Science.gov

Sample records for a2a receptor antagonists

  1. ST 1535: a preferential A2A adenosine receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Stasi, Maria Antonietta; Borsini, Franco; Varani, Katia; Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Di Cesare, Maria Assunta; Minetti, Patrizia; Ghirardi, Orlando; Carminati, Paolo

    2006-10-01

    Antagonism of the A2A adenosine function has proved beneficial in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, in that it increases L-dopa therapeutical effects without concomitant worsening of its side-effects. In this paper we describe a preferential A2A adenosine antagonist, ST 1535, with long-lasting pharmacodynamic effects. It competitively antagonizes the effects of the A2A adenosine agonist NECA on cAMP in cells cloned with the human A2A adenosine receptor (IC50=353+/-30 nM), and the effects of the A1 adenosine agonist CHA on cAMP in cells cloned with the human A1 adenosine receptor (IC50=510+/-38 nM). ST 1535, at oral doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg, antagonizes catalepsy induced by intracerebroventricular administration of the A2A adenosine agonist CGS 21680 (10 microg/5 microl) in mice. At oral doses ranging between 5 and 20 mg/kg, ST 1535 induces hypermotility and antagonizes haloperidol-induced catalepsy in mice up to 7 h. Oral ST 1535, at 1.25 and 2.5 mg/kg, potentiates L-dopa effects in reducing haloperidol-induced catalepsy. ST 1535 represents a potential new compound, with long-lasting activity, for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  2. A2A Adenosine Receptor Antagonists as Therapeutic Candidates: are they still an interesting challenge?

    PubMed

    Cacciari, Barbara; Federico, Stephanie; Spalluto, Giampiero

    2018-04-22

    In the past decades, many efforts were done to develope ligands for the adenosine receptors, with the purpose to individuate agonists and antagonists affine and selective for each subtypes , named A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. These intense studies allowed a deeper and deeper knowledge of the nature and, moreover, of the pathophysiological roles of all the adenosine receptor subtypes. In particular, the involvment of the A2A adenosine receptor subtype in some physiological mechanisms in the brain, that could be related to important diseases such as the Parkinson's disease, encouraged the research in this field. Particular attention was given to the antagonists endowed with high affinity and selectivity since they could have a real employment in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, and some compounds, such as istradefylline, preladenant and tozadenant, are already studied in clinical trials. Actually, the role of A2A antagonists in Parkinson's disease is becoming contradictory due to contrasting results in the last studies, but, at the same time, new possible employments are emerging for this class of antagonists in cancer pathologies as much interesting to legitimate further efforts in the research of A2A ligands. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Novel therapy in Parkinson's disease: adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Nikoletta; Kincses, Zsigmond Tamás; Vécsei, László

    2011-04-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. To date, most of the currently available therapies in PD target the dopaminergic system and none of these therapeutic approaches have been proven to modify the course of the disease. To various extents, these drugs can also cause motor and non-motor complications. A novel target, the adenosine A(2A) receptor (AA2AR), was recently identified, blockade of which may alleviate Parkinsonian symptoms, reduce motor fluctuations and potentially afford neuroprotection. This review is based on a PubMed search covering the relationship of the adenosine receptors and PD. The role of the AA2AR is reviewed and the results of preclinical investigations of antagonists are assessed. A synopsis of current drug development is provided, with a special focus on the pharmacokinetics and relevant clinical trials. The localization of the AA2AR in the central nervous system, the ultra structural localization and the molecular mechanism of its action reveal the potential importance of the AA2AR in movement disorders. The theoretical background and experimental data indicate that AA2AR antagonists may have a potential therapeutic effect in Parkinson's disease. More importantly, the putative neuroprotective effect needs further investigation.

  4. Past, present and future of A2A adenosine receptor antagonists in the therapy of Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Armentero, Marie Therese; Pinna, Annalisa; Ferré, Sergi; Lanciego, José Luis; Müller, Christa E.; Franco, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Several selective antagonists for adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) are currently under evaluation in clinical trials (phases I to III) to treat Parkinson’s disease, and they will probably soon reach the market. The usefulness of these antagonists has been deduced from studies demonstrating functional interactions between dopamine D2 and adenosine A2A receptors in the basal ganglia. At present it is believed that A2AR antagonists can be used in combination with the dopamine precursor L-DOPA to minimize the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s patients. However, a considerable body of data indicates that in addition to ameliorating motor symptoms, adenosine A2AR antagonists may also prevent neurodegeneration. Despite these promising indications, one further issue must be considered in order to develop fully optimized anti-parkinsonian drug therapy, namely the existence of receptor (hetero)dimers/oligomers of G protein-coupled receptors, a topic currently the focus of intense debate within the scientific community. Dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) expressed in the striatum are known to form heteromers with A2A adenosine receptors. Thus, the development of heteromer-specific A2A receptor antagonists represents a promising strategy for the identification of more selective and safer drugs. PMID:21810444

  5. Allosteric interactions between agonists and antagonists within the adenosine A2A receptor-dopamine D2 receptor heterotetramer

    PubMed Central

    Bonaventura, Jordi; Navarro, Gemma; Casadó-Anguera, Verònica; Azdad, Karima; Rea, William; Moreno, Estefanía; Brugarolas, Marc; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I.; Lluís, Carme; Cortés, Antoni; Volkow, Nora D.; Schiffmann, Serge N.; Ferré, Sergi; Casadó, Vicent

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) heteromers are key modulators of striatal neuronal function. It has been suggested that the psychostimulant effects of caffeine depend on its ability to block an allosteric modulation within the A2AR-D2R heteromer, by which adenosine decreases the affinity and intrinsic efficacy of dopamine at the D2R. We describe novel unsuspected allosteric mechanisms within the heteromer by which not only A2AR agonists, but also A2AR antagonists, decrease the affinity and intrinsic efficacy of D2R agonists and the affinity of D2R antagonists. Strikingly, these allosteric modulations disappear on agonist and antagonist coadministration. This can be explained by a model that considers A2AR-D2R heteromers as heterotetramers, constituted by A2AR and D2R homodimers, as demonstrated by experiments with bioluminescence resonance energy transfer and bimolecular fluorescence and bioluminescence complementation. As predicted by the model, high concentrations of A2AR antagonists behaved as A2AR agonists and decreased D2R function in the brain. PMID:26100888

  6. Allosteric interactions between agonists and antagonists within the adenosine A2A receptor-dopamine D2 receptor heterotetramer.

    PubMed

    Bonaventura, Jordi; Navarro, Gemma; Casadó-Anguera, Verònica; Azdad, Karima; Rea, William; Moreno, Estefanía; Brugarolas, Marc; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I; Lluís, Carme; Cortés, Antoni; Volkow, Nora D; Schiffmann, Serge N; Ferré, Sergi; Casadó, Vicent

    2015-07-07

    Adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) heteromers are key modulators of striatal neuronal function. It has been suggested that the psychostimulant effects of caffeine depend on its ability to block an allosteric modulation within the A2AR-D2R heteromer, by which adenosine decreases the affinity and intrinsic efficacy of dopamine at the D2R. We describe novel unsuspected allosteric mechanisms within the heteromer by which not only A2AR agonists, but also A2AR antagonists, decrease the affinity and intrinsic efficacy of D2R agonists and the affinity of D2R antagonists. Strikingly, these allosteric modulations disappear on agonist and antagonist coadministration. This can be explained by a model that considers A2AR-D2R heteromers as heterotetramers, constituted by A2AR and D2R homodimers, as demonstrated by experiments with bioluminescence resonance energy transfer and bimolecular fluorescence and bioluminescence complementation. As predicted by the model, high concentrations of A2AR antagonists behaved as A2AR agonists and decreased D2R function in the brain.

  7. Antidepressant activity of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, istradefylline (KW-6002) on learned helplessness in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Koji; Kobayashi, Minoru; Shiozaki, Shizuo; Ohta, Teruko; Mori, Akihisa; Jenner, Peter; Kanda, Tomoyuki

    2014-07-01

    Istradefylline, an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, improves motor function in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD) and in patients with PD. In addition, some A2A antagonists exert antidepressant-like activity in rodent models of depression, such as the forced swim and the tail suspension tests. We have investigated the effect of istradefylline on depression-like behaviors using the rat learned helplessness (LH) model. Acute, as well as chronic, oral administration of istradefylline significantly improved the inescapable shock (IES)-induced escape deficit with a degree of efficacy comparable to chronic treatment with the tricyclic antidepressant desipramine and the selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine. Both the A1/A2A receptor nonspecific antagonist theophylline and the moderately selective antagonist CGS15943, but not the A1 selective antagonist DPCPX, ameliorated the IES-induced escape deficit. The enhancement of escape response by istradefylline was reversed by a local injection of the A2A specific agonist CGS21680 either into the nucleus accumbens, the caudate-putamen, or the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, but not by the A1 specific agonist R-PIA into the nucleus accumbens. Moreover, neither the 5-HT2A/2C receptor antagonist methysergide or the adrenergic α 2 antagonist yohimbine, nor the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol, affected the improvement of escape response induced by istradefylline. Istradefylline exerts antidepressant-like effects via modulation of A2A receptor activity which is independent of monoaminergic transmission in the brain. Istradefylline may represent a novel treatment option for depression in PD as well as for the motor symptoms.

  8. Synthesis and properties of a new water-soluble prodrug of the adenosine A 2A receptor antagonist MSX-2.

    PubMed

    Vollmann, Karl; Qurishi, Ramatullah; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E

    2008-02-12

    The compound L-valine-3-{8-[(E)-2-[3-methoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-7-methyl-1-propargylxanthine-3-yl}propyl ester hydrochloride (MSX-4) was synthesized as an amino acid ester prodrug of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-2. It was found to be stable in artificial gastric acid, but readily cleaved by pig liver esterase.

  9. Crystal structure of the adenosine A 2A receptor bound to an antagonist reveals a potential allosteric pocket

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Bingfa; Bachhawat, Priti; Chu, Matthew Ling-Hon

    The adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) has long been implicated in cardiovascular disorders. As more selective A2AR ligands are being identified, its roles in other disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, are starting to emerge, and A2AR antagonists are important drug candidates for nondopaminergic anti-Parkinson treatment. Here we report the crystal structure of A2A receptor bound to compound 1 (Cmpd-1), a novel A2AR/N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subtype 2B (NR2B) dual antagonist and potential anti-Parkinson candidate compound, at 3.5 Å resolution. The A2A receptor with a cytochrome b562-RIL (BRIL) fusion (A2AR–BRIL) in the intracellular loop 3 (ICL3) was crystallized in detergent micelles using vapor-phasemore » diffusion. Whereas A2AR–BRIL bound to the antagonist ZM241385 has previously been crystallized in lipidic cubic phase (LCP), structural differences in the Cmpd-1–bound A2AR–BRIL prevented formation of the lattice observed with the ZM241385–bound receptor. The crystals grew with a type II crystal lattice in contrast to the typical type I packing seen from membrane protein structures crystallized in LCP. Cmpd-1 binds in a position that overlaps with the native ligand adenosine, but its methoxyphenyl group extends to an exosite not previously observed in other A2AR structures. Structural analysis revealed that Cmpd-1 binding results in the unique conformations of two tyrosine residues, Tyr91.35 and Tyr2717.36, which are critical for the formation of the exosite. The structure reveals insights into antagonist binding that are not observed in other A2AR structures, highlighting flexibility in the binding pocket that may facilitate the development of A2AR-selective compounds for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease.« less

  10. Reinforcing and neurochemical effects of cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists, but not cocaine, are altered by an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Justinová, Zuzana; Ferré, Sergi; Redhi, Godfrey H; Mascia, Paola; Stroik, Jessica; Quarta, Davide; Yasar, Sevil; Müller, Christa E; Franco, Rafael; Goldberg, Steven R

    2011-07-01

    Several recent studies suggest functional and molecular interactions between striatal adenosine A(2A) and cannabinoid CB(1) receptors. Here, we demonstrate that A(2A) receptors selectively modulate reinforcing effects of cannabinoids. We studied effects of A(2A) receptor blockade on the reinforcing effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and the endogenous CB(1) receptor ligand anandamide under a fixed-ratio schedule of intravenous drug injection in squirrel monkeys. A low dose of the selective adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist MSX-3 (1 mg/kg) caused downward shifts of THC and anandamide dose-response curves. In contrast, a higher dose of MSX-3 (3 mg/kg) shifted THC and anandamide dose-response curves to the left. MSX-3 did not modify cocaine or food pellet self-administration. Also, MSX-3 neither promoted reinstatement of extinguished drug-seeking behavior nor altered reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior by non-contingent priming injections of THC. Finally, using in vivo microdialysis in freely-moving rats, a behaviorally active dose of MSX-3 significantly counteracted THC-induced, but not cocaine-induced, increases in extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens shell. The significant and selective results obtained with the lower dose of MSX-3 suggest that adenosine A(2A) antagonists acting preferentially at presynaptic A(2A) receptors might selectively reduce reinforcing effects of cannabinoids that lead to their abuse. However, the appearance of potentiating rather than suppressing effects on cannabinoid reinforcement at the higher dose of MSX-3 would likely preclude the use of such a compound as a medication for cannabis abuse. Adenosine A(2A) antagonists with more selectivity for presynaptic versus postsynaptic receptors could be potential medications for treatment of cannabis abuse. Addiction Biology © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction. No claim to original US government works.

  11. Use of molecular modeling aided design to dial out hERG liability in adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Deng, Qiaolin; Lim, Yeon-Hee; Anand, Rajan; Yu, Younong; Kim, Jae-hun; Zhou, Wei; Zheng, Junying; Tempest, Paul; Levorse, Dorothy; Zhang, Xiaoping; Greene, Scott; Mullins, Deborra; Culberson, Chris; Sherborne, Brad; Parker, Eric M; Stamford, Andrew; Ali, Amjad

    2015-08-01

    Molecular modeling was performed on a triazolo quinazoline lead compound to help develop a series of adenosine A2A receptor antagonists with improved hERG profile. Superposition of the lead compound onto MK-499, a benchmark hERG inhibitor, combined with pKa calculations and measurement, identified terminal fluorobenzene to be responsible for hERG activity. Docking of the lead compound into an A2A crystal structure suggested that this group is located at a flexible, spacious, and solvent-exposed opening of the binding pocket, making it possible to tolerate various functional groups. Transformation analysis (MMP, matched molecular pair) of in-house available experimental data on hERG provided suggestions for modifications in order to mitigate this liability. This led to the synthesis of a series of compounds with significantly reduced hERG activity. The strategy used in the modeling work can be applied to other medicinal chemistry programs to help improve hERG profile. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of novel thiazolo[5,4-d]pyrimidine derivatives as human A1 and A2A adenosine receptor antagonists/inverse agonists.

    PubMed

    Varano, Flavia; Catarzi, Daniela; Falsini, Matteo; Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Pasquini, Silvia; Varani, Katia; Colotta, Vittoria

    2018-07-23

    In this study a new set of thiazolo[5,4-d]pyrimidine derivatives was synthesized. These derivatives bear different substituents at positions 2 and 5 of the thiazolopyrimidine core while maintaining a free amino group at position-7. The new compounds were tested for their affinity and potency at human (h) A 1 , A 2A , A 2B and A 3 adenosine receptors expressed in CHO cells. The results reveal that the higher affinity of these new set of thiazolopyrimidines is toward the hA 1 and hA 2A adenosine receptors subtypes and is tuned by the substitution pattern at both the 2 and 5 positions of the thiazolopyrimidine nucleus. Functional studies evidenced that the compounds behaved as dual A 1 /A 2A antagonists/inverse agonists. Compound 3, bearing a 5-((2-methoxyphenyl) methylamino) group and a phenyl moiety at position 2, displayed the highest affinity (hA 1 K i  = 10.2 nM; hA 2A K i  = 4.72 nM) and behaved as a potent A 1 /A 2A antagonist/inverse agonist (hA 1 IC 50  = 13.4 nM; hA 2A IC 50  = 5.34 nM). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3 on motivational disruptions of maternal behavior induced by dopamine antagonism in the early postpartum rat.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Mariana; Farrar, Andrew M; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E; Salamone, John D; Morrell, Joan I

    2011-01-01

    Mesolimbic dopamine (DA), particularly in the nucleus accumbens, importantly regulates activational aspects of maternal responsiveness. DA antagonism and accumbens DA depletions interfere with early postpartum maternal motivation by selectively affecting most forms of active maternal behaviors, while leaving nursing behavior relatively intact. Considerable evidence indicates that there is a functional interaction between DA D2 and adenosine A(2A) receptors in striatal areas, including the nucleus accumbens. This study was conducted to determine if adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonism could reverse the effects of DA receptor antagonism on early postpartum maternal behavior. The adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist MSX-3 (0.25-2.0 mg/kg, IP) was investigated for its ability to reverse the effects of the DA D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, IP) on the maternal behavior of early postpartum female rats. Haloperidol severely impaired the expression of active maternal components, including retrieval and grouping the pups at the nest site, pup licking, and nest building. Co-administration of MSX-3 (0.25-2.0 mg/kg, IP) with haloperidol produced a dose-related attenuation of the haloperidol-induced behavioral deficits in early postpartum females. Doses of MSX-3 that effectively reversed the effects of haloperidol (0.5, 1.0 mg/kg), when administered in the absence of haloperidol, did not affect maternal responding or locomotor activity. Adenosine and DA systems interact to regulate early postpartum maternal responsiveness. This research may potentially contribute to the development of strategies for treatments of psychiatric disorders during the postpartum period, with particular emphasis in maintaining or restoring the mother-infant relationship.

  14. Effect of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3 on motivational disruptions of maternal behavior induced by dopamine antagonism in the early postpartum rat

    PubMed Central

    Farrar, Andrew M.; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E.; Salamone, John D.; Morrell, Joan I.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Mesolimbic dopamine (DA), particularly in the nucleus accumbens, importantly regulates activational aspects of maternal responsiveness. DA antagonism and accumbens DA depletions interfere with early postpartum maternal motivation by selectively affecting most forms of active maternal behaviors, while leaving nursing behavior relatively intact. Considerable evidence indicates that there is a functional interaction between DA D2 and adenosine A2A receptors in striatal areas, including the nucleus accumbens. Objective This study was conducted to determine if adenosine A2A receptor antagonism could reverse the effects of DA receptor antagonism on early postpartum maternal behavior. Methods The adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3 (0.25–2.0 mg/kg, IP) was investigated for its ability to reverse the effects of the DA D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, IP) on the maternal behavior of early postpartum female rats. Results Haloperidol severely impaired the expression of active maternal components, including retrieval and grouping the pups at the nest site, pup licking, and nest building. Co-administration of MSX-3 (0.25–2.0 mg/kg, IP) with haloperidol produced a dose-related attenuation of the haloperidol-induced behavioral deficits in early postpartum females. Doses of MSX-3 that effectively reversed the effects of haloperidol (0.5, 1.0 mg/kg), when administered in the absence of haloperidol, did not affect maternal responding or locomotor activity. Conclusions Adenosine and DA systems interact to regulate early postpartum maternal responsiveness. This research may potentially contribute to the development of strategies for treatments of psychiatric disorders during the postpartum period, with particular emphasis in maintaining or restoring the mother–infant relationship. PMID:20848086

  15. The effect of adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists on hydroxyl radical, dopamine, and glutamate in the striatum of rats with altered function of VMAT2.

    PubMed

    Gołembiowska, Krystyna; Dziubina, Anna

    2012-08-01

    It has been shown that a decreased vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) function and the disruption of dopamine (DA) storage is an early contributor to oxidative damage of dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). In our previous study, we demonstrated that adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists suppressed oxidative stress in 6-hydroxydopamine-treated rats suggesting that this effect may account for neuroprotective properties of drugs. In the present study, rats were injected with reserpine (10 mg/kg sc) and 18 h later the effect of the adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists 8-(3-chlorostyryl)caffeine (CSC) and 4-(2-[7-amino-2-(2-furyl)[1,2,4]triazolo[2,3-a][1,3,5]triazin-5-ylamino]ethyl)phenol (ZM 241385) on extracellular DA, glutamate and hydroxyl radical formation was studied in the rat striatum using in vivo microdialysis. By disrupting VMAT2 function, reserpine depleted DA stores, and increased glutamate and hydroxyl radical levels in the rat striatum. CSC (1 mg/kg) but not ZM 241385 (3 mg/kg) increased extracellular DA level and production of hydroxyl radical in reserpinised rats. Both antagonists decreased the reserpine-induced increase in extracellular glutamate. L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) (25 mg/kg) significantly enhanced extracellular DA, had no effect on reserpine-induced hydroxyl radical production and decreased extracellular glutamate concentration. CSC but not ZM 241385 given jointly with L-DOPA increased the effect of L-DOPA on extracellular DA and augmented the reserpine-induced hydroxyl radical production. CSC and ZM 241385 did not influence extracellular glutamate level, which was decreased by L-DOPA. It seems that by decreasing the MAO-dependent DA metabolism rate, CSC raised cytosolic DA and by DA autoxidation, it induced hydroxyl radical overproduction. Thus, the methylxanthine A(2A) receptor antagonists bearing properties of MAO-B inhibitor, like CSC, may cause a risk of oxidative stress resulting from dysfunctional DA storage

  16. Adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists are broad facilitators of antinicotinic neuromuscular blockade monitored either with 2 Hz train-of-four or 50 Hz tetanic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Monalisa W; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo; Alves-Do-Prado, Wilson

    2012-10-01

    1. The 2 Hz train-of-four ratio (TOF(ratio)) is used to monitor the degree of patient curarization. Using a rat phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparation, we showed that antinicotinic agents, such as hexamethonium, d-tubocurarine and pancuronium, but not cisatracurium, decreased contractions produced by physiological nerve activity patterns (50 Hz) more efficiently than those caused by 2 Hz trains. Uncertainty about the usefulness of the TOF(ratio) to control safe recovery from curarization prompted us to investigate the muscarinic and adenosine neuromodulation of tetanic (50 Hz) fade induced by antinicotinic agents at concentrations that cause a 25% reduction in the TOF(ratio) (TOF(fade)). 2. Tetanic fade caused by d-tubocurarine (1.1 μmol/L), pancuronium (3 μmol/L) and hexamethonium (5.47 mmol/L) was attenuated by blocking presynaptic inhibitory muscarinic M(2) and adenosine A(1) receptors with methoctramine (1 μmol/L) and 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (2.5 nmol/L), respectively. These compounds enhanced rather than decreased tetanic fade induced by cisatracurium (2.2 μmol/L), but they consistently attenuated cisatracurium-induced TOF(fade). The effect of the M(1) receptor antagonist pirenzepine (10 nmol/L) on fade produced by antinicotinic agents at 50 Hz was opposite to that observed with TOF stimulation. Blockade of adenosine A(2A) receptors with ZM 241385 (10 nmol/L) attenuated TOF(fade) caused by all antinicotinic drugs tested, with the exception of the 'pure' presynaptic nicotinic antagonist hexamethonium. ZM 241385 was the only compound tested in this series that facilitated recovery from tetanic fade produced by cisatracurium. 3. The data suggest that distinct antinicotinic relaxants interfere with fine-tuning neuromuscular adaptations to motor nerve stimulation patterns via activation of presynaptic muscarinic and adenosine receptors. These results support the use of A(2A) receptor antagonists together with atropine to facilitate recovery from

  17. Unprecedented Therapeutic Potential with a Combination of A2A/NR2B Receptor Antagonists as Observed in the 6-OHDA Lesioned Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Anne; Downey, Patrick; Nicolas, Jean-Marie; Scheller, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    In Parkinson's disease, the long-term use of dopamine replacing agents is associated with the development of motor complications; therefore, there is a need for non-dopaminergic drugs. This study evaluated the potential therapeutic impact of six different NR2B and A2A receptor antagonists given either alone or in combination in unilateral 6-OHDA-lesioned rats without (monotherapy) or with (add-on therapy) the co-administration of L-Dopa: Sch-58261+ Merck 22; Sch-58261+Co-101244; Preladenant + Merck 22; Preladenant + Radiprodil; Tozadenant + Radiprodil; Istradefylline + Co-101244. Animals given monotherapy were assessed on distance traveled and rearing, whereas those given add-on therapy were assessed on contralateral rotations. Three-way mixed ANOVA were conducted to assess the main effect of each drug separately and to determine whether any interaction between two drugs was additive or synergistic. Additional post hoc analyses were conducted to compare the effect of the combination with the effect of the drugs alone. Motor activity improved significantly and was sustained for longer when the drugs were given in combination than when administered separately at the same dose. Similarly, when tested as add-on treatment to L-Dopa, the combinations resulted in higher levels of contralateral rotation in comparison to the single drugs. Of special interest, the activity observed with some combinations could not be described by a simplistic additive effect and involved more subtle synergistic pharmacological interactions. The combined administration of A2A/NR2B-receptor antagonists improved motor behaviour in 6-OHDA rats. Given the proven translatability of this model such a combination may be expected to be effective in improving motor symptoms in patients. PMID:25513815

  18. Adenosine A2A receptors and depression.

    PubMed

    El Yacoubi, Malika; Costentin, Jean; Vaugeois, Jean-Marie

    2003-12-09

    Adenosine and its analogues have been shown to induce "behavioral despair" in animal models believed to be relevant to depression. Recent data have shown that selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonists (e.g., SCH 58261, ZM241385, and KW6002) or genetic inactivation of the receptor was effective in reversing signs of behavioral despair in the tail suspension and forced swim tests, two screening procedures predictive of antidepressant activity. A2A antagonists were active in the tail suspension test using either mice previously screened for having high immobility scores or mice that were selectively bred for their spontaneous "helplessness" in this test. At stimulant doses, caffeine, a nonselective A1/A2A receptor antagonist, was effective in the forced swim test. The authors have hypothesized that the antidepressant-like effect of selective A2A antagonists is linked to an interaction with dopaminergic transmission, possibly in the frontal cortex. In support of this idea, administration of the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol prevented antidepressant-like effects elicited by SCH 58261 in the forced swim test (putatively involving cortex), whereas it had no effect on stimulant motor effects of SCH 58261 (putatively linked to ventral striatum). The interaction profile of caffeine with haloperidol differed markedly from that of SCH 58261 in the forced swim and motor activity tests. Therefore, a clear-cut antidepressant-like effect could not be ascribed to caffeine. In conclusion, available data support the proposition that a selective blockade of the adenosine A2A receptor may be an interesting target for the development of effective antidepressant agents.

  19. 3-(Fur-2-yl)-10-(2-phenylethyl)-[1,2,4]triazino[4,3-a]benzimidazol-4(10H)-one, a novel adenosine receptor antagonist with A(2A)-mediated neuroprotective effects.

    PubMed

    Scatena, Alessia; Fornai, Francesco; Trincavelli, Maria Letizia; Taliani, Sabrina; Daniele, Simona; Pugliesi, Isabella; Cosconati, Sandro; Martini, Claudia; Da Settimo, Federico

    2011-09-21

    In this study, compound FTBI (3-(2-furyl)-10-(2-phenylethyl)[1,2,4]triazino[4,3-a]benzimidazol-4(10H)-one) was selected from a small library of triazinobenzimidazole derivatives as a potent A(2A) adenosine receptor (AR) antagonist and tested for its neuroprotective effects against two different kinds of dopaminergic neurotoxins, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) and methamphetamine (METH), in rat PC12 and in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell lines. FTBI, in a concentration range corresponding to its affinity for A(2A) AR subtype, significantly increased the number of viable PC12 cells after their exposure to METH and, to a similar extent, to MPP+, as demonstrated in both trypan blue exclusion assay and in cytological staining. These neuroprotective effects were also observed with a classical A(2A) AR antagonist, ZM241385, and appeared to be completely counteracted by the AR agonist, NECA, supporting A(2A) ARs are directly involved in FTBI-mediated effects. Similarly, in human SH-SY5Y cells, FTBI was able to prevent cell toxicity induced by MPP+ and METH, showing that this A(2A) AR antagonist has a neuroprotective effect independently by the specific cell model. Altogether these results demonstrate that the A(2A) AR blockade mediates cell protection against neurotoxicity induced by dopaminergic neurotoxins in dopamine containing cells, supporting the potential use of A(2A) AR antagonists in dopaminergic degenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease.

  20. Chemokine receptor antagonists: part 2.

    PubMed

    Pease, James E; Horuk, Richard

    2009-02-01

    The first part of this two-part review discussed approaches to generating antagonists for some of the CC chemokine receptors, including CCR1, CCR2, CCR3, and CCR4. This second part of the series concludes the review by describing antagonists for CCR5, CCR8, CCR9, CXCR3, CXCR4, and promiscuous antagonists. Chemokine receptor antagonists have found mixed success as therapeutics. Although one antagonist--maraviroc, a CCR5 inhibitor to treat AIDS--has been registered as an approved drug, this is the only success so far. There have been many failures in the clinic and we discuss the idea of promiscuous receptor antagonists as an alternative approach.

  1. Stimulant effects of adenosine antagonists on operant behavior: differential actions of selective A2A and A1 antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Randall, Patrick A.; Nunes, Eric J.; Janniere, Simone L.; Stopper, Colin M.; Farrar, Andrew M.; Sager, Thomas N.; Baqi, Younis; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Adenosine A2A antagonists can reverse many of the behavioral effects of dopamine antagonists, including actions on instrumental behavior. However, little is known about the effects of selective adenosine antagonists on operant behavior when these drugs are administered alone. Objective The present studies were undertaken to investigate the potential for rate-dependent stimulant effects of both selective and nonselective adenosine antagonists. Methods Six drugs were tested: two nonselective adenosine antagonists (caffeine and theophylline), two adenosine A1 antagonists (DPCPX and CPT), and two adenosine A2A antagonists (istradefylline (KW6002) and MSX-3). Two schedules of reinforcement were employed; a fixed interval 240-s (FI-240 sec) schedule was used to generate low baseline rates of responding and a fixed ratio 20 (FR20) schedule generated high rates. Results Caffeine and theophylline produced rate-dependent effects on lever pressing, increasing responding on the FI-240 sec schedule but decreasing responding on the FR20 schedule. The A2A antagonists MSX-3 and istradefylline increased FI-240 sec lever pressing but did not suppress FR20 lever pressing in the dose range tested. In fact, there was a tendency for istradefylline to increase FR20 responding at a moderate dose. A1 antagonists failed to increase lever pressing rate, but DPCPX decreased FR20 responding at higher doses. Conclusions These results suggest that adenosine A2A antagonists enhance operant response rates, but A1 antagonists do not. The involvement of adenosine A2A receptors in regulating aspects of instrumental response output and behavioral activation may have implications for the treatment of effort-related psychiatric dysfunctions, such as psychomotor slowing and anergia in depression. PMID:21347642

  2. Genetic deletion of GPR52 enhances the locomotor-stimulating effect of an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist in mice: A potential role of GPR52 in the function of striatopallidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Keiji; Suzuki, Hirobumi; Maruyama, Minoru; Yoshihara, Tomoki; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2017-09-01

    G protein-coupled receptor 52 (GPR52) is largely co-expressed with dopamine D 2 receptor (DRD2) in the striatum and nucleus accumbens, and this expression pattern is similar to that of adenosine A 2A receptor (ADORA2A). GPR52 has been proposed as a therapeutic target for positive symptoms of schizophrenia, based on observations from pharmacological and transgenic mouse studies. However, the physiological role of GPR52 in dopaminergic functions in the basal ganglia remains unclear. Here, we used GPR52 knockout (KO) mice to examine the role of GPR52 in dopamine receptor-mediated and ADORA2A-mediated locomotor activity and dopamine receptor signaling. High expression of GPR52 protein in the striatum, nucleus accumbens, and lateral globus pallidus of wild type (WT) littermates was confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis. GPR52 KO and WT mice exhibited almost identical locomotor responses to the dopamine releaser methamphetamine and the N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonist MK-801. In contrast, the locomotor response to the ADORA2A antagonist istradefylline was significantly augmented in GPR52 KO mice compared to WT mice. Gene expression analysis revealed that striatal expression of DRD2, but not of dopamine D 1 receptor and ADORA2A, was significantly decreased in GPR52 KO mice. Moreover, a significant reduction in the mRNA expression of enkephalin, a marker of the activity of striatopallidal neurons, was observed in the striatum of GPR52 KO mice, suggesting that GPR52 deletion could enhance DRD2 signaling. Taken together, these results imply the physiological relevance of GPR52 in modulating the function of striatopallidal neurons, possibly by interaction of GPR52 with ADORA2A and DRD2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Binding of [3H]MSX-2 (3-(3-hydroxypropyl)-7-methyl-8-(m-methoxystyryl)-1-propargylxanthine) to rat striatal membranes--a new, selective antagonist radioligand for A(2A) adenosine receptors.

    PubMed

    Müller, C E; Maurinsh, J; Sauer, R

    2000-01-01

    The present study describes the preparation and binding properties of a new, potent, and selective A(2A) adenosine receptor (AR) antagonist radioligand, [3H]3-(3-hydroxypropyl)-7-methyl-8-(m-methoxystyryl)-1-propargy lxanth ine ([3H]MSX-2). [3H]MSX-2 binding to rat striatal membranes was saturable and reversible. Saturation experiments showed that [3H]MSX-2 labeled a single class of binding sites with high affinity (K(d)=8.0 nM) and limited capacity (B(max)=1.16 fmol.mg(-1) of protein). The presence of 100 microM GTP, or 10 mM magnesium chloride, respectively, had no effect on [3H]MSX-2 binding. AR agonists competed with the binding of 1 nM [3H]MSX-2 with the following order of potency: 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA)>2-[4-(carboxyethyl)phenylethylamino]-5'-N-ethylcarboxami doaden osine (CGS-21680)>2-chloroadenosine (2-CADO)>N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA). AR antagonists showed the following order of potency: 8-(m-bromostyryl)-3, 7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine (BS-DMPX)>1, 3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX)>(R)-5, 6-dimethyl-7-(1-phenylethyl)-2-(4-pyridyl)-7H-pyrrolo[2, 3-d]pyrimidine-4-amine (SH-128)>3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine (DMPX)>caffeine. The K(i) values for antagonists were in accordance with data from binding studies with the agonist radioligand [3H]CGS21680, while agonist affinities were 3-7-fold lower. [3H]MSX-2 is a highly selective A(2A) AR antagonist radioligand exhibiting a selectivity of at least two orders of magnitude versus all other AR subtypes. The new radioligand shows high specific radioactivity (85 Ci/mmol, 3150 GBq/mmol) and acceptable nonspecific binding at rat striatal membranes of 20-30%, at 1 nM.

  4. Oral tremor induced by the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine is suppressed by the adenosine A2A antagonists MSX-3 and SCH58261, but not the adenosine A1 antagonist DPCPX.

    PubMed

    Collins, Lyndsey E; Galtieri, Daniel J; Brennum, Lise T; Sager, Thomas N; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E; Hinman, James R; Chrobak, James J; Salamone, John D

    2010-02-01

    Tremulous jaw movements in rats, which can be induced by dopamine (DA) antagonists, DA depletion, and cholinomimetics, have served as a useful model for studies of tremor. Although adenosine A(2A) antagonists can reduce the tremulous jaw movements induced by DA antagonists and DA depletion, there are conflicting reports about the interaction between adenosine antagonists and cholinomimetic drugs. The present studies investigated the ability of adenosine antagonists to reverse the tremorogenic effect of the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine. While the adenosine A(2A) antagonist MSX-3 was incapable of reversing the tremulous jaw movements induced by the 4.0mg/kg dose of pilocarpine, both MSX-3 and the adenosine A(2A) antagonist SCH58261 reversed the tremulous jaw movements elicited by 0.5mg/kg pilocarpine. Systemic administration of the adenosine A(1) antagonist DPCPX failed to reverse the tremulous jaw movements induced by either an acute 0.5mg/kg dose of the cholinomimetic pilocarpine or the DA D2 antagonist pimozide, indicating that the tremorolytic effects of adenosine antagonists may be receptor subtype specific. Behaviorally active doses of MSX-3 and SCH 58261 showed substantial in vivo occupancy of A(2A) receptors, but DPCPX did not. The results of these studies support the use of adenosine A(2A) antagonists for the treatment of tremor. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. NMDA receptor antagonists inhibit catalepsy induced by either dopamine D1 or D2 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Moore, N A; Blackman, A; Awere, S; Leander, J D

    1993-06-11

    In the present study, we investigated the ability of NMDA receptor antagonists to inhibit catalepsy induced by haloperidol, or SCH23390 and clebopride, selective dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists respectively. Catalepsy was measured by recording the time the animal remained with its forepaws placed over a rod 6 cm above the bench. Pretreatment with either the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 (0.25-0.5 mg/kg i.p.) or the competitive antagonist, LY274614 (10-20 mg/kg i.p.) reduced the cataleptic response produced by haloperidol (10 mg/kg), SCH23390 (2.5-10 mg/kp i.p.) or clebopride (5-20 mg/kg i.p.). This demonstrates that NMDA receptor antagonists will reduce both dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonist-induced catalepsy. Muscle relaxant doses of chlordiazepoxide (10 mg/kg i.p.) failed to reduce the catalepsy induced by haloperidol, suggesting that the anticataleptic effect of the NMDA receptor antagonists was not due to a non-specific action. These results support the hypothesis that NMDA receptor antagonists may have beneficial effects in disorders involving reduced dopaminergic function, such as Parkinson's disease.

  6. Characterisation of endogenous A2A and A2B receptor-mediated cyclic AMP responses in HEK 293 cells using the GloSensor™ biosensor: Evidence for an allosteric mechanism of action for the A2B-selective antagonist PSB 603.

    PubMed

    Goulding, Joelle; May, Lauren T; Hill, Stephen J

    2018-01-01

    Endogenous adenosine A 2B receptors (A 2B AR) mediate cAMP accumulation in HEK 293 cells. Here we have used a biosensor to investigate the mechanism of action of the A 2B AR antagonist PSB 603 in HEK 293 cells. The A 2A agonist CGS 21680 elicited a small response in these cells (circa 20% of that obtained with NECA), suggesting that they also contain a small population of A 2A receptors. The responses to NECA and adenosine were antagonised by PSB 603, but not by the selective A 2A AR antagonist SCH 58261. In contrast, CGS 21680 responses were not antagonised by high concentrations of PSB 603, but were sensitive to inhibition by SCH 58261. Analysis of the effect of increasing concentrations of PSB 603 on the response to NECA indicated a non-competitive mode of action yielding a marked reduction in the NECA E MAX with no significant effect on EC 50 values. Kinetics analysis of the effect of PSB 603 on the A 2B AR-mediated NECA responses confirmed a saturable effect that was consistent with an allosteric mode of antagonism. The possibility that PSB 603 acts as a negative allosteric modulator of A 2B AR suggests new approaches to the development of therapeutic agents to treat conditions where adenosine levels are high. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 reverses the effort-related effects of dopamine blockade: differential interaction with D1 and D2 family antagonists.

    PubMed

    Worden, Lila T; Shahriari, Mona; Farrar, Andrew M; Sink, Kelly S; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E; Salamone, John D

    2009-04-01

    Brain dopamine (DA) participates in the modulation of instrumental behavior, including aspects of behavioral activation and effort-related choice behavior. Rats with impaired DA transmission reallocate their behavior away from food-seeking behaviors that have high response requirements, and instead select less effortful alternatives. Although accumbens DA is considered a critical component of the brain circuitry regulating effort-related choice behavior, emerging evidence demonstrates a role for adenosine A(2A) receptors. Adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonism has been shown to reverse the effects of DA antagonism. The present experiments were conducted to determine if this effect was dependent upon the subtype of DA receptor that was antagonized to produce the changes in effort-related choice. The adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist MSX-3 (0.5-2.0 mg/kg IP) was assessed for its ability to reverse the effects of the D1 family antagonist SCH39166 (ecopipam; 0.2 mg/kg IP) and the D2 family antagonist eticlopride (0.08 mg/kg IP), using a concurrent lever pressing/chow feeding procedure. MSX-3 produced a substantial dose-related reversal of the effects of eticlopride on lever pressing and chow intake. At the highest dose of MSX-3, there was a complete reversal of the effects of eticlopride on lever pressing. In contrast, MSX-3 produced only a minimal attenuation of the effects of SCH39166, as measured by regression and effect size analyses. The greater ability of MSX-3 to reverse the effects of D2 vs. D1 blockade may be related to the colocalization of D2 and adenosine A(2A) receptors on the same population of striatal neurons.

  8. The adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 reverses the effort-related effects of dopamine blockade: differential interaction with D1 and D2 family antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Worden, Lila T.; Shahriari, Mona; Farrar, Andrew M.; Sink, Kelly S.; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Brain dopamine (DA) participates in the modulation of instrumental behavior, including aspects of behavioral activation and effort-related choice behavior. Rats with impaired DA transmission reallocate their behavior away from food-seeking behaviors that have high response requirements, and instead select less effortful alternatives. Although accumbens DA is considered a critical component of the brain circuitry regulating effort-related choice behavior, emerging evidence demonstrates a role for adenosine A2A receptors. Objective Adenosine A2A receptor antagonism has been shown to reverse the effects of DA antagonism. The present experiments were conducted to determine if this effect was dependent upon the subtype of DA receptor that was antagonized to produce the changes in effort-related choice. Materials and methods The adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3 (0.5–2.0 mg/kg IP) was assessed for its ability to reverse the effects of the D1 family antagonist SCH39166 (ecopipam; 0.2 mg/kg IP) and the D2 family antagonist eticlopride (0.08 mg/kg IP), using a concurrent lever pressing/chow feeding procedure. Results MSX-3 produced a substantial dose-related reversal of the effects of eticlopride on lever pressing and chow intake. At the highest dose of MSX-3, there was a complete reversal of the effects of eticlopride on lever pressing. In contrast, MSX-3 produced only a minimal attenuation of the effects of SCH39166, as measured by regression and effect size analyses. Conclusions The greater ability of MSX-3 to reverse the effects of D2 vs. D1 blockade may be related to the colocalization of D2 and adenosine A2A receptors on the same population of striatal neurons. PMID:19048234

  9. Agonists and antagonists for P2 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Costanzi, Stefano; Joshi, Bhalchandra V.; Besada, Pedro; Shin, Dae Hong; Ko, Hyojin; Ivanov, Andrei A.; Mamedova, Liaman

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has identified nucleotide agonists selective for P2Y1, P2Y2 and P2Y6 receptors and nucleotide antagonists selective for P2Y1, P2Y12 and P2X1 receptors. Selective non-nucleotide antagonists have been reported for P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y6, P2Y12, P2Y13, P2X2/3/P2X3 and P2X7 receptors. For example, the dinucleotide INS 37217 (Up4dC) potently activates the P2Y2 receptor, and the non-nucleotide antagonist A-317491 is selective for P2X2/3/P2X3 receptors. Nucleotide analogues in which the ribose moiety is substituted by a variety of novel ring systems, including conformation-ally locked moieties, have been synthesized as ligands for P2Y receptors. The focus on conformational factors of the ribose-like moiety allows the inclusion of general modifications that lead to enhanced potency and selectivity. At P2Y1,2,4,11 receptors, there is a preference for the North conformation as indicated with (N)-methanocarba analogues. The P2Y1 antagonist MRS2500 inhibited ADP-induced human platelet aggregation with an IC50 of 0.95 nM. MRS2365, an (N)-methanocarba analogue of 2-MeSADP, displayed potency (EC50) of 0.4 nM at the P2Y1 receptor, with >10 000-fold selectivity in comparison to P2Y12 and P2Y13 receptors. At P2Y6 receptors there is a dramatic preference for the South conformation. Three-dimensional structures of P2Y receptors have been deduced from structure activity relationships (SAR), mutagenesis and modelling studies. Detailed three-dimensional structures of P2X receptors have not yet been proposed. PMID:16805423

  10. Adenosine A2A receptors in ventral striatum, hypothalamus and nociceptive circuitry. Implications for drug addiction, sleep and pain

    PubMed Central

    Ferré, S.; Diamond, I.; Goldberg, S.R.; Yao, L.; Hourani, S.M.O.; Huang, Z.L.; Urade, Y.; Kitchen, I.

    2007-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptors localized in the dorsal striatum are considered as a new target for the development of antiparkinsonian drugs. Co-administration of A2A receptor antagonists has shown a significant improvement of the effects of L-DOPA. The present review emphasizes the possible application of A2A receptor antagonists in pathological conditions other than parkinsonism, including drug addiction, sleep disorders and pain. In addition to the dorsal striatum, the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens) contains a high density of A2A receptors, which presynaptically and postsynaptically regulate glutamatergic transmission in the cortical glutamatergic projections to the nucleus accumbens. It is currently believed that molecular adaptations of the cortico-accumbens glutamatergic synapses are involved in compulsive drug seeking and relapse. Here we review recent experimental evidence suggesting that A2A antagonists could become new therapeutic agents for drug addiction. Morphological and functional studies have identified lower levels of A2A receptors in brain areas other than the striatum, such as the ventrolateral preoptic area of the hypothalamus, where adenosine plays an important role in sleep regulation. Although initially believed to be mostly dependent on A1 receptors, here we review recent studies that demonstrate that the somnogenic effects of adenosine are largely mediated by hypothalamic A2A receptors. A2A receptor antagonists could therefore be considered as a possible treatment for narcolepsy and other sleep-related disorders. Finally, nociception is another adenosine-regulated neural function previously thought to mostly involve A1 receptors. Although there is some conflicting literature on the effects of agonists and antagonists, which may partly be due to the lack of selectivity of available drugs, the studies in A2A receptor knockout mice suggest that A2A receptor antagonists might have some therapeutic potential in pain states, in particular where

  11. Adenosine A(2A) receptors are necessary and sufficient to trigger memory impairment in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Pagnussat, N; Almeida, A S; Marques, D M; Nunes, F; Chenet, G C; Botton, P H S; Mioranzza, S; Loss, C M; Cunha, R A; Porciúncula, L O

    2015-08-01

    Caffeine (a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist) prevents memory deficits in aging and Alzheimer's disease, an effect mimicked by adenosine A2 A receptor, but not A1 receptor, antagonists. Hence, we investigated the effects of adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists on memory performance and scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. We determined whether A2 A receptors are necessary for the emergence of memory impairments induced by scopolamine and whether A2 A receptor activation triggers memory deficits in naïve mice, using three tests to assess short-term memory, namely the object recognition task, inhibitory avoidance and modified Y-maze. Scopolamine (1.0 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.) impaired short-term memory performance in all three tests and this scopolamine-induced amnesia was prevented by the A2 A receptor antagonist (SCH 58261, 0.1-1.0 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.) and by the A1 receptor antagonist (DPCPX, 0.2-5.0 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.), except in the modified Y-maze where only SCH58261 was effective. Both antagonists were devoid of effects on memory or locomotion in naïve rats. Notably, the activation of A2 A receptors with CGS 21680 (0.1-0.5 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.) before the training session was sufficient to trigger memory impairment in the three tests in naïve mice, and this effect was prevented by SCH 58261 (1.0 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.). Furthermore, i.c.v. administration of CGS 21680 (50 nmol) also impaired recognition memory in the object recognition task. These results show that A2 A receptors are necessary and sufficient to trigger memory impairment and further suggest that A1 receptors might also be selectively engaged to control the cholinergic-driven memory impairment. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  12. Mortality Benefit of Recombinant Human Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist for Sepsis Varies by Initial Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist Plasma Concentration.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Nuala J; Reilly, John P; Anderson, Brian J; Palakshappa, Jessica A; Jones, Tiffanie K; Dunn, Thomas G; Shashaty, Michael G S; Feng, Rui; Christie, Jason D; Opal, Steven M

    2018-01-01

    Plasma interleukin-1 beta may influence sepsis mortality, yet recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist did not reduce mortality in randomized trials. We tested for heterogeneity in the treatment effect of recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist by baseline plasma interleukin-1 beta or interleukin-1 receptor antagonist concentration. Retrospective subgroup analysis of randomized controlled trial. Multicenter North American and European clinical trial. Five hundred twenty-nine subjects with sepsis and hypotension or hypoperfusion, representing 59% of the original trial population. Random assignment of placebo or recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist × 72 hours. We measured prerandomization plasma interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and tested for statistical interaction between recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist treatment and baseline plasma interleukin-1 receptor antagonist or interleukin-1 beta concentration on 28-day mortality. There was significant heterogeneity in the effect of recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist treatment by plasma interleukin-1 receptor antagonist concentration whether plasma interleukin-1 receptor antagonist was divided into deciles (interaction p = 0.046) or dichotomized (interaction p = 0.028). Interaction remained present across different predicted mortality levels. Among subjects with baseline plasma interleukin-1 receptor antagonist above 2,071 pg/mL (n = 283), recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist therapy reduced adjusted mortality from 45.4% to 34.3% (adjusted risk difference, -0.12; 95% CI, -0.23 to -0.01), p = 0.044. Mortality in subjects with plasma interleukin-1 receptor antagonist below 2,071 pg/mL was not reduced by recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (adjusted risk difference, +0.07; 95% CI, -0.04 to +0.17), p = 0.230. Interaction between plasma interleukin-1 beta concentration and recombinant human

  13. Update in TSH Receptor Agonists and Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    The physiological role of the TSH receptor (TSHR) as a major regulator of thyroid function is well understood, but TSHRs are also expressed in multiple normal extrathyroidal tissues, and the physiological roles of TSHRs in these tissues are unclear. Moreover, TSHRs play a major role in several pathological conditions including hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and thyroid tumors. Small molecule, “drug-like” TSHR agonists, neutral antagonists, and inverse agonists may be useful as probes of TSHR function in extrathyroidal tissues and as leads to develop drugs for several diseases of the thyroid. In this Update, we review the most recent findings regarding the development and use of these small molecule TSHR ligands. PMID:23019348

  14. An adenosine A(2A) antagonist injected in the NTS reverses thermal prolongation of the LCR in decerebrate piglets.

    PubMed

    Xia, Luxi; Bartlett, Donald; Leiter, J C

    2008-12-31

    Hyperthermia prolongs the laryngeal chemoreflex (LCR). Under normothermic conditions, adenosine antagonists shorten and adenosine A(2A) (Ad-A(2A)) agonists prolong the LCR. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that SCH-58261, an Ad-A(2A) receptor antagonist, would prevent thermal prolongation of the LCR when injected unilaterally within the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). We studied decerebrate piglets aged 4-13 days. We elicited the LCR by injecting 0.1ml of water into the larynx and recorded integrated phrenic nerve activity. The laryngeal chemoreflex was prolonged when the body temperature of each piglet was raised approximately 2.5 degrees C, and SCH-58261 reversed the thermal prolongation of the LCR when injected into the NTS (n=13), but not when injected in the nucleus ambiguus (n=9). Injections of vehicle alone into the NTS did not alter the thermal prolongation of the LCR (n=9). We conclude that activation of adenosine receptors, perhaps located on GABAergic neurons in the NTS, contributes to thermal prolongation of the LCR.

  15. Mechanisms of the adenosine A2A receptor-induced sensitization of esophageal C fibers

    PubMed Central

    Brozmanova, M.; Mazurova, L.; Ru, F.; Tatar, M.; Hu, Y.; Yu, S.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies indicate that adenosine contributes to esophageal mechanical hypersensitivity in some patients with pain originating in the esophagus. We have previously reported that the esophageal vagal nodose C fibers express the adenosine A2A receptor. Here we addressed the hypothesis that stimulation of the adenosine A2A receptor induces mechanical sensitization of esophageal C fibers by a mechanism involving transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1). Extracellular single fiber recordings of activity originating in C-fiber terminals were made in the ex vivo vagally innervated guinea pig esophagus. The adenosine A2A receptor-selective agonist CGS21680 induced robust, reversible sensitization of the response to esophageal distention (10–60 mmHg) in a concentration-dependent fashion (1–100 nM). At the half-maximally effective concentration (EC50: ≈3 nM), CGS21680 induced an approximately twofold increase in the mechanical response without causing an overt activation. This sensitization was abolished by the selective A2A antagonist SCH58261. The adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin mimicked while the nonselective protein kinase inhibitor H89 inhibited mechanical sensitization by CGS21680. CGS21680 did not enhance the response to the purinergic P2X receptor agonist α,β-methylene-ATP, indicating that CGS21680 does not nonspecifically sensitize to all stimuli. Mechanical sensitization by CGS21680 was abolished by pretreatment with two structurally different TRPA1 antagonists AP18 and HC030031. Single cell RT-PCR and whole cell patch-clamp studies in isolated esophagus-specific nodose neurons revealed the expression of TRPA1 in A2A-positive C-fiber neurons and demonstrated that CGS21682 potentiated TRPA1 currents evoked by allylisothiocyanate. We conclude that stimulation of the adenosine A2A receptor induces mechanical sensitization of nodose C fibers by a mechanism sensitive to TRPA1 antagonists indicating the involvement of TRPA1. PMID:26564719

  16. Nonsteroidal antagonists of the mineralocorticoid receptor.

    PubMed

    Kolkhof, Peter; Nowack, Christina; Eitner, Frank

    2015-09-01

    The broad clinical use of steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) is limited by the potential risk of inducing hyperkalemia when given on top of renin-angiotensin system blockade. Drug discovery campaigns have been launched aiming for the identification of nonsteroidal MRAs with an improved safety profile. This review analyses the evidence for the potential of improved safety profiles of nonsteroidal MRAs and the current landscape of clinical trials with nonsteroidal MRAs. At least three novel nonsteroidal MRAs have reportedly demonstrated an improved therapeutic index (i.e. less risk for hyperkalemia) in comparison to steroidal antagonists in preclinical models. Five pharmaceutical companies have nonsteroidal MRAs in clinical development with a clear focus on the treatment of chronic kidney diseases. No clinical data have been published so far for MT-3995 (Mitsubishi), SC-3150 (Daiichi-Sankyo), LY2623091 (Eli Lilly) and PF-03882845 (Pfizer). In contrast, data from two clinical phase II trials are available for finerenone (Bayer) which demonstrated safety and efficacy in patients with heart failure and additional chronic kidney diseases, and significantly reduced albuminuria in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Neither hyperkalemia nor reductions in kidney function were limiting factors to its use. Novel, nonsteroidal MRAs are currently tested in clinical trials. Based on preclinical and first clinical data, these nonsteroidal MRAs might overcome the limitations of today's steroidal antagonists.

  17. Quantification of indirect pathway inhibition by the adenosine A2a antagonist SYN115 in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Black, Kevin J; Koller, Jonathan M; Campbell, Meghan C; Gusnard, Debra A; Bandak, Stephen I

    2010-12-01

    Adenosine A(2a) receptor antagonists reduce symptom severity in Parkinson disease (PD) and animal models. Rodent studies support the hypothesis that A(2a) antagonists produce this benefit by reducing the inhibitory output of the basal ganglia indirect pathway. One way to test this hypothesis in humans is to quantify regional pharmacodynamic responses with cerebral blood flow (CBF) imaging. That approach has also been proposed as a tool to accelerate pharmaceutical dose finding, but has not yet been applied in humans to drugs in development. We successfully addressed both these aims with a perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of the novel adenosine A(2a) antagonist SYN115. During a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 21 PD patients on levodopa but no agonists, we acquired pulsed arterial spin labeling MRI at the end of each treatment period. SYN115 produced a highly significant decrease in thalamic CBF, consistent with reduced pallidothalamic inhibition via the indirect pathway. Similar decreases occurred in cortical regions whose activity decreases with increased alertness and externally focused attention, consistent with decreased self-reported sleepiness on SYN115. Remarkably, we also derived quantitative pharmacodynamic parameters from the CBF responses to SYN115. These results suggested that the doses tested were on the low end of the effective dose range, consistent with clinical data reported separately. We conclude that (1) SYN115 enters the brain and exerts dose-dependent regional effects, (2) the most prominent of these effects is consistent with deactivation of the indirect pathway as predicted by preclinical studies; and (3) perfusion MRI can provide rapid, quantitative, clinically relevant dose-finding information for pharmaceutical development.

  18. Quantification of indirect pathway inhibition by the adenosine A2a antagonist SYN115 in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Black, Kevin J.; Koller, Jonathan M.; Campbell, Meghan C.; Gusnard, Debra A.; Bandak, Stephen I.

    2010-01-01

    Adenosine A2a receptor antagonists reduce symptom severity in Parkinson disease (PD) and animal models. Rodent studies support the hypothesis that A2a antagonists produce this benefit by reducing the inhibitory output of the basal ganglia indirect pathway. One way to test this hypothesis in humans is to quantify regional pharmacodynamic responses with cerebral blood flow (CBF) imaging. That approach has also been proposed as a tool to accelerate pharmaceutical dose-finding, but has not yet been applied in humans to drugs in development. We successfully addressed both these aims with a perfusion MRI study of the novel adenosine A2a antagonist SYN115. During a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 21 PD patients on levodopa but no agonists, we acquired pulsed arterial spin labeling MRI at the end of each treatment period. SYN115 produced a highly significant decrease in thalamic CBF, consistent with reduced pallidothalamic inhibition via the indirect pathway. Similar decreases occurred in cortical regions whose activity decreases with increased alertness and externally-focused attention, consistent with decreased self-reported sleepiness on SYN115. Remarkably, we also derived quantitative pharmacodynamic parameters from the CBF responses to SYN115. These results suggested that the doses tested were on the low end of the effective dose range, consistent with clinical data reported separately. We conclude that (1) SYN115 enters the brain and exerts dose-dependent regional effects, (2) the most prominent of these effects is consistent with deactivation of the indirect pathway as predicted by preclinical studies; and (3) perfusion MRI can provide rapid, quantitative, clinically relevant dose-finding information for pharmaceutical development. PMID:21123574

  19. Activation of Adenosine A2A Receptors Inhibits Neutrophil Transuroepithelial Migration ▿

    PubMed Central

    Säve, Susanne; Mohlin, Camilla; Vumma, Ravi; Persson, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    Adenosine has been identified as a significant inhibitor of inflammation by acting on adenosine A2A receptors. In this study, we examined the role of adenosine and A2A receptors in the transmigration of human neutrophils across an in vitro model of the transitional bladder urothelium. Human uroepithelial cells (UROtsa) were grown on transwell inserts; uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and neutrophils were added to the transwell system; and the number of migrating neutrophils was evaluated. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry were used to investigate the expression of adenosine receptors, the epithelial adhesion molecule ICAM-1, and the neutrophil integrin CD11b. Levels of proinflammatory interleukin-8 (IL-8) and phosphorylated IκBα were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and Luminex assays, respectively. The neutrophils expressed all four adenosine receptor subtypes (A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 receptors), but A3 receptors were not expressed by UROtsa cells. UPEC stimulated neutrophil transuroepithelial migration, which was significantly decreased in response to the specific A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680. The inhibitory effect of CGS 21680 on neutrophil migration was reversed by the A2A receptor antagonist SCH 58261. The production of chemotactic IL-8 and the expression of the adhesion molecule ICAM-1 or CD11b were not significantly affected by CGS 21680. However, a significant decrease in the level of phosporylated IκBα was revealed in response to CGS 21680. In conclusion, UPEC infection in vitro evoked neutrophil migration through a multilayered human uroepithelium. The UPEC-evoked neutrophil transmigration decreased in response to A2A receptor activation, possibly through inhibition of NF-κB signaling pathways. PMID:21646447

  20. A2A adenosine receptor agonists and their potential therapeutic applications. An update.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Angel

    2018-03-12

    In the last 20 years, an increasing interest of medicinal chemists on the development of potent and selective agonists and antagonists of adenosine receptors has been noticed due to the large impact they have shown in a variety of important biological processes and diseases. Among these, it should be mentioned vasodilation, inflammation, cancer, wound healing, ischemia reperfusion injury, Parkinson disease, infectious diseases, and other CNS disorders. In this review, I will provide an update of the structures of the A2A agonists known, their selectivity versus other adenosine receptors, and their latest therapeutic applications. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Injections of the selective adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 into the nucleus accumbens core attenuate the locomotor suppression induced by haloperidol in rats.

    PubMed

    Ishiwari, Keita; Madson, Lisa J; Farrar, Andrew M; Mingote, Susana M; Valenta, John P; DiGianvittorio, Michael D; Frank, Lauren E; Correa, Merce; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa; Salamone, John D

    2007-03-28

    There is considerable evidence of interactions between adenosine A2A receptors and dopamine D2 receptors in striatal areas, and antagonists of the A2A receptor have been shown to reverse the motor effects of DA antagonists in animal models. The D2 antagonist haloperidol produces parkinsonism in humans, and also induces motor effects in rats, such as suppression of locomotion. The present experiments were conducted to study the ability of the adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 to reverse the locomotor effects of acute or subchronic administration of haloperidol in rats. Systemic (i.p.) injections of MSX-3 (2.5-10.0 mg/kg) were capable of attenuating the suppression of locomotion induced by either acute or repeated (i.e., 14 day) administration of 0.5 mg/kg haloperidol. Bilateral infusions of MSX-3 directly into the nucleus accumbens core (2.5 microg or 5.0 microg in 0.5 microl per side) produced a dose-related increase in locomotor activity in rats treated with 0.5 mg/kg haloperidol either acutely or repeatedly. There were no overall significant effects of MSX-3 infused directly into the dorsomedial nucleus accumbens shell or the ventrolateral neostriatum. These results indicate that antagonism of adenosine A2A receptors can attenuate the locomotor suppression produced by DA antagonism, and that this effect may be at least partially mediated by A2A receptors in the nucleus accumbens core. These studies suggest that adenosine and dopamine systems interact to modulate the locomotor and behavioral activation functions of nucleus accumbens core.

  2. Injections of the selective adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 into the nucleus accumbens core attenuate the locomotor suppression induced by haloperidol in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ishiwari, Keita; Madson, Lisa J.; Farrar, Andrew M.; Mingote, Susana M.; Valenta, John P.; DiGianvittorio, Michael D.; Frank, Lauren E.; Correa, Merce; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa; Salamone, John D.

    2009-01-01

    There is considerable evidence of interactions between adenosine A2A receptors and dopamine D2 receptors in striatal areas, and antagonists of the A2A receptor have been shown to reverse the motor effects of DA antagonists in animal models. The D2 antagonist haloperidol produces parkinsonism in humans, and also induces motor effects in rats, such as suppression of locomotion. The present experiments were conducted to study the ability of the adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 to reverse the locomotor effects of acute or subchronic administration of haloperidol in rats. Systemic (i.p.) injections of MSX-3 (2.5–10.0 mg/kg) were capable of attenuating the suppression of locomotion induced by either acute or repeated (i.e., 14 day) administration of 0.5 mg/kg haloperidol. Bilateral infusions of MSX-3 directly into the nucleus accumbens core (2.5 µg or 5.0 µg in 0.5 µl per side) produced a dose-related increase in locomotor activity in rats treated with 0.5 mg/kg haloperidol either acutely or repeatedly. There were no overall significant effects of MSX-3 infused directly into the dorsomedial nucleus accumbens shell or the ventrolateral neostriatum. These results indicate that antagonism of adenosine A2A receptors can attenuate the locomotor suppression produced by DA antagonism, and that this effect may be at least partially mediated by A2A receptors in the nucleus accumbens core. These studies suggest that adenosine and dopamine systems interact to modulate the locomotor and behavioral activation functions of nucleus accumbens core. PMID:17223207

  3. Interaction between Antagonist of Cannabinoid Receptor and Antagonist of Adrenergic Receptor on Anxiety in Male Rat.

    PubMed

    Komaki, Alireza; Abdollahzadeh, Fatemeh; Sarihi, Abdolrahman; Shahidi, Siamak; Salehi, Iraj

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety is among the most common and treatable mental disorders. Adrenergic and cannabinoid systems have an important role in the neurobiology of anxiety. The elevated plus-maze (EPM) has broadly been used to investigate anxiolytic and anxiogenic compounds. The present study investigated the effects of intraperitoneal (IP) injection of cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist (AM251) in the presence of alpha-1 adrenergic antagonist (Prazosin) on rat behavior in the EPM. In this study, the data were obtained from male Wistar rat, which weighing 200- 250 g. Animal behavior in EPM were videotaped and saved in computer for 10 min after IP injection of saline, AM251 (0.3 mg/kg), Prazosin (0.3 mg/kg) and AM251 + Prazosin, subsequently scored for conventional indices of anxiety. During the test period, the number of open and closed arms entries, the percentage of entries into the open arms of the EPM, and the spent time in open and closed arms were recorded. Diazepam was considered as a positive control drug with anxiolytic effect (0.3, 0.6, 1.2 mg/kg). Diazepam increased the number of open arm entries and the percentage of spent time on the open arms. IP injection of AM251 before EPM trial decreased open arms exploration and open arm entry. Whereas, Prazosin increased open arms exploration and open arm entry. This study showed that both substances in simultaneous injection have conflicting effects on the responses of each of these two compounds in a single injection. Injection of CB1 receptor antagonist may have an anxiogenic profile in rat, whereas adrenergic antagonist has an anxiolytic effect. Further investigations are essential for better understanding of anxiolytic and anxiogenic properties and neurobiological mechanisms of action and probable interactions of the two systems.

  4. Adenosine A2A receptor agonists with potent antiplatelet activity.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Fuentes, Manuel; Caballero, Julio; Palomo, Iván; Hinz, Sonja; El-Tayeb, Ali; Müller, Christa E

    2018-05-01

    Selected adenosine A 2A receptor agonists (PSB-15826, PSB-12404, and PSB-16301) have been evaluated as new antiplatelet agents. In addition, radioligand-binding studies and receptor-docking experiments were performed in order to explain their differential biological effects on a molecular level. Among the tested adenosine derivatives, PSB-15826 was the most potent compound to inhibit platelet aggregation (EC 50 0.32 ± 0.05 µmol/L) and platelet P-selectin cell-surface localization (EC 50 0.062 ± 0.2 µmol/L), and to increase intraplatelets cAMP levels (EC 50 0.24 ± 0.01 µmol/L). The compound was more active than CGS21680 (EC 50 0.97±0.07 µmol/L) and equipotent to NECA (EC 50 0.31 ± 0.05 µmol/L) in platelet aggregation induced by ADP. In contrast to the results from cAMP assays, K i values determined in radioligand-binding studies were not predictive of the A 2A agonists' antiplatelet activity. Docking studies revealed the key molecular determinants of this new family of adenosine A 2A receptor agonists: differences in activities are related to π-stacking interactions between the ligands and the residue His264 in the extracellular loop of the adenosine A 2A receptor which may result in increased residence times. In conclusion, these results provide an improved understanding of the requirements of antiplatelet adenosine A 2A receptor agonists.

  5. Adenosine A2A Receptors in the Amygdala Control Synaptic Plasticity and Contextual Fear Memory.

    PubMed

    Simões, Ana Patrícia; Machado, Nuno J; Gonçalves, Nélio; Kaster, Manuella P; Simões, Ana T; Nunes, Ana; Pereira de Almeida, Luís; Goosens, Ki Ann; Rial, Daniel; Cunha, Rodrigo A

    2016-11-01

    The consumption of caffeine modulates working and reference memory through the antagonism of adenosine A 2A receptors (A 2A Rs) controlling synaptic plasticity processes in hippocampal excitatory synapses. Fear memory essentially involves plastic changes in amygdala circuits. However, it is unknown if A 2A Rs in the amygdala regulate synaptic plasticity and fear memory. We report that A 2A Rs in the amygdala are enriched in synapses and located to glutamatergic synapses, where they selectively control synaptic plasticity rather than synaptic transmission at a major afferent pathway to the amygdala. Notably, the downregulation of A 2A Rs selectively in the basolateral complex of the amygdala, using a lentivirus with a silencing shRNA (small hairpin RNA targeting A 2A R (shA 2A R)), impaired fear acquisition as well as Pavlovian fear retrieval. This is probably associated with the upregulation and gain of function of A 2A Rs in the amygdala after fear acquisition. The importance of A 2A Rs to control fear memory was further confirmed by the ability of SCH58261 (0.1 mg/kg; A 2A R antagonist), caffeine (5 mg/kg), but not DPCPX (0.5 mg/kg; A 1 R antagonist), treatment for 7 days before fear conditioning onwards, to attenuate the retrieval of context fear after 24-48 h and after 7-8 days. These results demonstrate that amygdala A 2A Rs control fear memory and the underlying process of synaptic plasticity in this brain region. This provides a neurophysiological basis for the association between A 2A R polymorphisms and phobia or panic attacks in humans and prompts a therapeutic interest in A 2A Rs to manage fear-related pathologies.

  6. Prostanoid receptor antagonists: development strategies and therapeutic applications

    PubMed Central

    Jones, RL; Giembycz, MA; Woodward, DF

    2009-01-01

    Identification of the primary products of cyclo-oxygenase (COX)/prostaglandin synthase(s), which occurred between 1958 and 1976, was followed by a classification system for prostanoid receptors (DP, EP1, EP2 …) based mainly on the pharmacological actions of natural and synthetic agonists and a few antagonists. The design of potent selective antagonists was rapid for certain prostanoid receptors (EP1, TP), slow for others (FP, IP) and has yet to be achieved in certain cases (EP2). While some antagonists are structurally related to the natural agonist, most recent compounds are ‘non-prostanoid’ (often acyl-sulphonamides) and have emerged from high-throughput screening of compound libraries, made possible by the development of (functional) assays involving single recombinant prostanoid receptors. Selective antagonists have been crucial to defining the roles of PGD2 (acting on DP1 and DP2 receptors) and PGE2 (on EP1 and EP4 receptors) in various inflammatory conditions; there are clear opportunities for therapeutic intervention. The vast endeavour on TP (thromboxane) antagonists is considered in relation to their limited pharmaceutical success in the cardiovascular area. Correspondingly, the clinical utility of IP (prostacyclin) antagonists is assessed in relation to the cloud hanging over the long-term safety of selective COX-2 inhibitors. Aspirin apart, COX inhibitors broadly suppress all prostanoid pathways, while high selectivity has been a major goal in receptor antagonist development; more targeted therapy may require an intermediate position with defined antagonist selectivity profiles. This review is intended to provide overviews of each antagonist class (including prostamide antagonists), covering major development strategies and current and potential clinical usage. PMID:19624532

  7. 5-HT7 Receptor Antagonists with an Unprecedented Selectivity Profile.

    PubMed

    Ates, Ali; Burssens, Pierre; Lorthioir, Olivier; Lo Brutto, Patrick; Dehon, Gwenael; Keyaerts, Jean; Coloretti, Francis; Lallemand, Bénédicte; Verbois, Valérie; Gillard, Michel; Vermeiren, Céline

    2018-04-23

    Selective leads: In this study, we generated a new series of serotonin 5-HT 7 receptor antagonists. Their synthesis, structure-activity relationships, and selectivity profiles are reported. This series includes 5-HT 7 antagonists with unprecedented high selectivity for the 5-HT 7 receptor, setting the stage for lead optimization of drugs acting on a range of neurological targets. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Behavioral control by striatal adenosine A2A -dopamine D2 receptor heteromers.

    PubMed

    Taura, J; Valle-León, M; Sahlholm, K; Watanabe, M; Van Craenenbroeck, K; Fernández-Dueñas, V; Ferré, S; Ciruela, F

    2018-04-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) exhibit the ability to form receptor complexes that include molecularly different GPCR (ie, GPCR heteromers), which endow them with singular functional and pharmacological characteristics. The relative expression of GPCR heteromers remains a matter of intense debate. Recent studies support that adenosine A 2A receptors (A 2A R) and dopamine D 2 receptors (D 2 R) predominantly form A 2A R-D 2 R heteromers in the striatum. The aim of the present study was evaluating the behavioral effects of pharmacological manipulation and genetic blockade of A 2A R and D 2 R within the frame of such a predominant striatal heteromeric population. First, in order to avoid possible strain-related differences, a new D 2 R-deficient mouse with the same genetic background (CD-1) than the A 2A R knock-out mouse was generated. Locomotor activity, pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) and drug-induced catalepsy were then evaluated in wild-type, A 2A R and D 2 R knock-out mice, with and without the concomitant administration of either the D 2 R agonist sumanirole or the A 2A R antagonist SCH442416. SCH442416-mediated locomotor effects were demonstrated to be dependent on D 2 R signaling. Similarly, a significant dependence on A 2A R signaling was observed for PPI and for haloperidol-induced catalepsy. The results could be explained by the existence of one main population of striatal postsynaptic A 2A R-D 2 R heteromers, which may constitute a relevant target for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and other neuropsychiatric disorders. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  9. Vasopressin and a nonpeptide antidiuretic hormone receptor antagonist (OPC-31260).

    PubMed

    Burrell, L M; Phillips, P A; Stephenson, J M; Risvanis, J; Johnston, C I

    1994-03-01

    The development of nonpeptide orally active AVP analogues has provided a new tool with which to assess the physiological and pathophysiological role of vasopressin (AVP). We have previously characterised the nonpeptide vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist OPC-21268, and now report the in vitro characterisation of the nonpeptide V2 receptor antagonist OPC-31260 in the rat. OPC-31260 caused a concentration-dependent displacement of the selective AVP V2 receptor antagonist radioligand, [3H]desGly-NH2(9)[d(CH2)5, D-Ile2,Ile4]AVP from V2 receptors in rat kidney medulla membranes. The concentration of OPC-31260 that displaced 50% of specific AVP binding (IC50) was 20 +/- 2 nmol/l for renal V2 receptors. OPC-31260 also caused a concentration-dependent displacement of the selective AVP V1 receptor antagonist radioligand, [125I]-[d(CH2)5,sarcosine7]AVP from V1 receptors in both rat liver and kidney medulla membranes. The IC50 was 500 +/- 30 nmol/l for both renal and liver V1 receptors. After oral administration to rats, OPC-31260 was an effective inhibitor of AVP at renal V2 and liver V1 receptors in a time-dependent manner. In vitro binding kinetic studies showed that OPC-31260 was a competitive antagonist at both the renal V2 receptor and the hepatic V1 receptor. OPC-31260 is a nonpeptide, orally effective competitive inhibitor of AVP with a V2:V1 receptor selectivity ratio of 25:1 indicating relative V2 receptor selectivity.

