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Sample records for a2a receptor knockout

  1. Adenosine A2A receptor antagonists are potential antidepressants: evidence based on pharmacology and A2A receptor knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Yacoubi, Malika El; Ledent, Catherine; Parmentier, Marc; Bertorelli, Rosalia; Ongini, Ennio; Costentin, Jean; Vaugeois, Jean-Marie

    2001-01-01

    Adenosine, an ubiquitous neuromodulator, and its analogues have been shown to produce ‘depressant' effects in animal models believed to be relevant to depressive disorders, while adenosine receptor antagonists have been found to reverse adenosine-mediated ‘depressant' effect. We have designed studies to assess whether adenosine A2A receptor antagonists, or genetic inactivation of the receptor would be effective in established screening procedures, such as tail suspension and forced swim tests, which are predictive of clinical antidepressant activity. Adenosine A2A receptor knockout mice were found to be less sensitive to ‘depressant' challenges than their wildtype littermates. Consistently, the adenosine A2A receptor blockers SCH 58261 (1 – 10 mg kg−1, i.p.) and KW 6002 (0.1 – 10 mg kg−1, p.o.) reduced the total immobility time in the tail suspension test. The efficacy of adenosine A2A receptor antagonists in reducing immobility time in the tail suspension test was confirmed and extended in two groups of mice. Specifically, SCH 58261 (1 – 10 mg kg−1) and ZM 241385 (15 – 60 mg kg−1) were effective in mice previously screened for having high immobility time, while SCH 58261 at 10 mg kg−1 reduced immobility of mice that were selectively bred for their spontaneous ‘helplessness' in this assay. Additional experiments were carried out using the forced swim test. SCH 58261 at 10 mg kg−1 reduced the immobility time by 61%, while KW 6002 decreased the total immobility time at the doses of 1 and 10 mg kg−1 by 75 and 79%, respectively. Administration of the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol (50 – 200 μg kg−1 i.p.) prevented the antidepressant-like effects elicited by SCH 58261 (10 mg kg−1 i.p.) in forced swim test whereas it left unaltered its stimulant motor effects. In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that A2A receptor antagonists prolong escape

  2. Reduced response to the formalin test and lowered spinal NMDA glutamate receptor binding in adenosine A2A receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Hussey, Martin J; Clarke, Geoffrey D; Ledent, Catherine; Hourani, Susanna M O; Kitchen, Ian

    2007-06-01

    Adenosine is a neuromodulator with complex effects on pain pathways. Mice lacking the adenosine A2A receptor are hypoalgesic, and have altered analgesic responses to receptor-selective opioid agonists. These and other findings suggest a role for the adenosine A2A receptor in sensitizing afferent fibres projecting to the spinal cord. To test this hypothesis formalin (20 microl, 5%) was injected into the paw and nociceptive responses were measured in wildtype and adenosine A2A receptor knockout mice. There was a significant reduction in nociception associated with sensory nerve activation in the knockout mice as measured by time spent biting/licking the formalin-injected paw and number of flinches seen during the first phase, but only the number of flinches was reduced during the second inflammatory phase. In addition, the selective adenosine A2A antagonist SCH58261 (3 and 10 mg/kg) also antagonised both phases of the formalin test. We also labelled NMDA glutamate and NK1 receptors in spinal cord sections as an indirect measure of nociceptive transmission from peripheral sites to the spinal cord. [3H]-Substance P binding to NK1 receptors was unaltered but there was a substantial reduction in binding of [3H]-MK801 to NMDA glutamate receptors in all regions of the spinal cord from knockout mice. The decrease in NMDA glutamate receptor binding may reflect reduced peripheral sensory input to the spinal cord during development and could relate to the hypoalgesia in this genotype. These results support a key role for the adenosine A2A receptor in peripheral nociceptive pathways.

  3. Behavioural and biochemical responses to morphine associated with its motivational properties are altered in adenosine A2A receptor knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Castañé, A; Wells, L; Soria, G; Hourani, S; Ledent, C; Kitchen, I; Opacka-Juffry, J; Maldonado, R; Valverde, O

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: The purinergic system through the A2A adenosine receptor regulates addiction induced by different drugs of abuse. The aim of the present study was to investigate the specific role of A2A adenosine receptors (A2ARs) in the behavioural and neurochemical responses to morphine associated with its motivational properties. Experimental approach: Mice lacking A2ARs (A2A knockout (KO) mice) and wild-type littermates were used to evaluate behavioural responses induced by morphine. Antinociception was assessed using the tail-immersion and the hot-plate tests. Place-conditioning paradigms were used to evaluate the rewarding effects of morphine and the dysphoric responses of morphine withdrawal. Microdialysis studies were carried out to evaluate changes in the extracellular levels of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens of A2A KO mice after morphine administration. Key results: The acute administration of morphine induced a similar enhancement of locomotor activity and antinociceptive responses in both genotypes. However, the rewarding effects induced by morphine were completely blocked in A2A KO mice. Also, naloxone did not induce place aversion in animals lacking the A2ARs. Conclusions and implications: Our findings demonstrate that the rewarding and aversive effects associated with morphine abstinence were abolished in A2A KO mice, supporting a differential role of the A2A adenosine receptor in the somatic and motivational effects of morphine addiction. This study provides evidence for the role of A2ARs as general modulators of the motivational properties of drugs of abuse. Pharmacological manipulation of these receptors may represent a new target in the management of drug addiction. PMID:18660831

  4. Sex Difference in Coronary Endothelial Dysfunction in Apolipoprotein-E Knockout Mouse: Role of NO and A2A Adenosine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xueping; Teng, B.; Mustafa, S Jamal

    2015-01-01

    Objective Sex plays an important role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases. This study aims to investigate how sex impacts on the coronary flow regulation during atherosclerosis. Methods ApoE KO mouse fed with western diet were used for atherosclerosis model. Coronary RH and flow response were measured using Langendorff-perfused isolated hearts. Results Coronary RH and A23187-induced NO-dependent flow increases were significantly reduced in female (by ~28% and 48%, respectively), but not in male atherosclerotic mice. However, SNP-induced coronary vasodilation remains intact in both sexes of ApoE KO mice. L-NAME (NOS inhibitor) reduced baseline flow and RH to a lesser extent in ApoE KO (by ~19% and 31%) vs. WT (~30% and 59%, respectively), and abolished the sex difference in RH. In contrast, SCH58261 (a selective A2A AR antagonist) reduced the baseline flow and RH to a greater extent in atherosclerotic mice, but did not affect the sex difference. Immunofluorescent staining of coronary arteries showed a similar A2A AR up-regulation in both sexes of ApoE KO mice. Conclusions Our results suggest that during atherosclerosis, female mice are more susceptible to NO-dependent endothelial dysfunction and the up-regulation of A2A AR may serve as a compensatory mechanism to counteract the compromised endothelial function. PMID:26201383

  5. A2A receptor ligands: past, present and future trends.

    PubMed

    Clementina, Manera; Giuseppe, Saccomanni

    2010-01-01

    The adenosine A(2A) receptor is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family and mediates multiple physiological effects of adenosine, both at the central nervous system and at peripheral tissues. Increasing evidence relates the A(2A) receptor with several pathological conditions such as neurodegenerative disorders, inflammation, pharmacological stress, and wound healing renewing the interest in A(2A) receptor agonists and antagonists as promising leads for drugs. However some of them initially tested in clinical trials presented several side effects, short half-life, lower solubility, and in some cases a lack of effects, perhaps attributable to receptor desensitization or to low receptor density in the targeted tissue. For these reasons it is evident that additional rational chemical modifications of the existing A(2A) receptor ligands to improve their affinity/selectivity and bioavailability as well as further studies to get new template for A(2A)AR ligands are necessary. The purpose of this review is to analyze and summarize the past and the present aspects related to the medicinal chemistry of A(2A) receptor ligands. Moreover their current and possible therapeutic applications have been also highlighted.

  6. Changes in spinal delta and kappa opioid systems in mice deficient in the A2A receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Alexis; Ledent, Catherine; Kelly, Mary; Hourani, Susanna M O; Kitchen, Ian

    2002-11-01

    A large body of evidence indicates important interactions between the adenosine and opioid systems in regulating pain at both the spinal and supraspinal level. Mice lacking the A(2A) receptor gene have been developed successfully, and these animals were shown to be hypoalgesic. To investigate whether there are any compensatory alterations in opioid systems in mutant animals, we have performed quantitative autoradiographic mapping of mu, delta, kappa, and opioid receptor-like (ORL1) opioid receptors in the brains and spinal cords of wild-type and homozygous A(2A) receptor knock-out mice. In addition, mu-, delta-, and kappa-mediated antinociception using the tail immersion test was tested in wild-type and homozygous A(2A) receptor knock-out mice. A significant reduction in [3H]deltorphin-I binding to delta receptors and a significant increase in [3H]CI-977 binding to kappa receptors was detected in the spinal cords but not in the brains of the knock-out mice. Mu and ORL1 receptor expression were not altered significantly. Moreover, a significant reduction in delta-mediated antinociception and a significant increase in kappa-mediated antinociception were detected in mutant mice, whereas mu-mediated antinociception was unaffected. Comparison of basal nociceptive latencies showed a significant hypoalgesia in knock-out mice when tested at 55 degrees C but not at 52 degrees C. The results suggest a functional interaction between the spinal delta and kappa opioid and the peripheral adenosine system in the control of pain pathways.

  7. Bone growth and turnover in progesterone receptor knockout mice.

    SciTech Connect

    Rickard, David J.; Iwaniec, Urszula T.; Evans, Glenda

    2008-05-01

    The role of progesterone receptor (PR) signaling in skeletal metabolism is controversial. To address whether signaling through the PR is necessary for normal bone growth and turnover, we performed histomorphometric and mCT analyses of bone from homozygous female PR knockout (PRKO) mice at 6, 12, and 26 weeks of age. These mice possess a null mutation of the PR locus, which blocks the gene expression of A and B isoforms of PR. Body weight gain, uterine weight gain and tibia longitudinal bone growth was normal in PRKO mice. In contrast, total and cortical bone mass were increased in long bonesmore » of post-pubertal (12 and 26-week-old) PRKO mice, whereas cancellous bone mass was normal in the tibia but increased in the humerus. The striking 57% decrease in cancellous bone from the proximal tibia metaphysis which occurred between 6 and 26 weeks in WT mice was abolished in PRKO mice. The improved bone balance in aging PRKO mice was associated with elevated bone formation and a tendency toward reduced osteoclast perimeter. Taken together, these findings suggest that PR signaling in mice attenuates the accumulation of cortical bone mass during adolescence and is required for early age-related loss of cancellous bone.« less

  8. INDUCTION OF MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN ESTROGEN RECEPTOR-ALPHA KNOCKOUT MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mammary glands from the estrogen receptor knockout ( ERKO) mouse do not undergo ductal morphogenesis or alveolar development. Disrupted Er signaling may result in reduced estrogen-responsive gene products in the mammary gland or reduced mammotropic hormones that contribute t...

  9. Autoradiography in opioid triple knockout mice reveals opioid and opioid receptor like binding of naloxone benzoylhydrazone.

    PubMed

    Cox, Veronica; Clarke, Siân; Czyzyk, Tracy; Ansonoff, Micheal; Nitsche, Joshua; Hsu, Ming-Sing; Borsodi, Anna; Tömböly, Csaba; Tóth, Géza; Hill, Ray; Pintar, John; Kitchen, Ian

    2005-02-01

    Naloxone benzoylhydrazone (NalBzoH) is a ligand used to study opioid receptors. It has been suggested to act at a novel kappa3 receptor but also appears to bind to classical opioid receptors, and possibly the ORL1 receptor. We have used opioid receptor triple knockout mice, deficient in genes coding for the mu, delta and kappa-receptor, to characterise the relative contributions of opioid and ORL1 activity to the binding of this ligand, by carrying out receptor autoradiography with [3H]NalBzoH. As competing ligands we have used diprenorphine and nociceptin at 1 microM, alone or in combination, to determine the contribution of opioid and ORL1 receptor binding. At 4 nM [3H]NalBzoH showed labelling in wild-type brains indicative of broad spectrum classical opioid receptor binding. In the triple knockout brains all labelling was completely absent, suggesting that at this concentration there is no binding to ORL1 sites. However at 50 nM [3H]NalBzoH showed labelling in triple knockout brains with a distribution pattern indicative of ORL1 labelling. Quantitative analysis showed that nociceptin displaced typically 30% of the residual labelling in knockout brains whilst diprenorphine had relatively little effect. The data show that at 50 nM NalBzoH no binding was detected other than to classical opioid receptors or to ORL1 in an approximate ratio of 2:1.

  10. A 2A adenosine receptor regulates glia proliferation and pain after peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Bura, S Andreea; Nadal, Xavier; Ledent, Catherine; Maldonado, Rafael; Valverde, Olga

    2008-11-15

    Peripheral nerve injury produces a persistent neuropathic pain state characterized by spontaneous pain, allodynia and hyperalgesia. In this study, we evaluated the possible involvement of A 2ARs in the development of neuropathic pain and the expression of microglia and astrocytes in the spinal cord after sciatic nerve injury. For this purpose, partial ligation of the sciatic nerve was performed in A 2A knockout mice and wild-type littermates. The development of mechanical and thermal allodynia, as well as thermal hyperalgesia was evaluated by using the von Frey filament model, the cold-plate test and the plantar test, respectively. In wild-type animals, sciatic nerve injury led to a neuropathic pain syndrome that was revealed in these three nociceptive behavioural tests. However, a significant decrease of the mechanical allodynia and a suppression of thermal hyperalgesia and allodynia were observed in A 2AR deficient mice. The expression of microglia and astrocytes was enhanced in wild-type mice exposed to sciatic nerve injury and this response was attenuated in knockout animals. Taken together, our results demonstrate the involvement of A 2ARs in the control of neuropathic pain and propose this receptor as an interesting target for the development of new drugs for the management of this clinical syndrome.

  11. Adenosine A2A receptor ligand recognition and signaling is blocked by A2B receptors.

    PubMed

    Hinz, Sonja; Navarro, Gemma; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel; Seibt, Benjamin F; Ammon, York-Christoph; de Filippo, Elisabetta; Danish, Azeem; Lacher, Svenja K; Červinková, Barbora; Rafehi, Muhammad; Fuxe, Kjell; Schiedel, Anke C; Franco, Rafael; Müller, Christa E

    2018-03-02

    The adenosine receptor (AR) subtypes A 2A and A 2B are rhodopsin-like G s protein-coupled receptors whose expression is highly regulated under pathological, e.g. hypoxic, ischemic and inflammatory conditions. Both receptors play important roles in inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases, are blocked by caffeine, and have now become major drug targets in immuno-oncology. By Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET), bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and proximity ligation assays (PLA) we demonstrated A 2A -A 2B AR heteromeric complex formation. Moreover we observed a dramatically altered pharmacology of the A 2A AR when co-expressed with the A 2B AR (A 2B ≥ A 2A ) in recombinant as well as in native cells. In the presence of A 2B ARs, A 2A -selective ligands lost high affinity binding to A 2A ARs and displayed strongly reduced potency in cAMP accumulation and dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) assays. These results have major implications for the use of A 2A AR ligands as drugs as they will fail to modulate the receptor in an A 2A -A 2B heteromer context. Accordingly, A 2A -A 2B AR heteromers represent novel pharmacological targets.

  12. Increased neurogenesis and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in neurokinin-1 receptor gene knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Morcuende, Sara; Gadd, Christopher A; Peters, Marco; Moss, Andrew; Harris, Elizabeth A; Sheasby, Anne; Fisher, Amy S; De Felipe, Carmen; Mantyh, Patrick W; Rupniak, Nadia M J; Giese, K Peter; Hunt, Stephen P

    2003-10-01

    It has previously been shown that chronic treatment with antidepressant drugs increases neurogenesis and levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the hippocampus. These changes have been correlated with changes in learning and long-term potentiation and may contribute to the therapeutic efficacy of antidepressant drug treatment. Recently, antagonists at the neurokinin-1 receptor, the preferred receptor for the neuropeptide substance P, have been shown to have antidepressant activity. Mice with disruption of the neurokinin-1 receptor gene are remarkably similar both behaviourally and neurochemically to mice maintained chronically on antidepressant drugs. We demonstrate here that there is a significant elevation of neurogenesis but not cell survival in the hippocampus of neurokinin-1 receptor knockout mice. Neurogenesis can be increased in wild-type but not neurokinin-1 receptor knockout mice by chronic treatment with antidepressant drugs which preferentially target noradrenergic and serotonergic pathways. Hippocampal levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor are also two-fold higher in neurokinin-1 receptor knockout mice, whereas cortical levels are similar. Finally, we examined hippocampus-dependent learning and memory but found no clear enhancement in neurokinin-1 receptor knockout mice. These data argue against a simple correlation between increased levels of neurogenesis or brain-derived neurotrophic factor and mnemonic processes in the absence of increased cell survival. They support the hypothesis that increased neurogenesis, perhaps accompanied by higher levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, may contribute to the efficacy of antidepressant drug therapy.

