M.; Keith, P.; Kirkpatrick, C.H.; Langton, D.; Martin, L.; Pichler, C.; Resnick, D.; Wombolt, D.; Fernández Romero, D.S.; Zanichelli, A.; Arcoleo, F.; Knolle, J.; Kravec, I.; Dong, L.; Zimmermann, J.; Rosen, K.; Fan, W.-T.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hereditary angioedema is characterized by recurrent attacks of angioedema of the skin, larynx, and gastrointestinal tract. Bradykinin is the key mediator of symptoms. Icatibant is a selective bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist. METHODS In two double-blind, randomized, multicenter trials, we evaluated the effect of icatibant in patients with hereditary angioedema presenting with cutaneous or abdominal attacks. In the For Angioedema Subcutaneous Treatment (FAST) 1 trial, patients received either icatibant or placebo; in FAST-2, patients received either icatibant or oral tranexamic acid, at a dose of 3 g daily for 2 days. Icatibant was given once, subcutaneously, at a dose of 30 mg. The primary end point was the median time to clinically significant relief of symptoms. RESULTS A total of 56 and 74 patients underwent randomization in the FAST-1 and FAST-2 trials, respectively. The primary end point was reached in 2.5 hours with icatibant versus 4.6 hours with placebo in the FAST-1 trial (P = 0.14) and in 2.0 hours with icatibant versus 12.0 hours with tranexamic acid in the FAST-2 trial (P<0.001). In the FAST-1 study, 3 recipients of icatibant and 13 recipients of placebo needed treatment with rescue medication. The median time to first improvement of symptoms, as assessed by patients and by investigators, was significantly shorter with icatibant in both trials. No icatibant-related serious adverse events were reported. CONCLUSIONS In patients with hereditary angioedema having acute attacks, we found a significant benefit of icatibant as compared with tranexamic acid in one trial and a nonsignificant benefit of icatibant as compared with placebo in the other trial with regard to the primary end point. The early use of rescue medication may have obscured the benefit of icatibant in the placebo trial. (Funded by Jerini; ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00097695 and NCT00500656.) PMID:20818888

  4. Cannabinoid type 1 receptor antagonists for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Kate; Ussher, Michael H

    2011-03-16

    Selective type 1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor antagonists may assist with smoking cessation by restoring the balance of the endocannabinoid system, which can be disrupted by prolonged use of nicotine. They also seeks to address many smokers' reluctance to persist with a quit attempt because of concerns about weight gain. To determine whether selective CB1 receptor antagonists (currently rimonabant and taranabant) increase the numbers of people stopping smoking To assess their effects on weight change in successful quitters and in those who try to quit but fail. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Review Group specialized register for trials, using the terms ('rimonabant' or 'taranabant') and 'smoking' in the title or abstract, or as keywords. We also searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO, using major MESH terms. We acquired electronic or paper copies of posters of preliminary trial results presented at the American Thoracic Society Meeting in 2005, and at the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco European Meeting 2006. We also attempted to contact the authors of ongoing studies of rimonabant, and Sanofi Aventis (manufacturers of rimonabant). The most recent search was in January 2011. Types of studies Randomized controlled trialsTypes of participants Adult smokersTypes of interventions Selective CB1 receptor antagonists, such as rimonabant and taranabant. Types of outcome measures The primary outcome is smoking status at a minimum of six months after the start of treatment. We preferred sustained cessation rates to point prevalence, and biochemically verified cessation to self-reported quitting. We regarded smokers who drop out or are lost to follow up as continuing smokers. We have noted any adverse effects of treatment.A secondary outcome is weight change associated with the cessation attempt. Two authors checked the abstracts for relevance, and attempted to acquire full trial reports. One author extracted the data, and a second author checked

  5. Using caffeine and other adenosine receptor antagonists and agonists as therapeutic tools against neurodegenerative diseases: a review.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Oliver, Marla; Díaz-Ríos, Manuel

    2014-04-17

    Caffeine is the most consumed pychostimulant in the world, and it is known to affect basic and fundamental human processes such as sleep, arousal, cognition and learning and memory. It works as a nonselective blocker of adenosine receptors (A1, A2a, A2b and A3) and has been related to the regulation of heart rate, the contraction/relaxation of cardiac and smooth muscles, and the neural signaling in the central nervous system (CNS). Since the late 1990s, studies using adenosine receptor antagonists, such as Caffeine, to block the A1 and A2a adenosine receptor subtypes have shown to reduce the physical, cellular and molecular damages caused by a spinal cord injury (SCI) or a stroke (cerebral infarction) and by other neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Interestingly, other studies using adenosine receptor agonists have also shown to provide a neuroprotective effect on various models of neurodegenerative diseases through the reduction of excitatory neurotransmitter release, apoptosis and inflammatory responses, among others. The seemingly paradoxical use of both adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists as neuroprotective agents has been attributed to differences in dosage levels, drug delivery method, extracellular concentration of excitatory neurotransmitters and stage of disease progression. We discuss and compare recent findings using both antagonists and agonists of adenosine receptors in animal models and patients that have suffered spinal cord injuries, brain strokes, and Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Additionally, we propose alternative interpretations on the seemingly paradoxical use of these drugs as potential pharmacological tools to treat these various types of neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Potentiation of cytokine induction of group IIA phospholipase A(2) in rat mesangial cells by ATP and adenosine via the A2A adenosine receptor.

    PubMed

    Scholz-Pedretti, K; Pfeilschifter, J; Kaszkin, M

    2001-01-01

    1. In rat mesangial cells extracellular nucleotides were found to increase arachidonic acid release by a cytosolic phospholipase A(2) through the P2Y(2) purinergic receptor. 2. In this study we investigated the effects of ATP and UTP on interleukin-1ss (IL-1ss)-induced mRNA expression and activity of group IIA phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)-IIA) in rat mesangial cells. 3. Treatment of cells for 24 h with extracellular ATP potentiated IL-1ss-stimulated sPLA(2)-IIA induction, whereas UTP had no effect. 4. We obtained the following evidence that the P2Y(2) receptor is not involved in the potentiation of sPLA(2)-IIA induction: (i) ATP-gamma-S had no enhancing effect; (ii) suramin, a P(2) receptor antagonist, did not inhibit ATP-mediated potentiation; (iii) inhibition of degradation of extracellular nucleotides by the 5'-ectonucleotidase inhibitor AOPCP did not enhance sPLA(2)-IIA induction and (iv) adenosine deaminase treatment completely abolished the ATP-mediated potentiation of sPLA(2)-IIA induction. 5. In contrast, treatment of mesangial cells with adenosine or the A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680 mimicked the effects of ATP in enhancing IL-1ss-stimulated sPLA(2)-IIA induction, whereas the specific A2A receptor antagonist ZM 241385 completely abolished the potentiating effect of ATP or adenosine. 6. The protein kinase A inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cyclic AMPS dose-dependently inhibited the enhancing effect of ATP or adenosine indicating the participation of an adenosine receptor-mediated cyclic AMP-dependent signalling pathway. 7. These data indicate that ATP mediates proinflammatory long-term effects in rat mesangial cells via its degradation product adenosine through the A2A receptor resulting in potentiation of sPLA(2)-IIA induction.

  7. Beneficial effects of a novel agonist of the adenosine A2A receptor on monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats

    PubMed Central

    Alencar, Allan K N; Pereira, Sharlene L; Montagnoli, Tadeu L; Maia, Rodolfo C; Kümmerle, Arthur E; Landgraf, Sharon S; Caruso-Neves, Celso; Ferraz, Emanuelle B; Tesch, Roberta; Nascimento, José H M; de Sant'Anna, Carlos M R; Fraga, Carlos A M; Barreiro, Eliezer J; Sudo, Roberto T; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by enhanced pulmonary vascular resistance, right ventricular hypertrophy and increased right ventricular systolic pressure. Here, we investigated the effects of a N-acylhydrazone derivative, 3,4-dimethoxyphenyl-N-methyl-benzoylhydrazide (LASSBio-1359), on monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats. Experimental Approach PAH was induced in male Wistar rats by a single i.p. injection of MCT (60 mg·kg−1) and 2 weeks later, oral LASSBio-1359 (50 mg·kg−1) or vehicle was given once daily for 14 days. Echocardiography was used to measure cardiac function and pulmonary artery dimensions, with histological assay of vascular collagen. Studies of binding to human recombinant adenosine receptors (A1, A2A, A3) and of docking with A2A receptors were also performed. Key Results MCT administration induced changes in vascular and ventricular structure and function, characteristic of PAH. These changes were reversed by treatment with LASSBio-1359. MCT also induced endothelial dysfunction in pulmonary artery, as measured by diminished relaxation of pre-contracted arterial rings, and this dysfunction was reversed by LASSBio-1359. In pulmonary artery rings from normal Wistar rats, LASSBio-1359 induced relaxation, which was decreased by the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, ZM 241385. In adenosine receptor binding studies, LASSBio-1359 showed most affinity for the A2A receptor and in the docking analyses, binding modes of LASSBio-1359 and the A2A receptor agonist, CGS21680, were very similar. Conclusion and Implications In rats with MCT-induced PAH, structural and functional changes in heart and pulmonary artery were reversed by treatment with oral LASSBio-1359, most probably through the activation of adenosine A2A receptors. PMID:23530610

  8. Nonpeptidic angiotensin II AT₁ receptor antagonists derived from 6-substituted aminocarbonyl and acylamino benzimidazoles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Wang, Jin-Liang; Yu, Wei-Fa; Zhou, Zhi-Ming; Tao, Wen-Chang; Wang, Yi-Cheng; Xue, Wei-Zhe; Xu, Di; Hao, Li-Ping; Han, Xiao-Feng; Fei, Fan; Liu, Ting; Liang, Ai-Hua

    2013-11-01

    Both 6-substituted aminocarbonyl and acylamino benzimidazole derivatives were designed and synthesized as nonpeptidic angiotensin II AT₁ receptor antagonists. Compounds 6f, 6g, 11e, 11f, 11g, and 12 showed nanomolar AT₁ receptor binding affinity and high AT₁ receptor selectivity over AT₂ receptor in a preliminary pharmacological evaluation. Among them, the two most active compounds 6f (AT₁ IC₅₀ = 3 nM, AT₂ IC₅₀ > 10,000 nM, PA₂ = 8.51) and 11g (AT₁ IC₅₀ = 0.1 nM, AT₂ IC₅₀ = 149 nM, PA₂ = 8.43) exhibited good antagonistic activity in isolated rabbit aortic strip functional assay. In addition, they were orally active AT₁ receptor antagonists in spontaneous hypertensive rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Design of novel neurokinin 1 receptor antagonists based on conformationally constrained aromatic amino acids and discovery of a potent chimeric opioid agonist-neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Ballet, Steven; Feytens, Debby; Buysse, Koen; Chung, Nga N.; Lemieux, Carole; Tumati, Suneeta; Keresztes, Attila; Van Duppen, Joost; Lai, Josephine; Varga, Eva; Porreca, Frank; Schiller, Peter W.; Broeck, Jozef Vanden; Tourwé, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    A screening of conformationally constrained aromatic amino acids as base cores for the preparation of new NK1 receptor antagonists resulted in the discovery of three new NK1 receptor antagonists, 19 [Ac-Aba-Gly-NH-3′,5′-(CF3)2-Bn], 20 [Ac-Aba-Gly-NMe-3′,5′-(CF3)2-Bn] and 23 [Ac-Tic-NMe-3′,5′-(CF3)2-Bn], which were able to counteract the agonist effect of substance P, the endogenous ligand of NK1R. The most active NK1 antagonist of the series, 20 [Ac-Aba-Gly-NMe-3′,5′-(CF3)2-Bn], was then used in the design of a novel, potent chimeric opioid agonist-NK1 receptor antagonist, 35 [Dmt-D-Arg-Aba-Gly-NMe-3′,5′-(CF3)2-Bn], which combines the N-terminus of the established Dmt1-DALDA agonist opioid pharmacophore (H-Dmt-D-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH2) and 20, the NK1R ligand. The opioid component of the chimeric compound 35, i.e. Dmt-D-Arg-Aba-Gly-NH2 36, also proved to be an extremely potent and balanced μ- and δ opioid receptor agonist with subnanomolar binding and in vitro functional activity. PMID:21413804

  10. Rubimetide, humanin, and MMK1 exert anxiolytic-like activities via the formyl peptide receptor 2 in mice followed by the successive activation of DP1, A2A, and GABAA receptors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Sonada, Soushi; Yoshikawa, Akihiro; Ohinata, Kousaku; Yoshikawa, Masaaki

    2016-09-01

    Rubimetide (Met-Arg-Trp), which had been isolated as an antihypertensive peptide from an enzymatic digest of spinach ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), showed anxiolytic-like activity prostaglandin (PG) D2-dependent manner in the elevated plus-maze test after administration at a dose of 0.1mg/kg (ip.) or 1mg/kg (p.o.) in male mice of ddY strain. In this study, we found that rubimetide has weak affinities for the FPR1 and FPR2, subtypes of formyl peptide receptor (FPR). The anxiolytic-like activity of rubimetide (0.1mg/kg, ip.) was blocked by WRW4, an antagonist of FPR2, but not by Boc-FLFLF, an antagonist of FPR1, suggesting that the anxiolytic-like activity was mediated by the FPR2. Humanin, an endogenous agonist peptide of the FPR2, exerted an anxiolytic-like activity after intracerebroventricular (icv) administration, which was also blocked by WRW4. MMK1, a synthetic agonist peptide of the FPR2, also exerted anxiolytic-like activity. Thus, FPR2 proved to mediate anxiolytic-like effect as the first example of central effect exerted by FPR agonists. As well as the anxiolytic-like activity of rubimetide, that of MMK1 was blocked by BW A868C, an antagonist of the DP1-receptor. Furthermore, anxiolytic-like activity of rubimetide was blocked by SCH58251 and bicuculline, antagonists for adenosine A2A and GABAA receptors, respectively. From these results, it is concluded that the anxiolytic-like activities of rubimetide and typical agonist peptides of the FPR2 were mediated successively by the PGD2-DP1 receptor, adenosine-A2A receptor, and GABA-GABAA receptor systems downstream of the FPR2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The adenosine a2a receptor inhibits matrix-induced inflammation in a novel fashion.

    PubMed

    Scheibner, Kara A; Boodoo, Sada; Collins, Samuel; Black, Katharine E; Chan-Li, Yee; Zarek, Paul; Powell, Jonathan D; Horton, Maureen R

    2009-03-01

    Endogenous mediators within the inflammatory milieu play a critical role in directing the scope, duration, and resolution of inflammation. High-molecular-weight extracellular matrix hyaluronan (HA) helps to maintain homeostasis. During inflammation, hyaluronan is broken down into fragments that induce chemokines and cytokines, thereby augmenting the inflammatory response. Tissue-derived adenosine, released during inflammation, inhibits inflammation via the anti-inflammatory A2 adenosine receptor (A2aR). We demonstrate that adenosine modulates HA-induced gene expression via the A2aR. A2aR stimulation inhibits HA fragment-induced pro-fibrotic genes TNF-alpha, keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, and MIP-1alpha while simultaneously synergizing with hyaluronan fragments to up-regulate the TH1 cytokine IL-12. Interestingly, A2aR stimulation mediates these affects via the novel cAMP-activated guanine nucleotide exchange factor EPAC. In addition, A2aR-null mice are more susceptible to bleomycin-induced lung injury, consistent with a role for endogenous adenosine in inhibiting the inflammation that may lead to fibrosis. Indeed, the bleomycin treated A2aR-null mice demonstrate increased lung inflammation, HA accumulation, and histologic damage. Overall, our data elucidate the opposing roles of tissue-derived HA fragments and adenosine in regulating noninfectious lung inflammation and support the pursuit of A2aR agonists as a means of pharmacologically inhibiting inflammation that may lead to fibrosis.

  12. Screening of 5-HT1A Receptor Antagonists using Molecularly Imprinted Polymers

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Naphtali A.; Paisner, David A.; Huryn, Donna; Shea, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular imprinting produces network polymers with recognition sites for imprint molecules. The high binding affinity and selectivity in conjunction with the polymers’ physical robustness positions molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) as candidates for use as preliminary screens in drug discovery. As such, MIPs can serve as crude mimics of native receptors. In an effort to evaluate the relationship between MIPs and native receptors, imprinted polymers for WAY-100635, an antagonist of the serotonin (5-HT) receptor subtype 5-HT1A were prepared. The resulting MIP P(WAY) was evaluated as an affinity matrix in the screening of serotonin receptor antagonists with known affinities for the native receptor. Rough correlations in affinity between the synthetic P(WAY) and native receptor 5-HT1A were found. These findings provide some support for the analogy between MIPs and native receptors and their possible use as surrogates. PMID:17284006

  13. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in kidney transplantation: time to consider?

    PubMed

    Girerd, Sophie; Jaisser, Frédéric

    2018-04-17

    Although patient survival is significantly improved by kidney transplantation (KT) in comparison with dialysis, it remains significantly lower than that observed in the general population. Graft function is one of the major determinants of patient survival after KT. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) could be of particular interest in this population to improve graft function and treat or prevent cardiovascular (CV) complications. In KT, ischaemia/reperfusion injury is a major factor involved in delayed graft function, which is often associated with inferior long-term graft survival. Preclinical studies suggest that MRAs may prevent ischaemia/reperfusion-related lesions in addition to having a protective effect in preventing calcineurin inhibitor-induced nephrotoxicity. Clinical data also support the anti-proteinuric effect of MRAs in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Taken together, MRAs may hence be of particular benefit in improving short- and long-term graft function. Numerous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown the efficacy of MRAs in both heart failure and resistant hypertension. As these comorbidities are frequent in kidney transplant recipients before transplantation or during follow-up, MRAs could represent a useful therapeutic option in those with mild renal function impairment. However, CKD patients are under-represented in RCTs and the CV effects of MRAs in kidney transplant recipients have yet to be specifically assessed in large-scale trials. Available evidence indicates a good safety profile for MRAs in patients with a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) >30 mL/min/1.73 m2. However, as for all patients prescribed an MRA, creatinine and potassium should also be closely monitored following MRA initiation in kidney transplant patients. Given the current evidence suggesting that MRAs prevent ischaemia/reperfusion-related lesions and calcineurin inhibitor-induced nephrotoxicity in kidney transplant recipients as well as CV events in

  14. Adenosine A2A receptor hyperexpression in patients with severe SIRS after cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Kerbaul, François; Bénard, Frédéric; Giorgi, Roch; Youlet, By; Carrega, Louis; Zouher, Ibrahim; Mercier, Laurence; Gérolami, Victoria; Bénas, Vincent; Blayac, Dorothée; Gariboldi, Vlad; Collart, Frédéric; Guieu, Régis

    2008-08-01

    Adenosine (ADO) is an endogenous nucleoside, which has been involved in blood pressure failure during severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome (severe SIRS) after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Adenosine acts via its receptor subtypes, namely A1, A2A, A2B, or A3. Because A2A receptors are implicated in vascular tone, their expression might contribute to severe SIRS. We compared adenosine plasma levels (APLs) and A2A ADO receptor expression (ie, B, K, and mRNA amount) in patients with or without postoperative SIRS. : This was a prospective comparative observational study. Forty-four patients who underwent cardiac surgery involving CPB. Ten healthy subjects served as controls. Among the patients, 11 presented operative vasoplegia and postoperative SIRS (named complicated patients) and 33 were without vasoplegia or SIRS (named uncomplicated patients). Adenosine plasma levels, K, B, and mRNA amount (mean +/- SD) were measured on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Adenosine plasma levels, B, and K were significantly higher in complicated patients than in uncomplicated patients (APLs: 2.7 +/- 1.0 vs 1.0 +/- 0.5 micromol l, P < 0.05; B: 210 +/- 43 vs 65 +/- 26 fmol/mg, P < 0.05; K: 35 +/- 10 vs 2 +/- 1 nM, P < 0.05). In uncomplicated patients, APLs remain higher than in controls (1 +/- 0.5 vs 0.6 +/- 0.25 micromol/L; P < 0.05). Mean arterial pressure was inversely correlated to APLs (R = -0.58; P < 0.001) and B (R = -0.64; P < 0.001) leading to an increased requirement of vasoactive drugs during the postoperative period in vasoplegic patients. High expression of A2A ADO receptor and high APLs may be a predictive factor of postoperative severe SIRS after CPB.

  15. Effects of sigma(1) receptor ligand MS-377 on D(2) antagonists-induced behaviors.

    PubMed

    Karasawa, Jun-ichi; Takahashi, Shinji; Takagi, Kaori; Horikomi, Kazutoshi

    2002-10-01

    (R)-(+)-1-(4-Chlorophenyl)-3-[4-(2-methoxyethyl)piperazin-1-yl]methyl-2-pyrrolidinone L-tartrate (MS-377) is a novel antipsychotic agent with selective and high affinity for sigma(1) receptor. The present study was carried out to clarify the interaction of MS-377 with dopamine D(2) receptor antagonists (D(2) antagonists) in concurrent administration, and then the involvement of sigma receptors in the interaction. The effects of MS-377 on haloperidol- or sultopride-induced inhibition of apomorphine-induced climbing behavior and catalepsy were investigated in mice and rats, respectively. In addition, the effects of (+)-SKF-10,047 and SA4503, both of which are sigma receptor agonists, and WAY-100,635, which is a 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist, on the interaction due to the concurrent use were also investigated. MS-377 potentiated the inhibitory effects of haloperidol or sultopride on apomorphine-induced climbing behavior in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, MS-377 did not affect the catalepsy induction by these drugs. The potentiation of the inhibitory effects of haloperidol or sultopride on apomorphine-induced climbing behavior by MS-377 was not inhibited by WAY-100,635, but was inhibited by (+)-SKF-10,047 and SA4503. These findings showed that MS-377 potentiates the efficacy of D(2) antagonists, but it does not deteriorate the adverse effect. Moreover, sigma(1) receptors are involved in this potentiation of the efficacy of D(2) antagonists by MS-377.

  16. Heterogeneity of binding of muscarinic receptor antagonists in rat brain homogenates

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.H.; el-Fakahany, E.E.

    1985-06-01

    The binding properties of (-)-(/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate and (/sup 3/H) N-methylscopolamine to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors have been investigated in rat brain homogenates. The binding of both antagonists demonstrated high affinity and saturability. Analysis of the binding data resulted in linear Scatchard plots. However, (-)-(/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate showed a significantly higher maximal binding capacity than that of (/sup 3/H)N-methylscopolamine. Displacement of both ligands with several muscarinic receptor antagonists resulted in competition curves in accordance with the law of mass-action for quinuclidinyl benzilate, atropine and scopolamine. A similar profile was found for the quaternary ammonium analogs of atropine and scopolamine when (/supmore » 3/H)N-methylscopolamine was used to label the receptors. However, when these hydrophilic antagonists were used to displace (-)-(/sup 3/H) quinuclidinyl benzilate binding, they showed interaction with high- and low-affinity binding sites. On the other hand, the nonclassical muscarinic receptor antagonist, pirenzepine, was able to displace both ligands from two binding sites. The present data are discussed in terms of the relationship of this anomalous heterogenity of binding of these hydrophilic muscarinic receptor antagonists and the proposed M1 and M2 receptor subtypes.« less

  17. Design and Synthesis of Benzimidazoles As Novel Corticotropin-Releasing Factor 1 Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Michiyo; Kori, Masakuni; Kobayashi, Katsumi; Yano, Takahiko; Sako, Yuu; Tanaka, Maiko; Kanzaki, Naoyuki; Gyorkos, Albert C; Corrette, Christopher P; Cho, Suk Young; Pratt, Scott A; Aso, Kazuyoshi

    2016-03-24

    Benzazole derivatives with a flexible aryl group bonded through a one-atom linker as a new scaffold for a corticotropin-releasing factor 1 (CRF1) receptor antagonist were designed, synthesized, and evaluated. We expected that structural diversity could be expanded beyond that of reported CRF1 receptor antagonists. In a structure-activity relationship study, 4-chloro-N(2)-(4-chloro-2-methoxy-6-methylphenyl)-1-methyl-N(7),N(7)-dipropyl-1H-benzimidazole-2,7-diamine 29g had the most potent binding activity against a human CRF1 receptor and the antagonistic activity (IC50 = 9.5 and 88 nM, respectively) without concerns regarding cytotoxicity at 30 μM. Potent CRF1 receptor-binding activity in brain in an ex vivo test and suppression of stress-induced activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis were also observed at 138 μmol/kg of compound 29g after oral administration in mice. Thus, the newly designed benzimidazole 29g showed in vivo CRF1 receptor antagonistic activity and good brain penetration, indicating that it is a promising lead for CRF1 receptor antagonist drug discovery research.

  18. Direct or indirect stimulation of adenosine A2A receptors enhances bone regeneration as well as bone morphogenetic protein-2

    PubMed Central

    Mediero, Aránzazu; Wilder, Tuere; Perez-Aso, Miguel; Cronstein, Bruce N.

    2015-01-01

    Promoting bone regeneration and repair of bone defects is a need that has not been well met to date. We have previously found that adenosine, acting via A2A receptors (A2AR) promotes wound healing and inhibits inflammatory osteolysis and hypothesized that A2AR might be a novel target to promote bone regeneration. Therefore, we determined whether direct A2AR stimulation or increasing endogenous adenosine concentrations via purine transport blockade with dipyridamole regulates bone formation. We determined whether coverage of a 3 mm trephine defect in a mouse skull with a collagen scaffold soaked in saline, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2; 200 ng), 1 μM CGS21680 (A2AR agonist, EC50 = 160 nM), or 1 μM dipyridamole (EC50 = 32 nM) promoted bone regeneration. Microcomputed tomography examination demonstrated that CGS21680 and dipyridamole markedly enhanced bone regeneration as well as BMP-2 8 wk after surgery (60 ± 2%, 79 ± 2%, and 75 ± 1% bone regeneration, respectively, vs. 32 ± 2% in control, P < 0.001). Blockade by a selective A2AR antagonist (ZM241385, 1 μM) or deletion of A2AR abrogated the effect of CGS21680 and dipyridamole on bone regeneration. Both CGS21680 and dipyridamole treatment increased alkaline phosphatase-positive osteoblasts and diminished tartrate resistance acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts in the defects. In vivo imaging with a fluorescent dye for new bone formation revealed a strong fluorescent signal in treated animals that was equivalent to BMP-2. In conclusion, stimulation of A2AR by specific agonists or by increasing endogenous adenosine levels stimulates new bone formation as well as BMP-2 and represents a novel approach to stimulating bone regeneration.—Mediero, A., Wilder, T., Perez-Aso, M., Cronstein, B. N. Direct or indirect stimulation of adenosine A2A receptors enhances bone regeneration as well as bone morphogenetic protein-2. PMID:25573752

  19. Identification and pharmacological characterization of domains involved in binding of CGRP receptor antagonists to the calcitonin-like receptor.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Christopher A; Mallee, John J; Bell, Ian M; Zartman, C Blair; Williams, Theresa M; Koblan, Kenneth S; Kane, Stefanie A

    2006-02-14

    The calcitonin-like receptor (CLR) and the calcitonin receptor (CTR) interact with receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1) at the cell surface to form heterodimeric receptor complexes. CLR and CTR are members of the class II (family B) G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) and bind calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) with similar affinities when coexpressed with RAMP1. The observation that various nonpeptide CGRP receptor antagonists display a higher affinity for the CLR/RAMP1 complex than for CTR/RAMP1 provided an opportunity to investigate the molecular determinants of the differential receptor affinities of these antagonists. A chimeric receptor approach was utilized to identify key domains within CLR responsible for conferring high-affinity antagonist binding. Initial chimera experiments implicated distinct regions within CLR as responsible for the affinities of structurally diverse CGRP receptor antagonists. Dissection of these key regions implicated amino acids 37-63 located in the amino terminus of CLR as responsible for the high-affinity interaction of one structural class, while transmembrane domain (TM) 7 was responsible for the interaction of a second class of antagonist. A unique binding interaction in the amino terminus of CLR is consistent with the observation that these compounds also interact with the extracellular region of RAMP1 and could suggest the formation of a binding pocket between the two proteins. Conversely, a compound which interacted with TM7 did not display a similar RAMP1 dependence, suggesting an allosteric mechanism of antagonism. Collectively, these data provide insight into two alternative mechanisms of antagonism for this unique heterodimeric receptor complex.

  20. Identification of Receptor Ligands and Receptor Subtypes Using Antagonists in a Capillary Electrophoresis Single-Cell Biosensor Separation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishman, Harvey A.; Orwar, Owe; Scheller, Richard H.; Zare, Richard N.

    1995-08-01

    A capillary electrophoresis system with single-cell biosensors as a detector has been used to separate and identify ligands in complex biological samples. The power of this procedure was significantly increased by introducing antagonists that inhibited the cellular response from selected ligand-receptor interactions. The single-cell biosensor was based on the ligand-receptor binding and G-protein-mediated signal transduction pathways in PC12 and NG108-15 cell lines. Receptor activation was measured as increases in cytosolic free calcium ion concentration by using fluorescence microscopy with the intracellular calcium ion indicator fluo-3 acetoxymethyl ester. Specifically, a mixture of bradykinin (BK) and acetylcholine (ACh) was fractionated and the components were identified by inhibiting the cellular response with icatibant (HOE 140), a selective antagonist to the BK B_2 receptor subtype (B_2BK), and atropine, an antagonist to muscarinic ACh receptor subtypes. Structurally related forms of BK were also identified based on inhibiting B_2BK receptors. Applications of this technique include identification of endogenous BK in a lysate of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (Hep G2) and screening for bioactivity of BK degradation products in human blood plasma. The data demonstrate that the use of antagonists with a single-cell biosensor separation system aids identification of separated components and receptor subtypes.

  1. Behavioral, biological, and chemical perspectives on targeting CRF1 receptor antagonists to treat alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Zorrilla, Eric P.; Heilig, Markus; de Wit, Harriet; Shaham, Yavin

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol use disorders are chronic disabling conditions for which existing pharmacotherapies have only modest efficacy. In the present review, derived from the 2012 Behavior, Biology and Chemistry “Translational Research in Addiction” symposium, we summarize the anti-relapse potential of corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 (CRF1) receptor antagonists to reduce negative emotional symptoms of acute and protracted alcohol withdrawal and stress-induced relapse to alcohol seeking. Methods We review the biology of CRF1 systems, the activity of CRF1 receptor antagonists in animal models of anxiolytic and antidepressant activity, and experimental findings in alcohol addiction models. We also update the clinical trial status of CRF1 receptor antagonists, including pexacerfont (BMS-562086), emicerfont (GW876008), verucerfont (GSK561679), CP316311, SSR125543A, R121919/NBI30775, R317573/19567470/CRA5626, and ONO-2333Ms. Finally, we discuss the potential heterogeneity and pharmacogenomics of CRF1 receptor pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence. Results The evidence suggests that brain penetrant-CRF1 receptor antagonists have therapeutic potential for alcohol dependence. Lead compounds with clinically desirable pharmacokinetic properties now exist, and longer receptor residence rates (i.e., slow dissociation) may predict greater CRF1 receptor antagonist efficacy. Functional variants in genes that encode CRF system molecules, including polymorphisms in Crhr1 (rs110402, rs1876831, rs242938) and Crhbp genes (rs10055255, rs3811939) may promote alcohol seeking and consumption by altering basal or stress-induced CRF system activation. Conclusions Ongoing clinical trials with pexacerfont and verucerfont in moderately to highly severe dependent anxious alcoholics may yield insight as to the role of CRF1 receptor antagonists in a personalized medicine approach to treat drug or alcohol dependence. PMID:23294766

  2. NTS adenosine A2a receptors inhibit the cardiopulmonary chemoreflex control of regional sympathetic outputs via a GABAergic mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Minic, Zeljka; O'Leary, Donal S.

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine is a powerful central neuromodulator acting via opposing A1 (inhibitor) and A2a (activator) receptors. However, in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), both adenosine receptor subtypes attenuate cardiopulmonary chemoreflex (CCR) sympathoinhibition of renal, adrenal, and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity and attenuate reflex decreases in arterial pressure and heart rate. Adenosine A1 receptors inhibit glutamatergic transmission in the CCR pathway, whereas adenosine A2a receptors most likely facilitate release of an unknown inhibitory neurotransmitter, which, in turn, inhibits the CCR. We hypothesized that adenosine A2a receptors inhibit the CCR via facilitation of GABA release in the NTS. In urethane-chloralose-anesthetized rats (n = 51), we compared regional sympathetic responses evoked by stimulation of the CCR with right atrial injections of the 5-HT3 receptor agonist phenylbiguanide (1–8 μg/kg) before and after selective stimulation of NTS adenosine A2a receptors [microinjections into the NTS of CGS-21680 (20 pmol/50 nl)] preceded by blockade of GABAA or GABAB receptors in the NTS [bicuculline (10 pmol/100 nl) or SCH-50911 (1 nmol/100 nl)]. Blockade of GABAA receptors virtually abolished adenosine A2a receptor-mediated inhibition of the CCR. GABAB receptors had much weaker but significant effects. These effects were similar for the different sympathetic outputs. We conclude that stimulation of NTS adenosine A2a receptors inhibits CCR-evoked hemodynamic and regional sympathetic reflex responses via a GABA-ergic mechanism. PMID:25910812

  3. Inosine reduces pain-related behavior in mice: involvement of adenosine A1 and A2A receptor subtypes and protein kinase C pathways.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Francisney P; Figueredo, Sonia M; Marcon, Rodrigo; Martins, Daniel F; Macedo, Sérgio J; Lima, Denise A N; Almeida, Rúbia C; Ostroski, Rosana M; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; Santos, Adair Roberto Soares

    2010-08-01

    Inosine, an endogenous purine, is the first metabolite of adenosine in a reaction catalyzed by adenosine deaminase. This study aimed to investigate the antinociceptive effects of inosine against several models of pain in mice and rats. In mice, inosine given by systemic or central routes inhibited acetic acid-induced nociception. Furthermore, inosine also decreased the late phase of formalin-induced licking and the nociception induced by glutamate. Inosine produced inhibition (for up to 4 h) of mechanical allodynia induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injected into the mouse's paw. Given chronically for 21 days, inosine reversed the mechanical allodynia caused by CFA. Moreover, inosine also reduced the thermal (cold stimuli) and mechanical allodynia caused by partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL) for 4 h; when inosine was chronically administered, it decreased the mechanical allodynia induced by PSNL for 22 days. Antinociception caused by inosine in the acetic acid test was attenuated by treatment of mice with 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX; a selective adenosine A(1) receptor antagonist), 8-phenyltheophylline (8-PT; a nonselective adenosine A(1) receptor antagonist), and 4-{2- [7-amino-2-(2-furyl)[1,2,4]triazolo-[2,3-a][1,3,5]triazin-5-yl- amino]ethyl}phenol (ZM241385; a selective adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist). In rats, inosine inhibited the mechanical and heat hyperalgesia induced by bradykinin and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, without affecting similar responses caused by prostaglandin E(2) or forskolin. These results indicate that inosine induces antinociceptive, antiallodynic, and antihyperalgesic effects in rodents. The precise mechanisms through which inosine produces antinociception are currently under investigation, but involvement of adenosine A(1) and A(2A) receptors and blockade of the protein kinase C pathway seem to largely account for inosine's antinociceptive effect.

  4. Computational insights into the binding mechanism of antagonists with neuropeptide B/W receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Patra, Mahesh Chandra; Maharana, Jitendra; Dehury, Budheswar; De, Sachinandan

    2014-08-01

    Neuropeptide B/W receptor 1 (NPBWR1), previously known as G-protein coupled receptor 7 (GPR7), is a class A G-protein coupled receptor implicated in the modulation of several neuroendocrine functions such as feeding behavior, energy homeostasis, epilepsy, and analgesia. In recent years, a few antagonists have been designed that bind to NPBWR1 with high affinity. However, the exact binding modes between the antagonists and the receptor are still unknown. Unraveling the key pharmacophoric features of the receptor will guide the development of novel compounds with increased potency for therapeutic use. Here, we studied the structural organization of NPBWR1 receptor and its antagonist binding modes through computational approaches. Based on the dynamics and energetic features of receptor-ligand interactions, we categorized the binding affinities of the antagonists for NPBWR1 and identified key residues responsible for ligand recognition by NPBWR1. Binding free energy calculations revealed that the residues Trp102(ECL1), Val113(3.29), Gln281(ECL3), and Ala274(6.58) were crucial for ligand interaction. The results of our study will be useful to understand the structure-function relationship of NPBWR1 that may assist future drug discovery initiatives.

  5. A peripherally selective diphenyl purine antagonist of the CB1 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Fulp, Alan; Bortoff, Katherine; Zhang, Yanan; Mathews, James; Snyder, Rodney; Fennell, Tim; Marusich, Julie A.; Wiley, Jenny L.; Seltzman, Herbert; Maitra, Rangan

    2014-01-01

    Antagonists of the CB1 receptor can be useful in the treatment of several diseases including obesity, diabetes, and liver disease. However, to date, the only clinically approved CB1 receptor antagonist, rimonabant, was withdrawn due to adverse CNS related side effects such as depression and suicidal ideation. Since rimonabant’s withdrawal, several groups have begun pursuing peripherally selective CB1 antagonists. These compounds are expected to be devoid of undesirable CNS related effects but maintain efficacy through antagonism of peripherally expressed CB1 receptors within target tissues. Reported here are our latest results toward development of a peripherally selective analog of the diphenyl purine CB1 antagonist otenabant 1. Compound 9 (N-{1-[8-(2-Chlorophenyl)-9-(4-chlorophenyl)-9H-purin-6-yl]piperidin-4-yl}pentanamide) is a potent, orally absorbed antagonist of the CB1 receptor that is >50-fold selective for CB1 over CB2, highly selective for the periphery in a rodent model, and without efficacy in a series of in vivo assays designed to evaluate its ability to mitigate the central effects of Δ9-THC through the CB1 receptor. PMID:24041123

  6. 5-HT2B Receptor Antagonists Inhibit Fibrosis and Protect from RV Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Wiebke; Schymura, Yves; Novoyatleva, Tatyana; Luitel, Himal; Tretyn, Aleksandra; Pullamsetti, Soni Savai; Weissmann, Norbert; Seeger, Werner; Ghofrani, Hossein Ardeschir; Schermuly, Ralph Theo

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The serotonin (5-HT) pathway was shown to play a role in pulmonary hypertension (PH), but its functions in right ventricular failure (RVF) remain poorly understood. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of Terguride (5-HT2A and 2B receptor antagonist) or SB204741 (5-HT2B receptor antagonist) on right heart function and structure upon pulmonary artery banding (PAB) in mice. Methods. Seven days after PAB, mice were treated for 14 days with Terguride (0.2 mg/kg bid) or SB204741 (5 mg/kg day). Right heart function and remodeling were assessed by right heart catheterization, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and histomorphometric methods. Total secreted collagen content was determined in mouse cardiac fibroblasts isolated from RV tissues. Results. Chronic treatment with Terguride or SB204741 reduced right ventricular fibrosis and showed improved heart function in mice after PAB. Moreover, 5-HT2B receptor antagonists diminished TGF-beta1 induced collagen synthesis of RV cardiac fibroblasts in vitro. Conclusion. 5-HT2B receptor antagonists reduce collagen deposition, thereby inhibiting right ventricular fibrosis. Chronic treatment prevented the development and progression of pressure overload-induced RVF in mice. Thus, 5-HT2B receptor antagonists represent a valuable novel therapeutic approach for RVF. PMID:25667920

  7. Design and synthesis of peripherally restricted transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) antagonists.

    PubMed

    Tamayo, Nuria; Liao, Hongyu; Stec, Markian M; Wang, Xianghong; Chakrabarti, Partha; Retz, Dan; Doherty, Elizabeth M; Surapaneni, Sekhar; Tamir, Rami; Bannon, Anthony W; Gavva, Narender R; Norman, Mark H

    2008-05-08

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel antagonists may have clinical utility for the treatment of chronic nociceptive and neuropathic pain. We recently advanced a TRPV1 antagonist, 3 (AMG 517), into clinical trials as a new therapy for the treatment of pain. However, in addition to the desired analgesic effects, this TRPV1 antagonist significantly increased body core temperature following oral administration in rodents. Here, we report one of our approaches to eliminate or minimize the on-target hyperthermic effect observed with this and other TRPV1 antagonists. Through modifications of our clinical candidate, 3 a series of potent and peripherally restricted TRPV1 antagonists have been prepared. These analogues demonstrated on-target coverage in vivo but caused increases in body core temperature, suggesting that peripheral restriction was not sufficient to separate antagonism mediated antihyperalgesia from hyperthermia. Furthermore, these studies demonstrate that the site of action for TRPV1 blockade elicited hyperthermia is outside the blood-brain barrier.

  8. Combining the α1 -adrenergic receptor antagonist, prazosin, with the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, propranolol, reduces alcohol drinking more effectively than either drug alone.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Dennis D; Beckwith, Lauren E; Kincaid, Carrie L; Froehlich, Janice C

    2014-06-01

    Evidence suggests that activation of the noradrenergic system may contribute to alcohol drinking in animals and humans. Our previous studies demonstrated that blocking α1 -adrenergic receptors with the antagonist, prazosin, decreased alcohol drinking in rats under various conditions. As noradrenergic activation is also regulated by β-adrenergic receptors, we now examine the effects of the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, propranolol, alone or in combination with prazosin, on alcohol drinking in rats selectively bred for high voluntary alcohol intake and alcohol preference (P line). Two studies were conducted with male P rats. In study 1, rats were allowed to become alcohol-dependent during 14 weeks of ad libitum access to food, water, and 20% alcohol, and the effect of propranolol (5 to 15 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [IP]) and prazosin (1 to 2 mg/kg, IP) on alcohol intake during withdrawal was assessed. In study 2, the effect of propranolol (5 mg/kg, IP) and prazosin (2 mg/kg, IP) on alcohol intake following prolonged imposed abstinence was assessed. Alcohol drinking following propranolol treatment was variable, but the combination of propranolol + prazosin consistently suppressed alcohol drinking during both alcohol withdrawal and following prolonged imposed abstinence, and the combination of these 2 drugs was more effective than was treatment with either drug alone. Treatment with prazosin + propranolol, or a combination of other centrally active α1 - and β-adrenergic receptor antagonists, may assist in preventing alcohol relapse in some individuals. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  9. Combining the α1-Adrenergic Receptor Antagonist, Prazosin, with the β-Adrenergic Receptor Antagonist, Propranolol, Reduces Alcohol Drinking More Effectively Than Either Drug Alone

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Dennis D; Beckwith, Lauren E; Kincaid, Carrie L; Froehlich, Janice C

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that activation of the noradrenergic system may contribute to alcohol drinking in animals and humans. Our previous studies demonstrated that blocking α1-adrenergic receptors with the antagonist, prazosin, decreased alcohol drinking in rats under various conditions. Since noradrenergic activation is also regulated by β-adrenergic receptors, we now examine the effects of the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, propranolol, alone or in combination with prazosin, on alcohol drinking in rats selectively bred for high voluntary alcohol intake and alcohol preference (P line). Methods Two studies were conducted with male P rats. In study one, rats were allowed to become alcohol-dependent during 14 weeks of ad libitum access to food, water and 20% alcohol and the effect of propranolol (5–15 mg/kg, IP) and prazosin (1–2 mg/kg, IP) on alcohol intake during withdrawal were assessed. In study two, the effect of propranolol (5 mg/kg, IP) and prazosin (2 mg/kg, IP) on alcohol intake following prolonged imposed abstinence was assessed. Results Alcohol drinking following propranolol treatment was variable, but the combination of propranolol + prazosin consistently suppressed alcohol drinking during both alcohol withdrawal and following prolonged imposed abstinence, and the combination of these two drugs was more effective than was treatment with either drug alone. Conclusions Treatment with prazosin + propranolol, or a combination of other centrally active α1- and β-adrenergic receptor antagonists, may assist in preventing alcohol relapse in some individuals. PMID:24891220

  10. Sympathetic activity relates to adenosine A(2A) receptor gene variation in blood-injury phobia.

    PubMed

    Hohoff, C; Domschke, K; Schwarte, K; Spellmeyer, G; Vögele, C; Hetzel, G; Deckert, J; Gerlach, A L

    2009-06-01

    Variation in the candidate genes adenosine A(2A) receptor (A(2A)R), catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT), and norepinephrine transporter (NET) has been suggested to influence vulnerability to panic disorder. We therefore investigated patients with another anxiety disorder with an even higher heritability, the blood-injury phobia, for association of these variants and used sympathetic measures during venipuncture, which serve as a naturalistic trigger of anxiety and autonomic hyperarousal, as an intermediate phenotype of anxiety. Patients homozygous for the A(2A)R 1976T allele as compared to patients carrying at least one 1976C allele exhibited a significantly increased respiratory rate with a trend towards elevated measures of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and respiratory minute volume. None of the sympathetic measures were influenced by the COMT or NET polymorphisms.This study provides preliminary data suggesting an influence of the A(2A)R 1976C/T polymorphism on sympathetic psychophysiological indicators of anxiety-related arousal in blood-injury phobia and thereby further supports a role of the A(2A)R gene in the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders.

  11. Inhibition of tolerance to spinal morphine antinociception by low doses of opioid receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    McNaull, Benjamin; Trang, Tuan; Sutak, Maaja; Jhamandas, Khem

    2007-04-10

    Ultra-low doses of opioid receptor antagonists inhibit development of chronic spinal morphine tolerance. As this phenomenon mechanistically resembles acute tolerance, the present study examined actions of opioid receptor antagonists on acute spinal morphine tolerance. In adult rats, administration of three intrathecal injections of morphine (15 microg) at 90 min intervals produced a significant decline of the antinociceptive effect and loss of agonist potency in both the tail-flick and paw-pressure tests. These reduced responses, indicative of acute tolerance, were blocked by co-injection of morphine (15 microg) with naltrexone (NTX, 0.05 ng), D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 (CTAP, 0.001 ng), naltrindole (0.06 ng), or nor-binaltorphimine (0.1 ng). Repeated injections of CTAP, naltrindole, or nor-binaltorphimine without morphine elicited a delayed weak antinociceptive response which was blocked by a high dose of naltrexone (2 microg). In another set of experiments, administration of low dose spinal (0.05 ng) or systemic (0.01 microg/kg) morphine produced a sustained thermal hyperalgesia. This response was blocked by opioid receptor antagonists at doses inhibiting development of acute morphine tolerance. Lastly, an acute spinal injection of morphine (15 microg) with naltrexone (0.05 ng) produced a sustained analgesic response; this was antagonized by adenosine receptor antagonist, 8-phenyltheophylline (3 microg). The results show that ultra-low doses of opioid receptor antagonists block acute tolerance to morphine. This effect may result from blockade of opioid excitatory effects that produce a latent hyperalgesia that then contributes to induction of tolerance. The sustained antinociception produced by combination of morphine with an opioid receptor antagonist shows dependency on the adenosine receptor activity.

  12. CCR5 receptor antagonists: discovery and SAR study of guanylhydrazone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Wei, Robert G; Arnaiz, Damian O; Chou, Yuo-Ling; Davey, Dave; Dunning, Laura; Lee, Wheeseong; Lu, Shou-Fu; Onuffer, James; Ye, Bin; Phillips, Gary

    2007-01-01

    High throughput screening (HTS) led to the identification of the guanylhydrazone of 2-(4-chlorobenzyloxy)-5-bromobenzaldehyde as a CCR5 receptor antagonist. Initial modifications of the guanylhydrazone series indicated that substitution of the benzyl group at the para-position was well tolerated. Substitution at the 5-position of the central phenyl ring was critical for potency. Replacement of the guanylhydrazone group led to the discovery of a novel series of CCR5 antagonists.