  10. A2A adenosine receptor ligand binding and signalling is allosterically modulated by adenosine deaminase.

    PubMed

    Gracia, Eduard; Pérez-Capote, Kamil; Moreno, Estefanía; Barkešová, Jana; Mallol, Josefa; Lluís, Carme; Franco, Rafael; Cortés, Antoni; Casadó, Vicent; Canela, Enric I

    2011-05-01

    A2ARs (adenosine A2A receptors) are highly enriched in the striatum, which is the main motor control CNS (central nervous system) area. BRET (bioluminescence resonance energy transfer) assays showed that A2AR homomers may act as cell-surface ADA (adenosine deaminase; EC 3.5.4.4)-binding proteins. ADA binding affected the quaternary structure of A2ARs present on the cell surface. ADA binding to adenosine A2ARs increased both agonist and antagonist affinity on ligand binding to striatal membranes where these proteins are co-expressed. ADA also increased receptor-mediated ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2) phosphorylation. Collectively, the results of the present study show that ADA, apart from regulating the concentration of extracellular adenosine, may behave as an allosteric modulator that markedly enhances ligand affinity and receptor function. This powerful regulation may have implications for the physiology and pharmacology of neuronal A2ARs.

  11. Adenosine A2A receptors modulate the dopamine D2 receptor-mediated inhibition of synaptic transmission in the mouse prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Real, Joana I; Simões, Ana Patrícia; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Ferreira, Samira G; Rial, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    Prefrontal cortex (PFC) circuits are modulated by dopamine acting on D 1 - and D 2 -like receptors, which are pharmacologically exploited to manage neuropsychiatric conditions. Adenosine A 2A receptors (A 2 A R) also control PFC-related responses and A 2 A R antagonists are potential anti-psychotic drugs. As tight antagonistic A 2 A R-D 2 R and synergistic A 2 A R-D 1 R interactions occur in other brain regions, we now investigated the crosstalk between A 2 A R and D 1 /D 2 R controlling synaptic transmission between layers II/III and V in mouse PFC coronal slices. Dopamine decreased synaptic transmission, a presynaptic effect based on the parallel increase in paired-pulse responses. Dopamine inhibition was prevented by the D 2 R-like antagonist sulpiride but not by the D 1 R antagonist SCH23390 and was mimicked by the D 2 R agonist sumanirole, but not by the agonists of either D 4 R (A-412997) or D 3 R (PD128907). Dopamine inhibition was prevented by the A 2 A R antagonist, SCH58261, and attenuated in A 2 A R knockout mice. Accordingly, triple-labelling immunocytochemistry experiments revealed the co-localization of A 2 A R and D 2 R immunoreactivity in glutamatergic (vGluT1-positive) nerve terminals of the PFC. This reported positive A 2 A R-D 2 R interaction controlling PFC synaptic transmission provides a mechanistic justification for the anti-psychotic potential of A 2 A R antagonists. © 2018 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Effects of an orally active vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Burrell, L M; Phillips, P A; Stephenson, J; Risvanis, J; Hutchins, A M; Johnston, C I

    1993-05-01

    1. This paper reports on the in vitro and in vivo characteristics of a non-peptide vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist 1-(1-[4-(3-acetylaminopropoxy)benzoyl]-4-piperidyl)-3,4-dihydro-2( 1H)- quinolinone (OPC-21268). 2. OPC-21268 caused a concentration-dependent displacement of the selective V1 receptor antagonist radioligand, [125I]-[d(CH2)5, sarcosine7]AVP from vasopressin V1 receptors in rat liver and kidney membranes, inhibitory concentration of 50% (IC50) 4 x 10(-8), 0.3 mol/L liver and 1.5 x 10(-8), 0.2 mol/L kidney. OPC-21268 had little effect on the selective V2 antagonist radioligand [3H]desGly-NH2(9)-d(CH2)5[D-Ileu2, Ileu4]AVP binding to V2 receptors in renal membranes (IC50 > 10(-4) mol/L). 3. After oral administration to rats, OPC-21268 was an effective V1 antagonist to both liver and kidney V1 receptors, in a dose-dependent manner. 4. These studies confirm that OPC-21268 is a potent non-peptide, orally effective V1 vasopressin receptor antagonist.

  13. Role of central and peripheral adenosine receptors in the cardiovascular responses to intraperitoneal injections of adenosine A1 and A2A subtype receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Charles W; Karcz-Kubicha, Marzena; Thorndike, Eric B; Müller, Christa E; Tella, Srihari R; Ferré, Sergi; Goldberg, Steven R

    2005-03-01

    1. The cardiovascular effects of the adenosine A1 receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) and the adenosine A2A receptor agonist 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS 21680) were investigated in rats implanted with telemetry transmitters for the measurement of blood pressure and heart rate. 2. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of the adenosine A1 receptor agonist CPA led to dose-dependent decreases in both blood pressure and heart rate. These effects of 0.3 mg kg(-1) CPA were antagonized by i.p. injections of the adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethyl-xanthine (CPT), but not by i.p. injections of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist 3-(3-hydroxypropyl)-8-(m-methoxystyryl)-7-methyl-1-propargylxanthine phosphate disodium salt (MSX-3). Injections (i.p.) of the peripherally acting nonselective adenosine antagonist 8-sulfophenyltheophylline (8-SPT) and the purported nonselective adenosine antagonist caffeine also antagonized the cardiovascular effects of CPA. 3. The adenosine A2A agonist CGS 21680 given i.p. produced a dose-dependent decrease in blood pressure and an increase in heart rate. These effects of 0.5 mg kg(-1) CGS 21680 were antagonized by i.p. injections of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3, but not by i.p. injections of the antagonists CPT, 8-SPT or caffeine. 4. Central administration (intracerebral ventricular) of CGS 21680 produced an increase in heart rate, but no change in blood pressure. MSX-3 given i.p. antagonized the effects of the central injection of CGS 21680. 5. These results suggest that adenosine A1 receptor agonists produce decreases in blood pressure and heart rate that are mediated by A1 receptors in the periphery, with little or no contribution of central adenosine A1 receptors to those effects. 6. The heart rate increasing effect of adenosine A2A agonists appears to be mediated by adenosine A2A receptors in the central nervous system. The blood pressure decreasing

  14. Non-NMDA receptor antagonist-induced drinking in rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Z.; Johnson, A. K.

    1998-01-01

    Glutamate has been implicated in the central control of mechanisms that maintain body fluid homeostasis. The present studies demonstrate that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of the non-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists 6, 7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX) and 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3 dione (CNQX) induce drinking in rats. The dipsogenic effect of i.c.v. DNQX was antagonized by the non-NMDA receptor agonist alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA). The water intake induced by DNQX was also blocked by pretreatment with a NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, but not by angiotensin type 1 (AT1) or acetylcholine muscarinic receptor antagonists (losartan and atropine). The results indicate that non-NMDA receptors may exert a tonic inhibitory effect within brain circuits that control dipsogenic activity and that functional integrity of NMDA receptors may be required for the non-NMDA receptor antagonists to induce water intake. Copyright 1998 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  15. Novel approaches for targeting the adenosine A2A receptor.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Gengyang; Gedeon, Nicholas G; Jankins, Tanner C; Jones, Graham B

    2015-01-01

    The adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) represents a drug target for a wide spectrum of diseases. Approaches for targeting this membrane-bound protein have been greatly advanced by new stabilization techniques. The resulting X-ray crystal structures and subsequent analyses provide deep insight to the A2AR from both static and dynamic perspectives. Application of this, along with other biophysical methods combined with fragment-based drug design (FBDD), has become a standard approach in targeting A2AR. Complementarities of in silico screening based- and biophysical screening assisted- FBDD are likely to feature in future approaches in identifying novel ligands against this key receptor. This review describes evolution of the above approaches for targeting A2AR and highlights key modulators identified. It includes a review of: adenosine receptor structures, homology modeling, X-ray structural analysis, rational drug design, biophysical methods, FBDD and in silico screening. As a drug target, the A2AR is attractive as its function plays a role in a wide spectrum of diseases including oncologic, inflammatory, Parkinson's and cardiovascular diseases. Although traditional approaches such as high-throughput screening and homology model-based virtual screening (VS) have played a role in targeting A2AR, numerous shortcomings have generally restricted their applications to specific ligand families. Using stabilization methods for crystallization, X-ray structures of A2AR have greatly accelerated drug discovery and influenced development of biophysical-in silico hybrid screening methods. Application of these new methods to other ARs and G-protein-coupled receptors is anticipated in the future.

  16. Discovery of tertiary sulfonamides as potent liver X receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Zuercher, William J; Buckholz, Richard G; Campobasso, Nino; Collins, Jon L; Galardi, Cristin M; Gampe, Robert T; Hyatt, Stephen M; Merrihew, Susan L; Moore, John T; Oplinger, Jeffrey A; Reid, Paul R; Spearing, Paul K; Stanley, Thomas B; Stewart, Eugene L; Willson, Timothy M

    2010-04-22

    Tertiary sulfonamides were identified in a HTS as dual liver X receptor (LXR, NR1H2, and NR1H3) ligands, and the binding affinity of the series was increased through iterative analogue synthesis. A ligand-bound cocrystal structure was determined which elucidated key interactions for high binding affinity. Further characterization of the tertiary sulfonamide series led to the identification of high affinity LXR antagonists. GSK2033 (17) is the first potent cell-active LXR antagonist described to date. 17 may be a useful chemical probe to explore the cell biology of this orphan nuclear receptor.

  17. Discovery of Tertiary Sulfonamides as Potent Liver X Receptor Antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Zuercher, William J.; Buckholz†, Richard G.; Campobasso, Nino

    2010-08-12

    Tertiary sulfonamides were identified in a HTS as dual liver X receptor (LXR, NR1H2, and NR1H3) ligands, and the binding affinity of the series was increased through iterative analogue synthesis. A ligand-bound cocrystal structure was determined which elucidated key interactions for high binding affinity. Further characterization of the tertiary sulfonamide series led to the identification of high affinity LXR antagonists. GSK2033 (17) is the first potent cell-active LXR antagonist described to date. 17 may be a useful chemical probe to explore the cell biology of this orphan nuclear receptor.

  18. Caffeine and Selective Adenosine Receptor Antagonists as New Therapeutic Tools for the Motivational Symptoms of Depression

    PubMed Central

    López-Cruz, Laura; Salamone, John D.; Correa, Mercè

    2018-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is one of the most common and debilitating psychiatric disorders. Some of the motivational symptoms of depression, such anergia (lack of self-reported energy) and fatigue are relatively resistant to traditional treatments such as serotonin uptake inhibitors. Thus, new pharmacological targets are being investigated. Epidemiological data suggest that caffeine consumption can have an impact on aspects of depressive symptomatology. Caffeine is a non-selective adenosine antagonist for A1/A2A receptors, and has been demonstrated to modulate behavior in classical animal models of depression. Moreover, selective adenosine receptor antagonists are being assessed for their antidepressant effects in animal studies. This review focuses on how caffeine and selective adenosine antagonists can improve different aspects of depression in humans, as well as in animal models. The effects on motivational symptoms of depression such as anergia, fatigue, and psychomotor slowing receive particular attention. Thus, the ability of adenosine receptor antagonists to reverse the anergia induced by dopamine antagonism or depletion is of special interest. In conclusion, although further studies are needed, it appears that caffeine and selective adenosine receptor antagonists could be therapeutic agents for the treatment of motivational dysfunction in depression. PMID:29910727

  19. Attenuation in rats of impairments of memory by scopolamine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, by mecamylamine, a nicotinic receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Newman, L A; Gold, P E

    2016-03-01

    Scopolamine, a muscarinic antagonist, impairs learning and memory for many tasks, supporting an important role for the cholinergic system in these cognitive functions. The findings are most often interpreted to indicate that a decrease in postsynaptic muscarinic receptor activation mediates the memory impairments. However, scopolamine also results in increased release of acetylcholine in the brain as a result of blocking presynaptic muscarinic receptors. The present experiments assess whether scopolamine-induced increases in acetylcholine release may impair memory by overstimulating postsynaptic cholinergic nicotinic receptors, i.e., by reaching the high end of a nicotinic receptor activation inverted-U dose-response function. Rats tested in a spontaneous alternation task showed dose-dependent working memory deficits with systemic injections of mecamylamine and scopolamine. When an amnestic dose of scopolamine (0.15 mg/kg) was co-administered with a subamnestic dose of mecamylamine (0.25 mg/kg), this dose of mecamylamine significantly attenuated the scopolamine-induced memory impairments. We next assessed the levels of acetylcholine release in the hippocampus in the presence of scopolamine and mecamylamine. Mecamylamine injections resulted in decreased release of acetylcholine, while scopolamine administration caused a large increase in acetylcholine release. These findings indicate that a nicotinic antagonist can attenuate impairments in memory produced by a muscarinic antagonist. The nicotinic antagonist may block excessive activation of nicotinic receptors postsynaptically or attenuate increases in acetylcholine release presynaptically. Either effect of a nicotinic antagonist-to decrease scopolamine-induced increases in acetylcholine output or to decrease postsynaptic acetylcholine receptor activation-may mediate the negative effects on memory of muscarinic antagonists.

  20. Novel long‐acting antagonists of muscarinic ACh receptors

    PubMed Central

    Randáková, Alena; Rudajev, Vladimír; Doležal, Vladimír; Boulos, John

    2018-01-01

    Background and Purpose The aim of this study was to develop potent and long‐acting antagonists of muscarinic ACh receptors. The 4‐hexyloxy and 4‐butyloxy derivatives of 1‐[2‐(4‐oxidobenzoyloxy)ethyl]‐1,2,3,6‐tetrahydropyridin‐1‐ium were synthesized and tested for biological activity. Antagonists with long‐residence time at receptors are therapeutic targets for the treatment of several neurological and psychiatric human diseases. Their long‐acting effects allow for reduced daily doses and adverse effects. Experimental Approach The binding and antagonism of functional responses to the agonist carbachol mediated by 4‐hexyloxy compounds were investigated in CHO cells expressing individual subtypes of muscarinic receptors and compared with 4‐butyloxy analogues. Key Results The 4‐hexyloxy derivatives were found to bind muscarinic receptors with micromolar affinity and antagonized the functional response to carbachol with a potency ranging from 30 nM at M1 to 4 μM at M3 receptors. Under washing conditions to reverse antagonism, the half‐life of their antagonistic action ranged from 1.7 h at M2 to 5 h at M5 receptors. Conclusions and Implications The 4‐hexyloxy derivatives were found to be potent long‐acting M1‐preferring antagonists. In view of current literature, M1‐selective antagonists may have therapeutic potential for striatal cholinergic dystonia, delaying epileptic seizure after organophosphate intoxication or relieving depression. These compounds may also serve as a tool for research into cognitive deficits. PMID:29498041

  1. Combination decongestion therapy in hospitalized heart failure: loop diuretics, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and vasopressin antagonists.

    PubMed

    Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Mentz, Robert J; Greene, Stephen J; Senni, Michele; Sato, Naoki; Nodari, Savina; Butler, Javed; Gheorghiade, Mihai

    2015-01-01

    Congestion is the most common reason for admissions and readmissions for heart failure (HF). The vast majority of hospitalized HF patients appear to respond readily to loop diuretics, but available data suggest that a significant proportion are being discharged with persistent evidence of congestion. Although novel therapies targeting congestion should continue to be developed, currently available agents may be utilized more optimally to facilitate complete decongestion. The combination of loop diuretics, natriuretic doses of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and vasopressin antagonists represents a regimen of currently available therapies that affects early and persistent decongestion, while limiting the associated risks of electrolyte disturbances, hemodynamic fluctuations, renal dysfunction and mortality.

  2. Enhanced Chronic Pain Management Utilizing Chemokine Receptor Antagonists

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    approximately halfway into the solution. All animals were tested at 60, 15 and 0 min before drug injection. For each animal , the first reading was discarded...approval (December 31, 2015), hiring new personnel, conducting baseline testing for procedures not involving animals , testing equipment, developing...treatment; Analgesia; Nociception; Antinociception; Inflammation; Chemokines; Chemokine receptor antagonists; Opioid analgesics; Animal models of pain

  3. The muscarinic antagonists scopolamine and atropine are competitive antagonists at 5-HT3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Lochner, Martin; Thompson, Andrew J

    2016-09-01

    Scopolamine is a high affinity muscarinic antagonist that is used for the prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists are used for the same purpose and are structurally related to scopolamine. To examine whether 5-HT3 receptors are affected by scopolamine we examined the effects of this drug on the electrophysiological and ligand binding properties of 5-HT3A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and HEK293 cells, respectively. 5-HT3 receptor-responses were reversibly inhibited by scopolamine with an IC50 of 2.09 μM. Competitive antagonism was shown by Schild plot (pA2 = 5.02) and by competition with the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists [(3)H]granisetron (Ki = 6.76 μM) and G-FL (Ki = 4.90 μM). The related molecule, atropine, similarly inhibited 5-HT evoked responses in oocytes with an IC50 of 1.74 μM, and competed with G-FL with a Ki of 7.94 μM. The reverse experiment revealed that granisetron also competitively bound to muscarinic receptors (Ki = 6.5 μM). In behavioural studies scopolamine is used to block muscarinic receptors and induce a cognitive deficit, and centrally administered concentrations can exceed the IC50 values found here. It is therefore possible that 5-HT3 receptors are also inhibited. Studies that utilise higher concentrations of scopolamine should be mindful of these potential off-target effects. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Attenuation in rats of impairments of memory by scopolamine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, by mecamylamine, a nicotinic receptor antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Newman, L. A.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Scopolamine, a muscarinic antagonist, impairs learning and memory for many tasks, supporting an important role for the cholinergic system in these cognitive functions. The findings are most often interpreted to indicate that a decrease in postsynaptic muscarinic receptor activation mediates the memory impairments. However, scopolamine also results in increased release of acetylcholine in the brain as a result of blocking presynaptic muscarinic receptors. Objectives The present experiments assess whether scopolamine-induced increases in acetylcholine release may impair memory by overstimulating postsynaptic cholinergic nicotinic receptors, i.e., by reaching the high end of a nicotinic receptor activation inverted-U dose-response function. Results Rats tested in a spontaneous alternation task showed dose-dependent working memory deficits with systemic injections of mecamylamine and scopolamine. When an amnestic dose of scopolamine (0.15 mg/kg) was co-administered with a subamnestic dose of mecamylamine (0.25 mg/kg), this dose of mecamylamine significantly attenuated the scopolamine-induced memory impairments. We next assessed the levels of acetylcholine release in the hippocampus in the presence of scopolamine and mecamylamine. Mecamylamine injections resulted in decreased release of acetylcholine, while scopolamine administration caused a large increase in acetylcholine release. Conclusions These findings indicate that a nicotinic antagonist can attenuate impairments in memory produced by a muscarinic antagonist. The nicotinic antagonist may block excessive activation of nicotinic receptors postsynaptically or attenuate increases in acetylcholine release presynaptically. Either effect of a nicotinic antagonist—to decrease scopolamine-induced increases in acetylcholine output or to decrease post-synaptic acetylcholine receptor activation—may mediate the negative effects on memory of muscarinic antagonists. PMID:26660295

  5. Competitive antagonists discriminate between NK2 tachykinin receptor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Maggi, C A; Patacchini, R; Giuliani, S; Rovero, P; Dion, S; Regoli, D; Giachetti, A; Meli, A

    1990-07-01

    1. We have compared the ability of various tachykinins and selective tachykinin receptor agonists to induce contraction of the endothelium-denuded rabbit pulmonary artery (RPA) and hamster trachea (HT) and have estimated the affinity of some newly developed NK2 selective antagonists in the same tissues. 2. In confirmation of previous findings, experiments with the agonists indicated that NK2 receptors are the main if not the sole mediators of the response to tachykinins in both RPA and HT. No evidence for significant degradation of neurokinin A (NKA) was found in either tissue when experiments were repeated in the presence of a mixture of peptidase inhibitors (thiorphan, captopril and bestatin, 1 microM each). 3. The peptide antagonists tested were: Peptide I = [Tyr5, D-Trp6,8,9, Arg10]-NKA(4-10); Peptide II = [Tyr5, D-Trp6,8,9, Arg10]-NKA(3-10); Peptide III = Ac-Leu-Asp-Gln-Trp-Phe-Gly-NH2. The three peptides produced a concentration-dependent rightward shift of the concentration-response curve to NKA in both RPA and HT with no significant depression of the maximal response attainable. The slopes of the Schild plots were not significantly different from unity, indicating a competitive antagonism. Peptides I and II were about 100 times more potent in the RPA than in the HT, while Peptide III was about 100 times more potent in the HT than RPA. 4. The pA2 values obtained in these two tissues with the three antagonists were not significantly different when tested in the absence or presence of peptidase inhibitors, or when a selective NK2 receptor agonist, [beta Ala8]-NKA(4-10) was used instead of NKA. Similar pA2 values were obtained after 15 or 90min of incubation with the antagonists. Peptides I, II and III had no inhibitory effect on contractions produced by noradrenaline in the RPA or by carbachol in the HT. 5. Peptides I, II and III showed weak or no antagonistic activity toward the vasodilatator effect of substance P in the dog carotid artery (NK, receptor

  6. Progesterone receptor isoforms, agonists and antagonists differentially reprogram estrogen signaling

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Hari; Greene, Marianne E.; Zarnke, Allison L.; Laine, Muriel; Al Abosy, Rose; Chang, Ya-Fang; Dembo, Anna G.; Schoenfelt, Kelly; Vadhi, Raga; Qiu, Xintao; Rao, Prakash; Santhamma, Bindu; Nair, Hareesh B.; Nickisch, Klaus J.; Long, Henry W.; Becker, Lev; Brown, Myles; Greene, Geoffrey L.

    2018-01-01

    Major roadblocks to developing effective progesterone receptor (PR)-targeted therapies in breast cancer include the lack of highly-specific PR modulators, a poor understanding of the pro- or anti-tumorigenic networks for PR isoforms and ligands, and an incomplete understanding of the cross talk between PR and estrogen receptor (ER) signaling. Through genomic analyses of xenografts treated with various clinically-relevant ER and PR-targeting drugs, we describe how the activation or inhibition of PR differentially reprograms estrogen signaling, resulting in the segregation of transcriptomes into separate PR agonist and antagonist-mediated groups. These findings address an ongoing controversy regarding the clinical utility of PR agonists and antagonists, alone or in combination with tamoxifen, for breast cancer management. Additionally, the two PR isoforms PRA and PRB, bind distinct but overlapping genomic sites and interact with different sets of co-regulators to differentially modulate estrogen signaling to be either pro- or anti-tumorigenic. Of the two isoforms, PRA inhibited gene expression and ER chromatin binding significantly more than PRB. Differential gene expression was observed in PRA and PRB-rich patient tumors and PRA-rich gene signatures had poorer survival outcomes. In support of antiprogestin responsiveness of PRA-rich tumors, gene signatures associated with PR antagonists, but not PR agonists, predicted better survival outcomes. The better patient survival associated with PR antagonists versus PR agonists treatments was further reflected in the higher in vivo anti-tumor activity of therapies that combine tamoxifen with PR antagonists and modulators. This study suggests that distinguishing common effects observed due to concomitant interaction of another receptor with its ligand (agonist or antagonist), from unique isoform and ligand-specific effects will inform the development of biomarkers for patient selection and translation of PR

  7. Hyperglycemia of Diabetic Rats Decreased by a Glucagon Receptor Antagonist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, David G.; Ulichny Goebel, Camy; Hruby, Victor J.; Bregman, Marvin D.; Trivedi, Dev

    1982-02-01

    The glucagon analog [l-Nα-trinitrophenylhistidine, 12-homoarginine]-glucagon (THG) was examined for its ability to lower blood glucose concentrations in rats made diabetic with streptozotocin. In vitro, THG is a potent antagonist of glucagon activation of the hepatic adenylate cyclase assay system. Intravenous bolus injections of THG caused rapid decreases (20 to 35 percent) of short duration in blood glucose. Continuous infusion of low concentrations of the inhibitor led to larger sustained decreases in blood glucose (30 to 65 percent). These studies demonstrate that a glucagon receptor antagonist can substantially reduce blood glucose levels in diabetic animals without addition of exogenous insulin.

  8. Bone Morphogenetic Proteins, Antagonists and Receptors in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    expressed in prostate. This work investigates BMP receptors and BMP antagonists to understand the basic mechanisms to inhibit the BMP signaling in...during embryoge- nesis, and prostate cancer metastases to bone. BMP functions can be inhibited by antagonists such as Noggin or DAN. DAN is a protein...protein along with a constant 0-6 -1 10 100 1000 1O0ng/ml of BMP-6, we were able to show a ng/ml BMP-6 dose-dependent inhibition of BMP-6 activity in DU

  9. Orexin OX2 Receptor Antagonists as Sleep Aids.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Laura H; Chen, Sui; Mir, Sanjida; Hoyer, Daniel

    The discovery of the orexin system represents the single major progress in the sleep field of the last three to four decades. The two orexin peptides and their two receptors play a major role in arousal and sleep/wake cycles. Defects in the orexin system lead to narcolepsy with cataplexy in humans and dogs and can be experimentally reproduced in rodents. At least six orexin receptor antagonists have reached Phase II or Phase III clinical trials in insomnia, five of which are dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs) that target both OX 1 and OX 2 receptors (OX 2 Rs). All clinically tested DORAs induce and maintain sleep: suvorexant, recently registered in the USA and Japan for insomnia, represents the first hypnotic principle that acts in a completely different manner from the current standard medications. It is clear, however, that in the clinic, all DORAs promote sleep primarily by increasing rapid eye movement (REM) and are almost devoid of effects on slow-wave (SWS) sleep. At present, there is no consensus on whether the sole promotion of REM sleep has a negative impact in patients suffering from insomnia. However, sleep onset REM (SOREM), which has been documented with DORAs, is clearly an undesirable effect, especially for narcoleptic patients and also in fragile populations (e.g. elderly patients) where REM-associated loss of muscle tone may promote an elevated risk of falls. Debate thus remains as to the ideal orexin agent to achieve a balanced increase in REM and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Here, we review the evidence that an OX 2 R antagonist should be at least equivalent, or perhaps superior, to a DORA for the treatment of insomnia. An OX 2 R antagonist may produce more balanced sleep than a DORA. Rodent sleep experiments show that the OX 2 R is the primary target of orexin receptor antagonists in sleep modulation. Furthermore, an OX 2 R antagonist should, in theory, have a lower narcoleptic/cataplexic potential. In the clinic, the situation

  10. The adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 reverses the effects of the dopamine antagonist haloperidol on effort-related decision making in a T-maze cost/benefit procedure

    PubMed Central

    Mott, Allison M.; Nunes, Eric J.; Collins, Lyndsey E.; Port, Russell G.; Sink, Kelly S.; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Mesolimbic dopamine (DA) is a critical component of the brain circuitry regulating behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Research involving choice tasks has shown that rats with impaired DA transmission reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks with high response requirements and instead select less effortful food-seeking behaviors. Objective Previous work showed that adenosine A2A antagonism can reverse the effects of the DA antagonist haloperidol in an operant task that assesses effort-related choice. The present work used a T-maze choice procedure to assess the effects of adenosine A2A and A1 antagonism. Materials and methods With this task, the two arms of the maze have different reinforcement densities (four vs. two food pellets), and a vertical 44 cm barrier is positioned in the arm with the higher density, presenting the animal with an effort-related challenge. Untreated rats strongly prefer the arm with the high density of food reward and climb the barrier in order to obtain the food. Results Haloperidol produced a dose-related (0.05–0.15 mg/kg i.p.) reduction in the number of trials in which the rats chose the high-barrier arm. Co-administration of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3 (0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 mg/kg i.p.), but not the A1 antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 mg/kg i.p.), reversed the effects of haloperidol on effort-related choice and latency. Conclusions Adenosine A2A and D2 receptors interact to regulate effort-related decision making, which may have implications for the treatment of psychiatric symptoms such as psychomotor slowing or anergia that can be observed in depression, parkinsonism, and other disorders. PMID:19132351

  11. The adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 reverses the effects of the dopamine antagonist haloperidol on effort-related decision making in a T-maze cost/benefit procedure.

    PubMed

    Mott, Allison M; Nunes, Eric J; Collins, Lyndsey E; Port, Russell G; Sink, Kelly S; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E; Salamone, John D

    2009-05-01

    Mesolimbic dopamine (DA) is a critical component of the brain circuitry regulating behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Research involving choice tasks has shown that rats with impaired DA transmission reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks with high response requirements and instead select less effortful food-seeking behaviors. Previous work showed that adenosine A(2A) antagonism can reverse the effects of the DA antagonist haloperidol in an operant task that assesses effort-related choice. The present work used a T-maze choice procedure to assess the effects of adenosine A(2A) and A(1) antagonism. With this task, the two arms of the maze have different reinforcement densities (four vs. two food pellets), and a vertical 44 cm barrier is positioned in the arm with the higher density, presenting the animal with an effort-related challenge. Untreated rats strongly prefer the arm with the high density of food reward and climb the barrier in order to obtain the food. Haloperidol produced a dose-related (0.05-0.15 mg/kg i.p.) reduction in the number of trials in which the rats chose the high-barrier arm. Co-administration of the adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist MSX-3 (0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 mg/kg i.p.), but not the A(1) antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 mg/kg i.p.), reversed the effects of haloperidol on effort-related choice and latency. Adenosine A(2A) and D2 receptors interact to regulate effort-related decision making, which may have implications for the treatment of psychiatric symptoms such as psychomotor slowing or anergia that can be observed in depression, parkinsonism, and other disorders.

  12. μ Opioid receptor: novel antagonists and structural modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaserer, Teresa; Lantero, Aquilino; Schmidhammer, Helmut; Spetea, Mariana; Schuster, Daniela

    2016-02-01

    The μ opioid receptor (MOR) is a prominent member of the G protein-coupled receptor family and the molecular target of morphine and other opioid drugs. Despite the long tradition of MOR-targeting drugs, still little is known about the ligand-receptor interactions and structure-function relationships underlying the distinct biological effects upon receptor activation or inhibition. With the resolved crystal structure of the β-funaltrexamine-MOR complex, we aimed at the discovery of novel agonists and antagonists using virtual screening tools, i.e. docking, pharmacophore- and shape-based modeling. We suggest important molecular interactions, which active molecules share and distinguish agonists and antagonists. These results allowed for the generation of theoretically validated in silico workflows that were employed for prospective virtual screening. Out of 18 virtual hits evaluated in in vitro pharmacological assays, three displayed antagonist activity and the most active compound significantly inhibited morphine-induced antinociception. The new identified chemotypes hold promise for further development into neurochemical tools for studying the MOR or as potential therapeutic lead candidates.

  13. Models for H₃ receptor antagonist activity of sulfonylurea derivatives.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Naveen; Madan, A K

    2014-03-01

    The histamine H₃ receptor has been perceived as an auspicious target for the treatment of various central and peripheral nervous system diseases. In present study, a wide variety of 60 2D and 3D molecular descriptors (MDs) were successfully utilized for the development of models for the prediction of antagonist activity of sulfonylurea derivatives for histamine H₃ receptors. Models were developed through decision tree (DT), random forest (RF) and moving average analysis (MAA). Dragon software version 6.0.28 was employed for calculation of values of diverse MDs of each analogue involved in the data set. The DT classified and correctly predicted the input data with an impressive non-error rate of 94% in the training set and 82.5% during cross validation. RF correctly classified the analogues into active and inactive with a non-error rate of 79.3%. The MAA based models predicted the antagonist histamine H₃ receptor activity with non-error rate up to 90%. Active ranges of the proposed MAA based models not only exhibited high potency but also showed improved safety as indicated by relatively high values of selectivity index. The statistical significance of the models was assessed through sensitivity, specificity, non-error rate, Matthew's correlation coefficient and intercorrelation analysis. Proposed models offer vast potential for providing lead structures for development of potent but safe H₃ receptor antagonist sulfonylurea derivatives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The novel adenosine A(2A) antagonist prodrug MSX-4 is effective in animal models related to motivational and motor functions.

    PubMed

    Santerre, Jessica L; Nunes, Eric J; Kovner, Rotem; Leser, Chelsea E; Randall, Patrick A; Collins-Praino, Lyndsey E; Lopez Cruz, Laura; Correa, Merce; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E; Salamone, John D

    2012-10-01

    Adenosine A(2A) and dopamine D2 receptors interact to regulate diverse aspects of ventral and dorsal striatal functions related to motivational and motor processes, and it has been suggested that adenosine A(2A) antagonists could be useful for the treatment of depression, parkinsonism and other disorders. The present experiments were performed to characterize the effects of MSX-4, which is an amino acid ester prodrug of the potent and selective adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist MSX-2, by assessing its ability to reverse pharmacologically induced motivational and motor impairments. In the first group of studies, MSX-4 reversed the effects of the D2 antagonist eticlopride on a concurrent lever pressing/chow feeding task that is used as a measure of effort-related choice behavior. MSX-4 was less potent after intraperitoneal administration than the comparison compound, MSX-3, though both were equally efficacious. With this task, MSX-4 was orally active in the same dose range as MSX-3. MSX-4 also reversed the locomotor suppression induced by eticlopride in the open field, but did not induce anxiogenic effects as measured by the relative amount of interior activity. Behaviorally active doses of MSX-4 also attenuated the increase in c-Fos and pDARPP-32(Thr34) expression in nucleus accumbens core that was induced by injections of eticlopride. In addition, MSX-4 suppressed the oral tremor induced by the anticholinesterase galantamine, which is consistent with an antiparkinsonian profile. These actions of MSX-4 indicate that this compound could have potential utility as a treatment for parkinsonism, as well as some of the motivational symptoms of depression and other disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Exploring an interaction of adenosine A2A receptor variability with coffee and tea intake in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Tan, E K; Lu, Z Y; Fook-Chong, S M C; Tan, E; Shen, H; Chua, E; Yih, Y; Teo, Y Y; Zhao, Y

    2006-09-05

    Caffeine is an adenosine receptor A1 and A2A receptor antagonist and a putative functional genetic variant of the A2A receptor (2592C > Tins) mediates caffeine-induced anxiety. Here we investigated the potential interaction of this A2A genetic variant with the quantity of coffee and tea intake and their relationship with the risk of PD. A total of 441 subjects consisting of 222 PD and 219 race, gender and age matched controls were included. A multivariate analysis of the variables including the 2592C > Tins A2A genotypes, age of onset, gender, and the quantity of tea and coffee intake, interaction of the A2A genotypes with coffee intake, interaction of A2A genotypes with tea intake demonstrated the quantity of coffee intake to be significantly associated with PD (P < 0.0005, OR = 0.922, 95% CI: 0.881, 0.964). However, there was no significant interaction of the A2A genotypes with the quantity of coffee and tea intake in modulating the risk of PD. The dose dependent protective effect of coffee intake in PD was independent of the 2592C > Tins A2A genotype suggesting that the pharmacogenetic action of caffeine in PD may be mediated differently from other caffeine-induced neurologic syndromes.

  16. MEN15596, a novel nonpeptide tachykinin NK2 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Cialdai, Cecilia; Tramontana, Manuela; Patacchini, Riccardo; Lecci, Alessandro; Catalani, Claudio; Catalioto, Rose-Marie; Meini, Stefania; Valenti, Claudio; Altamura, Maria; Giuliani, Sandro; Maggi, Carlo Alberto

    2006-11-07

    The pharmacological profile of MEN15596 or (6-methyl-benzo[b]thiophene-2-carboxylic acid [1-(2-phenyl-1R-{[1-(tetrahydropyran-4-ylmethyl)-piperidin-4-ylmethyl]-carbamoyl}-ethylcarbamoyl)-cyclopentyl]-amide), a novel potent and selective tachykinin NK2 receptor antagonist endowed with oral activity, is described. At the human recombinant tachykinin NK2 receptor, MEN15596 showed subnanomolar affinity (pKi 10.1) and potently antagonized (pKB 9.1) the neurokinin A-induced intracellular calcium release. MEN15596 selectivity for the tachykinin NK2 receptor was assessed by binding studies at the recombinant tachykinin NK1 (pKi 6.1) and NK3 (pKi 6.4) receptors, and at a number of 34 molecular targets including receptors, transporters and ion channels. In isolated smooth muscle preparations MEN15596 showed a marked species selectivity at the tachykinin NK2 receptor with the highest antagonist potency in guinea-pig colon, human and pig bladder (pKB 9.3, 9.2 and 8.8, respectively) whereas it was three orders of magnitude less potent in the rat and mouse urinary bladder (pKB 6.3 and 5.8, respectively). In agreement with binding experiments, MEN15596 showed low potency in blocking selective NK1 or NK3 receptor agonist-induced contractions of guinea-pig ileum preparations (pA2receptor agonist, [betaAla8]neurokinin A(4-10) (3 nmol/kg i.v.), either after intravenous (ED50 0.18 micromol/kg), intraduodenal (ED50 3.16 micromol/kg) or oral administration (10-30 micromol/kg) without affecting, at 3 micromol/kg, i.v., the colonic contractions produced by the NK1 receptor selective agonist [Sar9]substance P sulfone (3 nmol/kg i.v.). In addition MEN15596 was effective in inhibiting bronchoconstriction produced by i.v. administration of [betaAla8]neurokinin A(4-10). Overall the results indicate that MEN15596 is a potent and selective

  17. Role of muscarinic receptor antagonists in urgency and nocturia.

    PubMed

    Michel, Martin C; de la Rosette, Jean J M C H

    2005-09-01

    The overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome is defined as urgency, with or without urgency incontinence, usually accompanied by frequency and nocturia. Muscarinic receptor antagonists are the most established form of treatment for OAB, but until recently their effectiveness was only confirmed for symptoms of incontinence and frequency. In recent studies, selected muscarinic antagonists, including darifenacin, solifenacin, tolterodine and trospium, significantly reduced the number of urgency episodes per day relative to placebo. While some data raise the possibility that certain of these agents may be more effective than others in this regard, this variability in their effect on urgency needs to be confirmed in future studies. Moreover, it remains to be determined whether counting the number of urgency episodes or assessing the subjective intensity of the sensation of urgency more adequately reflects patient needs and therapeutic efficacy. For nocturia, muscarinic receptor antagonists have only inconsistently shown statistically greater effects than placebo. This inconsistency may relate to the multifactorial nature of nocturia, which even in patients with OAB can have many causes, not all of which may respond/be sensitive to muscarinic receptor antagonism.

  18. The discovery of tropane-derived CCR5 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Armour, Duncan R; de Groot, Marcel J; Price, David A; Stammen, Blanda L C; Wood, Anthony; Perros, Manos; Burt, Catherine

    2006-04-01

    The development of compound 1, a piperidine-based CCR5 receptor antagonist with Type I CYP2D6 inhibition, into the tropane-derived analogue 5, is described. This compound, which is devoid of CYP2D6 liabilities, is a highly potent ligand for the CCR5 receptor and has broad-spectrum activity against a range of clinically relevant HIV isolates. The identification of human ether a-go-go-related gene channel inhibition within this series is described and the potential for QTc interval prolongation discussed. Furthermore, structure activity relationship (SAR) around the piperidine moiety is also described.

  19. Potential antipsychotic properties of central cannabinoid (CB1) receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Roser, Patrik; Vollenweider, Franz X; Kawohl, Wolfram

    2010-03-01

    Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC), the principal psychoactive constituent of the Cannabis sativa plant, and other agonists at the central cannabinoid (CB(1)) receptor may induce characteristic psychomotor effects, psychotic reactions and cognitive impairment resembling schizophrenia. These effects of Delta(9)-THC can be reduced in animal and human models of psychopathology by two exogenous cannabinoids, cannabidiol (CBD) and SR141716. CBD is the second most abundant constituent of Cannabis sativa that has weak partial antagonistic properties at the CB(1) receptor. CBD inhibits the reuptake and hydrolysis of anandamide, the most important endogenous CB(1) receptor agonist, and exhibits neuroprotective antioxidant activity. SR141716 is a potent and selective CB(1) receptor antagonist. Since both CBD and SR141716 can reverse many of the biochemical, physiological and behavioural effects of CB(1) receptor agonists, it has been proposed that both CBD and SR141716 have antipsychotic properties. Various experimental studies in animals, healthy human volunteers, and schizophrenic patients support this notion. Moreover, recent studies suggest that cannabinoids such as CBD and SR141716 have a pharmacological profile similar to that of atypical antipsychotic drugs. In this review, both preclinical and clinical studies investigating the potential antipsychotic effects of both CBD and SR141716 are presented together with the possible underlying mechanisms of action.

  20. Adenosine A2A Receptors in the Nucleus Accumbens Bi-Directionally Alter Cocaine Seeking in Rats

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Casey E; LeTendre, Mckenzie L; Bachtell, Ryan K

    2012-01-01

    Repeated cocaine administration enhances dopamine D2 receptor sensitivity in the mesolimbic dopamine system, which contributes to drug relapse. Adenosine A2A receptors are colocalized with D2 receptors on nucleus accumbens (NAc) medium spiny neurons where they antagonize D2 receptor activity. Thus, A2A receptors represent a target for reducing enhanced D2 receptor sensitivity that contributes to cocaine relapse. The aim of these studies were to determine the effects of adenosine A2A receptor modulation in the NAc on cocaine seeking in rats that were trained to lever press for cocaine. Following at least 15 daily self-administration sessions and 1 week of abstinence, lever pressing was extinguished in daily extinction sessions. We subsequently assessed the effects of intra-NAc core microinjections of the A2A receptor agonist, CGS 21680 (4-[2-[[6-amino-9-(N-ethyl-b--ribofuranuronamidosyl)-9H-purin-2-yl]amino]ethyl]benzenepropanoic acid hydrochloride), and the A2A receptor antagonist, MSX-3 (3,7-dihydro-8-[(1E)-2-(3-methoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-7-methyl-3-[3-(phosphonooxy)propyl-1-(2-propynyl)-1H-purine-2,6-dione disodium salt hydrate), in modulating cocaine- and quinpirole-induced reinstatement to cocaine seeking. Intra-NAc pretreatment of CGS 21680 reduced both cocaine- and quinpirole-induced reinstatement. These effects were specific to cocaine reinstatement as intra-NAc CGS 21680 had no effect on sucrose seeking in rats trained to self-administer sucrose pellets. Intra-NAc treatment with MSX-3 modestly reinstated cocaine seeking when given alone, and exacerbated both cocaine- and quinpirole-induced reinstatement. Interestingly, the exacerbation of cocaine seeking produced by MSX-3 was only observed at sub-threshold doses of cocaine and quinpirole, suggesting that removing tonic A2A receptor activity enables behaviors mediated by dopamine receptors. Taken together, these findings suggest that A2A receptor stimulation reduces, while A2A blockade amplifies, D2 receptor

  1. Adenosine A2A receptors in the nucleus accumbens bi-directionally alter cocaine seeking in rats.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Casey E; LeTendre, McKenzie L; Bachtell, Ryan K

    2012-04-01

    Repeated cocaine administration enhances dopamine D(2) receptor sensitivity in the mesolimbic dopamine system, which contributes to drug relapse. Adenosine A(2A) receptors are colocalized with D(2) receptors on nucleus accumbens (NAc) medium spiny neurons where they antagonize D(2) receptor activity. Thus, A(2A) receptors represent a target for reducing enhanced D(2) receptor sensitivity that contributes to cocaine relapse. The aim of these studies were to determine the effects of adenosine A(2A) receptor modulation in the NAc on cocaine seeking in rats that were trained to lever press for cocaine. Following at least 15 daily self-administration sessions and 1 week of abstinence, lever pressing was extinguished in daily extinction sessions. We subsequently assessed the effects of intra-NAc core microinjections of the A(2A) receptor agonist, CGS 21680 (4-[2-[[6-amino-9-(N-ethyl-b-D-ribofuranuronamidosyl)-9H-purin-2-yl]amino]ethyl]benzenepropanoic acid hydrochloride), and the A(2A) receptor antagonist, MSX-3 (3,7-dihydro-8-[(1E)-2-(3-methoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-7-methyl-3-[3-(phosphonooxy)propyl-1-(2-propynyl)-1H-purine-2,6-dione disodium salt hydrate), in modulating cocaine- and quinpirole-induced reinstatement to cocaine seeking. Intra-NAc pretreatment of CGS 21680 reduced both cocaine- and quinpirole-induced reinstatement. These effects were specific to cocaine reinstatement as intra-NAc CGS 21680 had no effect on sucrose seeking in rats trained to self-administer sucrose pellets. Intra-NAc treatment with MSX-3 modestly reinstated cocaine seeking when given alone, and exacerbated both cocaine- and quinpirole-induced reinstatement. Interestingly, the exacerbation of cocaine seeking produced by MSX-3 was only observed at sub-threshold doses of cocaine and quinpirole, suggesting that removing tonic A(2A) receptor activity enables behaviors mediated by dopamine receptors. Taken together, these findings suggest that A(2A) receptor stimulation reduces, while A(2A) blockade

  2. Functionalized Congeners of P2Y1 Receptor Antagonists:

    SciTech Connect

    de Castro, Sonia; Maruoka, Hiroshi; Hong, Kunlun

    2010-01-01

    The P2Y{sub 1} receptor is a prothrombotic G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activated by ADP. Preference for the North (N) ring conformation of the ribose moiety of adenine nucleotide 3',5'-bisphosphate antagonists of the P2Y{sub 1} receptor was established by using a ring-constrained methanocarba (a bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane) ring as a ribose substitute. A series of covalently linkable N{sup 6}-methyl-(N)-methanocarba-2'-deoxyadenosine-3',5'-bisphosphates containing extended 2-alkynyl chains was designed, and binding affinity at the human (h) P2Y{sub 1} receptor determined. The chain of these functionalized congeners contained hydrophilic moieties, a reactive substituent, or biotin, linked via an amide. Variation of the chain length and position of anmore » intermediate amide group revealed high affinity of carboxylic congener 8 (K{sub i} 23 nM) and extended amine congener 15 (K{sub i} 132 nM), both having a 2-(1-pentynoyl) group. A biotin conjugate 18 containing an extended {epsilon}-aminocaproyl spacer chain exhibited higher affinity than a shorter biotinylated analogue. Alternatively, click coupling of terminal alkynes of homologous 2-dialkynyl nucleotide derivatives to alkyl azido groups produced triazole derivatives that bound to the P2Y{sub 1} receptor following deprotection of the bisphosphate groups. The preservation of receptor affinity of the functionalized congeners was consistent with new P2Y{sub 1} receptor modeling and ligand docking. Attempted P2Y{sub 1} antagonist conjugation to PAMAM dendrimer carriers by amide formation or palladium-catalyzed reaction between an alkyne on the dendrimer and a 2-iodopurine-derivatized nucleotide was unsuccessful. A dialkynyl intermediate containing the chain length favored in receptor binding was conjugated to an azide-derivatized dendrimer, and the conjugate inhibited ADP-promoted human platelet aggregation. This is the first example of attaching a strategically functionalized P2Y receptor antagonist to a PAMAM

  3. Functional efficacy of adenosine A2A receptor agonists is positively correlated to their receptor residence time

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dong; Mulder-Krieger, Thea; IJzerman, Adriaan P; Heitman, Laura H

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The adenosine A2A receptor belongs to the superfamily of GPCRs and is a promising therapeutic target. Traditionally, the discovery of novel agents for the A2A receptor has been guided by their affinity for the receptor. This parameter is determined under equilibrium conditions, largely ignoring the kinetic aspects of the ligand-receptor interaction. The aim of this study was to assess the binding kinetics of A2A receptor agonists and explore a possible relationship with their functional efficacy. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We set up, validated and optimized a kinetic radioligand binding assay (a so-called competition association assay) at the A2A receptor from which the binding kinetics of unlabelled ligands were determined. Subsequently, functional efficacies of A2A receptor agonists were determined in two different assays: a novel label-free impedance-based assay and a more traditional cAMP determination. KEY RESULTS A simplified competition association assay yielded an accurate determination of the association and dissociation rates of unlabelled A2A receptor ligands at their receptor. A correlation was observed between the receptor residence time of A2A receptor agonists and their intrinsic efficacies in both functional assays. The affinity of A2A receptor agonists was not correlated to their functional efficacy. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS This study indicates that the molecular basis of different agonist efficacies at the A2A receptor lies within their different residence times at this receptor. PMID:22324512

  4. NMDA receptor antagonists extend the sensitive period for imprinting.

    PubMed

    Parsons, C H; Rogers, L J

    2000-03-01

    Filial imprinting in the domestic chick occurs during a sensitive period of development. The exact timing of this period can vary according to the methods used to measure imprinting. Using our imprinting paradigm, we have shown that normal, dark-reared chicks lose the ability to imprint after the second day post-hatching. Further, we reported that chicks treated 10 h after hatching with a mixture of the noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine (55 mg/kg) and the alpha(2)-adrenergic receptor agonist xylazine (6 mg/kg) were able to imprint on day 8 after hatching, whereas controls treated with saline did not imprint. We now show that the effect of the ketamine-xylazine mixture can be mimicked by treating chicks with ketamine alone or with another noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 (5 mg/kg). Treating chicks with a single dose of ketamine (55 mg/kg) or with a single dose of xylazine (6 mg/kg) failed to produce the effect on the sensitive period. However, prolonging the action of ketamine by treating chicks with two doses of ketamine (at 10 and 12 h after hatching) did allow imprinting on day 8. In contrast, prolonging the action of xylazine had no effect on the sensitive period for imprinting. Chicks treated with MK-801 were also able to imprint on day 8. Thus, we have evidence that the NMDA receptor system is involved in the mechanisms that control the sensitive period for imprinting.

  5. Internalization of the chemokine receptor CCR4 can be evoked by orthosteric and allosteric receptor antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Ajram, Laura; Begg, Malcolm; Slack, Robert; Cryan, Jenni; Hall, David; Hodgson, Simon; Ford, Alison; Barnes, Ashley; Swieboda, Dawid; Mousnier, Aurelie; Solari, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The chemokine receptor CCR4 has at least two natural agonist ligands, MDC (CCL22) and TARC (CCL17) which bind to the same orthosteric site with a similar affinity. Both ligands are known to evoke chemotaxis of CCR4-bearing T cells and also elicit CCR4 receptor internalization. A series of small molecule allosteric antagonists have been described which displace the agonist ligand, and inhibit chemotaxis. The aim of this study was to determine which cellular coupling pathways are involved in internalization, and if antagonists binding to the CCR4 receptor could themselves evoke receptor internalization. CCL22 binding coupled CCR4 efficiently to β-arrestin and stimulated GTPγS binding however CCL17 did not couple to β-arrestin and only partially stimulated GTPγS binding. CCL22 potently induced internalization of almost all cell surface CCR4, while CCL17 showed only weak effects. We describe four small molecule antagonists that were demonstrated to bind to two distinct allosteric sites on the CCR4 receptor, and while both classes inhibited agonist ligand binding and chemotaxis, one of the allosteric sites also evoked receptor internalization. Furthermore, we also characterize an N-terminally truncated version of CCL22 which acts as a competitive antagonist at the orthosteric site, and surprisingly also evokes receptor internalization without demonstrating any agonist activity. Collectively this study demonstrates that orthosteric and allosteric antagonists of the CCR4 receptor are capable of evoking receptor internalization, providing a novel strategy for drug discovery against this class of target. PMID:24534492

  6. Competitive antagonists discriminate between NK2 tachykinin receptor subtypes.

    PubMed Central

    Maggi, C. A.; Patacchini, R.; Giuliani, S.; Rovero, P.; Dion, S.; Regoli, D.; Giachetti, A.; Meli, A.

    1990-01-01

    1. We have compared the ability of various tachykinins and selective tachykinin receptor agonists to induce contraction of the endothelium-denuded rabbit pulmonary artery (RPA) and hamster trachea (HT) and have estimated the affinity of some newly developed NK2 selective antagonists in the same tissues. 2. In confirmation of previous findings, experiments with the agonists indicated that NK2 receptors are the main if not the sole mediators of the response to tachykinins in both RPA and HT. No evidence for significant degradation of neurokinin A (NKA) was found in either tissue when experiments were repeated in the presence of a mixture of peptidase inhibitors (thiorphan, captopril and bestatin, 1 microM each). 3. The peptide antagonists tested were: Peptide I = [Tyr5, D-Trp6,8,9, Arg10]-NKA(4-10); Peptide II = [Tyr5, D-Trp6,8,9, Arg10]-NKA(3-10); Peptide III = Ac-Leu-Asp-Gln-Trp-Phe-Gly-NH2. The three peptides produced a concentration-dependent rightward shift of the concentration-response curve to NKA in both RPA and HT with no significant depression of the maximal response attainable. The slopes of the Schild plots were not significantly different from unity, indicating a competitive antagonism. Peptides I and II were about 100 times more potent in the RPA than in the HT, while Peptide III was about 100 times more potent in the HT than RPA. 4. The pA2 values obtained in these two tissues with the three antagonists were not significantly different when tested in the absence or presence of peptidase inhibitors, or when a selective NK2 receptor agonist, [beta Ala8]-NKA(4-10) was used instead of NKA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2167737

  7. Adenosine A2A Receptor Blockade or Deletion Diminishes Fibrocyte Accumulation in the Skin in a Murine Model of Scleroderma, Bleomycin-induced Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Katebi, Majid; Fernandez, Patricia; Chan, Edwin S. L.; Cronstein, Bruce N.

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral blood fibrocytes are a newly identified circulating leukocyte subpopulation that migrates into injured tissue where it may display fibroblast-like properties and participate in wound healing and fibrosis of skin and other organs. Previous studies in our lab demonstrated that A2A receptor-deficient and A2A antagonist-treated mice were protected from developing bleomycin-induced dermal fibrosis, thus the aim of this study was to determine whether the adenosine A2A receptor regulates recruitment of fibrocytes to the dermis in this bleomycin-induced model of dermal fibrosis. Sections of skin from normal mice and bleomycin-treated wild type, A2A knockout and A2A antagonist-treated mice were stained for Procollagen α2 Type I and CD34 and the double stained cells, fibrocytes, were counted in the tissue sections. There were more fibrocytes in the dermis of bleomycin-treated mice than normal mice and the increase was abrogated by deletion or blockade of adenosine A2A receptors. Because fibrocytes play a central role in tissue fibrosis these results suggest that diminished adenosine A2A receptor-mediated recruitment of fibrocytes into tissue may play a role in the pathogenesis of fibrosing diseases of the skin. Moreover, these results provide further evidence that adenosine A2A receptors may represent a new target for the treatment of such fibrosing diseases as scleroderma or nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy. PMID:18709547

  8. Overexpression of Adenosine A2A Receptors in Rats: Effects on Depression, Locomotion, and Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Joana E; Alves, Pedro; Canas, Paula M; Valadas, Jorge S; Shmidt, Tatiana; Batalha, Vânia L; Ferreira, Diana G; Ribeiro, Joaquim A; Bader, Michael; Cunha, Rodrigo A; do Couto, Frederico Simões; Lopes, Luísa V

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) are a sub-type of receptors enriched in basal ganglia, activated by the neuromodulator adenosine, which interact with dopamine D2 receptors. Although this reciprocal antagonistic interaction is well-established in motor function, the outcome in dopamine-related behaviors remains uncertain, in particular in depression and anxiety. We have demonstrated an upsurge of A2AR associated to aging and chronic stress. Furthermore, Alzheimer's disease patients present A2AR accumulation in cortical areas together with depressive signs. We now tested the impact of overexpressing A2AR in forebrain neurons on dopamine-related behavior, namely depression. Adult male rats overexpressing human A2AR under the control of CaMKII promoter [Tg(CaMKII-hA2AR)] and aged-matched wild-types (WT) of the same strain (Sprague-Dawley) were studied. The forced swimming test (FST), sucrose preference test (SPT), and the open-field test (OFT) were performed to evaluate behavioral despair, anhedonia, locomotion, and anxiety. Tg(CaMKII-hA2AR) animals spent more time floating and less time swimming in the FST and presented a decreased sucrose preference at 48 h in the SPT. They also covered higher distances in the OFT and spent more time in the central zone than the WT. The results indicate that Tg(CaMKII-hA2AR) rats exhibit depressive-like behavior, hyperlocomotion, and altered exploratory behavior. This A2AR overexpression may explain the depressive signs found in aging, chronic stress, and Alzheimer's disease.

  9. Toxicological Differences Between NMDA Receptor Antagonists and Cholinesterase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaodong; Lin, Xiaotian; Hu, Rui; Sun, Nan; Hao, Jingru; Gao, Can

    2016-08-01

    Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs), represented by donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine, used to be the only approved class of drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. After the approval of memantine by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonists have been recognized by authorities and broadly used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Along with complementary mechanisms of action, NMDA antagonists and ChEIs differ not only in therapeutic effects but also in adverse reactions, which is an important consideration in clinical drug use. And the number of patients using NMDA antagonists and ChEIs concomitantly has increased, making the matter more complicated. Here we used the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System for statistical analysis , in order to compare the adverse events of memantine and ChEIs. In general, the clinical evidence confirmed the safety advantages of memantine over ChEIs, reiterating the precautions of clinical drug use and the future direction of antidementia drug development. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Selecting an optimal number of binding site waters to improve virtual screening enrichments against the adenosine A2A receptor.

    PubMed

    Lenselink, Eelke B; Beuming, Thijs; Sherman, Woody; van Vlijmen, Herman W T; IJzerman, Adriaan P

    2014-06-23

    A major challenge in structure-based virtual screening (VS) involves the treatment of explicit water molecules during docking in order to improve the enrichment of active compounds over decoys. Here we have investigated this in the context of the adenosine A2A receptor, where water molecules have previously been shown to be important for achieving high enrichment rates with docking, and where the positions of some binding site waters are known from a high-resolution crystal structure. The effect of these waters (both their presence and orientations) on VS enrichment was assessed using a carefully curated set of 299 high affinity A2A antagonists and 17,337 decoys. We show that including certain crystal waters greatly improves VS enrichment and that optimization of water hydrogen positions is needed in order to achieve the best results. We also show that waters derived from a molecular dynamics simulation - without any knowledge of crystallographic waters - can improve enrichments to a similar degree as the crystallographic waters, which makes this strategy applicable to structures without experimental knowledge of water positions. Finally, we used decision trees to select an ensemble of structures with different water molecule positions and orientations that outperforms any single structure with water molecules. The approach presented here is validated against independent test sets of A2A receptor antagonists and decoys from the literature. In general, this water optimization strategy could be applied to any target with waters-mediated protein-ligand interactions.

  11. Classification and virtual screening of androgen receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiazhong; Gramatica, Paola

    2010-05-24

    Computational tools, such as quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR), are highly useful as screening support for prioritization of substances of very high concern (SVHC). From the practical point of view, QSAR models should be effective to pick out more active rather than inactive compounds, expressed as sensitivity in classification works. This research investigates the classification of a big data set of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs)-androgen receptor (AR) antagonists, mainly aiming to improve the external sensitivity and to screen for potential AR binders. The kNN, lazy IB1, and ADTree methods and the consensus approach were used to build different models, which improve the sensitivity on external chemicals from 57.1% (literature) to 76.4%. Additionally, the models' predictive abilities were further validated on a blind collected data set (sensitivity: 85.7%). Then the proposed classifiers were used: (i) to distinguish a set of AR binders into antagonists and agonists; (ii) to screen a combined estrogen receptor binder database to find out possible chemicals that can bind to both AR and ER; and (iii) to virtually screen our in-house environmental chemical database. The in silico screening results suggest: (i) that some compounds can affect the normal endocrine system through a complex mechanism binding both to ER and AR; (ii) new EDCs, which are nonER binders, but can in silico bind to AR, are recognized; and (iii) about 20% of compounds in a big data set of environmental chemicals are predicted as new AR antagonists. The priority should be given to them to experimentally test the binding activities with AR.

  12. Adenosine A2A receptor blockade attenuates spatial memory deficit and extent of demyelination areas in lyolecithin-induced demyelination model.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Atefeh; Khalili-Fomeshi, Mohsen; Ashrafpour, Manouchehr; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar; Ghasemi-Kasman, Maryam

    2018-05-03

    In recent years, inactivation of A 2A adenosine receptors has been emerged as a novel strategy for treatment of several neurodegenerative diseases. Although numerous studies have shown the beneficial effects of A 2A receptors blockade on spatial memory, the impacts of selective adenosine A 2A receptors on memory performance has not yet been examined in the context of demyelination. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of A 2A receptor antagonist SCH58261 on spatial memory and myelination in an experimental model of focal demyelination in rat fimbria. Demyelination was induced by local injection of lysolecithin (LPC) 1% (2 μl) into the hippocampus fimbria. SCH58261 (20 μg/0.5 μl or 40 μg/0.5 μl) was daily injected intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) for 10 days post LPC injection. The Morris water maze test was used to assess the spatial learning and memory on day 6 post lesion. Myelin staining and immunostaining against astrocytes/microglia were carried out 10 days post LPC injection. The administration of adenosine A 2A receptor antagonist prevented the spatial memory impairment in LPC receiving animals. Myelin staining revealed that application of SCH58261 reduces the extent of demyelination areas in the fimbria. Furthermore, the level of astrocytes and microglia activation was attenuated following administration of A 2A receptor antagonist. Collectively, the results of this study suggest that A 2A receptor blockade can improve the spatial memory and protect myelin sheath, which might be considered as a novel therapeutic approach for multiple sclerosis disease. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. A2A-D2 receptor-receptor interaction modulates gliotransmitter release from striatal astrocyte processes.

    PubMed

    Cervetto, Chiara; Venturini, Arianna; Passalacqua, Mario; Guidolin, Diego; Genedani, Susanna; Fuxe, Kjell; Borroto-Esquela, Dasiel O; Cortelli, Pietro; Woods, Amina; Maura, Guido; Marcoli, Manuela; Agnati, Luigi F

    2017-01-01

    Evidence for striatal A2A-D2 heterodimers has led to a new perspective on molecular mechanisms involved in schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. Despite the increasing recognition of astrocytes' participation in neuropsychiatric disease vulnerability, involvement of striatal astrocytes in A2A and D2 receptor signal transmission has never been explored. Here, we investigated the presence of D2 and A2A receptors in isolated astrocyte processes prepared from adult rat striatum by confocal imaging; the effects of receptor activation were measured on the 4-aminopyridine-evoked release of glutamate from the processes. Confocal analysis showed that A2A and D2 receptors were co-expressed on the same astrocyte processes. Evidence for A2A-D2 receptor-receptor interactions was obtained by measuring the release of the gliotransmitter glutamate: D2 receptors inhibited the glutamate release, while activation of A2A receptors, per se ineffective, abolished the effect of D2 receptor activation. The synthetic D2 peptide VLRRRRKRVN corresponding to the receptor region involved in electrostatic interaction underlying A2A-D2 heteromerization abolished the ability of the A2A receptor to antagonize the D2 receptor-mediated effect. Together, the findings are consistent with heteromerization of native striatal astrocytic A2A-D2 receptors that via allosteric receptor-receptor interactions could play a role in the control of striatal glutamatergic transmission. These new findings suggest possible new pathogenic mechanisms and/or therapeutic approaches to neuropsychiatric disorders. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  14. Adenosine A2a receptors and O2 sensing in development

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Reduced mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, via activation of adenylate kinase and the resulting exponential rise in the cellular AMP/ATP ratio, appears to be a critical factor underlying O2 sensing in many chemoreceptive tissues in mammals. The elevated AMP/ATP ratio, in turn, activates key enzymes that are involved in physiologic adjustments that tend to balance ATP supply and demand. An example is the conversion of AMP to adenosine via 5′-nucleotidase and the resulting activation of adenosine A2A receptors, which are involved in acute oxygen sensing by both carotid bodies and the brain. In fetal sheep, A2A receptors associated with carotid bodies trigger hypoxic cardiovascular chemoreflexes, while central A2A receptors mediate hypoxic inhibition of breathing and rapid eye movements. A2A receptors are also involved in hypoxic regulation of fetal endocrine systems, metabolism, and vascular tone. In developing lambs, A2A receptors play virtually no role in O2 sensing by the carotid bodies, but brain A2A receptors remain critically involved in the roll-off ventilatory response to hypoxia. In adult mammals, A2A receptors have been implicated in O2 sensing by carotid glomus cells, while central A2A receptors likely blunt hypoxic hyperventilation. In conclusion, A2A receptors are crucially involved in the transduction mechanisms of O2 sensing in fetal carotid bodies and brains. Postnatally, central A2A receptors remain key mediators of hypoxic respiratory depression, but they are less critical for O2 sensing in carotid chemoreceptors, particularly in developing lambs. PMID:21677265

  15. σ Receptor antagonist attenuation of methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity is correlated to body temperature modulation.

    PubMed

    Robson, Matthew J; Seminerio, Michael J; McCurdy, Christopher R; Coop, Andrew; Matsumoto, Rae R

    2013-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) causes hyperthermia and dopaminergic neurotoxicity in the rodent striatum. METH interacts with σ receptors and σ receptor antagonists normally mitigate METH-induced hyperthermia and dopaminergic neurotoxicity. The present study was undertaken because in two experiments, pretreatment with σ receptor antagonists failed to attenuate METH-induced hyperthermia in mice. This allowed us to determine whether the ability of σ receptor antagonists (AZ66 and AC927) to mitigate METH-induced neurotoxicity depends upon their ability to modulate METH-induced hyperthermia. Mice were treated using a repeated dosing paradigm and body temperatures recorded. Striatal dopamine was measured one week post-treatment. The data indicate that the ability of σ receptor antagonists to attenuate METH-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity is linked to their ability to block METH-induced hyperthermia. The ability of σ receptor antagonists to mitigate METH-induced hyperthermia may contribute to its neuroprotective actions.

  16. Involvement of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors in the adenosinergic modulation of the discriminative-stimulus effects of cocaine and methamphetamine in rats.

    PubMed

    Justinova, Zuzana; Ferre, Sergi; Segal, Pavan N; Antoniou, Katerina; Solinas, Marcello; Pappas, Lara A; Highkin, Jena L; Hockemeyer, Jorg; Munzar, Patrik; Goldberg, Steven R

    2003-12-01

    Adenosine, by acting on adenosine A1 and A2A receptors, is known to antagonistically modulate dopaminergic neurotransmission. We have recently reported that nonselective adenosine receptor antagonists (caffeine and 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine) can partially substitute for the discriminative-stimulus effects of methamphetamine. In the present study, by using more selective compounds, we investigated the involvement of A1 and A2A receptors in the adenosinergic modulation of the discriminative-stimulus effects of both cocaine and methamphetamine. The effects of the A1 receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA; 0.01-0.1 mg/kg) and antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine (CPT; 1.3-23.7 mg/kg) and the A2A receptor agonist 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine hydrochloride (CGS 21680; 0.03-0.18 mg/kg) and antagonist 3-(3-hydroxypropyl)-8-(3-methoxystyryl)-7-methyl-1-propargylxanthin phosphate disodium salt (MSX-3; 1-56 mg/kg) were evaluated in rats trained to discriminate either 1 mg/kg methamphetamine or 10 mg/kg cocaine from saline under a fixed-ratio 10 schedule of food presentation. The A1 and A2A receptor antagonists (CPT and MSX-3) both produced high levels of drug-lever selection when substituted for either methamphetamine or cocaine and significantly shifted dose-response curves of both psychostimulants to the left. Unexpectedly, the A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680 also produced drug-appropriate responding (although at lower levels) when substituted for the cocaine-training stimulus, and both CGS 21680 and the A1 receptor agonist CPA significantly shifted the cocaine dose-response curve to the left. In contrast, both agonists did not produce significant levels of drug-lever selection when substituted for the methamphetamine-training stimulus and failed to shift the methamphetamine dose-response curve. Therefore, adenosine A1 and A2A receptors appear to play important but differential roles in the modulation of the

  17. The Corticostriatal Adenosine A2A Receptor Controls Maintenance and Retrieval of Spatial Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhihui; Chen, Xingjun; Wang, Tao; Gao, Ying; Li, Fei; Chen, Long; Xue, Jin; He, Yan; Li, Yan; Guo, Wei; Zheng, Wu; Zhang, Liping; Ye, Fenfen; Ren, Xiangpeng; Feng, Yue; Chan, Piu; Chen, Jiang-Fan

    2018-03-15

    Working memory (WM) taps into multiple executive processes including encoding, maintenance, and retrieval of information, but the molecular and circuit modulation of these WM processes remains undefined due to the lack of methods to control G protein-coupled receptor signaling with temporal resolution of seconds. By coupling optogenetic control of the adenosine A 2A receptor (A 2A R) signaling, the Cre-loxP-mediated focal A 2A R knockdown with a delayed non-match-to-place (DNMTP) task, we investigated the effect of optogenetic activation and focal knockdown of A 2A Rs in the dorsomedial striatum (n = 8 to 14 per group) and medial prefrontal cortex (n = 16 to 22 per group) on distinct executive processes of spatial WM. We also evaluated the therapeutic effect of the A 2A R antagonist KW6002 on delayed match-to-sample/place tasks in 6 normal and 6 MPTP-treated cynomolgus monkeys. Optogenetic activation of striatopallidal A 2A Rs in the dorsomedial striatum selectively at the delay and choice (not sample) phases impaired DNMTP performance. Optogenetic activation of A 2A Rs in the medial prefrontal cortex selectively at the delay (not sample or choice) phase improved DNMTP performance. The corticostriatal A 2A R control of spatial WM was specific for a novel but not well-trained DNMTP task. Focal dorsomedial striatum A 2A R knockdown or KW6002 improved DNMTP performance in mice. Last, KW6002 improved spatial WM in delayed match-to-sample and delayed match-to-place tasks of normal and dopamine-depleted cynomolgus monkeys. The A 2A Rs in striatopallidal and medial prefrontal cortex neurons exert distinctive control of WM maintenance and retrieval to achieve cognitive stability and flexibility. The procognitive effect of KW6002 in nonhuman primates provides the preclinical data to translate A 2A R antagonists for improving cognitive impairments in Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine impairs feature integration in visual perception.

    PubMed

    Meuwese, Julia D I; van Loon, Anouk M; Scholte, H Steven; Lirk, Philipp B; Vulink, Nienke C C; Hollmann, Markus W; Lamme, Victor A F

    2013-01-01

    Recurrent interactions between neurons in the visual cortex are crucial for the integration of image elements into coherent objects, such as in figure-ground segregation of textured images. Blocking N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in monkeys can abolish neural signals related to figure-ground segregation and feature integration. However, it is unknown whether this also affects perceptual integration itself. Therefore, we tested whether ketamine, a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, reduces feature integration in humans. We administered a subanesthetic dose of ketamine to healthy subjects who performed a texture discrimination task in a placebo-controlled double blind within-subject design. We found that ketamine significantly impaired performance on the texture discrimination task compared to the placebo condition, while performance on a control fixation task was much less impaired. This effect is not merely due to task difficulty or a difference in sedation levels. We are the first to show a behavioral effect on feature integration by manipulating the NMDA receptor in humans.

  19. Macromolecular beta-adrenergic antagonists discriminating between receptor and antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Pitha, J; Zjawiony, J; Lefkowitz, R J; Caron, M G

    1980-01-01

    The beta-adrenergic antagonist, alprenolol, was attached in an irreversible manner to macromolecular dextran via side arms that differed in length. The ability of these macromolecules to bind to the beta-adrenergic receptor of frog erythrocytes and to catecholamine-binding antibodies raised against partially purified receptors was studied. Compared to the parent drug the potency of binding of macromolecular alprenolol to the receptor decreased about 1/10, 1/600, and 1/8000 when the length of the arm separating alprenolol from the dextran moiety was 13, 8, and 4 atoms, respectively. In contrast, the binding potencies of the parent drug and of all its macromolecular derivatives for the antibody were within the same order of magnitude. Thus, conversion of a drug to a macromolecular form may not only sustain its binding activity but may also lead in a higher selectivity. The macromolecular derivatives described here may be suitable probes for investigation of the location and of the molecular properties of the binding sites for beta-adrenergic drugs. PMID:6154947

  20. Managing resistant hypertension: focus on mineralocorticoid-receptor antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Yugar-Toledo, Juan Carlos; Modolo, Rodrigo; de Faria, Ana Paula; Moreno, Heitor

    2017-01-01

    Mineralocorticoid-receptor antagonists (MRAs) have proven to be effective in some types of hypertension, especially in resistant hypertension (RHTN). In this phenotype of hypertension, the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone pathway plays an important role, with MRAs being especially effective in reducing blood pressure. In this review, we show the relevance of aldosterone in RHTN, as well as some clinical characteristics of this condition and the main concepts involving its pathophysiology and cardiovascular damage. We analyzed the mechanisms of action and clinical effects of two current MRAs – spironolactone and eplerenone – both of which are useful in RHTN, with special attention to the former. RHTN represents a significant minority (10%–15%) of hypertension cases. However, primary-care physicians, cardiologists, nephrologists, neurologists, and geriatricians face this health problem on a daily basis. MRAs are likely one of the best pharmacological options in RHTN patients; however, they are still underused. PMID:29081661

  1. Implementation of a Fluorescence-Based Screening Assay Identifies Histamine H3 Receptor Antagonists Clobenpropit and Iodophenpropit as Subunit-Selective N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Kasper B.; Mullasseril, Praseeda; Dawit, Sara; Kurtkaya, Natalie L.; Yuan, Hongjie; Vance, Katie M.; Orr, Anna G.; Kvist, Trine; Ogden, Kevin K.; Le, Phuong; Vellano, Kimberly M.; Lewis, Iestyn; Kurtkaya, Serdar; Du, Yuhong; Qui, Min; Murphy, T. J.; Snyder, James P.; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2010-01-01

    N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate a slow, Ca2+-permeable component of excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system and play a pivotal role in synaptic plasticity, neuronal development, and several neurological diseases. We describe a fluorescence-based assay that measures NMDA receptor-mediated changes in intracellular calcium in a BHK-21 cell line stably expressing NMDA receptor NR2D with NR1 under the control of a tetracycline-inducible promoter (Tet-On). The assay selectively identifies allosteric modulators by using supramaximal concentrations of glutamate and glycine to minimize detection of competitive antagonists. The assay is validated by successfully identifying known noncompetitive, but not competitive NMDA receptor antagonists among 1800 screened compounds from two small focused libraries, including the commercially available library of pharmacologically active compounds. Hits from the primary screen are validated through a secondary screen that used two-electrode voltage-clamp recordings on recombinant NMDA receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. This strategy identified several novel modulators of NMDA receptor function, including the histamine H3 receptor antagonists clobenpropit and iodophenpropit, as well as the vanilloid receptor transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1) antagonist capsazepine. These compounds are noncompetitive antagonists and the histamine H3 receptor ligand showed submicromolar potency at NR1/NR2B NMDA receptors, which raises the possibility that compounds can be developed that act with high potency on both glutamate and histamine receptor systems simultaneously. Furthermore, it is possible that some actions attributed to histamine H3 receptor inhibition in vivo may also involve NMDA receptor antagonism. PMID:20197375

  2. Discovery of spiropiperidine-based potent and selective Orexin-2 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Tatsuhiko; Tomata, Yoshihide; Kunitomo, Jun; Hirozane, Mariko; Marui, Shogo

    2011-11-01

    To generate novel human Orexin-2 Receptor (OX2R) antagonists, a spiropiperidine based scaffold was designed and a SAR study was carried out. Compound 4f possessed the highest OX2R antagonistic activity with an IC(50) value of 3nM with 450-fold selectivity against Orexin-1 Receptor (OX1R). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Caffeine acts through neuronal adenosine A2A receptors to prevent mood and memory dysfunction triggered by chronic stress

    PubMed Central

    Kaster, Manuella P.; Machado, Nuno J.; Silva, Henrique B.; Nunes, Ana; Ardais, Ana Paula; Santana, Magda; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E.; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S.; Porciúncula, Lisiane O.; Chen, Jiang Fan; Tomé, Ângelo R.; Agostinho, Paula; Canas, Paula M.; Cunha, Rodrigo A.

