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Sample records for a2a receptor gene

  1. Adenosine A(2A) receptor gene (ADORA2A) variants may increase autistic symptoms and anxiety in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Freitag, Christine M; Agelopoulos, Konstantin; Huy, Ellen; Rothermundt, Matthias; Krakowitzky, Petra; Meyer, Jobst; Deckert, Jürgen; von Gontard, Alexander; Hohoff, Christa

    2010-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are heterogeneous disorders presenting with increased rates of anxiety. The adenosine A(2A) receptor gene (ADORA2A) is associated with panic disorder and is located on chromosome 22q11.23. Its gene product, the adenosine A(2A) receptor, is strongly expressed in the caudate nucleus, which also is involved in ASD. As autistic symptoms are increased in individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, and large 22q11.2 deletions and duplications have been observed in ASD individuals, in this study, 98 individuals with ASD and 234 control individuals were genotyped for eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms in ADORA2A. Nominal association with the disorder was observed for rs2236624-CC, and phenotypic variability in ASD symptoms was influenced by rs3761422, rs5751876 and rs35320474. In addition, association of ADORA2A variants with anxiety was replicated for individuals with ASD. Findings point toward a possible mediating role of ADORA2A variants on phenotypic expression in ASD that need to be replicated in a larger sample.

  2. A genetic variation in the adenosine A2A receptor gene (ADORA2A) contributes to individual sensitivity to caffeine effects on sleep.

    PubMed

    Rétey, J V; Adam, M; Khatami, R; Luhmann, U F O; Jung, H H; Berger, W; Landolt, H-P

    2007-05-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used stimulant in Western countries. Some people voluntarily reduce caffeine consumption because it impairs the quality of their sleep. Studies in mice revealed that the disruption of sleep after caffeine is mediated by blockade of adenosine A2A receptors. Here we show in humans that (1) habitual caffeine consumption is associated with reduced sleep quality in self-rated caffeine-sensitive individuals, but not in caffeine-insensitive individuals; (2) the distribution of distinct c.1083T>C genotypes of the adenosine A2A receptor gene (ADORA2A) differs between caffeine-sensitive and -insensitive adults; and (3) the ADORA2A c.1083T>C genotype determines how closely the caffeine-induced changes in brain electrical activity during sleep resemble the alterations observed in patients with insomnia. These data demonstrate a role of adenosine A2A receptors for sleep in humans, and suggest that a common variation in ADORA2A contributes to subjective and objective responses to caffeine on sleep.

  3. Adenosine A2A receptors and depression.

    PubMed

    El Yacoubi, Malika; Costentin, Jean; Vaugeois, Jean-Marie

    2003-12-09

    Adenosine and its analogues have been shown to induce "behavioral despair" in animal models believed to be relevant to depression. Recent data have shown that selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonists (e.g., SCH 58261, ZM241385, and KW6002) or genetic inactivation of the receptor was effective in reversing signs of behavioral despair in the tail suspension and forced swim tests, two screening procedures predictive of antidepressant activity. A2A antagonists were active in the tail suspension test using either mice previously screened for having high immobility scores or mice that were selectively bred for their spontaneous "helplessness" in this test. At stimulant doses, caffeine, a nonselective A1/A2A receptor antagonist, was effective in the forced swim test. The authors have hypothesized that the antidepressant-like effect of selective A2A antagonists is linked to an interaction with dopaminergic transmission, possibly in the frontal cortex. In support of this idea, administration of the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol prevented antidepressant-like effects elicited by SCH 58261 in the forced swim test (putatively involving cortex), whereas it had no effect on stimulant motor effects of SCH 58261 (putatively linked to ventral striatum). The interaction profile of caffeine with haloperidol differed markedly from that of SCH 58261 in the forced swim and motor activity tests. Therefore, a clear-cut antidepressant-like effect could not be ascribed to caffeine. In conclusion, available data support the proposition that a selective blockade of the adenosine A2A receptor may be an interesting target for the development of effective antidepressant agents.

  4. Culture as a mediator of gene-environment interaction: Cultural consonance, childhood adversity, a 2A serotonin receptor polymorphism, and depression in urban Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dressler, William W; Balieiro, Mauro C; Ferreira de Araújo, Luiza; Silva, Wilson A; Ernesto Dos Santos, José

    2016-07-01

    Research on gene-environment interaction was facilitated by breakthroughs in molecular biology in the late 20th century, especially in the study of mental health. There is a reliable interaction between candidate genes for depression and childhood adversity in relation to mental health outcomes. The aim of this paper is to explore the role of culture in this process in an urban community in Brazil. The specific cultural factor examined is cultural consonance, or the degree to which individuals are able to successfully incorporate salient cultural models into their own beliefs and behaviors. It was hypothesized that cultural consonance in family life would mediate the interaction of genotype and childhood adversity. In a study of 402 adult Brazilians from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds, conducted from 2011 to 2014, the interaction of reported childhood adversity and a polymorphism in the 2A serotonin receptor was associated with higher depressive symptoms. Further analysis showed that the gene-environment interaction was mediated by cultural consonance in family life, and that these effects were more pronounced in lower social class neighborhoods. The findings reinforce the role of the serotonergic system in the regulation of stress response and learning and memory, and how these processes in turn interact with environmental events and circumstances. Furthermore, these results suggest that gene-environment interaction models should incorporate a wider range of environmental experience and more complex pathways to better understand how genes and the environment combine to influence mental health outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Adenosine A2A receptor agonists with potent antiplatelet activity.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Fuentes, Manuel; Caballero, Julio; Palomo, Iván; Hinz, Sonja; El-Tayeb, Ali; Müller, Christa E

    2018-05-01

    Selected adenosine A 2A receptor agonists (PSB-15826, PSB-12404, and PSB-16301) have been evaluated as new antiplatelet agents. In addition, radioligand-binding studies and receptor-docking experiments were performed in order to explain their differential biological effects on a molecular level. Among the tested adenosine derivatives, PSB-15826 was the most potent compound to inhibit platelet aggregation (EC 50 0.32 ± 0.05 µmol/L) and platelet P-selectin cell-surface localization (EC 50 0.062 ± 0.2 µmol/L), and to increase intraplatelets cAMP levels (EC 50 0.24 ± 0.01 µmol/L). The compound was more active than CGS21680 (EC 50 0.97±0.07 µmol/L) and equipotent to NECA (EC 50 0.31 ± 0.05 µmol/L) in platelet aggregation induced by ADP. In contrast to the results from cAMP assays, K i values determined in radioligand-binding studies were not predictive of the A 2A agonists' antiplatelet activity. Docking studies revealed the key molecular determinants of this new family of adenosine A 2A receptor agonists: differences in activities are related to π-stacking interactions between the ligands and the residue His264 in the extracellular loop of the adenosine A 2A receptor which may result in increased residence times. In conclusion, these results provide an improved understanding of the requirements of antiplatelet adenosine A 2A receptor agonists.

  6. ST 1535: a preferential A2A adenosine receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Stasi, Maria Antonietta; Borsini, Franco; Varani, Katia; Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Di Cesare, Maria Assunta; Minetti, Patrizia; Ghirardi, Orlando; Carminati, Paolo

    2006-10-01

    Antagonism of the A2A adenosine function has proved beneficial in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, in that it increases L-dopa therapeutical effects without concomitant worsening of its side-effects. In this paper we describe a preferential A2A adenosine antagonist, ST 1535, with long-lasting pharmacodynamic effects. It competitively antagonizes the effects of the A2A adenosine agonist NECA on cAMP in cells cloned with the human A2A adenosine receptor (IC50=353+/-30 nM), and the effects of the A1 adenosine agonist CHA on cAMP in cells cloned with the human A1 adenosine receptor (IC50=510+/-38 nM). ST 1535, at oral doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg, antagonizes catalepsy induced by intracerebroventricular administration of the A2A adenosine agonist CGS 21680 (10 microg/5 microl) in mice. At oral doses ranging between 5 and 20 mg/kg, ST 1535 induces hypermotility and antagonizes haloperidol-induced catalepsy in mice up to 7 h. Oral ST 1535, at 1.25 and 2.5 mg/kg, potentiates L-dopa effects in reducing haloperidol-induced catalepsy. ST 1535 represents a potential new compound, with long-lasting activity, for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  7. Novel approaches for targeting the adenosine A2A receptor.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Gengyang; Gedeon, Nicholas G; Jankins, Tanner C; Jones, Graham B

    2015-01-01

    The adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) represents a drug target for a wide spectrum of diseases. Approaches for targeting this membrane-bound protein have been greatly advanced by new stabilization techniques. The resulting X-ray crystal structures and subsequent analyses provide deep insight to the A2AR from both static and dynamic perspectives. Application of this, along with other biophysical methods combined with fragment-based drug design (FBDD), has become a standard approach in targeting A2AR. Complementarities of in silico screening based- and biophysical screening assisted- FBDD are likely to feature in future approaches in identifying novel ligands against this key receptor. This review describes evolution of the above approaches for targeting A2AR and highlights key modulators identified. It includes a review of: adenosine receptor structures, homology modeling, X-ray structural analysis, rational drug design, biophysical methods, FBDD and in silico screening. As a drug target, the A2AR is attractive as its function plays a role in a wide spectrum of diseases including oncologic, inflammatory, Parkinson's and cardiovascular diseases. Although traditional approaches such as high-throughput screening and homology model-based virtual screening (VS) have played a role in targeting A2AR, numerous shortcomings have generally restricted their applications to specific ligand families. Using stabilization methods for crystallization, X-ray structures of A2AR have greatly accelerated drug discovery and influenced development of biophysical-in silico hybrid screening methods. Application of these new methods to other ARs and G-protein-coupled receptors is anticipated in the future.

  8. Functional efficacy of adenosine A2A receptor agonists is positively correlated to their receptor residence time

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dong; Mulder-Krieger, Thea; IJzerman, Adriaan P; Heitman, Laura H

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The adenosine A2A receptor belongs to the superfamily of GPCRs and is a promising therapeutic target. Traditionally, the discovery of novel agents for the A2A receptor has been guided by their affinity for the receptor. This parameter is determined under equilibrium conditions, largely ignoring the kinetic aspects of the ligand-receptor interaction. The aim of this study was to assess the binding kinetics of A2A receptor agonists and explore a possible relationship with their functional efficacy. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We set up, validated and optimized a kinetic radioligand binding assay (a so-called competition association assay) at the A2A receptor from which the binding kinetics of unlabelled ligands were determined. Subsequently, functional efficacies of A2A receptor agonists were determined in two different assays: a novel label-free impedance-based assay and a more traditional cAMP determination. KEY RESULTS A simplified competition association assay yielded an accurate determination of the association and dissociation rates of unlabelled A2A receptor ligands at their receptor. A correlation was observed between the receptor residence time of A2A receptor agonists and their intrinsic efficacies in both functional assays. The affinity of A2A receptor agonists was not correlated to their functional efficacy. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS This study indicates that the molecular basis of different agonist efficacies at the A2A receptor lies within their different residence times at this receptor. PMID:22324512

  9. A2A-D2 receptor-receptor interaction modulates gliotransmitter release from striatal astrocyte processes.

    PubMed

    Cervetto, Chiara; Venturini, Arianna; Passalacqua, Mario; Guidolin, Diego; Genedani, Susanna; Fuxe, Kjell; Borroto-Esquela, Dasiel O; Cortelli, Pietro; Woods, Amina; Maura, Guido; Marcoli, Manuela; Agnati, Luigi F

    2017-01-01

    Evidence for striatal A2A-D2 heterodimers has led to a new perspective on molecular mechanisms involved in schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. Despite the increasing recognition of astrocytes' participation in neuropsychiatric disease vulnerability, involvement of striatal astrocytes in A2A and D2 receptor signal transmission has never been explored. Here, we investigated the presence of D2 and A2A receptors in isolated astrocyte processes prepared from adult rat striatum by confocal imaging; the effects of receptor activation were measured on the 4-aminopyridine-evoked release of glutamate from the processes. Confocal analysis showed that A2A and D2 receptors were co-expressed on the same astrocyte processes. Evidence for A2A-D2 receptor-receptor interactions was obtained by measuring the release of the gliotransmitter glutamate: D2 receptors inhibited the glutamate release, while activation of A2A receptors, per se ineffective, abolished the effect of D2 receptor activation. The synthetic D2 peptide VLRRRRKRVN corresponding to the receptor region involved in electrostatic interaction underlying A2A-D2 heteromerization abolished the ability of the A2A receptor to antagonize the D2 receptor-mediated effect. Together, the findings are consistent with heteromerization of native striatal astrocytic A2A-D2 receptors that via allosteric receptor-receptor interactions could play a role in the control of striatal glutamatergic transmission. These new findings suggest possible new pathogenic mechanisms and/or therapeutic approaches to neuropsychiatric disorders. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  10. Adenosine A2a receptors and O2 sensing in development

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Reduced mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, via activation of adenylate kinase and the resulting exponential rise in the cellular AMP/ATP ratio, appears to be a critical factor underlying O2 sensing in many chemoreceptive tissues in mammals. The elevated AMP/ATP ratio, in turn, activates key enzymes that are involved in physiologic adjustments that tend to balance ATP supply and demand. An example is the conversion of AMP to adenosine via 5′-nucleotidase and the resulting activation of adenosine A2A receptors, which are involved in acute oxygen sensing by both carotid bodies and the brain. In fetal sheep, A2A receptors associated with carotid bodies trigger hypoxic cardiovascular chemoreflexes, while central A2A receptors mediate hypoxic inhibition of breathing and rapid eye movements. A2A receptors are also involved in hypoxic regulation of fetal endocrine systems, metabolism, and vascular tone. In developing lambs, A2A receptors play virtually no role in O2 sensing by the carotid bodies, but brain A2A receptors remain critically involved in the roll-off ventilatory response to hypoxia. In adult mammals, A2A receptors have been implicated in O2 sensing by carotid glomus cells, while central A2A receptors likely blunt hypoxic hyperventilation. In conclusion, A2A receptors are crucially involved in the transduction mechanisms of O2 sensing in fetal carotid bodies and brains. Postnatally, central A2A receptors remain key mediators of hypoxic respiratory depression, but they are less critical for O2 sensing in carotid chemoreceptors, particularly in developing lambs. PMID:21677265

  11. Taste Receptor Genes

    PubMed Central

    Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Beauchamp, Gary K.

    2009-01-01

    In the past several years, tremendous progress has been achieved with the discovery and characterization of vertebrate taste receptors from the T1R and T2R families, which are involved in recognition of bitter, sweet, and umami taste stimuli. Individual differences in taste, at least in some cases, can be attributed to allelic variants of the T1R and T2R genes. Progress with understanding how T1R and T2R receptors interact with taste stimuli and with identifying their patterns of expression in taste cells sheds light on coding of taste information by the nervous system. Candidate mechanisms for detection of salts, acids, fat, complex carbohydrates, and water have also been proposed, but further studies are needed to prove their identity. PMID:17444812

  12. The importance of the adenosine A(2A) receptor-dopamine D(2) receptor interaction in drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Filip, M; Zaniewska, M; Frankowska, M; Wydra, K; Fuxe, K

    2012-01-01

    Drug addiction is a serious brain disorder with somatic, psychological, psychiatric, socio-economic and legal implications in the developed world. Illegal (e.g., psychostimulants, opioids, cannabinoids) and legal (alcohol, nicotine) drugs of abuse create a complex behavioral pattern composed of drug intake, withdrawal, seeking and relapse. One of the hallmarks of drugs that are abused by humans is that they have different mechanisms of action to increase dopamine (DA) neurotransmission within the mesolimbic circuitry of the brain and indirectly activate DA receptors. Among the DA receptors, D(2) receptors are linked to drug abuse and addiction because their function has been proven to be correlated with drug reinforcement and relapses. The recognition that D(2) receptors exist not only as homomers but also can form heteromers, such as with the adenosine (A)(2A) receptor, that are pharmacologically and functionally distinct from their constituent receptors, has significantly expanded the range of potential drug targets and provided new avenues for drug design in the search for novel drug addiction therapies. The aim of this review is to bring current focus on A(2A) receptors, their physiology and pharmacology in the central nervous system, and to discuss the therapeutic relevance of these receptors to drug addiction. We concentrate on the contribution of A(2A) receptors to the effects of different classes of drugs of abuse examined in preclinical behavioral experiments carried out with pharmacological and genetic tools. The consequences of chronic drug treatment on A(2A) receptor-assigned functions in preclinical studies are also presented. Finally, the neurochemical mechanism of the interaction between A(2A) receptors and drugs of abuse in the context of the heteromeric A(2A)-D(2) receptor complex is discussed. Taken together, a significant amount of experimental analyses provide evidence that targeting A(2A) receptors may offer innovative translational strategies

  13. Activation of Adenosine A2A Receptors Inhibits Neutrophil Transuroepithelial Migration ▿

    PubMed Central

    Säve, Susanne; Mohlin, Camilla; Vumma, Ravi; Persson, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    Adenosine has been identified as a significant inhibitor of inflammation by acting on adenosine A2A receptors. In this study, we examined the role of adenosine and A2A receptors in the transmigration of human neutrophils across an in vitro model of the transitional bladder urothelium. Human uroepithelial cells (UROtsa) were grown on transwell inserts; uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and neutrophils were added to the transwell system; and the number of migrating neutrophils was evaluated. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry were used to investigate the expression of adenosine receptors, the epithelial adhesion molecule ICAM-1, and the neutrophil integrin CD11b. Levels of proinflammatory interleukin-8 (IL-8) and phosphorylated IκBα were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and Luminex assays, respectively. The neutrophils expressed all four adenosine receptor subtypes (A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 receptors), but A3 receptors were not expressed by UROtsa cells. UPEC stimulated neutrophil transuroepithelial migration, which was significantly decreased in response to the specific A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680. The inhibitory effect of CGS 21680 on neutrophil migration was reversed by the A2A receptor antagonist SCH 58261. The production of chemotactic IL-8 and the expression of the adhesion molecule ICAM-1 or CD11b were not significantly affected by CGS 21680. However, a significant decrease in the level of phosporylated IκBα was revealed in response to CGS 21680. In conclusion, UPEC infection in vitro evoked neutrophil migration through a multilayered human uroepithelium. The UPEC-evoked neutrophil transmigration decreased in response to A2A receptor activation, possibly through inhibition of NF-κB signaling pathways. PMID:21646447

  14. The A2a adenosine receptor modulates the reinforcement efficacy and neurotoxicity of MDMA.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Medina, Jessica; Ledent, Catherine; Carretón, Olga; Valverde, Olga

    2011-04-01

    Adenosine is an endogenous purine nucleoside that plays a neuromodulatory role in the central nervous system. A2a adenosine receptors have been involved in reward-related processes, inflammatory phenomena and neurotoxicity reactions. In the present study, we investigated the role of A2a adenosine receptors on the acute pharmacological effects, reinforcement and neuroinflammation induced by MDMA administration. First, the acute effects of MDMA on body temperature, locomotor activity and anxiety-like responses were measured in A2a knockout mice and wild-type littermates. Second, MDMA reinforcing properties were evaluated using the intravenous self-administration paradigm. Finally, we assessed striatal astrogliosis and microgliosis as markers of MDMA neurotoxicity. Our results showed that acute MDMA produced a biphasic effect on body temperature and increased locomotor activity and anxiogenic-like responses in both genotypes. However, MDMA reinforcing properties were dramatically affected by the lack of A2a adenosine receptors. Thus, wild-type mice maintained MDMA self-administration under a fixed ratio 1 reinforcement schedule, whereas the operant response appeared completely abolished in A2a knockout mice. In addition, the MDMA neurotoxic regime produced an enhanced inflammatory response in striatum of wild-type mice, revealed by a significant increase in glial expression, whereas such activation was attenuated in mutant mice. This is the first report indicating that A2a adenosine receptors play a key role in reinforcement and neuroinflammation induced by the widely used psychostimulant.

  15. Adenosine A(2A) receptors are necessary and sufficient to trigger memory impairment in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Pagnussat, N; Almeida, A S; Marques, D M; Nunes, F; Chenet, G C; Botton, P H S; Mioranzza, S; Loss, C M; Cunha, R A; Porciúncula, L O

    2015-08-01

    Caffeine (a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist) prevents memory deficits in aging and Alzheimer's disease, an effect mimicked by adenosine A2 A receptor, but not A1 receptor, antagonists. Hence, we investigated the effects of adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists on memory performance and scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. We determined whether A2 A receptors are necessary for the emergence of memory impairments induced by scopolamine and whether A2 A receptor activation triggers memory deficits in naïve mice, using three tests to assess short-term memory, namely the object recognition task, inhibitory avoidance and modified Y-maze. Scopolamine (1.0 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.) impaired short-term memory performance in all three tests and this scopolamine-induced amnesia was prevented by the A2 A receptor antagonist (SCH 58261, 0.1-1.0 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.) and by the A1 receptor antagonist (DPCPX, 0.2-5.0 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.), except in the modified Y-maze where only SCH58261 was effective. Both antagonists were devoid of effects on memory or locomotion in naïve rats. Notably, the activation of A2 A receptors with CGS 21680 (0.1-0.5 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.) before the training session was sufficient to trigger memory impairment in the three tests in naïve mice, and this effect was prevented by SCH 58261 (1.0 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.). Furthermore, i.c.v. administration of CGS 21680 (50 nmol) also impaired recognition memory in the object recognition task. These results show that A2 A receptors are necessary and sufficient to trigger memory impairment and further suggest that A1 receptors might also be selectively engaged to control the cholinergic-driven memory impairment. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  16. Behavioral control by striatal adenosine A2A -dopamine D2 receptor heteromers.

    PubMed

    Taura, J; Valle-León, M; Sahlholm, K; Watanabe, M; Van Craenenbroeck, K; Fernández-Dueñas, V; Ferré, S; Ciruela, F

    2018-04-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) exhibit the ability to form receptor complexes that include molecularly different GPCR (ie, GPCR heteromers), which endow them with singular functional and pharmacological characteristics. The relative expression of GPCR heteromers remains a matter of intense debate. Recent studies support that adenosine A 2A receptors (A 2A R) and dopamine D 2 receptors (D 2 R) predominantly form A 2A R-D 2 R heteromers in the striatum. The aim of the present study was evaluating the behavioral effects of pharmacological manipulation and genetic blockade of A 2A R and D 2 R within the frame of such a predominant striatal heteromeric population. First, in order to avoid possible strain-related differences, a new D 2 R-deficient mouse with the same genetic background (CD-1) than the A 2A R knock-out mouse was generated. Locomotor activity, pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) and drug-induced catalepsy were then evaluated in wild-type, A 2A R and D 2 R knock-out mice, with and without the concomitant administration of either the D 2 R agonist sumanirole or the A 2A R antagonist SCH442416. SCH442416-mediated locomotor effects were demonstrated to be dependent on D 2 R signaling. Similarly, a significant dependence on A 2A R signaling was observed for PPI and for haloperidol-induced catalepsy. The results could be explained by the existence of one main population of striatal postsynaptic A 2A R-D 2 R heteromers, which may constitute a relevant target for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and other neuropsychiatric disorders. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  17. Mechanisms of the adenosine A2A receptor-induced sensitization of esophageal C fibers

    PubMed Central

    Brozmanova, M.; Mazurova, L.; Ru, F.; Tatar, M.; Hu, Y.; Yu, S.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies indicate that adenosine contributes to esophageal mechanical hypersensitivity in some patients with pain originating in the esophagus. We have previously reported that the esophageal vagal nodose C fibers express the adenosine A2A receptor. Here we addressed the hypothesis that stimulation of the adenosine A2A receptor induces mechanical sensitization of esophageal C fibers by a mechanism involving transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1). Extracellular single fiber recordings of activity originating in C-fiber terminals were made in the ex vivo vagally innervated guinea pig esophagus. The adenosine A2A receptor-selective agonist CGS21680 induced robust, reversible sensitization of the response to esophageal distention (10–60 mmHg) in a concentration-dependent fashion (1–100 nM). At the half-maximally effective concentration (EC50: ≈3 nM), CGS21680 induced an approximately twofold increase in the mechanical response without causing an overt activation. This sensitization was abolished by the selective A2A antagonist SCH58261. The adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin mimicked while the nonselective protein kinase inhibitor H89 inhibited mechanical sensitization by CGS21680. CGS21680 did not enhance the response to the purinergic P2X receptor agonist α,β-methylene-ATP, indicating that CGS21680 does not nonspecifically sensitize to all stimuli. Mechanical sensitization by CGS21680 was abolished by pretreatment with two structurally different TRPA1 antagonists AP18 and HC030031. Single cell RT-PCR and whole cell patch-clamp studies in isolated esophagus-specific nodose neurons revealed the expression of TRPA1 in A2A-positive C-fiber neurons and demonstrated that CGS21682 potentiated TRPA1 currents evoked by allylisothiocyanate. We conclude that stimulation of the adenosine A2A receptor induces mechanical sensitization of nodose C fibers by a mechanism sensitive to TRPA1 antagonists indicating the involvement of TRPA1. PMID:26564719

  18. Adenosine A2A Receptors in the Amygdala Control Synaptic Plasticity and Contextual Fear Memory.

    PubMed

    Simões, Ana Patrícia; Machado, Nuno J; Gonçalves, Nélio; Kaster, Manuella P; Simões, Ana T; Nunes, Ana; Pereira de Almeida, Luís; Goosens, Ki Ann; Rial, Daniel; Cunha, Rodrigo A

    2016-11-01

    The consumption of caffeine modulates working and reference memory through the antagonism of adenosine A 2A receptors (A 2A Rs) controlling synaptic plasticity processes in hippocampal excitatory synapses. Fear memory essentially involves plastic changes in amygdala circuits. However, it is unknown if A 2A Rs in the amygdala regulate synaptic plasticity and fear memory. We report that A 2A Rs in the amygdala are enriched in synapses and located to glutamatergic synapses, where they selectively control synaptic plasticity rather than synaptic transmission at a major afferent pathway to the amygdala. Notably, the downregulation of A 2A Rs selectively in the basolateral complex of the amygdala, using a lentivirus with a silencing shRNA (small hairpin RNA targeting A 2A R (shA 2A R)), impaired fear acquisition as well as Pavlovian fear retrieval. This is probably associated with the upregulation and gain of function of A 2A Rs in the amygdala after fear acquisition. The importance of A 2A Rs to control fear memory was further confirmed by the ability of SCH58261 (0.1 mg/kg; A 2A R antagonist), caffeine (5 mg/kg), but not DPCPX (0.5 mg/kg; A 1 R antagonist), treatment for 7 days before fear conditioning onwards, to attenuate the retrieval of context fear after 24-48 h and after 7-8 days. These results demonstrate that amygdala A 2A Rs control fear memory and the underlying process of synaptic plasticity in this brain region. This provides a neurophysiological basis for the association between A 2A R polymorphisms and phobia or panic attacks in humans and prompts a therapeutic interest in A 2A Rs to manage fear-related pathologies.

  19. A2A Adenosine Receptor Antagonists as Therapeutic Candidates: are they still an interesting challenge?

    PubMed

    Cacciari, Barbara; Federico, Stephanie; Spalluto, Giampiero

    2018-04-22

    In the past decades, many efforts were done to develope ligands for the adenosine receptors, with the purpose to individuate agonists and antagonists affine and selective for each subtypes , named A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. These intense studies allowed a deeper and deeper knowledge of the nature and, moreover, of the pathophysiological roles of all the adenosine receptor subtypes. In particular, the involvment of the A2A adenosine receptor subtype in some physiological mechanisms in the brain, that could be related to important diseases such as the Parkinson's disease, encouraged the research in this field. Particular attention was given to the antagonists endowed with high affinity and selectivity since they could have a real employment in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, and some compounds, such as istradefylline, preladenant and tozadenant, are already studied in clinical trials. Actually, the role of A2A antagonists in Parkinson's disease is becoming contradictory due to contrasting results in the last studies, but, at the same time, new possible employments are emerging for this class of antagonists in cancer pathologies as much interesting to legitimate further efforts in the research of A2A ligands. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. A2A adenosine receptor agonists and their potential therapeutic applications. An update.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Angel

    2018-03-12

    In the last 20 years, an increasing interest of medicinal chemists on the development of potent and selective agonists and antagonists of adenosine receptors has been noticed due to the large impact they have shown in a variety of important biological processes and diseases. Among these, it should be mentioned vasodilation, inflammation, cancer, wound healing, ischemia reperfusion injury, Parkinson disease, infectious diseases, and other CNS disorders. In this review, I will provide an update of the structures of the A2A agonists known, their selectivity versus other adenosine receptors, and their latest therapeutic applications. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Genetic polymorphism of the adenosine A2A receptor is associated with habitual caffeine consumption.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, Marilyn C; El-Sohemy, Ahmed; Campos, Hannia

    2007-07-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed stimulant in the world, and individual differences in response to its stimulating effects may explain some of the variability in caffeine consumption within a population. We examined whether genetic variability in caffeine metabolism [cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) -163A-->C] or the main target of caffeine action in the nervous system [adenosine A(2A) receptor (ADORA2A) 1083C-->T] is associated with habitual caffeine consumption. Subjects (n=2735) were participants from a study of gene-diet interactions and risk of myocardial infarction who did not have a history of hypertension. Genotype frequencies were examined among persons who were categorized according to their self-reported daily caffeine intake, as assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire. The ADORA2A, but not the CYP1A2, genotype was associated with different amounts of caffeine intake. Compared with persons consuming <100 mg caffeine/d, the odds ratios for having the ADORA2A TT genotype were 0.74 (95% CI: 0.53, 1.03), 0.63 (95% CI: 0.48, 0.83), and 0.57 (95% CI: 0.42, 0.77) for those consuming 100-200, >200-400, and >400 mg caffeine/d, respectively. The association was more pronounced among current smokers than among nonsmokers (P for interaction = 0.07). Persons with the ADORA2A TT genotype also were significantly more likely to consume less caffeine (ie, <100 mg/d) than were carriers of the C allele [P=0.011 (nonsmokers), P=0.008 (smokers)]. Our findings show that the probability of having the ADORA2A 1083TT genotype decreases as habitual caffeine consumption increases. This observation provides a biologic basis for caffeine consumption behavior and suggests that persons with this genotype may be less vulnerable to caffeine dependence.

  2. Role of Adenosine Receptor A2A in Traumatic Optic Neuropathies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    in Traumatic Optic Neuropathies ” PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Gregory I. Liou, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Georgia Health Sciences...Adenosine Receptor A2A in Traumatic Optic Neuropathies 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0046 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...ABSTRACT Our goal is to develop an early therapeutic intervention before the progression of traumatic optic neuropathy (TON), a vision-threatening

  3. A2A adenosine receptor ligand binding and signalling is allosterically modulated by adenosine deaminase.

    PubMed

    Gracia, Eduard; Pérez-Capote, Kamil; Moreno, Estefanía; Barkešová, Jana; Mallol, Josefa; Lluís, Carme; Franco, Rafael; Cortés, Antoni; Casadó, Vicent; Canela, Enric I

    2011-05-01

    A2ARs (adenosine A2A receptors) are highly enriched in the striatum, which is the main motor control CNS (central nervous system) area. BRET (bioluminescence resonance energy transfer) assays showed that A2AR homomers may act as cell-surface ADA (adenosine deaminase; EC 3.5.4.4)-binding proteins. ADA binding affected the quaternary structure of A2ARs present on the cell surface. ADA binding to adenosine A2ARs increased both agonist and antagonist affinity on ligand binding to striatal membranes where these proteins are co-expressed. ADA also increased receptor-mediated ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2) phosphorylation. Collectively, the results of the present study show that ADA, apart from regulating the concentration of extracellular adenosine, may behave as an allosteric modulator that markedly enhances ligand affinity and receptor function. This powerful regulation may have implications for the physiology and pharmacology of neuronal A2ARs.

  4. Adenosine A2A receptors in ventral striatum, hypothalamus and nociceptive circuitry. Implications for drug addiction, sleep and pain

    PubMed Central

    Ferré, S.; Diamond, I.; Goldberg, S.R.; Yao, L.; Hourani, S.M.O.; Huang, Z.L.; Urade, Y.; Kitchen, I.

    2007-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptors localized in the dorsal striatum are considered as a new target for the development of antiparkinsonian drugs. Co-administration of A2A receptor antagonists has shown a significant improvement of the effects of L-DOPA. The present review emphasizes the possible application of A2A receptor antagonists in pathological conditions other than parkinsonism, including drug addiction, sleep disorders and pain. In addition to the dorsal striatum, the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens) contains a high density of A2A receptors, which presynaptically and postsynaptically regulate glutamatergic transmission in the cortical glutamatergic projections to the nucleus accumbens. It is currently believed that molecular adaptations of the cortico-accumbens glutamatergic synapses are involved in compulsive drug seeking and relapse. Here we review recent experimental evidence suggesting that A2A antagonists could become new therapeutic agents for drug addiction. Morphological and functional studies have identified lower levels of A2A receptors in brain areas other than the striatum, such as the ventrolateral preoptic area of the hypothalamus, where adenosine plays an important role in sleep regulation. Although initially believed to be mostly dependent on A1 receptors, here we review recent studies that demonstrate that the somnogenic effects of adenosine are largely mediated by hypothalamic A2A receptors. A2A receptor antagonists could therefore be considered as a possible treatment for narcolepsy and other sleep-related disorders. Finally, nociception is another adenosine-regulated neural function previously thought to mostly involve A1 receptors. Although there is some conflicting literature on the effects of agonists and antagonists, which may partly be due to the lack of selectivity of available drugs, the studies in A2A receptor knockout mice suggest that A2A receptor antagonists might have some therapeutic potential in pain states, in particular where

  5. Neuroprotection by caffeine in the MPTP model of parkinson's disease and its dependence on adenosine A2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Xu, K; Di Luca, D G; Orrú, M; Xu, Y; Chen, J-F; Schwarzschild, M A

    2016-05-13

    Considerable epidemiological and laboratory data have suggested that caffeine, a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist, may protect against the underlying neurodegeneration of parkinson's disease (PD). Although both caffeine and more specific antagonists of the A2A subtype of adenosine receptor (A2AR) have been found to confer protection in animal models of PD, the dependence of caffeine's neuroprotective effects on the A2AR is not known. To definitively determine its A2AR dependence, the effect of caffeine on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetra-hydropyridine (MPTP) neurotoxicity was compared in wild-type (WT) and A2AR gene global knockout (A2A KO) mice, as well as in central nervous system (CNS) cell type-specific (conditional) A2AR knockout (cKO) mice that lack the receptor either in postnatal forebrain neurons or in astrocytes. In WT and in heterozygous A2AR KO mice caffeine pretreatment (25mg/kgip) significantly attenuated MPTP-induced depletion of striatal dopamine. By contrast in homozygous A2AR global KO mice caffeine had no effect on MPTP toxicity. In forebrain neuron A2AR cKO mice, caffeine lost its locomotor stimulant effect, whereas its neuroprotective effect was mostly preserved. In astrocytic A2AR cKO mice, both caffeine's locomotor stimulant and protective properties were undiminished. Taken together, these results indicate that neuroprotection by caffeine in the MPTP model of PD relies on the A2AR, although the specific cellular localization of these receptors remains to be determined. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular Evidence of Adenosine Deaminase Linking Adenosine A2A Receptor and CD26 Proteins.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Estefanía; Canet, Júlia; Gracia, Eduard; Lluís, Carme; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I; Cortés, Antoni; Casadó, Vicent

    2018-01-01

    Adenosine is an endogenous purine nucleoside that acts in all living systems as a homeostatic network regulator through many pathways, which are adenosine receptor (AR)-dependent and -independent. From a metabolic point of view, adenosine deaminase (ADA) is an essential protein in the regulation of the total intracellular and extracellular adenosine in a tissue. In addition to its cytosolic localization, ADA is also expressed as an ecto-enzyme on the surface of different cells. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (CD26) and some ARs act as binding proteins for extracellular ADA in humans. Since CD26 and ARs interact with ADA at opposite sites, we have investigated if ADA can function as a cell-to-cell communication molecule by bridging the anchoring molecules CD26 and A 2A R present on the surfaces of the interacting cells. By combining site-directed mutagenesis of ADA amino acids involved in binding to A 2A R and a modification of the bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) technique that allows detection of interactions between two proteins expressed in different cell populations with low steric hindrance (NanoBRET), we show direct evidence of the specific formation of trimeric complexes CD26-ADA-A 2A R involving two cells. By dynamic mass redistribution assays and ligand binding experiments, we also demonstrate that A 2A R-NanoLuc fusion proteins are functional. The existence of this ternary complex is in good agreement with the hypothesis that ADA could bridge T-cells (expressing CD26) and dendritic cells (expressing A 2A R). This is a new metabolic function for ecto-ADA that, being a single chain protein, it has been considered as an example of moonlighting protein, because it performs more than one functional role (as a catalyst, a costimulator, an allosteric modulator and a cell-to-cell connector) without partitioning these functions in different subunits.

  7. Adenosine A2A Receptor Activation Prevents Wear Particle-Induced Osteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Mediero, Aránzazu; Frenkel, Sally R.; Wilder, Tuere; He, Wenjie; Mazumder, Amitabha; Cronstein, Bruce N.

    2012-01-01

    Prosthesis loosening, associated with wear-particle–induced inflammation and osteoclast-mediated bone destruction, is a common cause for joint implant failure, leading to revision surgery. Adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) mediate potent anti-inflammatory effects in many tissues and prevent osteoclast differentiation. We tested the hypothesis that an A2AR agonist could reduce osteoclast-mediated bone resorption in a murine calvaria model of wear-particle–induced bone resorption. C57Bl/6 and A2A knockout (A2ARKO) mice received ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene particles (UHMWPE) and were treated daily with either saline or the A2AR agonist CGS21680. After 2 weeks, micro-computed tomography of calvaria demonstrated that CGS21680 reduced particle-induced bone pitting and porosity in a dose-dependent manner, increasing cortical bone and bone volume compared to control mice. Histological examination demonstrated diminished inflammation after treatment with CGS21680. In A2AKO mice, CGS21680 did not affect osteoclast-mediated bone resorption or inflammation. Levels of bone-resorption markers receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB (RANK), RANK ligand (RANKL), cathepsin K, CD163, and osteopontin were reduced following CGS21680 treatment, together with a reduction in osteoclasts. Secretion of interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and TNFα was significantly decreased, whereas IL-10 was markedly increased in bone by CGS21680. These results in mice suggest that site-specific delivery of an adenosine A2AR agonist could enhance implant survival, delaying or eliminating the need for revision arthroplastic surgery. PMID:22623741

  8. Novel therapy in Parkinson's disease: adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Nikoletta; Kincses, Zsigmond Tamás; Vécsei, László

    2011-04-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. To date, most of the currently available therapies in PD target the dopaminergic system and none of these therapeutic approaches have been proven to modify the course of the disease. To various extents, these drugs can also cause motor and non-motor complications. A novel target, the adenosine A(2A) receptor (AA2AR), was recently identified, blockade of which may alleviate Parkinsonian symptoms, reduce motor fluctuations and potentially afford neuroprotection. This review is based on a PubMed search covering the relationship of the adenosine receptors and PD. The role of the AA2AR is reviewed and the results of preclinical investigations of antagonists are assessed. A synopsis of current drug development is provided, with a special focus on the pharmacokinetics and relevant clinical trials. The localization of the AA2AR in the central nervous system, the ultra structural localization and the molecular mechanism of its action reveal the potential importance of the AA2AR in movement disorders. The theoretical background and experimental data indicate that AA2AR antagonists may have a potential therapeutic effect in Parkinson's disease. More importantly, the putative neuroprotective effect needs further investigation.

  9. Ligand-Dependent Activation and Deactivation of the Human Adenosine A2A Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianing; Jonsson, Amanda L.; Beuming, Thijs; Shelley, John C.; Voth, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are membrane proteins with critical functions in cellular signal transduction, representing a primary class of drug targets. Acting by direct binding, many drugs modulate GPCR activity and influence the signaling pathways associated with numerous diseases. However, complete details of ligand-dependent GPCR activation/deactivation are difficult to obtain from experiments. Therefore, it remains unclear how ligands modulate a GPCR’s activity. To elucidate the ligand-dependent activation/deactivation mechanism of the human adenosine A2A receptor (AA2AR), a member of the class A GPCRs, we performed large-scale unbiased molecular dynamics and metadynamics simulations of the receptor embedded in a membrane. At the atomic level, we have observed distinct structural states that resemble the active and inactive states. In particular we noted key structural elements changing in a highly concerted fashion during the conformational transitions, including six conformational states of a tryptophan (Trp2466.48). Our findings agree with a previously proposed view, that during activation, this tryptophan residue undergoes a rotameric transition that may be coupled to a series of coherent conformational changes, resulting in the opening of the G protein-binding site. Further, metadynamics simulations provide quantitative evidence for this mechanism, suggesting how ligand binding shifts the equilibrium between the active and inactive states. Our analysis also proposes that a few specific residues are associated with agonism/antagonism, affinity and selectivity, and suggests that the ligand-binding pocket can be thought of as having three distinct regions, providing dynamic features for structure-based design. Additional simulations with AA2AR bound to a novel ligand are consistent with our proposed mechanism. Generally, our study provides insights into the ligand-dependent AA2AR activation/deactivation in addition to what has been found in crystal

  10. Overexpression of Adenosine A2A Receptors in Rats: Effects on Depression, Locomotion, and Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Joana E; Alves, Pedro; Canas, Paula M; Valadas, Jorge S; Shmidt, Tatiana; Batalha, Vânia L; Ferreira, Diana G; Ribeiro, Joaquim A; Bader, Michael; Cunha, Rodrigo A; do Couto, Frederico Simões; Lopes, Luísa V

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) are a sub-type of receptors enriched in basal ganglia, activated by the neuromodulator adenosine, which interact with dopamine D2 receptors. Although this reciprocal antagonistic interaction is well-established in motor function, the outcome in dopamine-related behaviors remains uncertain, in particular in depression and anxiety. We have demonstrated an upsurge of A2AR associated to aging and chronic stress. Furthermore, Alzheimer's disease patients present A2AR accumulation in cortical areas together with depressive signs. We now tested the impact of overexpressing A2AR in forebrain neurons on dopamine-related behavior, namely depression. Adult male rats overexpressing human A2AR under the control of CaMKII promoter [Tg(CaMKII-hA2AR)] and aged-matched wild-types (WT) of the same strain (Sprague-Dawley) were studied. The forced swimming test (FST), sucrose preference test (SPT), and the open-field test (OFT) were performed to evaluate behavioral despair, anhedonia, locomotion, and anxiety. Tg(CaMKII-hA2AR) animals spent more time floating and less time swimming in the FST and presented a decreased sucrose preference at 48 h in the SPT. They also covered higher distances in the OFT and spent more time in the central zone than the WT. The results indicate that Tg(CaMKII-hA2AR) rats exhibit depressive-like behavior, hyperlocomotion, and altered exploratory behavior. This A2AR overexpression may explain the depressive signs found in aging, chronic stress, and Alzheimer's disease.

  11. Ligand-dependent activation and deactivation of the human adenosine A(2A) receptor.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianing; Jonsson, Amanda L; Beuming, Thijs; Shelley, John C; Voth, Gregory A

    2013-06-12

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are membrane proteins with critical functions in cellular signal transduction, representing a primary class of drug targets. Acting by direct binding, many drugs modulate GPCR activity and influence the signaling pathways associated with numerous diseases. However, complete details of ligand-dependent GPCR activation/deactivation are difficult to obtain from experiments. Therefore, it remains unclear how ligands modulate a GPCR's activity. To elucidate the ligand-dependent activation/deactivation mechanism of the human adenosine A2A receptor (AA2AR), a member of the class A GPCRs, we performed large-scale unbiased molecular dynamics and metadynamics simulations of the receptor embedded in a membrane. At the atomic level, we have observed distinct structural states that resemble the active and inactive states. In particular, we noted key structural elements changing in a highly concerted fashion during the conformational transitions, including six conformational states of a tryptophan (Trp246(6.48)). Our findings agree with a previously proposed view that, during activation, this tryptophan residue undergoes a rotameric transition that may be coupled to a series of coherent conformational changes, resulting in the opening of the G-protein binding site. Further, metadynamics simulations provide quantitative evidence for this mechanism, suggesting how ligand binding shifts the equilibrium between the active and inactive states. Our analysis also proposes that a few specific residues are associated with agonism/antagonism, affinity, and selectivity, and suggests that the ligand-binding pocket can be thought of as having three distinct regions, providing dynamic features for structure-based design. Additional simulations with AA2AR bound to a novel ligand are consistent with our proposed mechanism. Generally, our study provides insights into the ligand-dependent AA2AR activation/deactivation in addition to what has been found in

  12. Adenosine A2A Receptors in the Nucleus Accumbens Bi-Directionally Alter Cocaine Seeking in Rats

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Casey E; LeTendre, Mckenzie L; Bachtell, Ryan K

    2012-01-01

    Repeated cocaine administration enhances dopamine D2 receptor sensitivity in the mesolimbic dopamine system, which contributes to drug relapse. Adenosine A2A receptors are colocalized with D2 receptors on nucleus accumbens (NAc) medium spiny neurons where they antagonize D2 receptor activity. Thus, A2A receptors represent a target for reducing enhanced D2 receptor sensitivity that contributes to cocaine relapse. The aim of these studies were to determine the effects of adenosine A2A receptor modulation in the NAc on cocaine seeking in rats that were trained to lever press for cocaine. Following at least 15 daily self-administration sessions and 1 week of abstinence, lever pressing was extinguished in daily extinction sessions. We subsequently assessed the effects of intra-NAc core microinjections of the A2A receptor agonist, CGS 21680 (4-[2-[[6-amino-9-(N-ethyl-b--ribofuranuronamidosyl)-9H-purin-2-yl]amino]ethyl]benzenepropanoic acid hydrochloride), and the A2A receptor antagonist, MSX-3 (3,7-dihydro-8-[(1E)-2-(3-methoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-7-methyl-3-[3-(phosphonooxy)propyl-1-(2-propynyl)-1H-purine-2,6-dione disodium salt hydrate), in modulating cocaine- and quinpirole-induced reinstatement to cocaine seeking. Intra-NAc pretreatment of CGS 21680 reduced both cocaine- and quinpirole-induced reinstatement. These effects were specific to cocaine reinstatement as intra-NAc CGS 21680 had no effect on sucrose seeking in rats trained to self-administer sucrose pellets. Intra-NAc treatment with MSX-3 modestly reinstated cocaine seeking when given alone, and exacerbated both cocaine- and quinpirole-induced reinstatement. Interestingly, the exacerbation of cocaine seeking produced by MSX-3 was only observed at sub-threshold doses of cocaine and quinpirole, suggesting that removing tonic A2A receptor activity enables behaviors mediated by dopamine receptors. Taken together, these findings suggest that A2A receptor stimulation reduces, while A2A blockade amplifies, D2 receptor

  13. Adenosine A2A receptors in the nucleus accumbens bi-directionally alter cocaine seeking in rats.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Casey E; LeTendre, McKenzie L; Bachtell, Ryan K

    2012-04-01

    Repeated cocaine administration enhances dopamine D(2) receptor sensitivity in the mesolimbic dopamine system, which contributes to drug relapse. Adenosine A(2A) receptors are colocalized with D(2) receptors on nucleus accumbens (NAc) medium spiny neurons where they antagonize D(2) receptor activity. Thus, A(2A) receptors represent a target for reducing enhanced D(2) receptor sensitivity that contributes to cocaine relapse. The aim of these studies were to determine the effects of adenosine A(2A) receptor modulation in the NAc on cocaine seeking in rats that were trained to lever press for cocaine. Following at least 15 daily self-administration sessions and 1 week of abstinence, lever pressing was extinguished in daily extinction sessions. We subsequently assessed the effects of intra-NAc core microinjections of the A(2A) receptor agonist, CGS 21680 (4-[2-[[6-amino-9-(N-ethyl-b-D-ribofuranuronamidosyl)-9H-purin-2-yl]amino]ethyl]benzenepropanoic acid hydrochloride), and the A(2A) receptor antagonist, MSX-3 (3,7-dihydro-8-[(1E)-2-(3-methoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-7-methyl-3-[3-(phosphonooxy)propyl-1-(2-propynyl)-1H-purine-2,6-dione disodium salt hydrate), in modulating cocaine- and quinpirole-induced reinstatement to cocaine seeking. Intra-NAc pretreatment of CGS 21680 reduced both cocaine- and quinpirole-induced reinstatement. These effects were specific to cocaine reinstatement as intra-NAc CGS 21680 had no effect on sucrose seeking in rats trained to self-administer sucrose pellets. Intra-NAc treatment with MSX-3 modestly reinstated cocaine seeking when given alone, and exacerbated both cocaine- and quinpirole-induced reinstatement. Interestingly, the exacerbation of cocaine seeking produced by MSX-3 was only observed at sub-threshold doses of cocaine and quinpirole, suggesting that removing tonic A(2A) receptor activity enables behaviors mediated by dopamine receptors. Taken together, these findings suggest that A(2A) receptor stimulation reduces, while A(2A) blockade

  14. Arousal effect of caffeine depends on adenosine A2A receptors in the shell of the nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, Michael; Shen, Hai-Ying; Cherasse, Yoan; Qu, Wei-Min; Huang, Zhi-Li; Bass, Caroline E.; Winsky-Sommerer, Raphaelle; Semba, Kazue; Fredholm, Bertil B.; Boison, Detlev; Hayaishi, Osamu; Urade, Yoshihiro; Chen, Jiang-Fan

    2011-01-01

    Caffeine, the most widely used psychoactive compound, is an adenosine receptor antagonist. It promotes wakefulness by blocking adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) in the brain, but the specific neurons on which caffeine acts to produce arousal have not been identified. Using selective gene deletion strategies based on the Cre/loxP technology in mice and focal RNA interference to silence the expression of A2ARs in rats by local infection with adeno-associated virus carrying short-hairpin RNA, we report that the A2ARs in the shell region of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) are responsible for the effect of caffeine on wakefulness. Caffeine-induced arousal was not affected in rats when A2ARs were focally removed from the NAc core or other A2AR-positive areas of the basal ganglia. Our observations suggest that caffeine promotes arousal by activating pathways that traditionally have been associated with motivational and motor responses in the brain. PMID:21734299

  15. The A2A adenosine receptor rescues the urea cycle deficiency of Huntington's disease by enhancing the activity of the ubiquitin-proteasome system.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Ming-Chang; Chen, Hui-Mei; Lai, Hsing-Lin; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Chou, Szu-Yi; Chen, Chiung-Mei; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Chern, Yijuang

    2009-08-15

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by a CAG trinucleotide expansion in the Huntingtin (Htt) gene. The resultant mutant Htt protein (mHtt) forms aggregates in the brain and several peripheral tissues (e.g. the liver) and causes devastating neuronal degeneration. Metabolic defects resulting from Htt aggregates in peripheral tissues also contribute to HD pathogenesis. Simultaneous improvement of defects in both the CNS and peripheral tissues is thus the most effective therapeutic strategy and is highly desirable. We earlier showed that an agonist of the A(2A) adenosine receptor (A(2A) receptor), CGS21680 (CGS), attenuates neuronal symptoms of HD. We found herein that the A(2A) receptor also exists in the liver, and that CGS ameliorated the urea cycle deficiency by reducing mHtt aggregates in the liver. By suppressing aggregate formation, CGS slowed the hijacking of a crucial transcription factor (HSF1) and two protein chaperons (Hsp27 and Hsp70) into hepatic Htt aggregates. Moreover, the abnormally high levels of high-molecular-mass ubiquitin conjugates in the liver of an HD mouse model (R6/2) were also ameliorated by CGS. The protective effect of CGS against mHtt-induced aggregate formation was reproduced in two cells lines and was prevented by an antagonist of the A(2A) receptor and a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor. Most importantly, the mHtt-induced suppression of proteasome activity was also normalized by CGS through PKA. Our findings reveal a novel therapeutic pathway of A(2A) receptors in HD and further strengthen the concept that the A(2A) receptor can be a drug target in treating HD.

  16. Allosteric interactions between agonists and antagonists within the adenosine A2A receptor-dopamine D2 receptor heterotetramer

    PubMed Central

    Bonaventura, Jordi; Navarro, Gemma; Casadó-Anguera, Verònica; Azdad, Karima; Rea, William; Moreno, Estefanía; Brugarolas, Marc; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I.; Lluís, Carme; Cortés, Antoni; Volkow, Nora D.; Schiffmann, Serge N.; Ferré, Sergi; Casadó, Vicent

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) heteromers are key modulators of striatal neuronal function. It has been suggested that the psychostimulant effects of caffeine depend on its ability to block an allosteric modulation within the A2AR-D2R heteromer, by which adenosine decreases the affinity and intrinsic efficacy of dopamine at the D2R. We describe novel unsuspected allosteric mechanisms within the heteromer by which not only A2AR agonists, but also A2AR antagonists, decrease the affinity and intrinsic efficacy of D2R agonists and the affinity of D2R antagonists. Strikingly, these allosteric modulations disappear on agonist and antagonist coadministration. This can be explained by a model that considers A2AR-D2R heteromers as heterotetramers, constituted by A2AR and D2R homodimers, as demonstrated by experiments with bioluminescence resonance energy transfer and bimolecular fluorescence and bioluminescence complementation. As predicted by the model, high concentrations of A2AR antagonists behaved as A2AR agonists and decreased D2R function in the brain. PMID:26100888

  17. Allosteric interactions between agonists and antagonists within the adenosine A2A receptor-dopamine D2 receptor heterotetramer.

    PubMed

    Bonaventura, Jordi; Navarro, Gemma; Casadó-Anguera, Verònica; Azdad, Karima; Rea, William; Moreno, Estefanía; Brugarolas, Marc; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I; Lluís, Carme; Cortés, Antoni; Volkow, Nora D; Schiffmann, Serge N; Ferré, Sergi; Casadó, Vicent

    2015-07-07

    Adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) heteromers are key modulators of striatal neuronal function. It has been suggested that the psychostimulant effects of caffeine depend on its ability to block an allosteric modulation within the A2AR-D2R heteromer, by which adenosine decreases the affinity and intrinsic efficacy of dopamine at the D2R. We describe novel unsuspected allosteric mechanisms within the heteromer by which not only A2AR agonists, but also A2AR antagonists, decrease the affinity and intrinsic efficacy of D2R agonists and the affinity of D2R antagonists. Strikingly, these allosteric modulations disappear on agonist and antagonist coadministration. This can be explained by a model that considers A2AR-D2R heteromers as heterotetramers, constituted by A2AR and D2R homodimers, as demonstrated by experiments with bioluminescence resonance energy transfer and bimolecular fluorescence and bioluminescence complementation. As predicted by the model, high concentrations of A2AR antagonists behaved as A2AR agonists and decreased D2R function in the brain.

  18. Adenosine A2A receptor deficiency attenuates the somnogenic effect of prostaglandin D2 in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin-jia; Huang, Zhi-li; Chen, Jiang-fan; Urade, Yoshihiro; Qu, Wei-min

    2017-01-01

    Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) is one of the most potent endogenous sleep promoting substances. PGD2 activates the PGD2 receptor (DPR) and increases the extracellular level of adenosine in wild-type (WT) mice but not DPR knockout (KO) mice, suggesting that PGD2-induced sleep is DPR-dependent, and adenosine may be the signaling molecule that mediates the somnogenic effect of PGD2. The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) in PGD2-induced sleep. We infused PGD2 into the lateral ventricle of WT and A2AR KO mice between 20:00 and 2:00 for 6 h, and electroencephalograms and electromyograms were simultaneously recorded. In WT mice, PGD2 infusion dose-dependently increased non-rapid eye movement (non-REM, NREM) sleep, which was 139.1%, 145.0% and 202.7% as large as that of vehicle-treated mice at doses of 10, 20 and 50 pmol/min, respectively. PGD2 infusion at doses of 20 and 50 pmol/min also increased REM sleep during the 6-h PGD2 infusion and 4-h post-dosing periods in WT mice to 148.9% and 166.7%, respectively. In A2AR KO mice, however, PGD2 infusion at 10 pmol/min did not change the sleep profile, whereas higher doses at 20 and 50 pmol/min increased the NREM sleep during the 6-h PGD2 infusion to 117.5% and 155.6%, respectively, but did not change the sleep in the post-dosing period. Moreover, PGD2 infusion at 50 pmol/min significantly increased the episode number in both genotypes but only enhanced the episode duration in WT mice. The results demonstrate that PGD2-induced sleep in mice is mediated by both adenosine A2AR-dependent and -independent systems. PMID:28112177

  19. Macrophage A2A Adenosinergic Receptor Modulates Oxygen-Induced Augmentation of Murine Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    D’Alessio, Franco R.; Eto, Yoshiki; Chau, Eric; Avalos, Claudia; Waickman, Adam T.; Garibaldi, Brian T.; Mock, Jason R.; Files, Daniel C.; Sidhaye, Venkataramana; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y.; Powell, Jonathan; Horton, Maureen; King, Landon S.

    2013-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) causes significant morbidity and mortality. Exacerbating factors increasing the risk of ARDS remain unknown. Supplemental oxygen is often necessary in both mild and severe lung disease. The potential effects of supplemental oxygen may include augmentation of lung inflammation by inhibiting anti-inflammatory pathways in alveolar macrophages. We sought to determine oxygen-derived effects on the anti-inflammatory A2A adenosinergic (ADORA2A) receptor in macrophages, and the role of the ADORA2A receptor in lung injury. Wild-type (WT) and ADORA2A−/− mice received intratracheal lipopolysaccharide (IT LPS), followed 12 hours later by continuous exposure to 21% oxygen (control mice) or 60% oxygen for 1 to 3 days. We measured the phenotypic endpoints of lung injury and the alveolar macrophage inflammatory state. We tested an ADORA2A-specific agonist, CGS-21680 hydrochloride, in LPS plus oxygen-exposed WT and ADORA2A−/− mice. We determined the specific effects of myeloid ADORA2A, using chimera experiments. Compared with WT mice, ADORA2A−/− mice exposed to IT LPS and 60% oxygen demonstrated significantly more histologic lung injury, alveolar neutrophils, and protein. Macrophages from ADORA2A−/− mice exposed to LPS plus oxygen expressed higher concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and cosignaling molecules. CGS-21680 prevented the oxygen-induced augmentation of lung injury after LPS only in WT mice. Chimera experiments demonstrated that the transfer of WT but not ADORA2A−/− bone marrow cells into irradiated ADORA2A−/− mice reduced lung injury after LPS plus oxygen, demonstrating myeloid ADORA2A protection. ADORA2A is protective against lung injury after LPS and oxygen. Oxygen after LPS increases macrophage activation to augment lung injury by inhibiting the ADORA2A pathway. PMID:23349051

  20. Past, present and future of A2A adenosine receptor antagonists in the therapy of Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Armentero, Marie Therese; Pinna, Annalisa; Ferré, Sergi; Lanciego, José Luis; Müller, Christa E.; Franco, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Several selective antagonists for adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) are currently under evaluation in clinical trials (phases I to III) to treat Parkinson’s disease, and they will probably soon reach the market. The usefulness of these antagonists has been deduced from studies demonstrating functional interactions between dopamine D2 and adenosine A2A receptors in the basal ganglia. At present it is believed that A2AR antagonists can be used in combination with the dopamine precursor L-DOPA to minimize the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s patients. However, a considerable body of data indicates that in addition to ameliorating motor symptoms, adenosine A2AR antagonists may also prevent neurodegeneration. Despite these promising indications, one further issue must be considered in order to develop fully optimized anti-parkinsonian drug therapy, namely the existence of receptor (hetero)dimers/oligomers of G protein-coupled receptors, a topic currently the focus of intense debate within the scientific community. Dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) expressed in the striatum are known to form heteromers with A2A adenosine receptors. Thus, the development of heteromer-specific A2A receptor antagonists represents a promising strategy for the identification of more selective and safer drugs. PMID:21810444

  1. Evolution of the nuclear receptor gene superfamily.

    PubMed Central

    Laudet, V; Hänni, C; Coll, J; Catzeflis, F; Stéhelin, D

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear receptor genes represent a large family of genes encoding receptors for various hydrophobic ligands such as steroids, vitamin D, retinoic acid and thyroid hormones. This family also contains genes encoding putative receptors for unknown ligands. Nuclear receptor gene products are composed of several domains important for transcriptional activation, DNA binding (C domain), hormone binding and dimerization (E domain). It is not known whether these genes have evolved through gene duplication from a common ancestor or if their different domains came from different independent sources. To test these possibilities we have constructed and compared the phylogenetic trees derived from two different domains of 30 nuclear receptor genes. The tree built from the DNA binding C domain clearly shows a common progeny of all nuclear receptors, which can be grouped into three subfamilies: (i) thyroid hormone and retinoic acid receptors, (ii) orphan receptors and (iii) steroid hormone receptors. The tree constructed from the central part of the E domain which is implicated in transcriptional regulation and dimerization shows the same distribution in three subfamilies but two groups of receptors are in a different position from that in the C domain tree: (i) the Drosophila knirps family genes have acquired very different E domains during evolution, and (ii) the vitamin D and ecdysone receptors, as well as the FTZ-F1 and the NGF1B genes, seem to have DNA binding and hormone binding domains belonging to different classes. These data suggest a complex evolutionary history for nuclear receptor genes in which gene duplication events and swapping between domains of different origins took place. PMID:1312460

  2. Adenosine A2A Receptor Activation and Macrophage-mediated Experimental Glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Gabriela E.; Truong, Luan D.; Li, Ping; Zhang, Ping; Du, Jie; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Feng, Lili

    2010-01-01

    In immune-induced inflammation, leukocytes are key mediators of tissue damage. Since A2A adenosine receptors (A2AR) are endogenous suppressors of inflammation, we examined cellular and molecular mechanisms of kidney damage to determine whether selective activation of A2AR will suppress inflammation in a rat model of glomerulonephritis. Activation of A2AR reduced the degree of kidney injury in both the acute inflammatory phase and the progressive phase of glomerulonephritis. This protection against acute and chronic inflammation was associated with suppression of the glomerular expression of the MDC/CCL22 chemokine and down-regulation of MIP-1α/CCL3, RANTES/CCL5, MIP-1β/CCL4, and MCP-1/CCL2 chemokines. The expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL-4 and IL-10, also increased. The mechanism for these anti-inflammatory responses to the A2AR agonist was suppression of macrophages function. A2AR expression was increased in macrophages, macrophage-derived chemokines were reduced in response to the A2AR agonist, and chemokines not expressed in macrophages did not respond to A2AR activation. Thus, activation of the A2AR on macrophages inhibits immune-associated inflammation. In glomerulonephritis, A2AR activation modulates inflammation and tissue damage even in the progressive phase of glomerulonephritis. Accordingly, pharmacological activation of A2AR could be developed into a novel treatment for glomerulonephritis and other macrophage-related inflammatory diseases. PMID:17898087

  3. Exploring an interaction of adenosine A2A receptor variability with coffee and tea intake in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Tan, E K; Lu, Z Y; Fook-Chong, S M C; Tan, E; Shen, H; Chua, E; Yih, Y; Teo, Y Y; Zhao, Y

    2006-09-05

    Caffeine is an adenosine receptor A1 and A2A receptor antagonist and a putative functional genetic variant of the A2A receptor (2592C > Tins) mediates caffeine-induced anxiety. Here we investigated the potential interaction of this A2A genetic variant with the quantity of coffee and tea intake and their relationship with the risk of PD. A total of 441 subjects consisting of 222 PD and 219 race, gender and age matched controls were included. A multivariate analysis of the variables including the 2592C > Tins A2A genotypes, age of onset, gender, and the quantity of tea and coffee intake, interaction of the A2A genotypes with coffee intake, interaction of A2A genotypes with tea intake demonstrated the quantity of coffee intake to be significantly associated with PD (P < 0.0005, OR = 0.922, 95% CI: 0.881, 0.964). However, there was no significant interaction of the A2A genotypes with the quantity of coffee and tea intake in modulating the risk of PD. The dose dependent protective effect of coffee intake in PD was independent of the 2592C > Tins A2A genotype suggesting that the pharmacogenetic action of caffeine in PD may be mediated differently from other caffeine-induced neurologic syndromes.

  4. The adenosine A2A receptor — Myocardial protectant and coronary target in endotoxemia

    PubMed Central

    Reichelt, Melissa E.; Ashton, Kevin J.; Tan, Xing Lin; Mustafa, S. Jamal; Ledent, Catherine; Delbridge, Lea M.D.; Hofmann, Polly A.; Headrick, John P.; Morrison, R. Ray

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiac injury and dysfunction are contributors to disease progression and mortality in sepsis. This study evaluated the cardiovascular role of intrinsic A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR) activity during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. Methods We assessed the impact of 24 h of LPS challenge (20 mg/kg, IP) on cardiac injury, coronary function and inflammatory mediator levels in Wild-Type (WT) mice and mice lacking functional A2AARs (A2AAR KO). Results Cardiac injury was evident in LPS-treated WTs, with ∼7-fold elevation in serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI), and significant ventricular and coronary dysfunction. Absence of A2AARs increased LPS-provoked cTnI release at 24 h by 3-fold without additional demise of contraction function. Importantly, A2AAR deletion per se emulated detrimental effects of LPS on coronary function, and LPS was without effect in coronary vessels lacking A2AARs. Effects of A2AAR KO were independent of major shifts in circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) and haptoglobin. Cytokine responses were largely insensitive to A2AAR deletion; substantial LPS-induced elevations (up to 100-fold) in IFN-γ and IL-10 were unaltered in A2AAR KO mice, as were levels of IL-4 and TNF-α. However, late elevations in IL-2 and IL-5 were differentially modulated by A2AAR KO (IL-2 reduced, IL-5 increased). Data demonstrate that in the context of LPS-triggered cardiac and coronary injury, A2AAR activity protects myocardial viability without modifying contractile dysfunction, and selectively modulates cytokine (IL-2, IL-5) release. A2AARs also appear to be targeted by LPS in the coronary vasculature. Conclusions These experimental data suggest that preservation of A2AAR functionality might provide therapeutic benefit in human sepsis. PMID:22192288

  5. Multi-Inhibitory Effects of A2A Adenosine Receptor Signaling on Neutrophil Adhesion Under Flow.

    PubMed

    Yago, Tadayuki; Tsukamoto, Hiroki; Liu, Zhenghui; Wang, Ying; Thompson, Linda F; McEver, Rodger P

    2015-10-15

    A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR) signaling negatively regulates inflammatory responses in many disease models, but the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. We used the selective A2AAR agonist, ATL313, to examine how A2AAR signaling affects human and murine neutrophil adhesion under flow. Treating neutrophils with ATL313 inhibited selectin-induced, β2 integrin-dependent slow rolling and chemokine-induced, β2 integrin-dependent arrest on ICAM-1. ATL313 inhibited selectin-induced β2 integrin extension, which supports slow rolling, and chemokine-induced hybrid domain "swing-out," which supports arrest. Furthermore, ATL313 inhibited integrin outside-in signaling as revealed by reduced neutrophil superoxide production and spreading on immobilized anti-β2 integrin Ab. ATL313 suppressed selectin-triggered activation of Src family kinases (SFKs) and p38 MAPK, chemokine-triggered activation of Ras-related protein 1, and β2 integrin-triggered activation of SFKs and Vav cytoskeletal regulatory proteins. ATL313 activated protein kinase A and its substrate C-terminal Src kinase, an inhibitor of SFKs. Treating neutrophils with a protein kinase A inhibitor blocked the actions of ATL313. In vivo, ATL313-treated neutrophils rolled faster and arrested much less frequently in postcapillary venules of the murine cremaster muscle after TNF-α challenge. Furthermore, ATL313 markedly suppressed neutrophil migration into the peritoneum challenged with thioglycollate. ATL313 did not affect A2AAR-deficient neutrophils, confirming its specificity. Our findings provide new insights into the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of A2AAR signaling and the potential utility of A2AAR agonists in inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  6. Multi-inhibitory effects of A2A adenosine receptor signaling on neutrophil adhesion under flow**

    PubMed Central

    Yago, Tadayuki; Tsukamoto, Hiroki; Liu, Zhenghui; Wang, Ying; Thompson, Linda F.; McEver, Rodger P.

    2015-01-01

    A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR) signaling negatively regulates inflammatory responses in many disease models, but the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. We used the selective A2AAR agonist, ATL313, to examine how A2AAR signaling affects human and murine neutrophil adhesion under flow. Treating neutrophils with ATL313 inhibited selectin-induced, β2 integrin-dependent slow rolling and chemokine-induced, β2 integrin-dependent arrest on ICAM-1. ATL313 inhibited selectin-induced β2 integrin extension, which supports slow rolling, and chemokine-induced hybrid domain “swing-out”, which supports arrest. Furthermore, ATL313 inhibited integrin outside-in signaling as revealed by reduced neutrophil superoxide production and spreading on immobilized anti-β2 integrin antibody. ATL313 suppressed selectin-triggered activation of Src family kinases (SFKs) and p38 MAPK, chemokine-triggered activation of Ras-related protein 1 (Rap1), and β2 integrin-triggered activation of SFKs and Vav cytoskeletal regulatory proteins. ATL313 activated protein kinase A (PKA) and its substrate C-terminal Src kinase (Csk), an inhibitor of SFKs. Treating neutrophils with a PKA inhibitor blocked the actions of ATL313. In vivo, ATL313-treated neutrophils rolled faster and arrested much less frequently in postcapillary venules of the murine cremaster muscle after TNF-α challenge. Furthermore, ATL313 markedly suppressed neutrophil migration into the peritoneum challenged with thioglycollate. ATL313 did not affect A2AAR-deficient neutrophils, confirming its specificity. Our findings provide new insights into the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of A2AAR signaling and the potential utility of A2AAR agonists in inflammatory diseases. PMID:26355151

  7. Nucleus Accumbens Adenosine A2A Receptors Regulate Exertion of Effort by Acting on the Ventral Striatopallidal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mingote, Susana; Font, Laura; Farrar, Andrew M.; Vontell, Regina; Worden, Lila T.; Stopper, Colin M.; Port, Russell G.; Sink, Kelly S.; Bunce, Jamie G.; Chrobak, James J.; Salamone, John D.

    2009-01-01

    Goal-directed actions are sensitive to work-related response costs, and dopamine in nucleus accumbens is thought to modulate the exertion of effort in motivated behavior. Dopamine-rich striatal areas such as nucleus accumbens also contain high numbers of adenosine A2A receptors, and, for that reason, the behavioral and neurochemical effects of the adenosine A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680 [2-p-(2-carboxyethyl) phenethylamino-5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine] were investigated. Stimulation of accumbens adenosine A2A receptors disrupted performance of an instrumental task with high work demands (i.e., an interval lever-pressing schedule with a ratio requirement attached) but had little effect on a task with a lower work requirement. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that accumbens neurons that project to the ventral pallidum showed adenosine A2A receptors immunoreactivity. Moreover, activation of accumbens A2A receptors by local injections of CGS 21680 increased extracellular GABA levels in the ventral pallidum. Combined contralateral injections of CGS 21680 into the accumbens and the GABAA agonist muscimol into ventral pallidum (i.e., “disconnection” methods) also impaired response output, indicating that these structures are part of a common neural circuitry regulating the exertion of effort. Thus, accumbens adenosine A2A receptors appear to regulate behavioral activation and effort-related processes by modulating the activity of the ventral striatopallidal pathway. Research on the effort-related functions of these forebrain systems may lead to a greater understanding of pathological features of motivation, such as psychomotor slowing, anergia, and fatigue in depression. PMID:18768698

  8. Selective inactivation of adenosine A(2A) receptors in striatal neurons enhances working memory and reversal learning.

    PubMed

    Wei, Catherine J; Singer, Philipp; Coelho, Joana; Boison, Detlev; Feldon, Joram; Yee, Benjamin K; Chen, Jiang-Fan

    2011-01-01

    The adenosine A(2A) receptor (A(2A)R) is highly enriched in the striatum where it is uniquely positioned to integrate dopaminergic, glutamatergic, and other signals to modulate cognition. Although previous studies support the hypothesis that A(2A)R inactivation can be pro-cognitive, analyses of A(2A)R's effects on cognitive functions have been restricted to a small subset of cognitive domains. Furthermore, the relative contribution of A(2A)Rs in distinct brain regions remains largely unknown. Here, we studied the regulation of multiple memory processes by brain region-specific populations of A(2A)Rs. Specifically, we evaluated the cognitive impacts of conditional A(2A)R deletion restricted to either the entire forebrain (i.e., cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and striatum, fb-A(2A)R KO) or to striatum alone (st-A(2A)R KO) in recognition memory, working memory, reference memory, and reversal learning. This comprehensive, comparative analysis showed for the first time that depletion of A(2A)R-dependent signaling in either the entire forebrain or striatum alone is associated with two specific phenotypes indicative of cognitive flexibility-enhanced working memory and enhanced reversal learning. These selective pro-cognitive phenotypes seemed largely attributed to inactivation of striatal A(2A)Rs as they were captured by A(2A)R deletion restricted to striatal neurons. Neither spatial reference memory acquisition nor spatial recognition memory were grossly affected, and no evidence for compensatory changes in striatal or cortical D(1), D(2), or A(1) receptor expression was found. This study provides the first direct demonstration that targeting striatal A(2A)Rs may be an effective, novel strategy to facilitate cognitive flexibility under normal and pathologic conditions.