  13. Interactions between Calmodulin, Adenosine A2A, and Dopamine D2 Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Gemma; Aymerich, Marisol S.; Marcellino, Daniel; Cortés, Antoni; Casadó, Vicent; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I.; Agnati, Luigi; Woods, Amina S.; Fuxe, Kjell; Lluís, Carmen; Lanciego, Jose Luis; Ferré, Sergi; Franco, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    The Ca2+-binding protein calmodulin (CaM) has been shown to bind directly to cytoplasmic domains of some G protein-coupled receptors, including the dopamine D2 receptor. CaM binds to the N-terminal portion of the long third intracellular loop of the D2 receptor, within an Arg-rich epitope that is also involved in the binding to Gi/o proteins and to the adenosine A2A receptor, with the formation of A2A-D2 receptor heteromers. In the present work, by using proteomics and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) techniques, we provide evidence for the binding of CaM to the A2A receptor. By using BRET and sequential resonance energy transfer techniques, evidence was obtained for CaM-A2A-D2 receptor oligomerization. BRET competition experiments indicated that, in the A2A-D2 receptor heteromer, CaM binds preferentially to a proximal C terminus epitope of the A2A receptor. Furthermore, Ca2+ was found to induce conformational changes in the CaM-A2A-D2 receptor oligomer and to selectively modulate A2A and D2 receptor-mediated MAPK signaling in the A2A-D2 receptor heteromer. These results may have implications for basal ganglia disorders, since A2A-D2 receptor heteromers are being considered as a target for anti-parkinsonian agents. PMID:19632986

  14. Normal maternal behavior, but increased pup mortality, in conditional oxytocin receptor knockout females.

    PubMed

    Macbeth, Abbe H; Stepp, Jennifer E; Lee, Heon-Jin; Young, W Scott; Caldwell, Heather K

    2010-10-01

    Oxytocin (Oxt) and the Oxt receptor (Oxtr) are implicated in the onset of maternal behavior in a variety of species. Recently, we developed two Oxtr knockout lines: a total body knockout (Oxtr-/-) and a conditional Oxtr knockout (OxtrFB/FB) in which the Oxtr is lacking only in regions of the forebrain, allowing knockout females to potentially nurse and care for their biological offspring. In the current study, we assessed maternal behavior of postpartum OxtrFB/FB females toward their own pups and maternal behavior of virgin Oxtr-/- females toward foster pups and compared knockouts of both lines to wildtype (Oxtr+/+) littermates. We found that both Oxtr-/- and OxtrFB/FB females appear to have largely normal maternal behaviors. However, with first litters, approximately 40% of the OxtrFB/FB knockout dams experienced high pup mortality, compared to fewer than 10% of the Oxtr+/+ dams. We then went on to test whether or not this phenotype occurred in subsequent litters or when the dams were exposed to an environmental disturbance. We found that regardless of the degree of external disturbance, OxtrFB/FB females lost more pups on their first and second litters compared to wildtype females. Possible reasons for higher pup mortality in OxtrFB/FB females are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Altered Sleep and Affect in the Neurotensin Receptor 1 Knockout Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Karrie; Winrow, Christopher J.; Gotter, Anthony L.; Millstein, Joshua; Arbuzova, Janna; Brunner, Joseph; Kasarskis, Andrew; Vitaterna, Martha H.; Renger, John J.; Turek, Fred W.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objective: Sleep and mood disorders have long been understood to have strong genetic components, and there is considerable comorbidity of sleep abnormalities and mood disorders, suggesting the involvement of common genetic pathways. Here, we examine a candidate gene implicated in the regulation of both sleep and affective behavior using a knockout mouse model. Design: Previously, we identified a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for REM sleep amount, REM sleep bout number, and wake amount in a genetically segregating population of mice. Here, we show that traits mapping to this QTL correlated with an expression QTL for neurotensin receptor 1 (Ntsr1), a receptor for neurotensin, a ligand known to be involved in several psychiatric disorders. We examined sleep as well as behaviors indicative of anxiety and depression in the NTSR1 knockout mouse. Measurements and Results: NTSR1 knockouts had a lower percentage of sleep time spent in REM sleep in the dark phase and a larger diurnal variation in REM sleep duration than wild types under baseline conditions. Following sleep deprivation, NTSR1 knockouts exhibited more wake and less NREM rebound sleep. NTSR1 knockouts also showed increased anxious and despair behaviors. Conclusions: Here we illustrate a link between expression of the Ntsr1 gene and sleep traits previously associated with a particular QTL. We also demonstrate a relationship between Ntsr1 and anxiety and despair behaviors. Given the considerable evidence that anxiety and depression are closely linked with abnormalities in sleep, the data presented here provide further evidence that neurotensin and Ntsr1 may be a component of a pathway involved in both sleep and mood disorders. Citation: Fitzpatrick K; Winrow CJ; Gotter AL; Millstein J; Arbuzova J; Brunner J; Kasarskis A; Vitaterna MH; Renger JJ; Turek FW. Altered sleep and affect in the neurotensin receptor 1 knockout mouse. SLEEP 2012;35(7):949-956. PMID:22754041

  16. Adenosine A2A receptor deletion affects social behaviors and anxiety in mice: Involvement of anterior cingulate cortex and amygdala.

    PubMed

    López-Cruz, Laura; Carbó-Gas, Maria; Pardo, Marta; Bayarri, Pilar; Valverde, Olga; Ledent, Catherine; Salamone, John D; Correa, Mercè

    2017-03-15

    Blockade of adenosine A 2A receptors can potentiate motivation to work for natural reinforcers such as food. Conspecific interaction is a potent natural reinforcer in social animals that can be manifested as preference for social exploration versus other sources of novel stimulation. Deficiencies in this type of motivated behavior (social withdrawal) have been seen in several pathologies such as autism and depression. However, the role of A 2A receptors in motivation for social interaction has not been widely explored. Social interaction paradigms evaluate the natural preference of animals for exploring other conspecifics, and the ability to differentiate between familiar versus novel ones. Anxiety is one of the factors that can induce avoidance of social interaction. In the present study, adenosine A 2A knockout (A 2A KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were assessed for social and anxiety-related behaviors. c-Fos immunoreactivity was evaluated as a measure of neuronal activation in brain areas involved in different aspects of motivation and emotional processes. Although A 2A KO mice showed an anxious profile, they displayed higher levels of sociability and were less sensitive to social novelty. WT mice displayed a typical pattern of social recognition 24h later, but not A 2A KO mice, which explored equally both conspecifics. There were no differences between strains in aggressiveness, perseverance or social odor preferences. c-Fos immunoreactivity in A 2A KO mice was higher in anterior cingulate and amygdala compared to WT mice. Thus, A 2A receptors appear to be potential targets for the improvement of pathologies related to social function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Neuroprotection by caffeine in the MPTP model of parkinson's disease and its dependence on adenosine A2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Xu, K; Di Luca, D G; Orrú, M; Xu, Y; Chen, J-F; Schwarzschild, M A

    2016-05-13

    Considerable epidemiological and laboratory data have suggested that caffeine, a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist, may protect against the underlying neurodegeneration of parkinson's disease (PD). Although both caffeine and more specific antagonists of the A2A subtype of adenosine receptor (A2AR) have been found to confer protection in animal models of PD, the dependence of caffeine's neuroprotective effects on the A2AR is not known. To definitively determine its A2AR dependence, the effect of caffeine on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetra-hydropyridine (MPTP) neurotoxicity was compared in wild-type (WT) and A2AR gene global knockout (A2A KO) mice, as well as in central nervous system (CNS) cell type-specific (conditional) A2AR knockout (cKO) mice that lack the receptor either in postnatal forebrain neurons or in astrocytes. In WT and in heterozygous A2AR KO mice caffeine pretreatment (25mg/kgip) significantly attenuated MPTP-induced depletion of striatal dopamine. By contrast in homozygous A2AR global KO mice caffeine had no effect on MPTP toxicity. In forebrain neuron A2AR cKO mice, caffeine lost its locomotor stimulant effect, whereas its neuroprotective effect was mostly preserved. In astrocytic A2AR cKO mice, both caffeine's locomotor stimulant and protective properties were undiminished. Taken together, these results indicate that neuroprotection by caffeine in the MPTP model of PD relies on the A2AR, although the specific cellular localization of these receptors remains to be determined. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. All rights reserved.

  18. Adenosine A(2A) receptor dynamics studied with the novel fluorescent agonist Alexa488-APEC.

    PubMed

    Brand, Frank; Klutz, Athena M; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Fredholm, Bertil B; Schulte, Gunnar

    2008-08-20

    G protein-coupled receptors, such as the adenosine A(2A) receptor, are dynamic proteins, which undergo agonist-dependent redistribution from the cell surface to intracellular membranous compartments, such as endosomes. In order to study the kinetics of adenosine A(2A) receptor redistribution in living cells, we synthesized a novel fluorescent agonist, Alexa488-APEC. Alexa488-APEC binds to adenosine A(2A) (K(i)=149+/-27 nM) as well as A(3) receptors (K(i)=240+/-160 nM) but not to adenosine A(1) receptors. Further, we characterized the dose-dependent increase in Alexa488-APEC-induced cAMP production as well as cAMP response element binding (CREB) protein phosphorylation, verifying the ligand's functionality at adenosine A(2A) but not A(2B) receptors. In live-cell imaging studies, Alexa488-APEC-induced adenosine A(2A) receptor internalization, which was blocked by the competitive reversible antagonist ZM 241385 and hyperosmolaric sucrose. Further, internalized adenosine A(2A) receptors co-localized with clathrin and Rab5, indicating that agonist stimulation promotes adenosine A(2A) receptor uptake through a clathrin-dependent mechanism to Rab5-positive endosomes. The basic characterization of Alexa488-APEC described here showed that it provides a useful tool for tracing adenosine A(2A) receptors in vitro.

  19. Altered sleep and affect in the neurotensin receptor 1 knockout mouse.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Karrie; Winrow, Christopher J; Gotter, Anthony L; Millstein, Joshua; Arbuzova, Janna; Brunner, Joseph; Kasarskis, Andrew; Vitaterna, Martha H; Renger, John J; Turek, Fred W

    2012-07-01

    Sleep and mood disorders have long been understood to have strong genetic components, and there is considerable comorbidity of sleep abnormalities and mood disorders, suggesting the involvement of common genetic pathways. Here, we examine a candidate gene implicated in the regulation of both sleep and affective behavior using a knockout mouse model. Previously, we identified a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for REM sleep amount, REM sleep bout number, and wake amount in a genetically segregating population of mice. Here, we show that traits mapping to this QTL correlated with an expression QTL for neurotensin receptor 1 (Ntsr1), a receptor for neurotensin, a ligand known to be involved in several psychiatric disorders. We examined sleep as well as behaviors indicative of anxiety and depression in the NTSR1 knockout mouse. NTSR1 knockouts had a lower percentage of sleep time spent in REM sleep in the dark phase and a larger diurnal variation in REM sleep duration than wild types under baseline conditions. Following sleep deprivation, NTSR1 knockouts exhibited more wake and less NREM rebound sleep. NTSR1 knockouts also showed increased anxious and despair behaviors. Here we illustrate a link between expression of the Ntsr1 gene and sleep traits previously associated with a particular QTL. We also demonstrate a relationship between Ntsr1 and anxiety and despair behaviors. Given the considerable evidence that anxiety and depression are closely linked with abnormalities in sleep, the data presented here provide further evidence that neurotensin and Ntsr1 may be a component of a pathway involved in both sleep and mood disorders.

  20. Investigations into the physiological role of muscarinic M2 and M4 muscarinic and M4 receptor subtypes using receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Bymaster, F P; Carter, P A; Zhang, L; Falcone, J F; Stengel, P W; Cohen, M L; Shannon, H E; Gomeza, J; Wess, J; Felder, C C

    2001-04-27

    Determination of muscarinic agonist-induced parasympathomimetic effects in wild type and M2 and M4 muscarinic receptor knockout mice revealed that M2 receptors mediated tremor and hypothermia, but not salivation. The M4 receptors seem to play a modest role in salivation, but did not alter hypothermia and tremor. In the M2 knockout mice, agonist-induced bradycardia in isolated spontaneously beating atria was completely absent compared to their wild type litter mates, whereas agonist-induced bradycardia was similar in the M4 knockout and wild type mice. The potency of carbachol to stimulate contraction of isolated stomach fundus, urinary bladder and trachea was reduced by a factor of about 2 in the M2 knockout mice, but was unaltered in the M4 knockout mice. The binding of the muscarinic agonist, [3H]-oxotremorine-M, was reduced in cortical tissue from the M2 knockout mice and to a lesser extent from the M4 knockout mice, and was reduced over 90% in the brain stem of M2 knockout mice. The data demonstrate the usefulness of knockout mice in determining the physiological function of peripheral and central muscarinic receptors.

  1. Altered emotional behaviors and the expression of 5-HT1A and M1 muscarinic receptors in micro-opioid receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Ji-Hoon; Lee, Seok-Yong; Loh, Horace H; Ho, Ing K; Jang, Choon-Gon

    2004-11-01

    Anxiety and depression alterations have been reported in micro-opioid receptor knockout mice after exon 2 disruption. However, emotional behaviors, such as novelty and emergence responses have not been reported in micro-opioid receptor knockout mice due to the disruptions of exon 2 and 3. Here, we report that mu-opioid receptor knockout mice, with deletion of exon 2 and 3, display significant emotional behavior changes; they showed less anxiety in the elevated plus maze and emergence tests, reduced response to novel stimuli in the novelty test, and less depressive-like behavior in the forced-swim test. Analysis of the compensatory mechanism in mu-opioid receptor knockout mice revealed that the M1 mRNA levels were reduced in the cortex, caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, and hippocampus, and that M1 receptor levels were reduced in the nucleus accumbens, CA1, and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, versus the wild-type. However, 5-HT1A receptor levels were significantly elevated in the cerebral cortex and in the hypothalamus of mu-opioid receptor knockout mice versus the wild-type. These aberrant emotional behavioral phenotypes are possibly related to M1 and 5-HT1A receptor alterations in the micro-opioid receptor knockout mice. Overall, our study suggests that micro-opioid receptor may play a role in the modification of emotional responses to novelty, anxiety, and depression. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Cardiac-Specific Knockout of ETA Receptor Mitigates Paraquat-Induced Cardiac Contractile Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaxing; Lu, Songhe; Zheng, Qijun; Hu, Nan; Yu, Wenjun; Li, Na; Liu, Min; Gao, Beilei; Zhang, Guoyong; Zhang, Yingmei; Wang, Haichang

    2016-07-01

    Paraquat (1,1'-dim ethyl-4-4'-bipyridinium dichloride), a highly toxic quaternary ammonium herbicide widely used in agriculture, exerts potent toxic prooxidant effects resulting in multi-organ failure including the lung and heart although the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Recent evidence suggests possible involvement of endothelin system in paraquat-induced acute lung injury. This study was designed to examine the role of endothelin receptor A (ETA) in paraquat-induced cardiac contractile and mitochondrial injury. Wild-type (WT) and cardiac-specific ETA receptor knockout mice were challenged to paraquat (45 mg/kg, i.p.) for 48 h prior to the assessment of echocardiographic, cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) properties, as well as apoptosis and mitochondrial damage. Levels of the mitochondrial proteins for biogenesis and oxidative phosphorylation including UCP2, HSP90 and PGC1α were evaluated. Our results revealed that paraquat elicited cardiac enlargement, mechanical anomalies including compromised echocardiographic parameters (elevated left ventricular end-systolic and end-diastolic diameters as well as reduced factional shortening), suppressed cardiomyocyte contractile function, intracellular Ca(2+) handling, overt apoptosis and mitochondrial damage. ETA receptor knockout itself failed to affect myocardial function, apoptosis, mitochondrial integrity and mitochondrial protein expression. However, ETA receptor knockout ablated or significantly attenuated paraquat-induced cardiac contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) defect, apoptosis and mitochondrial damage. Taken together, these findings revealed that endothelin system in particular the ETA receptor may be involved in paraquat-induced toxic myocardial contractile anomalies possibly related to apoptosis and mitochondrial damage.

  3. Adenosine A2a receptors and O2 sensing in development

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Reduced mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, via activation of adenylate kinase and the resulting exponential rise in the cellular AMP/ATP ratio, appears to be a critical factor underlying O2 sensing in many chemoreceptive tissues in mammals. The elevated AMP/ATP ratio, in turn, activates key enzymes that are involved in physiologic adjustments that tend to balance ATP supply and demand. An example is the conversion of AMP to adenosine via 5′-nucleotidase and the resulting activation of adenosine A2A receptors, which are involved in acute oxygen sensing by both carotid bodies and the brain. In fetal sheep, A2A receptors associated with carotid bodies trigger hypoxic cardiovascular chemoreflexes, while central A2A receptors mediate hypoxic inhibition of breathing and rapid eye movements. A2A receptors are also involved in hypoxic regulation of fetal endocrine systems, metabolism, and vascular tone. In developing lambs, A2A receptors play virtually no role in O2 sensing by the carotid bodies, but brain A2A receptors remain critically involved in the roll-off ventilatory response to hypoxia. In adult mammals, A2A receptors have been implicated in O2 sensing by carotid glomus cells, while central A2A receptors likely blunt hypoxic hyperventilation. In conclusion, A2A receptors are crucially involved in the transduction mechanisms of O2 sensing in fetal carotid bodies and brains. Postnatally, central A2A receptors remain key mediators of hypoxic respiratory depression, but they are less critical for O2 sensing in carotid chemoreceptors, particularly in developing lambs. PMID:21677265

  4. An update on adenosine A2A receptors as drug target in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Vallano, Antoni; Fernandez-Duenas, Victor; Pedros, Consuelo; Arnau, Josep Maria; Ciruela, Francisco

    2011-09-01

    Adenosine receptors are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that mediate the physiological functions of adenosine. In the central nervous system adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A)Rs) are highly enriched in striatopallidal neurons where they form functional oligomeric complexes with other GPCRs such us the dopamine D(2) receptor (D(2)R). Furthermore, it is assumed that the formation of balanced A(2A)R/D(2)R receptor oligomers are essential for correct striatal function as the allosteric receptor-receptor interactions established within the oligomer are needed for properly sensing adenosine and dopamine. Interestingly, A(2A)R activation reduces the affinity of striatal D(2)R for dopamine and the blockade of A(2A)R with specific antagonists facilitates function of the D(2)R. Thus, it may be postulated that A(2A)R antagonists are pro-dopaminergic agents. Therefore, A(2A)R antagonists will potentially reduce the effects associated with dopamine depletion in Parkinson's disease (PD). Accordingly, this class of compounds have recently attracted considerable attention as potential therapeutic agents for PD pharmacotherapy as they have shown potential effectiveness in counteracting motor dysfunctions and also displayed neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects in animal models of PD. Overall, we provide here an update of the current state of the art of these A(2A)R-based approaches that are under clinical study as agents devoted to alleviate PD symptoms.

  5. The importance of the adenosine A(2A) receptor-dopamine D(2) receptor interaction in drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Filip, M; Zaniewska, M; Frankowska, M; Wydra, K; Fuxe, K

    2012-01-01

    Drug addiction is a serious brain disorder with somatic, psychological, psychiatric, socio-economic and legal implications in the developed world. Illegal (e.g., psychostimulants, opioids, cannabinoids) and legal (alcohol, nicotine) drugs of abuse create a complex behavioral pattern composed of drug intake, withdrawal, seeking and relapse. One of the hallmarks of drugs that are abused by humans is that they have different mechanisms of action to increase dopamine (DA) neurotransmission within the mesolimbic circuitry of the brain and indirectly activate DA receptors. Among the DA receptors, D(2) receptors are linked to drug abuse and addiction because their function has been proven to be correlated with drug reinforcement and relapses. The recognition that D(2) receptors exist not only as homomers but also can form heteromers, such as with the adenosine (A)(2A) receptor, that are pharmacologically and functionally distinct from their constituent receptors, has significantly expanded the range of potential drug targets and provided new avenues for drug design in the search for novel drug addiction therapies. The aim of this review is to bring current focus on A(2A) receptors, their physiology and pharmacology in the central nervous system, and to discuss the therapeutic relevance of these receptors to drug addiction. We concentrate on the contribution of A(2A) receptors to the effects of different classes of drugs of abuse examined in preclinical behavioral experiments carried out with pharmacological and genetic tools. The consequences of chronic drug treatment on A(2A) receptor-assigned functions in preclinical studies are also presented. Finally, the neurochemical mechanism of the interaction between A(2A) receptors and drugs of abuse in the context of the heteromeric A(2A)-D(2) receptor complex is discussed. Taken together, a significant amount of experimental analyses provide evidence that targeting A(2A) receptors may offer innovative translational strategies

  6. Haloperidol inhibits the development of atherosclerotic lesions in LDL receptor knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    van der Sluis, Ronald J; Nahon, Joya E; Reuwer, Anne Q; Van Eck, Miranda; Hoekstra, Menno

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Antipsychotic drugs have been shown to modulate the expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), a key factor in the anti-atherogenic reverse cholesterol transport process, in vitro. Here we evaluated the potential of the typical antipsychotic drug haloperidol to modulate the cholesterol efflux function of macrophages in vitro and their susceptibility to atherosclerosis in vivo. Experimental Approach Thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages were used for in vitro studies. Hyperlipidaemic low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor knockout mice were implanted with a haloperidol-containing pellet and subsequently fed a Western-type diet for 5 weeks to induce the development of atherosclerotic lesions in vivo. Key Results Haloperidol induced a 54% decrease in the mRNA expression of ABCA1 in peritoneal macrophages. This coincided with a 30% decrease in the capacity of macrophages to efflux cholesterol to apolipoprotein A1. Haloperidol treatment stimulated the expression of ABCA1 (+51%) and other genes involved in reverse cholesterol transport, that is, CYP7A1 (+98%) in livers of LDL receptor knockout mice. No change in splenic ABCA1 expression was noted. However, the average size of the atherosclerotic size was significantly smaller (−31%) in the context of a mildly more atherogenic metabolic phenotype upon haloperidol treatment. More importantly, haloperidol markedly lowered MCP-1 expression (−70%) and secretion (−28%) by peritoneal macrophages. Conclusions and Implications Haloperidol treatment lowered the susceptibility of hyperlipidaemic LDL receptor knockout mice to develop atherosclerotic lesions. Our findings suggest that the beneficial effect of haloperidol on atherosclerosis susceptibility can be attributed to its ability to inhibit macrophage chemotaxis. PMID:25572138

  7. Antidepressant-like effect of venlafaxine is abolished in µ-opioid receptor knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Ide, Soichiro; Fujiwara, Shunsuke; Fujiwara, Masayuki; Sora, Ichiro; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Minami, Masabumi; Uhl, George R.; Ishihara, Kumatoshi

    2011-01-01

    Although the opioid system is known to modulate depression-like behaviors, its role in the effects of antidepressants is not yet clear. We investigated the role of µ-opioid receptors (MOPs) in the effects of venlafaxine, a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, in the forced swim test using MOP-knockout (KO) mice. Venlafaxine reduced immobility time in wildtype mice (C57BL/6J), but not in MOP-KO mice, although no significant effects were observed on locomotor activity. These results suggest that MOPs play an important role in the antidepressant-like effects of venlafaxine. PMID:20703010

  8. [Exogenous estrogen improved calcium homeostasis and skeletal mineralization in vitamin D receptor gene knockout female mice].