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of caffeine (an adenosine receptor antagonist) correlates inversely with depression and memory deterioration, and adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) antagonists emerge as candidate therapeutic targets because they control aberrant synaptic plasticity and afford neuroprotection. Therefore we tested the ability of A2AR to control the behavioral, electrophysiological, and neurochemical modifications caused by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), which alters hippocampal circuits, dampens mood and memory performance, and enhances susceptibility to depression. CUS for 3 wk in adult mice induced anxiogenic and helpless-like behavior and decreased memory performance. These behavioral changes were accompanied by synaptic alterations, typified by a decrease in synaptic plasticity and a reduced density of synaptic proteins (synaptosomal-associated protein 25, syntaxin, and vesicular glutamate transporter type 1), together with an increased density of A2AR in glutamatergic terminals in the hippocampus. Except for anxiety, for which results were mixed, CUS-induced behavioral and synaptic alterations were prevented by (i) caffeine (1 g/L in the drinking water, starting 3 wk before and continued throughout CUS); (ii) the selective A2AR antagonist KW6002 (3 mg/kg, p.o.); (iii) global A2AR deletion; and (iv) selective A2AR deletion in forebrain neurons. Notably, A2AR blockade was not only prophylactic but also therapeutically efficacious, because a 3-wk treatment with the A2AR antagonist SCH58261 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) reversed the mood and synaptic dysfunction caused by CUS. These results herald a key role for synaptic A2AR in the control of chronic stress-induced modifications and suggest A2AR as candidate targets to alleviate the consequences of chronic stress on brain function. PMID:26056314

  4. Caffeine acts through neuronal adenosine A2A receptors to prevent mood and memory dysfunction triggered by chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Kaster, Manuella P; Machado, Nuno J; Silva, Henrique B; Nunes, Ana; Ardais, Ana Paula; Santana, Magda; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; Porciúncula, Lisiane O; Chen, Jiang Fan; Tomé, Ângelo R; Agostinho, Paula; Canas, Paula M; Cunha, Rodrigo A

    2015-06-23

    The consumption of caffeine (an adenosine receptor antagonist) correlates inversely with depression and memory deterioration, and adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) antagonists emerge as candidate therapeutic targets because they control aberrant synaptic plasticity and afford neuroprotection. Therefore we tested the ability of A2AR to control the behavioral, electrophysiological, and neurochemical modifications caused by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), which alters hippocampal circuits, dampens mood and memory performance, and enhances susceptibility to depression. CUS for 3 wk in adult mice induced anxiogenic and helpless-like behavior and decreased memory performance. These behavioral changes were accompanied by synaptic alterations, typified by a decrease in synaptic plasticity and a reduced density of synaptic proteins (synaptosomal-associated protein 25, syntaxin, and vesicular glutamate transporter type 1), together with an increased density of A2AR in glutamatergic terminals in the hippocampus. Except for anxiety, for which results were mixed, CUS-induced behavioral and synaptic alterations were prevented by (i) caffeine (1 g/L in the drinking water, starting 3 wk before and continued throughout CUS); (ii) the selective A2AR antagonist KW6002 (3 mg/kg, p.o.); (iii) global A2AR deletion; and (iv) selective A2AR deletion in forebrain neurons. Notably, A2AR blockade was not only prophylactic but also therapeutically efficacious, because a 3-wk treatment with the A2AR antagonist SCH58261 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) reversed the mood and synaptic dysfunction caused by CUS. These results herald a key role for synaptic A2AR in the control of chronic stress-induced modifications and suggest A2AR as candidate targets to alleviate the consequences of chronic stress on brain function.

  5. Presynaptic facilitatory adenosine A2A receptors mediate fade induced by neuromuscular relaxants that exhibit anticholinesterase activity.

    PubMed

    Bornia, Elaine Cs; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo; Alves-Do-Prado, Wilson

    2011-03-01

    1. Pancuronium, cisatracurium and vecuronium are antinicotinic agents that, in contrast with d-tubocurarine and hexamethonium, exhibit anticholinesterase activity. Pancuronium-, cisatracurium- and vecuronium-induced fade results from blockade of facilitatory nicotinic receptors on motor nerves, but fade produced by such agents also depends on the presynaptic activation of inhibitory muscarinic M2 receptors by acetylcholine released from motor nerve terminals and activation of inhibitory adenosine A1 receptors by adenosine released from motor nerves and muscles. The participation of presynaptic facilitatory A2A receptors in fade caused by pancuronium, cisatracurium and vecuronium has not yet been investigated. In the present study, we determined the effects of ZM241385, an antagonist of presynaptic facilitatory A2A receptors, on fade produced by these neuromuscular relaxants in the rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm (PND) preparation. 2. The muscles were stimulated indirectly at 75±3Hz to induce a sustained tetanizing muscular contraction. The lowest concentration at which each antinicotinic agent produced fade without modifying initial tetanic tension (presynaptic action) was determined. 3. d-Tubocurarine-induced fade occurred only at 55 nmol/L, a concentration that also reduced maximal tetanic tension (post-synaptic action). At 10 nmol/L, ZM 241385 alone did not produce fade, but it did attenuate pancuronium (0.32 μmol/L)-, cisatracurium (0.32 μmol/L)- and vecuronium (0.36 μmol/L)-induced fade. 4. The fade induced by the 'pure' antinicotinic agents d-tubocurarine (55 nmol/L) and hexamethonium (413 μmol/L) was not altered by 10 nmol/L ZM 241385, indicating that presynaptic adenosine A2A receptors play a significant role in the fade produced by antinicotinic agents when such agents have anticholinesterase activity. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Treatment of pruritus with topically applied opiate receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Bigliardi, Paul L; Stammer, Holger; Jost, Gerhard; Rufli, Theo; Büchner, Stanislaw; Bigliardi-Qi, Mei

    2007-06-01

    Pruritus is the most common and distressing skin symptom, and treatment of itch is a problem for thousands of people. The currently available therapies are not very effective. Therefore there is an urgent need to find new effective topical drugs against itching. We conducted two separate studies to evaluate the efficacy of topically applied naltrexone, an opioid receptor antagonist, in the treatment of severe pruritus. The objective of the first open study was to correlate the clinical efficacy of topically applied naltrexone in different pruritic skin disorders to a change of epidermal mu-opiate receptor (MOR) expression. The second study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study on pruritus in atopic dermatitis. Initially we performed an open pilot study on 18 patients with different chronic pruritic disorders using a topical formulation of 1% naltrexone for 2 weeks. A punch biopsy was performed in 11 patients before and after the application of the naltrexone cream and the staining of epidermal MOR was measured. Subsequently, a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial was performed with the same formulation. We included in this trial 40 patients with localized and generalized atopic dermatitis with severe pruritus. In the open study more than 70% of the patients using the 1% naltrexone cream experienced a significant reduction of pruritus. More interestingly, the topical treatment with naltrexone caused an increase of epidermal MOR staining. The regulation of the epidermal opioid receptor correlated with the clinical assessment. The placebo-controlled, crossover trial demonstrated clearly that the cream containing naltrexone had an overall 29.4% better effect compared with placebo. The formulation containing naltrexone required a median of 46 minutes to reduce the itch symptoms to 50%; the placebo, 74 minutes. We could only take biopsy specimens in 11 patients, which means that a satisfactory statistical analysis of the changes of epidermal

  7. Adenosine A2a blockade prevents synergy between mu-opiate and cannabinoid CB1 receptors and eliminates heroin-seeking behavior in addicted rats.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lina; McFarland, Krista; Fan, Peidong; Jiang, Zhan; Ueda, Takashi; Diamond, Ivan

    2006-05-16

    Relapse is the most serious limitation of effective medical treatment of opiate addiction. Opiate-related behaviors appear to be modulated by cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1) through poorly understood cross-talk mechanisms. Opiate and CB1 receptors are coexpressed in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and dorsal striatum. These regions also have the highest density of adenosine A2a receptors (A2a) in the brain. We have been investigating the postsynaptic signaling mechanisms of mu-opiate receptors (MORs) and CB1 receptors in primary NAc/striatal neurons. In this article, we present evidence that MOR and CB1 act synergistically on cAMP/PKA signaling in NAc/striatal neurons. In addition, we find that synergy requires adenosine and A2a. Importantly, an A2a antagonist administered either directly into the NAc or indirectly by i.p. injection eliminates heroin-induced reinstatement in rats trained to self-administer heroin, a model of human craving and relapse. These findings suggest that A2a antagonists might be effective therapeutic agents in the management of abstinent heroin addicts.

  8. Adenosine A2a blockade prevents synergy between μ-opiate and cannabinoid CB1 receptors and eliminates heroin-seeking behavior in addicted rats

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Lina; McFarland, Krista; Fan, Peidong; Jiang, Zhan; Ueda, Takashi; Diamond, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Relapse is the most serious limitation of effective medical treatment of opiate addiction. Opiate-related behaviors appear to be modulated by cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1) through poorly understood cross-talk mechanisms. Opiate and CB1 receptors are coexpressed in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and dorsal striatum. These regions also have the highest density of adenosine A2a receptors (A2a) in the brain. We have been investigating the postsynaptic signaling mechanisms of μ-opiate receptors (MORs) and CB1 receptors in primary NAc/striatal neurons. In this article, we present evidence that MOR and CB1 act synergistically on cAMP/PKA signaling in NAc/striatal neurons. In addition, we find that synergy requires adenosine and A2a. Importantly, an A2a antagonist administered either directly into the NAc or indirectly by i.p. injection eliminates heroin-induced reinstatement in rats trained to self-administer heroin, a model of human craving and relapse. These findings suggest that A2a antagonists might be effective therapeutic agents in the management of abstinent heroin addicts. PMID:16684876

  9. Neuroprotection by caffeine in the MPTP model of parkinson's disease and its dependence on adenosine A2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Xu, K; Di Luca, D G; Orrú, M; Xu, Y; Chen, J-F; Schwarzschild, M A

    2016-05-13

    Considerable epidemiological and laboratory data have suggested that caffeine, a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist, may protect against the underlying neurodegeneration of parkinson's disease (PD). Although both caffeine and more specific antagonists of the A2A subtype of adenosine receptor (A2AR) have been found to confer protection in animal models of PD, the dependence of caffeine's neuroprotective effects on the A2AR is not known. To definitively determine its A2AR dependence, the effect of caffeine on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetra-hydropyridine (MPTP) neurotoxicity was compared in wild-type (WT) and A2AR gene global knockout (A2A KO) mice, as well as in central nervous system (CNS) cell type-specific (conditional) A2AR knockout (cKO) mice that lack the receptor either in postnatal forebrain neurons or in astrocytes. In WT and in heterozygous A2AR KO mice caffeine pretreatment (25mg/kgip) significantly attenuated MPTP-induced depletion of striatal dopamine. By contrast in homozygous A2AR global KO mice caffeine had no effect on MPTP toxicity. In forebrain neuron A2AR cKO mice, caffeine lost its locomotor stimulant effect, whereas its neuroprotective effect was mostly preserved. In astrocytic A2AR cKO mice, both caffeine's locomotor stimulant and protective properties were undiminished. Taken together, these results indicate that neuroprotection by caffeine in the MPTP model of PD relies on the A2AR, although the specific cellular localization of these receptors remains to be determined. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. All rights reserved.

  10. The importance of the adenosine A(2A) receptor-dopamine D(2) receptor interaction in drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Filip, M; Zaniewska, M; Frankowska, M; Wydra, K; Fuxe, K

    2012-01-01

    Drug addiction is a serious brain disorder with somatic, psychological, psychiatric, socio-economic and legal implications in the developed world. Illegal (e.g., psychostimulants, opioids, cannabinoids) and legal (alcohol, nicotine) drugs of abuse create a complex behavioral pattern composed of drug intake, withdrawal, seeking and relapse. One of the hallmarks of drugs that are abused by humans is that they have different mechanisms of action to increase dopamine (DA) neurotransmission within the mesolimbic circuitry of the brain and indirectly activate DA receptors. Among the DA receptors, D(2) receptors are linked to drug abuse and addiction because their function has been proven to be correlated with drug reinforcement and relapses. The recognition that D(2) receptors exist not only as homomers but also can form heteromers, such as with the adenosine (A)(2A) receptor, that are pharmacologically and functionally distinct from their constituent receptors, has significantly expanded the range of potential drug targets and provided new avenues for drug design in the search for novel drug addiction therapies. The aim of this review is to bring current focus on A(2A) receptors, their physiology and pharmacology in the central nervous system, and to discuss the therapeutic relevance of these receptors to drug addiction. We concentrate on the contribution of A(2A) receptors to the effects of different classes of drugs of abuse examined in preclinical behavioral experiments carried out with pharmacological and genetic tools. The consequences of chronic drug treatment on A(2A) receptor-assigned functions in preclinical studies are also presented. Finally, the neurochemical mechanism of the interaction between A(2A) receptors and drugs of abuse in the context of the heteromeric A(2A)-D(2) receptor complex is discussed. Taken together, a significant amount of experimental analyses provide evidence that targeting A(2A) receptors may offer innovative translational strategies

  11. Return of D4 Dopamine Receptor Antagonists in Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Lindsley, Craig W; Hopkins, Corey R

    2017-09-14

    The dopamine D 4 receptor garnered a great deal of interest in the early 1990s when studies showed the atypical antipsychotic clozapine possessed higher affinity for D 4 , relative to other dopamine receptor subtypes, and that this activity might underlie the unique clinical efficacy of clozapine. Unfortunately, D 4 antagonists that were developed for schizophrenia failed in the clinic. Thus, D 4 fell out of favor as a therapeutic target, and work in this area was silent for decades. Recently, D 4 ligands with improved selectivity for D 4 against not only D 1-3,5 but also other biogenic amine targets have emerged, and D 4 is once again in the spotlight as a novel target for both addiction and Parkinson's disease (PD), as well as other emerging diseases. This report will review the historical data for D 4 , review the known D 4 ligands, and then highlight new data supporting a role for D 4 inhibition in addiction, PD, and cancer.

  12. Management of hyperkalaemia consequent to mineralocorticoid-receptor antagonist therapy.

    PubMed

    Roscioni, Sara S; de Zeeuw, Dick; Bakker, Stephan J L; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J

    2012-12-01

    Mineralocorticoid-receptor antagonists (MRAs) reduce blood pressure and albuminuria in patients treated with angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-II-receptor blockers. The use of MRAs, however, is limited by the occurrence of hyperkalaemia, which frequently occurs in patients older than 65 years with impaired kidney function, and/or diabetes. Patients with these characteristics might still benefit from MRA therapy, however, and should not be excluded from this treatment option. This limitation raises the question of how to optimize the therapeutic use of MRAs in this population of patients. Understanding the individual variability in patients' responses to MRAs, in terms of albuminuria, blood pressure and serum potassium levels, might lead to targeted intervention. MRA use might be restricted to patients with high levels of mineralocorticoid activity, evaluated by circulating renin and aldosterone levels or renal excretion of potassium. In addition, reviewing the patient's diet and concomitant medications might prove useful in reducing the risk of developing subsequent hyperkalaemia. If hyperkalaemia does develop, treatment options exist to decrease potassium levels, including administration of calcium gluconate, insulin, β(2)-agonists, diuretics and cation-exchange resins. In combination with novel aldosterone blockers, these strategies might offer a rationale with which to optimize therapeutic intervention and extend the population of patients who can benefit from use of MRAs.

  13. [Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in chronic kidney disease - pros and cons].

    PubMed

    Jędras, Mirosław; Filipowicz, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    Aldosterone takes part in the regulation of body fluid volume, blood pressure and kalemia. In a number of pathological conditions, including chronic kidney disease (CKD), secondary hyperaldosteronism occurs, leading to development of edema, hypervolemia and hypertension. Aldosterone has also a proinflammatory action, leading to heart and blood vessels damage, and is an independent risk factor of death. Some of the research conducted to confirm the expected benefits of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) therapy in CKD patients did not yield positive results, probably due to "aldosterone escape". Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRA) are being introduced also in the treatment of CKD patients, although the risk of developing hyperkalemia exists. A number of papers suggest a positive influence of MRA on slowing down the progression of renal failure, reduction of cardiovascular risk, and decreasing mortality, with relative safety of treatment, however the data are based on small and heterogenous groups of patients, therefore conclusive information is expected from large trials which are currently being conducted (BARACK D, ALCHEMIST).

  14. Structural determinants for antagonist pharmacology that distinguish the rho1 GABAC receptor from GABAA receptors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianliang; Xue, Fenqin; Chang, Yongchang

    2008-10-01

    GABA receptor (GABAR) types C (GABACR) and A (GABAAR) are both GABA-gated chloride channels that are distinguished by their distinct competitive antagonist properties. The structural mechanism underlying these distinct properties is not well understood. In this study, using previously identified binding residues as a guide, we made individual or combined mutations of nine binding residues in the rho1 GABACR subunit to their counterparts in the alpha1beta2gamma2 GABAAR or reverse mutations in alpha1 or beta2 subunits. The mutants were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and tested for sensitivities of GABA-induced currents to the GABAA and GABAC receptor antagonists. The results revealed that bicuculline insensitivity of the rho1 GABACR was mainly determined by Tyr106, Phe138 and Phe240 residues. Gabazine insensitivity of the rho1 GABACR was highly dependent on Tyr102, Tyr106, and Phe138. The sensitivity of the rho1 GABACR to 3-aminopropyl-phosphonic acid and its analog 3-aminopropyl-(methyl)phosphinic acid mainly depended on residues Tyr102, Val140, FYS240-242, and Phe138. Thus, the residues Tyr102, Tyr106, Phe138, and Phe240 in the rho1 GABACR are major determinants for its antagonist properties distinct from those in the GABAAR. In addition, Val140 in the GABACR contributes to 3-APA binding. In conclusion, we have identified the key structural elements underlying distinct antagonist properties for the GABACR. The mechanistic insights were further extended and discussed in the context of antagonists docking to the homology models of GABAA or GABAC receptors.

  15. Anticonvulsant effects of isomeric nonimidazole histamine H3 receptor antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Sadek, Bassem; Saad, Ali; Schwed, Johannes Stephan; Weizel, Lilia; Walter, Miriam; Stark, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Phenytoin (PHT), valproic acid, and modern antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), eg, remacemide, loreclezole, and safinamide, are only effective within a maximum of 70%–80% of epileptic patients, and in many cases the clinical use of AEDs is restricted by their side effects. Therefore, a continuous need remains to discover innovative chemical entities for the development of active and safer AEDs. Ligands targeting central histamine H3 receptors (H3Rs) for epilepsy might be a promising therapeutic approach. To determine the potential of H3Rs ligands as new AEDs, we recently reported that no anticonvulsant effects were observed for the (S)-2-(4-(3-(piperidin-1-yl)propoxy)benzylamino)propanamide (1). In continuation of our research, we asked whether anticonvulsant differences in activities will be observed for its R-enantiomer, namely, (R)-2-(4-(3-(piperidin-1-yl)propoxy)benzylamino)propaneamide (2) and analogs thereof, in maximum electroshock (MES)-, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-, and strychnine (STR)-induced convulsion models in rats having PHT and valproic acid (VPA) as reference AEDs. Unlike the S-enantiomer (1), the results show that animals pretreated intraperitoneally (ip) with the R-enantiomer 2 (10 mg/kg) were moderately protected in MES and STR induced models, whereas proconvulsant effect was observed for the same ligand in PTZ-induced convulsion models. However, animals pretreated with intraperitoneal doses of 5, 10, or 15 mg/kg of structurally bulkier (R)-enantiomer (3), in which 3-piperidinopropan-1-ol in ligand 2 was replaced by (4-(3-(piperidin-1-yl)propoxy)phenyl)methanol, and its (S)-enantiomer (4) significantly and in a dose-dependent manner reduced convulsions or exhibited full protection in MES and PTZ convulsions model, respectively. Interestingly, the protective effects observed for the (R)-enantiomer (3) in MES model were significantly greater than those of the standard H3R inverse agonist/antagonist pitolisant, comparable with those observed for PHT, and

  16. Anticonvulsant effects of isomeric nonimidazole histamine H3 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Sadek, Bassem; Saad, Ali; Schwed, Johannes Stephan; Weizel, Lilia; Walter, Miriam; Stark, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Phenytoin (PHT), valproic acid, and modern antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), eg, remacemide, loreclezole, and safinamide, are only effective within a maximum of 70%-80% of epileptic patients, and in many cases the clinical use of AEDs is restricted by their side effects. Therefore, a continuous need remains to discover innovative chemical entities for the development of active and safer AEDs. Ligands targeting central histamine H 3 receptors (H 3 Rs) for epilepsy might be a promising therapeutic approach. To determine the potential of H 3 Rs ligands as new AEDs, we recently reported that no anticonvulsant effects were observed for the ( S )-2-(4-(3-(piperidin-1-yl)propoxy)benzylamino)propanamide ( 1 ). In continuation of our research, we asked whether anticonvulsant differences in activities will be observed for its R -enantiomer, namely, ( R )-2-(4-(3-(piperidin-1-yl)propoxy)benzylamino)propaneamide ( 2 ) and analogs thereof, in maximum electroshock (MES)-, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-, and strychnine (STR)-induced convulsion models in rats having PHT and valproic acid (VPA) as reference AEDs. Unlike the S -enantiomer ( 1 ), the results show that animals pretreated intraperitoneally (ip) with the R -enantiomer 2 (10 mg/kg) were moderately protected in MES and STR induced models, whereas proconvulsant effect was observed for the same ligand in PTZ-induced convulsion models. However, animals pretreated with intraperitoneal doses of 5, 10, or 15 mg/kg of structurally bulkier ( R )-enantiomer ( 3 ), in which 3-piperidinopropan-1-ol in ligand 2 was replaced by (4-(3-(piperidin-1-yl)propoxy)phenyl)methanol, and its ( S )-enantiomer ( 4 ) significantly and in a dose-dependent manner reduced convulsions or exhibited full protection in MES and PTZ convulsions model, respectively. Interestingly, the protective effects observed for the ( R )-enantiomer ( 3 ) in MES model were significantly greater than those of the standard H 3 R inverse agonist/antagonist pitolisant, comparable with

  17. Adenosine receptor antagonist and augmented vasodilation during hypoxic exercise

    PubMed Central

    Madery, Brandon D.; Pike, Tasha L.; Eisenach, John H.; Dietz, Niki M.; Joyner, Michael J.; Wilkins, Brad W.

    2009-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that adenosine contributes to augmented skeletal muscle vasodilation during hypoxic exercise. In separate protocols, subjects performed incremental rhythmic forearm exercise (10% and 20% of maximum) during normoxia and normocapnic hypoxia (80% arterial O2 saturation). In protocol 1 (n = 8), subjects received an intra-arterial administration of saline (control) and aminophylline (adenosine receptor antagonist). In protocol 2 (n = 10), subjects received intra-arterial phentolamine (α-adrenoceptor antagonist) and combined phentolamine and aminophylline administration. Forearm vascular conductance (FVC; in ml·min−1·100 mmHg−1) was calculated from forearm blood flow (in ml/min) and blood pressure (in mmHg). In protocol 1, the change in FVC (ΔFVC; change from normoxic baseline) during hypoxic exercise with saline was 172 ± 29 and 314 ± 34 ml·min−1·100 mmHg−1 (10% and 20%, respectively). Aminophylline administration did not affect ΔFVC during hypoxic exercise at 10% (190 ± 29 ml·min−1·100 mmHg−1, P = 0.4) or 20% (287 ± 48 ml·min−1·100 mmHg−1, P = 0.3). In protocol 2, ΔFVC due to hypoxic exercise with phentolamine infusion was 313 ± 30 and 453 ± 41 ml·min−1·100 mmHg−1 (10% and 20% respectively). ΔFVC was similar at 10% (352 ± 39 ml·min−1·100 mmHg−1, P = 0.8) and 20% (528 ± 45 ml·min−1·100 mmHg−1, P = 0.2) hypoxic exercise with combined phentolamine and aminophylline. In contrast, ΔFVC to exogenous adenosine was reduced by aminophylline administration in both protocols (P < 0.05 for both). These observations suggest that adenosine receptor activation is not obligatory for the augmented hyperemia during hypoxic exercise in humans. PMID:19661449

  18. Side Effects of Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists in Asthmatic Children.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Semiha Bahceci; Nacaroglu, Hikmet Tekin; Unsal Karkiner, Canan Sule; Gunay, Ilker; Can, Demet

    2015-10-01

    Leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) are drugs which have been widely used more than ten years. As the use of LTRAs increases, our knowledge with respect to their side effects increases as well. The objective of our study was to evaluat the observed side effects of LTRAs used in patients with astma. 1024 patients treated only with LTRAs owing to asthma or early wheezing were included in the study for a five-year period. The observed side effects of LTRAs in these patients were retrospectively investigated. The side effects were divided into two parts as psychiatric and non-psychiatric. Among the 1024 cases included in the study, 67.5% of the patients out of 41 with side effects were male, 32.5% were female and the average age was 6.5 years. The rate of patients with asthma was 63.41% and 36.58% of the patients had early wheezing. It was determined that sex, age and diagnosis (early wheezing or asthma) of the patients were ineffective in the emergence of side effects. The average period for the emergence of side effects was the first month. It was observed that hyperactivity was the most frequently observed psychiatric side effect and that abdominal pain was the non-psychiatric side effect. The side effects of LTRAs were common in children. Therefore, patients must be informed at the beginning of the treatment and they must be evaluated at certain intervals.

  19. Non-selectivity of new bradykinin antagonists for B1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Rhaleb, N E; Gobeil, F; Regoli, D

    1992-01-01

    Two new B1 receptor antagonists, [Hyp3,Thi5,DTic7,Oic8]desArg9-BK and DArg[Hyp3,Thi5,DTic7,Oic8]desArg9-BK were tested in vitro on the rabbit jugular vein and the guinea pig ileum (preparations containing B2 receptors) and on the rabbit aorta (preparation containing B1 receptors) for pharmacological characterization. The results indicate that both compounds are antagonists on both B1 and B2 receptors, are competitive and discriminate between B2A and B2B receptor subtypes.

  20. Kinin B1 receptor antagonists containing alpha-methyl-L-phenylalanine: in vitro and in vivo antagonistic activities.

    PubMed

    Gobeil, F; Charland, S; Filteau, C; Perron, S I; Neugebauer, W; Regoli, D

    1999-03-01

    -To protect from metabolism and to improve potency of the AcLys-[D-betaNal7,Ile8]desArg9-bradykinin (BK) (R 715), we prepared and tested 3 analogues containing alpha-methyl-L-Phe ([alphaMe]Phe) in position 5: these are the AcLys-[(alphaMe)Phe5,D-betaNal7, Ile8]desArg9BK (R 892), Lys-Lys-[(alphaMe)Phe5,D-betaNal7, Ile8]desArg9BK (R 913), and AcLys-Lys-[(alphaMe)Phe5,D-betaNal7, Ile8]desArg9BK (R 914). The new compounds were tested against the contractile effect induced by desArg9BK on 2 B1 receptor bioassays, the human umbilical vein, and the rabbit aorta. Their antagonistic activities were compared with those of the early prototypes (Lys-[Leu8]desArg9BK and [Leu8]desArg9BK) and with other recently described peptide antagonists. The 3 (alphaMe)Phe analogues showed high antagonistic potencies (pA2) at both the human (8.8, 7.7, and 8. 7, respectively) and rabbit (8.6, 7.8, and 8.6, respectively) B1 receptors. No antagonistic effects (pA2<5) were observed on the B2 receptors that mediate the contractile effects of BK on the human umbilical vein, the rabbit jugular vein, and the guinea pig ileum. Moreover, these new B1 antagonists were found to be resistant to in vitro degradation by purified angiotensin-converting enzyme from rabbit lung. The Nalpha-acetylated forms, R 892 and R 914, were resistant to aminopeptidases from human plasma. In vivo antagonistic potencies (ID50) of B1 receptor antagonists were evaluated in anesthetized lipopolysaccharide-treated (for B1 receptor) and nontreated (for B2 receptor) rabbits against the hypotensive effects of exogenous desArg9BK and BK. R 892 efficiently inhibited (ID50 2.8 nmol/kg IV) hypotension induced by desArg9BK without affecting that evoked by BK (ID50 >600 nmol/kg IV). Conversely, the peptide antagonists Lys-Lys-[Hyp3,Igl5,D-Igl7,Oic8]desArg9BK (B 9858) and DArg-[Hyp3,Thi5,D-Tic7,Oic8] desArg9BK (S 0765) showed dual B1/B2 receptor antagonism in vitro and in vivo. It is concluded that R 892 and congeners provide selective

  1. The NK1 Receptor Antagonist L822429 Reduces Heroin Reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Barbier, Estelle; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Schlosburg, Joel E; Edwards, Scott; Juergens, Nathan; Park, Paula E; Misra, Kaushik K; Cheng, Kejun; Rice, Kenner C; Schank, Jesse; Schulteis, Gery; Koob, George F; Heilig, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Genetic deletion of the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) has been shown to decrease the reinforcing properties of opioids, but it is unknown whether pharmacological NK1R blockade has the same effect. Here, we examined the effect of L822429, a rat-specific NK1R antagonist, on the reinforcing properties of heroin in rats on short (1 h: ShA) or long (12 h: LgA) access to intravenous heroin self-administration. ShA produces heroin self-administration rates that are stable over time, whereas LgA leads to an escalation of heroin intake thought to model important dependence-related aspects of addiction. L822429 reduced heroin self-administration and the motivation to consume heroin, measured using a progressive-ratio schedule, in both ShA and LgA rats. L822429 also decreased anxiety-like behavior in both groups, measured on the elevated plus maze, but did not affect mechanical hypersensitivity observed in LgA rats. Expression of TacR1 (the gene encoding NK1R) was decreased in reward- and stress-related brain areas both in ShA and LgA rats compared with heroin-naïve rats, but did not differ between the two heroin-experienced groups. In contrast, passive exposure to heroin produced increases in TacR1 expression in the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. Taken together, these results show that pharmacological NK1R blockade attenuates heroin reinforcement. The observation that animals with ShA and LgA to heroin were similarly affected by L822429 indicates that the SP/NK1R system is not specifically involved in neuroadaptations that underlie escalation resulting from LgA self-administration. Instead, the NK1R antagonist appears to attenuate acute, positively reinforcing properties of heroin and may be useful as an adjunct to relapse prevention in detoxified opioid-dependent subjects. PMID:23303056

  2. Anti-idiotypic antibody: A new strategy for the development of a growth hormone receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Lan, Hainan; Zheng, Xin; Khan, Muhammad Akram; Li, Steven

    2015-11-01

    In general, traditional growth hormone receptor antagonist can be divided into two major classes: growth hormone (GH) analogues and anti-growth hormone receptor (GHR) antibodies. Herein, we tried to explore a new class of growth hormone receptor (GHR) antagonist that may have potential advantages over the traditional antagonists. For this, we developed a monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody growth hormone, termed CG-86. A series of experiments were conducted to characterize and evaluate this antibody, and the results from a competitive receptor-binding assay, Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) and epitope mapping demonstrate that CG-86 behaved as a typical Ab2β. Next, we examined its antagonistic activity using in vitro cell models, and the results showed that CG-86 could effectively inhibit growth hormone receptor-mediated signalling and effectively inhibit growth hormone-induced Ba/F3-GHR638 proliferation. In summary, these studies show that an anti-idiotypic antibody (CG-86) has promise as a novel growth hormone receptor antagonist. Furthermore, the current findings also suggest that anti-idiotypic antibody may represent a novel strategy to produce a new class of growth hormone receptor antagonist, and this strategy may be applied with other cytokines or growth factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The A2a adenosine receptor modulates the reinforcement efficacy and neurotoxicity of MDMA.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Medina, Jessica; Ledent, Catherine; Carretón, Olga; Valverde, Olga

    2011-04-01

    Adenosine is an endogenous purine nucleoside that plays a neuromodulatory role in the central nervous system. A2a adenosine receptors have been involved in reward-related processes, inflammatory phenomena and neurotoxicity reactions. In the present study, we investigated the role of A2a adenosine receptors on the acute pharmacological effects, reinforcement and neuroinflammation induced by MDMA administration. First, the acute effects of MDMA on body temperature, locomotor activity and anxiety-like responses were measured in A2a knockout mice and wild-type littermates. Second, MDMA reinforcing properties were evaluated using the intravenous self-administration paradigm. Finally, we assessed striatal astrogliosis and microgliosis as markers of MDMA neurotoxicity. Our results showed that acute MDMA produced a biphasic effect on body temperature and increased locomotor activity and anxiogenic-like responses in both genotypes. However, MDMA reinforcing properties were dramatically affected by the lack of A2a adenosine receptors. Thus, wild-type mice maintained MDMA self-administration under a fixed ratio 1 reinforcement schedule, whereas the operant response appeared completely abolished in A2a knockout mice. In addition, the MDMA neurotoxic regime produced an enhanced inflammatory response in striatum of wild-type mice, revealed by a significant increase in glial expression, whereas such activation was attenuated in mutant mice. This is the first report indicating that A2a adenosine receptors play a key role in reinforcement and neuroinflammation induced by the widely used psychostimulant.

  4. Crystal structure of human glycine receptor-α3 bound to antagonist strychnine.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin; Chen, Hao; Michelsen, Klaus; Schneider, Stephen; Shaffer, Paul L

    2015-10-08

    Neurotransmitter-gated ion channels of the Cys-loop receptor family are essential mediators of fast neurotransmission throughout the nervous system and are implicated in many neurological disorders. Available X-ray structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic Cys-loop receptors provide tremendous insights into the binding of agonists, the subsequent opening of the ion channel, and the mechanism of channel activation. Yet the mechanism of inactivation by antagonists remains unknown. Here we present a 3.0 Å X-ray structure of the human glycine receptor-α3 homopentamer in complex with a high affinity, high-specificity antagonist, strychnine. Our structure allows us to explore in detail the molecular recognition of antagonists. Comparisons with previous structures reveal a mechanism for antagonist-induced inactivation of Cys-loop receptors, involving an expansion of the orthosteric binding site in the extracellular domain that is coupled to closure of the ion pore in the transmembrane domain.

  5. Thrombin-receptor antagonist vorapaxar in acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Tricoci, Pierluigi; Huang, Zhen; Held, Claes; Moliterno, David J; Armstrong, Paul W; Van de Werf, Frans; White, Harvey D; Aylward, Philip E; Wallentin, Lars; Chen, Edmond; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Pei, Jinglan; Leonardi, Sergio; Rorick, Tyrus L; Kilian, Ann M; Jennings, Lisa H K; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Bode, Christoph; Cequier, Angel; Cornel, Jan H; Diaz, Rafael; Erkan, Aycan; Huber, Kurt; Hudson, Michael P; Jiang, Lixin; Jukema, J Wouter; Lewis, Basil S; Lincoff, A Michael; Montalescot, Gilles; Nicolau, José Carlos; Ogawa, Hisao; Pfisterer, Matthias; Prieto, Juan Carlos; Ruzyllo, Witold; Sinnaeve, Peter R; Storey, Robert F; Valgimigli, Marco; Whellan, David J; Widimsky, Petr; Strony, John; Harrington, Robert A; Mahaffey, Kenneth W

    2012-01-05

    Vorapaxar is a new oral protease-activated-receptor 1 (PAR-1) antagonist that inhibits thrombin-induced platelet activation. In this multinational, double-blind, randomized trial, we compared vorapaxar with placebo in 12,944 patients who had acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation. The primary end point was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, stroke, recurrent ischemia with rehospitalization, or urgent coronary revascularization. Follow-up in the trial was terminated early after a safety review. After a median follow-up of 502 days (interquartile range, 349 to 667), the primary end point occurred in 1031 of 6473 patients receiving vorapaxar versus 1102 of 6471 patients receiving placebo (Kaplan-Meier 2-year rate, 18.5% vs. 19.9%; hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85 to 1.01; P=0.07). A composite of death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke occurred in 822 patients in the vorapaxar group versus 910 in the placebo group (14.7% and 16.4%, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.81 to 0.98; P=0.02). Rates of moderate and severe bleeding were 7.2% in the vorapaxar group and 5.2% in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.58; P<0.001). Intracranial hemorrhage rates were 1.1% and 0.2%, respectively (hazard ratio, 3.39; 95% CI, 1.78 to 6.45; P<0.001). Rates of nonhemorrhagic adverse events were similar in the two groups. In patients with acute coronary syndromes, the addition of vorapaxar to standard therapy did not significantly reduce the primary composite end point but significantly increased the risk of major bleeding, including intracranial hemorrhage. (Funded by Merck; TRACER ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00527943.).

  6. Cannabinoid type 1 receptor antagonists for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Kate; Ussher, Michael H

    2011-03-16

    Selective type 1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor antagonists may assist with smoking cessation by restoring the balance of the endocannabinoid system, which can be disrupted by prolonged use of nicotine. They also seeks to address many smokers' reluctance to persist with a quit attempt because of concerns about weight gain. To determine whether selective CB1 receptor antagonists (currently rimonabant and taranabant) increase the numbers of people stopping smoking To assess their effects on weight change in successful quitters and in those who try to quit but fail. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Review Group specialized register for trials, using the terms ('rimonabant' or 'taranabant') and 'smoking' in the title or abstract, or as keywords. We also searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO, using major MESH terms. We acquired electronic or paper copies of posters of preliminary trial results presented at the American Thoracic Society Meeting in 2005, and at the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco European Meeting 2006. We also attempted to contact the authors of ongoing studies of rimonabant, and Sanofi Aventis (manufacturers of rimonabant). The most recent search was in January 2011. Types of studies Randomized controlled trialsTypes of participants Adult smokersTypes of interventions Selective CB1 receptor antagonists, such as rimonabant and taranabant. Types of outcome measures The primary outcome is smoking status at a minimum of six months after the start of treatment. We preferred sustained cessation rates to point prevalence, and biochemically verified cessation to self-reported quitting. We regarded smokers who drop out or are lost to follow up as continuing smokers. We have noted any adverse effects of treatment.A secondary outcome is weight change associated with the cessation attempt. Two authors checked the abstracts for relevance, and attempted to acquire full trial reports. One author extracted the data, and a second author checked

  7. From Chemotherapy-Induced Emesis to Neuroprotection: Therapeutic Opportunities for 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Fakhfouri, Gohar; Mousavizadeh, Kazem; Mehr, Sharam Ejtemaei; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Zirak, Mohammad Reza; Ghia, Jean-Eric; Rahimian, Reza

    2015-12-01

    5-HT3 receptor antagonists are extensively used as efficacious agents in counteracting chemotherapy-induced emesis. Recent investigations have shed light on other potential effects (analgesic, anxiolytic, and anti-psychotic). Some studies have reported neuroprotective properties for the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in vitro and in vivo. When administered to Aβ-challenged rat cortical neurons, 5-HT3 receptor antagonists substantially abated apoptosis, elevation of cytosolic Ca(2), glutamate release, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and caspase-3 activity. In addition, in vivo studies show that 5-HT3 receptor antagonists possess, alongside their anti-emetic effects, notable immunomodulatory properties in CNS. We found that pretreatment with tropisetron significantly improved neurological deficits and diminished leukocyte transmigration into the brain, TNF-α level, and brain infarction in a murine model of embolic stroke. Our recent investigation revealed that tropisetron protects against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in vivo through both 5-HT3 receptor-dependent and -independent pathways. Tropisetron, in vitro, was found to be an efficacious inhibitor of the signaling pathway leading to the activation of pro-inflammatory NF-κB, a transcription factor pivotal to the upregulation of several neuroinflammatory mediators in brain. This mini review summarizes novel evidence concerning effects of 5-HT3 antagonists and their possible mechanisms of action in ameliorating neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. Further, we discuss some newly synthesized 5-HT3 receptor antagonists with dual properties of 5-HT3 receptor blockade/alpha-7 nicotinic receptor activator and their potential in management of memory impairment. Since 5-HT3 receptor antagonists possess a large therapeutic window, they can constitute a scaffold for design and synthesis of new neuroprotective medications.

  8. Nonpeptidic angiotensin II AT₁ receptor antagonists derived from 6-substituted aminocarbonyl and acylamino benzimidazoles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Wang, Jin-Liang; Yu, Wei-Fa; Zhou, Zhi-Ming; Tao, Wen-Chang; Wang, Yi-Cheng; Xue, Wei-Zhe; Xu, Di; Hao, Li-Ping; Han, Xiao-Feng; Fei, Fan; Liu, Ting; Liang, Ai-Hua

    2013-11-01

    Both 6-substituted aminocarbonyl and acylamino benzimidazole derivatives were designed and synthesized as nonpeptidic angiotensin II AT₁ receptor antagonists. Compounds 6f, 6g, 11e, 11f, 11g, and 12 showed nanomolar AT₁ receptor binding affinity and high AT₁ receptor selectivity over AT₂ receptor in a preliminary pharmacological evaluation. Among them, the two most active compounds 6f (AT₁ IC₅₀ = 3 nM, AT₂ IC₅₀ > 10,000 nM, PA₂ = 8.51) and 11g (AT₁ IC₅₀ = 0.1 nM, AT₂ IC₅₀ = 149 nM, PA₂ = 8.43) exhibited good antagonistic activity in isolated rabbit aortic strip functional assay. In addition, they were orally active AT₁ receptor antagonists in spontaneous hypertensive rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Design of novel neurokinin 1 receptor antagonists based on conformationally constrained aromatic amino acids and discovery of a potent chimeric opioid agonist-neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Ballet, Steven; Feytens, Debby; Buysse, Koen; Chung, Nga N; Lemieux, Carole; Tumati, Suneeta; Keresztes, Attila; Van Duppen, Joost; Lai, Josephine; Varga, Eva; Porreca, Frank; Schiller, Peter W; Vanden Broeck, Jozef; Tourwé, Dirk

    2011-04-14

    A screening of conformationally constrained aromatic amino acids as base cores for the preparation of new NK1 receptor antagonists resulted in the discovery of three new NK1 receptor antagonists, 19 [Ac-Aba-Gly-NH-3',5'-(CF(3))(2)-Bn], 20 [Ac-Aba-Gly-NMe-3',5'-(CF(3))(2)-Bn], and 23 [Ac-Tic-NMe-3',5'-(CF(3))(2)-Bn], which were able to counteract the agonist effect of substance P, the endogenous ligand of NK1R. The most active NK1 antagonist of the series, 20 [Ac-Aba-Gly-NMe-3',5'-(CF(3))(2)-Bn], was then used in the design of a novel, potent chimeric opioid agonist-NK1 receptor antagonist, 35 [Dmt-D-Arg-Aba-Gly-NMe-3',5'-(CF(3))(2)-Bn], which combines the N terminus of the established Dmt(1)-DALDA agonist opioid pharmacophore (H-Dmt-D-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH(2)) and 20, the NK1R ligand. The opioid component of the chimeric compound 35, that is, Dmt-D-Arg-Aba-Gly-NH(2) (36), also proved to be an extremely potent and balanced μ and δ opioid receptor agonist with subnanomolar binding and in vitro functional activity.

  10. Design of novel neurokinin 1 receptor antagonists based on conformationally constrained aromatic amino acids and discovery of a potent chimeric opioid agonist-neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Ballet, Steven; Feytens, Debby; Buysse, Koen; Chung, Nga N.; Lemieux, Carole; Tumati, Suneeta; Keresztes, Attila; Van Duppen, Joost; Lai, Josephine; Varga, Eva; Porreca, Frank; Schiller, Peter W.; Broeck, Jozef Vanden; Tourwé, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    A screening of conformationally constrained aromatic amino acids as base cores for the preparation of new NK1 receptor antagonists resulted in the discovery of three new NK1 receptor antagonists, 19 [Ac-Aba-Gly-NH-3′,5′-(CF3)2-Bn], 20 [Ac-Aba-Gly-NMe-3′,5′-(CF3)2-Bn] and 23 [Ac-Tic-NMe-3′,5′-(CF3)2-Bn], which were able to counteract the agonist effect of substance P, the endogenous ligand of NK1R. The most active NK1 antagonist of the series, 20 [Ac-Aba-Gly-NMe-3′,5′-(CF3)2-Bn], was then used in the design of a novel, potent chimeric opioid agonist-NK1 receptor antagonist, 35 [Dmt-D-Arg-Aba-Gly-NMe-3′,5′-(CF3)2-Bn], which combines the N-terminus of the established Dmt1-DALDA agonist opioid pharmacophore (H-Dmt-D-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH2) and 20, the NK1R ligand. The opioid component of the chimeric compound 35, i.e. Dmt-D-Arg-Aba-Gly-NH2 36, also proved to be an extremely potent and balanced μ- and δ opioid receptor agonist with subnanomolar binding and in vitro functional activity. PMID:21413804

  11. Ethanol and Caffeine Effects on Social Interaction and Recognition in Mice: Involvement of Adenosine A2A and A1 Receptors.

    PubMed

    López-Cruz, Laura; San-Miguel, Noemí; Bayarri, Pilar; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E; Salamone, John D; Correa, Mercé

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol and caffeine are frequently consumed in combination and have opposite effects on the adenosine system: ethanol metabolism leads to an increase in adenosine levels, while caffeine is a non-selective adenosine A 1 /A 2A receptor antagonist. These receptors are highly expressed in striatum and olfactory tubercle, brain areas involved in exploration and social interaction in rodents. Ethanol modulates social interaction processes, but the role of adenosine in social behavior is still poorly understood. The present work was undertaken to study the impact of ethanol, caffeine and their combination on social behavior, and to explore the involvement of A 1 and A 2A receptors on those actions. Male CD1 mice were evaluated in a social interaction three-chamber paradigm, for preference of conspecific vs. object, and also for long-term recognition memory of familiar vs. novel conspecific. Ethanol showed a biphasic effect, with low doses (0.25 g/kg) increasing social contact and higher doses (1.0-1.5 g/kg) reducing social interaction. However, no dose changed social preference; mice always spent more time sniffing the conspecific than the object, independently of the ethanol dose. Ethanol, even at doses that did not change social exploration, produced amnestic effects on social recognition the following day. Caffeine reduced social contact (15.0-60.0 mg/kg), and even blocked social preference at higher doses (30.0-60.0 mg/kg). The A 1 antagonist Cyclopentyltheophylline (CPT; 3-9 mg/kg) did not modify social contact or preference on its own, and the A 2A antagonist MSX-3 (1.5-6 mg/kg) increased social interaction at all doses. Ethanol at intermediate doses (0.5-1.0 g/kg) was able to reverse the reduction in social exploration induced by caffeine (15.0-30.0 mg/kg). Although there was no interaction between ethanol and CPT or MSX-3 on social exploration in the first day, MSX-3 blocked the amnestic effects of ethanol observed on the following day. Thus, ethanol impairs the

  12. NOP Receptor Mediates Anti-analgesia Induced by Agonist-Antagonist Opioids

    PubMed Central

    Gear, Robert W.; Bogen, Oliver; Ferrari, Luiz F.; Green, Paul G.; Levine, Jon D.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown that agonist-antagonist opioid analgesics that produce their analgesic effect via action on the kappa-opioid receptor, produce a delayed-onset anti-analgesia in men but not women, an effect blocked by co-administration of a low dose of naloxone. We now report the same time-dependent anti-analgesia and its underlying mechanism in an animal model. Using the Randall-Selitto paw-withdrawal assay in male rats, we found that nalbuphine, pentazocine, and butorphanol each produced analgesia during the first hour followed by anti-analgesia starting at ~90 minutes after administration in males but not females, closely mimicking its clinical effects. As observed in humans, co-administration of nalbuphine with naloxone in a dose ratio of 12.5:1 blocked anti-analgesia but not analgesia. Administration of the highly selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69,593 produced analgesia without subsequent anti-analgesia, and confirmed by the failure of the selective kappa antagonist nor-binaltorphimine to block nalbuphine-induced anti-analgesia, indicating that anti-analgesia is not mediated by kappa-opioid receptors. We therefore tested the role of other receptors in nalbuphine anti-analgesia. Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (NOP) and sigma-1 and sigma-2 receptors were chosen on the basis of their known anti-analgesic effects and receptor binding studies. The selective NOP receptor antagonists, JTC801, and J113397, but not the sigma receptor antagonist, BD 1047, antagonized nalbuphine anti-analgesia. Furthermore, the NOP receptor agonist NNC 63-0532 produced anti-analgesia with the same delay in onset observed with the three agonist-antagonists, but without producing preceding analgesia and this anti-analgesia was also blocked by naloxone. These results strongly support the suggestion that clinically used agonist-antagonists act at the NOP receptor to produce anti-analgesia. PMID:24188792

  13. [The potential of group II metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonists as a novel antidepressant].

    PubMed

    Chaki, Shigeyuki

    2012-08-01

    Recently, abnormalities of glutamatergic transmission have been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. Moreover, both ketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, and riluzole, a modulator of glutamatergic, transmission have been reported to be effective for the treatment of patients with treatment-refractory depression. Based on these findings, extensive studies to develop agents acting on glutamatergic transmission have been conducted. Glutamate receptors are divided into two main subtypes, ionotropic glutamate receptors and metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors, both of which have subtypes. Of these, much attention has been paid to mGlu2/3 receptors. mGlu2/3 receptor antagonists such as MGS0039 and LY341495 have been reported to exert antidepressant effects in animal models of depression including the forced swim test, tail suspension test, learned helplessness paradigm, olfactory bulmectomy model and isolation rearing model, and to enhance serotonin release in the prefrontal cortex and dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. Moreover, activation of AMPA receptor and mTOR signaling have been suggested to be involved in the antidepressant effects of mGlu2/3 receptor antagonists, as demonstrated in the actions of ketamine. Thus, mGlu2/3 receptor antagonists may share some neural networks with ketamine in exerting their antidepressant effects. In addition, the potential of other agents targeting glutamatergic transmission for novel antidepressants is being investigated.

  14. Melanocortin Antagonist Tetrapeptides with Minimal Agonist Activity at the Mouse Melanocortin-3 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The melanocortin system regulates many important functions in the body. There are five melanocortin G protein-coupled receptor subtypes known to date. Herein, we report a structure–activity relationship (SAR) study of a tetrapeptide lead discovered through a double substitution strategy at the melanocortin core His-Phe-Arg-Trp sequence. Several compounds were identified with micromolar agonist activity at the mouse melanocortin-1 (mMC1R) and mouse melanocortin-5 receptor (mMC5R) subtypes, weak antagonist activity at the mouse melanocortin-3 receptor (mMC3R), and potent antagonist activity at the mouse melanocortin-4 receptor (mMC4R). Two compounds (2 and 3) were nanomolar mMC4R antagonists with no mMC3R antagonist activity observed. Additionally, we identified three tetrapeptide MC3R antagonists (1, 6, and 7) that possess minimal mMC3R agonist activity only at 100 μM, not commonly observed for mMC3R/mMC4R antagonists. These novel molecular templates have the potential as molecular probes to better differentiate the roles of the centrally expressed MC3 and MC4 receptors. PMID:25699138

  15. Differential effects of presynaptic versus postsynaptic adenosine A2A receptor blockade on Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) self-administration in squirrel monkeys.

    PubMed

    Justinová, Zuzana; Redhi, Godfrey H; Goldberg, Steven R; Ferré, Sergi

    2014-05-07

    Different doses of an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3 [3,7-dihydro-8-[(1E)-2-(3-ethoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-7 methyl-3-[3-(phosphooxy)propyl-1-(2 propynil)-1H-purine-2,6-dione] were found previously to either decrease or increase self-administration of cannabinoids delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or anandamide in squirrel monkeys. It was hypothesized that the decrease observed with a relatively low dose of MSX-3 was related to blockade of striatal presynaptic A2A receptors that modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission, whereas the increase observed with a higher dose was related to blockade of postsynaptic A2A receptors localized in striatopallidal neurons. This hypothesis was confirmed in the present study by testing the effects of the preferential presynaptic and postsynaptic A2A receptor antagonists SCH-442416 [2-(2-furanyl)-7-[3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propyl]-7H-pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidin-5-amine] and KW-6002 [(E)-1, 3-diethyl-8-(3,4-dimethoxystyryl)-7-methyl-3,7-dihydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione], respectively, in squirrel monkeys trained to intravenously self-administer THC. SCH-442416 produced a significant shift to the right of the THC self-administration dose-response curves, consistent with antagonism of the reinforcing effects of THC. Conversely, KW-6002 produced a significant shift to the left, consistent with potentiation of the reinforcing effects of THC. These results show that selectively blocking presynaptic A2A receptors could provide a new pharmacological approach to the treatment of marijuana dependence and underscore corticostriatal glutamatergic neurotransmission as a possible main mechanism involved in the rewarding effects of THC.

  16. Blockade of adenosine A2A receptors recovers early deficits of memory and plasticity in the triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Silva, António C; Lemos, Cristina; Gonçalves, Francisco Q; Pliássova, Anna V; Machado, Nuno J; Silva, Henrique B; Canas, Paula M; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Lopes, João Pedro; Agostinho, Paula

    2018-05-31

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) begins with a deficit of synaptic function and adenosine A 2A receptors (A 2A R) are mostly located in synapses controlling synaptic plasticity. The over-activation of adenosine A 2A receptors (A 2A R) causes memory deficits and the blockade of A 2A R prevents memory damage in AD models. We now enquired if this prophylactic role of A 2A R might be extended to a therapeutic potential. We used the triple transgenic model of AD (3xTg-AD) and defined that the onset of memory dysfunction occurred at 4 months of age in the absence of locomotor or emotional alterations. At the onset of memory deficits, 3xTg mice displayed a decreased density of markers of excitatory synapses (10.6 ± 3.8% decrease of vGluT1) without neuronal or glial overt damage and an increase of synaptic A 2A R in the hippocampus (130 ± 22%). After the onset of memory deficits in 3xTg-AD mice, a three weeks treatment with the selective A 2A R antagonist normalized the up-regulation of hippocampal A 2A R and restored hippocampal-dependent reference memory, as well as the decrease of hippocampal synaptic plasticity (60.0 ± 3.7% decrease of long-term potentiation amplitude) and the decrease of global (syntaxin-I) and glutamatergic synaptic markers (vGluT1). These findings show a therapeutic-like ability of A 2A R antagonists to recover synaptic and memory dysfunction in early AD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Blockade of Cocaine or σ Receptor Agonist Self Administration by Subtype-Selective σ Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Katz, Jonathan L; Hiranita, Takato; Kopajtic, Theresa A; Rice, Kenner C; Mesangeau, Christophe; Narayanan, Sanju; Abdelazeem, Ahmed H; McCurdy, Christopher R

    2016-07-01

    The identification of sigma receptor (σR) subtypes has been based on radioligand binding and, despite progress with σ1R cellular function, less is known about σR subtype functions in vivo. Recent findings that cocaine self administration experience will trigger σR agonist self administration was used in this study to assess the in vivo receptor subtype specificity of the agonists (+)-pentazocine, PRE-084 [2-(4-morpholinethyl) 1-phenylcyclohexanecarboxylate hydrochloride], and 1,3-di-o-tolylguanidine (DTG) and several novel putative σR antagonists. Radioligand binding studies determined in vitro σR selectivity of the novel compounds, which were subsequently studied for self administration and antagonism of cocaine, (+)-pentazocine, PRE-084, or DTG self administration. Across the dose ranges studied, none of the novel compounds were self administered, nor did they alter cocaine self administration. All compounds blocked DTG self administration, with a subset also blocking (+)-pentazocine and PRE-084 self administration. The most selective of the compounds in binding σ1Rs blocked cocaine self administration when combined with a dopamine transport inhibitor, either methylphenidate or nomifensine. These drug combinations did not decrease rates of responding maintained by food reinforcement. In contrast, the most selective of the compounds in binding σ2Rs had no effect on cocaine self administration in combination with either dopamine transport inhibitor. Thus, these results identify subtype-specific in vivo antagonists, and the utility of σR agonist substitution for cocaine self administration as an assay capable of distinguishing σR subtype selectivity in vivo. These results further suggest that effectiveness of dual σR antagonism and dopamine transport inhibition in blocking cocaine self administration is specific for σ1Rs and further support this dual targeting approach to development of cocaine antagonists. U.S. Government work not protected by U

  18. Blockade of Cocaine or σ Receptor Agonist Self Administration by Subtype-Selective σ Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Hiranita, Takato; Kopajtic, Theresa A.; Rice, Kenner C.; Mesangeau, Christophe; Narayanan, Sanju; Abdelazeem, Ahmed H.; McCurdy, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    The identification of sigma receptor (σR) subtypes has been based on radioligand binding and, despite progress with σ1R cellular function, less is known about σR subtype functions in vivo. Recent findings that cocaine self administration experience will trigger σR agonist self administration was used in this study to assess the in vivo receptor subtype specificity of the agonists (+)-pentazocine, PRE-084 [2-(4-morpholinethyl) 1-phenylcyclohexanecarboxylate hydrochloride], and 1,3-di-o-tolylguanidine (DTG) and several novel putative σR antagonists. Radioligand binding studies determined in vitro σR selectivity of the novel compounds, which were subsequently studied for self administration and antagonism of cocaine, (+)-pentazocine, PRE-084, or DTG self administration. Across the dose ranges studied, none of the novel compounds were self administered, nor did they alter cocaine self administration. All compounds blocked DTG self administration, with a subset also blocking (+)-pentazocine and PRE-084 self administration. The most selective of the compounds in binding σ1Rs blocked cocaine self administration when combined with a dopamine transport inhibitor, either methylphenidate or nomifensine. These drug combinations did not decrease rates of responding maintained by food reinforcement. In contrast, the most selective of the compounds in binding σ2Rs had no effect on cocaine self administration in combination with either dopamine transport inhibitor. Thus, these results identify subtype-specific in vivo antagonists, and the utility of σR agonist substitution for cocaine self administration as an assay capable of distinguishing σR subtype selectivity in vivo. These results further suggest that effectiveness of dual σR antagonism and dopamine transport inhibition in blocking cocaine self administration is specific for σ1Rs and further support this dual targeting approach to development of cocaine antagonists. PMID:27189970

  19. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in kidney transplantation: time to consider?

    PubMed

    Girerd, Sophie; Jaisser, Frédéric

    2018-04-17

    Although patient survival is significantly improved by kidney transplantation (KT) in comparison with dialysis, it remains significantly lower than that observed in the general population. Graft function is one of the major determinants of patient survival after KT. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) could be of particular interest in this population to improve graft function and treat or prevent cardiovascular (CV) complications. In KT, ischaemia/reperfusion injury is a major factor involved in delayed graft function, which is often associated with inferior long-term graft survival. Preclinical studies suggest that MRAs may prevent ischaemia/reperfusion-related lesions in addition to having a protective effect in preventing calcineurin inhibitor-induced nephrotoxicity. Clinical data also support the anti-proteinuric effect of MRAs in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Taken together, MRAs may hence be of particular benefit in improving short- and long-term graft function. Numerous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown the efficacy of MRAs in both heart failure and resistant hypertension. As these comorbidities are frequent in kidney transplant recipients before transplantation or during follow-up, MRAs could represent a useful therapeutic option in those with mild renal function impairment. However, CKD patients are under-represented in RCTs and the CV effects of MRAs in kidney transplant recipients have yet to be specifically assessed in large-scale trials. Available evidence indicates a good safety profile for MRAs in patients with a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) >30 mL/min/1.73 m2. However, as for all patients prescribed an MRA, creatinine and potassium should also be closely monitored following MRA initiation in kidney transplant patients. Given the current evidence suggesting that MRAs prevent ischaemia/reperfusion-related lesions and calcineurin inhibitor-induced nephrotoxicity in kidney transplant recipients as well as CV events in

  20. Change in pharmacological effect of endothelin receptor antagonists in rats with pulmonary hypertension: Role of ETB-receptor expression levels

    PubMed Central

    Sauvageau, Stéphanie; Thorin, Eric; Villeneuve, Louis; Dupuis, Jocelyn

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose The endothelin (ET) system is activated in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The therapeutic value of pharmacological blockade of ET receptors has been demonstrated in various animal models and led to the current approval and continued development of these drugs for the therapy of human PAH. However, we currently incompletely comprehend what local modifications of this system occur as a consequence of PAH, particularly in small resistance arteries, and how this could affect the pharmacological response to ET receptor antagonists with various selectivities for the receptor subtypes. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to evaluate potential modifications of the pharmacology of the ET system in rat pulmonary resistance arteries from monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension. Experimental approach ET-1 levels were quantified by ELISA. PreproET-1, ETA and ETB receptor mRNA expressions were quantified in pulmonary resistance arteries using Q-PCR, while protein expression was evaluated by Western blots. Reactivity to ET-1 of isolated pulmonary resistance arteries was measured in the presence of ETA (A-147627), ETB (A-192621) and dual ETA/B (bosentan) receptor antagonists. Key results In rats with PAH, plasma ET-1 increased (p < 0.001) while pulmonary levels were reduced (p < 0.05). In PAH arteries, preproET-1 (p < 0.05) and ETB receptor (p < 0.001) gene expressions were reduced, as were ETB receptor protein levels (p < 0.05). ET-1 induced similar vasoconstrictions in both groups. In arteries from sham animals, neither bosentan nor the ETA or the ETB receptor antagonists modified the response. In arteries from PAH rats, however, bosentan and the ETA receptor antagonist potently reduced the maximal contraction, while bosentan also reduced sensitivity (p < 0.01). Conclusions and implications The effectiveness of both selective ETA and dual ETA/B receptor antagonists is markedly increased in PAH. Down-regulation of

  1. Design and Synthesis of Benzimidazoles As Novel Corticotropin-Releasing Factor 1 Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Michiyo; Kori, Masakuni; Kobayashi, Katsumi; Yano, Takahiko; Sako, Yuu; Tanaka, Maiko; Kanzaki, Naoyuki; Gyorkos, Albert C; Corrette, Christopher P; Cho, Suk Young; Pratt, Scott A; Aso, Kazuyoshi

    2016-03-24

    Benzazole derivatives with a flexible aryl group bonded through a one-atom linker as a new scaffold for a corticotropin-releasing factor 1 (CRF1) receptor antagonist were designed, synthesized, and evaluated. We expected that structural diversity could be expanded beyond that of reported CRF1 receptor antagonists. In a structure-activity relationship study, 4-chloro-N(2)-(4-chloro-2-methoxy-6-methylphenyl)-1-methyl-N(7),N(7)-dipropyl-1H-benzimidazole-2,7-diamine 29g had the most potent binding activity against a human CRF1 receptor and the antagonistic activity (IC50 = 9.5 and 88 nM, respectively) without concerns regarding cytotoxicity at 30 μM. Potent CRF1 receptor-binding activity in brain in an ex vivo test and suppression of stress-induced activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis were also observed at 138 μmol/kg of compound 29g after oral administration in mice. Thus, the newly designed benzimidazole 29g showed in vivo CRF1 receptor antagonistic activity and good brain penetration, indicating that it is a promising lead for CRF1 receptor antagonist drug discovery research.

  2. Heterogeneity of binding of muscarinic receptor antagonists in rat brain homogenates

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.H.; el-Fakahany, E.E.

    1985-06-01

    The binding properties of (-)-(/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate and (/sup 3/H) N-methylscopolamine to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors have been investigated in rat brain homogenates. The binding of both antagonists demonstrated high affinity and saturability. Analysis of the binding data resulted in linear Scatchard plots. However, (-)-(/sup 3/H)quinuclidinyl benzilate showed a significantly higher maximal binding capacity than that of (/sup 3/H)N-methylscopolamine. Displacement of both ligands with several muscarinic receptor antagonists resulted in competition curves in accordance with the law of mass-action for quinuclidinyl benzilate, atropine and scopolamine. A similar profile was found for the quaternary ammonium analogs of atropine and scopolamine when (/supmore » 3/H)N-methylscopolamine was used to label the receptors. However, when these hydrophilic antagonists were used to displace (-)-(/sup 3/H) quinuclidinyl benzilate binding, they showed interaction with high- and low-affinity binding sites. On the other hand, the nonclassical muscarinic receptor antagonist, pirenzepine, was able to displace both ligands from two binding sites. The present data are discussed in terms of the relationship of this anomalous heterogenity of binding of these hydrophilic muscarinic receptor antagonists and the proposed M1 and M2 receptor subtypes.« less

  3. Beneficial effects of a novel agonist of the adenosine A2A receptor on monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats

    PubMed Central

    Alencar, Allan K N; Pereira, Sharlene L; Montagnoli, Tadeu L; Maia, Rodolfo C; Kümmerle, Arthur E; Landgraf, Sharon S; Caruso-Neves, Celso; Ferraz, Emanuelle B; Tesch, Roberta; Nascimento, José H M; de Sant'Anna, Carlos M R; Fraga, Carlos A M; Barreiro, Eliezer J; Sudo, Roberto T; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by enhanced pulmonary vascular resistance, right ventricular hypertrophy and increased right ventricular systolic pressure. Here, we investigated the effects of a N-acylhydrazone derivative, 3,4-dimethoxyphenyl-N-methyl-benzoylhydrazide (LASSBio-1359), on monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats. Experimental Approach PAH was induced in male Wistar rats by a single i.p. injection of MCT (60 mg·kg−1) and 2 weeks later, oral LASSBio-1359 (50 mg·kg−1) or vehicle was given once daily for 14 days. Echocardiography was used to measure cardiac function and pulmonary artery dimensions, with histological assay of vascular collagen. Studies of binding to human recombinant adenosine receptors (A1, A2A, A3) and of docking with A2A receptors were also performed. Key Results MCT administration induced changes in vascular and ventricular structure and function, characteristic of PAH. These changes were reversed by treatment with LASSBio-1359. MCT also induced endothelial dysfunction in pulmonary artery, as measured by diminished relaxation of pre-contracted arterial rings, and this dysfunction was reversed by LASSBio-1359. In pulmonary artery rings from normal Wistar rats, LASSBio-1359 induced relaxation, which was decreased by the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, ZM 241385. In adenosine receptor binding studies, LASSBio-1359 showed most affinity for the A2A receptor and in the docking analyses, binding modes of LASSBio-1359 and the A2A receptor agonist, CGS21680, were very similar. Conclusion and Implications In rats with MCT-induced PAH, structural and functional changes in heart and pulmonary artery were reversed by treatment with oral LASSBio-1359, most probably through the activation of adenosine A2A receptors. PMID:23530610

  4. Tryptophanol-derived oxazolopiperidone lactams: identification of a hit compound as NMDA receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Nuno A L; Sureda, Francesc X; Esplugas, Roser; Pérez, Maria; Amat, Mercedes; Santos, Maria M M

    2014-08-01

    N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) exacerbated activation leads to neuron death through a phenomenon called excitotoxicity. These receptors are implicated in several neurological diseases (e.g., Alzheimer and Parkinson) and thus represent an important therapeutic target. We herein describe the study of enantiopure tryptophanol-derived oxazolopiperidone lactams as NMDA receptor antagonists. The most active hit exhibited an IC50 of 63.4 μM in cultured rat cerebellar granule neurons thus being 1.5 fold more active than clinically approved NMDA antagonist amantadine (IC50=92 μM). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The role of adenosine receptor agonist and antagonist on Hippocampal MDMA detrimental effects; a structural and behavioral study.

    PubMed

    Kermanian, Fatemeh; Mehdizadeh, Mehdi; Soleimani, Mansureh; Ebrahimzadeh Bideskan, Ali Reza; Asadi-Shekaari, Majid; Kheradmand, Hamed; Haghir, Hossein

    2012-12-01

    There is abundant evidence showing that repeated use of MDMA (3, 4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine, ecstasy) has been associated with depression, anxiety and deficits in learning and memory, suggesting detrimental effects on hippocampus. Adenosine is an endogenous purine nucleoside that has a neuromodulatory role in the central nervous system. In the present study, we investigated the role of A2a adenosine receptors agonist (CGS) and antagonist (SCH) on the body temperature, learning deficits, and hippocampal cell death induced by MDMA administration. In this study, 63 adult, male, Sprague - Dawley rats were subjected to MDMA (10 and 20 mg/kg) followed by intraperitoneal CGS (0.03 mg/kg) or SCH (0.03 mg/kg) injection. The animals were tested for spatial learning in the Morris water maze (MWM) task performance, accompanied by a recording of body temperature, electron microscopy and stereological study. Our results showed that MDMA treatment increased body temperature significantly, and impaired the ability of rats to locate the hidden platform(P < 0.05). The number of hippocampal dark neurons also increased especially in CA1. These impairments were aggravated by co-administration of A2a antagonist (SCH) with MDMA. Furthermore, the administration of the A2a receptor agonist (CGS) provided partial protection against MWM deficits and hippocampal cell death(P < 0.05). This study provides for the first time evidence that, in contrast to A2a antagonist (SCH) effects, co-administration of A2a agonist (CGS) with MDMA can protect against MDMA hippocampal neurotoxic effects; providing a potential value in the prevention of learning deficits observed in MDMA users. However, the exact mechanism of these interactions requires further studies.

  6. Arousal effect of caffeine depends on adenosine A2A receptors in the shell of the nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, Michael; Shen, Hai-Ying; Cherasse, Yoan; Qu, Wei-Min; Huang, Zhi-Li; Bass, Caroline E.; Winsky-Sommerer, Raphaelle; Semba, Kazue; Fredholm, Bertil B.; Boison, Detlev; Hayaishi, Osamu; Urade, Yoshihiro; Chen, Jiang-Fan

    2011-01-01

    Caffeine, the most widely used psychoactive compound, is an adenosine receptor antagonist. It promotes wakefulness by blocking adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) in the brain, but the specific neurons on which caffeine acts to produce arousal have not been identified. Using selective gene deletion strategies based on the Cre/loxP technology in mice and focal RNA interference to silence the expression of A2ARs in rats by local infection with adeno-associated virus carrying short-hairpin RNA, we report that the A2ARs in the shell region of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) are responsible for the effect of caffeine on wakefulness. Caffeine-induced arousal was not affected in rats when A2ARs were focally removed from the NAc core or other A2AR-positive areas of the basal ganglia. Our observations suggest that caffeine promotes arousal by activating pathways that traditionally have been associated with motivational and motor responses in the brain. PMID:21734299

  7. Mechanism of action of a nanomolar potent, allosteric antagonist of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor

    PubMed Central

    van Koppen, Chris J; de Gooyer, Marcel E; Karstens, Willem-Jan; Plate, Ralf; Conti, Paolo GM; van Achterberg, Tanja AE; van Amstel, Monique GA; Brands, Jolanda HGM; Wat, Jesse; Berg, Rob JW; Lane, J Robert D; Miltenburg, Andre MM; Timmers, C Marco

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Graves' disease (GD) is an autoimmune disease in which the thyroid is overactive, producing excessive amounts of thyroid hormones, caused by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor-stimulating immunoglobulins (TSIs). Many GD patients also suffer from thyroid eye disease (Graves' ophthalmopathy or GO), as TSIs also activate TSH receptors in orbital tissue. We recently developed low molecular weight (LMW) TSH receptor antagonists as a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of GD and GO. Here, we determined the molecular pharmacology of a prototypic, nanomolar potent LMW TSH receptor antagonist, Org 274179-0. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Using CHO cells heterogeneously expressing human TSH receptors and rat FRTL-5 cells endogenously expressing rat TSH receptors, we determined the potency and efficacy of Org 274179-0 at antagonizing TSH- and TSI-induced TSH receptor signalling and its cross-reactivity at related follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone receptors. We analysed the allosteric mode of interaction of Org 274179-0 and determined whether it is an inverse agonist at five naturally occurring, constitutively active TSH receptor mutants. KEY RESULTS Nanomolar concentrations of Org 274179-0 completely inhibited TSH (and TSI)-mediated TSH receptor activation with little effect on the potency of TSH, in accordance with an allosteric mechanism of action. Conversely, increasing levels of TSH receptor stimulation only marginally reduced the antagonist potency of Org 274179-0. Org 274179-0 fully blocked the increased basal activity of all the constitutively active TSH receptor mutants tested with nanomolar potencies. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Nanomolar potent TSH receptor antagonists like Org 274179-0 have therapeutic potential for the treatment of GD and GO. PMID:22014107

  8. MitoPark mice, an animal model of Parkinson's disease, show enhanced prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle and no loss of gating in response to the adenosine A(2A) antagonist SCH 412348.

    PubMed

    Grauer, Steven M; Hodgson, Robert; Hyde, Lynn A

    2014-04-01

    Psychoses are debilitating side effects associated with current dopaminergic treatments for Parkinson's disease (PD). Prepulse inhibition (PPI), in which a non-startling stimulus reduces startle response to a subsequent startle-eliciting stimulus, is important in filtering out extraneous sensory stimuli. PPI deficits induced by dopamine agonists can model symptoms of psychosis. Adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists, being developed as novel PD treatments, indirectly modulate dopamine signaling in the basal ganglia and may have an improved psychosis profile which could be detected using the PPI model. The aims of this study is to characterize PPI in MitoPark mice, which exhibit progressive loss of dopamine signaling and develop a Parkinson-like motor phenotype, and assess standard and novel PD treatment effects on PPI in MitoPark mice, which more closely mimic the basal ganglia dopamine status of PD patients. MitoPark mice displayed enhanced PPI as dopamine tone decreased with age, consistent with studies in intact mice that show enhanced PPI in response to dopamine antagonists. Paradoxically, older MitoParks were more sensitive to PPI disruption when challenged with dopamine agonists such as apomorphine or pramipexole. Alternatively, SCH 412348, an adenosine A(2A) antagonist, did not disrupt PPI in MitoPark mice at doses that normalized hypoactivity. Use of MitoPark mice in the PPI assay to assess the potential for PD treatment to produce psychoses likely represents a more disease-relevant model. SCH 412348 does not differentially disrupt PPI as do dopamine agonists, perhaps indicative of an improved psychosis profile of adenosine A(2A) antagonists, even in PD patients with decreased dopamine tone in the basal ganglia.