  9. Membrane omega-3 fatty acids modulate the oligomerisation kinetics of adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guixà-González, Ramon; Javanainen, Matti; Gómez-Soler, Maricel; Cordobilla, Begoña; Domingo, Joan Carles; Sanz, Ferran; Pastor, Manuel; Ciruela, Francisco; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Selent, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Membrane levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA), are decreased in common neuropsychiatric disorders. DHA modulates key cell membrane properties like fluidity, thereby affecting the behaviour of transmembrane proteins like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). These receptors, which have special relevance for major neuropsychiatric disorders have recently been shown to form dimers or higher order oligomers, and evidence suggests that DHA levels affect GPCR function by modulating oligomerisation. In this study, we assessed the effect of membrane DHA content on the formation of a class of protein complexes with particular relevance for brain disease: adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptor oligomers. Using extensive multiscale computer modelling, we find a marked propensity of DHA for interaction with both A2A and D2 receptors, which leads to an increased rate of receptor oligomerisation. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) experiments performed on living cells suggest that this DHA effect on the oligomerisation of A2A and D2 receptors is purely kinetic. This work reveals for the first time that membrane ω-3 PUFAs play a key role in GPCR oligomerisation kinetics, which may have important implications for neuropsychiatric conditions like schizophrenia or Parkinson’s disease.

  10. Singular Location and Signaling Profile of Adenosine A2A-Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Heteromers in the Dorsal Striatum.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Estefanía; Chiarlone, Anna; Medrano, Mireia; Puigdellívol, Mar; Bibic, Lucka; Howell, Lesley A; Resel, Eva; Puente, Nagore; Casarejos, María J; Perucho, Juan; Botta, Joaquín; Suelves, Nuria; Ciruela, Francisco; Ginés, Silvia; Galve-Roperh, Ismael; Casadó, Vicent; Grandes, Pedro; Lutz, Beat; Monory, Krisztina; Canela, Enric I; Lluís, Carmen; McCormick, Peter J; Guzmán, Manuel

    2018-04-01

    The dorsal striatum is a key node for many neurobiological processes such as motor activity, cognitive functions, and affective processes. The proper functioning of striatal neurons relies critically on metabotropic receptors. Specifically, the main adenosine and endocannabinoid receptors present in the striatum, ie, adenosine A 2A receptor (A 2A R) and cannabinoid CB 1 receptor (CB 1 R), are of pivotal importance in the control of neuronal excitability. Facilitatory and inhibitory functional interactions between striatal A 2A R and CB 1 R have been reported, and evidence supports that this cross-talk may rely, at least in part, on the formation of A 2A R-CB 1 R heteromeric complexes. However, the specific location and properties of these heteromers have remained largely unknown. Here, by using techniques that allowed a precise visualization of the heteromers in situ in combination with sophisticated genetically modified animal models, together with biochemical and pharmacological approaches, we provide a high-resolution expression map and a detailed functional characterization of A 2A R-CB 1 R heteromers in the dorsal striatum. Specifically, our data unveil that the A 2A R-CB 1 R heteromer (i) is essentially absent from corticostriatal projections and striatonigral neurons, and, instead, is largely present in striatopallidal neurons, (ii) displays a striking G protein-coupled signaling profile, where co-stimulation of both receptors leads to strongly reduced downstream signaling, and (iii) undergoes an unprecedented dysfunction in Huntington's disease, an archetypal disease that affects striatal neurons. Altogether, our findings may open a new conceptual framework to understand the role of coordinated adenosine-endocannabinoid signaling in the indirect striatal pathway, which may be relevant in motor function and neurodegenerative diseases.

  11. Genetic Inactivation of the Adenosine A2A Receptor Attenuates Pathologic but Not Developmental Angiogenesis in the Mouse Retina

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao-Ling; Zhou, Rong; Pan, Qi-Qi; Jia, Xiao-Lin; Gao, Wei-Na; Wu, Jun; Lin, Jing; Chen, Jiang-Fan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. The adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) modulates normal vascularization and pathologic angiogenesis in many tissues and may contribute to the pathogenesis of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) characterized by abnormal retinal vascularization in surviving premature infants. Here, the authors studied the effects of the genetic inactivation of A2AR on normal retinal vascularization and the development of pathologic angiogenesis in oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), an animal model of ROP. Methods. After exposure to 75% oxygen for 5 days (postnatal day [P] 7–P12) and subsequently to room air for the next 9 days (P13–P21), we evaluated retinal vascular morphology by ADPase staining in retinal whole mounts, retinal neovascularization response by histochemistry in serial retinal sections, and retinal VEGF gene expression by real-time PCR analysis in A2AR knockout (KO) mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates. Results. At P17, A2AR KO mice displayed attenuated OIR compared with WT littermates, as evidenced by reduced vaso-obliteration and areas of nonperfusion in the center of the retina, reduced pathologic angiogenesis as evident by decreased non-ganglion cells and neovascular nuclei, and inhibited hypoxia-induced retinal VEGF gene expression. Notably, the attenuation of pathologic angiogenesis by A2AR inactivation was selective for OIR because it did not affect normal retinal vascularization during postnatal development. Conclusions. These findings provide the first evidence that A2AR is critical for the development of OIR and suggest a novel therapeutic approach of A2AR inactivation for ROP by selectively targeting pathologic but not developmental angiogenesis in the retina. PMID:20610844

  12. Reinforcing and neurochemical effects of cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists, but not cocaine, are altered by an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Justinová, Zuzana; Ferré, Sergi; Redhi, Godfrey H; Mascia, Paola; Stroik, Jessica; Quarta, Davide; Yasar, Sevil; Müller, Christa E; Franco, Rafael; Goldberg, Steven R

    2011-07-01

    Several recent studies suggest functional and molecular interactions between striatal adenosine A(2A) and cannabinoid CB(1) receptors. Here, we demonstrate that A(2A) receptors selectively modulate reinforcing effects of cannabinoids. We studied effects of A(2A) receptor blockade on the reinforcing effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and the endogenous CB(1) receptor ligand anandamide under a fixed-ratio schedule of intravenous drug injection in squirrel monkeys. A low dose of the selective adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist MSX-3 (1 mg/kg) caused downward shifts of THC and anandamide dose-response curves. In contrast, a higher dose of MSX-3 (3 mg/kg) shifted THC and anandamide dose-response curves to the left. MSX-3 did not modify cocaine or food pellet self-administration. Also, MSX-3 neither promoted reinstatement of extinguished drug-seeking behavior nor altered reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior by non-contingent priming injections of THC. Finally, using in vivo microdialysis in freely-moving rats, a behaviorally active dose of MSX-3 significantly counteracted THC-induced, but not cocaine-induced, increases in extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens shell. The significant and selective results obtained with the lower dose of MSX-3 suggest that adenosine A(2A) antagonists acting preferentially at presynaptic A(2A) receptors might selectively reduce reinforcing effects of cannabinoids that lead to their abuse. However, the appearance of potentiating rather than suppressing effects on cannabinoid reinforcement at the higher dose of MSX-3 would likely preclude the use of such a compound as a medication for cannabis abuse. Adenosine A(2A) antagonists with more selectivity for presynaptic versus postsynaptic receptors could be potential medications for treatment of cannabis abuse. Addiction Biology © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction. No claim to original US government works.

  13. Synthesis and properties of a new water-soluble prodrug of the adenosine A 2A receptor antagonist MSX-2.

    PubMed

    Vollmann, Karl; Qurishi, Ramatullah; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E

    2008-02-12

    The compound L-valine-3-{8-[(E)-2-[3-methoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-7-methyl-1-propargylxanthine-3-yl}propyl ester hydrochloride (MSX-4) was synthesized as an amino acid ester prodrug of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-2. It was found to be stable in artificial gastric acid, but readily cleaved by pig liver esterase.

  14. Synthesis and pharmacological characterization of novel xanthine carboxylate amides as A2A adenosine receptor ligands exhibiting bronchospasmolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Rakesh; Bansal, Ranju; Rohilla, Suman; Kachler, Sonja; Klotz, Karl-Norbert

    2016-04-01

    The carboxylate amides of 8-phenyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine described herein represent a new series of selective ligands of the adenosine A2A receptors exhibiting bronchospasmolytic activity. The effects of location of 8-phenyl substitutions on the adenosine receptor (AR) binding affinities of the newly synthesized xanthines have also been studied. The compounds displayed moderate to potent binding affinities toward various adenosine receptor subtypes when evaluated through radioligand binding studies. However, most of the compounds showed the maximum affinity for the A2A subtype, some with high selectivity versus all other subtypes. Xanthine carboxylate amide 13b with a diethylaminoethylamino moiety at the para-position of the 8-phenylxanthine scaffold was identified as the most potent A2A adenosine receptor ligand with Ki=0.06μM. Similarly potent and highly A2A-selective are the isovanillin derivatives 16a and 16d. In addition, the newly synthesized xanthine derivatives showed good in vivo bronchospasmolytic activity when tested in guinea pigs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Extrinsic Tryptophans as NMR Probes of Allosteric Coupling in Membrane Proteins: Application to the A2A Adenosine Receptor.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Matthew T; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Mannes, Philip; Patel, Nilkanth; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Katritch, Vsevolod; Stevens, Raymond C; Wüthrich, Kurt

    2018-06-20

    Tryptophan indole 15 N- 1 H signals are well separated in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of proteins. Assignment of the indole 15 N- 1 H signals therefore enables one to obtain site-specific information on complex proteins in supramacromolecular systems, even when extensive assignment of backbone 15 N- 1 H resonances is challenging. Here we exploit the unique indole 15 N- 1 H chemical shift by introducing extrinsic tryptophan reporter residues at judiciously chosen locations in a membrane protein for increased coverage of structure and function by NMR. We demonstrate this approach with three variants of the human A 2A adenosine receptor (A 2A AR), a class A G protein-coupled receptor, each containing a single extrinsic tryptophan near the receptor intracellular surface, in helix V, VI, or VII, respectively. We show that the native A 2A AR global protein fold and ligand binding activity are preserved in these A 2A AR variants. The indole 15 N- 1 H signals from the extrinsic tryptophan reporter residues show different responses to variable efficacy of drugs bound to the receptor orthosteric cavity, and the indole 15 N- 1 H chemical shift of the tryptophan introduced at the intracellular end of helix VI is sensitive to conformational changes resulting from interactions with a polypeptide from the carboxy terminus of the Gα S intracellular partner protein. Introducing extrinsic tryptophans into proteins in complex supramolecular systems thus opens new avenues for NMR investigations in solution.

  16. The neuronal Ca(2+) -binding protein 2 (NECAB2) interacts with the adenosine A(2A) receptor and modulates the cell surface expression and function of the receptor.

    PubMed

    Canela, Laia; Luján, Rafael; Lluís, Carme; Burgueño, Javier; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I; Franco, Rafael; Ciruela, Francisco

    2007-09-01

    Heptaspanning membrane also known as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) do interact with a variety of intracellular proteins whose function is regulate receptor traffic and/or signaling. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, NECAB2, a neuronal calcium binding protein, was identified as a binding partner for the adenosine A(2A) receptor (A(2A)R) interacting with its C-terminal domain. Co-localization, co-immunoprecipitation and pull-down experiments showed a close and specific interaction between A(2A)R and NECAB2 in both transfected HEK-293 cells and also in rat striatum. Immunoelectron microscopy detection of NECAB2 and A(2A)R in the rat striatopallidal structures indicated that both proteins are co-distributed in the same glutamatergic nerve terminals. The interaction of NECAB2 with A(2A)R modulated the cell surface expression, the ligand-dependent internalization and the receptor-mediated activation of the MAPK pathway. Overall, these results show that A(2A)R interacts with NECAB2 in striatal neurones co-expressing the two proteins and that the interaction is relevant for A(2A)R function.

  17. Adenosine A2A receptor deletion affects social behaviors and anxiety in mice: Involvement of anterior cingulate cortex and amygdala.

    PubMed

    López-Cruz, Laura; Carbó-Gas, Maria; Pardo, Marta; Bayarri, Pilar; Valverde, Olga; Ledent, Catherine; Salamone, John D; Correa, Mercè

    2017-03-15

    Blockade of adenosine A 2A receptors can potentiate motivation to work for natural reinforcers such as food. Conspecific interaction is a potent natural reinforcer in social animals that can be manifested as preference for social exploration versus other sources of novel stimulation. Deficiencies in this type of motivated behavior (social withdrawal) have been seen in several pathologies such as autism and depression. However, the role of A 2A receptors in motivation for social interaction has not been widely explored. Social interaction paradigms evaluate the natural preference of animals for exploring other conspecifics, and the ability to differentiate between familiar versus novel ones. Anxiety is one of the factors that can induce avoidance of social interaction. In the present study, adenosine A 2A knockout (A 2A KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were assessed for social and anxiety-related behaviors. c-Fos immunoreactivity was evaluated as a measure of neuronal activation in brain areas involved in different aspects of motivation and emotional processes. Although A 2A KO mice showed an anxious profile, they displayed higher levels of sociability and were less sensitive to social novelty. WT mice displayed a typical pattern of social recognition 24h later, but not A 2A KO mice, which explored equally both conspecifics. There were no differences between strains in aggressiveness, perseverance or social odor preferences. c-Fos immunoreactivity in A 2A KO mice was higher in anterior cingulate and amygdala compared to WT mice. Thus, A 2A receptors appear to be potential targets for the improvement of pathologies related to social function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of central and peripheral adenosine receptors in the cardiovascular responses to intraperitoneal injections of adenosine A1 and A2A subtype receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Charles W; Karcz-Kubicha, Marzena; Thorndike, Eric B; Müller, Christa E; Tella, Srihari R; Ferré, Sergi; Goldberg, Steven R

    2005-03-01

    1. The cardiovascular effects of the adenosine A1 receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) and the adenosine A2A receptor agonist 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS 21680) were investigated in rats implanted with telemetry transmitters for the measurement of blood pressure and heart rate. 2. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of the adenosine A1 receptor agonist CPA led to dose-dependent decreases in both blood pressure and heart rate. These effects of 0.3 mg kg(-1) CPA were antagonized by i.p. injections of the adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethyl-xanthine (CPT), but not by i.p. injections of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist 3-(3-hydroxypropyl)-8-(m-methoxystyryl)-7-methyl-1-propargylxanthine phosphate disodium salt (MSX-3). Injections (i.p.) of the peripherally acting nonselective adenosine antagonist 8-sulfophenyltheophylline (8-SPT) and the purported nonselective adenosine antagonist caffeine also antagonized the cardiovascular effects of CPA. 3. The adenosine A2A agonist CGS 21680 given i.p. produced a dose-dependent decrease in blood pressure and an increase in heart rate. These effects of 0.5 mg kg(-1) CGS 21680 were antagonized by i.p. injections of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3, but not by i.p. injections of the antagonists CPT, 8-SPT or caffeine. 4. Central administration (intracerebral ventricular) of CGS 21680 produced an increase in heart rate, but no change in blood pressure. MSX-3 given i.p. antagonized the effects of the central injection of CGS 21680. 5. These results suggest that adenosine A1 receptor agonists produce decreases in blood pressure and heart rate that are mediated by A1 receptors in the periphery, with little or no contribution of central adenosine A1 receptors to those effects. 6. The heart rate increasing effect of adenosine A2A agonists appears to be mediated by adenosine A2A receptors in the central nervous system. The blood pressure decreasing

  19. High-level expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae enables isolation and spectroscopic characterization of functional human adenosine A2a receptor

    PubMed Central

    O’Malley, Michelle A.; Lazarova, Tzvetana; Britton, Zachary T.; Robinson, Anne S.

    2007-01-01

    The G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a class of membrane proteins that trigger cellular responses to external stimuli, and are believed to be targets for nearly half of all pharmaceutical drugs on the market. However, little is known regarding their folding and cellular interactions, as well as what factors are crucial for their activity. Further structural characterization of GPCRs has largely been complicated by problems with expression, purification, and preservation of activity in vitro. Previously, we have demonstrated high-level expression (~4 mg/L of culture) of functional human adenosine A2a receptor fused to a green fluorescent protein (A2aR-GFP) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this work we re-engineered A2aR with a purification tag, developed an adequate purification scheme, and performed biophysical characterization on purified receptors. Milligram amounts per liter of culture of A2aR and A2aR-GFP were functionally expressed in S. cerevisiae, with a C-terminal deca-histidine tag. Lysis procedures were developed for optimal membrane protein solubilization and recovery through monitoring fluorescence of A2aR-GFP-His10. One-step purification of the protein was achieved through immobilized metal affinity chromatography. After initial solubilization in n-dodecyl-β-D-maltoside (DDM), a combination of added cholesterol hemisuccinate (CHS) in 3-(3-cholamidopropyl)-dimethylammoniopropane sulfonate (CHAPS) was required to stabilize the functional state of the protein. Isolated A2aR under these conditions was found to be largely alpha-helical, and properly incorporated into a mixed-micelle environment. The A2a-His10 receptor was purified in quantities of 6 +/− 2 mg/L of culture, with ligand-binding yields of 1 mg/L, although all protein bound to xanthine affinity resin. This represents the highest purified total and functional yields for A2aR yet achieved from any heterologous expression system. PMID:17591446

  20. Presynaptic facilitatory adenosine A2A receptors mediate fade induced by neuromuscular relaxants that exhibit anticholinesterase activity.

    PubMed

    Bornia, Elaine Cs; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo; Alves-Do-Prado, Wilson

    2011-03-01

    1. Pancuronium, cisatracurium and vecuronium are antinicotinic agents that, in contrast with d-tubocurarine and hexamethonium, exhibit anticholinesterase activity. Pancuronium-, cisatracurium- and vecuronium-induced fade results from blockade of facilitatory nicotinic receptors on motor nerves, but fade produced by such agents also depends on the presynaptic activation of inhibitory muscarinic M2 receptors by acetylcholine released from motor nerve terminals and activation of inhibitory adenosine A1 receptors by adenosine released from motor nerves and muscles. The participation of presynaptic facilitatory A2A receptors in fade caused by pancuronium, cisatracurium and vecuronium has not yet been investigated. In the present study, we determined the effects of ZM241385, an antagonist of presynaptic facilitatory A2A receptors, on fade produced by these neuromuscular relaxants in the rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm (PND) preparation. 2. The muscles were stimulated indirectly at 75±3Hz to induce a sustained tetanizing muscular contraction. The lowest concentration at which each antinicotinic agent produced fade without modifying initial tetanic tension (presynaptic action) was determined. 3. d-Tubocurarine-induced fade occurred only at 55 nmol/L, a concentration that also reduced maximal tetanic tension (post-synaptic action). At 10 nmol/L, ZM 241385 alone did not produce fade, but it did attenuate pancuronium (0.32 μmol/L)-, cisatracurium (0.32 μmol/L)- and vecuronium (0.36 μmol/L)-induced fade. 4. The fade induced by the 'pure' antinicotinic agents d-tubocurarine (55 nmol/L) and hexamethonium (413 μmol/L) was not altered by 10 nmol/L ZM 241385, indicating that presynaptic adenosine A2A receptors play a significant role in the fade produced by antinicotinic agents when such agents have anticholinesterase activity. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Antidepressant activity of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, istradefylline (KW-6002) on learned helplessness in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Koji; Kobayashi, Minoru; Shiozaki, Shizuo; Ohta, Teruko; Mori, Akihisa; Jenner, Peter; Kanda, Tomoyuki

    2014-07-01

    Istradefylline, an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, improves motor function in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD) and in patients with PD. In addition, some A2A antagonists exert antidepressant-like activity in rodent models of depression, such as the forced swim and the tail suspension tests. We have investigated the effect of istradefylline on depression-like behaviors using the rat learned helplessness (LH) model. Acute, as well as chronic, oral administration of istradefylline significantly improved the inescapable shock (IES)-induced escape deficit with a degree of efficacy comparable to chronic treatment with the tricyclic antidepressant desipramine and the selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine. Both the A1/A2A receptor nonspecific antagonist theophylline and the moderately selective antagonist CGS15943, but not the A1 selective antagonist DPCPX, ameliorated the IES-induced escape deficit. The enhancement of escape response by istradefylline was reversed by a local injection of the A2A specific agonist CGS21680 either into the nucleus accumbens, the caudate-putamen, or the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, but not by the A1 specific agonist R-PIA into the nucleus accumbens. Moreover, neither the 5-HT2A/2C receptor antagonist methysergide or the adrenergic α 2 antagonist yohimbine, nor the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol, affected the improvement of escape response induced by istradefylline. Istradefylline exerts antidepressant-like effects via modulation of A2A receptor activity which is independent of monoaminergic transmission in the brain. Istradefylline may represent a novel treatment option for depression in PD as well as for the motor symptoms.

  2. Adenosine A2A receptor inhibition restores the normal transport of endothelial glutamate transporters in the brain.

    PubMed

    Bai, Wei; Li, Ping; Ning, Ya-Lei; Peng, Yan; Xiong, Ren-Ping; Yang, Nan; Chen, Xing; Zhou, Yuan-Guo

    2018-04-15

    Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) on cerebral vascular endothelial cells play an important role in maintaining glutamate homeostasis in the brain. The dysfunction of endothelial EAATs is an important reason for the dramatically elevated brain glutamate levels after brain injury, such as traumatic brain injury (TBI). The adenosine A 2A receptor (A 2A R) plays an important role in regulating the brain glutamate level after brain injury; however, researchers have not clearly determined whether this role was related to its ability to regulate endothelial EAATs. Activation of A 2A R in vitro not only decreased the PKA- and glutamate level-dependent strengthening of the interaction between NKA-α1 and the FXYD1 subunit and the subsequent decrease in the activity of Na + /K + -ATPases (NKAs) but also enhanced its interaction with EAATs and ultimately aggravated the reverse transport function of endothelial EAATs under oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) conditions. Conversely, inhibition of A 2A R restored the normal transport of EAAT. Moreover, A 2A R inhibition increased NKA activity and decreased its interaction with EAATs in isolated brain capillaries after TBI, further confirming its role in endothelial EAATs in vivo. Based on our results, A 2A R played an important role in regulating endothelial EAAT function, and strategies that restore the normal transport of endothelial EAATs through the inhibition of A 2A R might serve as an effective treatment for brain injury. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Role of Adenosine A2A Receptor, CYP450s, and PPARs in the Regulation of Vascular Tone

    PubMed Central

    Khayat, Maan T.

    2017-01-01

    Adenosine is an endogenous mediator involved in a myriad of physiologic functions, including vascular tone regulation. It is also implicated in some pathologic conditions. Four distinct receptor subtypes mediate the effects of adenosine, such as its role in the regulation of the vascular tone. Vascular tone regulation is a complex and continuous process which involves many mechanisms and mediators that are not fully disclosed. The vascular endothelium plays a pivotal role in regulating blood flow to and from all body organs. Also, the vascular endothelium is not merely a physical barrier; it is a complex tissue with numerous functions. Among adenosine receptors, A2A receptor subtype (A2AAR) stands out as the primary receptor responsible for the vasodilatory effects of adenosine. This review focuses on important effectors of the vascular endothelium, including adenosine, adenosine receptors, EETs (epoxyeicosatrienoic acids), HETEs (hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids), PPARs (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors), and KATP channels. Given the impact of vascular tone regulation in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology, better understanding of the mechanisms affecting it could have a significant potential for developing therapeutic agents for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:28884118

  4. Crystal structure of the adenosine A 2A receptor bound to an antagonist reveals a potential allosteric pocket

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Bingfa; Bachhawat, Priti; Chu, Matthew Ling-Hon

    The adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) has long been implicated in cardiovascular disorders. As more selective A2AR ligands are being identified, its roles in other disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, are starting to emerge, and A2AR antagonists are important drug candidates for nondopaminergic anti-Parkinson treatment. Here we report the crystal structure of A2A receptor bound to compound 1 (Cmpd-1), a novel A2AR/N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subtype 2B (NR2B) dual antagonist and potential anti-Parkinson candidate compound, at 3.5 Å resolution. The A2A receptor with a cytochrome b562-RIL (BRIL) fusion (A2AR–BRIL) in the intracellular loop 3 (ICL3) was crystallized in detergent micelles using vapor-phasemore » diffusion. Whereas A2AR–BRIL bound to the antagonist ZM241385 has previously been crystallized in lipidic cubic phase (LCP), structural differences in the Cmpd-1–bound A2AR–BRIL prevented formation of the lattice observed with the ZM241385–bound receptor. The crystals grew with a type II crystal lattice in contrast to the typical type I packing seen from membrane protein structures crystallized in LCP. Cmpd-1 binds in a position that overlaps with the native ligand adenosine, but its methoxyphenyl group extends to an exosite not previously observed in other A2AR structures. Structural analysis revealed that Cmpd-1 binding results in the unique conformations of two tyrosine residues, Tyr91.35 and Tyr2717.36, which are critical for the formation of the exosite. The structure reveals insights into antagonist binding that are not observed in other A2AR structures, highlighting flexibility in the binding pocket that may facilitate the development of A2AR-selective compounds for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease.« less

  5. Promotion of Wound Healing by an Agonist of Adenosine A2A Receptor Is Dependent on Tissue Plasminogen Activator.

    PubMed

    Montesinos, M Carmen; Desai-Merchant, Avani; Cronstein, Bruce N

    2015-12-01

    Impaired wound healing, as it occurs in diabetes mellitus or long-term corticoid treatment, is commonly associated with disability, diminished quality of life, and high economic costs. Selective agonists of the A2A receptor subtype of adenosine, an endogenous regulator of inflammation, promote tissue repair in animal models, both healthy and with impaired healing. Plasmin-mediated proteolysis of fibrin and other matrix proteins is essential for cell migration at sites of injury. Since adenosine A2A receptor activation increases plasminogen activator release from macrophages and mast cells, we studied the effect of a selective agonist, CGS-21680, on full-thickness excisional wound closure in wild-type, urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA)-deficient, and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-deficient mice. Wound closure was impaired in tPA- and uPA-deficient mice as compared with wild-type mice, and topical application of CGS-21680 significantly increased the rate at which wounds closed in wild-type mice and uPA-deficient mice, but not in tPA-deficient mice. Immunostaining of tissue sections showed that tPA was present in endothelial cells and histiocytes by day 3 post-wound and also by day 6. In contrast, uPA was more prominent in these cell types only by day 6 post-wound. Our results confirm that plasminogen activation contributes to wound repair and are consistent with the hypothesis that adenosine A2A receptor activation promotes wound closure by a mechanism that depends upon tPA, but not uPA. Moreover, our results suggest that topical adenosine A2A receptor agonists may be useful in promotion of wound closure in patients with impaired wound healing.

  6. The Corticostriatal Adenosine A2A Receptor Controls Maintenance and Retrieval of Spatial Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhihui; Chen, Xingjun; Wang, Tao; Gao, Ying; Li, Fei; Chen, Long; Xue, Jin; He, Yan; Li, Yan; Guo, Wei; Zheng, Wu; Zhang, Liping; Ye, Fenfen; Ren, Xiangpeng; Feng, Yue; Chan, Piu; Chen, Jiang-Fan

    2018-03-15

    Working memory (WM) taps into multiple executive processes including encoding, maintenance, and retrieval of information, but the molecular and circuit modulation of these WM processes remains undefined due to the lack of methods to control G protein-coupled receptor signaling with temporal resolution of seconds. By coupling optogenetic control of the adenosine A 2A receptor (A 2A R) signaling, the Cre-loxP-mediated focal A 2A R knockdown with a delayed non-match-to-place (DNMTP) task, we investigated the effect of optogenetic activation and focal knockdown of A 2A Rs in the dorsomedial striatum (n = 8 to 14 per group) and medial prefrontal cortex (n = 16 to 22 per group) on distinct executive processes of spatial WM. We also evaluated the therapeutic effect of the A 2A R antagonist KW6002 on delayed match-to-sample/place tasks in 6 normal and 6 MPTP-treated cynomolgus monkeys. Optogenetic activation of striatopallidal A 2A Rs in the dorsomedial striatum selectively at the delay and choice (not sample) phases impaired DNMTP performance. Optogenetic activation of A 2A Rs in the medial prefrontal cortex selectively at the delay (not sample or choice) phase improved DNMTP performance. The corticostriatal A 2A R control of spatial WM was specific for a novel but not well-trained DNMTP task. Focal dorsomedial striatum A 2A R knockdown or KW6002 improved DNMTP performance in mice. Last, KW6002 improved spatial WM in delayed match-to-sample and delayed match-to-place tasks of normal and dopamine-depleted cynomolgus monkeys. The A 2A Rs in striatopallidal and medial prefrontal cortex neurons exert distinctive control of WM maintenance and retrieval to achieve cognitive stability and flexibility. The procognitive effect of KW6002 in nonhuman primates provides the preclinical data to translate A 2A R antagonists for improving cognitive impairments in Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Role of A1 and A2A adenosine receptor agonists in adipose tissue inflammation induced by obesity in mice.

    PubMed

    DeOliveira, Caroline Candida; Paiva Caria, Cintia Rabelo E; Ferreira Gotardo, Erica Martins; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima; Gambero, Alessandra

    2017-03-15

    Adenosine receptors are expressed in adipose tissue and control physiological and pathological events such as lipolysis and inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of N 6 -cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), a potent and selective A 1 adenosine receptor agonist; 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxyamidoadenosine hydrochloride (CGS-21680), an A 2A adenosine receptor agonist; and 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA), a potent non-selective adenosine receptor agonist on adipose tissue inflammatory alterations induced by obesity in mice. Swiss mice were fed with a high-fat diet for 12 weeks and agonists were administered in the last two weeks. Body weight, adiposity and glucose homeostasis were evaluated. Inflammation in adipose tissue was assessed by evaluation of adipokine production and macrophage infiltration. Adenosine receptor signaling in adipose tissue was also evaluated. Mice that received CGS21680 presented an improvement in glucose homeostasis in association with systemically reduced inflammatory markers (TNF-α, PAI-1) and in the visceral adipose tissue (TNF-α, MCP-1, macrophage infiltration). Activation of p38 signaling was found in adipose tissue of this group of mice. NECA-treated mice presented some improvements in glucose homeostasis associated with an observed weight loss. Mice that received CPA presented only a reduction in the ex vivo basal lipolysis rate measured within visceral adipose tissue. In conclusion, administration of the A 2A receptor agonist to obese mice resulted in improvements in glucose homeostasis and adipose tissue inflammation, corroborating the idea that new therapeutics to treat obesity could emerge from these compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Adenosine A2A receptors modulate the dopamine D2 receptor-mediated inhibition of synaptic transmission in the mouse prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Real, Joana I; Simões, Ana Patrícia; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Ferreira, Samira G; Rial, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    Prefrontal cortex (PFC) circuits are modulated by dopamine acting on D 1 - and D 2 -like receptors, which are pharmacologically exploited to manage neuropsychiatric conditions. Adenosine A 2A receptors (A 2 A R) also control PFC-related responses and A 2 A R antagonists are potential anti-psychotic drugs. As tight antagonistic A 2 A R-D 2 R and synergistic A 2 A R-D 1 R interactions occur in other brain regions, we now investigated the crosstalk between A 2 A R and D 1 /D 2 R controlling synaptic transmission between layers II/III and V in mouse PFC coronal slices. Dopamine decreased synaptic transmission, a presynaptic effect based on the parallel increase in paired-pulse responses. Dopamine inhibition was prevented by the D 2 R-like antagonist sulpiride but not by the D 1 R antagonist SCH23390 and was mimicked by the D 2 R agonist sumanirole, but not by the agonists of either D 4 R (A-412997) or D 3 R (PD128907). Dopamine inhibition was prevented by the A 2 A R antagonist, SCH58261, and attenuated in A 2 A R knockout mice. Accordingly, triple-labelling immunocytochemistry experiments revealed the co-localization of A 2 A R and D 2 R immunoreactivity in glutamatergic (vGluT1-positive) nerve terminals of the PFC. This reported positive A 2 A R-D 2 R interaction controlling PFC synaptic transmission provides a mechanistic justification for the anti-psychotic potential of A 2 A R antagonists. © 2018 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Adenosine A2A receptors are required for glutamate mGluR5- and dopamine D1 receptor-evoked ERK1/2 phosphorylation in rat hippocampus: involvement of NMDA receptor.

    PubMed

    Krania, Paraskevi; Dimou, Eleni; Bantouna, Maria; Kouvaros, Stylianos; Tsiamaki, Eirini; Papatheodoropoulos, Costas; Sarantis, Konstantinos; Angelatou, Fevronia

    2018-05-01

    Interaction between mGluR5 and NMDA receptors (NMDAR) is vital for synaptic plasticity and cognition. We recently demonstrated that stimulation of mGluR5 enhances NMDAR responses in hippocampus by phosphorylating NR2B(Tyr1472) subunit, and this reaction was enabled by adenosine A 2A receptors (A 2A R) (J Neurochem, 135, 2015, 714). In this study, by using in vitro phosphorylation and western blot analysis in hippocampal slices of male Wistar rats, we show that mGluR5 stimulation or mGluR5/NMDARs co-stimulation synergistically activate ERK1/2 signaling leading to c-Fos expression. Interestingly, both reactions are under the permissive control of endogenous adenosine acting through A 2A Rs. Moreover, mGluR5-mediated ERK1/2 phosphorylation depends on NMDAR, which however exhibits a metabotropic way of function, since no ion influx through its ion channel is required. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that mGluR5 and mGluR5/NMDAR-evoked ERK1/2 activation correlates well with the mGluR5/NMDAR-evoked NR2B(Tyr1472) phosphorylation, since both phenomena coincide temporally, are Src dependent, and are both enabled by A 2A Rs. This indicates a functional involvement of NR2B(Tyr1472) phosphorylation in the ERK1/2 activation. Our biochemical results are supported by electrophysiological data showing that in CA1 region of hippocampus, the theta burst stimulation (TBS)-induced long-term potentiation coincides temporally with an increase in ERK1/2 activation and both phenomena are dependent on the tripartite A 2A , mGlu5, and NMDARs. Furthermore, we show that the dopamine D1 receptors evoked ERK1/2 activation as well as the NR2B(Tyr1472) phosphorylation are also regulated by endogenous adenosine and A 2A Rs. In conclusion, our results highlight the A 2A Rs as a crucial regulator not only for NMDAR responses, but also for regulating ERK1/2 signaling and its downstream pathways, leading to gene expression, synaptic plasticity, and memory consolidation. © 2017 International

  10. Renal protection from ischemia mediated by A2A adenosine receptors on bone marrow–derived cells

    PubMed Central

    Day, Yuan-Ji; Huang, Liping; McDuffie, Marcia J.; Rosin, Diane L.; Ye, Hong; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Schwarzschild, Michael A.; Fink, J. Stephen; Linden, Joel; Okusa, Mark D.

    2003-01-01

    Activation of A2A adenosine receptors (A2ARs) protects kidneys from ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). A2ARs are expressed on bone marrow–derived (BM-derived) cells and renal smooth muscle, epithelial, and endothelial cells. To measure the contribution of A2ARs on BM-derived cells in suppressing renal IRI, we examined the effects of a selective agonist of A2ARs, ATL146e, in chimeric mice in which BM was ablated by lethal radiation and reconstituted with donor BM cells derived from GFP, A2AR-KO, or WT mice to produce GFP→WT, A2A-KO→WT, or WT→WT mouse chimera. We found little or no repopulation of renal vascular endothelial cells by donor BM with or without renal IRI. ATL146e had no effect on IRI in A2A-KO mice or A2A-KO→WT chimera, but reduced the rise in plasma creatinine from IRI by 75% in WT mice and by 60% in WT→WT chimera. ATL146e reduced the induction of IL-6, IL-1β, IL-1ra, and TGF-α mRNA in WT→WT mice but not in A2A-KO→WT mice. Plasma creatinine was significantly greater in A2A-KO than in WT mice after IRI, suggesting some renal protection by endogenous adenosine. We conclude that protection from renal IRI by A2AR agonists or endogenous adenosine requires activation of receptors expressed on BM-derived cells. PMID:12975473

  11. SKCa Channels Blockage Increases the Expression of Adenosine A2A Receptor in Jurkat Human T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Regaya, Imed; Aidi-Knani, Sabrine; By, Youlet; Condo, Jocelyne; Gerolami, Victoria; Berge-Lefranc, Jean-Louis; Ben Hamida, Jeannette; Sabatier, Jean-Marc; Fenouillet, Emmanuel; Guieu, Régis

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Adenosine is a nucleoside displaying various biological effects via stimulation of four G-protein–coupled receptors, A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Adenosine also modulates voltage-gated (Kv) and small conductance calcium-activated (SKCa) potassium channels. The effect of these potassium channels on the expression of adenosine receptors is poorly understood. We evaluated the action of BgK (a natural Kv channel blocker) and Lei-Dab7 (a synthetic SKCa channel blocker) on the expression of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) in Jurkat human T cells. We found that Lei-Dab7, but not BgK, increased the maximal binding value of the tritiated ligand ZM241385 to A2AR in a dose-dependent manner (+45% at 5 nM; +70% at 50 nM as compared to control). These results were further confirmed by Western blotting using a specific monoclonal antibody to human A2AR. The ligand affinity-related dissociation constant and A2AR mRNA amount were not significantly modified by either drug. We suggest that modulation of SKCa channels can influence membrane expression of A2AR and thus has a therapeutic potential. PMID:23593569

  12. Adenosine through the A2A adenosine receptor increases IL-1β in the brain contributing to anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Gabriel S.; Darmody, Patrick T.; Walsh, John P.; Moon, Morgan L.; Kwakwa, Kristin A.; Bray, Julie K.; McCusker, Robert H.; Freund, Gregory G.

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety is one of the most commonly reported psychiatric conditions, but its pathogenesis is poorly understood. Ailments associated with activation of the innate immune system, however, are increasingly linked to anxiety disorders. In adult male mice, we found that adenosine doubled caspase-1 activity in brain by a pathway reliant on ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels, protein kinase A (PKA) and the A2A adenosine receptor (AR). In addition, adenosine-dependent activation of caspase-1 increased interleukin (IL)-1β in the brain by two-fold. Peripheral administration of adenosine in wild-type (WT) mice led to a 2.3-fold increase in caspase-1 activity in the amygdala and to a 33% and 42% reduction in spontaneous locomotor activity and food intake, respectively, that were not observed in caspase-1 knockout (KO), IL-1 receptor type 1 (IL-1R1) KO and A2A AR KO mice or in mice administered a caspase-1 inhibitor centrally. Finally, adenosine administration increased anxiety-like behaviors in WT mice by 28% in the open field test and by 55% in the elevated zero-maze. Caspase-1 KO mice, IL-1R1 KO mice, A2A AR KO mice and WT mice treated with the KATP channel blocker, glyburide, were resistant to adenosine-induced anxiety-like behaviors. Thus, our results indicate that adenosine can act as an anxiogenic by activating caspase-1 and increasing IL-1β in the brain. PMID:24907587

  13. Selecting an optimal number of binding site waters to improve virtual screening enrichments against the adenosine A2A receptor.

    PubMed

    Lenselink, Eelke B; Beuming, Thijs; Sherman, Woody; van Vlijmen, Herman W T; IJzerman, Adriaan P

    2014-06-23

    A major challenge in structure-based virtual screening (VS) involves the treatment of explicit water molecules during docking in order to improve the enrichment of active compounds over decoys. Here we have investigated this in the context of the adenosine A2A receptor, where water molecules have previously been shown to be important for achieving high enrichment rates with docking, and where the positions of some binding site waters are known from a high-resolution crystal structure. The effect of these waters (both their presence and orientations) on VS enrichment was assessed using a carefully curated set of 299 high affinity A2A antagonists and 17,337 decoys. We show that including certain crystal waters greatly improves VS enrichment and that optimization of water hydrogen positions is needed in order to achieve the best results. We also show that waters derived from a molecular dynamics simulation - without any knowledge of crystallographic waters - can improve enrichments to a similar degree as the crystallographic waters, which makes this strategy applicable to structures without experimental knowledge of water positions. Finally, we used decision trees to select an ensemble of structures with different water molecule positions and orientations that outperforms any single structure with water molecules. The approach presented here is validated against independent test sets of A2A receptor antagonists and decoys from the literature. In general, this water optimization strategy could be applied to any target with waters-mediated protein-ligand interactions.

  14. Molecular Evidence of Adenosine Deaminase Linking Adenosine A2A Receptor and CD26 Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Estefanía; Canet, Júlia; Gracia, Eduard; Lluís, Carme; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I.; Cortés, Antoni; Casadó, Vicent

    2018-01-01

    Adenosine is an endogenous purine nucleoside that acts in all living systems as a homeostatic network regulator through many pathways, which are adenosine receptor (AR)-dependent and -independent. From a metabolic point of view, adenosine deaminase (ADA) is an essential protein in the regulation of the total intracellular and extracellular adenosine in a tissue. In addition to its cytosolic localization, ADA is also expressed as an ecto-enzyme on the surface of different cells. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (CD26) and some ARs act as binding proteins for extracellular ADA in humans. Since CD26 and ARs interact with ADA at opposite sites, we have investigated if ADA can function as a cell-to-cell communication molecule by bridging the anchoring molecules CD26 and A2AR present on the surfaces of the interacting cells. By combining site-directed mutagenesis of ADA amino acids involved in binding to A2AR and a modification of the bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) technique that allows detection of interactions between two proteins expressed in different cell populations with low steric hindrance (NanoBRET), we show direct evidence of the specific formation of trimeric complexes CD26-ADA-A2AR involving two cells. By dynamic mass redistribution assays and ligand binding experiments, we also demonstrate that A2AR-NanoLuc fusion proteins are functional. The existence of this ternary complex is in good agreement with the hypothesis that ADA could bridge T-cells (expressing CD26) and dendritic cells (expressing A2AR). This is a new metabolic function for ecto-ADA that, being a single chain protein, it has been considered as an example of moonlighting protein, because it performs more than one functional role (as a catalyst, a costimulator, an allosteric modulator and a cell-to-cell connector) without partitioning these functions in different subunits. PMID:29497379

  15. Release inhibitory receptors activation favours the A2A-adenosine receptor-mediated facilitation of noradrenaline release in isolated rat tail artery

    PubMed Central

    Fresco, Paula; Diniz, Carmen; Queiroz, Glória; Gonçalves, Jorge

    2002-01-01

    Interactions between A2A-adenosine receptors and α2-, A1- and P2- release-inhibitory receptors, on the modulation of noradrenaline release were studied in isolated rat tail artery. Preparations were labelled with [3H]-noradrenaline, superfused with desipramine-containing medium, and stimulated electrically (100 pulses at 5 Hz or 20 pulses at 50 Hz).Blockade of α2-autoreceptors with yohimbine (1 μM) increased tritium overflow elicited by 100 pulses at 5 Hz but not by 20 pulses at 50 Hz.The selective A2A-receptor agonist 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS 21680; 1 – 100 nM) enhanced tritium overflow elicited by 100 pulses at 5 Hz. Yohimbine prevented the effect of CGS 21680, which was restored by the A1-receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA; 100 nM) or by the P2-receptor agonist 2-methylthioadenosine triphosphate (2-MeSATP; 80 μM).CGS 21680 (100 nM) failed to increase tritium overflow elicited by 20 pulses at 50 Hz. The α2-adrenoceptor agonist 5-bromo-6-(2-imidazolin-2-ylamino)-quinoxaline (UK 14304; 30 nM), the A1-receptor agonist CPA (100 nM) or the P2-receptor agonist 2-MeSATP (80 μM) reduced tritium overflow. In the presence of these agonists CGS 21680 elicited a facilitation of tritium overflow.Blockade of potassium channels with tetraethylammonium (TEA; 5 mM) increased tritium overflow elicited by 100 pulses at 5 Hz to values similar to those obtained in the presence of yohimbine but did not prevent the effect of CGS 21680 (100 nM) on tritium overflow.It is concluded that, in isolated rat tail artery, the facilitation of noradrenaline release mediated by A2A-adenosine receptors is favoured by activation of release inhibitory receptors. PMID:12010771

  16. Impact of purification conditions and history on A 2A adenosine receptor activity: The role of CHAPS and lipids

    SciTech Connect

    Naranjo, Andrea N.; McNeely, Patrick M.; Katsaras, John

    The adenosine A 2A receptor (A 2AR) is a much-studied class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). For biophysical studies, A 2AR is commonly purified in a detergent mixture of dodecylmaltoside (DDM), 3-(3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammoniopropane sulfonate (CHAPS), and cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHS). Here we studied the effects of CHAPS on the ligand binding activity and stability of wild type, full-length human A 2AR. We also tested the cholesterol requirement for maintaining the active conformation of the receptor when solubilized in detergent micelles. To this end, the receptor was purified using DDM, DDM/CHAPS, or the short hydrocarbon chain lipid 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC, di-6:0PC). After solubilizationmore » in DDM, DDM/CHAPS, or DHPC micelles, although A 2AR was found to retain its native-like fold, its binding ability was significantly compromised compared to DDM or DDM/CHAPS with CHS. It therefore appears that although cholesterol is not needed for A 2AR to retain a native-like, α-helical conformation, it may be a critical component for high affinity ligand binding. Further, this result suggests that the conformational differences between the active and inactive protein may be so subtle that commonly used spectroscopic methods are unable to differentiate between the two forms, highlighting the need for activity measurements. Furthermore, the studies presented in this paper also underline the importance of the protein’s purification history; i.e., detergents that interact with the protein during purification affect the ligand binding properties of the receptor in an irreversible manner.« less

  17. Singular Location and Signaling Profile of Adenosine A2A-Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Heteromers in the Dorsal Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Estefanía; Chiarlone, Anna; Medrano, Mireia; Puigdellívol, Mar; Bibic, Lucka; Howell, Lesley A; Resel, Eva; Puente, Nagore; Casarejos, María J; Perucho, Juan; Botta, Joaquín; Suelves, Nuria; Ciruela, Francisco; Ginés, Silvia; Galve-Roperh, Ismael; Casadó, Vicent; Grandes, Pedro; Lutz, Beat; Monory, Krisztina; Canela, Enric I; Lluís, Carmen; McCormick, Peter J; Guzmán, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    The dorsal striatum is a key node for many neurobiological processes such as motor activity, cognitive functions, and affective processes. The proper functioning of striatal neurons relies critically on metabotropic receptors. Specifically, the main adenosine and endocannabinoid receptors present in the striatum, ie, adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) and cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R), are of pivotal importance in the control of neuronal excitability. Facilitatory and inhibitory functional interactions between striatal A2AR and CB1R have been reported, and evidence supports that this cross-talk may rely, at least in part, on the formation of A2AR-CB1R heteromeric complexes. However, the specific location and properties of these heteromers have remained largely unknown. Here, by using techniques that allowed a precise visualization of the heteromers in situ in combination with sophisticated genetically modified animal models, together with biochemical and pharmacological approaches, we provide a high-resolution expression map and a detailed functional characterization of A2AR-CB1R heteromers in the dorsal striatum. Specifically, our data unveil that the A2AR-CB1R heteromer (i) is essentially absent from corticostriatal projections and striatonigral neurons, and, instead, is largely present in striatopallidal neurons, (ii) displays a striking G protein-coupled signaling profile, where co-stimulation of both receptors leads to strongly reduced downstream signaling, and (iii) undergoes an unprecedented dysfunction in Huntington’s disease, an archetypal disease that affects striatal neurons. Altogether, our findings may open a new conceptual framework to understand the role of coordinated adenosine-endocannabinoid signaling in the indirect striatal pathway, which may be relevant in motor function and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:28102227

  18. Impact of purification conditions and history on A 2A adenosine receptor activity: The role of CHAPS and lipids

    DOE PAGES

    Naranjo, Andrea N.; McNeely, Patrick M.; Katsaras, John; ...

    2016-05-27

    The adenosine A 2A receptor (A 2AR) is a much-studied class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). For biophysical studies, A 2AR is commonly purified in a detergent mixture of dodecylmaltoside (DDM), 3-(3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammoniopropane sulfonate (CHAPS), and cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHS). Here we studied the effects of CHAPS on the ligand binding activity and stability of wild type, full-length human A 2AR. We also tested the cholesterol requirement for maintaining the active conformation of the receptor when solubilized in detergent micelles. To this end, the receptor was purified using DDM, DDM/CHAPS, or the short hydrocarbon chain lipid 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC, di-6:0PC). After solubilizationmore » in DDM, DDM/CHAPS, or DHPC micelles, although A 2AR was found to retain its native-like fold, its binding ability was significantly compromised compared to DDM or DDM/CHAPS with CHS. It therefore appears that although cholesterol is not needed for A 2AR to retain a native-like, α-helical conformation, it may be a critical component for high affinity ligand binding. Further, this result suggests that the conformational differences between the active and inactive protein may be so subtle that commonly used spectroscopic methods are unable to differentiate between the two forms, highlighting the need for activity measurements. Furthermore, the studies presented in this paper also underline the importance of the protein’s purification history; i.e., detergents that interact with the protein during purification affect the ligand binding properties of the receptor in an irreversible manner.« less

  19. Neuroprotection by caffeine in the MPTP model of Parkinson’s disease and its dependence on adenosine A2A receptors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kui; Di Luca, Daniel Garbin; Orrú, Marco; Xu, Yuehang; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Schwarzschild, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Considerable epidemiological and laboratory data have suggested that caffeine, a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist, may protect against the underlying neurodegeneration of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Although both caffeine and more specific antagonists of the A2A subtype of adenosine receptor (A2AR) have been found to confer protection in animal models of PD, the dependence of caffeine’s neuroprotective effects on the A2AR is not known. To definitively determine its A2AR dependence, the effect of caffeine on MPTP neurotoxicity was compared in wild-type (WT) and A2AR gene global knockout (A2A KO) mice, as well as in CNS cell type-specific (conditional) A2AR knockout (cKO) mice that lack the receptor either in postnatal forebrain neurons or in astrocytes. In WT and in heterozygous A2AR KO mice caffeine pretreatment (25 mg/kg ip) significantly attenuated MPTP-induced depletion of striatal dopamine. By contrast in homozygous A2AR global KO mice caffeine had no effect on MPTP toxicity. In forebrain neuron A2AR cKO mice, caffeine lost its locomotor stimulant effect, whereas its neuroprotective effect was mostly preserved. In astrocytic A2AR cKO mice, both caffeine’s locomotor stimulant and protective properties were undiminished. Taken together, these results indicate that neuroprotection by caffeine in the MPTP model of PD relies on the A2AR, although the specific cellular localization of these receptors remains to be determined. PMID:26905951

  20. Resetting microbiota by Lactobacillus reuteri inhibits T reg deficiency–induced autoimmunity via adenosine A2A receptors

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Thomas K.; Tian, Xiangjun; Luo, Meng; Zhou, Jain; Tatevian, Nina; Molina, Jose G.; Blackburn, Michael R.; Gomez, Thomas H.

    2017-01-01

    Regulatory T (T reg) cell deficiency causes lethal, CD4+ T cell–driven autoimmune diseases. Stem cell transplantation is used to treat these diseases, but this procedure is limited by the availability of a suitable donor. The intestinal microbiota drives host immune homeostasis by regulating the differentiation and expansion of T reg, Th1, and Th2 cells. It is currently unclear if T reg cell deficiency–mediated autoimmune disorders can be treated by targeting the enteric microbiota. Here, we demonstrate that Foxp3+ T reg cell deficiency results in gut microbial dysbiosis and autoimmunity over the lifespan of scurfy (SF) mouse. Remodeling microbiota with Lactobacillus reuteri prolonged survival and reduced multiorgan inflammation in SF mice. L. reuteri changed the metabolomic profile disrupted by T reg cell deficiency, and a major effect was to restore levels of the purine metabolite inosine. Feeding inosine itself prolonged life and inhibited multiorgan inflammation by reducing Th1/Th2 cells and their associated cytokines. Mechanistically, the inhibition of inosine on the differentiation of Th1 and Th2 cells in vitro depended on adenosine A2A receptors, which were also required for the efficacy of inosine and of L. reuteri in vivo. These results reveal that the microbiota–inosine–A2A receptor axis might represent a potential avenue for combatting autoimmune diseases mediated by T reg cell dysfunction. PMID:27994068

  1. Calcium modulates calmodulin/α-actinin 1 interaction with and agonist-dependent internalization of the adenosine A2A receptor.

    PubMed

    Piirainen, Henni; Taura, Jaume; Kursula, Petri; Ciruela, Francisco; Jaakola, Veli-Pekka

    2017-04-01

    Adenosine receptors are G protein-coupled receptors that sense extracellular adenosine to transmit intracellular signals. One of the four adenosine receptor subtypes, the adenosine A 2A receptor (A 2A R), has an exceptionally long intracellular C terminus (A 2A R-ct) that mediates interactions with a large array of proteins, including calmodulin and α-actinin. Here, we aimed to ascertain the α-actinin 1/calmodulin interplay whilst binding to A 2A R and the role of Ca 2+ in this process. First, we studied the A 2A R-α-actinin 1 interaction by means of native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, isothermal titration calorimetry, and surface plasmon resonance, using purified recombinant proteins. α-Actinin 1 binds the A 2A R-ct through its distal calmodulin-like domain in a Ca 2+ -independent manner with a dissociation constant of 5-12μM, thus showing an ~100 times lower affinity compared to the A 2A R-calmodulin/Ca 2+ complex. Importantly, calmodulin displaced α-actinin 1 from the A 2A R-ct in a Ca 2+ -dependent fashion, disrupting the A 2A R-α-actinin 1 complex. Finally, we assessed the impact of Ca 2+ on A 2A R internalization in living cells, a function operated by the A 2A R-α-actinin 1 complex. Interestingly, while Ca 2+ influx did not affect constitutive A 2A R endocytosis, it abolished agonist-dependent internalization. In addition, we demonstrated that the A 2A R/α-actinin interaction plays a pivotal role in receptor internalization and function. Overall, our results suggest that the interplay of A 2A R with calmodulin and α-actinin 1 is fine-tuned by Ca 2+ , a fact that might power agonist-mediated receptor internalization and function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Human adenosine A2A receptor binds calmodulin with high affinity in a calcium-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Piirainen, Henni; Hellman, Maarit; Tossavainen, Helena; Permi, Perttu; Kursula, Petri; Jaakola, Veli-Pekka

    2015-02-17

    Understanding how ligands bind to G-protein-coupled receptors and how binding changes receptor structure to affect signaling is critical for developing a complete picture of the signal transduction process. The adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) is a particularly interesting example, as it has an exceptionally long intracellular carboxyl terminus, which is predicted to be mainly disordered. Experimental data on the structure of the A2AR C-terminus is lacking, because published structures of A2AR do not include the C-terminus. Calmodulin has been reported to bind to the A2AR C-terminus, with a possible binding site on helix 8, next to the membrane. The biological meaning of the interaction as well as its calcium dependence, thermodynamic parameters, and organization of the proteins in the complex are unclear. Here, we characterized the structure of the A2AR C-terminus and the A2AR C-terminus-calmodulin complex using different biophysical methods, including native gel and analytical gel filtration, isothermal titration calorimetry, NMR spectroscopy, and small-angle X-ray scattering. We found that the C-terminus is disordered and flexible, and it binds with high affinity (Kd = 98 nM) to calmodulin without major conformational changes in the domain. Calmodulin binds to helix 8 of the A2AR in a calcium-dependent manner that can displace binding of A2AR to lipid vesicles. We also predicted and classified putative calmodulin-binding sites in a larger group of G-protein-coupled receptors. Copyright © 2015 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The androgen receptor gene mutations database.

    PubMed

    Patterson, M N; Hughes, I A; Gottlieb, B; Pinsky, L

    1994-09-01

    The androgen receptor gene mutations database is a comprehensive listing of mutations published in journals and meetings proceedings. The majority of mutations are point mutations identified in patients with androgen insensitivity syndrome. Information is included regarding the phenotype, the nature and location of the mutations, as well as the effects of the mutations on the androgen binding activity of the receptor. The current version of the database contains 149 entries, of which 114 are unique mutations. The database is available from EMBL (NetServ@EMBL-Heidelberg.DE) or as a Macintosh Filemaker file (mc33001@musica.mcgill.ca).

  4. Chronic and acute adenosine A2A receptor blockade prevents long-term episodic memory disruption caused by acute cannabinoid CB1 receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Mouro, Francisco M; Batalha, Vânia L; Ferreira, Diana G; Coelho, Joana E; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E; Lopes, Luísa V; Ribeiro, Joaquim A; Sebastião, Ana M

    2017-05-01

    Cannabinoid-mediated memory impairment is a concern in cannabinoid-based therapies. Caffeine exacerbates cannabinoid CB 1 receptor (CB 1 R)-induced memory deficits through an adenosine A 1 receptor-mediated mechanism. We now evaluated how chronic or acute blockade of adenosine A 2A receptors (A 2A Rs) affects long-term episodic memory deficits induced by a single injection of a selective CB 1 R agonist. Long-term episodic memory was assessed by the novel object recognition (NOR) test. Mice received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of the CB 1 /CB 2 receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 (1 mg/kg) immediately after the NOR training, being tested for novelty recognition 24 h later. Anxiety levels were assessed by the Elevated Plus Maze test, immediately after the NOR. Mice were also tested for exploratory behaviour at the Open Field. For chronic A 2A R blockade, KW-6002 (istradefylline) (3 mg/kg/day) was administered orally for 30 days; acute blockade of A 2A Rs was assessed by i.p. injection of SCH 58261 (1 mg/kg) administered either together with WIN 55,212-2 or only 30 min before the NOR test phase. The involvement of CB 1 Rs was assessed by using the CB 1 R antagonist, AM251 (3 mg/kg, i.p.). WIN 55,212-2 caused a disruption in NOR, an action absent in mice also receiving AM251, KW-6002 or SCH 58261 during the encoding/consolidation phase; SCH 58251 was ineffective if present during retrieval only. No effects were detected in the Elevated Plus maze or Open Field Test. The finding that CB 1 R-mediated memory disruption is prevented by antagonism of adenosine A 2A Rs, highlights a possibility to prevent cognitive side effects when therapeutic application of CB 1 R drugs is desired. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Adenosine A2A Receptor Blockade or Deletion Diminishes Fibrocyte Accumulation in the Skin in a Murine Model of Scleroderma, Bleomycin-induced Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Katebi, Majid; Fernandez, Patricia; Chan, Edwin S. L.; Cronstein, Bruce N.

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral blood fibrocytes are a newly identified circulating leukocyte subpopulation that migrates into injured tissue where it may display fibroblast-like properties and participate in wound healing and fibrosis of skin and other organs. Previous studies in our lab demonstrated that A2A receptor-deficient and A2A antagonist-treated mice were protected from developing bleomycin-induced dermal fibrosis, thus the aim of this study was to determine whether the adenosine A2A receptor regulates recruitment of fibrocytes to the dermis in this bleomycin-induced model of dermal fibrosis. Sections of skin from normal mice and bleomycin-treated wild type, A2A knockout and A2A antagonist-treated mice were stained for Procollagen α2 Type I and CD34 and the double stained cells, fibrocytes, were counted in the tissue sections. There were more fibrocytes in the dermis of bleomycin-treated mice than normal mice and the increase was abrogated by deletion or blockade of adenosine A2A receptors. Because fibrocytes play a central role in tissue fibrosis these results suggest that diminished adenosine A2A receptor-mediated recruitment of fibrocytes into tissue may play a role in the pathogenesis of fibrosing diseases of the skin. Moreover, these results provide further evidence that adenosine A2A receptors may represent a new target for the treatment of such fibrosing diseases as scleroderma or nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy. PMID:18709547

  6. Use of molecular modeling aided design to dial out hERG liability in adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Deng, Qiaolin; Lim, Yeon-Hee; Anand, Rajan; Yu, Younong; Kim, Jae-hun; Zhou, Wei; Zheng, Junying; Tempest, Paul; Levorse, Dorothy; Zhang, Xiaoping; Greene, Scott; Mullins, Deborra; Culberson, Chris; Sherborne, Brad; Parker, Eric M; Stamford, Andrew; Ali, Amjad

    2015-08-01

    Molecular modeling was performed on a triazolo quinazoline lead compound to help develop a series of adenosine A2A receptor antagonists with improved hERG profile. Superposition of the lead compound onto MK-499, a benchmark hERG inhibitor, combined with pKa calculations and measurement, identified terminal fluorobenzene to be responsible for hERG activity. Docking of the lead compound into an A2A crystal structure suggested that this group is located at a flexible, spacious, and solvent-exposed opening of the binding pocket, making it possible to tolerate various functional groups. Transformation analysis (MMP, matched molecular pair) of in-house available experimental data on hERG provided suggestions for modifications in order to mitigate this liability. This led to the synthesis of a series of compounds with significantly reduced hERG activity. The strategy used in the modeling work can be applied to other medicinal chemistry programs to help improve hERG profile. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Selective inactivation of adenosine A2A receptors in striatal neurons enhances working memory and reversal learning

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Catherine J.; Singer, Philipp; Coelho, Joana; Boison, Detlev; Feldon, Joram; Yee, Benjamin K.; Chen, Jiang-Fan

    2011-01-01

    The adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) is highly enriched in the striatum where it is uniquely positioned to integrate dopaminergic, glutamatergic, and other signals to modulate cognition. Although previous studies support the hypothesis that A2AR inactivation can be pro-cognitive, analyses of A2AR's effects on cognitive functions have been restricted to a small subset of cognitive domains. Furthermore, the relative contribution of A2ARs in distinct brain regions remains largely unknown. Here, we studied the regulation of multiple memory processes by brain region-specific populations of A2ARs. Specifically, we evaluated the cognitive impacts of conditional A2AR deletion restricted to either the entire forebrain (i.e., cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and striatum, fb-A2AR KO) or to striatum alone (st-A2AR KO) in recognition memory, working memory, reference memory, and reversal learning. This comprehensive, comparative analysis showed for the first time that depletion of A2AR-dependent signaling in either the entire forebrain or striatum alone is associated with two specific phenotypes indicative of cognitive flexibility—enhanced working memory and enhanced reversal learning. These selective pro-cognitive phenotypes seemed largely attributed to inactivation of striatal A2ARs as they were captured by A2AR deletion restricted to striatal neurons. Neither spatial reference memory acquisition nor spatial recognition memory were grossly affected, and no evidence for compensatory changes in striatal or cortical D1, D2, or A1 receptor expression was found. This study provides the first direct demonstration that targeting striatal A2ARs may be an effective, novel strategy to facilitate cognitive flexibility under normal and pathologic conditions. PMID:21693634

  8. Caffeine acts through neuronal adenosine A2A receptors to prevent mood and memory dysfunction triggered by chronic stress

    PubMed Central

    Kaster, Manuella P.; Machado, Nuno J.; Silva, Henrique B.; Nunes, Ana; Ardais, Ana Paula; Santana, Magda; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E.; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S.; Porciúncula, Lisiane O.; Chen, Jiang Fan; Tomé, Ângelo R.; Agostinho, Paula; Canas, Paula M.; Cunha, Rodrigo A.

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of caffeine (an adenosine receptor antagonist) correlates inversely with depression and memory deterioration, and adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) antagonists emerge as candidate therapeutic targets because they control aberrant synaptic plasticity and afford neuroprotection. Therefore we tested the ability of A2AR to control the behavioral, electrophysiological, and neurochemical modifications caused by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), which alters hippocampal circuits, dampens mood and memory performance, and enhances susceptibility to depression. CUS for 3 wk in adult mice induced anxiogenic and helpless-like behavior and decreased memory performance. These behavioral changes were accompanied by synaptic alterations, typified by a decrease in synaptic plasticity and a reduced density of synaptic proteins (synaptosomal-associated protein 25, syntaxin, and vesicular glutamate transporter type 1), together with an increased density of A2AR in glutamatergic terminals in the hippocampus. Except for anxiety, for which results were mixed, CUS-induced behavioral and synaptic alterations were prevented by (i) caffeine (1 g/L in the drinking water, starting 3 wk before and continued throughout CUS); (ii) the selective A2AR antagonist KW6002 (3 mg/kg, p.o.); (iii) global A2AR deletion; and (iv) selective A2AR deletion in forebrain neurons. Notably, A2AR blockade was not only prophylactic but also therapeutically efficacious, because a 3-wk treatment with the A2AR antagonist SCH58261 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) reversed the mood and synaptic dysfunction caused by CUS. These results herald a key role for synaptic A2AR in the control of chronic stress-induced modifications and suggest A2AR as candidate targets to alleviate the consequences of chronic stress on brain function. PMID:26056314

  9. Evaluation of distribution of adenosine A2A receptors in normal human brain measured with [11C]TMSX PET.

    PubMed

    Mishina, Masahiro; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Kimura, Yuichi; Naganawa, Mika; Oda, Keiichi; Kobayashi, Shiro; Katayama, Yasuo; Ishii, Kenji

    2007-09-01

    Adenosine A(2A) receptor (A2AR) is thought to interact with dopamine D(2) receptor. Selective A2AR antagonists have attracted attention as the treatment of Parkinson's disease. In this study, we investigated the distribution of the A2ARs in the living human brain using positron emission tomography (PET) and [7-methyl-(11)C]-(E)-8-(3,4,5-trimethoxystyryl)-1,3,7-trimethylxanthine ([(11)C]TMSX). We recruited five normal male subjects. A dynamic series of PET scans was performed for 60 min, and the arterial blood was sampled during the scan to measure radioactivity of the parent compound and labeled metabolites. Circular regions of interest of 10-mm diameter were placed in the PET images over the cerebellum, brainstem, thalamus, head of caudate nucleus, anterior and posterior putamen, frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and posterior cingulate gyrus for each subject. A two-tissue, three-compartment model was used to estimate K(1), k(2), k(3), and k(4) between metabolite-corrected plasma and tissue time activity of [(11)C]TMSX. The binding potential (BP) was the largest in the anterior (1.25) and posterior putamen (1.20), was next largest in the head of caudate nucleus (1.05) and thalamus (1.03), and was small in the cerebral cortex, especially frontal lobe (0.46). [(11)C]TMSX PET showed the largest BP in the striatum in which A2ARs were enriched as in postmortem and nonhuman studies reported, but that the binding of [(11)C]TMSX was relatively larger in the thalamus to compare with other mammals. To date, [(11)C]TMSX is the only promising PET ligand, which is available to clinical use for mapping the A2ARs in the living human brain.

  10. Caffeine acts through neuronal adenosine A2A receptors to prevent mood and memory dysfunction triggered by chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Kaster, Manuella P; Machado, Nuno J; Silva, Henrique B; Nunes, Ana; Ardais, Ana Paula; Santana, Magda; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; Porciúncula, Lisiane O; Chen, Jiang Fan; Tomé, Ângelo R; Agostinho, Paula; Canas, Paula M; Cunha, Rodrigo A

    2015-06-23

    The consumption of caffeine (an adenosine receptor antagonist) correlates inversely with depression and memory deterioration, and adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) antagonists emerge as candidate therapeutic targets because they control aberrant synaptic plasticity and afford neuroprotection. Therefore we tested the ability of A2AR to control the behavioral, electrophysiological, and neurochemical modifications caused by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), which alters hippocampal circuits, dampens mood and memory performance, and enhances susceptibility to depression. CUS for 3 wk in adult mice induced anxiogenic and helpless-like behavior and decreased memory performance. These behavioral changes were accompanied by synaptic alterations, typified by a decrease in synaptic plasticity and a reduced density of synaptic proteins (synaptosomal-associated protein 25, syntaxin, and vesicular glutamate transporter type 1), together with an increased density of A2AR in glutamatergic terminals in the hippocampus. Except for anxiety, for which results were mixed, CUS-induced behavioral and synaptic alterations were prevented by (i) caffeine (1 g/L in the drinking water, starting 3 wk before and continued throughout CUS); (ii) the selective A2AR antagonist KW6002 (3 mg/kg, p.o.); (iii) global A2AR deletion; and (iv) selective A2AR deletion in forebrain neurons. Notably, A2AR blockade was not only prophylactic but also therapeutically efficacious, because a 3-wk treatment with the A2AR antagonist SCH58261 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) reversed the mood and synaptic dysfunction caused by CUS. These results herald a key role for synaptic A2AR in the control of chronic stress-induced modifications and suggest A2AR as candidate targets to alleviate the consequences of chronic stress on brain function.

  11. Initial Evaluation of an Adenosine A2A Receptor Ligand, 11C-Preladenant, in Healthy Human Subjects.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Muneyuki; Ishibashi, Kenji; Imai, Masamichi; Wagatsuma, Kei; Ishii, Kenji; Zhou, Xiaoyun; de Vries, Erik F J; Elsinga, Philip H; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Toyohara, Jun

    2017-09-01

    11 C-preladenant is a selective antagonist for mapping of cerebral adenosine A 2A receptors (A 2A Rs) by PET. This is a first-in-human study to examine the safety, radiation dosimetry, and brain imaging of 11 C-preladenant in healthy human subjects. Methods: Dynamic 11 C-preladenant PET scans (90 min) were obtained in 5 healthy male subjects. During the scan, arterial blood was sampled at various time intervals, and the fraction of the parent compound in plasma was determined. For anatomic coregistration, T1-weighted MRI was performed. The total distribution volume ( V T ) was estimated using 1- and 2-tissue-compartment models (1T and 2T, respectively). The distribution volume ratio (DVR) was calculated from V T of target and reference region and obtained with a noninvasive Logan graphical reference tissue method ( t * = 30 min). The applicability of a shortened protocol as an alternative to the 90-min PET scan was investigated. Tracer biodistribution and dosimetry were determined in 3 healthy male subjects, using serial whole-body PET scans acquired over 2 h after 11 C-preladenant injection. Results: There were no serious adverse events in any of the subjects throughout the study period. 11 C-preladenat readily entered the brain, with a peak uptake in the putamen and head of the caudate nucleus 30-40 min after tracer injection. Other brain regions showed rapid clearance of radioactivity. The regional distribution of 11 C-preladenant was consistent with known A 2A R densities in the brain. At pseudoequilibrium (reached at 40 min after injection), stable target-to-cerebellar cortex ratios of around 3.8-10.0 were obtained. The 2T fit better than the 1T in the low-density A 2A R regions. In contrast, there were no significant differences between 1T and 2T in the high-A 2A R-density regions. DVRs in the putamen and head of the caudate nucleus were around 3.8-10.3 when estimated using a Logan graphical reference tissue method with cerebellum as the reference region. PET

  12. Guanosine may increase absence epileptic activity by means of A2A adenosine receptors in Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk rats.

    PubMed

    Lakatos, Renáta Krisztina; Dobolyi, Árpád; Todorov, Mihail Ivilinov; Kékesi, Katalin A; Juhász, Gábor; Aleksza, Magdolna; Kovács, Zsolt

    2016-06-01

    The non-adenosine nucleoside guanosine (Guo) was demonstrated to decrease quinolinic acid(QA)-induced seizures, spontaneously emerged absence epileptic seizures and lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-evoked induction of absence epileptic seizures suggesting its antiepileptic potential. It was also described previously that intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 20 and 50mg/kg Guo decreased the number of spike-wave discharges (SWDs) in a well investigated model of human absence epilepsy, the Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats during 4th (20mg/kg Guo) and 3rd as well as 4th (50mg/kg Guo) measuring hours. Guanosine can potentially decrease SWD number by means of its putative receptors but absence epileptic activity changing effects of Guo by means of increased extracellular adenosine (Ado) cannot be excluded. An increase in the dose of i.p. injected Guo is limited by its low solubility in saline, therefore, we addressed in the present study whether higher doses of Guo, diluted in sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution, have more potent antiepileptic effect in WAG/Rij rats. We confirmed that i.p. 50mg/kg Guo decreased but, surprisingly, i.p. 100mg/kg Guo enhanced the number of SWDs in WAG/Rij rats. Combined i.p. injection of a non-selective Ado receptor antagonist theophylline (5mg/kg) or a selective Ado A2A receptor (A2AR) antagonist SCH 58261 (7-(2-phenylethyl)-5-amino-2-(2-furyl)-pyrazolo-[4,3-e]-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidine) (1mg/kg) and a cyclooxygenase 1 and 2/COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitor indomethacin (10mg/kg) with 100mg/kg Guo decreased the SWD number compared to i.p. 100mg/kg Guo alone. The results suggest that i.p. 100mg/kg Guo can increase SWD number by means of the adenosinergic system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevention of adenosine A2A receptor activation diminishes beat-to-beat alternation in human atrial myocytes.