    PubMed

    Li, Bing-Yan; Tong, Jian; Zhang, Zeng-Li

    2006-12-25

    It is well known that estrogen can inhibit bone absorption, decrease bone turnover and preserve bone mass. Some studies indicated that the effect of estrogen on calcium and bone is relative to vitamin D system, while others also reported that this effect of estrogen is independent of vitamin D. The genomic effect of 1alpha, 25(OH)(2)D(3)is mediated by the nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR) in a ligand-dependent manner. Hypocalcemia, hyperparathyroidism and osteomalacia are developed in VDR gene knockout mice. To determine whether the effect of estrogen on calcium and bone is dependent on VDR, this study examined the effect of exogenous estrogen on calcium and bone homeostasis in VDR gene knockout mice. Male and female wild type (WT) and VDR gene knockout heterozygous mice were mated each other and the genotyping of their offsprings were determined by PCR. At age of 21-day, WT and knockout mice were weaned and treated by one of three different regimens: (1) WT-vehicle group: the WT mice were injected with normal saline; (2) VDR KO-vehicle group: the VDR gene knockout mice were injected with normal saline; (3) VDR KO-E group: the VDR gene knockout mice were subcutaneously injected with estradiol, 0.2 mug per mouse, once daily for 1 month. The bone mineral density (BMD) of mice was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. All mice were sacrificed at age of 50-day. Blood was taken by heart puncture under anesthesia and serum calcium was measured by autoanalyser.Tibiae were removed, fixed and embedded with the methylmethacrylate (MMA), and undecalcified sections were cut. These sections were stained for mineral with the von Kossa staining procedure and counterstained with toluidine blue. Static histomorphometric analyses were performed on those stained sections. The results showed that the serum calcium level was (2.10+/-0.37) mmol/L in the VDR KO-vehicle mice and rose to (2.80+/-0.41) mmol/L in the VDR KO-E mice although it was still lower than WT-vehicle mice

  9. Impairments in the initiation of maternal behavior in oxytocin receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Rich, Megan E; deCárdenas, Emily J; Lee, Heon-Jin; Caldwell, Heather K

    2014-01-01

    Oxytocin (Oxt) acting through its single receptor subtype, the Oxtr, is important for the coordination of physiology and behavior associated with parturition and maternal care. Knockout mouse models have been helpful in exploring the contributions of Oxt to maternal behavior, including total body Oxt knockout (Oxt -/-) mice, forebrain conditional Oxtr knockout (Oxtr FB/FB) mice, and total body Oxtr knockout (Oxtr -/-) mice. Since Oxtr -/- mice are unable to lactate, maternal behavior has only been examined in virgin females, or in dams within a few hours of parturition, and there have been no studies that have examined their anxiety-like and depression-like behavior following parturition. To improve our understanding of how the absence of Oxt signaling affects maternal behavior, mood and anxiety, we designed a study using Oxtr -/- mice that separated nursing behavior from other aspects of maternal care, such as licking and grooming by thelectomizing (i.e. removing the nipples) of Oxtr +/+ mice and sham-thelectomizing Oxtr -/- mice, and pairing both genotypes with a wet nurse. We then measured pup abandonment, maternal behavior, and postpartum anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors. We hypothesized that genetic disruption of the Oxtr would impact maternal care, mood and anxiety. Specifically, we predicted that Oxtr -/- dams would have impaired maternal care and increased anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors in the postpartum period. We found that Oxtr -/- dams had significantly higher levels of pup abandonment compared to controls, which is consistent with previous work in Oxtr FB/FB mice. Interestingly, Oxtr -/- dams that initiated maternal care did not differ from wildtype controls in measures of maternal behavior. We also did not find any evidence of altered anxiety-like or depressive-like behavior in the postpartum period of Oxtr -/- dams. Thus, our data suggest that Oxt lowers the threshold for the initiation of maternal behavior.

  10. Knockout of toll-like receptor impairs nerve regeneration after a crush injury.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ching-Hua; Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Kuo, Pao-Jen; Liu, Shu-Hsuan; Wu, Chia-Jung; Lu, Tsu-Hsiang; Wu, Yi-Chan; Lin, Chia-Wei

    2017-10-06

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in the initiation of Schwann cell activation and subsequent recruitment of macrophages for clearance of degenerated myelin and neuronal debris after nerve injury. The present study was designed to investigate the regenerative outcome and expression of myelination-related factors in Tlr -knockout mice following a sciatic nerve crush injury. A standard sciatic nerve crush injury, induced by applying constant pressure to the nerve with a No. 5 jeweler's forceps for 30 s, was performed in C57BL/6, Tlr2 -/- , Tlr3 -/- , Tlr4 -/- , Tlr5 -/- , and Tlr7 -/- mice. Quantitative histomorphometric analysis of toluidine blue-stained nerve specimens and walking track analysis were performed to evaluate nerve regeneration outcomes. PCR Arrays were used to detect the expression of neurogenesis-related genes of dorsal root ganglia as well as of myelination-related genes of the distal nerve segments. Worse nerve regeneration after nerve crush injury was found in all Tlr- knockout mice than in C57BL/6 mice. Delayed expression of myelin genes and a different expression pattern of myelination-related neurotrophin genes and transcription factors were found in Tlr -knockout mice in comparison to C57BL/6 mice. In these TLR-mediated pathways, insulin-like growth factor 2 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, as well as early growth response 2 and N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1, were significantly decreased in the early and late stages, respectively, of nerve regeneration after a crush injury. Knockout of Tlr genes decreases the expression of myelination-related factors and impairs nerve regeneration after a sciatic nerve crush injury.

  11. Knockout of toll-like receptor impairs nerve regeneration after a crush injury

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Pao-Jen; Liu, Shu-Hsuan; Wu, Chia-Jung; Lu, Tsu-Hsiang; Wu, Yi-Chan; Lin, Chia-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Background Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in the initiation of Schwann cell activation and subsequent recruitment of macrophages for clearance of degenerated myelin and neuronal debris after nerve injury. The present study was designed to investigate the regenerative outcome and expression of myelination-related factors in Tlr-knockout mice following a sciatic nerve crush injury. Materials and methods A standard sciatic nerve crush injury, induced by applying constant pressure to the nerve with a No. 5 jeweler's forceps for 30 s, was performed in C57BL/6, Tlr2−/−, Tlr3−/−, Tlr4−/−, Tlr5−/−, and Tlr7−/− mice. Quantitative histomorphometric analysis of toluidine blue-stained nerve specimens and walking track analysis were performed to evaluate nerve regeneration outcomes. PCR Arrays were used to detect the expression of neurogenesis-related genes of dorsal root ganglia as well as of myelination-related genes of the distal nerve segments. Results Worse nerve regeneration after nerve crush injury was found in all Tlr-knockout mice than in C57BL/6 mice. Delayed expression of myelin genes and a different expression pattern of myelination-related neurotrophin genes and transcription factors were found in Tlr-knockout mice in comparison to C57BL/6 mice. In these TLR-mediated pathways, insulin-like growth factor 2 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, as well as early growth response 2 and N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1, were significantly decreased in the early and late stages, respectively, of nerve regeneration after a crush injury. Conclusions Knockout of Tlr genes decreases the expression of myelination-related factors and impairs nerve regeneration after a sciatic nerve crush injury. PMID:29113341

  12. Adenosine A2A Receptors Modulate Acute Injury and Neuroinflammation in Brain Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Pedata, Felicita; Pugliese, Anna Maria; Coppi, Elisabetta; Dettori, Ilaria; Maraula, Giovanna; Cellai, Lucrezia; Melani, Alessia

    2014-01-01

    The extracellular concentration of adenosine in the brain increases dramatically during ischemia. Adenosine A2A receptor is expressed in neurons and glial cells and in inflammatory cells (lymphocytes and granulocytes). Recently, adenosine A2A receptor emerged as a potential therapeutic attractive target in ischemia. Ischemia is a multifactorial pathology characterized by different events evolving in the time. After ischemia the early massive increase of extracellular glutamate is followed by activation of resident immune cells, that is, microglia, and production or activation of inflammation mediators. Proinflammatory cytokines, which upregulate cell adhesion molecules, exert an important role in promoting recruitment of leukocytes that in turn promote expansion of the inflammatory response in ischemic tissue. Protracted neuroinflammation is now recognized as the predominant mechanism of secondary brain injury progression. A2A receptors present on central cells and on blood cells account for important effects depending on the time-related evolution of the pathological condition. Evidence suggests that A2A receptor antagonists provide early protection via centrally mediated control of excessive excitotoxicity, while A2A receptor agonists provide protracted protection by controlling massive blood cell infiltration in the hours and days after ischemia. Focus on inflammatory responses provides for adenosine A2A receptor agonists a wide therapeutic time-window of hours and even days after stroke. PMID:25165414

  13. μ-Opioid Receptor Knockout Mice Are Insensitive to Methamphetamine-Induced Behavioral Sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xine; Purser, Chris; Tien, Lu-Tai; Chiu, Chi-Tso; Paul, Ian A.; Baker, Rodney; Loh, Horace H.; Ho, Ing K.; Ma, Tangeng

    2011-01-01

    Repeated administration of psychostimulants to rodents can lead to behavioral sensitization. Previous studies, using nonspecific opioid receptor (OR) antagonists, revealed that ORs were involved in modulation of behavioral sensitization to methamphetamine (METH). However, the contribution of OR subtypes remains unclear. In the present study, using μ-OR knockout mice, we examined the role of μ-OR in the development of METH sensitization. Mice received daily intraperitoneal injection of drug or saline for 7 consecutive days to initiate sensitization. To express sensitization, animals received one injection of drug (the same as for initiation) or saline on day 11. Animal locomotor activity and stereotypy were monitored during the periods of initiation and expression of sensitization. Also, the concentrations of METH and its active metabolite amphetamine in the blood were measured after single and repeated administrations of METH. METH promoted significant locomotor hyperactivity at low doses and stereotyped behaviors at relative high doses (2.5 mg/kg and above). Repeated administration of METH led to the initiation and expression of behavioral sensitization in wild-type mice. METH-induced behavioral responses were attenuated in the μ-OR knockout mice. Haloperidol (a dopamine receptor antagonist) showed a more potent effect in counteracting METH-induced stereotypy in the μ-OR knockout mice. Saline did not induce behavioral sensitization in either genotype. No significant difference was observed in disposition of METH and amphetamine between the two genotypes. Our study indicated that the μ-opioid system is involved in modulating the development of behavioral sensitization to METH. PMID:20209629

  14. Reduced susceptibility of muscle-specific insulin receptor knockout mice to colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ealey, Kafi N; Lu, Suying; Lau, Dominic; Archer, Michael C

    2008-03-01

    Insulin resistance is a risk factor for colon cancer, but it is not clear which of its metabolic sequelae are involved. The objective of this study was to determine whether increased adiposity and elevated circulating lipids commonly seen in insulin resistance promote colon carcinogenesis independent of changes in insulin. We made use of muscle-specific insulin receptor knockout (MIRKO) mice that exhibit elevated serum triglycerides (TG), free fatty acids (FFA), and fat mass but have similar body weights, circulating glucose, and insulin and insulin sensitivity to their wild-type littermates used as controls. Seven-week-old male MIRKO mice and controls received four weekly intraperitoneal injections of either 5 mg/kg azoxymethane (AOM) to induce aberrant crypt foci (ACF) or 10 mg/kg AOM to induce tumors and were killed at 24 or 40 wk of age, respectively. The MIRKO mice displayed hyperinsulinemia at 7 wk of age and reduced insulin sensitivity at 16 wk of age compared with controls. The previously reported MIRKO phenotype developed between 16 and 24 wk of age. By 40 wk of age, however, MIRKO mice were again insulin resistant. ACF development did not differ between MIRKO mice and controls, but MIRKO mice developed significantly fewer colon tumors. Our results suggest that circulating TG and FFA are not promoters of colon tumor development. Indeed, we show that the cumulative effects of the metabolic changes that occur with knockout of the insulin receptor in muscle are associated with reduced susceptibility to colon tumorigenesis.

  15. Impaired functional organization in the visual cortex of muscarinic receptor knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Groleau, Marianne; Nguyen, Hoang Nam; Vanni, Matthieu P; Huppé-Gourgues, Frédéric; Casanova, Christian; Vaucher, Elvire

    2014-09-01

    Acetylcholine modulates maturation and neuronal activity through muscarinic and nicotinic receptors in the primary visual cortex. However, the specific contribution of different muscarinic receptor subtypes in these neuromodulatory mechanisms is not fully understood. The present study evaluates in vivo the functional organization and the properties of the visual cortex of different groups of muscarinic receptor knock-out (KO) mice. Optical imaging of intrinsic signals coupled to continuous and episodic visual stimulation paradigms was used. Retinotopic maps along elevation and azimuth were preserved among the different groups of mice. However, compared to their wild-type counterparts, the apparent visual field along elevation was larger in M2/M4-KO mice but smaller in M1-KO. There was a reduction in the estimated relative receptive field size of V1 neurons in M1/M3-KO and M1-KO mice. Spatial frequency and contrast selectivity of V1 neuronal populations were affected only in M1/M3-KO and M1-KO mice. Finally, the neuronal connectivity was altered by the absence of M2/M4 muscarinic receptors. All these effects suggest the distinct roles of different subtypes of muscarinic receptors in the intrinsic organization of V1 and a strong involvement of the muscarinic transmission in the detectability of visual stimuli. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Impaired IL-1β-induced neutrophil accumulation in tachykinin NK1 receptor knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Ahluwalia, Amrita; De Felipe, Carmen; O'Brien, John; Hunt, Stephen P; Perretti, Mauro

    1998-01-01

    Tachykinin NK1 receptors play an important role in the development of neurogenic inflammatory responses. We have used the murine air-pouch model to investigate whether the neurogenic component of the cellular inflammatory response to interleukin-1β (IL-1β, 10 ng into the air-pouch) is altered in NK1 receptor knockout mice compared to wild type controls. Air-pouches were washed following a 4 h IL-1β treatment, the wash collected and neutrophil number estimated using a Neubauer haemocytometer. The response to IL-1β was significantly attenuated in NK1 receptor +/− (40% reduction) and −/− mice (62% reduction) compared to wild type controls (+/+), whilst the response to cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC, 0.3 μg) was unaffected. The response to substance P (7.5 nmol) was attenuated by approximately 50% in both NK1 receptor +/− and −/− mice compared to wild type controls. In conclusion NK1 receptors play a significant role in the cellular response to IL-1β in a model of inflammation. PMID:9720767

  17. Raphe serotonin neuron-specific oxytocin receptor knockout reduces aggression without affecting anxiety-like behavior in male mice only

    PubMed Central

    Pagani, Jerome H.; Williams Avram, Sarah K.; Cui, Zhenzhong; Song, June; Mezey, Éva; Senerth, Julia M.; Baumann, Michael H.; Young, W. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin and oxytocin influence aggressive and anxiety-like behaviors, though it is unclear how the two may interact. That the oxytocin receptor is expressed in the serotonergic raphe nuclei suggests a mechanism by which the two neurotransmitters may cooperatively influence behavior. We hypothesized that oxytocin acts on raphe neurons to influence serotonergically-mediated anxiety-like, aggressive and parental care behaviors. We eliminated expression of the oxytocin receptor in raphe neurons by crossing mice expressing Cre recombinase under control of the serotonin transporter promoter (Slc6a4) with our conditional oxytocin receptor knockout line. The knockout mice generated by this cross are normal across a range of behavioral measures: there are no effects for either sex on locomotion in an open-field, olfactory habituation/dishabituation or, surprisingly, anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated O and plus mazes. There was a profound deficit in male aggression: only one of 11 raphe oxytocin receptor knockouts showed any aggressive behavior, compared to eight of 11 wildtypes. In contrast, female knockouts displayed no deficits in maternal behavior or aggression. Our results show that oxytocin, via its effects on raphe neurons, is a key regulator of resident-intruder aggression in males but not maternal aggression. Furthermore, this reduction in male aggression is quite different from the effects reported previously after forebrain or total elimination of oxytocin receptors. Finally, we conclude that when constitutively eliminated, oxytocin receptors expressed by serotonin cells do not contribute to baseline anxiety-like behaviors or maternal care. PMID:25677455

  18. Adenosine through the A2A adenosine receptor increases IL-1β in the brain contributing to anxiety.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Gabriel S; Darmody, Patrick T; Walsh, John P; Moon, Morgan L; Kwakwa, Kristin A; Bray, Julie K; McCusker, Robert H; Freund, Gregory G

    2014-10-01

    Anxiety is one of the most commonly reported psychiatric conditions, but its pathogenesis is poorly understood. Ailments associated with activation of the innate immune system, however, are increasingly linked to anxiety disorders. In adult male mice, we found that adenosine doubled caspase-1 activity in brain by a pathway reliant on ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels, protein kinase A (PKA) and the A2A adenosine receptor (AR). In addition, adenosine-dependent activation of caspase-1 increased interleukin (IL)-1β in the brain by 2-fold. Peripheral administration of adenosine in wild-type (WT) mice led to a 2.3-fold increase in caspase-1 activity in the amygdala and to a 33% and 42% reduction in spontaneous locomotor activity and food intake, respectively, that were not observed in caspase-1 knockout (KO), IL-1 receptor type 1 (IL-1R1) KO and A2A AR KO mice or in mice administered a caspase-1 inhibitor centrally. Finally, adenosine administration increased anxiety-like behaviors in WT mice by 28% in the open field test and by 55% in the elevated zero-maze. Caspase-1 KO mice, IL-1R1 KO mice, A2A AR KO mice and WT mice treated with the KATP channel blocker, glyburide, were resistant to adenosine-induced anxiety-like behaviors. Thus, our results indicate that adenosine can act as an anxiogenic by activating caspase-1 and increasing IL-1β in the brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Collecting duct-specific endothelin B receptor knockout increases ENaC activity

    PubMed Central

    Bugaj, Vladislav; Mironova, Elena; Kohan, Donald E.