  9. Behavioral, biological, and chemical perspectives on targeting CRF1 receptor antagonists to treat alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Zorrilla, Eric P.; Heilig, Markus; de Wit, Harriet; Shaham, Yavin

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol use disorders are chronic disabling conditions for which existing pharmacotherapies have only modest efficacy. In the present review, derived from the 2012 Behavior, Biology and Chemistry “Translational Research in Addiction” symposium, we summarize the anti-relapse potential of corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 (CRF1) receptor antagonists to reduce negative emotional symptoms of acute and protracted alcohol withdrawal and stress-induced relapse to alcohol seeking. Methods We review the biology of CRF1 systems, the activity of CRF1 receptor antagonists in animal models of anxiolytic and antidepressant activity, and experimental findings in alcohol addiction models. We also update the clinical trial status of CRF1 receptor antagonists, including pexacerfont (BMS-562086), emicerfont (GW876008), verucerfont (GSK561679), CP316311, SSR125543A, R121919/NBI30775, R317573/19567470/CRA5626, and ONO-2333Ms. Finally, we discuss the potential heterogeneity and pharmacogenomics of CRF1 receptor pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence. Results The evidence suggests that brain penetrant-CRF1 receptor antagonists have therapeutic potential for alcohol dependence. Lead compounds with clinically desirable pharmacokinetic properties now exist, and longer receptor residence rates (i.e., slow dissociation) may predict greater CRF1 receptor antagonist efficacy. Functional variants in genes that encode CRF system molecules, including polymorphisms in Crhr1 (rs110402, rs1876831, rs242938) and Crhbp genes (rs10055255, rs3811939) may promote alcohol seeking and consumption by altering basal or stress-induced CRF system activation. Conclusions Ongoing clinical trials with pexacerfont and verucerfont in moderately to highly severe dependent anxious alcoholics may yield insight as to the role of CRF1 receptor antagonists in a personalized medicine approach to treat drug or alcohol dependence. PMID:23294766

  10. Dopamine D2 Antagonist-Induced Striatal Nur77 Expression Requires Activation of mGlu5 Receptors by Cortical Afferents

    PubMed Central

    Maheux, Jérôme; St-Hilaire, Michel; Voyer, David; Tirotta, Emanuele; Borrelli, Emiliana; Rouillard, Claude; Rompré, Pierre-Paul; Lévesque, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine D2 receptor antagonists modulate gene transcription in the striatum. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this effect remains elusive. Here we used the expression of Nur77, a transcription factor of the orphan nuclear receptor family, as readout to explore the role of dopamine, glutamate, and adenosine receptors in the effect of a dopamine D2 antagonist in the striatum. First, we investigated D2 antagonist-induced Nur77 mRNA in D2L receptor knockout mice. Surprisingly, deletion of the D2L receptor isoform did not reduce eticlopride-induced upregulation of Nur77 mRNA levels in the striatum. Next, we tested if an ibotenic acid-induced cortical lesion could block the effect of eticlopride on Nur77 expression. Cortical lesions strongly reduced eticlopride-induced striatal upregulation of Nur77 mRNA. Then, we investigated if glutamatergic neurotransmission could modulate eticlopride-induced Nur77 expression. A combination of a metabotropic glutamate type 5 (mGlu5) and adenosine A2A receptor antagonists abolished eticlopride-induced upregulation of Nur77 mRNA levels in the striatum. Direct modulation of Nur77 expression by striatal glutamate and adenosine receptors was confirmed using corticostriatal organotypic cultures. Taken together, these results indicate that blockade of postsynaptic D2 receptors is not sufficient to trigger striatal transcriptional activity and that interaction with corticostriatal presynaptic D2 receptors and subsequent activation of postsynaptic glutamate and adenosine receptors in the striatum is required. Thus, these results uncover an unappreciated role of presynaptic D2 heteroreceptors and support a prominent role of glutamate in the effect of D2 antagonists. PMID:22912617

  11. Combining the α1-Adrenergic Receptor Antagonist, Prazosin, with the β-Adrenergic Receptor Antagonist, Propranolol, Reduces Alcohol Drinking More Effectively Than Either Drug Alone

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Dennis D; Beckwith, Lauren E; Kincaid, Carrie L; Froehlich, Janice C

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that activation of the noradrenergic system may contribute to alcohol drinking in animals and humans. Our previous studies demonstrated that blocking α1-adrenergic receptors with the antagonist, prazosin, decreased alcohol drinking in rats under various conditions. Since noradrenergic activation is also regulated by β-adrenergic receptors, we now examine the effects of the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, propranolol, alone or in combination with prazosin, on alcohol drinking in rats selectively bred for high voluntary alcohol intake and alcohol preference (P line). Methods Two studies were conducted with male P rats. In study one, rats were allowed to become alcohol-dependent during 14 weeks of ad libitum access to food, water and 20% alcohol and the effect of propranolol (5–15 mg/kg, IP) and prazosin (1–2 mg/kg, IP) on alcohol intake during withdrawal were assessed. In study two, the effect of propranolol (5 mg/kg, IP) and prazosin (2 mg/kg, IP) on alcohol intake following prolonged imposed abstinence was assessed. Results Alcohol drinking following propranolol treatment was variable, but the combination of propranolol + prazosin consistently suppressed alcohol drinking during both alcohol withdrawal and following prolonged imposed abstinence, and the combination of these two drugs was more effective than was treatment with either drug alone. Conclusions Treatment with prazosin + propranolol, or a combination of other centrally active α1- and β-adrenergic receptor antagonists, may assist in preventing alcohol relapse in some individuals. PMID:24891220

  12. The A2A adenosine receptor rescues the urea cycle deficiency of Huntington's disease by enhancing the activity of the ubiquitin-proteasome system.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Ming-Chang; Chen, Hui-Mei; Lai, Hsing-Lin; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Chou, Szu-Yi; Chen, Chiung-Mei; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Chern, Yijuang

    2009-08-15

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by a CAG trinucleotide expansion in the Huntingtin (Htt) gene. The resultant mutant Htt protein (mHtt) forms aggregates in the brain and several peripheral tissues (e.g. the liver) and causes devastating neuronal degeneration. Metabolic defects resulting from Htt aggregates in peripheral tissues also contribute to HD pathogenesis. Simultaneous improvement of defects in both the CNS and peripheral tissues is thus the most effective therapeutic strategy and is highly desirable. We earlier showed that an agonist of the A(2A) adenosine receptor (A(2A) receptor), CGS21680 (CGS), attenuates neuronal symptoms of HD. We found herein that the A(2A) receptor also exists in the liver, and that CGS ameliorated the urea cycle deficiency by reducing mHtt aggregates in the liver. By suppressing aggregate formation, CGS slowed the hijacking of a crucial transcription factor (HSF1) and two protein chaperons (Hsp27 and Hsp70) into hepatic Htt aggregates. Moreover, the abnormally high levels of high-molecular-mass ubiquitin conjugates in the liver of an HD mouse model (R6/2) were also ameliorated by CGS. The protective effect of CGS against mHtt-induced aggregate formation was reproduced in two cells lines and was prevented by an antagonist of the A(2A) receptor and a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor. Most importantly, the mHtt-induced suppression of proteasome activity was also normalized by CGS through PKA. Our findings reveal a novel therapeutic pathway of A(2A) receptors in HD and further strengthen the concept that the A(2A) receptor can be a drug target in treating HD.

  13. CCR5 receptor antagonists: discovery and SAR study of guanylhydrazone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Wei, Robert G; Arnaiz, Damian O; Chou, Yuo-Ling; Davey, Dave; Dunning, Laura; Lee, Wheeseong; Lu, Shou-Fu; Onuffer, James; Ye, Bin; Phillips, Gary

    2007-01-01

    High throughput screening (HTS) led to the identification of the guanylhydrazone of 2-(4-chlorobenzyloxy)-5-bromobenzaldehyde as a CCR5 receptor antagonist. Initial modifications of the guanylhydrazone series indicated that substitution of the benzyl group at the para-position was well tolerated. Substitution at the 5-position of the central phenyl ring was critical for potency. Replacement of the guanylhydrazone group led to the discovery of a novel series of CCR5 antagonists.

  14. Agonists and antagonists acting at P2X receptors: selectivity profiles and functional implications.

    PubMed

    Lambrecht, G

    2000-11-01

    P2X receptors are nucleotide-gated cation channels composed of homomeric or heteromeric assemblies of three subunits. In the past 7 years, an extended series (P2X1-7) of P2X subunits has been cloned from vertebrate tissues. In this rapidly expanding field, one of the main current challenges is to relate the cloned P2X receptor subtypes to the diverse physiological responses mediated by the native P2X receptors. However, the paucity of useful ligands, especially subtype-selective agonists and antagonists as well as radioligands, acts as a considerable impediment to progress. Most of the ligands available are highly limited in terms of their kinetics of action, receptor-affinity, subtype-selectivity and P2X receptor-specificity. Their suspected ability to be a substrate for ecto-nucleotidases or to inhibit these enzymes also complicates their use. A number of new antagonists at P2X receptors have recently been described which to some degree are more potent and more selective than earlier antagonists like suramin or pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-6-azophenyl 2',4'-disulfonate (PPADS). This work moves us closer to the ideal goal of classifying the recombinant and native P2X receptor subtypes on the basis of antagonist profiles. This review begins with a brief account of the current status of P2X receptors. It then focuses on the pharmacological properties of a series of key P2 receptor agonists and antagonists and will finish with the discussion of some related therapeutic possibilities.

  15. Chronic and acute adenosine A2A receptor blockade prevents long-term episodic memory disruption caused by acute cannabinoid CB1 receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Mouro, Francisco M; Batalha, Vânia L; Ferreira, Diana G; Coelho, Joana E; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E; Lopes, Luísa V; Ribeiro, Joaquim A; Sebastião, Ana M

    2017-05-01

    Cannabinoid-mediated memory impairment is a concern in cannabinoid-based therapies. Caffeine exacerbates cannabinoid CB 1 receptor (CB 1 R)-induced memory deficits through an adenosine A 1 receptor-mediated mechanism. We now evaluated how chronic or acute blockade of adenosine A 2A receptors (A 2A Rs) affects long-term episodic memory deficits induced by a single injection of a selective CB 1 R agonist. Long-term episodic memory was assessed by the novel object recognition (NOR) test. Mice received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of the CB 1 /CB 2 receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 (1 mg/kg) immediately after the NOR training, being tested for novelty recognition 24 h later. Anxiety levels were assessed by the Elevated Plus Maze test, immediately after the NOR. Mice were also tested for exploratory behaviour at the Open Field. For chronic A 2A R blockade, KW-6002 (istradefylline) (3 mg/kg/day) was administered orally for 30 days; acute blockade of A 2A Rs was assessed by i.p. injection of SCH 58261 (1 mg/kg) administered either together with WIN 55,212-2 or only 30 min before the NOR test phase. The involvement of CB 1 Rs was assessed by using the CB 1 R antagonist, AM251 (3 mg/kg, i.p.). WIN 55,212-2 caused a disruption in NOR, an action absent in mice also receiving AM251, KW-6002 or SCH 58261 during the encoding/consolidation phase; SCH 58251 was ineffective if present during retrieval only. No effects were detected in the Elevated Plus maze or Open Field Test. The finding that CB 1 R-mediated memory disruption is prevented by antagonism of adenosine A 2A Rs, highlights a possibility to prevent cognitive side effects when therapeutic application of CB 1 R drugs is desired. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Role of Adenosine Receptor A2A in Traumatic Optic Neuropathies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    in Traumatic Optic Neuropathies ” PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Gregory I. Liou, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Georgia Health Sciences...Adenosine Receptor A2A in Traumatic Optic Neuropathies 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0046 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...ABSTRACT Our goal is to develop an early therapeutic intervention before the progression of traumatic optic neuropathy (TON), a vision-threatening

  17. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of a bivalent micro opiate and adenosine A1 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Smitha C; Ghosh, Nandita; By, Youlet; Berthault, Aurélie; Virolleaud, Marie-Alice; Carrega, Louis; Chouraqui, Gaëlle; Commeiras, Laurent; Condo, Jocelyne; Attolini, Mireille; Gaudel-Siri, Anouk; Ruf, Jean; Parrain, Jean-Luc; Rodriguez, Jean; Guieu, Régis

    2009-12-01

    The cross talk between different membrane receptors is the source of increasing research. We designed and synthesized a new hetero-bivalent ligand that has antagonist properties on both A(1) adenosine and mu opiate receptors with a K(i) of 0.8+/-0.05 and 0.7+/-0.03 microM, respectively. This hybrid molecule increases cAMP production in cells that over express the mu receptor as well as those over expressing the A(1) adenosine receptor and reverses the antalgic effects of mu and A(1) adenosine receptor agonists in animals.

  18. The 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100907 is more effective in counteracting NMDA antagonist- than dopamine agonist-induced hyperactivity in mice.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, M L; Martin, P; Nilsson, M; Sorensen, S M; Carlsson, A; Waters, S; Waters, N

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of the selective 5-HT2A antagonist M100907 in different psychosis models. The classical neuroleptic haloperidol was used as reference compound. Two hyperdopaminergia and two hypoglutamatergia mouse models were used. Hyperdopaminergia was produced by the DA releaser d-amphetamine or the DA uptake inhibitor GBR 12909. Hypoglutamatergia was produced by the un-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 or the competitive NMDA receptor antagonist D-CPPene. M100907 was found to counteract the locomotor stimulant effects of the NMDA receptor antagonists MK-801 and D-CPPene, but spontaneous locomotion, d-amphetamine- and GBR-12909-induced hyperactivity were not significantly affected. Haloperidol, on the other hand, antagonized both NMDA antagonist- and DA agonist-induced hyperactivity, as well as spontaneous locomotion in the highest dose used. Based on the present and previous results we draw the conclusion that 5-HT2A receptor antagonists are particularly effective against behavioural anomalies resulting from hypoglutamatergia of various origins. The clinical implications of our results and conclusions would be that a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, due to i a the low side effect liability, could be the preferable treatment strategy in various disorders associated with hypoglutamatergia; such conditions might include schizophrenia, childhood autism and dementia disorders.

  19. Preclinical pharmacology of bilastine, a new selective histamine H1 receptor antagonist: receptor selectivity and in vitro antihistaminic activity.

    PubMed

    Corcóstegui, Reyes; Labeaga, Luis; Innerárity, Ana; Berisa, Agustin; Orjales, Aurelio

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to establish the receptor selectivity and antihistaminic activity of bilastine, a new selective antihistamine receptor antagonist. In vitro experiments were conducted using a receptor binding screening panel and guinea-pig and rat tissues. Antihistaminic activity was determined using H1 receptor binding studies and in vitro H1 antagonism studies conducted in guinea-pig tissues and human cell lines. Receptor selectivity was established using a receptor binding screening panel and a receptor antagonism screening conducted in guinea-pig, rat and rabbit tissues. Inhibition of inflammatory mediators was determined through the Schultz-Dale reaction in sensitised guinea-pig ileum. Bilastine binds to histamine H1-receptors as indicated by its displacement of [3H]-pyrilamine from H1-receptors expressed in guinea-pig cerebellum and human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell lines. The studies conducted on guinea-pig smooth muscle demonstrated the capability of bilastine to antagonise H1-receptors. Bilastine is selective for histamine H1-receptors as shown in receptor-binding screening conducted to determine the binding capacity of bilastine to 30 different receptors. The specificity of its H1-receptor antagonistic activity was also demonstrated in a series of in vitro experiments conducted on guinea-pig and rat tissues. The results of these studies confirmed the lack of significant antagonism against serotonin, bradykinin, leukotriene D4, calcium, muscarinic M3-receptors, alpha1-adrenoceptors, beta2-adrenoceptors, and H2- and H3-receptors. The results of the in vitro Schultz-Dale reaction demonstrated that bilastine also has anti-inflammatory activity. These preclinical studies provide evidence that bilastine has H1- antihistamine activity, with high specificity for H1-receptors, and poor or no affinity for other receptors. Bilastine has also been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties.

  20. Immunopharmacological role of the leukotriene receptor antagonists and inhibitors of leukotrienes generating enzymes in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Mirshafiey, Abbas; Jadidi-Niaragh, Farhad

    2010-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease that involves central nervous system, and is generally associated with demyelination and axonal lesion. The effective factors for initiation of the inflammatory responses have not been known precisely so far. Leukotrienes (LTs) are inflammatory mediators with increased levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of MS patients and in experimental models of multiple sclerosis. Inhibition of LT receptors with specific antagonists can decrease inflammatory responses. In this review article we try to clarify the role of LT receptor antagonists and also inhibitors of enzymes which are involved in LTs generating pathway for treating multiple sclerosis as new targets for MS therapy. Moreover, we suggest that blockage of LT receptors by potent specific antagonists and/or agonists can be as a novel useful method in treatment of MS.

  1. Antagonist-perturbation mechanism for activation function-2 fixed motifs: active conformation and docking mode of retinoid X receptor antagonists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Motonori

    2017-06-01

    HX531, which contains a dibenzodiazepine skeleton, is one of the first retinoid X receptor (RXR) antagonists. Functioning via RXR-PPARγ heterodimer, this compound is receiving a lot of attention as a therapeutic drug candidate for diabetic disease controlling differentiation of adipose tissue. However, the active conformation of HX531 for RXRs is not well established. In the present study, quantum mechanics calculations and molecular mechanical docking simulations were carried out to precisely study the docking mode of HX531 with the human RXRα ligand-binding domain, as well as to provide a new approach to drug design using a structure-based perspective. It was suggested that HX531, which has the R configuration for the bent dibenzodiazepine plane together with the equatorial configuration for the N-methyl group attached to the nitrogen atom in the seven-membered diazepine ring, is a typical activation function-2 (AF-2) fixed motif perturbation type antagonist, which destabilizes the formation of AF-2 fixed motifs. On the other hand, the docking simulations supported the experimental result that LG100754 is an RXR homodimer antagonist and an RXR heterodimer agonist.

  2. Drug safety is a barrier to the discovery and development of new androgen receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Foster, William R; Car, Bruce D; Shi, Hong; Levesque, Paul C; Obermeier, Mary T; Gan, Jinping; Arezzo, Joseph C; Powlin, Stephanie S; Dinchuk, Joseph E; Balog, Aaron; Salvati, Mark E; Attar, Ricardo M; Gottardis, Marco M

    2011-04-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) antagonists are part of the standard of care for prostate cancer. Despite the almost inevitable development of resistance in prostate tumors to AR antagonists, no new AR antagonists have been approved for over a decade. Treatment failure is due in part to mutations that increase activity of AR in response to lower ligand concentrations as well as to mutations that result in AR response to a broader range of ligands. The failure to discover new AR antagonists has occurred in the face of continued research; to enable progress, a clear understanding of the reasons for failure is required. Non-clinical drug safety studies and safety pharmacology assays were performed on previously approved AR antagonists (bicalutamide, flutamide, nilutamide), next generation antagonists in clinical testing (MDV3100, BMS-641988), and a pre-clinical drug candidate (BMS-501949). In addition, non-clinical studies with AR mutant mice, and EEG recordings in rats were performed. Non-clinical findings are compared to disclosures of clinical trial results. As a drug class, AR antagonists cause seizure in animals by an off-target mechanism and are found in vitro to inhibit GABA-A currents. Clinical trials of candidate next generation AR antagonists identify seizure as a clinical safety risk. Non-clinical drug safety profiles of the AR antagonist drug class create a significant barrier to the identification of next generation AR antagonists. GABA-A inhibition is a common off-target activity of approved and next generation AR antagonists potentially explaining some side effects and safety hazards of this class of drugs. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Guanosine may increase absence epileptic activity by means of A2A adenosine receptors in Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk rats.

    PubMed

    Lakatos, Renáta Krisztina; Dobolyi, Árpád; Todorov, Mihail Ivilinov; Kékesi, Katalin A; Juhász, Gábor; Aleksza, Magdolna; Kovács, Zsolt

    2016-06-01

    The non-adenosine nucleoside guanosine (Guo) was demonstrated to decrease quinolinic acid(QA)-induced seizures, spontaneously emerged absence epileptic seizures and lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-evoked induction of absence epileptic seizures suggesting its antiepileptic potential. It was also described previously that intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 20 and 50mg/kg Guo decreased the number of spike-wave discharges (SWDs) in a well investigated model of human absence epilepsy, the Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats during 4th (20mg/kg Guo) and 3rd as well as 4th (50mg/kg Guo) measuring hours. Guanosine can potentially decrease SWD number by means of its putative receptors but absence epileptic activity changing effects of Guo by means of increased extracellular adenosine (Ado) cannot be excluded. An increase in the dose of i.p. injected Guo is limited by its low solubility in saline, therefore, we addressed in the present study whether higher doses of Guo, diluted in sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution, have more potent antiepileptic effect in WAG/Rij rats. We confirmed that i.p. 50mg/kg Guo decreased but, surprisingly, i.p. 100mg/kg Guo enhanced the number of SWDs in WAG/Rij rats. Combined i.p. injection of a non-selective Ado receptor antagonist theophylline (5mg/kg) or a selective Ado A2A receptor (A2AR) antagonist SCH 58261 (7-(2-phenylethyl)-5-amino-2-(2-furyl)-pyrazolo-[4,3-e]-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidine) (1mg/kg) and a cyclooxygenase 1 and 2/COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitor indomethacin (10mg/kg) with 100mg/kg Guo decreased the SWD number compared to i.p. 100mg/kg Guo alone. The results suggest that i.p. 100mg/kg Guo can increase SWD number by means of the adenosinergic system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Functional antagonistic properties of clozapine at the 5-HT3 receptor.

    PubMed

    Hermann, B; Wetzel, C H; Pestel, E; Zieglgänsberger, W; Holsboer, F; Rupprecht, R

    1996-08-23

    The atypical neuroleptic clozapine is thought to exert its psychopharmacological actions through a variety of neurotransmitter receptors. It binds preferentially to D4 and 5-HT2 receptors; however, little is known on it's interaction with the 5-HT3 receptor. Using a cell line stably expressing the 5-HT3 receptor, whole-cell voltage-clamp analysis revealed functional antagonistic properties of clozapine at low nanomolar concentrations in view of a binding affinity in the upper nanomolar range. Because the concentration of clozapine required for an interaction with the 5-HT3 receptor can be achieved with therapeutical doses, functional antagonistic properties at this ligand-gated ion channel may contribute to its unique psychopharmacological profile.

  5. Tranylcypromine Substituted cis-Hydroxycyclobutylnaphthamides as Potent and Selective Dopamine D3 Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report a class of potent and selective dopamine D3 receptor antagonists based upon tranylcypromine. Although tranylcypromine has a low affinity for the rat D3 receptor (Ki = 12.8 μM), our efforts have yielded (1R,2S)-11 (CJ-1882), which has Ki values of 2.7 and 2.8 nM at the rat and human dopamine D3 receptors, respectively, and displays respective selectivities of >10000-fold and 223-fold over the rat and human D2 receptors. Evaluation in a β-arrestin functional assay showed that (1R,2S)-11 is a potent and competitive antagonist at the human D3 receptor. PMID:24848155

  6. OPC-21268, an orally effective, nonpeptide vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Y; Ogawa, H; Chihara, T; Kondo, K; Onogawa, T; Nakamura, S; Mori, T; Tominaga, M; Yabuuchi, Y

    1991-04-26

    An orally effective, nonpeptide, vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist, OPC-21268, has been identified. This compound selectively antagonized binding to the V1 subtype of the vasopressin receptor in a competitive manner. In vivo, the compound acted as a specific antagonist of arginine vasopressin (AVP)-induced vasoconstriction. After oral administration in conscious rats, the compound also antagonized pressor responses to AVP. OPC-21268 can be used to study the physiological role of AVP and may be therapeutically useful in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure.

  7. Substituted pyrrolidin-2-ones: Centrally acting orexin receptor antagonists promoting sleep. Part 2.

    PubMed

    Sifferlen, Thierry; Boller, Amandine; Chardonneau, Audrey; Cottreel, Emmanuelle; Gatfield, John; Treiber, Alexander; Roch, Catherine; Jenck, Francois; Aissaoui, Hamed; Williams, Jodi T; Brotschi, Christine; Heidmann, Bibia; Siegrist, Romain; Boss, Christoph

    2015-05-01

    Starting from advanced pyrrolidin-2-one lead compounds, this novel series of small-molecule orexin receptor antagonists was further optimized by fine-tuning of the C-3 substitution at the γ-lactam ring. We discuss our design to align in vitro potency with metabolic stability and improved physicochemical/pharmacokinetic properties while avoiding P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux. These investigations led to the identification of the orally active 3-hydroxypyrrolidin-2-one 46, a potent and selective orexin-2 receptor antagonist, that achieved good brain exposure and promoted physiological sleep in rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Studies on the interaction of NMDA receptor antagonist memantine with cell membranes: A mini-review.

    PubMed

    Zambrano, Pablo; Suwalsky, Mario; Jemiola-Rzeminska, Malgorzata; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2018-03-01

    Memantine is an NMDA receptor antagonist clinically used for the treatment of moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease. Currently, it is the only NMDA receptor antagonist drug marketed against this disease. Despite the large number of publications regarding its clinical and therapeutic use, studies related to its mechanism of action are still inconclusive. Knowledge of drug interactions with cell membranes may lead to the development of novel drugs for neurodegenerative diseases. The present mini-review aims to give an overview of the latest findings regarding the interaction of memantine with cell membranes, specifically with that of the human erythrocyte. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Inverse agonist and neutral antagonist actions of synthetic compounds at an insect 5-HT1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Troppmann, B; Balfanz, S; Baumann, A; Blenau, W

    2010-04-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) has been shown to control and modulate many physiological and behavioural functions in insects. In this study, we report the cloning and pharmacological properties of a 5-HT(1) receptor of an insect model for neurobiology, physiology and pharmacology. A cDNA encoding for the Periplaneta americana 5-HT(1) receptor was amplified from brain cDNA. The receptor was stably expressed in HEK 293 cells, and the functional and pharmacological properties were determined in cAMP assays. Receptor distribution was investigated by RT-PCR and by immunocytochemistry using an affinity-purified polyclonal antiserum. The P. americana 5-HT(1) receptor (Pea5-HT(1)) shares pronounced sequence and functional similarity with mammalian 5-HT(1) receptors. Activation with 5-HT reduced adenylyl cyclase activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pea5-HT(1) was expressed as a constitutively active receptor with methiothepin acting as a neutral antagonist, and WAY 100635 as an inverse agonist. Receptor mRNA was present in various tissues including brain, salivary glands and midgut. Receptor-specific antibodies showed that the native protein was expressed in a glycosylated form in membrane samples of brain and salivary glands. This study marks the first pharmacological identification of an inverse agonist and a neutral antagonist at an insect 5-HT(1) receptor. The results presented here should facilitate further analyses of 5-HT(1) receptors in mediating central and peripheral effects of 5-HT in insects.

  10. The necessity and effectiveness of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Sato, Atsuhisa

    2015-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD), and diabetic nephropathy is the most common primary disease necessitating dialysis treatment in the world including Japan. Major guidelines for treatment of hypertension in Japan, the United States and Europe recommend the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blockers, which suppress the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), as the antihypertensive drugs of first choice in patients with coexisting diabetes. However, even with the administration of RAS inhibitors, failure to achieve adequate anti-albuminuric, renoprotective effects and a reduction in cardiovascular events has also been reported. Inadequate blockade of aldosterone may be one of the reasons why long-term administration of RAS inhibitors may not be sufficiently effective in patients with diabetic nephropathy. This review focuses on treatment in diabetic nephropathy and discusses the significance of aldosterone blockade. In pre-nephropathy without overt nephropathy, a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist can be used to enhance the blood pressure-lowering effects of RAS inhibitors, improve insulin resistance and prevent clinical progression of nephropathy. In CKD categories A2 and A3, the addition of a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist to an RAS inhibitor can help to maintain 'long-term' antiproteinuric and anti-albuminuric effects. However, in category G3a and higher, sufficient attention must be paid to hyperkalemia. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists are not currently recommended as standard treatment in diabetic nephropathy. However, many studies have shown promise of better renoprotective effects if mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists are appropriately used.

  11. Effects of tachykinin receptor agonists and antagonists on the guinea-pig isolated oesophagus.

    PubMed

    Kerr, K P

    2000-11-01

    1. Vagal nerve stimulation of the guinea-pig isolated oesophagus produced a triphasic tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive contractile response. The third phase, which was resistant to ganglion blocking drugs, was selectively abolished by capsaicin, suggesting the involvement of one or more neuropeptides released from afferent neurons. Receptors on cholinergic neurons were subsequently activated because the response was atropine sensitive. Contractile responses resulting from exogenous substance P were abolished by atropine and TTX and enhanced by physostigmine. These findings suggest that the third phase may be mediated by the action of a substance P-like neuropeptide released from sensory nerve endings that subsequently activated cholinergic neurons. 2. The tachykinin receptors in the body of the guinea-pig oesophagus were characterized by determining the relative agonist potencies of natural tachykinins as well as tachykinin receptor-selective analogues. Antagonist affinities were also determined. The results indicated the presence of both NK2 and NK3 receptors. In addition, the effects of a cocktail of peptidase inhibitors (captopril, thiorphan and amastatin) on responses to various tachykinins and synthetic analogues were determined. The results indicate that one or more peptidases are present in this preparation. 3. Experiments using various tachykinin receptor antagonists were performed to determine whether the activation of tachykinin receptors played a role in the mediation of the third phase of the response to vagal nerve stimulation. While this response was unaffected by NK1 and NK2 receptor-selective antagonists, it was only partially inhibited (23%) by the NK3 receptor antagonist SR 142801. Thus, in the guinea-pig oesophagus, it appears that NK3 receptors play only a minor role in mediating a contractile response when afferent neurons are excited by vagal nerve stimulation.

  12. Neuropeptide S attenuates neuropathological, neurochemical and behavioral changes induced by the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801

    PubMed Central

    Okamura, Naoe; Reinscheid, Rainer K.; Ohgake, Shintaro; Iyo, Masaomi; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Neuropeptide S (NPS) and its cognate receptor were reported to mediate anxiolytic-like and arousal effects. NPS receptors are predominantly expressed in the brain, especially in limbic structures, including amygdala, olfactory nucleus, subiculum and retrosplenial cortex. In contrast, the NPS precursor is expressed in only a few brainstem nuclei where it is co-expressed with various excitatory transmitters, including glutamate. The current study investigates interactions of the NPS system with glutamatergic neurotransmission. It has been suggested that dysfunctions in glutamatergic neurotransmission via N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors might be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia since NMDA receptor antagonists, such as MK-801, have been shown to induce psychotic-like behavior in humans and animal models. Also, MK-801 is known to produce histological changes such as cytoplasmic vacuoles in retrosplenial cortex neurons where NPS receptors are highly expressed. In this study we show that NPS is able to alleviate neuropathological, neurochemical and behavioral changes produced by NMDA receptor antagonists. NPS treatment attenuated MK-801-induced vacuolization in the rat retrosplenial cortex in a dose dependent manner that can be blocked by an NPS receptor-selective antagonist. NPS also suppressed MK-801-induced increases of extracellular acetylcholine levels in the retrosplenial cortex. In the prepulse inhibition (PPI) assay, animals pretreated with NPS recovered significantly from MK-801-induced disruption of PPI. Our study suggests that NPS may have protective effects against the neurotoxic and behavioral changes produced by NMDA receptor antagonists and that NPS receptor agonists may elicit antipsychotic effects. PMID:19576911

  13. MOLECULAR PROBES FOR MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS: FUNCTIONALIZED CONGENERS OF SELECTIVE MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Fischer, Bilha; van Rhee, A. Michiel

    2012-01-01

    Summary The muscarinic agonist oxotremorine and the tricyclic muscarinic antagonists pirenzepine and telenzepine have been derivatized using a functionalized congener approach for the purpose of synthesizing high affinity ligand probes that are suitable for conjugation with prosthetic groups, for receptor cross-linking, fluorescent and radioactive detection, etc. A novel fluorescent conjugate of TAC (telenzepine amine congener), an n-decylamino derivative of the ml-selective antagonist, with the fluorescent trisulfonated pyrene dye Cascade Blue may be useful for assaying the receptor as an alternative to radiotracers. In a rat m3 receptor mutant containing a single amino acid substitution in the sixth transmembrane domain (Asn507 to Ala) the parent telenzepine lost 636-fold in affinity, while TAC lost only 27-fold. Thus, the decylamino group of TAC stabilizes the bound state and thus enhances potency by acting as a distal anchor in the receptor binding site. We have built a computer-assisted molecular model of the transmembrane regions of muscarinic receptors based on homology with the G-protein coupled receptor rhodopsin, for which a low resolution structure is known. We have coordinated the antagonist pharmacophore (tricyclic and piperazine moieties) with residues of the third and seventh helices of the rat m3 receptor. Although the decylamino chain of TAC is likely to be highly flexible and may adopt many conformations, we located one possible site for a salt bridge formation with the positively charged −NH3+ group, i.e. Asp113 in helix II. PMID:10188781

  14. Rational Design of Potent Antagonists to the Human Growth Hormone Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuh, Germaine; Cunningham, Brian C.; Fukunaga, Rikiro; Nagata, Shigekazu; Goeddel, David V.; Wells, James A.

    1992-06-01

    A hybrid receptor was constructed that contained the extracellular binding domain of the human growth hormone (hGH) receptor linked to the transmembrane and intracellular domains of the murine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor. Addition of hGH to a myeloid leukemia cell line (FDC-P1) that expressed the hybrid receptor caused proliferation of these cells. The mechanism for signal transduction of the hybrid receptor required dimerization because monoclonal antibodies to the hGH receptor were agonists whereas their monovalent fragments were not. Receptor dimerization occurs sequentially-a receptor binds to site 1 on hGH, and then a second receptor molecule binds to site 2 on hGH. On the basis of this sequential mechanism, which may occur in many other cytokine receptors, inactive hGH analogs were designed that were potent antagonists to hGH-induced cell proliferation. Such antagonists could be useful for treating clinical conditions of hGH excess, such as acromegaly.

  15. Inhibition of Morphine Tolerance and Dependence by the NMDA Receptor Antagonist MK-801

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, Keith A.; Akil, Huda

    1991-01-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of the glutamate receptor is an important mediator of several forms of neural and behavioral plasticity. The present studies examined whether NMDA receptors might be involved in the development of opiate tolerance and dependence, two examples of behavioral plasticity. The noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 attenuated the development of tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine without affecting acute morphine analgesia. In addition, MK-801 attenuated the development of morphine dependence as assessed by naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. These results suggest that NMDA receptors may be important in the development of opiate tolerance and dependence.

  16. (−) Arctigenin and (+) Pinoresinol Are Antagonists of the Human Thyroid Hormone Receptor β

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Lignans are important biologically active dietary polyphenolic compounds. Consumption of foods that are rich in lignans is associated with positive health effects. Using modeling tools to probe the ligand-binding pockets of molecular receptors, we found that lignans have high docking affinity for the human thyroid hormone receptor β. Follow-up experimental results show that lignans (−) arctigenin and (+) pinoresinol are antagonists of the human thyroid hormone receptor β. The modeled complexes show key plausible interactions between the two ligands and important amino acid residues of the receptor. PMID:25383984

  17. Reduced sickle erythrocyte dehydration in vivo by endothelin-1 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Alicia

    2007-09-01

    Elevated plasma levels of cytokines such as endothelin-1 (ET-1) have been shown to be associated with sickle cell disease (SCD). However, the role of ET-1 in the pathophysiology of SCD is not entirely clear. I now show that treatment of SAD mice, a transgenic mouse model of SCD, with BQ-788 (0.33 mg.kg(-1).day(-1) intraperitoneally for 14 days), an ET-1 receptor B (ET(B)) antagonist, induced a significant decrease in Gardos channel activity (1.7 +/- 0.1 to 1.0 +/- 0.4 mmol.10(13) cell(-1).h(-1), n = 3, P = 0.019) and reduced the erythrocyte density profile by decreasing the mean density (D(50); n = 4, P = 0.012). These effects were not observed in mice treated with BQ-123, an ET-1 receptor A (ET(A)) antagonist. A mixture of both antagonists induced a similar change in density profile as with BQ-788 alone that was associated with an increase in mean cellular volume and a decrease in corpuscular hemoglobin concentration mean. I also observed in vitro effects of ET-1 on human sickle erythrocyte dehydration that was blocked by BQ-788 and a mixture of ET(B)/ET(A) antagonists but not by ET(A) antagonist alone. These results show that erythrocyte hydration status in vivo is mediated via activation of the ET(B) receptor, leading to Gardos channel modulation in SCD.

  18. Reinstatement of cocaine place-conditioning prevented by the peptide kappa-opioid receptor antagonist arodyn.

    PubMed

    Carey, A N; Borozny, K; Aldrich, J V; McLaughlin, J P

    2007-08-13

    Stress contributes to the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior in abstinent subjects. Kappa-opioid receptor antagonists attenuate the behavioral effects of stress, potentially providing therapeutic value in treating cocaine abuse. Presently, the peptide arodyn produced long-lasting kappa-opioid receptor antagonism, suppressing kappa-opioid receptor agonist-induced antinociception at least 3 days after intracerebroventricular administration of 0.3 nmol. C57Bl/6J mice demonstrated cocaine-conditioned place preference, extinction over 3 weeks, and a subsequent reinstatement of place preference. Arodyn pretreatment suppressed stress-induced, but not cocaine-exposed, reinstatement of cocaine place preference. These results verify that arodyn and other kappa-opioid receptor antagonists may be useful therapeutics for cocaine abuse.

  19. Sigma1 receptor antagonists determine the behavioral pattern of the methamphetamine-induced stereotypy in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kitanaka, J.; Kitanaka, N.; Tatsuta, T.; Hall, F.S.; Uhl, G.R.; Tanaka, K.; Nishiyama, N.; Morita, Y.; Takemura, M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The effects of sigma receptor antagonists on methamphetamine (METH)-induced stereotypy have not been examined. We examined the effects of sigma antagonists on METH-induced stereotypy in mice. Results The administration of METH (10 mg/kg) to male ddY mice induced stereotyped behavior consisting of biting (90.1%), sniffing (4.2%), head bobbing (4.1%), and circling (1.7%) during an observation period of 1 h. Pretreatment of the mice with BMY 14802 (α-(4-fluorophenyl)-4-(5-fluoro-2-pyrimidinyl)-1-piperazinebutanol; 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg), a non-specific sigma receptor antagonist, significantly increased METH-induced sniffing (19.2, 30.5, and 43.8% of total stereotypical behavior) but decreased biting (76.6, 66.9, and 49.3% of total stereotypical behavior) in a dose-dependent manner. This response was completely abolished by (+)-SKF 10,047 ([2S-(2α,6α,11R)]-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexahydro-6,11-dimethyl-3-(2-propenyl)-2,6-methano-3-benzazocin-8-ol; 4 and 10 mg/kg), a putative sigma1 receptor agonist, and partially by PB 28 (1-cyclohexyl-4-[3-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-5-methoxy-1-naphthalen-1-yl)-n-propyl]piperazine; 1 and 10 mg/kg), a putative sigma2 receptor agonist. The BMY 14802 action on METH-induced stereotypy was mimicked by BD 1047 (N-[2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]-N-methyl-2-(dimethylamino)ethylamine; 10 mg/kg), a putative sigma1 receptor antagonist, but not by SM-21 ((±)-tropanyl 2-(4-chlorophenoxy)butanoate; 1 mg/kg), a putative sigma2 receptor antagonist. The BD 1047 effect on METH-induced stereotypy was also abolished completely by (+)-SKF 10,047 and partially by PB 28. The overall frequency of METH-induced stereotypical behavior was unchanged with these sigma receptor ligands, despite the alteration in particular behavioral patterns. The BMY 14802 action on METH-induced stereotypy was unaffected by pretreatment with centrally acting histamine H1 receptor antagonists (pyrilamine or ketotifen, 10 mg/kg), suggesting that these effects are independent of histamine H1

  20. Evaluation of antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like activity of purinedione-derivatives with affinity for adenosine A2A receptors in mice.

    PubMed

    Dziubina, Anna; Szmyd, Karina; Zygmunt, Małgorzata; Sapa, Jacek; Dudek, Magdalena; Filipek, Barbara; Drabczyńska, Anna; Załuski, Michał; Pytka, Karolina; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-12-01

    It has recently been suggested that the adenosine A 2A receptor plays a role in several animal models of depression. Additionally, A 2A antagonists have reversed behavioral deficits and exhibited a profile similar to classical antidepressants. In the present study, imidazo- and pyrimido[2,1-f]purinedione derivatives (KD 66, KD 167, KD 206) with affinity to A 2A receptors but poor A 1 affinity were evaluated for their antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activity. The activity of these derivatives was tested using a tail suspension and forced swim test, two widely-used behavioral paradigms for the evaluation of antidepressant-like activity. In turn, the anxiolytic activity was evaluated using the four-plate test. The results showed the antidepressant-like activity of pyrimido- and imidazopurinedione derivatives (i.e. KD 66, KD 167 and KD 206) in acute and chronic behavioral tests in mice. KD 66 revealed an anxiolytic-like effect, while KD 167 increased anxiety behaviors. KD 206 had no effect on anxiety. Furthermore, none of the tested compounds increased locomotor activity. Available data support the proposition that the examined compounds with adenosine A 2A receptor affinity may be an interesting target for the development of antidepressant and/or anxiolytic agents. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  1. PSNCBAM-1, a novel allosteric antagonist at cannabinoid CB1 receptors with hypophagic effects in rats.

    PubMed

    Horswill, J G; Bali, U; Shaaban, S; Keily, J F; Jeevaratnam, P; Babbs, A J; Reynet, C; Wong Kai In, P

    2007-11-01

    Rimonabant (Acomplia, SR141716A), a cannabinoid CB1 receptor inverse agonist, has recently been approved for the treatment of obesity. There are, however, concerns regarding its side effect profile. Developing a CB1 antagonist with a different pharmacological mechanism may lead to a safer alternative. To this end we have screened a proprietary small molecule library and have discovered a novel class of allosteric antagonist at CB1 receptors. Herein, we have characterized an optimized prototypical molecule, PSNCBAM-1, and its hypophagic effects in vivo. A CB1 yeast reporter assay was used as a primary screen. PSNCBAM-1 was additionally characterized in [35S]-GTPgammaS, cAMP and radioligand binding assays. An acute rat feeding model was used to evaluate its effects on food intake and body weight in vivo. In CB1 receptor yeast reporter assays, PSNCBAM-1 blocked the effects induced by agonists such as CP55,940, WIN55212-2, anandamide (AEA) or 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG). The antagonist characteristics of PSNCBAM-1 were confirmed in [35S]-GTPgammaS binding and cAMP assays and was shown to be non-competitive by Schild analyses. PSNCBAM-1 did not affect CB2 receptors. In radioligand binding assays, PSNCBAM-1 increased the binding of [3H]CP55,940 despite its antagonist effects. In an acute rat feeding model, PSNCBAM-1 decreased food intake and body weight. PSNCBAM-1 exerted its effects through selective allosteric modulation of the CB1 receptor. The acute effects on food intake and body weight induced in rats provide a first report of in vivo activity for an allosteric CB1 receptor antagonist.

  2. PSNCBAM-1, a novel allosteric antagonist at cannabinoid CB1 receptors with hypophagic effects in rats

    PubMed Central

    Horswill, J G; Bali, U; Shaaban, S; Keily, J F; Jeevaratnam, P; Babbs, A J; Reynet, C; Wong Kai In, P

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Rimonabant (AcompliaTM, SR141716A), a cannabinoid CB1 receptor inverse agonist, has recently been approved for the treatment of obesity. There are, however, concerns regarding its side effect profile. Developing a CB1 antagonist with a different pharmacological mechanism may lead to a safer alternative. To this end we have screened a proprietary small molecule library and have discovered a novel class of allosteric antagonist at CB1 receptors. Herein, we have characterized an optimized prototypical molecule, PSNCBAM-1, and its hypophagic effects in vivo. Experimental approach: A CB1 yeast reporter assay was used as a primary screen. PSNCBAM-1 was additionally characterized in [35S]-GTPγS, cAMP and radioligand binding assays. An acute rat feeding model was used to evaluate its effects on food intake and body weight in vivo. Key results: In CB1 receptor yeast reporter assays, PSNCBAM-1 blocked the effects induced by agonists such as CP55,940, WIN55212-2, anandamide (AEA) or 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG). The antagonist characteristics of PSNCBAM-1 were confirmed in [35S]-GTPγS binding and cAMP assays and was shown to be non-competitive by Schild analyses. PSNCBAM-1 did not affect CB2 receptors. In radioligand binding assays, PSNCBAM-1 increased the binding of [3H]CP55,940 despite its antagonist effects. In an acute rat feeding model, PSNCBAM-1 decreased food intake and body weight. Conclusions and implications: PSNCBAM-1 exerted its effects through selective allosteric modulation of the CB1 receptor. The acute effects on food intake and body weight induced in rats provide a first report of in vivo activity for an allosteric CB1 receptor antagonist. PMID:17592509

  3. The role of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors in the caffeine effect on MDMA-induced DA and 5-HT release in the mouse striatum.

    PubMed

    Górska, A M; Gołembiowska, K

    2015-04-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") popular as a designer drug is often used with caffeine to gain a stronger stimulant effect. MDMA induces 5-HT and DA release by interaction with monoamine transporters. Co-administration of caffeine and MDMA may aggravate MDMA-induced toxic effects on DA and 5-HT terminals. In the present study, we determined whether caffeine influences DA and 5-HT release induced by MDMA. We also tried to find out if adenosine A1 and A2A receptors play a role in the effect of caffeine by investigating the effect of the selective adenosine A1 and A2A receptor antagonists, DPCPX and KW 6002 on DA and 5-HT release induced by MDMA. Mice were treated with caffeine (10 mg/kg) and MDMA (20 or 40 mg/kg) alone or in combination. DA and 5-HT release in the mouse striatum was measured using in vivo microdialysis. Caffeine exacerbated the effect of MDMA on DA and 5-HT release. DPCPX or KW 6002 co-administered with MDMA had similar influence as caffeine, but KW 6002 was more potent than caffeine or DPCPX. To exclude the contribution of MAO inhibition by caffeine in the caffeine effect on MDMA-induced increase in DA and 5-HT, we also tested the effect of the nonxanthine adenosine receptor antagonist CGS 15943A lacking properties of MAO activity modification. Our findings indicate that adenosine A1 and A2A receptor blockade may account for the caffeine-induced exacerbation of the MDMA effect on DA and 5-HT release and may aggravate MDMA toxicity.

  4. Quantitative pharmacological analysis of antagonist binding kinetics at CRF1 receptors in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Simeon J; Attkins, Neil J; Fish, Rebecca; van der Graaf, Piet H

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE A series of novel non-peptide corticotropin releasing factor type-1 receptor (CRF1) antagonists were found to display varying degrees of insurmountable and non-competitive behaviour in functional in vitro assays. We describe how we attempted to relate this behaviour to ligand receptor-binding kinetics in a quantitative manner and how this resulted in the development and implementation of an efficient pharmacological screening method based on principles described by Motulsky and Mahan. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH A non-equilibrium binding kinetic assay was developed to determine the receptor binding kinetics of non-peptide CRF1 antagonists. Nonlinear, mixed-effects modelling was used to obtain estimates of the compounds association and dissociation rates. We present an integrated pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic (PKPD) approach, whereby the time course of in vivo CRF1 receptor binding of novel compounds can be predicted on the basis of in vitro assays. KEY RESULTS The non-competitive antagonist behaviour appeared to be correlated to the CRF1 receptor off-rate kinetics. The integrated PKPD model suggested that, at least in a qualitative manner, the in vitro assay can be used to triage and select compounds for further in vivo investigations. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS This study provides evidence for a link between ligand offset kinetics and insurmountable/non-competitive antagonism at the CRF1 receptor. The exact molecular pharmacological nature of this association remains to be determined. In addition, we have developed a quantitative framework to study and integrate in vitro and in vivo receptor binding kinetic behaviour of CRF1 receptor antagonists in an efficient manner in a drug discovery setting. PMID:21449919

  5. Antagonistic targeting of the histamine H3 receptor decreases caloric intake in higher mammalian species.

    PubMed

    Malmlöf, Kjell; Hastrup, Sven; Wulff, Birgitte Schellerup; Hansen, Barbara C; Peschke, Bernd; Jeppesen, Claus Bekker; Hohlweg, Rolf; Rimvall, Karin

    2007-04-15

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a selective histamine H(3) receptor antagonist, NNC 38-1202, on caloric intake in pigs and in rhesus monkeys. The compound was given intragastrically (5 or 15 mg/kg), to normal pigs (n=7) and subcutaneously (1 or 0.1mg/kg) to obese rhesus monkeys (n=9). The energy intake recorded following administration of vehicle to the same animals served as control for the effect of the compound. In addition, rhesus monkey and pig histamine H(3) receptors were cloned from hypothalamic tissues and expressed in mammalian cell lines. The in vitro antagonist potencies of NNC 38-1202 at the H(3) receptors were determined using a functional GTPgammaS binding assay. Porcine and human H(3) receptors were found to have 93.3% identity at the amino acid level and the close homology between the monkey and human H(3) receptors (98.4% identity) was confirmed. The antagonist potencies of NNC 38-1202 at the porcine, monkey and human histamine H(3) receptors were high as evidenced by K(i)-values being clearly below 20 nM, whereas the K(i)-value on the rat H(3) receptor was significantly higher (56+/-6.0 nM). NNC 38-1202, given to pigs in a dose of 15 mg/kg, produced a significant (p<0.05) reduction (55%) of calorie intake compared with vehicle alone, (132.6+/-10.0 kcal/kgday versus 59.7+/-10.2 kcal/kgday). In rhesus monkeys administration of 0.1 and 1mg/kg decreased (p<0.05) average calorie intakes by 40 and 75%, respectively. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that antagonistic targeting of the histamine H(3) receptor decreases caloric intake in higher mammalian species.

  6. Discovery of an Orally Bioavailable Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor Antagonist.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seon-Mi; Lee, Minhee; Lee, So Young; Park, Euisun; Lee, Soo-Min; Kim, Eun Jeong; Han, Min Young; Yoo, Taekyung; Ann, Jihyae; Yoon, Suyoung; Lee, Jiyoun; Lee, Jeewoo

    2016-10-13

    We developed a compound library for orally available gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor antagonists that were based on a uracil scaffold. On the basis of in vitro activity and CYP inhibition profile, we selected 18a (SKI2496) for further in vivo studies. Compound 18a exhibited more selective antagonistic activity toward the human GnRH receptors over the GnRHRs in monkeys and rats, and this compound also showed inhibitory effects on GnRH-mediated signaling pathways. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluations of 18a revealed improved bioavailability and superior gonadotropic suppression activity compared with Elagolix, the most clinically advanced compound. Considering that 18a exhibited highly potent and selective antagonistic activity toward the hGnRHRs along with favorable pharmacokinetic profiles, we believe that 18a may represent a promising candidate for an orally available hormonal therapy.

  7. Insulin-Increased L-Arginine Transport Requires A2A Adenosine Receptors Activation in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán-Gutiérrez, Enrique; Westermeier, Francisco; Salomón, Carlos; González, Marcelo; Pardo, Fabián; Leiva, Andrea; Sobrevia, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine causes vasodilation of human placenta vasculature by increasing the transport of arginine via cationic amino acid transporters 1 (hCAT-1). This process involves the activation of A2A adenosine receptors (A2AAR) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Insulin increases hCAT-1 activity and expression in HUVECs, and A2AAR stimulation increases insulin sensitivity in subjects with insulin resistance. However, whether A2AAR plays a role in insulin-mediated increase in L-arginine transport in HUVECs is unknown. To determine this, we first assayed the kinetics of saturable L-arginine transport (1 minute, 37°C) in the absence or presence of nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBTI, 10 µmol/L, adenosine transport inhibitor) and/or adenosine receptors agonist/antagonists. We also determined hCAT-1 protein and mRNA expression levels (Western blots and quantitative PCR), and SLC7A1 (for hCAT-1) reporter promoter activity. Insulin and NBTI increased the extracellular adenosine concentration, the maximal velocity for L-arginine transport without altering the apparent K m for L-arginine transport, hCAT-1 protein and mRNA expression levels, and SLC7A1 transcriptional activity. An A2AAR antagonist ZM-241385 blocked these effects. ZM241385 inhibited SLC7A1 reporter transcriptional activity to the same extent in cells transfected with pGL3-hCAT-1−1606 or pGL3-hCAT-1−650 constructs in the presence of NBTI + insulin. However, SLC7A1 reporter activity was increased by NBTI only in cells transfected with pGL3-hCAT-1−1606, and the ZM-241385 sensitive fraction of the NBTI response was similar in the absence or in the presence of insulin. Thus, insulin modulation of hCAT-1 expression and activity requires functional A2AAR in HUVECs, a mechanism that may be applicable to diseases associated with fetal insulin resistance, such as gestational diabetes. PMID:22844517

  8. Structure of the human M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor bound to an antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Haga, Kazuko; Kruse, Andrew C.; Asada, Hidetsugu

    2012-03-15

    The parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system regulates the activity of multiple organ systems. Muscarinic receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors that mediate the response to acetylcholine released from parasympathetic nerves. Their role in the unconscious regulation of organ and central nervous system function makes them potential therapeutic targets for a broad spectrum of diseases. The M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M2 receptor) is essential for the physiological control of cardiovascular function through activation of G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channels, and is of particular interest because of its extensive pharmacological characterization with both orthosteric and allosteric ligands. Here we report the structuremore » of the antagonist-bound human M2 receptor, the first human acetylcholine receptor to be characterized structurally, to our knowledge. The antagonist 3-quinuclidinyl-benzilate binds in the middle of a long aqueous channel extending approximately two-thirds through the membrane. The orthosteric binding pocket is formed by amino acids that are identical in all five muscarinic receptor subtypes, and shares structural homology with other functionally unrelated acetylcholine binding proteins from different species. A layer of tyrosine residues forms an aromatic cap restricting dissociation of the bound ligand. A binding site for allosteric ligands has been mapped to residues at the entrance to the binding pocket near this aromatic cap. The structure of the M2 receptor provides insights into the challenges of developing subtype-selective ligands for muscarinic receptors and their propensity for allosteric regulation.« less

  9. Evaluation of distribution of adenosine A2A receptors in normal human brain measured with [11C]TMSX PET.

    PubMed

    Mishina, Masahiro; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Kimura, Yuichi; Naganawa, Mika; Oda, Keiichi; Kobayashi, Shiro; Katayama, Yasuo; Ishii, Kenji

    2007-09-01

    Adenosine A(2A) receptor (A2AR) is thought to interact with dopamine D(2) receptor. Selective A2AR antagonists have attracted attention as the treatment of Parkinson's disease. In this study, we investigated the distribution of the A2ARs in the living human brain using positron emission tomography (PET) and [7-methyl-(11)C]-(E)-8-(3,4,5-trimethoxystyryl)-1,3,7-trimethylxanthine ([(11)C]TMSX). We recruited five normal male subjects. A dynamic series of PET scans was performed for 60 min, and the arterial blood was sampled during the scan to measure radioactivity of the parent compound and labeled metabolites. Circular regions of interest of 10-mm diameter were placed in the PET images over the cerebellum, brainstem, thalamus, head of caudate nucleus, anterior and posterior putamen, frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and posterior cingulate gyrus for each subject. A two-tissue, three-compartment model was used to estimate K(1), k(2), k(3), and k(4) between metabolite-corrected plasma and tissue time activity of [(11)C]TMSX. The binding potential (BP) was the largest in the anterior (1.25) and posterior putamen (1.20), was next largest in the head of caudate nucleus (1.05) and thalamus (1.03), and was small in the cerebral cortex, especially frontal lobe (0.46). [(11)C]TMSX PET showed the largest BP in the striatum in which A2ARs were enriched as in postmortem and nonhuman studies reported, but that the binding of [(11)C]TMSX was relatively larger in the thalamus to compare with other mammals. To date, [(11)C]TMSX is the only promising PET ligand, which is available to clinical use for mapping the A2ARs in the living human brain.

  10. Cholecystokinin receptor antagonist halts progression of pancreatic cancer precursor lesions and fibrosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jill P; Cooper, Timothy K; McGovern, Christopher O; Gilius, Evan L; Zhong, Qing; Liao, Jiangang; Molinolo, Alfredo A; Gutkind, J Silvio; Matters, Gail L

    2014-10-01

    Exogenous administration of cholecystokinin (CCK) induces hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the pancreas with an increase in DNA content. We hypothesized that endogenous CCK is involved in the malignant progression of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) lesions and the fibrosis associated with pancreatic cancer. The presence of CCK receptors in early PanIN lesions was examined by immunohistochemistry in mouse and human pancreas. Pdx1-Cre/LSL-Kras transgenic mice were randomized to receive either untreated drinking water or water supplemented with a CCK receptor antagonist (proglumide, 0.1 mg/mL). Pancreas from the mice were removed and examined histologically for number and grade of PanINs after 1, 2, or 4 months of antagonist therapy. Both CCK-A and CCK-B receptors were identified in early stage PanINs from mouse and human pancreas. The grade of PanIN lesions was reversed, and progression to advanced lesions arrested in mice treated with proglumide compared with the controls (P = 0.004). Furthermore, pancreatic fibrosis was significantly reduced in antagonist-treated animals compared with vehicle (P < 0.001). These findings demonstrate that endogenous CCK is in part responsible for the development and progression of pancreatic cancer. The use of CCK receptor antagonists may have a role in cancer prophylaxis in high-risk subjects and may reduce fibrosis in the microenvironment.

  11. CHOLECYSTOKININ RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST HALTS PROGRESSION OF PANCREATIC CANCER PRECURSOR LESIONS AND FIBROSIS IN MICE

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jill P.; Cooper, Timothy K.; McGovern, Christopher O.; Gilius, Evan L.; Zhong, Qing; Liao, Jiangang; Molinolo, Alfredo A.; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Matters, Gail L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Exogenous administration of cholecystokinin (CCK) induces hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the pancreas with an increase in DNA content. We hypothesized that endogenous CCK is involved with the malignant progression of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) lesions and the fibrosis associated with pancreatic cancer. Methods The presence of CCK receptors in early PanIN lesions was examined by immunohistochemistry in mouse and human pancreas. Pdx1-Cre/LSL-KrasG12D transgenic mice were randomized to receive either untreated drinking water or water supplemented with a CCK-receptor antagonist (proglumide, 0.1mg/ml). Pancreas from mice were removed and examined histologically for number and grade of PanINs after 1, 2 or 4 months of antagonist therapy. Results Both CCK-A and CCK-B receptors were identified in early stage PanINs from mouse and human pancreas. The grade of PanIN lesions was reversed and progression to advanced lesions arrested in mice treated with proglumide compared to controls (p=0.004). Furthermore, pancreatic fibrosis was significantly reduced in antagonist-treated animals compared to vehicle (pitalic>0.001). Conclusions These findings demonstrate that endogenous CCK is in part responsible for the development and progression of pancreatic cancer. Use of CCK-receptor antagonists may have a role in cancer prophylaxis in high risk subjects, and may reduce fibrosis in the microenvironment. PMID:25058882

  12. Antagonists for the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor GPR55 based on a coumarin scaffold.

    PubMed

    Rempel, Viktor; Volz, Nicole; Gläser, Franziska; Nieger, Martin; Bräse, Stefan; Müller, Christa E

    2013-06-13

    The orphan G-protein-coupled receptor GPR55, which is activated by 1-lysophosphatidylinositol and interacts with cannabinoid (CB) receptor ligands, has been proposed as a new potential drug target for the treatment of diabetes, Parkinson's disease, neuropathic pain, and cancer. We applied β-arrestin assays to identify 3-substituted coumarins as a novel class of antagonists and performed an extensive structure-activity relationship study for GPR55. Selectivity versus the related receptors CB1, CB2, and GPR18 was assessed. Among the 7-unsubstituted coumarins selective, competitive GPR55 antagonists were identified, such as 3-(2-hydroxybenzyl)-5-isopropyl-8-methyl-2H-chromen-2-one (12, PSB-SB-489, IC50 = 1.77 μM, pA2 = 0.547 μM). Derivatives with long alkyl chains in position 7 were potent, possibly allosteric GPR55 antagonists which showed ancillary CB receptor affinity. 7-(1,1-Dimethyloctyl)-5-hydroxy-3-(2-hydroxybenzyl)-2H-chromen-2-one (69, PSB-SB-487, IC50 = 0.113 μM, KB = 0.561 μM) and 7-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)-5-hydroxy-3-(2-hydroxybenzyl)-2H-chromen-2-one (67, PSB-SB-1203, IC50 = 0.261 μM) were the most potent GPR55 antagonists of the present series.

  13. A cross-laboratory preclinical study on the effectiveness of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in stroke

    PubMed Central

    Maysami, Samaneh; Wong, Raymond; Pradillo, Jesus M; Denes, Adam; Dhungana, Hiramani; Malm, Tarja; Koistinaho, Jari; Orset, Cyrille; Rahman, Mahbubur; Rubio, Marina; Schwaninger, Markus; Vivien, Denis; Bath, Philip M; Rothwell, Nancy J

    2015-01-01

    Stroke represents a global challenge and is a leading cause of permanent disability worldwide. Despite much effort, translation of research findings to clinical benefit has not yet been successful. Failure of neuroprotection trials is considered, in part, due to the low quality of preclinical studies, low level of reproducibility across different laboratories and that stroke co-morbidities have not been fully considered in experimental models. More rigorous testing of new drug candidates in different experimental models of stroke and initiation of preclinical cross-laboratory studies have been suggested as ways to improve translation. However, to our knowledge, no drugs currently in clinical stroke trials have been investigated in preclinical cross-laboratory studies. The cytokine interleukin 1 is a key mediator of neuronal injury, and the naturally occurring interleukin 1 receptor antagonist has been reported as beneficial in experimental studies of stroke. In the present paper, we report on a preclinical cross-laboratory stroke trial designed to investigate the efficacy of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist in different research laboratories across Europe. Our results strongly support the therapeutic potential of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist in experimental stroke and provide further evidence that interleukin 1 receptor antagonist should be evaluated in more extensive clinical stroke trials. PMID:26661169

  14. A Time-course Study with the Androgen Receptor Antagonist Flutamide in Fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Flutamide, a drug registered to treat some types of prostate cancer in humans, has been used for many years as a model androgen receptor (AR) antagonist in studies aimed at characterizing disruption of the vertebrate hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Various studies hav...

  15. I. Effects of a Dopamine Receptor Antagonist on Fathead Minnow, Pimephales promelas ,Reproduction

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study used a 21 d fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) reproduction assay to test the hypothesis that exposure to the dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) antagonist, haloperidol, would impair fish reproduction. Additionally, a 96 h experiment with fathead minnows and zebrafish (Danio ...

  16. Orally active vasopressin V1a receptor antagonist, SRX251, selectively blocks aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Craig F; Lu, Shi-Fang; Messenger, Tara; Guillon, Christophe D; Heindel, Ned; Miller, Marvin; Koppel, Gary; Robert Bruns, F; Simon, Neal G

    2006-02-01

    Arginine vasopressin functions as a neurochemical signal in the brain to affect social behavior. There is an expanding literature from animal and human studies showing that vasopressin, through the vasopressin 1A receptor (V1A), can stimulate aggressive behavior. Using a novel monocylic beta lactam platform, a series of orally active vasopressin V1a antagonists was developed with high affinity for the human receptor. SRX251 was chosen from this series of V1a antagonists to screen for effects on serenic activity in a resident-intruder model of offensive aggression. Resident, male Syrian golden hamsters were given oral doses of SRX251 or intraperitoneal Manning compound, a selective V1a receptor antagonist with reduced brain penetrance, at doses of 0.2 microg, 20 microg, 2 mg/kg or vehicle. When tested 90-120 min later, SRX251, but not Manning compound, caused a significant dose-dependent reduction in offensive aggression toward intruders as measured by latency to bite and number of bites. The reduction in aggression persisted for over 6 h and was no longer present 12 h post treatment. SRX251 did not alter the amount of time the resident investigated the intruder, olfactory communication, general motor activity, or sexual motivation. These data corroborate previous studies showing a role for vasopressin neurotransmission in aggression and suggest that V1a receptor antagonists may be used to treat interpersonal violence co-occurring with such illness as ADHD, autism, bipolar disorder, and substance abuse.

  17. Effect of single point mutations of the human tachykinin NK1 receptor on antagonist affinity.

    PubMed

    Lundstrom, K; Hawcock, A B; Vargas, A; Ward, P; Thomas, P; Naylor, A

    1997-10-15

    Molecular modelling and site-directed mutagenesis were used to identify eleven amino acid residues which may be involved in antagonist binding of the human tachykinin NK1 receptor. Recombinant receptors were expressed in mammalian cells using the Semliki Forest virus system. Wild type and mutant receptors showed similar expression levels in BHK and CHO cells, verified by metabolic labelling. Binding affinities were determined for a variety of tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonists in SFV-infected CHO cells. The binding affinity for GR203040, CP 99,994 and CP 96,345 was significantly reduced by mutant Q165A. The mutant F268A significantly reduced the affinity for GR203040 and CP 99,994 and the mutant H197A had reduced affinity for CP 96,345. All antagonists seemed to bind in a similar region of the receptor, but do not all rely on the same binding site interactions. Functional coupling to G-proteins was assayed by intracellular Ca2+ release in SFV-infected CHO cells. The wild type receptor and all mutants except A162L and F268A responded to substance P stimulation.

  18. Structural Insights into Selective Ligand-Receptor Interactions Leading to Receptor Inactivation Utilizing Selective Melanocortin 3 Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Cai, Minying; Marelli, Udaya Kiran; Mertz, Blake; Beck, Johannes G; Opperer, Florian; Rechenmacher, Florian; Kessler, Horst; Hruby, Victor J

    2017-08-15

    Systematic N-methylated derivatives of the melanocortin receptor ligand, SHU9119, lead to multiple binding and functional selectivity toward melanocortin receptors. However, the relationship between N-methylation-induced conformational changes in the peptide backbone and side chains and melanocortin receptor selectivity is still unknown. We conducted comprehensive conformational studies in solution of two selective antagonists of the third isoform of the melanocortin receptor (hMC3R), namely, Ac-Nle-c[Asp-NMe-His 6 -d-Nal(2') 7 -NMe-Arg 8 -Trp 9 -Lys]-NH 2 (15) and Ac-Nle-c[Asp-His 6 -d-Nal(2') 7 -NMe-Arg 8 -NMe-Trp 9 -NMe-Lys]-NH 2 (17). It is known that the pharmacophore (His 6 -DNal 7 -Arg 8 -Trp 9 ) of the SHU-9119 peptides occupies a β II-turn-like region with the turn centered about DNal 7 -Arg 8 . The analogues with hMC3R selectivity showed distinct differences in the spatial arrangement of the Trp 9 side chains. In addition to our NMR studies, we also carried out molecular-level interaction studies of these two peptides at the homology model of hMC3R. Earlier chimeric human melanocortin 3 receptor studies revealed insights regarding the binding and functional sites of hMC3R selectivity. Upon docking of peptides 15 and 17 to the binding pocket of hMC3R, it was revealed that Arg 8 and Trp 9 side chains are involved in a majority of the interactions with the receptor. While Arg 8 forms polar contacts with D154 and D158 of hMC3R, Trp 9 utilizes π-π stacking interactions with F295 and F298, located on the transmembrane domain of hMC3R. It is hypothesized that as the frequency of Trp 9 -hMC3R interactions decrease, antagonistic activity increases. The absence of any interactions of the N-methyl groups with hMC3R suggests that their primary function is to modulate backbone conformations of the ligands.

  19. Effects of a Serotonin 2C Agonist and a 2A Antagonist on Actigraphy-Based Sleep Parameters Disrupted by Methamphetamine Self-Administration in Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Perez Diaz, Maylen; Andersen, Monica L; Rice, Kenner C; Howell, Leonard L

    2017-01-01

    Sleep disorders and substance abuse are highly comorbid and we have previously shown that methamphetamine self-administration significantly disrupts activity-based sleep parameters in rhesus monkeys. To the best of our knowledge, no study has evaluated the effectiveness of any pharmacological intervention to attenuate the effects of methamphetamine on nighttime activity under well-controlled conditions in laboratory animals. Thus, we examined the effects of a 5-HT2C receptor agonist, WAY163909, and a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, M100907, given alone and in combination, on actigraphy-based sleep parameters disrupted by methamphetamine self-administration in non-human primates. Adult male/female rhesus monkeys self-administered methamphetamine (0.03 mg/kg/injection, i.v.) under a fixed-ratio 20 schedule of reinforcement (60-min sessions once a day, 5 days per week). Nighttime activity was evaluated using Actiwatch monitors. WAY163909 (0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 mg/kg), M100907 (0.03, 0.1, and 0.3 mg/kg), and a combination (0.1 mg/kg M100+0.3 mg/kg WAY) were administered i.m. before lights-out. Each dose was given for five consecutive days during which self-administration took place in the morning. Both drugs improved activity-based sleep measures disrupted by methamphetamine by decreasing sleep latency and increasing sleep efficiency compared with vehicle. By combining these drugs, their individual effects were significantly enhanced. Agonists at the 5-HT2C receptor and antagonists at the 5-HT2A receptor show promise as potential treatments for the sleep-disrupting effects of stimulants when used alone and in combination. Combining subthreshold doses of WAY and M100 produced significant improvements in nighttime activity measures while avoiding the general motor-decreasing effects of the high dose of WAY. PMID:27986974

  20. Effects of a Serotonin 2C Agonist and a 2A Antagonist on Actigraphy-Based Sleep Parameters Disrupted by Methamphetamine Self-Administration in Rhesus Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Perez Diaz, Maylen; Andersen, Monica L; Rice, Kenner C; Howell, Leonard L

    2017-06-01

    Sleep disorders and substance abuse are highly comorbid and we have previously shown that methamphetamine self-administration significantly disrupts activity-based sleep parameters in rhesus monkeys. To the best of our knowledge, no study has evaluated the effectiveness of any pharmacological intervention to attenuate the effects of methamphetamine on nighttime activity under well-controlled conditions in laboratory animals. Thus, we examined the effects of a 5-HT 2C receptor agonist, WAY163909, and a 5-HT 2A receptor antagonist, M100907, given alone and in combination, on actigraphy-based sleep parameters disrupted by methamphetamine self-administration in non-human primates. Adult male/female rhesus monkeys self-administered methamphetamine (0.03 mg/kg/injection, i.v.) under a fixed-ratio 20 schedule of reinforcement (60-min sessions once a day, 5 days per week). Nighttime activity was evaluated using Actiwatch monitors. WAY163909 (0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 mg/kg), M100907 (0.03, 0.1, and 0.3 mg/kg), and a combination (0.1 mg/kg M100+0.3 mg/kg WAY) were administered i.m. before lights-out. Each dose was given for five consecutive days during which self-administration took place in the morning. Both drugs improved activity-based sleep measures disrupted by methamphetamine by decreasing sleep latency and increasing sleep efficiency compared with vehicle. By combining these drugs, their individual effects were significantly enhanced. Agonists at the 5-HT 2C receptor and antagonists at the 5-HT 2A receptor show promise as potential treatments for the sleep-disrupting effects of stimulants when used alone and in combination. Combining subthreshold doses of WAY and M100 produced significant improvements in nighttime activity measures while avoiding the general motor-decreasing effects of the high dose of WAY.

  1. Current perspectives on selective dopamine D3 receptor antagonists as pharmacotherapeutics for addictions and related disorders

    PubMed Central

    Heidbreder, Christian A.; Newman, Amy H.

    2011-01-01

    Repeated exposure to drugs of abuse produces long-term molecular and neurochemical changes that may explain the core features of addiction, such as the compulsive seeking and taking of the drug, as well as the risk of relapse. A growing number of new molecular and cellular targets of addictive drugs have been identified, and rapid advances are being made in relating those targets to specific behavioral phenotypes in animal models of addiction. In this context, the pattern of expression of the dopamine (DA) D3 receptor in the rodent and human brain and changes in this pattern in response to drugs of abuse have contributed primarily to direct research efforts toward the development of selective DA D3 receptor antagonists. Growing preclinical evidence indicates that these compounds may actually regulate the motivation to self-administer drugs and disrupt drug-associated cue-induced craving. This report will be divided into three parts. First, preclinical evidence in support of the efficacy of selective DA D3 receptor antagonists in animal models of drug addiction will be reviewed. The effects of mixed DA D2/D3 receptor antagonists will not be discussed here because most of these compounds have low selectivity at the D3 versus D2 receptor, and their efficacy profile is related primarily to functional antagonism at D2 receptors and possibly interactions with other neurotransmitter systems. Second, major advances in medicinal chemistry for the identification and optimization of selective DA D3 receptor antagonists and partial agonists will be analyzed. Third, translational research from preclinical efficacy studies to so-called proof-of-concept studies for drug addiction indications will be discussed. PMID:20201845

  2. Endothelin A receptor antagonists in congestive heart failure: blocking the beast while leaving the beauty untouched?

    PubMed

    Spieker, L E; Noll, G; Ruschitzka, F T; Lüscher, T F

    2001-12-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a disease process characterized by impaired left ventricular function, increased peripheral and pulmonary vascular resistance and reduced exercise tolerance and dyspnea. Thus, mediators involved in the control of myocardial function and vascular tone may be involved in its pathophysiology. The family of endothelins (ET) consists of four closely related peptides, ET-1, ET-2, ET-3, and ET-4, which cause vasoconstriction, cell proliferation, and myocardial effects through activation of ET(A) receptors. In contrast, endothelial ET(B) receptors mediate vasodilation via release of nitric oxide and prostacyclin. In addition, ET(B) receptors in the lung are a major pathway for the clearance of ET-1 from plasma. Thus, infusion of an ET(A) receptor antagonist into the brachial artery in healthy humans leads to vasodilation whereas infusion of an ET(B) receptor antagonist causes vasoconstriction. ET-1 plasma levels are elevated in CHF and correlate both with the hemodynamic severity and with symptoms. Plasma levels of ET-1 and its precursor, big ET-1, are strong independent predictors of death in patients after myocardial infarction and with CHF. ET-1 contributes to increased systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance, vascular dysfunction, myocardial ischemia, and renal impairment in CHF. Selective ET(A) as well as combined ET(A/B) receptor antagonists have been studied in patients with CHF showing impressive hemodynamic improvements (i.e. reduced peripheral vascular and pulmonary resistance as well as increased cardiac output). These results indicate that ET receptor antagonists indeed have a potential to improve hemodynamics, symptoms, and potentially prognosis of CHF which still carries a high mortality.