    PubMed

    Molina, Cristina E; Llach, Anna; Herraiz-Martínez, Adela; Tarifa, Carmen; Barriga, Montserrat; Wiegerinck, Rob F; Fernandes, Jacqueline; Cabello, Nuria; Vallmitjana, Alex; Benitéz, Raúl; Montiel, José; Cinca, Juan; Hove-Madsen, Leif

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) has been associated with increased spontaneous calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and linked to increased adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) expression and activation. Here we tested whether this may favor atrial arrhythmogenesis by promoting beat-to-beat alternation and irregularity. Patch-clamp and confocal calcium imaging was used to measure the beat-to-beat response of the calcium current and transient in human atrial myocytes. Responses were classified as uniform, alternating or irregular and stimulation of Gs-protein coupled receptors decreased the frequency where a uniform response could be maintained from 1.0 ± 0.1 to 0.6 ± 0.1 Hz; p < 0.01 for beta-adrenergic receptors and from 1.4 ± 0.1 to 0.5 ± 0.1 Hz; p < 0.05 for A2ARs. The latter was linked to increased spontaneous calcium release and after-depolarizations. Moreover, A2AR activation increased the fraction of non-uniformly responding cells in HL-1 myocyte cultures from 19 ± 3 to 51 ± 9 %; p < 0.02, and electrical mapping in perfused porcine atria revealed that adenosine induced electrical alternans at longer cycle lengths, doubled the fraction of electrodes showing alternation, and increased the amplitude of alternations. Importantly, protein kinase A inhibition increased the highest frequency where uniform responses could be maintained from 0.84 ± 0.12 to 1.86 ± 0.11 Hz; p < 0.001 and prevention of A2AR-activation with exogenous adenosine deaminase selectively increased the threshold from 0.8 ± 0.1 to 1.2 ± 0.1 Hz; p = 0.001 in myocytes from patients with AF. In conclusion, A2AR-activation promotes beat-to-beat irregularities in the calcium transient in human atrial myocytes, and prevention of A2AR activation may be a novel means to maintain uniform beat-to-beat responses at higher beating frequencies in patients with atrial fibrillation.

  14. Engineering AAV receptor footprints for gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Madigan, Victoria J; Asokan, Aravind

    2016-06-01

    Adeno-associated viruses (AAV) are currently at the forefront of human gene therapy clinical trials as recombinant vectors. Significant progress has been made in elucidating the structure, biology and tropisms of different naturally occurring AAV isolates in the past decade. In particular, a spectrum of AAV capsid interactions with host receptors have been identified and characterized. These studies have enabled a better understanding of key determinants of AAV cell recognition and entry in different hosts. This knowledge is now being applied toward engineering new, lab-derived AAV capsids with favorable transduction profiles. The current review conveys a structural perspective of capsid-glycan interactions and provides a roadmap for generating synthetic strains by engineering AAV receptor footprints. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanistic insights into allosteric regulation of the A 2A adenosine G protein-coupled receptor by physiological cations

    DOE PAGES

    Ye, Libin; Neale, Chris Andrew; Sljoka, Adnan; ...

    2018-04-10

    Cations play key roles in regulating G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), although their mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, 19F NMR is used to delineate the effects of cations on functional states of the adenosine A 2A GPCR. While Na + reinforces an inactive ensemble and a partial-agonist stabilized state, Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ shift the equilibrium toward active states. Positive allosteric effects of divalent cations are more pronounced with agonist and a G-protein-derived peptide. In cell membranes, divalent cations enhance both the affinity and fraction of the high affinity agonist-bound state. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest high concentrations of divalent cations bridgemore » specific extracellular acidic residues, bringing TM5 and TM6 together at the extracellular surface and allosterically driving open the G-protein-binding cleft as shown by rigidity-transmission allostery theory. Lastly, an understanding of cation allostery should enable the design of allosteric agents and enhance our understanding of GPCR regulation in the cellular milieu.« less

  16. Mechanistic insights into allosteric regulation of the A 2A adenosine G protein-coupled receptor by physiological cations

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Libin; Neale, Chris Andrew; Sljoka, Adnan

    Cations play key roles in regulating G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), although their mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, 19F NMR is used to delineate the effects of cations on functional states of the adenosine A 2A GPCR. While Na + reinforces an inactive ensemble and a partial-agonist stabilized state, Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ shift the equilibrium toward active states. Positive allosteric effects of divalent cations are more pronounced with agonist and a G-protein-derived peptide. In cell membranes, divalent cations enhance both the affinity and fraction of the high affinity agonist-bound state. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest high concentrations of divalent cations bridgemore » specific extracellular acidic residues, bringing TM5 and TM6 together at the extracellular surface and allosterically driving open the G-protein-binding cleft as shown by rigidity-transmission allostery theory. Lastly, an understanding of cation allostery should enable the design of allosteric agents and enhance our understanding of GPCR regulation in the cellular milieu.« less

  17. Adenosine A2A receptor blockade attenuates spatial memory deficit and extent of demyelination areas in lyolecithin-induced demyelination model.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Atefeh; Khalili-Fomeshi, Mohsen; Ashrafpour, Manouchehr; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar; Ghasemi-Kasman, Maryam

    2018-05-03

    In recent years, inactivation of A 2A adenosine receptors has been emerged as a novel strategy for treatment of several neurodegenerative diseases. Although numerous studies have shown the beneficial effects of A 2A receptors blockade on spatial memory, the impacts of selective adenosine A 2A receptors on memory performance has not yet been examined in the context of demyelination. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of A 2A receptor antagonist SCH58261 on spatial memory and myelination in an experimental model of focal demyelination in rat fimbria. Demyelination was induced by local injection of lysolecithin (LPC) 1% (2 μl) into the hippocampus fimbria. SCH58261 (20 μg/0.5 μl or 40 μg/0.5 μl) was daily injected intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) for 10 days post LPC injection. The Morris water maze test was used to assess the spatial learning and memory on day 6 post lesion. Myelin staining and immunostaining against astrocytes/microglia were carried out 10 days post LPC injection. The administration of adenosine A 2A receptor antagonist prevented the spatial memory impairment in LPC receiving animals. Myelin staining revealed that application of SCH58261 reduces the extent of demyelination areas in the fimbria. Furthermore, the level of astrocytes and microglia activation was attenuated following administration of A 2A receptor antagonist. Collectively, the results of this study suggest that A 2A receptor blockade can improve the spatial memory and protect myelin sheath, which might be considered as a novel therapeutic approach for multiple sclerosis disease. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Transcriptional profiling of striatal neurons in response to single or concurrent activation of dopamine D2, adenosine A(2A) and metabotropic glutamate type 5 receptors: focus on beta-synuclein expression.

    PubMed

    Canela, Laia; Selga, Elisabet; García-Martínez, Juan Manuel; Amaral, Olavo B; Fernández-Dueñas, Víctor; Alberch, Jordi; Canela, Enric I; Franco, Rafael; Noé, Véronique; Lluís, Carme; Ciudad, Carlos J; Ciruela, Francisco

    2012-10-25

    G protein-coupled receptor oligomerization is a concept which is changing the understanding of classical pharmacology. Both, oligomerization and functional interaction between adenosine A(2A,) dopamine D(2) and metabotropic glutamate type 5 receptors have been demonstrated in the striatum. However, the transcriptional consequences of receptors co-activation are still unexplored. We aim here to determine the changes in gene expression of striatal primary cultured neurons upon isolated or simultaneous receptor activation. Interestingly, we found that 95 genes of the total analyzed (15,866 transcripts and variants) changed their expression in response to simultaneous stimulation of all three receptors. Among these genes, we focused on the β-synuclein (β-Syn) gene (SCNB). Quantitative PCR verified the magnitude and direction of change in expression of SCNB. Since β-Syn belongs to the homologous synuclein family and may be considered a natural regulator of α-synuclein (α-Syn), it has been proposed that β-Syn might act protectively against α-Syn neuropathology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Activation of microglial cells triggers a release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) inducing their proliferation in an adenosine A2A receptor-dependent manner: A2A receptor blockade prevents BDNF release and proliferation of microglia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to control microglial responses in neuropathic pain. Since adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) control neuroinflammation, as well as the production and function of BDNF, we tested to see if A2AR controls the microglia-dependent secretion of BDNF and the proliferation of microglial cells, a crucial event in neuroinflammation. Methods Murine N9 microglial cells were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 ng/mL) in the absence or in the presence of the A2AR antagonist, SCH58261 (50 nM), as well as other modulators of A2AR signaling. The BDNF cellular content and secretion were quantified by Western blotting and ELISA, A2AR density was probed by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry and cell proliferation was assessed by BrdU incorporation. Additionally, the A2AR modulation of LPS-driven cell proliferation was also tested in primary cultures of mouse microglia. Results LPS induced time-dependent changes of the intra- and extracellular levels of BDNF and increased microglial proliferation. The maximal LPS-induced BDNF release was time-coincident with an LPS-induced increase of the A2AR density. Notably, removing endogenous extracellular adenosine or blocking A2AR prevented the LPS-mediated increase of both BDNF secretion and proliferation, as well as exogenous BDNF-induced proliferation. Conclusions We conclude that A2AR activation plays a mandatory role controlling the release of BDNF from activated microglia, as well as the autocrine/paracrine proliferative role of BDNF. PMID:23363775

  20. The Androgen Receptor Gene Mutations Database.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, B; Lehvaslaiho, H; Beitel, L K; Lumbroso, R; Pinsky, L; Trifiro, M

    1998-01-01

    The current version of the androgen receptor (AR) gene mutations database is described. The total number of reported mutations has risen from 272 to 309 in the past year. We have expanded the database: (i) by giving each entry an accession number; (ii) by adding information on the length of polymorphic polyglutamine (polyGln) and polyglycine (polyGly) tracts in exon 1; (iii) by adding information on large gene deletions; (iv) by providing a direct link with a completely searchable database (courtesy EMBL-European Bioinformatics Institute). The addition of the exon 1 polymorphisms is discussed in light of their possible relevance as markers for predisposition to prostate or breast cancer. The database is also available on the internet (http://www.mcgill. ca/androgendb/ ), from EMBL-European Bioinformatics Institute (ftp. ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/androgen ), or as a Macintosh FilemakerPro or Word file (MC33@musica.mcgill.ca).

  1. The Androgen Receptor Gene Mutations Database.

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, B; Lehvaslaiho, H; Beitel, L K; Lumbroso, R; Pinsky, L; Trifiro, M

    1998-01-01

    The current version of the androgen receptor (AR) gene mutations database is described. The total number of reported mutations has risen from 272 to 309 in the past year. We have expanded the database: (i) by giving each entry an accession number; (ii) by adding information on the length of polymorphic polyglutamine (polyGln) and polyglycine (polyGly) tracts in exon 1; (iii) by adding information on large gene deletions; (iv) by providing a direct link with a completely searchable database (courtesy EMBL-European Bioinformatics Institute). The addition of the exon 1 polymorphisms is discussed in light of their possible relevance as markers for predisposition to prostate or breast cancer. The database is also available on the internet (http://www.mcgill. ca/androgendb/ ), from EMBL-European Bioinformatics Institute (ftp. ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/androgen ), or as a Macintosh FilemakerPro or Word file (MC33@musica.mcgill.ca). PMID:9399843

  2. Wound healing effects of noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) leaves: a mechanism involving its PDGF/A2A receptor ligand binding and promotion of wound closure.

    PubMed

    Palu, Afa; Su, Chen; Zhou, Bing-Nan; West, Brett; Jensen, Jarakae

    2010-10-01

    Morinda citrifolia L. (Rubiaceae) commonly known as noni, has been used in Polynesia by traditional healers for the treatment of cuts, bruises and wounds. Our objective was to investigate the wound-healing mechanisms of the noni leaf. The investigations of its wound-healing mechanisms were carried out using fresh noni leaf juice (NLJ), noni leaf ethanol extract (NLEE) and its methanol (MFEE) and hexane (HFEE) fractions on the PDGF and A(2A) receptors in vitro and topically in mice. Fresh noni leaf juice showed significant affinity to PDGF receptors, and displayed 166% binding inhibition of the ligand binding to its receptors, while at the same concentration, it only had 7% inhibition of the ligand binding to the A(2A) receptors. NLEE, HFEE and MFEE showed significant affinity to A(2A) receptors, concentration dependently, with IC(50) values of 34.1, 42.9 and 86.7 μg/mL, respectively. However, MFEE significantly increased wound closure and reduced the half closure time in mice with a CT(50) of 5.4 ± 0.2 days compared with control (p < 0.05). These results suggest that noni leaf significantly accelerated wound healing in mice via its ligand binding to the PDGF and A(2A) receptors as its probable mechanisms of wound-healing and also support its traditional usage for wound-healing in Polynesia. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Adenosine A2a blockade prevents synergy between mu-opiate and cannabinoid CB1 receptors and eliminates heroin-seeking behavior in addicted rats.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lina; McFarland, Krista; Fan, Peidong; Jiang, Zhan; Ueda, Takashi; Diamond, Ivan

    2006-05-16

    Relapse is the most serious limitation of effective medical treatment of opiate addiction. Opiate-related behaviors appear to be modulated by cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1) through poorly understood cross-talk mechanisms. Opiate and CB1 receptors are coexpressed in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and dorsal striatum. These regions also have the highest density of adenosine A2a receptors (A2a) in the brain. We have been investigating the postsynaptic signaling mechanisms of mu-opiate receptors (MORs) and CB1 receptors in primary NAc/striatal neurons. In this article, we present evidence that MOR and CB1 act synergistically on cAMP/PKA signaling in NAc/striatal neurons. In addition, we find that synergy requires adenosine and A2a. Importantly, an A2a antagonist administered either directly into the NAc or indirectly by i.p. injection eliminates heroin-induced reinstatement in rats trained to self-administer heroin, a model of human craving and relapse. These findings suggest that A2a antagonists might be effective therapeutic agents in the management of abstinent heroin addicts.

  4. Adenosine A2a blockade prevents synergy between μ-opiate and cannabinoid CB1 receptors and eliminates heroin-seeking behavior in addicted rats

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Lina; McFarland, Krista; Fan, Peidong; Jiang, Zhan; Ueda, Takashi; Diamond, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Relapse is the most serious limitation of effective medical treatment of opiate addiction. Opiate-related behaviors appear to be modulated by cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1) through poorly understood cross-talk mechanisms. Opiate and CB1 receptors are coexpressed in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and dorsal striatum. These regions also have the highest density of adenosine A2a receptors (A2a) in the brain. We have been investigating the postsynaptic signaling mechanisms of μ-opiate receptors (MORs) and CB1 receptors in primary NAc/striatal neurons. In this article, we present evidence that MOR and CB1 act synergistically on cAMP/PKA signaling in NAc/striatal neurons. In addition, we find that synergy requires adenosine and A2a. Importantly, an A2a antagonist administered either directly into the NAc or indirectly by i.p. injection eliminates heroin-induced reinstatement in rats trained to self-administer heroin, a model of human craving and relapse. These findings suggest that A2a antagonists might be effective therapeutic agents in the management of abstinent heroin addicts. PMID:16684876

  5. Beneficial effects of a novel agonist of the adenosine A2A receptor on monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats

    PubMed Central

    Alencar, Allan K N; Pereira, Sharlene L; Montagnoli, Tadeu L; Maia, Rodolfo C; Kümmerle, Arthur E; Landgraf, Sharon S; Caruso-Neves, Celso; Ferraz, Emanuelle B; Tesch, Roberta; Nascimento, José H M; de Sant'Anna, Carlos M R; Fraga, Carlos A M; Barreiro, Eliezer J; Sudo, Roberto T; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by enhanced pulmonary vascular resistance, right ventricular hypertrophy and increased right ventricular systolic pressure. Here, we investigated the effects of a N-acylhydrazone derivative, 3,4-dimethoxyphenyl-N-methyl-benzoylhydrazide (LASSBio-1359), on monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats. Experimental Approach PAH was induced in male Wistar rats by a single i.p. injection of MCT (60 mg·kg−1) and 2 weeks later, oral LASSBio-1359 (50 mg·kg−1) or vehicle was given once daily for 14 days. Echocardiography was used to measure cardiac function and pulmonary artery dimensions, with histological assay of vascular collagen. Studies of binding to human recombinant adenosine receptors (A1, A2A, A3) and of docking with A2A receptors were also performed. Key Results MCT administration induced changes in vascular and ventricular structure and function, characteristic of PAH. These changes were reversed by treatment with LASSBio-1359. MCT also induced endothelial dysfunction in pulmonary artery, as measured by diminished relaxation of pre-contracted arterial rings, and this dysfunction was reversed by LASSBio-1359. In pulmonary artery rings from normal Wistar rats, LASSBio-1359 induced relaxation, which was decreased by the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, ZM 241385. In adenosine receptor binding studies, LASSBio-1359 showed most affinity for the A2A receptor and in the docking analyses, binding modes of LASSBio-1359 and the A2A receptor agonist, CGS21680, were very similar. Conclusion and Implications In rats with MCT-induced PAH, structural and functional changes in heart and pulmonary artery were reversed by treatment with oral LASSBio-1359, most probably through the activation of adenosine A2A receptors. PMID:23530610

  6. Insulin-Increased L-Arginine Transport Requires A2A Adenosine Receptors Activation in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán-Gutiérrez, Enrique; Westermeier, Francisco; Salomón, Carlos; González, Marcelo; Pardo, Fabián; Leiva, Andrea; Sobrevia, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine causes vasodilation of human placenta vasculature by increasing the transport of arginine via cationic amino acid transporters 1 (hCAT-1). This process involves the activation of A2A adenosine receptors (A2AAR) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Insulin increases hCAT-1 activity and expression in HUVECs, and A2AAR stimulation increases insulin sensitivity in subjects with insulin resistance. However, whether A2AAR plays a role in insulin-mediated increase in L-arginine transport in HUVECs is unknown. To determine this, we first assayed the kinetics of saturable L-arginine transport (1 minute, 37°C) in the absence or presence of nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBTI, 10 µmol/L, adenosine transport inhibitor) and/or adenosine receptors agonist/antagonists. We also determined hCAT-1 protein and mRNA expression levels (Western blots and quantitative PCR), and SLC7A1 (for hCAT-1) reporter promoter activity. Insulin and NBTI increased the extracellular adenosine concentration, the maximal velocity for L-arginine transport without altering the apparent K m for L-arginine transport, hCAT-1 protein and mRNA expression levels, and SLC7A1 transcriptional activity. An A2AAR antagonist ZM-241385 blocked these effects. ZM241385 inhibited SLC7A1 reporter transcriptional activity to the same extent in cells transfected with pGL3-hCAT-1−1606 or pGL3-hCAT-1−650 constructs in the presence of NBTI + insulin. However, SLC7A1 reporter activity was increased by NBTI only in cells transfected with pGL3-hCAT-1−1606, and the ZM-241385 sensitive fraction of the NBTI response was similar in the absence or in the presence of insulin. Thus, insulin modulation of hCAT-1 expression and activity requires functional A2AAR in HUVECs, a mechanism that may be applicable to diseases associated with fetal insulin resistance, such as gestational diabetes. PMID:22844517

  7. GPR48 Increases Mineralocorticoid Receptor Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiqiu; Li, Xiaoying; Ke, Yingying; Lu, Yan; Wang, Feng; Fan, Nengguang; Sun, Haiyan; Zhang, Huijie; Liu, Ruixin; Yang, Jun; Ye, Lei; Liu, Mingyao

    2012-01-01

    Aldosterone and the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) are critical to the maintenance of electrolyte and BP homeostasis. Mutations in the MR cause aldosterone resistance known as pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 (PHA1); however, some cases consistent with PHA1 do not exhibit known gene mutations, suggesting the possibility of alternative genetic variants. We observed that G protein–coupled receptor 48 (Gpr48/Lgr4) hypomorphic mutant (Gpr48m/m) mice had hyperkalemia and increased water loss and salt excretion despite elevated plasma aldosterone levels, suggesting aldosterone resistance. When we challenged the mice with a low-sodium diet, these features became more obvious; the mice also developed hyponatremia and increased renin expression and activity, resembling a mild state of PHA1. There was marked renal downregulation of MR and its downstream targets (e.g., the α-subunit of the amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel), which could provide a mechanism for the aldosterone resistance. We identified a noncanonical cAMP-responsive element located in the MR promoter and demonstrated that GPR48 upregulates MR expression via the cAMP/protein kinase A pathway in vitro. Taken together, our data demonstrate that GPR48 enhances aldosterone responsiveness by activating MR expression, suggesting that GPR48 contributes to homeostasis of electrolytes and BP and may be a candidate gene for PHA1. PMID:22135314

  8. Adenosine A2A receptor agonist prevents cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive male rats after myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Jaqueline S; Gabriel-Costa, Daniele; Sudo, Roberto T; Wang, Hao; Groban, Leanne; Ferraz, Emanuele B; Nascimento, José Hamilton M; Fraga, Carlos Alberto M; Barreiro, Eliezer J; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele

    2017-01-01

    Background This work evaluated the hypothesis that 3,4-methylenedioxybenzoyl-2-thienylhydrazone (LASSBio-294), an agonist of adenosine A2A receptor, could be beneficial for preventing cardiac dysfunction due to hypertension associated with myocardial infarction (MI). Methods Male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were randomly divided into four groups (six animals per group): sham-operation (SHR-Sham), and myocardial infarction rats (SHR-MI) were treated orally either with vehicle or LASSBio-294 (10 and 20 mg.kg−1.d−1) for 4 weeks. Echocardiography and in vivo hemodynamic parameters measured left ventricle (LV) structure and function. Exercise tolerance was evaluated using a treadmill test. Cardiac remodeling was accessed by LV collagen deposition and tumor necrosis factor α expression. Results Early mitral inflow velocity was significantly reduced in the SHR-MI group, and there was significant recovery in a dose-dependent manner after treatment with LASSBio-294. Exercise intolerance observed in the SHR-MI group was prevented by 10 mg.kg−1.d−1 of LASS-Bio-294, and exercise tolerance exceeded that of the SHR-Sham group at 20 mg.kg−1.d−1. LV end-diastolic pressure increased after MI, and this was prevented by 10 and 20 mg.kg−1.d−1 of LASSBio-294. Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase levels were restored in a dose-dependent manner after treatment with LASSBio-294. Fibrosis and inflammatory processes were also counteracted by LASSBio-294, with reductions in LV collagen deposition and tumor necrosis factor α expression. Conclusion In summary, oral administration of LASSBio-294 after MI in a dose-dependent manner prevented the development of cardiac dysfunction, demonstrating this compound’s potential as an alternative treatment for heart failure in the setting of ischemic heart disease with superimposed chronic hypertension. PMID:28293100

  9. Genetic Deletion of the Adenosine A2A Receptor Confers Postnatal Development of Relative Myopia in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiangtian; Huang, Qinzhu; An, Jianhong; Lu, Runxia; Qin, Xiaoyi; Jiang, Liqin; Li, Yuan; Wang, Jianhua; Chen, Jiangfan; Qu, Jia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To critically evaluate whether the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) plays a role in postnatal refractive development in mice. Methods. Custom-built biometric systems specifically designed for mice were used to assess the development of relative myopia by examining refraction and biometrics in A2AR knockout (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) littermates between postnatal days (P)28 and P56. Ocular dimensions were measured by customized optical coherence tomography (OCT), refractive state by eccentric infrared photorefraction (EIR), and corneal radius of curvature by modified keratometry. Scleral collagen diameter and density were examined by electron microscopy on P35. The effect of A2AR activation on collagen mRNA expression and on soluble collagen production was examined in cultured human scleral fibroblasts by real-time RT-PCR and a collagen assay kit. Results. Compared with WT littermates, the A2AR KO mice displayed relative myopia (average difference, 5.1 D between P28 and P35) and associated increases in VC depth and axial length from P28 to P56. Furthermore, the myopic shift in A2AR KO mice was associated with ultrastructural changes in the sclera: Electron microscopy revealed denser collagen fibrils with reduced diameter in A2AR KO compared with WT. Last, A2AR activation induced expression of mRNAs for collagens I, III, and V and increased production of soluble collagen in cultured human scleral fibroblasts. Conclusions. Genetic deletion of the A2AR promotes development of relative myopia with increased axial length and altered scleral collagen fiber structure during postnatal development in mice. Thus, the A2AR may be important in normal refractive development. PMID:20484596

  10. Cocaine self-administration differentially affects allosteric A2A-D2 receptor-receptor interactions in the striatum. Relevance for cocaine use disorder.

    PubMed

    Pintsuk, Julia; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Pomierny, Bartosz; Wydra, Karolina; Zaniewska, Magdalena; Filip, Malgorzata; Fuxe, Kjell

    2016-05-01

    In the current study behavioral and biochemical experiments were performed to study changes in the allosteric A2AR-D2R interactions in the ventral and dorsal striatum after cocaine self-administration versus corresponding yoked saline control. By using ex vivo [(3)H]-raclopride/quinpirole competition experiments, the effects of the A2AR agonist CGS 21680 (100 nM) on the KiH and KiL values of the D2-like receptor (D2-likeR) were determined. One major result was a significant reduction in the D2-likeR agonist high affinity state observed with CGS 21680 after cocaine self-administration in the ventral striatum compared with the yoked saline group. The results therefore support the hypothesis that A2AR agonists can at least in part counteract the motivational actions of cocaine. This action is mediated via the D2-likeR by targeting the A2AR protomer of A2AR-D2-like R heteroreceptor complexes in the ventral striatum, which leads to the reduction of D2-likeR protomer recognition through the allosteric receptor-receptor interaction. In contrast, in the dorsal striatum the CGS 21680-induced antagonistic modulation in the D2-likeR agonist high affinity state was abolished after cocaine self-administration versus the yoked saline group probably due to a local dysfunction/disruption of the A2AR-D2-like R heteroreceptor complexes. Such a change in the dorsal striatum in cocaine self-administration can contribute to the development of either locomotor sensitization, habit-forming learning and/or the compulsive drug seeking by enhanced D2-likeR protomer signaling. Potential differences in the composition and stoichiometry of the A2AR-D2R heteroreceptor complexes, including differential recruitment of sigma 1 receptor, in the ventral and dorsal striatum may explain the differential regional changes observed in the A2A-D2-likeR interactions after cocaine self-administration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Regulatory Features for Odorant Receptor Genes in the Mouse Genome.

    PubMed

    Degl'Innocenti, Andrea; D'Errico, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The odorant receptor genes, seven transmembrane receptor genes constituting the vastest mammalian gene multifamily, are expressed monogenically and monoallelicaly in each sensory neuron in the olfactory epithelium. This characteristic, often referred to as the one neuron-one receptor rule, is driven by mostly uncharacterized molecular dynamics, generally named odorant receptor gene choice . Much attention has been paid by the scientific community to the identification of sequences regulating the expression of odorant receptor genes within their loci , where related genes are usually arranged in genomic clusters. A number of studies identified transcription factor binding sites on odorant receptor promoter sequences. Similar binding sites were also found on a number of enhancers that regulate in cis their transcription, but have been proposed to form interchromosomal networks. Odorant receptor gene choice seems to occur via the local removal of strongly repressive epigenetic markings, put in place during the maturation of the sensory neuron on each odorant receptor locus . Here we review the fast-changing state of art for the study of regulatory features for odorant receptor genes.

  12. The androgen receptor gene mutations database.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, B; Trifiro, M; Lumbroso, R; Pinsky, L

    1997-01-01

    The current version of the androgen receptor (AR) gene mutations database is described. The total number of reported mutations has risen from 212 to 272. We have expanded the database: (i) by adding a large amount of new data on somatic mutations in prostatic cancer tissue; (ii) by defining a new constitutional phenotype, mild androgen insensitivity (MAI); (iii) by placing additional relevant information on an internet site (http://www.mcgill.ca/androgendb/ ). The database has allowed us to examine the contribution of CpG sites to the multiplicity of reports of the same mutation in different families. The database is also available from EMBL (ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/androgen) or as a Macintosh Filemaker Pro or Word file (MC33@musica,mcgill.ca)

  13. The androgen receptor gene mutations database.

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, B; Trifiro, M; Lumbroso, R; Pinsky, L

    1997-01-01

    The current version of the androgen receptor (AR) gene mutations database is described. The total number of reported mutations has risen from 212 to 272. We have expanded the database: (i) by adding a large amount of new data on somatic mutations in prostatic cancer tissue; (ii) by defining a new constitutional phenotype, mild androgen insensitivity (MAI); (iii) by placing additional relevant information on an internet site (http://www.mcgill.ca/androgendb/ ). The database has allowed us to examine the contribution of CpG sites to the multiplicity of reports of the same mutation in different families. The database is also available from EMBL (ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/androgen) or as a Macintosh Filemaker Pro or Word file (MC33@musica,mcgill.ca) PMID:9016528

  14. The androgen receptor gene mutations database.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, B; Trifiro, M; Lumbroso, R; Vasiliou, D M; Pinsky, L

    1996-01-01

    The current version of the androgen receptor (AR) gene mutations database is described. We have added (if available) data on the androgen binding phenotype of the mutant AR, the clinical phenotype of the affected persons, the family history and whether the pathogenicity of a mutation has been proven. Exonic mutations are now listed in 5'-->3' sequence regardless of type and single base pair changes are presented in codon context. Splice site and intronic mutations are listed separately. The database has allowed us to substantiate and amplify the observation of mutational hot spots within exons encoding the AR androgen binding domain. The database is available from EML (ftp://www.ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/androgen) or as a Macintosh Filemaker file (MC33@musica.mcgill.ca).

  15. Adenosine A2A Receptor in the Monkey Basal Ganglia: Ultrastructural Localization and Colocalization With the Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 in the Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Bogenpohl, James W.; Ritter, Stefanie L.; Hall, Randy A.; Smith, Yoland

    2012-01-01

    The adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) is a potential drug target for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and other neurological disorders. In rodents, the therapeutic efficacy of A2AR modulation is improved by concomitant modulation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5). To elucidate the anatomical substrate(s) through which these therapeutic benefits could be mediated, pre-embedding electron microscopy immunohistochemistry was used to conduct a detailed, quantitative ultrastructural analysis of A2AR localization in the primate basal ganglia and to assess the degree of A2AR/mGluR5 colocalization in the striatum. A2AR immunoreactivity was found at the highest levels in the striatum and external globus pallidus (GPe). However, the monkey, but not the rat, substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) also harbored a significant level of neuropil A2AR immunoreactivity. At the electron microscopic level, striatal A2AR labeling was most commonly localized in postsynaptic elements (58% ± 3% of labeled elements), whereas, in the GPe and SNr, the labeling was mainly presynaptic (71% ± 5%) or glial (27% ± 6%). In both striatal and pallidal structures, putative inhibitory and excitatory terminals displayed A2AR immunoreactivity. Striatal A2AR/mGluR5 colocalization was commonly found; 60–70% of A2AR-immunoreactive dendrites or spines in the monkey striatum coexpress mGluR5. These findings provide the first detailed account of the ultrastructural localization of A2AR in the primate basal ganglia and demonstrate that A2AR and mGluR5 are located to interact functionally in dendrites and spines of striatal neurons. Together, these data foster a deeper understanding of the substrates through which A2AR could regulate primate basal ganglia function and potentially mediate its therapeutic effects in parkinsonism. PMID:21858817

  16. Haemodynamic effects of a selective adenosine A2A receptor agonist, CGS 21680, in chronic heart failure in anaesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Nekooeian, A A; Tabrizchi, R

    1998-10-01

    1. Recently we demonstrated that the administration of an A2A adenosine receptor agonist, CGS 21680, to anaesthetized rats with acute heart failure (1 h post-coronary artery ligation) resulted in an increase in cardiac output. In the present investigation, the effects of CGS 21680 on cardiac output, vascular resistance, heart rate, blood pressure and mean circulatory filling pressure (Pmcf) were investigated in anaesthetized rats with chronic heart failure (8 weeks post-coronary artery ligation). 2. Experiments were conducted in five groups (n = 6) of animals: sham-operated vehicle-treated (0.9% NaCl; 0.037 mL kg(-1) min(-1)) animals in which the occluder was placed but not pulled to ligate the coronary artery; coronary artery-ligated vehicle-treated animals; and coronary artery-ligated CGS 21680-treated (0.1. 0.3 or 1.0 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) animals. 3. Baseline blood pressure, cardiac output and rate of rise in left ventricular pressure (+dP/dt) were significantly reduced in animals with coronary artery ligation when compared to sham-operated animals. Coronary artery ligation resulted in a significant increase in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, Pmcf and venous resistance when compared to sham-operated animals. 4. Administration of CGS 21680 at 0.3 and 1.0 microg kg(-1) min(-1) significantly (n = 6; P<0.05) increased cardiac output by 19+/-4% and 39+/-5%, and heart rate by 14+/-2% and 15+/-1%, respectively, when compared to vehicle treatment in coronary artery-ligated animals. Administration of CGS 21680 also significantly reduced blood pressure and arterial resistance when compared to coronary artery-ligated vehicle-treated animals. Infusion of CGS 21680 also significantly reduced venous resistance when compared to vehicle-treated coronary artery-ligated animals. 5. The results show that heart failure is characterized by reduced cardiac output, and increased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, venous resistance and Pmcf. Acute treatment with CGS

  17. Haemodynamic effects of a selective adenosine A2A receptor agonist, CGS 21680, in chronic heart failure in anaesthetized rats

    PubMed Central

    Nekooeian, Ali A; Tabrizchi, Reza

    1998-01-01

    Recently we demonstrated that the administration of an A2A adenosine receptor agonist, CGS 21680, to anaesthetized rats with acute heart failure (1 h post-coronary artery ligation) resulted in an increase in cardiac output. In the present investigation, the effects of CGS 21680 on cardiac output, vascular resistance, heart rate, blood pressure and mean circulatory filling pressure (Pmcf) were investigated in anaesthetized rats with chronic heart failure (8 weeks post-coronary artery ligation).Experiments were conducted in five groups (n=6) of animals: sham-operated vehicle-treated (0.9% NaCl; 0.037 mL kg−1 min−1) animals in which the occluder was placed but not pulled to ligate the coronary artery; coronary artery-ligated vehicle-treated animals; and coronary artery-ligated CGS 21680-treated (0.1, 0.3 or 1.0 μg kg−1 min−1) animals.Baseline blood pressure, cardiac output and rate of rise in left ventricular pressure (+dP/dt) were significantly reduced in animals with coronary artery ligation when compared to sham-operated animals. Coronary artery ligation resulted in a significant increase in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, Pmcf and venous resistance when compared to sham-operated animals.Administration of CGS 21680 at 0.3 and 1.0 μg kg−1 min−1 significantly (n=6; P<0.05) increased cardiac output by 19±4% and 39±5%, and heart rate by 14±2% and 15±1%, respectively, when compared to vehicle treatment in coronary artery-ligated animals. Administration of CGS 21680 also significantly reduced blood pressure and arterial resistance when compared to coronary artery-ligated vehicle-treated animals. Infusion of CGS 21680 also significantly reduced venous resistance when compared to vehicle-treated coronary artery-ligated animals.The results show that heart failure is characterized by reduced cardiac output, and increased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, venous resistance and Pmcf. Acute treatment with CGS 21680 in

  18. Research progress of the bitter taste receptor genes in primates.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ping; Luo, Rui-Jian

    2018-02-20

    Among the five basic tastes (umami, sweet, bitter, salty and sour), the perception of bitterness is believed to protect animals from digesting toxic and harmful substances, thus it is vital for animal survival. The taste of bitterness is triggered by the interaction between bitter substances and bitter taste receptors, which are encoded by Tas2rs. The gene numbers vary largely across species to meet different demands. So far, several ligands of bitter receptors have been identified in primates. They also discovered that the selective pressure of certain bitter taste receptor genes vary across taxa, genes or even different functional regions of the gene. In this review, we summarize the research progress of bitter taste receptor genes in primates by introducing the functional diversity of bitter receptors, the specific interaction between bitter taste receptors and ligands, the relationship between the evolutionary pattern of bitter taste receptors and diets, and the adaptive evolution of bitter taste receptor genes. We aim to provide a reference for further research on bitter receptor genes in primates.

  19. Involvement of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors in the adenosinergic modulation of the discriminative-stimulus effects of cocaine and methamphetamine in rats.

    PubMed

    Justinova, Zuzana; Ferre, Sergi; Segal, Pavan N; Antoniou, Katerina; Solinas, Marcello; Pappas, Lara A; Highkin, Jena L; Hockemeyer, Jorg; Munzar, Patrik; Goldberg, Steven R

    2003-12-01

    Adenosine, by acting on adenosine A1 and A2A receptors, is known to antagonistically modulate dopaminergic neurotransmission. We have recently reported that nonselective adenosine receptor antagonists (caffeine and 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine) can partially substitute for the discriminative-stimulus effects of methamphetamine. In the present study, by using more selective compounds, we investigated the involvement of A1 and A2A receptors in the adenosinergic modulation of the discriminative-stimulus effects of both cocaine and methamphetamine. The effects of the A1 receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA; 0.01-0.1 mg/kg) and antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine (CPT; 1.3-23.7 mg/kg) and the A2A receptor agonist 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine hydrochloride (CGS 21680; 0.03-0.18 mg/kg) and antagonist 3-(3-hydroxypropyl)-8-(3-methoxystyryl)-7-methyl-1-propargylxanthin phosphate disodium salt (MSX-3; 1-56 mg/kg) were evaluated in rats trained to discriminate either 1 mg/kg methamphetamine or 10 mg/kg cocaine from saline under a fixed-ratio 10 schedule of food presentation. The A1 and A2A receptor antagonists (CPT and MSX-3) both produced high levels of drug-lever selection when substituted for either methamphetamine or cocaine and significantly shifted dose-response curves of both psychostimulants to the left. Unexpectedly, the A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680 also produced drug-appropriate responding (although at lower levels) when substituted for the cocaine-training stimulus, and both CGS 21680 and the A1 receptor agonist CPA significantly shifted the cocaine dose-response curve to the left. In contrast, both agonists did not produce significant levels of drug-lever selection when substituted for the methamphetamine-training stimulus and failed to shift the methamphetamine dose-response curve. Therefore, adenosine A1 and A2A receptors appear to play important but differential roles in the modulation of the

  20. In search of novel ligands using a structure-based approach: a case study on the adenosine A2A receptor.

    PubMed

    Lenselink, Eelke B; Beuming, Thijs; van Veen, Corine; Massink, Arnault; Sherman, Woody; van Vlijmen, Herman W T; IJzerman, Adriaan P

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we present a case study to explore the challenges associated with finding novel molecules for a receptor that has been studied in depth and has a wealth of chemical information available. Specifically, we apply a previously described protocol that incorporates explicit water molecules in the ligand binding site to prospectively screen over 2.5 million drug-like and lead-like compounds from the commercially available eMolecules database in search of novel binders to the adenosine A 2A receptor (A 2A AR). A total of seventy-one compounds were selected for purchase and biochemical assaying based on high ligand efficiency and high novelty (Tanimoto coefficient ≤0.25 to any A 2A AR tested compound). These molecules were then tested for their affinity to the adenosine A 2A receptor in a radioligand binding assay. We identified two hits that fulfilled the criterion of ~50 % radioligand displacement at a concentration of 10 μM. Next we selected an additional eight novel molecules that were predicted to make a bidentate interaction with Asn253 6.55 , a key interacting residue in the binding pocket of the A 2A AR. None of these eight molecules were found to be active. Based on these results we discuss the advantages of structure-based methods and the challenges associated with finding chemically novel molecules for well-explored targets.

  1. Differential effects of presynaptic versus postsynaptic adenosine A2A receptor blockade on Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) self-administration in squirrel monkeys.

    PubMed

    Justinová, Zuzana; Redhi, Godfrey H; Goldberg, Steven R; Ferré, Sergi

    2014-05-07

    Different doses of an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3 [3,7-dihydro-8-[(1E)-2-(3-ethoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-7 methyl-3-[3-(phosphooxy)propyl-1-(2 propynil)-1H-purine-2,6-dione] were found previously to either decrease or increase self-administration of cannabinoids delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or anandamide in squirrel monkeys. It was hypothesized that the decrease observed with a relatively low dose of MSX-3 was related to blockade of striatal presynaptic A2A receptors that modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission, whereas the increase observed with a higher dose was related to blockade of postsynaptic A2A receptors localized in striatopallidal neurons. This hypothesis was confirmed in the present study by testing the effects of the preferential presynaptic and postsynaptic A2A receptor antagonists SCH-442416 [2-(2-furanyl)-7-[3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propyl]-7H-pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidin-5-amine] and KW-6002 [(E)-1, 3-diethyl-8-(3,4-dimethoxystyryl)-7-methyl-3,7-dihydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione], respectively, in squirrel monkeys trained to intravenously self-administer THC. SCH-442416 produced a significant shift to the right of the THC self-administration dose-response curves, consistent with antagonism of the reinforcing effects of THC. Conversely, KW-6002 produced a significant shift to the left, consistent with potentiation of the reinforcing effects of THC. These results show that selectively blocking presynaptic A2A receptors could provide a new pharmacological approach to the treatment of marijuana dependence and underscore corticostriatal glutamatergic neurotransmission as a possible main mechanism involved in the rewarding effects of THC.

  2. Blockade of adenosine A2A receptors recovers early deficits of memory and plasticity in the triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Silva, António C; Lemos, Cristina; Gonçalves, Francisco Q; Pliássova, Anna V; Machado, Nuno J; Silva, Henrique B; Canas, Paula M; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Lopes, João Pedro; Agostinho, Paula

    2018-05-31

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) begins with a deficit of synaptic function and adenosine A 2A receptors (A 2A R) are mostly located in synapses controlling synaptic plasticity. The over-activation of adenosine A 2A receptors (A 2A R) causes memory deficits and the blockade of A 2A R prevents memory damage in AD models. We now enquired if this prophylactic role of A 2A R might be extended to a therapeutic potential. We used the triple transgenic model of AD (3xTg-AD) and defined that the onset of memory dysfunction occurred at 4 months of age in the absence of locomotor or emotional alterations. At the onset of memory deficits, 3xTg mice displayed a decreased density of markers of excitatory synapses (10.6 ± 3.8% decrease of vGluT1) without neuronal or glial overt damage and an increase of synaptic A 2A R in the hippocampus (130 ± 22%). After the onset of memory deficits in 3xTg-AD mice, a three weeks treatment with the selective A 2A R antagonist normalized the up-regulation of hippocampal A 2A R and restored hippocampal-dependent reference memory, as well as the decrease of hippocampal synaptic plasticity (60.0 ± 3.7% decrease of long-term potentiation amplitude) and the decrease of global (syntaxin-I) and glutamatergic synaptic markers (vGluT1). These findings show a therapeutic-like ability of A 2A R antagonists to recover synaptic and memory dysfunction in early AD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Adenosine A2A Receptor Agonist, CGS-21680, Blocks Excessive Rearing, Acquisition of Wheel Running, and Increases Nucleus Accumbens CREB Phosphorylation in Chronically Food-Restricted Rats

    PubMed Central

    de Vaca, Soledad Cabeza; Kannan, Pavitra; Pan, Yan; Jiang, Nancy; Sun, Yanjie; Carr, Kenneth D.

    2007-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptors are preferentially expressed in rat striatum, where they are concentrated in dendritic spines of striatopallidal medium spiny neurons and exist in a heteromeric complex with D2 dopamine (DA) receptors. Behavioral and biochemical studies indicate an antagonistic relationship between A2A and D2 receptors. Previous studies have demonstrated that food-restricted (FR) rats display behavioral and striatal cellular hypersensitivity to D1 and D2 DA receptor stimulation. These alterations may underlie adaptive, as well as maladaptive, behaviors characteristic of the FR rat. The present study examined whether FR rats are hypersensitive to the A2A receptor agonist, CGS-21680. In Experiment 1, spontaneous horizontal motor activity did not differ between FR and ad libitum fed (AL) rats, while vertical activity was greater in the former. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of CGS-21680 (0.25 and 1.0 nmol) decreased both types of motor activity in FR rats, and returned vertical activity levels to those observed in AL rats. In Experiment 2, FR rats given access to a running wheel for a brief period outside of the home cage rapidly acquired wheel running while AL rats did not. Pretreatment with CGS-21680 (1.0 nmol) blocked the acquisition of wheel running. When administered to FR subjects that had previously acquired wheel running, CGS-21680 suppressed the behavior. In Experiment 3, CGS-21680 (1.0 nmol) activated both ERK 1/2 and CREB in caudate-putamen with no difference between feeding groups. However, in nucleus accumbens (NAc), CGS-21680 failed to activate ERK 1/2 and selectively activated CREB in FR rats. These results indicate that FR subjects are hypersensitive to several effects of an adenosine A2A agonist, and suggest the involvement of an upregulated A2A receptor-linked signaling pathway in NAc. Medications targeting the A2A receptor may have utility in the treatment of maladaptive behaviors associated with FR, including substance abuse

  4. Identification of novel thiazolo[5,4-d]pyrimidine derivatives as human A1 and A2A adenosine receptor antagonists/inverse agonists.

    PubMed

    Varano, Flavia; Catarzi, Daniela; Falsini, Matteo; Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Pasquini, Silvia; Varani, Katia; Colotta, Vittoria

    2018-07-23

    In this study a new set of thiazolo[5,4-d]pyrimidine derivatives was synthesized. These derivatives bear different substituents at positions 2 and 5 of the thiazolopyrimidine core while maintaining a free amino group at position-7. The new compounds were tested for their affinity and potency at human (h) A 1 , A 2A , A 2B and A 3 adenosine receptors expressed in CHO cells. The results reveal that the higher affinity of these new set of thiazolopyrimidines is toward the hA 1 and hA 2A adenosine receptors subtypes and is tuned by the substitution pattern at both the 2 and 5 positions of the thiazolopyrimidine nucleus. Functional studies evidenced that the compounds behaved as dual A 1 /A 2A antagonists/inverse agonists. Compound 3, bearing a 5-((2-methoxyphenyl) methylamino) group and a phenyl moiety at position 2, displayed the highest affinity (hA 1 K i  = 10.2 nM; hA 2A K i  = 4.72 nM) and behaved as a potent A 1 /A 2A antagonist/inverse agonist (hA 1 IC 50  = 13.4 nM; hA 2A IC 50  = 5.34 nM). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Gene Transfer and Molecular Cloning of the Human NGF Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Moses V.; Bothwell, Mark A.; Ross, Alonzo H.; Koprowski, Hilary; Lanahan, Anthony A.; Buck, C. Randall; Sehgal, Amita

    1986-04-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) and its receptor are important in the development of cells derived from the neural crest. Mouse L cell transformants have been generated that stably express the human NGF receptor gene transfer with total human DNA. Affinity cross-linking, metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation, and equilibrium binding with 125I-labeled NGF revealed that this NGF receptor had the same size and binding characteristics as the receptor from human melanoma cells and rat PC12 cells. The sequences encoding the NGF receptor were molecularly cloned using the human Alu repetitive sequence as a probe. A cosmid clone that contained the human NGF receptor gene allowed efficient transfection and expression of the receptor.

  6. Evaluation of antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like activity of purinedione-derivatives with affinity for adenosine A2A receptors in mice.

    PubMed

    Dziubina, Anna; Szmyd, Karina; Zygmunt, Małgorzata; Sapa, Jacek; Dudek, Magdalena; Filipek, Barbara; Drabczyńska, Anna; Załuski, Michał; Pytka, Karolina; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-12-01

    It has recently been suggested that the adenosine A 2A receptor plays a role in several animal models of depression. Additionally, A 2A antagonists have reversed behavioral deficits and exhibited a profile similar to classical antidepressants. In the present study, imidazo- and pyrimido[2,1-f]purinedione derivatives (KD 66, KD 167, KD 206) with affinity to A 2A receptors but poor A 1 affinity were evaluated for their antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activity. The activity of these derivatives was tested using a tail suspension and forced swim test, two widely-used behavioral paradigms for the evaluation of antidepressant-like activity. In turn, the anxiolytic activity was evaluated using the four-plate test. The results showed the antidepressant-like activity of pyrimido- and imidazopurinedione derivatives (i.e. KD 66, KD 167 and KD 206) in acute and chronic behavioral tests in mice. KD 66 revealed an anxiolytic-like effect, while KD 167 increased anxiety behaviors. KD 206 had no effect on anxiety. Furthermore, none of the tested compounds increased locomotor activity. Available data support the proposition that the examined compounds with adenosine A 2A receptor affinity may be an interesting target for the development of antidepressant and/or anxiolytic agents. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  7. Discovery of indolylpiperazinylpyrimidines with dual-target profiles at adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors for Parkinson's disease treatment

    PubMed Central

    Paira, Priyankar; Tan, Aaron; Herr, Deron Raymond; Lim, Kah Leong; Ng, Chee Hoe; Venkatesan, Gopalakrishnan; Klotz, Karl-Norbert; Federico, Stephanie; Spalluto, Giampiero; Cheong, Siew Lee; Chen, Yu Zong

    2018-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the human brain, leading to depletion of dopamine production. Dopamine replacement therapy remains the mainstay for attenuation of PD symptoms. Nonetheless, the potential benefit of current pharmacotherapies is mostly limited by adverse side effects, such as drug-induced dyskinesia, motor fluctuations and psychosis. Non-dopaminergic receptors, such as human A2A adenosine receptors, have emerged as important therapeutic targets in potentiating therapeutic effects and reducing the unwanted side effects. In this study, new chemical entities targeting both human A2A adenosine receptor and dopamine D2 receptor were designed and evaluated. Two computational methods, namely support vector machine (SVM) models and Tanimoto similarity-based clustering analysis, were integrated for the identification of compounds containing indole-piperazine-pyrimidine (IPP) scaffold. Subsequent synthesis and testing resulted in compounds 5 and 6, which acted as human A2A adenosine receptor binders in the radioligand competition assay (Ki = 8.7–11.2 μM) as well as human dopamine D2 receptor binders in the artificial cell membrane assay (EC50 = 22.5–40.2 μM). Moreover, compound 5 showed improvement in movement and mitigation of the loss of dopaminergic neurons in Drosophila models of PD. Furthermore, in vitro toxicity studies on compounds 5 and 6 did not reveal any mutagenicity (up to 100 μM), hepatotoxicity (up to 30 μM) or cardiotoxicity (up to 30 μM). PMID:29304113

  8. The Mouse Solitary Odorant Receptor Gene Promoters as Models for the Study of Odorant Receptor Gene Choice.

    PubMed

    Degl'Innocenti, Andrea; Parrilla, Marta; Harr, Bettina; Teschke, Meike

    2016-01-01

    In vertebrates, several anatomical regions located within the nasal cavity mediate olfaction. Among these, the main olfactory epithelium detects most conventional odorants. Olfactory sensory neurons, provided with cilia exposed to the air, detect volatile chemicals via an extremely large family of seven-transmembrane chemoreceptors named odorant receptors. Their genes are expressed in a monogenic and monoallelic fashion: a single allele of a single odorant receptor gene is transcribed in a given mature neuron, through a still uncharacterized molecular mechanism known as odorant receptor gene choice. Odorant receptor genes are typically arranged in genomic clusters, but a few are isolated (we call them solitary) from the others within a region broader than 1 Mb upstream and downstream with respect to their transcript's coordinates. The study of clustered genes is problematic, because of redundancy and ambiguities in their regulatory elements: we propose to use the solitary genes as simplified models to understand odorant receptor gene choice. Here we define number and identity of the solitary genes in the mouse genome (C57BL/6J), and assess the conservation of the solitary status in some mammalian orthologs. Furthermore, we locate their putative promoters, predict their homeodomain binding sites (commonly present in the promoters of odorant receptor genes) and compare candidate promoter sequences with those of wild-caught mice. We also provide expression data from histological sections. In the mouse genome there are eight intact solitary genes: Olfr19 (M12), Olfr49, Olfr266, Olfr267, Olfr370, Olfr371, Olfr466, Olfr1402; five are conserved as solitary in rat. These genes are all expressed in the main olfactory epithelium of three-day-old mice. The C57BL/6J candidate promoter of Olfr370 has considerably varied compared to its wild-type counterpart. Within the putative promoter for Olfr266 a homeodomain binding site is predicted. As a whole, our findings favor Olfr266

  9. Cognitive impairments associated with alterations in synaptic proteins induced by the genetic loss of adenosine A2A receptors in mice.

    PubMed

    Moscoso-Castro, Maria; López-Cano, Marc; Gracia-Rubio, Irene; Ciruela, Francisco; Valverde, Olga

    2017-11-01

    The study of psychiatric disorders usually focuses on emotional symptoms assessment. However, cognitive deficiencies frequently constitute the core symptoms, are often poorly controlled and handicap individual's quality of life. Adenosine receptors, through the control of both dopamine and glutamate systems, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of several psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Indeed, clinical data indicate that poorly responsive schizophrenia patients treated with adenosine adjuvants show improved treatment outcomes. The A 2A adenosine receptor subtype (A 2A R) is highly expressed in brain areas controlling cognition and motivational responses including the striatum, hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Accordingly, we study the role of A 2A R in the regulation of cognitive processes based on a complete cognitive behavioural analysis coupled with the assessment of neurogenesis and sub-synaptic protein expression in adult and middle-aged A 2A R constitutional knockout mice and wild-type littermates. Our results show overall cognitive impairments in A 2A R knockout mice associated with a decrease in new-born hippocampal neuron proliferation and concomitant changes in synaptic protein expression, in both the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus. These results suggest a deficient adenosine signalling in cognitive processes, thus providing new opportunities for the therapeutic management of cognitive deficits associated with psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Adenovirus receptors and their implications in gene delivery

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anurag; Li, Xiaoxin; Bangari, Dinesh S.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2010-01-01

    Adenoviruses (Ads) have gained popularity as gene delivery vectors for therapeutic and prophylactic applications. Ad entry into host cells involves specific interactions between cell surface receptors and viral capsid proteins. Several cell surface molecules have been identified as receptors for Ad attachment and entry. Tissue tropism of Ad vectors is greatly influenced by their receptor usage. A variety of strategies have been investigated to modify Ad vector tropism by manipulating the receptor-interacting moieties. Many such strategies are aimed at targeting and/or detargeting of Ad vectors. In this review, we discuss the various cell surface molecules that are implicated as receptors for virus attachment and internalization. Special emphasis is given to Ad types that are utilized as gene delivery vectors. Various strategies to modify Ad tropism using the knowledge of Ad receptors are also discussed. PMID:19647886

  11. Effect of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3 on motivational disruptions of maternal behavior induced by dopamine antagonism in the early postpartum rat.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Mariana; Farrar, Andrew M; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E; Salamone, John D; Morrell, Joan I

    2011-01-01

    Mesolimbic dopamine (DA), particularly in the nucleus accumbens, importantly regulates activational aspects of maternal responsiveness. DA antagonism and accumbens DA depletions interfere with early postpartum maternal motivation by selectively affecting most forms of active maternal behaviors, while leaving nursing behavior relatively intact. Considerable evidence indicates that there is a functional interaction between DA D2 and adenosine A(2A) receptors in striatal areas, including the nucleus accumbens. This study was conducted to determine if adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonism could reverse the effects of DA receptor antagonism on early postpartum maternal behavior. The adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist MSX-3 (0.25-2.0 mg/kg, IP) was investigated for its ability to reverse the effects of the DA D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, IP) on the maternal behavior of early postpartum female rats. Haloperidol severely impaired the expression of active maternal components, including retrieval and grouping the pups at the nest site, pup licking, and nest building. Co-administration of MSX-3 (0.25-2.0 mg/kg, IP) with haloperidol produced a dose-related attenuation of the haloperidol-induced behavioral deficits in early postpartum females. Doses of MSX-3 that effectively reversed the effects of haloperidol (0.5, 1.0 mg/kg), when administered in the absence of haloperidol, did not affect maternal responding or locomotor activity. Adenosine and DA systems interact to regulate early postpartum maternal responsiveness. This research may potentially contribute to the development of strategies for treatments of psychiatric disorders during the postpartum period, with particular emphasis in maintaining or restoring the mother-infant relationship.

  12. Effect of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3 on motivational disruptions of maternal behavior induced by dopamine antagonism in the early postpartum rat

    PubMed Central

    Farrar, Andrew M.; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E.; Salamone, John D.; Morrell, Joan I.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Mesolimbic dopamine (DA), particularly in the nucleus accumbens, importantly regulates activational aspects of maternal responsiveness. DA antagonism and accumbens DA depletions interfere with early postpartum maternal motivation by selectively affecting most forms of active maternal behaviors, while leaving nursing behavior relatively intact. Considerable evidence indicates that there is a functional interaction between DA D2 and adenosine A2A receptors in striatal areas, including the nucleus accumbens. Objective This study was conducted to determine if adenosine A2A receptor antagonism could reverse the effects of DA receptor antagonism on early postpartum maternal behavior. Methods The adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3 (0.25–2.0 mg/kg, IP) was investigated for its ability to reverse the effects of the DA D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, IP) on the maternal behavior of early postpartum female rats. Results Haloperidol severely impaired the expression of active maternal components, including retrieval and grouping the pups at the nest site, pup licking, and nest building. Co-administration of MSX-3 (0.25–2.0 mg/kg, IP) with haloperidol produced a dose-related attenuation of the haloperidol-induced behavioral deficits in early postpartum females. Doses of MSX-3 that effectively reversed the effects of haloperidol (0.5, 1.0 mg/kg), when administered in the absence of haloperidol, did not affect maternal responding or locomotor activity. Conclusions Adenosine and DA systems interact to regulate early postpartum maternal responsiveness. This research may potentially contribute to the development of strategies for treatments of psychiatric disorders during the postpartum period, with particular emphasis in maintaining or restoring the mother–infant relationship. PMID:20848086

  13. Expression of plasma membrane receptor genes during megakaryocyte development

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Sijie; Wang, Wenjing; Latchman, Yvette; Gao, Dayong; Aronow, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Megakaryocyte (MK) development is critically informed by plasma membrane-localized receptors that integrate a multiplicity of environmental cues. Given that the current understanding about receptors and ligands involved in megakaryocytopoiesis is based on single targets, we performed a genome-wide search to identify a plasma membrane receptome for developing MKs. We identified 40 transmembrane receptor genes as being upregulated during MK development. Seven of the 40 receptor-associated genes were selected to validate the dataset. These genes included: interleukin-9 receptor (IL9R), transforming growth factor, β receptor II (TGFBR2), interleukin-4 receptor (IL4R), colony stimulating factor-2 receptor-beta (CSFR2B), adiponectin receptor (ADIPOR2), thrombin receptor (F2R), and interleukin-21 receptor (IL21R). RNA and protein analyses confirmed their expression in primary human MKs. Matched ligands to IL9R, TGFBR2, IL4R, CSFR2B, and ADIPOR2 affected megakaryocytopoiesis. IL9 was unique in its ability to increase the number of MKs formed. In contrast, MK colony formation was inhibited by adiponectin, TGF-β, IL4, and GM-CSF. The thrombin-F2R axis affected platelet function, but not MK development, while IL21 had no apparent detectable effects. ADP-induced platelet aggregation was suppressed by IL9, TGF-β, IL4, and adiponectin. Overall, six of seven of the plasma membrane receptors were confirmed to have functional roles in MK and platelet biology. Also, results show for the first time that adiponectin plays a regulatory role in MK development. Together these data support a strong likelihood that the 40 transmembrane genes identified as being upregulated during MK development will be an important resource to the research community for deciphering the complex repertoire of environmental cues regulating megakaryocytopoiesis and/or platelet function. PMID:23321270

  14. Acoustic trauma triggers upregulation of serotonin receptor genes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Adam R.; Kwon, Jae Hyun; Navarro, Marco; Hurley, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    Hearing loss induces plasticity in excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter systems in auditory brain regions. Excitatory-inhibitory balance is also influenced by a range of neuromodulatory regulatory systems, but less is known about the effects of auditory damage on these networks. In this work, we studied the effects of acoustic trauma on neuromodulatory plasticity in the auditory midbrain of CBA/J mice. Quantitative PCR was used to measure the expression of serotonergic and GABAergic receptor genes in the inferior colliculus (IC) of mice that were unmanipulated, sham controls with no hearing loss, and experimental individuals with hearing loss induced by exposure to a 116 dB, 10 kHz pure tone for 3 hours. Acoustic trauma induced substantial hearing loss that was accompanied by selective upregulation of two serotonin receptor genes in the IC. The Htr1B receptor gene was upregulated tenfold following trauma relative to shams, while the Htr1A gene was upregulated threefold. In contrast, no plasticity in serotonin receptor gene expression was found in the hippocampus, a region also innervated by serotonergic projections. Analyses in the IC demonstrated that acoustic trauma also changed the coexpression of genes in relation to each other, leading to an overexpression of Htr1B compared to other genes.. These data suggest that acoustic trauma induces serotonergic plasticity in the auditory system, and that this plasticity may involve comodulation of functionally-linked receptor genes. PMID:24997228

  15. Deletion of striatal adenosine A2A receptor spares latent inhibition and prepulse inhibition but impairs active avoidance learning

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Philipp; Wei, Catherine J.; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Boison, Detlev; Yee, Benjamin K.

    2013-01-01

    Following early clinical leads, the adenosine A2AR receptor (A2AR) has continued to attract attention as a potential novel target for treating schizophrenia; especially against the negative and cognitive symptoms of the disease because of A2AR’s unique modulatory action over glutamatergic in addition to dopaminergic signaling. Through the antagonistic interaction with the dopamine D2 receptor, and by regulating glutamate release and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor function, striatal A2AR is ideally positioned to fine-tune the dopamine-glutamate balance whose disturbance is implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, the precise function of striatal A2ARsin the regulation of schizophrenia-relevant behavior is poorly understood. Here, we tested the impact of conditional striatum-specific A2AR knockout (st-A2AR-KO) on latent inhibition (LI) and prepulse inhibition (PPI) – behavior that is tightly regulated by striatal dopamine and glutamate. These are two common cross-species translational tests for the assessment of selective attention and sensorimotor gating deficits reported in schizophrenia patients; and enhanced performance in these tests is associated with antipsychotic drug action. We found that neither LI nor PPI was significantly affected in st-A2AR-KO mice; although a deficit in active avoidance learning was identified in these animals. The latter phenotype, however, was not replicated in another form of aversive conditioning – conditioned taste aversion. Hence, the present study shows that neither learned inattention (as measured by LI) nor sensory gating (as indexed by PPI) requires the integrity of striatal A2ARs– a finding that may undermine the hypothesized importance of A2AR in the genesis and/or treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:23276608

  16. Physiological roles of A1 and A2A adenosine receptors in regulating heart rate, body temperature, and locomotion as revealed using knockout mice and caffeine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiang-Ning; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Fredholm, Bertil B

    2009-04-01

    Heart rate (HR), body temperature (Temp), locomotor activity (LA), and oxygen consumption (O(2)C) were studied in awake mice lacking one or both of the adenosine A(1) or A(2A) receptors (A(1)R or A(2A)R, respectively) using telemetry and respirometry, before and after caffeine administration. All parameters were lower during day than night and higher in females than males. When compared with wild-type (WT) littermates, HR was higher in male A(1)R knockout (A(1)RKO) mice but lower in A(2A)RKO mice and intermediate in A(1)-A(2A)R double KO mice. A single dose of an unselective beta-blocker (timolol; 1 mg/kg) abolished the HR differences between these genotypes. Deletion of A(1)Rs had little effect on Temp, whereas deletion of A(2A)Rs increased it in females and decreased it in males. A(1)-A(2A)RKO mice had lower Temp than WT mice. LA was unaltered in A(1)RKO mice and lower in A(2A)RKO and A(1)-A(2A)RKO mice than in WT mice. Caffeine injection increased LA but only in mice expressing A(2A)R. Caffeine ingestion also increased LA in an A(2A)R-dependent manner in male mice. Caffeine ingestion significantly increased O(2)C in WT mice, but less in the different KO mice. Injection of 30 mg/kg caffeine decreased Temp, especially in KO mice, and hence in a manner unrelated to A(1)R or A(2A)R blockade. Selective A(2B) antagonism had little or no effect. Thus A(1)R and A(2A)R influence HR, Temp, LA, and O(2)C in mice in a sex-dependent manner, indicating effects of endogenous adenosine. The A(2A)R plays an important role in the modulation of O(2)C and LA by acute and chronic caffeine administration. There is also evidence for effects of higher doses of caffeine being independent of both A(1)R and A(2A)R.

  17. Impact of estrogen receptor α gene and oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms on female sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Armeni, Anastasia K; Assimakopoulos, Konstantinos; Marioli, Dimitra; Koika, Vassiliki; Michaelidou, Euthychia; Mourtzi, Niki; Iconomou, Gregoris

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decades, research attention has increasingly been paid to the neurobiological component of sexual behavior. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation of estrogen receptor α (ERA) gene polymorphism (rs2234693-PvuII) (T→C substitution) and oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism (rs53576) (G→A substitution) with sexuality parameters of young, healthy women. One hundred thirty-three Greek heterosexual women, students in higher education institutions, 20–25 years of age, sexually active, with normal menstrual cycles (28–35 days), were recruited in the study. Exclusion criteria were chronic and/or major psychiatric diseases, use of oral contraceptive pills (OCs), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid diseases as well as drugs that are implicated in hypothalamus–pituitary–gonadal axis. T allele (wildtype) of rs2234693 (PvuII) polymorphism of ERA gene was correlated with increased levels of arousal and lubrication, whereas A allele (polymorphic) of rs53576 (OXTR) polymorphism was correlated with increased arousal levels. The simultaneous presence of both T allele of rs2234693 (PvuII) and A allele of rs53576 (OXTR) polymorphisms (T + A group) was correlated with increased arousal, orgasm levels as well as female sexual function index full score. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the interaction between ERA and OXTR with regard to sexual function in women. Female sexuality is a complex behavioral trait that encompasses both biological and psychological components. It seems that variability in female sexual response stems from genetic variability that characterizes endocrine, neurotransmitter and central nervous system influences. PMID:28069897

  18. The role of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors in the caffeine effect on MDMA-induced DA and 5-HT release in the mouse striatum.

    PubMed

    Górska, A M; Gołembiowska, K

    2015-04-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") popular as a designer drug is often used with caffeine to gain a stronger stimulant effect. MDMA induces 5-HT and DA release by interaction with monoamine transporters. Co-administration of caffeine and MDMA may aggravate MDMA-induced toxic effects on DA and 5-HT terminals. In the present study, we determined whether caffeine influences DA and 5-HT release induced by MDMA. We also tried to find out if adenosine A1 and A2A receptors play a role in the effect of caffeine by investigating the effect of the selective adenosine A1 and A2A receptor antagonists, DPCPX and KW 6002 on DA and 5-HT release induced by MDMA. Mice were treated with caffeine (10 mg/kg) and MDMA (20 or 40 mg/kg) alone or in combination. DA and 5-HT release in the mouse striatum was measured using in vivo microdialysis. Caffeine exacerbated the effect of MDMA on DA and 5-HT release. DPCPX or KW 6002 co-administered with MDMA had similar influence as caffeine, but KW 6002 was more potent than caffeine or DPCPX. To exclude the contribution of MAO inhibition by caffeine in the caffeine effect on MDMA-induced increase in DA and 5-HT, we also tested the effect of the nonxanthine adenosine receptor antagonist CGS 15943A lacking properties of MAO activity modification. Our findings indicate that adenosine A1 and A2A receptor blockade may account for the caffeine-induced exacerbation of the MDMA effect on DA and 5-HT release and may aggravate MDMA toxicity.

  19. The LDL receptor gene family: signaling functions during development.

    PubMed

    Howell, B W; Herz, J

    2001-02-01

    The traditional views regarding the biological functions of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene family have been revisited recently with new evidence that at least some of the members of this receptor family act as signal-transduction molecules. Known for their role in endocytosis, particularly of their namesake the LDLs, and for their role in the prevention of atherosclerosis, these receptors belong to an ancient family with numerous ligands, effector molecules and functions. Recent evidence implicates this family of receptors in diverse signaling pathways, long-term potentiation and neuronal degeneration.

  20. Ethanol and Caffeine Effects on Social Interaction and Recognition in Mice: Involvement of Adenosine A2A and A1 Receptors.

    PubMed

    López-Cruz, Laura; San-Miguel, Noemí; Bayarri, Pilar; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E; Salamone, John D; Correa, Mercé

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol and caffeine are frequently consumed in combination and have opposite effects on the adenosine system: ethanol metabolism leads to an increase in adenosine levels, while caffeine is a non-selective adenosine A 1 /A 2A receptor antagonist. These receptors are highly expressed in striatum and olfactory tubercle, brain areas involved in exploration and social interaction in rodents. Ethanol modulates social interaction processes, but the role of adenosine in social behavior is still poorly understood. The present work was undertaken to study the impact of ethanol, caffeine and their combination on social behavior, and to explore the involvement of A 1 and A 2A receptors on those actions. Male CD1 mice were evaluated in a social interaction three-chamber paradigm, for preference of conspecific vs. object, and also for long-term recognition memory of familiar vs. novel conspecific. Ethanol showed a biphasic effect, with low doses (0.25 g/kg) increasing social contact and higher doses (1.0-1.5 g/kg) reducing social interaction. However, no dose changed social preference; mice always spent more time sniffing the conspecific than the object, independently of the ethanol dose. Ethanol, even at doses that did not change social exploration, produced amnestic effects on social recognition the following day. Caffeine reduced social contact (15.0-60.0 mg/kg), and even blocked social preference at higher doses (30.0-60.0 mg/kg). The A 1 antagonist Cyclopentyltheophylline (CPT; 3-9 mg/kg) did not modify social contact or preference on its own, and the A 2A antagonist MSX-3 (1.5-6 mg/kg) increased social interaction at all doses. Ethanol at intermediate doses (0.5-1.0 g/kg) was able to reverse the reduction in social exploration induced by caffeine (15.0-30.0 mg/kg). Although there was no interaction between ethanol and CPT or MSX-3 on social exploration in the first day, MSX-3 blocked the amnestic effects of ethanol observed on the following day. Thus, ethanol impairs the

  1. Spatiotemporal brain dynamics of emotional face processing modulations induced by the serotonin 1A/2A receptor agonist psilocybin.

    PubMed

    Bernasconi, Fosco; Schmidt, André; Pokorny, Thomas; Kometer, Michael; Seifritz, Erich; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2014-12-01

    Emotional face processing is critically modulated by the serotonergic system. For instance, emotional face processing is impaired by acute psilocybin administration, a serotonin (5-HT) 1A and 2A receptor agonist. However, the spatiotemporal brain mechanisms underlying these modulations are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the spatiotemporal brain dynamics underlying psilocybin-induced modulations during emotional face processing. Electrical neuroimaging analyses were applied to visual evoked potentials in response to emotional faces, following psilocybin and placebo administration. Our results indicate a first time period of strength (i.e., Global Field Power) modulation over the 168-189 ms poststimulus interval, induced by psilocybin. A second time period of strength modulation was identified over the 211-242 ms poststimulus interval. Source estimations over these 2 time periods further revealed decreased activity in response to both neutral and fearful faces within limbic areas, including amygdala and parahippocampal gyrus, and the right temporal cortex over the 168-189 ms interval, and reduced activity in response to happy faces within limbic and right temporo-occipital brain areas over the 211-242 ms interval. Our results indicate a selective and temporally dissociable effect of psilocybin on the neuronal correlates of emotional face processing, consistent with a modulation of the top-down control. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Caffeine Reverts Memory But Not Mood Impairment in a Depression-Prone Mouse Strain with Up-Regulated Adenosine A2A Receptor in Hippocampal Glutamate Synapses.