  13. Enhanced adenylate cyclase activity of turkey erythrocytes following treatment with beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Peters, J R; Nambi, P; Sibley, D R; Lefkowitz, R J

    1984-12-15

    The turkey erythrocyte contains a beta 1-adrenergic receptor-linked adenylate cyclase system. We have examined the effects of pretreatment with receptor antagonists on adenylate cyclase activity and the individual components in the pathway of enzyme activation in this system. Isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity is increased by 30% (P less than 0.01) over control in membranes derived from cells preincubated with the antagonist propranolol. The effect is stereospecific and dose-related with a EC50 of 100 nM for the (-) isomer. The time course of effect is rapid being complete by 90 min. Non-receptor mediated stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity by manganese ion, forskolin and NaF is similarly enhanced following propranolol pretreatment. Sensitization of adenylate cyclase activity also occurs following pretreatment with a number of antagonists but is not seen after preincubation with pindolol or practolol. Quantitation of beta-adrenergic receptor (R) density using [125I]cyanopindolol indicates no difference between membranes derived from control and antagonist pretreated cells. Coupling of R with the guanine nucleotide regulatory protein (N) as assessed by high affinity agonist binding is unchanged following pretreatment. The efficacy of 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate Gpp(NH)p in producing a shift of agonist binding curves associated with destabilization of high affinity H-R-N complexes, is also the same (EC50 = 0.2 microM) in membranes from control and antagonist treated cells. The isoproterenol stimulated rate of release of [3H]GDP from membranes preloaded with [3H]GTP as an index of formation of an active form of the N protein is similarly unaffected by antagonist preincubation. We conclude that the mechanism of the observed sensitization of turkey erythrocyte adenylate cyclase by beta-adrenergic antagonists is receptor mediated and likely involves facilitation of N interaction with the catalytic subunit of the enzyme.

  14. Endothelin ETA receptor antagonist reverses naloxone-precipitated opioid withdrawal in mice.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Shaifali; Pais, Gwendolyn; Tapia, Melissa; Gulati, Anil

    2015-11-01

    Long-term use of opioids for pain management results in rapid development of tolerance and dependence leading to severe withdrawal symptoms. We have previously demonstrated that endothelin-A (ETA) receptor antagonists potentiate opioid analgesia and eliminate analgesic tolerance. This study was designed to investigate the involvement of central ET mechanisms in opioid withdrawal. The effect of intracerebroventricular administration of ETA receptor antagonist BQ123 on morphine and oxycodone withdrawal was determined in male Swiss Webster mice. Opioid tolerance was induced and withdrawal was precipitated by the opioid antagonist naloxone. Expression of ETA and ETB receptors, nerve growth factor (NGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor was determined in the brain using Western blotting. BQ123 pretreatment reversed hypothermia and weight loss during withdrawal. BQ123 also reduced wet shakes, rearing behavior, and jumping behavior. No changes in expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, ETA receptors, and ETB receptors were observed during withdrawal. NGF expression was unaffected in morphine withdrawal but significantly decreased during oxycodone withdrawal. A decrease in NGF expression in oxycodone- but not in morphine-treated mice could be due to mechanistic differences in oxycodone and morphine. It is concluded that ETA receptor antagonists attenuate opioid-induced withdrawal symptoms.

  15. Role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists in postoperative pain management.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Manzo

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, hundreds of studies have examined the clinical efficacy of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists such as ketamine and dextromethorphan as an adjunct to routine postoperative pain management. The purpose of this review is to describe the detail of the study that successfully demonstrated the efficacy of NMDA receptor antagonists. The effect of perioperative ketamine infusion, dextromethorphan, and memantine on postoperative opioid-induced analgesia and prevention of long-term persistent pain is described. The co-administration of ketamine and morphine as a mixture is not recommended for postoperative pain relief. As an adjunct in multimodal analgesia, low-dose ketamine infusion and the administration of dextromethorphan may be able to improve postoperative pain status. Memantine exhibits the greatest potency among NMDA receptor antagonists. In future, research should consider the perioperative infusion of ketamine followed by long-term administration of memantine for the prevention of persistent pain.

  16. Asthenospermia in hay fever patients improved by stopping treatment with histamine H1 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Tetsuo; Yoshida, Soichiro; Ohno, Rena; Ishii, Nobuyuki; Terao, Toshiya; Yamada, Takumi

    2006-07-01

    We report two cases of asthenospermia, which appeared to be associated with exposure to histamine H1 receptor antagonists. A 44-year-old man and a 35-year-old man had continued the treatment with fexofenadine hydrochloride and cetirizine hydrochloride, respectively, under the diagnosis of hay fever. They and their wives had been examined as infertile couples. Infertility evaluations revealed no problems with their wives; the patients, however, were found to have a low sperm motility (<10%). On suspicion of adverse effects of the histamine H1 receptor antagonists, they stopped treatment with these drugs, which resulted in a complete reversal of spermatic dysfunction. Current information identifies the potential fertility hazards of histamine H1 receptor antagonists.

  17. Optimizing subcutaneous injection of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor antagonist degarelix.

    PubMed

    Barkin, Jack; Burton, Shelley; Lambert, Carole

    2016-02-01

    The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor antagonist degarelix has several unique characteristics compared to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogs used in the management of prostate cancer. Notable differences of GnRH receptor antagonists include no flare reaction, and a more rapid suppression of testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) compared to LHRH analogs. Despite emerging evidence supporting the use of GnRH receptor antagonists over the more widely used LHRH analogs in the management of prostate cancer, physicians may be reluctant to prescribe degarelix. They may be concerned about patient complaints about injection-site reactions (ISRs). The subcutaneous injection of degarelix has been associated with a higher rate of ISRs compared with the intramuscular injections of LHRH analogs. This "How I Do It" article describes techniques and strategies that have been developed by physicians and nurses to reduce the discomfort associated with the subcutaneous delivery of degarelix.

  18. Immunopharmacological role of the leukotriene receptor antagonists and inhibitors of leukotrienes generating enzymes in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Mirshafiey, Abbas; Jadidi-Niaragh, Farhad

    2010-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease that involves central nervous system, and is generally associated with demyelination and axonal lesion. The effective factors for initiation of the inflammatory responses have not been known precisely so far. Leukotrienes (LTs) are inflammatory mediators with increased levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of MS patients and in experimental models of multiple sclerosis. Inhibition of LT receptors with specific antagonists can decrease inflammatory responses. In this review article we try to clarify the role of LT receptor antagonists and also inhibitors of enzymes which are involved in LTs generating pathway for treating multiple sclerosis as new targets for MS therapy. Moreover, we suggest that blockage of LT receptors by potent specific antagonists and/or agonists can be as a novel useful method in treatment of MS.

  19. Functional antagonistic properties of clozapine at the 5-HT3 receptor.

    PubMed

    Hermann, B; Wetzel, C H; Pestel, E; Zieglgänsberger, W; Holsboer, F; Rupprecht, R

    1996-08-23

    The atypical neuroleptic clozapine is thought to exert its psychopharmacological actions through a variety of neurotransmitter receptors. It binds preferentially to D4 and 5-HT2 receptors; however, little is known on it's interaction with the 5-HT3 receptor. Using a cell line stably expressing the 5-HT3 receptor, whole-cell voltage-clamp analysis revealed functional antagonistic properties of clozapine at low nanomolar concentrations in view of a binding affinity in the upper nanomolar range. Because the concentration of clozapine required for an interaction with the 5-HT3 receptor can be achieved with therapeutical doses, functional antagonistic properties at this ligand-gated ion channel may contribute to its unique psychopharmacological profile.

  20. Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists-A New Sprinkle of Salt and Youth.

    PubMed

    Stojadinovic, Olivera; Lindley, Linsey E; Jozic, Ivan; Tomic-Canic, Marjana

    2016-10-01

    Skin atrophy and impaired cutaneous wound healing are the recognized side effects of topical glucocorticoid (GC) therapy. Although GCs have high affinity for the glucocorticoid receptor, they also bind and activate the mineralocorticoid receptor. In light of this, one can speculate that some of the GC-mediated side effects can be remedied by blocking activation of the mineralocorticoid receptor. Indeed, according to Nguyen et al., local inhibition of the mineralocorticoid receptor via antagonists (spironolactone, canrenoate, and eplerenone) rescues GC-induced delayed epithelialization and accelerates wound closure in diabetic animals by targeting epithelial sodium channels and stimulating keratinocyte proliferation. These findings suggest that the use of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists coupled with GC therapy may be beneficial in overcoming at least some of the GC-mediated side effects. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Novel Cyclic Phosphinic Acids as GABAC ρ Receptor Antagonists: Design, Synthesis, and Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the role of GABAC receptors in the central nervous system is limited due to a lack of specific ligands. Novel γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogues based on 3-(aminomethyl)-1-oxo-1-hydroxy-phospholane 17 and 3-(guanido)-1-oxo-1-hydroxy-phospholane 19 were investigated to obtain selective GABAC receptor antagonists. A compound of high potency (19, KB = 10 μM) and selectivity (greater than 100 times at ρ1 GABAC receptors as compared to α1β2γ2L GABAA and GABAB(1b,2) receptors) was obtained. The cyclic phosphinic acids (17 and 19) are novel lead agents for developing into more potent and selective GABAC receptor antagonists with increased lipophilicity for future in vivo studies. PMID:24900248

  2. Novel Cyclic Phosphinic Acids as GABAC ρ Receptor Antagonists: Design, Synthesis, and Pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Gavande, Navnath; Yamamoto, Izumi; Salam, Noeris K; Ai, Tu-Hoa; Burden, Peter M; Johnston, Graham A R; Hanrahan, Jane R; Chebib, Mary

    2011-01-13

    Understanding the role of GABAC receptors in the central nervous system is limited due to a lack of specific ligands. Novel γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogues based on 3-(aminomethyl)-1-oxo-1-hydroxy-phospholane 17 and 3-(guanido)-1-oxo-1-hydroxy-phospholane 19 were investigated to obtain selective GABAC receptor antagonists. A compound of high potency (19, K B = 10 μM) and selectivity (greater than 100 times at ρ1 GABAC receptors as compared to α1β2γ2L GABAA and GABAB(1b,2) receptors) was obtained. The cyclic phosphinic acids (17 and 19) are novel lead agents for developing into more potent and selective GABAC receptor antagonists with increased lipophilicity for future in vivo studies.

  3. The in vitro pharmacological profile of TD-1211, a neutral opioid receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Tsuruda, Pamela R; Vickery, Ross G; Long, Daniel D; Armstrong, Scott R; Beattie, David T

    2013-06-01

    The clinical efficacy of opioid receptor antagonists for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation (OIC) is established. Peripherally selective antagonists are intended to provide OIC symptom relief without compromising the analgesic effects of centrally penetrant opioid agonists. We describe the in vitro profile of a novel opioid receptor antagonist, TD-1211, at recombinant (human μ and δ, and guinea pig κ) and rodent native opioid receptors. TD-1211 bound with high affinity to human recombinant μ and δ, and guinea pig κ receptors expressed in CHO-K1 cells (pK d = 9.7, 8.6, and 9.9, respectively). The in vitro receptor selectivity of TD-1211 (μ ≈ κ > δ) is similar to that for the peripherally-selective opioid receptor antagonist methylnaltrexone, but contrasts with the μ selectivity of alvimopan. Functionally, TD-1211 behaved as an antagonist at all three receptor types in both recombinant expression systems (pK b = 9.6, 8.8 and 9.5, at μ, δ, and κ, respectively) and rodent native tissue preparations (μ and κ pA2s = 10.1 and 8.8, respectively (guinea pig ileum), and δ pK b = 8.4 (hamster vas deferens)). TD-1211 displayed a high degree of selectivity for opioid receptors over a broad panel of cellular targets. These in vitro data justified investigation of the preclinical in vivo activity of TD-1211 (Armstrong et al., Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch Pharm, 2013).

  4. First and second generation H₁ histamine receptor antagonists produce different sleep-inducing profiles in rats.

    PubMed

    Unno, Katsuya; Ozaki, Tomoya; Mohammad, Shahid; Tsuno, Saki; Ikeda-Sagara, Masami; Honda, Kazuki; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2012-05-15

    First generation H₁ histamine receptor antagonists, such as d-chlorpheniramine (d-CPA) and diphenhydramine, produce drowsiness in humans. They are currently used as over-the-counter sleep aids. However, the mechanisms underlying drowsiness induced by these H₁ histamine receptor antagonists remain obscure because they produce heterogeneous receptor-independent actions. Ketotifen is a second generation H₁ histamine receptor antagonist which is more permeable to the brain than newer H₁ histamine receptor antagonists. Therefore, to access sleep-inducing profiles by H₁ histamine receptor blocking actions, the present study compared the dose-dependent effects of diphenhydramine and ketotifen (1-40 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection at dark onset time) on daily sleep-wake patterns in rats. Ketotifen dose-dependently decreased rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep and increased non-REM sleep by amplifying slow-wave electroencephalogram powers. Diphenhydramine at 4 mg/kg transiently increased non-REM sleep and reduced REM sleep similar to the effects of ketotifen. The larger injections of diphenhydramine (10-40 mg/kg), however, reduced non-REM sleep, abolished slow-wave enhancements and facilitated wakefulness. The bi-directional action of diphenhydramine on sleep is similar to our former results using d-CPA. Taken together, the arousal effects caused by over-dose administrations of the first generation H₁ histamine receptor antagonists may be mediated by H₁ histamine receptor-independent actions. To further examine the tolerance of ketotifen-induced sleep, 3 mg/kg ketotifen was injected daily for 5 days 3 h before light onset time. These experiments consistently enhanced non-REM-sleep at the end of the active phase of rats, suggesting that ketotifen may function as a desirable sleep aid although the coincidental REM sleep reduction requires attention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of PCS1055, a novel muscarinic M4 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Croy, Carrie H; Chan, Wai Y; Castetter, Andrea M; Watt, Marla L; Quets, Anne T; Felder, Christian C

    2016-07-05

    Identification of synthetic ligands selective for muscarinic receptor subtypes has been challenging due to the high sequence identity and structural homology among the five muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Here, we report the pharmacological characterization of PCS1055, a novel muscarinic M4 receptor antagonist. PCS1055 inhibited radioligand [(3)H]-NMS binding to the M4 receptor with a Ki=6.5nM. Though the potency of PCS1055 is lower than that of pan-muscarinic antagonist atropine, it has better subtype selectivity over previously reported M4-selective reagents such as the muscarinic-peptide toxins (Karlsson et al., 1994; Santiago and Potter, 2001a) at the M1 subtype, and benzoxazine ligand PD102807 at the M3-subtype (Bohme et al., 2002). A detailed head-to-head comparison study using [(3)H]-NMS competitive binding assays characterizes the selectivity profiles of PCS1055 to that of other potent muscarinic-antagonist compounds PD102807, tropicamide, AF-DX-384, pirenzapine, and atropine. In addition to binding studies, the subtype specificity of PCS1055 is also demonstrated by functional receptor activation as readout by GTP-γ-[(35)S] binding. These GTP-γ-[(35)S] binding studies showed that PCS1055 exhibited 255-, 69.1-, 342- and >1000-fold greater inhibition of Oxo-M activity at the M4 versus the M1-, M2(-), M3-or M5 receptor subtypes, respectively. Schild analyses indicates that PCS1055 acts as a competitive antagonist to muscarinic M4 receptor, and confirms the affinity of the ligand to be low nanomolar, Kb=5.72nM. Therefore, PCS1055 represents a new M4-preferring antagonist that may be useful in elucidating the roles of M4 receptor signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A long-acting GH receptor antagonist through fusion to GH binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Ian R.; Pradhananga, Sarbendra L.; Speak, Rowena; Artymiuk, Peter J.; Sayers, Jon R.; Ross, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Acromegaly is a human disease of growth hormone (GH) excess with considerable morbidity and increased mortality. Somatostatin analogues are first line medical treatment but the disease remains uncontrolled in up to 40% of patients. GH receptor (GHR) antagonist therapy is more effective but requires frequent high-dose injections. We have developed an alternative technology for generating a long acting potent GHR antagonist through translational fusion of a mutated GH linked to GH binding protein and tested three candidate molecules. All molecules had the amino acid change (G120R), creating a competitive GHR antagonist and we tested the hypothesis that an amino acid change in the GH binding domain (W104A) would increase biological activity. All were antagonists in bioassays. In rats all antagonists had terminal half-lives >20 hours. After subcutaneous administration in rabbits one variant displayed a terminal half-life of 40.5 hours. A single subcutaneous injection of the same variant in rabbits resulted in a 14% fall in IGF-I over 7 days. In conclusion: we provide proof of concept that a fusion of GHR antagonist to its binding protein generates a long acting GHR antagonist and we confirmed that introducing the W104A amino acid change in the GH binding domain enhances antagonist activity. PMID:27731358

  7. Local Administration of Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist Improves Diabetic Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Perrault, David P; Bramos, Athanasios; Xu, Xingtian; Shi, Songtao; Wong, Alex K

    2018-05-01

    Impaired healing of the skin is a notable cause of patient morbidity and mortality. In diabetic individuals, dysregulated inflammation contributes to delayed wound healing. Specific immunomodulatory agents may have a role in the treatment of diabetic wounds. One of these molecules is interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (Anakinra; Amgen Corp.). Although interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (Anakinra; Amgen Corp.) is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease, little is known about the local use this drug in cutaneous wound healing. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the effect of locally administered interleukin-1 receptor antagonist on delayed wound healing, specifically, in a diabetic mouse model. Two 6-mm full-thickness wounds were created on the dorsa of diabetic (db/db) mice and stented. One-hour postwounding, wound margins were subcutaneously injected with either (1) low-dose interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in a gelatin-transglutaminase gel vehicle or (2) the gel vehicle only. Wounds were imaged on days 0, 7, 14, and 21 postwounding, and wound area was determined. Wound biopsies were collected on day 21 and immunohistochemically stained for neutrophil and macrophage infiltration. Wounds treated with interleukin-1 receptor antagonist had significantly smaller wound area than nontreated wounds on day 7 and day 14 postwounding. Treated wounds also showed significantly less neutrophil and macrophage infiltration. These findings support the hypothesis that interleukin-1 receptor antagonist may have an important role in cutaneous wound healing, possibly by promoting successful resolution of acute inflammation and hence accelerating wound closure. Thereby, administration of IL-1Ra may be useful in the treatment of nonhealing wounds.

  8. Evaluation of antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like activity of purinedione-derivatives with affinity for adenosine A2A receptors in mice.

    PubMed

    Dziubina, Anna; Szmyd, Karina; Zygmunt, Małgorzata; Sapa, Jacek; Dudek, Magdalena; Filipek, Barbara; Drabczyńska, Anna; Załuski, Michał; Pytka, Karolina; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-12-01

    It has recently been suggested that the adenosine A 2A receptor plays a role in several animal models of depression. Additionally, A 2A antagonists have reversed behavioral deficits and exhibited a profile similar to classical antidepressants. In the present study, imidazo- and pyrimido[2,1-f]purinedione derivatives (KD 66, KD 167, KD 206) with affinity to A 2A receptors but poor A 1 affinity were evaluated for their antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activity. The activity of these derivatives was tested using a tail suspension and forced swim test, two widely-used behavioral paradigms for the evaluation of antidepressant-like activity. In turn, the anxiolytic activity was evaluated using the four-plate test. The results showed the antidepressant-like activity of pyrimido- and imidazopurinedione derivatives (i.e. KD 66, KD 167 and KD 206) in acute and chronic behavioral tests in mice. KD 66 revealed an anxiolytic-like effect, while KD 167 increased anxiety behaviors. KD 206 had no effect on anxiety. Furthermore, none of the tested compounds increased locomotor activity. Available data support the proposition that the examined compounds with adenosine A 2A receptor affinity may be an interesting target for the development of antidepressant and/or anxiolytic agents. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  9. Key Modulatory Role of Presynaptic Adenosine A2A Receptors in Cortical Neurotransmission to the Striatal Direct Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Quiroz, César; Luján, Rafael; Uchigashima, Motokazu; Simoes, Ana Patrícia; Lerner, Talia N.; Borycz, Janusz; Kachroo, Anil; Canas, Paula M.; Orru, Marco; Schwarzschild, Michael A.; Rosin, Diane L.; Kreitzer, Anatol C.; Cunha, Rodrigo A.; Watanabe, Masahiko; Ferré, Sergi

    2009-01-01

    Basal ganglia processing results from a balanced activation of direct and indirect striatal efferent pathways, which are controlled by dopamine D1 and D2 receptors, respectively. Adenosine A2A receptors are considered novel antiparkinsonian targets, based on their selective postsynaptic localization in the indirect pathway, where they modulate D2 receptor function. The present study provides evidence for the existence of an additional, functionally significant, segregation of A2A receptors at the presynaptic level. Using integrated anatomical, electrophysiological, and biochemical approaches, we demonstrate that presynaptic A2A receptors are preferentially localized in cortical glutamatergic terminals that contact striatal neurons of the direct pathway, where they exert a selective modulation of corticostriatal neurotransmission. Presynaptic striatal A2A receptors could provide a new target for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:19936569

  10. Key modulatory role of presynaptic adenosine A2A receptors in cortical neurotransmission to the striatal direct pathway.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, César; Luján, Rafael; Uchigashima, Motokazu; Simoes, Ana Patrícia; Lerner, Talia N; Borycz, Janusz; Kachroo, Anil; Canas, Paula M; Orru, Marco; Schwarzschild, Michael A; Rosin, Diane L; Kreitzer, Anatol C; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Watanabe, Masahiko; Ferré, Sergi

    2009-11-18

    Basal ganglia processing results from a balanced activation of direct and indirect striatal efferent pathways, which are controlled by dopamine D1 and D2 receptors, respectively. Adenosine A2A receptors are considered novel antiparkinsonian targets, based on their selective postsynaptic localization in the indirect pathway, where they modulate D2 receptor function. The present study provides evidence for the existence of an additional, functionally significant, segregation of A2A receptors at the presynaptic level. Using integrated anatomical, electrophysiological, and biochemical approaches, we demonstrate that presynaptic A2A receptors are preferentially localized in cortical glutamatergic terminals that contact striatal neurons of the direct pathway, where they exert a selective modulation of corticostriatal neurotransmission. Presynaptic striatal A2A receptors could provide a new target for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  11. Insulin-Increased L-Arginine Transport Requires A2A Adenosine Receptors Activation in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán-Gutiérrez, Enrique; Westermeier, Francisco; Salomón, Carlos; González, Marcelo; Pardo, Fabián; Leiva, Andrea; Sobrevia, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine causes vasodilation of human placenta vasculature by increasing the transport of arginine via cationic amino acid transporters 1 (hCAT-1). This process involves the activation of A2A adenosine receptors (A2AAR) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Insulin increases hCAT-1 activity and expression in HUVECs, and A2AAR stimulation increases insulin sensitivity in subjects with insulin resistance. However, whether A2AAR plays a role in insulin-mediated increase in L-arginine transport in HUVECs is unknown. To determine this, we first assayed the kinetics of saturable L-arginine transport (1 minute, 37°C) in the absence or presence of nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBTI, 10 µmol/L, adenosine transport inhibitor) and/or adenosine receptors agonist/antagonists. We also determined hCAT-1 protein and mRNA expression levels (Western blots and quantitative PCR), and SLC7A1 (for hCAT-1) reporter promoter activity. Insulin and NBTI increased the extracellular adenosine concentration, the maximal velocity for L-arginine transport without altering the apparent K m for L-arginine transport, hCAT-1 protein and mRNA expression levels, and SLC7A1 transcriptional activity. An A2AAR antagonist ZM-241385 blocked these effects. ZM241385 inhibited SLC7A1 reporter transcriptional activity to the same extent in cells transfected with pGL3-hCAT-1−1606 or pGL3-hCAT-1−650 constructs in the presence of NBTI + insulin. However, SLC7A1 reporter activity was increased by NBTI only in cells transfected with pGL3-hCAT-1−1606, and the ZM-241385 sensitive fraction of the NBTI response was similar in the absence or in the presence of insulin. Thus, insulin modulation of hCAT-1 expression and activity requires functional A2AAR in HUVECs, a mechanism that may be applicable to diseases associated with fetal insulin resistance, such as gestational diabetes. PMID:22844517

  12. Studies on the interaction of NMDA receptor antagonist memantine with cell membranes: A mini-review.

    PubMed

    Zambrano, Pablo; Suwalsky, Mario; Jemiola-Rzeminska, Malgorzata; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2018-03-01

    Memantine is an NMDA receptor antagonist clinically used for the treatment of moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease. Currently, it is the only NMDA receptor antagonist drug marketed against this disease. Despite the large number of publications regarding its clinical and therapeutic use, studies related to its mechanism of action are still inconclusive. Knowledge of drug interactions with cell membranes may lead to the development of novel drugs for neurodegenerative diseases. The present mini-review aims to give an overview of the latest findings regarding the interaction of memantine with cell membranes, specifically with that of the human erythrocyte. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis and biological evaluations of chalcones, flavones and chromenes as farnesoid x receptor (FXR) antagonists.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoning; Liu, Shuainan; Tan, Wenjuan; Verma, Ruchi; Chen, Yuan; Sun, Deyang; Huan, Yi; Jiang, Qian; Wang, Xing; Wang, Na; Xu, Yang; Wong, Chiwai; Shen, Zhufang; Deng, Ruitang; Liu, Jinsong; Zhang, Yanqiao; Fang, Weishuo

    2017-03-31

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a nuclear receptor mainly distributed in liver and intestine, has been regarded as a potential target for the treatment of various metabolic diseases, cancer and infectious diseases related to liver. Starting from two previously identified chalcone-based FXR antagonists, we tried to increase the activity through the design and synthesis of a library containing chalcones, flavones and chromenes, based on substitution manipulation and conformation (ring closure) restriction strategy. Many chalcones and four chromenes were identified as microM potent FXR antagonists, among which chromene 11c significantly decreased the plasma and hepatic triglyceride level in KKay mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of caffeine to increase reaction time in the rat during a test of attention is mediated through antagonism of adenosine A2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Guy A; Grzelak, Michael E; Pond, Annamarie J; Cohen-Williams, Mary E; Hodgson, Robert A; Varty, Geoffrey B

    2007-12-11

    Caffeine produces effects on cognitive function particularly relating to aspects of attention such as reaction time. Considering the plasma exposure levels following regular caffeine intake, and the affinity of caffeine for known protein targets, these effects are likely mediated by either the adenosine A(1) or A(2A) receptor. In the present studies, two rat strains [Long-Evans (LE) and CD] were trained to asymptote performance in a test of selective attention, the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT). Next, the effects of caffeine were compared to the selective A(2A) antagonists, SCH 412348 and KW-6002 (Istradefylline), and the A(1) antagonist, DPCPX. Further studies compared the psychostimulant effects of each drug. Finally, we tested the A(2A) agonist, CGS-21680, on 5-CSRTT performance and given the antipsychotic potential of this drug class, studied the interaction between CGS-21680 and amphetamine in this task. Caffeine (3-10mg/kg IP) increased reaction time in both LE and CD rats, with no effect on accuracy, an effect replicated by SCH 412348 (0.1-1mg/kg PO) and KW-6002 (1-3mg/kg PO), but not DPCPX (3-30 mg/kg PO). At least with SCH 412348, these effects were at doses that were not overtly psychostimulant. In contrast, CGS-21680 (0.03-0. 3mg/kg IP) slowed reaction speed and increased omissions. Interestingly, at a comparatively low dose of 0.03 mg/kg, CGS-21680 attenuated the increased premature responding produced by amphetamine (1mg/kg IP). The present results suggest that the attention-enhancing effects of caffeine are mediated through A(2A) receptor blockade, and selective A(2A) receptor antagonists may have potential as therapies for attention-related disorders. Furthermore, the improvement in response control in amphetamine-treated rats following CGS-21680 pretreatment supports the view that A(2A) agonists have potential as novel antipsychotics.

  15. Role and Function of A2A and A3 Adenosine Receptors in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis, Psoriatic Arthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ravani, Annalisa; Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Bortoluzzi, Alessandra; Padovan, Melissa; Pasquini, Silvia; Gessi, Stefania; Merighi, Stefania; Borea, Pier Andrea; Govoni, Marcello; Varani, Katia

    2017-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) are chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases that affect joints, causing debilitating pain and disability. Adenosine receptors (ARs) play a key role in the mechanism of inflammation, and the activation of A2A and A3AR subtypes is often associated with a reduction of the inflammatory status. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of ARs in patients suffering from early-RA (ERA), RA, AS and PsA. Messenger RNA (mRNA) analysis and saturation binding experiments indicated an upregulation of A2A and A3ARs in lymphocytes obtained from patients when compared with healthy subjects. A2A and A3AR agonists inhibited nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activation and reduced inflammatory cytokines release, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6. Moreover, A2A and A3AR activation mediated a reduction of metalloproteinases (MMP)-1 and MMP-3. The effect of the agonists was abrogated by selective antagonists demonstrating the direct involvement of these receptor subtypes. Taken together, these data confirmed the involvement of ARs in chronic autoimmune rheumatic diseases highlighting the possibility to exploit A2A and A3ARs as therapeutic targets, with the aim to limit the inflammatory responses usually associated with RA, AS and PsA. PMID:28338619

  16. Role and Function of A2A and A₃ Adenosine Receptors in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis, Psoriatic Arthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ravani, Annalisa; Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Bortoluzzi, Alessandra; Padovan, Melissa; Pasquini, Silvia; Gessi, Stefania; Merighi, Stefania; Borea, Pier Andrea; Govoni, Marcello; Varani, Katia

    2017-03-24

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) are chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases that affect joints, causing debilitating pain and disability. Adenosine receptors (ARs) play a key role in the mechanism of inflammation, and the activation of A 2A and A₃AR subtypes is often associated with a reduction of the inflammatory status. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of ARs in patients suffering from early-RA (ERA), RA, AS and PsA. Messenger RNA (mRNA) analysis and saturation binding experiments indicated an upregulation of A 2A and A₃ARs in lymphocytes obtained from patients when compared with healthy subjects. A 2A and A₃AR agonists inhibited nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activation and reduced inflammatory cytokines release, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6. Moreover, A 2A and A₃AR activation mediated a reduction of metalloproteinases (MMP)-1 and MMP-3. The effect of the agonists was abrogated by selective antagonists demonstrating the direct involvement of these receptor subtypes. Taken together, these data confirmed the involvement of ARs in chronic autoimmune rheumatic diseases highlighting the possibility to exploit A 2A and A₃ARs as therapeutic targets, with the aim to limit the inflammatory responses usually associated with RA, AS and PsA.

  17. Selective dopamine D3 receptor antagonists: a review 2001-2005.

    PubMed

    Micheli, Fabrizio; Heidbreder, Christian

    2006-11-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that dopamine (DA) D(3) receptors are significantly involved in the control of drug-seeking behavior, and may play an important role in the pathophysiology of impulse control disorders and schizophrenia. This hypothesis has been difficult to test due to the lack of compounds with high selectivity for central DA D(3) receptors. Recently, however, the synthesis and characterization of new highly potent and selective DA D(3) receptor antagonists has permitted to characterize the role of the DA D(3) receptor in a wide range of preclinical animal models. Although the proof of efficacy of pharmacotherapeutic agents is to be derived ultimately from clinical trials, the preclinical findings that selective antagonism at DA D(3) receptors reduces the reinforcing efficacy of drugs of abuse, reverses cognitive deficits, and shows efficacy in animal models of schizophrenia add to an accumulating body of evidence that selective DA D(3) receptor antagonists may hold highest promise in the treatment of several neuropsychiatric diseases. The present review is aiming at describing current areas of interest and the possible future development of selective DA D(3) receptor antagonists by outlining about 40 patents and 100 publications in this research field between 2001 and 2005.

  18. Rational Design of Potent Antagonists to the Human Growth Hormone Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuh, Germaine; Cunningham, Brian C.; Fukunaga, Rikiro; Nagata, Shigekazu; Goeddel, David V.; Wells, James A.

    1992-06-01

    A hybrid receptor was constructed that contained the extracellular binding domain of the human growth hormone (hGH) receptor linked to the transmembrane and intracellular domains of the murine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor. Addition of hGH to a myeloid leukemia cell line (FDC-P1) that expressed the hybrid receptor caused proliferation of these cells. The mechanism for signal transduction of the hybrid receptor required dimerization because monoclonal antibodies to the hGH receptor were agonists whereas their monovalent fragments were not. Receptor dimerization occurs sequentially-a receptor binds to site 1 on hGH, and then a second receptor molecule binds to site 2 on hGH. On the basis of this sequential mechanism, which may occur in many other cytokine receptors, inactive hGH analogs were designed that were potent antagonists to hGH-induced cell proliferation. Such antagonists could be useful for treating clinical conditions of hGH excess, such as acromegaly.

  19. Slow Receptor Dissociation Kinetics Differentiate Macitentan from Other Endothelin Receptor Antagonists in Pulmonary Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gatfield, John; Mueller Grandjean, Celia; Sasse, Thomas; Clozel, Martine; Nayler, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Two endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs), bosentan and ambrisentan, are currently approved for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a devastating disease involving an activated endothelin system and aberrant contraction and proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC). The novel ERA macitentan has recently concluded testing in a Phase III morbidity/mortality clinical trial in PAH patients. Since the association and dissociation rates of G protein-coupled receptor antagonists can influence their pharmacological activity in vivo, we used human PASMC to characterize inhibitory potency and receptor inhibition kinetics of macitentan, ambrisentan and bosentan using calcium release and inositol-1-phosphate (IP1) assays. In calcium release assays macitentan, ambrisentan and bosentan were highly potent ERAs with Kb values of 0.14 nM, 0.12 nM and 1.1 nM, respectively. Macitentan, but not ambrisentan and bosentan, displayed slow apparent receptor association kinetics as evidenced by increased antagonistic potency upon prolongation of antagonist pre-incubation times. In compound washout experiments, macitentan displayed a significantly lower receptor dissociation rate and longer receptor occupancy half-life (ROt1/2) compared to bosentan and ambrisentan (ROt1/2∶17 minutes versus 70 seconds and 40 seconds, respectively). Because of its lower dissociation rate macitentan behaved as an insurmountable antagonist in calcium release and IP1 assays, and unlike bosentan and ambrisentan it blocked endothelin receptor activation across a wide range of endothelin-1 (ET-1) concentrations. However, prolongation of the ET-1 stimulation time beyond ROt1/2 rendered macitentan a surmountable antagonist, revealing its competitive binding mode. Bosentan and ambrisentan behaved as surmountable antagonists irrespective of the assay duration and they lacked inhibitory activity at high ET-1 concentrations. Thus, macitentan is a competitive ERA with

  20. Synthesis of (E)-8-(3-chlorostyryl)caffeine analogues leading to 9-deazaxanthine derivatives as dual A(2A) antagonists/MAO-B inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Rivara, Silvia; Piersanti, Giovanni; Bartoccini, Francesca; Diamantini, Giuseppe; Pala, Daniele; Riccioni, Teresa; Stasi, Maria Antonietta; Cabri, Walter; Borsini, Franco; Mor, Marco; Tarzia, Giorgio; Minetti, Patrizia

    2013-02-14

    A systematic modification of the caffeinyl core and substituents of the reference compound (E)-8-(3-chlorostyryl)caffeine led to the 9-deazaxanthine derivative (E)-6-(4-chlorostyryl)-1,3,5,-trimethyl-1H-pyrrolo[3,2-d]pyrimidine-2,4-(3H,5H)-dione (17f), which acts as a dual human A(2a) antagonist/MAO-B inhibitor (K(i)(A(2A)) = 260 nM; IC(50)(MAO-B) = 200 nM; IC(50)(MAO-A) = 10 μM) and dose dependently counteracts haloperidol-induced catalepsy in mice from 30 mg/kg by the oral route. The compound is the best balanced A(2A) antagonist/MAO-B inhibitor reported to date, and it could be considered as a new lead in the field of anti-Parkinson's agents. A number of analogues of 17f were synthesized and qualitative SARs are discussed. Two analogues of 17f, namely 18b and 19a, inhibit MAO-B with IC(50) of 68 and 48 nM, respectively, being 5-7-fold more potent than the prototypical MAO-B inhibitor deprenyl (IC(50) = 334 nM).

  1. Inhibition of Morphine Tolerance and Dependence by the NMDA Receptor Antagonist MK-801

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, Keith A.; Akil, Huda

    1991-01-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of the glutamate receptor is an important mediator of several forms of neural and behavioral plasticity. The present studies examined whether NMDA receptors might be involved in the development of opiate tolerance and dependence, two examples of behavioral plasticity. The noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 attenuated the development of tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine without affecting acute morphine analgesia. In addition, MK-801 attenuated the development of morphine dependence as assessed by naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. These results suggest that NMDA receptors may be important in the development of opiate tolerance and dependence.

  2. (−) Arctigenin and (+) Pinoresinol Are Antagonists of the Human Thyroid Hormone Receptor β

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Lignans are important biologically active dietary polyphenolic compounds. Consumption of foods that are rich in lignans is associated with positive health effects. Using modeling tools to probe the ligand-binding pockets of molecular receptors, we found that lignans have high docking affinity for the human thyroid hormone receptor β. Follow-up experimental results show that lignans (−) arctigenin and (+) pinoresinol are antagonists of the human thyroid hormone receptor β. The modeled complexes show key plausible interactions between the two ligands and important amino acid residues of the receptor. PMID:25383984

  3. Effects of a Proprietary Standardized Orthosiphon stamineus Ethanolic Leaf Extract on Enhancing Memory in Sprague Dawley Rats Possibly via Blockade of Adenosine A2A Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Yogendra; Choudhary, Vandana Kotak; Bommu, Praveen; Wong, Hoi Jin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore a propriety standardized ethanolic extract from leaves of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth in improving impairments in short-term social memory in vivo, possibly via blockade of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR). The ethanolic extract of O. stamineus leaves showed significant in vitro binding activity of A2AR with 74% inhibition at 150 μg/ml and significant A2AR antagonist activity with 98% inhibition at 300 μg/mL. A significant adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) antagonist activity with 100% inhibition was observed at 300 μg/mL. Its effect on learning and memory was assessed via social recognition task using Sprague Dawley rats whereby the ethanolic extract of O. stamineus showed significant (p < 0.001) change in recognition index (RI) at 300 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg p.o and 120 mg/kg i.p., respectively, compared to the vehicle control. In comparison, the ethanolic extract of Polygonum minus aerial parts showed small change in inflexion; however, it remained insignificant in RI at 200 mg/kg p.o. Our findings suggest that the ethanolic extract of O. stamineus leaves improves memory by reversing age-related deficits in short-term social memory and the possible involvement of adenosine A1 and adenosine A2A as a target bioactivity site in the restoration of memory. PMID:26649059

  4. Reinstatement of cocaine place-conditioning prevented by the peptide kappa-opioid receptor antagonist arodyn.

    PubMed

    Carey, A N; Borozny, K; Aldrich, J V; McLaughlin, J P

    2007-08-13

    Stress contributes to the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior in abstinent subjects. Kappa-opioid receptor antagonists attenuate the behavioral effects of stress, potentially providing therapeutic value in treating cocaine abuse. Presently, the peptide arodyn produced long-lasting kappa-opioid receptor antagonism, suppressing kappa-opioid receptor agonist-induced antinociception at least 3 days after intracerebroventricular administration of 0.3 nmol. C57Bl/6J mice demonstrated cocaine-conditioned place preference, extinction over 3 weeks, and a subsequent reinstatement of place preference. Arodyn pretreatment suppressed stress-induced, but not cocaine-exposed, reinstatement of cocaine place preference. These results verify that arodyn and other kappa-opioid receptor antagonists may be useful therapeutics for cocaine abuse.

  5. Caffeine Reverts Memory But Not Mood Impairment in a Depression-Prone Mouse Strain with Up-Regulated Adenosine A2A Receptor in Hippocampal Glutamate Synapses.

    PubMed

    Machado, Nuno J; Simões, Ana Patrícia; Silva, Henrique B; Ardais, Ana Paula; Kaster, Manuella P; Garção, Pedro; Rodrigues, Diana I; Pochmann, Daniela; Santos, Ana Isabel; Araújo, Inês M; Porciúncula, Lisiane O; Tomé, Ângelo R; Köfalvi, Attila; Vaugeois, Jean-Marie; Agostinho, Paula; El Yacoubi, Malika; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Gomes, Catarina A

    2017-03-01

    Caffeine prophylactically prevents mood and memory impairments through adenosine A 2A receptor (A 2A R) antagonism. A 2A R antagonists also therapeutically revert mood and memory impairments, but it is not known if caffeine is also therapeutically or only prophylactically effective. Since depression is accompanied by mood and memory alterations, we now explored if chronic (4 weeks) caffeine consumption (0.3 g/L) reverts mood and memory impairment in helpless mice (HM, 12 weeks old), a bred-based model of depression. HM displayed higher immobility in the tail suspension and forced swimming tests, greater anxiety in the elevated plus maze, and poorer memory performance (modified Y-maze and object recognition). HM also had reduced density of synaptic (synaptophysin, SNAP-25), namely, glutamatergic (vGluT1; -22 ± 7 %) and GABAergic (vGAT; -23 ± 8 %) markers in the hippocampus. HM displayed higher A 2A R density (72 ± 6 %) in hippocampal synapses, an enhanced facilitation of hippocampal glutamate release by the A 2A R agonist, CGS21680 (30 nM), and a larger LTP amplitude (54 ± 8 % vs. 21 ± 5 % in controls) that was restored to control levels (30 ± 10 %) by the A 2A R antagonist, SCH58261 (50 nM). Notably, caffeine intake reverted memory deficits and reverted the loss of hippocampal synaptic markers but did not affect helpless or anxiety behavior. These results reinforce the validity of HM as an animal model of depression by showing that they also display reference memory deficits. Furthermore, caffeine intake selectively reverted memory but not mood deficits displayed by HM, which are associated with an increased density and functional impact of hippocampal A 2A R controlling synaptic glutamatergic function.

  6. GABA and GABA(A) receptor antagonists alter developing cone photoreceptor development in neonatal rabbit retina.

    PubMed

    Huang, B; Mitchell, C K; Redburn-Johnson, D A

    2000-01-01

    Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been established as an important developmental signal in a number of regions of the central nervous system (CNS), including retina. Our previous studies have shown that GABAergic horizontal cells act as the initial synaptic target for developing cone photoreceptors in neonatal rabbit retina. Since intraocular injections of the GABA(A) receptor antagonists, picrotoxin or bicuculline, disrupt cone synaptogenesis in vivo, GABA released from horizontal cells may provide a necessary signal for cone axon growth and/or synapse formation. In the current report, we have used cultured retinal explants to examine the effects of GABA(A) receptor antagonists on other aspects of developing cones. These include the distribution pattern of cone cell bodies across the outer surface of the retina and the expression of GABA(A) receptors within both cone cell bodies and axonal processes. Peanut agglutinin (PNA), a plant lectin that specifically labels cone plasma membrane and extracellular matrix, was used to monitor cone development, and a GABA(A) receptor antibody against the beta2/3 subunits of the protein was used to label GABA(A) receptors. Results showed that cones maintained in the explant culture express GABA(A) receptors in a temporal and spatial pattern similar to that observed in vivo, namely a low expression of receptors on cone cell bodies at postnatal day 1 (P1), peaking around P3 and diminishing by P7. Neonatal retinal explants exposed to the GABA(A) receptor antagonists, bicuculline (10 microM) or SR95531 (5 microM), for 24 h in culture showed disruption of the normal distribution of cone cell bodies. When GABA (100 microM) was added along with either antagonist, cone cell bodies appeared normal. Neither bicuculline nor SR95531 alone had any effect on the general morphology of other retinal layers, suggesting that these GABA(A) receptor antagonists at the concentrations used were not acting as nonspecific disruption agents. The

  7. Sigma1 receptor antagonists determine the behavioral pattern of the methamphetamine-induced stereotypy in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kitanaka, J.; Kitanaka, N.; Tatsuta, T.; Hall, F.S.; Uhl, G.R.; Tanaka, K.; Nishiyama, N.; Morita, Y.; Takemura, M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The effects of sigma receptor antagonists on methamphetamine (METH)-induced stereotypy have not been examined. We examined the effects of sigma antagonists on METH-induced stereotypy in mice. Results The administration of METH (10 mg/kg) to male ddY mice induced stereotyped behavior consisting of biting (90.1%), sniffing (4.2%), head bobbing (4.1%), and circling (1.7%) during an observation period of 1 h. Pretreatment of the mice with BMY 14802 (α-(4-fluorophenyl)-4-(5-fluoro-2-pyrimidinyl)-1-piperazinebutanol; 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg), a non-specific sigma receptor antagonist, significantly increased METH-induced sniffing (19.2, 30.5, and 43.8% of total stereotypical behavior) but decreased biting (76.6, 66.9, and 49.3% of total stereotypical behavior) in a dose-dependent manner. This response was completely abolished by (+)-SKF 10,047 ([2S-(2α,6α,11R)]-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexahydro-6,11-dimethyl-3-(2-propenyl)-2,6-methano-3-benzazocin-8-ol; 4 and 10 mg/kg), a putative sigma1 receptor agonist, and partially by PB 28 (1-cyclohexyl-4-[3-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-5-methoxy-1-naphthalen-1-yl)-n-propyl]piperazine; 1 and 10 mg/kg), a putative sigma2 receptor agonist. The BMY 14802 action on METH-induced stereotypy was mimicked by BD 1047 (N-[2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]-N-methyl-2-(dimethylamino)ethylamine; 10 mg/kg), a putative sigma1 receptor antagonist, but not by SM-21 ((±)-tropanyl 2-(4-chlorophenoxy)butanoate; 1 mg/kg), a putative sigma2 receptor antagonist. The BD 1047 effect on METH-induced stereotypy was also abolished completely by (+)-SKF 10,047 and partially by PB 28. The overall frequency of METH-induced stereotypical behavior was unchanged with these sigma receptor ligands, despite the alteration in particular behavioral patterns. The BMY 14802 action on METH-induced stereotypy was unaffected by pretreatment with centrally acting histamine H1 receptor antagonists (pyrilamine or ketotifen, 10 mg/kg), suggesting that these effects are independent of histamine H1

  8. Identification of Trisubstituted-pyrazol Carboxamide Analogs as Novel and Potent Antagonists of Farnesoid X Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Donna D.; Lin, Wenwei; Forman, Barry M.; Chen, Taosheng

    2014-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR, NRIH4) plays a major role in the control of cholesterol metabolism. This suggests that antagonizing the transcriptional activity of FXR is a potential means to treat cholestasis and related metabolic disorders. Here we describe the synthesis, biological evaluation, and structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of trisubstituted-pyrazol carboxamides as novel and potent FXR antagonists. One of these novel FXR antagonists, 4j has an IC50 of 7.5 nM in an FXR binding assay and 468.5 nM in a cell-based FXR antagonistic assay. Compound 4j has no detectable FXR agonistic activity or cytotoxicity. Notably, 4j is the most potent FXR antagonist identified to date; it has a promising in vitro profile and could serve as an excellent chemical tool to elucidate the biological function of FXR. PMID:24775917

  9. PSNCBAM-1, a novel allosteric antagonist at cannabinoid CB1 receptors with hypophagic effects in rats.

    PubMed

    Horswill, J G; Bali, U; Shaaban, S; Keily, J F; Jeevaratnam, P; Babbs, A J; Reynet, C; Wong Kai In, P

    2007-11-01

    Rimonabant (Acomplia, SR141716A), a cannabinoid CB1 receptor inverse agonist, has recently been approved for the treatment of obesity. There are, however, concerns regarding its side effect profile. Developing a CB1 antagonist with a different pharmacological mechanism may lead to a safer alternative. To this end we have screened a proprietary small molecule library and have discovered a novel class of allosteric antagonist at CB1 receptors. Herein, we have characterized an optimized prototypical molecule, PSNCBAM-1, and its hypophagic effects in vivo. A CB1 yeast reporter assay was used as a primary screen. PSNCBAM-1 was additionally characterized in [35S]-GTPgammaS, cAMP and radioligand binding assays. An acute rat feeding model was used to evaluate its effects on food intake and body weight in vivo. In CB1 receptor yeast reporter assays, PSNCBAM-1 blocked the effects induced by agonists such as CP55,940, WIN55212-2, anandamide (AEA) or 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG). The antagonist characteristics of PSNCBAM-1 were confirmed in [35S]-GTPgammaS binding and cAMP assays and was shown to be non-competitive by Schild analyses. PSNCBAM-1 did not affect CB2 receptors. In radioligand binding assays, PSNCBAM-1 increased the binding of [3H]CP55,940 despite its antagonist effects. In an acute rat feeding model, PSNCBAM-1 decreased food intake and body weight. PSNCBAM-1 exerted its effects through selective allosteric modulation of the CB1 receptor. The acute effects on food intake and body weight induced in rats provide a first report of in vivo activity for an allosteric CB1 receptor antagonist.