  3. Current perspectives on selective dopamine D(3) receptor antagonists as pharmacotherapeutics for addictions and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Heidbreder, Christian A; Newman, Amy H

    2010-02-01

    Repeated exposure to drugs of abuse produces long-term molecular and neurochemical changes that may explain the core features of addiction, such as the compulsive seeking and taking of the drug, as well as the risk of relapse. A growing number of new molecular and cellular targets of addictive drugs have been identified, and rapid advances are being made in relating those targets to specific behavioral phenotypes in animal models of addiction. In this context, the pattern of expression of the dopamine (DA) D(3) receptor in the rodent and human brain and changes in this pattern in response to drugs of abuse have contributed primarily to direct research efforts toward the development of selective DA D(3) receptor antagonists. Growing preclinical evidence indicates that these compounds may actually regulate the motivation to self-administer drugs and disrupt drug-associated cue-induced craving. This report will be divided into three parts. First, preclinical evidence in support of the efficacy of selective DA D(3) receptor antagonists in animal models of drug addiction will be reviewed. The effects of mixed DA D(2)/D(3) receptor antagonists will not be discussed here because most of these compounds have low selectivity at the D(3) versus D(2) receptor, and their efficacy profile is related primarily to functional antagonism at D(2) receptors and possibly interactions with other neurotransmitter systems. Second, major advances in medicinal chemistry for the identification and optimization of selective DA D(3) receptor antagonists and partial agonists will be analyzed. Third, translational research from preclinical efficacy studies to so-called proof-of-concept studies for drug addiction indications will be discussed.

  4. Effect of glutamate receptor antagonists and antirheumatic drugs on proliferation of synoviocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Parada-Turska, Jolanta; Rzeski, Wojciech; Majdan, Maria; Kandefer-Szerszeń, Martyna; Turski, Waldemar A

    2006-03-27

    One of the most striking features of inflammatory arthritis is the hyperplasia of synovial fibroblasts. It is not known whether the massive synovial hyperplasia characteristic of rheumatoid arthritis is due to the proliferation of synovial fibroblasts or to defective apoptosis. It has been found that glutamate receptor antagonists inhibit proliferation of different human tumour cells and the anticancer potential of glutamate receptor antagonists was suggested. Here, we investigated the effect of glutamate receptor antagonists and selected antirheumatic drugs on proliferation of synoviocytes in vitro. Experiments were conducted on rabbit synoviocytes cell line HIG-82 obtained from American Type Culture Collection (Menassas, VA, USA). Cell proliferation was assessed by means of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The IC50 value (the concentration of drug necessary to induce 50% inhibition) together with confidence limits was calculated. Glutamate receptor antagonists, 1-(4-aminophenyl)-3,5-dihydro-7,8-dimethoxy-4H-2,3-benzodiazepin-4-one (CFM-2), riluzole, memantine, 1-4-aminophenyl-methyl-7,8-methylenedioxy-5H-2,3-benzodiazepine (GYKI 52466), dizocilpine, ketamine and 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoylbenzo(f)quinoxaline (NBQX), inhibited proliferation of synoviocytes with the following IC50 values (in mM): 0.014, 0.017, 0.065, 0.102, 0.15, 0.435 and 1.16, respectively. Antirheumatic drugs, celecoxib, diclofenac, nimesulide, sulfasalazine, naproxen and methotrexate, inhibited proliferation of synoviocytes with the following IC50 values (in mM): 0.0043, 0.034, 0.044, 0.096, 0.385 and 1.123, respectively. Thus, the antiproliferative potential of glutamate receptor antagonists is comparable to that of antirheumatic drugs.

  5. Effects of a Proprietary Standardized Orthosiphon stamineus Ethanolic Leaf Extract on Enhancing Memory in Sprague Dawley Rats Possibly via Blockade of Adenosine A2A Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Yogendra; Choudhary, Vandana Kotak; Bommu, Praveen; Wong, Hoi Jin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore a propriety standardized ethanolic extract from leaves of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth in improving impairments in short-term social memory in vivo, possibly via blockade of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR). The ethanolic extract of O. stamineus leaves showed significant in vitro binding activity of A2AR with 74% inhibition at 150 μg/ml and significant A2AR antagonist activity with 98% inhibition at 300 μg/mL. A significant adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) antagonist activity with 100% inhibition was observed at 300 μg/mL. Its effect on learning and memory was assessed via social recognition task using Sprague Dawley rats whereby the ethanolic extract of O. stamineus showed significant (p < 0.001) change in recognition index (RI) at 300 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg p.o and 120 mg/kg i.p., respectively, compared to the vehicle control. In comparison, the ethanolic extract of Polygonum minus aerial parts showed small change in inflexion; however, it remained insignificant in RI at 200 mg/kg p.o. Our findings suggest that the ethanolic extract of O. stamineus leaves improves memory by reversing age-related deficits in short-term social memory and the possible involvement of adenosine A1 and adenosine A2A as a target bioactivity site in the restoration of memory. PMID:26649059

  6. Molecular Evidence of Adenosine Deaminase Linking Adenosine A2A Receptor and CD26 Proteins.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Estefanía; Canet, Júlia; Gracia, Eduard; Lluís, Carme; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I; Cortés, Antoni; Casadó, Vicent

    2018-01-01

    Adenosine is an endogenous purine nucleoside that acts in all living systems as a homeostatic network regulator through many pathways, which are adenosine receptor (AR)-dependent and -independent. From a metabolic point of view, adenosine deaminase (ADA) is an essential protein in the regulation of the total intracellular and extracellular adenosine in a tissue. In addition to its cytosolic localization, ADA is also expressed as an ecto-enzyme on the surface of different cells. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (CD26) and some ARs act as binding proteins for extracellular ADA in humans. Since CD26 and ARs interact with ADA at opposite sites, we have investigated if ADA can function as a cell-to-cell communication molecule by bridging the anchoring molecules CD26 and A 2A R present on the surfaces of the interacting cells. By combining site-directed mutagenesis of ADA amino acids involved in binding to A 2A R and a modification of the bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) technique that allows detection of interactions between two proteins expressed in different cell populations with low steric hindrance (NanoBRET), we show direct evidence of the specific formation of trimeric complexes CD26-ADA-A 2A R involving two cells. By dynamic mass redistribution assays and ligand binding experiments, we also demonstrate that A 2A R-NanoLuc fusion proteins are functional. The existence of this ternary complex is in good agreement with the hypothesis that ADA could bridge T-cells (expressing CD26) and dendritic cells (expressing A 2A R). This is a new metabolic function for ecto-ADA that, being a single chain protein, it has been considered as an example of moonlighting protein, because it performs more than one functional role (as a catalyst, a costimulator, an allosteric modulator and a cell-to-cell connector) without partitioning these functions in different subunits.

  7. 30 YEARS OF THE MINERALOCORTICOID RECEPTOR: Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists: 60 years of research and development

    PubMed Central

    Bärfacker, Lars

    2017-01-01

    The cDNA of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) was cloned 30 years ago, in 1987. At that time, spirolactone, the first generation of synthetic steroid-based MR antagonists (MRAs), which was identified in preclinical in vivo models, had already been in clinical use for 30 years. Subsequent decades of research and development by Searle & Co., Ciba-Geigy, Roussel Uclaf and Schering AG toward identifying a second generation of much more specific steroidal MRAs were all based on the initial 17-spirolactone construct. The salient example is eplerenone, first described in 1987, coincidentally with the cloning of MR cDNA. Its launch on the market in 2003 paralleled intensive drug discovery programs for a new generation of non-steroidal MRAs. Now, 30 years after the cDNA cloning of MR and 60 years of clinical use of steroidal MRAs, novel non-steroidal MRAs such as apararenone, esaxerenone and finerenone are in late-stage clinical trials in patients with heart failure, chronic kidney disease (CKD), hypertension and liver disease. Finerenone has already been studied in over 2000 patients with heart failure plus chronic kidney disease and/or diabetes, and in patients with diabetic kidney disease, in five phase II clinical trials. Here, we reflect on the history of the various generations of MRAs and review characteristics of the most important steroidal and non-steroidal MRAs. PMID:28634268

  8. Inhibition of Ebola and Marburg Virus Entry by G Protein-Coupled Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Han; Lear-Rooney, Calli M; Johansen, Lisa; Varhegyi, Elizabeth; Chen, Zheng W; Olinger, Gene G; Rong, Lijun

    2015-10-01

    Filoviruses, consisting of Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV), are among the most lethal infectious threats to mankind. Infections by these viruses can cause severe hemorrhagic fevers in humans and nonhuman primates with high mortality rates. Since there is currently no vaccine or antiviral therapy approved for humans, there is an urgent need to develop prophylactic and therapeutic options for use during filoviral outbreaks and bioterrorist attacks. One of the ideal targets against filoviral infection and diseases is at the entry step, which is mediated by the filoviral glycoprotein (GP). In this report, we screened a chemical library of small molecules and identified numerous inhibitors, which are known G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) antagonists targeting different GPCRs, including histamine receptors, 5-HT (serotonin) receptors, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, and adrenergic receptor. These inhibitors can effectively block replication of both infectious EBOV and MARV, indicating a broad antiviral activity of the GPCR antagonists. The time-of-addition experiment and microscopic studies suggest that GPCR antagonists block filoviral entry at a step following the initial attachment but prior to viral/cell membrane fusion. These results strongly suggest that GPCRs play a critical role in filoviral entry and GPCR antagonists can be developed as an effective anti-EBOV/MARV therapy. Infection of Ebola virus and Marburg virus can cause severe illness in humans with a high mortality rate, and currently there is no FDA-approved vaccine or therapeutic treatment available. The 2013-2015 epidemic in West Africa underscores a lack of our understanding in the infection and pathogenesis of these viruses and the urgency of drug discovery and development. In this study, we have identified numerous inhibitors that are known G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) antagonists targeting different GPCRs. These inhibitors can effectively block replication of both infectious

  9. Inhibition of Ebola and Marburg Virus Entry by G Protein-Coupled Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Han; Lear-Rooney, Calli M.; Johansen, Lisa; Varhegyi, Elizabeth; Chen, Zheng W.; Olinger, Gene G.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Filoviruses, consisting of Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV), are among the most lethal infectious threats to mankind. Infections by these viruses can cause severe hemorrhagic fevers in humans and nonhuman primates with high mortality rates. Since there is currently no vaccine or antiviral therapy approved for humans, there is an urgent need to develop prophylactic and therapeutic options for use during filoviral outbreaks and bioterrorist attacks. One of the ideal targets against filoviral infection and diseases is at the entry step, which is mediated by the filoviral glycoprotein (GP). In this report, we screened a chemical library of small molecules and identified numerous inhibitors, which are known G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) antagonists targeting different GPCRs, including histamine receptors, 5-HT (serotonin) receptors, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, and adrenergic receptor. These inhibitors can effectively block replication of both infectious EBOV and MARV, indicating a broad antiviral activity of the GPCR antagonists. The time-of-addition experiment and microscopic studies suggest that GPCR antagonists block filoviral entry at a step following the initial attachment but prior to viral/cell membrane fusion. These results strongly suggest that GPCRs play a critical role in filoviral entry and GPCR antagonists can be developed as an effective anti-EBOV/MARV therapy. IMPORTANCE Infection of Ebola virus and Marburg virus can cause severe illness in humans with a high mortality rate, and currently there is no FDA-approved vaccine or therapeutic treatment available. The 2013-2015 epidemic in West Africa underscores a lack of our understanding in the infection and pathogenesis of these viruses and the urgency of drug discovery and development. In this study, we have identified numerous inhibitors that are known G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) antagonists targeting different GPCRs. These inhibitors can effectively block replication of

  10. Caffeine Reverts Memory But Not Mood Impairment in a Depression-Prone Mouse Strain with Up-Regulated Adenosine A2A Receptor in Hippocampal Glutamate Synapses.

    PubMed

    Machado, Nuno J; Simões, Ana Patrícia; Silva, Henrique B; Ardais, Ana Paula; Kaster, Manuella P; Garção, Pedro; Rodrigues, Diana I; Pochmann, Daniela; Santos, Ana Isabel; Araújo, Inês M; Porciúncula, Lisiane O; Tomé, Ângelo R; Köfalvi, Attila; Vaugeois, Jean-Marie; Agostinho, Paula; El Yacoubi, Malika; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Gomes, Catarina A

    2017-03-01

    Caffeine prophylactically prevents mood and memory impairments through adenosine A 2A receptor (A 2A R) antagonism. A 2A R antagonists also therapeutically revert mood and memory impairments, but it is not known if caffeine is also therapeutically or only prophylactically effective. Since depression is accompanied by mood and memory alterations, we now explored if chronic (4 weeks) caffeine consumption (0.3 g/L) reverts mood and memory impairment in helpless mice (HM, 12 weeks old), a bred-based model of depression. HM displayed higher immobility in the tail suspension and forced swimming tests, greater anxiety in the elevated plus maze, and poorer memory performance (modified Y-maze and object recognition). HM also had reduced density of synaptic (synaptophysin, SNAP-25), namely, glutamatergic (vGluT1; -22 ± 7 %) and GABAergic (vGAT; -23 ± 8 %) markers in the hippocampus. HM displayed higher A 2A R density (72 ± 6 %) in hippocampal synapses, an enhanced facilitation of hippocampal glutamate release by the A 2A R agonist, CGS21680 (30 nM), and a larger LTP amplitude (54 ± 8 % vs. 21 ± 5 % in controls) that was restored to control levels (30 ± 10 %) by the A 2A R antagonist, SCH58261 (50 nM). Notably, caffeine intake reverted memory deficits and reverted the loss of hippocampal synaptic markers but did not affect helpless or anxiety behavior. These results reinforce the validity of HM as an animal model of depression by showing that they also display reference memory deficits. Furthermore, caffeine intake selectively reverted memory but not mood deficits displayed by HM, which are associated with an increased density and functional impact of hippocampal A 2A R controlling synaptic glutamatergic function.

  11. Two affinities for a single antagonist at the neuronal NK1 tachykinin receptor: evidence from quantitation of receptor endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Jenkinson, Karl M; Southwell, Bridget R; Furness, John B

    1999-01-01

    In smooth muscle contractility assays, many NK1 receptor (NK1r) antagonists inhibit responses to the neurotransmitter, substance P (SP), and its analogue, septide, with markedly different potency, leading to the proposal that there is a septide-preferring receptor related to the NK1r.We used fluorescence immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy to visualize agonist-induced NK1r endocytosis and analyse agonist/antagonist interactions at native NK1r in neurons of the myenteric plexus of guinea-pig ileum.SP and septide gave sigmoid log concentration-response curves and were equipotent in inducing NK1r endocytosis.The NK1r antagonists, CP-99994 (2S,3S)-3-(2-methoxybenzyl)amino-2-phenylpiperidine dihydrochloride and MEN-10581, cyclo(Leuψ[CH2NH]Lys(benzyloxycarbonyl)-Gln-Trp-Phe-βAla) were both more potent in inhibiting endocytosis (50× and 8× greater respectively) against septide than against SP.The results suggest that SP and septide interact differently with the NK1r, and that a single antagonist can exhibit different affinities at a single NK1r population, depending on the agonist with which it competes. Thus it may not be necessary to posit a separate septide-preferring tachykinin receptor. PMID:10051129

  12. Two affinities for a single antagonist at the neuronal NK1 tachykinin receptor: evidence from quantitation of receptor endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Jenkinson, K M; Southwell, B R; Furness, J B

    1999-01-01

    1. In smooth muscle contractility assays, many NK1 receptor (NK1r) antagonists inhibit responses to the neurotransmitter, substance P (SP), and its analogue, septide, with markedly different potency, leading to the proposal that there is a septide-preferring receptor related to the NK1r. 2. We used fluorescence immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy to visualize agonist-induced NK1r endocytosis and analyse agonist/antagonist interactions at native NK1r in neurons of the myenteric plexus of guinea-pig ileum. 3. SP and septide gave sigmoid log concentration-response curves and were equipotent in inducing NK1r endocytosis. 4. The NK1r antagonists, CP-99994 (2S,3S)-3-(2-methoxybenzyl)amino-2-phenylpiperidine dihydrochloride and MEN-10581, cyclo(Leu,[CH2NH]Lys(benzyloxycarbonyl)-Gln-Trp-Phe-betaAla) were both more potent in inhibiting endocytosis (50 x and 8 x greater respectively) against septide than against SP. 5. The results suggest that SP and septide interact differently with the NK1r, and that a single antagonist can exhibit different affinities at a single NK1r population, depending on the agonist with which it competes. Thus it may not be necessary to posit a separate septide-preferring tachykinin receptor.

  13. Neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Fahad

    2012-07-01

    Chemotherapy can be a life-prolonging treatment for many cancer patients, but it is often associated with profound nausea and vomiting that is so distressing that patients may delay or decline treatment to avoid these side effects. The discovery of several NK1 receptor antagonists is a big revolution to dealt this problem. NK1 receptor antagonists prevent both acute and delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). These agents act centrally at NK-1 receptors in vomiting centers within the central nervous system to block their activation by substance P released as an unwanted consequence of chemotherapy. By controlling nausea and vomiting, these agents help improve patients' daily living and their ability to complete multiple cycles of chemotherapy. They are effective for both moderately and highly emetogenic chemotherapy regimens. Their use might be associated with increased infection rates; however, additional appraisal of specific data from RCTs is needed.

  14. Antagonist effects of seglitide (MK 678) at somatostatin receptors in guinea-pig isolated right atria.

    PubMed Central

    Dimech, J.; Feniuk, W.; Humphrey, P. P.

    1993-01-01

    Somatostatin (SS) exerts a negative inotropic effect in isolated atria. Here we report that in guinea-pig isolated right atria, seglitide, a potent cyclic hexapeptide somatostatin agonist, behaves as a competitive somatostatin receptor antagonist with pA2 values against SS14, SS25 and SS28, of 6.50 +/- 0.40, 6.24 +/- 0.08 and 6.09 +/- 0.06, respectively. Seglitide had little or no effect on the negative inotropic action of carbachol or N6-cyclohexyladenosine. Our findings indicate that the receptor-response coupling characteristics of guinea-pig atria are such that in this preparation seglitide has low intrinsic activity and behaves specifically as a somatostatin receptor antagonist. PMID:8104651

  15. Assembly of high-affinity insulin receptor agonists and antagonists from peptide building blocks

    PubMed Central

    Schäffer, Lauge; Brissette, Renee E.; Spetzler, Jane C.; Pillutla, Renuka C.; Østergaard, Søren; Lennick, Michael; Brandt, Jakob; Fletcher, Paul W.; Danielsen, Gillian M.; Hsiao, Ku-Chuan; Andersen, Asser S.; Dedova, Olga; Ribel, Ulla; Hoeg-Jensen, Thomas; Hansen, Per Hertz; Blume, Arthur J.; Markussen, Jan; Goldstein, Neil I.

    2003-01-01

    Insulin is thought to elicit its effects by crosslinking the two extracellular α-subunits of its receptor, thereby inducing a conformational change in the receptor, which activates the intracellular tyrosine kinase signaling cascade. Previously we identified a series of peptides binding to two discrete hotspots on the insulin receptor. Here we show that covalent linkage of such peptides into homodimers or heterodimers results in insulin agonists or antagonists, depending on how the peptides are linked. An optimized agonist has been shown, both in vitro and in vivo, to have a potency close to that of insulin itself. The ability to construct such peptide derivatives may offer a path for developing agonists or antagonists for treatment of a wide variety of diseases. PMID:12684539

  16. Blonanserin, an antipsychotic and dopamine D₂/D₃receptor antagonist, and ameliorated alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Takaki, Manabu; Ujike, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Blonanserin (BNS) is used for treatment of both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia in Japan and Korea. Because BNS has weak α1 receptor blocking activities and is almost devoid of histamine H1 and muscarinic M1 antagonist activity, BNS is better tolerated than other atypical antipsychotics. A high degree of D₃ receptor blockage is reported to be predictive of drug abuse and alcoholism, and BNS has strong D₃ receptor antagonism. Thus, BNS may be useful in the treatment of alcoholism. We present a case in which BNS ameliorated alcohol dependence.

  17. Thyroid Hormone Receptor Antagonists: From Environmental Pollution to Novel Small Molecules.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Louise S

    2018-01-01

    Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are nuclear receptors which control transcription, and thereby have effects in all cells within the body. TRs are an important regulator in many basic physiological processes including development, growth, metabolism, and cardiac function. The hyperthyroid condition results from an over production of thyroid hormones resulting in a continual stimulation of thyroid receptors which is detrimental for the patient. Therapies for hyperthyroidism are available, but there is a need for new small molecules that act as TR antagonists to treat hyperthyroidism. Many compounds exhibit TR antagonism and are considered detrimental to health. Some drugs in the clinic (most importantly, amiodarone) and environmental pollution exhibit TR antagonist properties and thus have the potential to induce hypothyroidism in some people. This chapter provides an overview of novel small molecules that have been specifically designed or screened for their TR antagonist activity as novel treatments for hyperthyroidism. While novel compounds have been identified, to date none have been developed sufficiently to enter clinical trials. Furthermore, a discussion on other sources of TR antagonists is discussed in terms of side effects of current drugs in the clinic as well as environmental pollution. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. (D-Phe/sup 12/)bombesin analogues: a new class of bombesin receptor antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Heinz-Erian, P.; Coy, D.H.; Tamura, M.

    1987-03-01

    Previous attempts to develop analogues of bombesin that function as specific receptor antagonists have been unsuccessful. Alteration of the histidine in luteinizing hormone releasing factor has resulted in analogues that function as competitive antagonists. In the present study the authors have used a similar strategy and altered the histidine in bombesin. (D-Phe/sup 12/)bombesin, (D-Phe/sup 12/,Leu/sup 14/)bombesin, and (Try/sup 4/, D-)je/sup 12/) bombesin did not stimulate amylase release from guinea pig pancreatic acini when present alone, but each analog inhibited bombesin-stimulated secretion. For each analog, detectable inhibition occurred at 1 ..mu..M and half-maximal inhibition at 4 ..mu..M. Each analog inhibited amylasemore » release by bombesin and other agonists that stimulate secretion by interacting with bombesin receptors. The analogues of bombesin did not alter stimulation by substance P or other agonists that interact with other receptors. The inhibition of the action of bombesin was competitive with Schild plots having slopes of 1.0. Each analog also inhibited binding of /sup 125/I-labeled (Try/sup 4/) bombesin but not /sup 125/I-labeled substance P. These results demonstrate that (D-Phe/sup 12/) analogues of bombesin function as bombesin receptor antagonists and are the only bombesin receptor antagonists that interact only with the bombesin receptor. Because of their specificity, these analogues may prove useful for defining the role of bombesin in various physiological or pathological processes.« less

  19. Discovery of potent, selective, orally active benzoxazepine-based Orexin-2 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Tatsuhiko; Kunitomo, Jun; Tomata, Yoshihide; Nishiyama, Keiji; Nakashima, Masato; Hirozane, Mariko; Yoshikubo, Shin-Ichi; Hirai, Keisuke; Marui, Shogo

    2011-11-01

    During our efforts to identify a series of potent, selective, orally active human Orexin-2 Receptor (OX2R) antagonists, we elucidated structure-activity relationship (SAR) on the 7-position of a benzoxazepine scaffold by utilizing Hammett σ(p) and Hansch-Fujita π value as aromatic substituent constants. The attempts led to the discovery of compound 1m, possessing good in vitro potency with over 100-fold selectivity against OX1R, good metabolic stability in human and rat liver microsome, good oral bioavailability in rats, and in vivo antagonistic activity in rats by oral administration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Neuroprotection by caffeine in the MPTP model of Parkinson’s disease and its dependence on adenosine A2A receptors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kui; Di Luca, Daniel Garbin; Orrú, Marco; Xu, Yuehang; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Schwarzschild, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Considerable epidemiological and laboratory data have suggested that caffeine, a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist, may protect against the underlying neurodegeneration of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Although both caffeine and more specific antagonists of the A2A subtype of adenosine receptor (A2AR) have been found to confer protection in animal models of PD, the dependence of caffeine’s neuroprotective effects on the A2AR is not known. To definitively determine its A2AR dependence, the effect of caffeine on MPTP neurotoxicity was compared in wild-type (WT) and A2AR gene global knockout (A2A KO) mice, as well as in CNS cell type-specific (conditional) A2AR knockout (cKO) mice that lack the receptor either in postnatal forebrain neurons or in astrocytes. In WT and in heterozygous A2AR KO mice caffeine pretreatment (25 mg/kg ip) significantly attenuated MPTP-induced depletion of striatal dopamine. By contrast in homozygous A2AR global KO mice caffeine had no effect on MPTP toxicity. In forebrain neuron A2AR cKO mice, caffeine lost its locomotor stimulant effect, whereas its neuroprotective effect was mostly preserved. In astrocytic A2AR cKO mice, both caffeine’s locomotor stimulant and protective properties were undiminished. Taken together, these results indicate that neuroprotection by caffeine in the MPTP model of PD relies on the A2AR, although the specific cellular localization of these receptors remains to be determined. PMID:26905951

  1. Discovery, synthesis, selectivity modulation and DMPK characterization of 5-azaspiro[2.4]heptanes as potent orexin receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Stasi, Luigi Piero; Artusi, Roberto; Bovino, Clara; Buzzi, Benedetta; Canciani, Luca; Caselli, Gianfranco; Colace, Fabrizio; Garofalo, Paolo; Giambuzzi, Silvia; Larger, Patrice; Letari, Ornella; Mandelli, Stefano; Perugini, Lorenzo; Pucci, Sabrina; Salvi, Matteo; Toro, PierLuigi

    2013-05-01

    Starting from a orexin 1 receptor selective antagonist 4,4-disubstituted piperidine series a novel potent 5-azaspiro[2.4]heptane dual orexin 1 and orexin 2 receptor antagonist class has been discovered. SAR and Pharmacokinetic optimization of this series is herein disclosed. Lead compound 15 exhibits potent activity against orexin 1 and orexin 2 receptors along with low cytochrome P450 inhibition potential, good brain penetration and oral bioavailability in rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The role of 5 HT6-receptor antagonists in Alzheimer's disease: an update.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Rita; Grysman, Noam; Gold, Jake; Patel, Kush; Grossberg, George T

    2018-06-01

    Despite recent advances in Alzheimer's disease (AD) research, no breakthrough treatments have been discovered. Cholinesterase inhibitors and the NMDA-receptor antagonist memantine are currently the two approved symptomatic treatments for AD. 5-HT6 receptor antagonism has recently emerged as a promising treatment strategy to improve cognition in AD, with a modest side-effect profile. Areas covered: 5-HT6 receptors, exclusively found in the central nervous system, modulate primarily GABA and glutamate levels, facilitating the secondary release of other neurotransmitters including dopamine, noradrenaline, and acetylcholine, all of which are compromised in AD. This review discusses findings of preclinical and phase I-III clinical trials conducted with three major 5-HT6 receptor antagonists: idalopirdine, intepirdine, and SUVN-502, in the field of AD. Expert opinion: Despite early positive findings, larger phase-III trials have failed to demonstrate any statistically significant impact on cognition for both idalopirdine and intepirdine, as adjunct to cholinesterase inhibitors. Paradoxically, 5-HT6 receptor agonists have also been shown to have cognitive enhancing properties. Thus, a better understanding of the mechanism of action of the 5-HT6 receptor and its ligands is warranted. Investigating 5-HT6 receptor partial or inverse agonists may be promising in future AD trials.

  3. Activation of microglial cells triggers a release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) inducing their proliferation in an adenosine A2A receptor-dependent manner: A2A receptor blockade prevents BDNF release and proliferation of microglia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to control microglial responses in neuropathic pain. Since adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) control neuroinflammation, as well as the production and function of BDNF, we tested to see if A2AR controls the microglia-dependent secretion of BDNF and the proliferation of microglial cells, a crucial event in neuroinflammation. Methods Murine N9 microglial cells were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 ng/mL) in the absence or in the presence of the A2AR antagonist, SCH58261 (50 nM), as well as other modulators of A2AR signaling. The BDNF cellular content and secretion were quantified by Western blotting and ELISA, A2AR density was probed by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry and cell proliferation was assessed by BrdU incorporation. Additionally, the A2AR modulation of LPS-driven cell proliferation was also tested in primary cultures of mouse microglia. Results LPS induced time-dependent changes of the intra- and extracellular levels of BDNF and increased microglial proliferation. The maximal LPS-induced BDNF release was time-coincident with an LPS-induced increase of the A2AR density. Notably, removing endogenous extracellular adenosine or blocking A2AR prevented the LPS-mediated increase of both BDNF secretion and proliferation, as well as exogenous BDNF-induced proliferation. Conclusions We conclude that A2AR activation plays a mandatory role controlling the release of BDNF from activated microglia, as well as the autocrine/paracrine proliferative role of BDNF. PMID:23363775

  4. Functional role of striatal A2A, D2, and mGlu5 receptor interactions in regulating striatopallidal GABA neuronal transmission.

    PubMed

    Beggiato, Sarah; Tomasini, Maria Cristina; Borelli, Andrea Celeste; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel Oscar; Fuxe, Kjell; Antonelli, Tiziana; Tanganelli, Sergio; Ferraro, Luca

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the functional role of individual striatal receptors for adenosine (A2AR), dopamine (D2R), and the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGlu5R in regulating rat basal ganglia activity was characterized in vivo using dual-probe microdialysis in freely moving rats. In particular, intrastriatal perfusion with the D2R agonist quinpirole (10 μM, 60 min) decreased ipsilateral pallidal GABA and glutamate levels, whereas intrastriatal CGS21680 (A2AR agonist; 1 μM, 60 min) was ineffective on either pallidal GABA and glutamate levels or the quinpirole-induced effects. Intrastriatal perfusion with the mGlu5R agonist (RS)-2-chloro-5-hydroxyphenylglycine (600 μM, 60 min), by itself ineffective on pallidal GABA and glutamate levels, partially counteracted the effects of quinpirole. When combined with CGS21680 (1 μM, 60 min), (RS)-2-chloro-5-hydroxyphenylglycine (CHPG; 600 μM, 60 min) fully counteracted the quinpirole (10 μM, 60 min)-induced reduction in ipsilateral pallidal GABA and glutamate levels. These effects were fully counteracted by local perfusion with the mGlu5R antagonist MPEP (300 μM) or the A2AR antagonist ZM 241385 (100 nM). These results suggest that A2ARs and mGlu5Rs interact synergistically in modulating the D2R-mediated control of striatopallidal GABA neurons. Using dual-probe microdialysis, we characterized the functional role of striatal adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR), dopamine D2 receptor (D2R), and metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) interactions in regulating rat basal ganglia activity. The results suggest the possible usefulness of using an A2AR antagonist and mGluR5 antagonist combination in the treatment of Parkinson's disease to increase the inhibitory D2 signaling on striatopallidal GABA neurons. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  5. Inverse agonist and neutral antagonist actions of synthetic compounds at an insect 5-HT1 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Troppmann, B; Balfanz, S; Baumann, A; Blenau, W

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) has been shown to control and modulate many physiological and behavioural functions in insects. In this study, we report the cloning and pharmacological properties of a 5-HT1 receptor of an insect model for neurobiology, physiology and pharmacology. Experimental approach: A cDNA encoding for the Periplaneta americana 5-HT1 receptor was amplified from brain cDNA. The receptor was stably expressed in HEK 293 cells, and the functional and pharmacological properties were determined in cAMP assays. Receptor distribution was investigated by RT-PCR and by immunocytochemistry using an affinity-purified polyclonal antiserum. Key results: The P. americana 5-HT1 receptor (Pea5-HT1) shares pronounced sequence and functional similarity with mammalian 5-HT1 receptors. Activation with 5-HT reduced adenylyl cyclase activity in a dose-dependent manner. Pea5-HT1 was expressed as a constitutively active receptor with methiothepin acting as a neutral antagonist, and WAY 100635 as an inverse agonist. Receptor mRNA was present in various tissues including brain, salivary glands and midgut. Receptor-specific antibodies showed that the native protein was expressed in a glycosylated form in membrane samples of brain and salivary glands. Conclusions and implications: This study marks the first pharmacological identification of an inverse agonist and a neutral antagonist at an insect 5-HT1 receptor. The results presented here should facilitate further analyses of 5-HT1 receptors in mediating central and peripheral effects of 5-HT in insects. PMID:20233210

  6. The Adenosine A2A Receptor Agonist, CGS-21680, Blocks Excessive Rearing, Acquisition of Wheel Running, and Increases Nucleus Accumbens CREB Phosphorylation in Chronically Food-Restricted Rats

    PubMed Central

    de Vaca, Soledad Cabeza; Kannan, Pavitra; Pan, Yan; Jiang, Nancy; Sun, Yanjie; Carr, Kenneth D.

    2007-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptors are preferentially expressed in rat striatum, where they are concentrated in dendritic spines of striatopallidal medium spiny neurons and exist in a heteromeric complex with D2 dopamine (DA) receptors. Behavioral and biochemical studies indicate an antagonistic relationship between A2A and D2 receptors. Previous studies have demonstrated that food-restricted (FR) rats display behavioral and striatal cellular hypersensitivity to D1 and D2 DA receptor stimulation. These alterations may underlie adaptive, as well as maladaptive, behaviors characteristic of the FR rat. The present study examined whether FR rats are hypersensitive to the A2A receptor agonist, CGS-21680. In Experiment 1, spontaneous horizontal motor activity did not differ between FR and ad libitum fed (AL) rats, while vertical activity was greater in the former. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of CGS-21680 (0.25 and 1.0 nmol) decreased both types of motor activity in FR rats, and returned vertical activity levels to those observed in AL rats. In Experiment 2, FR rats given access to a running wheel for a brief period outside of the home cage rapidly acquired wheel running while AL rats did not. Pretreatment with CGS-21680 (1.0 nmol) blocked the acquisition of wheel running. When administered to FR subjects that had previously acquired wheel running, CGS-21680 suppressed the behavior. In Experiment 3, CGS-21680 (1.0 nmol) activated both ERK 1/2 and CREB in caudate-putamen with no difference between feeding groups. However, in nucleus accumbens (NAc), CGS-21680 failed to activate ERK 1/2 and selectively activated CREB in FR rats. These results indicate that FR subjects are hypersensitive to several effects of an adenosine A2A agonist, and suggest the involvement of an upregulated A2A receptor-linked signaling pathway in NAc. Medications targeting the A2A receptor may have utility in the treatment of maladaptive behaviors associated with FR, including substance abuse

  7. Effects of muscarinic receptor antagonists on cocaine discrimination in wild-type mice and in muscarinic receptor M1, M2, and M4 receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Lauren; Thomsen, Morgane

    2017-06-30

    Muscarinic M 1 /M 4 receptor stimulation can reduce abuse-related effects of cocaine and may represent avenues for treating cocaine addiction. Muscarinic antagonists can mimic and enhance effects of cocaine, including discriminative stimulus (S D ) effects, but the receptor subtypes mediating those effects are not known. A better understanding of the complex cocaine/muscarinic interactions is needed to evaluate and develop potential muscarinic-based medications. Here, knockout mice lacking M 1 , M 2 , or M 4 receptors (M 1 -/- , M 2 -/- , M 4 -/- ), as well as control wild-type mice and outbred Swiss-Webster mice, were trained to discriminate 10mg/kg cocaine from saline. Muscarinic receptor antagonists with no subtype selectivity (scopolamine), or preferential affinity at the M 1 , M 2 , or M 4 subtype (telenzepine, trihexyphenidyl; methoctramine, AQ-RA 741; tropicamide) were tested alone and in combination with cocaine. In intact animals, antagonists with high affinity at M 1 /M 4 receptors partially substituted for cocaine and increased the S D effect of cocaine, while M 2 -preferring antagonists did not substitute, and reduced the S D effect of cocaine. The cocaine-like effects of scopolamine were absent in M 1 -/- mice. The cocaine S D attenuating effects of methoctramine were absent in M 2 -/- mice and almost absent in M 1 -/- mice. The findings indicate that the cocaine-like S D effects of muscarinic antagonists are primarily mediated through M 1 receptors, with a minor contribution of M 4 receptors. The data also support our previous findings that stimulation of M 1 receptors and M 4 receptors can each attenuate the S D effect of cocaine, and show that this can also be achieved by blocking M 2 autoreceptors, likely via increased acetylcholine release. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. P2X1 Receptor Antagonists Inhibit HIV-1 Fusion by Blocking Virus-Coreceptor Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Giroud, Charline; Marin, Mariana; Hammonds, Jason; Spearman, Paul

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT HIV-1 Env glycoprotein-mediated fusion is initiated upon sequential binding of Env to CD4 and the coreceptor CXCR4 or CCR5. Whereas these interactions are thought to be necessary and sufficient to promote HIV-1 fusion, other host factors can modulate this process. Previous studies reported potent inhibition of HIV-1 fusion by selective P2X1 receptor antagonists, including NF279, and suggested that these receptors play a role in HIV-1 entry. Here we investigated the mechanism of antiviral activity of NF279 and found that this compound does not inhibit HIV-1 fusion by preventing the activation of P2X1 channels but effectively blocks the binding of the virus to CXCR4 or CCR5. The notion of an off-target effect of NF279 on HIV-1 fusion is supported by the lack of detectable expression of P2X1 receptors in cells used in fusion experiments and by the fact that the addition of ATP or the enzymatic depletion of ATP in culture medium does not modulate viral fusion. Importantly, NF279 fails to inhibit HIV-1 fusion with cell lines and primary macrophages when added at an intermediate stage downstream of Env-CD4-coreceptor engagement. Conversely, in the presence of NF279, HIV-1 fusion is arrested downstream of CD4 binding but prior to coreceptor engagement. NF279 also antagonizes the signaling function of CCR5, CXCR4, and another chemokine receptor, as evidenced by the suppression of calcium responses elicited by specific ligands and by recombinant gp120. Collectively, our results demonstrate that NF279 is a dual HIV-1 coreceptor inhibitor that interferes with the functional engagement of CCR5 and CXCR4 by Env. IMPORTANCE Inhibition of P2X receptor activity suppresses HIV-1 fusion and replication, suggesting that P2X signaling is involved in HIV-1 entry. However, mechanistic experiments conducted in this study imply that P2X1 receptor is not expressed in target cells or involved in viral fusion. Instead, we found that inhibition of HIV-1 fusion by a specific P2X1

  9. P2X1 Receptor Antagonists Inhibit HIV-1 Fusion by Blocking Virus-Coreceptor Interactions.

    PubMed

    Giroud, Charline; Marin, Mariana; Hammonds, Jason; Spearman, Paul; Melikyan, Gregory B

    2015-09-01

    HIV-1 Env glycoprotein-mediated fusion is initiated upon sequential binding of Env to CD4 and the coreceptor CXCR4 or CCR5. Whereas these interactions are thought to be necessary and sufficient to promote HIV-1 fusion, other host factors can modulate this process. Previous studies reported potent inhibition of HIV-1 fusion by selective P2X1 receptor antagonists, including NF279, and suggested that these receptors play a role in HIV-1 entry. Here we investigated the mechanism of antiviral activity of NF279 and found that this compound does not inhibit HIV-1 fusion by preventing the activation of P2X1 channels but effectively blocks the binding of the virus to CXCR4 or CCR5. The notion of an off-target effect of NF279 on HIV-1 fusion is supported by the lack of detectable expression of P2X1 receptors in cells used in fusion experiments and by the fact that the addition of ATP or the enzymatic depletion of ATP in culture medium does not modulate viral fusion. Importantly, NF279 fails to inhibit HIV-1 fusion with cell lines and primary macrophages when added at an intermediate stage downstream of Env-CD4-coreceptor engagement. Conversely, in the presence of NF279, HIV-1 fusion is arrested downstream of CD4 binding but prior to coreceptor engagement. NF279 also antagonizes the signaling function of CCR5, CXCR4, and another chemokine receptor, as evidenced by the suppression of calcium responses elicited by specific ligands and by recombinant gp120. Collectively, our results demonstrate that NF279 is a dual HIV-1 coreceptor inhibitor that interferes with the functional engagement of CCR5 and CXCR4 by Env. Inhibition of P2X receptor activity suppresses HIV-1 fusion and replication, suggesting that P2X signaling is involved in HIV-1 entry. However, mechanistic experiments conducted in this study imply that P2X1 receptor is not expressed in target cells or involved in viral fusion. Instead, we found that inhibition of HIV-1 fusion by a specific P2X1 receptor antagonist, NF

  10. Adenosine A2A Receptor Activation Prevents Wear Particle-Induced Osteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Mediero, Aránzazu; Frenkel, Sally R.; Wilder, Tuere; He, Wenjie; Mazumder, Amitabha; Cronstein, Bruce N.

    2012-01-01

    Prosthesis loosening, associated with wear-particle–induced inflammation and osteoclast-mediated bone destruction, is a common cause for joint implant failure, leading to revision surgery. Adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) mediate potent anti-inflammatory effects in many tissues and prevent osteoclast differentiation. We tested the hypothesis that an A2AR agonist could reduce osteoclast-mediated bone resorption in a murine calvaria model of wear-particle–induced bone resorption. C57Bl/6 and A2A knockout (A2ARKO) mice received ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene particles (UHMWPE) and were treated daily with either saline or the A2AR agonist CGS21680. After 2 weeks, micro-computed tomography of calvaria demonstrated that CGS21680 reduced particle-induced bone pitting and porosity in a dose-dependent manner, increasing cortical bone and bone volume compared to control mice. Histological examination demonstrated diminished inflammation after treatment with CGS21680. In A2AKO mice, CGS21680 did not affect osteoclast-mediated bone resorption or inflammation. Levels of bone-resorption markers receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB (RANK), RANK ligand (RANKL), cathepsin K, CD163, and osteopontin were reduced following CGS21680 treatment, together with a reduction in osteoclasts. Secretion of interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and TNFα was significantly decreased, whereas IL-10 was markedly increased in bone by CGS21680. These results in mice suggest that site-specific delivery of an adenosine A2AR agonist could enhance implant survival, delaying or eliminating the need for revision arthroplastic surgery. PMID:22623741

  11. A novel human-based receptor antagonist of sustained action reveals body weight control by endogenous GLP-1.

    PubMed

    Patterson, James T; Ottaway, Nickki; Gelfanov, Vasily M; Smiley, David L; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Pfluger, Paul T; Tschöp, Matthias H; Dimarchi, Richard D

    2011-02-18

    Ex-4 (9-39)a is a well characterized GLP-1 receptor antagonist that suffers from two notable limitations, its nonhuman amino acid sequence and its relatively short in vivo duration of action. Comparable N-terminal shortening of human GLP-1 lessens agonism but does not provide a high potency antagonist. Through a series of GLP-1/Ex-4 hybrid peptides, the minimal structural changes required to generate a pure GLP-1-based antagonist were identified as Glu16, Val19, and Arg20, yielding an antagonist of approximately 3-fold greater in vitro potency compared with Ex-4 (9-39)a. The structural basis of antagonism appears to result from stabilization of the α helix combined with enhanced electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions with the extracellular domain of the receptor. Site-specific acylation of the human-based antagonist yielded a peptide of increased potency as a GLP-1 receptor antagonist and 10-fold greater selectivity relative to the GIP receptor. The acylated antagonist demonstrated sufficient duration of action to maintain inhibitory activity when administered as a daily subcutaneous injection. The sustained pharmacokinetics and enhanced human sequence combine to form an antagonist optimized for clinical study. Daily administration of this antagonist by subcutaneous injection to diet-induced obese mice for 1 week caused a significant increase in food intake, body weight, and glucose intolerance, demonstrating endogenous GLP-1 as a relevant hormone in mammalian energy balance in the obese state.

  12. Pharmacology of JB-9315, a new selective histamine H2-receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Palacios, B; Montero, M J; Sevilla, M A; San Román, L

    1998-02-01

    1. The histamine H2-receptor antagonistic activity and antisecretory and antiulcer effects of JB-9315 were studied in comparison with the standard H2 blocker ranitidine. 2. In vitro, JB-9315 is a competitive antagonist of histamine H2 receptors in the isolated, spontaneously beating guinea-pig right atrium, with a pA2 value of 7.30 relative to a value of 7.36 for ranitidine. JB-9315 was specific for the histamine H2 receptor because, at high concentration, it did not affect histamine- or acetylcholine-induced contractions in guinea-pig isolated ileum or rat isolated duodenum, respectively. 3. JB-9315 dose dependently inhibited histamine-, pentagastrin- or carbachol-stimulated acid secretion and basal secretion in the perfused stomach preparation of the anesthetized rat. In the pylorus-ligated rat after intraperitoneal administration, total acid output over 4 h was inhibited by JB-9315 with an ID50 of 32.8 mg/kg, confirming its H2-receptor antagonist properties. 4. JB-9315 showed antiulcer activity against cold stress plus indomethacin-induced lesions with an ID50 of 6.8 mg/kg. 5. JB-9315, 50 and 100 mg/kg, inhibited macroscopic gastric hemorrhagic lesions induced by ethanol. In contrast, ranitidine (50 mg/kg) failed to reduce these lesions. 6. These results indicate that JB-9315 is a new antiulcer drug that exerts a cytoprotective effect in addition to its gastric antisecretory activity.

  13. AM-37 and ST-36 Are Small Molecule Bombesin Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Moody, Terry W.; Tashakkori, Nicole; Mantey, Samuel A.; Moreno, Paola; Ramos-Alvarez, Irene; Leopoldo, Marcello; Jensen, Robert T.

    2017-01-01

    While peptide antagonists for the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (BB2R), neuromedin B receptor (BB1R), and bombesin (BB) receptor subtype-3 (BRS-3) exist, there is a need to develop non-peptide small molecule inhibitors for all three BBR. The BB agonist (BA)1 binds with high affinity to the BB1R, BB2R, and BRS-3. In this communication, small molecule BBR antagonists were evaluated using human lung cancer cells. AM-37 and ST-36 inhibited binding to human BB1R, BB2R, and BRS-3 with similar affinity (Ki = 1.4–10.8 µM). AM-13 and AM-14 were approximately an order of magnitude less potent than AM-37 and ST-36. The ability of BA1 to elevate cytosolic Ca2+ in human lung cancer cells transfected with BB1R, BB2R, and BRS-3 was antagonized by AM-37 and ST-36. BA1 increased tyrosine phosphorylation of the EGFR and ERK in lung cancer cells, which was blocked by AM-37 and ST-36. AM-37 and ST-36 reduced the growth of lung cancer cells that have BBR. The results indicate that AM-37 and ST-36 function as small molecule BB receptor antagonists. PMID:28785244

  14. AM-37 and ST-36 Are Small Molecule Bombesin Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Moody, Terry W; Tashakkori, Nicole; Mantey, Samuel A; Moreno, Paola; Ramos-Alvarez, Irene; Leopoldo, Marcello; Jensen, Robert T

    2017-01-01

    While peptide antagonists for the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (BB 2 R), neuromedin B receptor (BB 1 R), and bombesin (BB) receptor subtype-3 (BRS-3) exist, there is a need to develop non-peptide small molecule inhibitors for all three BBR. The BB agonist (BA)1 binds with high affinity to the BB 1 R, BB 2 R, and BRS-3. In this communication, small molecule BBR antagonists were evaluated using human lung cancer cells. AM-37 and ST-36 inhibited binding to human BB 1 R, BB 2 R, and BRS-3 with similar affinity ( K i = 1.4-10.8 µM). AM-13 and AM-14 were approximately an order of magnitude less potent than AM-37 and ST-36. The ability of BA1 to elevate cytosolic Ca 2+ in human lung cancer cells transfected with BB 1 R, BB 2 R, and BRS-3 was antagonized by AM-37 and ST-36. BA1 increased tyrosine phosphorylation of the EGFR and ERK in lung cancer cells, which was blocked by AM-37 and ST-36. AM-37 and ST-36 reduced the growth of lung cancer cells that have BBR. The results indicate that AM-37 and ST-36 function as small molecule BB receptor antagonists.

  15. Novel Yeast-based Strategy Unveils Antagonist Binding Regions on the Nuclear Xenobiotic Receptor PXR*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hao; Redinbo, Matthew R.; Venkatesh, Madhukumar; Ekins, Sean; Chaudhry, Anik; Bloch, Nicolin; Negassa, Abdissa; Mukherjee, Paromita; Kalpana, Ganjam; Mani, Sridhar

    2013-01-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a master regulator of xenobiotic metabolism, and its activity is critical toward understanding the pathophysiology of several diseases, including inflammation, cancer, and steatosis. Previous studies have demonstrated that ketoconazole binds to ligand-activated PXR and antagonizes receptor control of gene expression. Structure-function as well as computational docking analysis suggested a putative binding region containing critical charge clamp residues Gln-272, and Phe-264 on the AF-2 surface of PXR. To define the antagonist binding surface(s) of PXR, we developed a novel assay to identify key amino acid residues on PXR based on a yeast two-hybrid screen that examined mutant forms of PXR. This screen identified multiple “gain-of-function” mutants that were “resistant” to the PXR antagonist effects of ketoconazole. We then compared our screen results identifying key PXR residues to those predicted by computational methods. Of 15 potential or putative binding residues based on docking, we identified three residues in the yeast screen that were then systematically verified to functionally interact with ketoconazole using mammalian assays. Among the residues confirmed by our study was Ser-208, which is on the opposite side of the protein from the AF-2 region critical for receptor regulation. The identification of new locations for antagonist binding on the surface or buried in PXR indicates novel aspects to the mechanism of receptor antagonism. These results significantly expand our understanding of antagonist binding sites on the surface of PXR and suggest new avenues to regulate this receptor for clinical applications. PMID:23525103

  16. Delayed preconditioning with NMDA receptor antagonists in a rat model of perinatal asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Makarewicz, Dorota; Sulejczak, Dorota; Duszczyk, Małgorzata; Małek, Michał; Słomka, Marta; Lazarewicz, Jerzy W

    2014-01-01

    In vitro experiments have demonstrated that preconditioning primary neuronal cultures by temporary application of NMDA receptor antagonists induces long-term tolerance against lethal insults. In the present study we tested whether similar effects also occur in brain submitted to ischemia in vivo and whether the potential benefit outweighs the danger of enhancing the constitutive apoptosis in the developing brain. Memantine in pharmacologically relevant doses of 5 mg/kg or (+)MK-801 (3 mg/kg) was administered i.p. 24, 48, 72 and 96 h before 3-min global forebrain ischemia in adult Mongolian gerbils or prior to hypoxia/ischemia in 7-day-old rats. Neuronal loss in the hippocampal CA1 in gerbils or weight deficit of the ischemic hemispheres in the rat pups was evaluated after 14 days. Also, the number of apoptotic neurons in the immature rat brain was evaluated. In gerbils only the application of (+)MK-801 24 h before ischemia resulted in significant prevention of the loss of pyramidal neurons. In rat pups administration of (+)MK-801 at all studied times before hypoxia-ischemia, or pretreatment with memantine or with hypoxia taken as a positive control 48 to 92 h before the insult, significantly reduced brain damage. Both NMDA receptor antagonists equally reduced the number of apoptotic neurons after hypoxia-ischemia, while (+)MK-801-evoked potentiation of constitutive apoptosis greatly exceeded the effect of memantine. We ascribe neuroprotection induced in the immature rats by the pretreatment with both NMDA receptor antagonists 48 to 92 h before hypoxia-ischemia to tolerance evoked by preconditioning, while the neuroprotective effect of (+)MK-801 applied 24 h before the insults may be attributed to direct consequences of the inhibition of NMDA receptors. This is the first report demonstrating the phenomenon of inducing tolerance against hypoxia-ischemia in vivo in developing rat brain by preconditioning with NMDA receptor antagonists.

  17. Eplerenone: a selective aldosterone receptor antagonist for patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Brian J; Howard, Patricia A

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, safety, and clinical use of eplerenone in heart failure (HF). English-language MEDLINE searches were performed from 1966 to May 2004. Key words included eplerenone, aldosterone receptor antagonist, heart failure, myocardial infarction, left-ventricular dysfunction, and cost-effectiveness. Additional references were identified from bibliographies of selected articles. Human trials evaluating the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of aldosterone receptor antagonists in HF were evaluated. Eplerenone is the first selective aldosterone receptor antagonist. The drug is indicated to improve the survival of stable patients with left-ventricular systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction <40%) and clinical evidence of HF following acute myocardial infarction. Efficacy and safety in this population have been demonstrated in a large, randomized clinical trial. Eplerenone is associated with severe and sometimes life-threatening hyperkalemia. Patients with reduced renal function and diabetes, as well as those on other drugs that increase potassium levels, are at highest risk. Eplerenone is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 system and may interact with drugs that interfere with this system. A major advantage of eplerenone over the nonselective aldosterone receptor antagonist spironolactone is lack of binding to progesterone and androgen receptors, which is associated with drug-induced gynecomastia, breast pain, and impotence. The addition of eplerenone to traditional HF therapy has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality in patients who develop left-ventricular dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction. Eplerenone's selectivity reduces sex hormone-related adverse effects. Despite these benefits, the overall cost-effectiveness has yet to be determined.

  18. Novel pyrrolinones as N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Poschenrieder, Hermann; Stachel, Hans-Dietrich; Höfner, Georg; Mayer, Peter

    2005-04-01

    A series of oximes, deriving from 2-arylidene-pyrroline-3,4-diones (7, 8, 22, 23) has been prepared. The presence of tautomers in their solutions has been established by spectroscopic means. The compounds reacted with diazomethane chiefly by N-methylation forming nitrones (10, 11). The analogously prepared 2-arylidene-4-nitropyrrolin-3-ones (12, 13, 24, 25), formally derived from nitrotetramic acids, yielded nitronic acid esters (14, 15, 26) upon reaction with diazomethane. The structures were elucidated by spectral evidence and-in the case of compounds 10 and 20b-by X-ray diffraction analysis. The binding affinity of some of the new compounds toward the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) (glycine site) receptor has been measured thus providing the basis for further structure-activity relationship studies. Oxime 8b showed the highest binding potency (Ki= 9.2 microM).

  19. Ligand-Dependent Activation and Deactivation of the Human Adenosine A2A Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianing; Jonsson, Amanda L.; Beuming, Thijs; Shelley, John C.; Voth, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are membrane proteins with critical functions in cellular signal transduction, representing a primary class of drug targets. Acting by direct binding, many drugs modulate GPCR activity and influence the signaling pathways associated with numerous diseases. However, complete details of ligand-dependent GPCR activation/deactivation are difficult to obtain from experiments. Therefore, it remains unclear how ligands modulate a GPCR’s activity. To elucidate the ligand-dependent activation/deactivation mechanism of the human adenosine A2A receptor (AA2AR), a member of the class A GPCRs, we performed large-scale unbiased molecular dynamics and metadynamics simulations of the receptor embedded in a membrane. At the atomic level, we have observed distinct structural states that resemble the active and inactive states. In particular we noted key structural elements changing in a highly concerted fashion during the conformational transitions, including six conformational states of a tryptophan (Trp2466.48). Our findings agree with a previously proposed view, that during activation, this tryptophan residue undergoes a rotameric transition that may be coupled to a series of coherent conformational changes, resulting in the opening of the G protein-binding site. Further, metadynamics simulations provide quantitative evidence for this mechanism, suggesting how ligand binding shifts the equilibrium between the active and inactive states. Our analysis also proposes that a few specific residues are associated with agonism/antagonism, affinity and selectivity, and suggests that the ligand-binding pocket can be thought of as having three distinct regions, providing dynamic features for structure-based design. Additional simulations with AA2AR bound to a novel ligand are consistent with our proposed mechanism. Generally, our study provides insights into the ligand-dependent AA2AR activation/deactivation in addition to what has been found in crystal

  20. Ligand-dependent activation and deactivation of the human adenosine A(2A) receptor.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianing; Jonsson, Amanda L; Beuming, Thijs; Shelley, John C; Voth, Gregory A

    2013-06-12

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are membrane proteins with critical functions in cellular signal transduction, representing a primary class of drug targets. Acting by direct binding, many drugs modulate GPCR activity and influence the signaling pathways associated with numerous diseases. However, complete details of ligand-dependent GPCR activation/deactivation are difficult to obtain from experiments. Therefore, it remains unclear how ligands modulate a GPCR's activity. To elucidate the ligand-dependent activation/deactivation mechanism of the human adenosine A2A receptor (AA2AR), a member of the class A GPCRs, we performed large-scale unbiased molecular dynamics and metadynamics simulations of the receptor embedded in a membrane. At the atomic level, we have observed distinct structural states that resemble the active and inactive states. In particular, we noted key structural elements changing in a highly concerted fashion during the conformational transitions, including six conformational states of a tryptophan (Trp246(6.48)). Our findings agree with a previously proposed view that, during activation, this tryptophan residue undergoes a rotameric transition that may be coupled to a series of coherent conformational changes, resulting in the opening of the G-protein binding site. Further, metadynamics simulations provide quantitative evidence for this mechanism, suggesting how ligand binding shifts the equilibrium between the active and inactive states. Our analysis also proposes that a few specific residues are associated with agonism/antagonism, affinity, and selectivity, and suggests that the ligand-binding pocket can be thought of as having three distinct regions, providing dynamic features for structure-based design. Additional simulations with AA2AR bound to a novel ligand are consistent with our proposed mechanism. Generally, our study provides insights into the ligand-dependent AA2AR activation/deactivation in addition to what has been found in

  1. SSTR-Mediated Imaging in Breast Cancer: Is There a Role for Radiolabeled Somatostatin Receptor Antagonists?

    PubMed

    Dalm, Simone U; Haeck, Joost; Doeswijk, Gabriela N; de Blois, Erik; de Jong, Marion; van Deurzen, Carolien H M

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies have shown enhanced tumor targeting by novel somatostatin receptor (SSTR) antagonists compared with clinically widely used agonists. However, these results have been obtained mostly in neuroendocrine tumors, and only limited data are available for cancer types with lower SSTR expression, including breast cancer (BC). To date, two studies have reported higher binding of the antagonist than the agonist in BC, but in both studies only a limited number of cases were evaluated. In this preclinical study, we further investigated whether the application of an SSTR antagonist can improve SSTR-mediated BC imaging in a large panel of BC specimens. We also generated an in vivo BC mouse model and performed SPECT/MRI and biodistribution studies. Methods: Binding of 111 In-DOTA-Tyr 3 -octreotate (SSTR agonist) and 111 In-DOTA-JR11 (SSTR antagonist) to 40 human BC specimens was compared using in vitro autoradiography. SSTR2 immunostaining was performed to confirm SSTR2 expression of the tumor cells. Furthermore, binding of the radiolabeled SSTR agonist and antagonist was analyzed in tissue material from 6 patient-derived xenografts. One patient-derived xenograft, the estrogen receptor-positive model T126, was chosen to generate in vivo mouse models containing orthotopic breast tumors for in vivo SPECT/MRI and biodistribution studies after injection with 177 Lu-DOTA-Tyr 3 -octreotate or 177 Lu-DOTA-JR11. Results: 111 In-DOTA-JR11 binding to human BC tissue was significantly higher than 111 In-DOTA-Tyr 3 -octreotate binding ( P < 0.001). The median ratio of antagonist binding versus agonist binding was 3.39 (interquartile range, 2-5). SSTR2 immunostaining confirmed SSTR2 expression on the tumor cells. SPECT/MRI of the mouse model found better tumor visualization with the antagonist. This result was in line with the significantly higher tumor uptake of the radiolabeled antagonist than of the agonist as measured in biodistribution studies 285 min after radiotracer

  2. Discovery of a Manduca sexta Allatotropin Antagonist from a Manduca sexta Allatotropin Receptor Homology Model.

    PubMed

    Kai, Zhen-Peng; Zhu, Jing-Jing; Deng, Xi-Le; Yang, Xin-Ling; Chen, Shan-Shan

    2018-04-03

    Insect G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) have important roles in modulating biology, physiology and behavior. They have been identified as candidate targets for next-generation insecticides, yet these targets have been relatively poorly exploited for insect control. In this study, we present a pipeline of novel Manduca sexta allatotropin (Manse-AT) antagonist discovery with homology modeling, docking, molecular dynamics simulation and structure-activity relationship. A series of truncated and alanine-replacement analogs of Manse-AT were assayed for the stimulation of juvenile hormone biosynthesis. The minimum sequence required to retain potent biological activity is the C -terminal amidated octapeptide Manse-AT (6-13). We identified three residues essential for bioactivity (Thr⁴, Arg6 and Phe⁸) by assaying alanine-replacement analogs of Manse-AT (6-13). Alanine replacement of other residues resulted in reduced potency but bioactivity was retained. The 3D structure of the receptor (Manse-ATR) was built and the binding pocket was identified. The binding affinities of all the analogs were estimated by calculating the free energy of binding. The calculated binding affinities corresponded to the biological activities of the analogs, which supporting our localization of the binding pocket. Then, based on the docking and molecular dynamics studies of Manse-AT (10-13), we described it can act as a potent Manse-AT antagonist. The antagonistic effect on JH biosynthesis of Manse-AT (10-13) validated our hypothesis. The IC 50 value of antagonist Manse-AT (10-13) is 0.9 nM. The structure-activity relationship of antagonist Manse-AT (10-13) was also studied for the further purpose of investigating theoretically the structure factors influencing activity. These data will be useful for the design of new Manse-AT agonist and antagonist as potential pest control agents.

  3. Design, synthesis and biological activity of 6-substituted carbamoyl benzimidazoles as new nonpeptidic angiotensin II AT₁ receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Wang, Jin-Liang; Zhou, Zhi-Ming; Li, Zhi-Huai; Xue, Wei-Zhe; Xu, Di; Hao, Li-Ping; Han, Xiao-Feng; Fei, Fan; Liu, Ting; Liang, Ai-Hua

    2012-07-15

    A series of 6-substituted carbamoyl benzimidazoles were designed and synthesised as new nonpeptidic angiotensin II AT(1) receptor antagonists. The preliminary pharmacological evaluation revealed a nanomolar AT(1) receptor binding affinity for all compounds in the series, and a potent antagonistic activity in an isolated rabbit aortic strip functional assay for compounds 6f, 6g, 6h and 6k was also demonstrated. Furthermore, evaluation in spontaneous hypertensive rats and a preliminary toxicity evaluation showed that compound 6g is an orally active AT(1) receptor antagonist with low toxicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Attenuation of Persistent Experimental Pancreatitis Pain by a Bradykinin B2 Receptor Antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qingmin; Vera-Portocarrero, Louis P.; Ossipov, Michael H.; Vardanyan, Marina; Lai, Josephine; Porreca, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Objective The role of bradykinin (BK) receptors in activating and sensitizing peripheral nociceptors is well known. Recently, we showed that spinal dynorphin was pronociceptive through direct or indirect BK receptor activation. Here, we explored the potential role of BK receptors in pain associated with persistent pancreatitis in rats. Methods Experimental pancreatitis and abdominal hypersensitivity were induced by intravenous administrations of dibutyltin dichloride (DBTC). [des-Arg9-Leu8]BK (B1 antagonist) and HOE 140 (B2 antagonist) were given by intraperitoneal or intrathecal injection. Dynorphin antiserum was given intrathecally. Reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction was used to detect spinal mRNA for BK receptors. Results Dibutyltin dichloride–induced pancreatitis upregulated B1 and B2 mRNA in the thoracic dorsal root ganglion and B2, but not B1, in the pancreas. No changes in spinal B1 or B2 mRNA were observed. Intraperitoneal or intrathecal administration of HOE 140 dose dependently abolished DBTC-induced abdominal hypersensitivity, whereas [des-Arg9-Leu8]BK was without effect by either route of administration. Antiserum to dynorphin (intrathecal) abolished DBTC-induced hypersensitivity. Conclusions These results suggest that blockade of peripheral or spinal BK B2 receptors may be an effective approach for diminishing pain associated with pancreatitis. Moreover, it is suggested that spinal dynorphin may maintain pancreatitis pain through direct or indirect activation of BK B2 receptors in the spinal cord. PMID:20531238

  5. Serotonergic 5-HT6 Receptor Antagonists: Heterocyclic Chemistry and Potential Therapeutic Significance.

    PubMed

    Bali, Alka; Singh, Shalu

    2015-01-01

    The serotonin 5-HT(6) receptor (5- HT(6)R) is amongst the recently discovered serotonergic receptors with almost exclusive localization in the brain. Hence, this receptor is fast emerging as a promising target for cognition enhancement in central nervous system (CNS) diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (cognitive function), obesity, schizophrenia and anxiety. The last decade has seen a surge of literature reports on the functional role of this receptor in learning and memory processes and investigations related to the chemistry and pharmacology of 5-HT(6) receptor ligands, especially 5- HT(6) receptor antagonists. Studies show the involvement of multiple neurotransmitter systems in cognitive enhancement by 5-HT(6)R antagonists including cholinergic, glutamatergic, and GABAergic systems. Several of the 5-HT(6)R ligands are indole based agents bearing structural similarity to the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin. Based on the pharmacophoric models proposed for these agents, drug designing has been carried out incorporating various heterocyclic replacements for the indole nucleus. In this review, we have broadly summarized the medicinal chemistry and current status of this fairly recent class of drugs along with their potential therapeutic applications.

  6. X-ray structures define human P2X(3) receptor gating cycle and antagonist action.

    PubMed

    Mansoor, Steven E; Lü, Wei; Oosterheert, Wout; Shekhar, Mrinal; Tajkhorshid, Emad; Gouaux, Eric

    2016-10-06

    P2X receptors are trimeric, non-selective cation channels activated by ATP that have important roles in the cardiovascular, neuronal and immune systems. Despite their central function in human physiology and although they are potential targets of therapeutic agents, there are no structures of human P2X receptors. The mechanisms of receptor desensitization and ion permeation, principles of antagonism, and complete structures of the pore-forming transmembrane domains of these receptors remain unclear. Here we report X-ray crystal structures of the human P2X 3 receptor in apo/resting, agonist-bound/open-pore, agonist-bound/closed-pore/desensitized and antagonist-bound/closed states. The open state structure harbours an intracellular motif we term the 'cytoplasmic cap', which stabilizes the open state of the ion channel pore and creates lateral, phospholipid-lined cytoplasmic fenestrations for water and ion egress. The competitive antagonists TNP-ATP and A-317491 stabilize the apo/resting state and reveal the interactions responsible for competitive inhibition. These structures illuminate the conformational rearrangements that underlie P2X receptor gating and provide a foundation for the development of new pharmacological agents.

  7. Progesterone receptor antagonist CDB-4124 increases depression-like behavior in mice without affecting locomotor ability

    PubMed Central

    Beckley, Ethan H.; Scibelli, Angela C.; Finn, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Progesterone withdrawal has been proposed as an underlying factor in premenstrual syndrome and postpartum depression. Progesterone withdrawal induces forced swim test (FST) immobility in mice, a depression-like behavior, but the contribution of specific receptors to this effect is unclear. The role of progesterone’s GABAA receptor-modulating metabolite allopregnanolone in depression- and anxiety-related behaviors has been extensively documented, but little attention has been paid to the role of progesterone receptors. We administered the classic progesterone receptor antagonist mifepristone (RU-38486) and the specific progesterone receptor antagonist CDB-4124 to mice that had been primed with progesterone for five days, and found that both compounds induced FST immobility reliably, robustly, and in a dose-dependent fashion. Although CDB-4124 increased FST immobility, it did not suppress initial activity in a locomotor test. These findings suggest that decreased progesterone receptor activity contributes to depression-like behavior in mice, consistent with the hypothesis that progesterone withdrawal may contribute to the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome or postpartum depression. PMID:21163582

  8. Progesterone receptor antagonist CDB-4124 increases depression-like behavior in mice without affecting locomotor ability.

    PubMed

    Beckley, Ethan H; Scibelli, Angela C; Finn, Deborah A

    2011-07-01

    Progesterone withdrawal has been proposed as an underlying factor in premenstrual syndrome and postpartum depression. Progesterone withdrawal induces forced swim test (FST) immobility in mice, a depression-like behavior, but the contribution of specific receptors to this effect is unclear. The role of progesterone's GABA(A) receptor-modulating metabolite allopregnanolone in depression- and anxiety-related behaviors has been extensively documented, but little attention has been paid to the role of progesterone receptors. We administered the classic progesterone receptor antagonist mifepristone (RU-38486) and the specific progesterone receptor antagonist CDB-4124 to mice that had been primed with progesterone for five days, and found that both compounds induced FST immobility reliably, robustly, and in a dose-dependent fashion. Although CDB-4124 increased FST immobility, it did not suppress initial activity in a locomotor test. These findings suggest that decreased progesterone receptor activity contributes to depression-like behavior in mice, consistent with the hypothesis that progesterone withdrawal may contribute to the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome or postpartum depression. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pharmacological significance of the interplay between angiotensin receptors: MAS receptors as putative final mediators of the effects elicited by angiotensin AT1 receptors antagonists.

    PubMed

    Pernomian, Larissa; Pernomian, Laena; Gomes, Mayara S; da Silva, Carlos H T P

    2015-12-15

    The interplay between angiotensin AT1 receptors and MAS receptors relies on several inward regulatory mechanisms from renin-angiotensin system (RAS) including the functional crosstalk between angiotensin II and angiotensin-(1-7), the competitive AT1 antagonism exhibited by angiotensin-(1-7), the antagonist feature assigned to AT1/MAS heterodimerization on AT1 signaling and the AT1-mediated downregulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Recently, such interplay has acquired an important significance to RAS Pharmacology since a few studies have supporting strong evidences that MAS receptors mediate the effects elicited by AT1 antagonists. The present Perspective provides an overview of the regulatory mechanisms involving AT1 and MAS receptors, their significance to RAS Pharmacology and the future directions on the interplay between angiotensin receptors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. MIBE acts as antagonist ligand of both estrogen receptor α and GPER in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The multiple biological responses to estrogens are mainly mediated by the classical estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ, which act as ligand-activated transcription factors. ERα exerts a main role in the development of breast cancer; therefore, the ER antagonist tamoxifen has been widely used although its effectiveness is limited by de novo and acquired resistance. Recently, GPR30/GPER, a member of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family, has been implicated in mediating the effects of estrogens in various normal and cancer cells. In particular, GPER triggered gene expression and proliferative responses induced by estrogens and even ER antagonists in hormone-sensitive tumor cells. Likewise, additional ER ligands showed the ability to bind to GPER eliciting promiscuous and, in some cases, opposite actions through the two receptors. We synthesized a novel compound (ethyl 3-[5-(2-ethoxycarbonyl-1-methylvinyloxy)-1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl]but-2-enoate), referred to as MIBE, and investigated its properties elicited through ERα and GPER in breast cancer cells. Methods Molecular modeling, binding experiments and functional assays were performed in order to evaluate the biological action exerted by MIBE through ERα and GPER in MCF7 and SkBr3 breast cancer cells. Results MIBE displayed the ability to act as an antagonist ligand for ERα and GPER as it elicited inhibitory effects on gene transcription and growth effects by binding to both receptors in breast cancer cells. Moreover, GPER was required for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ERK activation by EGF as ascertained by using MIBE and performing gene silencing experiments. Conclusions Our findings provide novel insights on the functional cross-talk between GPER and EGFR signaling. Furthermore, the exclusive antagonistic activity exerted by MIBE on ERα and GPER could represent an innovative pharmacological approach targeting breast carcinomas which express one or both receptors at

  11. MIBE acts as antagonist ligand of both estrogen receptor α and GPER in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lappano, Rosamaria; Santolla, Maria Francesca; Pupo, Marco; Sinicropi, Maria Stefania; Caruso, Anna; Rosano, Camillo; Maggiolini, Marcello

    2012-01-17

    The multiple biological responses to estrogens are mainly mediated by the classical estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ, which act as ligand-activated transcription factors. ERα exerts a main role in the development of breast cancer; therefore, the ER antagonist tamoxifen has been widely used although its effectiveness is limited by de novo and acquired resistance. Recently, GPR30/GPER, a member of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family, has been implicated in mediating the effects of estrogens in various normal and cancer cells. In particular, GPER triggered gene expression and proliferative responses induced by estrogens and even ER antagonists in hormone-sensitive tumor cells. Likewise, additional ER ligands showed the ability to bind to GPER eliciting promiscuous and, in some cases, opposite actions through the two receptors. We synthesized a novel compound (ethyl 3-[5-(2-ethoxycarbonyl-1-methylvinyloxy)-1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl]but-2-enoate), referred to as MIBE, and investigated its properties elicited through ERα and GPER in breast cancer cells. Molecular modeling, binding experiments and functional assays were performed in order to evaluate the biological action exerted by MIBE through ERα and GPER in MCF7 and SkBr3 breast cancer cells. MIBE displayed the ability to act as an antagonist ligand for ERα and GPER as it elicited inhibitory effects on gene transcription and growth effects by binding to both receptors in breast cancer cells. Moreover, GPER was required for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ERK activation by EGF as ascertained by using MIBE and performing gene silencing experiments. Our findings provide novel insights on the functional cross-talk between GPER and EGFR signaling. Furthermore, the exclusive antagonistic activity exerted by MIBE on ERα and GPER could represent an innovative pharmacological approach targeting breast carcinomas which express one or both receptors at the beginning and/or during tumor

  12. A Low-Molecular-Weight Antagonist for the Human Thyrotropin Receptor with Therapeutic Potential for Hyperthyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Susanne; Kleinau, Gunnar; Costanzi, Stefano; Moore, Susanna; Jiang, Jian-kang; Raaka, Bruce M.; Thomas, Craig J.; Krause, Gerd; Gershengorn, Marvin C.