    PubMed

    Machado, Nuno J; Simões, Ana Patrícia; Silva, Henrique B; Ardais, Ana Paula; Kaster, Manuella P; Garção, Pedro; Rodrigues, Diana I; Pochmann, Daniela; Santos, Ana Isabel; Araújo, Inês M; Porciúncula, Lisiane O; Tomé, Ângelo R; Köfalvi, Attila; Vaugeois, Jean-Marie; Agostinho, Paula; El Yacoubi, Malika; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Gomes, Catarina A

    2017-03-01

    Caffeine prophylactically prevents mood and memory impairments through adenosine A 2A receptor (A 2A R) antagonism. A 2A R antagonists also therapeutically revert mood and memory impairments, but it is not known if caffeine is also therapeutically or only prophylactically effective. Since depression is accompanied by mood and memory alterations, we now explored if chronic (4 weeks) caffeine consumption (0.3 g/L) reverts mood and memory impairment in helpless mice (HM, 12 weeks old), a bred-based model of depression. HM displayed higher immobility in the tail suspension and forced swimming tests, greater anxiety in the elevated plus maze, and poorer memory performance (modified Y-maze and object recognition). HM also had reduced density of synaptic (synaptophysin, SNAP-25), namely, glutamatergic (vGluT1; -22 ± 7 %) and GABAergic (vGAT; -23 ± 8 %) markers in the hippocampus. HM displayed higher A 2A R density (72 ± 6 %) in hippocampal synapses, an enhanced facilitation of hippocampal glutamate release by the A 2A R agonist, CGS21680 (30 nM), and a larger LTP amplitude (54 ± 8 % vs. 21 ± 5 % in controls) that was restored to control levels (30 ± 10 %) by the A 2A R antagonist, SCH58261 (50 nM). Notably, caffeine intake reverted memory deficits and reverted the loss of hippocampal synaptic markers but did not affect helpless or anxiety behavior. These results reinforce the validity of HM as an animal model of depression by showing that they also display reference memory deficits. Furthermore, caffeine intake selectively reverted memory but not mood deficits displayed by HM, which are associated with an increased density and functional impact of hippocampal A 2A R controlling synaptic glutamatergic function.

  3. Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic plant-derived cannabinoid, decreases inflammation in a murine model of acute lung injury: role for the adenosine A(2A) receptor.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Alison; Ferraz-de-Paula, Viviane; Pinheiro, Milena L; Vitoretti, Luana B; Mariano-Souza, Domenica P; Quinteiro-Filho, Wanderley M; Akamine, Adriana T; Almeida, Vinícius I; Quevedo, João; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Hallak, Jaime E; Zuardi, Antônio W; Crippa, José A; Palermo-Neto, João

    2012-03-05

    Acute lung injury is an inflammatory condition for which treatment is mainly supportive because effective therapies have not been developed. Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic cannabinoid component of marijuana (Cannabis sativa), has potent immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, we investigated the possible anti-inflammatory effect of cannabidiol in a murine model of acute lung injury. Analysis of total inflammatory cells and differential in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was used to characterize leukocyte migration into the lungs; myeloperoxidase activity of lung tissue and albumin concentration in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were analyzed by colorimetric assays; cytokine/chemokine production in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was also analyzed by Cytometric Bead Arrays and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). A single dose of cannabidiol (20mg/kg) administered prior to the induction of LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-induced acute lung injury decreases leukocyte (specifically neutrophil) migration into the lungs, albumin concentration in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, myeloperoxidase activity in the lung tissue, and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF and IL-6) and chemokines (MCP-1 and MIP-2) 1, 2, and 4days after the induction of LPS-induced acute lung injury. Additionally, adenosine A(2A) receptor is involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of cannabidiol on LPS-induced acute lung injury because ZM241385 (4-(2-[7-Amino-2-(2-furyl)[1,2,4]triazolo[2,3-a][1,3,5]triazin-5-ylamino]ethyl)phenol) (a highly selective antagonist of adenosine A(2A) receptor) abrogated all of the anti-inflammatory effects of cannabidiol previously described. Thus, we show that cannabidiol has anti-inflammatory effects in a murine model of acute lung injury and that this effect is most likely associated with an increase in the extracellular adenosine offer and signaling through adenosine A(2A) receptor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  4. Genetic deletion of GPR52 enhances the locomotor-stimulating effect of an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist in mice: A potential role of GPR52 in the function of striatopallidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Keiji; Suzuki, Hirobumi; Maruyama, Minoru; Yoshihara, Tomoki; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2017-09-01

    G protein-coupled receptor 52 (GPR52) is largely co-expressed with dopamine D 2 receptor (DRD2) in the striatum and nucleus accumbens, and this expression pattern is similar to that of adenosine A 2A receptor (ADORA2A). GPR52 has been proposed as a therapeutic target for positive symptoms of schizophrenia, based on observations from pharmacological and transgenic mouse studies. However, the physiological role of GPR52 in dopaminergic functions in the basal ganglia remains unclear. Here, we used GPR52 knockout (KO) mice to examine the role of GPR52 in dopamine receptor-mediated and ADORA2A-mediated locomotor activity and dopamine receptor signaling. High expression of GPR52 protein in the striatum, nucleus accumbens, and lateral globus pallidus of wild type (WT) littermates was confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis. GPR52 KO and WT mice exhibited almost identical locomotor responses to the dopamine releaser methamphetamine and the N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonist MK-801. In contrast, the locomotor response to the ADORA2A antagonist istradefylline was significantly augmented in GPR52 KO mice compared to WT mice. Gene expression analysis revealed that striatal expression of DRD2, but not of dopamine D 1 receptor and ADORA2A, was significantly decreased in GPR52 KO mice. Moreover, a significant reduction in the mRNA expression of enkephalin, a marker of the activity of striatopallidal neurons, was observed in the striatum of GPR52 KO mice, suggesting that GPR52 deletion could enhance DRD2 signaling. Taken together, these results imply the physiological relevance of GPR52 in modulating the function of striatopallidal neurons, possibly by interaction of GPR52 with ADORA2A and DRD2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Mouse Solitary Odorant Receptor Gene Promoters as Models for the Study of Odorant Receptor Gene Choice

    PubMed Central

    Degl'Innocenti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background In vertebrates, several anatomical regions located within the nasal cavity mediate olfaction. Among these, the main olfactory epithelium detects most conventional odorants. Olfactory sensory neurons, provided with cilia exposed to the air, detect volatile chemicals via an extremely large family of seven-transmembrane chemoreceptors named odorant receptors. Their genes are expressed in a monogenic and monoallelic fashion: a single allele of a single odorant receptor gene is transcribed in a given mature neuron, through a still uncharacterized molecular mechanism known as odorant receptor gene choice. Aim Odorant receptor genes are typically arranged in genomic clusters, but a few are isolated (we call them solitary) from the others within a region broader than 1 Mb upstream and downstream with respect to their transcript's coordinates. The study of clustered genes is problematic, because of redundancy and ambiguities in their regulatory elements: we propose to use the solitary genes as simplified models to understand odorant receptor gene choice. Procedures Here we define number and identity of the solitary genes in the mouse genome (C57BL/6J), and assess the conservation of the solitary status in some mammalian orthologs. Furthermore, we locate their putative promoters, predict their homeodomain binding sites (commonly present in the promoters of odorant receptor genes) and compare candidate promoter sequences with those of wild-caught mice. We also provide expression data from histological sections. Results In the mouse genome there are eight intact solitary genes: Olfr19 (M12), Olfr49, Olfr266, Olfr267, Olfr370, Olfr371, Olfr466, Olfr1402; five are conserved as solitary in rat. These genes are all expressed in the main olfactory epithelium of three-day-old mice. The C57BL/6J candidate promoter of Olfr370 has considerably varied compared to its wild-type counterpart. Within the putative promoter for Olfr266 a homeodomain binding site is predicted. As a

  6. Effects of a Proprietary Standardized Orthosiphon stamineus Ethanolic Leaf Extract on Enhancing Memory in Sprague Dawley Rats Possibly via Blockade of Adenosine A2A Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Yogendra; Choudhary, Vandana Kotak; Bommu, Praveen; Wong, Hoi Jin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore a propriety standardized ethanolic extract from leaves of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth in improving impairments in short-term social memory in vivo, possibly via blockade of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR). The ethanolic extract of O. stamineus leaves showed significant in vitro binding activity of A2AR with 74% inhibition at 150 μg/ml and significant A2AR antagonist activity with 98% inhibition at 300 μg/mL. A significant adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) antagonist activity with 100% inhibition was observed at 300 μg/mL. Its effect on learning and memory was assessed via social recognition task using Sprague Dawley rats whereby the ethanolic extract of O. stamineus showed significant (p < 0.001) change in recognition index (RI) at 300 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg p.o and 120 mg/kg i.p., respectively, compared to the vehicle control. In comparison, the ethanolic extract of Polygonum minus aerial parts showed small change in inflexion; however, it remained insignificant in RI at 200 mg/kg p.o. Our findings suggest that the ethanolic extract of O. stamineus leaves improves memory by reversing age-related deficits in short-term social memory and the possible involvement of adenosine A1 and adenosine A2A as a target bioactivity site in the restoration of memory. PMID:26649059

  7. Androgen receptor agonism promotes an osteogenic gene program in preadipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hartig, Sean M.; Feng, Qin; Ochsner, Scott A.; Xiao, Rui; McKenna, Neil J.; McGuire, Sean E.; He, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Androgens regulate body composition by interacting with the androgen receptor (AR) to control gene expression in a tissue-specific manner. To identify novel regulatory roles for AR in preadipocytes, we created a 3T3-L1 cell line stably expressing human AR. We found AR expression is required for androgen-mediated inhibition of 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. This inhibition is characterized by decreased lipid accumulation, reduced expression of adipogenic genes, and induction of genes associated with osteoblast differentiation. Collectively, our results suggest androgens promote an osteogenic gene program at the expense of adipocyte differentiation. PMID:23567971

  8. Adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists are broad facilitators of antinicotinic neuromuscular blockade monitored either with 2 Hz train-of-four or 50 Hz tetanic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Monalisa W; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo; Alves-Do-Prado, Wilson

    2012-10-01

    1. The 2 Hz train-of-four ratio (TOF(ratio)) is used to monitor the degree of patient curarization. Using a rat phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparation, we showed that antinicotinic agents, such as hexamethonium, d-tubocurarine and pancuronium, but not cisatracurium, decreased contractions produced by physiological nerve activity patterns (50 Hz) more efficiently than those caused by 2 Hz trains. Uncertainty about the usefulness of the TOF(ratio) to control safe recovery from curarization prompted us to investigate the muscarinic and adenosine neuromodulation of tetanic (50 Hz) fade induced by antinicotinic agents at concentrations that cause a 25% reduction in the TOF(ratio) (TOF(fade)). 2. Tetanic fade caused by d-tubocurarine (1.1 μmol/L), pancuronium (3 μmol/L) and hexamethonium (5.47 mmol/L) was attenuated by blocking presynaptic inhibitory muscarinic M(2) and adenosine A(1) receptors with methoctramine (1 μmol/L) and 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (2.5 nmol/L), respectively. These compounds enhanced rather than decreased tetanic fade induced by cisatracurium (2.2 μmol/L), but they consistently attenuated cisatracurium-induced TOF(fade). The effect of the M(1) receptor antagonist pirenzepine (10 nmol/L) on fade produced by antinicotinic agents at 50 Hz was opposite to that observed with TOF stimulation. Blockade of adenosine A(2A) receptors with ZM 241385 (10 nmol/L) attenuated TOF(fade) caused by all antinicotinic drugs tested, with the exception of the 'pure' presynaptic nicotinic antagonist hexamethonium. ZM 241385 was the only compound tested in this series that facilitated recovery from tetanic fade produced by cisatracurium. 3. The data suggest that distinct antinicotinic relaxants interfere with fine-tuning neuromuscular adaptations to motor nerve stimulation patterns via activation of presynaptic muscarinic and adenosine receptors. These results support the use of A(2A) receptor antagonists together with atropine to facilitate recovery from

  9. The repertoire of bitter taste receptor genes in canids.

    PubMed

    Shang, Shuai; Wu, Xiaoyang; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Huanxin; Zhong, Huaming; Wei, Qinguo; Yan, Jiakuo; Li, Haotian; Liu, Guangshuai; Sha, Weilai; Zhang, Honghai

    2017-07-01

    Bitter taste receptors (Tas2rs) play important roles in mammalian defense mechanisms by helping animals detect and avoid toxins in food. Although Tas2r genes have been widely studied in several mammals, minimal research has been performed in canids. To analyze the genetic basis of Tas2r genes in canids, we first identified Tas2r genes in the wolf, maned wolf, red fox, corsac fox, Tibetan fox, fennec fox, dhole and African hunting dog. A total of 183 Tas2r genes, consisting of 118 intact genes, 6 partial genes and 59 pseudogenes, were detected. Differences in the pseudogenes were observed among nine canid species. For example, Tas2r4 was a pseudogene in the dog but might play a functional role in other canid species. The Tas2r42 and Tas2r10 genes were pseudogenes in the maned wolf and dhole, respectively, and the Tas2r5 and Tas2r34 genes were pseudogenes in the African hunting dog; however, these genes were intact genes in other canid species. The differences in Tas2r pseudogenes among canids might suggest that the loss of intact Tas2r genes in canid species is species-dependent. We further compared the 183 Tas2r genes identified in this study with Tas2r genes from ten additional carnivorous species to evaluate the potential influence of diet on the evolution of the Tas2r gene repertoire. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of the Tas2r genes from the 18 species intermingled across the tree, suggesting that Tas2r genes are conserved among carnivores. Within canids, we found that some Tas2r genes corresponded to the traditional taxonomic groupings, while some did not. PIC analysis showed that the number of Tas2r genes in carnivores exhibited no positive correlation with diet composition, which might be due to the limited number of carnivores included in our study.

  10. Evolution of the vertebrate insulin receptor substrate (Irs) gene family.

    PubMed

    Al-Salam, Ahmad; Irwin, David M

    2017-06-23

    Insulin receptor substrate (Irs) proteins are essential for insulin signaling as they allow downstream effectors to dock with, and be activated by, the insulin receptor. A family of four Irs proteins have been identified in mice, however the gene for one of these, IRS3, has been pseudogenized in humans. While it is known that the Irs gene family originated in vertebrates, it is not known when it originated and which members are most closely related to each other. A better understanding of the evolution of Irs genes and proteins should provide insight into the regulation of metabolism by insulin. Multiple genes for Irs proteins were identified in a wide variety of vertebrate species. Phylogenetic and genomic neighborhood analyses indicate that this gene family originated very early in vertebrae evolution. Most Irs genes were duplicated and retained in fish after the fish-specific genome duplication. Irs genes have been lost of various lineages, including Irs3 in primates and birds and Irs1 in most fish. Irs3 and Irs4 experienced an episode of more rapid protein sequence evolution on the ancestral mammalian lineage. Comparisons of the conservation of the proteins sequences among Irs paralogs show that domains involved in binding to the plasma membrane and insulin receptors are most strongly conserved, while divergence has occurred in sequences involved in interacting with downstream effector proteins. The Irs gene family originated very early in vertebrate evolution, likely through genome duplications, and in parallel with duplications of other components of the insulin signaling pathway, including insulin and the insulin receptor. While the N-terminal sequences of these proteins are conserved among the paralogs, changes in the C-terminal sequences likely allowed changes in biological function.

  11. Adenosine A2A receptor blockade prevents synaptotoxicity and memory dysfunction caused by beta-amyloid peptides via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Canas, Paula M; Porciúncula, Lisiane O; Cunha, Geanne M A; Silva, Carla G; Machado, Nuno J; Oliveira, Jorge M A; Oliveira, Catarina R; Cunha, Rodrigo A

    2009-11-25

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by memory impairment, neurochemically by accumulation of beta-amyloid peptide (namely Abeta(1-42)) and morphologically by an initial loss of nerve terminals. Caffeine consumption prevents memory dysfunction in different models, which is mimicked by antagonists of adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A)Rs), which are located in synapses. Thus, we now tested whether A(2A)R blockade prevents the early Abeta(1-42)-induced synaptotoxicity and memory dysfunction and what are the underlying signaling pathways. The intracerebral administration of soluble Abeta(1-42) (2 nmol) in rats or mice caused, 2 weeks later, memory impairment (decreased performance in the Y-maze and object recognition tests) and a loss of nerve terminal markers (synaptophysin, SNAP-25) without overt neuronal loss, astrogliosis, or microgliosis. These were prevented by pharmacological blockade [5-amino-7-(2-phenylethyl)-2-(2-furyl)-pyrazolo[4,3-e]-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidine (SCH58261); 0.05 mg . kg(-1) . d(-1), i.p.; for 15 d] in rats, and genetic inactivation of A(2A)Rs in mice. Moreover, these were synaptic events since purified nerve terminals acutely exposed to Abeta(1-42) (500 nm) displayed mitochondrial dysfunction, which was prevented by A(2A)R blockade. SCH58261 (50 nm) also prevented the initial synaptotoxicity (loss of MAP-2, synaptophysin, and SNAP-25 immunoreactivity) and subsequent loss of viability of cultured hippocampal neurons exposed to Abeta(1-42) (500 nm). This A(2A)R-mediated control of neurotoxicity involved the control of Abeta(1-42)-induced p38 phosphorylation and was independent from cAMP/PKA (protein kinase A) pathway. Together, these results show that A(2A)Rs play a crucial role in the development of Abeta-induced synaptotoxicity leading to memory dysfunction through a p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)-dependent pathway and provide a molecular basis for the benefits of caffeine consumption in AD.

  12. Evolution of an Expanded Mannose Receptor Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Staines, Karen; Hunt, Lawrence G.; Young, John R.; Butter, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Sequences of peptides from a protein specifically immunoprecipitated by an antibody, KUL01, that recognises chicken macrophages, identified a homologue of the mammalian mannose receptor, MRC1, which we called MRC1L-B. Inspection of the genomic environment of the chicken gene revealed an array of five paralogous genes, MRC1L-A to MRC1L-E, located between conserved flanking genes found either side of the single MRC1 gene in mammals. Transcripts of all five genes were detected in RNA from a macrophage cell line and other RNAs, whose sequences allowed the precise definition of spliced exons, confirming or correcting existing bioinformatic annotation. The confirmed gene structures were used to locate orthologues of all five genes in the genomes of two other avian species and of the painted turtle, all with intact coding sequences. The lizard genome had only three genes, one orthologue of MRC1L-A and two orthologues of the MRC1L-B antigen gene resulting from a recent duplication. The Xenopus genome, like that of most mammals, had only a single MRC1-like gene at the corresponding locus. MRC1L-A and MRC1L-B genes had similar cytoplasmic regions that may be indicative of similar subcellular migration and functions. Cytoplasmic regions of the other three genes were very divergent, possibly indicating the evolution of a new functional repertoire for this family of molecules, which might include novel interactions with pathogens. PMID:25390371

  13. The effect of adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists on hydroxyl radical, dopamine, and glutamate in the striatum of rats with altered function of VMAT2.

    PubMed

    Gołembiowska, Krystyna; Dziubina, Anna

    2012-08-01

    It has been shown that a decreased vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) function and the disruption of dopamine (DA) storage is an early contributor to oxidative damage of dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). In our previous study, we demonstrated that adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists suppressed oxidative stress in 6-hydroxydopamine-treated rats suggesting that this effect may account for neuroprotective properties of drugs. In the present study, rats were injected with reserpine (10 mg/kg sc) and 18 h later the effect of the adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists 8-(3-chlorostyryl)caffeine (CSC) and 4-(2-[7-amino-2-(2-furyl)[1,2,4]triazolo[2,3-a][1,3,5]triazin-5-ylamino]ethyl)phenol (ZM 241385) on extracellular DA, glutamate and hydroxyl radical formation was studied in the rat striatum using in vivo microdialysis. By disrupting VMAT2 function, reserpine depleted DA stores, and increased glutamate and hydroxyl radical levels in the rat striatum. CSC (1 mg/kg) but not ZM 241385 (3 mg/kg) increased extracellular DA level and production of hydroxyl radical in reserpinised rats. Both antagonists decreased the reserpine-induced increase in extracellular glutamate. L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) (25 mg/kg) significantly enhanced extracellular DA, had no effect on reserpine-induced hydroxyl radical production and decreased extracellular glutamate concentration. CSC but not ZM 241385 given jointly with L-DOPA increased the effect of L-DOPA on extracellular DA and augmented the reserpine-induced hydroxyl radical production. CSC and ZM 241385 did not influence extracellular glutamate level, which was decreased by L-DOPA. It seems that by decreasing the MAO-dependent DA metabolism rate, CSC raised cytosolic DA and by DA autoxidation, it induced hydroxyl radical overproduction. Thus, the methylxanthine A(2A) receptor antagonists bearing properties of MAO-B inhibitor, like CSC, may cause a risk of oxidative stress resulting from dysfunctional DA storage

  14. Association of Dopamine D2 Receptor Gene with Creative Ideation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Qi; Zhang, Shun; Zhang, Jinghuan H.

    2017-01-01

    Although several studies suggest that dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene may contribute to creativity, the relationship between DRD2 and creativity still needs to be further validated. To further test the relevance of DRD2 and creativity, this study explored the association between DRD2 and creative ideation in 483 unrelated healthy Chinese…

  15. Characterization of the "CCR5" Chemokine Receptor Gene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, John C.

    2004-01-01

    The life cycle of retroviruses is an essential topic of modern cell biology instruction. Furthermore, the process of HIV viral entry into the cell is a question of great interest in basic and clinical biology. This paper describes how students can easily recover their own DNA, amplify a portion of the "CCR5" chemokine receptor gene, characterize…

  16. Regulation of the LDL receptor gene expression by hormones.

    PubMed

    Streicher, R; Kotzka, J; Müller-Wieland, D; Krone, W

    1998-01-01

    Promoter activity of the LDL receptor gene is stimulated by insulin and estradiol and mediated by SRE-1, which acts as a hormone sensitive cis-elemente. Using the antisense technique we reveal that SREBP-1 is selectively involved in the signal transduction pathway of insulin and IGF-I.

  17. Functional role of striatal A2A, D2, and mGlu5 receptor interactions in regulating striatopallidal GABA neuronal transmission.

    PubMed

    Beggiato, Sarah; Tomasini, Maria Cristina; Borelli, Andrea Celeste; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel Oscar; Fuxe, Kjell; Antonelli, Tiziana; Tanganelli, Sergio; Ferraro, Luca

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the functional role of individual striatal receptors for adenosine (A2AR), dopamine (D2R), and the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGlu5R in regulating rat basal ganglia activity was characterized in vivo using dual-probe microdialysis in freely moving rats. In particular, intrastriatal perfusion with the D2R agonist quinpirole (10 μM, 60 min) decreased ipsilateral pallidal GABA and glutamate levels, whereas intrastriatal CGS21680 (A2AR agonist; 1 μM, 60 min) was ineffective on either pallidal GABA and glutamate levels or the quinpirole-induced effects. Intrastriatal perfusion with the mGlu5R agonist (RS)-2-chloro-5-hydroxyphenylglycine (600 μM, 60 min), by itself ineffective on pallidal GABA and glutamate levels, partially counteracted the effects of quinpirole. When combined with CGS21680 (1 μM, 60 min), (RS)-2-chloro-5-hydroxyphenylglycine (CHPG; 600 μM, 60 min) fully counteracted the quinpirole (10 μM, 60 min)-induced reduction in ipsilateral pallidal GABA and glutamate levels. These effects were fully counteracted by local perfusion with the mGlu5R antagonist MPEP (300 μM) or the A2AR antagonist ZM 241385 (100 nM). These results suggest that A2ARs and mGlu5Rs interact synergistically in modulating the D2R-mediated control of striatopallidal GABA neurons. Using dual-probe microdialysis, we characterized the functional role of striatal adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR), dopamine D2 receptor (D2R), and metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) interactions in regulating rat basal ganglia activity. The results suggest the possible usefulness of using an A2AR antagonist and mGluR5 antagonist combination in the treatment of Parkinson's disease to increase the inhibitory D2 signaling on striatopallidal GABA neurons. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  18. Unprecedented Therapeutic Potential with a Combination of A2A/NR2B Receptor Antagonists as Observed in the 6-OHDA Lesioned Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Anne; Downey, Patrick; Nicolas, Jean-Marie; Scheller, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    In Parkinson's disease, the long-term use of dopamine replacing agents is associated with the development of motor complications; therefore, there is a need for non-dopaminergic drugs. This study evaluated the potential therapeutic impact of six different NR2B and A2A receptor antagonists given either alone or in combination in unilateral 6-OHDA-lesioned rats without (monotherapy) or with (add-on therapy) the co-administration of L-Dopa: Sch-58261+ Merck 22; Sch-58261+Co-101244; Preladenant + Merck 22; Preladenant + Radiprodil; Tozadenant + Radiprodil; Istradefylline + Co-101244. Animals given monotherapy were assessed on distance traveled and rearing, whereas those given add-on therapy were assessed on contralateral rotations. Three-way mixed ANOVA were conducted to assess the main effect of each drug separately and to determine whether any interaction between two drugs was additive or synergistic. Additional post hoc analyses were conducted to compare the effect of the combination with the effect of the drugs alone. Motor activity improved significantly and was sustained for longer when the drugs were given in combination than when administered separately at the same dose. Similarly, when tested as add-on treatment to L-Dopa, the combinations resulted in higher levels of contralateral rotation in comparison to the single drugs. Of special interest, the activity observed with some combinations could not be described by a simplistic additive effect and involved more subtle synergistic pharmacological interactions. The combined administration of A2A/NR2B-receptor antagonists improved motor behaviour in 6-OHDA rats. Given the proven translatability of this model such a combination may be expected to be effective in improving motor symptoms in patients. PMID:25513815

  19. Suppression of PLCβ2 by Endotoxin Plays a Role in the Adenosine A2A Receptor-Mediated Switch of Macrophages from an Inflammatory to an Angiogenic Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Grinberg, Stan; Hasko, Gyorgy; Wu, Dianqing; Leibovich, Samuel Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, 4, 7, and 9 agonists, together with adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) agonists, switch macrophages from an inflammatory (M1) to an angiogenic (M2-like) phenotype. This switch involves induction of A2ARs by TLR agonists, down-regulation of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin-12, and up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukin-10 expression. We show here that the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces rapid and specific post-transcriptional down-regulation of phospholipase C(PLC)β1 and β2 expression in macrophages by de-stabilizing their mRNAs. The PLCβ inhibitor U73122 down-regulates TNFα expression by macrophages, and in the presence of A2AR agonists, up-regulates VEGF, mimicking the synergistic action of LPS with A2AR agonists. Selective down-regulation of PLCβ2, but not PLCβ1, using small-interfering RNA resulted in increased VEGF expression in response to A2AR agonists, but did not suppress TNFα expression. Macrophages from PLCβ2−/− mice also expressed increased VEGF in response to A2AR agonists. LPS-mediated suppression of PLCβ1 and β2 is MyD88-dependent. In a model of endotoxic shock, LPS (35 μg/mouse, i.p.) suppressed PLCβ1 and β2 expression in spleen, liver, and lung of wild-type but not MyD88−/− mice. These studies indicate that LPS suppresses PLCβ1 and β2 expression in macrophages in vitro and in several tissues in vivo. These results suggest that suppression of PLCβ2 plays an important role in switching M1 macrophages into an M2-like state. PMID:19850892

  20. Retinoid X receptor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor activate an estrogen responsive gene independent of the estrogen receptor.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, S B; Medin, J A; Braissant, O; Kemp, L; Wahli, W; Ozato, K; Segars, J H

    1997-03-14

    Estrogen receptors regulate transcription of genes essential for sexual development and reproductive function. Since the retinoid X receptor (RXR) is able to modulate estrogen responsive genes and both 9-cis RA and fatty acids influenced development of estrogen responsive tumors, we hypothesized that estrogen responsive genes might be modulated by RXR and the fatty acid receptor (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, PPAR). To test this hypothesis, transfection assays in CV-1 cells were performed with an estrogen response element (ERE) coupled to a luciferase reporter construct. Addition of expression vectors for RXR and PPAR resulted in an 11-fold increase in luciferase activity in the presence of 9-cis RA. Furthermore, mobility shift assays demonstrated binding of RXR and PPAR to the vitellogenin A2-ERE and an ERE in the oxytocin promoter. Methylation interference assays demonstrated that specific guanine residues required for RXR/PPAR binding to the ERE were similar to residues required for ER binding. Moreover, RXR domain-deleted constructs in transfection assays showed that activation required RXR since an RXR delta AF-2 mutant completely abrogated reporter activity. Oligoprecipitation binding studies with biotinylated ERE and (35)S-labeled in vitro translated RXR constructs confirmed binding of delta AF-2 RXR mutant to the ERE in the presence of baculovirus-expressed PPAR. Finally, in situ hybridization confirmed RXR and PPAR mRNA expression in estrogen responsive tissues. Collectively, these data suggest that RXR and PPAR are present in reproductive tissues, are capable of activating estrogen responsive genes and suggest that the mechanism of activation may involve direct binding of the receptors to estrogen response elements.

  1. Associations between Vocal Symptoms and Genetic Variants in the Oxytocin Receptor and Arginine Vasopressin 1A Receptor Gene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jämsen, Sofia Holmqvist; Johansson, Ada; Westberg, Lars; Santtila, Pekka; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Simberg, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Oxytocin and arginine vasopressin are associated with different aspects of the stress response. As stress is regarded as a risk factor for vocal symptoms, we wanted to explore the association between the oxytocin receptor gene ("OXTR") and arginine vasopressin 1A receptor gene ("AVPR1A") single-nucleotide polymorphisms…

  2. Structure-Activity Relationships of Truncated C2- or C8-Substituted Adenosine Derivatives as Dual Acting A2A and A3 Adenosine Receptor Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Xiyan; Majik, Mahesh S.; Kim, Kyunglim; Pyee, Yuna; Lee, Yoonji; Alexander, Varughese; Chung, Hwa-Jin; Lee, Hyuk Woo; Chandra, Girish; Lee, Jin Hee; Park, Seul-gi; Choi, Won Jun; Kim, Hea Ok; Phan, Khai; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Choi, Sun; Lee, Sang Kook; Jeong, Lak Shin

    2011-01-01

    Truncated N6-substituted-4′-oxo- and 4′-thioadenosine derivatives with C2 or C8 substitution were studied as dual acting A2A and A3 adenosine receptor (AR) ligands. The lithiation-mediated stannyl transfer and palladium-catalyzed cross coupling reactions were utilized for functionalization of the C2 position of 6-chloropurine nucleosides. An unsubstituted 6-amino group and a hydrophobic C2 substituent were required for high affinity at the hA2AAR, but hydrophobic C8 substitution abolished binding at the hA2AAR. However, most of synthesized compounds displayed medium to high binding affinity at the hA3AR, regardless of C2 or C8 substitution, and low efficacy in a functional cAMP assay. Several compounds tended to be full hA2AAR agonists. C2 substitution probed geometrically through hA2AAR-docking, was important for binding in order of hexynyl > hexenyl > hexanyl. Compound 4g was the most potent ligand acting dually as hA2AAR agonist and hA3AR antagonist, which might be useful for treatment of asthma or other inflammatory diseases. PMID:22142423

  3. Molecular Docking and Prediction of Pharmacokinetic Properties of Dual Mechanism Drugs that Block MAO-B and Adenosine A2A Receptors for the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Faizul; Madi, Arwa M.; Ali, Hamed I.

    2012-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitory potential of adenosine A2A receptor (AA2AR) antagonists has raised the possibility of designing dual-target–directed drugs that may provide enhanced symptomatic relief and that may also slow the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD) by protecting against further neurodegeneration. To explain the dual inhibition of MAO-B and AA2AR at the molecular level, molecular docking technique was employed. Lamarckian genetic algorithm methodology was used for flexible ligand docking studies. A good correlation (R2= 0.524 and 0.627 for MAO-B and AA2AR, respectively) was established between docking predicted and experimental Ki values, which confirms that the molecular docking approach is reliable to study the mechanism of dual interaction of caffeinyl analogs with MAO-B and AA2AR. Parameters for Lipinski's “Rule-of-Five” were also calculated to estimate the pharmacokinetic properties of dual-target–directed drugs where both MAO-B inhibition and AA2AR antagonism exhibited a positive correlation with calculated LogP having a correlation coefficient R2 of 0.535 and 0.607, respectively. These results provide some beneficial clues in structural modification for designing new inhibitors as dual-target–directed drugs with desired pharmacokinetic properties for the treatment of PD. PMID:23112538

  4. Behavioral meaningful opioidergic stimulation activates kappa receptor gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Teodorov, E.; Ferrari, M.F.R.; Fior-Chadi, D.R.; Camarini, R.; Felício, L.F.

    2012-01-01

    The periaqueductal gray (PAG) has been reported to be a location for opioid regulation of pain and a potential site for behavioral selection in females. Opioid-mediated behavioral and physiological responses differ according to the activity of opioid receptor subtypes. The present study investigated the effects of the peripheral injection of the kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69593 into the dorsal subcutaneous region of animals on maternal behavior and on Oprk1 gene activity in the PAG of female rats. Female Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g at the beginning of the study were randomly divided into 2 groups for maternal behavior and gene expression experiments. On day 5, pups were removed at 7:00 am and placed in another home cage that was distant from their mother. Thirty minutes after removing the pups, the dams were treated with U69593 (0.15 mg/kg, sc) or 0.9% saline (up to 1 mL/kg) and after 30 min were evaluated in the maternal behavior test. Latencies in seconds for pup retrieval, grouping, crouching, and full maternal behavior were scored. The results showed that U69593 administration inhibited maternal behavior (P < 0.05) because a lower percentage of U69593 group dams showed retrieval of first pup, retrieving all pups, grouping, crouching and displaying full maternal behavior compared to the saline group. Opioid gene expression was evaluated using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A single injection of U69593 increased Oprk1 PAG expression in both virgin (P < 0.05) and lactating female rats (P < 0.01), with no significant effect on Oprm1 or Oprd1 gene activity. Thus, the expression of kappa-opioid receptors in the PAG may be modulated by single opioid receptor stimulation and behavioral meaningful opioidergic transmission in the adult female might occur simultaneously to specific changes in gene expression of kappa-opioid receptor subtype. This is yet another alert for the complex role of the opioid system in female

  5. Carbon dioxide receptor genes in cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Anderson, Alisha

    2015-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is important in insect ecology, eliciting a range of behaviours across different species. Interestingly, the numbers of CO2 gustatory receptors (GRs) vary among insect species. In the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, two GRs (DmelGR21a and DmelGR63a) have been shown to detect CO2. In the butterfly, moth, beetle and mosquito species studied so far, three CO2 GR genes have been identified, while in tsetse flies, four CO2 GR genes have been identified. In other species including honeybees, pea aphids, ants, locusts and wasps, no CO2 GR genes have been identified from the genome. These genomic differences may suggest different mechanisms for CO2 detection exist in different insects but, with the exception of Drosophila and mosquitoes, limited attention has been paid to the CO2 GRs in insects. Here, we cloned three putative CO2 GR genes from the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera and performed phylogenetic and expression analysis. All three H. armigera CO2 GRs (HarmGR1, HarmGR2 and HarmGR3) are specifically expressed in labial palps, the CO2-sensing tissue of this moth. HarmGR3 is significantly activated by NaHCO3 when expressed in insect Sf9 cells but HarmGR1 and HarmGR2 are not. This is the first report characterizing the function of lepidopteran CO2 receptors, which contributes to our general understanding of the molecular mechanisms of insect CO2 gustatory receptors.

  6. Glucocorticoid Receptor-Mediated Repression of Pro-Inflammatory Genes in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0314 TITLE: Glucocorticoid Receptor-Mediated Repression of Pro-Inflammatory Genes in Rheumatoid Arthritis ...19 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Glucocorticoid Receptor-Mediated Repression of Pro- Inflammatory Genes in Rheumatoid Arthritis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...SUBJECT TERMS Rheumatoid arthritis , inflammation and autoimmunity, macrophages, glucocorticoid receptor, transcriptional regulation, coactivators and

  7. Blockade of adenosine A2A receptor enhances CD8+ T cells response and decreases regulatory T cells in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ma, Si-Rui; Deng, Wei-Wei; Liu, Jian-Feng; Mao, Liang; Yu, Guang-Tao; Bu, Lin-Lin; Kulkarni, Ashok B; Zhang, Wen-Feng; Sun, Zhi-Jun

    2017-06-07

    Cancer immunotherapy offers a promising approach in cancer treatment. The adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) could protect cancerous tissues from immune clearance via inhibiting T cells response. To date, the role of A2AR in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has not been investigated. Here, we sought to explore the expression and immunotherapeutic value of A2AR blockade in HNSCC. The expression of A2AR was evaluated by immunostaining in 43 normal mucosae, 48 dysplasia and 165 primary HNSCC tissues. The immunotherapeutic value of A2AR blockade was assessed in vivo in genetically defined immunocompetent HNSCC mouse model. Immunostaining of HNSCC tissue samples revealed that increased expression of A2AR on tumor infiltrating immune cells correlated with advanced pathological grade, larger tumor size and positive lymph node status. Elevated A2AR expression was also detected in recurrent HNSCC and HNSCC tissues with induction chemotherapy. The expression of A2AR was found to be significantly correlated with HIF-1α, CD73, CD8 and Foxp3. Furthermore, the increased population of CD4 + Foxp3 + regulatory T cells (Tregs), which partially expressed A2AR, was observed in an immunocompetent mouse model that spontaneously develops HNSCC. Pharmacological blockade of A2AR by SCH58261 delayed the tumor growth in the HNSCC mouse model. Meanwhile, A2AR blockade significantly reduced the population of CD4 + Foxp3 + Tregs and enhanced the anti-tumor response of CD8 + T cells. These results offer a preclinical proof for the administration of A2AR inhibitor on prophylactic experimental therapy of HNSCC and suggest that A2AR blockade can be a potential novel strategy for HNSCC immunotherapy.

  8. Receptor-mediated gene transfer vectors: progress towards genetic pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Molas, M; Gómez-Valadés, A G; Vidal-Alabró, A; Miguel-Turu, M; Bermudez, J; Bartrons, R; Perales, J C

    2003-10-01

    Although specific delivery to tissues and unique cell types in vivo has been demonstrated for many non-viral vectors, current methods are still inadequate for human applications, mainly because of limitations on their efficiencies. All the steps required for an efficient receptor-mediated gene transfer process may in principle be exploited to enhance targeted gene delivery. These steps are: DNA/vector binding, internalization, subcellular trafficking, vesicular escape, nuclear import, and unpacking either for transcription or other functions (i.e., antisense, RNA interference, etc.). The large variety of vector designs that are currently available, usually aimed at improving the efficiency of these steps, has complicated the evaluation of data obtained from specific derivatives of such vectors. The importance of the structure of the final vector and the consequences of design decisions at specific steps on the overall efficiency of the vector will be discussed in detail. We emphasize in this review that stability in serum and thus, proper bioavailability of vectors to their specific receptors may be the single greatest limiting factor on the overall gene transfer efficiency in vivo. We discuss current approaches to overcome the intrinsic instability of synthetic vectors in the blood. In this regard, a summary of the structural features of the vectors obtained from current protocols will be presented and their functional characteristics evaluated. Dissecting information on molecular conjugates obtained by such methodologies, when carefully evaluated, should provide important guidelines for the creation of effective, targeted and safe DNA therapeutics.

  9. Constitutive androstane receptor activation evokes the expression of glycolytic genes

    SciTech Connect

    Yarushkin, Andrei A.; Kazantseva, Yuliya A.; Prokopyeva, Elena A.

    It is well-known that constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation by 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) increases the liver-to-body weight ratio. CAR-mediated liver growth is correlated with increased expression of the pleiotropic transcription factor cMyc, which stimulates cell cycle regulatory genes and drives proliferating cells into S phase. Because glycolysis supports cell proliferation and cMyc is essential for the activation of glycolytic genes, we hypothesized that CAR-mediated up-regulation of cMyc in mouse livers might play a role in inducing the expression of glycolytic genes. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of long-term CAR activation on glycolytic genes in amore » mouse model not subjected to metabolic stress. We demonstrated that long-term CAR activation by TCPOBOP increases expression of cMyc, which was correlated with reduced expression of gluconeogenic genes and up-regulation of glucose transporter, glycolytic and mitochondrial pyruvate metabolising genes. These changes in gene expression after TCPOBOP treatment were strongly correlated with changes in levels of glycolytic intermediates in mouse livers. Moreover, we demonstrated a significant positive regulatory effect of TCPOBOP-activated CAR on both mRNA and protein levels of Pkm2, a master regulator of glucose metabolism and cell proliferation. Thus, our findings provide evidence to support the conclusion that CAR activation initiates a transcriptional program that facilitates the coordinated metabolic activities required for cell proliferation. - Highlights: • CAR-mediated liver growth is correlated with increased expression of cMyc. • CAR activation increased the expression of glycolytic genes in mouse livers. • CAR activation increased the level of Pkm2 in mouse livers.« less

  10. Diverse growth hormone receptor gene mutations in Laron syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Berg, M A; Argente, J; Chernausek, S; Gracia, R; Guevara-Aguirre, J; Hopp, M; Pérez-Jurado, L; Rosenbloom, A; Toledo, S P; Francke, U

    1993-01-01

    To better understand the molecular genetic basis and genetic epidemiology of Laron syndrome (growth-hormone insensitivity syndrome), we analyzed the growth-hormone receptor (GHR) genes of seven unrelated affected individuals from the United States, South America, Europe, and Africa. We amplified all nine GHR gene exons and splice junctions from these individuals by PCR and screened the products for mutations by using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). We identified a single GHR gene fragment with abnormal DGGE results for each affected individual, sequenced this fragment, and, in each case, identified a mutation likely to cause Laron syndrome, including two nonsense mutations (R43X and R217X), two splice-junction mutations, (189-1 G to T and 71 + 1 G to A), and two frameshift mutations (46 del TT and 230 del TA or AT). Only one of these mutations, R43X, has been previously reported. Using haplotype analysis, we determined that this mutation, which involves a CpG dinucleotide hot spot, likely arose as a separate event in this case, relative to the two prior reports of R43X. Aside from R43X, the mutations we identified are unique to patients from particular geographic regions. Ten GHR gene mutations have now been described in this disorder. We conclude that Laron syndrome is caused by diverse GHR gene mutations, including deletions, RNA processing defects, translational stop codons, and missense codons. All the identified mutations involve the extracellular domain of the receptor, and most are unique to particular families or geographic areas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8488849

  11. Perilipin, a critical regulator of fat storage and breakdown, is a target gene of estrogen receptor-related receptor {alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Akter, Mst. Hasina; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Hirose, Fumiko

    2008-04-11

    Perilipin is a protein localized on lipid droplet surfaces in adipocytes and steroidogenic cells, playing a central role in regulated lipolysis. Expression of the perilipin gene is markedly induced during adipogenesis. We found that transcription from the perilipin gene promoter is activated by an orphan nuclear receptor, estrogen receptor-related receptor (ERR){alpha}. A response element to this receptor was identified in the promoter region by a gene reporter assay, the electrophoretic-gel mobility-shift assay and the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} coactivator (PGC)-1{alpha} enhanced, whereas small heterodimer partner (SHP) repressed, the transactivating function of ERR{alpha} on the promoter. Thus, themore » perilipin gene expression is regulated by a transcriptional network controlling energy metabolism, substantiating the functional importance of perilipin in the maintenance of body energy balance.« less

  12. Association between alcoholism and the dopamine D4 receptor gene.

    PubMed Central

    Muramatsu, T; Higuchi, S; Murayama, M; Matsushita, S; Hayashida, M

    1996-01-01

    A point mutation in the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 gene (ALDH2(2) allele) is considered to be a genetic deterrent for alcoholism; however, 80 of 655 Japanese alcoholics had the mutant allele. Genotype factors that might increase susceptibility by overriding the deterrent showed a higher frequency of a five repeat allele of the dopamine D4 receptor 48 bp repeat polymorphism in alcoholics with ALDH2(2) than in 100 other alcoholics and 144 controls. Alcoholics with the five repeat allele also abused other drugs more often. These data suggest the involvement of the dopamine system in the development of alcoholism and other addictive behaviour. PMID:8929946

  13. Unliganded estrogen receptor α stimulates bone sialoprotein gene expression.

    PubMed

    Takai, Hideki; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Matsui, Sari; Kim, Kyung Mi; Mezawa, Masaru; Nakayama, Yohei; Ogata, Yorimasa

    2014-04-10

    Estrogen is one of the steroid hormones essential for skeletal development. The estrogen receptor (ER) is a transcription factor and a member of the steroid receptor superfamily. There are two different forms of the ER, usually referred to as α and β, each encoded by a separate gene. Hormone-activated ERs form dimers, since the two forms are coexpressed in many cell types. Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a tissue-specific acidic glycoprotein that is expressed by differentiated osteoblasts, odontoblasts and cementoblasts during the initial formation of mineralized tissue. To determine the molecular basis of the tissue-specific expression of BSP and its regulation by estrogen and the ER, we have analyzed the effects of β-estradiol and ERα on BSP gene transcription. ERα protein levels were increased after ERα overexpression in ROS17/2.8 cells. While BSP mRNA levels were increased by ERα overexpression, the endogenous and overexpressed BSP mRNA levels were not changed by β-estradiol (10(-8)M, 24 h). Luciferase activities of different sized BSP promoter constructs (pLUC3~6) were increased by ERα overexpression, whereas basal and induced luciferase activities by ERα overexpression were not influenced by β-estradiol. Effects of ERα overexpression were abrogated by 2 bp mutations in either the cAMP response element (CRE) or activator protein 1 (AP1)/glucocorticoid response element (GRE). Gel shift analyses showed that ERα overexpression increased binding to the CRE and AP1/GRE elements. Notably, the CRE-protein complexes were disrupted by ERα, CREB and phospho-CREB antibodies. The AP1/GRE-protein complexes were supershifted by the c-Fos antibody. These studies demonstrate that ERα stimulates BSP gene transcription in a ligand-independent manner by targeting the CRE and AP1/GRE elements in the rat BSP gene promoter. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Oxytocin receptor gene variation predicts subjective responses to MDMA.

    PubMed

    Bershad, Anya K; Weafer, Jessica J; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Wardle, Margaret C; Miller, Melissa A; de Wit, Harriet

    2016-12-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") enhances desire to socialize and feelings of empathy, which are thought to be related to increased oxytocin levels. Thus, variation in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) may influence responses to the drug. Here, we examined the influence of a single OXTR nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on responses to MDMA in humans. Based on findings that carriers of the A allele at rs53576 exhibit reduced sensitivity to oxytocin-induced social behavior, we hypothesized that these individuals would show reduced subjective responses to MDMA, including sociability. In this three-session, double blind, within-subjects study, healthy volunteers with past MDMA experience (N = 68) received a MDMA (0, 0.75 mg/kg, and 1.5 mg/kg) and provided self-report ratings of sociability, anxiety, and drug effects. These responses were examined in relation to rs53576. MDMA (1.5 mg/kg) did not increase sociability in individuals with the A/A genotype as it did in G allele carriers. The genotypic groups did not differ in responses at the lower MDMA dose, or in cardiovascular or other subjective responses. These findings are consistent with the idea that MDMA-induced sociability is mediated by oxytocin, and that variation in the oxytocin receptor gene may influence responses to the drug.

  15. Oxytocin receptor gene variation predicts subjective responses to MDMA

    PubMed Central

    Bershad, Anya K.; Weafer, Jessica J.; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G.; Wardle, Margaret C.; Miller, Melissa A.; de Wit, Harriet

    2016-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “ecstasy”) enhances desire to socialize and feelings of empathy, which are thought to be related to increased oxytocin levels. Thus, variation in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) may influence responses to the drug. Here, we examined the influence of a single OXTR nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on responses to MDMA in humans. Based on findings that carriers of the A allele at rs53576 exhibit reduced sensitivity to oxytocin-induced social behavior, we hypothesized that these individuals would show reduced subjective responses to MDMA, including sociability. In this three-session, double blind, within-subjects study, healthy volunteers with past MDMA experience (N = 68) received a MDMA (0, 0.75 mg/kg, and 1.5 mg/kg) and provided self-report ratings of sociability, anxiety, and drug effects. These responses were examined in relation to rs53576. MDMA (1.5 mg/kg) did not increase sociability in individuals with the A/A genotype as it did in G allele carriers. The genotypic groups did not differ in responses at the lower MDMA dose, or in cardiovascular or other subjective responses. These findings are consistent with the idea that MDMA-induced sociability is mediated by oxytocin, and that variation in the oxytocin receptor gene may influence responses to the drug. PMID:26787430

  16. The association between the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and hypnotizability.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Richard A; Hung, Lynette; Dobson-Stone, Carol; Schofield, Peter R

    2013-10-01

    Hypnosis has puzzled scientists for centuries, and particularly the reason why some people are prone to engaging in suggested experiences discordant with external reality. Absorption in internal experience is one key component of the hypnotic response. The neuropeptide oxytocin has been posited to heighten sensitivity to external cues, and it is possible that individual differences in oxytocin-related capacity to engage in external or internal experiences influences hypnotic response. To test this proposal, 185 Caucasian individuals provided saliva samples for analysis of polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor gene, COMT, and independently completed standardized measures of hypnotizability and absorption. Participants with the GG genotype at rs53576 were characterized by lower hypnotizability and absorption scores than those with the A allele; there was no association between hyponotizability and COMT. These findings provide initial evidence that the capacity to respond to suggestions for altered internal experience is influenced by the oxytocin receptor gene, and is consistent with evidence that oxytocin plays an important role in modulating the extent to which people engage with external versus internal experiences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of CGS 21680, a selective A2A adenosine receptor agonist, on cardiac output and vascular resistance in acute heart failure in the anaesthetized rat

    PubMed Central

    Nekooeian, Ali A; Tabrizchi, Reza

    1998-01-01

    The effects of CGS 21680, a selective A2A adenosine receptor agonist, on cardiac output, blood pressure, mean circulatory filling pressure (Pmcf), arterial and venous resistances, heart rate and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure were assessed in rats with acute heart failure by means of coronary artery occlusion.Animals (n=6 in each group) were divided into five groups: group I, sham-operated vehicle-treated (0.9% saline; 0.018 mL min−1); groups II-V, subject to coronary artery occlusion and treated with vehicle (0.9% saline; 0.018 ml min−1) and CGS 21680 (0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 μg kg−1 min−1), respectively. Haemodynamic measurements were taken one hour after completion of surgery, ninety minutes after coronary artery occlusion (except in group I), and fifteen minutes after infusion of saline or CGS 21680.Baseline haemodynamic measurements before occlusion were found not to differ significantly between the different groups of animals. However, after occlusion, cardiac output, rate of rise in left ventricular pressure (+dP/dt) and blood pressure were significantly reduced when compared to corresponding values in sham-operated animals. In addition, occlusion of the coronary artery resulted in a significant elevation in venous resistance, Pmcf and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure as compared to corresponding values in sham-operated animals.Infusion with CGS 21680 at the highest dose significantly reduced blood pressure, arterial resistance and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure when compared to occluded vehicle-treated animals (group II). Administration of CGS 21680 at the highest dose also significantly increased cardiac output (28%) and heart rate (10%) in comparison to occluded vehicle-treated animals. In addition, the highest dose of CGS 21680 significantly reduced Pmcf (9%) and venous resistance (62%) in comparison to occluded vehicle-treated animals. Administration of CGS 21680 did not significantly affect +dP/dt when compared

  18. Effects of CGS 21680, a selective A2A adenosine receptor agonist, on cardiac output and vascular resistance in acute heart failure in the anaesthetized rat.

    PubMed

    Nekooeian, A A; Tabrizchi, R

    1998-04-01

    1. The effects of CGS 21680, a selective A2A adenosine receptor agonist, on cardiac output, blood pressure, mean circulatory filling pressure (Pmcf), arterial and venous resistances, heart rate and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure were assessed in rats with acute heart failure by means of coronary artery occlusion. 2. Animals (n=6 in each group) were divided into five groups: group I, sham-operated vehicle-treated (0.9% saline; 0.018 mL min(-1)); groups II-V, subject to coronary artery occlusion and treated with vehicle (0.9% saline; 0.018 ml min(-1)) and CGS 21680 (0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 microg kg(-1) min(-1)), respectively. Haemodynamic measurements were taken one hour after completion of surgery, ninety minutes after coronary artery occlusion (except in group I), and fifteen minutes after infusion of saline or CGS 21680. 3. Baseline haemodynamic measurements before occlusion were found not to differ significantly between the different groups of animals. However, after occlusion, cardiac output, rate of rise in left ventricular pressure (+ dP/dt) and blood pressure were significantly reduced when compared to corresponding values in sham-operated animals. In addition, occlusion of the coronary artery resulted in a significant elevation in venous resistance, Pmcf and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure as compared to corresponding values in sham-operated animals. 4. Infusion with CGS 21680 at the highest dose significantly reduced blood pressure, arterial resistance and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure when compared to occluded vehicle-treated animals (group II). Administration of CGS 21680 at the highest dose also significantly increased cardiac output (28%) and heart rate (10%) in comparison to occluded vehicle-treated animals. In addition, the highest dose of CGS 21680 significantly reduced Pmcf (9%) and venous resistance (62%) in comparison to occluded vehicle-treated animals. Administration of CGS 21680 did not significantly affect +dP/dt when

  19. Physiological roles of A1 and A2A adenosine receptors in regulating heart rate, body temperature, and locomotion as revealed using knockout mice and caffeine

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiang-Ning; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Fredholm, Bertil B.

    2009-01-01

    Heart rate (HR), body temperature (Temp), locomotor activity (LA), and oxygen consumption (O2C) were studied in awake mice lacking one or both of the adenosine A1 or A2A receptors (A1R or A2AR, respectively) using telemetry and respirometry, before and after caffeine administration. All parameters were lower during day than night and higher in females than males. When compared with wild-type (WT) littermates, HR was higher in male A1R knockout (A1RKO) mice but lower in A2ARKO mice and intermediate in A1-A2AR double KO mice. A single dose of an unselective β-blocker (timolol; 1 mg/kg) abolished the HR differences between these genotypes. Deletion of A1Rs had little effect on Temp, whereas deletion of A2ARs increased it in females and decreased it in males. A1-A2ARKO mice had lower Temp than WT mice. LA was unaltered in A1RKO mice and lower in A2ARKO and A1-A2ARKO mice than in WT mice. Caffeine injection increased LA but only in mice expressing A2AR. Caffeine ingestion also increased LA in an A2AR-dependent manner in male mice. Caffeine ingestion significantly increased O2C in WT mice, but less in the different KO mice. Injection of 30 mg/kg caffeine decreased Temp, especially in KO mice, and hence in a manner unrelated to A1R or A2AR blockade. Selective A2B antagonism had little or no effect. Thus A1R and A2AR influence HR, Temp, LA, and O2C in mice in a sex-dependent manner, indicating effects of endogenous adenosine. The A2AR plays an important role in the modulation of O2C and LA by acute and chronic caffeine administration. There is also evidence for effects of higher doses of caffeine being independent of both A1R and A2AR. PMID:19218506

  20. Oxytocin receptor and vasopressin receptor 1a genes are respectively associated with emotional and cognitive empathy.

    PubMed

    Uzefovsky, F; Shalev, I; Israel, S; Edelman, S; Raz, Y; Mankuta, D; Knafo-Noam, A; Ebstein, R P

    2015-01-01

    Empathy is the ability to recognize and share in the emotions of others. It can be considered a multifaceted concept with cognitive and emotional aspects. Little is known regarding the underlying neurochemistry of empathy and in the current study we used a neurogenetic approach to explore possible brain neurotransmitter pathways contributing to cognitive and emotional empathy. Both the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and the arginine vasopressin receptor 1a (AVPR1a) genes contribute to social cognition in both animals and humans and hence are prominent candidates for contributing to empathy. The following research examined the associations between polymorphisms in these two genes and individual differences in emotional and cognitive empathy in a sample of 367 young adults. Intriguingly, we found that emotional empathy was associated solely with OXTR, whereas cognitive empathy was associated solely with AVPR1a. Moreover, no interaction was observed between the two genes and measures of empathy. The current findings contribute to our understanding of the distinct neurogenetic pathways involved in cognitive and emotional empathy and underscore the pervasive role of both oxytocin and vasopressin in modulating human emotions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evolutionary dynamics of olfactory and other chemosensory receptor genes in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Niimura, Yoshihito

    2007-01-01

    The numbers of functional olfactory receptor (OR) genes in humans and mice are about 400 and 1,000 respectively. In both humans and mice, these genes exist as genomic clusters and are scattered over almost all chromosomes. The difference in the number of genes between the two species is apparently caused by massive inactivation of OR genes in the human lineage and a substantial increase of OR genes in the mouse lineage after the human–mouse divergence. Compared with mammals, fishes have a much smaller number of OR genes. However, the OR gene family in fishes is much more divergent than that in mammals. Fishes have many different groups of genes that are absent in mammals, suggesting that the mammalian OR gene family is characterized by the loss of many group genes that existed in the ancestor of vertebrates and the subsequent expansion of specific groups of genes. Therefore, this gene family apparently changed dynamically depending on the evolutionary lineage and evolved under the birth-and-death model of evolution. Study of the evolutionary changes of two gene families for vomeronasal receptors and two gene families for taste receptors, which are structurally similar, but remotely related to OR genes, showed that some of the gene families evolved in the same fashion as the OR gene family. It appears that the number and types of genes in chemosensory receptor gene families have evolved in response to environmental needs, but they are also affected by fortuitous factors. PMID:16607462

  2. Kappa2 opioid receptor subtype binding requires the presence of the DOR-1 gene.

    PubMed

    Ansonoff, Michael A; Wen, Ting; Pintar, John E

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several years substantial evidence has documented that opioid receptor homo- and heterodimers form in cell lines expressing one or more of the opioid receptors. We used opioid receptor knockout mice to determine whether in vivo pharmacological characteristics of kappa1 and kappa2 opioid receptors changed following knockout of specific opioid receptors. Using displacement of the general opioid ligand diprenorphine, we observed that occupancy or knockout of the DOR-1 gene increases the binding density of kappa1 receptors and eliminates kappa2 receptors in crude membrane preparations while the total density of kappa opioid binding sites is unchanged. Further, the analgesic potency of U69,593 in cumulative dose response curves is enhanced in mice lacking the DOR-1 gene. These results demonstrate that the DOR-1 gene is required for the expression of the kappa2 opioid receptor subtype and are consistent with the possibility that a KOR-1/DOR-1 heterodimer mediates kappa2 pharmacology.

  3. Association analysis of the vitamin D receptor gene, the type I collagen gene COL1A1, and the estrogen receptor gene in idiopathic osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Loughlin, J; Sinsheimer, J S; Mustafa, Z; Carr, A J; Clipsham, K; Bloomfield, V A; Chitnavis, J; Bailey, A; Sykes, B; Chapman, K

    2000-03-01

    Evidence has accumulated supporting a role for genes in the etiology of osteoarthritis (OA). Several candidates have been targeted as potential susceptibility loci including genes that are involved in the regulation of bone density. Genetic association analysis has suggested a role for the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) and the estrogen receptor gene (ER) in susceptibility. Such findings must be tested in additional independent cohorts. We tested for association of these 2 genes, plus a third gene implicated in bone density, COL1A1, with idiopathic OA. A case-control cohort of 371 affected probands and 369 unaffected spouses was used. Association was tested using 4 intragenic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), one each for the VDR and COL1A1 genes, and 2 for the ER gene. The VDR and ER SNP are the same SNP that have been associated with OA. All 4 SNP affect restriction enzyme sites and were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction and enzyme digestion. Allele and genotype distributions for each SNP were compared between cases and controls and analyzed using Fisher's exact test. There was no evidence of association of the VDR or the ER gene SNP to OA. There was weak evidence of association of the COL1A1 SNP in female cases (p = 0.017), reflected by a difference in the distribution of genotypes at this SNP between female cases and controls (p = 0.027). However, when corrected for multiple testing, these results were not significant. If the VDR, ER, or COL1A1 genes do encode predisposition to OA then the 4 SNP tested are not associated with major susceptibility alleles at these 3 loci.

  4. Presynaptic muscarinic acetylcholine autoreceptors (M1, M2 and M4 subtypes), adenosine receptors (A1 and A2A) and tropomyosin-related kinase B receptor (TrkB) modulate the developmental synapse elimination process at the neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Nadal, Laura; Garcia, Neus; Hurtado, Erica; Simó, Anna; Tomàs, Marta; Lanuza, Maria A; Santafé, Manel; Tomàs, Josep

    2016-06-23

    The development of the nervous system involves an initially exuberant production of neurons that make an excessive number of synaptic contacts. The initial overproduction of synapses promotes connectivity. Hebbian competition between axons with different activities (the least active are punished) leads to the loss of roughly half of the overproduced elements and this refines connectivity and increases specificity. The neuromuscular junction is innervated by a single axon at the end of the synapse elimination process and, because of its relative simplicity, has long been used as a model for studying the general principles of synapse development. The involvement of the presynaptic muscarinic ACh autoreceptors may allow for the direct competitive interaction between nerve endings through differential activity-dependent acetylcholine release in the synaptic cleft. Then, the most active ending may directly punish the less active ones. Our previous results indicate the existence in the weakest axons on the polyinnervated neonatal NMJ of an ACh release inhibition mechanism based on mAChR coupled to protein kinase C and voltage-dependent calcium channels. We suggest that this mechanism plays a role in the elimination of redundant neonatal synapses. Here we used confocal microscopy and quantitative morphological analysis to count the number of brightly fluorescent axons per endplate in P7, P9 and P15 transgenic B6.Cg-Tg (Thy1-YFP)16 Jrs/J mice. We investigate the involvement of individual mAChR M1-, M2- and M4-subtypes in the control of axonal elimination after the Levator auris longus muscle had been exposed to agonist and antagonist in vivo. We also analysed the role of adenosine receptor subtypes (A1 and A2A) and the tropomyosin-related kinase B receptor. The data show that postnatal axonal elimination is a regulated multireceptor mechanism that guaranteed the monoinnervation of the neuromuscular synapses. The three receptor sets considered (mAChR, AR and TrkB receptors

  5. Receptor protein kinase gene encoded at the self-incompatibility locus

    DOEpatents

    Nasrallah, June B.; Nasrallah, Mikhail E.; Stein, Joshua

    1996-01-01

    Described herein is a S receptor kinase gene (SRK), derived from the S locus in Brassica oleracea, having a extracellular domain highly similar to the secreted product of the S-locus glycoprotein gene.

  6. Evaluation of androgen receptor gene as a candidate gene in female androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    el-Samahy, May H; Shaheen, Maha A; Saddik, Dina E B; Abdel-Fattah, Nermeen S A; el-Sawi, Mohammad A; Mahran, Manal Z; Shehab, Abeer A A

    2009-06-01

    Genetic polymorphisms of the androgen receptor (AR) gene have been studied in male androgenetic alopecia (AGA); however, little is known about gene polymorphism and female AGA. To evaluate the AR gene as a candidate gene for female AGA. Thirty premenopausal Egyptian female patients with AGA (mean age, 32.3 +/- 7 years) and 11 age- and sex-matched controls were included. All subjects underwent laboratory and pelvic ultrasound evaluation to exclude other precipitating cause(s) of hair loss. Scalp biopsy was taken and the AR gene was evaluated using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). According to Ludwig's classification, all patients had type II AGA. Statistical analysis showed no statistically significant difference in genotype (chi(2) = 5.513, P > or = 0.05) or allele frequency (chi(2) = 1.312, P > or = 0.05) between patients and controls. There was also no statistically significant difference between the genotype and allele frequency with disease duration. In contrast with male AGA, no association was found between type II AGA in Egyptian women and the AR gene. Therefore, the genetic study of this gene does not serve as a biomarker for the identification of women with a predisposition to AGA.

  7. Corticosteroid receptor gene expression is related to sex and social behaviour in a social fish.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Constance M; Rodela, Tammy M; Mileva, Viktoria R; Balshine, Sigal; Gilmour, Kathleen M

    2013-03-01

    Circulating corticosteroids have been related to social status in a variety of species. However, our understanding of corticosteroid receptor expression and its relationship with sociality is still in its infancy. Knowledge of variation in receptor expression is critical to understand the physiological relevance of differences in circulating corticosteroid concentrations. In this study, we examined corticosteroid receptor gene expression in relation to dominance rank, sex, and social behaviour in the highly social cichlid fish, Neolamprologus pulcher. We examined the relative gene expression of the three known teleost corticosteroid receptors: glucocorticoid receptor 1 (GR1), glucocorticoid receptor 2 (GR2), and the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in liver and brain tissue of dominant and subordinate N. pulcher males and females. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the N. pulcher gene originally described as GR2, clustered with other teleost GR1 genes, while the originally-described N. pulcher GR1 gene clustered with the GR2 genes of other teleosts. Therefore we propose a change in the original nomenclature of the N. pulcher GRs: GR1 (formerly GR2) and GR2 (formerly GR1) and adopt this new nomenclature throughout this manuscript. Liver MR transcript levels were higher in males than females, and positively related to submissive behaviour. Liver GR2 (formerly GR1) transcript levels were also higher in males than females. Collectively, the results demonstrate sex differences in corticosteroid receptor abundance, and suggest tissue- and receptor-specific roles for corticosteroid receptors in mediating aspects of social behaviour. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. The Dopamine D2 Receptor Gene, Perceived Parental Support, and Adolescent Loneliness: Longitudinal Evidence for Gene-Environment Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Roekel, Eeske; Goossens, Luc; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Verhagen, Maaike

    2011-01-01

    Background: Loneliness is a common problem in adolescence. Earlier research focused on genes within the serotonin and oxytocin systems, but no studies have examined the role of dopamine-related genes in loneliness. In the present study, we focused on the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2). Methods: Associations among the DRD2, sex, parental support,…

  9. Lack of association between sigma receptor gene variants and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Fumiaki; Miyatake, Ryosuke; Furukawa, Aizo; Suwaki, Hiroshi

    2004-08-01

    Several pharmacological studies suggest the possible involvement of sigma(1) receptors in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. An association has been reported between schizophrenia and two variants (GC-241-240TT and Gln2Pro) in the sigma(1) receptor gene (SIGMAR1). We also previously reported that, along with T-485 A, these two variants alter SIGMAR1 function. To investigate the role of SIGMAR1 in conveying susceptibility to schizophrenia, we performed a case-control study. We initially screened for polymorphisms in the SIGMAR1 coding region using PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism analysis. The distribution of SIGMAR1 polymorphisms was analyzed in 100 schizophrenic and 104 control subjects. A novel G620A variant was detected in exon4. G620A was predicted to alter the amino acid represented by codon 211 from arginine to glutamine. Our case-control study showed no significant association between the T-485 A, GC-241-240TT, Gln2Pro, and G620A (Arg211Gln) variants and schizophrenia and clinical characteristics. These findings suggest that these SIGMAR1 variants may not affect susceptibility to schizophrenia.

  10. Liver X Receptor Genes Variants Modulate ALS Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Mouzat, Kevin; Molinari, Nicolas; Kantar, Jovana; Polge, Anne; Corcia, Philippe; Couratier, Philippe; Clavelou, Pierre; Juntas-Morales, Raul; Pageot, Nicolas; Lobaccaro, Jean -Marc A; Raoul, Cedric; Lumbroso, Serge; Camu, William

    2018-03-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is one of the most severe motor neuron (MN) disorders in adults. Phenotype of ALS patients is highly variable and may be influenced by modulators of energy metabolism. Recent works have implicated the liver X receptors α and β (LXRs), either in the propagation process of ALS or in the maintenance of MN survival. LXRs are nuclear receptors activated by oxysterols, modulating cholesterol levels, a suspected modulator of ALS severity. In a cohort of 438 ALS patients and 330 healthy controls, the influence of LXR genes on ALS risk and phenotype was studied using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The two LXRα SNPs rs2279238 and rs7120118 were shown to be associated with age at onset in ALS patients. Consistently, homozygotes were twice more correlated than were heterozygotes to delayed onset. The onset was thus delayed by 3.9 years for rs2279238 C/T carriers and 7.8 years for T/T carriers. Similar results were obtained for rs7120118 (+2.1 years and +6.7 years for T/C and C/C genotypes, respectively). The LXRβ SNP rs2695121 was also shown to be associated with a 30% increase of ALS duration (p = 0.0055, FDR = 0.044). The tested genotypes were not associated with ALS risk. These findings add further evidence to the suspected implication of LXR genes in the disease process of ALS and might open new perspectives in ALS therapeutics.

  11. Dynamic evolution of the GnRH receptor gene family in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Williams, Barry L; Akazome, Yasuhisa; Oka, Yoshitaka; Eisthen, Heather L

    2014-10-25

    Elucidating the mechanisms underlying coevolution of ligands and receptors is an important challenge in molecular evolutionary biology. Peptide hormones and their receptors are excellent models for such efforts, given the relative ease of examining evolutionary changes in genes encoding for both molecules. Most vertebrates possess multiple genes for both the decapeptide gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and for the GnRH receptor. The evolutionary history of the receptor family, including ancestral copy number and timing of duplications and deletions, has been the subject of controversy. We report here for the first time sequences of three distinct GnRH receptor genes in salamanders (axolotls, Ambystoma mexicanum), which are orthologous to three GnRH receptors from ranid frogs. To understand the origin of these genes within the larger evolutionary context of the gene family, we performed phylogenetic analyses and probabilistic protein homology searches of GnRH receptor genes in vertebrates and their near relatives. Our analyses revealed four points that alter previous views about the evolution of the GnRH receptor gene family. First, the "mammalian" pituitary type GnRH receptor, which is the sole GnRH receptor in humans and previously presumed to be highly derived because it lacks the cytoplasmic C-terminal domain typical of most G-protein coupled receptors, is actually an ancient gene that originated in the common ancestor of jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata). Second, unlike previous studies, we classify vertebrate GnRH receptors into five subfamilies. Third, the order of subfamily origins is the inverse of previous proposed models. Fourth, the number of GnRH receptor genes has been dynamic in vertebrates and their ancestors, with multiple duplications and losses. Our results provide a novel evolutionary framework for generating hypotheses concerning the functional importance of structural characteristics of vertebrate GnRH receptors. We show that five

  12. Roles of ER, SRC-1, and CBP Phosphorylation in Estrogen Receptor-Regulated Gene Expression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-01

    J. S. Sutcliff, P. Fang, R. J. Galjaard, Y. H. Jiang, C. S. localization of three repair genes: the xeroderma pigmentosum group C gene Benton, J. M...receptor-mediated scription efficiency, a central DNA-binding domain, which me- transcription; SRC-1, p300/CBP, and RAC3/ACTR/AIB1 pos - diates receptor

  13. Pharmacological stress myocardial perfusion imaging with the potent and selective A(2A) adenosine receptor agonists ATL193 and ATL146e administered by either intravenous infusion or bolus injection.

    PubMed

    Glover, D K; Ruiz, M; Takehana, K; Petruzella, F D; Riou, L M; Rieger, J M; Macdonald, T L; Watson, D D; Linden, J; Beller, G A

    2001-09-04

    Adenosine (Ado) and dipyridamole are alternatives to exercise stress for myocardial perfusion imaging. Though generally safe, side effects frequently occur that cause patient discomfort and sometimes lead to premature termination of the study or require aminophylline administration. Recently, a new class of A(2A) Ado receptor agonists was synthesized. ATL193 and ATL146e are 2-propynylcyclohexyl-5'-N-ethylcarboxamido derivatives of Ado. The study goals were to evaluate the potency and selectivity of these new compounds on recombinant canine Ado receptors and to evaluate their hemodynamic properties in dogs to assess their usefulness as vasodilators for myocardial perfusion imaging. In assays of recombinant canine Ado receptors, ATL-193 and ATL-146e were highly selective for the A(2A) over the A(1) and A(3) receptors and were more potent than MRE-0470 and CGS-21680. In 16 anesthetized dogs, the agonists were administered by infusion (ATL-193; n=7 normal) or bolus injection (ATL-146e; n=9 critical left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis), and hemodynamic responses were compared with those of Ado. Both agonists produced dose-dependent coronary flow (CF) elevation without provoking the hypotension observed with Ado. After an ATL-146e bolus, the CF increase was sustained for several minutes, providing ample time for injection and myocardial uptake of (99m)Tc-sestamibi, and CF returned to baseline within 20 minutes. The CF increase was completely blocked by the selective A(2A) antagonist ZM241385 (3 microgram. kg(-1). min(-1)). ATL-193 and ATL-146e are highly potent and selective Ado A(2A) receptor agonists with excellent potential for use as vasodilators for myocardial perfusion imaging. An important advantage of ATL-146e is the ability to administer it by bolus injection.