  10. PSNCBAM-1, a novel allosteric antagonist at cannabinoid CB1 receptors with hypophagic effects in rats

    PubMed Central

    Horswill, J G; Bali, U; Shaaban, S; Keily, J F; Jeevaratnam, P; Babbs, A J; Reynet, C; Wong Kai In, P

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Rimonabant (AcompliaTM, SR141716A), a cannabinoid CB1 receptor inverse agonist, has recently been approved for the treatment of obesity. There are, however, concerns regarding its side effect profile. Developing a CB1 antagonist with a different pharmacological mechanism may lead to a safer alternative. To this end we have screened a proprietary small molecule library and have discovered a novel class of allosteric antagonist at CB1 receptors. Herein, we have characterized an optimized prototypical molecule, PSNCBAM-1, and its hypophagic effects in vivo. Experimental approach: A CB1 yeast reporter assay was used as a primary screen. PSNCBAM-1 was additionally characterized in [35S]-GTPγS, cAMP and radioligand binding assays. An acute rat feeding model was used to evaluate its effects on food intake and body weight in vivo. Key results: In CB1 receptor yeast reporter assays, PSNCBAM-1 blocked the effects induced by agonists such as CP55,940, WIN55212-2, anandamide (AEA) or 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG). The antagonist characteristics of PSNCBAM-1 were confirmed in [35S]-GTPγS binding and cAMP assays and was shown to be non-competitive by Schild analyses. PSNCBAM-1 did not affect CB2 receptors. In radioligand binding assays, PSNCBAM-1 increased the binding of [3H]CP55,940 despite its antagonist effects. In an acute rat feeding model, PSNCBAM-1 decreased food intake and body weight. Conclusions and implications: PSNCBAM-1 exerted its effects through selective allosteric modulation of the CB1 receptor. The acute effects on food intake and body weight induced in rats provide a first report of in vivo activity for an allosteric CB1 receptor antagonist. PMID:17592509

  11. Antagonistic targeting of the histamine H3 receptor decreases caloric intake in higher mammalian species.

    PubMed

    Malmlöf, Kjell; Hastrup, Sven; Wulff, Birgitte Schellerup; Hansen, Barbara C; Peschke, Bernd; Jeppesen, Claus Bekker; Hohlweg, Rolf; Rimvall, Karin

    2007-04-15

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a selective histamine H(3) receptor antagonist, NNC 38-1202, on caloric intake in pigs and in rhesus monkeys. The compound was given intragastrically (5 or 15 mg/kg), to normal pigs (n=7) and subcutaneously (1 or 0.1mg/kg) to obese rhesus monkeys (n=9). The energy intake recorded following administration of vehicle to the same animals served as control for the effect of the compound. In addition, rhesus monkey and pig histamine H(3) receptors were cloned from hypothalamic tissues and expressed in mammalian cell lines. The in vitro antagonist potencies of NNC 38-1202 at the H(3) receptors were determined using a functional GTPgammaS binding assay. Porcine and human H(3) receptors were found to have 93.3% identity at the amino acid level and the close homology between the monkey and human H(3) receptors (98.4% identity) was confirmed. The antagonist potencies of NNC 38-1202 at the porcine, monkey and human histamine H(3) receptors were high as evidenced by K(i)-values being clearly below 20 nM, whereas the K(i)-value on the rat H(3) receptor was significantly higher (56+/-6.0 nM). NNC 38-1202, given to pigs in a dose of 15 mg/kg, produced a significant (p<0.05) reduction (55%) of calorie intake compared with vehicle alone, (132.6+/-10.0 kcal/kgday versus 59.7+/-10.2 kcal/kgday). In rhesus monkeys administration of 0.1 and 1mg/kg decreased (p<0.05) average calorie intakes by 40 and 75%, respectively. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that antagonistic targeting of the histamine H(3) receptor decreases caloric intake in higher mammalian species.

  12. Bradykinin as a pain mediator: receptors are localized to sensory neurons, and antagonists have analgesic actions

    SciTech Connect

    Steranka, L.R.; Manning, D.C.; DeHaas, C.J.

    1988-05-01

    Autoradiographic studies localize (/sup 3/H)bradykinin receptor binding sites to the substantia gelatinosa, dorsal root, and a subset of small cells in both the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia of the guinea pig. (/sup 3/H)Bradykinin labeling is also observed over myocardinal/coronary visceral afferent fibers. The localization of (/sup 3/H)bradykinin receptors to nociceptive pathways supports a role for bradykinin in pain mediation. Several bradkykinin antagonists block bradykinin-induced acute vascular pain in the rat. The bradykinin antagonists also relieve bradykinin- and urate-induced hyperalgesia in the rat paw. These results indicate that bradykinin is a physiologic mediator of pain and that bradykinin antagonists havemore » analgesic activity in both acute and chronic pain models.« less

  13. Synthesis and dual histamine H₁ and H₂ receptor antagonist activity of cyanoguanidine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sadek, Bassem; Alisch, Rudi; Buschauer, Armin; Elz, Sigurd

    2013-11-15

    Premedication with a combination of histamine H₁ receptor (H₁R) and H₂ receptor (H₂R) antagonists has been suggested as a prophylactic principle, for instance, in anaesthesia and surgery. Aiming at pharmacological hybrids combining H₁R and H₂R antagonistic activity, a series of cyanoguanidines 14-35 was synthesized by linking mepyramine-type H₁R antagonist substructures with roxatidine-, tiotidine-, or ranitidine-type H₂R antagonist moieties. N-desmethylmepyramine was connected via a poly-methylene spacer to a cyanoguanidine group as the "urea equivalent" of the H₂R antagonist moiety. The title compounds were screened for histamine antagonistic activity at the isolated ileum (H₁R) and the isolated spontaneously beating right atrium (H₂R) of the guinea pig. The results indicate that, depending on the nature of the H₂R antagonist partial structure, the highest H₁R antagonist potency resided in roxatidine-type compounds with spacers of six methylene groups in length (compound 21), and tiotidine-type compounds irrespective of the alkyl chain length (compounds 28, 32, 33), N-cyano-N'-[2-[[(2-guanidino-4-thiazolyl)methyl]thio]ethyl]-N″-[2-[N-[2-[N-(4-methoxybenzyl)-N-(pyridyl)-amino] ethyl]-N-methylamino]ethyl] guanidine (25, pKB values: 8.05 (H₁R, ileum) and 7.73 (H₂R, atrium) and the homologue with the mepyramine moiety connected by a six-membered chain to the tiotidine-like partial structure (compound 32, pKB values: 8.61 (H₁R) and 6.61 (H₂R) were among the most potent hybrid compounds. With respect to the development of a potential pharmacotherapeutic agent, structural optimization seems possible through selection of other H₁R and H₂R pharmacophoric moieties with mutually affinity-enhancing properties.

  14. PD 102807, a novel muscarinic M4 receptor antagonist, discriminates between striatal and cortical muscarinic receptors coupled to cyclic AMP.

    PubMed

    Olianas, M C; Onali, P

    1999-01-01

    In membranes of Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the cloned human M1-M4 muscarinic receptor subtypes, PD 102807, a novel M4 selective antagonist, was found to counteract the M4 receptor-induced stimulation of [35S]-GTPgammaS binding to membrane G proteins with a pK(B) of 7.40, a value which was 63-, 33- and 10-fold higher than those displayed at M1 (pK(B) = 5.60), M2 (pK(B) = 5.88) and M3 (pK(B) = 6.39) receptor subtypes, respectively. In rat striatal membranes, PD 102807 antagonized the muscarinic inhibition of dopamine (DA) D1 receptor-stimulated adenylyl cyclase with a pK(B) value of 7.36. In contrast, in membranes of rat frontal cortex, PD 102807 displayed lower potencies in antagonizing either the muscarinic facilitation of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)-stimulated adenylyl cyclase (pK(B) = 5.79) or inhibition of Ca2+/calmodulin (Ca2+/CaM)-stimulated enzyme activity (pK(B) = 5.95). In each response investigated, PD 102807 interacted with muscarinic receptors in a manner typical of a simple competitive antagonist. These data provide additional evidence that PD 102807 is a M4-receptor preferring antagonist and that this compound can discriminate the striatal muscarinic receptors inhibiting DA D1 receptor activity from the cortical receptors mediating the potentiation of CRH receptor signalling and the inhibition of Ca2+/CaM-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity.

  15. Structure of the human M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor bound to an antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Haga, Kazuko; Kruse, Andrew C.; Asada, Hidetsugu

    2012-03-15

    The parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system regulates the activity of multiple organ systems. Muscarinic receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors that mediate the response to acetylcholine released from parasympathetic nerves. Their role in the unconscious regulation of organ and central nervous system function makes them potential therapeutic targets for a broad spectrum of diseases. The M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M2 receptor) is essential for the physiological control of cardiovascular function through activation of G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channels, and is of particular interest because of its extensive pharmacological characterization with both orthosteric and allosteric ligands. Here we report the structuremore » of the antagonist-bound human M2 receptor, the first human acetylcholine receptor to be characterized structurally, to our knowledge. The antagonist 3-quinuclidinyl-benzilate binds in the middle of a long aqueous channel extending approximately two-thirds through the membrane. The orthosteric binding pocket is formed by amino acids that are identical in all five muscarinic receptor subtypes, and shares structural homology with other functionally unrelated acetylcholine binding proteins from different species. A layer of tyrosine residues forms an aromatic cap restricting dissociation of the bound ligand. A binding site for allosteric ligands has been mapped to residues at the entrance to the binding pocket near this aromatic cap. The structure of the M2 receptor provides insights into the challenges of developing subtype-selective ligands for muscarinic receptors and their propensity for allosteric regulation.« less

  16. A Time-course Study with the Androgen Receptor Antagonist Flutamide in Fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Flutamide, a drug registered to treat some types of prostate cancer in humans, has been used for many years as a model androgen receptor (AR) antagonist in studies aimed at characterizing disruption of the vertebrate hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Various studies hav...

  17. Orally active vasopressin V1a receptor antagonist, SRX251, selectively blocks aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Craig F; Lu, Shi-Fang; Messenger, Tara; Guillon, Christophe D; Heindel, Ned; Miller, Marvin; Koppel, Gary; Robert Bruns, F; Simon, Neal G

    2006-02-01

    Arginine vasopressin functions as a neurochemical signal in the brain to affect social behavior. There is an expanding literature from animal and human studies showing that vasopressin, through the vasopressin 1A receptor (V1A), can stimulate aggressive behavior. Using a novel monocylic beta lactam platform, a series of orally active vasopressin V1a antagonists was developed with high affinity for the human receptor. SRX251 was chosen from this series of V1a antagonists to screen for effects on serenic activity in a resident-intruder model of offensive aggression. Resident, male Syrian golden hamsters were given oral doses of SRX251 or intraperitoneal Manning compound, a selective V1a receptor antagonist with reduced brain penetrance, at doses of 0.2 microg, 20 microg, 2 mg/kg or vehicle. When tested 90-120 min later, SRX251, but not Manning compound, caused a significant dose-dependent reduction in offensive aggression toward intruders as measured by latency to bite and number of bites. The reduction in aggression persisted for over 6 h and was no longer present 12 h post treatment. SRX251 did not alter the amount of time the resident investigated the intruder, olfactory communication, general motor activity, or sexual motivation. These data corroborate previous studies showing a role for vasopressin neurotransmission in aggression and suggest that V1a receptor antagonists may be used to treat interpersonal violence co-occurring with such illness as ADHD, autism, bipolar disorder, and substance abuse.

  18. Cholecystokinin receptor antagonist halts progression of pancreatic cancer precursor lesions and fibrosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jill P; Cooper, Timothy K; McGovern, Christopher O; Gilius, Evan L; Zhong, Qing; Liao, Jiangang; Molinolo, Alfredo A; Gutkind, J Silvio; Matters, Gail L

    2014-10-01

    Exogenous administration of cholecystokinin (CCK) induces hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the pancreas with an increase in DNA content. We hypothesized that endogenous CCK is involved in the malignant progression of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) lesions and the fibrosis associated with pancreatic cancer. The presence of CCK receptors in early PanIN lesions was examined by immunohistochemistry in mouse and human pancreas. Pdx1-Cre/LSL-Kras transgenic mice were randomized to receive either untreated drinking water or water supplemented with a CCK receptor antagonist (proglumide, 0.1 mg/mL). Pancreas from the mice were removed and examined histologically for number and grade of PanINs after 1, 2, or 4 months of antagonist therapy. Both CCK-A and CCK-B receptors were identified in early stage PanINs from mouse and human pancreas. The grade of PanIN lesions was reversed, and progression to advanced lesions arrested in mice treated with proglumide compared with the controls (P = 0.004). Furthermore, pancreatic fibrosis was significantly reduced in antagonist-treated animals compared with vehicle (P < 0.001). These findings demonstrate that endogenous CCK is in part responsible for the development and progression of pancreatic cancer. The use of CCK receptor antagonists may have a role in cancer prophylaxis in high-risk subjects and may reduce fibrosis in the microenvironment.

  19. Evaluation of muscarinic and nicotinic receptor antagonists on attention and working memory.

    PubMed

    McQuail, Joseph A; Burk, Joshua A

    2006-12-01

    Cholinergic receptor antagonists are commonly used to model attentional and mnemonic impairments associated with neuropsychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. However, few studies have systematically assessed the effects of these drugs following manipulations that affect attention or working memory within the same task. In the present experiment, rats were trained to discriminate visual signals from "blank" trials when no signal was presented. This task was modified to include retention intervals on some trials to tax working memory. During standard task performance, rats received systemic injections of the muscarinic receptor antagonist, scopolamine, or of the nicotinic receptor antagonist, mecamylamine. A second experiment tested the effects on this task of co-administering doses of scopolamine and mecamylamine that, when administered alone, did not significantly affect task performance. Scopolamine (0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg) decreased detection of 500 ms signals but did not affect accurate identification of non-signals. Scopolamine did not differentially affect performance across the retention interval. Elevated omission rates were associated with high doses of scopolamine or mecamylamine. Combination drug treatment was associated with decreased signal detection and elevated omission rates. Collectively, the data suggest that muscarinic and nicotinic receptor antagonists do not exclusively impair working memory.

  20. I. Effects of a Dopamine Receptor Antagonist on Fathead Minnow, Pimephales promelas ,Reproduction

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study used a 21 d fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) reproduction assay to test the hypothesis that exposure to the dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) antagonist, haloperidol, would impair fish reproduction. Additionally, a 96 h experiment with fathead minnows and zebrafish (Danio ...

  1. Generation of a highly diverse panel of antagonistic chicken monoclonal antibodies against the GIP receptor

    PubMed Central

    Könitzer, Jennifer D.; Pan, Qi; Augustin, Robert; Bandholtz, Sebastian; Harriman, William; Izquierdo, Shelley

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Raising functional antibodies against G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is challenging due to their low density expression, instability in the absence of the cell membrane's lipid bilayer and frequently short extracellular domains that can serve as antigens. In addition, a particular therapeutic concept may require an antibody to not just bind the receptor, but also act as a functional receptor agonist or antagonist. Antagonizing the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) receptor may open up new therapeutic modalities in the treatment of diabetes and obesity. As such, a panel of monoclonal antagonistic antibodies would be a useful tool for in vitro and in vivo proof of concept studies. The receptor is highly conserved between rodents and humans, which has contributed to previous mouse and rat immunization campaigns generating very few usable antibodies. Switching the immunization host to chicken, which is phylogenetically distant from mammals, enabled the generation of a large and diverse panel of monoclonal antibodies containing 172 unique sequences. Three-quarters of all chicken-derived antibodies were functional antagonists, exhibited high-affinities to the receptor extracellular domain and sampled a broad epitope repertoire. For difficult targets, including GPCRs such as GIPR, chickens are emerging as valuable immunization hosts for therapeutic antibody discovery. PMID:28055305

  2. ( sup 3 H)SCH39166, a D1 dopamine receptor antagonist: Binding characteristics and localization

    SciTech Connect

    Wamsley, J.K.; Hunt, M.E.; McQuade, R.D.

    1991-02-01

    Schering-Plough Research has developed a new, more specific analogue of SCH23390. This compound, SCH39166, has been shown to be a potent, specific, D1 receptor antagonist with several features which are advantageous over its predecessor. In this report, the binding characteristics of (3H)SCH39166 are described by in vitro analysis in rat brain tissues. The binding was shown to be of high affinity (Kd in the low nM range), saturable, and specific (readily displaceable with SCH23390, but not with the D2 receptor antagonists sulpiride or haloperidol). The binding of SCH39166 is more selective for binding to D1 receptors than SCH23390 with regardmore » to overlap of the latter compound onto 5HT2 and 5HT1C receptors. Autoradiographic localization of D1 receptor sites labeled with (3H)SCH39166 showed a very specific distribution in areas known to contain high quantities of D1 receptors. These regions included the deepest layer of the cerebral cortex, the caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, entopeduncular nucleus, and substantia nigra-pars reticulata, as well as less dense binding in a few other areas. At the concentration of ligand used (1 nM), there was a noticeable paucity of labeling in lamina IV of the cerebral cortex and in the choroid plexus, regions of high 5HT2 and 5HT1C receptor binding, respectively. Thus, SCH39166 represents a new D1 receptor antagonist which shows a greater specificity for the D1 receptor than its predecessor SCH23390. As previously shown, another distinct advantage of this compound is its stability in primates which should allow the determination of the effects and utility of D1 receptor antagonism in vivo.« less

  3. Modulation of G protein-coupled adenosine receptors by strategically functionalized agonists and antagonists immobilized on gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jayasekara, P Suresh; Phan, Khai; Tosh, Dilip K; Kumar, T Santhosh; Moss, Steven M; Zhang, Guofeng; Barchi, Joseph J; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Jacobson, Kenneth A

    2013-06-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) allow the tuning of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties by active or passive targeting of drugs for cancer and other diseases. We have functionalized gold nanoparticles by tethering specific ligands, agonists and antagonists, of adenosine receptors (ARs) to the gold surface as models for cell surface interactions with G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The AuNP conjugates with chain-extended AR ligands alone (PEGylated nucleosides and nonnucleosides, anchored to the Au via thioctic acid) were found to be insoluble in water due to hydrophobic entities in the ligand. Therefore, we added a second, biologically inactive pendant moiety to increase the water solubility, consisting of a PEGylated chain terminating in a carboxylic or phosphate group. The purity and stability of the immobilized biologically active ligand were examined by ultrafiltration and HPLC. Pharmacological receptor binding studies on these GPCR ligand-derivatized AuNPs (2-5 nm in diameter), performed using membranes of mammalian cells stably expressing human A1, A2A, and A3ARs, showed that the desired selectivity was retained with K(i) values (nanomolar) of A3AR agonist 21b and A2AAR antagonists 24 and 26a of 14 (A3), 34 (A2A), and 69 (A2A), respectively. The corresponding monomers displayed K i values of 37, 61, and 1,420 nM, respectively. In conclusion, we have synthesized stable, water-soluble AuNP derivatives of tethered A3 and A2AAR ligands that retain the biological properties of their monomeric ligands and are intended for therapeutic and imaging applications. This is the first prototypical application to gold carriers of small molecule (nonpeptide) GPCR ligands, which are under investigation for treatment of cancer and inflammatory diseases.

  4. Role of Microglia Adenosine A2A Receptors in Retinal and Brain Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Ana R.; Baptista, Filipa I.; Santos, Paulo F.; Cristóvão, Gonçalo; Ambrósio, António F.; Cunha, Rodrigo A.; Gomes, Catarina A.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroinflammation mediated by microglial cells in the brain has been commonly associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Whether this microglia-mediated neuroinflammation is cause or consequence of neurodegeneration is still a matter of controversy. However, it is unequivocal that chronic neuroinflammation plays a role in disease progression and halting that process represents a potential therapeutic strategy. The neuromodulator adenosine emerges as a promising targeting candidate based on its ability to regulate microglial proliferation, chemotaxis, and reactivity through the activation of its G protein coupled A2A receptor (A2AR). This is in striking agreement with the ability of A2AR blockade to control several brain diseases. Retinal degenerative diseases have been also associated with microglia-mediated neuroinflammation, but the role of A2AR has been scarcely explored. This review aims to compare inflammatory features of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases with glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy, discussing the therapeutic potential of A2AR in these degenerative conditions. PMID:25132733

  5. 5-HT6 receptor antagonist attenuates the memory deficits associated with neuropathic pain and improves the efficacy of gabapentinoids.

    PubMed

    Jayarajan, Pradeep; Nirogi, Ramakrishna; Shinde, Anil; Goura, Venkatesh; Babu, Vuyyuru Arun; Yathavakilla, Sumanth; Bhyrapuneni, Gopinadh

    2015-10-01

    Memory deficit is a co-morbid disorder in patients suffering from neuropathic pain. Gabapentin and pregabalin (gabapentinoids) are among the widely prescribed medications for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Memory loss and sedation are the commonly reported side effects with gabapentinoids. Improving the cognitive functions and attenuating drug-induced side effects may play a crucial role in the management of pain. We evaluated the effects of 5-HT6 receptor antagonists on the memory deficits associated with neuropathy. We also studied the effects of 5-HT6 receptor antagonists on the side effects, and the analgesic effects of gabapentinoids. 5-HT6 receptor antagonists attenuated the cognitive deficits in neuropathic rats. Neuropathic rats co-treated with 5-HT6 receptor antagonist and gabapentinoids showed improvement in memory. 5-HT6 receptor antagonists enhanced the analgesic effects of gabapentinoids but had no effect on the motor side effects. The observed effects may not be due to pharmacokinetic interactions. 5-HT6 receptor antagonist attenuate the cognitive deficits associated with neuropathy, and this effect is also seen when co-treated with gabapentinoids. Since, 5-HT6 antagonists improved the effectiveness of gabapentinoids, reduction in the dosage and frequency of gabapentinoids treatment may reduce the side effects. Combining 5-HT6 receptor antagonist with gabapentinoids may offer a novel treatment strategy for neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  6. Current perspectives on selective dopamine D3 receptor antagonists as pharmacotherapeutics for addictions and related disorders

    PubMed Central

    Heidbreder, Christian A.; Newman, Amy H.

    2011-01-01

    Repeated exposure to drugs of abuse produces long-term molecular and neurochemical changes that may explain the core features of addiction, such as the compulsive seeking and taking of the drug, as well as the risk of relapse. A growing number of new molecular and cellular targets of addictive drugs have been identified, and rapid advances are being made in relating those targets to specific behavioral phenotypes in animal models of addiction. In this context, the pattern of expression of the dopamine (DA) D3 receptor in the rodent and human brain and changes in this pattern in response to drugs of abuse have contributed primarily to direct research efforts toward the development of selective DA D3 receptor antagonists. Growing preclinical evidence indicates that these compounds may actually regulate the motivation to self-administer drugs and disrupt drug-associated cue-induced craving. This report will be divided into three parts. First, preclinical evidence in support of the efficacy of selective DA D3 receptor antagonists in animal models of drug addiction will be reviewed. The effects of mixed DA D2/D3 receptor antagonists will not be discussed here because most of these compounds have low selectivity at the D3 versus D2 receptor, and their efficacy profile is related primarily to functional antagonism at D2 receptors and possibly interactions with other neurotransmitter systems. Second, major advances in medicinal chemistry for the identification and optimization of selective DA D3 receptor antagonists and partial agonists will be analyzed. Third, translational research from preclinical efficacy studies to so-called proof-of-concept studies for drug addiction indications will be discussed. PMID:20201845

  7. Mutational analysis of the antagonist-binding site of the histamine H(1) receptor.

    PubMed

    Wieland, K; Laak, A M; Smit, M J; Kühne, R; Timmerman, H; Leurs, R

    1999-10-15

    We combined in a previously derived three-dimensional model of the histamine H(1) receptor (Ter Laak, A. M., Timmerman, H., Leurs, H., Nederkoorn, P. H. J., Smit, M. J., and Donne-Op den Kelder, G. M. (1995) J. Comp. Aid. Mol. Design. 9, 319-330) a pharmacophore for the H(1) antagonist binding site (Ter Laak, A. M., Venhorst, J., Timmerman, H., and Donné-Op de Kelder, G. M. (1994) J. Med. Chem. 38, 3351-3360) with the known interacting amino acid residue Asp(116) (in transmembrane domain III) of the H(1) receptor and verified the predicted receptor-ligand interactions by site-directed mutagenesis. This resulted in the identification of the aromatic amino acids Trp(167), Phe(433), and Phe(436) in transmembrane domains IV and VI of the H(1) receptor as probable interaction points for the trans-aromatic ring of the H(1) antagonists. Subsequently, a specific interaction of carboxylate moieties of two therapeutically important, zwitterionic H(1) antagonists with Lys(200) in transmembrane domain V was predicted. A Lys(200) --> Ala mutation results in a 50- (acrivastine) to 8-fold (d-cetirizine) loss of affinity of these zwitterionic antagonists. In contrast, the affinities of structural analogs of acrivastine and cetirizine lacking the carboxylate group, triprolidine and meclozine, respectively, are unaffected by the Lys(200) --> Ala mutation. These data strongly suggest that Lys(200), unique for the H(1) receptor, acts as a specific anchor point for these "second generation" H(1) antagonists.

  8. Adenosine A2A Receptor Deletion Blocks the Beneficial Effects of Lactobacillus reuteri in Regulatory T-Deficient Scurfy Mice

    PubMed Central

    He, Baokun; Hoang, Thomas K.; Tran, Dat Q.; Rhoads, Jon Marc; Liu, Yuying

    2017-01-01

    The lack of a functional Foxp3 transcription factor and regulatory T (Treg) cells causes lethal, CD4+ T cell-driven autoimmune diseases in scurfy (SF) mice and humans. Recent studies have shown that adenosine A2A receptor activation limits inflammation and tissue damage, thereby playing an anti-inflammatory role. However, the role of the adenosine A2A receptor in the development of disease in SF mice remains unclear. Using a genetic approach, we found that adenosine A2A receptor deletion in SF mice (SF⋅A2A-/-) does not affect early life events, the development of a lymphoproliferative disorder, or hyper-production of pro-inflammatory cytokines seen in the Treg-deficiency state. As shown previously, Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 treatment prolonged survival and reduced multiorgan inflammation in SF mice. In marked contrast, A2A receptor deletion completely blocked these beneficial effects of L. reuteri in SF mice. Altogether, these results suggest that although absence of the adenosine A2A receptor does not affect the development of disease in SF mice, it plays a critical role in the immunomodulation by L. reuteri in Treg-deficiency disease. The adenosine A2A receptor and its activation may have a role in treating other Treg dysfunction-mediated autoimmune diseases. PMID:29270168

  9. Ligand-dependent cholesterol interactions with the human A2A adenosine receptor

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Young; Patel, Rohan; Lyman, Edward

    2013-01-01

    We present nearly ten microseconds of all-atom simulation data of a G-protein coupled receptor, the human A2A adenosine receptor, bound to four different ligands. Our focus is on binding of cholesterol to the “cholesterol consensus motif,” a cluster of five amino acids on the second and fourth transmembrane helices, which interact with two cholesterols in the intracellular leaflet of the bilayer. We find evidence for a ligand-specific interaction between the CCM and cholesterol, mediated by the rotameric dynamics and configuration of Trp129. Binding of the synthetic agonist UK432097 disrupts hydrogen bonding between Trp129 and Ser47, which activates the rotameric dynamics of Trp129 and disrupts the interaction with one of the two cholesterols. We also investigate the effect of four thermostabilizing mutations, three of which are located on helix two. The conformational stability of helix two has been proposed to be sensitive to interaction with cholesterol in the CCM, suggesting a mechanism for the thermostabilization. However, our data are instead suggestive of a force-field dependent “straightening” of helix two, and therefore offer no basis for rationalizing the effect of the quadruple mutant. PMID:23454349

  10. A Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Study of the Glucocorticoid Receptor Antagonist Mifepristone Combined with Enzalutamide in Castrate-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Pharmacodynamic Study of the Glucocorticoid Receptor Antagonist Mifepristone Combined with Enzalutamide in Castrate-Resistant Prostate Cancer...30 Nov 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER A Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Study of the Glucocorticoid Receptor...is by upregulating another hormone receptor, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which may compensate for diminished AR activity. The clinical trial

  11. Ligand-Dependent Activation and Deactivation of the Human Adenosine A2A Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianing; Jonsson, Amanda L.; Beuming, Thijs; Shelley, John C.; Voth, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are membrane proteins with critical functions in cellular signal transduction, representing a primary class of drug targets. Acting by direct binding, many drugs modulate GPCR activity and influence the signaling pathways associated with numerous diseases. However, complete details of ligand-dependent GPCR activation/deactivation are difficult to obtain from experiments. Therefore, it remains unclear how ligands modulate a GPCR’s activity. To elucidate the ligand-dependent activation/deactivation mechanism of the human adenosine A2A receptor (AA2AR), a member of the class A GPCRs, we performed large-scale unbiased molecular dynamics and metadynamics simulations of the receptor embedded in a membrane. At the atomic level, we have observed distinct structural states that resemble the active and inactive states. In particular we noted key structural elements changing in a highly concerted fashion during the conformational transitions, including six conformational states of a tryptophan (Trp2466.48). Our findings agree with a previously proposed view, that during activation, this tryptophan residue undergoes a rotameric transition that may be coupled to a series of coherent conformational changes, resulting in the opening of the G protein-binding site. Further, metadynamics simulations provide quantitative evidence for this mechanism, suggesting how ligand binding shifts the equilibrium between the active and inactive states. Our analysis also proposes that a few specific residues are associated with agonism/antagonism, affinity and selectivity, and suggests that the ligand-binding pocket can be thought of as having three distinct regions, providing dynamic features for structure-based design. Additional simulations with AA2AR bound to a novel ligand are consistent with our proposed mechanism. Generally, our study provides insights into the ligand-dependent AA2AR activation/deactivation in addition to what has been found in crystal

  12. Inhibition of Ebola and Marburg Virus Entry by G Protein-Coupled Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Han; Lear-Rooney, Calli M; Johansen, Lisa; Varhegyi, Elizabeth; Chen, Zheng W; Olinger, Gene G; Rong, Lijun

    2015-10-01

    Filoviruses, consisting of Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV), are among the most lethal infectious threats to mankind. Infections by these viruses can cause severe hemorrhagic fevers in humans and nonhuman primates with high mortality rates. Since there is currently no vaccine or antiviral therapy approved for humans, there is an urgent need to develop prophylactic and therapeutic options for use during filoviral outbreaks and bioterrorist attacks. One of the ideal targets against filoviral infection and diseases is at the entry step, which is mediated by the filoviral glycoprotein (GP). In this report, we screened a chemical library of small molecules and identified numerous inhibitors, which are known G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) antagonists targeting different GPCRs, including histamine receptors, 5-HT (serotonin) receptors, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, and adrenergic receptor. These inhibitors can effectively block replication of both infectious EBOV and MARV, indicating a broad antiviral activity of the GPCR antagonists. The time-of-addition experiment and microscopic studies suggest that GPCR antagonists block filoviral entry at a step following the initial attachment but prior to viral/cell membrane fusion. These results strongly suggest that GPCRs play a critical role in filoviral entry and GPCR antagonists can be developed as an effective anti-EBOV/MARV therapy. Infection of Ebola virus and Marburg virus can cause severe illness in humans with a high mortality rate, and currently there is no FDA-approved vaccine or therapeutic treatment available. The 2013-2015 epidemic in West Africa underscores a lack of our understanding in the infection and pathogenesis of these viruses and the urgency of drug discovery and development. In this study, we have identified numerous inhibitors that are known G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) antagonists targeting different GPCRs. These inhibitors can effectively block replication of both infectious

  13. Inhibition of Ebola and Marburg Virus Entry by G Protein-Coupled Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Han; Lear-Rooney, Calli M.; Johansen, Lisa; Varhegyi, Elizabeth; Chen, Zheng W.; Olinger, Gene G.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Filoviruses, consisting of Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV), are among the most lethal infectious threats to mankind. Infections by these viruses can cause severe hemorrhagic fevers in humans and nonhuman primates with high mortality rates. Since there is currently no vaccine or antiviral therapy approved for humans, there is an urgent need to develop prophylactic and therapeutic options for use during filoviral outbreaks and bioterrorist attacks. One of the ideal targets against filoviral infection and diseases is at the entry step, which is mediated by the filoviral glycoprotein (GP). In this report, we screened a chemical library of small molecules and identified numerous inhibitors, which are known G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) antagonists targeting different GPCRs, including histamine receptors, 5-HT (serotonin) receptors, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, and adrenergic receptor. These inhibitors can effectively block replication of both infectious EBOV and MARV, indicating a broad antiviral activity of the GPCR antagonists. The time-of-addition experiment and microscopic studies suggest that GPCR antagonists block filoviral entry at a step following the initial attachment but prior to viral/cell membrane fusion. These results strongly suggest that GPCRs play a critical role in filoviral entry and GPCR antagonists can be developed as an effective anti-EBOV/MARV therapy. IMPORTANCE Infection of Ebola virus and Marburg virus can cause severe illness in humans with a high mortality rate, and currently there is no FDA-approved vaccine or therapeutic treatment available. The 2013-2015 epidemic in West Africa underscores a lack of our understanding in the infection and pathogenesis of these viruses and the urgency of drug discovery and development. In this study, we have identified numerous inhibitors that are known G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) antagonists targeting different GPCRs. These inhibitors can effectively block replication of

  14. Central administration of GPR55 receptor agonist and antagonist modulates anxiety-related behaviors in rats.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Abbasali; Hajizadeh Moghaddam, Akbar; Roohbakhsh, Ali

    2015-04-01

    G-protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) has been proposed as an atypical cannabinoid receptor, which is activated by lysophosphatidylinositols and some synthetic or endogenous cannabinoid molecules. The exact role of GPR55 receptors in the central nervous system especially in anxiety needs to be evaluated. In this study, the effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of agonist and antagonist of GPR55 receptor on anxiety-related behaviors in rats were investigated. Here, O-1602 (GPR55 agonist) at the doses of 0.2, 1, and 5 μg/rat increased %OAT and %OAE but not the locomotor activity, showing an anxiolytic response, whereas i.c.v. injection of ML193 (GPR55 antagonist) at the doses of 0.1 and 1 μg/rat increased anxiety-like behaviors while causing locomotor impairment. The antagonistic effect of ML193 on the anxiolytic-like effect of O-1602 was also evaluated. The results showed that ML193 decreased the anxiolytic-like effect of O-1602. Based on these results, it may be concluded that central GPR55 may have a role in modulation of anxiety-like behaviors in rats. Further experiments are needed to elucidate the exact role of these receptors in anxiety. © 2015 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  15. Identification, biological characterization and pharmacophoric analysis of a new potent and selective NK1 receptor antagonist clinical candidate.

    PubMed

    Di Fabio, Romano; Alvaro, Giuseppe; Braggio, Simone; Carletti, Renzo; Gerrard, Philip A; Griffante, Cristiana; Marchioro, Carla; Pozzan, Alfonso; Melotto, Sergio; Poffe, Alessandro; Piccoli, Laura; Ratti, Emiliangelo; Tranquillini, Elvira; Trower, Michael; Spada, Simone; Corsi, Mauro

    2013-11-01

    The last two decades have provided a large weight of preclinical data implicating the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1) and its cognate ligand substance P (SP) in a broad range of both central and peripheral disease conditions. However, to date, only the NK1 receptor antagonist aprepitant has been approved as a therapeutic and this is to prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea & vomiting (CINV). The belief remained that the full therapeutic potential of NK1 receptor antagonists had yet to be realized; therefore clinical evidence that NK1 receptor antagonists may be effective in major depression disorder, resulted in a significant further investment in discovering novel CNS penetrant druggable NK1 receptor antagonists to address this condition. At GlaxoSmithKline after the discovery of casopitant, that went on to demonstrate efficacy as a novel antidepressant in the clinic, additional novel analogues of this NK1 receptor antagonist were designed to further enhance its drug developability characteristics. Herein, we therefore describe the discovery process and the vivo pharmacological and pharmacokinetic profile of the new NK1 receptor antagonist 3a (also called orvepitant), selected as clinical candidate and further progressed into clinical studies for major depressive disorder. Moreover, molecular modeling studies enabled us to improve the pharmacophore model of the NK1 receptor antagonists with the identification of a region able to accommodate a variety of heterocycle moieties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Fahad

    2012-07-01

    Chemotherapy can be a life-prolonging treatment for many cancer patients, but it is often associated with profound nausea and vomiting that is so distressing that patients may delay or decline treatment to avoid these side effects. The discovery of several NK1 receptor antagonists is a big revolution to dealt this problem. NK1 receptor antagonists prevent both acute and delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). These agents act centrally at NK-1 receptors in vomiting centers within the central nervous system to block their activation by substance P released as an unwanted consequence of chemotherapy. By controlling nausea and vomiting, these agents help improve patients' daily living and their ability to complete multiple cycles of chemotherapy. They are effective for both moderately and highly emetogenic chemotherapy regimens. Their use might be associated with increased infection rates; however, additional appraisal of specific data from RCTs is needed.

  17. Selective opioid growth factor receptor antagonists based on a stilbene isostere.

    PubMed

    Stockdale, David P; Titunick, Michelle B; Biegler, Jessica M; Reed, Jessie L; Hartung, Alyssa M; Wiemer, David F; McLaughlin, Patricia J; Neighbors, Jeffrey D

    2017-08-15

    As part of an ongoing drug development effort aimed at selective opioid receptor ligands based on the pawhuskin natural products we have synthesized a small set of amide isosteres. These amides were centered on lead compounds which are selective antagonists for the delta and kappa opioid receptors. The amide isomers revealed here show dramatically different activity from the parent stilbene compounds. Three of the isomers synthesized showed antagonist activity for the opioid growth factor (OGF)/opioid growth factor receptor (OGFR) axis which is involved in cellular and organ growth control. This cellular signaling mechanism is targeted by "low-dose" naltrexone therapy which is being tested clinically for multiple sclerosis, Crohn's disease, cancer, and wound healing disorders. The compounds described here are the first selective small molecule ligands for the OGF/OGFR system and will serve as important leads and probes for further study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Thyroid Hormone Receptor Antagonists: From Environmental Pollution to Novel Small Molecules.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Louise S

    2018-01-01

    Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are nuclear receptors which control transcription, and thereby have effects in all cells within the body. TRs are an important regulator in many basic physiological processes including development, growth, metabolism, and cardiac function. The hyperthyroid condition results from an over production of thyroid hormones resulting in a continual stimulation of thyroid receptors which is detrimental for the patient. Therapies for hyperthyroidism are available, but there is a need for new small molecules that act as TR antagonists to treat hyperthyroidism. Many compounds exhibit TR antagonism and are considered detrimental to health. Some drugs in the clinic (most importantly, amiodarone) and environmental pollution exhibit TR antagonist properties and thus have the potential to induce hypothyroidism in some people. This chapter provides an overview of novel small molecules that have been specifically designed or screened for their TR antagonist activity as novel treatments for hyperthyroidism. While novel compounds have been identified, to date none have been developed sufficiently to enter clinical trials. Furthermore, a discussion on other sources of TR antagonists is discussed in terms of side effects of current drugs in the clinic as well as environmental pollution. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonism reverses the effects of dopamine receptor antagonism on instrumental output and effort-related choice in the rat: implications for studies of psychomotor slowing.

    PubMed

    Farrar, Andrew M; Pereira, Mariana; Velasco, Francisco; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E; Salamone, John D

    2007-04-01

    Organisms frequently make effort-related decisions based upon assessments of motivational value and response costs. Energy-related dysfunctions such as psychomotor slowing and apathy are critically involved in some clinical syndromes. Dopamine (DA), particularly in the nucleus accumbens, regulates effort-related processes. Dopamine antagonism and accumbens dopamine depletions cause rats performing on choice tasks to reallocate their behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements. There is evidence of a functional interaction between DA and adenosine A(2A) receptors in the neostriatum and nucleus accumbens. The present experiments were conducted to determine if adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonism could reverse the effects of dopamine receptor antagonism on instrumental behavior and effort-related choice. The adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist MSX-3 was investigated for its ability to reverse the effects of the dopamine receptor antagonist haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg) on fixed ratio 5 instrumental lever-pressing and on response allocation using a concurrent lever-pressing/chow-feeding choice task. Haloperidol significantly suppressed fixed ratio 5 responding, and with rats responding on the concurrent choice task, it altered choice behavior, significantly reducing lever-pressing for food and increasing chow intake. Injections of MSX-3 (0.5-2.0 mg/kg) produced a dose-related attenuation of the effects of 0.1 mg/kg haloperidol on both tasks. The high dose of MSX-3, when administered in the absence of haloperidol, did not significantly affect responding on either task. Adenosine and dopamine systems interact to regulate instrumental behavior and effort-related processes, which may have implications for the treatment of psychiatric symptoms such as psychomotor slowing or anergia.

  20. Antagonist pharmacology of desensitizing and non-desensitizing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in cockroach neurons.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Vincent L

    2016-09-01

    Two α-bungarotoxin-sensitive nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor subtypes in neurons of the American cockroach have been identified as desensitizing (nAChD) and selectively inhibitable with 100nM imidacloprid, and non-desensitizing (nAChN) and selectively inhibitable with 100pM methyllycaconitine. In this paper, the single-electrode voltage-clamp technique was used to measure concentration-response relations for the action of ACh and five antagonists on pharmacologically separated nAChD and nAChN receptors of acutely dissociated neurons from thoracic ganglia of the American cockroach. A dual bath and U-tube perfusion system was used to achieve rapid application of ACh in the continued presence of antagonists, which was essential to accurately measure inhibition by rapidly-reversible antagonists. ACh activated both receptors with an EC 50 of 7μM and the antagonist potencies were (nAChD/nAChN in nM): dihydro-β-erythroidine: 1.0/5.6, d-tubocurarine: 1000/34, condelphine: 0.39/0.65, phencyclidine: 74/980 and mecamylamine 47/1150. While each of these antagonists displayed some subtype selectivity, none are selective enough to be used as subtype-selective tools. These results bring to a total of 16 the number of nicotinic compounds that have been measured on nAChD and nAChN currents. Characterization of these receptors is important for understanding the role of nAChRs in the insect nervous system and the mechanism of action of insecticides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Prophylactic effects of the histamine H1 receptor antagonist epinastine and the dual thromboxane A2 receptor and chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells antagonist ramatroban on allergic rhinitis model in mice.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yuh; Inoue, Toshio; Yamamoto, Atsuki; Sugimoto, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    The prophylactic use of anti-allergic drugs has been proposed to be effective in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis in humans. However, there is little information regarding the prophylactic effect of thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) receptor antagonist on allergic rhinitis. Recent studies revealed that a TXA(2) receptor antagonist ramatroban could block the prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)) receptor and chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2). In the present study, we investigated the prophylactic effects of the histamine H(1) receptor antagonist epinastine and the TXA(2) receptor antagonist ramatroban and seratrodast on mouse models of allergic rhinitis. Female BALB/c mice were sensitized by an intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin and alum on days 0, 5, 14 and 21. Seven days later, mice were sensitized by intranasal application of ovalbumin thrice a week. Drugs were administered once a day from day 22. The severity of allergic rhinitis was assessed by determining the extent of 2 nasal allergic symptoms (sneezing and nasal rubbing). Histamine sensitivity and eosinophil infiltration into the nasal mucosa were also determined. Epinastine and ramatroban significantly reduced nasal symptoms and the number of eosinophils in the nasal mucosa. Seratrodast showed no effect on nasal symptoms and eosinophil infiltration into the nasal mucosa. In addition, histamine sensitivity was reduced by epinastine and ramatroban. These results indicate that epinastine and ramatroban induce the prophylactic effect on allergic rhinitis.

  2. Serotonin 2C receptor antagonists induce fast-onset antidepressant effects.

    PubMed

    Opal, M D; Klenotich, S C; Morais, M; Bessa, J; Winkle, J; Doukas, D; Kay, L J; Sousa, N; Dulawa, S M

    2014-10-01

    Current antidepressants must be administered for several weeks to produce therapeutic effects. We show that selective serotonin 2C (5-HT2C) antagonists exert antidepressant actions with a faster-onset (5 days) than that of current antidepressants (14 days) in mice. Subchronic (5 days) treatment with 5-HT2C antagonists induced antidepressant behavioral effects in the chronic forced swim test (cFST), chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm and olfactory bulbectomy paradigm. This treatment regimen also induced classical markers of antidepressant action: activation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). None of these effects were induced by subchronic treatment with citalopram, a prototypical selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Local infusion of 5-HT2C antagonists into the ventral tegmental area was sufficient to induce BDNF in the mPFC, and dopamine D1 receptor antagonist treatment blocked the antidepressant behavioral effects of 5-HT2C antagonists. 5-HT2C antagonists also activated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) in the mPFC, effects recently linked to rapid antidepressant action. Furthermore, 5-HT2C antagonists reversed CMS-induced atrophy of mPFC pyramidal neurons. Subchronic SSRI treatment, which does not induce antidepressant behavioral effects, also activated mTOR and eEF2 and reversed CMS-induced neuronal atrophy, indicating that these effects are not sufficient for antidepressant onset. Our findings reveal that 5-HT2C antagonists are putative fast-onset antidepressants, which act through enhancement of mesocortical dopaminergic signaling.