    2008-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight (LMW) antagonists for TSH receptor (TSHR) may have therapeutic potential as orally active drugs to block stimulating antibodies (TsAbs) in Graves’ hyperthyroidism. We describe an approach to identify LMW ligands for TSHR based on Org41841, a LMW partial agonist for the LH/choriogonadotropin receptor and TSHR. We used molecular modeling and functional experiments to guide the chemical modification of Org41841. We identified an antagonist (NIDDK/CEB-52) that selectively inhibits activation of TSHR by both TSH and TsAbs. Whereas initially characterized in cultured cells overexpressing TSHRs, the antagonist was also active under more physiologically relevant conditions in primary cultures of human thyrocytes expressing endogenous TSHRs in which it inhibited TSH- and TsAb-induced up-regulation of mRNA transcripts for thyroperoxidase. Our results establish this LMW compound as a lead for the development of higher potency antagonists and serve as proof of principle that LMW ligands that target TSHR could serve as drugs in patients with Graves’ disease. PMID:18669595

  13. Design and synthesis of aryloxypropanolamine as β3-adrenergic receptor antagonist in cancer and lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jiyu; Miao, Chunxiao; Wang, Zhilong; Zhang, Wanli; Zhang, Xiongwen; Xie, Xin; Lu, Wei

    2018-04-25

    β-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) are broadly distributed in various tissues and regulate a panel of important physiological functions and disease states including cancer. Above all, β 3 -adrenergic receptor (β 3 -AR) plays a significant role in regulating lipolysis and thermogenesis in adipose tissue. In this study, we designed and synthesized a series of novel L-748,337 derivatives as selective human β 3 -AR antagonists. Among all the tested L-748,337 analogs, compound 23d was found to display 23-fold more potent β 3 -AR antagonist activity (EC 50  = 0.5117 nM) than L-748,337 (EC 50  = 11.91 nM). In vivo, compound 23d could alleviate weight loss and inhibit tumor growth in C26 tumor cachexia animal model. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Biaryls as potent, tunable dual neurokinin 1 receptor antagonists and serotonin transporter inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Degnan, Andrew P; Tora, George O; Han, Ying; Rajamani, Ramkumar; Bertekap, Robert; Krause, Rudolph; Davis, Carl D; Hu, Joanna; Morgan, Daniel; Taylor, Sarah J; Krause, Kelly; Li, Yu-Wen; Mattson, Gail; Cunningham, Melissa A; Taber, Matthew T; Lodge, Nicholas J; Bronson, Joanne J; Gillman, Kevin W; Macor, John E

    2015-08-01

    Depression is a serious illness that affects millions of patients. Current treatments are associated with a number of undesirable side effects. Neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) antagonists have recently been shown to potentiate the antidepressant effects of serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in a number of animal models. Herein we describe the optimization of a biaryl chemotype to provide a series of potent dual NK1R antagonists/serotonin transporter (SERT) inhibitors. Through the choice of appropriate substituents, the SERT/NK1R ratio could be tuned to afford a range of target selectivity profiles. This effort culminated in the identification of an analog that demonstrated oral bioavailability, favorable brain uptake, and efficacy in the gerbil foot tap model. Ex vivo occupancy studies with compound 58 demonstrated the ability to maintain NK1 receptor saturation (>88% occupancy) while titrating the desired level of SERT occupancy (11-84%) via dose selection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Discovery of a Novel Series of CRTH2 (DP2) Receptor Antagonists Devoid of Carboxylic Acids

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Antagonism of the CRTH2 receptor represents a very attractive target for a variety of allergic diseases. Most CRTH2 antagonists known to date possess a carboxylic acid moiety, which is essential for binding. However, potential acid metabolites O-acyl glucuronides might be linked to idiosynchratic toxicity in humans. In this communication, we describe a new series of compounds that lack the carboxylic acid moiety. Compounds with high affinity (Ki < 10 nM) for the receptor have been identified. Subsequent optimization succeeded in reducing the high metabolic clearance of the first compounds in human and rat liver microsomes. At the same time, inhibition of the CYP isoforms was optimized, giving rise to stable compounds with an acceptable CYP inhibition profile (IC50 CYP2C9 and 2C19 > 1 μM). Taken together, these data show that compounds devoid of carboxylic acid groups could represent an interesting alternative to current CRTH2 antagonists in development. PMID:24900284

  16. Potentiation of the gastric antisecretory activity of histamine H2-receptor antagonists by clebopride.

    PubMed

    Fernández, A G; Massingham, R; Roberts, D J

    1988-05-01

    The substituted benzamide, clebopride, at doses (0.03-3 mg kg-1 i.p.) that were without effect per se on the secretion of gastric acid in pylorus ligated (Shay) rats, potentiated the antisecretory effects of the histamine H2 receptor antagonists cimetidine and ranitidine in this model but not those of the muscarine receptor antagonist pirenzepine nor those of the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole. By contrast, clebopride was without influence on the inhibitory effects of cimetidine on pentagastrin-induced secretion in perfused stomach (Ghosh and Schild) preparations in anaesthetized rats. The significance of these findings is discussed in relation to the previously described potentiating effects of clebopride on the anti-ulcer activity of cimetidine in various experimental models, and the potential beneficial effects of such combined therapy in the clinic.

  17. Antihyperalgesic activity of a novel nonpeptide bradykinin B1 receptor antagonist in transgenic mice expressing the human B1 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Alyson; Kaur, Satbir; Li, Bifang; Panesar, Moh; Saha, Uma; Davis, Clare; Dragoni, Ilaria; Colley, Sian; Ritchie, Tim; Bevan, Stuart; Burgess, Gillian; McIntyre, Peter

    2005-01-01

    We describe the properties of a novel nonpeptide kinin B1 receptor antagonist, NVP-SAA164, and demonstrate its in vivo activity in models of inflammatory pain in transgenic mice expressing the human B1 receptor. NVP-SAA164 showed high affinity for the human B1 receptor expressed in HEK293 cells (Ki 8 nM), and inhibited increases in intracellular calcium induced by desArg10kallidin (desArg10KD) (IC50 33 nM). While a similar high affinity was observed in monkey fibroblasts (Ki 7.7 nM), NVP-SAA164 showed no affinity for the rat B1 receptor expressed in Cos-7 cells. In transgenic mice in which the native B1 receptor was deleted and the gene encoding the human B1 receptor was inserted (hB1 knockin, hB1-KI), hB1 receptor mRNA was induced in tissues following LPS treatment. No mRNA encoding the mouse or human B1 receptor was detected in mouse B1 receptor knockout (mB1-KO) mice following LPS treatment. Freund's complete adjuvant-induced mechanical hyperalgesia was similar in wild-type and hB1-KI mice, but was significantly reduced in mB1-KO animals. Mechanical hyperalgesia induced by injection of the B1 agonist desArg10KD into the contralateral paw 24 h following FCA injection was similar in wild-type and hB1-KI mice, but was absent in mB1-KO animals. Oral administration of NVP-SAA164 produced a dose-related reversal of FCA-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and desArg10KD-induced hyperalgesia in hB1-KI mice, but was inactive against inflammatory pain in wild-type mice. These data demonstrate the use of transgenic technology to investigate the in vivo efficacy of species selective agents and show that NVP-SAA164 is a novel orally active B1 receptor antagonist, providing further support for the utility of B1 receptor antagonists in inflammatory pain conditions in man. PMID:15685199

  18. Progress in the development of histamine H3 receptor antagonists/inverse agonists: a patent review (2013-2017).

    PubMed

    Łażewska, Dorota; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2018-03-01

    Since years, ligands blocking histamine H 3 receptor (H 3 R) activity (antagonists/inverse agonists) are interesting targets in the search for new cures for CNS disorders. Intensive works done by academic and pharmaceutical company researchers have led to many potent and selective H 3 R antagonists/inverse agonists. Some of them have reached to clinical trials. Areas covered: Patent applications from January 2013 to September 2017 and the most important topics connected with H 3 R field are analysed. Espacenet, Patentscope, Pubmed, GoogleScholar or Cochrane Library online databases were principially used to collect all the materials. Expert opinion: The research interest in histamine H 3 R field is still high although the number of patent applications has decreased during the past 4 years (around 20 publications). Complexity of histamine H 3 R biology e.g. many isoforms, constitutive activity, heteromerization with other receptors (dopamine D 2 , D 1 , adenosine A 2A ) and pharmacology make not easy realization and evaluation of therapeutic potential of anti-H 3 R ligands. First results from clinical trials have verified potential utility of histamine H 3 R antagonist/inverse agonists in some diseases. However, more studies are necessary for better understanding of an involvement of the histaminergic system in CNS-related disorders and helping more ligands approach to clinical trials and the market. Lists of abbreviations: hAChEI - human acetylcholinesterase inhibitor; hBuChEI - human butyrylcholinesterase inhibitor; hMAO - human monoamine oxidase; MAO - monoamine oxidase.

  19. A review of granisetron, 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor antagonists, and other antiemetics.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Eric S

    2010-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting are 2 of the most upsetting adverse reactions of chemotherapy. Current guidelines propose 5-hydroxytryptamine3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists as a pharmacologic intervention for acute and delayed nausea and vomiting [chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV)] associated with moderately and highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Meanwhile, both postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and postdischarge nausea and vomiting are challenging situations after surgeries and procedures. Prophylactic and therapeutic combinations of antiemetics are recommended in patients at high risk of suffering from PONV and postdischarge nausea and vomiting. Granisetron (Kytril) is a selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist that does not induce or inhibit the hepatic cytochrome P-450 system in vitro. There are also 4 other antagonists of 5-HT3 receptor (dolasetron, ondansetron, palonosetron, and tropisetron) being metabolized via the CYP2D6 and are subject to potential genetic polymorphism. The launch of a new class of antiemetics, the substance P/neurokinin1 receptor antagonists, was attributed to the scientific update on the central generator responsible for emesis and role of substance P. There has been mounting interest in exploring integrative medicine, either acupuncture or acustimulation of P6 (Nei-Kuwan), to complement the western medicine for prevention and management of nausea and vomiting. The potential application of cannabinoids, either alone or in combination with other agents of different mechanism, could contribute further to improve outcome in CINV. Implementation of future treatment guidelines for more effective management of CINV and PONV could certainly improve the efficacy and outcome of cancer and postoperative care.

  20. NMDA or 5-HT receptor antagonists impair memory reconsolidation and induce various types of amnesia.

    PubMed

    Nikitin, V P; Solntseva, S V; Kozyrev, S A; Nikitin, P V; Shevelkin, A V

    2018-06-01

    Elucidation of amnesia mechanisms is one of the central problems in neuroscience with immense practical application. Previously, we found that conditioned food presentation combined with injection of a neurotransmitter receptor antagonist or protein synthesis inhibitor led to amnesia induction. In the present study, we investigated the time course and features of two amnesias: induced by impairment of memory reconsolidation using an NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist (MK-801) and a serotonin receptor antagonist (methiothepin, MET) on snails trained with food aversion conditioning. During the early period of amnesia (<10th day), the unpaired presentation of conditioned stimuli (CS) or unconditioned stimuli (US) in the same training context did not have an effect on both types of amnesia. Retraining an on 1st or 3rd day of amnesia induction facilitated memory formation, i.e. the number of CS + US pairings was lower than at initial training. On the 10th or 30th day after the MET/reminder, the number of CS + US pairings did not change between initial training and retraining. Retraining on the 10th or 30th day following the MK-801/reminder in the same or a new context of learning resulted in short, but not long-term, memory, and the number of CS + US pairings was higher than at the initial training. This type of amnesia was specific to the CS we used at initial training, since long-term memory for another kind of CS could be formed in the same snails. The attained results suggest that disruption of memory reconsolidation using antagonists of serotonin or NMDA glutamate receptors induced amnesias with different abilities to form long-term memory during the late period of development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. An Autoinflammatory Disease with Deficiency of the Interleukin-1–Receptor Antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Aksentijevich, Ivona; Masters, Seth L.; Ferguson, Polly J.; Dancey, Paul; Frenkel, Joost; van Royen-Kerkhoff, Annet; Laxer, Ron; Tedgård, Ulf; Cowen, Edward W.; Pham, Tuyet-Hang; Booty, Matthew; Estes, Jacob D.; Sandler, Netanya G.; Plass, Nicole; Stone, Deborah L.; Turner, Maria L.; Hill, Suvimol; Butman, John A.; Schneider, Rayfel; Babyn, Paul; El-Shanti, Hatem I.; Pope, Elena; Barron, Karyl; Bing, Xinyu; Laurence, Arian; Lee, Chyi-Chia R.; Chapelle, Dawn; Clarke, Gillian I.; Ohson, Kamal; Nicholson, Marc; Gadina, Massimo; Yang, Barbara; Korman, Benjamin D.; Gregersen, Peter K.; van Hagen, P. Martin; Hak, A. Elisabeth; Huizing, Marjan; Rahman, Proton; Douek, Daniel C.; Remmers, Elaine F.; Kastner, Daniel L.; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela

    2010-01-01

    Background Autoinflammatory diseases manifest inflammation without evidence of infection, high-titer autoantibodies, or autoreactive T cells. We report a disorder caused by mutations of IL1RN, which encodes the interleukin-1–receptor antagonist, with prominent involvement of skin and bone. Methods We studied nine children from six families who had neonatal onset of sterile multifocal osteomyelitis, periostitis, and pustulosis. Response to empirical treatment with the recombinant interleukin-1–receptor antagonist anakinra in the first patient prompted us to test for the presence of mutations and changes in proteins and their function in interleukin-1–pathway genes including IL1RN. Results We identified homozygous mutations of IL1RN in nine affected children, from one family from Newfoundland, Canada, three families from the Netherlands, and one consanguineous family from Lebanon. A nonconsanguineous patient from Puerto Rico was homozygous for a genomic deletion that includes IL1RN and five other interleukin-1–family members. At least three of the mutations are founder mutations; heterozygous carriers were asymptomatic, with no cytokine abnormalities in vitro. The IL1RN mutations resulted in a truncated protein that is not secreted, thereby rendering cells hyperresponsive to interleukin-1β stimulation. Patients treated with anakinra responded rapidly. Conclusions We propose the term deficiency of the interleukin-1–receptor antagonist, or DIRA, to denote this autosomal recessive autoinflammatory disease caused by mutations affecting IL1RN. The absence of interleukin-1–receptor antagonist allows unopposed action of interleukin-1, resulting in life-threatening systemic inflammation with skin and bone involvement. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00059748.) PMID:19494218

  2. An autoinflammatory disease with deficiency of the interleukin-1-receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Aksentijevich, Ivona; Masters, Seth L; Ferguson, Polly J; Dancey, Paul; Frenkel, Joost; van Royen-Kerkhoff, Annet; Laxer, Ron; Tedgård, Ulf; Cowen, Edward W; Pham, Tuyet-Hang; Booty, Matthew; Estes, Jacob D; Sandler, Netanya G; Plass, Nicole; Stone, Deborah L; Turner, Maria L; Hill, Suvimol; Butman, John A; Schneider, Rayfel; Babyn, Paul; El-Shanti, Hatem I; Pope, Elena; Barron, Karyl; Bing, Xinyu; Laurence, Arian; Lee, Chyi-Chia R; Chapelle, Dawn; Clarke, Gillian I; Ohson, Kamal; Nicholson, Marc; Gadina, Massimo; Yang, Barbara; Korman, Benjamin D; Gregersen, Peter K; van Hagen, P Martin; Hak, A Elisabeth; Huizing, Marjan; Rahman, Proton; Douek, Daniel C; Remmers, Elaine F; Kastner, Daniel L; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela

    2009-06-04

    Autoinflammatory diseases manifest inflammation without evidence of infection, high-titer autoantibodies, or autoreactive T cells. We report a disorder caused by mutations of IL1RN, which encodes the interleukin-1-receptor antagonist, with prominent involvement of skin and bone. We studied nine children from six families who had neonatal onset of sterile multifocal osteomyelitis, periostitis, and pustulosis. Response to empirical treatment with the recombinant interleukin-1-receptor antagonist anakinra in the first patient prompted us to test for the presence of mutations and changes in proteins and their function in interleukin-1-pathway genes including IL1RN. We identified homozygous mutations of IL1RN in nine affected children, from one family from Newfoundland, Canada, three families from The Netherlands, and one consanguineous family from Lebanon. A nonconsanguineous patient from Puerto Rico was homozygous for a genomic deletion that includes IL1RN and five other interleukin-1-family members. At least three of the mutations are founder mutations; heterozygous carriers were asymptomatic, with no cytokine abnormalities in vitro. The IL1RN mutations resulted in a truncated protein that is not secreted, thereby rendering cells hyperresponsive to interleukin-1beta stimulation. Patients treated with anakinra responded rapidly. We propose the term deficiency of the interleukin-1-receptor antagonist, or DIRA, to denote this autosomal recessive autoinflammatory disease caused by mutations affecting IL1RN. The absence of interleukin-1-receptor antagonist allows unopposed action of interleukin-1, resulting in life-threatening systemic inflammation with skin and bone involvement. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00059748.) 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society

  3. Characterization of protoberberine analogs employed as novel human P2X{sub 7} receptor antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ga Eun; Lee, Won-Gil; Lee, Song-Yi

    The P2X{sub 7} receptor (P2X{sub 7}R), a member of the ATP-gated ion channel family, is regarded as a promising target for therapy of immune-related diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and chronic pain. A group of novel protoberberine analogs (compounds 3-5), discovered by screening of chemical libraries, was here investigated with respect to their function as P2X{sub 7}R antagonists. Compounds 3-5 non-competitively inhibited BzATP-induced ethidium ion influx into hP2X{sub 7}-expressing HEK293 cells, with IC{sub 50} values of 100-300 nM. This antagonistic action on the channel further confirmed that both BzATP-induced inward currents and Ca{sup 2+} influx were strongly inhibited by compounds 3-5more » in patch-clamp and Ca{sup 2+} influx assays. The antagonists also effectively suppressed downstream signaling of P2X{sub 7} receptors including IL-1{beta} release and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 proteins in hP2X{sub 7}-expressing HEK293 cells or in differentiated human monocytes (THP-1 cells). Moreover, IL-2 secretion from CD3/CD28-stimulated Jurkat T cell was also dramatically inhibited by the antagonist. These results imply that novel protoberberine analogs may modulate P2X{sub 7} receptor-mediated immune responses by allosteric inhibition of the receptor. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted« less

  4. Design of Phthalazinone Amide Histamine H1 Receptor Antagonists for Use in Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis of potent amide-containing phthalazinone H1 histamine receptor antagonists is described. Three analogues 3e, 3g, and 9g were equipotent with azelastine and were longer-acting in vitro. Amide 3g had low oral bioavailability, low brain-penetration, high metabolic clearance, and long duration of action in vivo, and it was suitable for once-daily dosing intranasally, with a predicted dose for humans of approximately 0.5 mg per day. PMID:28523114

  5. Cocaine self-administration differentially affects allosteric A2A-D2 receptor-receptor interactions in the striatum. Relevance for cocaine use disorder.

    PubMed

    Pintsuk, Julia; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Pomierny, Bartosz; Wydra, Karolina; Zaniewska, Magdalena; Filip, Malgorzata; Fuxe, Kjell

    2016-05-01

    In the current study behavioral and biochemical experiments were performed to study changes in the allosteric A2AR-D2R interactions in the ventral and dorsal striatum after cocaine self-administration versus corresponding yoked saline control. By using ex vivo [(3)H]-raclopride/quinpirole competition experiments, the effects of the A2AR agonist CGS 21680 (100 nM) on the KiH and KiL values of the D2-like receptor (D2-likeR) were determined. One major result was a significant reduction in the D2-likeR agonist high affinity state observed with CGS 21680 after cocaine self-administration in the ventral striatum compared with the yoked saline group. The results therefore support the hypothesis that A2AR agonists can at least in part counteract the motivational actions of cocaine. This action is mediated via the D2-likeR by targeting the A2AR protomer of A2AR-D2-like R heteroreceptor complexes in the ventral striatum, which leads to the reduction of D2-likeR protomer recognition through the allosteric receptor-receptor interaction. In contrast, in the dorsal striatum the CGS 21680-induced antagonistic modulation in the D2-likeR agonist high affinity state was abolished after cocaine self-administration versus the yoked saline group probably due to a local dysfunction/disruption of the A2AR-D2-like R heteroreceptor complexes. Such a change in the dorsal striatum in cocaine self-administration can contribute to the development of either locomotor sensitization, habit-forming learning and/or the compulsive drug seeking by enhanced D2-likeR protomer signaling. Potential differences in the composition and stoichiometry of the A2AR-D2R heteroreceptor complexes, including differential recruitment of sigma 1 receptor, in the ventral and dorsal striatum may explain the differential regional changes observed in the A2A-D2-likeR interactions after cocaine self-administration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Initial Evaluation of an Adenosine A2A Receptor Ligand, 11C-Preladenant, in Healthy Human Subjects.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Muneyuki; Ishibashi, Kenji; Imai, Masamichi; Wagatsuma, Kei; Ishii, Kenji; Zhou, Xiaoyun; de Vries, Erik F J; Elsinga, Philip H; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Toyohara, Jun

    2017-09-01

    11 C-preladenant is a selective antagonist for mapping of cerebral adenosine A 2A receptors (A 2A Rs) by PET. This is a first-in-human study to examine the safety, radiation dosimetry, and brain imaging of 11 C-preladenant in healthy human subjects. Methods: Dynamic 11 C-preladenant PET scans (90 min) were obtained in 5 healthy male subjects. During the scan, arterial blood was sampled at various time intervals, and the fraction of the parent compound in plasma was determined. For anatomic coregistration, T1-weighted MRI was performed. The total distribution volume ( V T ) was estimated using 1- and 2-tissue-compartment models (1T and 2T, respectively). The distribution volume ratio (DVR) was calculated from V T of target and reference region and obtained with a noninvasive Logan graphical reference tissue method ( t * = 30 min). The applicability of a shortened protocol as an alternative to the 90-min PET scan was investigated. Tracer biodistribution and dosimetry were determined in 3 healthy male subjects, using serial whole-body PET scans acquired over 2 h after 11 C-preladenant injection. Results: There were no serious adverse events in any of the subjects throughout the study period. 11 C-preladenat readily entered the brain, with a peak uptake in the putamen and head of the caudate nucleus 30-40 min after tracer injection. Other brain regions showed rapid clearance of radioactivity. The regional distribution of 11 C-preladenant was consistent with known A 2A R densities in the brain. At pseudoequilibrium (reached at 40 min after injection), stable target-to-cerebellar cortex ratios of around 3.8-10.0 were obtained. The 2T fit better than the 1T in the low-density A 2A R regions. In contrast, there were no significant differences between 1T and 2T in the high-A 2A R-density regions. DVRs in the putamen and head of the caudate nucleus were around 3.8-10.3 when estimated using a Logan graphical reference tissue method with cerebellum as the reference region. PET

  7. Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Deficiency Presenting as Infantile Pustulosis Mimicking Infantile Pustular Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Minkis, Kira; Aksentijevich, Ivona; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela; Magro, Cynthia; Scott, Rachelle; Davis, Jessica G.; Sardana, Niti; Herzog, Ronit

    2012-01-01

    Background Deficiency of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (DIRA) is a recently described autoinflammatory syndrome of skin and bone caused by recessive mutations in the gene encoding the interleukin 1 receptor antagonist. Few studies have been published about this debilitating condition. Early identification is critical for targeted lifesaving intervention. Observations A male infant, born to nonconsanguineous Puerto Rican parents, was referred for management of a pustular eruption diagnosed as pustular psoriasis. At 2 months of age, the infant developed a pustular eruption. After extensive evaluation, he was confirmed to be homozygous for a 175-kb genomic deletion on chromosome 2 that includes the IL1RN gene, commonly found in Puerto Ricans. Therapy with anakinra was initiated, with rapid clearance of skin lesions and resolution of systemic inflammation. Conclusions Recent identification of DIRA as a disease entity, compounded by the limited number of reported cases, makes early identification difficult. It is critical to consider this entity in the differential diagnosis of infantile pustulosis. Targeted therapy with the recombinant human interleukin 1 receptor antagonist anakinra can be lifesaving if initiated early. A high carrier frequency of the 175-kb DIRA-associated genomic deletion in the Puerto Rican population strongly supports testing infants presenting with unexplained pustulosis in patients from this geographic region. PMID:22431714

  8. Emerging growth factor receptor antagonists for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zahoor, Haris; Rini, Brian I

    2016-12-01

    The landscape of systemic treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has dramatically changed with the introduction of targeted agents including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors. Recently, multiple new agents including growth factor receptor antagonists and a checkpoint inhibitor were approved for the treatment of refractory metastatic RCC based on encouraging benefit shown in clinical trials. Areas covered: The background and biological rationale of existing treatment options including a brief discussion of clinical trials which led to their approval, is presented. This is followed by reviewing the limitations of these therapeutic options, medical need to develop new treatments and major goals of ongoing research. We then discuss two recently approved growth factor receptor antagonists i.e. cabozantinib and lenvatinib, and a recently approved checkpoint inhibitor, nivolumab, and issues pertaining to drug development, and future directions in treatment of metastatic RCC. Expert opinion: Recently approved growth factor receptor antagonists have shown encouraging survival benefit but associated drug toxicity is a major issue. Nivolumab, a programmed death 1 (PD-1) checkpoint inhibitor, has similarly shown survival benefit and is well tolerated. With multiple options now available in this patient population, the right sequence of these agents remains to be determined.

  9. New insights into the stereochemical requirements of the bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupala, Cecylia S.; Gomez-Gutierrez, Patricia; Perez, Juan J.

    2016-01-01

    Bradykinin (BK) is a member of the kinin family, released in response to inflammation, trauma, burns, shock, allergy and some cardiovascular diseases, provoking vasodilatation and increased vascular permeability among other effects. Their actions are mediated through at least two G-protein coupled receptors, B1 a receptor up-regulated during inflammation episodes or tissue trauma and B2 that is constitutively expressed in a variety of cell types. The goal of the present work is to carry out a structure-activity study of BK B2 antagonism, taking into account the stereochemical features of diverse non-peptide antagonists and the way these features translate into ligand anchoring points to complementary regions of the receptor, through the analysis of the respective ligand-receptor complex. For this purpose an atomistic model of the BK B2 receptor was built by homology modeling and subsequently refined embedded in a lipid bilayer by means of a 600 ns molecular dynamics trajectory. The average structure from the last hundred nanoseconds of the molecular dynamics trajectory was energy minimized and used as model of the receptor for docking studies. For this purpose, a set of compounds with antagonistic profile, covering maximal diversity were selected from the literature. Specifically, the set of compounds include Fasitibant, FR173657, Anatibant, WIN64338, Bradyzide, CHEMBL442294, and JSM10292. Molecules were docked into the BK B2 receptor model and the corresponding complexes analyzed to understand ligand-receptor interactions. The outcome of this study is summarized in a 3D pharmacophore that explains the observed structure-activity results and provides insight into the design of novel molecules with antagonistic profile. To prove the validity of the pharmacophore hypothesized a virtual screening process was also carried out. The pharmacophore was used as query to identify new hits using diverse databases of molecules. The results of this study revealed a set of new

  10. 2-Aminoethyl Methylphosphonate, a Potent and Rapidly Acting Antagonist of GABA A-ρ1 Receptors

    DOE PAGES

    Xie, A.; Yan, J.; Yue, L.; ...

    2011-08-02

    All three classes of receptors for the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA (GABAR) are expressed in the retina. This study investigated roles of GABAR, especially GABA(C)R (GABA(A)-rho), in retinal signaling in vivo by studying effects on the mouse electroretinogram (ERG) of genetic deletion of GABA(C)R versus pharmacological blockade using receptor antagonists. Brief full-field flash ERGs were recorded from anesthetized GABA(C)R(-/-) mice, and WT C57BL/6 (B6) mice, before and after intravitreal injection of GABA(C)R antagonists, TPMPA, 3-APMPA, or the more recently developed 2-AEMP; GABA(A)R antagonist, SR95531; GABA(B)R antagonist, CGP, and agonist, baclofen. Intravitreal injections of TPMPA and SR95531 were also made in Brownmore » Norway rats. The effect of 2-AEMP on GABA-induced current was tested directly in isolated rat rod bipolar cells, and 2-AEMP was found to preferentially block GABA(C)R in those cells. Maximum amplitudes of dark (DA) and light-adapted (LA) ERG b-waves were reduced in GABA(C)R(-/-) mice, compared to B6 mice, by 30-60%; a-waves were unaltered and oscillatory potential amplitudes were increased. In B6 mice, after injection of TPMPA (also in rats), 3-APMPA or 2-AEMP, ERGs became similar to ERGs of GABA(C)R(-/-) mice. Blockade of GABA(A)Rs and GABA(B)Rs, or agonism of GABA(B)Rs did not alter B6 DA b-wave amplitude. The negative scotopic threshold response (nSTR) was slightly less sensitive in GABA(C)R(-/-) than in B6 mice, and unaltered by 2-AEMP. However, amplitudes of nSTR and photopic negative response (PhNR), both of which originate from inner retina, were enhanced by TPMPA and 3-APMPA, each of which has GABA(B) agonist properties, and further increased by baclofen. The finding that genetic deletion of GABA(C)R, the GABA(C)R antagonist 2-AEMP, and other antagonists all reduced ERG b-wave amplitude, supports a role for CABA(C)R in determining the maximum response amplitude of bipolar cells contributing to the b-wave. GABA(C)R antagonists

  11. Adenosine A2A receptor deficiency attenuates the somnogenic effect of prostaglandin D2 in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin-jia; Huang, Zhi-li; Chen, Jiang-fan; Urade, Yoshihiro; Qu, Wei-min

    2017-01-01

    Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) is one of the most potent endogenous sleep promoting substances. PGD2 activates the PGD2 receptor (DPR) and increases the extracellular level of adenosine in wild-type (WT) mice but not DPR knockout (KO) mice, suggesting that PGD2-induced sleep is DPR-dependent, and adenosine may be the signaling molecule that mediates the somnogenic effect of PGD2. The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) in PGD2-induced sleep. We infused PGD2 into the lateral ventricle of WT and A2AR KO mice between 20:00 and 2:00 for 6 h, and electroencephalograms and electromyograms were simultaneously recorded. In WT mice, PGD2 infusion dose-dependently increased non-rapid eye movement (non-REM, NREM) sleep, which was 139.1%, 145.0% and 202.7% as large as that of vehicle-treated mice at doses of 10, 20 and 50 pmol/min, respectively. PGD2 infusion at doses of 20 and 50 pmol/min also increased REM sleep during the 6-h PGD2 infusion and 4-h post-dosing periods in WT mice to 148.9% and 166.7%, respectively. In A2AR KO mice, however, PGD2 infusion at 10 pmol/min did not change the sleep profile, whereas higher doses at 20 and 50 pmol/min increased the NREM sleep during the 6-h PGD2 infusion to 117.5% and 155.6%, respectively, but did not change the sleep in the post-dosing period. Moreover, PGD2 infusion at 50 pmol/min significantly increased the episode number in both genotypes but only enhanced the episode duration in WT mice. The results demonstrate that PGD2-induced sleep in mice is mediated by both adenosine A2AR-dependent and -independent systems. PMID:28112177

  12. Macrophage A2A Adenosinergic Receptor Modulates Oxygen-Induced Augmentation of Murine Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    D’Alessio, Franco R.; Eto, Yoshiki; Chau, Eric; Avalos, Claudia; Waickman, Adam T.; Garibaldi, Brian T.; Mock, Jason R.; Files, Daniel C.; Sidhaye, Venkataramana; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y.; Powell, Jonathan; Horton, Maureen; King, Landon S.

    2013-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) causes significant morbidity and mortality. Exacerbating factors increasing the risk of ARDS remain unknown. Supplemental oxygen is often necessary in both mild and severe lung disease. The potential effects of supplemental oxygen may include augmentation of lung inflammation by inhibiting anti-inflammatory pathways in alveolar macrophages. We sought to determine oxygen-derived effects on the anti-inflammatory A2A adenosinergic (ADORA2A) receptor in macrophages, and the role of the ADORA2A receptor in lung injury. Wild-type (WT) and ADORA2A−/− mice received intratracheal lipopolysaccharide (IT LPS), followed 12 hours later by continuous exposure to 21% oxygen (control mice) or 60% oxygen for 1 to 3 days. We measured the phenotypic endpoints of lung injury and the alveolar macrophage inflammatory state. We tested an ADORA2A-specific agonist, CGS-21680 hydrochloride, in LPS plus oxygen-exposed WT and ADORA2A−/− mice. We determined the specific effects of myeloid ADORA2A, using chimera experiments. Compared with WT mice, ADORA2A−/− mice exposed to IT LPS and 60% oxygen demonstrated significantly more histologic lung injury, alveolar neutrophils, and protein. Macrophages from ADORA2A−/− mice exposed to LPS plus oxygen expressed higher concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and cosignaling molecules. CGS-21680 prevented the oxygen-induced augmentation of lung injury after LPS only in WT mice. Chimera experiments demonstrated that the transfer of WT but not ADORA2A−/− bone marrow cells into irradiated ADORA2A−/− mice reduced lung injury after LPS plus oxygen, demonstrating myeloid ADORA2A protection. ADORA2A is protective against lung injury after LPS and oxygen. Oxygen after LPS increases macrophage activation to augment lung injury by inhibiting the ADORA2A pathway. PMID:23349051

  13. X-ray structures define human P2X3 receptor gating cycle and antagonist action

    PubMed Central

    Mansoor, Steven E.; Lü, Wei; Oosterheert, Wout; Shekhar, Mrinal; Tajkhorshid, Emad; Gouaux, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Summary P2X receptors are trimeric, non-selective cation channels activated by ATP that play important roles in cardiovascular, neuronal and immune systems. Despite their central function in human physiology and as potential targets of therapeutic agents, there are no structures of human P2X receptors. Mechanisms of receptor desensitization and ion permeation, principles of antagonism, and complete structure of the pore-forming transmembrane domains remain unclear. We report x-ray crystal structures of human P2X3 receptor in apo/resting, agonist-bound/open-pore, agonist-bound/desensitized and antagonist-bound closed states. The open state structure harbors an intracellular motif we term the “cytoplasmic cap”, that stabilizes the open state of the ion channel pore and creates lateral, phospholipid-lined cytoplasmic fenestrations for water and ion egress. Competitive antagonists TNP-ATP and A-317491 stabilize the apo/resting state and reveal the interactions responsible for competitive inhibition. These structures illuminate the conformational rearrangements underpinning P2X receptor gating and provide a foundation for development of new pharmacologic agents. PMID:27626375

  14. Early Use of the NMDA Receptor Antagonist Ketamine in Refractory and Superrefractory Status Epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Zeiler, F. A.

    2015-01-01

    Refractory status epilepticus (RSE) and superrefractory status epilepticus (SRSE) pose a difficult clinical challenge. Multiple cerebral receptor and transporter changes occur with prolonged status epilepticus leading to pharmacoresistance patterns unfavorable for conventional antiepileptics. In particular, n-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor upregulation leads to glutamate mediated excitotoxicity. Targeting these NMDA receptors may provide a novel approach to otherwise refractory seizures. Ketamine has been utilized in RSE. Recent systematic review indicates 56.5% and 63.5% cessation in seizures in adults and pediatrics, respectively. No complications were described. We should consider earlier implementation of ketamine or other NMDA receptor antagonists, for RSE. Prospective study of early implementation of ketamine should shed light on the role of such medications in RSE. PMID:25649724

  15. The antimalarial drugs quinine, chloroquine and mefloquine are antagonists at 5-HT3 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, A J; Lochner, M; Lummis, S C R

    2007-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The antimalarial compounds quinine, chloroquine and mefloquine affect the electrophysiological properties of Cys-loop receptors and have structural similarities to 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. They may therefore act at 5-HT3 receptors. Experimental Approach: The effects of quinine, chloroquine and mefloquine on electrophysiological and ligand binding properties of 5-HT3A receptors expressed in HEK 293 cells and Xenopus oocytes were examined. The compounds were also docked into models of the binding site. Key Results: 5-HT3 responses were blocked with IC 50 values of 13.4 μM, 11.8 μM and 9.36 μM for quinine, chloroquine and mefloquine. Schild plots indicated quinine and chloroquine behaved competitively with pA 2 values of 4.92 (K B=12.0 μM) and 4.97 (K B=16.4 μM). Mefloquine displayed weakly voltage-dependent, non-competitive inhibition consistent with channel block. On and off rates for quinine and chloroquine indicated a simple bimolecular reaction scheme. Quinine, chloroquine and mefloquine displaced [3H]granisetron with K i values of 15.0, 24.2 and 35.7 μ M. Docking of quinine into a homology model of the 5-HT3 receptor binding site located the tertiary ammonium between W183 and Y234, and the quinoline ring towards the membrane, stabilised by a hydrogen bond with E129. For chloroquine, the quinoline ring was positioned between W183 and Y234 and the tertiary ammonium stabilised by interactions with F226. Conclusions and Implications: This study shows that quinine and chloroquine competitively inhibit 5-HT3 receptors, while mefloquine inhibits predominantly non-competitively. Both quinine and chloroquine can be docked into a receptor binding site model, consistent with their structural homology to 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. PMID:17502851

  16. A Selective TSH Receptor Antagonist Inhibits Stimulation of Thyroid Function in Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Susanne; Nir, Eshel A.; Eliseeva, Elena; Huang, Wenwei; Marugan, Juan; Xiao, Jingbo; Dulcey, Andrés E.

    2014-01-01

    Because the TSH receptor (TSHR) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of thyroid disease, a TSHR antagonist could be a novel treatment. We attempted to develop a small molecule, drug-like antagonist of TSHR signaling that is selective and active in vivo. We synthesized NCGC00242364 (ANTAG3) by chemical modification of a previously reported TSHR antagonist. We tested its potency, efficacy, and selectivity in a model cell system in vitro by measuring its activity to inhibit stimulation of cAMP production stimulated by TSH, LH, or FSH. We tested the in vivo activity of ANTAG3 by measuring its effects to lower serum free T4 and thyroid gene expression in female BALB/c mice continuously treated with ANTAG3 for 3 days and given low doses of TRH continuously or stimulated by a single administration of a monoclonal thyroid-stimulating antibody M22. ANTAG3 was selective for TSHR inhibition; half-maximal inhibitory doses were 2.1 μM for TSHR and greater than 30 μM for LH and FSH receptors. In mice treated with TRH, ANTAG3 lowered serum free T4 by 44% and lowered mRNAs for sodium-iodide cotransporter and thyroperoxidase by 75% and 83%, respectively. In mice given M22, ANTAG3 lowered serum free T4 by 38% and lowered mRNAs for sodium-iodide cotransporter and thyroperoxidase by 73% and 40%, respectively. In conclusion, we developed a selective TSHR antagonist that is effective in vivo in mice. This is the first report of a small-molecule TSHR antagonist active in vivo and may lead to a drug to treat Graves' disease. PMID:24169564

  17. A selective TSH receptor antagonist inhibits stimulation of thyroid function in female mice.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Susanne; Nir, Eshel A; Eliseeva, Elena; Huang, Wenwei; Marugan, Juan; Xiao, Jingbo; Dulcey, Andrés E; Gershengorn, Marvin C

    2014-01-01

    Because the TSH receptor (TSHR) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of thyroid disease, a TSHR antagonist could be a novel treatment. We attempted to develop a small molecule, drug-like antagonist of TSHR signaling that is selective and active in vivo. We synthesized NCGC00242364 (ANTAG3) by chemical modification of a previously reported TSHR antagonist. We tested its potency, efficacy, and selectivity in a model cell system in vitro by measuring its activity to inhibit stimulation of cAMP production stimulated by TSH, LH, or FSH. We tested the in vivo activity of ANTAG3 by measuring its effects to lower serum free T4 and thyroid gene expression in female BALB/c mice continuously treated with ANTAG3 for 3 days and given low doses of TRH continuously or stimulated by a single administration of a monoclonal thyroid-stimulating antibody M22. ANTAG3 was selective for TSHR inhibition; half-maximal inhibitory doses were 2.1 μM for TSHR and greater than 30 μM for LH and FSH receptors. In mice treated with TRH, ANTAG3 lowered serum free T4 by 44% and lowered mRNAs for sodium-iodide cotransporter and thyroperoxidase by 75% and 83%, respectively. In mice given M22, ANTAG3 lowered serum free T4 by 38% and lowered mRNAs for sodium-iodide cotransporter and thyroperoxidase by 73% and 40%, respectively. In conclusion, we developed a selective TSHR antagonist that is effective in vivo in mice. This is the first report of a small-molecule TSHR antagonist active in vivo and may lead to a drug to treat Graves' disease.

  18. Similar efficacy from specific and non-specific mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist treatment of muscular dystrophy mice.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Jeovanna; Floyd, Kyle T; Rastogi, Neha; Schultz, Eric J; Chadwick, Jessica A; Swager, Sarah A; Zins, Jonathan G; Kadakia, Feni K; Smart, Suzanne; Gomez-Sanchez, Elise P; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E; Raman, Subha V; Janssen, Paul M L; Rafael-Fortney, Jill A

    2016-01-01

    Combined treatment with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and a mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist improved cardiac and skeletal muscle function and pathology in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. MR is present in limb and respiratory skeletal muscles and functions as a steroid hormone receptor. The goals of the current study were to compare the efficacy of the specific MR antagonist eplerenone with the non-specific MR antagonist spironolactone, both in combination with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor lisinopril. Three groups of n=18 dystrophin-deficient, utrophin-haploinsufficient male mice were given chow containing: lisinopril plus spironolactone, lisinopril plus eplerenone, or no drug, from four to 20 weeks-of-age. Eighteen C57BL/10 male mice were used as wild-type controls. In vivo measurements included cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, conscious electrocardiography, and grip strength. From each mouse in the study, diaphragm, extensor digitorum longus , and cardiac papillary muscle force was measured ex vivo , followed by histological quantification of muscle damage in heart, diaphragm, quadriceps, and abdominal muscles. MR protein levels were also verified in treated muscles. Treatment with specific and non-specific MR antagonists did not result in any adverse effects to dystrophic skeletal muscles or heart. Both treatments resulted in similar functional and pathological improvements across a wide array of parameters. MR protein levels were not reduced by treatment. These data suggest that spironolactone and eplerenone show similar effects in dystrophic mice and support the clinical development of MR antagonists for treating skeletal muscles in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

  19. Serotonin (5-HT3) receptor antagonists for the reduction of symptoms of low anterior resection syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Itagaki, Ryohei; Koda, Keiji; Yamazaki, Masato; Shuto, Kiyohiko; Kosugi, Chihiro; Hirano, Atsushi; Arimitsu, Hidehito; Shiragami, Risa; Yoshimura, Yukino; Suzuki, Masato

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT])3 receptor antagonists are effective for the treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D), in which exaggerated intestinal/colonic hypermotility is often observed. Recent studies have suggested that the motility disorder, especially spastic hypermotility, seen in the neorectum following sphincter-preserving operations for rectal cancer may be the basis of the postoperative defecatory malfunction seen in these patients. We investigated the efficacy of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in patients suffering from severe low anterior resection syndrome. Patients and methods A total of 25 male patients with complaints of uncontrollable urgency or fecal incontinence following sphincter-preserving operations were enrolled in this study. Defecatory status, assessed on the basis of incontinence score (0–20), urgency grade (0–3), and number of toilet visits per day, was evaluated using a questionnaire before and 1 month after the administration of the 5-HT3 antagonist ramosetron. Results All the parameters assessed improved significantly after taking ramosetron for 1 month. The effect was more prominent in cases whose anastomotic line was lower, ie, inside the anal canal. Defecatory function was better in patients who commenced ramosetron therapy within 6 months postoperatively, as compared to those who were not prescribed ramosetron for more than 7 months postoperatively. Conclusion These results suggest that 5-HT3 antagonists are effective for the treatment of low anterior resection syndrome, as in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. The improvement in symptoms is not merely time dependent, but it is related to treatment with 5-HT3 antagonists. PMID:24648748

  20. Chemical function based pharmacophore generation of endothelin-A selective receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Funk, Oliver F; Kettmann, Viktor; Drimal, Jan; Langer, Thierry

    2004-05-20

    Both quantitative and qualitative chemical function based pharmacophore models of endothelin-A (ET(A)) selective receptor antagonists were generated by using the two algorithms HypoGen and HipHop, respectively, which are implemented in the Catalyst molecular modeling software. The input for HypoGen is a training set of 18 ET(A) antagonists exhibiting IC(50) values ranging between 0.19 nM and 67 microM. The best output hypothesis consists of five features: two hydrophobic (HY), one ring aromatic (RA), one hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA), and one negative ionizable (NI) function. The highest scoring Hip Hop model consists of six features: three hydrophobic (HY), one ring aromatic (RA), one hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA), and one negative ionizable (NI). It is the result of an input of three highly active, selective, and structurally diverse ET(A) antagonists. The predictive power of the quantitative model could be approved by using a test set of 30 compounds, whose activity values spread over 6 orders of magnitude. The two pharmacophores were tested according to their ability to extract known endothelin antagonists from the 3D molecular structure database of Derwent's World Drug Index. Thereby the main part of selective ET(A) antagonistic entries was detected by the two hypotheses. Furthermore, the pharmacophores were used to screen the Maybridge database. Six compounds were chosen from the output hit lists for in vitro testing of their ability to displace endothelin-1 from its receptor. Two of these are new potential lead compounds because they are structurally novel and exhibit satisfactory activity in the binding assay.

  1. Adenosine A2A Receptor Activation and Macrophage-mediated Experimental Glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Gabriela E.; Truong, Luan D.; Li, Ping; Zhang, Ping; Du, Jie; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Feng, Lili

    2010-01-01

    In immune-induced inflammation, leukocytes are key mediators of tissue damage. Since A2A adenosine receptors (A2AR) are endogenous suppressors of inflammation, we examined cellular and molecular mechanisms of kidney damage to determine whether selective activation of A2AR will suppress inflammation in a rat model of glomerulonephritis. Activation of A2AR reduced the degree of kidney injury in both the acute inflammatory phase and the progressive phase of glomerulonephritis. This protection against acute and chronic inflammation was associated with suppression of the glomerular expression of the MDC/CCL22 chemokine and down-regulation of MIP-1α/CCL3, RANTES/CCL5, MIP-1β/CCL4, and MCP-1/CCL2 chemokines. The expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL-4 and IL-10, also increased. The mechanism for these anti-inflammatory responses to the A2AR agonist was suppression of macrophages function. A2AR expression was increased in macrophages, macrophage-derived chemokines were reduced in response to the A2AR agonist, and chemokines not expressed in macrophages did not respond to A2AR activation. Thus, activation of the A2AR on macrophages inhibits immune-associated inflammation. In glomerulonephritis, A2AR activation modulates inflammation and tissue damage even in the progressive phase of glomerulonephritis. Accordingly, pharmacological activation of A2AR could be developed into a novel treatment for glomerulonephritis and other macrophage-related inflammatory diseases. PMID:17898087

  2. A New Small-Molecule Antagonist Inhibits Graves' Disease Antibody Activation of the TSH Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Eliseeva, Elena; McCoy, Joshua G.; Napolitano, Giorgio; Giuliani, Cesidio; Monaco, Fabrizio; Huang, Wenwei; Gershengorn, Marvin C.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Graves' disease (GD) is caused by persistent, unregulated stimulation of thyrocytes by thyroid-stimulating antibodies (TSAbs) that activate the TSH receptor (TSHR). We previously reported the first small-molecule antagonist of human TSHR and showed that it inhibited receptor signaling stimulated by sera from four patients with GD. Objective: Our objective was to develop a better TSHR antagonist and use it to determine whether inhibition of TSAb activation of TSHR is a general phenomenon. Design: We aimed to chemically modify a previously reported small-molecule TSHR ligand to develop a better antagonist and determine whether it inhibits TSHR signaling by 30 GD sera. TSHR signaling was measured in two in vitro systems: model HEK-EM293 cells stably overexpressing human TSHRs and primary cultures of human thyrocytes. TSHR signaling was measured as cAMP production and by effects on thyroid peroxidase mRNA. Results: We tested analogs of a previously reported small-molecule TSHR inverse agonist and selected the best NCGC00229600 for further study. In the model system, NCGC00229600 inhibited basal and TSH-stimulated cAMP production. NCGC00229600 inhibition of TSH signaling was competitive even though it did not compete for TSH binding; that is, NCGC00229600 is an allosteric inverse agonist. NCGC00229600 inhibited cAMP production by 39 ± 2.6% by all 30 GD sera tested. In primary cultures of human thyrocytes, NCGC00229600 inhibited TSHR-mediated basal and GD sera up-regulation of thyroperoxidase mRNA levels by 65 ± 2.0%. Conclusion: NCGC00229600, a small-molecule allosteric inverse agonist of TSHR, is a general antagonist of TSH receptor activation by TSAbs in GD patient sera. PMID:21123444

  3. A new small-molecule antagonist inhibits Graves' disease antibody activation of the TSH receptor.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Susanne; Eliseeva, Elena; McCoy, Joshua G; Napolitano, Giorgio; Giuliani, Cesidio; Monaco, Fabrizio; Huang, Wenwei; Gershengorn, Marvin C

    2011-02-01

    Graves' disease (GD) is caused by persistent, unregulated stimulation of thyrocytes by thyroid-stimulating antibodies (TSAbs) that activate the TSH receptor (TSHR). We previously reported the first small-molecule antagonist of human TSHR and showed that it inhibited receptor signaling stimulated by sera from four patients with GD. Our objective was to develop a better TSHR antagonist and use it to determine whether inhibition of TSAb activation of TSHR is a general phenomenon. We aimed to chemically modify a previously reported small-molecule TSHR ligand to develop a better antagonist and determine whether it inhibits TSHR signaling by 30 GD sera. TSHR signaling was measured in two in vitro systems: model HEK-EM293 cells stably overexpressing human TSHRs and primary cultures of human thyrocytes. TSHR signaling was measured as cAMP production and by effects on thyroid peroxidase mRNA. We tested analogs of a previously reported small-molecule TSHR inverse agonist and selected the best NCGC00229600 for further study. In the model system, NCGC00229600 inhibited basal and TSH-stimulated cAMP production. NCGC00229600 inhibition of TSH signaling was competitive even though it did not compete for TSH binding; that is, NCGC00229600 is an allosteric inverse agonist. NCGC00229600 inhibited cAMP production by 39 ± 2.6% by all 30 GD sera tested. In primary cultures of human thyrocytes, NCGC00229600 inhibited TSHR-mediated basal and GD sera up-regulation of thyroperoxidase mRNA levels by 65 ± 2.0%. NCGC00229600, a small-molecule allosteric inverse agonist of TSHR, is a general antagonist of TSH receptor activation by TSAbs in GD patient sera.

  4. Lead identification of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors-histamine H3 receptor antagonists from molecular modeling.

    PubMed

    Bembenek, Scott D; Keith, John M; Letavic, Michael A; Apodaca, Richard; Barbier, Ann J; Dvorak, Lisa; Aluisio, Leah; Miller, Kirsten L; Lovenberg, Timothy W; Carruthers, Nicholas I

    2008-03-15

    Currently, the only clinically effective treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the use of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors. These inhibitors have limited efficacy in that they only treat the symptoms and not the disease itself. Additionally, they often have unpleasant side effects. Here we consider the viability of a single molecule having the actions of both an AChE inhibitor and histamine H(3) receptor antagonist. Both histamine H(3) receptor antagonists and AChE inhibitors improve and augment cholinergic neurotransmission in the cortex. However, whereas an AChE inhibitor will impart its effect everywhere, a histamine H(3) antagonist will raise acetylcholine levels mostly in the brain as its mode of action will primarily be on the central nervous system. Therefore, the combination of both activities in a single molecule could be advantageous. Indeed, studies suggest an appropriate dual-acting compound may offer the desired therapeutic effect with fewer unpleasant side effects [CNS Drugs2004, 18, 827]. Further, recent studies(2) indicate the peripheral anionic site (PAS) of AChE interacts with the beta-amyloid (betaA) peptide. Consequently, a molecule capable of disrupting this interaction may have a significant impact on the production of or the aggregation of betaA. This may result in slowing down the progression of the disease rather than only treating the symptoms as current therapies do. Here, we detail how the use of the available crystal structure information, pharmacophore modeling and docking (automated, manual, classical, and QM/MM) lead to the identification of an AChE inhibitor-histamine H(3) receptor antagonist. Further, based on our models we speculate that this dual-acting compound may interact with the PAS. Such a dual-acting compound may be able to affect the pathology of AD in addition to providing symptomatic relief.

  5. Antagonist profile of ibodutant at the tachykinin NK2 receptor in guinea pig isolated bronchi.

    PubMed

    Santicioli, Paolo; Meini, Stefania; Giuliani, Sandro; Lecci, Alessandro; Maggi, Carlo Alberto

    2013-10-24

    In this study we have characterized the pharmacological profile of the non-peptide tachykinin NK 2 receptor antagonist ibodutant (MEN15596) in guinea pig isolated main bronchi contractility. The antagonist potency of ibodutant was evaluated using the selective NK 2 receptor agonist [βAla 8 ]NKA(4-10)-mediated contractions of guinea pig isolated main bronchi. In this assay ibodutant (30, 100 and 300nM) induced a concentration-dependent rightward shift of the [βAla 8 ]NKA(4-10) concentration-response curves without affecting the maximal contractile effect. The analysis of the results yielded a Schild-plot linear regression with a slope not different from unity (0.95, 95% c.l. 0.65-1.25), thus indicating a surmountable behaviour. The calculated apparent antagonist potency as pK B value was 8.31±0.05. Ibodutant (0.3-100nM), produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of the nonadrenergic-noncholinergic (NANC) contractile response induced by electrical field stimulation (EFS) of intrinsic airway nerves in guinea pig isolated main bronchi. At the highest concentration tested (100nM) ibodutant almost abolished the EFS-induced bronchoconstriction (95±4% inhibition), the calculated IC 50 value was 2.98nM (95% c.l. 1.73-5.16nM). In bronchi from ovalbumin (OVA) sensitized guinea pigs ibodutant (100nM) did not affect the maximal contractile response to OVA, but completely prevented the slowing in the fading of the motor response induced by phosphoramidon pretreatment linked to the endogenous neurokinin A release. Altogether, the present study demonstrate that ibodutant is a potent NK 2 receptor antagonist in guinea pig airways. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Antidepressant activity of nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor antagonists in the mouse learned helplessness.

    PubMed

    Holanda, Victor A D; Medeiros, Iris U; Asth, Laila; Guerrini, Remo; Calo', Girolamo; Gavioli, Elaine C

    2016-07-01

    Pharmacological and genetic evidence support antidepressant-like effects elicited by the blockade of the NOP receptor. The learned helplessness (LH) model employs uncontrollable and unpredictable electric footshocks as a stressor stimulus to induce a depressive-like phenotype that can be reversed by classical antidepressants. The present study aimed to evaluate the action of NOP receptor antagonists in helpless mice. Male Swiss mice were subjected to the three steps of the LH paradigm (i.e., (1) induction, (2) screening, and (3) test). Only helpless animals were subjected to the test session. During the test session, animals were placed in the electrified chamber and the latency to escape after the footshock and the frequency of escape failures were recorded. The effect of the following treatments administered before the test session were evaluated: nortriptyline (30 mg/kg, ip, 60 min), fluoxetine (30 mg/kg, ip, four consecutive days of treatment), and NOP antagonists SB-612111 (1-10 mg/kg, ip, 30 min) and UFP-101 (1-10 nmol, icv, 5 min). To rule out possible biases, the effects of treatments on controllable stressful and non stressful situations were assessed. In helpless mice, nortriptyline, fluoxetine, UFP-101 (3-10 nmol), and SB-612111 (3-10 mg/kg) significantly reduced escape latencies and escape failures. No effects of drug treatments were observed in mice subjected to the controllable electric footshocks and non stressful situations. Acute treatment with NOP antagonists reversed helplessness similarly to the classical antidepressants. These findings support the proposal that NOP receptor antagonists are worthy of development as innovative antidepressant drugs.

  7. The utility of ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists in the treatment of nociception induced by epidural glutamate infusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Osgood, Doreen B; Harrington, William F; Kenney, Elizabeth V; Harrington, J Frederick

    2013-01-01

    The authors have previously demonstrated that human herniated disc material contains high concentrations of free glutamate. In an experimental model, elevated epidural glutamate concentrations in the lumbar spine can cause a focal hyperesthetic state. Rats underwent epidural glutamate infusion in the lumbar spine by a miniosmotic pump over a 72-hour period. Some rats underwent coinfusion with glutamate and ionotropic glutamate antagonists. Nociception was assessed by von Frey fibers and by assessment of glutamate receptor expression in the corresponding dorsal horn of the spinal cord. The kainic acid antagonist, UBP 301, decreased epidural glutamate-based hyperesthesia in a dose dependent manner. Concordant with these findings, there was significant decrease in kainate receptor expression in the dorsal horn. The N-Methyl-4-isoxazoleproionic acid (NMDA) antagonist Norketamine also significantly diminished hyperesthesia and decreased receptor expression in the dorsal horn. Both UBP 301, the kainic acid receptor antagonist and Norketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, dampened epidural glutamate-based nociception. Focal epidural injections of Kainate or NMDA receptor antagonists could be effective treatments for disc herniation-based lumbar radiculopathy.

  8. Nonpeptidic urotensin-II receptor antagonists I: in vitro pharmacological characterization of SB-706375

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Stephen A; Behm, David J; Aiyar, Nambi V; Naselsky, Diane; Disa, Jyoti; Brooks, David P; Ohlstein, Eliot H; Gleason, John G; Sarau, Henry M; Foley, James J; Buckley, Peter T; Schmidt, Dulcie B; Wixted, William E; Widdowson, Katherine; Riley, Graham; Jin, Jian; Gallagher, Timothy F; Schmidt, Stanley J; Ridgers, Lance; Christmann, Lisa T; Keenan, Richard M; Knight, Steven D; Dhanak, Dashyant

    2005-01-01

    SB-706375 potently inhibited [125I]hU-II binding to both mammalian recombinant and ‘native' UT receptors (Ki 4.7±1.5 to 20.7±3.6 nM at rodent, feline and primate recombinant UT receptors and Ki 5.4±0.4 nM at the endogenous UT receptor in SJRH30 cells). Prior exposure to SB-706375 (1 μM, 30 min) did not alter [125I]hU-II binding affinity or density in recombinant cells (KD 3.1±0.4 vs 5.8±0.9 nM and Bmax 3.1±1.0 vs 2.8±0.8 pmol mg−1) consistent with a reversible mode of action. The novel, nonpeptidic radioligand [3H]SB-657510, a close analogue of SB-706375, bound to the monkey UT receptor (KD 2.6±0.4 nM, Bmax 0.86±0.12 pmol mg−1) in a manner that was inhibited by both U-II isopeptides and SB-706375 (Ki 4.6±1.4 to 17.6±5.4 nM) consistent with the sulphonamides and native U-II ligands sharing a common UT receptor binding domain. SB-706375 was a potent, competitive hU-II antagonist across species with pKb 7.29–8.00 in HEK293-UT receptor cells (inhibition of [Ca2+]i-mobilization) and pKb 7.47 in rat isolated aorta (inhibition of contraction). SB-706375 also reversed tone established in the rat aorta by prior exposure to hU-II (Kapp∼20 nM). SB-706375 was a selective U-II antagonist with ⩾100-fold selectivity for the human UT receptor compared to 86 distinct receptors, ion channels, enzymes, transporters and nuclear hormones (Ki/IC50>1 μM). Accordingly, the contractile responses induced in isolated aortae by KCl, phenylephrine, angiotensin II and endothelin-1 were unaltered by SB-706375 (1 μM). In summary, SB-706375 is a high-affinity, surmountable, reversible and selective nonpeptide UT receptor antagonist with cross-species activity that will assist in delineating the pathophysiological actions of U-II in mammals. PMID:15852036

  9. Structure of CC chemokine receptor 2 with orthosteric and allosteric antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Yi; Qin, Ling; Zacarías, Natalia V. Ortiz

    CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) is one of 19 members of the chemokine receptor subfamily of human class A G-protein-coupled receptors. CCR2 is expressed on monocytes, immature dendritic cells, and T-cell subpopulations, and mediates their migration towards endogenous CC chemokine ligands such as CCL2 (ref. 1). CCR2 and its ligands are implicated in numerous inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases2 including atherosclerosis, multiple sclerosis, asthma, neuropathic pain, and diabetic nephropathy, as well as cancer3. These disease associations have motivated numerous preclinical studies and clinical trials4 (see http://www.clinicaltrials.gov) in search of therapies that target the CCR2–chemokine axis. To aid drug discovery efforts5, heremore » we solve a structure of CCR2 in a ternary complex with an orthosteric (BMS-681 (ref. 6)) and allosteric (CCR2-RA-[R]7) antagonist. BMS-681 inhibits chemokine binding by occupying the orthosteric pocket of the receptor in a previously unseen binding mode. CCR2-RA-[R] binds in a novel, highly druggable pocket that is the most intracellular allosteric site observed in class A G-protein-coupled receptors so far; this site spatially overlaps the G-protein-binding site in homologous receptors. CCR2-RA-[R] inhibits CCR2 non-competitively by blocking activation-associated conformational changes and formation of the G-protein-binding interface. The conformational signature of the conserved microswitch residues observed in double-antagonist-bound CCR2 resembles the most inactive G-protein-coupled receptor structures solved so far. Like other protein–protein interactions, receptor–chemokine complexes are considered challenging therapeutic targets for small molecules, and the present structure suggests diverse pocket epitopes that can be exploited to overcome obstacles in drug design.« less

  10. Effect of GABA receptor agonists or antagonists injected spinally on the blood glucose level in mice.

    PubMed

    Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kang, Yu-Jung; Kim, Sung-Su; Kim, Chea-Ha; Kim, Su-Jin; Jung, Jun-Sub; Ryu, Ohk-Hyun; Choi, Moon-Gi; Suh, Hong-Won

    2013-05-01

    The possible roles of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) receptors located in the spinal cord for the regulation of the blood glucose level were studied in ICR mice. We found in the present study that intrathecal (i.t.) injection with baclofen (a GABAB receptor agonist; 1-10 μg/5 μl) or bicuculline (a GABAA receptor antagonist; 1-10 μg/5 μl) caused an elevation of the blood glucose level in a dose-dependent manner. The hyperglycemic effect induced by baclofen was more pronounced than that induced by bicuculline. However, muscimol (a GABAA receptor agonist; 1-5 μg/5 μl) or phaclofen (a GABAB receptor antagonist; 5-10 μg/5 μl) administered i.t. did not affect the blood glucose level. Baclofen-induced elevation of the blood glucose was dose-dependently attenuated by phaclofen. Furthermore, i.t. pretreatment with pertussis toxin (PTX; 0.05 or 0.1 μg/5 μl) for 6 days dose-dependently reduced the hyperglycemic effect induced by baclofen. Our results suggest that GABAB receptors located in the spinal cord play important roles for the elevation of the blood glucose level. Spinally located PTX-sensitive G-proteins appear to be involved in hyperglycemic effect induced by baclofen. Furthermore, inactivation of GABAA receptors located in the spinal cord appears to be responsible for tonic up-regulation of the blood glucose level.

  11. Serotonin 2C receptor antagonist improves fear discrimination and subsequent safety signal recall

    PubMed Central

    Foilb, Allison R.; Christianson, John P.

    2015-01-01

    The capacity to discriminate between safety and danger is fundamental for survival, but is disrupted in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Acute stressors cause a release of serotonin (5-HT) in the forebrain, which is one mechanism for enhanced fear and anxiety; these effects are mediated by the 5-HT2C receptor. Using a fear discrimination paradigm where a danger signal conditioned stimulus (CS+) coterminates with a mild footshock and a safety signal (CS-) indicates the absence of shock, we demonstrate that danger/safety discrimination and fear inhibition develops over the course of 4 daily conditioning sessions. Systemic administration of the 5-HT2C receptor antagonist SB 242084 (0.25 or 1.0 mg/kg) prior to conditioning reduced behavioral freezing during conditioning, improved learning and subsequent inhibition of fear by the safety signal. Discrimination was apparent in the first recall test, and discrimination during training was evident after 3 days of conditioning versus 5 days in the vehicle treated controls. These results suggest a novel therapeutic use for 5-HT2C receptor antagonists to improve learning under stressful circumstances. Potential anatomical loci for 5-HT2C receptor modulation of fear discrimination learning and cognitive performance enhancement are discussed. PMID:26344640

  12. Ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists and cancer therapy: time to think out of the box?

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Mariana P C; Custódio, José B A; Santos, Armanda E

    2017-02-01

    Glutamate has a trophic function in the development of the central nervous system, regulating the proliferation and migration of neuronal progenitors. The resemblance between neuronal embryonic and tumor cells has paved the way for the investigation of the effects of glutamate on tumor cells. Indeed, tumor cells derived from neuronal tissue express ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluRs) subunits and iGluR antagonists decrease cell proliferation. Likewise, iGluRs subunits are expressed in several peripheral cancer cells and blockade of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) ionotropic glutamate receptor subtypes decreases their proliferation and migration. Although these mechanisms are still being investigated, the inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway was shown to play a key role in the antiproliferative activity of iGluR antagonists. Importantly, MK-801, a NMDAR channel blocker, was effective and well tolerated in animal models of melanoma, lung, and breast cancers, suggesting that the blockade of iGluR signaling may represent a new strategy for cancer treatment. In this review, we focus on the significance of NMDA and AMPA receptor expression in tumor cells, as well as possible therapeutic strategies targeting these receptors.

  13. Antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor induce apoptosis specifically in retinoblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chu, Wai Kit; Law, Ka Sin; Chan, Sun On; Yam, Jason Cheuk Sing; Chen, Li Jia; Zhang, Hao; Cheung, Herman S; Block, Norman L; Schally, Andrew V; Pang, Chi Pui

    2016-12-13

    Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common intraocular cancer in children worldwide. Current treatments mainly involve combinations of chemotherapies, cryotherapies, and laser-based therapies. Severe or late-stage disease may require enucleation or lead to fatality. Recently, RB has been shown to arise from cone precursor cells, which have high MDM2 levels to suppress p53-mediated apoptosis. This finding leads to the hypothesis that restoring apoptosis mechanisms in RBs could specifically kill the cancer cells without affecting other retinal cells. We have previously reported involvement of an extrapituitary signaling pathway of the growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) in the retina. Here we show that the GHRH receptor (GHRH-R) is highly expressed in RB cells but not in other retinal cells. We induced specific apoptosis with two different GHRH-R antagonists, MIA-602 and MIA-690. Importantly, these GHRH-R antagonists do not trigger apoptosis in other retinal cells such as retinal pigmented epithelial cells. We delineated the gene expression profiles regulated by GHRH-R antagonists and found that cell proliferation genes and apoptotic genes are down- and up-regulated, respectively. Our results reveal the involvement of GHRH-R in survival and proliferation of RB and demonstrate that GHRH-R antagonists can specifically kill the RB cells.

  14. CCR5 receptor antagonists in preclinical to phase II clinical development for treatment of HIV

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Michelle B.; Giesler, Kyle E.; Tahirovic, Yesim A.; Truax, Valarie M.; Liotta, Dennis C.; Wilson, Lawrence J.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The chemokine receptor CCR5 has garnered significant attention in recent years as a target to treat HIV infection largely due to the approval and success of the drug Maraviroc. The side effects and inefficiencies with other first generation agents led to failed clinical trials, prompting the development of newer CCR5 antagonists. Areas covered This review aims to survey the current status of ‘next generation’ CCR5 antagonists in the preclinical pipeline with an emphasis on emerging agents for the treatment of HIV infection. These efforts have culminated in the identification of advanced second-generation agents to reach the clinic and the dual CCR5/CCR2 antagonist Cenicriviroc as the most advanced currently in phase II clinical studies. Expert opinion The clinical success of CCR5 inhibitors for treatment of HIV infection has rested largely on studies of Maraviroc and a second-generation dual CCR5/CCR2 antagonist Cenicriviroc. Although research efforts identified several promising preclinical candidates, these were dropped during early clinical studies. Despite patient access to Maraviroc, there is insufficient enthusiasm surrounding its use as front-line therapy for treatment of HIV. The non-HIV infection related development activities for Maraviroc and Cenicriviroc may help drive future interests. PMID:27791451

  15. ``In silico'' study of the binding of two novel antagonists to the nociceptin receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Longa, Stefano; Arcovito, Alessandro

    2018-02-01

    Antagonists of the nociceptin receptor (NOP) are raising interest for their possible clinical use as antidepressant drugs. Recently, the structure of NOP in complex with some piperidine-based antagonists has been revealed by X-ray crystallography. In this study, a multi-flexible docking (MF-docking) procedure, i.e. docking to multiple receptor conformations extracted by preliminary molecular dynamics trajectories, together with hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) simulations have been carried out to provide the binding mode of two novel NOP antagonists, one of them selective (BTRX-246040, formerly named LY-2940094) and one non selective (AT-076), i.e. able to inactivate NOP as well as the classical µ- k- and δ-opioid receptors (MOP KOP and DOP). According to our results, the pivotal role of residue D1303,32 (upper indexes are Ballesteros-Weinstein notations) is analogous to that enlighten by the already known X-ray structures of opioid receptors: binding of the molecules are predicted to require a slight readjustment of the hydrophobic pocket (residues Y1313,33, M1343,36, I2195,43, Q2806,52 and V2836,55) in the orthosteric site of NOP, accommodating either the pyridine-pyrazole (BTRX-246040) or the isoquinoline (AT-076) moiety of the ligand, in turn allowing the protonated piperidine nitrogen to maximize interaction (salt-bridge) with residue D1303,32 of the NOP, and the aromatic head to be sandwiched in optimal π-stacking between Y1313,33 and M1343,36. The QM/MM optimization after the MF-docking procedure has provided the more likely conformations for the binding to the NOP receptor of BTRX-246040 and AT-076, based on different pharmacophores and exhibiting different selectivity profiles. While the high selectivity for NOP of BTRX-246040 can be explained by interactions with NOP specific residues, the lack of selectivity of AT-076 could be associated to its ability to penetrate into the deep hydrophobic pocket of NOP, while retaining a

  16. Discovery of potent peptide-mimetic antagonists for the human thrombin receptor, protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1).

    PubMed

    Maryanoff, Bruce E; Zhang, Han-Cheng; Andrade-Gordon, Patricia; Derian, Claudia K

    2003-03-01

    Protease-activated receptors (PARs) represent a unique family of seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors, which are enzymatically cleaved to expose a new extracellular N-terminus that acts as a tethered activating ligand. PAR-1 is cleaved and activated by the serine protease alpha-thrombin, is expressed in various tissues (e.g. platelets and vascular cells), and is involved in cellular responses associated with hemostasis, proliferation, and tissue injury. By using a de novo design approach, we have discovered a series of potent heterocycle-based peptide-miimetic antagonists of PAR-1, exemplified by advanced leads RWJ-56110 (22) and RWJ-58259 (32). These compounds are potent, selective PAR-1 antagonists, devoid of PAR-1 agonist and thrombin inhibitory activity: they bind to PAR-1, interfere with calcium mobilization and cellular functions associated with PAR-1, and do not affect PAR-2, PAR-3, or PAR-4. RWJ-56110 was determined to be a direct inhibitor of PAR-1 activation and internalization, without affecting PAR-1 N-terminal cleavage. At high concentrations of alpha-thrombin, RWJ-56110 fully blocked activation responses in human vascular cells, but not in human platelets; whereas, at high concentrations of TRAP-6, RWJ-56110 blocked activation responses in both cell types. This result is consistent with the presence of another thrombin receptor on human platelets, namely PAR-4. RWJ-56110 and RWJ-58259 clearly interrupt the binding of a tethered ligand to its receptor. RWJ-58259 demonstrated antirestenotic activity in a rat balloon angioplasty model and antithrombotic activity in a cynomolgus monkey arterial injury model. Such PAR-1 antagonists should not only serve as useful tools to delineate the physiological and pathophysiological roles of PAR-1, but also may have therapeutic potential for treating thrombosis and restenosis in humans.

  17. Microbiome-Derived Tryptophan Metabolites and Their Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Dependent Agonist and Antagonist Activities

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Un-Ho; Lee, Syng-Ook; Sridharan, Gautham; Lee, Kyongbum; Davidson, Laurie A.; Jayaraman, Arul; Chapkin, Robert S.; Alaniz, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The tryptophan metabolites indole, indole-3-acetate, and tryptamine were identified in mouse cecal extracts and fecal pellets by mass spectrometry. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonist and antagonist activities of these microbiota-derived compounds were investigated in CaCo-2 intestinal cells as a model for understanding their interactions with colonic tissue, which is highly aryl hydrocarbon (Ah)–responsive. Activation of Ah-responsive genes demonstrated that tryptamine and indole 3-acetate were AHR agonists, whereas indole was an AHR antagonist that inhibited TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin)–induced CYP1A1 expression. In contrast, the tryptophan metabolites exhibited minimal anti-inflammatory activities, whereas TCDD decreased phorbol ester-induced CXCR4 [chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4] gene expression, and this response was AHR dependent. These results demonstrate that the tryptophan metabolites indole, tryptamine, and indole-3-acetate modulate AHR-mediated responses in CaCo-2 cells, and concentrations of indole that exhibit AHR antagonist activity (100–250 μM) are detected in the intestinal microbiome. PMID:24563545

  18. Natural variants of cytotoxic epitopes are T-cell receptor antagonists for antiviral cytotoxic T cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoletti, Antonio; Sette, Alessandro; Chisari, Francis V.; Penna, Amalia; Levrero, Massimo; Carli, Marco De; Fiaccadori, Franco; Ferrari, Carlo

    1994-06-01

    IT has been suggested that mutations within immunodominant cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes may be exploited by viruses to evade protective immune responses critical for clearance1-4. Viral escape could originate from passive mechanisms, such as mutations within crucial CTL epitopes, either affecting major histocompatibility complex binding or T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) recognition. Additionally, it has recently been shown that substitutions of TCR contact sites can yield analogue peptides that can still interact with the T-cell receptor but be unable to deliver a full stimulatory signal, thus inducing anergy5 or acting as an antagonist for the TCR6-8. We report here that hepatitis B virus isolates derived from two chronically infected patients display variant epitopes that act as natural TCR antagonists with the capacity to inhibit the CTL response to the wild-type epitope. During natural infection, TCR antagonist mutations of CTL epitopes could contribute to the development of viral persistence, especially if the antiviral CTL response is monospecific or the epitope is strongly immunodominant.