  14. Update of the androgen receptor gene mutations database.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, B; Beitel, L K; Lumbroso, R; Pinsky, L; Trifiro, M

    1999-01-01

    The current version of the androgen receptor (AR) gene mutations database is described. The total number of reported mutations has risen from 309 to 374 during the past year. We have expanded the database by adding information on AR-interacting proteins; and we have improved the database by identifying those mutation entries that have been updated. Mutations of unknown significance have now been reported in both the 5' and 3' untranslated regions of the AR gene, and in individuals who are somatic mosaics constitutionally. In addition, single nucleotide polymorphisms, including silent mutations, have been discovered in normal individuals and in individuals with male infertility. A mutation hotspot associated with prostatic cancer has been identified in exon 5. The database is available on the internet (http://www.mcgill.ca/androgendb/), from EMBL-European Bioinformatics Institute (ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/androgen), or as a Macintosh FilemakerPro or Word file (MC33@musica.mcgill.ca). Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Anti-Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Gene Therapy for Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Martin J.; Chiuchiolo, Maria J.; Ballon, Douglas; Dyke, Jonathan P.; Aronowitz, Eric; Funato, Kosuke; Tabar, Viviane; Havlicek, David; Fan, Fan; Sondhi, Dolan; Kaminsky, Stephen M.; Crystal, Ronald G.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary intracranial brain tumor in adults with a mean survival of 14 to 15 months. Aberrant activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays a significant role in GBM progression, with amplification or overexpression of EGFR in 60% of GBM tumors. To target EGFR expressed by GBM, we have developed a strategy to deliver the coding sequence for cetuximab, an anti-EGFR antibody, directly to the CNS using an adeno-associated virus serotype rh.10 gene transfer vector. The data demonstrates that single, local delivery of an anti-EGFR antibody by an AAVrh.10 vector coding for cetuximab (AAVrh.10Cetmab) reduces GBM tumor growth and increases survival in xenograft mouse models of a human GBM EGFR-expressing cell line and patient-derived GBM. AAVrh10.CetMab-treated mice displayed a reduction in cachexia, a significant decrease in tumor volume and a prolonged survival following therapy. Adeno-associated-directed delivery of a gene encoding a therapeutic anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody may be an effective strategy to treat GBM. PMID:27711187

  16. Pharmacogenetics of the β2-Adrenergic Receptor Gene

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Victor E.; Hawkins, Gregory A.; Peters, Stephen P.; Bleecker, Eugene R.

    2009-01-01

    Asthma is a complex genetic disease with multiple genetic and environmental determinants contributing to the observed variability in response to common anti-asthma therapies. Asthma pharmacogenetic research has focused on multiple candidate genes including the β2-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRβ2) and its effect on individual responses to beta agonist therapy. At present, knowledge about the effects of ADRβ2 variation on therapeutic responses is evolving and should not alter current Asthma Guideline approaches consisting of the use of short acting beta agonists for as-needed symptom based therapy and the use of a regular long-acting beta agonist in combination with inhaled corticosteroid therapy for optimal control of asthma symptoms in those asthmatics who are not controlled on inhaled corticosteroid alone. This approach is based upon studies showing a consistent pharmacogenetic response to regular use of short acting beta agonists (SABA) and less consistent findings in studies evaluating long acting beta agonist (LABA). While emerging pharmacogenetic studies are provocative and should lead to functional approaches, conflicting data with responses to LABA therapy may be caused by factors that include small sample sizes of study populations and differences in experimental design that may limit the conclusions that may be drawn from these clinical trials at the present time. PMID:17996583

  17. Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Associated with Childhood Autism

    PubMed Central

    Cieślińska, Anna; Kostyra, Elżbieta; Chwała, Barbara; Moszyńska-Dumara, Małgorzata; Fiedorowicz, Ewa; Teodorowicz, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of heterogeneous, behaviorally defined disorders whereby currently no biological markers are common to all affected individuals. A deregulated immune response may be contributing to the etiology of ASD. The active metabolite of vitamin D3 has an immunoregulatory role mediated by binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in monocyte, macrophages, and lymphocytes. The effects of vitamin D and interaction with the VDR may be influenced by polymorphism in the VDR gene. Methods: Genetic association of four different VDR polymorphisms (Apa-I, Bsm-I, Taq-I, Fok-I) associated with susceptibility to the development of autism in children was investigated. Results: We uniquely found an association between the presence of the T allele at position Taq-I and presence of the a allele at position Apa-I of the VDR gene with decreased ASD incidence. There was also an association between female gender and the presence of the T allele. We found no statistical significant correlation between VDR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and vitamin D3 concentration in serum of ASD children. Conclusion: Genetic polymorphism in two SNP in VDR may be correlated with development of ASD symptoms by influencing functionality of vitamin D3 metabolism, while vitamin D3 levels were not significantly different between ASD and non-ASD children. PMID:28891930

  18. Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Associated with Childhood Autism.

    PubMed

    Cieślińska, Anna; Kostyra, Elżbieta; Chwała, Barbara; Moszyńska-Dumara, Małgorzata; Fiedorowicz, Ewa; Teodorowicz, Małgorzata; Savelkoul, Huub F J

    2017-09-09

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of heterogeneous, behaviorally defined disorders whereby currently no biological markers are common to all affected individuals. A deregulated immune response may be contributing to the etiology of ASD. The active metabolite of vitamin D₃ has an immunoregulatory role mediated by binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in monocyte, macrophages, and lymphocytes. The effects of vitamin D and interaction with the VDR may be influenced by polymorphism in the VDR gene. Genetic association of four different VDR polymorphisms (Apa-I, Bsm-I, Taq-I, Fok-I) associated with susceptibility to the development of autism in children was investigated. We uniquely found an association between the presence of the T allele at position Taq-I and presence of the a allele at position Apa-I of the VDR gene with decreased ASD incidence. There was also an association between female gender and the presence of the T allele. We found no statistical significant correlation between VDR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and vitamin D₃ concentration in serum of ASD children. Genetic polymorphism in two SNP in VDR may be correlated with development of ASD symptoms by influencing functionality of vitamin D₃ metabolism, while vitamin D₃ levels were not significantly different between ASD and non-ASD children.

  19. Systematic study of association of four GABAergic genes: glutamic acid decarboxylase 1 gene, glutamic acid decarboxylase 2 gene, GABA(B) receptor 1 gene and GABA(A) receptor subunit beta2 gene, with schizophrenia using a universal DNA microarray.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xu; Qin, Shengying; Shi, Yongyong; Zhang, Aiping; Zhang, Jing; Bian, Li; Wan, Chunling; Feng, Guoyin; Gu, Niufan; Zhang, Guangqi; He, Guang; He, Lin

    2007-07-01

    Several studies have suggested the dysfunction of the GABAergic system as a risk factor in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. In the present study, case-control association analysis was conducted in four GABAergic genes: two glutamic acid decarboxylase genes (GAD1 and GAD2), a GABA(A) receptor subunit beta2 gene (GABRB2) and a GABA(B) receptor 1 gene (GABBR1). Using a universal DNA microarray procedure we genotyped a total of 20 SNPs on the above four genes in a study involving 292 patients and 286 controls of Chinese descent. Statistically significant differences were observed in the allelic frequencies of the rs187269C/T polymorphism in the GABRB2 gene (P=0.0450, chi(2)=12.40, OR=1.65) and the -292A/C polymorphism in the GAD1 gene (P=0.0450, chi(2)=14.64 OR=1.77). In addition, using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), we discovered differences in the U251 nuclear protein binding to oligonucleotides representing the -292 SNP on the GAD1 gene, which suggests that the -292C allele has reduced transcription factor binding efficiency compared with the 292A allele. Using the multifactor-dimensionality reduction method (MDR), we found that the interactions among the rs187269C/T polymorphism in the GABRB2 gene, the -243A/G polymorphism in the GAD2 gene and the 27379C/T and 661C/T polymorphisms in the GAD1 gene revealed a significant association with schizophrenia (P<0.001). These findings suggest that the GABRB2 and GAD1 genes alone and the combined effects of the polymorphisms in the four GABAergic system genes may confer susceptibility to the development of schizophrenia in the Chinese population.

  20. Detection of Heteromers Formed by Cannabinoid CB1, Dopamine D2, and Adenosine A2A G-Protein-Coupled Receptors by Combining Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation and Bioluminescence Energy Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Gemma; Carriba, Paulina; Gandí, Jorge; Ciruela, Francisco; Casadó, Vicent; Cortés, Antoni; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I.; Lluis, Carmen; Franco, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    Functional interactions in signaling occur between dopamine D2 (D2R) and cannabinoid CB1 (CB1R) receptors, between CB1R and adenosine A2A (A2AR) receptors, and between D2R and A2AR. Furthermore, direct molecular interactions have been reported for the pairs CB1R-D2R, A2AR-D2R, and CB1R-A2AR. Here a combination of bimolecular fluorescence complementation and bioluminescence energy transfer techniques was used to identify the occurrence of D2R-CB1R-A2AR hetero-oligomers in living cells. PMID:18956124

  1. Muscle strength is associated with vitamin D receptor gene variants.

    PubMed

    Bozsodi, Arpad; Boja, Sara; Szilagyi, Agnes; Somhegyi, Annamaria; Varga, Peter Pal; Lazary, Aron

    2016-11-01

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is an important candidate gene in muscle function. Scientific reports on the effect of its genetic variants on muscle strength are contradictory likely due to the inconsistent study designs. Hand grip strength (HGS) is a highly heritable phenotype of muscle strength but only limited studies are available on its genetic background. Association between VDR polymorphisms and HGS has been poorly investigated and previous reports are conflicting. We studied the effect of VDR gene variants on HGS in a sample of 706 schoolchildren. Genomic DNA was extracted from saliva samples and six candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the VDR gene were genotyped with Sequenom MassARRAY technique. HGS was measured with a digital dynamometer in both hands. Single marker and haplotype associations were adjusted for demographic parameters. Three SNPs, rs4516035 (A1012G; p = 0.009), rs1544410 (BsmI; p = 0.010), and rs731236 (TaqI; p = 0.038) and a 3' UTR haploblock constructed by three SNPs (Bsml-Taq1-rs10783215; p < 0.005) showed significantly associations with HGS of the dominant hand. In the non-dominant hand, the effects of the A1012G (p = 0.034) and the 3' UTR haploblock (p < 0.01) on HGS were also significant. Since the promoter SNP (A10112G) and the 3' UTR haplotype were proved to be associated with the expression and the stability of the VDR mRNA in earlier studies, VDR variants can be supposed to have a direct effect on muscle strength. The individual genetic patterns can also explain the inconsistency of the previously published clinical results on the association between vitamin D and muscle function. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:2031-2037, 2016. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. GSNO Reductase and β2 Adrenergic Receptor Gene-gene Interaction: Bronchodilator Responsiveness to Albuterol

    PubMed Central

    Choudhry, Shweta; Que, Loretta G.; Yang, Zhonghui; Liu, Limin; Eng, Celeste; Kim, Sung O.; Kumar, Gunjan; Thyne, Shannon; Chapela, Rocio; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R.; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Avila, Pedro C.; Stamler, Jonathan S.; Burchard, Esteban G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Short-acting inhaled β2-agonists such as albuterol are used for bronchodilation and are the mainstay of asthma treatment worldwide. There is significant variation in bronchodilator responsiveness to albuterol not only between individuals but also across racial/ethnic groups. The β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) is the target for β2-agonist drugs. The enzyme S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR), which regulates levels of the endogenous bronchodilator S-nitrosoglutathione, has been shown to modulate the response to β2-agonists. Objective We hypothesized that there are pharmacogenetic interactions between GSNOR and β2AR gene variants which are associated with variable response to albuterol. Methods We performed family-based analyses to test for association between GSNOR gene variants and asthma and related phenotypes in 609 Puerto Rican and Mexican families with asthma. In addition, we tested these subjects for pharmacogenetic interaction between GSNOR and β2AR gene variants and responsiveness to albuterol using linear regression. Cell transfection experiments were performed to test the potential effect of the GSNOR gene variants. Results Among Puerto Ricans, several GSNOR SNPs and a haplotype in the 3′UTR were significantly associated with increased risk for asthma and lower bronchodilator responsiveness (p = 0.04 to 0.007). The GSNOR risk haplotype affects expression of GSNOR mRNA and protein, suggesting a gain of function. Furthermore, gene-gene interaction analysis provided evidence of pharmacogenetic interaction between GSNOR and β2AR gene variants and the response to albuterol in Puerto Rican (p = 0.03), Mexican (p = 0.15) and combined Puerto Rican and Mexican asthmatics (p = 0.003). Specifically, GSNOR+17059*β2AR+46 genotype combinations (TG+GG*AG and TG+GG*GG) were associated with lower bronchodilator response. Conclusion Genotyping of GSNOR and β2AR genes may be a useful in identifying Latino subjects, who might benefit from adjuvant

  3. Gene-specific mechanisms direct glucocorticoid-receptor-driven repression of inflammatory response genes in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Sacta, Maria A; Tharmalingam, Bowranigan; Coppo, Maddalena; Rollins, David A; Deochand, Dinesh K; Benjamin, Bradley; Yu, Li; Zhang, Bin; Hu, Xiaoyu; Li, Rong; Chinenov, Yurii

    2018-01-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) potently represses macrophage-elicited inflammation, however, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Our genome-wide analysis in mouse macrophages reveals that pro-inflammatory paused genes, activated via global negative elongation factor (NELF) dissociation and RNA Polymerase (Pol)2 release from early elongation arrest, and non-paused genes, induced by de novo Pol2 recruitment, are equally susceptible to acute glucocorticoid repression. Moreover, in both cases the dominant mechanism involves rapid GR tethering to p65 at NF-kB-binding sites. Yet, specifically at paused genes, GR activation triggers widespread promoter accumulation of NELF, with myeloid cell-specific NELF deletion conferring glucocorticoid resistance. Conversely, at non-paused genes, GR attenuates the recruitment of p300 and histone acetylation, leading to a failure to assemble BRD4 and Mediator at promoters and enhancers, ultimately blocking Pol2 initiation. Thus, GR displays no preference for a specific pro-inflammatory gene class; however, it effects repression by targeting distinct temporal events and components of transcriptional machinery. PMID:29424686

  4. 3-(Fur-2-yl)-10-(2-phenylethyl)-[1,2,4]triazino[4,3-a]benzimidazol-4(10H)-one, a novel adenosine receptor antagonist with A(2A)-mediated neuroprotective effects.

    PubMed

    Scatena, Alessia; Fornai, Francesco; Trincavelli, Maria Letizia; Taliani, Sabrina; Daniele, Simona; Pugliesi, Isabella; Cosconati, Sandro; Martini, Claudia; Da Settimo, Federico

    2011-09-21

    In this study, compound FTBI (3-(2-furyl)-10-(2-phenylethyl)[1,2,4]triazino[4,3-a]benzimidazol-4(10H)-one) was selected from a small library of triazinobenzimidazole derivatives as a potent A(2A) adenosine receptor (AR) antagonist and tested for its neuroprotective effects against two different kinds of dopaminergic neurotoxins, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) and methamphetamine (METH), in rat PC12 and in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell lines. FTBI, in a concentration range corresponding to its affinity for A(2A) AR subtype, significantly increased the number of viable PC12 cells after their exposure to METH and, to a similar extent, to MPP+, as demonstrated in both trypan blue exclusion assay and in cytological staining. These neuroprotective effects were also observed with a classical A(2A) AR antagonist, ZM241385, and appeared to be completely counteracted by the AR agonist, NECA, supporting A(2A) ARs are directly involved in FTBI-mediated effects. Similarly, in human SH-SY5Y cells, FTBI was able to prevent cell toxicity induced by MPP+ and METH, showing that this A(2A) AR antagonist has a neuroprotective effect independently by the specific cell model. Altogether these results demonstrate that the A(2A) AR blockade mediates cell protection against neurotoxicity induced by dopaminergic neurotoxins in dopamine containing cells, supporting the potential use of A(2A) AR antagonists in dopaminergic degenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease.

  5. Functional Characterization of Soybean Glyma04g39610 as a Brassinosteroid Receptor Gene and Evolutionary Analysis of Soybean Brassinosteroid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Suna; Tao, Ping; Xu, Feng; Wu, Aiping; Huo, Weige; Wang, Jinxiang

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BR) play important roles in plant growth and development. Although BR receptors have been intensively studied in Arabidopsis, the BR receptors in soybean remain largely unknown. Here, in addition to the known receptor gene Glyma06g15270 (GmBRI1a), we identified five putative BR receptor genes in the soybean genome: GmBRI1b, GmBRL1a, GmBRL1b, GmBRL2a, and GmBRL2b. Analysis of their expression patterns by quantitative real-time PCR showed that they are ubiquitously expressed in primary roots, lateral roots, stems, leaves, and hypocotyls. We used rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) to clone GmBRI1b (Glyma04g39160), and found that the predicted amino acid sequence of GmBRI1b showed high similarity to those of AtBRI1 and pea PsBRI1. Structural modeling of the ectodomain also demonstrated similarities between the BR receptors of soybean and Arabidopsis. GFP-fusion experiments verified that GmBRI1b localizes to the cell membrane. We also explored GmBRI1b function in Arabidopsis through complementation experiments. Ectopic over-expression of GmBRI1b in Arabidopsis BR receptor loss-of-function mutant (bri1-5 bak1-1D) restored hypocotyl growth in etiolated seedlings; increased the growth of stems, leaves, and siliques in light; and rescued the developmental defects in leaves of the bri1-6 mutant, and complemented the responses of BR biosynthesis-related genes in the bri1-5 bak1-D mutant grown in light. Bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that the six BR receptor genes in soybean resulted from three gene duplication events during evolution. Phylogenetic analysis classified the BR receptors in dicots and monocots into three subclades. Estimation of the synonymous (Ks) and the nonsynonymous substitution rate (Ka) and selection pressure (Ka/Ks) revealed that the Ka/Ks of BR receptor genes from dicots and monocots were less than 1.0, indicating that BR receptor genes in plants experienced purifying selection during evolution. PMID:27338344

  6. Identification of Putative Chemosensory Receptor Genes from the Athetis dissimilis Antennal Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Junfeng; Song, Yueqin; Li, Wenliang; Shi, Jie; Wang, Zhenying

    2016-01-01

    Olfaction plays a crucial role in insect population survival and reproduction. Identification of the genes associated with the olfactory system, without the doubt will promote studying the insect chemical communication system. In this study, RNA-seq technology was used to sequence the antennae transcriptome of Athetis dissimilis, an emerging crop pest in China with limited genomic information, with the purpose of identifying the gene set involved in olfactory recognition. Analysis of the transcriptome of female and male antennae generated 13.74 Gb clean reads in total from which 98,001 unigenes were assembled, and 25,930 unigenes were annotated. Total of 60 olfactory receptors (ORs), 18 gustatory receptors (GRs), and 12 ionotropic receptors (IRs) were identified by Blast and sequence similarity analyzes. One obligated olfactory receptor co-receptor (Orco) and four conserved sex pheromone receptors (PRs) were annotated in 60 ORs. Among the putative GRs, five genes (AdisGR1, 6, 7, 8 and 94) clustered in the sugar receptor family, and two genes (AdisGR3 and 93) involved in CO2 detection were identified. Finally, AdisIR8a.1 and AdisIR8a.2 co-receptors were identified in the group of candidate IRs. Furthermore, expression levels of these chemosensory receptor genes in female and male antennae were analyzed by mapping the Illumina reads. PMID:26812239

  7. [60]Fullerene derivative modulates adenosine and metabotropic glutamate receptors gene expression: a possible protective effect against hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Glutamate, the main excitatory neurotransmitter, is involved in learning and memory processes but at higher concentration results excitotoxic causing degeneration and neuronal death. Adenosine is a nucleoside that exhibit neuroprotective effects by modulating of glutamate release. Hypoxic and related oxidative conditions, in which adenosine and metabotropic glutamate receptors are involved, have been demonstrated to contribute to neurodegenerative processes occurring in certain human pathologies. Results Human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) were used to evaluate the long time (24, 48 and 72 hours) effects of a [60]fullerene hydrosoluble derivative (t3ss) as potential inhibitor of hypoxic insult. Low oxygen concentration (5% O2) caused cell death, which was avoided by t3ss exposure in a concentration dependent manner. In addition, gene expression analysis by real time PCR of adenosine A1, A2A and A2B and metabotropic glutamate 1 and 5 receptors revealed that t3ss significantly increased A1 and mGlu1 expression in hypoxic conditions. Moreover, t3ss prevented the hypoxia-induced increase in A2A mRNA expression. Conclusions As t3ss causes overexpression of adenosine A1 and metabotropic glutamate receptors which have been shown to be neuroprotective, our results point to a radical scavenger protective effect of t3ss through the enhancement of these neuroprotective receptors expression. Therefore, the utility of these nanoparticles as therapeutic target to avoid degeneration and cell death of neurodegenerative diseases is suggested. PMID:25123848

  8. Interleukin 18 receptor 1 gene polymorphisms are associated with asthma.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guohua; Whyte, Moira K B; Vestbo, Jorgen; Carlsen, Karin; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Lenney, Warren; Silverman, Michael; Helms, Peter; Pillai, Sreekumar G

    2008-09-01

    The interleukin 18 receptor (IL18R1) gene is a strong candidate gene for asthma. It has been implicated in the pathophysiology of asthma and maps to an asthma susceptibility locus on chromosome 2q12. The possibility of association between polymorphisms in IL18R1 and asthma was examined by genotyping seven SNPs in 294, 342 and 100 families from Denmark, United Kingdom and Norway and conducting family-based association analyses for asthma, atopic asthma and bronchial hyper-reactivity (BHR) phenotypes. Three SNPs in IL18R1 were associated with asthma (0.01131 < or = P < or = 0.01377), five with atopic asthma (0.00066 < or = P < or = 0.00405) and two with BHR (0.01450 < or = P < or = 0.03203) in the Danish population; two SNPs were associated with atopic asthma (0.00397 < or = P < or = 0.01481) and four with BHR (0.00435 < or = P < or = 0.03544) in the UK population; four SNPs showed associations with asthma (0.00015 < or = P < or = 0.03062), two with atopic asthma (0.01269 < or = P < or = 0.04042) and three with BHR (0.00259 < or = P < or = 0.01401) in the Norwegian population; five SNPs showed associations with asthma (0.00005 < or = P < or = 0.03744), five with atopic asthma (0.00001 < or = P < or = 0.04491) and three with BHR (0.03568 < or = P < or = 0.04778) in the combined population. Three intronic SNPs (rs1420099, rs1362348 and rs1974675) showed replicated association for at least one asthma-related phenotype. These results demonstrate significant association between polymorphisms in IL18R1 and asthma.

  9. Takotsubo syndrome and estrogen receptor genes: partners in crime?

    PubMed

    Pizzino, Gabriele; Bitto, Alessandra; Crea, Pasquale; Khandheria, Bijoy; Vriz, Olga; Carerj, Scipione; Squadrito, Francesco; Minisini, Rosalba; Citro, Rodolfo; Cusmà-Piccione, Maurizio; Madaffari, Antonio; Andò, Giuseppe; Altavilla, Domenica; Zito, Concetta

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to analyze genetic polymorphism of estrogen receptor (ESR) 1 and ESR2 in a series of postmenopausal women with Takotsubo syndrome (TS). In total, 81 consecutive white women were prospectively enrolled: 22 with TS (TS group; mean age 71.2 ± 9.8 years), 22 with acute myocardial infarction (MI group; mean age 73.2 ± 8 years), and 37 asymptomatic healthy controls (CTRL group; mean age 69 ± 4.2 years). Genotyping of ESR1 -397C>T (rs2234693) and -351A>G (rs9340799) and ESR2 -1839G>T (rs 1271572) and 1082G>A (rs1256049) genetic variants was performed. We estimated the odds ratio (OR) between the genotype of each examined locus with the occurrence of TS or MI. The risk of experiencing TS was higher for those study participants carrying the T allele at the rs2234693 locus of the ESR1 gene [OR: 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.973-4.11, P = 0.04, TS vs. MI + CTRL; OR: 2.79, 95% CI: 1.17-6.64, P = 0.016, TS vs. MI alone]. Women carrying a T allele at the rs1271572 locus of the ESR2 gene demonstrated an even higher risk (OR: 3.23, 95% CI: 1.55-6.73, P = 0.0019, TS vs. MI + CTRL; OR: 9.13, 95% CI: 2.78-29.9, P = 0.0001, TS vs. MI alone). The study reports preliminary findings suggesting a possible link between ESR polymorphisms and the occurrence of TS. Larger studies are needed to confirm our results.

  10. Association study of ghrelin receptor gene polymorphisms in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Robledo, G; Rueda, B; Gonzalez-Gay, M A; Fernández, B; Lamas, J R; Balsa, A; Pascual-Salcedo, D; García, A; Raya, E; Martín, J

    2010-01-01

    Ghrelin is a newly characterised growth hormone (GH) releasing peptide widely distributed that may play an important role in the regulation of metabolic balance in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by decreasing the pro-inflammatory Th1 responses. In this study we investigated the possible contribution of several polymorphisms in the functional Ghrelin receptor to RA susceptibility. A screening of 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was performed in a total of 950 RA patients and 990 healthy controls of Spanish Caucasian origin. Genotyping of all 3 SNPs was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction technology, using the TaqMan 5'-allele discrimination assay. We observed no statistically significant deviation between RA patients and controls for the GHSR SNPs analysed. In addition, we performed a haplotype analysis that did not reveal an association with RA susceptibility. The stratification analysis for the presence of shared epitope (SE), rheumatoid factor (RF) or antibodies anti cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) did not detect significant association of the GHSR polymorphisms with RA. These findings suggest that the GHSR gene polymorphisms do not appear to play a major role in RA genetic predisposition in our population.

  11. The Oxytocin Receptor Gene ( OXTR) and Face Recognition.

    PubMed

    Verhallen, Roeland J; Bosten, Jenny M; Goodbourn, Patrick T; Lawrance-Owen, Adam J; Bargary, Gary; Mollon, J D

    2017-01-01

    A recent study has linked individual differences in face recognition to rs237887, a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the oxytocin receptor gene ( OXTR; Skuse et al., 2014). In that study, participants were assessed using the Warrington Recognition Memory Test for Faces, but performance on Warrington's test has been shown not to rely purely on face recognition processes. We administered the widely used Cambridge Face Memory Test-a purer test of face recognition-to 370 participants. Performance was not significantly associated with rs237887, with 16 other SNPs of OXTR that we genotyped, or with a further 75 imputed SNPs. We also administered three other tests of face processing (the Mooney Face Test, the Glasgow Face Matching Test, and the Composite Face Test), but performance was never significantly associated with rs237887 or with any of the other genotyped or imputed SNPs, after corrections for multiple testing. In addition, we found no associations between OXTR and Autism-Spectrum Quotient scores.

  12. Association study of dopamine D3 receptor gene and schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, J.L.; Billett, E.A.; Macciardi, F.M.

    Several groups have reported an association between schizophrenia and the MscI polymorphism in the first exon of the dopamine D3 receptor gene (DRD3). We studied this polymorphism using a North American sample (117 patients plus 188 controls) and an Italian sample (97 patients plus 64 controls). In the first part of the study, we compared allele frequencies of schizophrenia patients and unmatched controls and observed a significant difference in the total sample (P = 0.01). The second part of the study involved a case control approach in which each schizophrenia patient was matched to a control of the same sex,more » and of similar age and ethnic background. The DRD3 allele frequencies of patients and controls revealed no significant difference between the two groups in the Italian (N = 53) or the North American (N = 54) matched populations; however, when these two matched samples were combined, a significant difference was observed (P = 0.026). Our results suggest that the MscI polymorphism may be associated with schizophrenia in the populations studied. 32 refs., 2 tabs.« less

  13. Penguins reduced olfactory receptor genes common to other waterbirds

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qin; Wang, Kai; Lei, Fumin; Yu, Dan; Zhao, Huabin

    2016-01-01

    The sense of smell, or olfaction, is fundamental in the life of animals. However, penguins (Aves: Sphenisciformes) possess relatively small olfactory bulbs compared with most other waterbirds such as Procellariiformes and Gaviiformes. To test whether penguins have a reduced reliance on olfaction, we analyzed the draft genome sequences of the two penguins, which diverged at the origin of the order Sphenisciformes; we also examined six closely related species with available genomes, and identified 29 one-to-one orthologous olfactory receptor genes (i.e. ORs) that are putatively functionally conserved and important across the eight birds. To survey the 29 one-to-one orthologous ORs in penguins and their relatives, we newly generated 34 sequences that are missing from the draft genomes. Through the analysis of totaling 378 OR sequences, we found that, of these functionally important ORs common to other waterbirds, penguins have a significantly greater percentage of OR pseudogenes than other waterbirds, suggesting a reduction of olfactory capability. The penguin-specific reduction of olfactory capability arose in the common ancestor of penguins between 23 and 60 Ma, which may have resulted from the aquatic specializations for underwater vision. Our study provides genetic evidence for a possible reduction of reliance on olfaction in penguins. PMID:27527385

  14. Glucocorticoid Receptor Related Genes: Genotype And Brain Gene Expression Relationships To Suicide And Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Pantazatos, Spiro P.; Huang, Yung-yu; Rosoklija, Gorazd B.; Dwork, Andrew J.; Burke, Ainsley; Arango, Victoria; Oquendo, Maria A.; Mann, J. John

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We tested the relationship between genotype, gene expression and suicidal behavior and MDD in live subjects and postmortem samples for three genes, associated with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, suicidal behavior and major depressive disorder (MDD); FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5), Spindle and kinetochore-associated protein 2 (SKA2) and Glucocorticoid Receptor (NR3C1). Materials and Methods Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes were tested for association with suicidal behavior and MDD in a live (N=277) and a postmortem sample (N=209). RNA-seq was used to examine gene and isoform-level brain expression postmortem (Brodmann Area 9) (N=59). Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) relationships were examined using a public database (UK Brain Expression Consortium). Results We identified a haplotype within the FKBP5 gene, present in 47% of the live subjects, that was associated with increased risk of suicide attempt (OR=1.58, t=6.03, p=0.014). Six SNPs on this gene, three SNPs on SKA2 and one near NR3C1 showed before-adjustment association with attempted suicide, and two SNPs of SKA2 with suicide death, but none stayed significant after adjustment for multiple testing. Only the SKA2 SNPs were related to expression in the prefrontal cortex. One NR3C1 transcript had lower expression in suicide relative to non-suicide sudden death cases (b=-0.48, SE=0.12, t=-4.02, adjusted p=0.004). Conclusion We have identified an association of FKBP5 haplotype with risk of suicide attempt and found an association between suicide and altered NR3C1 gene expression in the prefrontal cortex. Our findings further implicate hypothalamic pituitary axis dysfunction in suicidal behavior. PMID:27030168

  15. Positive association between a DNA sequence variant in the serotonin 2A receptor gene and schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Inayama, Y.; Yoneda, H.; Sakai, T.

    Sixty-two patients with schizophrenia and 96 normal controls were investigated for genetic association with restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) in the serotonin receptor genes. A positive association between the serotonin 2A receptor gene (HTR2A) and schizophrenia was found, but not between schizophrenia and the serotonin 1A receptor gene. The positive association we report here would suggest that the DNA region with susceptibility to schizophrenia lies in the HTR2A on the long arm of chromosome 13. 15 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. Identification of Modulators of the Nuclear Receptor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α (PPARα) in a Mouse Liver Gene Expression Compendium

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nuclear receptor family member peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is activated by therapeutic hypolipidemic drugs and environmentally-relevant chemicals to regulate genes involved in lipid transport and catabolism. Chronic activation of PPARα in rodents inc...

  17. Structure and genomic organization of the human B1 receptor gene for kinins (BDKRB1).

    PubMed

    Bachvarov, D R; Hess, J F; Menke, J G; Larrivée, J F; Marceau, F

    1996-05-01

    Two subtypes of mammalian bradykinin receptors, B1 and B2 (BDKRB1 and BDKRB2), have been defined based on their pharmacological properties. The B1 type kinin receptors have weak affinity for intact BK or Lys-BK but strong affinity for kinin metabolites without the C-terminal arginine (e.g., des-Arg9-BK and Lys-des-Arg9-BK, also called des-Arg10-kallidin), which are generated by kininase I. The B1 receptor expression is up-regulated following tissue injury and inflammation (hyperemia, exudation, hyperalgesia, etc.). In the present study, we have cloned and sequenced the gene encoding human B1 receptor from a human genomic library. The human B1 receptor gene contains three exons separated by two introns. The first and the second exon are noncoding, while the coding region and the 3'-flanking region are located entirely on the third exon. The exon-intron arrangement of the human B1 receptor gene shows significant similarity with the genes encoding the B2 receptor subtype in human, mouse, and rat. Sequence analysis of the 5'-flanking region revealed the presence of a consensus TATA box and of numerous candidate transcription factor binding sequences. Primer extension experiments have shown the existence of multiple transcription initiation sites situated downstream and upstream from the consensus TATA box. Genomic Southern blot analysis indicated that the human B1 receptor is encoded by a single-copy gene.

  18. A nonsense mutation in the LDL receptor gene leads to familial hypercholesterolemia in the Druze sect

    SciTech Connect

    Landsberger, D.; Meiner, V.; Reshef, A.

    1992-02-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the LDL receptor gene. Here the authors characterize and LDL receptor mutation that is associated with a distinct haplotype and causes FH in the Druze, a small Middle Eastern Islamic sect with a high degree of inbreeding. The mutation was found in FH families from two distinct Druze villages from the Golan Heights (northern Israel). It was not found either in another Druze FH family residing in a different geographical area nor in eight Arab and four Jewish FH heterozygote index cases whose hypercholesterolemia cosegregates with an identicalmore » LDL receptor gene haplotype. The mutation, a single-base substitution, results in a termination codon in exon 4 of the LDL receptor gene that encodes for the fourth repeat of the binding domain of the mature receptor. It can be diagnosed by allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization of PCR-amplified DNA from FH patients.« less

  19. Identification of olfactory receptor genes in the Japanese grenadier anchovy Coilia nasus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guoli; Wang, Liangjiang; Tang, Wenqiao; Wang, Xiaomei; Wang, Cong

    2017-01-01

    Olfaction is essential for fish to detect odorant elements in the environment and plays a critical role in navigating, locating food and detecting predators. Olfactory function is produced by the olfactory transduction pathway and is activated by olfactory receptors (ORs) through the binding of odorant elements. Recently, four types of olfactory receptors have been identified in vertebrate olfactory epithelium, including main odorant receptors (MORs), vomeronasal type receptors (VRs), trace-amine associated receptors (TAARs) and formyl peptide receptors (FPRs). It has been hypothesized that migratory fish, which have the ability to perform spawning migration, use olfactory cues to return to natal rivers. Therefore, obtaining OR genes from migratory fish will provide a resource for the study of molecular mechanisms that underlie fish spawning migration behaviors. Previous studies of OR genes have mainly focused on genomic data, however little information has been gained at the transcript level. In this study, we identified the OR genes of an economically important commercial fish Coilia nasus through searching for olfactory epithelium transcriptomes. A total of 142 candidate MOR, 52 V2R/OlfC, 32 TAAR and two FPR putative genes were identified. In addition, through genomic analysis we identified several MOR genes containing introns, which is unusual for vertebrate MOR genes. The transcriptome-scale mining strategy proved to be fruitful in identifying large sets of OR genes from species whose genome information is unavailable. Our findings lay the foundation for further research into the possible molecular mechanisms underlying the spawning migration behavior in C. nasus .

  20. The nuclear orphan receptors COUP-TF and ARP-1 positively regulate the trout estrogen receptor gene through enhancing autoregulation.

    PubMed Central

    Lazennec, G; Kern, L; Valotaire, Y; Salbert, G

    1997-01-01

    The rainbow trout estrogen receptor (rtER) is a positively autoregulated gene in liver cells. In a previous report, we showed that upregulation is mediated by an estrogen response element (ERE) located in the proximal promoter of the gene and that a half binding site for nuclear receptors (5'-TGACCT-3') located 15 bp upstream of the ERE is involved in the magnitude of the estrogen response. We now report that the human orphan receptor COUP-TF and a COUP-TF-like protein from trout liver are able to bind to the consensus half-site. When cotransfected with the rtER gene proximal promoter, COUP-TF had no regulatory functions on its own. Interestingly, COUP-TF enhanced rtER transactivation properties in the presence of estradiol in a dose-dependent manner when cotransfected with the rtER gene promoter. Unliganded retinoid receptor heterodimers had the same helper function as COUP-TF in the presence of estradiol but were switched to repressors when the ligand all-trans-retinoic acid was added. Mutation of the consensus half-site only slightly reduced COUP-TF helper function, suggesting that it actually results from a complex mechanism that probably involves both DNA binding of COUP-TF to the promoter and protein-protein interaction with another transcription factor bound to the promoter. Nevertheless, a DNA-binding-defective mutant of COUP-TF was also defective in ER helper function. Competition footprinting analysis suggested that COUP-TF actually establishes contacts with the consensus upstream half-site and the downstream ERE half-site that would form a DR-24-like response element. Interaction of COUP-TF with the DR-24 element was confirmed in footprinting assays by using nuclear extracts from Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing COUP-TF. Finally, interaction of COUP-TF with mutants of the rtER gene promoter showed that COUP-TF recognizes the ERE when the upstream half-site is mutated. These data show that COUP-TF may activate transcription through interaction with

  1. Association of ghrelin receptor gene polymorphism with bulimia nervosa in a Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Miyasaka, K; Hosoya, H; Sekime, A; Ohta, M; Amono, H; Matsushita, S; Suzuki, K; Higuchi, S; Funakoshi, A

    2006-09-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) have a highly heterogeneous etiology and multiple genetic factors might contribute to their pathogenesis. Ghrelin, a novel growth hormone-releasing peptide, enhances appetite and increases food intake, and human ghrelin plasma levels are inversely correlated with body mass index. In the present study, we examined the 171T/C polymorphism of the ghrelin receptor (growth hormone secretagogue receptor, GHSR) gene in patients diagnosed with EDs, because the subjects having ghrelin gene polymorphism (Leu72Met) was not detected in a Japanese population, previously. In addition, beta3 adrenergic receptor gene polymorphism (Try64Arg) and cholecystokinin (CCK)-A receptor (R) gene polymorphism (-81A/G, -128G/T), which are both associated with obesity, were investigated. The subjects consisted of 228 Japanese patients with EDs [96 anorexia nervosa (AN), 116 bulimia nervosa (BN) and 16 not otherwise specified (NOS)]. The age- and gender-matched control group consisted of 284 unrelated Japanese subjects. The frequency of the CC type of the GHSR gene was significantly higher in BN subjects than in control subjects (chi(2) = 4.47, p = 0.035, odds ratio = 2.05, Bonferroni correction: p = 0.070), while the frequency in AN subjects was not different from that in controls. The distribution of neither beta3 adrenergic receptor gene nor CCK-AR polymorphism differed between EDs and control subjects. Therefore, the CC type of GHSR gene polymorphism (171T/C) is a risk factor for BN, but not for AN.

  2. Different expressions and DNA methylation patterns of lysophosphatidic acid receptor genes in mouse tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Okabe, Kyoko; Hayashi, Mai; Wakabayashi, Naoko; Yamawaki, Yasuna; Teranishi, Miki; Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi

    2010-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptors act as several biological effectors through LPA, which is a bioactive phospholipid. Recently, aberrant expressions of LPA receptor genes due to DNA methylation have been detected in several tumor cells. In this study, we measured expression levels and DNA methylation status of LPA receptor genes in mouse tumor cells, LL/2 lung carcinoma, B16F0 melanoma, FM3A mammary carcinoma and L1210 leukemia cells, compared with normal tissues. Total RNAs were extracted and RT-PCR analysis was performed. For DNA methylation status, bisulfite sequencing analysis was carried out, comparing outcomes with other tumor cells and normal tissues. The expressions of LPA1 gene were shown in LL/2, but not in B16F0, FM3A and L1210 cells. While the LPA2 gene was expressed in all 4 tumor cells, the LPA3 gene was unexpressed in them. The LPA1 and LPA3 unexpressed cells were highly methylated, although normal tissues were all unmethylated. The DNA methylation status was correlated with gene expression levels in cancer cells. The present results demonstrate that DNA methylation patterns of LPA receptor genes are dependent on cancer cell types, suggesting that LPA receptors may be new molecular targets for therapeutic approaches and chemoprevention. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. NMDA Receptors Regulate Genes Responsible for Major Immune Functions of Mononuclears in Human Peripheral Blood.

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, U Sh; Zainullina, L F; Sadovnikov, S V; Vakhitov, V A; Vakhitova, Yu V

    2018-06-19

    To determine the role of NMDA receptors in the functional regulation of immunocompetent cells, comparative assay was carried out for genes expressed in the mononuclears in peripheral blood of healthy persons under normal conditions and after blockade of these receptors. The genes, whose expression changed in response to blockade of NMDA receptors in mononuclears, encode the products involved in regulation of the major functions of immune cells, such as proliferation (IL4, VCAM1, and CDKN2A), apoptosis (BAX, MYC, CDKN2A, HSPB1, and CADD45A), activation (IL4R, IL4, VCAM1, and CDKN2A), and differentiation (IL4, VCAM1, and BAX).

  4. Leptin gene and leptin receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with sweet preference and obesity.

    PubMed

    Mizuta, Einosuke; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Yamanaka, Itaru; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Okayama, Akira; Yoshimasa, Yasunao; Tomoike, Hitonobu; Morisaki, Hiroko; Morisaki, Takayuki

    2008-06-01

    Leptin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone that regulates food intake and body weight, and that was recently reported to suppress sweet sensitivity in an animal model. We investigated the associations among sweet preference, obesity, and polymorphisms of the leptin gene (LEP) or leptin receptor gene (LEPR). A total of 3,653 residents randomly selected from among the citizens of Suita City, Osaka, Japan were enlisted as subjects, in whom we investigated sweet preference, clinical characteristics, including obesity and serum leptin level, and the polymorphisms of LEP and LEPR (G-2548A and A19G for LEP; R109K, R223Q, and rs3790439 for LEPR). We determined the associations among the parameters using logistic regression analysis, in order to consider potential confounding factors for sweet preference and/or obesity. The LEP A19G and LEPR R109K polymorphisms were associated with sweet preference, whereas the serum leptin level was not. Further, the LEPR 109KK genotype was found to be associated with obesity along with sweet preference. In conclusion, our results are the first to show associations of LEP and LEPR polymorphisms with sweet preference, and may provide useful information for diagnosis and treatment of lifestyle-related diseases.

  5. Prolactin receptor gene polymorphism and the risk of recurrent pregnancy loss: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Ju; Choi, Young Min; Lee, Sung Ki; Yang, Kwang Moon; Paik, Eun Chan; Jeong, Hyeon Jeong; Jun, Jong Kwan; Han, Ae Ra; Hwang, Kyu Ri; Hong, Min A

    2018-02-01

    Since the first study was published reporting the candidate association between the prolactin receptor gene intron C/T polymorphism (rs37389) and recurrent miscarriage, no replication study has been performed. In this study, we investigated the role of the prolactin receptor gene C/T polymorphism in 311 Korean women with recurrent pregnancy loss and 314 controls. Genotyping for prolactin receptor gene intron C/T polymorphism was performed using a TaqMan assay. The significance of difference in the genotype distribution was assessed using a chi-square test, and continuous variables were compared using a Student's t-test. The genotype distribution of the prolactin receptor gene C/T polymorphism in the recurrent pregnancy loss group did not differ from that in the control group (CC/CT/TT rates were 49.8%/41.5%/8.7% and 52.5%/37.6%/9.9% for the recurrent pregnancy loss patient and control groups, respectively, p = .587). When the analysis was restricted to patients with three or more consecutive spontaneous miscarriages or patients without prior live birth, there were also no differences in the genotype distribution between these subgroups and controls. In conclusion, the findings of the current study suggest that the prolactin receptor gene intron C/T polymorphism is not a major determinant of the development of recurrent pregnancy loss. Impact statement What is already known: Many studies have investigated whether there is a genetic component for the risk of recurrent pregnancy loss. Recently, one study investigated whether genetic polymorphisms involved in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis would be associated with recurrent miscarriage. Among 35 polymorphisms in 20 candidate genes, genotype distribution with regard to the prolactin receptor gene intron C/T polymorphism (rs37389) differed between the recurrent miscarriage and the control groups. Since this study reporting the candidate association between the prolactin receptor gene and

  6. Monoamine oxidase-A polymorphisms might modify the association between the dopamine D2 receptor gene and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Huang, San-Yuan; Lin, Wei-Wen; Wan, Fang-Jung; Chang, Ai-Ju; Ko, Huei-Chen; Wang, Tso-Jen; Wu, Pei-Lin; Lu, Ru-Band

    2007-05-01

    Low monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity and the neurotransmitter dopamine are 2 important factors in the development of alcohol dependence. MAO is an important enzyme associated with the metabolism of biogenic amines. Therefore, the present study investigates whether the association between the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene and alcoholism is affected by different polymorphisms of the MAO type A (MAOA) gene. A total of 427 Han Chinese men in Taiwan (201 control subjects and 226 with alcoholism) were recruited for the study. Of the subjects with alcoholism, 108 had pure alcohol dependence (ALC) and 118 had both alcohol dependence and anxiety, depression or both (ANX/DEP ALC). All subjects were assessed with the Chinese Version of the Modified Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Lifetime. Alcohol dependence, anxiety and major depressive disorders were diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition criteria. The genetic variant of the DRD2 gene was only associated with the ANX/DEP ALC phenotype, and the genetic variant of the MAOA gene was associated with pure ALC. Subjects carrying the MAOA 3-repeat allele and genotype A1/A1 of the DRD2 were 3.48 times (95% confidence interval = 1.47-8.25) more likely to be ANX/DEP ALC than the subjects carrying the MAOA 3-repeat allele and DRD2 A2/A2 genotype. The MAOA gene may modify the association between the DRD2 gene and ANX/DEP ALC phenotype.

  7. Orphan nuclear receptor oestrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) plays a key role in hepatic cannabinoid receptor type 1-mediated induction of CYP7A1 gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yaochen; Kim, Don-Kyu; Lee, Ji-Min; Park, Seung Bum; Jeong, Won-IL; Kim, Seong Heon; Lee, In-Kyu; Lee, Chul-Ho; Chiang, John Y.L.; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2017-01-01

    Bile acids are primarily synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and have important roles in dietary lipid absorption and cholesterol homoeostasis. Detailed roles of the orphan nuclear receptors regulating cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid synthesis, have not yet been fully elucidated. In the present study, we report that oestrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) is a novel transcriptional regulator of CYP7A1 expression. Activation of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 receptor) signalling induced ERRγ-mediated transcription of the CYP7A1 gene. Overexpression of ERRγ increased CYP7A1 expression in vitro and in vivo, whereas knockdown of ERRγ attenuated CYP7A1 expression. Deletion analysis of the CYP7A1 gene promoter and a ChIP assay revealed an ERRγ -binding site on the CYP7A1 gene promoter. Small heterodimer partner (SHP) inhibited the transcriptional activity of ERRγ and thus regulated CYP7A1 expression. Overexpression of ERRγ led to increased bile acid levels, whereas an inverse agonist of ERRγ, GSK5182, reduced CYP7A1 expression and bile acid synthesis. Finally, GSK5182 significantly reduced hepatic CB1 receptor-mediated induction of CYP7A1 expression and bile acid synthesis in alcohol-treated mice. These results provide the molecular mechanism linking ERRγ and bile acid metabolism. PMID:26348907

  8. Multimodality Imaging of Gene Transfer with a Receptor-Based Reporter Gene

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ron; Parry, Jesse J.; Akers, Walter J.; Berezin, Mikhail Y.; El Naqa, Issam M.; Achilefu, Samuel; Edwards, W. Barry; Rogers, Buck E.

    2010-01-01

    Gene therapy trials have traditionally used tumor and tissue biopsies for assessing the efficacy of gene transfer. Non-invasive imaging techniques offer a distinct advantage over tissue biopsies in that the magnitude and duration of gene transfer can be monitored repeatedly. Human somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2) has been used for the nuclear imaging of gene transfer. To extend this concept, we have developed a somatostatin receptor–enhanced green fluorescent protein fusion construct (SSTR2-EGFP) for nuclear and fluorescent multimodality imaging. Methods An adenovirus containing SSTR2-EGFP (AdSSTR2-EGFP) was constructed and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. SCC-9 human squamous cell carcinoma cells were infected with AdEGFP, AdSSTR2, or AdSSTR2-EGFP for in vitro evaluation by saturation binding, internalization, and fluorescence spectroscopy assays. In vivo biodistribution and nano-SPECT imaging studies were conducted with mice bearing SCC-9 tumor xenografts directly injected with AdSSTR2-EGFP or AdSSTR2 to determine the tumor localization of 111In-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-Tyr3-octreotate. Fluorescence imaging was conducted in vivo with mice receiving intratumoral injections of AdSSTR2, AdSSTR2-EGFP, or AdEGFP as well as ex vivo with tissues extracted from mice. Results The similarity between AdSSTR2-EGFP and wild-type AdSSTR2 was demonstrated in vitro by the saturation binding and internalization assays, and the fluorescence emission spectra of cells infected with AdSSTR2-EGFP was almost identical to the spectra of cells infected with wild-type AdEGFP. Biodistribution studies demonstrated that the tumor uptake of 111In-DTPA-Tyr3-octreotate was not significantly different (P > 0.05) when tumors (n = 5) were injected with AdSSTR2 or AdSSTR2-EGFP but was significantly greater than the uptake in control tumors. Fluorescence was observed in tumors injected with AdSSTR2-EGFP and AdEGFP in vivo and ex vivo but not in tumors injected with AdSSTR2

  9. The Association of Polymorphisms in Leptin/Leptin Receptor Genes and Ghrelin/Ghrelin Receptor Genes With Overweight/Obesity and the Related Metabolic Disturbances: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ghalandari, Hamid; Hosseini-Esfahani, Firoozeh; Mirmiran, Parvin

    2015-01-01

    Context: Leptin and ghrelin are two important appetite and energy balance-regulating peptides. Common polymorphisms in the genes coding these peptides and their related receptors are shown to be associated with body weight, different markers of obesity and metabolic abnormalities. This review article aims to investigate the association of common polymorphisms of these genes with overweight/obesity and the metabolic disturbances related to it. Evidence Acquisition: The keywords leptin, ghrelin, polymorphism, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), obesity, overweight, Body Mass Index, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (MeSH headings) were used to search in the following databases: Pubmed, Sciencedirect (Elsevier), and Google scholar. Overall, 24 case-control studies, relevant to our topic, met the criteria and were included in the review. Results: The most prevalent leptin/leptin receptor genes (LEP/LEPR) and ghrelin/ghrelin receptor genes (GHRL/GHSR) single nucleotide polymorphisms studied were LEP G-2548A, LEPR Q223R, and Leu72Met, respectively. Nine studies of the 17 studies on LEP/LEPR, and three studies of the seven studies on GHRL/GHSR showed significant relationships. Conclusions: In general, our study suggests that the association between LEP/LEPR and GHRL/GHSR with overweight/obesity and the related metabolic disturbances is inconclusive. These results may be due to unidentified gene-environment interactions. More investigations are needed to further clarify this association. PMID:26425125

  10. The Association of Polymorphisms in Leptin/Leptin Receptor Genes and Ghrelin/Ghrelin Receptor Genes With Overweight/Obesity and the Related Metabolic Disturbances: A Review.

    PubMed

    Ghalandari, Hamid; Hosseini-Esfahani, Firoozeh; Mirmiran, Parvin

    2015-07-01

    Leptin and ghrelin are two important appetite and energy balance-regulating peptides. Common polymorphisms in the genes coding these peptides and their related receptors are shown to be associated with body weight, different markers of obesity and metabolic abnormalities. This review article aims to investigate the association of common polymorphisms of these genes with overweight/obesity and the metabolic disturbances related to it. The keywords leptin, ghrelin, polymorphism, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), obesity, overweight, Body Mass Index, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (MeSH headings) were used to search in the following databases: Pubmed, Sciencedirect (Elsevier), and Google scholar. Overall, 24 case-control studies, relevant to our topic, met the criteria and were included in the review. The most prevalent leptin/leptin receptor genes (LEP/LEPR) and ghrelin/ghrelin receptor genes (GHRL/GHSR) single nucleotide polymorphisms studied were LEP G-2548A, LEPR Q223R, and Leu72Met, respectively. Nine studies of the 17 studies on LEP/LEPR, and three studies of the seven studies on GHRL/GHSR showed significant relationships. In general, our study suggests that the association between LEP/LEPR and GHRL/GHSR with overweight/obesity and the related metabolic disturbances is inconclusive. These results may be due to unidentified gene-environment interactions. More investigations are needed to further clarify this association.

  11. Identification of a null mutation in the human dopamine D4 receptor gene

    SciTech Connect

    Noethen, M.M.; Cichon, S.; Hebebrand, J.

    1994-09-01

    Dopamine receptors belong to the family of G protein-coupled receptors. Five different dopamine receptor genes have thus far been identified. These receptors are classified into two main subfamilies: D1, which includes the D1 and D5 receptors, and D2, which includes the D2, D3, and D4 receptors. The dopamine D4 receptor is of great interest for research into neuropsychiatric disorders and psychopharmacology in light of the fact that it binds the antipsychotic medication clozapine with higher affinity than does any other dopamine receptor. In addition, among the dopamine receptors, the D4 receptor shows a uniquely high degree of genetic variation inmore » the human population. We identified a new 13 bp deletion in exon 1 of the D4 gene. This frameshift creates a terminator codon at amino acid position 98. mRNA isolated from brain tissue of two heterozygous persons showed both alleles to be expressed. The deletion occurs with a frequency of 2% in the German population. One person was identified to be homozygous for the deletion. Interestingly, he has a normal intelligence and did not exhibit a major psychiatric disorder as defined by DSM III-R. The 13 bp deletion is the first mutation resulting in premature translation termination reported for a dopamine receptor gene so far. This mutation is a good candidate to test for potential effects on disease and/or individual response to pharmacotherapy. Association studies in patients with various psychiatric illnesses and differences in response to clozapine are underway.« less

  12. 2',3'-cAMP, 3'-AMP, 2'-AMP and adenosine inhibit TNF-α and CXCL10 production from activated primary murine microglia via A2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Newell, Elizabeth A; Exo, Jennifer L; Verrier, Jonathan D; Jackson, Travis C; Gillespie, Delbert G; Janesko-Feldman, Keri; Kochanek, Patrick M; Jackson, Edwin K

    2015-01-12

    Some cells, tissues and organs release 2',3'-cAMP (a positional isomer of 3',5'-cAMP) and convert extracellular 2',3'-cAMP to 2'-AMP plus 3'-AMP and convert these AMPs to adenosine (called the extracellular 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway). Recent studies show that microglia have an extracellular 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether the extracellular 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway could have functional consequences on the production of cytokines/chemokines by activated microglia. Experiments were conducted in cultures of primary murine microglia. In the first experiment, the effect of 2',3'-cAMP, 3'-AMP, 2'-AMP and adenosine on LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production was determined. In the next experiment, the first protocol was replicated but with the addition of 1,3-dipropyl-8-p-sulfophenylxanthine (DPSPX) (0.1 μM; antagonist of adenosine receptors). The last experiment compared the ability of 2-chloro-N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA) (10 μM; selective A1 agonist), 5'-N-ethylcarboxamide adenosine (NECA) (10 μM; agonist for all adenosine receptor subtypes) and CGS21680 (10 μM; selective A2A agonist) to inhibit LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production. (1) 2',3'-cAMP, 3'-AMP, 2'-AMP and adenosine similarly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production; (2) DPSPX nearly eliminated the inhibitory effects of 2',3'-cAMP, 3'-AMP, 2'-AMP and adenosine on LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production; (3) CCPA did not affect LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10; (4) NECA and CGS21680 similarly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production. 2',3'-cAMP and its metabolites (3'-AMP, 2'-AMP and adenosine) inhibit LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production via A2A-receptor activation. Adenosine and its precursors, via A2A receptors, likely suppress TNF-α and CXCL10 production by activated microglia in brain diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 2’,3’-cAMP, 3’-AMP, 2’-AMP and Adenosine Inhibit TNF-α and CXCL10 Production From Activated Primary Murine Microglia via A2A Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Newell, Elizabeth A.; Exo, Jennifer L.; Verrier, Jonathan D.; Jackson, Travis C.; Gillespie, Delbert G.; Janesko-Feldman, Keri; Kochanek, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Some cells, tissues and organs release 2’,3’-cAMP (a positional isomer of 3’,5’-cAMP) and convert extracellular 2’,3’-cAMP to 2’-AMP plus 3’-AMP and convert these AMPs to adenosine (called the extracellular 2’,3’-cAMP-adenosine pathway). Recent studies show that microglia have an extracellular 2’,3’-cAMP-adenosine pathway. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether the extracellular 2’,3’-cAMP-adenosine pathway could have functional consequences on the production of cytokines/chemokines by activated microglia. Methods Experiments were conducted in cultures of primary murine microglia. In the first experiment, the effect of 2’,3’-cAMP, 3’-AMP, 2’-AMP and adenosine on LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production was determined. In the next experiment, the first protocol was replicated but with the addition of 1,3-dipropyl-8-p-sulfophenylxanthine (DPSPX) (0.1 µM; antagonist of adenosine receptors). The last experiment compared the ability of 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA) (10 µM; selective A1 agonist), 5’-N-ethylcarboxamide adenosine (NECA) (10 µM; agonist for all adenosine receptor subtypes) and CGS21680 (10 µM; selective A2A agonist) to inhibit LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production. Results 1) 2’,3’-cAMP, 3’-AMP, 2’-AMP and adenosine similarly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production; 2) DPSPX nearly eliminated the inhibitory effects of 2’,3’-cAMP, 3’-AMP, 2’-AMP and adenosine on LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production; 3) CCPA did not affect LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10; 4) NECA and CGS21680 similarly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production. Conclusions 2’,3’-cAMP and its metabolites (3’-AMP, 2’-AMP and adenosine) inhibit LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production via A2A-receptor activation. Adenosine and its precursors, via A2A receptors, likely suppress TNF-α and CXCL10 production by activated microglia in brain diseases. PMID:25451117

  14. Identification of Gene Markers for Activation of the Nuclear Receptor Pregnane X Receptor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many environmentally-relevant chemicals and drugs activate the nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR). Activation of PXR in the mouse liver can lead to increases in liver weight in part through increased hepatocyte replication similar to chemicals that activate other nuclear ...

  15. Preemptive Caffeine Administration Blocks the Increase in Postoperative Pain Caused by Previous Sleep Loss in the Rat: A Potential Role for Preoptic Adenosine A2A Receptors in Sleep-Pain Interactions.

    PubMed

    Hambrecht-Wiedbusch, Viviane S; Gabel, Maya; Liu, Linda J; Imperial, John P; Colmenero, Angelo V; Vanini, Giancarlo

    2017-09-01

    Sleep and pain are reciprocally related, but the precise mechanisms underlying this relationship are poorly understood. This study used a rat model of surgical pain to examine the effect of previous sleep loss on postoperative pain and tested the hypothesis that preoptic adenosinergic mechanisms regulate sleep-pain interactions. Relative to ad libitum sleep, 6 hours of total sleep deprivation prior to a surgical incision significantly enhanced postoperative mechanical hypersensitivity in the affected paw and prolonged the time to recovery from surgery. There were no sex-specific differences in these measures. There were also no changes in adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone levels after sleep deprivation, suggesting that this effect was not mediated by the stress associated with the sleep perturbation. Systemic administration of the nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist caffeine at the onset of sleep deprivation prevented the sleep deprivation-induced increase in postoperative hypersensitivity. Microinjection of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist ZM 241385 into the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) blocked the increase in surgical pain levels and duration caused by prior sleep deprivation and eliminated the thermal hyperalgesia induced by sleep deprivation in a group of nonoperated (i.e., without surgical incision) rats. These data show that even a brief sleep disturbance prior to surgery worsens postoperative pain and are consistent with our hypothesis that adenosine A2A receptors in the MnPO contribute to regulate these sleep-pain interactions. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. T-cell receptor gene therapy: critical parameters for clinical success.

    PubMed

    Linnemann, Carsten; Schumacher, Ton N M; Bendle, Gavin M

    2011-09-01

    T-cell receptor (TCR) gene therapy aims to induce immune reactivity against tumors by introducing genes encoding a tumor-reactive TCR into patient T cells. This approach has been extensively tested in preclinical mouse models, and initial clinical trials have demonstrated the feasibility and potential of TCR gene therapy as a cancer treatment. However, data obtained from preclinical and clinical studies suggest that both the therapeutic efficacy and the safety of TCR gene therapy can be and needs to be further enhanced. This review highlights those strategies that can be followed to develop TCR gene therapy into a clinically relevant treatment option for cancer patients.

  17. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of estrogen receptor gene expression in laser microdissected prostate cancer tissue.

    PubMed

    Walton, Thomas J; Li, Geng; McCulloch, Thomas A; Seth, Rashmi; Powe, Desmond G; Bishop, Michael C; Rees, Robert C

    2009-06-01

    Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis of laser microdissected tissue is considered the most accurate technique for determining tissue gene expression. The discovery of estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) has focussed renewed interest on the role of estrogen receptors in prostate cancer, yet few studies have utilized the technique to analyze estrogen receptor gene expression in prostate cancer. Fresh tissue was obtained from 11 radical prostatectomy specimens and from 6 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia. Pure populations of benign and malignant prostate epithelium were laser microdissected, followed by RNA isolation and electrophoresis. Quantitative RT-PCR was performed using primers for androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta), estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha), progesterone receptor (PGR) and prostate specific antigen (PSA), with normalization to two housekeeping genes. Differences in gene expression were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Correlation coefficients were analyzed using Spearman's test. Significant positive correlations were seen when AR and AR-dependent PSA, and ERalpha and ERalpha-dependent PGR were compared, indicating a representative population of RNA transcripts. ERbeta gene expression was significantly over-expressed in the cancer group compared with benign controls (P < 0.01). In contrast, PGR expression was significantly down-regulated in the cancer group (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in AR, ERalpha or PSA expression between the groups. This study represents the first to show an upregulation of ERbeta gene expression in laser microdissected prostate cancer specimens. In concert with recent studies the findings suggest differential production of ERbeta splice variants, which may play important roles in the genesis of prostate cancer. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Massive Losses of Taste Receptor Genes in Toothed and Baleen Whales

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ping; Zheng, Jinsong; Rossiter, Stephen J.; Wang, Ding; Zhao, Huabin

    2014-01-01

    Taste receptor genes are functionally important in animals, with a surprising exception in the bottlenose dolphin, which shows extensive losses of sweet, umami, and bitter taste receptor genes. To examine the generality of taste gene loss, we examined seven toothed whales and five baleen whales and sequenced the complete repertoire of three sweet/umami (T1Rs) and ten bitter (T2Rs) taste receptor genes. We found all amplified T1Rs and T2Rs to be pseudogenes in all 12 whales, with a shared premature stop codon in 10 of the 13 genes, which demonstrated massive losses of taste receptor genes in the common ancestor of whales. Furthermore, we analyzed three genome sequences from two toothed whales and one baleen whale and found that the sour taste marker gene Pkd2l1 is a pseudogene, whereas the candidate salty taste receptor genes are intact and putatively functional. Additionally, we examined three genes that are responsible for taste signal transduction and found the relaxation of functional constraints on taste signaling pathways along the ancestral branch leading to whales. Together, our results strongly suggest extensive losses of sweet, umami, bitter, and sour tastes in whales, and the relaxation of taste function most likely arose in the common ancestor of whales between 36 and 53 Ma. Therefore, whales represent the first animal group to lack four of five primary tastes, probably driven by the marine environment with high concentration of sodium, the feeding behavior of swallowing prey whole, and the dietary switch from plants to meat in the whale ancestor. PMID:24803572

  19. Massive losses of taste receptor genes in toothed and baleen whales.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ping; Zheng, Jinsong; Rossiter, Stephen J; Wang, Ding; Zhao, Huabin

    2014-05-06

    Taste receptor genes are functionally important in animals, with a surprising exception in the bottlenose dolphin, which shows extensive losses of sweet, umami, and bitter taste receptor genes. To examine the generality of taste gene loss, we examined seven toothed whales and five baleen whales and sequenced the complete repertoire of three sweet/umami (T1Rs) and ten bitter (T2Rs) taste receptor genes. We found all amplified T1Rs and T2Rs to be pseudogenes in all 12 whales, with a shared premature stop codon in 10 of the 13 genes, which demonstrated massive losses of taste receptor genes in the common ancestor of whales. Furthermore, we analyzed three genome sequences from two toothed whales and one baleen whale and found that the sour taste marker gene Pkd2l1 is a pseudogene, whereas the candidate salty taste receptor genes are intact and putatively functional. Additionally, we examined three genes that are responsible for taste signal transduction and found the relaxation of functional constraints on taste signaling pathways along the ancestral branch leading to whales. Together, our results strongly suggest extensive losses of sweet, umami, bitter, and sour tastes in whales, and the relaxation of taste function most likely arose in the common ancestor of whales between 36 and 53 Ma. Therefore, whales represent the first animal group to lack four of five primary tastes, probably driven by the marine environment with high concentration of sodium, the feeding behavior of swallowing prey whole, and the dietary switch from plants to meat in the whale ancestor. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  20. Natural killer cell receptor genes in the family Equidae: not only Ly49.

    PubMed

    Futas, Jan; Horin, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells have important functions in immunity. NK recognition in mammals can be mediated through killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and/or killer cell lectin-like Ly49 receptors. Genes encoding highly variable NK cell receptors (NKR) represent rapidly evolving genomic regions. No single conservative model of NKR genes was observed in mammals. Single-copy low polymorphic NKR genes present in one mammalian species may expand into highly polymorphic multigene families in other species. In contrast to other non-rodent mammals, multiple Ly49-like genes appear to exist in the horse, while no functional KIR genes were observed in this species. In this study, Ly49 and KIR were sought and their evolution was characterized in the entire family Equidae. Genomic sequences retrieved showed the presence of at least five highly conserved polymorphic Ly49 genes in horses, asses and zebras. These findings confirmed that the expansion of Ly49 occurred in the entire family. Several KIR-like sequences were also identified in the genome of Equids. Besides a previously identified non-functional KIR-Immunoglobulin-like transcript fusion gene (KIR-ILTA) and two putative pseudogenes, a KIR3DL-like sequence was analyzed. In contrast to previous observations made in the horse, the KIR3DL sequence, genomic organization and mRNA expression suggest that all Equids might produce a functional KIR receptor protein molecule with a single non-mutated immune tyrosine-based inhibition motif (ITIM) domain. No evidence for positive selection in the KIR3DL gene was found. Phylogenetic analysis including rhinoceros and tapir genomic DNA and deduced amino acid KIR-related sequences showed differences between families and even between species within the order Perissodactyla. The results suggest that the order Perissodactyla and its family Equidae with expanded Ly49 genes and with a potentially functional KIR gene may represent an interesting model for evolutionary biology of

  1. Natural Killer Cell Receptor Genes in the Family Equidae: Not only Ly49

    PubMed Central

    Futas, Jan; Horin, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells have important functions in immunity. NK recognition in mammals can be mediated through killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and/or killer cell lectin-like Ly49 receptors. Genes encoding highly variable NK cell receptors (NKR) represent rapidly evolving genomic regions. No single conservative model of NKR genes was observed in mammals. Single-copy low polymorphic NKR genes present in one mammalian species may expand into highly polymorphic multigene families in other species. In contrast to other non-rodent mammals, multiple Ly49-like genes appear to exist in the horse, while no functional KIR genes were observed in this species. In this study, Ly49 and KIR were sought and their evolution was characterized in the entire family Equidae. Genomic sequences retrieved showed the presence of at least five highly conserved polymorphic Ly49 genes in horses, asses and zebras. These findings confirmed that the expansion of Ly49 occurred in the entire family. Several KIR-like sequences were also identified in the genome of Equids. Besides a previously identified non-functional KIR-Immunoglobulin-like transcript fusion gene (KIR-ILTA) and two putative pseudogenes, a KIR3DL-like sequence was analyzed. In contrast to previous observations made in the horse, the KIR3DL sequence, genomic organization and mRNA expression suggest that all Equids might produce a functional KIR receptor protein molecule with a single non-mutated immune tyrosine-based inhibition motif (ITIM) domain. No evidence for positive selection in the KIR3DL gene was found. Phylogenetic analysis including rhinoceros and tapir genomic DNA and deduced amino acid KIR-related sequences showed differences between families and even between species within the order Perissodactyla. The results suggest that the order Perissodactyla and its family Equidae with expanded Ly49 genes and with a potentially functional KIR gene may represent an interesting model for evolutionary biology of

  2. A cluster of novel serotonin receptor 3-like genes on human chromosome 3.

    PubMed

    Karnovsky, Alla M; Gotow, Lisa F; McKinley, Denise D; Piechan, Julie L; Ruble, Cara L; Mills, Cynthia J; Schellin, Kathleen A B; Slightom, Jerry L; Fitzgerald, Laura R; Benjamin, Christopher W; Roberds, Steven L

    2003-11-13

    The ligand-gated ion channel family includes receptors for serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), acetylcholine, GABA, and glutamate. Drugs targeting subtypes of these receptors have proven useful for the treatment of various neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders. To identify new ligand-gated ion channels as potential therapeutic targets, drafts of human genome sequence were interrogated. Portions of four novel genes homologous to 5-HT(3A) and 5-HT(3B) receptors were identified within human sequence databases. We named the genes 5-HT(3C1)-5-HT(3C4). Radiation hybrid (RH) mapping localized these genes to chromosome 3q27-28. All four genes shared similar intron-exon organizations and predicted protein secondary structure with 5-HT(3A) and 5-HT(3B). Orthologous genes were detected by Southern blotting in several species including dog, cow, and chicken, but not in rodents, suggesting that these novel genes are not present in rodents or are very poorly conserved. Two of the novel genes are predicted to be pseudogenes, but two other genes are transcribed and spliced to form appropriate open reading frames. The 5-HT(3C1) transcript is expressed almost exclusively in small intestine and colon, suggesting a possible role in the serotonin-responsiveness of the gut.

  3. The structure of the human interferon alpha/beta receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Lutfalla, G; Gardiner, K; Proudhon, D; Vielh, E; Uzé, G

    1992-02-05

    Using the cDNA coding for the human interferon alpha/beta receptor (IFNAR), the IFNAR gene has been physically mapped relative to the other loci of the chromosome 21q22.1 region. 32,906 base pairs covering the IFNAR gene have been cloned and sequenced. Primer extension and solution hybridization-ribonuclease protection have been used to determine that the transcription of the gene is initiated in a broad region of 20 base pairs. Some aspects of the polymorphism of the gene, including noncoding sequences, have been analyzed; some are allelic differences in the coding sequence that induce amino acid variations in the resulting protein. The exon structure of the IFNAR gene and of that of the available genes for the receptors of the cytokine/growth hormone/prolactin/interferon receptor family have been compared with the predictions for the secondary structure of those receptors. From this analysis, we postulate a common origin and propose an hypothesis for the divergence from the immunoglobulin superfamily.

  4. Leptin and leptin receptor gene polymorphisms are correlated with production performance in the Arctic fox.

    PubMed

    Zhang, M; Bai, X J

    2015-05-25

    The polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism technique was employed to measure mononucleotide diversity in the coding region of the leptin and leptin receptor genes in the Arctic fox. The relationships between specific genetic mutations and reproductive performance in Arctic foxes were determined to im-prove breeding strategies. We found that a leptin gene polymorphism was significantly associated with body weight (P < 0.01), abdominal circumference (P < 0.01), and fur length (P < 0.01). Furthermore, a polymorphism in the leptin receptor gene was associated with carcass weight and guard hair length (P < 0.01). Leptin and leptin receptor gene combinatorial genotypes were significantly associated with abdominal circumference, fur length (P < 0.01), and body weight (P < 0.05). The leptin gene is thus a key gene affecting body weight, abdominal circumference, and fur length in Arctic foxes, whereas variations in the leptin receptor mainly affect carcass weight and guard hair. The marker loci identified in this study can be used to assist in the selection of Arctic foxes for breeding to raise the production performance of this species.