  3. RS-127445: a selective, high affinity, orally bioavailable 5-HT2B receptor antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Bonhaus, Douglas W; Flippin, Lee A; Greenhouse, Robert J; Jaime, Saul; Rocha, Cindy; Dawson, Mark; Van Natta, Kristine; Chang, L K; Pulido-Rios, Tess; Webber, Andrea; Leung, Edward; Eglen, Richard M; Martin, Graeme R

    1999-01-01

    Efforts to define precisely the role of 5-HT2B receptors in normal and disease processes have been hindered by the absence of selective antagonists. To address this deficiency, we developed a series of naphthylpyrimidines as potentially useful 5-HT2B receptor antagonists. RS-127445 (2-amino-4-(4-fluoronaphth-1-yl)-6-isopropylpyrimidine) was found to have nanomolar affinity for the 5-HT2B receptor (pKi=9.5±0.1) and 1,000 fold selectivity for this receptor as compared to numerous other receptor and ion channel binding sites. In cells expressing human recombinant 5-HT2B receptors, RS-127445 potently antagonized 5-HT-evoked formation of inositol phosphates (pKB=9.5±0.1) and 5-HT-evoked increases in intracellular calcium (pIC50=10.4±0.1). RS-127445 also blocked 5-HT-evoked contraction of rat isolated stomach fundus (pA2=9.5±1.1) and (±)α-methyl-5-HT-mediated relaxation of the rat jugular vein (pA2=9.9±0.3). RS-127445 had no detectable intrinsic activity in these assays. In rats, the fraction of RS-127445 that was bioavailable via the oral or intraperitoneal routes was 14 and 60% respectively. Intraperitoneal administration of RS-127445 (5 mg kg−1) produced plasma concentrations predicted to fully saturate accessible 5-HT2B receptors for at least 4 h. In conclusion, RS-127445 is a selective, high affinity 5-HT2B receptor antagonist suitable for use in vivo. The therapeutic potential of this molecule is being further evaluated. PMID:10455251

  4. Novel sulfenamides and sulfonamides based on pyridazinone and pyridazine scaffolds as CB1receptor ligand antagonists.

    PubMed

    Murineddu, Gabriele; Deligia, Francesco; Ragusa, Giulio; García-Toscano, Laura; Gómez-Cañas, María; Asproni, Battistina; Satta, Valentina; Cichero, Elena; Pazos, Ruth; Fossa, Paola; Loriga, Giovanni; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Pinna, Gerard A

    2018-01-01

    A series of sulfenamide and sulfonamide derivatives was synthesized and evaluated for the affinity at CB 1 and CB 2 receptors. The N-bornyl-S-(5,6-di-p-tolylpyridazin-3-yl)-sulfenamide, compound 11, displayed good affinity and high selectivity for CB 1 receptors (K i values of 44.6 nM for CB 1 receptors and >40 μM for CB 2 receptors, respectively). The N-isopinocampheyl-sulfenamide 12 and its sulfonamide analogue 22 showed similar selectivity for CB 1 receptors with K i values of 75.5 and 73.2 nM, respectively. These novel compounds behave as antagonists/inverse agonists at CB 1 receptor in the [ 35 S]-GTPγS binding assays, and none showed adequate predictive blood-brain barrier permeation, exhibiting low estimated LD 50 . However, testing compound 12 in a supraspinal analgesic test (hot-plate) revealed that it was as effective as the classic CB 1 receptor antagonist rimonabant, in reversing the analgesic effect of a cannabinoid agonist. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of muscarinic receptor antagonists on cocaine discrimination in wild-type mice and in muscarinic receptor M1, M2, and M4 receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Lauren; Thomsen, Morgane

    2017-06-30

    Muscarinic M 1 /M 4 receptor stimulation can reduce abuse-related effects of cocaine and may represent avenues for treating cocaine addiction. Muscarinic antagonists can mimic and enhance effects of cocaine, including discriminative stimulus (S D ) effects, but the receptor subtypes mediating those effects are not known. A better understanding of the complex cocaine/muscarinic interactions is needed to evaluate and develop potential muscarinic-based medications. Here, knockout mice lacking M 1 , M 2 , or M 4 receptors (M 1 -/- , M 2 -/- , M 4 -/- ), as well as control wild-type mice and outbred Swiss-Webster mice, were trained to discriminate 10mg/kg cocaine from saline. Muscarinic receptor antagonists with no subtype selectivity (scopolamine), or preferential affinity at the M 1 , M 2 , or M 4 subtype (telenzepine, trihexyphenidyl; methoctramine, AQ-RA 741; tropicamide) were tested alone and in combination with cocaine. In intact animals, antagonists with high affinity at M 1 /M 4 receptors partially substituted for cocaine and increased the S D effect of cocaine, while M 2 -preferring antagonists did not substitute, and reduced the S D effect of cocaine. The cocaine-like effects of scopolamine were absent in M 1 -/- mice. The cocaine S D attenuating effects of methoctramine were absent in M 2 -/- mice and almost absent in M 1 -/- mice. The findings indicate that the cocaine-like S D effects of muscarinic antagonists are primarily mediated through M 1 receptors, with a minor contribution of M 4 receptors. The data also support our previous findings that stimulation of M 1 receptors and M 4 receptors can each attenuate the S D effect of cocaine, and show that this can also be achieved by blocking M 2 autoreceptors, likely via increased acetylcholine release. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 5-HT2 Receptor Regulation of Mitochondrial Genes: Unexpected Pharmacological Effects of Agonists and Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Jennifer L; Wills, Lauren P; McOmish, Caitlin E; Demireva, Elena Y; Gingrich, Jay A; Beeson, Craig C; Schnellmann, Rick G

    2016-04-01

    In acute organ injuries, mitochondria are often dysfunctional, and recent research has revealed that recovery of mitochondrial and renal functions is accelerated by induction of mitochondrial biogenesis (MB). We previously reported that the nonselective 5-HT2 receptor agonist DOI [1-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)propan-2-amine] induced MB in renal proximal tubular cells (RPTCs). The goal of this study was to determine the role of 5-HT2 receptors in the regulation of mitochondrial genes and oxidative metabolism in the kidney. The 5-HT2C receptor agonist CP-809,101 [2-[(3-chlorophenyl)methoxy]-6-(1-piperazinyl)pyrazine] and antagonist SB-242,084 [6-chloro-2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-N-[6-[(2-methyl-3-pyridinyl)oxy]-3-pyridinyl]-1H-indole-1-carboxyamide dihydrochloride] were used to examine the induction of renal mitochondrial genes and oxidative metabolism in RPTCs and in mouse kidneys in the presence and absence of the 5-HT2C receptor. Unexpectedly, both CP-809,101 and SB-242,084 increased RPTC respiration and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) mRNA expression in RPTCs at 1-10 nM. In addition, CP-809,101 and SB-242,084 increased mRNA expression of PGC-1α and the mitochondrial proteins NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) β subcomplex 8 in mice. These compounds increased mitochondrial genes in RPTCs in which the 5-HT2C receptor was downregulated with small interfering RNA and in the renal cortex of mice lacking the 5-HT2C receptor. By contrast, the ability of these compounds to increase PGC-1α mRNA and respiration was blocked in RPTCs treated with 5-HT2A receptor small interfering RNA or the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist eplivanserin. In addition, the 5-HT2A receptor agonist NBOH-2C-CN [4-[2-[[(2-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]amino]ethyl]-2,5-dimethoxybenzonitrile] increased RPTC respiration at 1-100 nM. These results suggest that agonism of the 5-HT2A receptor induces MB and that the classic 5-HT2C receptor agonist CP

  7. Viability of D283 medulloblastoma cells treated with a histone deacetylase inhibitor combined with bombesin receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Mariane; Ghisleni, Eduarda C; Fratini, Lívia; Brunetto, Algemir L; Gregianin, Lauro José; Brunetto, André T; Schwartsmann, Gilberto; de Farias, Caroline B; Roesler, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Medulloblastoma (MB) comprises four distinct molecular subgroups, and survival remains particularly poor in patients with Group 3 tumors. Mutations and copy number variations result in altered epigenetic regulation of gene expression in Group 3 MB. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) reduce proliferation, promote cell death and neuronal differentiation, and increase sensitivity to radiation and chemotherapy in experimental MB. Bombesin receptor antagonists potentiate the antiproliferative effects of HDACi in lung cancer cells and show promise as experimental therapies for several human cancers. Here, we examined the viability of D283 cells, which belong to Group 3 MB, treated with an HDACi alone or combined with bombesin receptor antagonists. D283 MB cells were treated with different doses of the HDACi sodium butyrate (NaB), the neuromedin B receptor (NMBR) antagonist BIM-23127, the gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) antagonist RC-3095, or combinations of NaB with each receptor antagonist. Cell viability was examined by cell counting. NaB alone or combined with receptor antagonists reduced cell viability at all doses tested. BIM-23127 alone did not affect cell viability, whereas RC-3095 at an intermediate dose significantly increased cell number. Although HDACi are promising agents to inhibit MB growth, the present results provide preliminary evidence that combining HDACi with bombesin receptor antagonists is not an effective strategy to improve the effects of HDACi against MB cells.

  8. Macrophage A2A Adenosinergic Receptor Modulates Oxygen-Induced Augmentation of Murine Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    D’Alessio, Franco R.; Eto, Yoshiki; Chau, Eric; Avalos, Claudia; Waickman, Adam T.; Garibaldi, Brian T.; Mock, Jason R.; Files, Daniel C.; Sidhaye, Venkataramana; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y.; Powell, Jonathan; Horton, Maureen; King, Landon S.

    2013-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) causes significant morbidity and mortality. Exacerbating factors increasing the risk of ARDS remain unknown. Supplemental oxygen is often necessary in both mild and severe lung disease. The potential effects of supplemental oxygen may include augmentation of lung inflammation by inhibiting anti-inflammatory pathways in alveolar macrophages. We sought to determine oxygen-derived effects on the anti-inflammatory A2A adenosinergic (ADORA2A) receptor in macrophages, and the role of the ADORA2A receptor in lung injury. Wild-type (WT) and ADORA2A−/− mice received intratracheal lipopolysaccharide (IT LPS), followed 12 hours later by continuous exposure to 21% oxygen (control mice) or 60% oxygen for 1 to 3 days. We measured the phenotypic endpoints of lung injury and the alveolar macrophage inflammatory state. We tested an ADORA2A-specific agonist, CGS-21680 hydrochloride, in LPS plus oxygen-exposed WT and ADORA2A−/− mice. We determined the specific effects of myeloid ADORA2A, using chimera experiments. Compared with WT mice, ADORA2A−/− mice exposed to IT LPS and 60% oxygen demonstrated significantly more histologic lung injury, alveolar neutrophils, and protein. Macrophages from ADORA2A−/− mice exposed to LPS plus oxygen expressed higher concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and cosignaling molecules. CGS-21680 prevented the oxygen-induced augmentation of lung injury after LPS only in WT mice. Chimera experiments demonstrated that the transfer of WT but not ADORA2A−/− bone marrow cells into irradiated ADORA2A−/− mice reduced lung injury after LPS plus oxygen, demonstrating myeloid ADORA2A protection. ADORA2A is protective against lung injury after LPS and oxygen. Oxygen after LPS increases macrophage activation to augment lung injury by inhibiting the ADORA2A pathway. PMID:23349051

  9. P2X1 Receptor Antagonists Inhibit HIV-1 Fusion by Blocking Virus-Coreceptor Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Giroud, Charline; Marin, Mariana; Hammonds, Jason; Spearman, Paul

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT HIV-1 Env glycoprotein-mediated fusion is initiated upon sequential binding of Env to CD4 and the coreceptor CXCR4 or CCR5. Whereas these interactions are thought to be necessary and sufficient to promote HIV-1 fusion, other host factors can modulate this process. Previous studies reported potent inhibition of HIV-1 fusion by selective P2X1 receptor antagonists, including NF279, and suggested that these receptors play a role in HIV-1 entry. Here we investigated the mechanism of antiviral activity of NF279 and found that this compound does not inhibit HIV-1 fusion by preventing the activation of P2X1 channels but effectively blocks the binding of the virus to CXCR4 or CCR5. The notion of an off-target effect of NF279 on HIV-1 fusion is supported by the lack of detectable expression of P2X1 receptors in cells used in fusion experiments and by the fact that the addition of ATP or the enzymatic depletion of ATP in culture medium does not modulate viral fusion. Importantly, NF279 fails to inhibit HIV-1 fusion with cell lines and primary macrophages when added at an intermediate stage downstream of Env-CD4-coreceptor engagement. Conversely, in the presence of NF279, HIV-1 fusion is arrested downstream of CD4 binding but prior to coreceptor engagement. NF279 also antagonizes the signaling function of CCR5, CXCR4, and another chemokine receptor, as evidenced by the suppression of calcium responses elicited by specific ligands and by recombinant gp120. Collectively, our results demonstrate that NF279 is a dual HIV-1 coreceptor inhibitor that interferes with the functional engagement of CCR5 and CXCR4 by Env. IMPORTANCE Inhibition of P2X receptor activity suppresses HIV-1 fusion and replication, suggesting that P2X signaling is involved in HIV-1 entry. However, mechanistic experiments conducted in this study imply that P2X1 receptor is not expressed in target cells or involved in viral fusion. Instead, we found that inhibition of HIV-1 fusion by a specific P2X1

  10. Effect of endothelin-A receptor antagonist on mu, delta and kappa opioid receptor-mediated antinociception in mice.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Shaifali; Zhang, Zhong; Patterson, Nicole; Gulati, Anil

    2010-06-10

    We have previously shown the involvement of central endothelin (ET) mechanisms in morphine analgesia and tolerance. Here we investigated the interaction of centrally administered endothelin ET(A) receptor antagonist, BMS182874, with DAMGO (micro opioid receptor agonist), SNC80 (delta opioid receptor agonist), U50,488H (kappa opioid receptor agonist), and oxycodone (micro and kappa opioid receptor agonist) towards antinociception, tolerance to antinociception and body temperature. Antinociception was determined using tail-flick latency method. BMS182874 (50microg, i.c.v.) treatment alone did not produce analgesia or change in body temperature. However, BMS182874 significantly enhanced antinociception response of DAMGO (66.75%), SNC80 (62.40%), U50,488H (55.38%), and oxycodone (61.72%). Chronic treatment with DAMGO, SNC80, U50,488H or oxycodone, induced tolerance to antinociception. Treatment with BMS182874 restored antinociceptive effect in mice that were tolerant to DAMGO, SNC80, U50,488H as well as oxycodone. Antinociceptive response of DAMGO, SNC80, U50,488H, and oxycodone in tolerant mice treated with BMS182874 was significantly higher (44.55%, 37.48%, 43.02%, and 56.08%, respectively) compared to tolerant mice treated with vehicle. Body temperature decreased with DAMGO, SNC80, U50,488H, and oxycodone; tolerance did not develop to hypothermic effect and BMS182874 did not affect DAMGO, SNC80, U50,488H, or oxycodone induced changes in body temperature. Opioid-antagonist naloxone, completely blocked antinociceptive effect of DAMGO, SNC80, U50,488H or oxycodone and potentiation of antinociception by BMS182874. It is concluded that BMS182874 potentiated antinociception and restored antinociceptive effect in mice tolerant to micro, delta and kappa selective, as well as a non-selective opioid receptor agonist. Therefore, endothelin ET(A) receptor antagonists could be useful in the restoration of antinociceptive effect during tolerance to opiates.

  11. A2A adenosine receptor upregulation correlates with disease activity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Bortoluzzi, Alessandra; Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Govoni, Marcello; Padovan, Melissa; Ravani, Annalisa; Borea, Pier Andrea; Varani, Katia

    2016-08-26

    Adenosine is a purine nucleoside implicated in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune systems, acting through its interaction with four cell surface receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. There is intense interest in understanding how adenosine functions in health and during disease, but surprisingly little is known about the actual role of adenosine-mediated mechanisms in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). With this background, the aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that dysregulation of A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 adenosine receptors (ARs) in lymphocytes of patients with SLE may be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease and to examine the correlations between the status of the ARs and the clinical parameters of SLE. ARs were analyzed by performing saturation-binding assays, as well as messenger RNA and Western blot analysis, with lymphocytes of patients with SLE in comparison with healthy subjects. We tested the effect of A2AAR agonists in the nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) pathway and on the release of interferon (IFN)-α; tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α; and interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-1β, and IL-10. In lymphocytes obtained from 80 patients with SLE, A2AARs were upregulated compared with those of 80 age-matched healthy control subjects, while A1, A2B, and A3 ARs were unchanged. A2AAR density was inversely correlated with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000 score disease activity through time evaluated according to disease course patterns, serositis, hypocomplementemia, and anti-double-stranded DNA positivity. A2AAR activation inhibited the NF-kB activation pathway and diminished inflammatory cytokines (IFN-α, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-6, IL-1β), but it potentiated the release of anti-inflammatory IL-10. These data suggest the involvement of A2AARs in the complex pathogenetic network of SLE, acting as a modulator of the inflammatory process. It could represent a compensatory pathway to better counteract disease activity. A2AAR

  12. Roles of Amino Acids and Subunits in Determining the Inhibition of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors by Competitive Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Dilger, James P.; Vidal, Ana Maria; Liu, Man; Mettewie, Claire; Suzuki, Takahiro; Pham, Anh; Demazumder, Deeptankar

    2008-01-01

    Background Binding sites for agonists and competitive antagonists (nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents) are located at the α–δ and α–ε subunit interfaces of adult nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Most information about the amino acids that participate in antagonist binding comes from binding studies with (+)-tubocurarine and metocurine. These bind selectively to the α–ε interface but are differentially sensitive to mutations. To test the generality of this observation, the authors measured current inhibition by five competitive antagonists on wild-type and mutant acetylcholine receptors. Methods HEK293 cells were transfected with wild-type or mutant (αY198F, εD59A, εD59N, εD173A, εD173N, δD180K) mouse muscle acetylcholine receptor complementary DNA. Outside-out patches were excised and perfused with acetylcho-line in the absence and presence of antagonist. Concentration–response curves were constructed to determine antagonist IC50. An antagonist-removal protocol was used to determine dissociation and association rates. Results Effects of mutations were antagonist specific. αY198F decreased the IC50 of (+)-tubocurarine 10-fold, increased the IC50 of vecuronium 5-fold, and had smaller effects on other antagonists. (+)-Tubocurarine was the most sensitive antagonist to εD173 mutations. εD59 mutations had large effects on metocurine and cisatracurium. δD180K decreased inhibition by pancuronium, vecuronium, and cisatracurium. Inhibition by these antagonists was increased for receptors containing two δ subunits but no ε subunit. Differences in IC50 arose from differences in both dissociation and association rates. Conclusion Competitive antagonists exhibited different patterns of sensitivity to mutations. Except for pancuronium, the antagonists were sensitive to mutations at the α–ε interface. Pancuronium, vecuronium, and cisatracurium were selective for the α–δ interface. This suggests the possibility of synergistic

  13. Differential pharmacotherapy for subgroups of fibromyalgia patients with specific consideration of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Matthias F; Müller, Wolfgang

    2011-06-01

    The fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) has a prevalence of about 2% and is characterized by generalized musculoskeletal pain, reduced pain threshold and autonomic and functional symptoms. It is a multifactorial syndrome with four different subgroups exhibiting pathophysiological and psychiatric findings. No precise treatment strategy is currently available for the different FMS subgroups. This article reviews the evidence for treatment options for the different FMS subgroups. Therapy for the first subgroup of primary FMS, with high levels of pain but no psychopathological alterations, is targeted at nociceptors expressing serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine-3; 5-HT3) receptors with 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. The second and third subgroups are characterized by depressive syndromes with a major indication for antidepressants. The fourth subgroup with psychosomatic syndromes requires psychotherapeutic treatment. Secondary FMS is similar to the primary syndromes but is triggered by a variety of other diseases and frequently responds to 5-HT3 receptor antagonist treatment. Different classes of drug, such as pregabalin, must be tested for efficacy and tolerance. FMS treatment strategies should be tailored after the identification of individual FMS subgroups. Although several groups of drug have been studied extensively, 5-HT3 receptor antagonists are most effective in patients without psychopathological alterations.

  14. AM-37 and ST-36 Are Small Molecule Bombesin Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Moody, Terry W.; Tashakkori, Nicole; Mantey, Samuel A.; Moreno, Paola; Ramos-Alvarez, Irene; Leopoldo, Marcello; Jensen, Robert T.

    2017-01-01

    While peptide antagonists for the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (BB2R), neuromedin B receptor (BB1R), and bombesin (BB) receptor subtype-3 (BRS-3) exist, there is a need to develop non-peptide small molecule inhibitors for all three BBR. The BB agonist (BA)1 binds with high affinity to the BB1R, BB2R, and BRS-3. In this communication, small molecule BBR antagonists were evaluated using human lung cancer cells. AM-37 and ST-36 inhibited binding to human BB1R, BB2R, and BRS-3 with similar affinity (Ki = 1.4–10.8 µM). AM-13 and AM-14 were approximately an order of magnitude less potent than AM-37 and ST-36. The ability of BA1 to elevate cytosolic Ca2+ in human lung cancer cells transfected with BB1R, BB2R, and BRS-3 was antagonized by AM-37 and ST-36. BA1 increased tyrosine phosphorylation of the EGFR and ERK in lung cancer cells, which was blocked by AM-37 and ST-36. AM-37 and ST-36 reduced the growth of lung cancer cells that have BBR. The results indicate that AM-37 and ST-36 function as small molecule BB receptor antagonists. PMID:28785244

  15. AM-37 and ST-36 Are Small Molecule Bombesin Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Moody, Terry W; Tashakkori, Nicole; Mantey, Samuel A; Moreno, Paola; Ramos-Alvarez, Irene; Leopoldo, Marcello; Jensen, Robert T

    2017-01-01

    While peptide antagonists for the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (BB 2 R), neuromedin B receptor (BB 1 R), and bombesin (BB) receptor subtype-3 (BRS-3) exist, there is a need to develop non-peptide small molecule inhibitors for all three BBR. The BB agonist (BA)1 binds with high affinity to the BB 1 R, BB 2 R, and BRS-3. In this communication, small molecule BBR antagonists were evaluated using human lung cancer cells. AM-37 and ST-36 inhibited binding to human BB 1 R, BB 2 R, and BRS-3 with similar affinity ( K i = 1.4-10.8 µM). AM-13 and AM-14 were approximately an order of magnitude less potent than AM-37 and ST-36. The ability of BA1 to elevate cytosolic Ca 2+ in human lung cancer cells transfected with BB 1 R, BB 2 R, and BRS-3 was antagonized by AM-37 and ST-36. BA1 increased tyrosine phosphorylation of the EGFR and ERK in lung cancer cells, which was blocked by AM-37 and ST-36. AM-37 and ST-36 reduced the growth of lung cancer cells that have BBR. The results indicate that AM-37 and ST-36 function as small molecule BB receptor antagonists.

  16. Eplerenone: a selective aldosterone receptor antagonist for patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Brian J; Howard, Patricia A

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, safety, and clinical use of eplerenone in heart failure (HF). English-language MEDLINE searches were performed from 1966 to May 2004. Key words included eplerenone, aldosterone receptor antagonist, heart failure, myocardial infarction, left-ventricular dysfunction, and cost-effectiveness. Additional references were identified from bibliographies of selected articles. Human trials evaluating the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of aldosterone receptor antagonists in HF were evaluated. Eplerenone is the first selective aldosterone receptor antagonist. The drug is indicated to improve the survival of stable patients with left-ventricular systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction <40%) and clinical evidence of HF following acute myocardial infarction. Efficacy and safety in this population have been demonstrated in a large, randomized clinical trial. Eplerenone is associated with severe and sometimes life-threatening hyperkalemia. Patients with reduced renal function and diabetes, as well as those on other drugs that increase potassium levels, are at highest risk. Eplerenone is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 system and may interact with drugs that interfere with this system. A major advantage of eplerenone over the nonselective aldosterone receptor antagonist spironolactone is lack of binding to progesterone and androgen receptors, which is associated with drug-induced gynecomastia, breast pain, and impotence. The addition of eplerenone to traditional HF therapy has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality in patients who develop left-ventricular dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction. Eplerenone's selectivity reduces sex hormone-related adverse effects. Despite these benefits, the overall cost-effectiveness has yet to be determined.

  17. Anthranilic acid based CCK1 receptor antagonists: blocking the receptor with the same 'words' of the endogenous ligand.

    PubMed

    Lassiani, Lucia; Pavan, Michela V; Berti, Federico; Kokotos, George; Markidis, Theodoros; Mennuni, Laura; Makovec, Francesco; Varnavas, Antonio

    2009-03-15

    The anthranilic acid diamides represent the more recent class of nonpeptide CCK(1) receptor antagonists. This class is characterized by the presence of anthranilic acid, used as a molecular scaffold, and two pharmacophores selected from the C-terminal tetrapeptide of CCK. The lead compound coded VL-0395, endowed with sub-micromolar affinity towards CCK(1) receptors, was characterized by the presence of Phe and 2-indole moiety at the C- and N-termini of anthranilic acid, respectively. Herein we describe the first step of the anthranilic acid C-terminal optimization using, instead of Phe, aminoacids belonging to the primary structure of CCK-8 and other not coded residues. Thus we demonstrate that the CCK(1) receptor affinity depends on the nature of the aminoacidic side chain as well as that the free carboxy group of the alpha-aminoacids is crucial for the binding. The R enantiomers of the most active compounds represent the eutomers of this class of antagonists confirming thus the stereo preference of the receptor. Moreover this SAR study demonstrates that the receptor binding pocket, that host the aminoacidic side chain, results much more tolerant respect to that accommodating the indole ring. As a result, an appropriate variation of the aminoacidic side chain could provide a better CCK(1) receptor affinity diorthosis.

  18. Design and synthesis of cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonists for peripheral selectivity.

    PubMed

    Fulp, Alan; Bortoff, Katherine; Seltzman, Herbert; Zhang, Yanan; Mathews, James; Snyder, Rodney; Fennell, Tim; Maitra, Rangan

    2012-03-22

    Antagonists of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) have potential for the treatment of several diseases such as obesity, liver disease, and diabetes. Recently, development of several CB1 antagonists was halted because of adverse central nervous system (CNS) related side effects observed with rimonabant, the first clinically approved CB1 inverse agonist. However, recent studies indicate that regulation of peripherally expressed CB1 with CNS-sparing compounds is a viable strategy to treat several important disorders. Our efforts aimed at rationally designing peripherally restricted CB1 antagonists have resulted in compounds that have limited blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and CNS exposure in preclinical in vitro and in vivo models. Typically, compounds with high topological polar surface areas (TPSAs) do not cross the BBB passively. Compounds with TPSAs higher than that for rimonabant (rimonabant TPSA = 50) and excellent functional activity with limited CNS penetration were identified. These compounds will serve as templates for further optimization.

  19. Recent progress in the development of small-molecule glucagon receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Sammons, Matthew F; Lee, Esther C Y

    2015-10-01

    The endocrine hormone glucagon stimulates hepatic glucose output via its action at the glucagon receptor (GCGr) in the liver. In the diabetic state, dysregulation of glucagon secretion contributes to abnormally elevated hepatic glucose output. The inhibition of glucagon-induced hepatic glucose output via antagonism of the GCGr using small-molecule ligands is a promising mechanism for improving glycemic control in the diabetic state. Clinical data evaluating the therapeutic potential of small-molecule GCGr antagonists is currently emerging. Recently disclosed clinical data demonstrates the potential efficacy and possible therapeutic limitations of small-molecule GCGr antagonists. Recent pre-clinical work on the development of GCGr antagonists is also summarized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Benzylamide antagonists of protease activated receptor 2 with anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Yau, Mei-Kwan; Liu, Ligong; Lim, Junxian; Lohman, Rink-Jan; Cotterell, Adam J; Suen, Jacky Y; Vesey, David A; Reid, Robert C; Fairlie, David P

    2016-02-01

    Activation of protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2) has been implicated in inflammatory and metabolic disorders and its inhibition may yield novel therapeutics. Here, we report a series of PAR2 antagonists based on C-terminal capping of 5-isoxazolyl-L-cyclohexylalanine-L-isoleucine, with benzylamine analogues being effective new PAR2 antagonists. 5-Isoxazolyl-L-cyclohexylalanine-L-isoleucine-2-methoxybenzylamine (10) inhibited PAR2-, but not PAR1-, induced release of Ca(2+) (IC50 0.5 μM) in human colon cells, IL-6 and TNFα secretion (IC50 1-5 μM) from human kidney cells, and was anti-inflammatory in acute rat paw inflammation (ED50 5 mg/kg sc). These findings show that new benzylamide antagonists of PAR2 have anti-inflammatory activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Discovery and SAR of 6-alkyl-2,4-diaminopyrimidines as histamine H₄ receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Savall, Brad M; Chavez, Frank; Tays, Kevin; Dunford, Paul J; Cowden, Jeffery M; Hack, Michael D; Wolin, Ronald L; Thurmond, Robin L; Edwards, James P

    2014-03-27

    This report discloses the discovery and SAR of a series of 6-alkyl-2-aminopyrimidine derived histamine H4 antagonists that led to the development of JNJ 39758979, which has been studied in phase II clinical trials in asthma and atopic dermatitis. Building on our SAR studies of saturated derivatives from the indole carboxamide series, typified by JNJ 7777120, and incorporating knowledge from the tricyclic pyrimidines led us to the 6-alkyl-2,4-diaminopyrimidine series. A focused medicinal chemistry effort delivered several 6-alkyl-2,4-diaminopyrimidines that behaved as antagonists at both the human and rodent H4 receptor. Further optimization led to a panel of antagonists that were profiled in animal models of inflammatory disease. On the basis of the preclinical profile and efficacy in several animal models, JNJ 39758979 was selected as a clinical candidate; however, further development was halted during phase II because of the observation of drug-induced agranulocytosis (DIAG) in two subjects.

  2. The neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist, ezlopitant, reduces appetitive responding for sucrose and ethanol.

    PubMed

    Steensland, Pia; Simms, Jeffrey A; Nielsen, Carsten K; Holgate, Joan; Bito-Onon, Jade J; Bartlett, Selena E

    2010-09-01

    The current obesity epidemic is thought to be partly driven by over-consumption of sugar-sweetened diets and soft drinks. Loss-of-control over eating and addiction to drugs of abuse share overlapping brain mechanisms including changes in motivational drive, such that stimuli that are often no longer 'liked' are still intensely 'wanted' [7], . The neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor system has been implicated in both learned appetitive behaviors and addiction to alcohol and opioids; however, its role in natural reward seeking remains unknown. We sought to determine whether the NK1-receptor system plays a role in the reinforcing properties of sucrose using a novel selective and clinically safe NK1-receptor antagonist, ezlopitant (CJ-11,974), in three animal models of sucrose consumption and seeking. Furthermore, we compared the effect of ezlopitant on ethanol consumption and seeking in rodents. The NK1-receptor antagonist, ezlopitant decreased appetitive responding for sucrose more potently than for ethanol using an operant self-administration protocol without affecting general locomotor activity. To further evaluate the selectivity of the NK1-receptor antagonist in decreasing consumption of sweetened solutions, we compared the effects of ezlopitant on water, saccharin-, and sodium chloride (NaCl) solution consumption. Ezlopitant decreased intake of saccharin but had no effect on water or salty solution consumption. The present study indicates that the NK1-receptor may be a part of a common pathway regulating the self-administration, motivational and reinforcing aspects of sweetened solutions, regardless of caloric value, and those of substances of abuse. Additionally, these results indicate that the NK1-receptor system may serve as a therapeutic target for obesity induced by over-consumption of natural reinforcers.

  3. SSTR-Mediated Imaging in Breast Cancer: Is There a Role for Radiolabeled Somatostatin Receptor Antagonists?

    PubMed

    Dalm, Simone U; Haeck, Joost; Doeswijk, Gabriela N; de Blois, Erik; de Jong, Marion; van Deurzen, Carolien H M

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies have shown enhanced tumor targeting by novel somatostatin receptor (SSTR) antagonists compared with clinically widely used agonists. However, these results have been obtained mostly in neuroendocrine tumors, and only limited data are available for cancer types with lower SSTR expression, including breast cancer (BC). To date, two studies have reported higher binding of the antagonist than the agonist in BC, but in both studies only a limited number of cases were evaluated. In this preclinical study, we further investigated whether the application of an SSTR antagonist can improve SSTR-mediated BC imaging in a large panel of BC specimens. We also generated an in vivo BC mouse model and performed SPECT/MRI and biodistribution studies. Methods: Binding of 111 In-DOTA-Tyr 3 -octreotate (SSTR agonist) and 111 In-DOTA-JR11 (SSTR antagonist) to 40 human BC specimens was compared using in vitro autoradiography. SSTR2 immunostaining was performed to confirm SSTR2 expression of the tumor cells. Furthermore, binding of the radiolabeled SSTR agonist and antagonist was analyzed in tissue material from 6 patient-derived xenografts. One patient-derived xenograft, the estrogen receptor-positive model T126, was chosen to generate in vivo mouse models containing orthotopic breast tumors for in vivo SPECT/MRI and biodistribution studies after injection with 177 Lu-DOTA-Tyr 3 -octreotate or 177 Lu-DOTA-JR11. Results: 111 In-DOTA-JR11 binding to human BC tissue was significantly higher than 111 In-DOTA-Tyr 3 -octreotate binding ( P < 0.001). The median ratio of antagonist binding versus agonist binding was 3.39 (interquartile range, 2-5). SSTR2 immunostaining confirmed SSTR2 expression on the tumor cells. SPECT/MRI of the mouse model found better tumor visualization with the antagonist. This result was in line with the significantly higher tumor uptake of the radiolabeled antagonist than of the agonist as measured in biodistribution studies 285 min after radiotracer

  4. Rimonabant, a potent CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist, is a Gαi/oprotein inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Porcu, Alessandra; Melis, Miriam; Turecek, Rostislav; Ullrich, Celine; Mocci, Ignazia; Bettler, Bernhard; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Castelli, M Paola

    2018-05-01

    Rimonabant is a potent and selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist widely used in animal and clinical studies. Besides its antagonistic properties, numerous studies have shown that, at micromolar concentrations rimonabant behaves as an inverse agonist at CB1 receptors. The mechanism underpinning this activity is unclear. Here we show that micromolar concentrations of rimonabant inhibited Gα i/o -type G proteins, resulting in a receptor-independent block of G protein signaling. Accordingly, rimonabant decreased basal and agonist stimulated [ 35 S]GTPγS binding to cortical membranes of CB1- and GABA B -receptor KO mice and Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell membranes stably transfected with GABA B or D2 dopamine receptors. The structural analog of rimonabant, AM251, decreased basal and baclofen-stimulated GTPγS binding to rat cortical and CHO cell membranes expressing GABA B receptors. Rimonabant prevented G protein-mediated GABA B and D2 dopamine receptor signaling to adenylyl cyclase in Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cells and to G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K + channels (GIRK) in midbrain dopamine neurons of CB1 KO mice. Rimonabant suppressed GIRK gating induced by GTPγS in CHO cells transfected with GIRK, consistent with a receptor-independent action. Bioluminescent resonance energy transfer (BRET) measurements in living CHO cells showed that, in presence or absence of co-expressed GABA B receptors, rimonabant stabilized the heterotrimeric Gαi/o-protein complex and prevented conformational rearrangements induced by GABA B receptor activation. Rimonabant failed to inhibit Gαs-mediated signaling, supporting its specificity for Gα i/o -type G proteins. The inhibition of Gα i/o protein provides a new site of rimonabant action that may help to understand its pharmacological and toxicological effects occurring at high concentrations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evidence for allosteric interactions of antagonist binding to the smoothened receptor.

    PubMed

    Rominger, Cynthia M; Bee, Wei-Lin Tiger; Copeland, Robert A; Davenport, Elizabeth A; Gilmartin, Aidan; Gontarek, Richard; Hornberger, Keith R; Kallal, Lorena A; Lai, Zhihong; Lawrie, Kenneth; Lu, Quinn; McMillan, Lynette; Truong, Maggie; Tummino, Peter J; Turunen, Brandon; Will, Matthew; Zuercher, William J; Rominger, David H

    2009-06-01

    The Smoothened receptor (Smo) mediates hedgehog (Hh) signaling critical for development, cell growth, and migration, as well as stem cell maintenance. Aberrant Hh signaling pathway activation has been implicated in a variety of cancers, and small-molecule antagonists of Smo have entered human clinical trials for the treatment of cancer. Here, we report the biochemical characterization of allosteric interactions of agonists and antagonists for Smo. Binding of two radioligands, [(3)H]3-chloro-N-[trans-4-(methylamino)cyclohexyl]-N-{[3-(4-pyridinyl)-phenyl]methyl}-1-benzothiophene-2-carboxamide (SAG-1.3) (agonist) and [(3)H]cyclopamine (antagonist), was characterized using human Smo expressed in human embryonic kidney 293F membranes. We observed full displacement of [(3)H]cyclopamine by all Smo agonist and antagonist ligands examined. N-[(1E)-(3,5-Dimethyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)methylidene]-4-(phenylmethyl)-1-piperazinamine (SANT-1), an antagonist, did not fully inhibit the binding of [(3)H]SAG-1.3. In a functional cell-based beta-lactamase reporter gene assay, SANT-1 and N-[3-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-4-chlorophenyl]-3,4,5-tris(ethyloxy)-benzamide (SANT-2) fully inhibited 3-chloro-4,7-difluoro-N-[trans-4-(methylamino)cyclohexyl]-N-{[3-(4-pyridinyl)phenyl]methyl}-1-benzothiophene-2-carboxamide (SAG-1.5)-induced Hh pathway activation. Detailed "Schild-type" radioligand binding analysis with [(3)H]SAG-1.3 revealed that two structurally distinct Smoothened receptor antagonists, SANT-1 and SANT-2, bound in a manner consistent with that of allosteric modulation. Our mechanism of action characterization of radioligand binding to Smo combined with functional data provides a better understanding of small-molecule interactions with Smo and their influence on the Hh pathway.

  6. Discovery of a Manduca sexta Allatotropin Antagonist from a Manduca sexta Allatotropin Receptor Homology Model.

    PubMed

    Kai, Zhen-Peng; Zhu, Jing-Jing; Deng, Xi-Le; Yang, Xin-Ling; Chen, Shan-Shan

    2018-04-03

    Insect G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) have important roles in modulating biology, physiology and behavior. They have been identified as candidate targets for next-generation insecticides, yet these targets have been relatively poorly exploited for insect control. In this study, we present a pipeline of novel Manduca sexta allatotropin (Manse-AT) antagonist discovery with homology modeling, docking, molecular dynamics simulation and structure-activity relationship. A series of truncated and alanine-replacement analogs of Manse-AT were assayed for the stimulation of juvenile hormone biosynthesis. The minimum sequence required to retain potent biological activity is the C -terminal amidated octapeptide Manse-AT (6-13). We identified three residues essential for bioactivity (Thr⁴, Arg6 and Phe⁸) by assaying alanine-replacement analogs of Manse-AT (6-13). Alanine replacement of other residues resulted in reduced potency but bioactivity was retained. The 3D structure of the receptor (Manse-ATR) was built and the binding pocket was identified. The binding affinities of all the analogs were estimated by calculating the free energy of binding. The calculated binding affinities corresponded to the biological activities of the analogs, which supporting our localization of the binding pocket. Then, based on the docking and molecular dynamics studies of Manse-AT (10-13), we described it can act as a potent Manse-AT antagonist. The antagonistic effect on JH biosynthesis of Manse-AT (10-13) validated our hypothesis. The IC 50 value of antagonist Manse-AT (10-13) is 0.9 nM. The structure-activity relationship of antagonist Manse-AT (10-13) was also studied for the further purpose of investigating theoretically the structure factors influencing activity. These data will be useful for the design of new Manse-AT agonist and antagonist as potential pest control agents.

  7. Pharmacological significance of the interplay between angiotensin receptors: MAS receptors as putative final mediators of the effects elicited by angiotensin AT1 receptors antagonists.

    PubMed

    Pernomian, Larissa; Pernomian, Laena; Gomes, Mayara S; da Silva, Carlos H T P

    2015-12-15

    The interplay between angiotensin AT1 receptors and MAS receptors relies on several inward regulatory mechanisms from renin-angiotensin system (RAS) including the functional crosstalk between angiotensin II and angiotensin-(1-7), the competitive AT1 antagonism exhibited by angiotensin-(1-7), the antagonist feature assigned to AT1/MAS heterodimerization on AT1 signaling and the AT1-mediated downregulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Recently, such interplay has acquired an important significance to RAS Pharmacology since a few studies have supporting strong evidences that MAS receptors mediate the effects elicited by AT1 antagonists. The present Perspective provides an overview of the regulatory mechanisms involving AT1 and MAS receptors, their significance to RAS Pharmacology and the future directions on the interplay between angiotensin receptors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Design, synthesis and biological activity of 6-substituted carbamoyl benzimidazoles as new nonpeptidic angiotensin II AT₁ receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Wang, Jin-Liang; Zhou, Zhi-Ming; Li, Zhi-Huai; Xue, Wei-Zhe; Xu, Di; Hao, Li-Ping; Han, Xiao-Feng; Fei, Fan; Liu, Ting; Liang, Ai-Hua

    2012-07-15

    A series of 6-substituted carbamoyl benzimidazoles were designed and synthesised as new nonpeptidic angiotensin II AT(1) receptor antagonists. The preliminary pharmacological evaluation revealed a nanomolar AT(1) receptor binding affinity for all compounds in the series, and a potent antagonistic activity in an isolated rabbit aortic strip functional assay for compounds 6f, 6g, 6h and 6k was also demonstrated. Furthermore, evaluation in spontaneous hypertensive rats and a preliminary toxicity evaluation showed that compound 6g is an orally active AT(1) receptor antagonist with low toxicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Progesterone receptor antagonist CDB-4124 increases depression-like behavior in mice without affecting locomotor ability

    PubMed Central

    Beckley, Ethan H.; Scibelli, Angela C.; Finn, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Progesterone withdrawal has been proposed as an underlying factor in premenstrual syndrome and postpartum depression. Progesterone withdrawal induces forced swim test (FST) immobility in mice, a depression-like behavior, but the contribution of specific receptors to this effect is unclear. The role of progesterone’s GABAA receptor-modulating metabolite allopregnanolone in depression- and anxiety-related behaviors has been extensively documented, but little attention has been paid to the role of progesterone receptors. We administered the classic progesterone receptor antagonist mifepristone (RU-38486) and the specific progesterone receptor antagonist CDB-4124 to mice that had been primed with progesterone for five days, and found that both compounds induced FST immobility reliably, robustly, and in a dose-dependent fashion. Although CDB-4124 increased FST immobility, it did not suppress initial activity in a locomotor test. These findings suggest that decreased progesterone receptor activity contributes to depression-like behavior in mice, consistent with the hypothesis that progesterone withdrawal may contribute to the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome or postpartum depression. PMID:21163582

  10. X-ray structures define human P2X3 receptor gating cycle and antagonist action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansoor, Steven E.; Lü, Wei; Oosterheert, Wout; Shekhar, Mrinal; Tajkhorshid, Emad; Gouaux, Eric

    2016-10-01

    P2X receptors are trimeric, non-selective cation channels activated by ATP that have important roles in the cardiovascular, neuronal and immune systems. Despite their central function in human physiology and although they are potential targets of therapeutic agents, there are no structures of human P2X receptors. The mechanisms of receptor desensitization and ion permeation, principles of antagonism, and complete structures of the pore-forming transmembrane domains of these receptors remain unclear. Here we report X-ray crystal structures of the human P2X3 receptor in apo/resting, agonist-bound/open-pore, agonist-bound/closed-pore/desensitized and antagonist-bound/closed states. The open state structure harbours an intracellular motif we term the ‘cytoplasmic cap’, which stabilizes the open state of the ion channel pore and creates lateral, phospholipid-lined cytoplasmic fenestrations for water and ion egress. The competitive antagonists TNP-ATP and A-317491 stabilize the apo/resting state and reveal the interactions responsible for competitive inhibition. These structures illuminate the conformational rearrangements that underlie P2X receptor gating and provide a foundation for the development of new pharmacological agents.

  11. Attenuation of Persistent Experimental Pancreatitis Pain by a Bradykinin B2 Receptor Antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qingmin; Vera-Portocarrero, Louis P.; Ossipov, Michael H.; Vardanyan, Marina; Lai, Josephine; Porreca, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Objective The role of bradykinin (BK) receptors in activating and sensitizing peripheral nociceptors is well known. Recently, we showed that spinal dynorphin was pronociceptive through direct or indirect BK receptor activation. Here, we explored the potential role of BK receptors in pain associated with persistent pancreatitis in rats. Methods Experimental pancreatitis and abdominal hypersensitivity were induced by intravenous administrations of dibutyltin dichloride (DBTC). [des-Arg9-Leu8]BK (B1 antagonist) and HOE 140 (B2 antagonist) were given by intraperitoneal or intrathecal injection. Dynorphin antiserum was given intrathecally. Reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction was used to detect spinal mRNA for BK receptors. Results Dibutyltin dichloride–induced pancreatitis upregulated B1 and B2 mRNA in the thoracic dorsal root ganglion and B2, but not B1, in the pancreas. No changes in spinal B1 or B2 mRNA were observed. Intraperitoneal or intrathecal administration of HOE 140 dose dependently abolished DBTC-induced abdominal hypersensitivity, whereas [des-Arg9-Leu8]BK was without effect by either route of administration. Antiserum to dynorphin (intrathecal) abolished DBTC-induced hypersensitivity. Conclusions These results suggest that blockade of peripheral or spinal BK B2 receptors may be an effective approach for diminishing pain associated with pancreatitis. Moreover, it is suggested that spinal dynorphin may maintain pancreatitis pain through direct or indirect activation of BK B2 receptors in the spinal cord. PMID:20531238

  12. A 2A adenosine receptor regulates glia proliferation and pain after peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Bura, S Andreea; Nadal, Xavier; Ledent, Catherine; Maldonado, Rafael; Valverde, Olga

    2008-11-15

    Peripheral nerve injury produces a persistent neuropathic pain state characterized by spontaneous pain, allodynia and hyperalgesia. In this study, we evaluated the possible involvement of A 2ARs in the development of neuropathic pain and the expression of microglia and astrocytes in the spinal cord after sciatic nerve injury. For this purpose, partial ligation of the sciatic nerve was performed in A 2A knockout mice and wild-type littermates. The development of mechanical and thermal allodynia, as well as thermal hyperalgesia was evaluated by using the von Frey filament model, the cold-plate test and the plantar test, respectively. In wild-type animals, sciatic nerve injury led to a neuropathic pain syndrome that was revealed in these three nociceptive behavioural tests. However, a significant decrease of the mechanical allodynia and a suppression of thermal hyperalgesia and allodynia were observed in A 2AR deficient mice. The expression of microglia and astrocytes was enhanced in wild-type mice exposed to sciatic nerve injury and this response was attenuated in knockout animals. Taken together, our results demonstrate the involvement of A 2ARs in the control of neuropathic pain and propose this receptor as an interesting target for the development of new drugs for the management of this clinical syndrome.

  13. H1 histamine receptor antagonists induce genotoxic and caspase-2-dependent apoptosis in human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jangi, Shawkat-Muhialdin; Díaz-Pérez, José Luís; Ochoa-Lizarralde, Borja; Martín-Ruiz, Itziar; Asumendi, Aintzane; Pérez-Yarza, Gorka; Gardeazabal, Jesús; Díaz-Ramón, José Luis; Boyano, María Dolores

    2006-09-01

    Previously, we found that the H1 histamine receptor antagonist diphenhydramine induces apoptosis in human acute T-lymphocytic leukemia cells. Since histamine has been shown to act as a growth factor in malignant melanoma cells, we decided to evaluate the in vitro effect of diphenhydramine and other H1 histamine receptor antagonists, such as terfenadine, astemizol and triprolidine on four malignant human melanoma cell lines. These antagonists were found to induce apoptotic cell death in all four melanoma cell lines. Apoptosis was determined by assessment of phosphatidylserine exposure on the surface of the cells and nuclear fragmentation. Importantly, H1 antagonist treatments did not adversely affect the viability of human melanocytes and murine fibroblasts at the same doses and duration of exposure. Treatment of melanoma cells with terfenadine induced DNA damage and caspases 2, 3, 6, 8 and 9 activation. Furthermore, the general caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-FMK) and a selective inhibitor of caspase-2 (z-VDVAD-FMK) protected melanoma cells from terfenadine-induced apoptosis. In contrast, the caspase-8 inhibitor (z-IETD-FMK) was ineffective. In addition, we found that mitochondria are involved in TEF-induced apoptosis, characterized by the dissipation of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, the release of cytochrome c into the cytosolic compartment and caspase-9 activation. On the basis of these results we conclude that H1 histamine receptor antagonists induce apoptosis in human melanoma cells but not in normal melanocytes and embryonic murine fibroblasts; this apoptosis appears to be caspase-2-dependent and involves the mitochondrial pathway. The present results may contribute to the elaboration of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of malignant human melanoma.