  19. Stereochemistry of quinoxaline antagonist binding to a glutamate receptor investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Madden, D R; Thiran, S; Zimmermann, H; Romm, J; Jayaraman, V

    2001-10-12

    The stereochemistry of the interactions between quinoxaline antagonists and the ligand-binding domain of the glutamate receptor 4 (GluR4) have been investigated by probing their vibrational modes using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In solution, the electron-withdrawing nitro groups of both compounds establish a resonance equilibrium that appears to stabilize the keto form of one of the cyclic amide carbonyl bonds. Changes in the 6,7-dinitro-2,3-dihydroxyquinoxaline vibrational spectra on binding to the glutamate receptor, interpreted within the framework of a published crystal structure, illuminate the stereochemistry of the interaction and suggest that the binding site imposes a more polarized electronic bonding configuration on this antagonist. Similar spectral changes are observed for 6-cyano-7-dinitro-2,3-dihydroxyquinoxaline, confirming that its interactions with the binding site are highly similar to those of 6,7-dinitro-2,3-dihydroxyquinoxaline and leading to a model of the 6-cyano-7-dinitro-2,3-dihydroxyquinoxaline-S1S2 complex, for which no crystal structure is available. Conformational changes within the GluR ligand binding domain were also monitored. Compared with the previously reported spectral changes seen on binding of the agonist glutamate, only a relatively small change is detected on antagonist binding. This correlation between the functional effects of different classes of ligand and the magnitude of the spectroscopic changes they induce suggests that the spectral data reflect physiologically relevant conformational processes.

  20. Effects of NMDA receptor antagonists on probability discounting depend on the order of probability presentation.

    PubMed

    Yates, Justin R; Breitenstein, Kerry A; Gunkel, Benjamin T; Hughes, Mallory N; Johnson, Anthony B; Rogers, Katherine K; Shape, Sara M

    Risky decision making can be measured using a probability-discounting procedure, in which animals choose between a small, certain reinforcer and a large, uncertain reinforcer. Recent evidence has identified glutamate as a mediator of risky decision making, as blocking the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor with MK-801 increases preference for a large, uncertain reinforcer. Because the order in which probabilities associated with the large reinforcer can modulate the effects of drugs on choice, the current study determined if NMDA receptor ligands alter probability discounting using ascending and descending schedules. Sixteen rats were trained in a probability-discounting procedure in which the odds against obtaining the large reinforcer increased (n=8) or decreased (n=8) across blocks of trials. Following behavioral training, rats received treatments of the NMDA receptor ligands MK-801 (uncompetitive antagonist; 0, 0.003, 0.01, or 0.03mg/kg), ketamine (uncompetitive antagonist; 0, 1.0, 5.0, or 10.0mg/kg), and ifenprodil (NR2B-selective non-competitive antagonist; 0, 1.0, 3.0, or 10.0mg/kg). Results showed discounting was steeper (indicating increased risk aversion) for rats on an ascending schedule relative to rats on the descending schedule. Furthermore, the effects of MK-801, ketamine, and ifenprodil on discounting were dependent on the schedule used. Specifically, the highest dose of each drug decreased risk taking in rats in the descending schedule, but only MK-801 (0.03mg/kg) increased risk taking in rats on an ascending schedule. These results show that probability presentation order modulates the effects of NMDA receptor ligands on risky decision making. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists on rat dural artery diameter in an intravital microscopy model.

    PubMed

    Chan, K Y; Gupta, S; de Vries, R; Danser, A H J; Villalón, C M; Muñoz-Islas, E; Maassenvandenbrink, A

    2010-07-01

    During migraine, trigeminal nerves may release calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), inducing cranial vasodilatation and central nociception; hence, trigeminal inhibition or blockade of craniovascular CGRP receptors may prevent this vasodilatation and abort migraine headache. Several preclinical studies have shown that glutamate receptor antagonists affect the pathophysiology of migraine. This study investigated whether antagonists of NMDA (ketamine and MK801), AMPA (GYKI52466) and kainate (LY466195) glutamate receptors affected dural vasodilatation induced by alpha-CGRP, capsaicin and periarterial electrical stimulation in rats, using intravital microscopy. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anaesthetized and the overlying bone was thinned to visualize the dural artery. Then, vasodilator responses to exogenous (i.v. alpha-CGRP) and endogenous (released by i.v. capsaicin and periarterial electrical stimulation) CGRP were elicited in the absence or presence of the above antagonists. alpha-CGRP, capsaicin and periarterial electrical stimulation increased dural artery diameter. Ketamine and MK801 inhibited the vasodilator responses to capsaicin and electrical stimulation, while only ketamine attenuated those to alpha-CGRP. In contrast, GYKI52466 only attenuated the vasodilatation to exogenous alpha-CGRP, while LY466195 did not affect the vasodilator responses to endogenous or exogenous CGRP. Although GYKI52466 has not been tested clinically, our data suggest that it would not inhibit migraine via vascular mechanisms. Similarly, the antimigraine efficacy of LY466195 seems unrelated to vascular CGRP-mediated pathways and/or receptors. In contrast, the cranial vascular effects of ketamine and MK801 may represent a therapeutic mechanism, although the same mechanism might contribute, peripherally, to cardiovascular side effects.

  2. Quinoxalin-2-carboxamides: synthesis and pharmacological evaluation as serotonin type-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Mahesh, Radhakrishnan; Devadoss, Thangaraj; Pandey, Dilip Kumar; Yadav, Shushil Kumar

    2011-10-01

    A series of quinoxalin-2-carboxamides were designed as per the pharmacophoric requirements of 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists and synthesized by condensing the carboxylic group of quinoxalin-2-carboxylic acid with various amines in the presence of 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride and 1-hydroxybenzotriazole. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by physical and spectroscopic data. The carboxamides were evaluated for their 5-HT(3) receptor antagonisms in longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus preparation from guinea pig ileum against 5-HT(3) agonist, 2-methy-5-HT. All the synthesized compounds showed 5-HT(3) receptor antagonism, (4-benzylpiperazin-1-yl)(quinoxalin-2-yl)methanone was the most potent compound among this series.

  3. Modification of Anxious Behavior after Psychogenic Trauma and Treatment with Galanin Receptor Antagonist.

    PubMed

    Lyudyno, V I; Tsikunov, S G; Abdurasulova, I N; Kusov, A G; Klimenko, V M

    2015-07-01

    Effects of blockage of central galanin receptors on anxiety manifestations were studied in rats with psychogenic trauma. Psychogenic trauma was modeled by exposure of a group of rats to the situation when the partner was killed by a predator. Antagonist of galanin receptors was intranasally administered before stress exposure. Animal behavior was evaluated using the elevated-plus maze test, free exploratory paradigm, and open-field test. Psychogenic trauma was followed by an increase in anxiety level and appearance of agitated behavior. Blockage of galanin receptors aggravated behavioral impairment, which manifested in the pathological anxious reactions - manifestations of hypervigilance and hyperawareness. The results suggest that endogenous pool of galanin is involved into prevention of excessive CNS response to stressful stimuli typical of posttraumatic stress disorder.

  4. The adenosine A2A receptor — Myocardial protectant and coronary target in endotoxemia

    PubMed Central

    Reichelt, Melissa E.; Ashton, Kevin J.; Tan, Xing Lin; Mustafa, S. Jamal; Ledent, Catherine; Delbridge, Lea M.D.; Hofmann, Polly A.; Headrick, John P.; Morrison, R. Ray

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiac injury and dysfunction are contributors to disease progression and mortality in sepsis. This study evaluated the cardiovascular role of intrinsic A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR) activity during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. Methods We assessed the impact of 24 h of LPS challenge (20 mg/kg, IP) on cardiac injury, coronary function and inflammatory mediator levels in Wild-Type (WT) mice and mice lacking functional A2AARs (A2AAR KO). Results Cardiac injury was evident in LPS-treated WTs, with ∼7-fold elevation in serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI), and significant ventricular and coronary dysfunction. Absence of A2AARs increased LPS-provoked cTnI release at 24 h by 3-fold without additional demise of contraction function. Importantly, A2AAR deletion per se emulated detrimental effects of LPS on coronary function, and LPS was without effect in coronary vessels lacking A2AARs. Effects of A2AAR KO were independent of major shifts in circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) and haptoglobin. Cytokine responses were largely insensitive to A2AAR deletion; substantial LPS-induced elevations (up to 100-fold) in IFN-γ and IL-10 were unaltered in A2AAR KO mice, as were levels of IL-4 and TNF-α. However, late elevations in IL-2 and IL-5 were differentially modulated by A2AAR KO (IL-2 reduced, IL-5 increased). Data demonstrate that in the context of LPS-triggered cardiac and coronary injury, A2AAR activity protects myocardial viability without modifying contractile dysfunction, and selectively modulates cytokine (IL-2, IL-5) release. A2AARs also appear to be targeted by LPS in the coronary vasculature. Conclusions These experimental data suggest that preservation of A2AAR functionality might provide therapeutic benefit in human sepsis. PMID:22192288

  5. Genetic polymorphism of the adenosine A2A receptor is associated with habitual caffeine consumption.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, Marilyn C; El-Sohemy, Ahmed; Campos, Hannia

    2007-07-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed stimulant in the world, and individual differences in response to its stimulating effects may explain some of the variability in caffeine consumption within a population. We examined whether genetic variability in caffeine metabolism [cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) -163A-->C] or the main target of caffeine action in the nervous system [adenosine A(2A) receptor (ADORA2A) 1083C-->T] is associated with habitual caffeine consumption. Subjects (n=2735) were participants from a study of gene-diet interactions and risk of myocardial infarction who did not have a history of hypertension. Genotype frequencies were examined among persons who were categorized according to their self-reported daily caffeine intake, as assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire. The ADORA2A, but not the CYP1A2, genotype was associated with different amounts of caffeine intake. Compared with persons consuming <100 mg caffeine/d, the odds ratios for having the ADORA2A TT genotype were 0.74 (95% CI: 0.53, 1.03), 0.63 (95% CI: 0.48, 0.83), and 0.57 (95% CI: 0.42, 0.77) for those consuming 100-200, >200-400, and >400 mg caffeine/d, respectively. The association was more pronounced among current smokers than among nonsmokers (P for interaction = 0.07). Persons with the ADORA2A TT genotype also were significantly more likely to consume less caffeine (ie, <100 mg/d) than were carriers of the C allele [P=0.011 (nonsmokers), P=0.008 (smokers)]. Our findings show that the probability of having the ADORA2A 1083TT genotype decreases as habitual caffeine consumption increases. This observation provides a biologic basis for caffeine consumption behavior and suggests that persons with this genotype may be less vulnerable to caffeine dependence.

  6. Multi-Inhibitory Effects of A2A Adenosine Receptor Signaling on Neutrophil Adhesion Under Flow.

    PubMed

    Yago, Tadayuki; Tsukamoto, Hiroki; Liu, Zhenghui; Wang, Ying; Thompson, Linda F; McEver, Rodger P

    2015-10-15

    A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR) signaling negatively regulates inflammatory responses in many disease models, but the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. We used the selective A2AAR agonist, ATL313, to examine how A2AAR signaling affects human and murine neutrophil adhesion under flow. Treating neutrophils with ATL313 inhibited selectin-induced, β2 integrin-dependent slow rolling and chemokine-induced, β2 integrin-dependent arrest on ICAM-1. ATL313 inhibited selectin-induced β2 integrin extension, which supports slow rolling, and chemokine-induced hybrid domain "swing-out," which supports arrest. Furthermore, ATL313 inhibited integrin outside-in signaling as revealed by reduced neutrophil superoxide production and spreading on immobilized anti-β2 integrin Ab. ATL313 suppressed selectin-triggered activation of Src family kinases (SFKs) and p38 MAPK, chemokine-triggered activation of Ras-related protein 1, and β2 integrin-triggered activation of SFKs and Vav cytoskeletal regulatory proteins. ATL313 activated protein kinase A and its substrate C-terminal Src kinase, an inhibitor of SFKs. Treating neutrophils with a protein kinase A inhibitor blocked the actions of ATL313. In vivo, ATL313-treated neutrophils rolled faster and arrested much less frequently in postcapillary venules of the murine cremaster muscle after TNF-α challenge. Furthermore, ATL313 markedly suppressed neutrophil migration into the peritoneum challenged with thioglycollate. ATL313 did not affect A2AAR-deficient neutrophils, confirming its specificity. Our findings provide new insights into the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of A2AAR signaling and the potential utility of A2AAR agonists in inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  7. Multi-inhibitory effects of A2A adenosine receptor signaling on neutrophil adhesion under flow**

    PubMed Central

    Yago, Tadayuki; Tsukamoto, Hiroki; Liu, Zhenghui; Wang, Ying; Thompson, Linda F.; McEver, Rodger P.

    2015-01-01

    A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR) signaling negatively regulates inflammatory responses in many disease models, but the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. We used the selective A2AAR agonist, ATL313, to examine how A2AAR signaling affects human and murine neutrophil adhesion under flow. Treating neutrophils with ATL313 inhibited selectin-induced, β2 integrin-dependent slow rolling and chemokine-induced, β2 integrin-dependent arrest on ICAM-1. ATL313 inhibited selectin-induced β2 integrin extension, which supports slow rolling, and chemokine-induced hybrid domain “swing-out”, which supports arrest. Furthermore, ATL313 inhibited integrin outside-in signaling as revealed by reduced neutrophil superoxide production and spreading on immobilized anti-β2 integrin antibody. ATL313 suppressed selectin-triggered activation of Src family kinases (SFKs) and p38 MAPK, chemokine-triggered activation of Ras-related protein 1 (Rap1), and β2 integrin-triggered activation of SFKs and Vav cytoskeletal regulatory proteins. ATL313 activated protein kinase A (PKA) and its substrate C-terminal Src kinase (Csk), an inhibitor of SFKs. Treating neutrophils with a PKA inhibitor blocked the actions of ATL313. In vivo, ATL313-treated neutrophils rolled faster and arrested much less frequently in postcapillary venules of the murine cremaster muscle after TNF-α challenge. Furthermore, ATL313 markedly suppressed neutrophil migration into the peritoneum challenged with thioglycollate. ATL313 did not affect A2AAR-deficient neutrophils, confirming its specificity. Our findings provide new insights into the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of A2AAR signaling and the potential utility of A2AAR agonists in inflammatory diseases. PMID:26355151

  8. Neuronal nicotinic receptor antagonist reduces anxiety-like behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Roni, Monzurul Amin; Rahman, Shafiqur

    2011-10-31

    Brain cholinergic neurotransmission has been implicated in the modulation of anxiety in humans and evidence suggests that drugs targeting neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) could have potential for the treatment of anxiety. The objective of present study was to examine anxiolytic effects of lobeline (0.04 or 0.1 mg/kg), a nAChR antagonist, in C57BL/6J mice using elevated plus-maze (EPM) and marble-burying test. Lobeline (0.04 mg/kg) significantly increased open arm time on EPM and reduced number of marbles buried. Similarly, mecamylamine (0.3 mg/kg) produced anxiolytic effects, while peripherally acting hexamethonium (0.3 mg/kg) failed to produce any response. These results provide evidence that lobeline has anxiolytic potential and nAChR antagonists may represent a new class of anxiolytics in humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Structure of CC Chemokine Receptor 2 with Orthosteric and Allosteric Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yi; Qin, Ling; Ortiz Zacarías, Natalia V.; de Vries, Henk; Han, Gye Won; Gustavsson, Martin; Dabros, Marta; Zhao, Chunxia; Cherney, Robert J.; Carter, Percy; Stamos, Dean; Abagyan, Ruben; Cherezov, Vadim; Stevens, Raymond C.; IJzerman, Adriaan P.; Heitman, Laura H.; Tebben, Andrew; Kufareva, Irina; Handel, Tracy M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) is one of 19 members of the chemokine receptor subfamily of human Class A G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). CCR2 is expressed on monocytes, immature dendritic cells and T cell subpopulations, and mediates their migration towards endogenous CC chemokine ligands such as CCL21. CCR2 and its ligands are implicated in numerous inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases2 including atherosclerosis, multiple sclerosis, asthma, neuropathic pain, and diabetic nephropathy, as well as cancer3. These disease associations have motivated numerous preclinical studies and clinical trials4 (see ClinicalTrials.gov) in search of therapies that target the CCR2:chemokine axis. To aid drug discovery efforts5, we solved a structure of CCR2 in a ternary complex with an orthosteric (BMS-6816) and allosteric (CCR2-RA-[R]7) antagonist. BMS-681 inhibits chemokine binding by occupying the orthosteric pocket of the receptor in a previously unseen binding mode. CCR2-RA-[R] binds in a novel, highly druggable pocket that is the most intracellular allosteric site observed in Class A GPCRs to date; this site spatially overlaps the G protein-binding site in homologous receptors. CCR2-RA-[R] inhibits CCR2 non-competitively by blocking activation-associated conformational changes and formation of the G protein-binding interface. The conformational signature of the conserved microswitch residues observed in double-antagonist-bound CCR2 resembles the most inactive GPCR structures solved to date. Like other protein:protein interactions, receptor:chemokine complexes are considered challenging therapeutic targets for small molecules, and the present structure suggests diverse pocket epitopes that can be exploited to overcome drug design obstacles. PMID:27926736

  10. Potent and long-acting corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) receptor 2 selective peptide competitive antagonists.

    PubMed

    Rivier, J; Gulyas, J; Kirby, D; Low, W; Perrin, M H; Kunitake, K; DiGruccio, M; Vaughan, J; Reubi, J C; Waser, B; Koerber, S C; Martinez, V; Wang, L; Taché, Y; Vale, W

    2002-10-10

    We present evidence that members of the corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) family assume distinct structures when interacting with the CRF(1) and CRF(2) receptors. Predictive methods, physicochemical measurements, and structure-activity relationship studies have suggested that CRF, its family members, and competitive antagonists such as astressin [cyclo(30-33)[DPhe(12),Nle(21),Glu(30),Lys(33),Nle(38)]hCRF((12-41))] assume an alpha-helical conformation when interacting with their receptors. We had shown that alpha-helical CRF((9-41)) and sauvagine showed some selectivity for CRF receptors other than that responsible for ACTH secretion(1) and later for CRF2.(2) More recently, we suggested the possibility of a helix-turn-helix motif around a turn encompassing residues 30-33(3) that would confer high affinity for both CRF(1) and CRF(2)(2,4) in agonists and antagonists of all members of the CRF family.(3) On the other hand, the substitutions that conferred ca. 100-fold CRF(2) selectivity to the antagonist antisauvagine-30 [[DPhe(11),His(12)]sauvagine((11-40))] did not confer such property to the corresponding N-terminally extended agonists. We find here that a Glu(32)-Lys(35) side chain to side chain covalent lactam constraint in hCRF and the corresponding Glu(31)-Lys(34) side chain to side chain covalent lactam constraint in sauvagine yield potent ligands that are selective for CRF(2). Additionally, we introduced deletions and substitutions known to increase duration of action to yield antagonists such as cyclo(31-34)[DPhe(11),His(12),C(alpha)MeLeu(13,39),Nle(17),Glu(31),Lys(34)]Ac-sauvagine((8-40)) (astressin(2)-B) with CRF(2) selectivities greater than 100-fold. CRF receptor autoradiography was performed in rat tissue known to express CRF(2) and CRF(1) in order to confirm that astressin(2)-B could indeed bind to established CRF(2) but not CRF(1) receptor-expressing tissues. Extended duration of action of astressin(2)-B vs that of antisauvagine-30 is demonstrated in

  11. The effects of sigma (σ1) receptor-selective ligands on muscarinic receptor antagonist-induced cognitive deficits in mice

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Maninder; Rangel-Barajas, Claudia; Sumien, Nathalie; Su, Chang; Singh, Meharvan; Chen, Zhenglan; Huang, Ren-Qi; Meunier, Johann; Maurice, Tangui; Mach, Robert H; Luedtke, Robert R

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Cognitive deficits in patients with Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, traumatic brain injury and stroke often involve alterations in cholinergic signalling. Currently available therapeutic drugs provide only symptomatic relief. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies are needed to retard and/or arrest the progressive loss of memory. Experimental Approach Scopolamine-induced memory impairment provides a rapid and reversible phenotypic screening paradigm for cognition enhancement drug discovery. Male C57BL/6J mice given scopolamine (1 mg·kg−1) were used to evaluate the ability of LS-1–137, a novel sigma (σ1) receptor-selective agonist, to improve the cognitive deficits associated with muscarinic antagonist administration. Key Results LS-1–137 is a high-affinity (Ki = 3.2 nM) σ1 receptor agonist that is 80-fold selective for σ1, compared with σ2 receptors. LS-1–137 binds with low affinity at D2-like (D2, D3 and D4) dopamine and muscarinic receptors. LS-1–137 was found to partially reverse the learning deficits associated with scopolamine administration using a water maze test and an active avoidance task. LS-1–137 treatment was also found to trigger the release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor from rat astrocytes. Conclusions and Implications The σ1 receptor-selective compound LS-1–137 may represent a novel candidate cognitive enhancer for the treatment of muscarinic receptor-dependent cognitive deficits. PMID:25573298

  12. Decavanadate, a P2X receptor antagonist, and its use to study ligand interactions with P2X7 receptors.

    PubMed

    Michel, Anton D; Xing, Mengle; Thompson, Kyla M; Jones, Clare A; Humphrey, Patrick P A

    2006-03-18

    In this study we have studied decavanadate effects at P2X receptors. Decavanadate competitively blocked 2'- and 3'-O-(4benzoylbenzoyl) ATP (BzATP) stimulated ethidium accumulation in HEK293 cells expressing human recombinant P2X7 receptors (pK(B) 7.5). The effects of decavanadate were rapid (minutes) in both onset and offset and contrasted with the much slower kinetics of pyridoxal 5-phosphate (P5P), Coomassie brilliant blue (CBB) and 1-[N,O-bis(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-N-methyl-L-tyrosyl]-4-phenylpiperazine (KN62). Decavanadate competitively blocked the slowly reversible, or irreversible, blockade of the P2X7 receptor produced by P5P and oxidised ATP suggesting competition for a common binding site. However, the interaction between decavanadate and KN62 was non-competitive. Decavanadate also blocked P2X2 and P2X4 receptors but with slightly lower potency. These data demonstrate that decavanadate is the first reversible and competitive antagonist of the P2X7 receptor and is a useful tool for studying the mechanism of interaction of ligands with the P2X7 receptor.

  13. Predicting the relative binding affinity of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists by density functional methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roos, Katarina; Hogner, Anders; Ogg, Derek; Packer, Martin J.; Hansson, Eva; Granberg, Kenneth L.; Evertsson, Emma; Nordqvist, Anneli

    2015-12-01

    In drug discovery, prediction of binding affinity ahead of synthesis to aid compound prioritization is still hampered by the low throughput of the more accurate methods and the lack of general pertinence of one method that fits all systems. Here we show the applicability of a method based on density functional theory using core fragments and a protein model with only the first shell residues surrounding the core, to predict relative binding affinity of a matched series of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists. Antagonists of MR are used for treatment of chronic heart failure and hypertension. Marketed MR antagonists, spironolactone and eplerenone, are also believed to be highly efficacious in treatment of chronic kidney disease in diabetes patients, but is contra-indicated due to the increased risk for hyperkalemia. These findings and a significant unmet medical need among patients with chronic kidney disease continues to stimulate efforts in the discovery of new MR antagonist with maintained efficacy but low or no risk for hyperkalemia. Applied on a matched series of MR antagonists the quantum mechanical based method gave an R2 = 0.76 for the experimental lipophilic ligand efficiency versus relative predicted binding affinity calculated with the M06-2X functional in gas phase and an R2 = 0.64 for experimental binding affinity versus relative predicted binding affinity calculated with the M06-2X functional including an implicit solvation model. The quantum mechanical approach using core fragments was compared to free energy perturbation calculations using the full sized compound structures.

  14. Nonpeptide corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 1 antagonists and their applications in psychosomatic disorders.

    PubMed

    Contoreggi, Carlo; Rice, Kenner C; Chrousos, George

    2004-01-01

    Overproduction of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and stress system abnormalities are seen in psychiatric diseases such as depression, anxiety, eating disorders, and addiction. Investigations of CRH type 1 receptor (CRHR1) nonpeptide antagonists suggest therapeutic potential for treatment of these and other neuropsychiatric diseases. However, overproduction of CRH in the brain and on its periphery and disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are also found in 'somatic' disorders. Some rare forms of Cushing's disease and related pituitary/adrenal disorders are obvious applications for CRHR1 antagonists. In addition, however, these antagonists may also be effective in treating more common somatic diseases. Patients with obesity and metabolic syndrome who often have subtle, but chronic hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal hyperactivity, which may reflect central dysregulation of CRH and consequently glucocorticoid hypersecretion, could possibly be treated by administration of CRHR1 antagonists. Hormonal, autonomic, and immune aberrations are also present in chronic inflammatory, autoimmune, and allergic diseases, with considerable evidence linking CRH with the observed abnormalities. Furthermore, autonomic dysregulation is a prominent feature of common gastrointestinal disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome and peptic ulcer disease. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome and other gastrointestinal disorders frequently develop altered pain perception and affective symptoms. CRH acts peripherally to modulate bowel activity both directly through the autonomic system and centrally by processing viscerosensory and visceromotor neural signals. This review presents clinical and preclinical evidence for the role of CRH in the pathophysiology of these disorders and for potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications of CRHR1 antagonists. Recognition of a dysfunctional stress system in these and other diseases will alter the understanding and treatment of

  15. Outcome of adrenal vein sampling performed during concurrent mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist therapy.

    PubMed

    Haase, Matthias; Riester, Anna; Kröpil, Patric; Hahner, Stefanie; Degenhart, Christoph; Willenberg, Holger S; Reincke, Martin

    2014-12-01

    Pharmacological inhibition of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) signaling in patients with primary aldosteronism (PA) reestablishes aldosterone synthesis by nondiseased zona glomerulosa cells through activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. In this context, current guidelines recommend discontinuing MR blockade for diagnostic procedures, including adrenal vein sampling (AVS). Discontinuation of MR blockade in high-risk patients may be harmful because of uncontrolled hypertension and severe hypokalemia. We hypothesize that MR antagonist therapy can be continued during AVS as long as renin levels remain suppressed. The objective of this study was to assess the validity of AVS results in the context of MR antagonistic therapy. We retrospectively analyzed all AVS studies in Munich (since 2008) and Düsseldorf (since 2011) and identified four of 237 (1.7%) patients with PA who underwent AVS while treated with an MR antagonist. Adrenalectomy was recommended based on the results of AVS in all four patients. After adrenalectomy, follow-up data were obtained to confirm improvement or remission of PA. Main outcome measures included blood pressure values, daily defined doses of antihypertensive medication, as well as levels of aldosterone, renin, and potassium, and the aldosterone/renin ratio. In all patients, renin remained low or suppressed during AVS despite MR antagonist treatment. AVS clearly demonstrated unilateral aldosterone excess in each case. After adrenalectomy, all patients showed remission of PA as demonstrated by blood pressure values, potassium levels, and the aldosterone/renin ratio. In selected cases of PA, MR antagonist therapy might be continued during AVS, provided that renin values remain low.

  16. The Affinity of D2-Like Dopamine Receptor Antagonists Determines the Time to Maximal Effect on Cocaine Self-Administration

    PubMed Central

    Tabet, Michael R.; Norman, Mantana K.; Fey, Brittney K.; Tsibulsky, Vladimir L.; Millard, Ronald W.

    2011-01-01

    Differences in the time to maximal effect (Tmax) of a series of dopamine receptor antagonists on the self-administration of cocaine are not consistent with their lipophilicity (octanol-water partition coefficients at pH 7.4) and expected rapid entry into the brain after intravenous injection. It was hypothesized that the Tmax reflects the time required for maximal occupancy of receptors, which would occur as equilibrium was approached. If so, the Tmax should be related to the affinity for the relevant receptor population. This hypothesis was tested using a series of nine antagonists having a 2500-fold range of Ki or Kd values for D2-like dopamine receptors. Rats self-administered cocaine at regular intervals and then were injected intravenously with a dose of antagonist, and the self-administration of cocaine was continued for 6 to 10 h. The level of cocaine at the time of every self-administration (satiety threshold) was calculated throughout the session. The satiety threshold was stable before the injection of antagonist and then increased approximately 3-fold over the baseline value at doses of antagonists selected to produce this approximately equivalent maximal magnitude of effect (maximum increase in the equiactive cocaine concentration, satiety threshold; Cmax). Despite the similar Cmax, the mean Tmax varied between 5 and 157 min across this series of antagonists. Furthermore, there was a strong and significant correlation between the in vivo Tmax values for each antagonist and the affinity for D2-like dopamine receptors measured in vitro. It is concluded that the cocaine self-administration paradigm offers a reliable and predictive bioassay for measuring the affinity of a competitive antagonist for D2-like dopamine receptors. PMID:21606176

  17. Nucleus Accumbens Adenosine A2A Receptors Regulate Exertion of Effort by Acting on the Ventral Striatopallidal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mingote, Susana; Font, Laura; Farrar, Andrew M.; Vontell, Regina; Worden, Lila T.; Stopper, Colin M.; Port, Russell G.; Sink, Kelly S.; Bunce, Jamie G.; Chrobak, James J.; Salamone, John D.

    2009-01-01

    Goal-directed actions are sensitive to work-related response costs, and dopamine in nucleus accumbens is thought to modulate the exertion of effort in motivated behavior. Dopamine-rich striatal areas such as nucleus accumbens also contain high numbers of adenosine A2A receptors, and, for that reason, the behavioral and neurochemical effects of the adenosine A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680 [2-p-(2-carboxyethyl) phenethylamino-5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine] were investigated. Stimulation of accumbens adenosine A2A receptors disrupted performance of an instrumental task with high work demands (i.e., an interval lever-pressing schedule with a ratio requirement attached) but had little effect on a task with a lower work requirement. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that accumbens neurons that project to the ventral pallidum showed adenosine A2A receptors immunoreactivity. Moreover, activation of accumbens A2A receptors by local injections of CGS 21680 increased extracellular GABA levels in the ventral pallidum. Combined contralateral injections of CGS 21680 into the accumbens and the GABAA agonist muscimol into ventral pallidum (i.e., “disconnection” methods) also impaired response output, indicating that these structures are part of a common neural circuitry regulating the exertion of effort. Thus, accumbens adenosine A2A receptors appear to regulate behavioral activation and effort-related processes by modulating the activity of the ventral striatopallidal pathway. Research on the effort-related functions of these forebrain systems may lead to a greater understanding of pathological features of motivation, such as psychomotor slowing, anergia, and fatigue in depression. PMID:18768698

  18. Identification of functional bitter taste receptors and their antagonist in chickens.

    PubMed

    Dey, Bapon; Kawabata, Fuminori; Kawabata, Yuko; Yoshida, Yuta; Nishimura, Shotaro; Tabata, Shoji

    2017-01-22

    Elucidation of the taste sense of chickens is important not only for the development of chicken feedstuffs for the chicken industry but also to help clarify the evolution of the taste sense among animals. There are three putative chicken bitter taste receptors, chicken T2R1 (cT2R1), cT2R2 and cT2R7, which were identified using genome information and cell-based assays. Previously, we have shown that cT2R1 is a functional bitter taste receptor through both cell-based assays and behavioral tests. In this study, therefore, we focused on the sensitivities of the other two bitter receptors, cT2R2 and cT2R7, by using their agonists in behavioral tests. We tested three agonists of cT2R2 and three agonists of cT2R7. In a 10-min drinking study, the intakes of cT2R2 agonist solutions were not different from that of water. On the other hand, the intakes of cT2R7 agonist solutions were significantly lower compared to water. In addition, we constructed cT2R1-and cT2R7-expressing cells in order to search for an antagonist for these functional bitter taste receptors. By using Ca 2+ imaging methods, we found that 6-methoxyflavanone (6-meth) can inhibit the activities of both cT2R1 and cT2R7. Moreover, 6-meth also inhibited the reduction of the intake of bitter solutions containing cT2R1 or cT2R7 agonists in behavioral tests. Taken together, these results suggested that cT2R7 is a functional bitter taste receptor like cT2R1, but that cT2R2 is not, and that 6-meth is an antagonist for these two functional chicken bitter taste receptors. This is the first identification of an antagonist of chicken bitter receptors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic plant-derived cannabinoid, decreases inflammation in a murine model of acute lung injury: role for the adenosine A(2A) receptor.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Alison; Ferraz-de-Paula, Viviane; Pinheiro, Milena L; Vitoretti, Luana B; Mariano-Souza, Domenica P; Quinteiro-Filho, Wanderley M; Akamine, Adriana T; Almeida, Vinícius I; Quevedo, João; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Hallak, Jaime E; Zuardi, Antônio W; Crippa, José A; Palermo-Neto, João

    2012-03-05

    Acute lung injury is an inflammatory condition for which treatment is mainly supportive because effective therapies have not been developed. Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic cannabinoid component of marijuana (Cannabis sativa), has potent immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, we investigated the possible anti-inflammatory effect of cannabidiol in a murine model of acute lung injury. Analysis of total inflammatory cells and differential in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was used to characterize leukocyte migration into the lungs; myeloperoxidase activity of lung tissue and albumin concentration in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were analyzed by colorimetric assays; cytokine/chemokine production in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was also analyzed by Cytometric Bead Arrays and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). A single dose of cannabidiol (20mg/kg) administered prior to the induction of LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-induced acute lung injury decreases leukocyte (specifically neutrophil) migration into the lungs, albumin concentration in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, myeloperoxidase activity in the lung tissue, and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF and IL-6) and chemokines (MCP-1 and MIP-2) 1, 2, and 4days after the induction of LPS-induced acute lung injury. Additionally, adenosine A(2A) receptor is involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of cannabidiol on LPS-induced acute lung injury because ZM241385 (4-(2-[7-Amino-2-(2-furyl)[1,2,4]triazolo[2,3-a][1,3,5]triazin-5-ylamino]ethyl)phenol) (a highly selective antagonist of adenosine A(2A) receptor) abrogated all of the anti-inflammatory effects of cannabidiol previously described. Thus, we show that cannabidiol has anti-inflammatory effects in a murine model of acute lung injury and that this effect is most likely associated with an increase in the extracellular adenosine offer and signaling through adenosine A(2A) receptor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  20. Selective inactivation of adenosine A(2A) receptors in striatal neurons enhances working memory and reversal learning.

    PubMed

    Wei, Catherine J; Singer, Philipp; Coelho, Joana; Boison, Detlev; Feldon, Joram; Yee, Benjamin K; Chen, Jiang-Fan

    2011-01-01

    The adenosine A(2A) receptor (A(2A)R) is highly enriched in the striatum where it is uniquely positioned to integrate dopaminergic, glutamatergic, and other signals to modulate cognition. Although previous studies support the hypothesis that A(2A)R inactivation can be pro-cognitive, analyses of A(2A)R's effects on cognitive functions have been restricted to a small subset of cognitive domains. Furthermore, the relative contribution of A(2A)Rs in distinct brain regions remains largely unknown. Here, we studied the regulation of multiple memory processes by brain region-specific populations of A(2A)Rs. Specifically, we evaluated the cognitive impacts of conditional A(2A)R deletion restricted to either the entire forebrain (i.e., cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and striatum, fb-A(2A)R KO) or to striatum alone (st-A(2A)R KO) in recognition memory, working memory, reference memory, and reversal learning. This comprehensive, comparative analysis showed for the first time that depletion of A(2A)R-dependent signaling in either the entire forebrain or striatum alone is associated with two specific phenotypes indicative of cognitive flexibility-enhanced working memory and enhanced reversal learning. These selective pro-cognitive phenotypes seemed largely attributed to inactivation of striatal A(2A)Rs as they were captured by A(2A)R deletion restricted to striatal neurons. Neither spatial reference memory acquisition nor spatial recognition memory were grossly affected, and no evidence for compensatory changes in striatal or cortical D(1), D(2), or A(1) receptor expression was found. This study provides the first direct demonstration that targeting striatal A(2A)Rs may be an effective, novel strategy to facilitate cognitive flexibility under normal and pathologic conditions.

  1. Synthesis of water-soluble polyamine derivatives effective as N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Masuko, Takashi; Yoshida, Shuhei; Metori, Koichi; Kizawa, Yasuo; Kusama, Tadashi; Miyake, Muneharu

    2010-06-01

    The novel water-soluble N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists, N-{4-[4-(4-Guanidinobutylamino)butylamino]butyl}-p-toluenesulfonamide trihydrochloride (1a, TsHSPMG), N-{4-[4-(4-Guanidinobutylamino)butylamino]butyl}butane-1-sulfonamide trihydrochloride (1b, BsHSPMG), N-{3-[4-(3-Guanidinopropylamino)butylamino]propyl}-p-toluenesulfonamide trihydrochroride (2a, TsSPMG) and N-{3-[4-(3-Guanidinopropylamino)butylamino]propyl}butane-1-sulfonamide trihydrochroride (2b, BsSPMG), were synthesized, and the effects of these polyamine derivatives on NMDA receptors were studied using voltage-clamp recordings of recombinant NMDA receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Although spermine potentiates 153% and 310% of NMDA (NR1A/NR2B) receptors in the presence of saturated and unsaturated glycine, respectively, all the novel polyamine derivatives, TsHSPMG (1a), BsHSPMG (1b), TsSPMG (2a) and BsSPMG (2b), significantly inhibited NR1A/NR2B receptors in both conditions. The degree of NMDA receptor inhibition by TsHSPMG (1a) and BsHSPMG (1b) was stronger than that by TsSPMG (2a) and BsSPMG (2b).

  2. Membrane omega-3 fatty acids modulate the oligomerisation kinetics of adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guixà-González, Ramon; Javanainen, Matti; Gómez-Soler, Maricel; Cordobilla, Begoña; Domingo, Joan Carles; Sanz, Ferran; Pastor, Manuel; Ciruela, Francisco; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Selent, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Membrane levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA), are decreased in common neuropsychiatric disorders. DHA modulates key cell membrane properties like fluidity, thereby affecting the behaviour of transmembrane proteins like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). These receptors, which have special relevance for major neuropsychiatric disorders have recently been shown to form dimers or higher order oligomers, and evidence suggests that DHA levels affect GPCR function by modulating oligomerisation. In this study, we assessed the effect of membrane DHA content on the formation of a class of protein complexes with particular relevance for brain disease: adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptor oligomers. Using extensive multiscale computer modelling, we find a marked propensity of DHA for interaction with both A2A and D2 receptors, which leads to an increased rate of receptor oligomerisation. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) experiments performed on living cells suggest that this DHA effect on the oligomerisation of A2A and D2 receptors is purely kinetic. This work reveals for the first time that membrane ω-3 PUFAs play a key role in GPCR oligomerisation kinetics, which may have important implications for neuropsychiatric conditions like schizophrenia or Parkinson’s disease.

  3. Unbinding Pathways of an Agonist and an Antagonist from the 5-HT3 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, A. J.; Chau, P.-L.; Chan, S. L.; Lummis, S. C. R.

    2006-01-01

    The binding sites of 5-HT3 and other Cys-loop receptors have been extensively studied, but there are no data on the entry and exit routes of ligands for these sites. Here we have used molecular dynamics simulations to predict the pathway for agonists and antagonists exiting from the 5-HT3 receptor binding site. The data suggest that the unbinding pathway follows a tunnel at the interface of two subunits, which is ∼8 Å long and terminates ∼20 Å above the membrane. The exit routes for an agonist (5-HT) and an antagonist (granisetron) were similar, with trajectories toward the membrane and outward from the ligand binding site. 5-HT appears to form many hydrogen bonds with residues in the unbinding pathway, and experiments show that mutating these residues significantly affects function. The location of the pathway is also supported by docking studies of granisetron, which show a potential binding site for granisetron on the unbinding route. We propose that leaving the binding pocket along this tunnel places the ligands close to the membrane and prevents their immediate reentry into the binding pocket. We anticipate similar exit pathways for other members of the Cys-loop receptor family. PMID:16387779

  4. Cardiopulmonary dysfunction during porcine endotoxin shock is effectively counteracted by the endothelin receptor antagonist bosentan.

    PubMed

    Wanecek, M; Oldner, A; Rudehill, A; Sollevi, A; Alving, K; Weitzberg, E

    1997-05-01

    In a porcine endotoxin shock model, the mixed nonpeptide endothelin receptor antagonist bosentan was administered 2 h after onset of endotoxemia (n = 8). Cardiopulmonary vascular changes, oxygen-related variables, and plasma levels of endothelin-1-like immunoreactivity were compared with a control group that received only endotoxin (n = 8). Bosentan abolished the progressive increase in mean pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance seen in controls. Possible mechanisms include blockade of vasoconstrictive endothelin receptors, and a lesser degree of edema and inflammation indicated by less alveolar protein and a lower inflammatory cell count observed in bronchoalveolar lavage. Further, bosentan restored cardiac index to the pre-endotoxin level by an increase in stroke volume index, improved systemic oxygen delivery, and acid base balance. Because mean arterial blood pressure was unaffected, bosentan reduced systemic vascular resistance. Endotoxemia resulted in an increase in tumor necrosis factor-alpha and endothelin-1-like immunoreactivity plasma levels, the latter being further increased by bosentan. In conclusion, in porcine endotoxemia, treatment with the endothelin receptor antagonist bosentan, administered during fulminate shock, abolished pulmonary hypertension and restored cardiac index. These findings suggest that bosentan could be an effective treatment for reversing a deteriorated cardiopulmonary state during septic shock.

  5. Identification of androgen receptor antagonists: In vitro investigation and classification methodology for flavonoid.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yang; Doering, Jon A; Ma, Zhiyuan; Tang, Song; Liu, Hongling; Zhang, Xiaowei; Wang, Xiaoxiang; Yu, Hongxia

    2016-09-01

    A tremendous gap exists between the number of potential endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) possibly in the environment and the limitation of traditional regulatory testing. In this study, the anti-androgenic potencies of 21 flavonoids were analyzed in vitro, and another 32 flavonoids from the literature were selected as additional chemicals. Molecular dynamic simulations were employed to obtain four different separation approaches based on the different behaviors of ligands and receptors during the process of interaction. Specifically, ligand-receptor complex which highlighted the discriminating features of ligand escape or retention via "mousetrap" mechanism, hydrogen bonds formed during simulation times, ligand stability and the stability of the helix-12 of the receptor were investigated. Together, a methodology was generated that 87.5% of flavonoids could be discriminated as active versus inactive antagonists, and over 90% inactive antagonists could be filtered out before QSAR study. This methodology could be used as a "proof of concept" to identify inactive anti-androgenic flavonoids, as well could be beneficial for rapid risk assessment and regulation of multiple new chemicals for androgenicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Receptor residence time trumps drug-likeness and oral bioavailability in determining efficacy of complement C5a antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Seow, Vernon; Lim, Junxian; Cotterell, Adam J.; Yau, Mei-Kwan; Xu, Weijun; Lohman, Rink-Jan; Kok, W. Mei; Stoermer, Martin J.; Sweet, Matthew J.; Reid, Robert C.; Suen, Jacky Y.; Fairlie, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Drug discovery and translation are normally based on optimizing efficacy by increasing receptor affinity, functional potency, drug-likeness (rule-of-five compliance) and oral bioavailability. Here we demonstrate that residence time of a compound on its receptor has an overriding influence on efficacy, exemplified for antagonists of inflammatory protein complement C5a that activates immune cells and promotes disease. Three equipotent antagonists (3D53, W54011, JJ47) of inflammatory responses to C5a (3nM) were compared for drug-likeness, receptor affinity and antagonist potency in human macrophages, and anti-inflammatory efficacy in rats. Only the least drug-like antagonist (3D53) maintained potency in cells against higher C5a concentrations and had a much longer duration of action (t1/2 ~ 20 h) than W54011 or JJ47 (t1/2 ~ 1–3 h) in inhibiting macrophage responses. The unusually long residence time of 3D53 on its receptor was mechanistically probed by molecular dynamics simulations, which revealed long-lasting interactions that trap the antagonist within the receptor. Despite negligible oral bioavailability, 3D53 was much more orally efficacious than W54011 or JJ47 in preventing repeated agonist insults to induce rat paw oedema over 24 h. Thus, residence time on a receptor can trump drug-likeness in determining efficacy, even oral efficacy, of pharmacological agents. PMID:27094554

  7. Receptor residence time trumps drug-likeness and oral bioavailability in determining efficacy of complement C5a antagonists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seow, Vernon; Lim, Junxian; Cotterell, Adam J.; Yau, Mei-Kwan; Xu, Weijun; Lohman, Rink-Jan; Kok, W. Mei; Stoermer, Martin J.; Sweet, Matthew J.; Reid, Robert C.; Suen, Jacky Y.; Fairlie, David P.

    2016-04-01

    Drug discovery and translation are normally based on optimizing efficacy by increasing receptor affinity, functional potency, drug-likeness (rule-of-five compliance) and oral bioavailability. Here we demonstrate that residence time of a compound on its receptor has an overriding influence on efficacy, exemplified for antagonists of inflammatory protein complement C5a that activates immune cells and promotes disease. Three equipotent antagonists (3D53, W54011, JJ47) of inflammatory responses to C5a (3nM) were compared for drug-likeness, receptor affinity and antagonist potency in human macrophages, and anti-inflammatory efficacy in rats. Only the least drug-like antagonist (3D53) maintained potency in cells against higher C5a concentrations and had a much longer duration of action (t1/2 ~ 20 h) than W54011 or JJ47 (t1/2 ~ 1-3 h) in inhibiting macrophage responses. The unusually long residence time of 3D53 on its receptor was mechanistically probed by molecular dynamics simulations, which revealed long-lasting interactions that trap the antagonist within the receptor. Despite negligible oral bioavailability, 3D53 was much more orally efficacious than W54011 or JJ47 in preventing repeated agonist insults to induce rat paw oedema over 24 h. Thus, residence time on a receptor can trump drug-likeness in determining efficacy, even oral efficacy, of pharmacological agents.

  8. Effects of endothelin receptor antagonists on renal hemodynamics in angiotensin II-infused rats on high NaCl intake.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Aso; Dibona, Gerald F; Guron, Gregor

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to investigate effects of selective endothelin (ET) receptor antagonists on renal hemodynamics and dynamic renal blood flow autoregulation (RBFA) in angiotensin II (Ang II)-infused rats on a high NaCl intake. Sprague-Dawley rats received Ang II (250 ng/kg/min, s.c.) and an 8% NaCl diet for 14 days after which renal clearance experiments were performed. After baseline measurements animals were administered either: (a) saline vehicle; (b) ETA receptor antagonist BQ-123 (30 nmol/kg/min); (c) ETB receptor antagonist BQ-788 (30 nmol/kg/min); or (d) BQ-123 + BQ-788, for six consecutive 20-minute clearance periods. BQ-123 reduced arterial pressure (AP) and selectively increased outer medullary perfusion versus vehicle (p<0.05). These effects were attenuated or abolished by combined BQ-123 and BQ-788. BQ-788 reduced renal blood flow and increased renovascular resistance (p<0.05). Ang II-infused rats on high NaCl intake showed abnormalities in dynamic RBFA characterized by an impaired myogenic response that were not significantly affected by ET receptor antagonists. In hypertensive Ang II-infused rats on a high-NaCl intake selective ETA antagonism with BQ-123 reduced AP and specifically increased OM perfusion and these effects were dependent on intact ETB receptor stimulation. Furthermore, ET receptor antagonists did not attenuate abnormalities in dynamic RBFA. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Comparative, general pharmacology of SDZ NKT 343, a novel, selective NK1 receptor antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Walpole, C S J; Brown, M C S; James, I F; Campbell, E A; McIntyre, P; Docherty, R; Ko, S; Hedley, L; Ewan, S; Buchheit, K-H; Urban, L A

    1998-01-01

    The in vitro and in vivo pharmacology of SDZ NKT 343 (2-nitrophenyl-carbamoyl-(S)-prolyl-(S)-3-(2-naphthyl)alanyl-N-benzyl-N-methylamide), a novel tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist was investigated.SDZ NKT 343 inhibited [3H]-substance P binding to the human NK1 receptor in transfected Cos-7 cell membranes (IC50=0.62±0.11 nM). In comparison, in the same assay Ki values for FK888, CP 99,994, SR 140,333 and RPR 100,893 were 2.13±0.04 nM, 0.96±0.20 nM, 0.15±0.06 nM and 1.77±0.41 nM, respectively. SDZ NKT 343 showed a markedly lower affinity at rat NK1 receptors in whole forebrain membranes (IC50=451±139 nM).SDZ NKT 343 caused an increase in EC50 as well as reduction in the number of binding sites (Bmax) determined for [3H]-substance P, suggesting a non-competitive interaction at the human NK1 receptor. SDZ NKT 343 also caused a reduction in the maximum elevation of [Ca2+]i evoked by substance P (SP) in human U373MG cells and depressed the maximum [Sar9]SP sulphone-induced contraction of the guinea-pig isolated ileum. The antagonism of SP effects on U373MG cells by SDZ NKT 343 was reversible.SDZ NKT 343 showed weak affinity to human NK2 and NK3 receptors in transfected Cos-7 cells (Ki of 0.52±0.04 μM and 3.4±1.2 μM, respectively). SDZ NKT 343 was inactive in a broad array of binding assays including the bradykinin B2 receptor the histamine H1 receptor, opiate receptors and adrenoceptors. SDZ NKT 343 only weakly inhibited the voltage-activated Ca2+ and Na+currents in guinea-pig dorsal root ganglion neurones. The enantiomer of SDZ NKT 343, (R,R)-SDZ NKT 343 was about 1000 times less active at human NK1 receptors expressed in Cos-7 cell membranes.Contractions of the guinea-pig ileum by [Sar9]SP sulphone were inhibited by SDZ NKT 343 in a concentration-dependent manner, with an IC50=1.60±0.94 nM, while the enantiomer (R,R)-SDZ NKT 343 was 100 times less active (IC50=162±26 nM). In comparison, in the same assay IC50 values for other NK1

  10. 2-Aminoethyl Methylphosphonate, a Potent and Rapidly Acting Antagonist of GABAA-ρ1 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Xie, An; Yan, Jun; Yue, Lan; Feng, Feng; Mir, Fozia; Abdel-Halim, Heba; Chebib, Mary; Le Breton, Guy C.; Standaert, Robert F.; Qian, Haohua

    2011-01-01

    2-Aminoethyl methylphosphonate (2-AEMP), an analog of GABA, has been found to exhibit antagonist activity at GABAA-ρ1 (also known as ρ1 GABAC) receptors. The present study was undertaken to elucidate 2-AEMP's action and to test the activities of 2-AEMP analogs. Whole-cell patch-clamp techniques were used to record membrane currents in neuroblastoma cells stably transfected with human GABAA-ρ1 receptors. The action of 2-AEMP was compared with that of 1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl methylphosphinic acid (TPMPA), a commonly used GABAA-ρ1 antagonist. With 10 μM GABA, 2-AEMP's IC50 (18 μM) differed by less than 2.5-fold from that of TPMPA (7 μM), and results obtained were consistent with a primarily competitive mode of inhibition by 2-AEMP. Terminating the presentation of 2-AEMP or TPMPA in the presence of GABA produced a release from inhibition. However, the rate of inhibition release upon the termination of 2-AEMP considerably exceeded that determined with termination of TPMPA. Moreover, when presented at concentrations near their respective IC50 values, the preincubation period associated with 2-AEMP's onset of inhibition was much shorter than that for TPMPA. Analogs of 2-AEMP possessing a benzyl or n-butyl rather than a methyl substituent at the phosphorus atom, as well as analogs bearing a C-methyl substituent on the aminoethyl side chain, exhibited reduced potency relative to 2-AEMP. Of these analogs, only (R)-2-aminopropyl methylphosphonate significantly diminished the response to 10 μM GABA. Structure-activity relationships are discussed in the context of molecular modeling of ligand binding to the antagonist binding site of the GABAA-ρ1 receptor. PMID:21810922

  11. NMDA receptor antagonists attenuate the proconvulsant effect of juvenile social isolation in male mice.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Shayan; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Amini-khoei, Hossein; Momeny, Majid; Shirzadian, Armin; Rahimi-Balaei, Maryam; Zarrinrad, Ghazaleh; Ghazi-Khansari, Mahmoud; Azizi, Romina; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Mehr, Shahram Ejtemaei

    2016-03-01

    Experiencing psychosocial stress in early life, such as social isolation stress (SIS), is known to have negative enduring effects on the development of the brain and behavior. In addition to anxiety and depressive-like behaviors, we previously showed that juvenile SIS increases susceptibility to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in mice through enhancing the nitrergic system activity in the hippocampus. In this study, we investigated the possible involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in proconvulsant effects of juvenile SIS. Applying 4 weeks of SIS to juvenile male mice at postnatal day 21-23, we observed an increased susceptibility to PTZ as well as anxiety and depressive-like behaviors in adult mice. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of NMDA receptor antagonists, MK-801 (0.05 mg/kg) and ketamine (0.5mg/kg), reversed the proconvulsant effects of SIS in Isolated (and not social) housed animals. Co-administration of non-effective doses of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors, 7NI (25mg/kg) and L-NAME (10mg/kg), with NMDA receptor antagonists, MK-801 (0.01 mg/kg) and ketamine (0.1mg/kg) attenuated the proconvulsant effects of juvenile SIS only in isolated housed mice. Also, using real time RT-PCR, we showed that hippocampal upregulation of NR2B subunit of NMDA receptor may play a critical role in proconvulsant effects of juvenile SIS by dysregulation of NMDA/NO pathway. In conclusion, results of present study revealed that experiencing SIS during adolescence predisposes the co-occurrence of seizure disorders with psychiatric comorbidities and also, alteration of NMDA receptor structure and function in hippocampus plays a role in proconvulsant effects of juvenile SIS through enhancing the NMDA/NO pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Oral therapies for pulmonary arterial hypertension: endothelin receptor antagonists and phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Channick, Richard; Preston, Iona; Klinger, James R

    2013-12-01

    The development of orally active pulmonary vasodilators has been a major breakthrough in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Orally active medications greatly enhanced patient access to PAH treatment and increased an interest in the diagnosis and treatment of this disease that still continues. Four different orally active drugs are currently available for the treatment of PAH and several more are undergoing evaluation. This article discusses the mechanisms by which endothelin receptor antagonists and phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors mitigate pulmonary hypertensive responses, and reviews the most recent data concerning their efficacy and limitations in the treatment of PAH. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of the tumor inhibiting effects of three histamine H2-receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1983-01-01

    Three histamine H2-receptor antagonists, Cimetidine, Metiamide and Ranitidine, were tested for their inhibitory effect on two experimental bowel cancer models. In the first model mitotic rates were measured in dimethylhydrazine-induced tumors of rat colon and in the second model volumetric changes in human large bowel cancer xenografts were assessed. In tumors of rat colon all three drugs were able to suppress mitotic activity, but the effects of Metiamide and Ranitidine were more prolonged than that of Cimetidine in each of two lines of human bowel cancer that were used. Metiamide and Ranitidine were also more effective growth inhibitors than was Cimetidine.

  14. 5-HT2A receptor antagonists improve motor impairments in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Marcus C; Nayyar, Tultul; Deutch, Ariel Y; Ansah, Twum A

    2010-01-01

    Clinical observations have suggested that ritanserin, a 5-HT(2A/C) receptor antagonist may reduce motor deficits in persons with Parkinson's Disease (PD). To better understand the potential antiparkinsonian actions of ritanserin, we compared the effects of ritanserin with the selective 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist M100907 and the selective 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist SB 206553 on motor impairments in mice treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). MPTP-treated mice exhibited decreased performance on the beam-walking apparatus. These motor deficits were reversed by acute treatment with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (levodopa). Both the mixed 5-HT(2A/C) antagonist ritanserin and the selective 5-HT(2A) antagonist M100907 improved motor performance on the beam-walking apparatus. In contrast, SB 206553 was ineffective in improving the motor deficits in MPTP-treated mice. These data suggest that 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonists may represent a novel approach to ameliorate motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. 5-HT2A receptor antagonists improve motor impairments in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Marcus C.; Nayyar, Tultul; Deutch, Ariel Y.; Ansah, Twum A.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical observations have suggested that ritanserin, a 5-HT2A/C receptor antagonist may reduce motor deficits in persons with Parkinson's Disease (PD). To better understand the potential antiparkinsonian actions of ritanserin, we compared the effects of ritanserin with the selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100907 and the selective 5-HT2C receptor antagonist SB 206553 on motor impairments in mice treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). MPTP-treated mice exhibited decreased performance on the beam-walking apparatus. These motor deficits were reversed by acute treatment with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (levodopa). Both the mixed 5-HT2A/C antagonist ritanserin and the selective 5-HT2A antagonist M100907 improved motor performance on the beam-walking apparatus. In contrast, SB 206553 was ineffective in improving the motor deficits in MPTP-treated mice. These data suggest that 5-HT2A receptor antagonists may represent a novel approach to ameliorate motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. PMID:20361986

  16. Singular Location and Signaling Profile of Adenosine A2A-Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Heteromers in the Dorsal Striatum.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Estefanía; Chiarlone, Anna; Medrano, Mireia; Puigdellívol, Mar; Bibic, Lucka; Howell, Lesley A; Resel, Eva; Puente, Nagore; Casarejos, María J; Perucho, Juan; Botta, Joaquín; Suelves, Nuria; Ciruela, Francisco; Ginés, Silvia; Galve-Roperh, Ismael; Casadó, Vicent; Grandes, Pedro; Lutz, Beat; Monory, Krisztina; Canela, Enric I; Lluís, Carmen; McCormick, Peter J; Guzmán, Manuel

    2018-04-01

    The dorsal striatum is a key node for many neurobiological processes such as motor activity, cognitive functions, and affective processes. The proper functioning of striatal neurons relies critically on metabotropic receptors. Specifically, the main adenosine and endocannabinoid receptors present in the striatum, ie, adenosine A 2A receptor (A 2A R) and cannabinoid CB 1 receptor (CB 1 R), are of pivotal importance in the control of neuronal excitability. Facilitatory and inhibitory functional interactions between striatal A 2A R and CB 1 R have been reported, and evidence supports that this cross-talk may rely, at least in part, on the formation of A 2A R-CB 1 R heteromeric complexes. However, the specific location and properties of these heteromers have remained largely unknown. Here, by using techniques that allowed a precise visualization of the heteromers in situ in combination with sophisticated genetically modified animal models, together with biochemical and pharmacological approaches, we provide a high-resolution expression map and a detailed functional characterization of A 2A R-CB 1 R heteromers in the dorsal striatum. Specifically, our data unveil that the A 2A R-CB 1 R heteromer (i) is essentially absent from corticostriatal projections and striatonigral neurons, and, instead, is largely present in striatopallidal neurons, (ii) displays a striking G protein-coupled signaling profile, where co-stimulation of both receptors leads to strongly reduced downstream signaling, and (iii) undergoes an unprecedented dysfunction in Huntington's disease, an archetypal disease that affects striatal neurons. Altogether, our findings may open a new conceptual framework to understand the role of coordinated adenosine-endocannabinoid signaling in the indirect striatal pathway, which may be relevant in motor function and neurodegenerative diseases.

  17. Common influences of non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonists on the consolidation and reconsolidation of cocaine-cue memory.

    PubMed

    Alaghband, Yasaman; Marshall, John F

    2013-04-01

    Environmental stimuli or contexts previously associated with rewarding drugs contribute importantly to relapse among addicts, and research has focused on neurobiological processes maintaining those memories. Much research shows contributions of cell surface receptors and intracellular signaling pathways in maintaining associations between rewarding drugs (e.g., cocaine) and concurrent cues/contexts; these memories can be degraded at the time of their retrieval through reconsolidation interference. Much less studied is the consolidation of drug-cue memories during their acquisition. The present experiments use the cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm in rats to directly compare, in a consistent setting, the effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor antagonists MK-801 and memantine on the consolidation and reconsolidation of cocaine-cue memories. For the consolidation studies, animals were systemically administered MK-801 or memantine immediately following training sessions. To investigate the effects of these NMDA receptor antagonists on the retention of previously established cocaine-cue memories, animals were systemically administered MK-801 or memantine immediately after memory retrieval. Animals given either NMDA receptor antagonist immediately following training sessions did not establish a preference for the cocaine-paired compartment. Post-retrieval administration of either NMDA receptor antagonist attenuated the animals' preference for the cocaine-paired compartment. Furthermore, animals given NMDA receptor antagonists post-retrieval showed a blunted response to cocaine-primed reinstatement. Using two distinct NMDA receptor antagonists in a common setting, these findings demonstrate that NMDA receptor-dependent processes contribute both to the consolidation and reconsolidation of cocaine-cue memories, and they point to the potential utility of treatments that interfere with drug-cue memory reconsolidation.

  18. Characterization of a novel non-peptide vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist (OPC-21268) in the rat.

    PubMed

    Burrell, L M; Phillips, P A; Stephenson, J; Risvanis, J; Hutchins, A M; Johnston, C I

    1993-08-01

    A non-peptide, orally effective, vasopressin (AVP) V1 receptor antagonist 1-(1-[4-(3-acetylaminopropoxy) benzoyl]-4-piperidyl)-3,4-dihydro-2(1H)-quinolinone (OPC-21268) has recently been described. This paper reports the in-vitro and in-vivo characterization of OPC-21268 binding to vasopressin receptors in rat liver and kidney. OPC-21268 caused a concentration-dependent displacement of the selective V1 receptor antagonist radioligand, 125I-labelled [d(CH2)5,sarcosine7]AVP to V1 receptors in both rat liver and kidney medulla membranes. The concentration of OPC-21268 that displaced 50% of specific AVP binding (IC50) was 40 +/- 3 nmol/l for liver V1 and 15 +/- 2 nmol/l for kidney V1 receptors (mean +/- S.E.M.; n = 3). OPC-21268 had little effect on the selective V2 antagonist radioligand [3H]desGly-NH2(9)]d(CH2)5,D-Ile2,Ile4] AVP binding to V2 receptors in renal medulla membranes (IC50 > 0.1 mmol/l). After oral administration to rats, OPC-21268 was an effective V1 antagonist in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Binding kinetic studies showed that OPC-21268 acted as a competitive antagonist at the liver V1 receptor in vitro and in vivo, in addition to its in-vitro competitive effects at the renal V1 receptor. OPC-21268 shows promise as an orally active V1 antagonist.

  19. Pharmacology of modality-specific transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 antagonists that do not alter body temperature.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Regina M; McDonald, Heath A; Puttfarcken, Pamela S; Joshi, Shailen K; Lewis, LaGeisha; Pai, Madhavi; Franklin, Pamela H; Segreti, Jason A; Neelands, Torben R; Han, Ping; Chen, Jun; Mantyh, Patrick W; Ghilardi, Joseph R; Turner, Teresa M; Voight, Eric A; Daanen, Jerome F; Schmidt, Robert G; Gomtsyan, Arthur; Kort, Michael E; Faltynek, Connie R; Kym, Philip R

    2012-08-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channel is involved in the development and maintenance of pain and participates in the regulation of temperature. The channel is activated by diverse agents, including capsaicin, noxious heat (≥ 43°C), acidic pH (< 6), and endogenous lipids including N-arachidonoyl dopamine (NADA). Antagonists that block all modes of TRPV1 activation elicit hyperthermia. To identify efficacious TRPV1 antagonists that do not affect temperature antagonists representing multiple TRPV1 pharmacophores were evaluated at recombinant rat and human TRPV1 channels with Ca(2+) flux assays, and two classes of antagonists were identified based on their differential ability to inhibit acid activation. Although both classes of antagonists completely blocked capsaicin- and NADA-induced activation of TRPV1, select compounds only partially inhibited activation of the channel by protons. Electrophysiology and calcitonin gene-related peptide release studies confirmed the differential pharmacology of these antagonists at native TRPV1 channels in the rat. Comparison of the in vitro pharmacological properties of these TRPV1 antagonists with their in vivo effects on core body temperature confirms and expands earlier observations that acid-sparing TRPV1 antagonists do not significantly increase core body temperature. Although both classes of compounds elicit equivalent analgesia in a rat model of knee joint pain, the acid-sparing antagonist tested is not effective in a mouse model of bone cancer pain.

  20. An assessment of the effects of serotonin 6 (5-HT6) receptor antagonists in rodent models of learning.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Mark D; Hodges, Donald B; Hogan, John B; Orie, Anitra F; Corsa, Jason A; Barten, Donna M; Polson, Craig; Robertson, Barbara J; Guss, Valerie L; Gillman, Kevin W; Starrett, John E; Gribkoff, Valentin K

    2003-11-01

    Antagonists of serotonin 6 (5-HT6) receptors have been reported to enhance cognition in animal models of learning, although this finding has not been universal. We have assessed the therapeutic potential of the specific 5-HT6 receptor antagonists 4-amino-N-(2,6-bis-methylamino-pyrimidin-4-yl)-benzenesulfonamide (Ro 04-6790) and 5-chloro-N-(4-methoxy-3-piperazin-1-yl-phenyl)-3-methyl-2-benzothiophenesulfonamide (SB-271046) in rodent models of cognitive function. Although mice express the 5-HT6 receptor and the function of this receptor has been investigated in mice, all reports of activity with 5-HT6 receptor antagonists have used rat models. In the present study, receptor binding revealed that the pharmacological properties of the mouse receptor are different from the rat and human receptor: Ro 04-6790 does not bind to the mouse 5-HT6 receptor, so all in vivo testing included in the present report was conducted in rats. We replicated previous reports that 5-HT6 receptor antagonists produce a stretching syndrome previously shown to be mediated through cholinergic mechanisms, but Ro 04-6790 and SB-271046 failed to attenuate scopolamine-induced deficits in a test of contextual fear conditioning. We also failed to replicate the significant effects reported previously in both an autoshaping task and in a version of the Morris water maze. The results of our experiments are not consistent with previous reports that suggested that 5-HT6 antagonists might have therapeutic potential for cognitive disorders.

  1. Analysis of hydrophobic interactions of antagonists with the beta2-adrenergic receptor.

    PubMed

    Novoseletsky, V N; Pyrkov, T V; Efremov, R G

    2010-01-01

    The adrenergic receptors mediate a wide variety of physiological responses, including vasodilatation and vasoconstriction, heart rate modulation, and others. Beta-adrenergic antagonists ('beta-blockers') thus constitute a widely used class of drugs in cardiovascular medicine as well as in management of anxiety, migraine, and glaucoma. The importance of the hydrophobic effect has been evidenced for a wide range of beta-blocker properties. To better understand the role of the hydrophobic effect in recognition of beta-blockers by their receptor, we carried out a molecular docking study combined with an original approach to estimate receptor-ligand hydrophobic interactions. The proposed method is based on automatic detection of molecular fragments in ligands and the analysis of their interactions with receptors separately. A series of beta-blockers, based on phenylethanolamines and phenoxypropanolamines, were docked to the beta2-adrenoceptor binding site in the crystal structure. Hydrophobic complementarity between the ligand and the receptor was calculated using the PLATINUM web-server (http://model.nmr.ru/platinum). Based on the analysis of the hydrophobic match for molecular fragments of beta-blockers, we have developed a new scoring function which efficiently predicts dissociation constant (pKd) with strong correlations (r(2) approximately 0.8) with experimental data.

  2. Oxime Ethers of (E)-11-Isonitrosostrychnine as Highly Potent Glycine Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Mohsen, Amal M Y; Mandour, Yasmine M; Sarukhanyan, Edita; Breitinger, Ulrike; Villmann, Carmen; Banoub, Maha M; Breitinger, Hans-Georg; Dandekar, Thomas; Holzgrabe, Ulrike; Sotriffer, Christoph; Jensen, Anders A; Zlotos, Darius P

    2016-12-23

    A series of (E)-11-isonitrosostrychnine oxime ethers, 2-aminostrychnine, (strychnine-2-yl)propionamide, 18-oxostrychnine, and N-propylstrychnine bromide were synthesized and evaluated pharmacologically at human α1 and α1β glycine receptors in a functional fluorescence-based and a whole-cell patch-clamp assay and in [ 3 H]strychnine binding studies. 2-Aminostrychnine and the methyl, allyl, and propargyl oxime ethers were the most potent α1 and α1β antagonists in the series, displaying IC 50 values similar to those of strychnine at the two receptors. Docking experiments to the strychnine binding site of the crystal structure of the α3 glycine receptor indicated the same orientation of the strychnine core for all analogues. For the most potent oxime ethers, the ether substituent was accommodated in a lipophilic receptor binding pocket. The findings identify the oxime hydroxy group as a suitable attachment point for linking two strychnine pharmacophores by a polymethylene spacer and are, therefore, important for the design of bivalent ligands targeting glycine receptors.

  3. In hamsters the D1 receptor antagonist SCH23390 depresses ventilation during hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Schlenker, Evelyn H

    2008-01-02

    During exposure of animals to hypoxia, brain and blood dopamine levels increase stimulating dopaminergic receptors which influence the integrated ventilatory response to low oxygen. The purpose of the present study is to test the hypothesis that in conscious hamsters, systemic antagonism of D(1) receptors would depress their breathing in air and in response to hypoxic and hypercapnic challenges. Nine male hamsters were treated with saline or 0.25 mg/kg SCH-23390 (SCH), a D(1) receptor antagonist that crosses the blood-brain barrier. Ventilation was determined using the barometric method, and oxygen consumption and CO(2) production were evaluated utilizing the flow-through method. During exposure to air, SCH decreased frequency of breathing. During exposure to hypoxia (10% oxygen in nitrogen), relative to saline, SCH-treated hamsters decreased minute ventilation by decreasing tidal volume and oxygen consumption but not CO(2) production. During exposure to hypercapnia (5% CO(2) in 95% O(2)), frequency of breathing was decreased with SCH, but there was no significant effect on minute ventilation. Relative to saline treatment body temperature was lower in SCH-treated hamsters by 0.6 degrees C. These results demonstrate that in hamsters D(1) receptors can modulate control of ventilation in air and during hypoxia and hypercapnic exposures. Whether D(1) receptors located centrally or on carotid bodies modulate these effects is not clear from this study.

  4. Characterization of SB-271046: A potent, selective and orally active 5-HT6 receptor antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Routledge, Carol; Bromidge, Steven M; Moss, Stephen F; Price, Gary W; Hirst, Warren; Newman, Helen; Riley, Graham; Gager, Tracey; Stean, Tania; Upton, Neil; Clarke, Stephen E; Brown, Anthony M; Middlemiss, Derek N

    2000-01-01

    SB-271046, potently displaced [3H]-LSD and [125I]-SB-258585 from human 5-HT6 receptors recombinantly expressed in HeLa cells in vitro (pKi 8.92 and 9.09 respectively). SB-271046 also displaced [125I]-SB-258585 from human caudate putamen and rat and pig striatum membranes (pKi 8.81, 9.02 and 8.55 respectively). SB-271046 was over 200 fold selective for the 5-HT6 receptor vs 55 other receptors, binding sites and ion channels. In functional studies on human 5-HT6 receptors SB-271046 competitively antagonized 5-HT-induced stimulation of adenylyl cyclase activity with a pA2 of 8.71. SB-271046 produced an increase in seizure threshold over a wide-dose range in the rat maximal electroshock seizure threshold (MEST) test, with a minimum effective dose of ⩽0.1 mg kg−1 p.o. and maximum effect at 4 h post-dose. The level of anticonvulsant activity achieved correlated well with the blood concentrations of SB-271046 (EC50 of 0.16 μM) and brain concentrations of 0.01–0.04 μM at Cmax. These data, together with the observed anticonvulsant activity of other selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonists, SB-258510 (10 mg kg−1, 2–6 h pre-test) and Ro 04-6790 (1–30 mg kg−1, 1 h pre-test), in the rat MEST test, suggest that the anticonvulsant properties of SB-271046 are likely to be mediated by 5-HT6 receptors. Overall, these studies demonstrate that SB-271046 is a potent and selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist and is orally active in the rat MEST test. SB-271046 represents a valuable tool for evaluating the in vivo central function of 5-HT6 receptors. PMID:10928964

  5. Synthesis and pharmacological characterization of novel xanthine carboxylate amides as A2A adenosine receptor ligands exhibiting bronchospasmolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Rakesh; Bansal, Ranju; Rohilla, Suman; Kachler, Sonja; Klotz, Karl-Norbert

    2016-04-01

    The carboxylate amides of 8-phenyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine described herein represent a new series of selective ligands of the adenosine A2A receptors exhibiting bronchospasmolytic activity. The effects of location of 8-phenyl substitutions on the adenosine receptor (AR) binding affinities of the newly synthesized xanthines have also been studied. The compounds displayed moderate to potent binding affinities toward various adenosine receptor subtypes when evaluated through radioligand binding studies. However, most of the compounds showed the maximum affinity for the A2A subtype, some with high selectivity versus all other subtypes. Xanthine carboxylate amide 13b with a diethylaminoethylamino moiety at the para-position of the 8-phenylxanthine scaffold was identified as the most potent A2A adenosine receptor ligand with Ki=0.06μM. Similarly potent and highly A2A-selective are the isovanillin derivatives 16a and 16d. In addition, the newly synthesized xanthine derivatives showed good in vivo bronchospasmolytic activity when tested in guinea pigs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Extrinsic Tryptophans as NMR Probes of Allosteric Coupling in Membrane Proteins: Application to the A2A Adenosine Receptor.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Matthew T; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Mannes, Philip; Patel, Nilkanth; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Katritch, Vsevolod; Stevens, Raymond C; Wüthrich, Kurt

    2018-06-20

    Tryptophan indole 15 N- 1 H signals are well separated in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of proteins. Assignment of the indole 15 N- 1 H signals therefore enables one to obtain site-specific information on complex proteins in supramacromolecular systems, even when extensive assignment of backbone 15 N- 1 H resonances is challenging. Here we exploit the unique indole 15 N- 1 H chemical shift by introducing extrinsic tryptophan reporter residues at judiciously chosen locations in a membrane protein for increased coverage of structure and function by NMR. We demonstrate this approach with three variants of the human A 2A adenosine receptor (A 2A AR), a class A G protein-coupled receptor, each containing a single extrinsic tryptophan near the receptor intracellular surface, in helix V, VI, or VII, respectively. We show that the native A 2A AR global protein fold and ligand binding activity are preserved in these A 2A AR variants. The indole 15 N- 1 H signals from the extrinsic tryptophan reporter residues show different responses to variable efficacy of drugs bound to the receptor orthosteric cavity, and the indole 15 N- 1 H chemical shift of the tryptophan introduced at the intracellular end of helix VI is sensitive to conformational changes resulting from interactions with a polypeptide from the carboxy terminus of the Gα S intracellular partner protein. Introducing extrinsic tryptophans into proteins in complex supramolecular systems thus opens new avenues for NMR investigations in solution.