  5. The Relationship Between Gene Polymorphism of Leptin and Leptin Receptor and Growth Hormone Deficiency.

    PubMed

    He, Jinshui; Fang, Yanling; Lin, Xinfu; Zhou, Huowang; Zhu, Shaobo; Zhang, Yugui; Yang, Huicong; Ye, Xiaoling

    2016-02-26

    BACKGROUND Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a major cause of congenital short stature. GHD patients have significantly decreased serum leptin levels, which are regulated by gene polymorphism of leptin and leptin receptor. This study thus investigated the relationship between gene polymorphism and susceptibility to GHD. MATERIAL AND METHODS A case-control study was performed using 180 GHD children in addition to 160 healthy controls. After the extraction of whole genomic DNA, the genotypes of leptin and leptin receptor gene loci were analyzed by sequencing for single-nucleotide polymorphism. RESULTS The frequency distribution of all alleles identified in leptin gene (loci rs7799039) and leptin receptor gene (loci rs1137100 and rs1137101) fit Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. There was a significant difference in allele frequency at loci rs7799039 or rs1137101, as individuals with heterozygous GA allele had lower (rs7799039) or higher (rs1137101) GHD risk. No significant difference in allele frequency was discovered at loci rs1137100 (p>0.05), which was unrelated to GHD susceptibility. CONCLUSIONS Gene polymorphism of leptin (loci rs7799039) and leptin receptor (loci rs1137101) are correlated with GHD susceptibility.

  6. Receptor activity-modifying protein-dependent effects of mutations in the calcitonin receptor-like receptor: implications for adrenomedullin and calcitonin gene-related peptide pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, H A; Walker, C S; Ly, K N; Bailey, R J; Barwell, J; Poyner, D R; Hay, D L

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) define the pharmacology of the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR). The interactions of the different RAMPs with this class B GPCR yield high-affinity calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) or adrenomedullin (AM) receptors. However, the mechanism for this is unclear. Experimental Approach Guided by receptor models, we mutated residues in the N-terminal helix of CLR, RAMP2 and RAMP3 hypothesized to be involved in peptide interactions. These were assayed for cAMP production with AM, AM2 and CGRP together with their cell surface expression. Binding studies were also conducted for selected mutants. Key Results An important domain for peptide interactions on CLR from I32 to I52 was defined. Although I41 was universally important for binding and receptor function, the role of other residues depended on both ligand and RAMP. Peptide binding to CLR/RAMP3 involved a more restricted range of residues than that to CLR/RAMP1 or CLR/RAMP2. E101 of RAMP2 had a major role in AM interactions, and F111/W84 of RAMP2/3 was important with each peptide. Conclusions and Implications RAMP-dependent effects of CLR mutations suggest that the different RAMPs control accessibility of peptides to binding residues situated on the CLR N-terminus. RAMP3 appears to alter the role of specific residues at the CLR-RAMP interface compared with RAMP1 and RAMP2. PMID:24199627

  7. Oxytocin, vasopressin and estrogen receptor gene expression in relation to social recognition in female mice

    PubMed Central

    Clipperton-Allen, Amy E.; Lee, Anna W.; Reyes, Anny; Devidze, Nino; Phan, Anna; Pfaff, Donald W.; Choleris, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Inter- and intra-species differences in social behavior and recognition-related hormones and receptors suggest that different distribution and/or expression patterns may relate to social recognition. We used qRT-PCR to investigate naturally occurring differences in expression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα), ER-beta (ERβ), progesterone receptor (PR), oxytocin (OT) and receptor, and vasopressin (AVP) and receptors in proestrous female mice. Following four 5 min exposures to the same two conspecifics, one was replaced with a novel mouse in the final trial (T5). Gene expression was examined in mice showing high (85–100%) and low (40–60%) social recognition scores (i.e., preferential novel mouse investigation in T5) in eight socially-relevant brain regions. Results supported OT and AVP involvement in social recognition, and suggest that in the medial preoptic area, increased OT and AVP mRNA, together with ERα and ERβ gene activation, relate to improved social recognition. Initial social investigation correlated with ERs, PR and OTR in the dorsolateral septum, suggesting that these receptors may modulate social interest without affecting social recognition. Finally, increased lateral amygdala gene activation in the LR mice may be associated with general learning impairments, while decreased lateral amygdala activity may indicate more efficient cognitive mechanisms in the HR mice. PMID:22079582

  8. Oxytocin, vasopressin and estrogen receptor gene expression in relation to social recognition in female mice.

    PubMed

    Clipperton-Allen, Amy E; Lee, Anna W; Reyes, Anny; Devidze, Nino; Phan, Anna; Pfaff, Donald W; Choleris, Elena

    2012-02-28

    Inter- and intra-species differences in social behavior and recognition-related hormones and receptors suggest that different distribution and/or expression patterns may relate to social recognition. We used qRT-PCR to investigate naturally occurring differences in expression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα), ER-beta (ERβ), progesterone receptor (PR), oxytocin (OT) and receptor, and vasopressin (AVP) and receptors in proestrous female mice. Following four 5 min exposures to the same two conspecifics, one was replaced with a novel mouse in the final trial (T5). Gene expression was examined in mice showing high (85-100%) and low (40-60%) social recognition scores (i.e., preferential novel mouse investigation in T5) in eight socially-relevant brain regions. Results supported OT and AVP involvement in social recognition, and suggest that in the medial preoptic area, increased OT and AVP mRNA, together with ERα and ERβ gene activation, relate to improved social recognition. Initial social investigation correlated with ERs, PR and OTR in the dorsolateral septum, suggesting that these receptors may modulate social interest without affecting social recognition. Finally, increased lateral amygdala gene activation in the LR mice may be associated with general learning impairments, while decreased lateral amygdala activity may indicate more efficient cognitive mechanisms in the HR mice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Extensive Gains and Losses of Olfactory Receptor Genes in Mammalian Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Niimura, Yoshihito; Nei, Masatoshi

    2007-01-01

    Odor perception in mammals is mediated by a large multigene family of olfactory receptor (OR) genes. The number of OR genes varies extensively among different species of mammals, and most species have a substantial number of pseudogenes. To gain some insight into the evolutionary dynamics of mammalian OR genes, we identified the entire set of OR genes in platypuses, opossums, cows, dogs, rats, and macaques and studied the evolutionary change of the genes together with those of humans and mice. We found that platypuses and primates have <400 functional OR genes while the other species have 800–1,200 functional OR genes. We then estimated the numbers of gains and losses of OR genes for each branch of the phylogenetic tree of mammals. This analysis showed that (i) gene expansion occurred in the placental lineage each time after it diverged from monotremes and from marsupials and (ii) hundreds of gains and losses of OR genes have occurred in an order-specific manner, making the gene repertoires highly variable among different orders. It appears that the number of OR genes is determined primarily by the functional requirement for each species, but once the number reaches the required level, it fluctuates by random duplication and deletion of genes. This fluctuation seems to have been aided by the stochastic nature of OR gene expression. PMID:17684554

  10. Behavioral analysis of Drosophila transformants expressing human taste receptor genes in the gustatory receptor neurons.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Ryota; Sasaki, Yuko; Morita, Hiromi; Komai, Michio; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Goto, Tomoko; Furuyama, Akira; Isono, Kunio

    2012-06-01

    Transgenic Drosophila expressing human T2R4 and T2R38 bitter-taste receptors or PKD2L1 sour-taste receptor in the fly gustatory receptor neurons and other tissues were prepared using conventional Gal4/UAS binary system. Molecular analysis showed that the transgene mRNAs are expressed according to the tissue specificity of the Gal4 drivers. Transformants expressing the transgene taste receptors in the fly taste neurons were then studied by a behavioral assay to analyze whether transgene chemoreceptors are functional and coupled to the cell response. Since wild-type flies show strong aversion against the T2R ligands as in mammals, the authors analyzed the transformants where the transgenes are expressed in the fly sugar receptor neurons so that they promote feeding ligand-dependently if they are functional and activate the neurons. Although the feeding preference varied considerably among different strains and individuals, statistical analysis using large numbers of transformants indicated that transformants expressing T2R4 showed a small but significant increase in the preference for denatonium and quinine, the T2R4 ligands, as compared to the control flies, whereas transformants expressing T2R38 did not. Similarly, transformants expressing T2R38 and PKD2L1 also showed a similar preference increase for T2R38-specific ligand phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and a sour-taste ligand, citric acid, respectively. Taken together, the transformants expressing mammalian taste receptors showed a small but significant increase in the feeding preference that is taste receptor and also ligand dependent. Although future improvements are required to attain performance comparable to the endogenous robust response, Drosophila taste neurons may serve as a potential in vivo heterologous expression system for analyzing chemoreceptor function.

  11. Effect of transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 gene silencing on the expression of calcium transport genes in chicken osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Deng, Yifeng; Ma, Huijie; Hou, Jiafa; Zhou, ZhenLei

    2015-03-01

    Ca2+ plays a major role in the regulation of signal transduction. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 is a Ca2+-selective channel that serves as an important rate-limiting step in the facilitation of Ca2+ entry into cells, but little is known about the regulation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 in chickens. In this study, we evaluated the effects of transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 gene interference on the expression of calbindin-D28K, Na+/Ca2+ exchangers, and plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase 1b to investigate the mechanism underlying the regulation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 6. Three hairpin siRNA expression vectors targeting transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 (pSIREN- transient receptor potential vanilloid 6) and a negative control (pSIREN-control) were constructed and transfected into chicken osteoblasts. The mRNA and protein expression levels were evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot, respectively. The mRNA expression levels of transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 and calbindin-D28K were reduced by 45.7% (P<0.01) and 27.9% (P<0.01), respectively, 48 h after transfection with one of the three constructs (pSIREN- transient receptor potential vanilloid 6-3) compared with the level obtained in the untreated group. There was no significant difference in the mRNA expression levels of Na+/Ca2+ exchangers and plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase 1b. The protein expression levels of transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 and calbindin-D28K were reduced by 40.2% (P<0.01) and 29.8% (P<0.01), respectively, 48 h after transfection with pSIREN-transient receptor potential vanilloid 6-3 compared with the level obtained in the untreated group. In conclusion, the vector-based transient receptor potential vanilloid 6-shRNA can efficiently suppress the mRNA and protein expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 in chicken osteoblasts, and transient receptor potential vanilloid

  12. Dopamine D4 receptor gene polymorphism and personality traits in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Persson, M L; Wasserman, D; Geijer, T; Frisch, A; Rockah, R; Michaelovsky, E; Apter, A; Weizman, A; Jönsson, E G; Bergman, H

    2000-01-01

    An association between long alleles of a variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in the dopamine receptor D4 gene and the extraversion related personality traits Excitement and Novelty Seeking has been reported in healthy subjects. In an attempt to replicate the previous findings, 256 healthy Caucasian volunteers were analysed for a potential relationship between the dopamine receptor D4 exon III VNTR polymorphism and Extraversion as assessed by the Revised Neo Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R). The present study did not yield evidence for an association between Extraversion and the dopamine receptor D4 polymorphism.

  13. 5-HT2A receptor gene polymorphisms in Croatian subjects with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Hranilovic, Dubravka; Blazevic, Sofia; Babic, Marina; Smurinic, Maja; Bujas-Petkovic, Zorana; Jernej, Branimir

    2010-08-15

    Disturbances in the expression/function of the 5-HT2A receptor are implicated in autism. The association of the 5-HT2A receptor gene with autism was studied in the Croatian population. Distribution frequencies for alleles, genotypes and haplotypes of -1438 A/G and His452Tyr polymorphisms were compared in samples of 103 autistic and 214 control subjects. Significant overrepresentation of the G allele and the GG genotype of the -1438 A/G polymorphism was observed in group of autistic subjects, supporting the possible involvement of the 5-HT2A receptor in the development of autism. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Discovering relationships between nuclear receptor signaling pathways, genes, and tissues in Transcriptomine.

    PubMed

    Becnel, Lauren B; Ochsner, Scott A; Darlington, Yolanda F; McOwiti, Apollo; Kankanamge, Wasula H; Dehart, Michael; Naumov, Alexey; McKenna, Neil J

    2017-04-25

    We previously developed a web tool, Transcriptomine, to explore expression profiling data sets involving small-molecule or genetic manipulations of nuclear receptor signaling pathways. We describe advances in biocuration, query interface design, and data visualization that enhance the discovery of uncharacterized biology in these pathways using this tool. Transcriptomine currently contains about 45 million data points encompassing more than 2000 experiments in a reference library of nearly 550 data sets retrieved from public archives and systematically curated. To make the underlying data points more accessible to bench biologists, we classified experimental small molecules and gene manipulations into signaling pathways and experimental tissues and cell lines into physiological systems and organs. Incorporation of these mappings into Transcriptomine enables the user to readily evaluate tissue-specific regulation of gene expression by nuclear receptor signaling pathways. Data points from animal and cell model experiments and from clinical data sets elucidate the roles of nuclear receptor pathways in gene expression events accompanying various normal and pathological cellular processes. In addition, data sets targeting non-nuclear receptor signaling pathways highlight transcriptional cross-talk between nuclear receptors and other signaling pathways. We demonstrate with specific examples how data points that exist in isolation in individual data sets validate each other when connected and made accessible to the user in a single interface. In summary, Transcriptomine allows bench biologists to routinely develop research hypotheses, validate experimental data, or model relationships between signaling pathways, genes, and tissues. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Implication of Genes for the N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) Receptor in Substance Addictions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiali; Ma, Yunlong; Fan, Rongli; Yang, Zhongli; Li, Ming D

    2018-02-10

    Drug dependence is a chronic brain disease with harmful consequences for both individual users and society. Glutamate is a primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, and both in vivo and in vitro experiments have implicated N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, a glutamate receptor, as an element in various types of addiction. Recent findings from genetics-based approaches such as genome-wide linkage, candidate gene association, genome-wide association (GWA), and next-generation sequencing have demonstrated the significant association of NMDA receptor subunit genes such as GluN3A, GluN2B, and GluN2A with various addiction-related phenotypes. Of these genes, GluN3A has been the most studied, and it has been revealed to play crucial roles in the etiology of addictions. In this communication, we provide an updated view of the genetic effects of NMDA receptor subunit genes and their functions in the etiology of addictions based on the findings from investigation of both common and rare variants as well as SNP-SNP interactions. To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying addiction-related behaviors and to promote the development of specific medicines for the prevention and treatment of addictions, current efforts aim not only to identify more causal variants in NMDA receptor subunits by using large independent samples but also to reveal the molecular functions of these variants in addictions.

  16. Subclinical hyperthyroidism due to a thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) gene mutation (S505R).

    PubMed

    Pohlenz, Joachim; Pfarr, Nicole; Krüger, Silvia; Hesse, Volker

    2006-12-01

    To identify the molecular defect by which non-autoimmune subclinical hyperthyroidism was caused in a 6-mo-old infant who presented with weight loss. Congenital non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism is caused by activating germline mutations in the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) gene. Therefore, the TSHR gene was sequenced directly from the patient's genomic DNA. Molecular analysis revealed a heterozygous point mutation (S505R) in the TSHR gene as the underlying defect. A constitutively activating mutation in the TSHR gene has to be considered not only in patients with severe congenital non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism, but also in children with subclinical non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism.

  17. Orphan nuclear receptor ERRγ is a key regulator of human fibrinogen gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yaochen; Kim, Don-Kyu; Lu, Yan; Jung, Yoon Seok; Lee, Ji-min; Kim, Young-Hoon; Lee, Yong Soo; Kim, Jina; Dewidar, Bedair; Jeong, Won-IL; Lee, In-Kyu; Cho, Sung Jin; Dooley, Steven; Lee, Chul-Ho; Li, Xiaoying

    2017-01-01

    Fibrinogen, 1 of 13 coagulation factors responsible for normal blood clotting, is synthesized by hepatocytes. Detailed roles of the orphan nuclear receptors regulating fibrinogen gene expression have not yet been fully elucidated. Here, we identified estrogen-related receptor gamma (ERRγ) as a novel transcriptional regulator of human fibrinogen gene expression. Overexpression of ERRγ specially increased fibrinogen expression in human hepatoma cell line. Cannabinoid receptor types 1(CB1R) agonist arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide (ACEA) up-regulated transcription of fibrinogen via induction of ERRγ, whereas knockdown of ERRγ attenuated fibrinogen expression. Deletion analyses of the fibrinogen γ (FGG) gene promoter and ChIP assays revealed binding sites of ERRγ on human fibrinogen γ gene promoter. Moreover, overexpression of ERRγ was sufficient to increase fibrinogen gene expression, whereas treatment with GSK5182, a selective inverse agonist of ERRγ led to its attenuation in cell culture. Finally, fibrinogen and ERRγ gene expression were elevated in liver tissue of obese patients suggesting a conservation of this mechanism. Overall, this study elucidates a molecular mechanism linking CB1R signaling, ERRγ expression and fibrinogen gene transcription. GSK5182 may have therapeutic potential to treat hyperfibrinogenemia. PMID:28750085

  18. FP-receptor gene silencing ameliorates myocardial fibrosis and protects from diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Ding, Wen-yuan; Liu, Lin; Wang, Zhi-hao; Tang, Meng-xiong; Ti, Yun; Han, Lu; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Yun; Zhong, Ming; Zhang, Wei

    2014-06-01

    Prostaglandin F2(α)-F-prostanoid (PGF2(α)-FP) receptor is closely related to insulin resistance, which plays a causal role in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). We sought to reveal whether PGF2(α)-FP receptor plays an important part in modulating DCM and the mechanisms involved. We established the type 2 diabetes rat model by high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) and then evaluated its characteristics by metabolite tests, Western blot analysis for FP-receptor expression, histopathologic analyses of cardiomyocyte density and fibrosis area. Next, we used gene silencing to investigate the role of FP receptor in the pathophysiologic features of DCM. Our study showed elevated cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, and insulin levels, severe insulin resistance, and FP-receptor overexpression in diabetic rats. The collagen volume fraction (CVF) and perivascular collagen area/luminal area (PVCA/LA) were higher in the diabetic group than the control group (CVF% 10.99 ± 0.99 vs 1.59 ± 0.18, P < 0.05; PVCA/LA% 17.07 ± 2.61 vs 2.86 ± 0.69, P < 0.05). We found that the silencing of FP receptor decreased cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, and insulin levels and ameliorated insulin resistance. The CVF and PVCF/LA were significantly downregulated in FP-receptor short hairpin RNA (shRNA) treatment group (FP-receptor shRNA group vs vehicle group: CVF% 5.59 ± 0.92 vs 10.97 ± 1.33, P < 0.05, PVCA/LA% 4.74 ± 1.57 vs 14.79 ± 2.22, P < 0.05; FP-receptor shRNA + PGF2(α) group vs vehicle group : CVF% 5.19 ± 0.79 vs 10.97 ± 1.33, P < 0.05, PVCA/LA% 5.96 ± 1.15 vs 14.79 ± 2.22, P < 0.05, respectively). Furthermore, with FP-receptor gene silencing, the activated protein kinase C (PKC) and Rho kinase were significantly decreased, and the blunted phosphorylation of Akt was restored. FP-receptor gene silencing may exert a protective effect on DCM by improving myocardial fibrosis

  19. Polymorphisms in adenosine receptor genes are associated with infarct size in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Z; Diamond, M A; Chen, J-M; Holly, T A; Bonow, R O; Dasgupta, A; Hyslop, T; Purzycki, A; Wagner, J; McNamara, D M; Kukulski, T; Wos, S; Velazquez, E J; Ardlie, K; Feldman, A M

    2007-10-01

    The goal of this experiment was to identify the presence of genetic variants in the adenosine receptor genes and assess their relationship to infarct size in a population of patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. Adenosine receptors play an important role in protecting the heart during ischemia and in mediating the effects of ischemic preconditioning. We sequenced DNA samples from 273 individuals with ischemic cardiomyopathy and from 203 normal controls to identify the presence of genetic variants in the adenosine receptor genes. Subsequently, we analyzed the relationship between the identified genetic variants and infarct size, left ventricular size, and left ventricular function. Three variants in the 3'-untranslated region of the A(1)-adenosine gene (nt 1689 C/A, nt 2206 Tdel, nt 2683del36) and an informative polymorphism in the coding region of the A3-adenosine gene (nt 1509 A/C I248L) were associated with changes in infarct size. These results suggest that genetic variants in the adenosine receptor genes may predict the heart's response to ischemia or injury and might also influence an individual's response to adenosine therapy.

  20. Isoflavones enhance interleukin-17 gene expression via retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors α and γ

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Yukimasa; Muromoto, Ryuta; Takahashi, Miki; Hirao, Toru; Takeuchi, Shinji; Jetten, Anton M.; Matsuda, Tadashi

    2018-01-01

    The retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors α and γ (RORα and RORγ), are key regulators of helper T (Th)17 cell differentiation, which is involved in the innate immune system and autoimmune disorders. In this study, we investigated the effects of isoflavones on RORα/γ activity and the gene expression of interleukin (IL)-17, which mediates the function of Th17 cells. In doxycycline-inducible CHO stable cell lines, we found that four isoflavones, biochanin A (BA), genistein, formononetin, and daidzein, enhanced RORα- or RORγ-mediated transcriptional activity in a dose-dependent manner. In an activation assay of the Il17a promoter using Jurkat cells, these compounds enhanced the RORα- or RORγ-mediated activation of the Il17a promoter at concentrations of 1 × 10−6 M to 1 × 10−5 M. In mammalian two-hybrid assays, the four isoflavones enhanced the interaction between the RORα- or RORγ-ligand binding domain and the co-activator LXXLL peptide in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, these isoflavones potently enhanced Il17a mRNA expression in mouse T lymphoma EL4 cells treated with phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin, but showed slight enhancement of Il17a gene expression in RORα/γ-knockdown EL4 cells. Immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting assays also revealed that BA enhanced the interaction between RORγt and SRC-1, which is a co-activator for nuclear receptors. Taken together, these results suggest that the isoflavones have the ability to enhance IL-17 gene expression by stabilizing the interactions between RORα/γ and co-activators. This also provides the first evidence that dietary chemicals can enhance IL-17 gene expression in immune cells. PMID:25583575

  1. Genome-wide identification of nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily genes in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Dae-Sik; Lee, Bo-Young; Kim, Hui-Su; Lee, Min Chul; Kyung, Do-Hyun; Om, Ae-Son; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2014-11-18

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are a large superfamily of proteins defined by a DNA-binding domain (DBD) and a ligand-binding domain (LBD). They function as transcriptional regulators to control expression of genes involved in development, homeostasis, and metabolism. The number of NRs differs from species to species, because of gene duplications and/or lineage-specific gene losses during metazoan evolution. Many NRs in arthropods interact with the ecdysteroid hormone and are involved in ecdysone-mediated signaling in arthropods. The nuclear receptor superfamily complement has been reported in several arthropods, including crustaceans, but not in copepods. We identified the entire NR repertoire of the copepod Tigriopus japonicus, which is an important marine model species for ecotoxicology and environmental genomics. Using whole genome and transcriptome sequences, we identified a total of 31 nuclear receptors in the genome of T. japonicus. Nomenclature of the nuclear receptors was determined based on the sequence similarities of the DNA-binding domain (DBD) and ligand-binding domain (LBD). The 7 subfamilies of NRs separate into five major clades (subfamilies NR1, NR2, NR3, NR4, and NR5/6). Although the repertoire of NR members in, T. japonicus was similar to that reported for other arthropods, there was an expansion of the NR1 subfamily in Tigriopus japonicus. The twelve unique nuclear receptors identified in T. japonicus are members of NR1L. This expansion may be a unique lineage-specific feature of crustaceans. Interestingly, E78 and HR83, which are present in other arthropods, were absent from the genomes of T. japonicus and two congeneric copepod species (T. japonicus and Tigriopus californicus), suggesting copepod lineage-specific gene loss. We identified all NR receptors present in the copepod, T. japonicus. Knowledge of the copepod nuclear receptor repertoire will contribute to a better understanding of copepod- and crustacean-specific NR evolution.

  2. Characterization of the human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor delta gene and its expression.

    PubMed

    Skogsberg, J; Kannisto, K; Roshani, L; Gagne, E; Hamsten, A; Larsson, C; Ehrenborg, E

    2000-07-01

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors regulating the expression of genes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism. Three different PPARs; alpha (PPARA), gamma (PPARG) and delta (PPARD) have been characterized and they are distinguished from each other by tissue distribution and cell activation. In this study, the structure and detailed chromosomal localization of the human PPARD gene was determined. Three genomic clones containing the PPARD gene was isolated from a human P1 library. The gene spans approximately 85 kb of DNA and consists of 9 exons and 8 introns with exons ranging in size from 84 bp to 2.3 kb and introns ranging from 180 bp to 50 kb. All splice acceptor and donor sites conform to the consensus sequences including the AG-GT motif. Although PPARD lacks a TATA box, the gene is transcribed from a unique start site located 380 bp upstream of the ATG initiation codon. The 5' and 3' ends were mapped by rapid amplification of cDNA ends and the mRNA size of PPARD based upon the structure of the gene is 3803 bp. In addition, the chromosomal sublocalization of PPARD was determined by radiation hybrid mapping. The PPARD gene is located at 14 cR from the colipase gene and 15 cR from the serine kinase gene at chromosomal region 6p21.2.

  3. Linkage analysis of schizophrenia with five dopamine receptor genes in nine pedigrees

    SciTech Connect

    Coon, H.; Byerley, W.; Holik, J.

    Alterations in dopamine neurotransmission have been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia for nearly 2 decades. Recently, the genes for five dopamine receptors have been cloned and characterized, and genetic and physical map information has become available. Using these five loci as candidate genes, the authors have tested for genetic linkage to schizophrenia in nine multigenerational families which include multiple affected individuals. In addition to testing conservative disease models, the have used a neurophysiological indicator variable, the P50 auditory evoked response. Deficits in gating of the P50 response have been shown to segregate with schizophrenia in this sample andmore » may identify carriers of gene(s) predisposing for schizophrenia. Linkage results were consistently negative, indicating that a defect at any of the actual receptor sites is unlikely to be a major contributor to schizophrenia in the nine families studied. 47 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.« less

  4. Embryonic expression of the transforming growth factor beta ligand and receptor genes in chicken.

    PubMed

    Cooley, James R; Yatskievych, Tatiana A; Antin, Parker B

    2014-03-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) signaling regulates a myriad of biological processes during embryogenesis, in the adult, and during the manifestation of disease. TGFβ signaling is propagated through one of three TGFβ ligands interacting with Type I and Type II receptors, and Type III co-receptors. Although TGFβ signaling is regulated partly by the combinatorial expression patterns of TGFβ receptors and ligands, a comprehensive gene expression analysis has not been published. Here we report the embryonic mRNA expression patterns in chicken embryos of the canonical TGFβ ligands (TGFB1, TGFB2, and TGFB3) and receptors (TGFBR1, TGFBR2, TGFBR3), plus the Activin A receptor, type 1 (ACVR1) and co receptor Endoglin (ENG) that also transduce TGFβ signaling. TGFB ligands and receptors show dynamic and frequently overlapping expression patterns in numerous embryonic cell layers and structures. Integrating expression information identifies combinations of ligands and receptors that are involved in specific developmental processes including somitogenesis, cardiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Oxytocin and Vasopressin Receptor Gene Polymorphisms: Role in Social and Psychiatric Traits

    PubMed Central

    Aspé-Sánchez, Mauricio; Moreno, Macarena; Rivera, Maria Ignacia; Rossi, Alejandra; Ewer, John

    2016-01-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) are two phylogenetically conserved neuropeptides that have been implicated in a wide range of social behaviors. Although a large body of research, ranging from rodents to humans, has reported on the effects of OXT and AVP administration on affiliative and trust behaviors, and has highlighted the genetic contributions of OXT and AVP receptor polymorphisms to both social behaviors and to diseases related to social deficits, the consequences of peptide administration on psychiatric symptoms, and the impact of receptor polymorphisms on receptor function, are still unclear. Despite the exciting advances that these reports have brought to social neuroscience, they remain preliminary and suffer from the problems that are inherent to monogenetic linkage and association studies. As an alternative, some studies are using polygenic approaches, and consider the contributions of other genes and pathways, including those involving DA, 5-HT, and reelin, in addition to OXT and AVP; a handful of report are also using genome-wide association studies. This review summarizes findings on the associations between OXT and AVP receptor polymorphism, social behavior, and psychiatric diseases. In addition, we discuss reports on the interactions of OXT and AVP receptor genes and genes involved in other pathways (such as those of dopamine, serotonin, and reelin), as well as research that has shed some light on the impact of gene polymorphisms on the volume, connectivity, and activation of specific neural structures, differential receptor expression, and plasma levels of the OXT and AVP peptides. We hope that this effort will be helpful for understanding the studies performed so far, and for encouraging the inclusion of other candidate genes not explored to date. PMID:26858594

  6. Oxytocin and Vasopressin Receptor Gene Polymorphisms: Role in Social and Psychiatric Traits.

    PubMed

    Aspé-Sánchez, Mauricio; Moreno, Macarena; Rivera, Maria Ignacia; Rossi, Alejandra; Ewer, John

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) are two phylogenetically conserved neuropeptides that have been implicated in a wide range of social behaviors. Although a large body of research, ranging from rodents to humans, has reported on the effects of OXT and AVP administration on affiliative and trust behaviors, and has highlighted the genetic contributions of OXT and AVP receptor polymorphisms to both social behaviors and to diseases related to social deficits, the consequences of peptide administration on psychiatric symptoms, and the impact of receptor polymorphisms on receptor function, are still unclear. Despite the exciting advances that these reports have brought to social neuroscience, they remain preliminary and suffer from the problems that are inherent to monogenetic linkage and association studies. As an alternative, some studies are using polygenic approaches, and consider the contributions of other genes and pathways, including those involving DA, 5-HT, and reelin, in addition to OXT and AVP; a handful of report are also using genome-wide association studies. This review summarizes findings on the associations between OXT and AVP receptor polymorphism, social behavior, and psychiatric diseases. In addition, we discuss reports on the interactions of OXT and AVP receptor genes and genes involved in other pathways (such as those of dopamine, serotonin, and reelin), as well as research that has shed some light on the impact of gene polymorphisms on the volume, connectivity, and activation of specific neural structures, differential receptor expression, and plasma levels of the OXT and AVP peptides. We hope that this effort will be helpful for understanding the studies performed so far, and for encouraging the inclusion of other candidate genes not explored to date.

  7. Oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) is related to psychological resources.

    PubMed

    Saphire-Bernstein, Shimon; Way, Baldwin M; Kim, Heejung S; Sherman, David K; Taylor, Shelley E

    2011-09-13

    Psychological resources--optimism, mastery, and self-esteem--buffer the deleterious effects of stress and are predictors of neurophysiological and psychological health-related outcomes. These resources have been shown to be highly heritable, yet the genetic basis for this heritability remains unknown. Here, we report a link between the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) SNP rs53576 and psychological resources, such that carriers of the "A" allele have lower levels of optimism, mastery, and self-esteem, relative to G/G homozygotes. OXTR was also associated with depressive symptomatology. Mediation analysis indicates that the effects of OXTR on depressive symptoms may be largely mediated by the influence of OXTR on psychological resources.

  8. Two common low density lipoprotein receptor gene mutations cause familial hypercholesterolemia in Afrikaners.

    PubMed

    Leitersdorf, E; Van der Westhuyzen, D R; Coetzee, G A; Hobbs, H H

    1989-09-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), an autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the LDL receptor gene, is five times more frequent in the Afrikaner population of South Africa than it is in the population of the United States and Europe. It has been proposed that the high frequency is due to a founder effect. In this paper, we characterized 24 mutant LDL receptor alleles from 12 Afrikaner individuals homozygous for FH. We identified two mutations that together makeup greater than 95% of the mutant LDL receptor genes represented in our sample. Both mutations were basepair substitutions that result in single-amino acid changes. Each mutation can be detected readily with the polymerase chain reaction and restriction analysis. The finding of two common LDL receptor mutations in the Afrikaner FH homozygotes predicts that these mutations will predominate in the Afrikaner population and that the high frequency of FH is due to a founder effect. The increased incidence of ischemic heart disease in the Afrikaner population may in part be due to the high frequency of these two mutations in the LDL receptor gene.

  9. Two common low density lipoprotein receptor gene mutations cause familial hypercholesterolemia in Afrikaners.

    PubMed Central

    Leitersdorf, E; Van der Westhuyzen, D R; Coetzee, G A; Hobbs, H H

    1989-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), an autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the LDL receptor gene, is five times more frequent in the Afrikaner population of South Africa than it is in the population of the United States and Europe. It has been proposed that the high frequency is due to a founder effect. In this paper, we characterized 24 mutant LDL receptor alleles from 12 Afrikaner individuals homozygous for FH. We identified two mutations that together makeup greater than 95% of the mutant LDL receptor genes represented in our sample. Both mutations were basepair substitutions that result in single-amino acid changes. Each mutation can be detected readily with the polymerase chain reaction and restriction analysis. The finding of two common LDL receptor mutations in the Afrikaner FH homozygotes predicts that these mutations will predominate in the Afrikaner population and that the high frequency of FH is due to a founder effect. The increased incidence of ischemic heart disease in the Afrikaner population may in part be due to the high frequency of these two mutations in the LDL receptor gene. Images PMID:2569482

  10. Gene structure and expression characteristic of a novel odorant receptor gene cluster in the parasitoid wasp Microplitis mediator (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, S-N; Shan, S; Zheng, Y; Peng, Y; Lu, Z-Y; Yang, Y-Q; Li, R-J; Zhang, Y-J; Guo, Y-Y

    2017-08-01

    Odorant receptors (ORs) expressed in the antennae of parasitoid wasps are responsible for detection of various lipophilic airborne molecules. In the present study, 107 novel OR genes were identified from Microplitis mediator antennal transcriptome data. Phylogenetic analysis of the set of OR genes from M. mediator and Microplitis demolitor revealed that M. mediator OR (MmedOR) genes can be classified into different subfamilies, and the majority of MmedORs in each subfamily shared high sequence identities and clear orthologous relationships to M. demolitor ORs. Within a subfamily, six MmedOR genes, MmedOR98, 124, 125, 126, 131 and 155, shared a similar gene structure and were tightly linked in the genome. To evaluate whether the clustered MmedOR genes share common regulatory features, the transcription profile and expression characteristics of the six closely related OR genes were investigated in M. mediator. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends-PCR experiments revealed that the OR genes within the cluster were transcribed as single mRNAs, and a bicistronic mRNA for two adjacent genes (MmedOR124 and MmedOR98) was also detected in female antennae by reverse transcription PCR. In situ hybridization experiments indicated that each OR gene within the cluster was expressed in a different number of cells. Moreover, there was no co-expression of the two highly related OR genes, MmedOR124 and MmedOR98, which appeared to be individually expressed in a distinct population of neurons. Overall, there were distinct expression profiles of closely related MmedOR genes from the same cluster in M. mediator. These data provide a basic understanding of the olfactory coding in parasitoid wasps. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  11. Developmentally Regulated Expression of the Nerve Growth Factor Receptor Gene in the Periphery and Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, C. R.; Martinez, Humberto J.; Black, Ira B.; Chao, Moses V.

    1987-05-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) regulates development and maintenance of function of peripheral sympathetic and sensory neurons. A potential role for the trophic factor in brain has been detected only recently. The ability of a cell to respond to NGF is due, in part, to expression of specific receptors on the cell surface. To study tissue-specific expression of the NGF receptor gene, we have used sensitive cRNA probes for detection of NGF receptor mRNA. Our studies indicate that the receptor gene is selectively and specifically expressed in sympathetic (superior cervical) and sensory (dorsal root) ganglia in the periphery, and by the septum-basal forebrain centrally, in the neonatal rat in vivo. Moreover, examination of tissues from neonatal and adult rats reveals a marked reduction in steady-state NGF receptor mRNA levels in sensory ganglia. In contrast, a 2- to 4-fold increase was observed in the basal forebrain and in the sympathetic ganglia over the same time period. Our observations suggest that NGF receptor mRNA expression is developmentally regulated in specific areas of the nervous system in a differential fashion.

  12. Hypoxia attenuates purinergic P2X receptor-induced inflammatory gene expression in brainstem microglia

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Stephanie MC; Mitchell, Gordon S; Friedle, Scott A; Sibigtroth, Christine M; Vinit, Stéphane; Watters, Jyoti J

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia and increased extracellular nucleotides are frequently coincident in the brainstem. Extracellular nucleotides are potent modulators of microglial inflammatory gene expression via P2X purinergic receptor activation. Although hypoxia is also known to modulate inflammatory gene expression, little is known about how hypoxia or P2X receptor activation alone affects inflammatory molecule production in brainstem microglia, nor how hypoxia and P2X receptor signaling interact when they occur together. In the study reported here, we investigated the ability of a brief episode of hypoxia (2 hours) in the presence and absence of the nonselective P2X receptor agonist 2′(3′)-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)adenosine-5′-triphosphate (BzATP) to promote inflammatory gene expression in brainstem microglia in adult rats. We evaluated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), and interleukin (IL)-6 messenger RNA levels in immunomagnetically isolated brainstem microglia. While iNOS and IL-6 gene expression increased with hypoxia and BzATP alone, TNFα expression was unaffected. Surprisingly, BzATP-induced inflammatory effects were lost after hypoxia, suggesting that hypoxia impairs proinflammatory P2X-receptor signaling. We also evaluated the expression of key P2X receptors activated by BzATP, namely P2X1, P2X4, and P2X7. While hypoxia did not alter their expression, BzATP upregulated P2X4 and P2X7 mRNAs; these effects were ablated in hypoxia. Although both P2X4 and P2X7 receptor expression correlated with increased microglial iNOS and IL-6 levels in microglia from normoxic rats, in hypoxia, P2X7 only correlated with IL-6, and P2X4 correlated only with iNOS. In addition, correlations between P2X7 and P2X4 were lost following hypoxia, suggesting that P2X4 and P2X7 receptor signaling differs in normoxia and hypoxia. Together, these data suggest that hypoxia suppresses P2X receptor-induced inflammatory gene expression, indicating a potentially

  13. Pseudogenization of a Sweet-Receptor Gene Accounts for Cats' Indifference toward Sugar

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xia; Li, Weihua; Wang, Hong; Cao, Jie; Maehashi, Kenji; Huang, Liquan; Bachmanov, Alexander A; Reed, Danielle R; Legrand-Defretin, Véronique; Beauchamp, Gary K; Brand, Joseph G

    2005-01-01

    Although domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) possess an otherwise functional sense of taste, they, unlike most mammals, do not prefer and may be unable to detect the sweetness of sugars. One possible explanation for this behavior is that cats lack the sensory system to taste sugars and therefore are indifferent to them. Drawing on work in mice, demonstrating that alleles of sweet-receptor genes predict low sugar intake, we examined the possibility that genes involved in the initial transduction of sweet perception might account for the indifference to sweet-tasting foods by cats. We characterized the sweet-receptor genes of domestic cats as well as those of other members of the Felidae family of obligate carnivores, tiger and cheetah. Because the mammalian sweet-taste receptor is formed by the dimerization of two proteins (T1R2 and T1R3; gene symbols Tas1r2 and Tas1r3), we identified and sequenced both genes in the cat by screening a feline genomic BAC library and by performing PCR with degenerate primers on cat genomic DNA. Gene expression was assessed by RT-PCR of taste tissue, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. The cat Tas1r3 gene shows high sequence similarity with functional Tas1r3 genes of other species. Message from Tas1r3 was detected by RT-PCR of taste tissue. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical studies demonstrate that Tas1r3 is expressed, as expected, in taste buds. However, the cat Tas1r2 gene shows a 247-base pair microdeletion in exon 3 and stop codons in exons 4 and 6. There was no evidence of detectable mRNA from cat Tas1r2 by RT-PCR or in situ hybridization, and no evidence of protein expression by immunohistochemistry. Tas1r2 in tiger and cheetah and in six healthy adult domestic cats all show the similar deletion and stop codons. We conclude that cat Tas1r3 is an apparently functional and expressed receptor but that cat Tas1r2 is an unexpressed pseudogene. A functional sweet-taste receptor heteromer cannot form, and

  14. Structure and variation of three canine genes involved in serotonin binding and transport: the serotonin receptor 1A gene (htr1A), serotonin receptor 2A gene (htr2A), and serotonin transporter gene (slc6A4).

    PubMed

    van den Berg, L; Kwant, L; Hestand, M S; van Oost, B A; Leegwater, P A J

    2005-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is the most frequently encountered behavioral problem in dogs. Abnormalities in brain serotonin metabolism have been described in aggressive dogs. We studied canine serotonergic genes to investigate genetic factors underlying canine aggression. Here, we describe the characterization of three genes of the canine serotonergic system: the serotonin receptor 1A and 2A gene (htr1A and htr2A) and the serotonin transporter gene (slc6A4). We isolated canine bacterial artificial chromosome clones containing these genes and designed oligonucleotides for genomic sequencing of coding regions and intron-exon boundaries. Golden retrievers were analyzed for DNA sequence variations. We found two nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding sequence of htr1A; one SNP close to a splice site in htr2A; and two SNPs in slc6A4, one in the coding sequence and one close to a splice site. In addition, we identified a polymorphic microsatellite marker for each gene. Htr1A is a strong candidate for involvement in the domestication of the dog. We genotyped the htr1A SNPs in 41 dogs of seven breeds with diverse behavioral characteristics. At least three SNP haplotypes were found. Our results do not support involvement of the gene in domestication.

  15. Transferrin receptor-1 gene polymorphisms are associated with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Real, José Manuel; Mercader, Josep Maria; Ortega, Francisco José; Moreno-Navarrete, Jose Maria; López-Romero, Pedro; Ricart, Wifredo

    2010-07-01

    Iron is involved in oxidative stress and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Transferrin receptor (TFRC) constitutes the major receptor by which most cells take up iron. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether TFRC gene polymorphisms are associated with T2D. We evaluated TFRC gene polymorphism (rs3817672, 210AG, S142G) in a sample of T2D patients and nondiabetic controls (n = 722), and 39 SNPs within the TFRC genomic region analysed by the Welcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC) (1921 T2D subjects and 3000 controls). In a subset of subjects, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were also studied. The frequency of the G allele at the position 210 of the TFRC gene was significantly higher in T2D patients. Both GG and GA genotypes had a 69% (P < 0.01) greater risk of developing T2D estimated under a dominant model. The increased prevalence of the G allele run in parallel to increased sex-adjusted log-serum ferritin and slightly increased soluble transferrin receptor among patients with T2D. Furthermore, post-load glucose and insulin sensitivity were significantly associated with circulating soluble transferrin receptor, and insulin sensitivity was significantly associated with serum ferritin among G allele carriers, (r = -0.33, P = 0.001) but not in AA homozygotes. Sixteen other TFRC SNPs were also associated to T2D according to the Welcome Trust Case Control Consortium data. TFRC gene variants are associated with T2D.

  16. Methylation of the Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene Promoter in Preschoolers: Links with Internalizing Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parade, Stephanie H.; Ridout, Kathryn K.; Seifer, Ronald; Armstrong, David A.; Marsit, Carmen J.; McWilliams, Melissa A.; Tyrka, Audrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that early adversity is linked to methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene, "NR3C1," which is a key regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Yet no prior work has considered the contribution of methylation of "NR3C1" to emerging behavior problems and psychopathology in…

  17. T-cell receptor gene rearrangement in Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Marbello, L; Riva, M; Veronese, S; Nosari, A M; Ravano, E; Colosimo, A; Paris, L; Morra, E

    2012-09-01

    This report describes the case of a previously healthy young man who presented with fever, pharyngitis, cervical lymphadenopathy, lymphocytosis, and severe thrombocytopenia. Serological tests for Epstein-Barr virus were diagnostic of a primary Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis but severe thrombocytopenia aroused the suspicion of a lymphoproliferative disease. T-cell receptor gene analysis performed on peripheral and bone marrow blood revealed a T-cell receptor γ-chain rearrangement without the evidence of malignancy using standard histologic and immunophenotype studies. Signs and symptoms of the infectious disease, blood count, and T-cell receptor gene rearrangement resolved with observation without the evidence of emergence of a lymphoproliferative disease. In the contest of a suspected lymphoproliferative disease, molecular results should be integrated with all available data for an appropriate diagnosis.

  18. [Association of beta 3-adrenergic receptor gene with obesity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Xu, Y; Zhou, L

    2001-09-01

    To investigate the association between the mutation of beta 3-adrenergoc receptor gene and obesity in patients with type 2 diabetes. Body mass, waist-hip ratio, blood pressure and blood lipids were measured in 154 type 2 diabetic patients. Polymerase chain reaction and the restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis were used to determine the wild, heterozygous and homozygous forms of beta 3-adrenergoc receptor gene. The frequency of the Trp64Arg mutation was 42.5% and the frequency of Arg64 allele was 22.6%. The mutation frequency of the genetic types was significantly different between the obese and non-obese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. The body mass, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol were significantly different, when those with Trp64Arg heterozygous were compared with those with Trp64 homozygous. The genetic mutation of beta 3-adrenegoc receptor in patients with type 2 diabetes is probably related to obesity.

  19. Steroid receptor RNA activator (SRA1): unusual bifaceted gene products with suspected relevance to breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Leygue, Etienne

    2007-01-01

    The steroid receptor RNA activator (SRA) is a unique modulator of steroid receptor transcriptional activity, as it is able to mediate its coregulatory effects as a RNA molecule. Recent findings, however, have painted a more complex picture of the SRA gene (SRA1) products. Indeed, even though SRA was initially thought to be noncoding, several RNA isoforms have now been found to encode an endogenous protein (SRAP), which is well conserved among Chordata. Although the function of SRAP remains largely unknown, it has been proposed that, much like its corresponding RNA, the protein itself might regulate estrogen and androgen receptor signaling pathways. As such, data suggest that both SRA and SRAP might participate in the mechanisms underlying breast, as well as prostate tumorigenesis. This review summarizes the published literature dealing with these two faces of the SRA gene products and underscores the relevance of this bifaceted system to breast cancer development. PMID:17710122

  20. Role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gene polymorphisms in type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Chen; Zhou, Hui; Shen, Chong; Yu, Lu-Gang; Ding, Yi; Zhang, Yong-Hong; Guo, Zhi-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are the serious public health problems worldwide. Moreover, it is estimated that MetS patients have about five-fold greater risk of the T2DM development compared with people without the syndrome. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors are a subgroup of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors which play an important role in the pathogenesis of MetS and T2DM. All three members of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) nuclear receptor subfamily, PPARα, PPARβ/δ and PPARγ are critical in regulating insulin sensitivity, adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, and blood pressure. Recently, more and more studies indicated that the gene polymorphism of PPARs, such as Leu162Val and Val227Ala of PPARα, +294T > C of PPARβ/δ, Pro12Ala and C1431T of PPARγ, are significantly associated with the onset and progressing of MetS and T2DM in different population worldwide. Furthermore, a large body of evidence demonstrated that the glucose metabolism and lipid metabolism were influenced by gene-gene interaction among PPARs genes. However, given the complexity pathogenesis of metabolic disease, it is unlikely that genetic variation of a single locus would provide an adequate explanation of inter-individual differences which results in diverse clinical syndromes. Thus, gene-gene interactions and gene-environment interactions associated with T2DM and MetS need future comprehensive studies. PMID:25987964

  1. Evolution of Olfactory Receptor Genes in Primates Dominated by Birth-and-Death Process

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Dong; He, Guimei; Zhang, Shuyi

    2009-01-01

    Olfactory receptor (OR) is a large family of G protein–coupled receptors that can detect odorant in order to generate the sense of smell. They constitute one of the largest multiple gene families in animals including primates. To better understand the variation in odor perception and evolution of OR genes among primates, we computationally identified OR gene repertoires in orangutans, marmosets, and mouse lemurs and investigated the birth-and-death process of OR genes in the primate lineage. The results showed that 1) all the primate species studied have no more than 400 intact OR genes, fewer than rodents and canine; 2) Despite the similar number of OR genes in the genome, the makeup of the OR gene repertoires between different primate species is quite different as they had undergone dramatic birth-and-death evolution with extensive gene losses in the lineages leading to current species; 3) Apes and Old World monkey (OWM) have similar fraction of pseudogenes, whereas New World monkey (NWM) have fewer pseudogenes. To measure the selective pressure that had affected the OR gene repertoires in primates, we compared the ratio of nonsynonymous with synonymous substitution rates by using 70 one-to-one orthologous quintets among five primate species. We found that OR genes showed relaxed selective constraints in apes (humans, chimpanzees, and orangutans) than in OWMs (macaques) and NWMs (marmosets). We concluded that OR gene repertoires in primates have evolved in such a way to adapt to their respective living environments. Differential selective constraints might play important role in the primate OR gene evolution in each primate species. PMID:20333195

  2. Identification of insulin as a novel retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor α target gene.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Jiangying; Hou, Xiaoming; Zhang, Jinlong; Chen, Yulong; Su, Zhiguang

    2014-03-18

    Insulin plays an important role in regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism. Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor α (RORα) modulates physiopathological processes such as dyslipidemia and diabetes. In this study, we found overexpression of RORα in INS1 cells resulted in increased expression and secretion of insulin. Suppression of endogenous RORα caused a decrease of insulin expression. Luciferase and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) assays demonstrated that RORα activated insulin transcription via direct binding to its promoter. RORα was also observed to regulate BETA2 expression, which is one of the insulin active transfactors. In vivo analyses showed that the insulin transcription is increased by the synthetic RORα agonist SR1078. These findings identify RORα as a transcriptional activator of insulin and suggest novel therapeutic opportunities for management of the disease. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Interleukin 17 receptor gene polymorphism in periimplantitis and chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Kadkhodazadeh, Mahdi; Ebadian, Ahmad Reza; Amid, Reza; Youssefi, Navid; Mehdizadeh, Amir Reza

    2013-07-13

    Gene polymorphism of cytokines influencing their function has been known as a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases of the tooth and implant supporting tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of IL-17R gene polymorphism (rs879576) with chronic periodontitis and periimplantitis in an Iranian population. 73 patients with chronic periodontitis, 37 patients with periimplantitis and 83 periodontally healthy patients were enrolled in this study. 5cc blood was obtained from each subject's arm vein and transferred to tubes containing EDTA. Genomic DNA was extracted using Miller's Salting Out technique. The DNA was transferred into 96 division plates, transported to Kbioscience Institute in United Kingdom and analyzed using the Kbioscience Competitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP) technique. Chi-square and Kruskal Wallis tests were used to analyze differences in the expression of genotypes and frequency of alleles in disease and control groups (P-Value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant). There were no significant differences between periodontitis, periimplantitis with AA, GG, GA genotype of IL-17R gene (P=0.8239). Also comparison of frequency of alleles in SNP rs879576 of IL-17R gene between the chronic periodontitis group and periimplantitis group did not revealed statistically significant differences (P=0.8239). The enigma of IL-17 and its polymorphism-role in periodontitis and periimplantitis is yet to be investigated more carefully throughout further research but this article demonstrates that polymorphism of IL-17R plays no significant role in incidence of chronic periodontitis and Periimplantitis.

  4. Mutation analysis of the muscarinic cholinergic receptor genes in isolated growth hormone deficiency type IB.

    PubMed

    Mohamadi, Ali; Martari, Marco; Holladay, Cindy D; Phillips, John A; Mullis, Primus E; Salvatori, Roberto

    2009-07-01

    Isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) is familial in 5-30% of patients. The most frequent form (IGHD-IB) has autosomal recessive inheritance, and it is known that it can be caused by mutations in the GHRH receptor (GHRHR) gene or in the GH gene. However, most forms of IGHD-IB have an unknown genetic cause. In normal subjects, muscarinic cholinergic stimulation causes an increase in pituitary GH release, whereas its blockade has the opposite effect, suggesting that a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAchR) is involved in stimulating GH secretion. Five types of mAchR (M(1)-M(5)) exist. A transgenic mouse in which the function of the M(3) receptor was selectively ablated in the central nervous system has isolated GH deficiency similar to animals with defective GHRH or GHRHR gene. We hypothesized that mAchR mutations may cause a subset of familial IGHD. After confirming the expression of M(1)-M(5) receptor mRNA in human hypothalamus, we analyzed the index cases of 39 families with IGHD-IB for mutations in the genes encoding for the five receptors. Coding sequences for each of the five mAchRs were subjected to direct sequencing. In one family, an affected member was homozygous for a M(3) change in codon 65 that replaces valine with isoleucine (V65I). The V65I receptor was expressed in CHO cells where it had normal ability to transmit methacholine signaling. mAchR mutations are absent or rare (less than 2.6%) in familial IGHD type IB.

  5. Meiotic recombination generates rich diversity in NK cell receptor genes, alleles, and haplotypes

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Paul J.; Abi-Rached, Laurent; Gendzekhadze, Ketevan; Hammond, John A.; Moesta, Achim K.; Sharma, Deepti; Graef, Thorsten; McQueen, Karina L.; Guethlein, Lisbeth A.; Carrington, Christine V.F.; Chandanayingyong, Dasdayanee; Chang, Yih-Hsin; Crespí, Catalina; Saruhan-Direskeneli, Güher; Hameed, Kamran; Kamkamidze, Giorgi; Koram, Kwadwo A.; Layrisse, Zulay; Matamoros, Nuria; Milà, Joan; Park, Myoung Hee; Pitchappan, Ramasamy M.; Ramdath, D. Dan; Shiau, Ming-Yuh; Stephens, Henry A.F.; Struik, Siske; Tyan, Dolly; Verity, David H.; Vaughan, Robert W.; Davis, Ronald W.; Fraser, Patricia A.; Riley, Eleanor M.; Ronaghi, Mostafa; Parham, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells contribute to the essential functions of innate immunity and reproduction. Various genes encode NK cell receptors that recognize the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class I molecules expressed by other cells. For primate NK cells, the killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) are a variable and rapidly evolving family of MHC Class I receptors. Studied here is KIR3DL1/S1, which encodes receptors for highly polymorphic human HLA-A and -B and comprises three ancient allelic lineages that have been preserved by balancing selection throughout human evolution. While the 3DS1 lineage of activating receptors has been conserved, the two 3DL1 lineages of inhibitory receptors were diversified through inter-lineage recombination with each other and with 3DS1. Prominent targets for recombination were D0-domain polymorphisms, which modulate enhancer function, and dimorphism at position 283 in the D2 domain, which influences inhibitory function. In African populations, unequal crossing over between the 3DL1 and 3DL2 genes produced a deleted KIR haplotype in which the telomeric “half” was reduced to a single fusion gene with functional properties distinct from its 3DL1 and 3DL2 parents. Conversely, in Eurasian populations, duplication of the KIR3DL1/S1 locus by unequal crossing over has enabled individuals to carry and express alleles of all three KIR3DL1/S1 lineages. These results demonstrate how meiotic recombination combines with an ancient, preserved diversity to create new KIR phenotypes upon which natural selection acts. A consequence of such recombination is to blur the distinction between alleles and loci in the rapidly evolving human KIR gene family. PMID:19411600

  6. Isolation and characterization of alternatively spliced variants of the mouse sigma1 receptor gene, Sigmar1.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ling; Pasternak, David A; Xu, Jin; Xu, Mingming; Lu, Zhigang; Pasternak, Gavril W; Pan, Ying-Xian

    2017-01-01

    The sigma1 receptor acts as a chaperone at the endoplasmic reticulum, associates with multiple proteins in various cellular systems, and involves in a number of diseases, such as addiction, pain, cancer and psychiatric disorders. The sigma1 receptor is encoded by the single copy SIGMAR1 gene. The current study identifies five alternatively spliced variants of the mouse sigma1 receptor gene using a polymerase chain reaction cloning approach. All the splice variants are generated by exon skipping or alternative 3' or 5' splicing, producing the truncated sigma1 receptor. Similar alternative splicing has been observed in the human SIGMAR1 gene based on the molecular cloning or genome sequence prediction, suggesting conservation of alternative splicing of SIGMAR1 gene. Using quantitative polymerase chain reactions, we demonstrate differential expression of several splice variants in mouse tissues and brain regions. When expressed in HEK293 cells, all the splice variants fail to bind sigma ligands, implicating that each truncated region in these splice variants is important for ligand binding. However, co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) study in HEK293 cells co-transfected with tagged constructs reveals that all the splice variants maintain their ability to physically associate with a mu opioid receptor (mMOR-1), providing useful information to correlate the motifs/sequences necessary for their physical association. Furthermore, a competition Co-IP study showed that all the variants can disrupt in a dose-dependent manner the dimerization of the original sigma1 receptor with mMOR-1, suggesting a potential dominant negative function and providing significant insights into their function.

  7. Isolation and characterization of alternatively spliced variants of the mouse sigma1 receptor gene, Sigmar1

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Ling; Pasternak, David A.; Xu, Jin; Xu, Mingming; Lu, Zhigang; Pasternak, Gavril W.

    2017-01-01

    The sigma1 receptor acts as a chaperone at the endoplasmic reticulum, associates with multiple proteins in various cellular systems, and involves in a number of diseases, such as addiction, pain, cancer and psychiatric disorders. The sigma1 receptor is encoded by the single copy SIGMAR1 gene. The current study identifies five alternatively spliced variants of the mouse sigma1 receptor gene using a polymerase chain reaction cloning approach. All the splice variants are generated by exon skipping or alternative 3’ or 5’ splicing, producing the truncated sigma1 receptor. Similar alternative splicing has been observed in the human SIGMAR1 gene based on the molecular cloning or genome sequence prediction, suggesting conservation of alternative splicing of SIGMAR1 gene. Using quantitative polymerase chain reactions, we demonstrate differential expression of several splice variants in mouse tissues and brain regions. When expressed in HEK293 cells, all the splice variants fail to bind sigma ligands, implicating that each truncated region in these splice variants is important for ligand binding. However, co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) study in HEK293 cells co-transfected with tagged constructs reveals that all the splice variants maintain their ability to physically associate with a mu opioid receptor (mMOR-1), providing useful information to correlate the motifs/sequences necessary for their physical association. Furthermore, a competition Co-IP study showed that all the variants can disrupt in a dose-dependent manner the dimerization of the original sigma1 receptor with mMOR-1, suggesting a potential dominant negative function and providing significant insights into their function. PMID:28350844

  8. Apoptosis gene expression and death receptor signaling in mitomycin-C-treated human tenon capsule fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Crowston, Jonathan G; Chang, Lydia H; Constable, Peter H; Daniels, Julie T; Akbar, Arne N; Khaw, Peng T

    2002-03-01

    To examine the effect of mitomycin-C on the expression of apoptosis genes in human Tenon capsule fibroblasts and to evaluate whether death receptor signaling modulates mitomycin-C cytotoxicity. Bcl-2, Bax, Bcl-x, Fas (CD95) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor expression was determined by flow cytometry in control and mitomycin-C-treated Tenon fibroblasts. Fibroblast death was quantified using a lactate dehydrogenase release assay. The effect of Fas and TNF-receptor signaling was evaluated using Fas-specific antibodies and soluble TNF-alpha. Tenon fibroblasts constitutively express Bcl-2, Bax, and Bcl-x in culture. Mitomycin-C (0.4 mg/mL) induced a small but consistent increase in the expression of all three proteins. Tenon fibroblasts express low levels of Fas but are resistant to the effects of Fas-receptor ligation. Mitomycin-C (0.01-1.0 mg/mL) led to a significant increase in Fas expression at all concentrations tested (P < 0.01). Pretreatment with mitomycin-C (0.4 mg/mL) rendered fibroblasts susceptible to agonistic anti-Fas monoclonal IgM antibodies (50-500 ng/mL) and led to a further 50% reduction in viable fibroblasts at 48 hours, compared with mitomycin-C alone (P < 0.05). Antibodies that block the Fas receptor did not inhibit mitomycin-C-induced apoptosis. Mitomycin-C alters apoptosis gene expression and primes fibroblasts to the effects of Fas receptor ligation. Factors other than the level of Fas receptor expression modulate the response to Fas receptor signaling. Determining the signals that regulate fibroblast apoptosis may help to refine therapeutic strategies for switching off the subconjunctival healing response and maintaining intraocular pressure control.

  9. Effects of prenatal and postnatal depression, and maternal stroking, at the glucocorticoid receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Murgatroyd, C; Quinn, J P; Sharp, H M; Pickles, A; Hill, J

    2015-05-05

    In animal models, prenatal and postnatal stress is associated with elevated hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA) reactivity mediated via altered glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene expression. Postnatal tactile stimulation is associated with reduced HPA reactivity mediated via increased GR gene expression. In this first study in humans to examine the joint effects of prenatal and postnatal environmental exposures, we report that GR gene (NR3C1) 1-F promoter methylation in infants is elevated in the presence of increased maternal postnatal depression following low prenatal depression, and that this effect is reversed by self-reported stroking of the infants by their mothers over the first weeks of life.

  10. SELF ADMINISTRATION OF OXYCODONE BY ADOLESCENT AND ADULT MICE AFFECTS STRIATAL NEUROTRANSMITTER RECEPTOR GENE EXPRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Mayer-Blackwell, B.; Schlussman, S. D.; Butelman, E. R.; Ho, A.; Ott, J.; Kreek, M. J.; Zhang, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Illicit use of prescription opioid analgesics (e.g., oxycodone) in adolescence is a pressing public health issue. Our goal was to determine whether oxycodone self administration differentially affects striatal neurotransmitter receptor gene expression in the dorsal striatum of adolescent compared to adult C57BL/6J mice. Groups of adolescent mice (4 weeks old, n= 12) and of adult mice (11 weeks old, n= 11) underwent surgery during which a catheter was implanted into their jugular veins. After recovering from surgery, mice self administered oxycodone (0.25 mg/kg/infusion) 2 h/day for 14 consecutive days or served as yoked saline controls. Mice were sacrificed within 1 h after the last self-administration session and the dorsal striatum was isolated for mRNA analysis. Gene expression was analyzed with real time PCR using a commercially available neurotransmitter receptor PCR array containing 84 genes. We found that adolescent mice self administered less oxycodone than adult mice over the 14 days. Monoamine oxidase A (Maoa) and neuropeptide Y receptor 5 mRNA levels were lower in adolescent mice than in adult mice without oxycodone exposure. Oxycodone self administration increased Maoa mRNA levels compared to controls in both age groups. There was a positive correlation of the amount of oxycodone self administered in the last session or across 14 sessions with Maoa mRNA levels. Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor mRNA showed a significant Drug × Age interaction, with point-wise significance. More genes in the dorsal striatum of adolescents (19) changed in response to oxycodone self administration compared to controls than in adult (4) mice. Overall, this study demonstrates that repeated oxycodone self administration alters neurotransmitter receptors gene expression in the dorsal striatum of adolescent and adult mice. PMID:24220688

  11. Variation in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) is associated with differences in moral judgment

    PubMed Central

    Chaponis, Jonathan; Siburian, Richie; Gallagher, Patience; Ransohoff, Katherine; Wikler, Daniel; Perlis, Roy H.; Greene, Joshua D.

    2016-01-01

    Moral judgments are produced through the coordinated interaction of multiple neural systems, each of which relies on a characteristic set of neurotransmitters. Genes that produce or regulate these neurotransmitters may have distinctive influences on moral judgment. Two studies examined potential genetic influences on moral judgment using dilemmas that reliably elicit competing automatic and controlled responses, generated by dissociable neural systems. Study 1 (N = 228) examined 49 common variants (SNPs) within 10 candidate genes and identified a nominal association between a polymorphism (rs237889) of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and variation in deontological vs utilitarian moral judgment (that is, judgments favoring individual rights vs the greater good). An association was likewise observed for rs1042615 of the arginine vasopressin receptor gene (AVPR1A). Study 2 (N = 322) aimed to replicate these findings using the aforementioned dilemmas as well as a new set of structurally similar medical dilemmas. Study 2 failed to replicate the association with AVPR1A, but replicated the OXTR finding using both the original and new dilemmas. Together, these findings suggest that moral judgment is influenced by variation in the oxytocin receptor gene and, more generally, that single genetic polymorphisms can have a detectable effect on complex decision processes. PMID:27497314

  12. Variation in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) is associated with differences in moral judgment.

    PubMed

    Bernhard, Regan M; Chaponis, Jonathan; Siburian, Richie; Gallagher, Patience; Ransohoff, Katherine; Wikler, Daniel; Perlis, Roy H; Greene, Joshua D

    2016-12-01

    Moral judgments are produced through the coordinated interaction of multiple neural systems, each of which relies on a characteristic set of neurotransmitters. Genes that produce or regulate these neurotransmitters may have distinctive influences on moral judgment. Two studies examined potential genetic influences on moral judgment using dilemmas that reliably elicit competing automatic and controlled responses, generated by dissociable neural systems. Study 1 (N = 228) examined 49 common variants (SNPs) within 10 candidate genes and identified a nominal association between a polymorphism (rs237889) of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and variation in deontological vs utilitarian moral judgment (that is, judgments favoring individual rights vs the greater good). An association was likewise observed for rs1042615 of the arginine vasopressin receptor gene (AVPR1A). Study 2 (N = 322) aimed to replicate these findings using the aforementioned dilemmas as well as a new set of structurally similar medical dilemmas. Study 2 failed to replicate the association with AVPR1A, but replicated the OXTR finding using both the original and new dilemmas. Together, these findings suggest that moral judgment is influenced by variation in the oxytocin receptor gene and, more generally, that single genetic polymorphisms can have a detectable effect on complex decision processes. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. Smallest bitter taste receptor (T2Rs) gene repertoire in carnivores.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ling-Ling; Shi, Peng

    2013-06-01

    Bitter taste reception is presumably associated with dietary selection, preventing animals from ingesting potentially harmful compounds. Accordingly, carnivores, who encounter these toxic substances less often, should have fewer genes associated with bitter taste reception compared with herbivores and omnivores. To investigate the genetic basis of bitter taste reception, we confirmed bitter taste receptor (T2R) genes previously found in the genome sequences of two herbivores (cow and horse), two omnivores (mouse and rat) and one carnivore (dog). We also identified, for the first time, the T2R repertoire from the genome of other four carnivore species (ferret, giant panda, polar bear and cat) and detected 17-20 bitter receptor genes from the five carnivore genomes, including 12-16 intact genes, 0-1 partial but putatively functional genes, and 3-8 pseudogenes. Both the intact T2R genes and the total T2R gene number among carnivores were the smallest among the tested species, supporting earlier speculations that carnivores have fewer T2R genes, herbivores an intermediate number, and omnivores the largest T2R gene repertoire. To further explain the genetic basis for this disparity, we constructed a phylogenetic tree, which showed most of the T2R genes from the five carnivores were one-to-one orthologs across the tree, suggesting that carnivore T2Rs were conserved among mammals. Similarly, the small carnivore T2R family size was likely due to rare duplication events. Collectively, these results strengthen arguments for the connection between T2R gene family size, diet and habit.

  14. A variant of the sigma receptor type-1 gene is a protective factor for Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Naohiko; Ujike, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yuji; Sakai, Ayumu; Yamamoto, Mitsutoshi; Fujisawa, Yoshikatsu; Kanzaki, Akihiro; Kuroda, Shigetoshi

    2005-12-01

    Some preclinical evidence suggests that the sigma receptor type 1, which plays several roles in learning and memory, may also be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). The authors provide here genetic evidence that the sigma receptor type 1 (SIGMAR1) gene is involved in susceptibility to AD. Two polymorphisms of the SIGMAR1 gene, G-241T/C-240T and Q2P, were analyzed in a Japanese sample of 239 patients with AD and 227 comparisons subjects. These two polymorphisms were in complete linkage disequilibrium with each other, resulting in only two haplotypes, GC-241-240Q2 and TT-241-240P2. There was a significant association between AD and the TT-241-240P2 haplotype of the SIGMAR1 gene and its homozygote, found with late-onset, but not early-onset AD. After stratification by epsilon4 allele status of the apolipoprotein E gene, TT-241-240P2 homozygosity of the SIGMAR1 gene reduced the risk of AD in epsilon4 allele carriers by three-fourths. The present study suggests that the TT-241-240P2 haplotype of the SIGMAR1 gene, which decreases expression of the gene, may have a protective role against susceptibility to AD.

  15. CCR5 chemokine receptor gene polymorphisms in ocular toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    de Faria Junior, Geraldo M; Ayo, Christiane M; de Oliveira, Amanda P; Lopes, Alessandro G; Frederico, Fábio B; Silveira-Carvalho, Aparecida P; Previato, Mariana; Barbosa, Amanda P; Murata, Fernando H A; de Almeida Junior, Gildásio Castello; Siqueira, Rubens Camargo; de Mattos, Luiz C; Brandão de Mattos, Cinara C

    2018-02-01

    CC chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) is a chemokine receptor that influences the immune response to infectious and parasitic diseases. This study aimed to determine whether the CCR5Δ32 and CCR5 59029 A/G polymorphisms are associated with the development of ocular toxoplasmosis in humans. Patients with positive serology for Toxoplasma gondii were analyzed and grouped as 'with ocular toxoplasmosis' (G1: n=160) or 'without ocular toxoplasmosis' (G2: n=160). A control group (G3) consisted of 160 individuals with negative serology. The characterization of the CCR5Δ32 and CCR5 59029 A/G polymorphisms was by PCR and by PCR-RFLP, respectively. The difference between the groups with respect to the mean age (G1: mean age: 47.3, SD±19.3, median: 46 [range: 18-95]; G2: mean age: 61.3, SD±13.7, median: 61 [range: 21-87]; G3: mean age: 38.8, SD±17.9, median: 34 [range: 18-80]) was statistically significant (G1 vs.G2: p-value <0.0001; t=7.21; DF=318; G1 vs.G3: p-value <0.0001; t=4.32; DF=318; G2 vs. G3: p-value <0.0001; t=9.62; DF=318). The Nagelkerke r 2 value was 0.040. There were statistically significant differences for the CCR5/CCR5 (p-value=0.008; OR=0.261), AA (p-value=0.007; OR=2.974) and AG genotypes (p-value=0.018; OR=2.447) between G1 and G2. Individuals with the CCR5/CCR5 genotype and simultaneously the CCR5-59029 AA or AG genotypes have a greater risk of developing ocular toxoplasmosis (4% greater), which may be associated with a strong and persistent inflammatory response in ocular tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Arabidopsis ETR1 and ERS1 Differentially Repress the Ethylene Response in Combination with Other Ethylene Receptor Genes1[W

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qian; Wen, Chi-Kuang

    2012-01-01

    The ethylene response is negatively regulated by a family of five ethylene receptor genes in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The five members of the ethylene receptor family can physically interact and form complexes, which implies that cooperativity for signaling may exist among the receptors. The ethylene receptor gene mutations etr1-1(C65Y)(for ethylene response1-1), ers1-1(I62P) (for ethylene response sensor1-1), and ers1C65Y are dominant, and each confers ethylene insensitivity. In this study, the repression of the ethylene response by these dominant mutant receptor genes was examined in receptor-defective mutants to investigate the functional significance of receptor cooperativity in ethylene signaling. We showed that etr1-1(C65Y), but not ers1-1(I62P), substantially repressed various ethylene responses independent of other receptor genes. In contrast, wild-type receptor genes differentially supported the repression of ethylene responses by ers1-1(I62P); ETR1 and ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE4 (EIN4) supported ers1-1(I62P) functions to a greater extent than did ERS2, ETR2, and ERS1. The lack of both ETR1 and EIN4 almost abolished the repression of ethylene responses by ers1C65Y, which implied that ETR1 and EIN4 have synergistic effects on ers1C65Y functions. Our data indicated that a dominant ethylene-insensitive receptor differentially repressed ethylene responses when coupled with a wild-type ethylene receptor, which supported the hypothesis that the formation of a variety of receptor complexes may facilitate differential receptor signal output, by which ethylene responses can be repressed to different extents. We hypothesize that plants can respond to a broad ethylene concentration range and exhibit tissue-specific ethylene responsiveness with differential cooperation of the multiple ethylene receptors. PMID:22227969

  17. Research Resource: Global Identification of Estrogen Receptor β Target Genes in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shanle, Erin K.; Zhao, Zibo; Hawse, John; Wisinski, Kari; Keles, Sunduz; Yuan, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancers that are negative for estrogen receptor α (ERα), progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 are known as triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC). TNBCs are associated with an overall poor prognosis because they lack expression of therapeutic targets like ERα and are biologically more aggressive. A second estrogen receptor, ERβ, has been found to be expressed in 50% to 90% of ERα-negative breast cancers, and ERβ expression in TNBCs has been shown to correlate with improved disease-free survival and good prognosis. To elucidate the role of ERβ in regulating gene expression and cell proliferation in TNBC cells, the TNBC cell line MDA-MB-468 was engineered with inducible expression of full-length ERβ. In culture, ERβ expression inhibited cell growth by inducing a G1 cell cycle arrest, which was further enhanced by 17β-estradiol treatment. In xenografts, ERβ expression also inhibited tumor formation and growth, and 17β-estradiol treatment resulted in rapid tumor regression. Furthermore, genomic RNA sequencing identified both ligand-dependent and -independent ERβ target genes, some of which were also regulated by ERβ in other TNBC cell lines and correlated with ERβ expression in a cohort of TNBCs from the Cancer Genome Atlas Network. ERβ target genes were enriched in genes that regulate cell death and survival, cell movement, cell development, and growth and proliferation, as well as genes involved in the Wnt/β-catenin and the G1/S cell cycle phase checkpoint pathways. In addition to confirming the anti-proliferative effects of ERβ in TNBC cells, these data provide a comprehensive resource of ERβ target genes and suggest that ERβ may be targeted with ligands that can stimulate its growth inhibitory effects. PMID:23979844

  18. Relevance of estrogen-related receptor gene and ecdysone receptor gene in adult testis of the cricket Teleogryllus emma (Orthoptera: Gryllidae).