  14. Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists as potential pharmacotherapies for drug abuse disorders.

    PubMed

    Beardsley, Patrick M; Thomas, Brian F; McMahon, Lance R

    2009-04-01

    Since the discovery of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) in 1988, and subsequently of the CB2 receptor (CB2R) in 1993, there has been an exponential growth of research investigating the functions of the endocannabinoid system. The roles of CB1Rs have been of particular interest to psychiatry because of their selective presence within the CNS and because of their association with brain-reward circuits involving mesocorticolimbic dopamine systems. One potential role that has become of considerable focus is the ability of CB1Rs to modulate the effects of the drugs of abuse. Many drugs of abuse elevate dopamine levels, and the ability of CB1R antagonists or inverse agonists to modulate these elevations has suggested their potential application as pharmacotherapies for treating drug abuse disorders. With the identification of the selective CB1R antagonist, rimonabant, in 1994, and subsequently of other CB1R antagonists, there has been a rapid expansion of research investigating their ability to modulate the effects of the drugs of abuse. This review highlights some of the preclinical and clinical studies that have examined the effects of CB1R antagonists under conditions potentially predictive of their therapeutic efficacy as treatments for drug abuse disorders.

  15. Effects of intraventricular histamine and H2 receptor antagonists on intraocular pressure.

    PubMed

    Trzeciakowski, J P; Frye, G D

    1987-01-01

    Severe ocular hypertension has been reported in a chronic glaucoma patient following use of histamine H2 receptor antagonists for treatment of peptic ulcer. Subsequent studies, however, have failed to demonstrate a significant action of topical or intravenously administered H2 blockers on intraocular pressure (IOP) in humans. In this study, cimetidine and ranitidine were administered into the cerebral ventricles of unanesthetized New Zealand White rabbits. Both drugs caused prolonged increases in IOP at a dose of 1 umol. Maximal elevations of IOP occurred approximately 20 min after drug injections and averaged 5-8 mmHg above pre-drug values. In contrast, histamine (0.3 and 1.0 umol) produced biphasic effects on IOP when given by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection. These data suggest that central mechanisms may mediate the actions of some histamine receptor agonists and antagonists on IOP.

  16. [The safety of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (anakinra) in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Riente, L

    2004-01-01

    The safety profile of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (anakinra) has been studied with randomised, placebo-controlled trials involving 2932 patients affected by rheumatoid arthritis. The most frequently reported adverse events were represented by injection site reactions (71%) and headache (13.6%). No statistically significant difference in the incidence of infections was observed among the patients treated with the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and the patients receiving placebo. In particular, the incidence of serious infections was 1,8% in rheumatoid arthritis patients on anakinra therapy and 0,7% in patients on placebo. The reported serious infections consisted of pneumonia, cellulitis, bone and joint infections, bursitis. No case of opportunistic infections or tubercolosis was observed. The results of clinical studies suggest that anakinra is a new well-tolerated drug for the treatment of patients affected by rheumatoid arthritis.

  17. Biaryls as potent, tunable dual neurokinin 1 receptor antagonists and serotonin transporter inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Degnan, Andrew P; Tora, George O; Han, Ying; Rajamani, Ramkumar; Bertekap, Robert; Krause, Rudolph; Davis, Carl D; Hu, Joanna; Morgan, Daniel; Taylor, Sarah J; Krause, Kelly; Li, Yu-Wen; Mattson, Gail; Cunningham, Melissa A; Taber, Matthew T; Lodge, Nicholas J; Bronson, Joanne J; Gillman, Kevin W; Macor, John E

    2015-08-01

    Depression is a serious illness that affects millions of patients. Current treatments are associated with a number of undesirable side effects. Neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) antagonists have recently been shown to potentiate the antidepressant effects of serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in a number of animal models. Herein we describe the optimization of a biaryl chemotype to provide a series of potent dual NK1R antagonists/serotonin transporter (SERT) inhibitors. Through the choice of appropriate substituents, the SERT/NK1R ratio could be tuned to afford a range of target selectivity profiles. This effort culminated in the identification of an analog that demonstrated oral bioavailability, favorable brain uptake, and efficacy in the gerbil foot tap model. Ex vivo occupancy studies with compound 58 demonstrated the ability to maintain NK1 receptor saturation (>88% occupancy) while titrating the desired level of SERT occupancy (11-84%) via dose selection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Discovery of MK-3207: A Highly Potent, Orally Bioavailable CGRP Receptor Antagonist

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Incorporation of polar functionality into a series of highly potent calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonists was explored in an effort to improve pharmacokinetics. This strategy identified piperazinone analogues that possessed improved solubility at acidic pH and increased oral bioavailability in monkeys. Further optimization led to the discovery of the clinical candidate 2-[(8R)-8-(3,5-difluorophenyl)-10-oxo-6,9-diazaspiro[4.5]dec-9-yl]-N-[(2R)-2′-oxo-1,1′,2′,3-tetrahydrospiro[indene-2,3′-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin]-5-yl]acetamide (MK-3207) (4), the most potent orally active CGRP receptor antagonist described to date. PMID:24900170

  19. Thermodynamic assessment of the stability of thrombin receptor antagonistic peptides in hydrophobic environments.

    PubMed

    Boysen, Reinhard I; Jong, Agnes J O; Hearn, Milton T W

    2002-05-01

    In this paper, a general procedure is described to determine thermodynamic parameters associated with the interaction of thrombin receptor antagonistic peptides (TRAPs) with immobilized nonpolar ligands. The results show that these interactions were associated with nonlinear van't Hoff dependencies over a wide temperature range. Moreover, changes in relevant thermodynamic parameters, namely the changes in Gibbs free energy of interaction, DeltaG(0)assoc, enthalpy of interaction, DeltaH(0)assoc, entropy of interaction, DeltaS(0)assoc, and heat capacity, DeltaC(0)p, have been related to the structural properties of these TRAP analogs. The implications of these investigations for the design of thrombin receptor agonists/antagonists with structures stabilized by intramolecular hydrophobic interactions are discussed.

  20. Synthesis and pharmacological identification of neutral histamine H1-receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Govoni, Marinella; Bakker, Remko A; van de Wetering, Ineke; Smit, Martine J; Menge, Wiro M B P; Timmerman, Henk; Elz, Sigurd; Schunack, Walter; Leurs, Rob

    2003-12-18

    In the present study we searched for neutral antagonists for the human histamine H(1)-receptor (H(1)R) by screening newly synthesized ligands that are structurally related to H(1)R agonists for their affinity using radioligand displacement studies and by assessing their functional activity via performing a NF-kappaB driven reporter-gene assay that allows for the detection of both agonistic and inverse agonistic responses. Starting from the endogenous agonist for the H(1)R, histamine, we synthesized and tested various analogues and ultimately identified several compounds with partial inverse agonistic properties and two neutral H(1)-receptor antagonists, namely 2-[2-(4,4-diphenylbutyl)-1H-imidazol-4-yl]ethylamine (histabudifen, 18d) (pK(i) = 5.8, alpha = 0.02) and 2-[2-(5,5-diphenylpentyl)-1H-imidazol-4-yl]ethylamine (histapendifen, 18e) (pK(i) = 5.9, alpha = -0.09).

  1. Progress in the development of histamine H3 receptor antagonists/inverse agonists: a patent review (2013-2017).

    PubMed

    Łażewska, Dorota; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2018-03-01

    Since years, ligands blocking histamine H 3 receptor (H 3 R) activity (antagonists/inverse agonists) are interesting targets in the search for new cures for CNS disorders. Intensive works done by academic and pharmaceutical company researchers have led to many potent and selective H 3 R antagonists/inverse agonists. Some of them have reached to clinical trials. Areas covered: Patent applications from January 2013 to September 2017 and the most important topics connected with H 3 R field are analysed. Espacenet, Patentscope, Pubmed, GoogleScholar or Cochrane Library online databases were principially used to collect all the materials. Expert opinion: The research interest in histamine H 3 R field is still high although the number of patent applications has decreased during the past 4 years (around 20 publications). Complexity of histamine H 3 R biology e.g. many isoforms, constitutive activity, heteromerization with other receptors (dopamine D 2 , D 1 , adenosine A 2A ) and pharmacology make not easy realization and evaluation of therapeutic potential of anti-H 3 R ligands. First results from clinical trials have verified potential utility of histamine H 3 R antagonist/inverse agonists in some diseases. However, more studies are necessary for better understanding of an involvement of the histaminergic system in CNS-related disorders and helping more ligands approach to clinical trials and the market. Lists of abbreviations: hAChEI - human acetylcholinesterase inhibitor; hBuChEI - human butyrylcholinesterase inhibitor; hMAO - human monoamine oxidase; MAO - monoamine oxidase.

  2. 5HT(6) receptor antagonists: a patent update. Part 1. Sulfonyl derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ivachtchenko, Alexandre V; Ivanenkov, Yan A

    2012-08-01

    Among a variety of proteins included in a relatively wide GPCR family, serotonin 5HT receptors (5HT(6)Rs) are highly attractive as important biological targets with enormous clinical importance. Among this subclass, 5HT(6)R is the most recently discovered group. Available biological data clearly indicate that 5HT(6)R antagonists can be used as effective regulators in a variety of contexts, including memory formation, age-related cognitive impairments and memory deficits associated with conditions such as schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, this receptor has already attracted a considerable attention within the scientific community, due to its versatile therapeutic potential. The current paper is an update to the comprehensive review article published previously in Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents (see issue 20(7), 2010). Here, the main focus is on small-molecule compounds - 5HT(6) antagonists - which have been described in recent patent literature, since the end of 2009. To obtain a clear understanding of the situation and dynamic within the field of 5HT(6) ligands, having an obvious pharmaceutical potential in terms of related patents, a comprehensive search through several key patent collections have been provided. The authors describe the reported chemical classes and scaffolds in sufficient detail to provide a valuable insight in the 5HT(6)R chemistry and pharmacology. The review consists of two core parts with separate sections arranged in accordance with the main structural features of 5HT(6)R ligands. Recent progress in the understanding of the 5HT(6) receptor function and structure includes a suggested constitutive activity for the receptor, development of a number of multimodal small molecule ligands and re-classification of many selective antagonists as pseudo-selective agents. Heterocycles with sulfonyl group and without any basic center provide sufficient supramolecular interactions and show high antagonistic

  3. Molecular interactions of nonpeptide agonists and antagonists with the melanocortin-4 receptor.

    PubMed

    Fleck, Beth A; Chen, Chen; Yang, Weidong; Huntley, Rajesh; Markison, Stacy; Nickolls, Sarah A; Foster, Alan C; Hoare, Sam R J

    2005-11-08

    The melanocortin-4 (MC4) receptor is a potential therapeutic target for obesity and cachexia, for which nonpeptide agonists and antagonists are being developed, respectively. The aim of this study was to identify molecular interactions between the MC4 receptor and nonpeptide ligands, and to compare the mechanism of binding between agonist and antagonist ligands. Nonpeptide ligand interaction was affected by mutations that reduce peptide ligand binding (D122A, D126A, S190A, M200A, F261A, and F284A), confirming overlapping binding determinants for peptide and nonpeptide ligands. The common halogenated phenyl group of nonpeptide ligands was a determinant of F261A and F284A mutations' affinity-reducing effect, implying this group interacts with the aromatic side chains of these residues. All affected compounds contain this group, the mutations reduced binding of 2,4-dichloro-substituted compounds more than 4-chloro-substituted-compounds, and F284A mutation eliminated the affinity-enhancing effect of 2-chloro-substitution. F261A and F284A mutations reduced the affinity of antagonists more than agonists, suggesting that the stronger ligand interaction with these residues, the lower the ligand efficacy. Supporting this hypothesis, F261A mutation increased the efficacy of nonpeptide antagonist and partial agonist ligands. D122A and D126A mutations reduced nonpeptide ligand interaction. Removing the ligands' derivatized amide group eliminated the effect of the mutations. Interaction of agonists, which bear a common amine within this group, was strongly reduced by D126A mutation (550-3300-fold), suggesting an electrostatic interaction between the amine and the acidic group of D126. These postulated interactions with aromatic and acidic regions of the MC4 receptor are consistent with a molecular model of the receptor. Furthermore, the strength of interaction with the aromatic pocket, and potentially the acidic pocket, controls the signaling efficacy of the ligand.

  4. Quantitative structure activity relationship of benzoxazinone derivatives as neuropeptide Y Y5 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Deswal, S; Roy, N

    2006-04-01

    Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) has been established for 30 benzoxazinone derivatives acting as neuropeptide Y Y5 receptor antagonists. The genetic algorithm and multiple linear regression were used to generate the relationship between biological activity and calculated descriptors. Model with good statistical qualities was developed using four descriptors from topological, thermodynamic, spatial and electrotopological class. The validation of the model was done by cross validation, randomization and external test set prediction.

  5. NMDA or 5-HT receptor antagonists impair memory reconsolidation and induce various types of amnesia.

    PubMed

    Nikitin, V P; Solntseva, S V; Kozyrev, S A; Nikitin, P V; Shevelkin, A V

    2018-06-01

    Elucidation of amnesia mechanisms is one of the central problems in neuroscience with immense practical application. Previously, we found that conditioned food presentation combined with injection of a neurotransmitter receptor antagonist or protein synthesis inhibitor led to amnesia induction. In the present study, we investigated the time course and features of two amnesias: induced by impairment of memory reconsolidation using an NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist (MK-801) and a serotonin receptor antagonist (methiothepin, MET) on snails trained with food aversion conditioning. During the early period of amnesia (<10th day), the unpaired presentation of conditioned stimuli (CS) or unconditioned stimuli (US) in the same training context did not have an effect on both types of amnesia. Retraining an on 1st or 3rd day of amnesia induction facilitated memory formation, i.e. the number of CS + US pairings was lower than at initial training. On the 10th or 30th day after the MET/reminder, the number of CS + US pairings did not change between initial training and retraining. Retraining on the 10th or 30th day following the MK-801/reminder in the same or a new context of learning resulted in short, but not long-term, memory, and the number of CS + US pairings was higher than at the initial training. This type of amnesia was specific to the CS we used at initial training, since long-term memory for another kind of CS could be formed in the same snails. The attained results suggest that disruption of memory reconsolidation using antagonists of serotonin or NMDA glutamate receptors induced amnesias with different abilities to form long-term memory during the late period of development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of protoberberine analogs employed as novel human P2X{sub 7} receptor antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ga Eun; Lee, Won-Gil; Lee, Song-Yi

    2011-04-15

    The P2X{sub 7} receptor (P2X{sub 7}R), a member of the ATP-gated ion channel family, is regarded as a promising target for therapy of immune-related diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and chronic pain. A group of novel protoberberine analogs (compounds 3-5), discovered by screening of chemical libraries, was here investigated with respect to their function as P2X{sub 7}R antagonists. Compounds 3-5 non-competitively inhibited BzATP-induced ethidium ion influx into hP2X{sub 7}-expressing HEK293 cells, with IC{sub 50} values of 100-300 nM. This antagonistic action on the channel further confirmed that both BzATP-induced inward currents and Ca{sup 2+} influx were strongly inhibited by compounds 3-5more » in patch-clamp and Ca{sup 2+} influx assays. The antagonists also effectively suppressed downstream signaling of P2X{sub 7} receptors including IL-1{beta} release and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 proteins in hP2X{sub 7}-expressing HEK293 cells or in differentiated human monocytes (THP-1 cells). Moreover, IL-2 secretion from CD3/CD28-stimulated Jurkat T cell was also dramatically inhibited by the antagonist. These results imply that novel protoberberine analogs may modulate P2X{sub 7} receptor-mediated immune responses by allosteric inhibition of the receptor. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted« less

  7. Structural and pharmacological analysis of O-2050, a putative neutral cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Wiley, Jenny L.; Breivogel, Christopher S.; Mahadevan, Anu; Pertwee, Roger G.; Cascio, Maria Grazia; Bolognini, Daniele; Huffman, John W.; Walentiny, D. Matthew; Vann, Robert E.; Razdan, Raj K.; Martin, Billy R.

    2010-01-01

    Rimonabant, the prototypic antagonist of cannabinoid CB1 receptors, has been reported to have inverse agonist properties at higher concentrations, which may complicate its use as a tool for mechanistic evaluation of cannabinoid pharmacology. Consequently, recent synthesis efforts have concentrated on discovery of a neutral antagonist using a variety of structural templates. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacological properties of the putative neutral cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist O-2050, a sulfonamide side chain analog of Δ8-tetrahydrocannabinol. O-2050 and related sulfonamide cannabinoids exhibited good affinity for both cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors. While the other sulfonamide analogs produced cannabinoid agonist effects in vivo (e.g., activity suppression, antinociception, and hypothermia), O-2050 stimulated activity and was inactive in the other two tests. O-2050 also decreased food intake in mice, an effect that was reminiscent of that produced by rimonabant. Unlike rimonabant, however, O-2050 did not block the effects of cannabinoid agonists in vivo, even when administered i.c.v. In contrast, O-2050 antagonized the in vitro effects of cannabinoid agonists in [35S]GTPγS and mouse vas deferens assays without having activity on its own in either assay. Further evaluation revealed that O-2050 fully and dose-dependently substituted for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in a mouse drug discrimination procedure (a cannabinoid agonist effect) and that it inhibited forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP signaling with a maximum efficacy of approximately half that of the full agonist CP55,940 [(−)-cis-3-[2-hydroxy-4(1,1-dimethyl-heptyl)phenyl]-trans-4-(3-hydroxy-propyl)cyclohexanol]. Together, these results suggest that O-2050 is not a viable candidate for classification as a neutral cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist. PMID:21114999

  8. Asymmetric Synthesis of Heterocyclic Analogues of a CGRP Receptor Antagonist for Treating Migraine.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guanglin; Chen, Ling; Conway, Charles M; Kostich, Walter; Macor, John E; Dubowchik, Gene M

    2015-12-18

    An asymmetric synthesis of novel heterocyclic analogue of the CGRP receptor antagonist rimegepant (BMS-927711, 3) is reported. The cycloheptane ring was constructed by an intramolecular Heck reaction. The application of Hayashi-Miyaura and Ellman reactions furnished the aryl and the amine chiral centers, while the separable diastereomeric third chiral center alcohols led to both carbamate and urea analogues. This synthetic approach was applicable to both 6- and 5-membered heterocycles as exemplified by pyrazine and thiazole derivatives.

  9. Drug utilization evaluation of nonprescription H2-receptor antagonists and alginate-containing preparations for dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Krska, Janet; John, David Neale; Hansford, Denise; Kennedy, Emily J

    2000-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the use, efficacy and adverse effects of nonprescription H2-receptor antagonists and alginate-containing preparations obtained from community pharmacies. Methods Questionnaires were distributed to customers from 39 pharmacies in Scotland and Wales. Results Of 767 customers recruited, 608 (79.3%) returned an initial questionnaire and 472 (61.5%) customers a second questionnaire. The vast majority of respondents (424, 69.7%) had suffered their symptoms on three or more occasions and 369 (60.7%) had previously tried medicines to relieve their symptoms. Referrals to a doctor were less frequent than recommended in guidelines and few of those who were referred actually saw a doctor. Over a quarter of those returning the second questionnaire claimed to be taking more than one product simultaneously for symptom control. Eight customers who were taking prescribed ulcer-healing drugs obtained H2-receptor antagonists. The majority of respondents (355/472, 75.2%) obtained some or complete symptom relief using the product obtained and 369/472 (78.2%) were completely satisfied with their product. H2-receptor antagonists were more likely to produce complete relief of symptoms than alginate-containing preparations (P < 0.05). Only 14 respondents (3.0%) reported side-effects from the product used which were mostly gastro-intestinal. Conclusions The study demonstrated that drug utilization studies are feasible to carry out in a community pharmacy setting. While the results support published evidence of the efficacy and minimal toxicity of these products, they also highlight the possibility of H2-receptor antagonists being used outwith their licenced indications. PMID:10759692

  10. Evidence that Argos is an antagonistic ligand of the EGF receptor.

    PubMed

    Vinós, J; Freeman, M

    2000-07-20

    Argos, the inhibitor of the Drosophila epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, remains the only known extracellular inhibitor of this family of receptors in any organism. The functional domain of Argos includes an atypical EGF domain and it is not clear whether it binds to the EGF receptor or if it acts via a distinct receptor to reduce Egfr activity indirectly. Here we present two lines of evidence that strongly suggest that Argos directly interacts with the EGF receptor. First, Argos is unable to inhibit a chimeric receptor that contains an extracellular domain from an unrelated RTK, indicating the need for the EGF receptor extracellular domain. Second, Argos can inhibit the Drosophila EGF receptor even when expressed in human cells, implying that no other Drosophila protein is necessary for inhibition. We also report that Argos and the Drosophila activating ligand, Spitz, can influence mammalian RTK activation, albeit in a cell-type specific manner. This includes the first evidence that Argos can inhibit signalling in mammalian cells, raising the possibility of engineering an effective human EGF receptor/ErbB antagonist. Oncogene (2000) 19, 3560 - 3562

  11. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists for the prevention of postoperative shivering: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chengmao; Zhu, Yu; Liu, Zhen; Ruan, Lin

    2016-12-01

    Objective We evaluated the efficacy of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists for the prevention of postoperative shivering. Methods We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE and Web of Knowledge to find randomized controlled trials (RCT) of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists for the prevention of postoperative shivering. Two researchers independently screened studies, extracted data, and assessed quality in accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and then conducted a meta-analysis using RevMan 5.2. Results Ultimately, 14 RCTs that included 980 patients were included in the analysis. We found that: 1) the incidence of shivering was significantly lower in 5-HT3 groups than placebo groups (relative risk, [RR] = 0.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.40 - 0.58); 2) there was no significant difference in the incidence of shivering between 5-HT3 groups and meperidine groups (RR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.60 - 1.34). Conclusion 5-HT3 receptor antagonists appear to prevent postoperative shivering, with a broadly comparable efficacy to meperidine.

  12. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists for the prevention of postoperative shivering: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chengmao; Zhu, Yu; Liu, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the efficacy of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists for the prevention of postoperative shivering. Methods We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE and Web of Knowledge to find randomized controlled trials (RCT) of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists for the prevention of postoperative shivering. Two researchers independently screened studies, extracted data, and assessed quality in accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and then conducted a meta-analysis using RevMan 5.2. Results Ultimately, 14 RCTs that included 980 patients were included in the analysis. We found that: 1) the incidence of shivering was significantly lower in 5-HT3 groups than placebo groups (relative risk, [RR] = 0.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.40 – 0.58); 2) there was no significant difference in the incidence of shivering between 5-HT3 groups and meperidine groups (RR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.60 – 1.34). Conclusion 5-HT3 receptor antagonists appear to prevent postoperative shivering, with a broadly comparable efficacy to meperidine. PMID:27856931

  13. Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Deficiency Presenting as Infantile Pustulosis Mimicking Infantile Pustular Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Minkis, Kira; Aksentijevich, Ivona; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela; Magro, Cynthia; Scott, Rachelle; Davis, Jessica G.; Sardana, Niti; Herzog, Ronit

    2012-01-01

    Background Deficiency of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (DIRA) is a recently described autoinflammatory syndrome of skin and bone caused by recessive mutations in the gene encoding the interleukin 1 receptor antagonist. Few studies have been published about this debilitating condition. Early identification is critical for targeted lifesaving intervention. Observations A male infant, born to nonconsanguineous Puerto Rican parents, was referred for management of a pustular eruption diagnosed as pustular psoriasis. At 2 months of age, the infant developed a pustular eruption. After extensive evaluation, he was confirmed to be homozygous for a 175-kb genomic deletion on chromosome 2 that includes the IL1RN gene, commonly found in Puerto Ricans. Therapy with anakinra was initiated, with rapid clearance of skin lesions and resolution of systemic inflammation. Conclusions Recent identification of DIRA as a disease entity, compounded by the limited number of reported cases, makes early identification difficult. It is critical to consider this entity in the differential diagnosis of infantile pustulosis. Targeted therapy with the recombinant human interleukin 1 receptor antagonist anakinra can be lifesaving if initiated early. A high carrier frequency of the 175-kb DIRA-associated genomic deletion in the Puerto Rican population strongly supports testing infants presenting with unexplained pustulosis in patients from this geographic region. PMID:22431714

  14. Attenuation of morphine antinociceptive tolerance by cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Altun, Ahmet; Yildirim, Kemal; Ozdemir, Ercan; Bagcivan, Ihsan; Gursoy, Sinan; Durmus, Nedim

    2015-09-01

    Cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptor antagonists may be useful for their potential to increase or prolong opioid analgesia while attenuating the development of opioid tolerance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AM251 (a selective CB1 antagonist) and JTE907 (a selective CB2 antagonist) on morphine analgesia and tolerance in rats. Adult male Wistar albino rats weighing 205-225 g were used in these experiments. To constitute morphine tolerance, we used a 3 day cumulative dosing regimen. After the last dose of morphine was injected on day 4, morphine tolerance was evaluated by analgesia tests. The analgesic effects of morphine (5 mg/kg), ACEA (a CB1 receptor agonist, 5 mg/kg), JWH-015 (a CB2 receptor agonist, 5 mg/kg), AM251 (1 mg/kg) and JTE907 (5 mg/kg) were considered at 30-min intervals (0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min) by tail-flick and hot-plate analgesia tests. Our findings indicate that ACEA and JWH907 significantly increased morphine analgesia and morphine antinociceptive tolerance in the analgesia tests. In contrast, the data suggested that AM251 and JTE907 significantly attenuated the expression of morphine tolerance. In conclusion, we observed that co-injection of AM251 and JTE907 with morphine attenuated expression of tolerance to morphine analgesic effects and decreased the morphine analgesia.

  15. New insights into the stereochemical requirements of the bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupala, Cecylia S.; Gomez-Gutierrez, Patricia; Perez, Juan J.

    2016-01-01

    Bradykinin (BK) is a member of the kinin family, released in response to inflammation, trauma, burns, shock, allergy and some cardiovascular diseases, provoking vasodilatation and increased vascular permeability among other effects. Their actions are mediated through at least two G-protein coupled receptors, B1 a receptor up-regulated during inflammation episodes or tissue trauma and B2 that is constitutively expressed in a variety of cell types. The goal of the present work is to carry out a structure-activity study of BK B2 antagonism, taking into account the stereochemical features of diverse non-peptide antagonists and the way these features translate into ligand anchoring points to complementary regions of the receptor, through the analysis of the respective ligand-receptor complex. For this purpose an atomistic model of the BK B2 receptor was built by homology modeling and subsequently refined embedded in a lipid bilayer by means of a 600 ns molecular dynamics trajectory. The average structure from the last hundred nanoseconds of the molecular dynamics trajectory was energy minimized and used as model of the receptor for docking studies. For this purpose, a set of compounds with antagonistic profile, covering maximal diversity were selected from the literature. Specifically, the set of compounds include Fasitibant, FR173657, Anatibant, WIN64338, Bradyzide, CHEMBL442294, and JSM10292. Molecules were docked into the BK B2 receptor model and the corresponding complexes analyzed to understand ligand-receptor interactions. The outcome of this study is summarized in a 3D pharmacophore that explains the observed structure-activity results and provides insight into the design of novel molecules with antagonistic profile. To prove the validity of the pharmacophore hypothesized a virtual screening process was also carried out. The pharmacophore was used as query to identify new hits using diverse databases of molecules. The results of this study revealed a set of new

  16. [Advances in the study of small molecule antagonists of chemokine receptors as anti-asthma agents].

    PubMed

    Ji, Hai-jie; Hu, Jin-feng; Chen, Nai-hong

    2011-11-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory respiratory disease accompanied with airway inflammation, airway remodeling and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Chemokines are important for the recruitment of immune cells to the lung, which play an important role in the formation and development of asthma. Targeting the chemokine receptors to anti-inflammation and anti-asthma is a new strategy and some candidate drugs are discovered recently. This review is focused on the development of chemokine receptor antagonists for anti-asthma, which will promote the compound designations.

  17. Evolution of physicochemical properties of melanin concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCHr1) antagonists.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Anders

    2016-10-01

    One pharmacological principle for the treatment of obesity is blockade of the melanin concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCHr1), which in rodents has been shown to be strongly associated with food intake and energy expenditure. However, discovery of safe and efficacious MCHr1 antagonists has proved to be complex. So far, six compounds have been progressed into clinical trials, but clinical validation of the concept is still lacking. An account of discovery of the three most recent clinical candidates targeting the MCHr1 receptor is given, with an emphasis on their physicochemical properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Histamine Receptor 1 and 2 Antagonists Alter Biodistribution of Radioiodine.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Oliver; Yakish, Ellen D; Wang, Li-Ming; Wu, Qi; Hoffman, John M; Morton, Kathryn A

    2015-09-01

    Nuclear medicine technology assumes responsibility for examination-specific patient preparation procedures. This requires a clear understanding of the possible effects of medications on the outcome of examinations. There is evidence that common over-the-counter drugs, histamine 1 (H1) and histamine 2 (H2) receptor blockers and proton pump inhibitors, may directly or indirectly affect thyroid function. The objective was to determine whether short-term use of these drugs alters biodistribution of radioiodine in a rat model. Rats received no drug (controls) or daily subcutaneous injections of H1 blocker (promethazine), H2 blocker (famotidine), or proton pump inhibitor (esomeprazole) commencing 1 d before a single intraperitoneal injection of 0.037 MBq (1 μCi) of (131)I (NaI) and continuing daily until euthanasia at either 1 d or 8 d after (131)I. Organ uptake of (131)I by control and drug-treated rats was compared by γ-well counting. Promethazine significantly increased uptake of (131)I by the thyroid (drug-treated-to-control ratios) both at 1 d (1.32) and 8 d (1.52) after (131)I. Both famotidine and promethazine (respectively) significantly increased salivary gland uptake of (131)I (drug-treated-to-control ratios) at 1 d (1.37, 1.40) and 8 d (4.52, 5.57) after (131)I. Promethazine significantly increased gastric (131)I uptake (drug-treated-to-control ratios) at 1 d (1.47) and 8 d (1.46) after (131)I. Famotidine and promethazine (respectively) significantly decreased uptake of (131)I by the liver (drug-treated-to-control ratios) at 1 d (0.60, 0.71) after (131)I but resulted in a marked increase over control levels (11.21, 9.28) at 8 d. Blood levels of (131)I were not altered by drug treatment. Esomeprazole did not affect radioiodine distribution. H1 and H2 blockers alter the biodistribution of radioiodine in the rat. Although the findings remain to be confirmed in humans, these drugs could increase radiation exposure to nontarget tissues, particularly the stomach

  19. 2-Aminoethyl Methylphosphonate, a Potent and Rapidly Acting Antagonist of GABA A-ρ1 Receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, A.; Yan, J.; Yue, L.

    2011-08-02

    All three classes of receptors for the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA (GABAR) are expressed in the retina. This study investigated roles of GABAR, especially GABA(C)R (GABA(A)-rho), in retinal signaling in vivo by studying effects on the mouse electroretinogram (ERG) of genetic deletion of GABA(C)R versus pharmacological blockade using receptor antagonists. Brief full-field flash ERGs were recorded from anesthetized GABA(C)R(-/-) mice, and WT C57BL/6 (B6) mice, before and after intravitreal injection of GABA(C)R antagonists, TPMPA, 3-APMPA, or the more recently developed 2-AEMP; GABA(A)R antagonist, SR95531; GABA(B)R antagonist, CGP, and agonist, baclofen. Intravitreal injections of TPMPA and SR95531 were also made in Brownmore » Norway rats. The effect of 2-AEMP on GABA-induced current was tested directly in isolated rat rod bipolar cells, and 2-AEMP was found to preferentially block GABA(C)R in those cells. Maximum amplitudes of dark (DA) and light-adapted (LA) ERG b-waves were reduced in GABA(C)R(-/-) mice, compared to B6 mice, by 30-60%; a-waves were unaltered and oscillatory potential amplitudes were increased. In B6 mice, after injection of TPMPA (also in rats), 3-APMPA or 2-AEMP, ERGs became similar to ERGs of GABA(C)R(-/-) mice. Blockade of GABA(A)Rs and GABA(B)Rs, or agonism of GABA(B)Rs did not alter B6 DA b-wave amplitude. The negative scotopic threshold response (nSTR) was slightly less sensitive in GABA(C)R(-/-) than in B6 mice, and unaltered by 2-AEMP. However, amplitudes of nSTR and photopic negative response (PhNR), both of which originate from inner retina, were enhanced by TPMPA and 3-APMPA, each of which has GABA(B) agonist properties, and further increased by baclofen. The finding that genetic deletion of GABA(C)R, the GABA(C)R antagonist 2-AEMP, and other antagonists all reduced ERG b-wave amplitude, supports a role for CABA(C)R in determining the maximum response amplitude of bipolar cells contributing to the b-wave. GABA(C)R antagonists

  20. Different antagonist binding properties of rat pancreatic and cardiac muscarinic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Waelbroeck, M.; Camus, J.; Winand, J.

    1987-11-09

    The antagonist binding properties of rat pancreatic and cardiac muscarinic receptors were compared. In both tissues pirenzepine (PZ) had a low affinity for muscarinic receptors labelled by (/sup 3/H)N-methylscopolamine ((/sup 3/)NMS) (K/sub D/ values of 140 and 280nM, respectively, in pancreatic and cardiac homogenates). The binding properties of pancreatic and cardiac receptors were, however, markedly different. This was indicated by different affinities for dicyclomine, (11-(/(2-((diethylamino)-methyl)-1-piperidinyl/acetyl)-5, 11-dihydro-6H-pyrido(2,3-b)(1,4) benzodiazepin-6-on)(AFDX-116), 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methyl-piperidine methobromide (4-DAMP) and hexahydrosiladifenidol (HHSiD). Pancreatic and cardiac muscarinic receptros also showed different (/sup 3/H)NMS association and dissociation rates. These results support the concept of M2 receptor subtypes have different binding kineticmore » properties. 20 references, 3 figures, 1 table.« less

  1. Early Use of the NMDA Receptor Antagonist Ketamine in Refractory and Superrefractory Status Epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Zeiler, F. A.

    2015-01-01

    Refractory status epilepticus (RSE) and superrefractory status epilepticus (SRSE) pose a difficult clinical challenge. Multiple cerebral receptor and transporter changes occur with prolonged status epilepticus leading to pharmacoresistance patterns unfavorable for conventional antiepileptics. In particular, n-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor upregulation leads to glutamate mediated excitotoxicity. Targeting these NMDA receptors may provide a novel approach to otherwise refractory seizures. Ketamine has been utilized in RSE. Recent systematic review indicates 56.5% and 63.5% cessation in seizures in adults and pediatrics, respectively. No complications were described. We should consider earlier implementation of ketamine or other NMDA receptor antagonists, for RSE. Prospective study of early implementation of ketamine should shed light on the role of such medications in RSE. PMID:25649724

  2. Functional histamine H3 and adenosine A2A receptor heteromers in recombinant cells and rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Márquez-Gómez, Ricardo; Robins, Meridith T; Gutiérrez-Rodelo, Citlaly; Arias, Juan-Manuel; Olivares-Reyes, Jesús-Alberto; van Rijn, Richard M; Arias-Montaño, José-Antonio

    2018-03-01

    In the striatum, histamine H 3 receptors (H 3 Rs) are co-expressed with adenosine A 2A receptors (A 2A Rs) in the cortico-striatal glutamatergic afferents and the GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons that originate the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia. This location allows H 3 Rs and A 2A Rs to regulate the striatal GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission. However, whether these receptors can physically interact has not yet been assessed. To test this hypothesis, a heteromer-selective in vitro assay was used to detect functional complementation between a chimeric A 2A R 302 -Gα qi4 and wild-type H 3 Rs in transfected HEK-293T cells. H 3 R activation with the agonist RAMH resulted in Ca 2+ mobilization (pEC 50 7.31 ± 0.23; maximal stimulation, Emax 449 ± 25% of basal) indicative of receptor heterodimerization. Functional H 3 R-A 2A R heteromers were confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and observations of differential cAMP signaling when both receptors were co-expressed in the same cells. In membranes from rat striatal synaptosomes, H 3 R activation decreased A 2A R affinity for the agonist CGS-21680 (pKi values 8.10 ± 0.04 and 7.70 ± 0.04). Moreover, H 3 Rs and A 2A Rs co-immunoprecipitated in protein extracts from striatal synaptosomes. These results support the existence of a H 3 R-A 2A R heteromer with possible physiological implications for the modulation of the intra-striatal transmission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Major dorsoventral differences in the modulation of the local CA1 hippocampal network by NMDA, mGlu5, adenosine A2A and cannabinoid CB1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Kouvaros, S; Papatheodoropoulos, C

    2016-03-11

    Recent research points to diversification in the local neuronal circuitry between dorsal (DH) and ventral (VH) hippocampus that may be involved in the large-scale functional segregation along the long axis of the hippocampus. Here, using CA1 field recordings from rat hippocampal slices, we show that activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) reduced excitatory transmission more in VH than in DH, with an adenosine A1 receptor-independent mechanism, and reduced inhibition and enhanced postsynaptic excitability only in DH. Strikingly, co-activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor-5 (mGluR5) with NMDAR, by CHPG and NMDA respectively, strongly potentiated the effects of NMDAR in DH but had not any potentiating effect in VH. Furthermore, the synergistic actions in DH were occluded by blockade of adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) by their antagonist ZM 241385 demonstrating a tonic action of these receptors in DH. Exogenous activation of A2ARs by 4-[2-[[6-amino-9-(N-ethyl-β-D-ribofuranuronamidosyl)-9H-purin-2-yl]amino]ethyl]benzenepropanoic acid hydrochloride (CGS 21680) did not change the effects of mGluR5-NMDAR co-activation in either hippocampal pole. Importantly, blockade of cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1Rs) by their antagonist 1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-4-methyl-N-4-morpholinyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (AM 281) restricted the synergistic actions of mGluR5-NMDARs on excitatory synaptic transmission and postsynaptic excitability and abolished their effect on inhibition. Furthermore, AM 281 increased the excitatory transmission only in DH indicating that CB1Rs were tonically active in DH but not VH. Removing the magnesium ions from the perfusion medium neither stimulated the interaction between mGluR5 and NMDAR in VH nor augmented the synergy of the two receptors in DH. These findings show that the NMDAR-dependent modulation of fundamental parameters of the local neuronal network, by mGluR5, A2AR and CB1R, markedly differs between DH and VH. We

  4. Multi-Inhibitory Effects of A2A Adenosine Receptor Signaling on Neutrophil Adhesion Under Flow.

    PubMed

    Yago, Tadayuki; Tsukamoto, Hiroki; Liu, Zhenghui; Wang, Ying; Thompson, Linda F; McEver, Rodger P

    2015-10-15

    A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR) signaling negatively regulates inflammatory responses in many disease models, but the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. We used the selective A2AAR agonist, ATL313, to examine how A2AAR signaling affects human and murine neutrophil adhesion under flow. Treating neutrophils with ATL313 inhibited selectin-induced, β2 integrin-dependent slow rolling and chemokine-induced, β2 integrin-dependent arrest on ICAM-1. ATL313 inhibited selectin-induced β2 integrin extension, which supports slow rolling, and chemokine-induced hybrid domain "swing-out," which supports arrest. Furthermore, ATL313 inhibited integrin outside-in signaling as revealed by reduced neutrophil superoxide production and spreading on immobilized anti-β2 integrin Ab. ATL313 suppressed selectin-triggered activation of Src family kinases (SFKs) and p38 MAPK, chemokine-triggered activation of Ras-related protein 1, and β2 integrin-triggered activation of SFKs and Vav cytoskeletal regulatory proteins. ATL313 activated protein kinase A and its substrate C-terminal Src kinase, an inhibitor of SFKs. Treating neutrophils with a protein kinase A inhibitor blocked the actions of ATL313. In vivo, ATL313-treated neutrophils rolled faster and arrested much less frequently in postcapillary venules of the murine cremaster muscle after TNF-α challenge. Furthermore, ATL313 markedly suppressed neutrophil migration into the peritoneum challenged with thioglycollate. ATL313 did not affect A2AAR-deficient neutrophils, confirming its specificity. Our findings provide new insights into the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of A2AAR signaling and the potential utility of A2AAR agonists in inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  5. Human pregnane X receptor antagonists and agonists define molecular requirements for different binding sites.

    PubMed

    Ekins, Sean; Chang, Cheng; Mani, Sridhar; Krasowski, Matthew D; Reschly, Erica J; Iyer, Manisha; Kholodovych, Vladyslav; Ai, Ni; Welsh, William J; Sinz, Michael; Swaan, Peter W; Patel, Rachana; Bachmann, Kenneth

    2007-09-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) is an important transcriptional regulator of the expression of xenobiotic metabolism and transporter genes. The receptor is promiscuous, binding many structural classes of molecules that act as agonists at the ligand-binding domain, triggering up-regulation of genes, increasing the metabolism and excretion of therapeutic agents, and causing drug-drug interactions. It has been suggested that human PXR antagonists represent a means to counteract such interactions. Several azoles have been hypothesized to bind the activation function-2 (AF-2) surface on the exterior of PXR when agonists are concurrently bound in the ligand-binding domain. In the present study, we have derived novel computational models for PXR agonists using different series of imidazoles, steroids, and a set of diverse molecules with experimental PXR agonist binding data. We have additionally defined a novel pharmacophore for the steroidal agonist site. All agonist pharmacophores showed that hydrophobic features are predominant. In contrast, a qualitative comparison with the corresponding PXR antagonist pharmacophore models using azoles and biphenyls showed that they are smaller and hydrophobic with increased emphasis on hydrogen bonding features. Azole antagonists were docked into a proposed hydrophobic binding pocket on the outer surface at the AF-2 site and fitted comfortably, making interactions with key amino acids involved in charge clamping. Combining computational and experimental data for different classes of molecules provided strong evidence for agonists and antagonists binding distinct regions on PXR. These observations bear significant implications for future discovery of molecules that are more selective and potent antagonists.

  6. Chemical function based pharmacophore generation of endothelin-A selective receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Funk, Oliver F; Kettmann, Viktor; Drimal, Jan; Langer, Thierry

    2004-05-20

    Both quantitative and qualitative chemical function based pharmacophore models of endothelin-A (ET(A)) selective receptor antagonists were generated by using the two algorithms HypoGen and HipHop, respectively, which are implemented in the Catalyst molecular modeling software. The input for HypoGen is a training set of 18 ET(A) antagonists exhibiting IC(50) values ranging between 0.19 nM and 67 microM. The best output hypothesis consists of five features: two hydrophobic (HY), one ring aromatic (RA), one hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA), and one negative ionizable (NI) function. The highest scoring Hip Hop model consists of six features: three hydrophobic (HY), one ring aromatic (RA), one hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA), and one negative ionizable (NI). It is the result of an input of three highly active, selective, and structurally diverse ET(A) antagonists. The predictive power of the quantitative model could be approved by using a test set of 30 compounds, whose activity values spread over 6 orders of magnitude. The two pharmacophores were tested according to their ability to extract known endothelin antagonists from the 3D molecular structure database of Derwent's World Drug Index. Thereby the main part of selective ET(A) antagonistic entries was detected by the two hypotheses. Furthermore, the pharmacophores were used to screen the Maybridge database. Six compounds were chosen from the output hit lists for in vitro testing of their ability to displace endothelin-1 from its receptor. Two of these are new potential lead compounds because they are structurally novel and exhibit satisfactory activity in the binding assay.

  7. Evidence that diclofenac and celecoxib are thyroid hormone receptor beta antagonists.

    PubMed

    Zloh, Mire; Perez-Diaz, Noelia; Tang, Leslie; Patel, Pryank; Mackenzie, Louise S

    2016-02-01

    Long term use of NSAIDs is linked to side effects such as gastric bleeding and myocardial infarction. Use of in silico methods and pharmacology to investigate the potential for NSAIDs diclofenac, celecoxib and naproxen to bind to nuclear receptors. In silico screening predicted that both diclofenac and celecoxib has the potential to bind to a number of different nuclear receptors; docking analysis confirmed a theoretical ability for diclofenac and celecoxib but not naproxen to bind to TRβ. Results from TRβ luciferase reporter assays confirmed that both diclofenac and celecoxib display TRβ antagonistic properties; celecoxib, IC50 3.6 × 10(-6)M, and diclofenac IC50 5.3 × 10(-6)M, comparable to the TRβ antagonist MLS (IC50 3.1 × 10(-6)M). In contrast naproxen, a cardio-sparing NSAID, lacked TRβ antagonist effects. In order to determine the effects of NSAIDs in whole organ in vitro, we used isometric wire myography to measure the changes to Triiodothyronine (T3) induced vasodilation of rat mesenteric arteries. Incubation of arteries in the presence of the TRβ antagonist MLS000389544 (10(-5)M), as well as diclofenac (10(-5)M) and celecoxib (10(-5)M) but not naproxen significantly inhibited T3 induced vasodilation compared to controls. These results highlight the benefits of computational chemistry methods used to retrospectively analyse well known drugs for side effects. Using in silico and in vitro methods we have shown that both celecoxib and diclofenac but not naproxen exhibit off-target TRβ antagonist behaviour, which may be linked to their detrimental side effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Similar efficacy from specific and non-specific mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist treatment of muscular dystrophy mice.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Jeovanna; Floyd, Kyle T; Rastogi, Neha; Schultz, Eric J; Chadwick, Jessica A; Swager, Sarah A; Zins, Jonathan G; Kadakia, Feni K; Smart, Suzanne; Gomez-Sanchez, Elise P; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E; Raman, Subha V; Janssen, Paul M L; Rafael-Fortney, Jill A

    2016-01-01

    Combined treatment with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and a mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist improved cardiac and skeletal muscle function and pathology in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. MR is present in limb and respiratory skeletal muscles and functions as a steroid hormone receptor. The goals of the current study were to compare the efficacy of the specific MR antagonist eplerenone with the non-specific MR antagonist spironolactone, both in combination with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor lisinopril. Three groups of n=18 dystrophin-deficient, utrophin-haploinsufficient male mice were given chow containing: lisinopril plus spironolactone, lisinopril plus eplerenone, or no drug, from four to 20 weeks-of-age. Eighteen C57BL/10 male mice were used as wild-type controls. In vivo measurements included cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, conscious electrocardiography, and grip strength. From each mouse in the study, diaphragm, extensor digitorum longus , and cardiac papillary muscle force was measured ex vivo , followed by histological quantification of muscle damage in heart, diaphragm, quadriceps, and abdominal muscles. MR protein levels were also verified in treated muscles. Treatment with specific and non-specific MR antagonists did not result in any adverse effects to dystrophic skeletal muscles or heart. Both treatments resulted in similar functional and pathological improvements across a wide array of parameters. MR protein levels were not reduced by treatment. These data suggest that spironolactone and eplerenone show similar effects in dystrophic mice and support the clinical development of MR antagonists for treating skeletal muscles in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

  9. A POC Clinical Trial for PTSD with a First-In-Class Vasopressin 1a Receptor Antagonist

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0645 TITLE: A POC Clinical Trial for PTSD with a First-In-Class Vasopressin 1a Receptor Antagonist PRINCIPAL...2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A POC Clinical Trial for PTSD with a First-In-Class Vasopressin 1a Receptor Antagonist 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...Protections Office (HRPO); the hiring and training of personnel that will work on the clinical trial; and the acquisition of equipment and methods set

  10. Discovery of novel dihydrobenzofuran cyclopropane carboxylic acid based calcium sensing receptor antagonists for the treatment of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Gui-Bai; Zhou, Changyou; Huo, Xianghong; Wang, Hank; Yang, Xuelin; Huang, Shaoqiang; Wang, Haisheng; Wilkinson, Hilary; Luo, Lusong; Tang, Wei; Sutton, David; Li, Hong; Zaller, Dennis; Meinke, Peter T

    2016-08-15

    In a search for novel small molecule calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) antagonists as oral bone anabolic agents, we discovered dihydrobenzofuran cyclopropane carboxylic acid derivatives, such as 12f (IC50=27.6nM), are highly potent calcium-sensing receptor antagonists. Studies in rats established that compound 12f stimulates parathyroid hormone (PTH) release in a fast-acting, pulsatile manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. In vitro pharmacological characterization of vorapaxar, a novel platelet thrombin receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Hawes, Brian E; Zhai, Ying; Hesk, David; Wirth, Mark; Wei, Huijun; Chintala, Madhu; Seiffert, Dietmar

    2015-09-05

    Vorapaxar is a novel protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) antagonist recently approved for the reduction of thrombotic cardiovascular events in patients with a history of myocardial infarction or with peripheral arterial disease. The present study provides a comprehensive in vitro pharmacological characterization of vorapaxar interaction with the PAR1 receptor on human platelets. Similar studies were performed with a metabolite of vorapaxar (M20). Vorapaxar and M20 were competitive PAR1 antagonists that demonstrated concentration-dependent, saturable, specific, and slowly reversible binding to the receptor present on intact human platelets. The affinities of vorapaxar and M20 for the PAR1 receptor were in the low nanomolar range, as determined by saturation-, kinetic- and competitive binding studies. The calculated Kd and Ki values for vorapaxar increased in the presence of plasma, indicating a decrease in the free fraction available for binding to the PAR1 receptor on human platelets. Vorapaxar was also evaluated in functional assays using thrombin or a PAR1 agonist peptide (SFLLRN). Vorapaxar and M20 completely blocked thrombin-stimulated PAR1/β-arrestin association in recombinant cells and abolished thrombin-stimulated calcium influx in washed human platelets and vascular smooth muscle cells. Moreover, vorapaxar and M20 inhibited PAR1 agonist peptide-mediated platelet aggregation in human platelet rich plasma with a steep concentration response relationship. Vorapaxar exhibited high selectivity for inhibition of PAR1 over other platelet GPCRs. In conclusion, vorapaxar is a potent PAR1 antagonist exhibiting saturable, reversible, selective binding with slow off-rate kinetics and effectively inhibits thrombin's PAR1-mediated actions on human platelets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Nucleus Accumbens Adenosine A2A Receptors Regulate Exertion of Effort by Acting on the Ventral Striatopallidal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mingote, Susana; Font, Laura; Farrar, Andrew M.; Vontell, Regina; Worden, Lila T.; Stopper, Colin M.; Port, Russell G.; Sink, Kelly S.; Bunce, Jamie G.; Chrobak, James J.; Salamone, John D.