  7. Cost-effectiveness of histamine receptor-2 antagonist versus proton pump inhibitor for stress ulcer prophylaxis in critically ill patients*.

    PubMed

    MacLaren, Robert; Campbell, Jon

    2014-04-01

    To examine the cost-effectiveness of using histamine receptor-2 antagonist or proton pump inhibitor for stress ulcer prophylaxis. Decision analysis model examining costs and effectiveness of using histamine receptor-2 antagonist or proton pump inhibitor for stress ulcer prophylaxis. Costs were expressed in 2012 U.S. dollars from the perspective of the institution and included drug regimens and the following outcomes: clinically significant stress-related mucosal bleed, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and Clostridium difficile infection. Effectiveness was the mortality risk associated with these outcomes and represented by survival. Costs, occurrence rates, and mortality probabilities were extracted from published data. A simulation model. A mixed adult ICU population. Histamine receptor-2 antagonist or proton pump inhibitor for 9 days of stress ulcer prophylaxis therapy. Output variables were expected costs, expected survival rates, incremental cost, and incremental survival rate. Univariate sensitivity analyses were conducted to determine the drivers of incremental cost and incremental survival. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was conducted using second-order Monte Carlo simulation. For the base case analysis, the expected cost of providing stress ulcer prophylaxis was $6,707 with histamine receptor-2 antagonist and $7,802 with proton pump inhibitor, resulting in a cost saving of $1,095 with histamine receptor-2 antagonist. The associated mortality probabilities were 3.819% and 3.825%, respectively, resulting in an absolute survival benefit of 0.006% with histamine receptor-2 antagonist. The primary drivers of incremental cost and survival were the assumptions surrounding ventilator-associated pneumonia and bleed. The probabilities that histamine receptor-2 antagonist was less costly and provided favorable survival were 89.4% and 55.7%, respectively. A secondary analysis assuming equal rates of C. difficile infection showed a cost saving of $908 with histamine

  8. Novel 5-HT6 receptor antagonists/D2 receptor partial agonists targeting behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia.

    PubMed

    Kołaczkowski, Marcin; Marcinkowska, Monika; Bucki, Adam; Śniecikowska, Joanna; Pawłowski, Maciej; Kazek, Grzegorz; Siwek, Agata; Jastrzębska-Więsek, Magdalena; Partyka, Anna; Wasik, Anna; Wesołowska, Anna; Mierzejewski, Paweł; Bienkowski, Przemyslaw

    2015-03-06

    We describe a novel class of designed multiple ligands (DMLs) combining serotonin 5-HT6 receptor (5-HT6R) antagonism with dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) partial agonism. Prototype hybrid molecules were designed using docking to receptor homology models. Diverse pharmacophore moieties yielded 3 series of hybrids with varying in vitro properties at 5-HT6R and D2R, and at M1 receptor and hERG channel antitargets. 4-(piperazin-1-yl)-1H-indole derivatives showed highest antagonist potency at 5-HT6R, with 7-butoxy-3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one and 2-propoxybenzamide derivatives having promising D2R partial agonism. 2-(3-(4-(1-(phenylsulfonyl)-1H-indol-4-yl)piperazin-1-yl)propoxy)benzamide (47) exhibited nanomolar affinity at both 5-HT6R and D2R and was evaluated in rat models. It displayed potent antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like activity in the Porsolt and Vogel tests, respectively, more pronounced than that of a reference selective 5-HT6R antagonist or D2R partial agonist. In addition, 47 also showed antidepressant-like activity (Porsolt's test) and anxiolytic-like activity (open field test) in aged (>18-month old) rats. In operant conditioning tests, 47 enhanced responding for sweet reward in the saccharin self-administration test, consistent with anti-anhedonic properties. Further, 47 facilitated extinction of non-reinforced responding for sweet reward, suggesting potential procognitive activity. Taken together, these studies suggest that DMLs combining 5-HT6R antagonism and D2R partial agonism may successfully target affective disorders in patients from different age groups without a risk of cognitive deficits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. The neuronal Ca(2+) -binding protein 2 (NECAB2) interacts with the adenosine A(2A) receptor and modulates the cell surface expression and function of the receptor.

    PubMed

    Canela, Laia; Luján, Rafael; Lluís, Carme; Burgueño, Javier; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I; Franco, Rafael; Ciruela, Francisco

    2007-09-01

    Heptaspanning membrane also known as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) do interact with a variety of intracellular proteins whose function is regulate receptor traffic and/or signaling. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, NECAB2, a neuronal calcium binding protein, was identified as a binding partner for the adenosine A(2A) receptor (A(2A)R) interacting with its C-terminal domain. Co-localization, co-immunoprecipitation and pull-down experiments showed a close and specific interaction between A(2A)R and NECAB2 in both transfected HEK-293 cells and also in rat striatum. Immunoelectron microscopy detection of NECAB2 and A(2A)R in the rat striatopallidal structures indicated that both proteins are co-distributed in the same glutamatergic nerve terminals. The interaction of NECAB2 with A(2A)R modulated the cell surface expression, the ligand-dependent internalization and the receptor-mediated activation of the MAPK pathway. Overall, these results show that A(2A)R interacts with NECAB2 in striatal neurones co-expressing the two proteins and that the interaction is relevant for A(2A)R function.

  10. A 3D QSAR CoMFA study of non-peptide angiotensin II receptor antagonists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belvisi, Laura; Bravi, Gianpaolo; Catalano, Giovanna; Mabilia, Massimo; Salimbeni, Aldo; Scolastico, Carlo

    1996-12-01

    A series of non-peptide angiotensin II receptor antagonists was investigated with the aim of developing a 3D QSAR model using comparative molecular field analysis descriptors and approaches. The main goals of the study were dictated by an interest in methodologies and an understanding of the binding requirements to the AT1 receptor. Consistency with the previously derived activity models was always checked to contemporarily test the validity of the various hypotheses. The specific conformations chosen for the study, the procedures invoked to superimpose all structures, the conditions employed to generate steric and electrostatic field values and the various PCA/PLS runs are discussed in detail. The effect of experimental design techniques to select objects (molecules) and variables (descriptors) with respect to the predictive power of the QSAR models derived was especially analysed.

  11. Estrogen receptor agonists/antagonists in breast cancer therapy: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Jameera Begam, A; Jubie, S; Nanjan, M J

    2017-04-01

    Estrogens display intriguing tissue selective action that is of great biomedical importance in the development of optimal therapeutics for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer. There are also strong evidences to show that both endogenous and exogenous estrogens are involved in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Tamoxifen has been the only drug of choice for more than 30years to treat patients with estrogen related (ER) positive breast tumors. There is a need therefore, for identifying newer, potential and novel candidates for breast cancer. Keeping this in view, the present review focuses on selective estrogen receptor modulators and estrogen antagonists such as sulfatase and aromatase inhibitors involved in breast cancer therapy. A succinct and critical overview of the structure of estrogen receptors, their signaling and involvement in breast carcinogenesis are herein described. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Oxytocin receptor antagonist atosiban impairs consolidation, but not reconsolidation of contextual fear memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Abdullahi, Payman Rasise; Eskandarian, Sharaf; Ghanbari, Ali; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2018-05-23

    There is increasing evidence that oxytocin is involved in learning and memory process. This study investigated the effects of blockade of oxytocin receptors using the selective oxytocin receptor antagonist atosiban (ATO) on contextual fear memory consolidation and reconsolidation in male rats. Post-training injections of different doses of ATO (1, 10, 100 or 1000 µg/kg) impaired the 48 h retention performance in a dose-dependent manner. The same doses of ATO following memory reactivation did not impair subsequent expression of contextual fear memories which formed under low or high shock intensities and tested 24 h or one week following memory reactivation. Also, no effect was found when ATO was administrated in the absence of memory reactivation. Our finding is the first report that indicates endogenous oxytocin released during training play an important role in the consolidation, but not reconsolidation of contextual fear memory in rats. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Adenosine A2A receptor deletion affects social behaviors and anxiety in mice: Involvement of anterior cingulate cortex and amygdala.

    PubMed

    López-Cruz, Laura; Carbó-Gas, Maria; Pardo, Marta; Bayarri, Pilar; Valverde, Olga; Ledent, Catherine; Salamone, John D; Correa, Mercè

    2017-03-15

    Blockade of adenosine A 2A receptors can potentiate motivation to work for natural reinforcers such as food. Conspecific interaction is a potent natural reinforcer in social animals that can be manifested as preference for social exploration versus other sources of novel stimulation. Deficiencies in this type of motivated behavior (social withdrawal) have been seen in several pathologies such as autism and depression. However, the role of A 2A receptors in motivation for social interaction has not been widely explored. Social interaction paradigms evaluate the natural preference of animals for exploring other conspecifics, and the ability to differentiate between familiar versus novel ones. Anxiety is one of the factors that can induce avoidance of social interaction. In the present study, adenosine A 2A knockout (A 2A KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were assessed for social and anxiety-related behaviors. c-Fos immunoreactivity was evaluated as a measure of neuronal activation in brain areas involved in different aspects of motivation and emotional processes. Although A 2A KO mice showed an anxious profile, they displayed higher levels of sociability and were less sensitive to social novelty. WT mice displayed a typical pattern of social recognition 24h later, but not A 2A KO mice, which explored equally both conspecifics. There were no differences between strains in aggressiveness, perseverance or social odor preferences. c-Fos immunoreactivity in A 2A KO mice was higher in anterior cingulate and amygdala compared to WT mice. Thus, A 2A receptors appear to be potential targets for the improvement of pathologies related to social function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Antinociceptive effects of MSVIII-19, a functional antagonist of the GluK1 kainate receptor

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Chang-Shen; Wyhe, Leanne Lash-Van; Sasaki, Makoto; Sakai, Ryuichi; Swanson, Geoffrey T.; Gereau, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    The ionotropic glutamate receptor subunit, GluK1 (GluR5), is expressed in many regions of nervous system related to sensory transmission. Recently, a selective ligand for the GluK1 receptor, MSVIII-19 (8,9-dideoxy-neodysiherbaine), was synthesized as a derivative of dysiherbaine, a toxin isolated from the marine sponge Lendenfeldia chodrodes. MSVIII-19 potently desensitizes GluK1 receptors without channel activation, rendering it useful as a functional antagonist. Given the high selectivity for GluK1 and the proposed role for this glutamate receptor in nociception, we sought to test the analgesic potential of MSVIII-19 in a series of models of inflammatory, neuropathic, and visceral pain in mice. MSVIII-19 delivered intrathecally (i.t.) dose-dependently reduced formalin-induced spontaneous behaviors and reduced thermal hypersensitivity 3 hours after formalin injection and 24 hours after complete freund’s adjuvant-induced inflammation, but had no effect on mechanical sensitivity in the same models. I.T. MSVIII-19 significantly reduced both thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical hypersensitivity in the chronic constriction injury model of neuropathic pain, but had no effect in the acetic acid model of visceral pain. Peripheral administration of MSVIII-19 had no analgesic efficacy in any of these models. Finally, i.t. MSVIII-19 did not alter responses in tail flick tests or performance on the accelerating RotaRod. These data suggest that spinal administration of MSVIII-19 reverses hypersensitivity in several models of pain in mice, supporting the clinical potential of GluK1 antagonists for the management of pain. PMID:21324591

  15. Cysteinyl Leukotriene Receptor-1 Antagonists as Modulators of Innate Immune Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Theron, A. J.; Steel, H. C.; Tintinger, G. R.; Gravett, C. M.; Anderson, R.; Feldman, C.

    2014-01-01

    Cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) are produced predominantly by cells of the innate immune system, especially basophils, eosinophils, mast cells, and monocytes/macrophages. Notwithstanding potent bronchoconstrictor activity, cysLTs are also proinflammatory consequent to their autocrine and paracrine interactions with G-protein-coupled receptors expressed not only on the aforementioned cell types, but also on Th2 lymphocytes, as well as structural cells, and to a lesser extent neutrophils and CD8+ cells. Recognition of the involvement of cysLTs in the immunopathogenesis of various types of acute and chronic inflammatory disorders, especially bronchial asthma, prompted the development of selective cysLT receptor-1 (cysLTR1) antagonists, specifically montelukast, pranlukast, and zafirlukast. More recently these agents have also been reported to possess secondary anti-inflammatory activities, distinct from cysLTR1 antagonism, which appear to be particularly effective in targeting neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. Underlying mechanisms include interference with cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases, 5′-lipoxygenase, and the proinflammatory transcription factor, nuclear factor kappa B. These and other secondary anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the commonly used cysLTR1 antagonists are the major focus of the current review, which also includes a comparison of the anti-inflammatory effects of montelukast, pranlukast, and zafirlukast on human neutrophils in vitro, as well as an overview of both the current clinical applications of these agents and potential future applications based on preclinical and early clinical studies. PMID:24971371

  16. The Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 Antagonist Capsazepine Improves the Impaired Lung Mechanics during Endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Layla D M; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre

    2016-11-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) caused by systemic inflammatory response remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Management of patients with sepsis is largely limited to supportive therapies, reflecting an incomplete understanding of the underlying pathophysiology. Furthermore, there have been limited advances in the treatments for ALI. In this study, lung function and a histological analysis were performed to evaluate the impact of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 receptor (TRPV1) antagonist (capsazepine; CPZ) on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury in mice. For this, adult mice pre-treated with CPZ or vehicle received intraperitoneal injections of LPS or saline and 24 hr after, the mice were anaesthetized, and lung mechanics was evaluated. The LPS-challenged mice exhibited substantial mechanical impairment, characterized by increases in respiratory system resistance, respiratory system elastance, tissue damping and tissue elastance. The pre-treatment with CPZ prevented the increase in respiratory system resistance and decreased the increase in tissue damping during endotoxemia. In addition, mice pre-treated with CPZ had an attenuated lung injury evidenced by reduction on collapsed area of the lung parenchyma induced by LPS. This suggests that the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine has a protective effect on lung mechanics in ALI during endotoxemia and that it may be a target for enhanced therapeutic efficacy in ALI. © 2016 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  17. Local treatment of tendinopathies and myofascial pain syndromes with the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist tropisetron.

    PubMed

    Müller, W; Stratz, T

    2004-01-01

    The use of local tropisetron injections improved the treatment of tendinopathies considerably, with the effect being comparable to the topical application of local anaesthetics combined with depot corticosteroids. On the other hand, local injection of prilocaine alone exerted a shorter and weaker effect on the condition. After it had been proven that systemic application of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist tropisetron exerts an analgesic effect on musculoskeletal pain in fibromyalgia, we investigated the efficacy of the substance in tendinopathies and myofascial pain syndromes. Local injections of tropisetron as a treatment for trigger points in myofascial pain syndrome also brought about rapid and prolonged relief in the majority of cases. The analgesic effect was far superior to the action of local anaesthetics. The present findings indicate that the analgesic action of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist tropisetron sets in rapidly and lasts for a long time. Various mechanisms are under discussion to explain the long duration of the effect. Tropisetron not only has an analgesic but probably also an antiphlogistic effect which can be attributed to the inhibited release of substance P and other neuropeptides from the nociceptors and the blocked release of phlogistic substances from macrophages, monocytes etc.

  18. NMDA receptor-antagonistic properties of hyperforin, a constituent of St. John's Wort.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vikas; Mdzinarishvili, Alexander; Kiewert, Cornelia; Abbruscato, Thomas; Bickel, Ulrich; van der Schyf, Cornelis J; Klein, Jochen

    2006-09-01

    Extracts of the medicinal plant St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) are widely used for the treatment of affective disorders. Hyperforin, a constituent of St. John's wort, is known to modulate the release and re-uptake of various neurotransmitters, an action that likely underlies its antidepressive activity. We now report that hyperforin also has N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-antagonistic effects. Hyperforin (10 microM) was found to inhibit the NMDA-induced calcium influx into cortical neurons. In rat hippocampal slices, hyperforin inhibited the NMDA-receptor-mediated release of choline from phospholipids. Hyperforin also antagonized the increase of water content in freshly isolated hippocampal slices, and it counteracted, at 3 and 10 microM, the increase of water content induced by NMDA. Hyperforin was inactive, however, in two in vivo models of brain edema formation, middle cerebral artery occlusion and water intoxication in mice. In conclusion, hyperforin has NMDA-receptor-antagonistic and potential neuroprotective effects in vitro. This effect may contribute to the therapeutic effectiveness of St. John's wort extracts in some situations, for example, for relapse prevention in alcoholism.

  19. An antagonist of the retinoid X receptor reduces the viability of Trichuris muris in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Rebecca J M; Hopwood, Thomas; Gallagher, Amanda L; Partridge, Frederick A; Burgis, Timothy; Sattelle, David B; Else, Kathryn J

    2014-09-27

    Trichuriasis is a parasitic disease caused by the human whipworm, Trichuris trichiura. It affects millions worldwide, particularly in the tropics. This nematode parasite burrows into the colonic epithelium resulting in inflammation and morbidity, especially in children. Current treatment relies mainly on general anthelmintics such as mebendazole but resistance to these drugs is increasingly problematic. Therefore, new treatments are urgently required. The prospect of using the retinoid X receptor (RXR) antagonist HX531 as a novel anthelmintic was investigated by carrying out multiple viability assays with the mouse whipworm Trichuris muris. HX531 reduced both the motility and viability of T. muris at its L3, L4 and adult stages. Further, bioinformatic analyses show that the T. muris genome possesses an RXR-like receptor, a possible target for HX531. The study suggested that Trichuris-specific RXR antagonists may be a source of much-needed novel anthelmintic candidates for the treatment of trichuriasis. The identification of an RXR-like sequence in the T. muris genome also paves the way for further research based on this new anthelmintic lead compound.

  20. Pegvisomant: a growth hormone receptor antagonist used in the treatment of acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Tritos, Nicholas A; Biller, Beverly M K

    2017-02-01

    To review published data on pegvisomant and its therapeutic role in acromegaly. Electronic searches of the published literature were conducted using the keywords: acromegaly, growth hormone (GH) receptor (antagonist), pegvisomant, therapy. Relevant articles (n = 141) were retrieved and considered for inclusion in this manuscript. Pegvisomant is a genetically engineered, recombinant growth hormone receptor antagonist, which is effective in normalizing serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels in the majority of patients with acromegaly and ameliorating symptoms and signs associated with GH excess. Pegvisomant does not have direct antiproliferative effects on the underlying somatotroph pituitary adenoma, which is the etiology of GH excess in the vast majority of patients with acromegaly. Therefore, patients receiving pegvisomant monotherapy require regular pituitary imaging in order to monitor for possible increase in tumor size. Adverse events in patients on pegvisomant therapy include skin rashes, lipohypertrophy at injection sites, and idiosyncratic liver toxicity (generally asymptomatic transaminitis that is reversible upon drug discontinuation), thus necessitating regular patient monitoring. Pegvisomant is an effective therapeutic agent in patients with acromegaly who are not in remission after undergoing pituitary surgery. It mitigates excess GH action, as demonstrated by IGF-1 normalization, but has no direct effects on pituitary tumors causing acromegaly. Regular surveillance for possible tumor growth and adverse effects (hepatotoxicity, skin manifestations) is warranted.

  1. Protective effect of histamine H2 receptor antagonist ranitidine against rotenone-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Park, Hae Jeong; Kim, Hak Jae; Park, Hyun-Kyung; Chung, Joo-Ho

    2009-11-01

    Histamine H(2) receptor antagonists have been reported to improve the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and to exert neuroprotective effects. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of the H(2) receptor antagonist ranitidine on rotenone-induced apoptosis in human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells, focusing on mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and caspases (CASPs)-mediated apoptotic events. Ranitidine blocked the rotenone-induced phosphorylation of c-Jun NH(2)-terminal protein kinase (JNK) and P38 MAPK (P38), and promoted the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK). Ranitidine also prevented the down-regulation of B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2) and the up-regulation of BCL2-associated X protein (BAX) by rotenone. Furthermore, ranitidine not only attenuated rotenone-induced cleavages of CASP9, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP) and CASP3, but also suppressed CASP3 enzyme activity. These results indicate that ranitidine protects against rotenone-induced apoptosis, inhibiting phosphorylation of JNK and P38, and activation of CASPs in human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells.

  2. Distribution of cells responsive to 5-HT₆ receptor antagonist-induced hypophagia.

    PubMed

    Garfield, Alastair S; Burke, Luke K; Shaw, Jill; Evans, Mark L; Heisler, Lora K

    2014-06-01

    The central 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) system is well established as an important regulator of appetite and continues to remain a focus of obesity research. While much emphasis has focussed on the 5-HT(2C) receptor (5-HT(2C)R) in 5-HT's anorectic effect, pharmacological manipulation of the 5-HT₆ receptor (5-HT₆R) also reduces appetite and body weight and may be amenable to obesity treatment. However, the neurological circuits that underlie 5-HT₆R-induced hypophagia remain to be identified. Using c-fos immunoreactivity (FOS-IR) as a marker of neuronal activation, here we mapped the neuroanatomical targets activated by an anorectic dose of the 5-HT₆R antagonist SB-399885 throughout the brain. Furthermore, we quantified SB-399855 activated cells within brain appetitive nuclei, the hypothalamus, dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Our results reveal that 5-HT₆R antagonist-induced hypophagia is associated with significantly increased neuronal activation in two nuclei with an established role in the central control of appetite, the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) and the NTS. In contrast, no changes in FOS-IR were observed between treatment groups within other hypothalamic nuclei or DRN. The data presented here provide a first insight into the neural circuitry underlying 5-HT₆R antagonist-induced appetite suppression and highlight the PVH and NTS in the coordination of 5-HT₆R hypophagia. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. SR 144528, the first potent and selective antagonist of the CB2 cannabinoid receptor.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi-Carmona, M; Barth, F; Millan, J; Derocq, J M; Casellas, P; Congy, C; Oustric, D; Sarran, M; Bouaboula, M; Calandra, B; Portier, M; Shire, D; Brelière, J C; Le Fur, G L

    1998-02-01

    Based on both binding and functional data, this study introduces SR 144528 as the first, highly potent, selective and orally active antagonist for the CB2 receptor. This compound which displays subnanomolar affinity (Ki = 0.6 nM) for both the rat spleen and cloned human CB2 receptors has a 700-fold lower affinity (Ki = 400 nM) for both the rat brain and cloned human CB1 receptors. Furthermore it shows no affinity for any of the more than 70 receptors, ion channels or enzymes investigated (IC50 > 10 microM). In vitro, SR 144528 antagonizes the inhibitory effects of the cannabinoid receptor agonist CP 55,940 on forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity in cell lines permanently expressing the h CB2 receptor (EC50 = 10 nM) but not in cells expressing the h CB1 (no effect at 10 microM). Furthermore, SR 144528 is able to selectively block the mitogen-activated protein kinase activity induced by CP 55,940 in cell lines expressing h CB2 (IC50 = 39 nM) whereas in cells expressing h CB1 an IC50 value of more than 1 microM is found. In addition, SR 144528 is shown to antagonize the stimulating effects of CP 55,940 on human tonsillar B-cell activation evoked by cross-linking of surface Igs (IC50 = 20 nM). In vivo, after oral administration SR 144528 totally displaced the ex vivo [3H]-CP 55,940 binding to mouse spleen membranes (ED50 = 0.35 mg/kg) with a long duration of action. In contrast, after the oral route it does not interact with the cannabinoid receptor expressed in the mouse brain (CB1). It is expected that SR 144528 will provide a powerful tool to investigate the in vivo functions of the cannabinoid system in the immune response.

  4. Cytotoxic effect of a family of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor antagonists in colorectal and pancreatic cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ammazzalorso, Alessandra; De Lellis, Laura; Florio, Rosalba; Bruno, Isabella; De Filippis, Barbara; Fantacuzzi, Marialuigia; Giampietro, Letizia; Maccallini, Cristina; Perconti, Silvia; Verginelli, Fabio; Cama, Alessandro; Amoroso, Rosa

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies report an interesting role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) antagonists in different tumor models, being these compounds able to perturb metabolism and viability in cancer cells. In this work, the identification of a novel PPAR antagonist, showing inhibitory activity on PPARα and a weaker antagonism on PPARγ, is described. The activity of this compound and of a series of chemical analogues was investigated in selected tumor cell lines, expressing both PPARα and PPARγ. Data obtained show a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect of the novel PPAR antagonist in colorectal and pancreatic cancer models. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Neurotensin is an antagonist of the human neurotensin NT2 receptor expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Vita, N; Oury-Donat, F; Chalon, P; Guillemot, M; Kaghad, M; Bachy, A; Thurneyssen, O; Garcia, S; Poinot-Chazel, C; Casellas, P; Keane, P; Le Fur, G; Maffrand, J P; Soubrie, P; Caput, D; Ferrara, P

    1998-11-06

    The human levocabastine-sensitive neurotensin NT2 receptor was cloned from a cortex cDNA library and stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells in order to study its binding and signalling characteristics. The receptor binds neurotensin as well as several other ligands already described for neurotensin NT1 receptor. It also binds levocabastine, a histamine H1 receptor antagonist that is not recognised by neurotensin NT1 receptor. Neurotensin binding to recombinant neurotensin NT2 receptor expressed in CHO cells does not elicit a biological response as determined by second messenger measurements. Levocabastine, and the peptides neuromedin N and xenin were also ineffective on neurotensin NT2 receptor activation. Experiments with the neurotensin NT1 receptor antagonists SR48692 and SR142948A, resulted in the unanticipated discovery that both molecules are potent agonists on neurotensin NT2 receptor. Both compounds, following binding to neurotensin NT2 receptor, enhance inositol phosphates (IP) formation with a subsequent [Ca2+]i mobilisation; induce arachidonic acid release; and stimulate mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity. Interestingly, these activities are antagonised by neurotensin and levocabastine in a concentration-dependent manner. These activities suggest that the human neurotensin NT2 receptor may be of physiological importance and that a natural agonist for the receptor may exist.

  6. Substance P Receptor Antagonist Suppresses Inflammatory Cytokine Expression in Human Disc Cells.

    PubMed

    Kepler, Christopher K; Markova, Dessislava Z; Koerner, John D; Mendelis, Joseph; Chen, Chiu-Ming; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Risbud, Makarand V; Albert, Todd J; Anderson, D Greg

    2015-08-15

    Laboratory study. To evaluate whether blockade of the Substance P (SP) NK1R attenuates its proinflammatory effect on human intervertebral disc cells (IVD), and to evaluate the signaling pathways associated with SP. SP and its receptors are expressed in human IVD cells, and cause upregulation of inflammatory mediators; however, the effects of blocking these receptors have not been studied in human IVD cells. Human annulus fibrosus (AF) and nucleus pulposus (NP) cells were expanded in monolayer, and then suspended in alginate beads. The alginate beads were treated with culture medium first containing a high affinity NK1R antagonist (L-760735) at different concentrations, and then with medium containing both NK1R antagonist and SP at 2 concentrations. Ribonucleic acid was isolated and transcribed into cDNA. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to evaluate expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-8. Western blot analysis was performed to examine levels of the phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB p65). The cells were pretreated with specific inhibitors of p38 (SB203580), ERK1/2 (PD98059), and p65 (SM7368) and then stimulated with SP. We detected expression of NK1R, neurokinin receptor 2 (NK2R), and neurokinin receptor 3 (NK3R) in AF and NP cells. Treatment of disc cells with the NK1R antagonist was able to suppress expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 in a dose-dependent manner. SP stimulation increased phosphorylation of p38-MAPK and ERK1/2, but not of NFκB p65. This indicates that p38-MAPK and ERK1/2 control SP-induced cytokine expression independently from NF-kB p65. Inhibition of p38 and ERK1/2 activation reduced SP-induced IL-6 production in human disc cells. NK1R is responsible for the proinflammatory effect of SP on IVD cells and this effect can be blocked by

  7. Pharmacological profile of CS-3150, a novel, highly potent and selective non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Arai, Kiyoshi; Homma, Tsuyoshi; Morikawa, Yuka; Ubukata, Naoko; Tsuruoka, Hiyoyuki; Aoki, Kazumasa; Ishikawa, Hirokazu; Mizuno, Makoto; Sada, Toshio

    2015-08-15

    The present study was designed to characterize the pharmacological profile of CS-3150, a novel non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. In the radioligand-binding assay, CS-3150 inhibited (3)H-aldosterone binding to mineralocorticoid receptor with an IC50 value of 9.4nM, and its potency was superior to that of spironolactone and eplerenone, whose IC50s were 36 and 713nM, respectively. CS-3150 also showed at least 1000-fold higher selectivity for mineralocorticoid receptor over other steroid hormone receptors, glucocorticoid receptor, androgen receptor and progesterone receptor. In the reporter gene assay, CS-3150 inhibited aldosterone-induced transcriptional activation of human mineralocorticoid receptor with an IC50 value of 3.7nM, and its potency was superior to that of spironolactone and eplerenone, whose IC50s were 66 and 970nM, respectively. CS-3150 had no agonistic effect on mineralocorticoid receptor and did not show any antagonistic or agonistic effect on glucocorticoid receptor, androgen receptor and progesterone receptor even at the high concentration of 5μM. In adrenalectomized rats, single oral administration of CS-3150 suppressed aldosterone-induced decrease in urinary Na(+)/K(+) ratio, an index of in vivo mineralocorticoid receptor activation, and this suppressive effect was more potent and longer-lasting than that of spironolactone and eplerenone. Chronic treatment with CS-3150 inhibited blood pressure elevation induced by deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)/salt-loading to rats, and this antihypertensive effect was more potent than that of spironolactone and eplerenone. These findings indicate that CS-3150 is a selective and highly potent mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist with long-lasting oral activity. This agent could be useful for the treatment of hypertension, cardiovascular and renal disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Residues remote from the binding pocket control the antagonist selectivity towards the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xianqiang; Cheng, Jianxin; Wang, Xu; Tang, Yun; Ågren, Hans; Tu, Yaoquan

    2015-01-01

    The corticotropin releasing factors receptor-1 and receptor-2 (CRF1R and CRF2R) are therapeutic targets for treating neurological diseases. Antagonists targeting CRF1R have been developed for the potential treatment of anxiety disorders and alcohol addiction. It has been found that antagonists targeting CRF1R always show high selectivity, although CRF1R and CRF2R share a very high rate of sequence identity. This has inspired us to study the origin of the selectivity of the antagonists. We have therefore built a homology model for CRF2R and carried out unbiased molecular dynamics and well-tempered metadynamics simulations for systems with the antagonist CP-376395 in CRF1R or CRF2R to address this issue. We found that the side chain of Tyr6.63 forms a hydrogen bond with the residue remote from the binding pocket, which allows Tyr6.63 to adopt different conformations in the two receptors and results in the presence or absence of a bottleneck controlling the antagonist binding to or dissociation from the receptors. The rotameric switch of the side chain of Tyr3566.63 allows the breaking down of the bottleneck and is a perquisite for the dissociation of CP-376395 from CRF1R.

  9. Residues remote from the binding pocket control the antagonist selectivity towards the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor-1

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xianqiang; Cheng, Jianxin; Wang, Xu; Tang, Yun; Ågren, Hans; Tu, Yaoquan

    2015-01-01

    The corticotropin releasing factors receptor-1 and receptor-2 (CRF1R and CRF2R) are therapeutic targets for treating neurological diseases. Antagonists targeting CRF1R have been developed for the potential treatment of anxiety disorders and alcohol addiction. It has been found that antagonists targeting CRF1R always show high selectivity, although CRF1R and CRF2R share a very high rate of sequence identity. This has inspired us to study the origin of the selectivity of the antagonists. We have therefore built a homology model for CRF2R and carried out unbiased molecular dynamics and well-tempered metadynamics simulations for systems with the antagonist CP-376395 in CRF1R or CRF2R to address this issue. We found that the side chain of Tyr6.63 forms a hydrogen bond with the residue remote from the binding pocket, which allows Tyr6.63 to adopt different conformations in the two receptors and results in the presence or absence of a bottleneck controlling the antagonist binding to or dissociation from the receptors. The rotameric switch of the side chain of Tyr3566.63 allows the breaking down of the bottleneck and is a perquisite for the dissociation of CP-376395 from CRF1R. PMID:25628267

  10. Residues remote from the binding pocket control the antagonist selectivity towards the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor-1.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xianqiang; Cheng, Jianxin; Wang, Xu; Tang, Yun; Ågren, Hans; Tu, Yaoquan

    2015-01-28

    The corticotropin releasing factors receptor-1 and receptor-2 (CRF1R and CRF2R) are therapeutic targets for treating neurological diseases. Antagonists targeting CRF1R have been developed for the potential treatment of anxiety disorders and alcohol addiction. It has been found that antagonists targeting CRF1R always show high selectivity, although CRF1R and CRF2R share a very high rate of sequence identity. This has inspired us to study the origin of the selectivity of the antagonists. We have therefore built a homology model for CRF2R and carried out unbiased molecular dynamics and well-tempered metadynamics simulations for systems with the antagonist CP-376395 in CRF1R or CRF2R to address this issue. We found that the side chain of Tyr(6.63) forms a hydrogen bond with the residue remote from the binding pocket, which allows Tyr(6.63) to adopt different conformations in the two receptors and results in the presence or absence of a bottleneck controlling the antagonist binding to or dissociation from the receptors. The rotameric switch of the side chain of Tyr356(6.63) allows the breaking down of the bottleneck and is a perquisite for the dissociation of CP-376395 from CRF1R.

  11. Tachykinin-mediated respiratory effects in conscious guinea pigs: modulation by NK1 and NK2 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Kudlacz, E M; Logan, D E; Shatzer, S A; Farrell, A M; Baugh, L E

    1993-09-07

    Tachykinins, in particular neurokinin A and substance P, produce a number of airway effects which may contribute to respiratory diseases such as asthma. We examined the ability of aerosolized substance P, neurokinin A or capsaicin to produce respiratory alterations in conscious guinea pigs using modified whole body plethysmography. Substance P-mediated dyspnea and significant respiratory events were inhibited by the NK1 receptor antagonist, CP-96,345. Neurokinin A-mediated respiratory effects were ablated by the NK2 receptor antagonists: MEN 10207, MDL 29,913 and SR 48,968, the latter being the most potent. The peptide-based antagonist, MEN 10207, produced respiratory effects itself suggesting partial agonist activity. The cyclic hexapeptide, MDL 29,913, relaxed airway smooth muscle via mechanisms other than tachykinin antagonism. NK2 but not NK1 receptor antagonists were able to delay the onset of capsaicin-induced dyspnea, although alone they did not usually (in approximately 10% of the animals) eliminate the response. However, when NK2 receptor antagonists were combined with CP-96,345, the incidence of dyspnea induced by capsaicin decreased significantly (40%) suggesting that both tachykinins contribute to dyspnea in this system.

  12. High-level expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae enables isolation and spectroscopic characterization of functional human adenosine A2a receptor

    PubMed Central

    O’Malley, Michelle A.; Lazarova, Tzvetana; Britton, Zachary T.; Robinson, Anne S.

    2007-01-01

    The G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a class of membrane proteins that trigger cellular responses to external stimuli, and are believed to be targets for nearly half of all pharmaceutical drugs on the market. However, little is known regarding their folding and cellular interactions, as well as what factors are crucial for their activity. Further structural characterization of GPCRs has largely been complicated by problems with expression, purification, and preservation of activity in vitro. Previously, we have demonstrated high-level expression (~4 mg/L of culture) of functional human adenosine A2a receptor fused to a green fluorescent protein (A2aR-GFP) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this work we re-engineered A2aR with a purification tag, developed an adequate purification scheme, and performed biophysical characterization on purified receptors. Milligram amounts per liter of culture of A2aR and A2aR-GFP were functionally expressed in S. cerevisiae, with a C-terminal deca-histidine tag. Lysis procedures were developed for optimal membrane protein solubilization and recovery through monitoring fluorescence of A2aR-GFP-His10. One-step purification of the protein was achieved through immobilized metal affinity chromatography. After initial solubilization in n-dodecyl-β-D-maltoside (DDM), a combination of added cholesterol hemisuccinate (CHS) in 3-(3-cholamidopropyl)-dimethylammoniopropane sulfonate (CHAPS) was required to stabilize the functional state of the protein. Isolated A2aR under these conditions was found to be largely alpha-helical, and properly incorporated into a mixed-micelle environment. The A2a-His10 receptor was purified in quantities of 6 +/− 2 mg/L of culture, with ligand-binding yields of 1 mg/L, although all protein bound to xanthine affinity resin. This represents the highest purified total and functional yields for A2aR yet achieved from any heterologous expression system. PMID:17591446

  13. SCH 206272: a potent, orally active tachykinin NK(1), NK(2), and NK(3) receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Anthes, John C; Chapman, Richard W; Richard, Christian; Eckel, Stephen; Corboz, Michel; Hey, John A; Fernandez, Xiomara; Greenfeder, Scott; McLeod, Robbie; Sehring, Susan; Rizzo, Charles; Crawley, Yvette; Shih, Neng-Yang; Piwinski, John; Reichard, Greg; Ting, Pauline; Carruthers, Nick; Cuss, Francis M; Billah, Motasim; Kreutner, William; Egan, Robert W

    2002-08-23

    Experiments were performed to characterize the pharmacology of SCH 206272 [(R,R)-1'[5-[(3,5-dichlorobenzoyl)methylamino]-3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-4(Z)-(methoxyimino)pentyl]-N-methyl-2-oxo-[1,4'bipiperidine]-3-acetamide] as a potent and selective antagonist of tachykinin (NK) NK(1), NK(2), and NK(3) receptors. SCH 206272 inhibited binding at human tachykinin NK(1), NK(2), and NK(3) receptors (K(i) = 1.3, 0.4, and 0.3 nM, respectively) and antagonized [Ca(2+)](i) mobilization in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing the cloned human tachykinin NK(1), NK(2), or NK(3) receptors. SCH 206272 inhibited relaxation of the human pulmonary artery (pK(b) = 7.7 +/- 0.3) induced by the tachykinin NK(1) receptor agonist, [Met-O-Me] substance P and contraction of the human bronchus (pK(b = 8.2 +/- 0.3) induced by the tachykinin NK(2) receptor agonist, neurokinin A. In isolated guinea pig tissues, SCH 206272 inhibited substance P-induced enhancement of electrical field stimulated contractions of the vas deferens, (pK(b = 7.6 +/- 0.2), NKA-induced contraction of the bronchus (pK(b) = 7.7 +/- 0.2), and senktide-induced contraction of the ileum. In vivo, oral SCH 206272 (0.1-10 mg/kg, p.o.) inhibited substance P-induced airway microvascular leakage and neurokinin A-induced bronchospasm in the guinea pig. In a canine in vivo model, SCH 206272 (0.1-3 mg/kg, p.o.) inhibited NK(1) and NK(2) activities induced by exogenous substance P and neurokinin A. Furthermore, in guinea pig models involving endogenously released tachykinins, SCH 206272 inhibited hyperventilation-induced bronchospasm, capsaicin-induced cough, and airway microvascular leakage induced by nebulized hypertonic saline. These data demonstrate that SCH 206272 is a potent, orally active tachykinin NK(1), NK(2), and NK(3) receptor antagonist. This compound may have beneficial effects in diseases thought to be mediated by tachykinins, such as cough, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Copyright 2002 Elsevier

  14. The mGlu5 receptor antagonist MPEP activates specific stress-related brain regions and lacks neurotoxic effects of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801: significance for the use as anxiolytic/antidepressant drug.

    PubMed

    Inta, Dragos; Filipovic, Dragana; Lima-Ojeda, Juan M; Dormann, Christof; Pfeiffer, Natascha; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gass, Peter

    2012-04-01

    Glutamatergic agents have been conceptualized as powerful, fast-acting alternatives to monoaminergic-based antidepressants. NMDA receptor antagonists such as ketamine or MK-801 are therapeutically effective, but their clinical use is hampered by psychotomimetic effects, accompanied by neurotoxicity in the retrosplenial and cingulate cortex. Antagonists of metabotropic mGlu5 receptors like MPEP elicit both robust antidepressant and anxiolytic effects; however, the underlying mechanisms are yet unknown. mGlu5 receptors closely interact with NMDA receptors, but whether MPEP induces neurotoxicity similar to NMDA receptor antagonists has not been elucidated. We show here using c-Fos brain mapping that MPEP administration results in a restricted activation of distinct stress-related brain areas, including the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST), central nucleus of the amygdala, and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVNH), in a pattern similar to that induced by classical antidepressants and anxiolytics. Unlike the NMDA antagonist MK-801, MPEP does not injure the adult retrosplenial cortex, in which it fails to induce heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70). Moreover, MPEP does not elicit to the same extent as MK-801 apoptosis in cortical areas at perinatal stages, as revealed by caspase 3 expression. These data identify new cellular targets for the anxiolytic and antidepressant effect of MPEP, indicating also in addition that in contrast to MK-801, it lacks the cortical neurotoxicity associated with psychotomimetic side-effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Combined Treatment with AT1 Receptor Antagonists and Tiagabine on Seizures, Memory and Motor Coordination in Mice.

    PubMed

    Łukawski, Krzysztof; Janowska, Agnieszka; Czuczwar, Stanisław J

    2015-01-01

    Losartan and telmisartan, angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonists, are widely used antihypertensive drugs in patients. It is also known that arterial hypertension is often present in people with epilepsy, therefore, drug interactions between AT1 receptor antagonists and antiepileptic drugs can occur in clinical practice. The aim of the current study was to assess the effect of losartan and telmisartan on the anticonvulsant activity of tiagabine, a second-generation antiepileptic drug, in mice. Additionally, the effect of the combined treatment with AT1 receptor antagonists and TGB on long-term memory and motor coordination has been assessed in animals. The study was performed on male Swiss mice. Convulsions were examined in the maximal electroshock seizure threshold test. Long-term memory was measured in the passive-avoidance task and motor coordination was evaluated in the chimney test. AT1 receptor antagonists and TGB were administered intraperitoneally. Losartan (50 mg/kg) or telmisartan (30 mg/kg) did not influence the anticonvulsant activity of TGB applied at doses of 2, 4 and 6 mg/kg. However, both AT1 receptor antagonists in combinations with TGB (6 mg/kg) impaired motor coordination in the chimney test. The concomitant treatment of the drugs did not decrease retention in the passive avoidance task. It is suggested that losartan and telmisartan should not affect the anticonvulsant action of TGB in people with epilepsy. Because the combined treatment with AT1 receptor antagonists and TGB led to neurotoxic effects in animals, caution is advised during concomitant use of these drugs in patients.

  16. Small-Molecule “BRCA1-Mimetics” Are Antagonists of Estrogen Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yongxian; Tomita, York; Preet, Anju; Clarke, Robert; Englund, Erikah; Grindrod, Scott; Nathan, Shyam; De Oliveira, Eliseu; Brown, Milton L.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Resistance to conventional antiestrogens is a major cause of treatment failure and, ultimately, death in breast cancer. Objective: The objective of the study was to identify small-molecule estrogen receptor (ER)-α antagonists that work differently from tamoxifen and other selective estrogen receptor modulators. Design: Based on in silico screening of a pharmacophore database using a computed model of the BRCA1-ER-α complex (with ER-α liganded to 17β-estradiol), we identified a candidate group of small-molecule compounds predicted to bind to a BRCA1-binding interface separate from the ligand-binding pocket and the coactivator binding site of ER-α. Among 40 candidate compounds, six inhibited estradiol-stimulated ER-α activity by at least 50% in breast carcinoma cells, with IC50 values ranging between 3 and 50 μM. These ER-α inhibitory compounds were further studied by molecular and cell biological techniques. Results: The compounds strongly inhibited ER-α activity at concentrations that yielded little or no nonspecific toxicity, but they produced only a modest inhibition of progesterone receptor activity. Importantly, the compounds blocked proliferation and inhibited ER-α activity about equally well in antiestrogen-sensitive and antiestrogen-resistant breast cancer cells. Representative compounds disrupted the interaction of BRCA1 and ER-α in the cultured cells and blocked the interaction of ER-α with the estrogen response element. However, the compounds had no effect on the total cellular ER-α levels. Conclusions: These findings suggest that we have identified a new class of ER-α antagonists that work differently from conventional antiestrogens (eg, tamoxifen and fulvestrant). PMID:25264941

  17. Effect of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor antagonist on psychologically suppressed masculine sexual behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Yoshiji; Nagase, Keiko; Oyama, Nobuyuki; Akino, Hironobu; Yokoyama, Osamu

    2011-03-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) coordinates various responses of the body to stress, and CRF receptors are important targets of treatment for stress-related disorders. To investigate the effect of a nonselective CRF receptor antagonist, astressin, on suppression of masculine sexual behavior by psychological stress in rats. First, we investigated the influence of psychological stress, induced 2 hours per day for three consecutive days, on sexual behavior. Then, rats were divided into 4 groups: a control group, an astressin administration group (A), a psychological stress loading group (PS), and a psychological stress loading and astressin administration group (PS + A). The rats were exposed to sham or psychological stress for three consecutive days. After the last stress loading, the rats were injected with vehicle or astressin, and their sexual behavior was observed. We also measured serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). The effects of astressin on sexual behavior and serum levels of ACTH in rats affected by psychological stress were determined. Sexual behavior was reduced after psychological stress loading. The PS rats had significantly longer mount, intromission, and ejaculation latencies and lower ejaculation frequency than did the control, A, and PS + A rats. The intromission latency and ejaculation frequency in the PS + A rats did not achieve the level observed in the controls. There was no significant difference in these parameters between the control and A rats. Serum ACTH levels were significantly lower in PS + A rats than in PS rats. Psychologically suppressed masculine sexual behavior could be partially recovered with astressin administration in rats. These data provide a rationale for the further study of CRF receptor antagonists as novel agents for treating psychological sexual disorders. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  18. Administration of an oxytocin receptor antagonist attenuates sexual motivation in male rats.

    PubMed

    Blitzer, D S; Wells, T E; Hawley, W R

    2017-08-01

    In male rats, oxytocin impacts both sexual arousal and certain types of consummatory sexual behaviors. However, the role of oxytocin in the motivational aspects of sexual behavior has received limited attention. Given the role that oxytocin signaling plays in consummatory sexual behaviors, it was hypothesized that pharmacological attenuation of oxytocin signaling would reduce sexual motivation in male rats. Sexually experienced Long-Evans male rats were administered either an oxytocin receptor antagonist (L368,899 hydrochloride; 1mg/kg) or vehicle control into the intraperitoneal cavity 40min prior to placement into the center chamber of a three-chambered arena designed to assess sexual motivation. During the 20-minute test, a sexually experienced stimulus male rat and a sexually receptive stimulus female rat were separately confined to smaller chambers that were attached to the larger end chambers of the arena. However, physical contact between test and stimulus rats was prevented by perforated dividers. Immediately following the sexual motivation test, test male rats were placed with a sexually receptive female to examine consummatory sexual behaviors. Although both drug and vehicle treated rats exhibited a preference for the female, treatment with an oxytocin receptor antagonist decreased the amount of time spent with the female. There were no differences between drug and vehicle treated rats in either general activity, exploratory behaviors, the amount of time spent near the stimulus male rat, or consummatory sexual behaviors. Extending previous findings, these results indicate that oxytocin receptors are involved in sexual motivation in male rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Pharmacological characterization of BR-A-657, a highly potent nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Chi, Yong Ha; Lee, Joo Han; Kim, Je Hak; Tan, Hyun Kwang; Kim, Sang Lin; Lee, Jae Yeol; Rim, Hong-Kun; Paik, Soo Heui; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2013-01-01

    The pharmacological profile of BR-A-657, 2-n-butyl-5-dimethylamino-thiocarbonyl-methyl-6-methyl-3-{[2-(1H-tetrazole-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]methyl}-pyrimidin-4(3H)-one, a new nonpeptide AT1-selective angiotensin receptor antagonist, has been investigated in a variety of in vitro and in vivo experimental models. In the present study, BR-A-657 displaced [(125)I][Sar(1)-Ile(8)]angiotensin II (Ang II) from its specific binding sites to AT1 subtype receptors in membrane fractions of HEK-293 cells with an IC50 of 0.16 nM. In a functional assay using isolated rabbit thoracic aorta, BR-A-657 inhibited the contractile response to Ang II (pD'2: 9.15) with a significant reduction in the maximum. In conscious rats, BR-A-657 (0.01, 0.1, 1 mg/kg; intravenously (i.v.)) dose-dependently antagonized Ang II-induced pressor responses. In addition, BR-A-657 dose-dependently decreased mean arterial pressure in furosemide-treated rats and renal hypertensive rats. Moreover, BR-A-657 given orally at 1 and 3 mg/kg reduced blood pressure in conscious renal hypertensive rats. Taken together, these findings indicate that BR-A-657 is a potent and specific antagonist of Ang II at the AT1 receptor subtype, and reveal the molecular basis responsible for the marked lowering of blood pressure in conscious rats.

  20. P2Y1 receptor antagonists mitigate oxygen and glucose deprivation‑induced astrocyte injury.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hui; Liu, Zhong-Qiang; Zhou, Hui; Wang, Zhi-Ling; Tao, Yu-Hong; Tong, Yu

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effects of blocking the calcium signaling pathway of astrocytes (ASs) on oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD)‑induced AS injury. The association between the changes in the concentrations of AS‑derived transmitter ATP and glutamic acid, and the changes in calcium signaling under the challenge of OGD were investigated. The cortical ASs of Sprague Dawley rats were cultured to establish the OGD models of ASs. The extracellular concentrations of ATP and glutamic acid in the normal group and the OGD group were detected, and the intracellular concentration of calcium ions (Ca2+) was detected. The effects of 2'‑deoxy‑N6‑methyl adenosine 3', 5'‑diphosphate diammonium salt (MRS2179), a P2Y1 receptor antagonist, on the release of calcium and glutamic acid of ASs under the condition of OGD were observed. The OGD challenge induced the release of glutamic acid and ATP by ASs in a time‑dependent manner, whereas elevation in the concentration of glutamic acid lagged behind that of the ATP and Ca2+. The concentration of Ca2+ inside ASs peaked 16 h after OGD, following which the concentration of Ca2+ was decreased. The effects of elevated release of glutamic acid by ASs when challenged by OGD may be blocked by MRS2179, a P2Y1 receptor antagonist. Furthermore, MRS2179 may significantly mitigate OGD‑induced AS injury and increase cell survival. The ASs of rats cultured in vitro expressed P2Y1 receptors, which may inhibit excessive elevation in the concentration of intracellular Ca2+. Avoidance of intracellular calcium overload and the excessive release of glutamic acid may be an important reason why MRS2179 mitigates OGD‑induced AS injury.

  1. Histamine H3 receptor antagonists display antischizophrenic activities in rats treated with MK-801.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Danish; Akhtar, Mohd; Jahan, Kausar; Goswami, Dipanjan

    2016-09-01

    Animal models based on N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor blockade have been extensively used for schizophrenia. Ketamine and MK-801 produce behaviors related to schizophrenia and exacerbated symptoms in patients with schizophrenia, which led to the use of PCP (phencyclidine)- and MK-801 (dizocilpine)-treated animals as models for schizophrenia. The study investigated the effect of subchronic dosing (once daily, 7 days) of histamine H3 receptor (H3R) antagonists, ciproxifan (CPX) (3 mg/kg, i.p.), and clobenpropit (CBP) (15 mg/kg, i.p.) on MK-801 (0.2 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced locomotor activity and also measured dopamine and histamine levels in rat's brain homogenates. The study also included clozapine (CLZ) (3.0 mg/kg, i.p.) and chlorpromazine (CPZ) (3.0 mg/kg, i.p.), the atypical and typical antipsychotic, respectively. Atypical and typical antipsychotic was used to serve as clinically relevant reference agents to compare the effects of the H3R antagonists. MK-801 significantly increased horizontal locomotor activity, which was reduced with CPX and CBP. MK-801-induced locomotor hyperactivity attenuated by CPX and CBP was comparable to CLZ and CPZ. MK-801 raised striatal dopamine level, which was reduced in rats pretreated with CPX and CBP. CPZ also significantly lowered striatal dopamine levels, although the decrease was less robust compared to CLZ, CPX, and CBP. MK-801 increased histamine content although to a lesser degree. Subchronic treatment with CPX and CBP exhibited further increased histamine levels in the hypothalamus compared to MK-801 treatment alone. Histamine H3 receptor agonist, R-α methylhistamine (10 mg/kg, i.p.), counteracted the effect of CPX and CBP. The present study shows the positive effects of CPX and CBP on MK-801-induced schizophrenia-like behaviors in rodents.

  2. The anticancer estrogen receptor antagonist tamoxifen impairs consolidation of inhibitory avoidance memory through estrogen receptor alpha.

    PubMed

    Lichtenfels, Martina; Dornelles, Arethuza da Silva; Petry, Fernanda Dos Santos; Blank, Martina; de Farias, Caroline Brunetto; Roesler, Rafael; Schwartsmann, Gilberto

    2017-11-01

    Over two-thirds of women with breast cancer have positive tumors for hormone receptors, and these patients undergo treatment with endocrine therapy, tamoxifen being the most widely used agent. Despite being very effective in breast cancer treatment, tamoxifen is associated with side effects that include cognitive impairments. However, the specific aspects and mechanisms underlying these impairments remain to be characterized. Here, we have investigated the effects of tamoxifen and interaction with estrogen receptors on formation of memory for inhibitory avoidance conditioning in female rats. In the first experiment, Wistar female rats received a single oral dose of tamoxifen (1, 3, or 10 mg/kg) or saline by gavage immediately after training and were tested for memory consolidation 24 h after training. In the second experiment, rats received a single dose of 1 mg/kg tamoxifen or saline by gavage 3 h after training and were tested 24 h after training for memory consolidation. In the third experiment, rats received a subcutaneous injection with estrogen receptor α agonist or estrogen receptor beta agonist 30 min before the training. After training, rats received a single oral dose of tamoxifen 1 mg/kg or saline and were tested 24 h after training. In the fourth experiment, rats were trained and tested 24 h later. Immediately after test, rats received a single dose of tamoxifen (1 mg/kg) or saline by gavage and were given four additional daily test trials followed by a re-instatement. Tamoxifen at 1 mg/kg impaired memory consolidation when given immediately after training and the estrogen receptor alpha agonist improved the tamoxifen-related memory impairment. Moreover, tamoxifen impairs memory consolidation of the test. These findings indicate that estrogen receptors regulate the early phase of memory consolidation and the effects of tamoxifen on memory consolidation.

  3. Solid-phase synthesis and structure-activity relationships of novel biarylethers as melanin-concentrating hormone receptor-1 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Ma, Vu; Bannon, Anthony W; Baumgartner, Jamie; Hale, Clarence; Hsieh, Faye; Hulme, Christopher; Rorrer, Kirk; Salon, John; van Staden, Carlo; Tempest, Paul

    2006-10-01

    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a cyclic 19 amino acid orexigenic neuropeptide. The action of MCH on feeding is thought to involve the activation of its respective G protein-coupled receptor MCH-R1. Consequently, antagonists that block MCH regulated MCH-R1 activity may provide a viable approach to the treatment of diet-induced obesity. This communication reports the discovery of a novel MCH-R1 receptor antagonist, the biarylether 7, identified through high throughput screening. The solid-phase synthesis and structure-activity relationship of related analogs is described.

  4. Vascular Effects of Endothelin Receptor Antagonists Depends on Their Selectivity for ETA Versus ETB Receptors and on the Functionality of Endothelial ETB Receptors.

    PubMed

    Iglarz, Marc; Steiner, Pauline; Wanner, Daniel; Rey, Markus; Hess, Patrick; Clozel, Martine

    2015-10-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize the role of Endothelin (ET) type B receptors (ETB) on vascular function in healthy and diseased conditions and demonstrate how it affects the pharmacological activity of ET receptor antagonists (ERAs). The contribution of the ETB receptor to vascular relaxation or constriction was characterized in isolated arteries from healthy and diseased rats with systemic (Dahl-S) or pulmonary hypertension (monocrotaline). Because the role of ETB receptors is different in pathological vis-à-vis normal conditions, we compared the efficacy of ETA-selective and dual ETA/ETB ERAs on blood pressure in hypertensive rats equipped with telemetry. In healthy vessels, ETB receptors stimulation with sarafotoxin S6c induced vasorelaxation and no vasoconstriction. In contrast, in arteries of rats with systemic or pulmonary hypertension, endothelial ETB-mediated relaxation was lost while vasoconstriction on stimulation by sarafotoxin S6c was observed. In hypertensive rats, administration of the dual ETA/ETB ERA macitentan on top of a maximal effective dose of the ETA-selective ERA ambrisentan further reduced blood pressure, indicating that ETB receptors blockade provides additional benefit. Taken together, these data suggest that in pathology, dual ETA/ETB receptor antagonism can provide superior vascular effects compared with ETA-selective receptor blockade.

  5. [Analgesic effects of ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists MK-801 and NBQX on collagen-induced arthritis rats].

    PubMed

    Zhu, H; Zhu, R; Deng, Z D; Feng, Y C; Shen, H L

    2016-12-18

    The ionotropic glutamate receptorantagonists include two types: MK-801, antagonist of N-methyl-D-asparticacid (NMDA) receptor, and NBQX, antagonist of non-NMDA receptor.The above-mentioned ionotropic antagonists can block the glutamate and its corresponding receptor binding to produce analgesic effect. The objective of this research was to study two antagonists in analgesic effect on rat behavior,as well as to investigate the down-regulation and up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and Janus-activated kinase (Jak3) in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rat serum and tissue fluid after the application of these antagonists, that is, the effect on molecular biology. This study used the ionotropic glutamate receptors as the target and established CIA rat model. Vivo studies were used to observe changes in behavior and molecular biology of the CIA rat.Behavioral assessment includedmechanical allodynia and joint swelling in the CIA rat,where themechanical allodynia was measured using the paw-withdrawal threshold (PWT) with VonFrey filaments according to the "Up-Down" method,and the drainage volume was used to assess joint swelling. Then the blood samples taken from the heart of the rat and the tissue homogenate were collected to detect the down-regulation and up-regulation of COX-2 and Jak3 in the serum and tissue fluid after the antagonists wereused. Using MK-801, NBQX alone or using the combination of these two antagonists,these three methods all could alleviate pain(P<0.01).The analgesic effect lasted more than 24 h.Both antagonists reached the peak of analgesia at the end of 4 hours post-injection. NBQX had stronger analgesic effect than MK-801 (P<0.05).Whether alone or combined use of these two antagonists,could not change the CIA rats' swelling of the joint (P>0.05). MK-801 could decrease the expression of COX-2 (P<0.01).At the same time, NBQX did not have this effect (P>0.05). Using MK-801, NBQX alone or combination of these two antagonists could not affect the

  6. Sulforaphane is not an effective antagonist of the human pregnane X-receptor in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Poulton, Emma Jane; Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington; Levy, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN), is an effective in vitro antagonist of ligand activation of the human pregnane and xenobiotic receptor (PXR). PXR mediated CYP3A4 up-regulation is implicated in adverse drug-drug interactions making identification of small molecule antagonists a desirable therapeutic goal. SFN is not an antagonist to mouse or rat PXR in vitro; thus, normal rodent species are not suitable as in vivo models for human response. To evaluate whether SFN can effectively antagonize ligand activation of human PXR in vivo, a three-armed, randomized, crossover trial was conducted with 24 healthy adults. The potent PXR ligand — rifampicin (300 mg/d) was givenmore » alone for 7 days in arm 1, or in daily combination with 450 μmol SFN (Broccoli Sprout extract) in arm 2; SFN was given alone in arm 3. Midazolam as an in vivo phenotype marker of CYP3A was administered before and after each treatment arm. Rifampicin alone decreased midazolam AUC by 70%, indicative of the expected increase in CYP3A4 activity. Co-treatment with SFN did not reduce CYP3A4 induction. Treatment with SFN alone also did not affect CYP3A4 activity in the cohort as a whole, although in the subset with the highest basal CYP3A4 activity there was a statistically significant increase in midazolam AUC (i.e., decrease in CYP3A4 activity). A parallel study in humanized PXR mice yielded similar results. The parallel effects of SFN between humanized PXR mice and human subjects demonstrate the predictive value of humanized mouse models in situations where species differences in ligand-receptor interactions preclude the use of a native mouse model for studying human ligand-receptor pharmacology. -- Highlights: ► The effects of SFN on PXR mediated CYP3A4 induction in humanized PXR mice and humans were examined. ► SFN had no effect on rifampicin mediated CYP3A4 induction in humans or humanized mice. ► SFN had a modest effect on basal CYP3A4 activity among subjects with higher baseline activity.

  7. Adenosine A2A receptor inhibition restores the normal transport of endothelial glutamate transporters in the brain.

    PubMed

    Bai, Wei; Li, Ping; Ning, Ya-Lei; Peng, Yan; Xiong, Ren-Ping; Yang, Nan; Chen, Xing; Zhou, Yuan-Guo

    2018-04-15

    Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) on cerebral vascular endothelial cells play an important role in maintaining glutamate homeostasis in the brain. The dysfunction of endothelial EAATs is an important reason for the dramatically elevated brain glutamate levels after brain injury, such as traumatic brain injury (TBI). The adenosine A 2A receptor (A 2A R) plays an important role in regulating the brain glutamate level after brain injury; however, researchers have not clearly determined whether this role was related to its ability to regulate endothelial EAATs. Activation of A 2A R in vitro not only decreased the PKA- and glutamate level-dependent strengthening of the interaction between NKA-α1 and the FXYD1 subunit and the subsequent decrease in the activity of Na + /K + -ATPases (NKAs) but also enhanced its interaction with EAATs and ultimately aggravated the reverse transport function of endothelial EAATs under oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) conditions. Conversely, inhibition of A 2A R restored the normal transport of EAAT. Moreover, A 2A R inhibition increased NKA activity and decreased its interaction with EAATs in isolated brain capillaries after TBI, further confirming its role in endothelial EAATs in vivo. Based on our results, A 2A R played an important role in regulating endothelial EAAT function, and strategies that restore the normal transport of endothelial EAATs through the inhibition of A 2A R might serve as an effective treatment for brain injury. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Role of Adenosine A2A Receptor, CYP450s, and PPARs in the Regulation of Vascular Tone

    PubMed Central

    Khayat, Maan T.

    2017-01-01

    Adenosine is an endogenous mediator involved in a myriad of physiologic functions, including vascular tone regulation. It is also implicated in some pathologic conditions. Four distinct receptor subtypes mediate the effects of adenosine, such as its role in the regulation of the vascular tone. Vascular tone regulation is a complex and continuous process which involves many mechanisms and mediators that are not fully disclosed. The vascular endothelium plays a pivotal role in regulating blood flow to and from all body organs. Also, the vascular endothelium is not merely a physical barrier; it is a complex tissue with numerous functions. Among adenosine receptors, A2A receptor subtype (A2AAR) stands out as the primary receptor responsible for the vasodilatory effects of adenosine. This review focuses on important effectors of the vascular endothelium, including adenosine, adenosine receptors, EETs (epoxyeicosatrienoic acids), HETEs (hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids), PPARs (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors), and KATP channels. Given the impact of vascular tone regulation in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology, better understanding of the mechanisms affecting it could have a significant potential for developing therapeutic agents for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:28884118

  9. Decrement in operant performance produced by NMDA receptor antagonists in the rat: tolerance and cross-tolerance.

    PubMed

    Dravolina, O A; Zvartau, E E; Bespalov, A Y

    2000-04-01

    Current perspectives on the clinical use of NMDA receptor antagonists infer repeated administration schedules for the management of different pathological states. The development of tolerance and cross-tolerance between different NMDA receptor antagonists may be an important factor contributing to the clinical efficacy of these drugs. The present study aimed to characterize the development of tolerance and cross-tolerance to the ability of various site-selective NMDA receptor antagonists to produce a decrement of operant responding (multiple extinction 9 s fixed-interval 1-s schedule of water reinforcement). Acute administration of D-CPPen (SDZ EAA 494; 1-5.6 mg/kg), dizocilpine (MK-801; 0.03-0.3 mg/kg), memantine (0.3-17 mg/kg), ACEA-1021 (10-56 mg/kg), and eliprodil (1-30 mg/kg) differentially affected operant responding. Both increases and decreases in response rates and accuracy of responding were observed. Repeated preexposure to D-CPPen (5.6 mg/kg, once a day for 7 days) attenuated a behavioral disruption produced by an acute challenge with D-CPPen or ACEA-1021, but potentiated the effects of dizocilpine, memantine, and eliprodil. Based on the present results, one can suggest that the repeated administration of a competitive NMDA receptor antagonist differentially affects the functional activity of various sites on NMDA receptor complex.

  10. Preclinical and clinical characterization of the selective 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist DU-125530 for antidepressant treatment.

    PubMed

    Scorza, M C; Lladó-Pelfort, L; Oller, S; Cortés, R; Puigdemont, D; Portella, M J; Pérez-Egea, R; Alvarez, E; Celada, P; Pérez, V; Artigas, F

    2012-11-01

    The antidepressant efficacy of selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and other 5-HT-enhancing drugs is compromised by a negative feedback mechanism involving 5-HT(1A) autoreceptor activation by the excess 5-HT produced by these drugs in the somatodendritic region of 5-HT neurones. 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonists augment antidepressant-like effects in rodents by preventing this negative feedback, and the mixed β-adrenoceptor/5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist pindolol improves clinical antidepressant effects by preferentially interacting with 5-HT(1A) autoreceptors. However, it is unclear whether 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonists not discriminating between pre- and post-synaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors would be clinically effective. We characterized the pharmacological properties of the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist DU-125530 using receptor autoradiography, intracerebral microdialysis and electrophysiological recordings. Its capacity to accelerate/enhance the clinical effects of fluoxetine was assessed in a double-blind, randomized, 6 week placebo-controlled trial in 50 patients with major depression (clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01119430). DU-125530 showed equal (low nM) potency to displace agonist and antagonist binding to pre- and post-synaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors in rat and human brain. It antagonized suppression of 5-hydroxytryptaminergic activity evoked by 8-OH-DPAT and SSRIs in vivo. DU-125530 augmented SSRI-induced increases in extracellular 5-HT as effectively as in mice lacking 5-HT(1A) receptors, indicating a silent, maximal occupancy of pre-synaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors at the dose used. However, DU-125530 addition to fluoxetine did not accelerate nor augment its antidepressant effects. DU-125530 is an excellent pre- and post-synaptic 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist. However, blockade of post-synaptic 5- HT(1A) receptors by DU-125530 cancels benefits obtained by enhancing pre-synaptic 5-hydroxytryptaminergic function. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of

  11. Promotion of Wound Healing by an Agonist of Adenosine A2A Receptor Is Dependent on Tissue Plasminogen Activator.

    PubMed

    Montesinos, M Carmen; Desai-Merchant, Avani; Cronstein, Bruce N

    2015-12-01

    Impaired wound healing, as it occurs in diabetes mellitus or long-term corticoid treatment, is commonly associated with disability, diminished quality of life, and high economic costs. Selective agonists of the A2A receptor subtype of adenosine, an endogenous regulator of inflammation, promote tissue repair in animal models, both healthy and with impaired healing. Plasmin-mediated proteolysis of fibrin and other matrix proteins is essential for cell migration at sites of injury. Since adenosine A2A receptor activation increases plasminogen activator release from macrophages and mast cells, we studied the effect of a selective agonist, CGS-21680, on full-thickness excisional wound closure in wild-type, urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA)-deficient, and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-deficient mice. Wound closure was impaired in tPA- and uPA-deficient mice as compared with wild-type mice, and topical application of CGS-21680 significantly increased the rate at which wounds closed in wild-type mice and uPA-deficient mice, but not in tPA-deficient mice. Immunostaining of tissue sections showed that tPA was present in endothelial cells and histiocytes by day 3 post-wound and also by day 6. In contrast, uPA was more prominent in these cell types only by day 6 post-wound. Our results confirm that plasminogen activation contributes to wound repair and are consistent with the hypothesis that adenosine A2A receptor activation promotes wound closure by a mechanism that depends upon tPA, but not uPA. Moreover, our results suggest that topical adenosine A2A receptor agonists may be useful in promotion of wound closure in patients with impaired wound healing.

  12. A Systematic Review of NMDA Receptor Antagonists for Treatment of Neuropathic Pain in Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Aiyer, Rohit; Mehta, Neel; Gungor, Semih; Gulati, Amitabh

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the efficacy of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists for neuropathic pain (NeuP) and review literature to determine if specific pharmacologic agents provide adequate NeuP relief. Literature was reviewed on PubMed using a variety of key words for 8 NMDAR antagonists. These key words include: "Ketamine and Neuropathy," "Ketamine and Neuropathic Pain," "Methadone and Neuropathy," "Methadone and Neuropathic Pain," "Memantine and Neuropathic pain," "Memantine and Neuropathy," "Amantadine and Neuropathic Pain," "Amantadine and Neuropathy," "Dextromethorphan and Neuropathic Pain," "Dextromethorphan and Neuropathy," "Carbamazepine and Neuropathic Pain," "Carbamazepine and Neuropathy," "Valproic Acid and Neuropathy," "Valproic Acid and Neuropathic Pain," "Phenytoin and Neuropathy," and "Phenytoin and Neuropathic Pain." With the results, the papers were reviewed using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting in Systematic and Meta-Analyses) guideline. A total of 58 randomized controlled trials were reviewed among 8 pharmacologic agents, which are organized by date and alphabetical order. Of the trials for ketamine, 15 showed some benefit for analgesia. Methadone had 3 positive trials, while amantadine and memantine each only had 2 trials showing NeuP analgesic properties. Dextromethorphan and valproic acid both had 4 randomized controlled trials that showed some NeuP treatment benefit while carbamazepine had over 8 trials showing efficacy. Finally, phenytoin only had 1 trial that showed clinical response in treatment. There are a variety of NMDAR antagonist agents that should be considered for treatment of NeuP. Nevertheless, continued and further investigation of the 8 pharmacologic agents is needed to continue to evaluate their efficacy for treatment of NeuP.

  13. Effect of α₇ nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists and antagonists on motor function in mice.

    PubMed

    Welch, Kevin D; Pfister, James A; Lima, Flavia G; Green, Benedict T; Gardner, Dale R

    2013-02-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated cation channels found throughout the body, and serve to mediate diverse physiological functions. Muscle-type nAChRs located in the motor endplate region of muscle fibers play an integral role in muscle contraction and thus motor function. The toxicity and teratogenicity of many plants (which results in millions of dollars in losses annually to the livestock industry) are due to various toxins that bind to nAChRs including deltaline and methyllycaconitine (MLA) from larkspur (Delphinium) species, and nicotine and anabasine from tobacco (Nicotiana) species. The primary result of the actions of these alkaloids at nAChRs is neuromuscular paralysis and respiratory failure. The objective of this study was to further characterize the motor coordination deficiencies that occur upon exposure to a non-lethal dose of nAChR antagonists MLA and deltaline as well as nAChR agonists nicotine and anabasine. We evaluated the effect of nAChR agonists and antagonists on the motor function and coordination in mice using a balance beam, grip strength meter, rotarod, open field analysis and tremor monitor. These analyses demonstrated that within seconds after treatment the mice had significant loss of motor function and coordination that lasted up to 1 min, followed by a short period of quiescence. Recovery to normal muscle coordination was rapid, typically within approximately 10 min post-dosing. However, mice treated with the nAChR agonist nicotine and anabasine required a slightly longer time to recover some aspects of normal muscle function in comparison to mice treated with the nAChR antagonist MLA or deltaline. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. LE135, a retinoid acid receptor antagonist, produces pain through direct activation of TRP channels

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Shijin; Luo, Jialie; Qian, Aihua; Yu, Weihua; Hu, Hongzhen

    2014-01-01

    Background and PurposeRetinoids, through their activation of retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors, regulate diverse cellular processes, and pharmacological intervention in their actions has been successful in the treatment of skin disorders and cancers. Despite the many beneficial effects, administration of retinoids causes irritating side effects with unknown mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate that LE135 [4-(7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-5,7,7,10,10-pentamethyl-5H-benzo[e]naphtho[2,3-b][1,4]diazepin-13-yl)benzoic acid], a selective antagonist of RARβ, is a potent activator of the capsaicin (TRPV1) and wasabi (TRPA1) receptors, two critical pain-initiating cation channels. Experimental ApproachWe performed to investigate the excitatory effects of LE135 on TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels expressed in HEK293T cells and in dorsal root ganglia neurons with calcium imaging and patch-clamp recordings. We also used site-directed mutagenesis of the channels to determine the structural basis of LE135-induced activation of TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels and behavioural testing to examine if pharmacological inhibition and genetic deletion of the channels affected LE135-evoked pain-related behaviours. Key ResultsLE135 activated both the capsaicin receptor (TRPV1) and the allyl isothiocyanate receptor (TRPA1) heterologously expressed in HEK293T cells and endogenously expressed by sensory nociceptors. Mutations disrupting the capsaicin-binding site attenuated LE135 activation of TRPV1 channels and a single mutation (K170R) eliminated TRPA1 activity evoked by LE135. Intraplantar injection of LE135 evoked pain-related behaviours. Both TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels were involved in LE135-elicited pain-related responses, as shown by pharmacological and genetic ablation studies. Conclusions and ImplicationsThis blocker of retinoid acid signalling also exerted non-genomic effects through activating the pain-initiating TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels. PMID:24308840

  15. A Selective Nociceptin Receptor Antagonist to Treat Depression: Evidence from Preclinical and Clinical Studies.

    PubMed

    Post, Anke; Smart, Trevor S; Krikke-Workel, Judith; Dawson, Gerard R; Harmer, Catherine J; Browning, Michael; Jackson, Kimberley; Kakar, Rishi; Mohs, Richard; Statnick, Michael; Wafford, Keith; McCarthy, Andrew; Barth, Vanessa; Witkin, Jeffrey M

    2016-06-01

    Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) is an endogenous ligand of the N/OFQ peptide (NOP) receptor, which is a G protein-coupled receptor in brain regions associated with mood disorders. We used a novel, potent, and selective orally bioavailable antagonist, LY2940094, to test the hypothesis that blockade of NOP receptors would induce antidepressant effects. In this study we demonstrate that targeting NOP receptors with LY2940094 translates to antidepressant-like effects in rodent models and, importantly, to antidepressan