    PubMed

    Jin, Wenjie; Jia, Yishu; Tan, E; Xi, Gengsi

    2017-10-30

    Estrogen-related receptor gene (ERR) and ecdysone receptor gene (EcR) belong to the nuclear receptor gene superfamily, both of which are associated with the regulation of insect reproductive development. However, the relationship between ERR and EcR and whether ERR participates in the 20E signal pathway during male reproduction are unclear. In this paper, adult male crickets Teleogryllus emma Ohmschi & Matsumura were divided into the experimental group, negative group, and control group. Crickets of the experimental group were injected with TeERR or TeEcR-dsRNA, and those in the negative group received EGFP-dsRNA. The efficiency of TeERR and TeEcR-RNAi was detected in the experimental group. Furthermore, the transcription level, morphological characteristics as well as weight were analyzed in the TeERR or TeEcR knocked-down testis. Results showed that the expression level of TeERR or TeEcR was significantly down-regulated (P < 0.05) when treated with 2000 ng TeERR or TeEcR-dsRNA for 48 h. The expression level of TeERR could be down-regulated (P < 0.05) using TeEcR-RNAi and vice versa. TeERR and TeEcR-RNAi caused morphological changes in testes, but they had no obvious effect on weight (P > 0.05). These results indicate that TeERR and TeEcR are intimately related to each other. In addition, TeERR may be involved in the 20E signal pathway and maintain the function of adult cricket testis.

  19. Relevance of estrogen-related receptor gene and ecdysone receptor gene in adult testis of the cricket Teleogryllus emma (Orthoptera: Gryllidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Wenjie; Jia, Yishu; Tan, E.; Xi, Gengsi

    2017-12-01

    Estrogen-related receptor gene ( ERR) and ecdysone receptor gene ( EcR) belong to the nuclear receptor gene superfamily, both of which are associated with the regulation of insect reproductive development. However, the relationship between ERR and EcR and whether ERR participates in the 20E signal pathway during male reproduction are unclear. In this paper, adult male crickets Teleogryllus emma Ohmschi & Matsumura were divided into the experimental group, negative group, and control group. Crickets of the experimental group were injected with TeERR or TeEcR-dsRNA, and those in the negative group received EGFP-dsRNA. The efficiency of TeERR and TeEcR-RNAi was detected in the experimental group. Furthermore, the transcription level, morphological characteristics as well as weight were analyzed in the TeERR or TeEcR knocked-down testis. Results showed that the expression level of TeERR or TeEcR was significantly down-regulated ( P < 0.05) when treated with 2000 ng TeERR or TeEcR-dsRNA for 48 h. The expression level of TeERR could be down-regulated ( P < 0.05) using TeEcR-RNAi and vice versa. TeERR and TeEcR-RNAi caused morphological changes in testes, but they had no obvious effect on weight ( P > 0.05). These results indicate that TeERR and TeEcR are intimately related to each other. In addition, TeERR may be involved in the 20E signal pathway and maintain the function of adult cricket testis.

  20. Binding of [3H]MSX-2 (3-(3-hydroxypropyl)-7-methyl-8-(m-methoxystyryl)-1-propargylxanthine) to rat striatal membranes--a new, selective antagonist radioligand for A(2A) adenosine receptors.

    PubMed

    Müller, C E; Maurinsh, J; Sauer, R

    2000-01-01

    The present study describes the preparation and binding properties of a new, potent, and selective A(2A) adenosine receptor (AR) antagonist radioligand, [3H]3-(3-hydroxypropyl)-7-methyl-8-(m-methoxystyryl)-1-propargy lxanth ine ([3H]MSX-2). [3H]MSX-2 binding to rat striatal membranes was saturable and reversible. Saturation experiments showed that [3H]MSX-2 labeled a single class of binding sites with high affinity (K(d)=8.0 nM) and limited capacity (B(max)=1.16 fmol.mg(-1) of protein). The presence of 100 microM GTP, or 10 mM magnesium chloride, respectively, had no effect on [3H]MSX-2 binding. AR agonists competed with the binding of 1 nM [3H]MSX-2 with the following order of potency: 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA)>2-[4-(carboxyethyl)phenylethylamino]-5'-N-ethylcarboxami doaden osine (CGS-21680)>2-chloroadenosine (2-CADO)>N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA). AR antagonists showed the following order of potency: 8-(m-bromostyryl)-3, 7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine (BS-DMPX)>1, 3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX)>(R)-5, 6-dimethyl-7-(1-phenylethyl)-2-(4-pyridyl)-7H-pyrrolo[2, 3-d]pyrimidine-4-amine (SH-128)>3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine (DMPX)>caffeine. The K(i) values for antagonists were in accordance with data from binding studies with the agonist radioligand [3H]CGS21680, while agonist affinities were 3-7-fold lower. [3H]MSX-2 is a highly selective A(2A) AR antagonist radioligand exhibiting a selectivity of at least two orders of magnitude versus all other AR subtypes. The new radioligand shows high specific radioactivity (85 Ci/mmol, 3150 GBq/mmol) and acceptable nonspecific binding at rat striatal membranes of 20-30%, at 1 nM.

  1. Evolutionary dynamics of olfactory receptor genes in chordates: interaction between environments and genomic contents

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Olfaction is essential for the survival of animals. Versatile odour molecules in the environment are received by olfactory receptors (ORs), which form the largest multigene family in vertebrates. Identification of the entire repertories of OR genes using bioinformatics methods from the whole-genome sequences of diverse organisms revealed that the numbers of OR genes vary enormously, ranging from ~1,200 in rats and ~400 in humans to ~150 in zebrafish and ~15 in pufferfish. Most species have a considerable fraction of pseudogenes. Extensive phylogenetic analyses have suggested that the numbers of gene gains and losses are extremely large in the OR gene family, which is a striking example of the birth-and-death evolution. It appears that OR gene repertoires change dynamically, depending on each organism's living environment. For example, higher primates equipped with a well-developed vision system have lost a large number of OR genes. Moreover, two groups of OR genes for detecting airborne odorants greatly expanded after the time of terrestrial adaption in the tetrapod lineage, whereas fishes retain diverse repertoires of genes that were present in aquatic ancestral species. The origin of vertebrate OR genes can be traced back to the common ancestor of all chordate species, but insects, nematodes and echinoderms utilise distinctive families of chemoreceptors, suggesting that chemoreceptor genes have evolved many times independently in animal evolution. PMID:20038498

  2. Identification and Functional Analysis of Pheromone and Receptor Genes in the B3 Mating Locus of Pleurotus eryngii

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung-Hee; Kang, Young Min; Im, Chak Han; Ali, Asjad; Kim, Sun Young; Je, Hee-Jeong; Kim, Min-Keun; Rho, Hyun Su; Lee, Hyun Sook; Kong, Won-Sik; Ryu, Jae-San

    2014-01-01

    Pleurotus eryngii has recently become a major cultivated mushroom; it uses tetrapolar heterothallism as a part of its reproductive process. Sexual development progresses only when the A and B mating types are compatible. Such mating incompatibility occasionally limits the efficiency of breeding programs in which crossing within loci-shared strains or backcrossing strategies are employed. Therefore, understanding the mating system in edible mushroom fungi will help provide a short cut in the development of new strains. We isolated and identified pheromone and receptor genes in the B3 locus of P. eryngii and performed a functional analysis of the genes in the mating process by transformation. A genomic DNA library was constructed to map the entire mating-type locus. The B3 locus was found to contain four pheromone precursor genes and four receptor genes. Remarkably, receptor PESTE3.3.1 has just 34 amino acid residues in its C-terminal cytoplasmic region; therefore, it seems likely to be a receptor-like gene. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (real-time qRT-PCR) revealed that most pheromone and receptor genes showed significantly higher expression in monokaryotic cells than dikaryotic cells. The pheromone genes PEphb3.1 and PEphb3.3 and the receptor gene PESTE3.3.1 were transformed into P5 (A3B4). The transformants were mated with a tester strain (A4B4), and the progeny showed clamp connections and a normal fruiting body, which indicates the proposed role of these genes in mating and fruiting processes. This result also confirms that PESTE3.3.1 is a receptor gene. In this study, we identified pheromone and receptor genes in the B3 locus of P. eryngii and found that some of those genes appear to play a role in the mating and fruiting processes. These results might help elucidate the mechanism of fruiting differentiation and improve breeding efficiency. PMID:25133513

  3. Partial least squares based gene expression analysis in estrogen receptor positive and negative breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Ma, W; Zhang, T-F; Lu, P; Lu, S H

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is categorized into two broad groups: estrogen receptor positive (ER+) and ER negative (ER-) groups. Previous study proposed that under trastuzumab-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy, tumor initiating cell (TIC) featured ER- tumors response better than ER+ tumors. Exploration of the molecular difference of these two groups may help developing new therapeutic strategies, especially for ER- patients. With gene expression profile from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, we performed partial least squares (PLS) based analysis, which is more sensitive than common variance/regression analysis. We acquired 512 differentially expressed genes. Four pathways were found to be enriched with differentially expressed genes, involving immune system, metabolism and genetic information processing process. Network analysis identified five hub genes with degrees higher than 10, including APP, ESR1, SMAD3, HDAC2, and PRKAA1. Our findings provide new understanding for the molecular difference between TIC featured ER- and ER+ breast tumors with the hope offer supports for therapeutic studies.

  4. [Severe type A insulin resistance syndrome due to a mutation in the insulin receptor gene].

    PubMed

    Ros, P; Colino-Alcol, E; Grasso, V; Barbetti, F; Argente, J

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance syndromes without lipodystrophy are an infrequent and heterogeneous group of disorders with variable clinical phenotypes, associated with hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. The three conditions related to mutations in the insulin receptor gene are leprechaunism or Donohue syndrome, Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome, and Type A syndrome. A case is presented on a patient diagnosed with type A insulin resistance, defined by the triad of extreme insulin resistance, acanthosis nigricans, and hyperandrogenism, carrying a heterozygous mutation in exon 19 of the insulin receptor gene coding for its tyrosine kinase domain that is crucial for the catalytic activity of the receptor. The molecular basis of the syndrome is reviewed, focusing on the structure-function relationships of the insulin receptor, knowing that the criteria for survival are linked to residual insulin receptor function. It is also pointed out that, although type A insulin resistance appears to represent a somewhat less severe condition, these patients have a high morbidity and their treatment is still unsatisfactory. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Cloning and functional characterization of the DA2 receptor gene in Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Min-jie; Zhang, Cong; Yang, Zhigang

    2018-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) plays a modulatory role in numerous physiological processes such as light adaptation and food intake, and exerts these functions through DA receptors (DARs). This study presents, for the first time, isolation and characterization of the dopamine receptor 2(DA2 receptor) cDNA from the intestinal tissue of Eriocheir sinensis, an economically important freshwater aquaculture species in China. The DA2 receptor cDNA sequence, which was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends, is 2369bp long, encode peptide of 589 amino acid, and is highly homologous to related sequences in crustaceans. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence and the structure of the DA2 indicated that this receptor is a member of the family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), as it contains seven transmembrane domains and other common signatures of GPCRs. RT-PCR showed that the expression of the DA2 receptor gene was distributed in various tissues, and high expression levels were observed in the cranial ganglia and the thoracic ganglia. Further study of the effect of photoperiod on DA2 expression showed that constant darkness induced a significant increase in DA2 expression in the cranial ganglia. Finally, analysis of DA2 receptor expression under different feeding statuses showed that there was significantly greater expression in the hepatopancreas and intestines after feeding than before feeding, but there were no differences in expression between the before feeding and during feeding periods in either tissue. Our results indicate that the DA2 receptor structurally belongs to the family of G protein-coupled receptors, and that the cranial ganglia are the main tissues in which the DA2 receptor participates in light adaptation during dark hours. In addition, the DA2 receptor in E. sinensis may be involved in the physiological regulation of the hepatopancreas and digestive tract after the ingestion of food. This study provides a foundation for further exploration of the light

  6. Selective upregulation of endothelin B receptor gene expression in severe pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Michael; Wilkens, Heinrike; Langer, Frank; Schneider, Sven O; Lausberg, Henning; Schäfers, Hans-Joachim

    2002-03-05

    The pulmonary circulation is an important site for the production and clearance of endothelin (ET)-1, a potent vasoactive and mitogenic peptide. Increased plasma ET-1 levels are observed in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PHT) and may contribute to the regulation of pulmonary vascular resistance, as well as to proliferative changes in the pulmonary vascular bed. We prospectively assessed changes in plasma big ET-1 levels and changes in ET(A) and ET(B) receptor gene expression in 14 consecutive patients undergoing pulmonary thromboendarterectomy for thromboembolic PHT. Plasma big ET-1 levels were higher in patients with PHT (median, 2.2 pg/mL; 25th to 75th percentile, 1.5 to 3.0 pg/mL) compared with age-matched controls (median, 1.2 pg/mL; 25th to 75th percentile, 1.0 to 1.4 pg/mL; P=0.002). In addition to increased plasma big ET-1 levels, selective upregulation of ET(B) receptor mRNA transcripts and immunoreactive protein in the pulmonary artery was observed in the patients; however, ET(A) receptor gene expression was unaffected. These data suggest that changes in the ET signaling system in PHT caused by thromboembolic disease are not limited to an increased production of ET-1: they also affect ET receptor gene expression.

  7. Largest vertebrate vomeronasal type 1 receptor gene repertoire in the semiaquatic platypus.

    PubMed

    Grus, Wendy E; Shi, Peng; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2007-10-01

    Vertebrate vomeronasal chemoreception plays important roles in many aspects of an organism's daily life, such as mating, territoriality, and foraging. Vomeronasal type 1 receptors (V1Rs) and vomeronasal type 2 receptors (V2Rs), 2 large families of G protein-coupled receptors, serve as vomeronasal receptors to bind to various pheromones and odorants. Contrary to the previous observations of reduced olfaction in aquatic and semiaquatic mammals, we here report the surprising finding that the platypus, a semiaquatic monotreme, has the largest V1R repertoire and nearly largest combined repertoire of V1Rs and V2Rs of all vertebrates surveyed, with 270 intact genes and 579 pseudogenes in the V1R family and 15 intact genes, 55 potentially intact genes, and 57 pseudogenes in the V2R family. Phylogenetic analysis shows a remarkable expansion of the V1R repertoire and a moderate expansion of the V2R repertoire in platypus since the separation of monotremes from placentals and marsupials. Our results challenge the view that olfaction is unimportant to aquatic mammals and call for further study into the role of vomeronasal reception in platypus physiology and behavior.

  8. Melanocortin-1 receptor gene variants affect pain and µ-opioid analgesia in mice and humans

    PubMed Central

    Mogil, J; Ritchie, J; Smith, S; Strasburg, K; Kaplan, L; Wallace, M; Romberg, R; Bijl, H; Sarton, E; Fillingim, R; Dahan, A

    2005-01-01

    Background: A recent genetic study in mice and humans revealed the modulatory effect of MC1R (melanocortin-1 receptor) gene variants on κ-opioid receptor mediated analgesia. It is unclear whether this gene affects basal pain sensitivity or the efficacy of analgesics acting at the more clinically relevant µ-opioid receptor. Objective: To characterise sensitivity to pain and µ-opioid analgesia in mice and humans with non-functional melanocortin-1 receptors. Methods: Comparisons of spontaneous mutant C57BL/6-Mc1re/e mice to C57BL/6 wildtype mice, followed by a gene dosage study of pain and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) analgesia in humans with MC1R variants. Results: C57BL/6-Mc1re/e mutant mice and human redheads—both with non-functional MC1Rs—display reduced sensitivity to noxious stimuli and increased analgesic responsiveness to the µ-opioid selective morphine metabolite, M6G. In both species the differential analgesia is likely due to pharmacodynamic factors, as plasma levels of M6G are similar across genotype. Conclusions: Genotype at MC1R similarly affects pain sensitivity and M6G analgesia in mice and humans. These findings confirm the utility of cross species translational strategies in pharmacogenetics. PMID:15994880

  9. Control of transcriptional repression of the vitellogenin receptor gene in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) by select estrogen receptors isotypes.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Gustavo A; Bisesi, Joseph H; Kroll, Kevin J; Denslow, Nancy D; Sabo-Attwood, Tara

    2014-10-01

    The vitellogenin receptor (Vtgr) plays an important role in fish reproduction. This receptor functions to incorporate vitellogenin (Vtg), a macromolecule synthesized and released from the liver in the bloodstream, into oocytes where it is processed into yolk. Although studies have focused on the functional role of Vtgr in fish, the mechanistic control of this gene is still unexplored. Here we report the identification and analysis of the first piscine 5' regulatory region of the vtgr gene which was cloned from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Using this putative promoter sequence, we investigated a role for hormones, including insulin and 17β-estradiol (E2), in transcriptional regulation through cell-based reporter assays. No effect of insulin was observed, however, E2 was able to repress transcriptional activity of the vtgr promoter through select estrogen receptor subtypes, Esr1 and Esr2a but not Esr2b. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that Esr1 likely interacts with the vtgr promoter region through half ERE and/or SP1 sites, in part. Finally we also show that ethinylestradiol (EE2), but not bisphenol-A (BPA), represses promoter activity similarly to E2. These results reveal for the first time that the Esr1 isoform may play an inhibitory role in the expression of LMB vtgr mRNA under the influence of E2, and potent estrogens such as EE2. In addition, this new evidence suggests that vtgr may be a target of select endocrine disrupting compounds through environmental exposures. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Control of Transcriptional Repression of the Vitellogenin Receptor Gene in Largemouth Bass (Micropterus Salmoides) by Select Estrogen Receptors Isotypes

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, Gustavo A.; Bisesi, Joseph H.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Sabo-Attwood, Tara

    2014-01-01

    The vitellogenin receptor (Vtgr) plays an important role in fish reproduction. This receptor functions to incorporate vitellogenin (Vtg), a macromolecule synthesized and released from the liver in the bloodstream, into oocytes where it is processed into yolk. Although studies have focused on the functional role of Vtgr in fish, the mechanistic control of this gene is still unexplored. Here we report the identification and analysis of the first piscine 5′ regulatory region of the vtgr gene which was cloned from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Using this putative promoter sequence, we investigated a role for hormones, including insulin and 17β-estradiol (E2), in transcriptional regulation through cell-based reporter assays. No effect of insulin was observed, however, E2 was able to repress transcriptional activity of the vtgr promoter through select estrogen receptor subtypes, Esr1 and Esr2a but not Esr2b. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that Esr1 likely interacts with the vtgr promoter region through half ERE and/or SP1 sites, in part. Finally we also show that ethinylestradiol (EE2), but not bisphenol-A (BPA), represses promoter activity similarly to E2. These results reveal for the first time that the Esr1 isoform may play an inhibitory role in the expression of LMB vtgr mRNA under the influence of E2, and potent estrogens such as EE2. In addition, this new evidence suggests that vtgr may be a target of select endocrine disrupting compounds through environmental exposures. PMID:25061109

  11. Dopamine inhibits somatolactin gene expression in tilapia pituitary cells through the dopamine D2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Quan; Lian, Anji; He, Qi

    2016-07-01

    Dopamine (DA) is an important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system of vertebrates and possesses key hypophysiotropic functions. Early studies have shown that DA has a potent inhibitory effect on somatolactin (SL) release in fish. However, the mechanisms responsible for DA inhibition of SL gene expression are largely unknown. To this end, tilapia DA type-1 (D1) and type-2 (D2) receptor transcripts were examined in the neurointermediate lobe (NIL) of the tilapia pituitary by real-time PCR. In tilapia, DA not only was effective in inhibiting SL mRNA levels in vivo and in vitro, but also could abolish pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)- and salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH)-stimulated SL gene expression at the pituitary level. In parallel studies, the specific D2 receptor agonists quinpirole and bromocriptine could mimic the DA-inhibited SL gene expression. Furthermore, the D2 receptor antagonists domperidone and (-)-sulpiride could abolish the SL response to DA or the D2 agonist quinpirole, whereas D1 receptor antagonists SCH23390 and SKF83566 were not effective in this respect. In primary cultures of tilapia NIL cells, D2 agonist quinpirole-inhibited cAMP production could be blocked by co-treatment with the D2 antagonist domperidone and the ability of forskolin to increase cAMP production was also inhibited by quinpirole. Using a pharmacological approach, the AC/cAMP pathway was shown to be involved in quinpirole-inhibited SL mRNA expression. These results provide evidence that DA can directly inhibit SL gene expression at the tilapia pituitary level via D2 receptor through the AC/cAMP-dependent mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Gene expression information improves reliability of receptor status in breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Kenn, Michael; Schlangen, Karin; Castillo-Tong, Dan Cacsire; Singer, Christian F.; Cibena, Michael; Koelbl, Heinz; Schreiner, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Immunohistochemical (IHC) determination of receptor status in breast cancer patients is frequently inaccurate. Since it directs the choice of systemic therapy, it is essential to increase its reliability. We increase the validity of IHC receptor expression by additionally considering gene expression (GE) measurements. Crisp therapeutic decisions are based on IHC estimates, even if they are borderline reliable. We further improve decision quality by a responsibility function, defining a critical domain for gene expression. Refined normalization is devised to file any newly diagnosed patient into existing data bases. Our approach renders receptor estimates more reliable by identifying patients with questionable receptor status. The approach is also more efficient since the rate of conclusive samples is increased. We have curated and evaluated gene expression data, together with clinical information, from 2880 breast cancer patients. Combining IHC with gene expression information yields a method more reliable and also more efficient as compared to common practice up to now. Several types of possibly suboptimal treatment allocations, based on IHC receptor status alone, are enumerated. A ‘therapy allocation check’ identifies patients possibly miss-classified. Estrogen: false negative 8%, false positive 6%. Progesterone: false negative 14%, false positive 11%. HER2: false negative 2%, false positive 50%. Possible implications are discussed. We propose an ‘expression look-up-plot’, allowing for a significant potential to improve the quality of precision medicine. Methods are developed and exemplified here for breast cancer patients, but they may readily be transferred to diagnostic data relevant for therapeutic decisions in other fields of oncology. PMID:29100391

  13. Genomic location of the bovine growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) gene and investigation of genetic polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Colinet, F G; Vanderick, S; Charloteaux, B; Eggen, A; Gengler, N; Renaville, B; Brasseur, R; Portetelle, D; Renaville, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) is involved in the regulation of energetic homeostasis and GH secretion. In this study, the bovine GHSR gene was mapped to BTA1 between BL26 and BMS4004. Two different bovine GHSR CDS (GHSR1a and GHSR1b) were sequenced. Six polymorphisms (five SNPs and one 3-bp indel) were also identified, three of them leading to amino acid variations L24V, D194N, and Del R242. These variations are located in the extracellular N-terminal end, the exoloop 2, and the cytoloop 3 of the receptor, respectively.

  14. Caffeine Inhibits the Activation of Hepatic Stellate Cells Induced by Acetaldehyde via Adenosine A2A Receptor Mediated by the cAMP/PKA/SRC/ERK1/2/P38 MAPK Signal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wanzhi; Wang, Qi; Zhao, Han; Yang, Feng; Lv, Xiongwen; Li, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation is an essential event during alcoholic liver fibrosis. Evidence suggests that adenosine aggravates liver fibrosis via the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR). Caffeine, which is being widely consumed during daily life, inhibits the action of adenosine. In this study, we attempted to validate the hypothesis that caffeine influences acetaldehyde-induced HSC activation by acting on A2AR. Acetaldehyde at 50, 100, 200, and 400 μM significantly increased HSC-T6 cells proliferation, and cell proliferation reached a maximum at 48 h after exposure to 200 μM acetaldehyde. Caffeine and the A2AR antagonist ZM241385 decreased the cell viability and inhibited the expression of procollagen type I and type III in acetaldehyde-induced HSC-T6 cells. In addition, the inhibitory effect of caffeine on the expression of procollagen type I was regulated by A2AR-mediated signal pathway involving cAMP, PKA, SRC, and ERK1/2. Interestingly, caffeine’s inhibitory effect on the expression of procollagen type III may depend upon the A2AR-mediated P38 MAPK-dependent pathway. Conclusions: Caffeine significantly inhibited acetaldehyde-induced HSC-T6 cells activation by distinct A2AR mediated signal pathway via inhibition of cAMP-PKA-SRC-ERK1/2 for procollagen type I and via P38 MAPK for procollagen type III. PMID:24682220

  15. Polymorphisms at the Ligand Binding Site of the Vitamin D Receptor Gene and Osteomalacia

    PubMed Central

    Ak, Duygu Gezen; Kahraman, Hakkí; Dursun, Erdinç; Duman, Belgin Süsleyici; Erensoy, Nevin; Alagöl, Faruk; Tanakol, Refik; Yılmazer, Selma

    2005-01-01

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms have been suggested as possible determinants of bone mineral density (BMD) and calcium metabolism. In this study, our aim was to determine whether there is an association between VDR gene polymorphism and osteomalacia or not. We determined ApaI and TaqI polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor gene in 24 patients with osteomalacia and 25 age-matched healthy controls. Serum calcium, phosphorus, ALP, PTH, 25OHD levels were also examined. We used PCR and RFLP methods to test for an association between osteomalacia and polymorphisms within, intron 8 and exon 9 of the VDR gene. When the control and patients were compared for their ApaI and TaqI genotypes there was no relationship between VDR gene allelic polymorphisms and osteomalacia. Whereas a nearly significant difference for A allele was found in the allellic distribution of the patients (p = 0.08). Also no association between biochemical data and VDR gene polymorphisms was observed. PMID:16403954

  16. Repurposed transcriptomic data facilitate discovery of innate immunity toll-like receptor (TLR) Genes across Lophotrochozoa.

    PubMed

    Halanych, Kenneth M; Kocot, Kevin M

    2014-10-01

    The growing volume of genomic data from across life represents opportunities for deriving valuable biological information from data that were initially collected for another purpose. Here, we use transcriptomes collected for phylogenomic studies to search for toll-like receptor (TLR) genes in poorly sampled lophotrochozoan clades (Annelida, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Phoronida, and Entoprocta) and one ecdysozoan clade (Priapulida). TLR genes are involved in innate immunity across animals by recognizing potential microbial infection. They have an extracellular leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain connected to a transmembrane domain and an intracellular toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. Consequently, these genes are important in initiating a signaling pathway to trigger defense. We found at least one TLR ortholog in all but two taxa examined, suggesting that a broad array of lophotrochozoans may have innate immune systems similar to those observed in vertebrates and arthropods. Comparison to the SMART database confirmed the presence of both the LRR and the TIR protein motifs characteristic of TLR genes. Because we looked at only one transcriptome per species, discovery of TLR genes was limited for most taxa. However, several TRL-like genes that vary in the number and placement of LRR domains were found in phoronids. Additionally, several contigs contained LRR domains but lacked TIR domains, suggesting they were not TLRs. Many of these LRR-containing contigs had other domains (e.g., immunoglobin) and are likely involved in innate immunity. © 2014 Marine Biological Laboratory.

  17. Amtyr1: characterization of a gene from honeybee (Apis mellifera) brain encoding a functional tyramine receptor.

    PubMed

    Blenau, W; Balfanz, S; Baumann, A

    2000-03-01

    Biogenic amine receptors are involved in the regulation and modulation of various physiological and behavioral processes in both vertebrates and invertebrates. We have cloned a member of this gene family from the CNS of the honeybee, Apis mellifera. The deduced amino acid sequence is homologous to tyramine receptors cloned from Locusta migratoria and Drosophila melanogaster as well as to an octopamine receptor cloned from Heliothis virescens. Functional properties of the honeybee receptor were studied in stably transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Tyramine reduced forskolin-induced cyclic AMP production in a dose-dependent manner with an EC50 of approximately 130 nM. A similar effect of tyramine was observed in membrane homogenates of honeybee brains. Octopamine also reduced cyclic AMP production in the transfected cell line but was both less potent (EC50 of approximately 3 microM) and less efficacious than tyramine. Receptor-encoding mRNA has a wide-spread distribution in the brain and subesophageal ganglion of the honeybee, suggesting that this tyramine receptor is involved in sensory signal processing as well as in higher-order brain functions.

  18. Nucleotide sequence and structural organization of the human vasopressin pituitary receptor (V3) gene.

    PubMed

    René, P; Lenne, F; Ventura, M A; Bertagna, X; de Keyzer, Y

    2000-01-04

    In the pituitary, vasopressin triggers ACTH release through a specific receptor subtype, termed V3 or V1b. We cloned the V3 cDNA and showed that its expression was almost exclusive to pituitary corticotrophs and some corticotroph tumors. To study the determinants of this tissue specificity, we have now cloned the gene for the human (h) V3 receptor and characterized its structure. It is composed of two exons, spanning 10kb, with the coding region interrupted between transmembrane domains 6 and 7. We established that the transcription initiation site is located 498 nucleotides upstream of the initiator codon and showed that two polyadenylation sites may be used, while the most frequent is the most downstream. Sequence analysis of the promoter region showed no TATA box but identified consensus binding motifs for Sp1, CREB, and half sites of the estrogen receptor binding site. However comparison with another corticotroph-specific gene, proopiomelanocortin, did not identify common regulatory elements in the two promoters except for a short GC-rich region. Unexpectedly, hV3 gene analysis revealed that a formerly cloned 'artifactual' hV3 cDNA indeed corresponded to a spliced antisense transcript, overlapping the 5' part of the coding sequence in exon 1 and the promoter region. This transcript, hV3rev, was detected in normal pituitary and in many corticotroph tumors expressing hV3 sense mRNA and may therefore play a role in hV3 gene expression.

  19. Sweet Taste Receptor Gene Variation and Aspartame Taste in Primates and Other Species

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xia; Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Maehashi, Kenji; Li, Weihua; Lim, Raymond; Brand, Joseph G.; Beauchamp, Gary K.; Reed, Danielle R.; Thai, Chloe

    2011-01-01

    Aspartame is a sweetener added to foods and beverages as a low-calorie sugar replacement. Unlike sugars, which are apparently perceived as sweet and desirable by a range of mammals, the ability to taste aspartame varies, with humans, apes, and Old World monkeys perceiving aspartame as sweet but not other primate species. To investigate whether the ability to perceive the sweetness of aspartame correlates with variations in the DNA sequence of the genes encoding sweet taste receptor proteins, T1R2 and T1R3, we sequenced these genes in 9 aspartame taster and nontaster primate species. We then compared these sequences with sequences of their orthologs in 4 other nontasters species. We identified 9 variant sites in the gene encoding T1R2 and 32 variant sites in the gene encoding T1R3 that distinguish aspartame tasters and nontasters. Molecular docking of aspartame to computer-generated models of the T1R2 + T1R3 receptor dimer suggests that species variation at a secondary, allosteric binding site in the T1R2 protein is the most likely origin of differences in perception of the sweetness of aspartame. These results identified a previously unknown site of aspartame interaction with the sweet receptor and suggest that the ability to taste aspartame might have developed during evolution to exploit a specialized food niche. PMID:21414996

  20. Polymorphism and genetic mapping of the human oxytocin receptor gene on chromosome 3

    SciTech Connect

    Michelini, S.; Urbanek, M.; Goldman, D.

    1995-06-19

    Centrally administered oxytocin has been reported to facilitate affiliative and social behaviors, in functional harmony with its well-known peripheral effects on uterine contraction and milk ejection. The biological effects of oxytocin could be perturbed by mutations occurring in the sequence of the oxytocin receptor gene, and it would be of interest to establish the position of this gene on the human linkage map. Therefore we identified a polymorphism at the human oxytocin receptor gene. A portion of the 3{prime} untranslated region containing a 30 bp CA repeat was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), revealing a polymorphism with two allelesmore » occurring with frequencies of 0.77 and 0.23 in a sample of Caucasian CEPH parents (n = 70). The CA repeat polymorphism we detected was used to map the human oxytocin receptor to chromosome 3p25-3p26, in a region which contains several important genes, including loci for Von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) and renal cell carcinoma. 53 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.« less

  1. Oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with human directed social behavior in dogs (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Kis, Anna; Bence, Melinda; Lakatos, Gabriella; Pergel, Enikő; Turcsán, Borbála; Pluijmakers, Jolanda; Vas, Judit; Elek, Zsuzsanna; Brúder, Ildikó; Földi, Levente; Sasvári-Székely, Mária; Miklósi, Adám; Rónai, Zsolt; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2014-01-01

    The oxytocin system has a crucial role in human sociality; several results prove that polymorphisms of the oxytocin receptor gene are related to complex social behaviors in humans. Dogs' parallel evolution with humans and their adaptation to the human environment has made them a useful species to model human social interactions. Previous research indicates that dogs are eligible models for behavioral genetic research, as well. Based on these previous findings, our research investigated associations between human directed social behaviors and two newly described (-212AG, 19131AG) and one known (rs8679684) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the regulatory regions (5' and 3' UTR) of the oxytocin receptor gene in German Shepherd (N = 104) and Border Collie (N = 103) dogs. Dogs' behavior traits have been estimated in a newly developed test series consisting of five episodes: Greeting by a stranger, Separation from the owner, Problem solving, Threatening approach, Hiding of the owner. Buccal samples were collected and DNA was isolated using standard protocols. SNPs in the 3' and 5' UTR regions were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction based techniques followed by subsequent electrophoresis analysis. The gene-behavior association analysis suggests that oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms have an impact in both breeds on (i) proximity seeking towards an unfamiliar person, as well as their owner, and on (ii) how friendly dogs behave towards strangers, although the mediating molecular regulatory mechanisms are yet unknown. Based on these results, we conclude that similarly to humans, the social behavior of dogs towards humans is influenced by the oxytocin system.

  2. Sweet taste receptor gene variation and aspartame taste in primates and other species.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Bachmanov, Alexander A; Maehashi, Kenji; Li, Weihua; Lim, Raymond; Brand, Joseph G; Beauchamp, Gary K; Reed, Danielle R; Thai, Chloe; Floriano, Wely B

    2011-06-01

    Aspartame is a sweetener added to foods and beverages as a low-calorie sugar replacement. Unlike sugars, which are apparently perceived as sweet and desirable by a range of mammals, the ability to taste aspartame varies, with humans, apes, and Old World monkeys perceiving aspartame as sweet but not other primate species. To investigate whether the ability to perceive the sweetness of aspartame correlates with variations in the DNA sequence of the genes encoding sweet taste receptor proteins, T1R2 and T1R3, we sequenced these genes in 9 aspartame taster and nontaster primate species. We then compared these sequences with sequences of their orthologs in 4 other nontasters species. We identified 9 variant sites in the gene encoding T1R2 and 32 variant sites in the gene encoding T1R3 that distinguish aspartame tasters and nontasters. Molecular docking of aspartame to computer-generated models of the T1R2 + T1R3 receptor dimer suggests that species variation at a secondary, allosteric binding site in the T1R2 protein is the most likely origin of differences in perception of the sweetness of aspartame. These results identified a previously unknown site of aspartame interaction with the sweet receptor and suggest that the ability to taste aspartame might have developed during evolution to exploit a specialized food niche.

  3. Association study between schizophrenia and dopamine D3 receptor gene polymorphism

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Toshihisa; Takahashi, Makoto; Maeda, Masaya

    Crocq et al. reported the existence of an association between schizophrenia and homozygosity of a BalI polymorphism in the first exon of the dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) gene. In response to this report, further studies were conducted; however, these studies yielded conflicting results. In the present study, we examined 100 unrelated Japanese schizophrenics and 100 normal controls to determine any association between this polymorphism and schizophrenia. Results suggest that neither allele nor genotype frequencies of the DRD3 gene in the schizophrenics as a whole are significantly different from those of the controls. Further, we found no association between any allelemore » or genotype and any clinical subtype based on family history of schizophrenia and age-at-onset. A significantly high frequency of homozygosity of a dopamine D3 receptor gene allele was not observed in the schizophrenics as a whole, or in clinical subtypes. Our results suggest that an association between the dopamine D3 receptor gene and schizophrenia is unlikely to exist. 26 refs., 1 tab.« less

  4. Transcriptional activity of TGFβ1 and its receptors genes in thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Kajdaniuk, Dariusz; Marek, Anna; Marek, Bogdan; Mazurek, Urszula; Fila-Daniłow, Anna; Foltyn, Wanda; Morawiec-Szymonik, Elżbieta; Siemińśka, Lucyna; Nowak, Mariusz; Głogowska-Szeląg, Joanna; Niedziołka-Zielonka, Danuta; Seemann, Michał; Kos-Kudła, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Determination of gene-candidates' profile expression responsible for fibrosis, immunosuppression, angiogenesis, and neoplasia processes in the pathogenesis of thyroid gland disease. Sixty-three patients underwent thyroidectomy: 27 with non-toxic nodular goitre (NG), 22 with toxic nodular goitre (TNG), six with papillary cancer (PTC), and eight with Graves' disease (GD). In thyroid tissues, transcriptional activity of TGFbeta1 and its receptors TGFbetaRI, TGFbetaRII, and TGFbetaRIII genes were assessed using RT-qPCR (Reverse Transcriptase Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction). Molecular analysis was performed in tissues derived from GD and from the tumour centre (PTC, NG, TNG) and from peripheral parts of the removed lobe without histopathological lesions (tissue control). Control tissue for analysis performed in GD was an unchanged tissue derived from peripheral parts of the removed lobe of patients surgically treated for a single benign tumour. Strict regulation observed among transcriptional activity of TGFb1 and their receptor TGFbetaRI-III genes in control tissues is disturbed in all pathological tissues - it is completely disturbed in PTC and GD, and partially in NG and TNG. Additionally, higher transcriptional activity of TGFb1 gene in PTC in comparison with benign tissues (NG, GD) and lower expression of mRNA TGFbRII (than in TNG, GD) and mRNA TGFbetaRIII than in all studied benign tissues (NG, TNG, GD) suggests a pathogenetic importance of this cytokine and its receptors in PTC development. In GD tissue, higher transcriptional activity of TGFbetaRII and TGFbetaRIII genes as compared to other pathological tissues was observed, indicating a participation of the receptors in the pathomechanism of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). TGFbeta1 blood concentrations do not reflect pathological processes taking place in thyroid gland. (Endokrynol Pol 2016; 67 (4): 375-382).

  5. Diversity and impact of rare variants in genes encoding the platelet G protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Jones, Matthew L; Norman, Jane E; Morgan, Neil V; Mundell, Stuart J; Lordkipanidzé, Marie; Lowe, Gillian C; Daly, Martina E; Simpson, Michael A; Drake, Sian; Watson, Steve P; Mumford, Andrew D

    2015-04-01

    Platelet responses to activating agonists are influenced by common population variants within or near G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) genes that affect receptor activity. However, the impact of rare GPCR gene variants is unknown. We describe the rare single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in the coding and splice regions of 18 GPCR genes in 7,595 exomes from the 1,000-genomes and Exome Sequencing Project databases and in 31 cases with inherited platelet function disorders (IPFDs). In the population databases, the GPCR gene target regions contained 740 SNVs (318 synonymous, 410 missense, 7 stop gain and 6 splice region) of which 70 % had global minor allele frequency (MAF) < 0.05 %. Functional annotation using six computational algorithms, experimental evidence and structural data identified 156/740 (21 %) SNVs as potentially damaging to GPCR function, most commonly in regions encoding the transmembrane and C-terminal intracellular receptor domains. In 31 index cases with IPFDs (Gi-pathway defect n=15; secretion defect n=11; thromboxane pathway defect n=3 and complex defect n=2) there were 256 SNVs in the target regions of 15 stimulatory platelet GPCRs (34 unique; 12 with MAF< 1 % and 22 with MAF≥ 1 %). These included rare variants predicting R122H, P258T and V207A substitutions in the P2Y12 receptor that were annotated as potentially damaging, but only partially explained the platelet function defects in each case. Our data highlight that potentially damaging variants in platelet GPCR genes have low individual frequencies, but are collectively abundant in the population. Potentially damaging variants are also present in pedigrees with IPFDs and may contribute to complex laboratory phenotypes.

  6. The Evolutionary Dynamics of the Odorant Receptor Gene Family in Corbiculate Bees

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Santiago R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Insects rely on chemical information to locate food, choose mates, and detect potential predators. It has been hypothesized that adaptive changes in the olfactory system facilitated the diversification of numerous insect lineages. For instance, evolutionary changes of Odorant Receptor (OR) genes often occur in parallel with modifications in life history strategies. Corbiculate bees display a diverse array of behaviors that are controlled through olfaction, including varying degrees of social organization, and manifold associations with floral resources. Here we investigated the molecular mechanisms driving the evolution of the OR gene family in corbiculate bees in comparison to other chemosensory gene families. Our results indicate that the genomic organization of the OR gene family has remained highly conserved for ∼80 Myr, despite exhibiting major changes in repertoire size among bee lineages. Moreover, the evolution of OR genes appears to be driven mostly by lineage-specific gene duplications in few genomic regions that harbor large numbers of OR genes. A selection analysis revealed that OR genes evolve under positive selection, with the strongest signals detected in recently duplicated copies. Our results indicate that chromosomal translocations had a minimal impact on OR evolution, and instead local molecular mechanisms appear to be main drivers of OR repertoire size. Our results provide empirical support to the longstanding hypothesis that positive selection shaped the diversification of the OR gene family. Together, our results shed new light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the evolution of olfaction in insects. PMID:28854688

  7. Association of polymorphisms in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 4 subunit gene (CHRNA4), mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1), and ethanol-metabolizing enzyme genes with alcoholism in Korean patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soon Ae; Kim, Jong-Woo; Song, Ji-Young; Park, Sunny; Lee, Hee Jae; Chung, Joo-Ho

    2004-01-01

    Findings obtained from several studies indicate that ethanol enhances the activity of alpha4beta2 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and support the possibility that a polymorphism of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha4 subunit gene (CHRNA4) modulates enhancement of nicotinic receptor function by ethanol. To identify the association between the CfoI polymorphism of the CHRNA4 and alcoholism, we examined distribution of genotypes and allele frequencies in Korean patients diagnosed with alcoholism (n = 127) and Korean control subjects without alcoholism (n = 185) with polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. We were able to detect the association between the CfoI polymorphism of the CHRNA4 and alcoholism in Korean patients (genotype P = .023; allele frequency P = .047). The genotypes and allele frequencies of known polymorphisms in other alcoholism candidate genes, such as alcohol metabolism-related genes [alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (ADH2), aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3), and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1)] and mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1), were studied. The polymorphisms of ADH2, ALDH2, and CYP2E1 were significantly different in Korean patients with alcoholism and Korean control subjects without alcoholism, but ADH3 and OPRM1 did not differ between the two groups.

  8. Cortical synaptic NMDA receptor deficits in α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene deletion models: Implications for neuropsychiatric diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hong; Hsu, Fu-Chun; Baumann, Bailey H.; Coulter, Douglas A.; Lynch, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Microdeletion of the human CHRNA7 gene (α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, nAChR) as well as dysfunction in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) have been associated with cortical dysfunction in a broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. However, the pathophysiological roles of synaptic vs. extrasynaptic NMDARs and their interactions with α7 nAChRs in cortical dysfunction remain largely uncharacterized. Using a combination of in vivo and in vitro models, we demonstrate that α7 nAChR gene deletion leads to specific loss of synaptic NMDARs and their coagonist, D-serine, as well as glutamatergic synaptic deficits in mouse cortex. α7 nAChR null mice had decreased cortical NMDAR expression and glutamatergic synapse formation during postnatal development. Similar reductions in NMDAR expression and glutamatergic synapse formation were revealed in cortical cultures lacking α7 nAChRs. Interestingly, synaptic, but not extrasynaptic, NMDAR currents were specifically diminished in cultured cortical pyramidal neurons as well as in acute prefrontal cortical slices of α7 nAChR null mice. Moreover, D-serine responsive synaptic NMDAR-mediated currents and levels of the D-serine synthetic enzyme serine racemase were both reduced in α7 nAChR null cortical pyramidal neurons. Our findings thus identify specific loss of synaptic NMDARs and their coagonist, D-serine, as well as glutamatergic synaptic deficits in α7 nAChR gene deletion models of cortical dysfunction, thereby implicating α7 nAChR-mediated control of synaptic NMDARs and serine racemase/D-serine pathways in cortical dysfunction underlying many neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly those associated with deletion of human CHRNA7. PMID:24326163

  9. Comprehensive gene expression analysis of rice aleurone cells: probing the existence of an alternative gibberellin receptor.

    PubMed

    Yano, Kenji; Aya, Koichiro; Hirano, Ko; Ordonio, Reynante Lacsamana; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2015-02-01

    Current gibberellin (GA) research indicates that GA must be perceived in plant nuclei by its cognate receptor, GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1). Recognition of GA by GID1 relieves the repression mediated by the DELLA protein, a model known as the GID1-DELLA GA perception system. There have been reports of potential GA-binding proteins in the plasma membrane that perceive GA and induce α-amylase expression in cereal aleurone cells, which is mechanistically different from the GID1-DELLA system. Therefore, we examined the expression of the rice (Oryza sativa) α-amylase genes in rice mutants impaired in the GA receptor (gid1) and the DELLA repressor (slender rice1; slr1) and confirmed their lack of response to GA in gid1 mutants and constitutive expression in slr1 mutants. We also examined the expression of GA-regulated genes by genome-wide microarray and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses and confirmed that all GA-regulated genes are modulated by the GID1-DELLA system. Furthermore, we studied the regulatory network involved in GA signaling by using a set of mutants defective in genes involved in GA perception and gene expression, namely gid1, slr1, gid2 (a GA-related F-box protein mutant), and gamyb (a GA-related trans-acting factor mutant). Almost all GA up-regulated genes were regulated by the four named GA-signaling components. On the other hand, GA down-regulated genes showed different expression patterns with respect to GID2 and GAMYB (e.g. a considerable number of genes are not controlled by GAMYB or GID2 and GAMYB). Based on these observations, we present a comprehensive discussion of the intricate network of GA-regulated genes in rice aleurone cells. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Molecular evolution of the odorant and gustatory receptor genes in lepidopteran insects: implications for their adaptation and speciation.

    PubMed

    Engsontia, Patamarerk; Sangket, Unitsa; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan; Satasook, Chutamas

    2014-08-01

    Lepidoptera (comprised of butterflies and moths) is one of the largest groups of insects, including more than 160,000 described species. Chemoreception plays important roles in the adaptation of these species to a wide range of niches, e.g., plant hosts, egg-laying sites, and mates. This study investigated the molecular evolution of the lepidopteran odorant (Or) and gustatory receptor (Gr) genes using recently identified genes from Bombyx mori, Danaus plexippus, Heliconius melpomene, Plutella xylostella, Heliothis virescens, Manduca sexta, Cydia pomonella, and Spodoptera littoralis. A limited number of cases of large lineage-specific gene expansion are observed (except in the P. xylostella lineage), possibly due to selection against tandem gene duplication. There has been strong purifying selection during the evolution of both lepidopteran odorant and gustatory genes, as shown by the low ω values estimated through CodeML analysis, ranging from 0.0093 to 0.3926. However, purifying selection has been relaxed on some amino acid sites in these receptors, leading to sequence divergence, which is a precursor of positive selection on these sequences. Signatures of positive selection were detected only in a few loci from the lineage-specific analysis. Estimation of gene gains and losses suggests that the common ancestor of the Lepidoptera had fewer Or genes compared to extant species and an even more reduced number of Gr genes, particularly within the bitter receptor clade. Multiple gene gains and a few gene losses occurred during the evolution of Lepidoptera. Gene family expansion may be associated with the adaptation of lepidopteran species to plant hosts, especially after angiosperm radiation. Phylogenetic analysis of the moth sex pheromone receptor genes suggested that chromosomal translocations have occurred several times. New sex pheromone receptors have arisen through tandem gene duplication. Positive selection was detected at some amino acid sites predicted to be

  11. Expression map of a complete set of gustatory receptor genes in chemosensory organs of Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Guo, Huizhen; Cheng, Tingcai; Chen, Zhiwei; Jiang, Liang; Guo, Youbing; Liu, Jianqiu; Li, Shenglong; Taniai, Kiyoko; Asaoka, Kiyoshi; Kadono-Okuda, Keiko; Arunkumar, Kallare P; Wu, Jiaqi; Kishino, Hirohisa; Zhang, Huijie; Seth, Rakesh K; Gopinathan, Karumathil P; Montagné, Nicolas; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Goldsmith, Marian R; Xia, Qingyou; Mita, Kazuei

    2017-03-01

    Most lepidopteran species are herbivores, and interaction with host plants affects their gene expression and behavior as well as their genome evolution. Gustatory receptors (Grs) are expected to mediate host plant selection, feeding, oviposition and courtship behavior. However, due to their high diversity, sequence divergence and extremely low level of expression it has been difficult to identify precisely a complete set of Grs in Lepidoptera. By manual annotation and BAC sequencing, we improved annotation of 43 gene sequences compared with previously reported Grs in the most studied lepidopteran model, the silkworm, Bombyx mori, and identified 7 new tandem copies of BmGr30 on chromosome 7, bringing the total number of BmGrs to 76. Among these, we mapped 68 genes to chromosomes in a newly constructed chromosome distribution map and 8 genes to scaffolds; we also found new evidence for large clusters of BmGrs, especially from the bitter receptor family. RNA-seq analysis of diverse BmGr expression patterns in chemosensory organs of larvae and adults enabled us to draw a precise organ specific map of BmGr expression. Interestingly, most of the clustered genes were expressed in the same tissues and more than half of the genes were expressed in larval maxillae, larval thoracic legs and adult legs. For example, BmGr63 showed high expression levels in all organs in both larval and adult stages. By contrast, some genes showed expression limited to specific developmental stages or organs and tissues. BmGr19 was highly expressed in larval chemosensory organs (especially antennae and thoracic legs), the single exon genes BmGr53 and BmGr67 were expressed exclusively in larval tissues, the BmGr27-BmGr31 gene cluster on chr7 displayed a high expression level limited to adult legs and the candidate CO 2 receptor BmGr2 was highly expressed in adult antennae, where few other Grs were expressed. Transcriptional analysis of the Grs in B. mori provides a valuable new reference for

  12. SOX9 regulates multiple genes in chondrocytes, including genes encoding ECM proteins, ECM modification enzymes, receptors, and transporters.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chun-do; Lu, Yue; Liang, Shoudan; Mori-Akiyama, Yuko; Chen, Di; de Crombrugghe, Benoit; Yasuda, Hideyo

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor SOX9 plays an essential role in determining the fate of several cell types and is a master factor in regulation of chondrocyte development. Our aim was to determine which genes in the genome of chondrocytes are either directly or indirectly controlled by SOX9. We used RNA-Seq to identify genes whose expression levels were affected by SOX9 and used SOX9 ChIP-Seq to identify those genes that harbor SOX9-interaction sites. For RNA-Seq, the RNA expression profile of primary Sox9flox/flox mouse chondrocytes infected with Ad-CMV-Cre was compared with that of the same cells infected with a control adenovirus. Analysis of RNA-Seq data indicated that, when the levels of Sox9 mRNA were decreased more than 8-fold by infection with Ad-CMV-Cre, 196 genes showed a decrease in expression of at least 4-fold. These included many cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) genes and a number of genes for ECM modification enzymes (transferases), membrane receptors, transporters, and others. In ChIP-Seq, 75% of the SOX9-interaction sites had a canonical inverted repeat motif within 100 bp of the top of the peak. SOX9-interaction sites were found in 55% of the genes whose expression was decreased more than 8-fold in SOX9-depleted cells and in somewhat fewer of the genes whose expression was reduced more than 4-fold, suggesting that these are direct targets of SOX9. The combination of RNA-Seq and ChIP-Seq has provided a fuller understanding of the SOX9-controlled genetic program of chondrocytes.

  13. Gene transfer of heterologous G protein-coupled receptors to cardiomyocytes: differential effects on contractility.

    PubMed

    Laugwitz, K L; Weig, H J; Moretti, A; Hoffmann, E; Ueblacker, P; Pragst, I; Rosport, K; Schömig, A; Ungerer, M

    2001-04-13

    In heart failure, reduced cardiac contractility is accompanied by blunted cAMP responses to beta-adrenergic stimulation. Parathyroid hormone (PTH)-related peptide and arginine vasopressin are released from the myocardium in response to increased wall stress but do not stimulate contractility or adenylyl cyclase at physiological concentrations. To bypass the defective beta-adrenergic signaling cascade, recombinant P1 PTH/PTH-related peptide receptors (rPTH1-Rs) and V(2) vasopressin receptors (rV(2)-Rs), which are normally not expressed in the myocardium and which are both strongly coupled to adenylyl cyclase, and recombinant beta(2)-adrenergic receptors (rbeta(2)-ARs) were overexpressed in cardiomyocytes by viral gene transfer. The capacity of endogenous hormones to increase contractility via the heterologous, recombinant receptors was compared. Whereas V(2)-Rs are uniquely coupled to Gs, PTH1-Rs and beta(2)-ARs are also coupled to other G proteins. Gene transfer of rPTH1-Rs or rbeta(2)-ARs to adult cardiomyocytes resulted in maximally increased basal contractility, which could not be further stimulated by adding receptor agonists. Agonists at rPTH1-Rs induced increased cAMP formation and phospholipase C activity. In contrast, healthy or failing rV(2)-R-expressing cardiomyocytes showed unaltered basal contractility. Their contractility and cAMP formation increased only at agonist exposure, which did not activate phospholipase C. In summary, we found that gene transfer of PTH1-Rs to cardiomyocytes results in constitutive activity of the transgene, as does that of beta(2)-ARS: In the absence of receptor agonists, rPTH1-Rs and rbeta(2)-ARs increase basal contractility, coupling to 2 G proteins simultaneously. In contrast, rV(2)-Rs are uniquely coupled to Gs and are not constitutively active, retaining their property to be activated exclusively on agonist stimulation. Therefore, gene transfer of V(2)-Rs might be more suited to test the effects of c

  14. Identification of natural killer cell receptor clusters in the platypus genome reveals an expansion of C-type lectin genes.

    PubMed

    Wong, Emily S W; Sanderson, Claire E; Deakin, Janine E; Whittington, Camilla M; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Belov, Katherine

    2009-08-01

    Natural killer (NK) cell receptors belong to two unrelated, but functionally analogous gene families: the immunoglobulin superfamily, situated in the leukocyte receptor complex (LRC) and the C-type lectin superfamily, located in the natural killer complex (NKC). Here, we describe the largest NK receptor gene expansion seen to date. We identified 213 putative C-type lectin NK receptor homologs in the genome of the platypus. Many have arisen as the result of a lineage-specific expansion. Orthologs of OLR1, CD69, KLRE, CLEC12B, and CLEC16p genes were also identified. The NKC is split into at least two regions of the genome: 34 genes map to chromosome 7, two map to a small autosome, and the remainder are unanchored in the current genome assembly. No NK receptor genes from the LRC were identified. The massive C-type lectin expansion and lack of Ig-domain-containing NK receptors represents the most extreme polarization of NK receptors found to date. We have used this new data from platypus to trace the possible evolutionary history of the NK receptor clusters.

  15. Chromosomal localization of the human V3 pituitary vasopressin receptor gene (AVPR3) to 1q32

    SciTech Connect

    Rousseau-Merck, M.F.; Derre, J.; Berger, R.

    1995-11-20

    Vasopressin exerts its physiological effects on liver metabolism, fluid osmolarity, and corticotrophic response to stress through a set of at least three receptors, V1a, V2, and V3 (also called V1b), respectively. These receptors constitute a distinct group of the superfamily of G-protein-coupled cell surface receptors. When bound to vasopressin, they couple to G proteins activating phospholipase C for the V1a and V3 types and adenylate cyclase for the V2. The vasopressin receptor subfamily also includes the receptor for oxytocin, a structurally related hormone that signals through the activation of phospholipase C. The chromosomal position of the V2 receptor gene hasmore » been assigned to Xq28-qter by PCR-based screening of somatic cell hybrids, whereas the oxytocin receptor gene has been mapped to chromosome 3q26.2 by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The chromosomal location of the V1a gene is currently unknown. We recently cloned the cDNA and the gene coding for the human pituitary-specific V3 receptor (HGMW-approved symbol AVPR3). We report here the chromosomal localization of this gene by two distinct in situ hybridization techniques using radioactive and fluorescent probes. 11 refs., 1 fig.« less

  16. Genetic variations in the human cannabinoid receptor gene are associated with happiness.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Isowa, Tokiko; Yamakawa, Kaori; Fukuyama, Seisuke; Shinoda, Jun; Yamada, Jitsuhiro; Ohira, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Happiness has been viewed as a temporary emotional state (e.g., pleasure) and a relatively stable state of being happy (subjective happiness level). As previous studies demonstrated that individuals with high subjective happiness level rated their current affective states more positively when they experience positive events, these two aspects of happiness are interrelated. According to a recent neuroimaging study, the cytosine to thymine single-nucleotide polymorphism of the human cannabinoid receptor 1 gene is associated with sensitivity to positive emotional stimuli. Thus, we hypothesized that our genetic traits, such as the human cannabinoid receptor 1 genotypes, are closely related to the two aspects of happiness. In Experiment 1, 198 healthy volunteers were used to compare the subjective happiness level between cytosine allele carriers and thymine-thymine carriers of the human cannabinoid receptor 1 gene. In Experiment 2, we used positron emission tomography with 20 healthy participants to compare the brain responses to positive emotional stimuli of cytosine allele carriers to that of thymine-thymine carriers. Compared to thymine-thymine carriers, cytosine allele carriers have a higher subjective happiness level. Regression analysis indicated that the cytosine allele is significantly associated with subjective happiness level. The positive mood after watching a positive film was significantly higher for the cytosine allele carriers compared to the thymine-thymine carriers. Positive emotion-related brain region such as the medial prefrontal cortex was significantly activated when the cytosine allele carriers watched the positive film compared to the thymine-thymine carriers. Thus, the human cannabinoid receptor 1 genotypes are closely related to two aspects of happiness. Compared to thymine-thymine carriers, the cytosine allele carriers of the human cannabinoid receptor 1 gene, who are sensitive to positive emotional stimuli, exhibited greater magnitude

  17. Genetic Variations in the Human Cannabinoid Receptor Gene Are Associated with Happiness

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Isowa, Tokiko; Yamakawa, Kaori; Fukuyama, Seisuke; Shinoda, Jun; Yamada, Jitsuhiro; Ohira, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Happiness has been viewed as a temporary emotional state (e.g., pleasure) and a relatively stable state of being happy (subjective happiness level). As previous studies demonstrated that individuals with high subjective happiness level rated their current affective states more positively when they experience positive events, these two aspects of happiness are interrelated. According to a recent neuroimaging study, the cytosine to thymine single-nucleotide polymorphism of the human cannabinoid receptor 1 gene is associated with sensitivity to positive emotional stimuli. Thus, we hypothesized that our genetic traits, such as the human cannabinoid receptor 1 genotypes, are closely related to the two aspects of happiness. In Experiment 1, 198 healthy volunteers were used to compare the subjective happiness level between cytosine allele carriers and thymine-thymine carriers of the human cannabinoid receptor 1 gene. In Experiment 2, we used positron emission tomography with 20 healthy participants to compare the brain responses to positive emotional stimuli of cytosine allele carriers to that of thymine-thymine carriers. Compared to thymine-thymine carriers, cytosine allele carriers have a higher subjective happiness level. Regression analysis indicated that the cytosine allele is significantly associated with subjective happiness level. The positive mood after watching a positive film was significantly higher for the cytosine allele carriers compared to the thymine-thymine carriers. Positive emotion-related brain region such as the medial prefrontal cortex was significantly activated when the cytosine allele carriers watched the positive film compared to the thymine-thymine carriers. Thus, the human cannabinoid receptor 1 genotypes are closely related to two aspects of happiness. Compared to thymine-thymine carriers, the cytosine allele carriers of the human cannabinoid receptor 1 gene, who are sensitive to positive emotional stimuli, exhibited greater magnitude

  18. Activation of multiple mitogen-activated protein kinases by recombinant calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor.

    PubMed

    Parameswaran, N; Disa, J; Spielman, W S; Brooks, D P; Nambi, P; Aiyar, N

    2000-02-18

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide is a 37-amino-acid neuropeptide and a potent vasodilator. Although calcitonin gene-related peptide has been shown to have a number of effects in a variety of systems, the mechanisms of action and the intracellular signaling pathways, especially the regulation of mitogen-activated protien kinase (MAPK) pathway, is not known. In the present study we investigated the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide in the regulation of MAPKs in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells stably transfected with a recombinant porcine calcitonin gene-related peptide-1 receptor. Calcitonin gene-related peptide caused a significant dose-dependent increase in cAMP response and the effect was inhibited by calcitonin gene-related peptide(8-37), the calcitonin gene-related peptide-receptor antagonist. Calcitonin gene-related peptide also caused a time- and concentration-dependent increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (P38 MAPK) activities, with apparently no significant change in cjun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity. Forskolin, a direct activator of adenylyl cyclase also stimulated ERK and P38 activities in these cells suggesting the invovement of cAMP in this process. Calcitonin gene-related peptide-stimulated ERK and P38 MAPK activities were inhibited significantly by calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist, calcitonin gene-related peptide-(8-37) suggesting the involvement of calcitonin gene-related peptide-1 receptor. Preincubation of the cells with the cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor, H89 [¿N-[2-((p-bromocinnamyl)amino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide, hydrochloride¿] inhibited calcitonin gene-related peptide-mediated activation of ERK and p38 kinases. On the other hand, preincubation of the cells with wortmannin ¿[1S-(1alpha,6balpha,9abeta,11alpha, 11bbeta)]-11-(acetyloxy)-1,6b,7,8,9a,10,11, 11b-octahydro-1-(methoxymethyl)-9a,11b-dimethyl-3H-furo[4,3, 2-de]indeno[4,5-h]-2

  19. Androgen Receptor Gene Polymorphism, Aggression, and Reproduction in Tanzanian Foragers and Pastoralists

    PubMed Central

    Butovskaya, Marina L.; Lazebny, Oleg E.; Vasilyev, Vasiliy A.; Dronova, Daria A.; Karelin, Dmitri V.; Mabulla, Audax Z. P.; Shibalev, Dmitri V.; Shackelford, Todd K.; Fink, Bernhard; Ryskov, Alexey P.

    2015-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) gene polymorphism in humans is linked to aggression and may also be linked to reproduction. Here we report associations between AR gene polymorphism and aggression and reproduction in two small-scale societies in northern Tanzania (Africa)—the Hadza (monogamous foragers) and the Datoga (polygynous pastoralists). We secured self-reports of aggression and assessed genetic polymorphism of the number of CAG repeats for the AR gene for 210 Hadza men and 229 Datoga men (aged 17–70 years). We conducted structural equation modeling to identify links between AR gene polymorphism, aggression, and number of children born, and included age and ethnicity as covariates. Fewer AR CAG repeats predicted greater aggression, and Datoga men reported more aggression than did Hadza men. In addition, aggression mediated the identified negative relationship between CAG repeats and number of children born. PMID:26291982

  20. Positive association of vitamin D receptor gene variations with multiple sclerosis in South East Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Narooie-Nejad, Mehrnaz; Moossavi, Maryam; Torkamanzehi, Adam; Moghtaderi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Among the factors postulated to play a role in MS susceptibility, the role of vitamin D is outstanding. Since the function of vitamin D receptor (VDR) represents the effect of vitamin D on the body and genetic variations in VDR gene may affect its function, we aim to highlight the association of two VDR gene polymorphisms with MS susceptibility. In current study, we recruited 113 MS patients and 122 healthy controls. TaqI (rs731236) and ApaI (rs7975232) genetic variations in these two groups were evaluated using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. All genotype and allele frequencies in both variations showed association with the disease status. However, to find the definite connection between genetic variations in VDR gene and MS disease in a population of South East of Iran, more researches on gene structure and its function with regard to patients' conditions are required.

  1. Growth and gene expression are predominantly controlled by distinct regions of the human IL-4 receptor.

    PubMed

    Ryan, J J; McReynolds, L J; Keegan, A; Wang, L H; Garfein, E; Rothman, P; Nelms, K; Paul, W E

    1996-02-01

    IL-4 causes hematopoietic cells to proliferate and express a series of genes, including CD23. We examined whether IL-4-mediated growth, as measured by 4PS phosphorylation, and gene induction were similarly controlled. Studies of M12.4.1 cells expressing human IL-4R truncation mutants indicated that the region between amino acids 557-657 is necessary for full gene expression, which correlated with Stat6 DNA binding activity. This region was not required for 4PS phosphorylation. Tyrosine-to-phenylalanine mutations in the interval between amino acids 557-657 revealed that as long as one tyrosine remained unmutated, CD23 was fully induced. When all three tyrosines were mutated, the receptor was unable to induce CD23. The results indicate that growth regulation and gene expression are principally controlled by distinct regions of IL-4R.

  2. Novel growth hormone receptor gene mutation in a patient with Laron syndrome.

    PubMed

    Arman, Ahmet; Yüksel, Bilgin; Coker, Ajda; Sarioz, Ozlem; Temiz, Fatih; Topaloglu, Ali Kemal

    2010-04-01

    Growth Hormone (GH) is a 22 kDa protein that has effects on growth and glucose and fat metabolisms. These effects are initiated by binding of growth hormone (GH) to growth hormone receptors (GHR) expressed in target cells. Mutations or deletions in the growth hormone receptor cause an autosomal disorder called Laron-type dwarfism (LS) characterized by high circulating levels of serum GH and low levels of insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). We analyzed the GHR gene for genetic defect in seven patients identified as Laron type dwarfism. We identified two missense mutations (S40L and W104R), and four polymorphisms (S473S, L526I, G168G and exon 3 deletion). We are reporting a mutation (W104R) at exon 5 of GHR gene that is not previously reported, and it is a novel mutation.

  3. Association study of schizophrenia and IL-2 receptor {beta} chain gene

    SciTech Connect

    Nimgaonkar, V.L.; Yang, Z.W.; Zhang, X.R.

    1995-10-09

    A case-control association study was conducted in Caucasian patients with schizophrenia (DSM-III-R, n = 42) and unaffected controls (n = 47) matched for ethnicity and area of residence. Serum interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) concentrations, as well as a dinucleotide repeat polymorphism in the IL-2RP chain gene, were examined in both groups. No significant differences in IL-2R concentrations or in the distribution of the polymorphism were noted. This study does not support an association between schizophrenia and the IL-2RP gene locus, contrary to the suggestive evidence from linkage analysis in multicase families. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. Genetic variation in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene is associated with Asperger Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Di Napoli, Agnese; Warrier, Varun; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) are a group of neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by impairments in communication and social interaction, alongside unusually repetitive behaviors and narrow interests. ASC are highly heritable and have complex patterns of inheritance where multiple genes are involved, alongside environmental and epigenetic factors. Asperger Syndrome (AS) is a subgroup of these conditions, where there is no history of language or cognitive delay. Animal models suggest a role for oxytocin (OXT) and oxytocin receptor (OXTR) genes in social-emotional behaviors, and several studies indicate that the oxytocin/oxytocin receptor system is altered in individuals with ASC. Previous studies have reported associations between genetic variations in the OXTR gene and ASC. The present study tested for an association between nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the OXTR gene and AS in 530 individuals of Caucasian origin, using SNP association test and haplotype analysis. There was a significant association between rs2268493 in OXTR and AS. Multiple haplotypes that include this SNP (rs2268493-rs2254298, rs2268490-rs2268493-rs2254298, rs2268493-rs2254298-rs53576, rs237885-rs2268490-rs2268493-rs2254298, rs2268490-rs2268493-rs2254298-rs53576) were also associated with AS. rs2268493 has been previously associated with ASC and putatively alters several transcription factor-binding sites and regulates chromatin states, either directly or through other variants in linkage disequilibrium (LD). This study reports a significant association of the sequence variant rs2268493 in the OXTR gene and associated haplotypes with AS.

  5. Ultradian hormone stimulation induces glucocorticoid receptor-mediated pulses of gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Stavreva, Diana A; Wiench, Malgorzata; John, Sam; Conway-Campbell, Becky L; McKenna, Mervyn A; Pooley, John R; Johnson, Thomas A; Voss, Ty C; Lightman, Stafford L; Hager, Gordon L

    2009-09-01

    Studies on glucocorticoid receptor (GR) action typically assess gene responses by long-term stimulation with synthetic hormones. As corticosteroids are released from adrenal glands in a circadian and high-frequency (ultradian) mode, such treatments may not provide an accurate assessment of physiological hormone action. Here we demonstrate that ultradian hormone stimulation induces cyclic GR-mediated transcriptional regulation, or gene pulsing, both in cultured cells and in animal models. Equilibrium receptor-occupancy of regulatory elements precisely tracks the ligand pulses. Nascent RNA transcripts from GR-regulated genes are released in distinct quanta, demonstrating a profound difference between the transcriptional programs induced by ultradian and constant stimulation. Gene pulsing is driven by rapid GR exchange with response elements and by GR recycling through the chaperone machinery, which promotes GR activation and reactivation in response to the ultradian hormone release, thus coupling promoter activity to the naturally occurring fluctuations in hormone levels. The GR signalling pathway has been optimized for a prompt and timely response to fluctuations in hormone levels, indicating that biologically accurate regulation of gene targets by GR requires an ultradian mode of hormone stimulation.

  6. Chimpanzee sociability is associated with vasopressin (Avpr1a) but not oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) variation.

    PubMed

    Staes, Nicky; Koski, Sonja E; Helsen, Philippe; Fransen, Erik; Eens, Marcel; Stevens, Jeroen M G

    2015-09-01

    The importance of genes in regulating phenotypic variation of personality traits in humans and animals is becoming increasingly apparent in recent studies. Here we focus on variation in the vasopressin receptor gene 1a (Avpr1a) and oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and their effects on social personality traits in chimpanzees. We combine newly available genetic data on Avpr1a and OXTR allelic variation of 62 captive chimpanzees with individual variation in personality, based on behavioral assessments. Our study provides support for the positive association of the Avpr1a promoter region, in particular the presence of DupB, and sociability in chimpanzees. This complements findings of previous studies on adolescent chimpanzees and studies that assessed personality using questionnaire data. In contrast, no significant associations were found for the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) ss1388116472 of the OXTR and any of the personality components. Most importantly, our study provides additional evidence for the regulatory function of the 5' promoter region of Avpr1a on social behavior and its evolutionary stable effect across species, including rodents, chimpanzees and humans. Although it is generally accepted that complex social behavior is regulated by a combination of genes, the environment and their interaction, our findings highlight the importance of candidate genes with large effects on behavioral variation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Association between the dopamine D3 receptor gene locus (DRD3) and unipolar affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Dikeos, D G; Papadimitriou, G N; Avramopoulos, D; Karadima, G; Daskalopoulou, E G; Souery, D; Mendlewicz, J; Vassilopoulos, D; Stefanis, C N

    1999-12-01

    Dopamine neurotransmission has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and, more recently, affective disorders. Among the dopamine receptors, D3 can be considered as particularly related to affective disorders due to its neuroanatomical localization in the limbic region of the brain and its relation to the serotoninergic activity of the CNS. The possible involvement of dopamine receptor D3 in unipolar (UP) major depression was investigated by a genetic association study of the D3 receptor gene locus (DRD3) on 36 UP patients and 38 ethnically matched controls. An allelic association of DRD3 (Bal I polymorphism) and UP illness was observed, with the Gly-9 allele (allele '2', 206/98 base-pairs long) being more frequent in patients than in controls (49% vs 29%, P < 0.02). The genotypes containing this allele (1-2 and 2-2) were found in 75% of patients vs 50% of controls (P < 0.03, odds ratio = 3.00, 95% CI = 1.12-8.05). The effect of the genotype remained significant (P < 0.02) after sex and family history were controlled by a multiple linear regression analysis. These results further support the hypothesis that dopaminergic mechanisms may be implicated in the pathogenesis of affective disorder. More specifically, the '2' allele of the dopamine receptor D3 gene seems to be associated with unipolar depression and can be considered as a 'phenotypic modifier' for major psychiatric disorders.