    2009-01-01

    Goal-directed actions are sensitive to work-related response costs, and dopamine in nucleus accumbens is thought to modulate the exertion of effort in motivated behavior. Dopamine-rich striatal areas such as nucleus accumbens also contain high numbers of adenosine A2A receptors, and, for that reason, the behavioral and neurochemical effects of the adenosine A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680 [2-p-(2-carboxyethyl) phenethylamino-5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine] were investigated. Stimulation of accumbens adenosine A2A receptors disrupted performance of an instrumental task with high work demands (i.e., an interval lever-pressing schedule with a ratio requirement attached) but had little effect on a task with a lower work requirement. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that accumbens neurons that project to the ventral pallidum showed adenosine A2A receptors immunoreactivity. Moreover, activation of accumbens A2A receptors by local injections of CGS 21680 increased extracellular GABA levels in the ventral pallidum. Combined contralateral injections of CGS 21680 into the accumbens and the GABAA agonist muscimol into ventral pallidum (i.e., “disconnection” methods) also impaired response output, indicating that these structures are part of a common neural circuitry regulating the exertion of effort. Thus, accumbens adenosine A2A receptors appear to regulate behavioral activation and effort-related processes by modulating the activity of the ventral striatopallidal pathway. Research on the effort-related functions of these forebrain systems may lead to a greater understanding of pathological features of motivation, such as psychomotor slowing, anergia, and fatigue in depression. PMID:18768698

  13. The antidepressant-like effect of inosine in the FST is associated with both adenosine A1 and A 2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Kaster, Manuella P; Budni, Josiane; Gazal, Marta; Cunha, Mauricio P; Santos, Adair R S; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2013-09-01

    Inosine is an endogenous purine nucleoside, which is formed during the breakdown of adenosine. The adenosinergic system was already described as capable of modulating mood in preclinical models; we now explored the effects of inosine in two predictive models of depression: the forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). Mice treated with inosine displayed higher anti-immobility in the FST (5 and 50 mg/kg, intraperitoneal route (i.p.)) and in the TST (1 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) when compared to vehicle-treated groups. These antidepressant-like effects started 30 min and lasted for 2 h after intraperitoneal administration of inosine and were not accompanied by any changes in the ambulatory activity in the open-field test. Both adenosine A1 and A2A receptor antagonists prevented the antidepressant-like effect of inosine in the FST. In addition, the administration of an adenosine deaminase inhibitor (1 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) also caused an antidepressant-like effect in the FST. These results indicate that inosine possesses an antidepressant-like effect in the FST and TST probably through the activation of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors, further reinforcing the potential of targeting the purinergic system to the management of mood disorders.

  14. [Hepatotoxicity in patients treated with endothelin receptor antagonists: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials].

    PubMed

    Macías Saint-Gerons, Diego; de la Fuente Honrubia, César; Montero Corominas, Dolores; Catalá-López, Ferrán

    2014-04-22

    We evaluated the risk of hepatotoxicity associated to endothelin receptor antagonists. Systematic searches in PubMed/MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library as well as regulatory agencies websites were performed. Randomized controlled trials in patients receiving endothelin receptor antagonists (bosentan, sitaxentan or ambrisentan) in at least one treatment group were included. Prior to data extraction, definitions of hepatotoxicity were established. Effect sizes with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using random effects models. Heterogeneity was analysed using Cochran's Q and I(2) tests. Publication bias was assessed using Egger's method and funnel plots were generated. Twenty-one trials met the inclusion criteria (3,644 patients). Bosentan was the evaluated drug in 1,689 (74%) patients who received endothelin receptor antagonists. Compared with controls, relative risk for any hepatic adverse reaction was 2.92 (1.85-4.62; I(2)=30.6%). When hepatotoxicity was defined as elevations of liver alanine or aspartate aminotransferases equal or greater than 3 times the upper limit of normal, relative risk was 2.98 (1.69-5.25; I(2) = 40.9%). No evidence of publication bias was found (Egger's method: p = 0.68). Our results suggest an increased risk of hepatotoxicity in patients receiving endothelin receptor antagonists. Given the limited data available for endothelin receptor antagonists other than bosentan, it is not possible to draw firm conclusions about the individual risk associated for the remaining endothelin receptor antagonists. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Nonpeptidic urotensin-II receptor antagonists I: in vitro pharmacological characterization of SB-706375

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Stephen A; Behm, David J; Aiyar, Nambi V; Naselsky, Diane; Disa, Jyoti; Brooks, David P; Ohlstein, Eliot H; Gleason, John G; Sarau, Henry M; Foley, James J; Buckley, Peter T; Schmidt, Dulcie B; Wixted, William E; Widdowson, Katherine; Riley, Graham; Jin, Jian; Gallagher, Timothy F; Schmidt, Stanley J; Ridgers, Lance; Christmann, Lisa T; Keenan, Richard M; Knight, Steven D; Dhanak, Dashyant

    2005-01-01

    SB-706375 potently inhibited [125I]hU-II binding to both mammalian recombinant and ‘native' UT receptors (Ki 4.7±1.5 to 20.7±3.6 nM at rodent, feline and primate recombinant UT receptors and Ki 5.4±0.4 nM at the endogenous UT receptor in SJRH30 cells). Prior exposure to SB-706375 (1 μM, 30 min) did not alter [125I]hU-II binding affinity or density in recombinant cells (KD 3.1±0.4 vs 5.8±0.9 nM and Bmax 3.1±1.0 vs 2.8±0.8 pmol mg−1) consistent with a reversible mode of action. The novel, nonpeptidic radioligand [3H]SB-657510, a close analogue of SB-706375, bound to the monkey UT receptor (KD 2.6±0.4 nM, Bmax 0.86±0.12 pmol mg−1) in a manner that was inhibited by both U-II isopeptides and SB-706375 (Ki 4.6±1.4 to 17.6±5.4 nM) consistent with the sulphonamides and native U-II ligands sharing a common UT receptor binding domain. SB-706375 was a potent, competitive hU-II antagonist across species with pKb 7.29–8.00 in HEK293-UT receptor cells (inhibition of [Ca2+]i-mobilization) and pKb 7.47 in rat isolated aorta (inhibition of contraction). SB-706375 also reversed tone established in the rat aorta by prior exposure to hU-II (Kapp∼20 nM). SB-706375 was a selective U-II antagonist with ⩾100-fold selectivity for the human UT receptor compared to 86 distinct receptors, ion channels, enzymes, transporters and nuclear hormones (Ki/IC50>1 μM). Accordingly, the contractile responses induced in isolated aortae by KCl, phenylephrine, angiotensin II and endothelin-1 were unaltered by SB-706375 (1 μM). In summary, SB-706375 is a high-affinity, surmountable, reversible and selective nonpeptide UT receptor antagonist with cross-species activity that will assist in delineating the pathophysiological actions of U-II in mammals. PMID:15852036

  16. Augmentation of spinal morphine analgesia and inhibition of tolerance by low doses of μ- and δ-opioid receptor antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Abul-Husn, N S; Sutak, M; Milne, B; Jhamandas, K

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Ultralow doses of naltrexone, a non-selective opioid antagonist, have previously been found to augment acute morphine analgesia and block the development of tolerance to this effect. Since morphine tolerance is dependent on the activity of μ and δ receptors, the present study investigated the effects of ultralow doses of antagonists selective for these receptor types on morphine analgesia and tolerance in tests of thermal and mechanical nociception. Experimental approach: Effects of intrathecal administration of μ-receptor antagonists, CTOP (0.01 ng) or CTAP (0.001 ng), or a δ-receptor antagonist, naltrindole (0.01 ng), on spinal morphine analgesia and tolerance were evaluated using the tail-flick and paw-pressure tests in rats. Key results: Both μ and δ antagonists augmented analgesia produced by a sub-maximal (5 μg) or maximal (15 μg) dose of morphine. Administration of the antagonists with morphine (15 μg) for 5 days inhibited the progressive decline of analgesia and prevented the loss of morphine potency. In animals exhibiting tolerance to morphine, administration of the antagonists with morphine produced a recovery of the analgesic response and restored morphine potency. Conclusions and implications: Combining ultralow doses of μ- or δ-receptor antagonists with spinal morphine augmented the acute analgesic effects, inhibited the induction of chronic tolerance and reversed established tolerance. The remarkably similar effects of μ- and δ-opioid receptor antagonists on morphine analgesia and tolerance are interpreted in terms of blockade of the latent excitatory effects of the agonist that limit expression of its full activity. PMID:17502848

  17. Membrane omega-3 fatty acids modulate the oligomerisation kinetics of adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guixà-González, Ramon; Javanainen, Matti; Gómez-Soler, Maricel; Cordobilla, Begoña; Domingo, Joan Carles; Sanz, Ferran; Pastor, Manuel; Ciruela, Francisco; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Selent, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Membrane levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA), are decreased in common neuropsychiatric disorders. DHA modulates key cell membrane properties like fluidity, thereby affecting the behaviour of transmembrane proteins like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). These receptors, which have special relevance for major neuropsychiatric disorders have recently been shown to form dimers or higher order oligomers, and evidence suggests that DHA levels affect GPCR function by modulating oligomerisation. In this study, we assessed the effect of membrane DHA content on the formation of a class of protein complexes with particular relevance for brain disease: adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptor oligomers. Using extensive multiscale computer modelling, we find a marked propensity of DHA for interaction with both A2A and D2 receptors, which leads to an increased rate of receptor oligomerisation. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) experiments performed on living cells suggest that this DHA effect on the oligomerisation of A2A and D2 receptors is purely kinetic. This work reveals for the first time that membrane ω-3 PUFAs play a key role in GPCR oligomerisation kinetics, which may have important implications for neuropsychiatric conditions like schizophrenia or Parkinson’s disease.

  18. Structure of CC chemokine receptor 2 with orthosteric and allosteric antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Yi; Qin, Ling; Zacarías, Natalia V. Ortiz

    2016-12-07

    CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) is one of 19 members of the chemokine receptor subfamily of human class A G-protein-coupled receptors. CCR2 is expressed on monocytes, immature dendritic cells, and T-cell subpopulations, and mediates their migration towards endogenous CC chemokine ligands such as CCL2 (ref. 1). CCR2 and its ligands are implicated in numerous inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases2 including atherosclerosis, multiple sclerosis, asthma, neuropathic pain, and diabetic nephropathy, as well as cancer3. These disease associations have motivated numerous preclinical studies and clinical trials4 (see http://www.clinicaltrials.gov) in search of therapies that target the CCR2–chemokine axis. To aid drug discovery efforts5, heremore » we solve a structure of CCR2 in a ternary complex with an orthosteric (BMS-681 (ref. 6)) and allosteric (CCR2-RA-[R]7) antagonist. BMS-681 inhibits chemokine binding by occupying the orthosteric pocket of the receptor in a previously unseen binding mode. CCR2-RA-[R] binds in a novel, highly druggable pocket that is the most intracellular allosteric site observed in class A G-protein-coupled receptors so far; this site spatially overlaps the G-protein-binding site in homologous receptors. CCR2-RA-[R] inhibits CCR2 non-competitively by blocking activation-associated conformational changes and formation of the G-protein-binding interface. The conformational signature of the conserved microswitch residues observed in double-antagonist-bound CCR2 resembles the most inactive G-protein-coupled receptor structures solved so far. Like other protein–protein interactions, receptor–chemokine complexes are considered challenging therapeutic targets for small molecules, and the present structure suggests diverse pocket epitopes that can be exploited to overcome obstacles in drug design.« less

  19. Ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists and cancer therapy: time to think out of the box?

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Mariana P C; Custódio, José B A; Santos, Armanda E

    2017-02-01

    Glutamate has a trophic function in the development of the central nervous system, regulating the proliferation and migration of neuronal progenitors. The resemblance between neuronal embryonic and tumor cells has paved the way for the investigation of the effects of glutamate on tumor cells. Indeed, tumor cells derived from neuronal tissue express ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluRs) subunits and iGluR antagonists decrease cell proliferation. Likewise, iGluRs subunits are expressed in several peripheral cancer cells and blockade of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) ionotropic glutamate receptor subtypes decreases their proliferation and migration. Although these mechanisms are still being investigated, the inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway was shown to play a key role in the antiproliferative activity of iGluR antagonists. Importantly, MK-801, a NMDAR channel blocker, was effective and well tolerated in animal models of melanoma, lung, and breast cancers, suggesting that the blockade of iGluR signaling may represent a new strategy for cancer treatment. In this review, we focus on the significance of NMDA and AMPA receptor expression in tumor cells, as well as possible therapeutic strategies targeting these receptors.

  20. Recent advances in histamine H3 receptor antagonists/inverse agonists.

    PubMed

    Łazewska, Dorota; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2010-09-01

    Histamine H(3) receptor (H(3)R) antagonists/inverse agonists can be therapeutically useful in the treatment of various CNS, metabolic syndrome and allergic disorders, and constitute an attractive target in the search for new drugs. However, several drug candidates have been rejected because of unwanted effects. There is, therefore, a strong need to develop new H(3)R ligands. A review was conducted of recent advances in the search for H(3)R antagonists/inverse agonists as reflected by patent applications/patents over the last 3 years. A total of around 100 patent applications/patents along with selected peer-reviewed publications are surveyed. These involve antagonists/inverse agonists of H(3)R, which the authors have divided into five groups. The above-mentioned compounds were evaluated for their potential utility in the treatment of narcolepsy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, obesity and neuropathic pain. Several H(3)R antagonists/inverse agonists appear to be promising drug candidates, including at least 15 compounds undergoing evaluation in clinical development. Especially interesting is pitolisant, which is progressing through to Phase III clinical trials.

  1. SAR studies of 6-aryl-1,3-dihydrobenzimidazol-2-ones as progesterone receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Terefenko, Eugene A; Kern, Jeffrey; Fensome, Andrew; Wrobel, Jay; Zhu, Yuan; Cohen, Jeffrey; Winneker, Richard; Zhang, Zhiming; Zhang, Puwen

    2005-08-01

    We have previously reported that the aryl substituted benzimidazolones, benzoxazinones, and oxindoles (e.g., 1-3) are progesterone receptor (PR) antagonists and have recently disclosed that the nature of 5- and 6-aryl moieties played a critical role in PR functional activity in the oxindole and benzoxazinone templates. For example, replacing the phenyl group of PR antagonists 2 and 3 with a 5'-cyanopyrrol-2'-yl moiety switched their functional activity to PR agonist activity (2a and 3a). These findings prompted us to examine if there is a similar effect of the 6-aryl moieties on the PR functional activity for the benzimidazolone template. Numerous analogs, such as 5, showed potent PR antagonist activity with about a 10-fold increase in potency as compared to those reported earlier in the same series. More interestingly, pyrrole-containing benzimidazolones 24-27 remained as PR antagonists in contrast to the PR agonist activity switch for oxindole and benzoxazinone scaffolds when a 5'-cyanopyrrol-2'-yl group was installed as a pendant aryl group.

  2. CCR5 receptor antagonists in preclinical to phase II clinical development for treatment of HIV

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Michelle B.; Giesler, Kyle E.; Tahirovic, Yesim A.; Truax, Valarie M.; Liotta, Dennis C.; Wilson, Lawrence J.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The chemokine receptor CCR5 has garnered significant attention in recent years as a target to treat HIV infection largely due to the approval and success of the drug Maraviroc. The side effects and inefficiencies with other first generation agents led to failed clinical trials, prompting the development of newer CCR5 antagonists. Areas covered This review aims to survey the current status of ‘next generation’ CCR5 antagonists in the preclinical pipeline with an emphasis on emerging agents for the treatment of HIV infection. These efforts have culminated in the identification of advanced second-generation agents to reach the clinic and the dual CCR5/CCR2 antagonist Cenicriviroc as the most advanced currently in phase II clinical studies. Expert opinion The clinical success of CCR5 inhibitors for treatment of HIV infection has rested largely on studies of Maraviroc and a second-generation dual CCR5/CCR2 antagonist Cenicriviroc. Although research efforts identified several promising preclinical candidates, these were dropped during early clinical studies. Despite patient access to Maraviroc, there is insufficient enthusiasm surrounding its use as front-line therapy for treatment of HIV. The non-HIV infection related development activities for Maraviroc and Cenicriviroc may help drive future interests. PMID:27791451

  3. Investigational glucagon receptor antagonists in Phase I and II clinical trials for diabetes.

    PubMed

    Scheen, André J; Paquot, Nicolas; Lefèbvre, Pierre J

    2017-12-01

    Despite type 2 diabetes (T2D) being recognized as a bihormonal pancreatic disease, current therapies are mainly focusing on insulin, while targeting glucagon has been long dismissed. However, glucagon receptor (GCGr) antagonists are currently investigated in clinical trials. Area covered: Following a brief description of the rationale for antagonizing GCGr in T2D, lessons from GCGr knock-out mice and pharmacological means to antagonize GCGr, a detailed description of the main results obtained with GCGr antagonists in Phase I-II clinical trials is provided. The development of several small molecules has been discontinued, while new ones are currently considered as well as innovative approaches such as monoclonal antibodies or antisense oligonucleotides inhibiting GCGr gene expression. Their potential benefits but also limitations are discussed. Expert opinion: The proof-of-concept that antagonizing GCGr improves glucose control in T2D has been confirmed in humans. Nevertheless, some adverse events led to stopping the development of some of these GCGr antagonists. New approaches seem to have a better benefit/risk balance, although none has progressed to Phase III clinical trials so far. Pharmacotherapy of T2D is becoming a highly competitive field so that GCGr antagonists should provide clear advantages over numerous existing glucose-lowering medications before eventually reaching clinical practice.

  4. Do Histamine receptor 3 antagonists have a place in the therapy for schizophrenia?

    PubMed

    Ellenbroek, Bart A; Ghiabi, Bibinaz

    2015-01-01

    In spite of almost 60 years of experience with the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia, there is still a large unmet medical need for better control of especially the negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. One potential new avenue is the selective blockade of histamine H3 receptors (H3R). Based on a large basis of preclinical data, H3R antagonists or inverse agonists have been suggested to improve cognition in a variety of neurological and psychiatric indications. The aim of the present paper is to review the potential usefulness of H3R antagonists for the treatment of schizophrenia. Although, so far no H3R antagonist has been marketed and many phase II and III studies are still underway, the available data seem to indicate that H3R antagonists may not be primarily effective against the positive symptoms (i.e. the psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions) but may hold a promise as add-on therapy for selectively improving cognitive and perhaps negative symptoms.

  5. ``In silico'' study of the binding of two novel antagonists to the nociceptin receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Longa, Stefano; Arcovito, Alessandro

    2018-02-01

    Antagonists of the nociceptin receptor (NOP) are raising interest for their possible clinical use as antidepressant drugs. Recently, the structure of NOP in complex with some piperidine-based antagonists has been revealed by X-ray crystallography. In this study, a multi-flexible docking (MF-docking) procedure, i.e. docking to multiple receptor conformations extracted by preliminary molecular dynamics trajectories, together with hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) simulations have been carried out to provide the binding mode of two novel NOP antagonists, one of them selective (BTRX-246040, formerly named LY-2940094) and one non selective (AT-076), i.e. able to inactivate NOP as well as the classical µ- k- and δ-opioid receptors (MOP KOP and DOP). According to our results, the pivotal role of residue D1303,32 (upper indexes are Ballesteros-Weinstein notations) is analogous to that enlighten by the already known X-ray structures of opioid receptors: binding of the molecules are predicted to require a slight readjustment of the hydrophobic pocket (residues Y1313,33, M1343,36, I2195,43, Q2806,52 and V2836,55) in the orthosteric site of NOP, accommodating either the pyridine-pyrazole (BTRX-246040) or the isoquinoline (AT-076) moiety of the ligand, in turn allowing the protonated piperidine nitrogen to maximize interaction (salt-bridge) with residue D1303,32 of the NOP, and the aromatic head to be sandwiched in optimal π-stacking between Y1313,33 and M1343,36. The QM/MM optimization after the MF-docking procedure has provided the more likely conformations for the binding to the NOP receptor of BTRX-246040 and AT-076, based on different pharmacophores and exhibiting different selectivity profiles. While the high selectivity for NOP of BTRX-246040 can be explained by interactions with NOP specific residues, the lack of selectivity of AT-076 could be associated to its ability to penetrate into the deep hydrophobic pocket of NOP, while retaining a

  6. "In silico" study of the binding of two novel antagonists to the nociceptin receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Longa, Stefano; Arcovito, Alessandro

    2018-01-01

    Antagonists of the nociceptin receptor (NOP) are raising interest for their possible clinical use as antidepressant drugs. Recently, the structure of NOP in complex with some piperidine-based antagonists has been revealed by X-ray crystallography. In this study, a multi-flexible docking (MF-docking) procedure, i.e. docking to multiple receptor conformations extracted by preliminary molecular dynamics trajectories, together with hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) simulations have been carried out to provide the binding mode of two novel NOP antagonists, one of them selective (BTRX-246040, formerly named LY-2940094) and one non selective (AT-076), i.e. able to inactivate NOP as well as the classical µ- k- and δ-opioid receptors (MOP KOP and DOP). According to our results, the pivotal role of residue D1303,32 (upper indexes are Ballesteros-Weinstein notations) is analogous to that enlighten by the already known X-ray structures of opioid receptors: binding of the molecules are predicted to require a slight readjustment of the hydrophobic pocket (residues Y1313,33, M1343,36, I2195,43, Q2806,52 and V2836,55) in the orthosteric site of NOP, accommodating either the pyridine-pyrazole (BTRX-246040) or the isoquinoline (AT-076) moiety of the ligand, in turn allowing the protonated piperidine nitrogen to maximize interaction (salt-bridge) with residue D1303,32 of the NOP, and the aromatic head to be sandwiched in optimal π-stacking between Y1313,33 and M1343,36. The QM/MM optimization after the MF-docking procedure has provided the more likely conformations for the binding to the NOP receptor of BTRX-246040 and AT-076, based on different pharmacophores and exhibiting different selectivity profiles. While the high selectivity for NOP of BTRX-246040 can be explained by interactions with NOP specific residues, the lack of selectivity of AT-076 could be associated to its ability to penetrate into the deep hydrophobic pocket of NOP, while retaining a

  7. Adenosine A(2A) receptor up-regulates retinal wave frequency via starburst amacrine cells in the developing rat retina.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pin-Chien; Hsiao, Yu-Tien; Kao, Shao-Yen; Chen, Ching-Feng; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Chiang, Chung-Wei; Lee, Chien-Fei; Lu, Juu-Chin; Chern, Yijuang; Wang, Chih-Tien

    2014-01-01

    Developing retinas display retinal waves, the patterned spontaneous activity essential for circuit refinement. During the first postnatal week in rodents, retinal waves are mediated by synaptic transmission between starburst amacrine cells (SACs) and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). The neuromodulator adenosine is essential for the generation of retinal waves. However, the cellular basis underlying adenosine's regulation of retinal waves remains elusive. Here, we investigated whether and how the adenosine A(2A) receptor (A(2A)R) regulates retinal waves and whether A(2A)R regulation of retinal waves acts via presynaptic SACs. We showed that A(2A)R was expressed in the inner plexiform layer and ganglion cell layer of the developing rat retina. Knockdown of A(2A)R decreased the frequency of spontaneous Ca²⁺ transients, suggesting that endogenous A(2A)R may up-regulate wave frequency. To investigate whether A(2A)R acts via presynaptic SACs, we targeted gene expression to SACs by the metabotropic glutamate receptor type II promoter. Ca²⁺ transient frequency was increased by expressing wild-type A(2A)R (A2AR-WT) in SACs, suggesting that A(2A)R may up-regulate retinal waves via presynaptic SACs. Subsequent patch-clamp recordings on RGCs revealed that presynaptic A(2A)R-WT increased the frequency of wave-associated postsynaptic currents (PSCs) or depolarizations compared to the control, without changing the RGC's excitability, membrane potentials, or PSC charge. These findings suggest that presynaptic A(2A)R may not affect the membrane properties of postsynaptic RGCs. In contrast, by expressing the C-terminal truncated A(2A)R mutant (A(2A)R-ΔC) in SACs, the wave frequency was reduced compared to the A(2A)R-WT, but was similar to the control, suggesting that the full-length A(2A)R in SACs is required for A(2A)R up-regulation of retinal waves. A(2A)R up-regulates the frequency of retinal waves via presynaptic SACs, requiring its full-length protein structure. Thus, by

  8. Toll-like receptor 4 antagonist TAK-242 inhibits autoinflammatory symptoms in DITRA.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Akitaka; Sugiura, Kazumitsu; Furuta, Yasuhide; Mukumoto, Yoshiko; Kaminuma, Osamu; Akiyama, Masashi

    2017-06-01

    IL36RN encodes the IL-36 receptor antagonist (IL-36Ra), and loss-of-function mutations in IL36RN define a recessively inherited autoinflammatory disease named "deficiency of IL-36Ra" (DITRA). DITRA causes systemic autoinflammatory diseases, including generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP), an occasionally life-threatening disease that is characterized by widespread sterile pustules on the skin, fever and other systemic symptoms. GPP can present at any age, and provocative factors include various infections, medicines and pregnancy. We aimed to elucidate the role of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling in DITRA and to innovate an efficient treatment for DITRA. We generated Il36rn -/- mice and treated them with TLR4 agonist to establish DITRA model mice. Furthermore, we administrated TLR4 antagonist TAK-242 to the model mice to inhibit the DITRA symptoms. Il36rn -/- mice treated by TLR4 agonist showed autoinflammatory symptoms in skin, articulation and liver. Thus, we established model mice for DITRA or GPP that show cutaneous, articular, and hepatic autoinflammatory symptoms typical of DITRA or GPP: sterile pustules on the skin, liver abscesses and enthesitis of the hind paws. Additionally, these symptoms were canceled by TAK-242 administration. We demonstrated the inhibitory effects of the TLR4 antagonist TAK-242 on the autoinflammatory symptoms exhibited by the DITRA models. We suggested that blockage of TLR4 signaling is a promising treatment for DITRA and GPP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Novel Toll-like receptor-4 antagonist (+)-naloxone protects mice from inflammation-induced preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Chin, Peck Yin; Dorian, Camilla L; Hutchinson, Mark R; Olson, David M; Rice, Kenner C; Moldenhauer, Lachlan M; Robertson, Sarah A

    2016-11-07

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation by bacterial infection, or by sterile inflammatory insult is a primary trigger of spontaneous preterm birth. Here we utilize mouse models to investigate the efficacy of a novel small molecule TLR4 antagonist, (+)-naloxone, the non-opioid isomer of the opioid receptor antagonist (-)-naloxone, in infection-associated preterm birth. Treatment with (+)-naloxone prevented preterm delivery and alleviated fetal demise in utero elicited by i.p. LPS administration in late gestation. A similar effect with protection from preterm birth and perinatal death, and partial correction of reduced birth weight and postnatal mortality, was conferred by (+)-naloxone administration after intrauterine administration of heat-killed E. coli. Local induction by E. coli of inflammatory cytokine genes Il1b, Il6, Tnf and Il10 in fetal membranes was suppressed by (+)-naloxone, and cytokine expression in the placenta, and uterine myometrium and decidua, was also attenuated. These data demonstrate that inhibition of TLR4 signaling with the novel TLR4 antagonist (+)-naloxone can suppress the inflammatory cascade of preterm parturition, to prevent preterm birth and perinatal death. Further studies are warranted to investigate the utility of small molecule inhibition of TLR-driven inflammation as a component of strategies for fetal protection and delaying preterm birth in the clinical setting.

  10. Stereochemistry of quinoxaline antagonist binding to a glutamate receptor investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Madden, D R; Thiran, S; Zimmermann, H; Romm, J; Jayaraman, V

    2001-10-12

    The stereochemistry of the interactions between quinoxaline antagonists and the ligand-binding domain of the glutamate receptor 4 (GluR4) have been investigated by probing their vibrational modes using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In solution, the electron-withdrawing nitro groups of both compounds establish a resonance equilibrium that appears to stabilize the keto form of one of the cyclic amide carbonyl bonds. Changes in the 6,7-dinitro-2,3-dihydroxyquinoxaline vibrational spectra on binding to the glutamate receptor, interpreted within the framework of a published crystal structure, illuminate the stereochemistry of the interaction and suggest that the binding site imposes a more polarized electronic bonding configuration on this antagonist. Similar spectral changes are observed for 6-cyano-7-dinitro-2,3-dihydroxyquinoxaline, confirming that its interactions with the binding site are highly similar to those of 6,7-dinitro-2,3-dihydroxyquinoxaline and leading to a model of the 6-cyano-7-dinitro-2,3-dihydroxyquinoxaline-S1S2 complex, for which no crystal structure is available. Conformational changes within the GluR ligand binding domain were also monitored. Compared with the previously reported spectral changes seen on binding of the agonist glutamate, only a relatively small change is detected on antagonist binding. This correlation between the functional effects of different classes of ligand and the magnitude of the spectroscopic changes they induce suggests that the spectral data reflect physiologically relevant conformational processes.

  11. Amino acid conjugates of lithocholic acid as antagonists of the EphA2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Incerti, Matteo; Tognolini, Massimiliano; Russo, Simonetta; Pala, Daniele; Giorgio, Carmine; Hassan-Mohamed, Iftiin; Noberini, Roberta; Pasquale, Elena B; Vicini, Paola; Piersanti, Silvia; Rivara, Silvia; Barocelli, Elisabetta; Mor, Marco; Lodola, Alessio

    2013-04-11

    The Eph receptor-ephrin system is an emerging target for the development of novel antiangiogenetic agents. We recently identified lithocholic acid (LCA) as a small molecule able to block EphA2-dependent signals in cancer cells, suggesting that its (5β)-cholan-24-oic acid scaffold can be used as a template to design a new generation of improved EphA2 antagonists. Here, we report the design and synthesis of an extended set of LCA derivatives obtained by conjugation of its carboxyl group with different α-amino acids. Structure-activity relationships indicate that the presence of a lipophilic amino acid side chain is fundamental to achieve good potencies. The l-Trp derivative (20, PCM126) was the most potent antagonist of the series disrupting EphA2-ephrinA1 interaction and blocking EphA2 phosphorylation in prostate cancer cells at low μM concentrations, thus being significantly more potent than LCA. Compound 20 is among the most potent small-molecule antagonists of the EphA2 receptor.

  12. Natural variants of cytotoxic epitopes are T-cell receptor antagonists for antiviral cytotoxic T cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoletti, Antonio; Sette, Alessandro; Chisari, Francis V.; Penna, Amalia; Levrero, Massimo; Carli, Marco De; Fiaccadori, Franco; Ferrari, Carlo

    1994-06-01

    IT has been suggested that mutations within immunodominant cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes may be exploited by viruses to evade protective immune responses critical for clearance1-4. Viral escape could originate from passive mechanisms, such as mutations within crucial CTL epitopes, either affecting major histocompatibility complex binding or T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) recognition. Additionally, it has recently been shown that substitutions of TCR contact sites can yield analogue peptides that can still interact with the T-cell receptor but be unable to deliver a full stimulatory signal, thus inducing anergy5 or acting as an antagonist for the TCR6-8. We report here that hepatitis B virus isolates derived from two chronically infected patients display variant epitopes that act as natural TCR antagonists with the capacity to inhibit the CTL response to the wild-type epitope. During natural infection, TCR antagonist mutations of CTL epitopes could contribute to the development of viral persistence, especially if the antiviral CTL response is monospecific or the epitope is strongly immunodominant.

  13. Microbiome-Derived Tryptophan Metabolites and Their Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Dependent Agonist and Antagonist Activities

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Un-Ho; Lee, Syng-Ook; Sridharan, Gautham; Lee, Kyongbum; Davidson, Laurie A.; Jayaraman, Arul; Chapkin, Robert S.; Alaniz, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The tryptophan metabolites indole, indole-3-acetate, and tryptamine were identified in mouse cecal extracts and fecal pellets by mass spectrometry. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonist and antagonist activities of these microbiota-derived compounds were investigated in CaCo-2 intestinal cells as a model for understanding their interactions with colonic tissue, which is highly aryl hydrocarbon (Ah)–responsive. Activation of Ah-responsive genes demonstrated that tryptamine and indole 3-acetate were AHR agonists, whereas indole was an AHR antagonist that inhibited TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin)–induced CYP1A1 expression. In contrast, the tryptophan metabolites exhibited minimal anti-inflammatory activities, whereas TCDD decreased phorbol ester-induced CXCR4 [chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4] gene expression, and this response was AHR dependent. These results demonstrate that the tryptophan metabolites indole, tryptamine, and indole-3-acetate modulate AHR-mediated responses in CaCo-2 cells, and concentrations of indole that exhibit AHR antagonist activity (100–250 μM) are detected in the intestinal microbiome. PMID:24563545

  14. Discovery of Highly Potent Dual Orexin Receptor Antagonists via a Scaffold-Hopping Approach.

    PubMed

    Heidmann, Bibia; Gatfield, John; Roch, Catherine; Treiber, Alexander; Tortoioli, Simone; Brotschi, Christine; Williams, Jodi T; Bolli, Martin H; Abele, Stefan; Sifferlen, Thierry; Jenck, François; Boss, Christoph

    2016-10-06

    Starting from suvorexant (trade name Belsomra), we successfully identified interesting templates leading to potent dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs) via a scaffold-hopping approach. Structure-activity relationship optimization allowed us not only to improve the antagonistic potency on both orexin 1 and orexin 2 receptors (Ox1 and Ox2, respectively), but also to increase metabolic stability in human liver microsomes (HLM), decrease time-dependent inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, and decrease P-glycoprotein (Pgp)-mediated efflux. Compound 80 c [{(1S,6R)-3-(6,7-difluoroquinoxalin-2-yl)-3,8-diazabicyclo[4.2.0]octan-8-yl}(4-methyl-[1,1'-biphenyl]-2-yl)methanone] is a potent and selective DORA that inhibits the stimulating effects of orexin peptides OXA and OXB at both Ox1 and Ox2. In calcium-release assays, 80 c was found to exhibit an insurmountable antagonistic profile at both Ox1 and Ox2, while displaying a sleep-promoting effect in rat and dog models, similar to that of the benchmark compound suvorexant. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Coexpressed D1- and D2-Like Dopamine Receptors Antagonistically Modulate Acetylcholine Release in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Andrew T.; Maher, Kathryn N.; Wani, Khursheed A.; Betts, Katherine E.; Chase, Daniel L.

    2011-01-01

    Dopamine acts through two classes of G protein-coupled receptor (D1-like and D2-like) to modulate neuron activity in the brain. While subtypes of D1- and D2-like receptors are coexpressed in many neurons of the mammalian brain, it is unclear how signaling by these coexpressed receptors interacts to modulate the activity of the neuron in which they are expressed. D1- and D2-like dopamine receptors are also coexpressed in the cholinergic ventral-cord motor neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans. To begin to understand how coexpressed dopamine receptors interact to modulate neuron activity, we performed a genetic screen in C. elegans and isolated mutants defective in dopamine response. These mutants were also defective in behaviors mediated by endogenous dopamine signaling, including basal slowing and swimming-induced paralysis. We used transgene rescue experiments to show that defects in these dopamine-specific behaviors were caused by abnormal signaling in the cholinergic motor neurons. To investigate the interaction between the D1- and D2-like receptors specifically in these cholinergic motor neurons, we measured the sensitivity of dopamine-signaling mutants and transgenic animals to the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor aldicarb. We found that D2 signaling inhibited acetylcholine release from the cholinergic motor neurons while D1 signaling stimulated release from these same cells. Thus, coexpressed D1- and D2-like dopamine receptors act antagonistically in vivo to modulate acetylcholine release from the cholinergic motor neurons of C. elegans. PMID:21515580

  16. The novel dopamine D3 receptor antagonist, SR 21502, reduces cocaine conditioned place preference in rats.

    PubMed

    Hachimine, P; Seepersad, N; Ananthan, S; Ranaldi, R

    2014-05-21

    Research has shown that dopamine (DA) D3 receptors play a crucial role in cocaine addiction. Recently, there has been a strong focus on the development of DA D3 receptor antagonists as potential pharmacological treatments for cocaine addiction. We investigated the ability of a novel selective D3 receptor antagonist SR 21502 to block the expression of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in rats. CPP was determined using a two-chamber apparatus. All of the animals had free access to both chambers on day 1, followed by 4 alternating conditioning days of cocaine injection (paired chamber) and 4 alternating non-conditioning days with saline (non-paired chamber). On the test day, animals were systemically treated with 0, 3.75, 7.5 or 15mg/kg of SR 21502, 10min prior to being placed in the CPP apparatus, and the time spent in each chamber was recorded for 15min. The amount of time spent in the cocaine-paired chamber on the test and pre-exposure days was analyzed. Vehicle-treated animals spent significantly more time in the cocaine-paired side during the test than during the pre-exposure session, indicating a cocaine CPP. SR 21502 produced a dose-related significant reduction in the time spent in the cocaine-paired side compared to vehicle. The DA D3 receptor antagonist SR 21502 blocks the rat's preference for the cocaine-paired chamber, thereby attenuating the rewarding effect of the cocaine cues. This suggests that this compound may be an effective pharmacological treatment against cocaine addiction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pharmacological characterization of MK-6096 - a dual orexin receptor antagonist for insomnia.

    PubMed

    Winrow, Christopher J; Gotter, Anthony L; Cox, Christopher D; Tannenbaum, Pamela L; Garson, Susan L; Doran, Scott M; Breslin, Michael J; Schreier, John D; Fox, Steven V; Harrell, Charles M; Stevens, Joanne; Reiss, Duane R; Cui, Donghui; Coleman, Paul J; Renger, John J

    2012-02-01

    Orexin (hypocretin) neuropeptides promote wakefulness by signaling through two G-protein coupled receptors, Orexin 1 Receptor (OX(1)R) and Orexin 2 Receptor (OX(2)R). MK-6096 is an orally bioavailable potent and selective reversible antagonist of OX(1)R and OX(2)R currently in clinical development for insomnia. In radioligand binding and functional cell based assays MK-6096 demonstrated potent binding and antagonism of both human OX(1)R and OX(2)R (<3 nM in binding, 11 nM in FLIPR), with no significant off-target activities against a panel of >170 receptors and enzymes. MK-6096 occupies 90% of human OX(2)Rs expressed in transgenic rats at a plasma concentration of 142 nM, and dose-dependently reduced locomotor activity and significantly increased sleep in rats (3-30 mg/kg) and dogs (0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg). DORA-22, an analog of MK-6096, exhibits similar sleep promoting properties that are absent OX(1/2)R double knockouts, demonstrating the mechanism of action and specificity of these effects. These findings with a novel, structurally distinct class of OxR antagonists provide further validation of the orexin pathway as an effective target to promote normal sleep. Comparative analysis of the biochemical and pharmacokinetic properties of these compounds relative to other OXR antagonists provides a basis for understanding the attributes critical for in vivo efficacy. This mechanism is distinct from current standard of care such that MK-6096 represents a novel and selective therapeutic for the treatment of insomnia. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder'. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pharmacological characterization of the muscarinic receptor antagonist, glycopyrrolate, in human and guinea-pig airways

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, El-Bdaoui; Patel, Hema; Keeling, Joelle E; Yacoub, Magdi H; Barnes, Peter J; Belvisi, Maria G

    1999-01-01

    In this study we have evaluated the pharmacological profile of the muscarinic antagonist glycopyrrolate in guinea-pig and human airways in comparison with the commonly used antagonist ipratropium bromide.Glycopyrrolate and ipratropium bromide inhibited EFS-induced contraction of guinea-pig trachea and human airways in a concentration-dependent manner. Glycopyrrolate was more potent than ipratropium bromide.The onset of action (time to attainment of 50% of maximum response) of glycopyrrolate was similar to that obtained with ipratropium bromide in both preparations. In guinea-pig trachea, the offset of action (time taken for response to return to 50% recovery after wash out of the test antagonist) for glycopyrrolate (t1/2 [offset]=26.4±0.5 min) was less than that obtained with ipratropium bromide (81.2±3.7 min). In human airways, however, the duration of action of glycopyrrolate (t1/2 [offset]>96 min) was significantly more prolonged compared to ipratropium bromide (t1/2 [offset]=59.2±17.8 min).In competition studies, glycopyrrolate and ipratropium bromide bind human peripheral lung and human airway smooth muscle (HASM) muscarinic receptors with affinities in the nanomolar range (Ki values 0.5–3.6 nM). Similar to ipratropium bromide, glycopyrrolate showed no selectivity in its binding to the M1–M3 receptors. Kinetics studies, however, showed that glycopyrrolate dissociates slowly from HASM muscarinic receptors (60% protection against [3H]-NMS binding at 30 nM) compared to ipratropium bromide.These results suggest that glycopyrrolate bind human and guinea-pig airway muscarinic receptors with high affinity. Furthermore, we suggest that the slow dissociation profile of glycopyrrolate might be the underlying mechanism by which this drug accomplishes its long duration of action. PMID:10385241

  19. Synthesis and pharmacological investigation of azaphthalazinone human histamine H(1) receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Procopiou, Panayiotis A; Browning, Christopher; Gore, Paul M; Lynn, Sean M; Richards, Stephen A; Slack, Robert J; Sollis, Steven L

    2012-10-15

    5-Aza, 6-aza, 7-aza and 8-aza-phthalazinone, and 5,8-diazaphthalazinone templates were synthesised by stereoselective routes starting from the appropriate pyridine/pyrazine dicarboxylic acids by activation with CDI, reaction with 4-chlorophenyl acetate ester enolate to give a β-ketoester, which was hydrolysed, and decarboxylated. The resulting ketone was condensed with hydrazine to form the azaphthalazinone core. The azaphthalazinone cores were alkylated with N-Boc-D-prolinol at N-2 by Mitsunobu reaction, de-protected, and then alkylated at the pyrrolidine nitrogen to provide the target H(1) receptor antagonists. All four mono-azaphthalazinone series had higher affinity (pK(i)) for the human H(1) receptor than azelastine, but were not as potent as the parent non-aza phthalazinone. The 5,8-diazaphthalazinone was equipotent with azelastine. The least potent series were the 7-azaphthalazinones, whereas the 5-azaphthalazinones were the most lipophilic. The more hydrophilic series were the 8-aza series. Replacement of the N-methyl substituent on the pyrrolidine with the n-butyl group caused an increase in potency (pA(2)) and a corresponding increase in lipophilicity. Introduction of a β-ether oxygen in the n-butyl analogues (2-methoxyethyl group) decreased the H(1) pA(2) slightly, and increased the selectivity against hERG. The duration of action in vitro was longer in the 6-azaphthalazinone series. The more potent and selective 6-azaphthalazinone core was used to append an H(3) receptor antagonist fragment, and to convert the series into the long acting single-ligand, dual H(1) H(3) receptor antagonist 44. The pharmacological profile of 44 was very similar to our intranasal clinical candidate 1. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Singular Location and Signaling Profile of Adenosine A2A-Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Heteromers in the Dorsal Striatum.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Estefanía; Chiarlone, Anna; Medrano, Mireia; Puigdellívol, Mar; Bibic, Lucka; Howell, Lesley A; Resel, Eva; Puente, Nagore; Casarejos, María J; Perucho, Juan; Botta, Joaquín; Suelves, Nuria; Ciruela, Francisco; Ginés, Silvia; Galve-Roperh, Ismael; Casadó, Vicent; Grandes, Pedro; Lutz, Beat; Monory, Krisztina; Canela, Enric I; Lluís, Carmen; McCormick, Peter J; Guzmán, Manuel

    2018-04-01

    The dorsal striatum is a key node for many neurobiological processes such as motor activity, cognitive functions, and affective processes. The proper functioning of striatal neurons relies critically on metabotropic receptors. Specifically, the main adenosine and endocannabinoid receptors present in the striatum, ie, adenosine A 2A receptor (A 2A R) and cannabinoid CB 1 receptor (CB 1 R), are of pivotal importance in the control of neuronal excitability. Facilitatory and inhibitory functional interactions between striatal A 2A R and CB 1 R have been reported, and evidence supports that this cross-talk may rely, at least in part, on the formation of A 2A R-CB 1 R heteromeric complexes. However, the specific location and properties of these heteromers have remained largely unknown. Here, by using techniques that allowed a precise visualization of the heteromers in situ in combination with sophisticated genetically modified animal models, together with biochemical and pharmacological approaches, we provide a high-resolution expression map and a detailed functional characterization of A 2A R-CB 1 R heteromers in the dorsal striatum. Specifically, our data unveil that the A 2A R-CB 1 R heteromer (i) is essentially absent from corticostriatal projections and striatonigral neurons, and, instead, is largely present in striatopallidal neurons, (ii) displays a striking G protein-coupled signaling profile, where co-stimulation of both receptors leads to strongly reduced downstream signaling, and (iii) undergoes an unprecedented dysfunction in Huntington's disease, an archetypal disease that affects striatal neurons. Altogether, our findings may open a new conceptual framework to understand the role of coordinated adenosine-endocannabinoid signaling in the indirect striatal pathway, which may be relevant in motor function and neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. Identification and characterization of novel NMDA receptor antagonists selective for NR2A- over NR2B-containing receptors.