    2012-01-01

    Collecting duct (CD)-derived endothelin-1 (ET-1) acting via endothelin B (ETB) receptors promotes Na+ excretion. Compromise of ET-1 signaling or ETB receptors in the CD cause sodium retention and increase blood pressure. Activity of the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) is limiting for Na+ reabsorption in the CD. To test for ETB receptor regulation of ENaC, we combined patch-clamp electrophysiology with CD-specific knockout (KO) of endothelin receptors. We also tested how ET-1 signaling via specific endothelin receptors influences ENaC activity under differing dietary Na+ regimens. ET-1 significantly decreased ENaC open probability in CD isolated from wild-type (WT) and CD ETA KO mice but not CD ETB KO and CD ETA/B KO mice. ENaC activity in WT and CD ETA but not CD ETB and CD ETA/B KO mice was inversely related to dietary Na+ intake. ENaC activity in CD ETB and CD ETA/B KO mice tended to be elevated under all dietary Na+ regimens compared with WT and CD ETA KO mice, reaching significance with high (2%) Na+ feeding. These results show that the bulk of ET-1 inhibition of ENaC activity is mediated by the ETB receptor. In addition, they could explain the Na+ retention and elevated blood pressure observed in CD ET-1 KO, CD ETB KO, and CD ETA/B KO mice consistent with ENaC regulation by ET-1 via ETB receptors contributing to the antihypertensive and natriuretic effects of the local endothelin system in the mammalian CD. PMID:21918182

  20. Exercise modulates postreceptor insulin signaling and glucose transport in muscle-specific insulin receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Wojtaszewski, J F; Higaki, Y; Hirshman, M F; Michael, M D; Dufresne, S D; Kahn, C R; Goodyear, L J

    1999-11-01

    Physical exercise promotes glucose uptake into skeletal muscle and makes the working muscles more sensitive to insulin. To understand the role of insulin receptor (IR) signaling in these responses, we studied the effects of exercise and insulin on skeletal muscle glucose metabolism and insulin signaling in mice lacking insulin receptors specifically in muscle. Muscle-specific insulin receptor knockout (MIRKO) mice had normal resting 2-deoxy-glucose (2DG) uptake in soleus muscles but had no significant response to insulin. Despite this, MIRKO mice displayed normal exercise-stimulated 2DG uptake and a normal synergistic activation of muscle 2DG uptake with the combination of exercise plus insulin. Glycogen content and glycogen synthase activity in resting muscle were normal in MIRKO mice, and exercise, but not insulin, increased glycogen synthase activity. Insulin, exercise, and the combination of exercise plus insulin did not increase IR tyrosine phosphorylation or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity in MIRKO muscle. In contrast, insulin alone produced a small activation of Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3 in MIRKO mice, and prior exercise markedly enhanced this insulin effect. In conclusion, normal expression of muscle insulin receptors is not needed for the exercise-mediated increase in glucose uptake and glycogen synthase activity in vivo. The synergistic activation of glucose transport with exercise plus insulin is retained in MIRKO mice, suggesting a phenomenon mediated by nonmuscle cells or by downstream signaling events.

  1. Body water balance and body temperature in vasopressin V1b receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Daikoku, R; Kunitake, T; Kato, K; Tanoue, A; Tsujimoto, G; Kannan, H

    2007-10-30

    In an attempt to determine whether there is a specific vasopressin receptor (V(1b)) subtype involved in the regulation of body water balance and temperature, vasopressin V(1b) receptor knockout mice were used. Daily drinking behavior and renal excretory function were examined in V(1b)-deficient (V(1b)(-/-)) and control (V(1b)(+/+)) mice under the basal and stress-induced condition. In addition, body temperature and locomotor activity were measured with a biotelemetry system. The baseline daily water intake and urine volume were larger in V(1b)(-/-) mice than in V(1b)(+/+) mice. V(1b)(-/-) mice (V(1b)(-/-)) had significantly higher locomotor activity than wild-type, whereas the body temperature and oxygen consumption were lower in V(1b)(-/-) than in the V(1b)(+/+) mice. Next, the V(1b)(-/-) and V(1b)(+/+) mice were subjected to water deprivation for 48 hr. Under this condition, their body temperature decreased with the time course, which was significantly larger for V(1b)(-/-) than for V(1b)(+/+) mice. Central vasopressin has been reported to elicit drinking behavior and antipyretic action, and the V(1b) receptor has been reported to be located in the kidney. Thus, the findings suggest that the V(1b) receptor may be, at least in part, involved in body water balance and body temperature regulation.

  2. Increased Cocaine Self-Administration in M4 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Lene S.; Thomsen, Morgane; Weikop, Pia; Dencker, Ditte; Wess, Jürgen; Woldbye, David P.D.; Wortwein, Gitta; Fink-Jensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Rationale The reinforcing effects of cocaine are mediated by the mesolimbic dopamine system. Behavioral and neurochemical studies have shown that the cholinergic muscarinic M4 receptor subtype plays an important role in regulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission. Objectives Here we investigated for the first time the involvement of M4 receptors in the reinforcing effects of cocaine using chronic intravenous cocaine self-administration in extensively backcrossed M4 receptor knockout (M4−/−) mice. Methods We evaluated acquisition of cocaine self-administration in experimentally naïve mice. Both cocaine self-administration and food-maintained operant behavior were evaluated under fixed ratio 1 (FR 1) and progressive ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement. In addition, cocaine-induced dopamine release and cocaine-induced hyperactivity was evaluated. Results M4−/− mice earned significantly more cocaine reinforcers and reached higher breaking points than their wildtype littermates (M4+/+) at intermediate doses of cocaine under both FR 1 and PR schedules of reinforcement. Under the PR schedule, M4−/− mice exhibited significantly higher response rates at the lowest liquid food concentration. In accordance with these results, cocaine-induced dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens and hyperlocomotion were increased in M4−/− mice compared to M4+/+ mice. Conclusions Our data suggest that M4 receptors play an important role in regulation of the reward circuitry and may serve as a new target in the medical treatment of drug addiction. PMID:21373792

  3. Comparative effects of chlorpyrifos in wild type and cannabinoid Cb1 receptor knockout mice

    SciTech Connect

    Baireddy, Praveena; Liu, Jing; Hinsdale, Myron

    2011-11-15

    Endocannabinoids (eCBs) modulate neurotransmission by inhibiting the release of a variety of neurotransmitters. The cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55.212-2 (WIN) can modulate organophosphorus (OP) anticholinesterase toxicity in rats, presumably by inhibiting acetylcholine (ACh) release. Some OP anticholinesterases also inhibit eCB-degrading enzymes. We studied the effects of the OP insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) on cholinergic signs of toxicity, cholinesterase activity and ACh release in tissues from wild type (+/+) and cannabinoid CB1 receptor knockout (-/-) mice. Mice of both genotypes (n = 5-6/treatment group) were challenged with CPF (300 mg/kg, 2 ml/kg in peanut oil, sc) and evaluated for functional and neurochemicalmore » changes. Both genotypes exhibited similar cholinergic signs and cholinesterase inhibition (82-95% at 48 h after dosing) in cortex, cerebellum and heart. WIN reduced depolarization-induced ACh release in vitro in hippocampal slices from wild type mice, but had no effect in hippocampal slices from knockouts or in striatal slices from either genotype. Chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO, 100 {mu}M) reduced release in hippocampal slices from both genotypes in vitro, but with a greater reduction in tissues from wild types (21% vs 12%). CPO had no significant in vitro effect on ACh release in striatum. CPF reduced ACh release in hippocampus from both genotypes ex vivo, but reduction was again significantly greater in tissues from wild types (52% vs 36%). In striatum, CPF led to a similar reduction (20-23%) in tissues from both genotypes. Thus, while CB1 deletion in mice had little influence on the expression of acute toxicity following CPF, CPF- or CPO-induced changes in ACh release appeared sensitive to modulation by CB1-mediated eCB signaling in a brain-regional manner. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C57Bl/6 mice showed dose-related cholinergic toxicity following subcutaneous chlorpyrifos exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wild type and

  4. Adenosine A(2A) receptors are necessary and sufficient to trigger memory impairment in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Pagnussat, N; Almeida, A S; Marques, D M; Nunes, F; Chenet, G C; Botton, P H S; Mioranzza, S; Loss, C M; Cunha, R A; Porciúncula, L O

    2015-08-01

    Caffeine (a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist) prevents memory deficits in aging and Alzheimer's disease, an effect mimicked by adenosine A2 A receptor, but not A1 receptor, antagonists. Hence, we investigated the effects of adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists on memory performance and scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. We determined whether A2 A receptors are necessary for the emergence of memory impairments induced by scopolamine and whether A2 A receptor activation triggers memory deficits in naïve mice, using three tests to assess short-term memory, namely the object recognition task, inhibitory avoidance and modified Y-maze. Scopolamine (1.0 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.) impaired short-term memory performance in all three tests and this scopolamine-induced amnesia was prevented by the A2 A receptor antagonist (SCH 58261, 0.1-1.0 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.) and by the A1 receptor antagonist (DPCPX, 0.2-5.0 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.), except in the modified Y-maze where only SCH58261 was effective. Both antagonists were devoid of effects on memory or locomotion in naïve rats. Notably, the activation of A2 A receptors with CGS 21680 (0.1-0.5 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.) before the training session was sufficient to trigger memory impairment in the three tests in naïve mice, and this effect was prevented by SCH 58261 (1.0 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.). Furthermore, i.c.v. administration of CGS 21680 (50 nmol) also impaired recognition memory in the object recognition task. These results show that A2 A receptors are necessary and sufficient to trigger memory impairment and further suggest that A1 receptors might also be selectively engaged to control the cholinergic-driven memory impairment. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  5. Adenosine A2A receptors are necessary and sufficient to trigger memory impairment in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Pagnussat, N; Almeida, A S; Marques, D M; Nunes, F; Chenet, G C; Botton, P H S; Mioranzza, S; Loss, C M; Cunha, R A; Porciúncula, L O

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Caffeine (a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist) prevents memory deficits in aging and Alzheimer’s disease, an effect mimicked by adenosine A2A receptor, but not A1 receptor, antagonists. Hence, we investigated the effects of adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists on memory performance and scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. Experimental Approach We determined whether A2A receptors are necessary for the emergence of memory impairments induced by scopolamine and whether A2A receptor activation triggers memory deficits in naïve mice, using three tests to assess short-term memory, namely the object recognition task, inhibitory avoidance and modified Y-maze. Key Results Scopolamine (1.0 mg·kg−1, i.p.) impaired short-term memory performance in all three tests and this scopolamine-induced amnesia was prevented by the A2A receptor antagonist (SCH 58261, 0.1–1.0 mg·kg−1, i.p.) and by the A1 receptor antagonist (DPCPX, 0.2–5.0 mg·kg−1, i.p.), except in the modified Y-maze where only SCH58261 was effective. Both antagonists were devoid of effects on memory or locomotion in naïve rats. Notably, the activation of A2A receptors with CGS 21680 (0.1–0.5 mg·kg−1, i.p.) before the training session was sufficient to trigger memory impairment in the three tests in naïve mice, and this effect was prevented by SCH 58261 (1.0 mg·kg−1, i.p.). Furthermore, i.c.v. administration of CGS 21680 (50 nmol) also impaired recognition memory in the object recognition task. Conclusions and Implications These results show that A2A receptors are necessary and sufficient to trigger memory impairment and further suggest that A1 receptors might also be selectively engaged to control the cholinergic-driven memory impairment. PMID:25939452

  6. Immune malfunction in the GPR39 zinc receptor of knockout mice: Its relationship to depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Młyniec, Katarzyna; Trojan, Ewa; Ślusarczyk, Joanna; Głombik, Katarzyna; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Budziszewska, Bogusława; Skrzeszewski, Jakub; Siwek, Agata; Holst, Birgitte; Nowak, Gabriel

    2016-02-15

    Depression is a serious psychiatric disorder affecting not only the monaminergic, glutamatergic, and GABAergic neurosystems, but also the immune system. Patients suffering from depression show disturbance in the immune parameters as well as increased susceptibility to infections. Zinc is well known as an anti-inflammatory agent, and its link with depression has been proved, zinc deficiency causing depression- and anxiety-like behavior with immune malfunction. It has been discovered that trace-element zinc acts as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system via zinc receptor GPR39. In this study we investigated whether GPR39 knockout would cause depressive-like behavior as measured by the forced swim test, and whether these changes would coexist with immune malfunction. In GPR39 knockout mice versus a wild-type control we found: i) depressive-like behavior; ii) significantly reduced thymus weight; (iii) reduced cell viability of splenocytes; iv) reduced proliferative response of splenocytes; and v) increased IL-6 production of splenocytes after ConA stimulation and decreased IL-1b and IL-6 release after LPS stimulation. The results indicate depressive-like behavior in GPR39 KO animals with an immune response similar to that observed in depressive disorder. Here for the first time we show immunological changes under GPR39-deficient conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. AVE 0991-angiotensin-(1-7) receptor agonist, inhibits atherogenesis in apoE-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Toton-Zuranska, J; Gajda, M; Pyka-Fosciak, G; Kus, K; Pawlowska, M; Niepsuj, A; Wolkow, P; Olszanecki, R; Jawien, J; Korbut, R

    2010-04-01

    Recent evidence shows that the renin-angiotensin system is a crucial player in atherosclerotic processes. It was also proved that Ang II promotes atherogenesis. Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] opposites Ang II action. Therefore, we would like to find out whether Ang-(1-7) receptor agonist: AVE 0991, could ameliorate atherosclerosis progression in an experimental model of atherosclerosis: apolipoprotein E (apoE) - knockout mice. AVE 0991 inhibited atherogenesis, measured both by "en face" method (7.63+/-1.6% vs. 14.6+/-2.1%) and "cross-section" method (47 235+/-7 546 microm(2) vs. 91 416+/-8 357 microm(2)). This is the first report showing the effect of AVE 0991 on atherogenesis in gene-targeted mice.

  8. Trilostane exerts antidepressive effects among wild-type, but not estrogen receptor β knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Koonce, Carolyn J.; Walf, Alicia A.; Frye, Cheryl A.

    2013-01-01

    Women with estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer, who are treated with the ER blocker, tamoxifen, have an increased risk of depression. Trilostane, a 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibitor, is now being used to treat tamoxifen-insensitive breast cancer. In-vitro assays show that trilostane may have actions through ERβ. Results of in-vivo research shows that actions at ERβ may underline some antidepressant effects of estrogen. We hypothesized that trilostane may exert antidepressive effects in the forced swim in part due to actions through ERβ. Trilostane (25 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), compared with vehicle, had significant antidepressant-like effects but only when administered to wild-type, not ERβ knockout, mice. Thus, actions of trilostane through ERβ may underlie some of its antidepressant-like effects. PMID:19593916

  9. Improved androgen specificity of AR-EcoScreen by CRISPR based glucocorticoid receptor knockout.

    PubMed

    Zwart, Nick; Andringa, Dave; de Leeuw, Willem-Jan; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Iida, Mitsuru; Houtman, Corine J; de Boer, Jacob; Kool, Jeroen; Lamoree, Marja H; Hamers, Timo

    2017-12-01

    The AR-EcoScreen is a widely used reporter assay for the detection of androgens and anti-androgens. Endogenous expression of glucocorticoid receptors and their affinity for the androgen responsive element that drives reporter expression, however, makes the reporter cells sensitive to interference by glucocorticoids and less specific for (anti-)androgens. To create a glucocorticoid insensitive derivative of the AR-EcoScreen, CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing was used to develop glucocorticoid receptor knockout mutants by targeting various sites in the glucocorticoid gene. Two mutant cell lines were further characterized and validated against the unmodified AR-EcoScreen with a set of 19 environmentally relevant chemicals and a series of environmental passive sampler extracts with (anti-)androgenic activity. Sequencing of the targeted sites revealed premature stop codons following frame-shift mutations, leading to an absence of functional glucocorticoid receptor expression. The introduced mutations rendered cell lines insensitive to glucocorticoid activation and caused no significant difference in the responsiveness towards (anti-)androgens, compared to the unmodified AR-EcoScreen cells, allowing the selective, GR-independent, determination of (anti-)androgenicity in environmental passive sampler extracts. The increase in selectivity for (anti-)androgens improves reliability of the AR-EcoScreen and will provide higher accuracy in determining (anti-)androgenic potential when applied in toxicity screening and environmental monitoring of both single compounds and mixtures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Chronic allergic pulmonary inflammation is aggravated in angiotensin-(1-7) Mas receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Giselle S; Rodrigues-Machado, Maria Glória; Motta-Santos, Daisy; Alenina, Natalia; Bader, Michael; Santos, Robson A; Barcelos, Lucíola S; Campagnole-Santos, Maria José

    2016-12-01

    The angiotensin-(1-7) [ANG-(1-7)]/Mas receptor pathway is currently recognized as a counterbalancing mechanism of the renin-angiotensin system in different pathophysiological conditions. We have previously described that treatment with ANG-(1-7) attenuates lung inflammation and remodeling in an experimental model of asthma. In the present study, we investigated whether lack of the Mas receptor could alter the inflammatory response in a model of chronic allergic lung inflammation induced by ovalbumin (OVA). Mas receptor wild-type (MasWT) and knockout (MasKO) mice were subjected to four doses of OVA (20 μg/mice ip) with a 14-day interval. At the 21st day, nebulization with OVA (1%) was started, three times per week until the 46th day. Control groups received saline (0.9% ip) and were nebulized with saline (0.9%). MasWT-OVA developed a modest inflammatory response and minor pulmonary remodeling to OVA challenge. Strikingly, MasKO-OVA presented a significant increase in inflammatory cell infiltrate, increase in extracellular matrix deposition, increase in thickening of the alveolar parenchyma, increase in thickening of the smooth muscle layer of the pulmonary arterioles, increase in proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels in the lungs, characteristic of chronic asthma. Additionally, MasKO-OVA presented an increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation compared with MasWT-OVA. Furthermore, MasKO-OVA showed a worse performance in a test of maximum physical exercise compared with MasWT-OVA. Our study shows that effects triggered by the Mas receptor are important to attenuate the inflammatory and remodeling processes in a model of allergic lung inflammation in mice. Our data indicate that impairment of the ANG-(1-7)/Mas receptor pathway may lead to worsening of the pathophysiological changes of asthma. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Brain Region-Specific Effects of cGMP-Dependent Kinase II Knockout on AMPA Receptor Trafficking and Animal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Seonil; Pick, Joseph E.; Abera, Sinedu; Khatri, Latika; Ferreira, Danielle D. P.; Sathler, Matheus F.; Morison, Sage L.; Hofmann, Franz; Ziff, Edward B.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorylation of GluA1, a subunit of AMPA receptors (AMPARs), is critical for AMPAR synaptic trafficking and control of synaptic transmission. cGMP-dependent protein kinase II (cGKII) mediates this phosphorylation, and cGKII knockout (KO) affects GluA1 phosphorylation and alters animal behavior. Notably, GluA1 phosphorylation in the KO…