  8. Control of energy balance by hypothalamic gene circuitry involving two nuclear receptors, neuron-derived orphan receptor 1 and glucocorticoid receptor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Gyun; Lee, Bora; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Kim, Juhee; Lee, Seunghee; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Lee, Jae W

    2013-10-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) regulate diverse physiological processes, including the central nervous system control of energy balance. However, the molecular mechanisms for the central actions of NRs in energy balance remain relatively poorly defined. Here we report a hypothalamic gene network involving two NRs, neuron-derived orphan receptor 1 (NOR1) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which directs the regulated expression of orexigenic neuropeptides agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in response to peripheral signals. Our results suggest that the anorexigenic signal leptin induces NOR1 expression likely via the transcription factor cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), while the orexigenic signal glucocorticoid mobilizes GR to inhibit NOR1 expression by antagonizing the action of CREB. Also, NOR1 suppresses glucocorticoid-dependent expression of AgRP and NPY. Consistently, relative to wild-type mice, NOR1-null mice showed significantly higher levels of AgRP and NPY and were less responsive to leptin in decreasing the expression of AgRP and NPY. These results identify mutual antagonism between NOR1 and GR to be a key rheostat for peripheral metabolic signals to centrally control energy balance.

  9. Epigenetic Machinery Regulates Alternative Splicing of Androgen Receptor (AR) Gene in Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0531 TITLE: Epigenetic machinery regulates alternative splicing of androgen receptor ( AR ) gene in castration...DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT: Approved for Public Release Distribution Unlimited The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of...One of the reasons for the resistance to ADT and newer anti-androgen drugs is the emergence of constitutively active AR variants ( AR -Vs) such as AR

  10. Identification of chemical modulators of the constitutive activated receptor (CAR) in a gene expression compendium

    PubMed Central

    Oshida, Keiyu; Vasani, Naresh; Jones, Carlton; Moore, Tanya; Hester, Susan; Nesnow, Stephen; Auerbach, Scott; Geter, David R.; Aleksunes, Lauren M.; Thomas, Russell S.; Applegate, Dawn; Klaassen, Curtis D.; Corton, J. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear receptor family member constitutive activated receptor (CAR) is activated by structurally diverse drugs and environmentally-relevant chemicals leading to transcriptional regulation of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and transport. Chronic activation of CAR increases liver cancer incidence in rodents, whereas suppression of CAR can lead to steatosis and insulin insensitivity. Here, analytical methods were developed to screen for chemical treatments in a gene expression compendium that lead to alteration of CAR activity. A gene expression biomarker signature of 83 CAR-dependent genes was identified using microarray profiles from the livers of wild-type and CAR-null mice after exposure to three structurally-diverse CAR activators (CITCO, phenobarbital, TCPOBOP). A rank-based algorithm (Running Fisher’s algorithm (p-value ≤ 10-4)) was used to evaluate the similarity between the CAR biomarker signature and a test set of 28 and 32 comparisons positive or negative, respectively, for CAR activation; the test resulted in a balanced accuracy of 97%. The biomarker signature was used to identify chemicals that activate or suppress CAR in an annotated mouse liver/primary hepatocyte gene expression database of ~1850 comparisons. CAR was activated by 1) activators of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in wild-type but not AhR-null mice, 2) pregnane X receptor (PXR) activators in wild-type and to lesser extents in PXR-null mice, and 3) activators of PPARα in wild-type and PPARα-null mice. CAR was consistently activated by five conazole fungicides and four perfluorinated compounds. Comparison of effects in wild-type and CAR-null mice showed that the fungicide propiconazole increased liver weight and hepatocyte proliferation in a CAR-dependent manner, whereas the perfluorinated compound perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) increased these endpoints in a CAR-independent manner. A number of compounds suppressed CAR coincident with increases in markers of

  11. Twisting integrin receptors increases endothelin-1 gene expression in endothelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J.; Fabry, B.; Schiffrin, E. L.; Wang, N.; Ingber, D. E. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    A magnetic twisting stimulator was developed based on the previously published technique of magnetic twisting cytometry. Using ligand-coated ferromagnetic microbeads, this device can apply mechanical stresses with varying amplitudes, duration, frequencies, and waveforms to specific cell surface receptors. Biochemical and biological responses of the cells to the mechanical stimulation can be assayed. Twisting integrin receptors with RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp)-containing peptide-coated beads increased endothelin-1 (ET-1) gene expression by >100%. In contrast, twisting scavenger receptors with acetylated low-density lipoprotein-coated beads or twisting HLA antigen with anti-HLA antibody-coated beads did not lead to alterations in ET-1 gene expression. In situ hybridization showed that the increase in ET-1 mRNA was localized in the cells that were stressed with the RGD-coated beads. Blocking stretch-activated ion channels with gadolinium, chelating Ca2+ with EGTA, or inhibiting tyrosine phosphorylation with genistein abolished twist-induced ET-1 mRNA elevation. Abolishing cytoskeletal tension with an inhibitor of the myosin ATPase, with an inhibitor of myosin light chain kinase, or with an actin microfilament disrupter blocked twisted-induced increases in ET-1 expression. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the molecular structural linkage of integrin-cytoskeleton is an important pathway for stress-induced ET-1 gene expression.

  12. Gene expression profiling of the androgen receptor antagonists flutamide and vinclozolin in zebrafish (Danio rerio) gonads.

    PubMed

    Martinović-Weigelt, Dalma; Wang, Rong-Lin; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Bencic, David C; Lazorchak, Jim; Ankley, Gerald T

    2011-01-25

    The studies presented in this manuscript focus on characterization of transcriptomic responses to anti-androgens in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Research on the effects of anti-androgens in fish has been characterized by a heavy reliance on apical endpoints, and molecular mechanisms of action (MOA) of anti-androgens remain poorly elucidated. In the present study, we examined effects of a short term exposure (24-96h) to the androgen receptor antagonists flutamide (FLU) and vinclozolin (VZ) on gene expression in gonads of sexually mature zebrafish, using commercially available zebrafish oligonucleotide microarrays (4×44K platform). We found that VZ and FLU potentially impact reproductive processes via multiple pathways related to steroidogenesis, spermatogenesis, and fertilization. Observed changes in gene expression often were shared by VZ and FLU, as demonstrated by overlap in differentially-expressed genes and enrichment of several common key pathways including: (1) integrin and actin signaling, (2) nuclear receptor 5A1 signaling, (3) fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling, (4) polyamine synthesis, and (5) androgen synthesis. This information should prove useful to elucidating specific mechanisms of reproductive effects of anti-androgens in fish, as well as developing biomarkers for this important class of endocrine-active chemicals. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Growth hormone receptor gene mutations in two Italian patients with Laron Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fassone, L; Corneli, G; Bellone, S; Camacho-Hübner, C; Aimaretti, G; Cappa, M; Ubertini, G; Bona, G

    2007-05-01

    Laron Syndrome (LS) represents a condition characterized by GH insensitivity caused by molecular defects in the GH receptor (GHR) gene or in the post-receptor signalling pathway. We report the molecular characterization of two unrelated Italian girls from Sicily diagnosed with LS. The DNA sequencing of the GHR gene revealed the presence of different nonsense mutations, occurring in the same background haplotype. The molecular defects occurred in the extracellular domain of the GHR leading to a premature termination signal and to a truncated non-functional receptor. In one patient, a homozygous G to T transversion, in exon 6, led to the mutation GAA to TAA at codon 180 (E180X), while in the second patient a homozygous C to T transition in exon 7 was detected, causing the CGA to TAA substitution at codon 217 (R217X). Both probands presented the polymorphisms Gly168Gly and Ile544Leu in a homozygous state in exons 6 and 10, respectively. The E180X represents a novel defect of the GHR gene, while the R217X mutation has been previously reported in several patients from different ethnic backgrounds but all from countries located in the Mediterranean and Middle Eastern region.

  14. Ethylene and pollination decrease transcript abundance of an ethylene receptor gene in Dendrobium petals.

    PubMed

    Thongkum, Monthathip; Burns, Parichart; Bhunchoth, Anjana; Warin, Nuchnard; Chatchawankanphanich, Orawan; van Doorn, Wouter G

    2015-03-15

    We studied the expression of a gene encoding an ethylene receptor, called Ethylene Response Sensor 1 (Den-ERS1), in the petals of Dendrobium orchid flowers. Transcripts accumulated during the young floral bud stage and declined by the time the flowers had been open for several days. Pollination or exposure to exogenous ethylene resulted in earlier flower senescence, an increase in ethylene production and a lower Den-ERS1 transcript abundance. Treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an inhibitor of the ethylene receptor, decreased ethylene production and resulted in high transcript abundance. The literature indicates two kinds of ethylene receptor genes with regard to the effects of ethylene. One group shows ethylene-induced down-regulated transcription, while the other has ethylene-induced up-regulation. The present gene is an example of the first group. The 5' flanking region showed binding sites for Myb and myb-like, homeodomain, MADS domain, NAC, TCP, bHLH and EIN3-like transcription factors. The binding site for the EIN3-like factor might explain the ethylene effect on transcription. A few other transcription factors (RAV1 and NAC) seem also related to ethylene effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. IDENTIFICATION OF NOVEL FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 3 GENE MUTATIONS IN ACTINIC CHEILITIS

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Annie; Dekker, Nusi; Jordan, Richard C.K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Activating mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene are responsible for several craniosynostosis and chondrodysplasia syndromes as well as some human cancers including bladder and cervical carcinoma. Despite a high frequency in some benign skin disorders, FGFR3 mutations have not been reported in cutaneous malignancies. Actinic cheilitis (AC) is a sun-induced premalignancy affecting the lower lip that frequently progresses to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The objective of this study was to determine if FGFR3 gene mutations are present in AC and SCC of the lip. Study Design DNA was extracted and purified from micro-dissected, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections of 20 cases of AC and SCC arising in AC. Exons 7, 15, and 17 were PCR amplified and direct sequenced. Results Four novel somatic mutations in the FGFR3 gene were identified: exon 7 mutation 742C→T (amino acid change R248C), exon 15 mutations 1850A→G (D617G) and 1888G→A (V630M), and exon 17 mutation 2056G→A (E686K). Grade of dysplasia did not correlate with presence of mutations. Conclusion The frequency of FGFR3 receptor mutations suggests a functional role for the FGFR3 receptor in the development of epithelial disorders and perhaps a change may contribute to the pathogenesis of some AC and SCC. PMID:19327639

  16. Deletion of the δ opioid receptor gene impairs place conditioning but preserves morphine reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Le Merrer, Julie; Plaza-Zabala, Ainhoa; Del Boca, Carolina; Matifas, Audrey; Maldonado, Rafael; Kieffer, Brigitte L

    2011-04-01

    Converging experimental data indicate that δ opioid receptors contribute to mediate drug reinforcement processes. Whether their contribution reflects a role in the modulation of drug reward or an implication in conditioned learning, however, has not been explored. In the present study, we investigated the impact of δ receptor gene knockout on reinforced conditioned learning under several experimental paradigms. We assessed the ability of δ receptor knockout mice to form drug-context associations with either morphine (appetitive)- or lithium (aversive)-induced Pavlovian place conditioning. We also examined the efficiency of morphine to serve as a positive reinforcer in these mice and their motivation to gain drug injections, with operant intravenous self-administration under fixed and progressive ratio schedules and at two different doses. Mutant mice showed impaired place conditioning in both appetitive and aversive conditions, indicating disrupted context-drug association. In contrast, mutant animals displayed intact acquisition of morphine self-administration and reached breaking-points comparable to control subjects. Thus, reinforcing effects of morphine and motivation to obtain the drug were maintained. Collectively, the data suggest that δ receptor activity is not involved in morphine reinforcement but facilitates place conditioning. This study reveals a novel aspect of δ opioid receptor function in addiction-related behaviors. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Expansion of the receptor-like kinase/Pelle gene family and receptor-like proteins in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Shiu, Shin Han; Bleecker, Anthony B

    2003-06-01

    Receptor-like kinases (RLKs) are a family of transmembrane proteins with versatile N-terminal extracellular domains and C-terminal intracellular kinases. They control a wide range of physiological responses in plants and belong to one of the largest gene families in the Arabidopsis genome with more than 600 members. Interestingly, this gene family constitutes 60% of all kinases in Arabidopsis and accounts for nearly all transmembrane kinases in Arabidopsis. Analysis of four fungal, six metazoan, and two Plasmodium sp. genomes indicates that the family was represented in all but fungal genomes, indicating an ancient origin for the family with a more recent expansion only in the plant lineages. The RLK/Pelle family can be divided into several subfamilies based on three independent criteria: the phylogeny based on kinase domain sequences, the extracellular domain identities, and intron locations and phases. A large number of receptor-like proteins (RLPs) resembling the extracellular domains of RLKs are also found in the Arabidopsis genome. However, not all RLK subfamilies have corresponding RLPs. Several RLK/Pelle subfamilies have undergone differential expansions. More than 33% of the RLK/Pelle members are found in tandem clusters, substantially higher than the genome average. In addition, 470 of the RLK/Pelle family members are located within the segmentally duplicated regions in the Arabidopsis genome and 268 of them have a close relative in the corresponding regions. Therefore, tandem duplications and segmental/whole-genome duplications represent two of the major mechanisms for the expansion of the RLK/Pelle family in Arabidopsis.

  18. Variability and repertoire size of T-cell receptor V alpha gene segments.

    PubMed

    Becker, D M; Pattern, P; Chien, Y; Yokota, T; Eshhar, Z; Giedlin, M; Gascoigne, N R; Goodnow, C; Wolf, R; Arai, K

    The immune system of higher organisms is composed largely of two distinct cell types, B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes, each of which is independently capable of recognizing an enormous number of distinct entities through their antigen receptors; surface immunoglobulin in the case of the former, and the T-cell receptor (TCR) in the case of the latter. In both cell types, the genes encoding the antigen receptors consist of multiple gene segments which recombine during maturation to produce many possible peptides. One striking difference between B- and T-cell recognition that has not yet been resolved by the structural data is the fact that T cells generally require a major histocompatibility determinant together with an antigen whereas, in most cases, antibodies recognize antigen alone. Recently, we and others have found that a series of TCR V beta gene sequences show conservation of many of the same residues that are conserved between heavy- and light-chain immunoglobulin V regions, and these V beta sequences are predicted to have an immunoglobulin-like secondary structure. To extend these studies, we have isolated and sequenced eight additional alpha-chain complementary cDNA clones and compared them with published sequences. Analyses of these sequences, reported here, indicate that V alpha regions have many of the characteristics of V beta gene segments but differ in that they almost always occur as cross-hybridizing gene families. We conclude that there may be very different selective pressures operating on V alpha and V beta sequences and that the V alpha repertoire may be considerably larger than that of V beta.

  19. Genetic spectrum of low density lipoprotein receptor gene variations in South Indian population.

    PubMed

    ArulJothi, K N; Suruthi Abirami, B; Devi, Arikketh

    2018-03-01

    Low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) is a membrane bound receptor maintaining cholesterol homeostasis along with Apolipoprotein B (APOB), Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and other genes of lipid metabolism. Any pathogenic variation in these genes alters the function of the receptor and leads to Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) and other cardiovascular diseases. This study was aimed at screening the LDLR, APOB and PCSK9 genes in Hypercholesterolemic patients to define the genetic spectrum of FH in Indian population. Familial Hypercholesterolemia patients (n=78) of South Indian Tamil population with LDL cholesterol and Total cholesterol levels above 4.9mmol/l and 7.5mmol/l with family history of Myocardial infarction were involved. DNA was isolated by organic extraction method from blood samples and LDLR, APOB and PCSK9 gene exons were amplified using primers that cover exon-intron boundaries. The amplicons were screened using High Resolution Melt (HRM) Analysis and the screened samples were sequenced after purification. This study reports 20 variations in South Indian population for the first time. In this set of variations 9 are novel variations which are reported for the first time, 11 were reported in other studies also. The in silico analysis for all the variations detected in this study were done to predict the probabilistic effect in pathogenicity of FH. This study adds 9 novel variations and 11 recurrent variations to the spectrum of LDLR gene mutations in Indian population. All these variations are reported for the first time in Indian population. This spectrum of variations was different from the variations of previous Indian reports. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Induction of the early-late Ddc gene during Drosophila metamorphosis by the ecdysone receptor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Reece, Christian; O'Keefe, Sandra L; Hawryluk, Gregory W L; Engstrom, Monica M; Hodgetts, Ross B

    2002-06-01

    During Drosophila metamorphosis, the 'early-late' genes constitute a unique class regulated by the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone. Their induction is comprised of both a primary and a secondary response to ecdysone. Previous work has suggested that the epidermal expression of the dopa decarboxylase gene (Ddc) is likely that of a typical early-late gene. Accumulation of the Ddc transcript is rapidly initiated in the absence of protein synthesis, which implies that the ecdysone receptor plays a direct role in induction. However, full Ddc expression requires the participation of one of the transcription factors encoded by the Broad-Complex. In this paper, we characterize an ecdysone response element (EcRE) that contributes to the primary response. Using gel mobility shift assays and transgenic assays, we identified a single functional EcRE, located at position -97 to -83 bp relative to the transcription initiation site. This is the first report of an EcRE associated with an early-late gene in Drosophila. Competition experiments indicated that the affinity of the Ddc EcRE for the ecdysone receptor complex was at least four-fold less than that of the canonical EcRE of the hsp27 gene. Using in vitro mutagenesis, we determined that the reduced affinity of the EcRE resided at two positions where the nucleotides differed from those found in the canonical sequence. The ecdysone receptor, acting through this EcRE, releases Ddc from a silencing mechanism, whose cis-acting domain we have mapped to the 5'-upstream region between -2067 and -1427 bp. Deletion of this repressive element resulted in precocious expression of Ddc in both epidermis and imaginal discs. Thus, epidermal Ddc induction at pupariation is under the control of an extended genomic region that contains both positive and negative regulatory elements. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

  1. Association between polymorphisms in prostanoid receptor genes and aspirin-intolerant asthma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Heon; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Park, Heung-Woo; Jee, Young-Koo; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Bahn, Joon-Woo; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Ye, Young-Min; Shin, Eun-Soon; Lee, Jong-Eun; Park, Hae-Sim; Min, Kyung-Up

    2007-04-01

    Genetic predisposition is linked to the pathogenesis of aspirin-intolerant asthma. Most candidate gene approaches have focused on leukotriene-related pathways, whereas there have been relatively few studies evaluating the effects of polymorphisms in prostanoid receptor genes on the development of aspirin-intolerant asthma. Therefore, we investigated the potential association between prostanoid receptor gene polymorphisms and the aspirin-intolerant asthma phenotype. We screened for genetic variations in the prostanoid receptor genes PTGER1, PTGER2, PTGER3, PTGER4, PTGDR, PTGIR, PTGFR, and TBXA2R using direct sequencing, and selected 32 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms among the 77 polymorphisms with frequencies >0.02 based on linkage disequilibrium for genotyping. We compared the genotype distributions and allele frequencies of three participant groups (108 patients with aspirin-intolerant asthma, 93 patients with aspirin-tolerant asthma, and 140 normal controls). Through association analyses studies of the 32 single nucleotide polymorphisms, the following single nucleotide polymorphisms were found to have significant associations with the aspirin-intolerant asthma phenotype: -616C>G (P=0.038) and -166G>A (P=0.023) in PTGER2; -1709T>A (P=0.043) in PTGER3; -1254A>G (P=0.018) in PTGER4; 1915T>C (P=0.015) in PTGIR; and -4684C>T (P=0.027), and 795T>C (P=0.032) in TBXA2R. In the haplotype analysis of each gene, the frequency of PTGIR ht3[G-G-C-C], which includes 1915T>C, differed significantly between the aspirin-intolerant asthma patients and aspirin-tolerant asthma patients (P=0.015). These findings suggest that genetic polymorphisms in PTGER2, PTGER3, PTGER4, PTGIR, and TBXA2R play important roles in the pathogenesis of aspirin-intolerant asthma.

  2. Latitudinal Clines of the Human Vitamin D Receptor and Skin Color Genes.

    PubMed

    Tiosano, Dov; Audi, Laura; Climer, Sharlee; Zhang, Weixiong; Templeton, Alan R; Fernández-Cancio, Monica; Gershoni-Baruch, Ruth; Sánchez-Muro, José Miguel; El Kholy, Mohamed; Hochberg, Zèev

    2016-05-03

    The well-documented latitudinal clines of genes affecting human skin color presumably arise from the need for protection from intense ultraviolet radiation (UVR) vs. the need to use UVR for vitamin D synthesis. Sampling 751 subjects from a broad range of latitudes and skin colors, we investigated possible multilocus correlated adaptation of skin color genes with the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR), using a vector correlation metric and network method called BlocBuster. We discovered two multilocus networks involving VDR promoter and skin color genes that display strong latitudinal clines as multilocus networks, even though many of their single gene components do not. Considered one by one, the VDR components of these networks show diverse patterns: no cline, a weak declining latitudinal cline outside of Africa, and a strong in- vs. out-of-Africa frequency pattern. We confirmed these results with independent data from HapMap. Standard linkage disequilibrium analyses did not detect these networks. We applied BlocBuster across the entire genome, showing that our networks are significant outliers for interchromosomal disequilibrium that overlap with environmental variation relevant to the genes' functions. These results suggest that these multilocus correlations most likely arose from a combination of parallel selective responses to a common environmental variable and coadaptation, given the known Mendelian epistasis among VDR and the skin color genes. Copyright © 2016 Tiosano et al.

  3. Adenoviral-Mediated Imaging of Gene Transfer Using a Somatostatin Receptor-Cytosine Deaminase Fusion Protein

    PubMed Central

    Lears, Kimberly A.; Parry, Jesse J.; Andrews, Rebecca; Nguyen, Kim; Wadas, Thaddeus J.; Rogers, Buck E.

    2015-01-01

    Suicide gene therapy is a process by which cells are administered a gene that encodes a protein capable of converting a nontoxic prodrug into an active toxin. Cytosine deaminase (CD) has been widely investigated as a means of suicide gene therapy due to the enzyme’s ability to convert the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) into the toxic compound 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). However, the extent of gene transfer is a limiting factor in predicting therapeutic outcome. The ability to monitor gene transfer, non-invasively, would strengthen the efficiency of therapy. In this regard, we have constructed and evaluated a replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad) containing the human somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2) fused with a C-terminal yeast CD gene for the non-invasive monitoring of gene transfer and therapy. The resulting Ad (AdSSTR2-yCD) was evaluated in vitro in breast cancer cells to determine the function of the fusion protein. These studies demonstrated that the both the SSTR2 and yCD were functional in binding assays, conversion assays, and cytotoxicity assays. In vivo studies similarly demonstrated the functionality using conversion assays, biodistribution studies, and small animal positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging studies. In conclusion, the fusion protein has been validated as useful for the non-invasive imaging of yCD expression and will be evaluated in the future for monitoring yCD-based therapy. PMID:25837665

  4. Frequent amplification of receptor tyrosine kinase genes in welldifferentiated/ dedifferentiated liposarcoma.

    PubMed

    Asano, Naofumi; Yoshida, Akihiko; Mitani, Sachiyo; Kobayashi, Eisuke; Shiotani, Bunsyo; Komiyama, Motokiyo; Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Chuman, Hirokazu; Morioka, Hideo; Matsumoto, Morio; Nakamura, Masaya; Kubo, Takashi; Kato, Mamoru; Kohno, Takashi; Kawai, Akira; Kondo, Tadashi; Ichikawa, Hitoshi

    2017-02-21

    Well-differentiated liposarcoma (WDLPS) and dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS) are closely related tumors commonly characterized by MDM2/CDK4 gene amplification, and lack clinically effective treatment options when inoperable. To identify novel therapeutic targets, we performed targeted genomic sequencing analysis of 19 WDLPS and 37 DDLPS tumor samples using a panel of 104 cancer-related genes (NCC oncopanel v3) developed specifically for genomic testing to select suitable molecular targeted therapies. The results of this analysis indicated that these sarcomas had very few gene mutations and a high frequency of amplifications of not only MDM2 and CDK4 but also other genes. Potential driver mutations were found in only six (11%) samples; however, gene amplification events (other than MDM2 and CDK4 amplification) were identified in 30 (54%) samples. Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) genes in particular were amplified in 18 (32%) samples. In addition, growth of a WDLPS cell line with IGF1R amplification was suppressed by simultaneous inhibition of CDK4 and IGF1R, using palbociclib and NVP-AEW541, respectively. Combination therapy with CDK4 and RTK inhibitors may be an effective therapeutic option for WDLPS/DDLPS patients with RTK gene amplification.

  5. Avian olfactory receptor gene repertoires: evidence for a well-developed sense of smell in birds?

    PubMed Central

    Steiger, Silke S; Fidler, Andrew E; Valcu, Mihai; Kempenaers, Bart

    2008-01-01

    Among vertebrates, the sense of smell is mediated by olfactory receptors (ORs) expressed in sensory neurons within the olfactory epithelium. Comparative genomic studies suggest that the olfactory acuity of mammalian species correlates positively with both the total number and the proportion of functional OR genes encoded in their genomes. In contrast to mammals, avian olfaction is poorly understood, with birds widely regarded as relying primarily on visual and auditory inputs. Here, we show that in nine bird species from seven orders (blue tit, Cyanistes caeruleus; black coucal, Centropus grillii; brown kiwi, Apteryx australis; canary, Serinus canaria; galah, Eolophus roseicapillus; red jungle fowl, Gallus gallus; kakapo, Strigops habroptilus; mallard, Anas platyrhynchos; snow petrel, Pagodroma nivea), the majority of amplified OR sequences are predicted to be from potentially functional genes. This finding is somewhat surprising as one previous report suggested that the majority of OR genes in an avian (red jungle fowl) genomic sequence are non-functional pseudogenes. We also show that it is not the estimated proportion of potentially functional OR genes, but rather the estimated total number of OR genes that correlates positively with relative olfactory bulb size, an anatomical correlate of olfactory capability. We further demonstrate that all the nine bird genomes examined encode OR genes belonging to a large gene clade, termed γ-c, the expansion of which appears to be a shared characteristic of class Aves. In summary, our findings suggest that olfaction in birds may be a more important sense than generally believed. PMID:18628122

  6. GABAA receptor subunit gene expression in human prefrontal cortex: comparison of schizophrenics and controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akbarian, S.; Huntsman, M. M.; Kim, J. J.; Tafazzoli, A.; Potkin, S. G.; Bunney, W. E. Jr; Jones, E. G.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics is hypoactive and displays changes related to inhibitory, GABAergic neurons, and GABAergic synapses. These changes include decreased levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the enzyme for GABA synthesis, upregulation of muscimol binding, and downregulation of benzodiazepine binding to GABAA receptors. Studies in the visual cortex of nonhuman primates have demonstrated that gene expression for GAD and for several GABAA receptor subunit polypeptides is under control of neuronal activity, raising the possibility that similar mechanisms in the hypoactive prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics may explain the abnormalities in GAD and in GABAA receptor regulation. In the present study, which is the first of its type on human cerebral cortex, levels of mRNAs for six GABAA receptor subunits (alpha 1, alpha 2, alpha 5, beta 1, beta 2, gamma 2) and their laminar expression patterns were analyzed in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics and matched controls, using in situ hybridization histochemistry and densitometry. Three types of laminar expression pattern were observed: mRNAs for the alpha 1, beta 2, and gamma 2 subunits, which are the predominant receptor subunits expressed in the mature cortex, were expressed at comparatively high levels by cells of all six cortical layers, but most intensely by cells in lower layer III and layer IV. mRNAs for the alpha 2, alpha 5, and beta 1 subunits were expressed at lower levels; alpha 2 and beta 1 were expressed predominantly by cells in layers II, III, and IV; alpha 5 was expressed predominantly in layers IV, V, and VI. There were no significant changes in overall mRNA levels for any of the receptor subunits in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics, and the laminar expression pattern of all six receptor subunit mRNAs did not differ between schizophrenics and controls. Because gene expression for GABAA receptor subunits is not consistently altered in the prefrontal cortex of

  7. Overexpression of vasopressin (V3) and corticotrophin-releasing hormone receptor genes in corticotroph tumours.

    PubMed

    de Keyzer, Y; René, P; Beldjord, C; Lenne, F; Bertagna, X

    1998-10-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying ACTH-secreting tumour formation remain unknown. Transmembrane signalling pathways play an important role in several endocrine disorders including pituitary tumours. To investigate the role of the pituitary vasopressin (V3) receptor (R) in ACTH-secreting tumours we have qualitatively and quantitatively analysed its mRNA. RT-PCR, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and S1 nuclease protection experiments were used to analyse V3 mRNA structure in ACTH-secreting tumours. We also developed a competitive RT-PCR system to compare the levels of expression of POMC, V3 and CRH-R genes. This system used as competitor a single mutant template (termed multi-mutant) containing primers for the three genes flanking an unrelated core sequence allowing multiple quantifications from the same cDNA preparations. We analysed 12 normal pituitaries, 15 corticotroph pituitary adenomas and 6 ACTH-secreting bronchial carcinoids. The V3 mRNA structure and sequence were found to be identical in normal and tumoural pituitary indicating that the tumoural Vs mRNA codes for a normal receptor. POMC RT-PCR signals in the pituitary tumour group were approximately 7-fold higher than in the normal pituitary group. Similarly, V3 and CRH-R signal were increased in pituitary tumors (mean +/- SEM: 5.87 x 10(-6) +/- 1.73 x 10(-6), and 2.33 x 10(-4) +/- 1.4 x 10(-4), respectively), when compared to normal pituitaries (1.19 x 10(-7) +/- 2.39 x 10(-8), and 1.7 x 10(-6) +/- 4.65 x 10(-7), respectively) suggesting that these two genes are expressed at very high levels in corticotroph tumours. When expressed relative to the corresponding POMC signals, increases in V3 and CRH-R signals reached 49-fold and 137-fold, respectively, in pituitary tumours. In ACTH-secreting bronchial carcinoids V3 gene expression level was also higher than in normal pituitary, whereas CRH-R signals were detected in only 4 of the 6 tumours with wide variations. Our results show that both vasopressin

  8. Functional Expression of Two Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors from cDNA Clones Identifies a Gene Family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulter, Jim; Connolly, John; Deneris, Evan; Goldman, Dan; Heinemann, Steven; Patrick, Jim

    1987-11-01

    A family of genes coding for proteins homologous to the α subunit of the muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor has been identified in the rat genome. These genes are transcribed in the central and peripheral nervous systems in areas known to contain functional nicotinic receptors. In this paper, we demonstrate that three of these genes, which we call alpha3, alpha4, and beta2, encode proteins that form functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Oocytes expressing either alpha3 or alpha4 protein in combination with the beta2 protein produced a strong response to acetylcholine. Oocytes expressing only the alpha4 protein gave a weak response to acetylcholine. These receptors are activated by acetylcholine and nicotine and are blocked by Bungarus toxin 3.1. They are not blocked by α -bungarotoxin, which blocks the muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Thus, the receptors formed by the alpha3, alpha4, and beta2 subunits are pharmacologically similar to the ganglionic-type neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. These results indicate that the alpha3, alpha4, and beta2 genes encode functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits that are expressed in the brain and peripheral nervous system.

  9. Orthologs of Human Disease Associated Genes and RNAi Analysis of Silencing Insulin Receptor Gene in Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zan; Teng, Xiaolu; Chen, Maohua; Li, Fei

    2014-01-01

    The silkworm, Bombyx mori L., is an important economic insect that has been domesticated for thousands of years to produce silk. It is our great interest to investigate the possibility of developing the B. mori as human disease model. We searched the orthologs of human disease associated genes in the B. mori by bi-directional best hits of BLAST and confirmed by searching the OrthoDB. In total, 5006 genes corresponding to 1612 kinds of human diseases had orthologs in the B. mori, among which, there are 25 genes associated with diabetes mellitus. Of these, we selected the insulin receptor gene of the B. mori (Bm-INSR) to study its expression in different tissues and at different developmental stages and tissues. Quantitative PCR showed that Bm-INSR was highly expressed in the Malpighian tubules but expressed at low levels in the testis. It was highly expressed in the 3rd and 4th instar larvae, and adult. We knocked down Bm-INSR expression using RNA interference. The abundance of Bm-INSR transcripts were dramatically reduced to ~4% of the control level at 6 days after dsRNA injection and the RNAi-treated B. mori individuals showed apparent growth inhibition and malformation such as abnormal body color in black, which is the typical symptom of diabetic patients. Our results demonstrate that B. mori has potential use as an animal model for diabetic mellitus research. PMID:25302617

  10. Frequency of distribution of leptin receptor gene polymorphism in obstructive sleep apnea patients.

    PubMed

    Popko, K; Gorska, E; Wasik, M; Stoklosa, A; Pływaczewski, R; Winiarska, M; Gorecka, D; Sliwinski, P; Demkow, U

    2007-11-01

    Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone regulating energy homeostasis and body weight. Leptin concentration is increased in patients with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Leptin receptor (LEPR) is a single transmembrane protein belonging to the superfamily of cytokine receptors related by a structure to the hemopoietin receptor family. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of distribution of leptin receptor gene polymorphism GLN223ARG in OSAS patients compared with healthy controls. The examined group included 179 subjects: 102 OSAS patients (74 men and 28 women) and 77 non-apneic controls (39 men and 38 women). Genomic DNA was isolated with the use of a column method and genotyping of DNA sequence variation was carried out by restriction enzyme analysis of PCR-amplified DNA. The results revealed a significant correlation between the polymorphism of LEPR and OSAS. Carriers of Arg allele in homozygotic genotype Arg/Arg and heterozygotic genotype Gln/Arg were more often obese and developed OSAS than the group of carriers of homozygotic Gln/Gln genotype. This tendency was observed in the whole examined population and in the group of obese women. We also found the highest levels of total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglycerides in the group of homozygotic Arg/Arg genotype carriers, lower in heterozygotic Gln/Arg genotype carriers, and the lowest in the group of persons carring homozygotic Gln/Gln genotype. The presence of Arg allel seems linked to a higher risk of obesity and higher lipid levels in OSAS patients. OSAS may have a strong genetic basis due to the effects from a variety of genes including those for leptin receptor.

  11. MicroRNA-433 Dampens Glucocorticoid Receptor Signaling, Impacting Circadian Rhythm and Osteoblastic Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Smith, Spenser S; Dole, Neha S; Franceschetti, Tiziana; Hrdlicka, Henry C; Delany, Anne M

    2016-10-07

    Serum glucocorticoids play a critical role in synchronizing circadian rhythm in peripheral tissues, and multiple mechanisms regulate tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids. In the skeleton, circadian rhythm helps coordinate bone formation and resorption. Circadian rhythm is regulated through transcriptional and post-transcriptional feedback loops that include microRNAs. How microRNAs regulate circadian rhythm in bone is unexplored. We show that in mouse calvaria, miR-433 displays robust circadian rhythm, peaking just after dark. In C3H/10T1/2 cells synchronized with a pulse of dexamethasone, inhibition of miR-433 using a tough decoy altered the period and amplitude of Per2 gene expression, suggesting that miR-433 regulates rhythm. Although miR-433 does not directly target the Per2 3'-UTR, it does target two rhythmically expressed genes in calvaria, Igf1 and Hif1α. miR-433 can target the glucocorticoid receptor; however, glucocorticoid receptor protein abundance was unaffected in miR-433 decoy cells. Rather, miR-433 inhibition dramatically enhanced glucocorticoid signaling due to increased nuclear receptor translocation, activating glucocorticoid receptor transcriptional targets. Last, in calvaria of transgenic mice expressing a miR-433 decoy in osteoblastic cells (Col3.6 promoter), the amplitude of Per2 and Bmal1 mRNA rhythm was increased, confirming that miR-433 regulates circadian rhythm. miR-433 was previously shown to target Runx2, and mRNA for Runx2 and its downstream target, osteocalcin, were also increased in miR-433 decoy mouse calvaria. We hypothesize that miR-433 helps maintain circadian rhythm in osteoblasts by regulating sensitivity to glucocorticoid receptor signaling. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. MicroRNA-433 Dampens Glucocorticoid Receptor Signaling, Impacting Circadian Rhythm and Osteoblastic Gene Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Spenser S.; Dole, Neha S.; Franceschetti, Tiziana; Hrdlicka, Henry C.; Delany, Anne M.

    2016-01-01

    Serum glucocorticoids play a critical role in synchronizing circadian rhythm in peripheral tissues, and multiple mechanisms regulate tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids. In the skeleton, circadian rhythm helps coordinate bone formation and resorption. Circadian rhythm is regulated through transcriptional and post-transcriptional feedback loops that include microRNAs. How microRNAs regulate circadian rhythm in bone is unexplored. We show that in mouse calvaria, miR-433 displays robust circadian rhythm, peaking just after dark. In C3H/10T1/2 cells synchronized with a pulse of dexamethasone, inhibition of miR-433 using a tough decoy altered the period and amplitude of Per2 gene expression, suggesting that miR-433 regulates rhythm. Although miR-433 does not directly target the Per2 3′-UTR, it does target two rhythmically expressed genes in calvaria, Igf1 and Hif1α. miR-433 can target the glucocorticoid receptor; however, glucocorticoid receptor protein abundance was unaffected in miR-433 decoy cells. Rather, miR-433 inhibition dramatically enhanced glucocorticoid signaling due to increased nuclear receptor translocation, activating glucocorticoid receptor transcriptional targets. Last, in calvaria of transgenic mice expressing a miR-433 decoy in osteoblastic cells (Col3.6 promoter), the amplitude of Per2 and Bmal1 mRNA rhythm was increased, confirming that miR-433 regulates circadian rhythm. miR-433 was previously shown to target Runx2, and mRNA for Runx2 and its downstream target, osteocalcin, were also increased in miR-433 decoy mouse calvaria. We hypothesize that miR-433 helps maintain circadian rhythm in osteoblasts by regulating sensitivity to glucocorticoid receptor signaling. PMID:27551048

  13. GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTOR-RELATED GENES: GENOTYPE AND BRAIN GENE EXPRESSION RELATIONSHIPS TO SUICIDE AND MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER.

    PubMed

    Yin, Honglei; Galfalvy, Hanga; Pantazatos, Spiro P; Huang, Yung-Yu; Rosoklija, Gorazd B; Dwork, Andrew J; Burke, Ainsley; Arango, Victoria; Oquendo, Maria A; Mann, J John

    2016-06-01

    We tested the relationship between genotype, gene expression and suicidal behavior and major depressive disorder (MDD) in live subjects and postmortem samples for three genes, associated with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, suicidal behavior, and MDD; FK506-binding protein 5 (FKBP5), Spindle and kinetochore-associated protein 2 (SKA2), and Glucocorticoid Receptor (NR3C1). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes were tested for association with suicidal behavior and MDD in a live (N = 277) and a postmortem sample (N = 209). RNA-seq was used to examine gene and isoform-level brain expression postmortem (Brodmann Area 9; N = 59). Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) relationships were examined using a public database (UK Brain Expression Consortium). We identified a haplotype within the FKBP5 gene, present in 47% of the live subjects, which was associated with increased risk of suicide attempt (OR = 1.58, t = 6.03, P = .014). Six SNPs on this gene, three SNPs on SKA2, and one near NR3C1 showed before-adjustment association with attempted suicide, and two SNPs of SKA2 with suicide death, but none stayed significant after adjustment for multiple testing. Only the SKA2 SNPs were related to expression in the prefrontal cortex (pFCTX). One NR3C1 transcript had lower expression in suicide relative to nonsuicide sudden death cases (b = -0.48, SE = 0.12, t = -4.02, adjusted P = .004). We have identified an association of FKBP5 haplotype with risk of suicide attempt and found an association between suicide and altered NR3C1 gene expression in the pFCTX. Our findings further implicate hypothalamic pituitary axis dysfunction in suicidal behavior. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Uterine Development and Fertility Are Dependent on Gene Dosage of the Nuclear Receptor Coregulator REA

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sunghee; Yoon, Sangyeon; Zhao, Yuechao; Park, Seong-Eun; Liao, Lan; Xu, Jianming; Lydon, John P.; DeMayo, Francesco J.; O'Malley, Bert W.; Bagchi, Milan K.

    2012-01-01

    Although the effectiveness of nuclear hormone-receptor complexes is known to depend on coregulator partner proteins, relatively little is known about the roles of coregulators in uterine development and early stages of pregnancy and implantation. Because conventional genetic deletion of the coregulator, repressor of estrogen receptor activity (REA), was embryonic lethal, we here study REA conditional knockout mice generated by cre-loxP recombination, in which REA function was abrogated only in progesterone receptor-expressing tissues, to define the roles of REA in postembryonic stages and in a tissue-specific manner. We find that REA has gene dose-dependent activity impacting uterine development and fertility. Conditional homozygous mutant (REAd/d) mice developed to adulthood and showed normal ovarian function, but females were infertile with severely compromised uterine development and function characterized by cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and altered adenogenesis (endometrial gland morphogenesis), resulting in failure of implantation and decidualization. By contrast, mice heterozygous for REA (REAf/d) had a very different phenotype, with estradiol treatment resulting in hyperstimulated, large uteri showing increased proliferation of luminal epithelial cells, and enhanced fluid imbibition associated with altered regulation of aquaporins. These REAf/d female mice showed a subfertility phenotype with reduced numbers and sizes of litters. These findings highlight that uterine development and regulation of estrogen receptor activities show a bimodal dependence on the gene dosage of REA. Optimal uterine development and functional activities require the normal gene dosage of REA, with partial or complete deletion resulting in hyperresponsiveness or underresponsiveness to hormone and subfertility or infertility, respectively. PMID:22585830

  15. Vitamin D receptor FokI genotype may modify the susceptibility to schizophrenia and bipolar mood disorder by regulation of dopamine D1 receptor gene expression.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, S; Mirzaei, K; Hossein-Nezhad, A; Shariati, G

    2012-10-01

    This study is designed to test association of FOKI polymorphism in Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and its potential effect on expression of dopamine D1 receptor in schizophrenia and bipolar mood disorder as well as in healthy individuals. In this case-control study 196 patient with schizophrenia, 119 patients with bipolar mood disorder and 192 healthy individuals as the control group were recruited. All psychiatric disorders were diagnosed according to DSM IV criteria. Healthy control group denied any family history of such disorders. FOKI was genotyped by means of PCR-RFLP method. The mRNA was extracted from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and the cDNA was synthesized. Frequency of ff genotype was more common in patients with bipolar disorders compared to the healthy control group (Odds ratio=1.84, 95% CI; 0.81 to 4.17) with increased relative risk (Relative risk=1.31, CI 95%; 0.86 to 1.99). There were significant differences between relative expressions of dopamine D1 receptor gene in various genotypes. Our results indicated that the ff genotype was associated with lower expression of dopamine D1 receptor gene. VDR as a nuclear receptor may contribute to bipolar disorders via modification of the expression of the neurotransmitters receptor such as dopamine.

  16. Increased hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptor gene expression and effects of pharmacologic 5-HT2A receptor inactivation in obese A{sup y} mice

    SciTech Connect

    Nonogaki, Katsunori; Nozue, Kana; Oka, Yoshitomo

    2006-12-29

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) 2A receptors contribute to the effects of 5-HT on platelet aggregation and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, and are reportedly involved in decreases in plasma levels of adiponectin, an adipokine, in diabetic subjects. Here, we report that systemic administration of sarpogrelate, a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, suppressed appetite and increased hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, corticotropin releasing hormone, 5-HT2C, and 5-HT1B receptor gene expression. A{sup y} mice, which have ectopic expression of the agouti protein, significantly increased hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptor gene expression in association with obesity compared with wild-type mice matched for age. Systemic administration ofmore » sarpogrelate suppressed overfeeding, body weight gain, and hyperglycemia in obese A{sup y} mice, whereas it did not increase plasma adiponectin levels. These results suggest that obesity increases hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptor gene expression, and pharmacologic inactivation of 5-HT2A receptors inhibits overfeeding and obesity in A{sup y} mice, but did not increase plasma adiponectin levels.« less

  17. Canine olfactory receptor gene polymorphism and its relation to odor detection performance by sniffer dogs.

    PubMed

    Lesniak, Anna; Walczak, Marta; Jezierski, Tadeusz; Sacharczuk, Mariusz; Gawkowski, Maciej; Jaszczak, Kazimierz

    2008-01-01

    The outstanding sensitivity of the canine olfactory system has been acknowledged by using sniffer dogs in military and civilian service for detection of a variety of odors. It is hypothesized that the canine olfactory ability is determined by polymorphisms in olfactory receptor (OR) genes. We investigated 5 OR genes for polymorphic sites which might affect the olfactory ability of service dogs in different fields of specific substance detection. All investigated OR DNA sequences proved to have allelic variants, the majority of which lead to protein sequence alteration. Homozygous individuals at 2 gene loci significantly differed in their detection skills from other genotypes. This suggests a role of specific alleles in odor detection and a linkage between single-nucleotide polymorphism and odor recognition efficiency.

  18. Estrogen Receptor 1 ( ESR1) Gene Polymorphisms and Obesity Phenotypes in a Population of Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Correa-Rodríguez, María; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Rueda-Medina, Blanca

    2017-06-01

    Obesity is considered an increasingly serious health problem determined by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Estrogens have been found to play a major role in body weight and adiposity regulation through estrogen receptor 1 ( ESR1). The aim of this study was to determine whether genotype and haplotype frequencies of ESR1 polymorphisms are associated with body composition measures in a population of 572 young adults. A lack of significant association between genotypes of ESR1 gene polymorphisms and obesity phenotypes was seen after adjustment for confounding factors. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis identified a single LD block for the ESR1 gene including PvuII and XbaI single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (pairwise r 2 = .66). None of the haplotypes identified revealed statistically significant associations with any of the obesity phenotypes. Our results suggest that polymorphisms of the ESR1 gene do not contribute significantly to the genetic risk for obesity phenotypes in a population of young Caucasian adults.

  19. Phosphorylated and sumoylation-deficient progesterone receptors drive proliferative gene signatures during breast cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Knutson, Todd P; Daniel, Andrea R; Fan, Danhua; Silverstein, Kevin At; Covington, Kyle R; Fuqua, Suzanne Aw; Lange, Carol A

    2012-06-14

    Progesterone receptors (PR) are emerging as important breast cancer drivers. Phosphorylation events common to breast cancer cells impact PR transcriptional activity, in part by direct phosphorylation. PR-B but not PR-A isoforms are phosphorylated on Ser294 by mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and cyclin dependent kinase 2 (CDK2). Phospho-Ser294 PRs are resistant to ligand-dependent Lys388 SUMOylation (that is, a repressive modification). Antagonism of PR small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)ylation by mitogenic protein kinases suggests a mechanism for derepression (that is, transcriptional activation) of target genes. As a broad range of PR protein expression is observed clinically, a PR gene signature would provide a valuable marker of PR contribution to early breast cancer progression. Global gene expression patterns were measured in T47D and MCF-7 breast cancer cells expressing either wild-type (SUMOylation-capable) or K388R (SUMOylation-deficient) PRs and subjected to pathway analysis. Gene sets were validated by RT-qPCR. Recruitment of coregulators and histone methylation levels were determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Changes in cell proliferation and survival were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays and western blotting. Finally, human breast tumor cohort datasets were probed to identify PR-associated gene signatures; metagene analysis was employed to define survival rates in patients whose tumors express a PR gene signature. 'SUMO-sensitive' PR target genes primarily include genes required for proliferative and pro-survival signaling. DeSUMOylated K388R receptors are preferentially recruited to enhancer regions of derepressed genes (that is, MSX2, RGS2, MAP1A, and PDK4) with the steroid receptor coactivator, CREB-(cAMP-response element-binding protein)-binding protein (CBP), and mixed lineage leukemia 2 (MLL2), a histone methyltransferase mediator of nucleosome remodeling. PR SUMOylation

  20. Sexually dimorphic effects of oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR ) variants on Harm Avoidance.

    PubMed

    Stankova, Trayana; Eichhammer, Peter; Langguth, Berthold; Sand, Philipp G

    2012-07-30

    Recent research has suggested that oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) variants may account for individual differences in social behavior, the effects of stress and parenting styles. Little is known, however, on a putative role of the gene in heritable temperamental traits. We addressed effects of two common OXTR variants, rs237900 and rs237902, on personality dimensions in 99 healthy subjects using the Temperament and Character Inventory. When sex was controlled for and an OXTR genotype*sex interaction term was included in the regression model, 11% of the variance in Harm Avoidance could be explained (uncorrected p ≤ 0.01). Female carriers of the minor alleles scored highest, and a novel A217T mutation emerged in the most harm avoidant male participant. Findings lend support to a modulatory effect of common OXTR variants on Harm Avoidance in healthy caucasian women and invite resequencing of the gene in anxiety phenotypes to identify more explanatory functional variation.

  1. International Union of Pharmacology. XXXII. The mammalian calcitonin gene-related peptides, adrenomedullin, amylin, and calcitonin receptors.

    PubMed

    Poyner, David R; Sexton, Patrick M; Marshall, Ian; Smith, David M; Quirion, Remi; Born, Walter; Muff, Roman; Fischer, Jan A; Foord, Steven M

    2002-06-01

    The calcitonin family of peptides comprises calcitonin, amylin, two calcitonin gene-related peptides (CGRPs), and adrenomedullin. The first calcitonin receptor was cloned in 1991. Its pharmacology is complicated by the existence of several splice variants. The receptors for the other members the family are made up of subunits. The calcitonin-like receptor (CL receptor) requires a single transmembrane domain protein, termed receptor activity modifying protein, RAMP1, to function as a CGRP receptor. RAMP2 and -3 enable the same CL receptor to behave as an adrenomedullin receptor. Although the calcitonin receptor does not require RAMP to bind and respond to calcitonin, it can associate with the RAMPs, resulting in a series of receptors that typically have high affinity for amylin and varied affinity for CGRP. This review aims to reconcile what is observed when the receptors are reconstituted in vitro with the properties they show in native cells and tissues. Experimental conditions must be rigorously controlled because different degrees of protein expression may markedly modify pharmacology in such a complex situation. Recommendations, which follow International Union of Pharmacology guidelines, are made for the nomenclature of these multimeric receptors.

  2. Identification and expression analyses of a novel serotonin receptor gene, 5-HT2β, in the field cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, T; Aonuma, H

    2012-01-01

    Biogenic amine serotonin (5-HT) modulates various aspects of behaviors such as aggressive behavior and circadian behavior in the cricket. In our previous report, in order to elucidate the molecular basis of the cricket 5-HT system, we identified three genes involved in 5-HT biosynthesis, as well as four 5-HT receptor genes (5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2α, and 5-HT7) expressed in the brain of the field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus DeGeer [7]. In the present study, we identified Gryllus 5-HT2β gene, an additional 5-HT receptor gene expressed in the cricket brain, and examined its tissue-specific distribution and embryonic stage-dependent expression. Gryllus 5-HT2β gene was ubiquitously expressed in the all examined adult tissues, and was expressed during early embryonic development, as well as during later stages. This study suggests functional differences between two 5-HT2 receptors in the cricket.

  3. A mutation in the insulin receptor gene that impairs transport of the receptor to the plasma membrane and causes insulin-resistant diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    Accili, D; Frapier, C; Mosthaf, L; McKeon, C; Elbein, S C; Permutt, M A; Ramos, E; Lander, E; Ullrich, A; Taylor, S I

    1989-01-01

    Insulin binds to a receptor on the cell surface, thereby triggering a biological response within the target cell. Mutations in the insulin receptor gene can render the cell resistant to the biological action of insulin. We have studied a family in which two sisters have a genetic form of insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus. The technique of homozygosity mapping has been used to demonstrate that the mutation causing diabetes in this consanguineous family is genetically linked to the insulin receptor gene. The two insulin-resistant sisters are homozygous for a mutation encoding substitution of valine for phenylalanine at position 382 in the alpha-subunit of the insulin receptor. Transfection of mutant insulin receptor cDNA into NIH3T3 cells demonstrated that the Val382 mutation impaired post-translational processing and retarded transport of the insulin receptor to the plasma membrane. Thus, the mutation causes insulin resistance by decreasing the number of insulin receptors on the surface of the patients' cells. Images PMID:2573522

  4. Decoy receptor 3 regulates the expression of various genes in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Koji; Miura, Yasushi; Maeda, Toshihisa; Takahashi, Masayasu; Hayashi, Shinya; Kurosaka, Masahiro

    2013-10-01

    Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3), a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor (TNFR) superfamily, lacks the transmembrane domain of conventional TNFRs in order to be a secreted protein. DcR3 competitively binds and inhibits members of the TNF family, including Fas ligand (FasL), LIGHT and TNF-like ligand 1A (TL1A). We previously reported that TNFα-induced DcR3 overexpression in rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes (RA-FLS) protects cells from Fas-induced apoptosis. Previous studies have suggested that DcR3 acting as a ligand directly induces the differentiation of macrophages into osteoclasts. Furthermore, we reported that DcR3 induces very late antigen-4 (VLA--4) expression in THP-1 macrophages, inhibiting cycloheximide-induced apoptosis and that DcR3 binds to membrane-bound TL1A expressed on RA-FLS, resulting in the negative regulation of cell proliferation induced by inflammatory cytokines. In the current study, we used cDNA microarray to search for genes in RA-FLS whose expression was regulated by the ligation of DcR3. The experiments revealed the expression profiles of genes in RA-FLS regulated by DcR3. The profiles showed that among the 100 genes most significantly regulated by DcR3, 45 were upregulated and 55 were downregulated. The upregulated genes were associated with protein complex assembly, cell motility, regulation of transcription, cellular protein catabolic processes, cell membrane, nucleotide binding and glycosylation. The downregulated genes were associated with transcription regulator activity, RNA biosynthetic processes, cytoskeleton, zinc finger region, protein complex assembly, phosphate metabolic processes, mitochondrion, ion transport, nucleotide binding and cell fractionation. Further study of the genes detected in the current study may provide insight into the pathogenesis and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis by DcR3-TL1A signaling.

  5. Estrogen-related receptor {alpha} modulates the expression of adipogenesis-related genes during adipocyte differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ijichi, Nobuhiro; Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko

    2007-07-06

    Estrogen-related receptor {alpha} (ERR{alpha}) is an orphan nuclear receptor that regulates cellular energy metabolism by modulating gene expression involved in fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis in brown adipose tissue. However, the physiological role of ERR{alpha} in adipogenesis and white adipose tissue development has not been well studied. Here, we show that ERR{alpha} and ERR{alpha}-related transcriptional coactivators, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) coactivator-1{alpha} (PGC-1{alpha}) and PGC-1{beta}, can be up-regulated in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes at mRNA levels under the adipogenic differentiation condition including the inducer of cAMP, glucocorticoid, and insulin. Gene knockdown by ERR{alpha}-specific siRNA results in mRNA down-regulation of fatty acidmore » binding protein 4, PPAR{gamma}, and PGC-1{alpha} in 3T3-L1 cells in the adipogenesis medium. ERR{alpha} and PGC-1{beta} mRNA expression can be also up-regulated in another preadipocyte lineage DFAT-D1 cells and a pluripotent mesenchymal cell line C3H10T1/2 under the differentiation condition. Furthermore, stable expression of ERR{alpha} in 3T3-L1 cells up-regulates adipogenic marker genes and promotes triglyceride accumulation during 3T3-L1 differentiation. These results suggest that ERR{alpha} may play a critical role in adipocyte differentiation by modulating the expression of various adipogenesis-related genes.« less

  6. Perceptual variation in umami taste and polymorphisms in TAS1R taste receptor genes1234

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qing-Ying; Alarcon, Suzanne; Tharp, Anilet; Ahmed, Osama M; Estrella, Nelsa L; Greene, Tiffani A; Rucker, Joseph; Breslin, Paul AS

    2009-01-01

    Background: The TAS1R1 and TAS1R3 G protein–coupled receptors are believed to function in combination as a heteromeric glutamate taste receptor in humans. Objective: We hypothesized that variations in the umami perception of glutamate would correlate with variations in the sequence of these 2 genes, if they contribute directly to umami taste. Design: In this study, we first characterized the general sensitivity to glutamate in a sample population of 242 subjects. We performed these experiments by sequencing the coding regions of the genomic TAS1R1 and TAS1R3 genes in a separate set of 87 individuals who were tested repeatedly with monopotassium glutamate (MPG) solutions. Last, we tested the role of the candidate umami taste receptor hTAS1R1-hTAS1R3 in a functional expression assay. Results: A subset of subjects displays extremes of sensitivity, and a battery of different psychophysical tests validated this observation. Statistical analysis showed that the rare T allele of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) R757C in TAS1R3 led to a doubling of umami ratings of 25 mmol MPG/L. Other suggestive SNPs of TAS1R3 include the A allele of A5T and the A allele of R247H, which both resulted in an approximate doubling of umami ratings of 200 mmol MPG/L. We confirmed the potential role of the human TAS1R1-TAS1R3 heteromer receptor in umami taste by recording responses, specifically to l-glutamate and inosine 5′-monophosphate (IMP) mixtures in a heterologous expression assay in HEK (human embryonic kidney) T cells. Conclusions: There is a reliable and valid variation in human umami taste of l-glutamate. Variations in perception of umami taste correlated with variations in the human TAS1R3 gene. The putative human taste receptor TAS1R1-TAS1R3 responds specifically to l-glutamate mixed with the ribonucleotide IMP. Thus, this receptor likely contributes to human umami taste perception. PMID:19587085

  7. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene family of the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Ya-Ming; Dong, Ke; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2007-01-01

    Background Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) mediate fast synaptic cholinergic transmission in the insect central nervous system. The insect nAChR is the molecular target of a class of insecticides, neonicotinoids. Like mammalian nAChRs, insect nAChRs are considered to be made up of five subunits, coded by homologous genes belonging to the same family. The nAChR subunit genes of Drosophila melanogaster, Apis mellifera and Anopheles gambiae have been cloned previously based on their genome sequences. The silkworm Bombyx mori is a model insect of Lepidoptera, among which are many agricultural pests. Identification and characterization of B. mori nAChR genes could provide valuable basic information for this important family of receptor genes and for the study of the molecular mechanisms of neonicotinoid action and resistance. Results We searched the genome sequence database of B. mori with the fruit fly and honeybee nAChRs by tBlastn and cloned all putative silkworm nAChR cDNAs by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) methods. B. mori appears to have the largest known insect nAChR gene family to date, including nine α-type subunits and three β-type subunits. The silkworm possesses three genes having low identity with others, including one α and two β subunits, α9, β2 and β3. Like the fruit fly and honeybee counterparts, silkworm nAChR gene α6 has RNA-editing sites, and α4, α6 and α8 undergo alternative splicing. In particular, alternative exon 7 of Bmα8 may have arisen from a recent duplication event. Truncated transcripts were found for Bmα4 and Bmα5. Conclusion B. mori possesses a largest known insect nAChR gene family characterized to date, including nine α-type subunits and three β-type subunits. RNA-editing, alternative splicing and truncated transcripts were found in several subunit genes, which might enhance the diversity of the gene family. PMID:17868469

  8. Thyroid hormone receptor alpha gene variants increase the risk of developing obesity and show gene-diet interactions.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Real, J M; Corella, D; Goumidi, L; Mercader, J M; Valdés, S; Rojo Martínez, G; Ortega, F; Martinez-Larrad, M-T; Gómez-Zumaquero, J M; Salas-Salvadó, J; Martinez González, M A; Covas, M I; Botas, P; Delgado, E; Cottel, D; Ferrieres, J; Amouyel, P; Ricart, W; Ros, E; Meirhaeghe, A; Serrano-Rios, M; Soriguer, F; Estruch, R

    2013-11-01

    Thyroid hormone receptor-beta resistance has been associated with metabolic traits. THRA gene sequencing of an obese woman (index case) who presented as empirical thyroid hormone receptor-α (THRA) resistance, disclosed a polymorphism (rs12939700) in a critical region involved in TRα alternative processing. THRA gene variants were evaluated in three independent europid populations (i) in two population cohorts at baseline (n=3417 and n=2265), 6 years later (n=2139) and (ii) in 4734 high cardiovascular risk subjects (HCVR, PREDIMED trial). The minor allele of the index case polymorphism (rs12939700), despite having a very low frequency (4%), was significantly associated with higher body mass index (BMI) (P=0.042) in HCVR subjects. A more frequent THRA polymorphism (rs1568400) was associated with higher BMI in subjects from the population (P=0.00008 and P=0.05) after adjusting for several confounders. Rs1568400 was also strongly associated with fasting triglycerides (P dominant=3.99 × 10(-5)). In the same sample, 6 years later, age and sex-adjusted risk of developing obesity was significantly increased in GG homozygotes (odds ratio 2.93 (95% confidence interval, 1.05-6.95)). In contrast, no association between rs1568400 and BMI was observed in HCVR subjects, in whom obesity was highly prevalent. This might be explained by the presence of an interaction (P <0.001) among the rs1568400 variant, BMI and saturated fat intake. Only when saturated fat intake was high (>24.5 g d(-1)), GG carriers showed a significantly higher BMI than A carriers after controlling for energy intake and physical activity. THRA gene polymorphisms are associated with obesity development. This is a novel observation linking the THRA locus to metabolic phenotypes.

  9. The Evolutionary Dynamics of the Odorant Receptor Gene Family in Corbiculate Bees.

    PubMed

    Brand, Philipp; Ramírez, Santiago R

    2017-08-01

    Insects rely on chemical information to locate food, choose mates, and detect potential predators. It has been hypothesized that adaptive changes in the olfactory system facilitated the diversification of numerous insect lineages. For instance, evolutionary changes of Odorant Receptor (OR) genes often occur in parallel with modifications in life history strategies. Corbiculate bees display a diverse array of behaviors that are controlled through olfaction, including varying degrees of social organization, and manifold associations with floral resources. Here we investigated the molecular mechanisms driving the evolution of the OR gene family in corbiculate bees in comparison to other chemosensory gene families. Our results indicate that the genomic organization of the OR gene family has remained highly conserved for ∼80 Myr, despite exhibiting major changes in repertoire size among bee lineages. Moreover, the evolution of OR genes appears to be driven mostly by lineage-specific gene duplications in few genomic regions that harbor large numbers of OR genes. A selection analysis revealed that OR genes evolve under positive selection, with the strongest signals detected in recently duplicated copies. Our results indicate that chromosomal translocations had a minimal impact on OR evolution, and instead local molecular mechanisms appear to be main drivers of OR repertoire size. Our results provide empirical support to the longstanding hypothesis that positive selection shaped the diversification of the OR gene family. Together, our results shed new light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the evolution of olfaction in insects. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  10. Impact of karyotype organization on interlocus recombination between T cell receptor genes in Equidae.

    PubMed

    Drbalova, Jitka; Musilova, Petra; Kubickova, Svatava; Sebestova, Hana; Vahala, Jiri; Rubes, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    The T cell receptor (TCR) genes (TRA, TRB, TRD and TRG) reside in 3 different chromosomal regions. During the maturation of T lymphocytes, the TCR genes are rearranged by site-specific recombination, a process that also predisposes T cells to aberrant rearrangements. Illegitimate recombination between the TCR genes occurs at a low level in healthy individuals, but this frequency may correlate with the risk of lymphoma. The aim of this work was to investigate interlocus recombination in equids. Illegitimate rearrangements were studied in peripheral blood lymphocytes by FISH with painting and BAC probes and by sequencing of PCR products, and the frequencies of recombination were assessed in horses and 4 other equids. The presence of several trans-rearrangement products between the TRA and TRG genes was verified by PCR in all investigated equids. Frequencies of trans-rearrangements in horses are higher than in humans, and colocalization of the TCR genes on the same chromosome increases the incidence of trans-rearrangements between them. The orientation of the TCR genes does not impact interlocus recombination itself but does affect the viability of cells carrying its products and consequently the number of trans-rearrangements observed in lymphocytes.

  11. Molecular characterization of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mayar O; El-Adl, Mohamed A; Ibrahim, Hussam M M; Elseedy, Youssef Y; Rizk, Mohamed A; El-Khodery, Sabry A

    2018-06-01

    Vitamin D plays a vital role in calcium homeostasis, growth, and immunoregulation. Because little is known about the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene in cattle, the aim of the present investigation was to present the molecular characterization of exons 5 and 6 of the VDR gene in Holstein cows. DNA extraction, genomic sequencing, phylogenetic analysis, synteny mapping and single nucleotide gene polymorphism analysis of the VDR gene were performed to assess blood samples collected from 50 clinically healthy Holstein cows. The results revealed the presence of a 450-base pair (bp) nucleotide sequence that resembled exons 5 and 6 with intron 5 enclosed between these exons. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relationship between the sequenced VDR region and that found in Hereford cattle. A close association between this region and the corresponding region in small ruminants was also documented. Moreover, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that caused the replacement of a glutamate with an arginine in the deduced amino acid sequence was detected at position 7 of exon 5. In conclusion, Holstein and Hereford cattle differ with respect to exon 5 of the VDR gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the VDR gene based on nucleotide sequence produced different results from prior analyses based on amino acid sequence. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Latitudinal Clines of the Human Vitamin D Receptor and Skin Color Genes

    PubMed Central

    Tiosano, Dov; Audi, Laura; Climer, Sharlee; Zhang, Weixiong; Templeton, Alan R.; Fernández-Cancio, Monica; Gershoni-Baruch, Ruth; Sánchez-Muro, José Miguel; El Kholy, Mohamed; Hochberg, Zèev

    2016-01-01

    The well-documented latitudinal clines of genes affecting human skin color presumably arise from the need for protection from intense ultraviolet radiation (UVR) vs. the need to use UVR for vitamin D synthesis. Sampling 751 subjects from a broad range of latitudes and skin colors, we investigated possible multilocus correlated adaptation of skin color genes with the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR), using a vector correlation metric and network method called BlocBuster. We discovered two multilocus networks involving VDR promoter and skin color genes that display strong latitudinal clines as multilocus networks, even though many of their single gene components do not. Considered one by one, the VDR components of these networks show diverse patterns: no cline, a weak declining latitudinal cline outside of Africa, and a strong in- vs. out-of-Africa frequency pattern. We confirmed these results with independent data from HapMap. Standard linkage disequilibrium analyses did not detect these networks. We applied BlocBuster across the entire genome, showing that our networks are significant outliers for interchromosomal disequilibrium that overlap with environmental variation relevant to the genes’ functions. These results suggest that these multilocus correlations most likely arose from a combination of parallel selective responses to a common environmental variable and coadaptation, given the known Mendelian epistasis among VDR and the skin color genes. PMID:26921301

  13. Toll like receptors gene expression of human keratinocytes cultured of severe burn injury.

    PubMed

    Cornick, Sarita Mac; Noronha, Silvana Aparecida Alves Corrêa de; Noronha, Samuel Marcos Ribeiro de; Cezillo, Marcus V B; Ferreira, Lydia Masako; Gragnani, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the expression profile of genes related to Toll Like Receptors (TLR) pathways of human Primary Epidermal keratinocytes of patients with severe burns. After obtaining viable fragments of skin with and without burning, culture hKEP was initiated by the enzymatic method using Dispase (Sigma-Aldrich). These cells were treated with Trizol(r) (Life Technologies) for extraction of total RNA. This was quantified and analyzed for purity for obtaining cDNA for the analysis of gene expression using specific TLR pathways PCR Arrays plates (SA Biosciences). After the analysis of gene expression we found that 21% of these genes were differentially expressed, of which 100% were repressed or hyporegulated. Among these, the following genes (fold decrease): HSPA1A (-58), HRAS (-36), MAP2K3 (-23), TOLLIP (-23), RELA (-18), FOS (-16), and TLR1 (-6.0). This study contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms related to TLR pathways and underlying wound infection caused by the burn. Furthermore, it may provide new strategies to restore normal expression of these genes and thereby change the healing process and improve clinical outcome.

  14. Somatostatin and Somatostatin Receptor Gene Expression in Dominant and Subordinate Males of an African Cichlid Fish

    PubMed Central

    Trainor, Brian C.; Hofmann, Hans A.

    2009-01-01

    Somatostatin is a neuropeptide best known for its inhibitory effects on growth hormone secretion and has recently been implicated in the control of social behavior. Several somatostatin receptor subtypes have been identified in vertebrates, but the functional basis for this diversity is still unclear. Here we investigate the expression levels of the somatostatin prepropeptide and two of its receptors, sstR2, and sstR3, in the brains of socially dominant and subordinate A. burtoni males using real-time PCR. Dominant males had higher somatostatin prepropeptide and sstR3 expression in hypothalamus compared to subordinate males. Hypothalamic sstR2 expression did not differ. There were no differences in gene expression in the telencephalon. We also observed an interesting difference between dominants and subordinates in the relationship between hypothalamic sstR2 expression and body size. As would be predicted based on the inhibitory effects of somatostatin on somatic growth, sstR2 expression was negatively correlated with body size in dominant males. In contrast sstR2 expression was positively correlated with body size in subordinate males. These results suggest that somatostatin prepropeptide and receptor gene expression in the hypothalamus are associated with the control of somatic growth in A. burtoni depending on social status. PMID:17374406

  15. Characterization of mGluR5R, a novel, metabotropic glutamate receptor 5-related gene.

    PubMed

    Bates, Brian; Xie, Yuhong; Taylor, Noel; Johnson, Jeremy; Wu, Leeying; Kwak, Seung; Blatcher, Maria; Gulukota, Kamalakar; Paulsen, Janet E

    2002-12-30

    We report here the isolation of a novel gene termed mGluR5R (mGluR5-related). The N-terminus of mGluR5R is highly similar to the extracellular domain of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) whereas the C-terminus bears similarity to the testis-specific gene, RNF18. mGluR5R is expressed in the human CNS in a coordinate fashion with mGluR5. Although the sequence suggests that mGluR5R may be a secreted glutamate binding protein, we found that when expressed in HEK293 cells it was membrane associated and not secreted. Furthermore, mGluR5R was incapable of binding the metabotropic glutamate receptor class I selective agonist, quisqualate. Although mGluR5R could not form disulfide-mediated covalent homodimers, it was able to form a homomeric complex, presumably through noncovalent interactions. mGluR5R also formed noncovalent heteromeric associations with an engineered construct of the extracellular domain of mGluR5 as well as with full-length mGluR5 and mGluR1alpha. The ability of mGluR5R to associate with mGluR1alpha and mGluR5 suggests that it may be a modulator of class I metabotropic glutamate receptor function.

  16. Ku proteins function as corepressors to regulate farnesoid X receptor-mediated gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, Masae; Kunimoto, Masaaki; Nishizuka, Makoto

    2009-12-18

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR; NR1H4) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and regulates the expression of genes involved in enterohepatic circulation and the metabolism of bile acids. Based on functional analyses, nuclear receptors are divided into regions A-F. To explore the cofactors interacting with FXR, we performed a pull-down assay using GST-fused to the N-terminal A/B region and the C region, which are required for the ligand-independent transactivation and DNA-binding, respectively, of FXR, and nuclear extracts from HeLa cells. We identified DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), Ku80, and Ku70 as FXR associated factors. These proteins aremore » known to have an important role in DNA repair, recombination, and transcription. DNA-PKcs mainly interacted with the A/B region of FXR, whereas the Ku proteins interacted with the C region and with the D region (hinge region). Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that the Ku proteins associated with FXR on the bile salt export pump (BSEP) promoter. Furthermore, we demonstrated that ectopic expression of the Ku proteins decreased the promoter activity and expression of BSEP gene mediated by FXR. These results suggest that the Ku proteins function as corepressors for FXR.« less

  17. Mutation analysis of aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene in colorectal, breast, and prostate cancers

    PubMed Central

    Georgitsi, M; Karhu, A; Winqvist, R; Visakorpi, T; Waltering, K; Vahteristo, P; Launonen, V; Aaltonen, L A

    2007-01-01

    Germline mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene were recently identified in individuals with pituitary adenoma predisposition (PAP). These patients have prolactin (PRL) or growth hormone (GH) oversecreting pituitary adenomas, the latter exhibiting acromegaly or gigantism. Loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH) analysis revealed that AIP is lost in PAP tumours, suggesting that it acts as a tumour-suppressor gene. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein is involved in several pathways, but it is best characterised as a cytoplasmic partner of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). To examine the possible role of AIP in the genesis of common cancers, we performed somatic mutation screening in a series of 373 colorectal cancers (CRCs), 82 breast cancers, and 44 prostate tumour samples. A missense R16H (47G>A) change was identified in two CRC samples, as well as in the respective normal tissues, but was absent in 209 healthy controls. The remaining findings were silent, previously unreported, changes of the coding, non-coding, or untranslated regions of AIP. These results suggest that somatic AIP mutations are not common in CRC, breast, and prostate cancers. PMID:17242703

  18. FGF receptor genes and breast cancer susceptibility: results from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, D; Pineda, S; Michailidou, K; Herranz, J; Pita, G; Moreno, L T; Alonso, M R;