    PubMed

    Bettini, Ezio; Sava, Anna; Griffante, Cristiana; Carignani, Corrado; Buson, Alberto; Capelli, Anna Maria; Negri, Michele; Andreetta, Filippo; Senar-Sancho, Sergio A; Guiral, Lorena; Cardullo, Francesca

    2010-12-01

    NR1/NR2A is a subtype of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), which are glutamate and glycine-gated Ca(2+)-permeable channels highly expressed in the central nervous system. A high-throughput screening (HTS) campaign using human osteosarcoma (U-2 OS) cells transiently transduced with NR1/NR2A NMDAR subunits, tested in a specifically designed fluorometric imaging plate reader (FLIPR)/Ca(2+) assay, identified sulfonamide derivative series, exemplified by 3-chloro-4-fluoro-N-[(4-{[2-(phenylcarbonyl)hydrazino]carbonyl}phenyl)methyl]benzenesulfonamide (compound 1) and thiodiazole derivative N-(cyclohexylmethyl)-2-({5-[(phenylmethyl)amino]-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl}thio)acetamide (compound 13) as novel NR1/NR2A receptor antagonists. Compounds 1 and 13 displayed submicromolar and micromolar potency at NR1/NR2A receptor, respectively, although they did not show activity at NR2B-containing receptor up to 50 μM concentration. Addition of 1 mM glycine, but not 1 mM l-glutamate, was able to surmount compound 1 and 13 inhibitory effects in FLIPR NR1/NR2A assay. However, compounds 1 and 13 displaced a glutamate site antagonist [(3)H]d,l-(E)-2-amino-4-propyl-5-phosphono-3-pentenoic acid ([(3)H]CGP 39653) to a greater extent than the glycine site antagonist [(3)H]3-[(E)-2-carboxy-2-phenylethenyl]-4,6-dichloro-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid ([(3)H]MDL 105,519), in rat brain cortex binding assay. Results of FLIPR cell-based, electrophysiological, and biochemical binding assays suggest that compounds 1 and 13 are the prototypes of novel classes of NMDAR ligands, which to the best of our knowledge are the first selective antagonists at NR1/NR2A over NR1/NR2B receptor, and might constitute useful tools able to elucidate the relative role of the NR2A subunit in physiological and pathological conditions.

  2. Modification of Anxious Behavior after Psychogenic Trauma and Treatment with Galanin Receptor Antagonist.

    PubMed

    Lyudyno, V I; Tsikunov, S G; Abdurasulova, I N; Kusov, A G; Klimenko, V M

    2015-07-01

    Effects of blockage of central galanin receptors on anxiety manifestations were studied in rats with psychogenic trauma. Psychogenic trauma was modeled by exposure of a group of rats to the situation when the partner was killed by a predator. Antagonist of galanin receptors was intranasally administered before stress exposure. Animal behavior was evaluated using the elevated-plus maze test, free exploratory paradigm, and open-field test. Psychogenic trauma was followed by an increase in anxiety level and appearance of agitated behavior. Blockage of galanin receptors aggravated behavioral impairment, which manifested in the pathological anxious reactions - manifestations of hypervigilance and hyperawareness. The results suggest that endogenous pool of galanin is involved into prevention of excessive CNS response to stressful stimuli typical of posttraumatic stress disorder.

  3. Changes in spinal delta and kappa opioid systems in mice deficient in the A2A receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Alexis; Ledent, Catherine; Kelly, Mary; Hourani, Susanna M O; Kitchen, Ian

    2002-11-01

    A large body of evidence indicates important interactions between the adenosine and opioid systems in regulating pain at both the spinal and supraspinal level. Mice lacking the A(2A) receptor gene have been developed successfully, and these animals were shown to be hypoalgesic. To investigate whether there are any compensatory alterations in opioid systems in mutant animals, we have performed quantitative autoradiographic mapping of mu, delta, kappa, and opioid receptor-like (ORL1) opioid receptors in the brains and spinal cords of wild-type and homozygous A(2A) receptor knock-out mice. In addition, mu-, delta-, and kappa-mediated antinociception using the tail immersion test was tested in wild-type and homozygous A(2A) receptor knock-out mice. A significant reduction in [3H]deltorphin-I binding to delta receptors and a significant increase in [3H]CI-977 binding to kappa receptors was detected in the spinal cords but not in the brains of the knock-out mice. Mu and ORL1 receptor expression were not altered significantly. Moreover, a significant reduction in delta-mediated antinociception and a significant increase in kappa-mediated antinociception were detected in mutant mice, whereas mu-mediated antinociception was unaffected. Comparison of basal nociceptive latencies showed a significant hypoalgesia in knock-out mice when tested at 55 degrees C but not at 52 degrees C. The results suggest a functional interaction between the spinal delta and kappa opioid and the peripheral adenosine system in the control of pain pathways.

  4. NMDA receptor activation antagonizes the NMDA antagonist-induced antianxiety effect in the elevated plus-maze test in mice.

    PubMed

    Poleszak, Ewa; Serefko, Anna; Szopa, Aleksandra; Wośko, Sylwia; Dudka, Jarosław; Wróbel, Andrzej; Oniszczuk, Tomasz; Wlaź, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how the activation of different regulatory domains of the NMDA complex affects the antianxiety effect of antagonists acting at its distinct binding sites. The anxiolytic-like activity was assessed by the elevated plus-maze test in mice. The anxiolytic activity of CGP 37849 (a competitive NMDA receptor antagonist) and L-701,324 (an antagonist at glycine site) was confirmed, but effects of both were significantly reduced by N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) or by D-serine agonists at glutamate and glycine site of the NMDA receptor complex, respectively. The obtained data suggest that stimulation of the glutamate or glycine recognition site of the NMDA receptor complex significantly decreases the antianxiety properties of antagonists of either site.

  5. Metabolism-Guided Design of Short-Acting Calcium-Sensing Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    As part of a strategy to deliver short-acting calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) antagonists, the metabolically labile thiomethyl functionality was incorporated into the zwitterionic amino alcohol derivative 3 with the hope of increasing human clearance through oxidative metabolism, while delivering a pharmacologically inactive sulfoxide metabolite. The effort led to the identification of thioanisoles 22 and 23 as potent and orally active CaSR antagonists with a rapid onset of action and short pharmacokinetic half-lives, which led to a rapid and transient stimulation of parathyroid hormone in a dose-dependent fashion following oral administration to rats. On the basis of the balance between target pharmacology, safety, and human disposition profiles, 22 and 23 were advanced as clinical candidates for the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:24900198

  6. BIIE0246, a potent and highly selective non-peptide neuropeptide Y Y2 receptor antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Yvan; Cadieux, Alain; Doods, Henri; Pheng, Leng Hong; Abounader, Roger; Hamel, Edith; Jacques, Danielle; Regoli, Domenico; Quirion, Rémi

    2000-01-01

    BIIE0246, a newly synthesized non-peptide neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y2 receptor antagonist, was able to compete with high affinity (8 to 15 nM) for specific [125I]PYY3–36 binding sites in HEK293 cells transfected with the rat Y2 receptor cDNA, and in rat brain and human frontal cortex membrane homogenates. Interestingly, in rat brain homogenates while NPY, C2-NPY and PYY3–36 inhibited all specific [125I]PYY3–36 labelling, BIIE0246 failed to compete for all specific binding suggesting that [125I]PYY3–36 recognized, in addition to the Y2 subtype, another population of specific NPY binding sites, most likely the Y5 receptor. Quantitative receptor autoradiographic data confirmed the presence of [125I]PYY3–36/BIIE0246-sensitive (Y2) and-insensitive (Y5) binding sites in the rat brain as well as in the marmoset monkey and human hippocampal formation. In the rat vas deferens and dog saphenous vein (two prototypical Y2 bioassays), BIIE0246 induced parallel shifts to the right of NPY concentration-response curves with pA2 values of 8.1 and 8.6, respectively. In the rat colon (a Y2/Y4 bioassay), BIIE0246 (1 μM) completely blocked the contraction induced by PYY3–36, but not that of [Leu31,Pro34]NPY (a Y1, Y4 and Y5 agonist) and hPP (a Y4 and Y5 agonist). Additionally, BIIE0246 failed to alter the contractile effects of NPY in prototypical Y1 in vitro bioassays. Taken together, these results demonstrate that BIIE0246 is a highly potent, high affinity antagonist selective for the Y2 receptor subtype. It should prove most useful to establish further the functional role of the Y2 receptor in the organism. PMID:10725255

  7. The effects of sigma (σ1) receptor-selective ligands on muscarinic receptor antagonist-induced cognitive deficits in mice

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Maninder; Rangel-Barajas, Claudia; Sumien, Nathalie; Su, Chang; Singh, Meharvan; Chen, Zhenglan; Huang, Ren-Qi; Meunier, Johann; Maurice, Tangui; Mach, Robert H; Luedtke, Robert R

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Cognitive deficits in patients with Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, traumatic brain injury and stroke often involve alterations in cholinergic signalling. Currently available therapeutic drugs provide only symptomatic relief. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies are needed to retard and/or arrest the progressive loss of memory. Experimental Approach Scopolamine-induced memory impairment provides a rapid and reversible phenotypic screening paradigm for cognition enhancement drug discovery. Male C57BL/6J mice given scopolamine (1 mg·kg−1) were used to evaluate the ability of LS-1–137, a novel sigma (σ1) receptor-selective agonist, to improve the cognitive deficits associated with muscarinic antagonist administration. Key Results LS-1–137 is a high-affinity (Ki = 3.2 nM) σ1 receptor agonist that is 80-fold selective for σ1, compared with σ2 receptors. LS-1–137 binds with low affinity at D2-like (D2, D3 and D4) dopamine and muscarinic receptors. LS-1–137 was found to partially reverse the learning deficits associated with scopolamine administration using a water maze test and an active avoidance task. LS-1–137 treatment was also found to trigger the release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor from rat astrocytes. Conclusions and Implications The σ1 receptor-selective compound LS-1–137 may represent a novel candidate cognitive enhancer for the treatment of muscarinic receptor-dependent cognitive deficits. PMID:25573298

  8. The neuronal Ca(2+) -binding protein 2 (NECAB2) interacts with the adenosine A(2A) receptor and modulates the cell surface expression and function of the receptor.

    PubMed

    Canela, Laia; Luján, Rafael; Lluís, Carme; Burgueño, Javier; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I; Franco, Rafael; Ciruela, Francisco

    2007-09-01

    Heptaspanning membrane also known as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) do interact with a variety of intracellular proteins whose function is regulate receptor traffic and/or signaling. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, NECAB2, a neuronal calcium binding protein, was identified as a binding partner for the adenosine A(2A) receptor (A(2A)R) interacting with its C-terminal domain. Co-localization, co-immunoprecipitation and pull-down experiments showed a close and specific interaction between A(2A)R and NECAB2 in both transfected HEK-293 cells and also in rat striatum. Immunoelectron microscopy detection of NECAB2 and A(2A)R in the rat striatopallidal structures indicated that both proteins are co-distributed in the same glutamatergic nerve terminals. The interaction of NECAB2 with A(2A)R modulated the cell surface expression, the ligand-dependent internalization and the receptor-mediated activation of the MAPK pathway. Overall, these results show that A(2A)R interacts with NECAB2 in striatal neurones co-expressing the two proteins and that the interaction is relevant for A(2A)R function.

  9. Identification of functional bitter taste receptors and their antagonist in chickens.

    PubMed

    Dey, Bapon; Kawabata, Fuminori; Kawabata, Yuko; Yoshida, Yuta; Nishimura, Shotaro; Tabata, Shoji

    2017-01-22

    Elucidation of the taste sense of chickens is important not only for the development of chicken feedstuffs for the chicken industry but also to help clarify the evolution of the taste sense among animals. There are three putative chicken bitter taste receptors, chicken T2R1 (cT2R1), cT2R2 and cT2R7, which were identified using genome information and cell-based assays. Previously, we have shown that cT2R1 is a functional bitter taste receptor through both cell-based assays and behavioral tests. In this study, therefore, we focused on the sensitivities of the other two bitter receptors, cT2R2 and cT2R7, by using their agonists in behavioral tests. We tested three agonists of cT2R2 and three agonists of cT2R7. In a 10-min drinking study, the intakes of cT2R2 agonist solutions were not different from that of water. On the other hand, the intakes of cT2R7 agonist solutions were significantly lower compared to water. In addition, we constructed cT2R1-and cT2R7-expressing cells in order to search for an antagonist for these functional bitter taste receptors. By using Ca 2+ imaging methods, we found that 6-methoxyflavanone (6-meth) can inhibit the activities of both cT2R1 and cT2R7. Moreover, 6-meth also inhibited the reduction of the intake of bitter solutions containing cT2R1 or cT2R7 agonists in behavioral tests. Taken together, these results suggested that cT2R7 is a functional bitter taste receptor like cT2R1, but that cT2R2 is not, and that 6-meth is an antagonist for these two functional chicken bitter taste receptors. This is the first identification of an antagonist of chicken bitter receptors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Predicting the relative binding affinity of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists by density functional methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roos, Katarina; Hogner, Anders; Ogg, Derek; Packer, Martin J.; Hansson, Eva; Granberg, Kenneth L.; Evertsson, Emma; Nordqvist, Anneli

    2015-12-01

    In drug discovery, prediction of binding affinity ahead of synthesis to aid compound prioritization is still hampered by the low throughput of the more accurate methods and the lack of general pertinence of one method that fits all systems. Here we show the applicability of a method based on density functional theory using core fragments and a protein model with only the first shell residues surrounding the core, to predict relative binding affinity of a matched series of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists. Antagonists of MR are used for treatment of chronic heart failure and hypertension. Marketed MR antagonists, spironolactone and eplerenone, are also believed to be highly efficacious in treatment of chronic kidney disease in diabetes patients, but is contra-indicated due to the increased risk for hyperkalemia. These findings and a significant unmet medical need among patients with chronic kidney disease continues to stimulate efforts in the discovery of new MR antagonist with maintained efficacy but low or no risk for hyperkalemia. Applied on a matched series of MR antagonists the quantum mechanical based method gave an R2 = 0.76 for the experimental lipophilic ligand efficiency versus relative predicted binding affinity calculated with the M06-2X functional in gas phase and an R2 = 0.64 for experimental binding affinity versus relative predicted binding affinity calculated with the M06-2X functional including an implicit solvation model. The quantum mechanical approach using core fragments was compared to free energy perturbation calculations using the full sized compound structures.

  11. Repeated administration of vanilloid receptor TRPV1 antagonists attenuates hyperthermia elicited by TRPV1 blockade.

    PubMed

    Gavva, Narender R; Bannon, Anthony W; Hovland, David N; Lehto, Sonya G; Klionsky, Lana; Surapaneni, Sekhar; Immke, David C; Henley, Charles; Arik, Leyla; Bak, Annette; Davis, James; Ernst, Nadia; Hever, Gal; Kuang, Rongzhen; Shi, Licheng; Tamir, Rami; Wang, Jue; Wang, Weiya; Zajic, Gary; Zhu, Dawn; Norman, Mark H; Louis, Jean-Claude; Magal, Ella; Treanor, James J S

    2007-10-01

    Capsaicin, the active ingredient in some pain-relieving creams, is an agonist of a nonselective cation channel known as the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1). The pain-relieving mechanism of capsaicin includes desensitization of the channel, suggesting that TRPV1 antagonism may be a viable pain therapy approach. In agreement with the above notion, several TRPV1 antagonists have been reported to act as antihyperalgesics. Here, we report the in vitro and in vivo characterization of a novel and selective TRPV1 antagonist, N-(4-[6-(4-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-pyrimidin-4-yloxy]-benzothiazol-2-yl)-acetamide I (AMG 517), and compare its pharmacology with that of a closely related analog, tert-butyl-2-(6-([2-(acetylamino)-1,3-benzothiazol-4-yl]oxy)pyrimidin-4-yl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)phenylcarbamate (AMG8163). Both AMG 517 and AMG8163 potently and completely antagonized capsaicin, proton, and heat activation of TRPV1 in vitro and blocked capsaicin-induced flinch in rats in vivo. To support initial clinical investigations, AMG 517 was evaluated in a comprehensive panel of toxicology studies that included in vivo assessments in rodents, dogs, and monkeys. The toxicology studies indicated that AMG 517 was generally well tolerated; however, transient increases in body temperature (hyperthermia) were observed in all species after AMG 517 dosing. To further investigate this effect, we tested and showed that the antipyretic, acetaminophen, suppressed the hyperthermia caused by TRPV1 blockade. We also showed that repeated administration of TRPV1 antagonists attenuated the hyperthermia response, whereas the efficacy in capsaicin-induced flinch model was maintained. In conclusion, these studies suggest that the transient hyperthermia elicited by TRPV1 blockade may be manageable in the development of TRPV1 antagonists as therapeutic agents. However, the impact of TRPV1 antagonist-induced hyperthermia on their clinical utility is still unknown.

  12. Modulation of gastrointestinal function by MuDelta, a mixed µ opioid receptor agonist/ µ opioid receptor antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Wade, PR; Palmer, JM; McKenney, S; Kenigs, V; Chevalier, K; Moore, BA; Mabus, JR; Saunders, PR; Wallace, NH; Schneider, CR; Kimball, ES; Breslin, HJ; He, W; Hornby, PJ

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND & PURPOSE Loperamide is a selective µ opioid receptor agonist acting locally in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract as an effective anti-diarrhoeal but can cause constipation. We tested whether modulating µ opioid receptor agonism with δ opioid receptor antagonism, by combining reference compounds or using a novel compound (‘MuDelta’), could normalize GI motility without constipation. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH MuDelta was characterized in vitro as a potent µ opioid receptor agonist and high-affinity δ opioid receptor antagonist. Reference compounds, MuDelta and loperamide were assessed in the following ex vivo and in vivo experiments: guinea pig intestinal smooth muscle contractility, mouse intestinal epithelial ion transport and upper GI tract transit, entire GI transit or faecal output in novel environment stressed mice, or four weeks after intracolonic mustard oil (post-inflammatory). Colonic δ opioid receptor immunoreactivity was quantified. KEY RESULTS δ Opioid receptor antagonism opposed µ opioid receptor agonist inhibition of intestinal contractility and motility. MuDelta reduced intestinal contractility and inhibited neurogenically-mediated secretion. Very low plasma levels of MuDelta were detected after oral administration. Stress up-regulated δ opioid receptor expression in colonic epithelial cells. In stressed mice, MuDelta normalized GI transit and faecal output to control levels over a wide dose range, whereas loperamide had a narrow dose range. MuDelta and loperamide reduced upper GI transit in the post-inflammatory model. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS MuDelta normalizes, but does not prevent, perturbed GI transit over a wide dose-range in mice. These data support the subsequent assessment of MuDelta in a clinical phase II trial in patients with diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:22671931

  13. Adenosine A2A receptor deletion affects social behaviors and anxiety in mice: Involvement of anterior cingulate cortex and amygdala.

    PubMed

    López-Cruz, Laura; Carbó-Gas, Maria; Pardo, Marta; Bayarri, Pilar; Valverde, Olga; Ledent, Catherine; Salamone, John D; Correa, Mercè

    2017-03-15

    Blockade of adenosine A 2A receptors can potentiate motivation to work for natural reinforcers such as food. Conspecific interaction is a potent natural reinforcer in social animals that can be manifested as preference for social exploration versus other sources of novel stimulation. Deficiencies in this type of motivated behavior (social withdrawal) have been seen in several pathologies such as autism and depression. However, the role of A 2A receptors in motivation for social interaction has not been widely explored. Social interaction paradigms evaluate the natural preference of animals for exploring other conspecifics, and the ability to differentiate between familiar versus novel ones. Anxiety is one of the factors that can induce avoidance of social interaction. In the present study, adenosine A 2A knockout (A 2A KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were assessed for social and anxiety-related behaviors. c-Fos immunoreactivity was evaluated as a measure of neuronal activation in brain areas involved in different aspects of motivation and emotional processes. Although A 2A KO mice showed an anxious profile, they displayed higher levels of sociability and were less sensitive to social novelty. WT mice displayed a typical pattern of social recognition 24h later, but not A 2A KO mice, which explored equally both conspecifics. There were no differences between strains in aggressiveness, perseverance or social odor preferences. c-Fos immunoreactivity in A 2A KO mice was higher in anterior cingulate and amygdala compared to WT mice. Thus, A 2A receptors appear to be potential targets for the improvement of pathologies related to social function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. CHOLESTEROL 27-HYDROXYLASE BUT NOT APOLIPOPROTEIN apoE CONTRIBUTES TO A2A ADENOSINE RECEPTOR STIMULATED REVERSE CHOLESTEROL TRANSPORT

    PubMed Central

    Bingham, Taiese Crystal; Parathath, Saj; Tian, Heather; Reiss, Allison; Chan, Edwin; Fisher, Edward A.; Cronstein, Bruce N.

    2011-01-01

    Movement of free cholesterol between the cellular compartment and acceptor is governed by cholesterol gradients that are determined by several enzymes and reverse cholesterol transport proteins. We have previously demonstrated that adenosine A2A receptors inhibit foam cell formation and stimulate production of cholesterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1), an enzyme involved in the conversion of cholesterol to oxysterols. We therefore asked whether the effect of adenosine A2A receptors on foam cell formation in vitro are mediated by CYP27A1 or apoE, a carrier for cholesterol in the serum. We found that specific lentiviral siRNA infection markedly reduced apoE or 27-hydroxylase mRNA in THP-1 cells. Despite diminished apoE expression (p< 0.0002, IFNγ CGS vs. IFNγ alone, n= 4) CGS-21680, an adenosine A2A receptor agonist, inhibits foam cell formation. In contrast, CGS-21680 had no effect on reducing foam cell formation in CYP27A1 KD cells (4±2% p<0.5113 inhibition vs. IFNγ alone n= 4). Previously we reported the A2A agonist CGS-21680 increases apoAI-mediated cholesterol efflux nearly 2-fold in wildtype macrophages. Adenosine receptor activation had no effect on cholesterol efflux in CYP27A1 KD cells but reduced efflux in apoE KD cells. These results demonstrate that adenosine A2A receptor occupancy diminishes foam cell formation by increasing expression and function of CYP27A1. PMID:21258856

  15. Cholesterol 27-hydroxylase but not apolipoprotein apoE contributes to A2A adenosine receptor stimulated reverse cholesterol transport.

    PubMed

    Bingham, Taiese Crystal; Parathath, Saj; Tian, Heather; Reiss, Allison; Chan, Edwin; Fisher, Edward A; Cronstein, Bruce N

    2012-02-01

    Movement of free cholesterol between the cellular compartment and acceptor is governed by cholesterol gradients that are determined by several enzymes and reverse cholesterol transport proteins. We have previously demonstrated that adenosine A(2A) receptors inhibit foam cell formation and stimulate production of cholesterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1), an enzyme involved in the conversion of cholesterol to oxysterols. We therefore asked whether the effect of adenosine A(2A) receptors on foam cell formation in vitro is mediated by CYP27A1 or apoE, a carrier for cholesterol in the serum. We found that specific lentiviral siRNA infection markedly reduced apoE or 27-hydroxylase mRNA in THP-1 cells. Despite diminished apoE expression (p < 0.0002, interferon-gamma (IFNγ) CGS vs. IFNγ alone, n=4), CGS-21680, an adenosine A(2A) receptor agonist, inhibits foam cell formation. In contrast, CGS-21680 had no effect on reducing foam cell formation in CYP27A1 KD cells (4 ± 2%; p<0.5113, inhibition vs. IFNγ alone, n=4). Previously, we reported the A(2A) agonist CGS-21680 increases apoAI-mediated cholesterol efflux nearly twofold in wild-type macrophages. Adenosine receptor activation had no effect on cholesterol efflux in CYP27A1 KD cells but reduced efflux in apoE KD cells. These results demonstrate that adenosine A(2A) receptor occupancy diminishes foam cell formation by increasing expression and function of CYP27A1.

  16. Isoliquiritigenin is a novel NMDA receptor antagonist in kampo medicine yokukansan.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Zenji; Ikarashi, Yasushi; Kase, Yoshio

    2011-11-01

    Effects of a traditional Japanese medicine, yokukansan, which is composed of seven medicinal herbs, on glutamate-induced cell death were examined using primary cultured rat cortical neurons. Yokukansan (10-300 μg/ml) inhibited the 100 μM glutamate-induced neuronal death in a concentration-dependent manner. Among seven constituent herbs, higher potency of protection was found in Uncaria thorn (UT) and Glycyrrhiza root (GR). A similar neuroprotective effect was found in four components (geissoschizine methyl ether, hirsuteine, hirsutine, and rhynchophylline) in UT and four components (glycycoumarin, isoliquiritigenin, liquiritin, and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid) in GR. In the NMDA receptor binding and receptor-linked Ca(2+) influx assays, only isoliquiritigenin bound to NMDA receptors and inhibited the glutamate-induced increase in Ca(2+) influx. Glycycoumarin and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid bound to NMDA receptors, but did not inhibit the Ca(2+) influx. The four UT-derived components did not bind to NMDA receptors. The present results suggest that neuroprotective components (isoliquiritigenin, glycycoumarin, liquiritin, and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid in GR and geissoschizine methyl ether, hirsuteine, hirsutine, and rhynchophylline in UT) are contained in yokukansan, and isoliquiritigenin, which is one of them, is a novel NMDA receptor antagonist.

  17. Pharmacological characterization of AZD5069, a slowly reversible CXC chemokine receptor 2 antagonist.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, David J; Wiley, Katherine; Dainty, Ian; MacIntosh, Fraser; Phillips, Caroline; Gaw, Alasdair; Mårdh, Carina Kärrman

    2015-05-01

    In normal physiologic responses to injury and infection, inflammatory cells enter tissue and sites of inflammation through a chemotactic process regulated by several families of proteins, including inflammatory chemokines, a family of small inducible cytokines. In neutrophils, chemokines chemokine (CXC motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) and CXCL8 are potent chemoattractants and activate G protein-coupled receptors CXC chemokine receptor 1 (CXCR1) and CXCR2. Several small-molecule antagonists of CXCR2 have been developed to inhibit the inflammatory responses mediated by this receptor. Here, we present the data describing the pharmacology of AZD5069 [N-(2-(2,3-difluorobenzylthio)-6-((2R,3S)-3,4-dihydroxybutan-2-yloxy)[2,4,5,6-(13)C4, 1,3-(15)N2]pyrimidin-4-yl)azetidine-1-sulfonamide,[(15)N2,(13)C4]N-(2-(2,3-difluoro-6-[3H]-benzylthio)-6-((2R,3S)-3,4-dihydroxybutan-2-yloxy)pyrimidin-4-yl)azetidine-1-sulfonamide], a novel antagonist of CXCR2. AZD5069 was shown to inhibit binding of radiolabeled CXCL8 to human CXCR2 with a pIC50 value of 9.1. Furthermore, AZD5069 inhibited neutrophil chemotaxis, with a pA2 of approximately 9.6, and adhesion molecule expression, with a pA2 of 6.9, in response to CXCL1. AZD5069 was a slowly reversible antagonist of CXCR2 with effects of time and temperature evident on the pharmacology and binding kinetics. With short incubation times, AZD5069 appeared to have an antagonist profile with insurmountable antagonism of calcium response curves. This behavior was also observed in vivo in an acute lipopolysaccharide-induced lung inflammation model. Altogether, the data presented here show that AZD5069 represents a novel, potent, and selective CXCR2 antagonist with potential as a therapeutic agent in inflammatory conditions. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  18. The Beta 2 Adrenergic Receptor Antagonist Timolol Improves Healing of Combined Burn and Radiation Wounds.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Huguette; Yang, Hsin-Ya; Kiuru, Maija; Maksaereekul, Saipiroon; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe; Wong, Michael S; Stevenson, Thomas R; Rocke, David M; Isseroff, R Rivkah

    2018-04-01

    In a scenario involving a nuclear detonation during war or a terrorist attack, acute radiation exposure combined with thermal and blast effects results in severe skin injury. Although the cutaneous injury in such a scenario may not be lethal, it may lead to inflammation, delayed wound healing and loss of the skin barrier, resulting in an increased risk of infection. In this study, we tested the potential use of timolol, a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist, to improve epidermal wound closure after combined burn and radiation injury using an ex vivo human skin culture model. Daily application of 10 μ M timolol after combined injury (burn and 10 Gy ex vivo irradiation) increased wound epithelialization by 5-20%. In addition, exposure to 10 Gy significantly suppressed epidermal keratinocyte proliferation by 46% at 48 h postirradiation. Similar to what has been observed in a thermal burn injury, the enzyme phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), which generates epinephrine, was elevated in the combined thermal burn and radiation wounds. This likely resulted in elevated tissue levels of this catecholamine, which has been shown to delay healing. Thus, with the addition of timolol to the wound to block the binding of locally generated epinephrine to the beta-adrenergic receptor, healing is improved. This work suggests that by antagonizing local epinephrine action within the wound, a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist such as timolol may be a useful adjunctive treatment to improve healing in the combined burn and radiation injury.

  19. HJP272, a novel endothelin receptor antagonist, attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shikha; Liu, Xingjian; Liu, Ming; Stephani, Ralph; Patel, Hardik; Cantor, Jerome

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies from this laboratory indicate that endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent vasoconstrictor, may play an important role in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced release of neutrophils from the pulmonary microvasculature. To further test this concept, Syrian hamsters were treated with a novel endothelin receptor A (ETA) antagonist (HJP272) prior to intratracheal instillation of LPS. The effect of HJP272 on the LPS-induced inflammatory reaction was determined by measuring: (1) lung histopathological changes, (2) total neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), (3) expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) by BALF macrophages, and (4) alveolar septal cell apoptosis. Treatment with HJP272 significantly reduced each of these parameters during a 24-hr period following LPS instillation, supporting the concept that limiting the activity of ET-1 may reduce the extent of lung injury. This hypothesis was further tested by giving ET-1 prior to LPS instillation, which resulted in a marked enhancement of LPS-induced lung inflammation, as measured by BALF neutrophils and TNFR1-positive macrophages. Furthermore, the increase in neutrophils resulting from treatment with ET-1 was significantly reduced by HJP272, again demonstrating the ability of ETA receptor antagonists to limit the influx of these cells into the lung. These findings suggest a potential therapeutic role for these agents in diseases where neutrophils are a significant cause of lung injury, such as bronchopneumonia, respiratory distress syndrome, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  20. Salvianolic Acid A, as a Novel ETA Receptor Antagonist, Shows Inhibitory Effects on Tumor in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiao; Wang, Shifeng; Yu, Yangyang; Sun, Shengnan; Zhang, Yuxin; Zhang, Yanling; Yang, Wei; Li, Shiyou; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2016-08-02

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) autocrine and paracrine signaling modulate cell proliferation of tumor cells by activating its receptors, endothelin A receptor (ETAR) and endothelin B receptor (ETBR). Dysregulation of ETAR activation promotes tumor development and progression. The potential of ETAR antagonists and the dual-ETAR and ETBR antagonists as therapeutic approaches are under preclinical and clinical studies. Salvianolic acid A (Sal A) is a hydrophilic polyphenolic derivative isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen), which has been reported as an anti-cancer and cardio-protective herbal medicine. In this study, we demonstrate that Sal A inhibits ETAR activation induced by ET-1 in both recombinant and endogenous ETAR expression cell lines. The IC50 values were determined as 5.7 µM in the HEK293/ETAR cell line and 3.14 µM in HeLa cells, respectively. Furthermore, our results showed that Sal A suppressed cell proliferation and extended the doubling times of multiple cancer cells, including HeLa, DU145, H1975, and A549 cell lines. In addition, Sal A inhibited proliferation of DU145 cell lines stimulated by exogenous ET-1 treatment. Moreover, the cytotoxicity and cardio-toxicity of Sal A were assessed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and Human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPS-CMs), which proved that Sal A demonstrates no cytotoxicity or cardiotoxicity. Collectively, our findings indicate that Sal A is a novel anti-cancer candidate through targeting ETAR.

  1. SKF-83566, a D1 dopamine receptor antagonist, inhibits the dopamine transporter

    PubMed Central

    Stouffer, Melissa A.; Ali, Solav; Reith, Maarten E.A.; Patel, Jyoti C.; Sarti, Federica; Carr, Kenneth D.; Rice, Margaret E.

    2011-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) is an important transmitter in both motor and limbic pathways. We sought to investigate the role of D1-receptor activation in axonal DA release regulation in dorsal striatum using a D1-receptor antagonist, SKF-83566. Evoked DA release was monitored in rat striatal slices using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. SKF-83566 caused a concentration-dependent increase in peak single-pulse evoked extracellular DA concentration ([DA]o), with a maximum increase of ~65% in 5 μM SKF-83566. This was accompanied by a concentration-dependent increase in [DA]o clearance time. Both effects were occluded by nomifensine (1 μM), a dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitor, suggesting that SKF-83566 acted via the DAT. We tested this by examining [3H]DA uptake into LLc-PK cells expressing rat DAT, and confirmed that SKF-83566 is a competitive DAT inhibitor with an IC50 of 5.7 μM. Binding studies with [3H]CFT, a cocaine analog, showed even more potent action at the DAT cocaine binding site (IC50 = 0.51 μM SKF-83566). Thus, data obtained using SKF-83566 as a D1 DA-receptor antagonist may be confounded by concurrent DAT inhibition. More positively, however, SKF-83566 might be a candidate to attenuate cocaine effects in vivo because of the greater potency of SKF-83566 at the cocaine versus DA binding site of the DAT. PMID:21689106

  2. Receptor residence time trumps drug-likeness and oral bioavailability in determining efficacy of complement C5a antagonists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seow, Vernon; Lim, Junxian; Cotterell, Adam J.; Yau, Mei-Kwan; Xu, Weijun; Lohman, Rink-Jan; Kok, W. Mei; Stoermer, Martin J.; Sweet, Matthew J.; Reid, Robert C.; Suen, Jacky Y.; Fairlie, David P.

    2016-04-01

    Drug discovery and translation are normally based on optimizing efficacy by increasing receptor affinity, functional potency, drug-likeness (rule-of-five compliance) and oral bioavailability. Here we demonstrate that residence time of a compound on its receptor has an overriding influence on efficacy, exemplified for antagonists of inflammatory protein complement C5a that activates immune cells and promotes disease. Three equipotent antagonists (3D53, W54011, JJ47) of inflammatory responses to C5a (3nM) were compared for drug-likeness, receptor affinity and antagonist potency in human macrophages, and anti-inflammatory efficacy in rats. Only the least drug-like antagonist (3D53) maintained potency in cells against higher C5a concentrations and had a much longer duration of action (t1/2 ~ 20 h) than W54011 or JJ47 (t1/2 ~ 1-3 h) in inhibiting macrophage responses. The unusually long residence time of 3D53 on its receptor was mechanistically probed by molecular dynamics simulations, which revealed long-lasting interactions that trap the antagonist within the receptor. Despite negligible oral bioavailability, 3D53 was much more orally efficacious than W54011 or JJ47 in preventing repeated agonist insults to induce rat paw oedema over 24 h. Thus, residence time on a receptor can trump drug-likeness in determining efficacy, even oral efficacy, of pharmacological agents.

  3. Receptor residence time trumps drug-likeness and oral bioavailability in determining efficacy of complement C5a antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Seow, Vernon; Lim, Junxian; Cotterell, Adam J.; Yau, Mei-Kwan; Xu, Weijun; Lohman, Rink-Jan; Kok, W. Mei; Stoermer, Martin J.; Sweet, Matthew J.; Reid, Robert C.; Suen, Jacky Y.; Fairlie, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Drug discovery and translation are normally based on optimizing efficacy by increasing receptor affinity, functional potency, drug-likeness (rule-of-five compliance) and oral bioavailability. Here we demonstrate that residence time of a compound on its receptor has an overriding influence on efficacy, exemplified for antagonists of inflammatory protein complement C5a that activates immune cells and promotes disease. Three equipotent antagonists (3D53, W54011, JJ47) of inflammatory responses to C5a (3nM) were compared for drug-likeness, receptor affinity and antagonist potency in human macrophages, and anti-inflammatory efficacy in rats. Only the least drug-like antagonist (3D53) maintained potency in cells against higher C5a concentrations and had a much longer duration of action (t1/2 ~ 20 h) than W54011 or JJ47 (t1/2 ~ 1–3 h) in inhibiting macrophage responses. The unusually long residence time of 3D53 on its receptor was mechanistically probed by molecular dynamics simulations, which revealed long-lasting interactions that trap the antagonist within the receptor. Despite negligible oral bioavailability, 3D53 was much more orally efficacious than W54011 or JJ47 in preventing repeated agonist insults to induce rat paw oedema over 24 h. Thus, residence time on a receptor can trump drug-likeness in determining efficacy, even oral efficacy, of pharmacological agents. PMID:27094554

  4. Neuroprotection afforded by antagonists of endothelin-1 receptors in experimental stroke.

    PubMed

    Moldes, Octavio; Sobrino, Tomás; Blanco, Miguel; Agulla, Jesús; Barral, David; Ramos-Cabrer, Pedro; Castillo, José

    2012-12-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is involved on the development of cerebral edema in acute ischemic stroke. As edema is a therapeutic target in cerebral ischemia, our aim was to study the effect of antagonists for ET-1 receptors (Clazosentan® and BQ-788, specific antagonists for receptors A and B, respectively) on the development of edema, infarct volume and sensorial-motor deficits in rats subjected to ischemia by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO). We used Wistar rats (280-320 g) submitted to ischemia by intraluminal transient (90 min) MCAO. After ischemia, rats were randomized into 4 groups (n = 6) treated with; 1) control group (saline), 2) Clazosentan® group (10 mg/kg iv), 3) BQ-788 group (3 mg/kg iv), and 4) combined treatment (Clazosentan® 10 mg/kg plus BQ-788 3 mg/kg iv). We observed that rats treated with Clazosentan® showed a reduction of edema, measured by MRI, at 72 h (hours) and at day 7 (both p < 0.0001), and a decrease in the serum levels of ET-1 at 72 h (p < 0.0001) and at day 7 (p = 0.009). The combined treatment also induced a reduction of edema at 24 h (p = 0.004), 72 h (p < 0.0001) and at day 7 (p < 0.0001), a reduction on infarct volume, measured by MRI, at 24 and 72 h, and at day 7 (all p < 0.01), and a better sensorimotor recovery at 24 and 72 h, and at day 7 (all p < 0.01). Moreover, Clazosentan® induced a decrease in AQP4 expression, while BQ-788 induced an increase in AQP9 expression. These results suggest that antagonists for ET-1 receptors may be a good therapeutic target for cerebral ischemia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Differential regulation of human cardiac β-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors by chronic β-adrenoceptor antagonist treatment

    PubMed Central

    Motomura, S.; Deighton, N. M.; Zerkowski, H.-R.; Khamssi, M.; Brodde, O.-E.

    1990-01-01

    In patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting chronic β1-adrenoceptor antagonist treatment increased right atrial β1-adrenoceptor number, did not affect β2-adrenoceptor number and decreased muscarinic M2-receptor number. Concomitantly, the M2-receptor-mediated negative inotropic effect of carbachol was reduced, while the β1-adrenoceptor-mediated positive inotropic effect of noradrenaline was not altered. The β2-adrenoceptor mediated positive inotropic effect of procaterol, however, was markedly enhanced. We conclude that chronic β1-adrenoceptor antagonist treatment increases β1-adrenoceptor number, sensitizes β2-adrenoceptor function and desensitizes M2-receptor function in the human heart. PMID:1980074

  6. AMPA receptor antagonists reverse effects of extended habit training on signaled food approach responding in rats.

    PubMed

    Bespalov, A Y; Harich, S; Jongen-Rêlo, A-L; van Gaalen, M M; Gross, G

    2007-11-01

    Dopamine D1 receptor stimulation is critically involved in early appetitive phases of learning in various behavioral paradigms. However, extended habit training was previously shown to reduce the ability of dopamine D1 receptor antagonists such as R(+)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine hydrochloride (SCH-23390) to disrupt behavioral performance. The present study aimed to evaluate whether coadministration of glutamate alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonists restores sensitivity to acute blockade of D1 receptors. Adult male Wistar rats were presented with 45-mg food pellets delivered to the food tray, which was immediately preceded by a 400-ms tone (2.8 kHz, 78 dB). During each training and test session, there were 28 food-tone presentations with an average intertrial interval of 70 s, and each head entry into the food tray was recorded. Drug tests were conducted on either day 3 or 9 of the training using independent groups of animals. The main dependent variable was the number of trials during which no head-entry response was made during the 10-s period immediately after the food delivery. Longer training duration enhanced the resistance of the signaled food approach behavior to extinction and to disrupting effects of supplementary food ration. Similarly, acute administration of SCH-23390 (0.04-0.16 mg/kg) dose-dependently reduced the number of omitted trials when given before the test session on day 3 but much less so when injected on day 9. AMPA receptor antagonists, NBQX (10 mg/kg) or GYKI-52466 (3-10 mg/kg), had no effects on their own but significantly enhanced the disrupting effects of SCH-23390 (0.08 and 0.16 mg/kg) when given on day 9 but not on day 3 of the training. These results indicate that AMPA receptor blockade restores sensitivity to appetitive behavior-disrupting effects of SCH-23390 in subjects exposed to extended training protocol.

  7. A Gly/Ala switch contributes to high affinity binding of benzoxazinone-based non-peptide oxytocin receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Hawtin, Stuart R; Ha, Sookhee N; Pettibone, Douglas J; Wheatley, Mark

    2005-01-17

    Non-peptide antagonists of the oxytocin receptor (OTR) have been developed to prevent pre-term labour. The benzoxazinone-based antagonists L-371,257 and L-372,662 display pronounced species-dependent pharmacology with respect to selectivity for the OTR over the V(1a) vasopressin receptor. Examination of receptor sequences from different species identified Ala(318) in helix 7 of the human OTR as a candidate discriminator required for high affinity binding. The mutant receptor [A318G]OTR was engineered and characterised using ligands representing many different chemical classes. Of all the ligands investigated, only the benzoxazinone-based antagonists had decreased affinity for [A318G]OTR. Molecular modelling revealed that Ala(318) provides a direct hydrophobic contact with a methoxy group of L-371,257 and L-372,662.

  8. Integrating Pharmacophore into Membrane Molecular Dynamics Simulations to Improve Homology Modeling of G Protein-coupled Receptors with Ligand Selectivity: A2A Adenosine Receptor as an Example.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lingxiao; Guan, Mengxin; Jin, Hongwei; Liu, Zhenming; Zhang, Liangren

    2015-12-01

    Homology modeling has been applied to fill in the gap in experimental G protein-coupled receptors structure determination. However, achievement of G protein-coupled receptors homology models with ligand selectivity remains challenging due to structural diversity of G protein-coupled receptors. In this work, we propose a novel strategy by integrating pharmacophore and membrane molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to improve homology modeling of G protein-coupled receptors with ligand selectivity. To validate this integrated strategy, the A2A adenosine receptor (A2A AR), whose structures in both active and inactive states have been established, has been chosen as an example. We performed blind predictions of the active-state A2A AR structure based on the inactive-state structure and compared the performance of different refinement strategies. The blind prediction model combined with the integrated strategy identified ligand-receptor interactions and conformational changes of key structural elements related to the activation of A2 A AR, including (i) the movements of intracellular ends of TM3 and TM5/TM6; (ii) the opening of ionic lock; (iii) the movements of binding site residues. The integrated strategy of pharmacophore with molecular dynamics simulations can aid in the optimization in the identification of side chain conformations in receptor models. This strategy can be further investigated in homology modeling and expand its applicability to other G protein-coupled receptor modeling, which should aid in the discovery of more effective and selective G protein-coupled receptor ligands. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Common influences of non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonists on the consolidation and reconsolidation of cocaine-cue memory

    PubMed Central

    Alaghband, Yasaman; Marshall, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Environmental stimuli or contexts previously associated with rewarding drugs contribute importantly to relapse among addicts, and research has focused on neurobiological processes maintaining those memories. Much research shows contributions of cell surface receptors and intracellular signaling pathways in maintaining associations between rewarding drugs (e.g., cocaine) and concurrent cues/contexts; these memories can be degraded at the time of their retrieval through reconsolidation interference. Much less studied is the consolidation of drug-cue memories during their acquisition. Objective The present experiments use the cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm in rats to directly compare, in a consistent setting, the effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor antagonists MK-801 and memantine on the consolidation and reconsolidation of cocaine-cue memories. Methods For the consolidation studies, animals were systemically administered MK-801 or memantine immediately following training sessions. To investigate the effects of these NMDA receptor antagonists on the retention of previously-established cocaine-cue memories, animals were systemically administered MK-801 or memantine immediately after memory retrieval. Results Animals given either NMDA receptor antagonist immediately following training sessions did not establish a preference for the cocaine-paired compartment. Post-retrieval administration of either NMDA receptor antagonist attenuated the animals' preference for the cocaine-paired compartment. Furthermore, animals given NMDA receptor antagonists post-retrieval showed a blunted response to cocaine-primed reinstatement. Conclusions Using two distinct NMDA receptor antagonists in a common setting, these findings demonstrate that NMDA receptor-dependent processes contribute both to the consolidation and reconsolidation of cocaine-cue memories, and they point to the potential utility of treatments that interfere with drug

  10. Oxime Ethers of (E)-11-Isonitrosostrychnine as Highly Potent Glycine Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Mohsen, Amal M Y; Mandour, Yasmine M; Sarukhanyan, Edita; Breitinger, Ulrike; Villmann, Carmen; Banoub, Maha M; Breitinger, Hans-Georg; Dandekar, Thomas; Holzgrabe, Ulrike; Sotriffer, Christoph; Jensen, Anders A; Zlotos, Darius P

    2016-12-23

    A series of (E)-11-isonitrosostrychnine oxime ethers, 2-aminostrychnine, (strychnine-2-yl)propionamide, 18-oxostrychnine, and N-propylstrychnine bromide were synthesized and evaluated pharmacologically at human α1 and α1β glycine receptors in a functional fluorescence-based and a whole-cell patch-clamp assay and in [ 3 H]strychnine binding studies. 2-Aminostrychnine and the methyl, allyl, and propargyl oxime ethers were the most potent α1 and α1β antagonists in the series, displaying IC 50 values similar to those of strychnine at the two receptors. Docking experiments to the strychnine binding site of the crystal structure of the α3 glycine receptor indicated the same orientation of the strychnine core for all analogues. For the most potent oxime ethers, the ether substituent was accommodated in a lipophilic receptor binding pocket. The findings identify the oxime hydroxy group as a suitable attachment point for linking two strychnine pharmacophores by a polymethylene spacer and are, therefore, important for the design of bivalent ligands targeting glycine receptors.