  12. Regulation of dopamine presynaptic markers and receptors in the striatum of DJ-1 and Pink1 knockout rats

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianjun; Kouranova, Evguenia; Cui, Xiaoxia; Mach, Robert H.; Xu, Jinbin

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic autosomal recessive mutations in the DJ-1 (Park7) or the PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (Pink1 or PARK6) genes are associated with familial Parkinson’s disease (PD). It is not well known regarding the pathological mechanisms involving the DJ-1 and Pink1 mutations. Here we characterized DJ-1 and Pink1 knockout rats both through expression profiling and using quantitative autoradiography to measure the densities of the dopamine D1, D2, D3 receptors, vesicular monoamine transporter type-2 (VMAT2) and dopamine transporter (DAT) in the striatum of transgenic rats and wild type controls. Expression profiling with a commercially available array of 84 genes known to be involved in PD indicated that only the target gene was significantly downregulated in each transgenic rat model. D1 receptor, VMAT2, and DAT were measured using [3H]SCH23390, [3H]dihydrotetrabenazine, and [3H]WIN35428, respectively. No significant changes were observed in the density of DAT in either model. Although the densities of VMAT2 and D1 receptor were unchanged in Pink1 knockout, but both were increased in DJ-1 knockout rats. The densities of D2 and D3 receptors, determined by mathematical analysis of binding of radioligands [3H]WC-10 and [3H]raclopride, were significantly increased in both knockout models. These distinctive changes in the expression of dopamine presynaptic markers and receptors in the striatum may reflect different compensatory regulation of dopamine system in DJ-1 versus Pink1 knockout rat models of familial PD. PMID:24157858

  13. Dopamine D3 receptor knockout mice exhibit abnormal nociception in a sex-different manner.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Xing, Bo; Chu, Zheng; Liu, Fei; Lei, Gang; Zhu, Li; Gao, Ya; Chen, Teng; Dang, Yong-Hui

    2017-07-01

    Pain is a complex and subjective experience. Previous studies have shown that mice lacking the dopamine D3 receptor (D3RKO) exhibit hypoalgesia, indicating a role of the D3 receptor in modulation of nociception. Given that there are sex differences in pain perception, there may be differences in responses to nociceptive stimuli between male and female D3RKO mice. In the current study, we examined the role of the D3 receptor in modulating nociception in male and female D3RKO mice. Acute thermal pain was modeled by hot-plate test. This test was performed at different temperatures including 52°C, 55°C, and 58°C. The von Frey hair test was applied to evaluate mechanical pain. And persistent pain produced by peripheral tissue injury and inflammation was modeled by formalin test. In the hot-plate test, compared with wild-type (WT) mice, D3RKO mice generally exhibited longer latencies at each of the three temperatures. Specially, male D3RKO mice showed hypoalgesia compared with male WT mice when the temperature was 55°C, while for the female mice, there was a statistical difference between genotypes when the test condition was 52°C. In the von Frey hair test, both male and female D3RKO mice exhibited hypoalgesia. In the formalin test, the male D3RKO mice displayed a similar nociceptive behavior as their sex-matched WT littermates, whereas significantly depressed late-phase formalin-induced nociceptive behaviors were observed in the female mutants. These findings indicated that the D3 receptor affects nociceptive behaviors in a sex-specific manner and that its absence induces more analgesic behavior in the female knockout mice. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Memantine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, improves working memory deficits in DGKβ knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Kakefuda, Kenichi; Ishisaka, Mitsue; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Hara, Hideaki

    2016-09-06

    Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) β is a type 1 isozyme of the DGK family. We previously reported that DGKβ was deeply involved in neurite spine formation, and DGKβ knockout (KO) mice exhibited behavioral abnormalities concerning spine formation, such as cognitive, emotional, and attentional impairment. Moreover, some of these abnormalities were ameliorated by the administration of a mood stabilizer. However, there is no data about how memory-improving drugs used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease affect DGKβ KO mice. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of an anti-Alzheimer's drug, memantine on the working memory deficit observed in DGKβ KO mice. In the Y-maze test, the administration of memantine significantly improved working memory of DGKβ KO mice. We also found that the expression levels of the NR2A and NR2B N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits were increased in the prefrontal cortex, but decreased in the hippocampus of DGKβ KO mice. These altered expression levels of NR2 subunits might be related to the effect of an NMDA receptor antagonist, memantine. Taken together, these findings may support the hypothesis that DGKβ has a pivotal role in cognitive function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Impaired ventilation and metabolism response to hypoxia in histamine H1 receptor-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Takashi; Iwase, Michiko; Kanamaru, Mitsuko; Izumizaki, Masahiko; Ohshima, Yasuyoshi; Homma, Ikuo

    2006-12-01

    The role of central histamine in the hypoxic ventilatory response was examined in conscious wild-type (WT) and histamine type1 receptor-knockout (H1RKO) mice. Hypoxic gas (7% O(2) and 3% CO(2) in N(2)) exposure initially increased and then decreased ventilation, referred to as hypoxic ventilatory decline (HVD). The initial increase in ventilation did not differ between genotypes. However, H1RKO mice showed a blunted HVD, in which mean inspiratory flow was greater than that in WT mice. O(2) consumption (V(O2)) and CO(2) excretion were reduced 10min after hypoxic gas exposure in both genotypes, but (V(O2)) was greater in H1RKO mice than in WT mice. The ratio of minute ventilation to (V(O2)) during HVD did not differ between genotypes, indicating that ventilation is adequately controlled according to metabolic demand in both mice. Peripheral chemoreceptor sensitivity did not differ between genotypes. We conclude that central histamine contributes via the H1 receptor to changes in metabolic rate during hypoxia to increase HVD in conscious mice.

  16. alpha7 Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor knockout selectively enhances ethanol-, but not beta-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    de Fiebre, Nancyellen C; de Fiebre, Christopher M

    2005-01-03

    The alpha7 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) has been implicated as a potential site of action for two neurotoxins, ethanol and the Alzheimer's disease related peptide, beta-amyloid. Here, we utilized primary neuronal cultures of cerebral cortex from alpha7 nAChR null mutant mice to examine the role of this receptor in modulating the neurotoxic properties of subchronic, "binge" ethanol and beta-amyloid. Knockout of the alpha7 nAChR gene selectively enhanced ethanol-induced neurotoxicity in a gene dosage-related fashion. Susceptibility of cultures to beta-amyloid induced toxicity, however, was unaffected by alpha7 nAChR gene null mutation. Further, beta-amyloid did not inhibit the binding of the highly alpha7-selective radioligand, [(125)I]alpha-bungarotoxin. On the other hand, in studies in Xenopus oocytes ethanol efficaciously inhibited alpha7 nAChR function. These data suggest that alpha7 nAChRs modulate the neurotoxic effects of binge ethanol, but not the neurotoxicity produced by beta-amyloid. It is hypothesized that inhibition of alpha7 nAChRs by ethanol provides partial protection against the neurotoxic properties of subchronic ethanol.

  17. Behavior of Adult 5-HT1A Receptor Knockout Mice Exposed to Stress During Prenatal Development.

    PubMed

    Kiryanova, Veronika; Smith, Victoria M; Antle, Michael C; Dyck, Richard H

    2018-02-10

    Chronic maternal stress during pregnancy can have long-term, detrimental consequences for the offspring. An understanding of the mechanisms responsible for mediating these effects is essential for devising therapeutic interventions. Here, we examined whether serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT 1A R) mediates the effects of maternal stress on the behavioral outcomes of the offspring as adults. Heterozygous (HET) mouse dams were bred with HET males and were randomly assigned to stress or control groups. Pregnant dams in the stress group were exposed to a regime of chronic unpredictable stress from embryonic day 7 to 18. At two months of age, groups of male and female wildtype (WT), HET, and knockout (KO) offspring underwent a comprehensive behavioral test battery that included tests of social behavior, memory, aggression, anxiety, sensorimotor information processing, and exploratory and risk assessment behaviors. Independent of genotype, prenatal stress resulted in a change in locomotor activity and fear memory in male mice and a change in prepulse inhibition in female animals. 5-HT 1A R KO affected anxiety in male mice, and fear memory and prepulse inhibition in female mice. 5-HT 1A R genotype moderated the effects of maternal prenatal stress exposure on social behavior of male offspring and on activity levels of female offspring. Our findings indicate that 5-HT1A receptor availability can affect outcomes of the offspring resulting from maternal prenatal stress exposure, and that these effects are sex-specific. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Raphe serotonin neuron-specific oxytocin receptor knockout reduces aggression without affecting anxiety-like behavior in male mice only.

    PubMed

    Pagani, J H; Williams Avram, S K; Cui, Z; Song, J; Mezey, É; Senerth, J M; Baumann, M H; Young, W S

    2015-02-01

    Serotonin and oxytocin influence aggressive and anxiety-like behaviors, though it is unclear how the two may interact. That the oxytocin receptor is expressed in the serotonergic raphe nuclei suggests a mechanism by which the two neurotransmitters may cooperatively influence behavior. We hypothesized that oxytocin acts on raphe neurons to influence serotonergically mediated anxiety-like, aggressive and parental care behaviors. We eliminated expression of the oxytocin receptor in raphe neurons by crossing mice expressing Cre recombinase under control of the serotonin transporter promoter (Slc6a4) with our conditional oxytocin receptor knockout line. The knockout mice generated by this cross are normal across a range of behavioral measures: there are no effects for either sex on locomotion in an open-field, olfactory habituation/dishabituation or, surprisingly, anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated O and plus mazes. There was a profound deficit in male aggression: only one of 11 raphe oxytocin receptor knockouts showed any aggressive behavior, compared to 8 of 11 wildtypes. In contrast, female knockouts displayed no deficits in maternal behavior or aggression. Our results show that oxytocin, via its effects on raphe neurons, is a key regulator of resident-intruder aggression in males but not maternal aggression. Furthermore, this reduction in male aggression is quite different from the effects reported previously after forebrain or total elimination of oxytocin receptors. Finally, we conclude that when constitutively eliminated, oxytocin receptors expressed by serotonin cells do not contribute to baseline anxiety-like behaviors or maternal care. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  19. The adenosine a2a receptor inhibits matrix-induced inflammation in a novel fashion.

    PubMed

    Scheibner, Kara A; Boodoo, Sada; Collins, Samuel; Black, Katharine E; Chan-Li, Yee; Zarek, Paul; Powell, Jonathan D; Horton, Maureen R

    2009-03-01

    Endogenous mediators within the inflammatory milieu play a critical role in directing the scope, duration, and resolution of inflammation. High-molecular-weight extracellular matrix hyaluronan (HA) helps to maintain homeostasis. During inflammation, hyaluronan is broken down into fragments that induce chemokines and cytokines, thereby augmenting the inflammatory response. Tissue-derived adenosine, released during inflammation, inhibits inflammation via the anti-inflammatory A2 adenosine receptor (A2aR). We demonstrate that adenosine modulates HA-induced gene expression via the A2aR. A2aR stimulation inhibits HA fragment-induced pro-fibrotic genes TNF-alpha, keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, and MIP-1alpha while simultaneously synergizing with hyaluronan fragments to up-regulate the TH1 cytokine IL-12. Interestingly, A2aR stimulation mediates these affects via the novel cAMP-activated guanine nucleotide exchange factor EPAC. In addition, A2aR-null mice are more susceptible to bleomycin-induced lung injury, consistent with a role for endogenous adenosine in inhibiting the inflammation that may lead to fibrosis. Indeed, the bleomycin treated A2aR-null mice demonstrate increased lung inflammation, HA accumulation, and histologic damage. Overall, our data elucidate the opposing roles of tissue-derived HA fragments and adenosine in regulating noninfectious lung inflammation and support the pursuit of A2aR agonists as a means of pharmacologically inhibiting inflammation that may lead to fibrosis.

  20. Reduced adenosine A2a receptor-mediated efferent arteriolar vasodilation contributes to diabetes-induced glomerular hyperfiltration.

    PubMed

    Persson, Patrik; Hansell, Peter; Palm, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is associated with increased risk for development of kidney disease, and an increased glomerular filtration rate is an early indication of altered kidney function. Here we determine whether reduced adenosine A2a receptor-mediated vasodilation of the efferent arteriole contributes to the increased glomerular filtration rate in diabetes. The glomerular filtration rate, renal blood flow, and proximal tubular stop flow pressure were investigated in control and streptozotocin-diabetic rats during baseline and after administration of the adenosine A2a receptor antagonist ZM241385 or the adenosine A2a receptor agonist CGS21680. The diabetes-induced glomerular hyperfiltration was reduced by 24% following A2a receptor stimulation but was unaffected by A2a receptor inhibition. Contrarily, glomerular filtration rate in controls increased by 22% after A2a receptor inhibition and was unaffected by A2a stimulation. The increased glomerular filtration rate after A2a receptor inhibition in controls and decreased glomerular filtration rate after A2a receptor activation in diabetics were caused by increased and decreased stop flow pressure, respectively. None of the interventions affected renal blood flow. Thus, the normal adenosine A2a receptor-mediated tonic vasodilation of efferent arterioles is abolished in the diabetic kidney. This causes increased efferent arteriolar resistance resulting in increased filtration fraction and hyperfiltration.

  1. Adenosine A2A receptor hyperexpression in patients with severe SIRS after cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Kerbaul, François; Bénard, Frédéric; Giorgi, Roch; Youlet, By; Carrega, Louis; Zouher, Ibrahim; Mercier, Laurence; Gérolami, Victoria; Bénas, Vincent; Blayac, Dorothée; Gariboldi, Vlad; Collart, Frédéric; Guieu, Régis

    2008-08-01

    Adenosine (ADO) is an endogenous nucleoside, which has been involved in blood pressure failure during severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome (severe SIRS) after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Adenosine acts via its receptor subtypes, namely A1, A2A, A2B, or A3. Because A2A receptors are implicated in vascular tone, their expression might contribute to severe SIRS. We compared adenosine plasma levels (APLs) and A2A ADO receptor expression (ie, B, K, and mRNA amount) in patients with or without postoperative SIRS. : This was a prospective comparative observational study. Forty-four patients who underwent cardiac surgery involving CPB. Ten healthy subjects served as controls. Among the patients, 11 presented operative vasoplegia and postoperative SIRS (named complicated patients) and 33 were without vasoplegia or SIRS (named uncomplicated patients). Adenosine plasma levels, K, B, and mRNA amount (mean +/- SD) were measured on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Adenosine plasma levels, B, and K were significantly higher in complicated patients than in uncomplicated patients (APLs: 2.7 +/- 1.0 vs 1.0 +/- 0.5 micromol l, P < 0.05; B: 210 +/- 43 vs 65 +/- 26 fmol/mg, P < 0.05; K: 35 +/- 10 vs 2 +/- 1 nM, P < 0.05). In uncomplicated patients, APLs remain higher than in controls (1 +/- 0.5 vs 0.6 +/- 0.25 micromol/L; P < 0.05). Mean arterial pressure was inversely correlated to APLs (R = -0.58; P < 0.001) and B (R = -0.64; P < 0.001) leading to an increased requirement of vasoactive drugs during the postoperative period in vasoplegic patients. High expression of A2A ADO receptor and high APLs may be a predictive factor of postoperative severe SIRS after CPB.

  2. Effects of dopamine D1-like and D2-like antagonists on cocaine discrimination in muscarinic receptor knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Morgane; Caine, Simon Barak

    2016-01-01

    Muscarinic and dopamine brain systems interact intimately, and muscarinic receptor ligands, like dopamine ligands, can modulate the reinforcing and discriminative stimulus (SD) effects of cocaine. To enlighten the dopamine/muscarinic interactions as they pertain to the SD effects of cocaine, we evaluated whether muscarinic M1, M2 or M4 receptors are necessary for dopamine D1 and/or D2 antagonist mediated modulation of the SD effects of cocaine. Knockout mice lacking M1, M2, or M4 receptors, as well as control wild-type mice and outbred Swiss-Webster mice, were trained to discriminate 10 mg/kg cocaine from saline in a food-reinforced drug discrimination procedure. Effects of pretreatments with the dopamine D1 antagonist SCH 23390 and the dopamine D2 antagonist eticlopride were evaluated. In intact mice, both SCH 23390 and eticlopride attenuated the cocaine discriminative stimulus effect, as expected. SCH 23390 similarly attenuated the cocaine discriminative stimulus effect in M1 knockout mice, but not in mice lacking M2 or M4 receptors. The effects of eticlopride were comparable in each knockout strain. These findings demonstrate differences in the way that D1 and D2 antagonists modulate the SD effects of cocaine, D1 modulation being at least partially dependent upon activity at the inhibitory M2/M4 muscarinic subtypes, while D2 modulation appeared independent of these systems. PMID:26874213

  3. Therapeutic Opportunities for Caffeine and A2A Receptor Antagonists in Retinal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Boia, Raquel; Ambrósio, António Francisco; Santiago, Ana Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine, the major component of coffee, is the most consumed psychostimulant in the world. Caffeine is an adenosine analog and acts as a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist. The majority of the effects of caffeine are mainly mediated by the blockade of adenosine receptors, and the proved neuroprotective effects of caffeine in brain disorders have been mimicked by the blockade of adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR). A growing body of evidence demonstrates that microglia-mediated neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of brain and retinal diseases. Moreover, the control of microglia reactivity by blocking A2AR has been proposed to be the mechanism underlying the observed protective effects of caffeine. Hence, it is conceivable that caffeine and A2AR antagonists offer therapeutic value for the treatment of retinal diseases, mainly those involving microglia-mediated neuroinflammation. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. A2A adenosine receptor ligand binding and signalling is allosterically modulated by adenosine deaminase.

    PubMed

    Gracia, Eduard; Pérez-Capote, Kamil; Moreno, Estefanía; Barkešová, Jana; Mallol, Josefa; Lluís, Carme; Franco, Rafael; Cortés, Antoni; Casadó, Vicent; Canela, Enric I

    2011-05-01

    A2ARs (adenosine A2A receptors) are highly enriched in the striatum, which is the main motor control CNS (central nervous system) area. BRET (bioluminescence resonance energy transfer) assays showed that A2AR homomers may act as cell-surface ADA (adenosine deaminase; EC 3.5.4.4)-binding proteins. ADA binding affected the quaternary structure of A2ARs present on the cell surface. ADA binding to adenosine A2ARs increased both agonist and antagonist affinity on ligand binding to striatal membranes where these proteins are co-expressed. ADA also increased receptor-mediated ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2) phosphorylation. Collectively, the results of the present study show that ADA, apart from regulating the concentration of extracellular adenosine, may behave as an allosteric modulator that markedly enhances ligand affinity and receptor function. This powerful regulation may have implications for the physiology and pharmacology of neuronal A2ARs.

  5. Soy milk versus simvastatin for preventing atherosclerosis and left ventricle remodeling in LDL receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Santos, L; Davel, A P; Almeida, T I R; Almeida, M R; Soares, E A; Fernandes, G J M; Magalhães, S F; Barauna, V G; Garcia, J A D

    2017-02-20

    Functional food intake has been highlighted as a strategy for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases by reducing risk factors. In this study, we compared the effects of oral treatment with soy milk and simvastatin on dyslipidemia, left ventricle remodeling and atherosclerotic lesion of LDL receptor knockout mice (LDLr-/-) fed a hyperlipidic diet. Forty 3-month old male LDLr-/- mice were distributed into four groups: control group (C), in which animals received standard diet; HL group, in which animals were fed a hyperlipidic diet; HL+SM or HL+S groups, in which animals were submitted to a hyperlipidic diet plus soy milk or simvastatin, respectively. After 60 days, both soy milk and simvastatin treatment prevented dyslipidemia, atherosclerotic lesion progression and left ventricle hypertrophy in LDLr-/- mice. These beneficial effects of soy milk and simvastatin were associated with reduced oxidative stress and inflammatory state in the heart and aorta caused by the hyperlipidic diet. Treatment with soy milk was more effective in preventing HDLc reduction and triacylglycerol and VLDLc increase. On the other hand, simvastatin was more effective in preventing an increase in total cholesterol, LDLc and superoxide production in aorta, as well as CD40L both in aorta and left ventricle of LDLr-/-. In conclusion, our results suggest a cardioprotective effect of soy milk in LDLr-/- mice comparable to the well-known effects of simvastatin.

  6. Soy milk versus simvastatin for preventing atherosclerosis and left ventricle remodeling in LDL receptor knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Santos, L.; Davel, A.P.; Almeida, T.I.R.; Almeida, M.R.; Soares, E.A.; Fernandes, G.J.M.; Magalhães, S.F.; Barauna, V.G.; Garcia, J.A.D.

    2017-01-01

    Functional food intake has been highlighted as a strategy for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases by reducing risk factors. In this study, we compared the effects of oral treatment with soy milk and simvastatin on dyslipidemia, left ventricle remodeling and atherosclerotic lesion of LDL receptor knockout mice (LDLr-/-) fed a hyperlipidic diet. Forty 3-month old male LDLr-/- mice were distributed into four groups: control group (C), in which animals received standard diet; HL group, in which animals were fed a hyperlipidic diet; HL+SM or HL+S groups, in which animals were submitted to a hyperlipidic diet plus soy milk or simvastatin, respectively. After 60 days, both soy milk and simvastatin treatment prevented dyslipidemia, atherosclerotic lesion progression and left ventricle hypertrophy in LDLr-/- mice. These beneficial effects of soy milk and simvastatin were associated with reduced oxidative stress and inflammatory state in the heart and aorta caused by the hyperlipidic diet. Treatment with soy milk was more effective in preventing HDLc reduction and triacylglycerol and VLDLc increase. On the other hand, simvastatin was more effective in preventing an increase in total cholesterol, LDLc and superoxide production in aorta, as well as CD40L both in aorta and left ventricle of LDLr-/-. In conclusion, our results suggest a cardioprotective effect of soy milk in LDLr-/- mice comparable to the well-known effects of simvastatin. PMID:28225891

  7. Lung dysfunction causes systemic hypoxia in estrogen receptor beta knockout (ERbeta-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Morani, Andrea; Barros, Rodrigo P A; Imamov, Otabek; Hultenby, Kjell; Arner, Anders; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake

    2006-05-02

    Estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) is highly expressed in both type I and II pneumocytes as well as bronchiolar epithelial cells. ERalpha is not detectable in the adult lung. Lungs of adult female ERbeta knockout (ERbeta-/-) mice have already been reported to have fewer alveoli and reduced elastic recoil. In this article, we report that, by 5 months of age, there are large areas of unexpanded alveoli in lungs of both male and female ERbeta-/- mice. There is increased staining for collagen and, by EM, abnormal clusters of collagen fibers are seen in the alveolar septa of ERbeta-/- mice. Immunohistochemical analysis and Western blotting with lung membrane fractions of ERbeta-/- mice revealed down-regulation of caveolin-1, increased expression of membrane type-1 metalloproteinase, matrix metalloproteinase 2 (active form), and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases 2. Hypoxia, measured by immunohistochemical analysis for hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha and chemical adducts (with Hypoxyprobe), was evident in the heart, ventral prostate, periovarian sac, kidney, liver, and brain of ERbeta-/- mice under resting conditions. Furthermore, both male and female adult ERbeta-/- mice were reluctant to run on a treadmill and tissue hypoxia became very pronounced after exercise. We conclude that ERbeta is necessary for the maintenance of the extracellular matrix composition in the lung and loss of ERbeta leads to abnormal lung structure and systemic hypoxia. Systemic hypoxia may be responsible for the reported left and right heart ventricular hypertrophy and systemic hypertension in ERbeta-/- mice.

  8. Adenosine A2A Receptor Antagonists and Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This Review summarizes and updates the work on adenosine A2A receptor antagonists for Parkinson’s disease from 2006 to the present. There have been numerous publications, patent applications, and press releases within this time frame that highlight new medicinal chemistry approaches to this attractive and promising target to treat Parkinson’s disease. The Review is broken down by scaffold type and will discuss the efforts to optimize particular scaffolds for activity, pharmacokinetics, and other drug discovery parameters. The majority of approaches focus on preparing selective A2A antagonists, but a few approaches to dual A2A/A1 antagonists will also be highlighted. The in vivo profiles of compounds will be highlighted and discussed to compare activities across different chemical series. A clinical report and update will be given on compounds that have entered clinical trials. PMID:22860156

  9. Narcoleptic orexin receptor knockout mice express enhanced cholinergic properties in laterodorsal tegmental neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kalogiannis, M.; Grupke, S.L.; Potter, P.E.; Edwards, J.G.; Chemelli, R.M.; Kisanuki, Y.Y.; Yanagisawa, M.; Leonard, C.S.

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacological studies of narcoleptic canines indicate that exaggerated pontine cholinergic transmission promotes cataplexy. Since disruption of orexin (hypocretin) signaling is a primary defect in narcolepsy with cataplexy, we investigated whether markers of cholinergic synaptic transmission might be altered in mice constitutively lacking orexin receptors (double receptor knockout; DKO). We found that choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) and the high-affinity choline transporter (CHT1) but not acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were significantly higher in samples from DKO compared to wild-type (WT) mice. This was region-specific since levels were elevated in samples from the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT) and the fifth motor nucleus (Mo5) but not in whole brainstem samples. Consistent with region-specific changes, we were unable to detect significant differences in Western blots for ChAT and CHT1 in isolates from brainstem, thalamus and cortex or in ChAT enzymatic activity in the pons. However, using ChAT immunocytochemistry, we found that while the number of cholinergic neurons in the LDT and Mo5 were not different, the intensity of somatic ChAT immunostaining was significantly greater in the LDT, but not Mo5, from DKOs compared to WTs. We also found that ChAT activity was significantly reduced in cortical samples from DKOs compared to WTs. Collectively, these findings suggest that the orexins can regulate neurotransmitter expression and that the constitutive absence of orexin signaling results in an up-regulation of the machinery necessary for cholinergic neurotransmission in a mesopontine population of neurons that have been associated with both normal REM sleep and cataplexy. PMID:20576035

  10. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor knockout mice show distinct synaptic plasticity impairments in the visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Origlia, Nicola; Kuczewski, Nicola; Aztiria, Eugenio; Gautam, Dinesh; Wess, Jürgen; Domenici, Luciano

    2006-01-01

    In the present report, we focused our attention on the role played by the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) in different forms of long-term synaptic plasticity. Specifically, we investigated long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) expression elicited by theta-burst stimulation (TBS) and low-frequency stimulation (LFS), respectively, in visual cortical slices obtained from different mAChR knockout (KO) mice. A normal LTP was evoked in M1/M3 double KO mice, while LTP was impaired in the M2/M4 double KO animals. On the other hand, LFS induced LTD in M2/M4 double KO mice, but failed to do so in M1/M3 KO mice. Interestingly, LFS produced LTP instead of LTD in M1/M3 KO mice. Analysis of mAChR single KO mice revealed that LTP was affected only by the simultaneous absence of both M2 and M4 receptors. A LFS-dependent shift from LTD to LTP was also observed in slices from M1 KO mice, while LTD was simply abolished in slices from M3 KO mice. Using pharmacological tools, we showed that LTP in control mice was blocked by pertussis toxin, an inhibitor of Gi/o proteins, but not by raising intracellular cAMP levels. In addition, the inhibition of phospholipase C by U73122 induced the same shift from LTD to LTP after LFS observed in M1 single KO and M1/M3 double KO mice. Our results indicate that different mAChR subtypes regulate different forms of long-term synaptic plasticity in the mouse visual cortex, activating specific G proteins and downstream intracellular mechanisms. PMID:17023506

  11. Oxytocin receptor knockout mice display deficits in the expression of autism-related behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Pobbe, Roger L.H.; Pearson, Brandon L.; Defensor, Erwin B.; Bolivar, Valerie J.; Young, W. Scott; Lee, Heon-Jin; Blanchard, D. Caroline; Blanchard, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    A wealth of studies has implicated oxytocin (Oxt) and its receptors (Oxtr) in the mediation of social behaviors and social memory in rodents. It has been suggested that failures in this system contribute to deficits in social interaction that characterize autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the current analyses, we investigated the expression of autism-related behaviors in mice that lack the ability to synthesize the oxytocin receptor itself, Oxtr knockout (KO) mice, as compared to their wild-type (WT) littermates. In the visible burrow system, Oxtr KO mice showed robust reductions in frontal approach, huddling, allo-grooming, and flight, with more time spent alone, and in self-grooming, as compared to WT. These results were corroborated in the three-chambered test: unlike WT, Oxtr KO mice failed to spend more time in the side of the test box containing an unfamiliar CD-1 mouse. In the social proximity test, Oxtr KO mice showed clear reductions in nose to nose and anogenital sniff behaviors oriented to an unfamiliar C57BL/6J (B6) mouse. In addition, our study revealed no differences between Oxtr WT and KO genotypes in the occurrence of motor and cognitive stereotyped behaviors. A significant genotype effect was found in the scent marking analysis, with Oxtr KO mice showing a decreased number of scent marks, as compared to WT. Overall, the present data indicate that the profile for Oxtr KO mice, including consistent social deficits, and reduced levels of communication, models multiple components of the ASD phenotype. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and Social Behavior. PMID:22100185

  12. NTS adenosine A2a receptors inhibit the cardiopulmonary chemoreflex control of regional sympathetic outputs via a GABAergic mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Minic, Zeljka; O'Leary, Donal S.

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine is a powerful central neuromodulator acting via opposing A1 (inhibitor) and A2a (activator) receptors. However, in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), both adenosine receptor subtypes attenuate cardiopulmonary chemoreflex (CCR) sympathoinhibition of renal, adrenal, and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity and attenuate reflex decreases in arterial pressure and heart rate. Adenosine A1 receptors inhibit glutamatergic transmission in the CCR pathway, whereas adenosine A2a receptors most likely facilitate release of an unknown inhibitory neurotransmitter, which, in turn, inhibits the CCR. We hypothesized that adenosine A2a receptors inhibit the CCR via facilitation of GABA release in the NTS. In urethane-chloralose-anesthetized rats (n = 51), we compared regional sympathetic responses evoked by stimulation of the CCR with right atrial injections of the 5-HT3 receptor agonist phenylbiguanide (1–8 μg/kg) before and after selective stimulation of NTS adenosine A2a receptors [microinjections into the NTS of CGS-21680 (20 pmol/50 nl)] preceded by blockade of GABAA or GABAB receptors in the NTS [bicuculline (10 pmol/100 nl) or SCH-50911 (1 nmol/100 nl)]. Blockade of GABAA receptors virtually abolished adenosine A2a receptor-mediated inhibition of the CCR. GABAB receptors had much weaker but significant effects. These effects were similar for the different sympathetic outputs. We conclude that stimulation of NTS adenosine A2a receptors inhibits CCR-evoked hemodynamic and regional sympathetic reflex responses via a GABA-ergic mechanism. PMID:25910812

  13. Decreased consumption of sweet fluids in mu opioid receptor knockout mice: a microstructural analysis of licking behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ostlund, Sean B.; Kosheleff, Alisa; Maidment, Nigel T.; Murphy, Niall P.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Rationale Evidence suggests that the palatability of food (i.e., the hedonic impact produced by its sensory features) can promote feeding and may underlie compulsive eating, leading to obesity. Pharmacological studies implicate opioid transmission in the hedonic control of feeding, though these studies often rely on agents lacking specificity for particular opioid receptors. Objectives Here, we investigated the role of mu opioid receptors (MORs) specifically in determining hedonic responses to palatable sweet stimuli. Methods In Experiment 1, licking microstructure when consuming sucrose solution (2 to 20 %) was compared in MOR knockout and wildtype mice as a function of sucrose concentration and level of food deprivation. In Experiment 2, a similar examination was conducted using the palatable but calorie-free stimulus sucralose (0.001 to 1%), allowing study of licking behavior independent of homeostatic variables. Results In Experiment 1, MOR knockout mice exhibited several alterations in sucrose licking. Although wildtype mice exhibited a two-fold increase in the burst length when food deprived, relative to the nondeprived test, this aspect of sucrose licking was generally insensitive to manipulations of food deprivation for MOR knockout mice. Furthermore, during concentration testing, their rate of sucrose licking was less than half that of wildtype mice. During sucralose testing (Experiment 2), MOR knockout mice licked at approximately half the wildtype rate, providing more direct evidence that MOR knockout mice were impaired in processing stimulus palatability. Conclusions These results suggest that transmission through MORs mediates hedonic responses to palatable stimuli, and therefore likely contributes to normal and pathological eating. PMID:23568577

  14. Sympathetic activity relates to adenosine A(2A) receptor gene variation in blood-injury phobia.

    PubMed

    Hohoff, C; Domschke, K; Schwarte, K; Spellmeyer, G; Vögele, C; Hetzel, G; Deckert, J; Gerlach, A L

    2009-06-01

    Variation in the candidate genes adenosine A(2A) receptor (A(2A)R), catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT), and norepinephrine transporter (NET) has been suggested to influence vulnerability to panic disorder. We therefore investigated patients with another anxiety disorder with an even higher heritability, the blood-injury phobia, for association of these variants and used sympathetic measures during venipuncture, which serve as a naturalistic trigger of anxiety and autonomic hyperarousal, as an intermediate phenotype of anxiety. Patients homozygous for the A(2A)R 1976T allele as compared to patients carrying at least one 1976C allele exhibited a significantly increased respiratory rate with a trend towards elevated measures of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and respiratory minute volume. None of the sympathetic measures were influenced by the COMT or NET polymorphisms.This study provides preliminary data suggesting an influence of the A(2A)R 1976C/T polymorphism on sympathetic psychophysiological indicators of anxiety-related arousal in blood-injury phobia and thereby further supports a role of the A(2A)R gene in the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders.

  15. Involvement of multiple taste receptors in umami taste: analysis of gustatory nerve responses in metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Yasumatsu, Keiko; Manabe, Tomohiro; Yoshida, Ryusuke; Iwatsuki, Ken; Uneyama, Hisayuki; Takahashi, Ichiro; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2015-02-15

    The taste receptor T1R1 + T1R3 heterodimer and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) may function as umami taste receptors. Here, we used mGluR4 knockout (mGluR4-KO) mice and examined the function of mGluR4 in peripheral taste responses of mice. The mGluR4-KO mice showed reduced responses to glutamate and L-AP4 (mGluR4 agonist) in the chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerves without affecting responses to other taste stimuli. Residual glutamate responses in mGluR4-KO mice were suppressed by gurmarin (T1R3 blocker) and AIDA (group I mGluR antagonist). The present study not only provided functional evidence for the involvement of mGluR4 in umami taste responses, but also suggested contributions of T1R1 + T1R3 and mGluR1 receptors in glutamate responses. Umami taste is elicited by L-glutamate and some other amino acids and is thought to be initiated by G-protein-coupled receptors. Proposed umami receptors include heterodimers of taste receptor type 1, members 1 and 3 (T1R1 + T1R3), and metabotropic glutamate receptors 1 and 4 (mGluR1 and mGluR4). Accumulated evidences support the involvement of T1R1 + T1R3 in umami responses in mice. However, little is known about the in vivo function of mGluR in umami taste. Here, we examined taste responses of the chorda tympani (CT) and the glossopharyngeal (GL) nerves in wild-type mice and mice genetically lacking mGluR4 (mGluR4-KO). Our results indicated that compared to wild-type mice, mGluR4-KO mice showed significantly smaller gustatory nerve responses to glutamate and L-(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (an agonist for group III mGluR) in both the CT and GL nerves without affecting responses to other taste stimuli. Residual glutamate responses in mGluR4-KO mice were not affected by (RS)-alpha-cyclopropyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine (an antagonist for group III mGluR), but were suppressed by gurmarin (a T1R3 blocker) in the CT and (RS)-1-aminoindan-1,5-dicarboxylic acid (an antagonist for group I mGluR) in the CT and GL nerve

  16. Effects of muscarinic receptor antagonists on cocaine discrimination in wild-type mice and in muscarinic receptor M1, M2, and M4 receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Lauren; Thomsen, Morgane

    2017-06-30

    Muscarinic M 1 /M 4 receptor stimulation can reduce abuse-related effects of cocaine and may represent avenues for treating cocaine addiction. Muscarinic antagonists can mimic and enhance effects of cocaine, including discriminative stimulus (S D ) effects, but the receptor subtypes mediating those effects are not known. A better understanding of the complex cocaine/muscarinic interactions is needed to evaluate and develop potential muscarinic-based medications. Here, knockout mice lacking M 1 , M 2 , or M 4 receptors (M 1 -/- , M 2 -/- , M 4 -/- ), as well as control wild-type mice and outbred Swiss-Webster mice, were trained to discriminate 10mg/kg cocaine from saline. Muscarinic receptor antagonists with no subtype selectivity (scopolamine), or preferential affinity at the M 1 , M 2 , or M 4 subtype (telenzepine, trihexyphenidyl; methoctramine, AQ-RA 741; tropicamide) were tested alone and in combination with cocaine. In intact animals, antagonists with high affinity at M 1 /M 4 receptors partially substituted for cocaine and increased the S D effect of cocaine, while M 2 -preferring antagonists did not substitute, and reduced the S D effect of cocaine. The cocaine-like effects of scopolamine were absent in M 1 -/- mice. The cocaine S D attenuating effects of methoctramine were absent in M 2 -/- mice and almost absent in M 1 -/- mice. The findings indicate that the cocaine-like S D effects of muscarinic antagonists are primarily mediated through M 1 receptors, with a minor contribution of M 4 receptors. The data also support our previous findings that stimulation of M 1 receptors and M 4 receptors can each attenuate the S D effect of cocaine, and show that this can also be achieved by blocking M 2 autoreceptors, likely via increased acetylcholine release. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Absence of the Adenosine A2A Receptor Confers Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension and Increased Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, M.H.; Gong, Y.S.; Su, M.S.; Dai, Z.Y.; Dai, S.S.; Bao, S.Z.; Li, N.; Zheng, R.Y.; He, J.C.; Chen, J.F.; Wang, X.T.