  11. Uterine infusion of melatonin or melatonin receptor antagonist alters ovine feto-placental hemodynamics during midgestation.

    PubMed

    Lemley, Caleb O; Camacho, Leticia E; Vonnahme, Kimberly A

    2013-08-01

    Dietary melatonin supplementation from mid- to late gestation increases umbilical artery blood flow and causes disproportionate fetal growth. Melatonin receptors have been described throughout the cardiovascular system; however, there is a paucity of data on the function of placental melatonin receptors. The objectives of the current experiment were to determine fetal descending aorta blood flow, umbilical artery blood flow, and placental and fetal development following a 4-wk uterine infusion of melatonin (MEL), melatonin receptor 1 and 2 antagonist (luzindole; LUZ), or vehicle (CON) from Day 62 to Day 90 of gestation. After 4 wk of infusion, umbilical artery blood flow and umbilical artery blood flow relative to placentome weight were increased (P < 0.05) in MEL- versus CON- and LUZ-infused dams. Fetal descending aorta blood flow was increased (P < 0.05) in MEL- versus CON- and LUZ-infused dams, while fetal descending aorta blood flow relative to fetal weight was increased in MEL- versus CON-infused dams and decreased in LUZ- versus CON-infused dams. Following the 4-wk infusion, we observed an increase in placental efficiency (fetal-placentome weight ratio) in MEL- versus LUZ-infused dams. The increase in umbilical artery blood flow due to chronic uterine melatonin infusion is potentiated by an increased fetal cardiac output through the descending aorta. Moreover, melatonin receptor antagonism decreased fetal descending aorta blood flow relative to fetal weight. Therefore, melatonin receptor activation may partially mediate the observed increase in fetal blood flow following dietary melatonin supplementation.

  12. Amino acid conjugates of lithocholic acid as antagonists of the EphA2 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Incerti, Matteo; Tognolini, Massimiliano; Russo, Simonetta; Pala, Daniele; Giorgio, Carmine; Hassan-Mohamed, Iftiin; Noberini, Roberta; Pasquale, Elena B.; Vicini, Paola; Piersanti, Silvia; Rivara, Silvia; Barocelli, Elisabetta; Mor, Marco; Lodola, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    The Eph receptor–ephrin system is an emerging target for the development of novel antiangiogenetic agents. We recently identified lithocholic acid (LCA) as a small molecule able to block EphA2-dependent signals in cancer cells, suggesting that its (5β)-cholan-24-oic acid scaffold can be used as a template to design a new generation of improved EphA2 antagonists. Here, we report the design and synthesis of an extended set of LCA derivatives obtained by conjugation of its carboxyl group with different α-amino acids. Structure-activity relationships indicate that the presence of a lipophilic amino acid side chain is fundamental to achieve good potencies. The L-Trp derivative (20, PCM126) was the most potent antagonist of the series disrupting EphA2-ephrinA1 interaction and blocking EphA2 phosphorylation in prostate cancer cells at low μM concentrations, thus being significantly more potent than LCA. Compound 20 is among the most potent small molecule antagonists of the EphA2 receptor. PMID:23489211

  13. Effects of cannabinoid and glutamate receptor antagonists and their interactions on learning and memory in male rats.

    PubMed

    Barzegar, Somayeh; Komaki, Alireza; Shahidi, Siamak; Sarihi, Abdolrahman; Mirazi, Naser; Salehi, Iraj

    2015-04-01

    Despite previous findings on the effects of cannabinoid and glutamatergic systems on learning and memory, the effects of the combined stimulation or the simultaneous inactivation of these two systems on learning and memory have not been studied. In addition, it is not clear whether the effects of the cannabinoid system on learning and memory occur through the modulation of glutamatergic synaptic transmission. Hence, in this study, we examined the effects of the simultaneous inactivation of the cannabinoid and glutamatergic systems on learning and memory using a passive avoidance (PA) test in rats. On the test day, AM251, which is a CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist; MK-801, which is a glutamate receptor antagonist; or both substances were injected intraperitoneally into male Wistar rats 30min before placing the animal in a shuttle box. A learning test (acquisition) was then performed, and a retrieval test was performed the following day. Learning and memory in the PA test were significantly different among the groups. The CB1 receptor antagonist improved the scores on the PA acquisition and retention tests. However, the glutamatergic receptor antagonist decreased the acquisition and retrieval scores on the PA task. The CB1 receptor antagonist partly decreased the glutamatergic receptor antagonist effects on PA learning and memory. These results indicated that the acute administration of a CB1 antagonist improved cognitive performance on a PA task in normal rats and that a glutamate-related mechanism may underlie the antagonism of cannabinoid by AM251 in learning and memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of SB-271046: A potent, selective and orally active 5-HT6 receptor antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Routledge, Carol; Bromidge, Steven M; Moss, Stephen F; Price, Gary W; Hirst, Warren; Newman, Helen; Riley, Graham; Gager, Tracey; Stean, Tania; Upton, Neil; Clarke, Stephen E; Brown, Anthony M; Middlemiss, Derek N

    2000-01-01

    SB-271046, potently displaced [3H]-LSD and [125I]-SB-258585 from human 5-HT6 receptors recombinantly expressed in HeLa cells in vitro (pKi 8.92 and 9.09 respectively). SB-271046 also displaced [125I]-SB-258585 from human caudate putamen and rat and pig striatum membranes (pKi 8.81, 9.02 and 8.55 respectively). SB-271046 was over 200 fold selective for the 5-HT6 receptor vs 55 other receptors, binding sites and ion channels. In functional studies on human 5-HT6 receptors SB-271046 competitively antagonized 5-HT-induced stimulation of adenylyl cyclase activity with a pA2 of 8.71. SB-271046 produced an increase in seizure threshold over a wide-dose range in the rat maximal electroshock seizure threshold (MEST) test, with a minimum effective dose of ⩽0.1 mg kg−1 p.o. and maximum effect at 4 h post-dose. The level of anticonvulsant activity achieved correlated well with the blood concentrations of SB-271046 (EC50 of 0.16 μM) and brain concentrations of 0.01–0.04 μM at Cmax. These data, together with the observed anticonvulsant activity of other selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonists, SB-258510 (10 mg kg−1, 2–6 h pre-test) and Ro 04-6790 (1–30 mg kg−1, 1 h pre-test), in the rat MEST test, suggest that the anticonvulsant properties of SB-271046 are likely to be mediated by 5-HT6 receptors. Overall, these studies demonstrate that SB-271046 is a potent and selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist and is orally active in the rat MEST test. SB-271046 represents a valuable tool for evaluating the in vivo central function of 5-HT6 receptors. PMID:10928964

  15. The dual orexin receptor antagonist almorexant induces sleep and decreases orexin-induced locomotion by blocking orexin 2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Mang, Géraldine M; Dürst, Thomas; Bürki, Hugo; Imobersteg, Stefan; Abramowski, Dorothee; Schuepbach, Edi; Hoyer, Daniel; Fendt, Markus; Gee, Christine E

    2012-12-01

    Orexin peptides activate orexin 1 and orexin 2 receptors (OX(1)R and OX(2)R), regulate locomotion and sleep-wake. The dual OX(1)R/OX(2)R antagonist almorexant reduces activity and promotes sleep in multiple species, including man. The relative contributions of the two receptors in locomotion and sleep/wake regulation were investigated in mice. Mice lacking orexin receptors were used to determine the contribution of OX(1)R and OX(2)R to orexin A-induced locomotion and to almorexant-induced sleep. N/A. C57BL/6J mice and OX(1)R(+/+), OX(1)R(-/-), OX(2)R(+/+), OX(2)R(-/-) and OX(1)R(-/-)/OX(2)R(-/-) mice. Intracerebroventricular orexin A; oral dosing of almorexant. Almorexant attenuated orexin A-induced locomotion. As in other species, almorexant dose-dependently increased rapid eye movement sleep (REM) and nonREM sleep in mice. Almorexant and orexin A were ineffective in OX(1)R(-/-)/OX(2)R(-/-) mice. Both orexin A-induced locomotion and sleep induction by almorexant were absent in OX(2)R(-/-) mice. Interestingly, almorexant did not induce cataplexy in wild-type mice under conditions where cataplexy was seen in mice lacking orexins and in OX(1)R(-/-)/OX(2)R(-/-) mice. Almorexant dissociates very slowly from OX(2)R as measured functionally and in radioligand binding. Under non equilibrium conditions in vitro, almorexant was a dual antagonist whereas at equilibrium, almorexant became OX(2)R selective. In vivo, almorexant specifically inhibits the actions of orexin A. The two known orexin receptors mediate sleep induction by almorexant and orexin A-induced locomotion. However, OX(2)R activation mediates locomotion induction by orexin A and antagonism of OX(2)R is sufficient to promote sleep in mice.

  16. The protective effect of adenosine A2A receptor antagonism in cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Pedata, F; Gianfriddo, M; Turchi, D; Melani, A

    2005-03-01

    We reviewed our most recent work on the protective effect of adenosine A(2A)antagonism in cerebral ischemia. Focal ischemia was produced in rats by introducing a nylon monofilament pre-coated with silicone through the external carotid artery to occlude the right MCA at its origin. A(2A) antagonism was found protective in the model of permanent focal ischemia induced by the monofilament technique. This methodology provides the possibility of evaluating the protection against the outflow of excitatory amino acids and against an acute motor disturbance, i.e.contralateral turning to the ischemic side in the first hours after ischemia in awake rats. Hours later, a definite neurological deficit and necrotic neuronal damage can be evaluated. Our results suggest that A(2A) antagonism may be protective from the earliest up to several hours after the ischemic event.

  17. Estrogen receptor agonists/antagonists in breast cancer therapy: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Jameera Begam, A; Jubie, S; Nanjan, M J

    2017-04-01

    Estrogens display intriguing tissue selective action that is of great biomedical importance in the development of optimal therapeutics for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer. There are also strong evidences to show that both endogenous and exogenous estrogens are involved in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Tamoxifen has been the only drug of choice for more than 30years to treat patients with estrogen related (ER) positive breast tumors. There is a need therefore, for identifying newer, potential and novel candidates for breast cancer. Keeping this in view, the present review focuses on selective estrogen receptor modulators and estrogen antagonists such as sulfatase and aromatase inhibitors involved in breast cancer therapy. A succinct and critical overview of the structure of estrogen receptors, their signaling and involvement in breast carcinogenesis are herein described. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Recent advances in the development of dopamine D3 receptor antagonists: a medicinal chemistry perspective.

    PubMed

    Micheli, Fabrizio

    2011-07-04

    Dopamine (DA) D(3) receptor antagonism might play a significant role in different therapeutic areas. A high number of preclinical studies on DA D(3) receptor antagonists have shown efficacy in animal models of Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia and drug dependence. This Review covers the activities of medicinal chemists in this field over the last ten years towards the identification of truly selective compounds. Both primary and patent literature is reviewed here. Since the original discoveries, a clear trend towards the optimization of the developability properties of the new scaffold has clearly emerged with time, from both academic and industrial researchers. Examples of advanced leads from academia and industry are described. The latest potential therapeutic applications are reported too. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Structural modification of H/sub 2/-receptor antagonists provide post-H/sub 2/-receptor gastric antisecretory activity

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, S.T.; Dove, P.A.; Strike, D.P.

    1986-03-01

    In the course of investigations into the gastric antisecretory activity of potential H/sub 2/-receptor antagonists, examples were discovered in which structural modification of the molecule altered a) antisecretory activity in the pylorus-ligated rat and b) the response to various stimulants of (/sup 14/C)aminopyrine (AP) uptake in isolated rat gastric mucosal cell preparations. Wy-45,662 (N-(3-(3-(1-piperidinylmethyl)phenoxy)propyl)thieno(3,4-d) isothiazol-3-amine 1, 1-dioxide)), a very potent histamine H/sub 2/-antagonist and antisecretory agent in the rat (ED/sub 50/ (approx.) 0.3 mg/kg), had no effect in vitro at 1 ..mu..M on forskolin-induced (/sup 14/C)AP uptake while 10 nM Wy-45,662 completely suppressed histamine-stimulated (/sup 14/C)AP uptake. In contrast, themore » N-benzylated form of Wy-45,662, Wy-46,499 dose-dependently (10/sup -7/-10/sup -6/M) suppressed forskolin-stimulated (/sup 14/C)AP uptake while retaining modest antisecretory activity (ED/sub 50/approx.8 mg/kg) in vivo. Wy-46,499's modest antisecretory activity was thus attributable to inhibition via a post-histamine H/sub 2/-receptor mechanism.« less

  20. GluN2B subunit-containing NMDA receptor antagonists prevent Aβ-mediated synaptic plasticity disruption in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Neng-Wei; Klyubin, Igor; Anwyl, Roger; Rowan, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Currently, treatment with the relatively low-affinity NMDA receptor antagonist memantine provides limited benefit in Alzheimer's disease (AD). One probable dose-limiting factor in the use of memantine is the inhibition of NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity mechanisms believed to underlie certain forms of memory. Moreover, amyloid-β protein (Aβ) oligomers that are implicated in causing the cognitive deficits of AD potently inhibit this form of plasticity. Here we examined if subtype-preferring NMDA receptor antagonists could preferentially protect against the inhibition of NMDA receptor-dependent plasticity of excitatory synaptic transmission by Aβ in the hippocampus in vivo. Using doses that did not affect control plasticity, antagonists selective for NMDA receptors containing GluN2B but not other GluN2 subunits prevented Aβ1–42 -mediated inhibition of plasticity. Evidence that the proinflammatory cytokine TNFα mediates this deleterious action of Aß was provided by the ability of TNFα antagonists to prevent Aβ1–42 inhibition of plasticity and the abrogation of a similar disruptive effect of TNFα using a GluN2B-selective antagonist. Moreover, at nearby synapses that were resistant to the inhibitory effect of TNFα, Aβ1–42 did not significantly affect plasticity. These findings suggest that preferentially targeting GluN2B subunit-containing NMDARs may provide an effective means of preventing cognitive deficits in early Alzheimer's disease. PMID:19918059

  1. Retrospective cohort study on combination therapy with the histamine H2-receptor antagonist lafutidine for antihistamine-resistant chronic urticaria.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Yumi; Ichinokawa, Yuko; Hiruma, Midori; Machida, Yuko; Funakushi, Naoko; Sadamasa, Hiroko; Hiruma, Masataro

    2013-12-01

    We conducted a retrospective cohort study evaluating the efficacy and usefulness of the addition of lafutidine, a novel histamine H2-receptor antagonist, in treatment of patients with idiopathic chronic urticaria whose disease was not well controlled with histamine H1-receptor antagonists. Based on the assessment of global improvement, moderate or better improvement was achieved in 39 of 46 patients (85%) after 1-3 weeks of additional administration of lafutidine and 35 patients (76%) after 3 months. No incidence of drug-related adverse reactions was reported in any patient. Lafutidine was rated as useful or better in 34 patients (74%) after 3 months of treatment. The usefulness of the drug was not affected by differences in background factors, such as disease duration, previous treatment duration and the number of concomitant H1-receptor antagonists. Lafutidine appears to be a promising addition to histamine H1-receptor antagonist therapy for the treatment of chronic urticaria resistant to treatment with H1-receptor antagonists alone.

  2. Cannabidiol provides long-lasting protection against the deleterious effects of inflammation in a viral model of multiple sclerosis: a role for A2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Mecha, M; Feliú, A; Iñigo, P M; Mestre, L; Carrillo-Salinas, F J; Guaza, C

    2013-11-01

    Inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) is a complex process that involves a multitude of molecules and effectors, and it requires the transmigration of blood leukocytes across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the activation of resident immune cells. Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychotropic cannabinoid constituent of Cannabis sativa, has potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. Yet, how this compound modifies the deleterious effects of inflammation in TMEV-induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD) remains unknown. Using this viral model of multiple sclerosis (MS), we demonstrate that CBD decreases the transmigration of blood leukocytes by downregulating the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), chemokines (CCL2 and CCL5) and the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β, as well as by attenuating the activation of microglia. Moreover, CBD administration at the time of viral infection exerts long-lasting effects, ameliorating motor deficits in the chronic phase of the disease in conjunction with reduced microglial activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Adenosine A2A receptors participate in some of the anti-inflammatory effects of CBD, as the A2A antagonist ZM241385 partially blocks the protective effects of CBD in the initial stages of inflammation. Together, our findings highlight the anti-inflammatory effects of CBD in this viral model of MS and demonstrate the significant therapeutic potential of this compound for the treatment of pathologies with an inflammatory component. © 2013.

  3. CB1 - cannabinoid receptor antagonist effects on cortisol in cannabis-dependent men.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Robert S; Baumann, Michael H; Gorelick, David A; Schwilke, Eugene; Schwope, David M; Darwin, William D; Kelly, Deanna L; Schroeder, Jennifer R; Ortemann-Renon, Catherine; Bonnet, Denis; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2012-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, but the effect of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor antagonism following chronic CB1 receptor stimulation in humans is unknown. To evaluate effects of the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant on the HPA axis in cannabis-dependent individuals. Fourteen daily cannabis smokers received increasingly frequent 20 mg oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) doses (60-120 mg/day) over 8 days to standardize cannabis tolerance. Concurrent with the last THC dose, double-blind placebo or rimonabant (20 or 40 mg) was administered. Cannabinoid, rimonabant, and cortisol plasma concentrations were measured 1.5 hours prior to rimonabant administration and 2.0, 5.5, and 12.5 hours post-dose. Ten participants completed before premature study termination due to rimonabant's withdrawal from development. Five participants received 20 mg, three received 40 mg, and two placebo. There was a significant positive association between rimonabant concentration and change in cortisol concentration from baseline (r = .53, p < .01). There also was a borderline significant association between rimonabant dose and cortisol concentrations when the dose-by-time interaction was included. Four of eight participants receiving rimonabant (none of two receiving placebo) had greater cortisol concentrations 2 hours after dosing (at 11:30) than at 08:00, while normal diurnal variation should have peak concentrations at 08:00. Rimonabant 20 or 40 mg did not significantly increase plasma cortisol concentrations, consistent with an absence of antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal. Rimonabant doses >40 mg might elicit cortisol changes, confirming a role for CB1 receptors in modulating the HPA axis in humans.

  4. CB1 – Cannabinoid Receptor Antagonist Effects on Cortisol in Cannabis-Dependent Men

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Robert S.; Baumann, Michael H.; Gorelick, David A.; Schwilke, Eugene; Schwope, David M.; Darwin, William D.; Kelly, Deanna L.; Schroeder, Jennifer R.; Ortemann-Renon, Catherine; Bonnet, Denis; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The endocannabinoid system modulates the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, but the effect of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor antagonism following chronic CB1 receptor stimulation in humans is unknown. Objectives To evaluate effects of the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant on the HPA axis in cannabis-dependent individuals. Methods Fourteen daily cannabis smokers received increasingly frequent 20 mg oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) doses (60–120 mg/day) over 8 days to standardize cannabis tolerance. Concurrent with the last THC dose, double-blind placebo or rimonabant (20 or 40 mg) was administered. Cannabinoid, rimonabant, and cortisol plasma concentrations were measured 1.5 hours prior to rimonabant administration and 2.0, 5.5, and 12.5 hours post-dose. Results Ten participants completed before premature study termination due to rimonabant’s withdrawal from development. Five participants received 20 mg, three received 40 mg, and two placebo. There was a significant positive association between rimonabant concentration and change in cortisol concentration from baseline (r = .53, p < .01). There also was a borderline significant association between rimonabant dose and cortisol concentrations when the dose-by-time interaction was included. Four of eight participants receiving rimonabant (none of two receiving placebo) had greater cortisol concentrations 2 hours after dosing (at 11:30) than at 08:00, while normal diurnal variation should have peak concentrations at 08:00. Conclusion Rimonabant 20 or 40 mg did not significantly increase plasma cortisol concentrations, consistent with an absence of antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal. Scientific Significance Rimonabant doses >40 mg might elicit cortisol changes, confirming a role for CB1 receptors in modulating the HPA axis in humans. PMID:21797816

  5. Naltrexone, an opioid receptor antagonist, attenuates liver fibrosis in bile duct ligated rats

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimkhani, M R; Kiani, S; Oakley, F; Kendall, T; Shariftabrizi, A; Tavangar, S M; Moezi, L; Payabvash, S; Karoon, A; Hoseininik, H; Mann, D A; Moore, K P; Mani, A R; Dehpour, A R

    2006-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that the opioid system is involved in the development of hepatic fibrosis. Methods The effect of naltrexone (an opioid receptor antagonist) on hepatic fibrosis in bile duct ligated (BDL) or sham rats was assessed by histology and hepatic hydroxyproline levels. Liver matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP‐2) was measured by zymography, and α smooth muscle actin (α‐SMA) and CD45 (leucocyte common antigen) by immunohistochemistry. The redox state of the liver was assessed by hepatic glutathione (GSH)/oxidised glutathione (GSSG) and S‐nitrosothiol levels. Subtypes of opioid receptors in cultured hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were characterised by reverse transcriptase‐polymerase chain reaction, and the effects of selective δ opioid receptor agonists on cellular proliferation, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP‐1), and procollagen I expression in HSCs determined. Results Naltrexone markedly attenuated the development of hepatic fibrosis as well as MMP‐2 activity (p<0.01), and decreased the number of activated HSCs in BDL rats (p<0.05). The development of biliary cirrhosis altered the redox state with a decreased hepatic GSH/GSSG ratio and increased concentrations of hepatic S‐nitrosothiols, which were partially or completely normalised by treatment with naltrexone, respectively. Activated rat HSCs exhibited expression of δ1 receptors, with increased procollagen I expression, and increased TIMP‐1 expression in response to δ1 and δ2 agonists, respectively. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate that administration of an opioid antagonist prevents the development of hepatic fibrosis in cirrhosis. Opioids can influence liver fibrogenesis directly via the effect on HSCs and regulation of the redox sensitive mechanisms in the liver. PMID:16543289

  6. Intact cell binding for in vitro prediction of sedative and non-sedative histamine H1-receptor antagonists based on receptor internalization.

    PubMed

    Hishinuma, Shigeru; Sato, Yuko; Kobayashi, Yusuke; Komazaki, Hiroshi; Saito, Masaki

    2008-05-01

    We evaluated changes in the binding properties of sedative and non-sedative histamine H1-receptor antagonists induced by internalization of H1 receptors in intact human U373 MG astrocytoma cells. Internalization of H1 receptors was induced without their degradation by treatment with 0.1 mM histamine for 30 min at 37 degrees C, and then the intact cell binding assay was performed at 4 degrees C. The binding properties of [3H]mepyramine, a cell-penetrating radioligand for H1 receptors, were not changed by histamine pretreatment. Displacement curves for sedative H1-receptor antagonists (diphenhydramine, chlorpheniramine, promethazine, ketotifen, azelastine and oxatomide) against [3H]mepyramine binding were not changed by histamine pretreatment. In contrast, the displacement curves for non-sedative H1-receptor antagonists (mequitazine, bepotastine, olopatadine, epinastine, carebastine, desloratadine and fexofenadine) were changed by histamine pretreatment: two types of changes, i.e. a rightward shift in the monophasic curve or an increase in the proportion of the low affinity component of the biphasic curve, were prevented under hypertonic conditions, in which clathrin-mediated receptor internalization is known to be inhibited. Thus, internalization-mediated changes in the binding properties of H1-receptor antagonists were well correlated with their sedative and non-sedative behaviors, which might confirm their permeability through the biomembrane and possibly the blood brain barrier.

  7. A novel Nogo-66 receptor antagonist peptide promotes neurite regeneration in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhongqing; Dai, Xiaoyong; Li, Yu; Jiang, Shuwen; Lou, Guofeng; Cao, Qiaoyu; Hu, Rendong; Huang, Yadong; Su, Zhijian; Chen, Meiwan; Luo, Huanmin; Lin, Xi; Sun, Jun; Xiao, Fei

    2016-03-01

    The Nogo-66 receptor (NgR1), a receptor for Nogo-A, contributes to the inhibition of axonal regeneration in the adult central nervous system after traumatic injuries. Thus, NgR1 has been considered a critical target in axon regeneration therapy. Here, we identified a specific NgR1 antagonist peptide (HIYTALV, named NAP2) which promotes neurite regeneration in vitro from a phage display heptapeptide library. NAP2 was co-localized with NgR1 on the surface of PC12 cells and cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) by immunofluorescence assay. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-streptavidin-biotin assay further showed that NAP2 binds to NgR1 and the dissociation constant (Kd) was 0.45 μM Functional analyses indicated that NAP2 could reduce the inhibitory effects of Nogo-66 on neurite outgrowth in differentiated PC12 cells and CGCs by blocking the Nogo-66-induced activation of Rho-associated coiled coil-containing protein kinase (ROCK), collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) and myosin light chain (MLC). Taken together, the small molecule NgR1 antagonist peptide NAP2 (MW: 815.98Da) has a potential ability in crossing blood brain barrier and will be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of spinal cord injury and neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Antagonist of GH-releasing hormone receptors alleviates experimental ocular inflammation.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yong Jie; Chan, Sun On; Chong, Kelvin Kam Lung; Li, Benjamin Fuk Loi; Ng, Tsz Kin; Yip, Yolanda Wong Ying; Chen, Haoyu; Zhang, Mingzhi; Block, Norman L; Cheung, Herman S; Schally, Andrew V; Pang, Chi Pui

    2014-12-23

    Disruptions in immunity and occurrence of inflammation cause many eye diseases. The growth hormone-releasing hormone-growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-1 (GHRH-GH-IGF1) axis exerts regulatory effects on the immune system. Its involvement in ocular inflammation remains to be investigated. Here we studied this signaling in endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) generated by LPS. The increase in GHRH receptor (GHRH-R) protein levels was parallel to the increase in mRNA levels of pituitary-specific transcription factor-1, GHRH-R splice variant 1, GHRH, and GH following LPS insult. Elevation of GHRH-R and GH receptor was localized on the epithelium of the iris and ciliary body, and GHRH-R was confined to the infiltrating macrophages and leukocytes in aqueous humor but not to those in stroma. Treatment with GHRH-R antagonist decreased LPS-stimulated surges of GH and IGF1 in aqueous humor and alleviated inflammation by reducing the infiltration of macrophages and leukocytes and the production of TNF-α, IL-1β, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. Our results indicate that inflammation in the iris and ciliary body involves the activation of GHRH signaling, which affects the recruitment of immune cells and the production of proinflammatory mediators that contribute to EIU pathogenesis. Moreover, the results suggest that GHRH-R antagonists are potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of acute ocular inflammation.

  9. Dopamine receptor antagonists impair place conditioning after acute stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ying-Ling; Chen, Yao-Chu; Liao, Ruey-Ming

    2010-02-01

    An immediate and robust release of dopamine appears in the brain under an acute stressor, but the functional role of dopamine under stress remains elusive. We recently showed conditioned place preference (CPP) induced by the acute application of a stressor such as being placed on an elevated stand or immobilized in a restraint holder. This study tested whether dopamine is involved in such CPP. The selective dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists, SCH23390 and raclopride, respectively, were injected before stressor manipulation. The doses of SCH23390 (0.025 and 0.05 mg/kg) and raclopride (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) used to test for stressor-induced CPP were verified to be ineffective on spontaneous locomotor activity. The results showed that both drugs attenuated the development of stressor-induced CPP. Such a CPP blocking effect by pretreatment of dopamine receptor antagonist was true for either kind of stressor manipulated. These findings indicate that an acute stressor can facilitate a follow-up place conditioning, and that dopamine is involved in the present type of CPP formation.

  10. The dopamine D3 receptor antagonist, SR 21502, facilitates extinction of cocaine conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Galaj, E; Haynes, J; Nisanov, R; Ananthan, S; Ranaldi, R

    2016-02-01

    Pharmacotherapeutic agents that could facilitate extinction of cocaine cues would be useful in the treatment of cocaine addiction. We tested whether SR 21502, a selective dopamine (DA) D3 receptor antagonist, can facilitate extinction of cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) in rats. In experiment 1, cocaine (10mg/kg) CPP was first established and then extinguished. During the extinction phase the rats were injected with SR 21502 and placed in the previously cocaine-paired compartment for four sessions and vehicle in the other compartment on four alternating sessions. The rats were then tested again for cocaine CPP. In experiment 2, different groups of rats were trained to associate SR 21502 with one compartment and saline with the other. In experiment 1, the animals spent significantly more time in the cocaine-paired compartment after cocaine conditioning than they did before conditioning. Subsequently, the animals treated with SR 21502 during the extinction phase spent significantly less time in the cocaine-paired compartment than the vehicle group. In experiment 2, animals conditioned with SR 21502 preferred neither side of the CPP apparatus, indicating that SR 21502 produced no effects of its own. These findings suggest that treatment with SR 21502, a DA D3 receptor antagonist, in the presence of cocaine cues can facilitate extinction of cocaine CPP and further suggest that this compound might be an effective cocaine addiction treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Drug therapy of apparent treatment-resistant hypertension: focus on mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Glicklich, Daniel; Frishman, William H

    2015-04-01

    Apparent treatment-resistant hypertension (aTRH) is defined as blood pressure (BP) >140/90 mmHg despite three different antihypertensive drugs including a diuretic. aTRH is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events, including stroke, chronic renal failure, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, aortic aneurysm, atrial fibrillation, and sudden death. Preliminary studies of renal nerve ablation as a therapy to control aTRH were encouraging. However, these results were not confirmed by the Symplicity 3 trial. Therefore, attention has refocused on drug therapy. Secondary forms of hypertension and associated conditions such as obesity, sleep apnea, and primary aldosteronism are common in patients with aTRH. The pivotal role of aldosterone in the pathogenesis of aTRH in many cases is well recognized. For patients with aTRH, the Joint National Committee-8, the European Society of Hypertension, and a recent consensus conference recommend that a diuretic, ACE inhibitor, or angiotensin receptor blocker and calcium channel blocker combination be used to maximally tolerated doses before starting a 'fourth-line' drug such as a mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist. Although the best fourth-line drug for aTRH has not been extensively investigated, a number of studies summarized here show that an MR antagonist is effective in reducing BP when added to the standard multi-drug regimen.

  12. Endothelin receptor antagonists in sickle cell disease: A promising new therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Fox, Brandon M; Kasztan, Malgorzata

    2016-08-15

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic hematologic disorder that is characterized by a variety of potentially life threatening acute and chronic complications. Currently, hydroxyurea is the only clinically approved pharmacological therapy for the treatment of SCD, and the continued prevalence of severe disease complications underscores the desperate need for the development of new therapeutic agents. Central features of the sickle cell disease milieu, including hypoxia, oxidative stress, and thrombosis, are established enhancers of endothelin-1 (ET-1) synthesis. This conceptual connection between ET-1 and SCD was confirmed by multiple studies that demonstrated markedly elevated plasma and urinary levels of ET-1 in SCD patients. Direct evidence for the involvement of ET-1 signaling in the development of SCD pathologies has come from studies using endothelin receptor antagonists in SCD mice. This review summarizes recent studies that have implicated ET-1 signaling as a mechanistic contributor to renal, vascular, pulmonary, and nociceptive complications of sickle cell disease and discusses the potential for the use of ET receptor antagonists in the treatment of SCD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Adenosine A2A receptor inhibition restores the normal transport of endothelial glutamate transporters in the brain.

    PubMed

    Bai, Wei; Li, Ping; Ning, Ya-Lei; Peng, Yan; Xiong, Ren-Ping; Yang, Nan; Chen, Xing; Zhou, Yuan-Guo

    2018-04-15

    Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) on cerebral vascular endothelial cells play an important role in maintaining glutamate homeostasis in the brain. The dysfunction of endothelial EAATs is an important reason for the dramatically elevated brain glutamate levels after brain injury, such as traumatic brain injury (TBI). The adenosine A 2A receptor (A 2A R) plays an important role in regulating the brain glutamate level after brain injury; however, researchers have not clearly determined whether this role was related to its ability to regulate endothelial EAATs. Activation of A 2A R in vitro not only decreased the PKA- and glutamate level-dependent strengthening of the interaction between NKA-α1 and the FXYD1 subunit and the subsequent decrease in the activity of Na + /K + -ATPases (NKAs) but also enhanced its interaction with EAATs and ultimately aggravated the reverse transport function of endothelial EAATs under oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) conditions. Conversely, inhibition of A 2A R restored the normal transport of EAAT. Moreover, A 2A R inhibition increased NKA activity and decreased its interaction with EAATs in isolated brain capillaries after TBI, further confirming its role in endothelial EAATs in vivo. Based on our results, A 2A R played an important role in regulating endothelial EAAT function, and strategies that restore the normal transport of endothelial EAATs through the inhibition of A 2A R might serve as an effective treatment for brain injury. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Analgesic effects of novel lysophosphatidic acid receptor 5 antagonist AS2717638 in rodents.

    PubMed

    Murai, Nobuhito; Hiyama, Hideki; Kiso, Tetsuo; Sekizawa, Toshihiro; Watabiki, Tomonari; Oka, Hiromasa; Aoki, Toshiaki

    2017-11-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid that acts via at least six G protein-coupled receptors, LPA receptors 1-6 (LPA1-6), for various physiological functions. We examined (1) whether LPA5 is involved in pain signaling in the spinal cord; and (2) the pharmacological effects of a novel LPA5 antagonist on intrathecal prostaglandin (PG)- and (S)-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-induced allodynia, and neuropathic and inflammatory pain in rodents. Intrathecal injection of a selective LPA5 agonist, geranylgeranyl diphosphate, and a non-selective agonist, LPA, induced allodynia in wild type, but not in LPA5 knockout mice. These novel results suggest that LPA5 is important for pain signal transmission in the spinal cord. AS2717638 (6,7-dimethoxy-2-(5-methyl-1,2-benzoxazol-3-yl)-4-(piperidin-1-ylcarbonyl)isoquinolin-1(2H)-one) bound to the LPA-binding site on LPA5 and selectively inhibited LPA-induced cyclic adenosine monophosphate accumulation in human LPA5-but not LPA1-, 2-, or 3-expressing cells. Further, oral administration of AS2717638 inhibited LPA5 agonist-induced allodynia in mice. AS2717638 also significantly improved PGE 2 -, PGF 2α -, and AMPA-induced allodynia, while both pregabalin and duloxetine alleviated only PGE 2 -induced allodynia in mice. Similarly, AS2717638 significantly ameliorated static mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in rat models of chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain. AS2717638 also showed analgesic effects in a rat model of inflammatory pain. These findings suggest that LPA5 antagonists elicit broad analgesic effects against both neuropathic and inflammatory pain. Accordingly, pharmacological LPA5 antagonists are attractive development candidates for potential novel pain therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of aging on antagonist and agonist interactions with. beta. -adrenergic receptors on human leukocyte membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Zahniser, N.R.; Parker, D.C.; Bier-Laning, C.M.

    1986-03-01

    Alterations in properties and/or coupling of ..beta..-adrenergic receptors might explain the diminished responsiveness to ..beta..-receptor agonists observed in aged humans. Polymorphonuclear (PMN) and mononuclear (MN) leukocytes were isolated on Percoll gradients from young or old healthy volunteers (25-34 and 60-76 yrs). Saturation isotherms of /sup 125/I-pindolol binding to PMN and MN membranes were generated. The affinities did not differ between the two age groups or cell types (52-61 pM). The number of receptors differed only on MN membranes (PMN young: 37 +/- 5.7, old: 44 +/- 6.7; MN young: 55 +/- 7.1, old: 122 +/- 23 fmol/mg protein; N =more » 6-8); however, this apparent increase became a decrease if the data were expressed in fmol/million cells (MN young: 0.82 +/- 0.12; old: 0.57 +/- 0.10) suggesting alterations in protein content or cell types rather than receptors in aged MN's. Agonist affinities, determined from isoproterenol competition curves in the absence and presence of GTP, were not different between the two age groups or cell types. In agreement with most previous reports, no change with aging in the properties of antagonist binding to ..beta..-adrenergic receptors on MN's was detected. However, in contrast with an earlier report, no changes in agonist binding or coupling of the receptor in MN's from the elderly were found. These observations were extended to PMN's and suggest that changes in ..beta..-adrenergic receptors may not underlie age-related decreases in isoproterenol responsiveness.« less

  16. Characterizing the Dynamic Response of the Estrogen Receptor to Agonists and Antagonists by Multifrequency Electron Spin Resonance Spin-Labeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    the Estrogen Receptor to Agonists and Antagonists by Multifrequency Electron Spin Resonance Spin-Labeling PRINCIPAL...Agonists and Antagonists by Multifrequency Electron Spin Resonance Spin-Labeling 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-06-1-0551 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...antiestrogens using electron spin labeling. The first two technical aims for this reporting period involved completing preparation of site-directed spin

  17. A POC Clinical Trial for PTSD with a First-In-Class Vasopressin 1a Receptor Antagonist

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0645 TITLE: A POC Clinical Trial for PTSD with a First-In-Class Vasopressin 1a Receptor Antagonist PRINCIPAL...the major objective will be to continue to recruit and enroll subjects to participate in the clinical study that will test the effect of SRX246, a...antagonist; Phase II proof of concept clinical trial 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF

  18. Adenosine is required for sustained inflammasome activation via the A2A receptor and the HIF-1α pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Xinshou; Ghani, Ayaz; Malik, Ahsan; Wilder, Tuere; Colegio, Oscar Rene; Flavell, Richard Anthony; Cronstein, Bruce Neil; Mehal, Wajahat Zafar

    2013-12-01

    Inflammasome pathways are important in chronic diseases; however, it is not known how the signalling is sustained after initiation. Inflammasome activation is dependent on stimuli such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ATP that provide two distinct signals resulting in rapid production of interleukin (IL)-1β, with the lack of response to repeat stimulation. Here we report that adenosine is a key regulator of inflammasome activity, increasing the duration of the inflammatory response via the A2A receptor. Adenosine does not replace signals provided by stimuli such as LPS or ATP but sustains inflammasome activity via a cAMP/PKA/CREB/HIF-1α pathway. In the setting of the lack of IL-1β responses after previous exposure to LPS, adenosine can supersede this tolerogenic state and drive IL-1β production. These data reveal that inflammasome activity is sustained, after initial activation, by A2A receptor-mediated signalling.

  19. Combined histamine H1/H2 receptor antagonists: part II. Pharmacological hybrids with pheniramine- and tiotidine-like substructures.

    PubMed

    Wolf, C; Schulze, F R; Buschauer, A; Schunack, W

    1998-07-01

    Hybrid molecules combining the crucial structural features of both pheniramine-type histamine H1 receptor antagonists and guanidinothiazole-type H2 receptor antagonists have been synthesized and tested for in vitro pharmacological activity at the isolated ileum and the spontaneously beating right atrium of the guinea-pig. In the title compounds the basic side chain nitrogen of the H1 antagonist and the so-called 'polar group' (cyanoguanidine, urea, or nitroethenediamine) of the H2 antagonist moiety have been linked by a polymethylene spacer. The new substances displayed high affinities to both histamine receptor subtypes and a dual type of antagonism (surmountable/insurmountable) characterized by a shift of the concentration response curves to the right accompanied by a depression of the maximal response to the agonist if the antagonist concentration was >/=100 nM. Highest combined histamine antagonist activities were found in the nitroethenediamine series with pKB values ranging from 8.16 to 9.04 in the ileum (H1) and 7.0-8.08 in the atrium (H2)

  20. Combined histamine H1/H2 receptor antagonists: part I. Pharmacological hybrids with pheniramine- and roxatidine-like substructures.

    PubMed

    Schulze, F R; Buschauer, A; Schunack, W

    1998-07-01

    A series of hybrid compounds combining the pharmacophores of both pheniramine-type histamine H1 receptor antagonists and roxatidine-type H2 receptor antagonists have been synthesized and tested for histamine antagonism at the isolated ileum (H1) and the spontaneously beating right atrium (H2) of the guinea pig. The 'polar group' of the H2 antagonist moiety (cyanoguanidine, nitroethenediamine or urea) and the side chain amino group of the H1 antagonist portion have been linked by a polymethylene spacer or by a piperazine system. The incorporation of a flexible spacer (2-7 methylene groups) resulted in H1 antagonists achieving up to 2.4 times the activity of pheniramine. Depending on the nature of the polar group the highest H2 antagonist potency resides in compounds with spacers ?2 methylene groups. Nitroethenediamine 24c with a seven-membered chain and a chlorpheniramine substructure proved to be approximately equipotent with pheniramine at the H1 and with ranitidine at the H2 receptor (pKB values 7.82 and 7.1, respectively).

  1. The duration of sleep promoting efficacy by dual orexin receptor antagonists is dependent upon receptor occupancy threshold

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Drugs targeting insomnia ideally promote sleep throughout the night, maintain normal sleep architecture, and are devoid of residual effects associated with morning sedation. These features of an ideal compound are not only dependent upon pharmacokinetics, receptor binding kinetics, potency and pharmacodynamic activity, but also upon a compound’s mechanism of action. Results Dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs) block the arousal-promoting activity of orexin peptides and, as demonstrated in the current work, exhibit an efficacy signal window dependent upon oscillating levels of endogenous orexin neuropeptide. Sleep efficacy of structurally diverse DORAs in rat and dog was achieved at plasma exposures corresponding to orexin 2 receptor (OX2R) occupancies in the range of 65 to 80%. In rats, the time course of OX2R occupancy was dependent upon receptor binding kinetics and was tightly correlated with the timing of active wake reduction. In rhesus monkeys, direct comparison of DORA-22 with GABA-A modulators at similar sleep-inducing doses revealed that diazepam produced next-day residual sleep and both diazepam and eszopiclone induced next-day cognitive deficits. In stark contrast, DORA-22 did not produce residual effects. Furthermore, DORA-22 evoked only minimal changes in quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) activity during the normal resting phase in contrast to GABA-A modulators which induced substantial qEEG changes. Conclusion The higher levels of receptor occupancy necessary for DORA efficacy require a plasma concentration profile sufficient to maintain sleep for the duration of the resting period. DORAs, with a half-life exceeding 8 h in humans, are expected to fulfill this requirement as exposures drop to sub-threshold receptor occupancy levels prior to the wake period, potentially avoiding next-day residual effects at therapeutic doses. PMID:23981345

  2. 5{alpha}-Bile alcohols function as farnesoid X receptor antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko; Kawahara, Yosuke; Tamehiro, Norimasa

    2006-01-06

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a bile acid/alcohol-activated nuclear receptor that regulates lipid homeostasis. Unlike other steroid receptors, FXR binds bile acids in an orientation that allows the steroid nucleus A to face helix 12 in the receptor, a crucial domain for coactivator-recruitment. Because most naturally occurring bile acids and alcohols contain a cis-oriented A, which is distinct from that of other steroids and cholesterol metabolites, we investigated the role of this 5{beta}-configuration in FXR activation. The results showed that the 5{beta}-(A/B cis) bile alcohols 5{beta}-cyprinol and bufol are potent FXR agonists, whereas their 5{alpha}-(A/B trans) counterparts antagonize FXRmore » transactivation and target gene expression. Both isomers bound to FXR, but their ability to induce coactivator-recruitment and thereby induce transactivation differed. These findings suggest a critical role for the A orientation of bile salts in agonist/antagonist function.« less

  3. Disinhibition of female sexual behavior by a CRH receptor antagonist in Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Jones, Juli E; Pick, Rebecca R; Davenport, Matthew D; Keene, Alex C; Corp, Eric S; Wade, George N

    2002-09-01

    Several conditions that inhibit female sexual behavior are thought to be associated with altered corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) activity in the brain. The present experiments examined the hypothesis that endogenous CRH receptor signaling mediates the inhibition of estrous behavior by undernutrition and in other instances of sexual dysfunction. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of CRH or urocortin inhibited estrous behavior in ovariectomized steroid-primed hamsters. Conversely, ICV infusion of the CRH receptor antagonist astressin prevented the suppression of estrous behavior by food deprivation or by ICV administration of neuropeptide Y. Astressin treatment also induced sexual receptivity in nonresponders, animals that do not normally come into heat when treated with hormones, and this effect persisted in subsequent weekly tests in the absence of any further astressin treatment. Activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis was neither necessary nor sufficient to inhibit estrous behavior, indicating that this phenomenon is due to other central actions of CRH receptor agonists. This is the first direct evidence that CRH receptor signaling may be a final common pathway by which undernutrition and other conditions inhibit female sexual behavior.

  4. Medicinal Chemistry, Pharmacology, and Clinical Implications of TRPV1 Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh Tabrizi, Mojgan; Baraldi, Pier Giovanni; Baraldi, Stefania; Gessi, Stefania; Merighi, Stefania; Borea, Pier Andrea

    2017-07-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is an ion channel expressed on sensory neurons triggering an influx of cations. TRPV1 receptors function as homotetramers responsive to heat, proinflammatory substances, lipoxygenase products, resiniferatoxin, endocannabinoids, protons, and peptide toxins. Its phosphorylation increases sensitivity to both chemical and thermal stimuli, while desensitization involves a calcium-dependent mechanism resulting in receptor dephosphorylation. TRPV1 functions as a sensor of noxious stimuli and may represent a target to avoid pain and injury. TRPV1 activation has been associated to chronic inflammatory pain and peripheral neuropathy. Its expression is also detected in nonneuronal areas such as bladder, lungs, and cochlea where TRPV1 activation is responsible for pathology development of cystitis, asthma, and hearing loss. This review offers a comprehensive overview about TRPV1 receptor in the pathophysiology of chronic pain, epilepsy, cough, bladder disorders, diabetes, obesity, and hearing loss, highlighting how drug development targeting this channel could have a clinical therapeutic potential. Furthermore, it summarizes the advances of medicinal chemistry research leading to the identification of highly selective TRPV1 antagonists and their analysis of structure-activity relationships (SARs) focusing on new strategies to target this channel. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Effect of 1-substitution on tetrahydroisoquinolines as selective antagonists for the orexin-1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Perrey, David A; German, Nadezhda A; Decker, Ann M; Thorn, David; Li, Jun-Xu; Gilmour, Brian P; Thomas, Brian F; Harris, Danni L; Runyon, Scott P; Zhang, Yanan

    2015-04-15

    Selective blockade of the orexin-1 receptor (OX1) has been suggested as a potential approach to drug addiction therapy because of its role in modulating the brain's reward system. We have recently reported a series of tetrahydroisoquinoline-based OX1 selective antagonists. Aimed at elucidating structure-activity relationship requirements in other regions of the molecule and further enhancing OX1 potency and selectivity, we have designed and synthesized a series of analogues bearing a variety of substituents at the 1-position of the tetrahydroisoquinoline. The results show that an optimally substituted benzyl group is required for activity at the OX1 receptor. Several compounds with improved potency and/or selectivity have been identified. When combined with structural modifications that were previously found to improve selectivity, we have identified compound 73 (RTIOX-251) with an apparent dissociation constant (Ke) of 16.1 nM at the OX1 receptor and >620-fold selectivity over the OX2 receptor. In vivo, compound 73 was shown to block the development of locomotor sensitization to cocaine in rats.

  6. Habit, prejudice, power and politics: issues in the conversion of H2-receptor antagonists to over-the-counter use.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, R H

    1996-01-01

    H2-receptor antagonists have been widely prescribed in the last 20 years and are considered to rank among the safest drugs known. In several countries they have been switched to over-the-counter (OTC) status, and a similar move is under consideration in Canada. Some concerns have been raised as to the effectiveness of these drugs in the treatment of dyspepsia and heartburn, their safety when taken for self-diagnosed symptoms, and the potential for their use to delay diagnosis or mask serious disease. The author presents evidence to support the use of OTC H2-receptor antagonists in the treatment of dyspepsia. He argues that the safety record of thes