    2011-01-01

    Background Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by sustained elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance resulting from endothelial and smooth muscle cell dysfunction and collagen deposition in pulmonary vascular walls. In this study, we investigated the role of the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) in the development of PAH by determining the effect of genetic inactivation of A2ARs on pulmonary vascular remodeling in mice. Methods and Results We characterized hemodynamic, histological and ultrastructural changes in pulmonary vascular remodeling in A2AR knockout (KO) mice compared with their wild-type (WT) littermates after exposure to normoxia and hypoxic conditions. After exposure to normoxia, compared to WT mice, A2AR KO mice displayed: (1) increased right ventricular systolic pressures and an elevated ratio of the right ventricle over left ventricle plus septum (Fulton index), (2) increased wall area and thickness as well as enhanced smooth muscle actin immunoreactivity in pulmonary resistance vessels, (3) increased proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells in pulmonary resistance vessels and (4) increased smooth muscle cells hypertrophy and collagen deposition in the adventitia of pulmonary arteriole walls as revealed by electron microscope. By contrast, histological analysis revealed no features of hypertensive nephropathy in A2AR KO mice and there was no significant difference in systemic blood pressure, and left ventricular masses among the 3 genotypes. Furthermore, following chronic exposure to hypoxia, A2AR KO mice exhibited exacerbated elevation in right ventricular systolic pressure, hypertrophy of pulmonary resistance vessels and increased cell proliferation in pulmonary resistance vessels, compared to WT littermates. Thus, genetic inactivation of A2ARs selectively produced PAH and associated increased smooth muscle proliferation and collagen deposition. Conclusions Extracellular adenosine acting at A2ARs represents an important

  18. Genetic Deletion of the Adenosine A2A Receptor Confers Postnatal Development of Relative Myopia in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiangtian; Huang, Qinzhu; An, Jianhong; Lu, Runxia; Qin, Xiaoyi; Jiang, Liqin; Li, Yuan; Wang, Jianhua; Chen, Jiangfan; Qu, Jia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To critically evaluate whether the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) plays a role in postnatal refractive development in mice. Methods. Custom-built biometric systems specifically designed for mice were used to assess the development of relative myopia by examining refraction and biometrics in A2AR knockout (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) littermates between postnatal days (P)28 and P56. Ocular dimensions were measured by customized optical coherence tomography (OCT), refractive state by eccentric infrared photorefraction (EIR), and corneal radius of curvature by modified keratometry. Scleral collagen diameter and density were examined by electron microscopy on P35. The effect of A2AR activation on collagen mRNA expression and on soluble collagen production was examined in cultured human scleral fibroblasts by real-time RT-PCR and a collagen assay kit. Results. Compared with WT littermates, the A2AR KO mice displayed relative myopia (average difference, 5.1 D between P28 and P35) and associated increases in VC depth and axial length from P28 to P56. Furthermore, the myopic shift in A2AR KO mice was associated with ultrastructural changes in the sclera: Electron microscopy revealed denser collagen fibrils with reduced diameter in A2AR KO compared with WT. Last, A2AR activation induced expression of mRNAs for collagens I, III, and V and increased production of soluble collagen in cultured human scleral fibroblasts. Conclusions. Genetic deletion of the A2AR promotes development of relative myopia with increased axial length and altered scleral collagen fiber structure during postnatal development in mice. Thus, the A2AR may be important in normal refractive development. PMID:20484596

  19. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of adipose tissue plasticity in muscle insulin receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Cariou, Bertrand; Postic, Catherine; Boudou, Philippe; Burcelin, Rémy; Kahn, C Ronald; Girard, Jean; Burnol, Anne-Françoise; Mauvais-Jarvis, Franck

    2004-04-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) plays a critical role in the development of insulin resistance via secretion of free fatty acids (FFA) and adipocytokines. Muscle-specific insulin receptor knockout (MIRKO) mice do not develop insulin resistance or diabetes under physiological conditions despite a marked increase in adiposity and plasma FFA. On the contrary, WAT of MIRKO is sensitized to insulin action during a euglycemic clamp, and WAT glucose utilization is dramatically increased. To get insight into the potential antidiabetic role of MIRKO adiposity, we have studied insulin action in WAT during a euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic clamp, and we have characterized the morphology and biology of WAT. During the clamp, there is no alteration in the expression or activation in the insulin signaling molecules involved in glucose transport through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt and CAP/Cbl pathways in WAT from MIRKO. The 53% increase in WAT mass results from a 48% increase in adipocyte number (P < 0.05) without alteration in cell size and contemporary to a 300% increase in mRNA levels of the adipogenic transcription factor CCAAT enhancer binding protein-alpha (C/EBP-alpha) (P < 0.05). There is a 39.5% increase in serum adiponectin (P < 0.01) without modification in serum leptin, resistin, and TNF-alpha. In conclusion, the MIRKO mouse displays muscle insulin resistance, visceral obesity, and dyslipidemia but does not develop hyperinsulinemia or diabetes. There is an accelerated differentiation of small insulin sensitive adipocytes, an increased secretion of the insulin sensitizer adiponectin, and maintenance of leptin sensitivity. The MIRKO mouse confirms the importance of WAT plasticity in the maintenance of whole body insulin sensitivity and represents an interesting model to search for new secreted molecules that positively alter adipose tissue biology.

  20. Increased hippocampal CREB phosphorylation in dopamine D3 receptor knockout mice following passive avoidance conditioning.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Agata Grazia; Scuderi, Soraya; Leggio, Gian Marco; Castorina, Alessandro; Drago, Filippo; D'Agata, Velia

    2013-12-01

    Dopamine D3 receptors (D3Rs) are implicated in synaptic plasticity and memory processes. Previously we have shown that D3Rs mediate inhibitory effects on learning, since D3R knockout (D 3 (-/-) ) mice display enhanced performance in the passive avoidance task (PA). Formation of new memories is known to require de novo synthesis of proteins related to synaptic function through the activation of signaling pathways including the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and activation of the nuclear transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). However, there are no clear indications regarding the specific involvement of D3Rs in the activation of these signaling cascades after acquisition of PA. Therefore, in this study we assessed whether phosphorylation levels of several MAPKs, Akt and CREB were differentially affected by PA in both wild-type (WT) and D 3 (-/-) mice hippocampi. Animals were divided in Naïve, unconditioned stimulus trained, conditioned stimulus trained and conditioned animals. Phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2), c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38, as well as of Akt and CREB were determined. Acquisition of PA significantly increased pCREB levels both in WT and D 3 (-/-) mice. The extent of PA-driven increase in pCREB levels was significantly higher in mice lacking D3Rs. Similarly, pERK 1/2 was further augmented in trained D 3 (-/-) mice as compared to trained WTs, whereas JNK and p38 phosphorylation was not affected neither by PA nor by genetic background. Finally, Akt activation was observed in D 3 (-/-) mice, but not in response to PA. In conclusion, these data supports the notion that D3Rs might modulate CREB phosphorylation after acquisition of PA, probably via activation of ERK signaling.

  1. Impact of Food Restriction and Cocaine on Locomotion in Ghrelin- and Ghrelin-Receptor Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Clifford, P. Shane; Zeckler, Rosie Albarran; Buckman, Sam; Thompson, Jeff; Hart, Nigel; Wellman, Paul J.; Smith, Roy G.

    2012-01-01

    Food restriction (FR) augments the behavioral and reinforcing effects of psychomotor stimulants such as cocaine or amphetamine; effects that may be related to the capacity of FR to increase plasma levels of ghrelin (GHR), a 28-amino acid orexigenenic peptide linked to activation of brain dopamine systems. The present study used wild-type (WT) mice or mutant mice sustaining knockout of either GHR (GHR(-/-)) or of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R(-/-)) and subjected to FR or not to evaluate the role of GHR and GHS-R in cocaine-stimulated locomotion. WT, GHR(-/-), and GHS-R(-/-) mice were either restricted to 60% of baseline caloric intake or allowed to free-feed (FF). Mice were treated with 0, 1.25, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg cocaine on separate test days (in random dose order) and forward locomotion was recorded on each drug day for 45 min after drug dosing. Food (and water) was available immediately after (but not during) each activity test. For FF mice, there was no interaction between cocaine and GHR status on locomotion. FR-WT mice treated with saline exhibited significant increases in anticipatory locomotion (relative to FF-WT mice), whereas FR-GHS-R(-/-) mice did not. Cocaine significantly increased locomotion in FR-GHR(-/-) and FR-GHS-R(-/-) mice to the levels noted in FR-WT mice. These results suggest that GHS-R activity, but not GHR activity, is required for FR to augment food-associated anticipatory locomotion, but do not support the contention that GHR pathways are required for the capacity of FR to augment the acute effect of cocaine on locomotion. PMID:21054685

  2. Key Modulatory Role of Presynaptic Adenosine A2A Receptors in Cortical Neurotransmission to the Striatal Direct Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Quiroz, César; Luján, Rafael; Uchigashima, Motokazu; Simoes, Ana Patrícia; Lerner, Talia N.; Borycz, Janusz; Kachroo, Anil; Canas, Paula M.; Orru, Marco; Schwarzschild, Michael A.; Rosin, Diane L.; Kreitzer, Anatol C.; Cunha, Rodrigo A.; Watanabe, Masahiko; Ferré, Sergi

    2009-01-01

    Basal ganglia processing results from a balanced activation of direct and indirect striatal efferent pathways, which are controlled by dopamine D1 and D2 receptors, respectively. Adenosine A2A receptors are considered novel antiparkinsonian targets, based on their selective postsynaptic localization in the indirect pathway, where they modulate D2 receptor function. The present study provides evidence for the existence of an additional, functionally significant, segregation of A2A receptors at the presynaptic level. Using integrated anatomical, electrophysiological, and biochemical approaches, we demonstrate that presynaptic A2A receptors are preferentially localized in cortical glutamatergic terminals that contact striatal neurons of the direct pathway, where they exert a selective modulation of corticostriatal neurotransmission. Presynaptic striatal A2A receptors could provide a new target for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:19936569

  3. Key modulatory role of presynaptic adenosine A2A receptors in cortical neurotransmission to the striatal direct pathway.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, César; Luján, Rafael; Uchigashima, Motokazu; Simoes, Ana Patrícia; Lerner, Talia N; Borycz, Janusz; Kachroo, Anil; Canas, Paula M; Orru, Marco; Schwarzschild, Michael A; Rosin, Diane L; Kreitzer, Anatol C; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Watanabe, Masahiko; Ferré, Sergi

    2009-11-18

    Basal ganglia processing results from a balanced activation of direct and indirect striatal efferent pathways, which are controlled by dopamine D1 and D2 receptors, respectively. Adenosine A2A receptors are considered novel antiparkinsonian targets, based on their selective postsynaptic localization in the indirect pathway, where they modulate D2 receptor function. The present study provides evidence for the existence of an additional, functionally significant, segregation of A2A receptors at the presynaptic level. Using integrated anatomical, electrophysiological, and biochemical approaches, we demonstrate that presynaptic A2A receptors are preferentially localized in cortical glutamatergic terminals that contact striatal neurons of the direct pathway, where they exert a selective modulation of corticostriatal neurotransmission. Presynaptic striatal A2A receptors could provide a new target for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  4. The plant hormone zeatin riboside inhibits T lymphocyte activity via adenosine A2A receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Lappas, Courtney M

    2015-01-01

    Cytokinins are plant hormones that play an integral role in multiple aspects of plant growth and development. The biological functions of cytokinins in mammalian systems are, however, largely uncharacterized. The naturally occurring cytokinin zeatin riboside has recently been demonstrated to activate the mammalian adenosine A(2A) receptor, which is broadly expressed by various cell types including immune system cells, with the activation of the A(2A)R playing a role in the regulation of cells involved in both innate and adaptive immunity. We show for the first time that zeatin riboside modulates mammalian immune system activity via an A(2A)R-dependent mechanism. Specifically, zeatin riboside treatment induces the production of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) by T lymphocytes and inhibits the production by CD3(+)CD4(+) T cells of interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-2, tumor-necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-4 and IL-13, and the production by CD3(+)CD8(+) T cells of IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF-α. Additionally, the upregulation of CD25, CD69 and CD40L by activated T lymphocytes is modulated by zeatin riboside. Zeatin riboside treatment also potently inhibits thioglycollate-induced peritoneal leukocytosis. The immunomodulatory activities of zeatin riboside are blocked by co-treatment with the selective A(2A)R antagonist ZM241385. These data suggest that zeatin riboside possesses therapeutic potential as a mammalian immunomodulatory agent.

  5. Inhibition of oxytocin receptor and estrogen receptor-alpha expression, but not relaxin receptors (LGR7), in the myometrium of late pregnant relaxin gene knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Siebel, Andrew L; Gehring, Helen M; Reytomas, Irna Grace T; Parry, Laura J

    2003-10-01

    This study used relaxin (RLX) gene knockout mice (Rlx-/-) to investigate the effects of RLX on myometrial oxytocin receptor (OTR) and estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha gene expression in late gestation. We also characterized the temporal expression of the RLX receptor (LGR7) and demonstrated gene transcripts in the myometrium of Rlx+/+ and Rlx-/- mice. There was a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in myometrial LGR7 gene expression on d 17.5 and 18.5 post coitum (pc) compared with earlier stages of gestation, but no differences between Rlx+/+ and Rlx-/- mice. Myometrial OTR mRNA levels increased at the end of gestation in Rlx+/+ but not Rlx-/- mice. ERalpha gene expression was up-regulated on d 14.5 pc in Rlx+/+ mice, with mRNA levels remaining high throughout late gestation. In contrast, ERalpha mRNA levels were significantly lower in Rlx-/- mice on d 14.5 and 18.5 pc. These data show that the increases in myometrial OTR and ERalpha expression in late pregnant Rlx+/+ mice were attenuated in Rlx-/- mice. The effects of RLX on OTRs are probably mediated via activation of ERalpha. Finally, RLX receptor expression in the myometrium of Rlx-/- mice did not differ from wild-type mice, implying that RLX does not influence expression of its receptor.

  6. Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 promotes endothelial dysfunction in LDL receptor knockout background.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Anja; Brunssen, Coy; Poitz, David M; Langbein, Heike; Strasser, Ruth H; Henle, Thomas; Ravens, Ursula; Morawietz, Henning

    2017-11-01

    Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) is the major receptor for oxidized LDL in endothelial cells. LOX-1 is highly expressed in atherosclerotic plaques. The impact of LOX-1 on development of endothelial dysfunction in large vessels in absence or presence of atherosclerosis-prone conditions has not been studied to date. Mice with endothelial cell-specific LOX-1 overexpression (bLOX-1tg) were analyzed. Wild-type (WT) mice served as controls. In addition, bLOX-1tg mice were crossed with LDL receptor knockout (Ldlr -/- ) mice. All mice were fed a western-type diet (WD) or control diet (CD) for 20 weeks. Afterwards, endothelial function was analyzed ex vivo in thoracic aortas using a Mulvany myograph. WD induced hypertriglyceridemia (bLOX-1tg: 1.6-fold; WT: 1.4-fold) and hypercholesterolemia (P < 0.0001) in bLOX-1tg and WT mice without HDL-elevation in bLOX-1tg mice. Gonadal fat pad weight was 1.7 and 1.2-fold increased on CD and WD in bLOX-1tg mice compared to WT. LOX-1 overexpression impaired endothelial function by 15-16% (P < 0.05) on CD and WD. Crossing bLOX-1tg mice into Ldlr -/- background strongly elevated total (∼6-fold) and LDL-cholesterol (∼9-fold) compared to WT and bLOX-1tg mice on WD. Endothelial function in response to WD was impaired in bLOX-1tg/Ldlr -/- mice (Eff max : 56.7 ± 23.0%) compared to WT (Eff max : 88.2 ± 15.8%, P < 0.001), bLOX-1tg (Eff max : 76.7 ± 12.9%, P < 0.05) and Ldlr -/- mice (Eff max : 70.1 ± 13.1%, P < 0.05). No differences between WT, bLOX-1tg and Ldlr -/- mice were detectable when comparing all genotypes. Endothelial LOX-1 overexpression in an atherosclerosis-prone background impairs endothelial function, proving its importance in the development of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Pharmacological evidence for different populations of postsynaptic adenosine A2A receptors in the rat striatum

    PubMed Central

    Orrú, Marco; Quiroz, César; Guitart, Xavier; Ferré, Sergi

    2011-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) are highly concentrated in the striatum. Two pharmacological different functional populations of A2ARs have been recently described based on their different affinities for the A2AR antagonist SCH-442416. This compound has high affinity for A2ARs not forming heteromers or forming heteromers with adenosine A1 receptors (A1Rs) while showing very low affinity for A2ARs forming heteromers with dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs). It has been widely described that striatal A1R-A2AR heteromers are preferentially localized presynaptically in the glutamatergic terminals that contact GABAergic dynorphinergic neurons, and that A2AR-D2R heteromers are localized postsynaptically in GABAergic enkephalinergic neurons. In the present study we provide evidence suggesting that SCH-442416 also targets postsynaptic A2AR not forming heteromers with D2R, which are involved in the motor depressant effects induced by D2R antagonists. SCH-442416 counteracted motor depression in rats induced by the D2R antagonist raclopride at a dose that did not produce motor activation or that blocked motor depression induced by an A2AR agonist. Furthermore, we re-evaluated the recently suggested key role of cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1Rs) in the effects of A2AR antagonists acting at postsynaptic A2ARs. By recording locomotor activity and monitoring striatal glutamate release induced by cortical electrical stimulation in rats after administration of A2AR and CB1R antagonists, we did not find evidence for any significant role of endocannabinoids in the post- or presynaptic effects of A2AR antagonists. The present results further suggest the existence of at least two functionally and pharmacologically different populations of striatal postsynaptic A2ARs. PMID:21752341

  8. Functional consequences of hippocampal neuronal ectopia in the apolipoprotein E receptor-2 knockout mouse

    PubMed Central

    Fish, Kenneth. N.; Krucker, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the impact ectopically located neurons have on the functional connectivity of local circuits. The ApoER2 knockout mouse has subtle cytoarchitectural disruptions, altered prepulse inhibition, and memory abnormalities. We evaluated this mouse mutant as a model to study the role ectopic neurons play in the manifestation of symptoms associated with brain diseases. We found that ectopic CA1 pyramidal and inhibitory neurons in the ApoER2 knockout hippocampus are organized into two distinct stratum pyramidale layers. In vitro analyses found that ApoER2 is not required for neurons to reach maturity in regards to dendritic arborization and synaptic structure density, and electrophysiological testing determined that neurons in both strata pyramidale are integrated into the hippocampal network. However, the presence of these two layers alters the spatiotemporal pattern of hippocampal activity, which may explain why ApoER2 knockout mice have selective cognitive dysfunctions that are revealed only under challenging conditions. PMID:18778775

  9. Role of Microglia Adenosine A2A Receptors in Retinal and Brain Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Ana R.; Baptista, Filipa I.; Santos, Paulo F.; Cristóvão, Gonçalo; Ambrósio, António F.; Cunha, Rodrigo A.; Gomes, Catarina A.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroinflammation mediated by microglial cells in the brain has been commonly associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Whether this microglia-mediated neuroinflammation is cause or consequence of neurodegeneration is still a matter of controversy. However, it is unequivocal that chronic neuroinflammation plays a role in disease progression and halting that process represents a potential therapeutic strategy. The neuromodulator adenosine emerges as a promising targeting candidate based on its ability to regulate microglial proliferation, chemotaxis, and reactivity through the activation of its G protein coupled A2A receptor (A2AR). This is in striking agreement with the ability of A2AR blockade to control several brain diseases. Retinal degenerative diseases have been also associated with microglia-mediated neuroinflammation, but the role of A2AR has been scarcely explored. This review aims to compare inflammatory features of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases with glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy, discussing the therapeutic potential of A2AR in these degenerative conditions. PMID:25132733

  10. Adenosine A2A Receptor Deletion Blocks the Beneficial Effects of Lactobacillus reuteri in Regulatory T-Deficient Scurfy Mice

    PubMed Central

    He, Baokun; Hoang, Thomas K.; Tran, Dat Q.; Rhoads, Jon Marc; Liu, Yuying

    2017-01-01

    The lack of a functional Foxp3 transcription factor and regulatory T (Treg) cells causes lethal, CD4+ T cell-driven autoimmune diseases in scurfy (SF) mice and humans. Recent studies have shown that adenosine A2A receptor activation limits inflammation and tissue damage, thereby playing an anti-inflammatory role. However, the role of the adenosine A2A receptor in the development of disease in SF mice remains unclear. Using a genetic approach, we found that adenosine A2A receptor deletion in SF mice (SF⋅A2A-/-) does not affect early life events, the development of a lymphoproliferative disorder, or hyper-production of pro-inflammatory cytokines seen in the Treg-deficiency state. As shown previously, Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 treatment prolonged survival and reduced multiorgan inflammation in SF mice. In marked contrast, A2A receptor deletion completely blocked these beneficial effects of L. reuteri in SF mice. Altogether, these results suggest that although absence of the adenosine A2A receptor does not affect the development of disease in SF mice, it plays a critical role in the immunomodulation by L. reuteri in Treg-deficiency disease. The adenosine A2A receptor and its activation may have a role in treating other Treg dysfunction-mediated autoimmune diseases. PMID:29270168

  11. Ligand-dependent cholesterol interactions with the human A2A adenosine receptor

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Young; Patel, Rohan; Lyman, Edward

    2013-01-01

    We present nearly ten microseconds of all-atom simulation data of a G-protein coupled receptor, the human A2A adenosine receptor, bound to four different ligands. Our focus is on binding of cholesterol to the “cholesterol consensus motif,” a cluster of five amino acids on the second and fourth transmembrane helices, which interact with two cholesterols in the intracellular leaflet of the bilayer. We find evidence for a ligand-specific interaction between the CCM and cholesterol, mediated by the rotameric dynamics and configuration of Trp129. Binding of the synthetic agonist UK432097 disrupts hydrogen bonding between Trp129 and Ser47, which activates the rotameric dynamics of Trp129 and disrupts the interaction with one of the two cholesterols. We also investigate the effect of four thermostabilizing mutations, three of which are located on helix two. The conformational stability of helix two has been proposed to be sensitive to interaction with cholesterol in the CCM, suggesting a mechanism for the thermostabilization. However, our data are instead suggestive of a force-field dependent “straightening” of helix two, and therefore offer no basis for rationalizing the effect of the quadruple mutant. PMID:23454349

  12. Ligand-Dependent Activation and Deactivation of the Human Adenosine A2A Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianing; Jonsson, Amanda L.; Beuming, Thijs; Shelley, John C.; Voth, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are membrane proteins with critical functions in cellular signal transduction, representing a primary class of drug targets. Acting by direct binding, many drugs modulate GPCR activity and influence the signaling pathways associated with numerous diseases. However, complete details of ligand-dependent GPCR activation/deactivation are difficult to obtain from experiments. Therefore, it remains unclear how ligands modulate a GPCR’s activity. To elucidate the ligand-dependent activation/deactivation mechanism of the human adenosine A2A receptor (AA2AR), a member of the class A GPCRs, we performed large-scale unbiased molecular dynamics and metadynamics simulations of the receptor embedded in a membrane. At the atomic level, we have observed distinct structural states that resemble the active and inactive states. In particular we noted key structural elements changing in a highly concerted fashion during the conformational transitions, including six conformational states of a tryptophan (Trp2466.48). Our findings agree with a previously proposed view, that during activation, this tryptophan residue undergoes a rotameric transition that may be coupled to a series of coherent conformational changes, resulting in the opening of the G protein-binding site. Further, metadynamics simulations provide quantitative evidence for this mechanism, suggesting how ligand binding shifts the equilibrium between the active and inactive states. Our analysis also proposes that a few specific residues are associated with agonism/antagonism, affinity and selectivity, and suggests that the ligand-binding pocket can be thought of as having three distinct regions, providing dynamic features for structure-based design. Additional simulations with AA2AR bound to a novel ligand are consistent with our proposed mechanism. Generally, our study provides insights into the ligand-dependent AA2AR activation/deactivation in addition to what has been found in crystal

  13. Allosteric mechanisms within the adenosine A2A-dopamine D2 receptor heterotetramer

    PubMed Central

    Ferré, Sergi; Bonaventura, Jordi; Tomasi, Dardo; Navarro, Gemma; Moreno, Estefanía; Cortés, Antonio; Lluís, Carme; Casadó, Vicent; Volkow, Nora D.

    2017-01-01

    The structure constituted by a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) homodimer and a G protein provides a main functional unit and oligomeric entities can be viewed as multiples of dimers. For GPCR heteromers, experimental evidence supports a tetrameric structure, comprised of two different homodimers, each able to signal with its preferred G protein. GPCR homomers and heteromers can act as the conduit of allosteric interactions between orthosteric ligands. The well-known agonist/agonist allosteric interaction in the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) heteromer, by which A2AR agonists decrease the affinity of D2R agonists, gave the first rationale for the use of A2AR antagonists in Parkinson’s disease. We review new pharmacological findings that can be explained in the frame of a tetrameric structure of the A2AR-D2R heteromer: first, ligand-independent allosteric modulations by the D2R that result in changes of the binding properties of A2AR ligands; second, differential modulation of the intrinsic efficacy of D2R ligands for G protein-dependent and independent signaling; third, the canonical antagonistic Gs-Gi interaction within the frame of the heteromer; and fourth, the ability of A2AR antagonists, including caffeine, to also exert the same allosteric modulations of D2R ligands than A2AR agonists, while A2AR agonists and antagonists counteract each other’s effects. These findings can have important clinical implications when evaluating the use of A2AR antagonists. They also call for the need of monitoring caffeine intake when evaluating the effect of D2R ligands, when used as therapeutic agents in neuropsychiatric disorders or as probes in imaging studies. PMID:26051403

  14. Type I interferon receptor knockout mice as models for infection of highly pathogenic viruses with outbreak potential

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Gary; Qiu, Xiang-Guo

    2018-01-01

    Due to their inability to generate a complete immune response, mice knockout for type I interferon (IFN) receptors (Ifnar–/–) are more susceptible to viral infections, and are thus commonly used for pathogenesis studies. This mouse model has been used to study many diseases caused by highly pathogenic viruses from many families, including the Flaviviridae, Filoviridae, Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Henipaviridae, and Togaviridae. In this review, we summarize the findings from these animal studies, and discuss the pros and cons of using this model versus other known methods for studying pathogenesis in animals. PMID:29511140

  15. Characterization of the retina in the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor knockout mouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Marci L.

    Acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) are involved in visual processing and are expressed by inner retinal neurons in all species studied to date (Keyser et al., 2000; Dmitrieva et al., 2007; Liu et al., 2009), but their distribution in the mouse retina remains unknown. Reductions in alpha7 nicotinic AChRs (nAChRs) are thought to contribute to memory and visual deficits observed in Alzheimer's and schizophrenia (Coyle et al., 1983; Nordberg et al., 1999; Leonard et al., 2006). However, the alpha7 nAChR knockout (KO) mouse has a mild phenotype (Paylor et al., 1998; Fernandes et al., 2006; Young et al., 2007; Origlia et al., 2012). The purpose of this study was to determine the expression of AChRs in wildtype (WT) mouse retina and to assess whether up-regulation of other AChRs in the alpha7 nAChR KO retina may explain the minimal deficits described in the KO mouse. Reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) showed that mRNA transcripts for alpha2-7, alpha 9, alpha10, beta2-4 nAChR subunits and m1-m5 muscarinic AChR (mAChR) subtypes were present in WT murine retina. Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of alpha3-5, alpha9, and m1-m5 AChR proteins and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated nAChR and mAChR proteins expressed by subsets of bipolar, amacrine and ganglion cells. This is the first reported expression of alpha9 and alpha10 nAChR transcripts and alpha9 nAChR proteins in the retina of any species. Quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) showed changes in AChR transcript expression in the alpha7 nAChR KO mouse retina relative to WT. Within whole retina alpha2, alpha9, alpha10, beta4, m1 and m4 AChR transcripts were up-regulated, while alpha5 nAChR transcripts were down-regulated. However, cell populations showed subtle differences; m4 mAChR transcripts were up-regulated in the ganglion cell layer and outer portion of the inner nuclear layer (oINL),while beta4 nAChR transcript up-regulation was limited to the oINL. Surprisingly, alpha2, alpha9, beta4, m2 and m4 transcripts were

  16. A role for a specific cholesterol interaction in stabilizing the Apo configuration of the human A(2A) adenosine receptor.

    PubMed

    Lyman, Edward; Higgs, Chris; Kim, Byungchan; Lupyan, Dmitry; Shelley, John C; Farid, Ramy; Voth, Gregory A

    2009-12-09

    The function of G-protein-coupled receptors is tightly modulated by the lipid environment. Long-timescale molecular dynamics simulations (totaling approximately 3 mus) of the A(2A) receptor in cholesterol-free bilayers, with and without the antagonist ZM241385 bound, demonstrate the instability of helix II in the apo receptor in cholesterol-poor membrane regions. We directly observe that the effect of cholesterol binding is to stabilize helix II against a buckling-type deformation, perhaps rationalizing the observation that the A(2A) receptor couples to G protein only in the presence of cholesterol (Zezula and Freissmuth, 2008). The results suggest a mechanism by which the A(2A) receptor may function as a coincidence detector, activating only in the presence of both cholesterol and agonist. We also observed a previously hypothesized conformation of the tryptophan "rotameric switch" on helix VI in which a phenylalanine on helix V positions the tryptophan out of the ligand binding pocket.

  17. GDNF control of the glutamatergic cortico-striatal pathway requires tonic activation of adenosine A2A Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Catarina A.R.V.; Simões, Patrícia F.; Canas, Paula M.; Quiroz, César; Sebastião, Ana M.; Ferré, Sergi; Cunha, Rodrigo A.; Ribeiro, Joaquim A.

    2009-01-01

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) affords neuroprotection in Parkinson’s disease in accordance with its ability to bolster nigrostriatal innervation. We previously found that GDNF facilitates dopamine release in a manner dependent on adenosine A2A receptor activation. Since motor dysfunction also involves modifications of striatal glutamatergic innervation, we now tested if GDNF and its receptor system, Ret (rearranged during transfection) and GFRα1 (GDNF family receptor alpha 1) controlled the cortico-striatal glutamatergic pathway in an A2A receptor-dependent manner. GDNF (10 ng/ml) enhanced (by ≈13%) glutamate release from rat striatal nerve endings, an effect potentiated (up to ≈ 30%) by the A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680 (10 nM) and prevented by the A2A receptor antagonist, SCH 58261 (50 nM). Triple immunocytochemical studies revealed that Ret and GFRα1 were located in 50% of rat striatal glutamatergic terminals (immunopositive for vesicular glutamate transporters-1/2), where they were found to be co-located with A2A receptors. Activation of the glutamatergic system upon in vivo electrical stimulation of the rat cortico-striatal input induced striatal Ret phosphoprylation that was prevented by pre-treatment with the A2A receptor antagonist, MSX-3 (3 mg/kg). The results provide the first functional and morphological evidence that GDNF controls cortico-striatal glutamatergic pathways in a manner largely dependent on the co-activation of adenosine A2A receptors. PMID:19141075

  18. Cannabinoid 1 receptor knockout mice display cold allodynia, but enhanced recovery from spared-nerve injury-induced mechanical hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Sideris, Alexandra; Piskoun, Boris; Russo, Lori; Norcini, Monica; Blanck, Thomas; Recio-Pinto, Esperanza

    2016-01-01

    The function of the Cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) in the development of neuropathic pain is not clear. Mounting evidence suggest that CB1R expression and activation may contribute to pain. Cannabinoid 1 receptor knockout mice (CB1R-/-) generated on a C57Bl/6 background exhibit hypoalgesia in the hotplate assay and formalin test. These findings suggest that Cannabinoid 1 receptor expression mediates the responses to at least some types of painful stimuli. By using this mouse line, we sought to determine if the lack of Cannabinoid 1 receptor unveils a general hypoalgesic phenotype, including protection against the development of neuropathic pain. The acetone test was used to measure cold sensitivity, the electronic von Frey was used to measure mechanical thresholds before and after spared-nerve injury, and analysis of footprint patterns was conducted to determine if motor function is differentially affected after nerve-injury in mice with varying levels of Cannabinoid 1 receptor. At baseline, CB1R-/- mice were hypersensitive in the acetone test, and this phenotype was maintained after spared-nerve injury. Using calcium imaging of lumbar dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cultures, a higher percentage of neurons isolated from CB1R-/- mice were menthol sensitive relative to DRG isolated from wild-type (CB1R+/+) mice. Baseline mechanical thresholds did not differ among genotypes, and mechanical hypersensitivity developed similarly in the first two weeks following spared-nerve injury (SNI). At two weeks post-SNI, CB1R-/- mice recovered significantly from mechanical hypersensitivity, while the CB1R+/+ mice did not. Heterozygous knockouts (CB1R+/-) transiently developed cold allodynia only after injury, but recovered mechanical thresholds to a similar extent as the CB1R-/- mice. Sciatic functional indices, which reflect overall nerve health, and alternation coefficients, which indicate uniformity of strides, were not significantly different among genotypes. Cold allodynia and

  19. Mas receptor deficiency is associated with worsening of lipid profile and severe hepatic steatosis in ApoE-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Silva, Analina R; Aguilar, Edenil C; Alvarez-Leite, Jacqueline I; da Silva, Rafaela F; Arantes, Rosa M E; Bader, Michael; Alenina, Natalia; Pelli, Graziano; Lenglet, Sébastien; Galan, Katia; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Mach, François; Santos, Sérgio H S; Santos, Robson A S

    2013-12-01

    The classical renin-angiotensin system pathway has been recently updated with the identification of additional molecules [such as angiotensin converting enzyme 2, ANG-(1-7), and Mas receptor] that might improve some pathophysiological processes in chronic inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we focused on the potential protective role of Mas receptor activation on mouse lipid profile, liver steatosis, and atherogenesis. Mas/apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-double-knockout (DKO) mice (based on C57BL/6 strain of 20 wk of age) were fed under normal diet and compared with aged-matched Mas and ApoE-single-knockout (KO), as well as wild-type mice. Mas/ApoE double deficiency was associated with increased serum levels of atherogenic fractions of cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting glucose compared with wild-type or single KO. Serum levels of HDL or leptin in DKO were lower than in other groups. Hepatic lipid content as well as alanine aminotransferase serum levels were increased in DKO compared with wild-type or single-KO animals. Accordingly, the hepatic protein content of mediators related to atherosclerotic inflammation, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and liver X receptor, was altered in an adverse way in DKO compared with ApoE-KO. On the other hand, DKO mice did not display increased atherogenesis and intraplaque inflammation compared with ApoE-KO group. In conclusion, Mas deletion in ApoE-KO mice was associated with development of severe liver steatosis and dyslipidemia without affecting concomitant atherosclerosis. Mas receptor activation might represent promising strategies for future treatments targeting both hepatic and metabolic alterations in chronic conditions clustering these disorders.

  20. Ligand-dependent oligomerization of dopamine D(2) and adenosine A(2A) receptors in living neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Vidi, Pierre-Alexandre; Chemel, Benjamin R; Hu, Chang-Deng; Watts, Val J

    2008-09-01

    Adenosine A(2A) and dopamine D(2) receptors (A(2A) and D(2)) associate in homo- and heteromeric complexes in the striatum, providing a structural basis for their mutual antagonism. At the cellular level, the portion of receptors engaging in homo- and heteromers, as well as the effect of persistent receptor activation or antagonism on the cell oligomer repertoire, are largely unknown. We have used bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) to visualize A(2A) and D(2) oligomerization in the Cath.a differentiated neuronal cell model. Receptor fusions to BiFC fluorescent protein fragments retained their function when expressed alone or in A(2A)/A(2A), D(2)/D(2), and A(2A)/D(2) BiFC pairs. Robust fluorescence complementation reflecting A(2A)/D(2) heteromers was detected at the cell membrane as well as in endosomes. In contrast, weaker BiFC signals, largely confined to intracellular domains, were detected with A(2A)/dopamine D(1) BiFC pairs. Multicolor BiFC was used to simultaneously visualize A(2A) and D(2) homo- and heteromers in living cells and to examine drug-induced changes in receptor oligomers. Prolonged D(2) stimulation with quinpirole lead to the internalization of D(2)/D(2) and A(2A)/D(2) oligomers and resulted in decreased A(2A)/D(2) relative to A(2A)/A(2A) oligomer formation. Opposing effects were observed in cells treated with D(2) antagonists or with the A(2A) agonist 5'-N-methylcarboxamidoadenosine (MECA). Subsequent radioreceptor binding analysis indicated that the drug-induced changes in oligomer formation were not readily explained by alterations in receptor density. These observations support the hypothesis that long-term drug exposure differentially alters A(2A)/D(2) receptor oligomerization and provide the first demonstration for the use of BiFC to monitor drug-modulated GPCR oligomerization.

  1. Macrophage A2A Adenosinergic Receptor Modulates Oxygen-Induced Augmentation of Murine Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    D’Alessio, Franco R.; Eto, Yoshiki; Chau, Eric; Avalos, Claudia; Waickman, Adam T.; Garibaldi, Brian T.; Mock, Jason R.; Files, Daniel C.; Sidhaye, Venkataramana; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y.; Powell, Jonathan; Horton, Maureen; King, Landon S.

    2013-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) causes significant morbidity and mortality. Exacerbating factors increasing the risk of ARDS remain unknown. Supplemental oxygen is often necessary in both mild and severe lung disease. The potential effects of supplemental oxygen may include augmentation of lung inflammation by inhibiting anti-inflammatory pathways in alveolar macrophages. We sought to determine oxygen-derived effects on the anti-inflammatory A2A adenosinergic (ADORA2A) receptor in macrophages, and the role of the ADORA2A receptor in lung injury. Wild-type (WT) and ADORA2A−/− mice received intratracheal lipopolysaccharide (IT LPS), followed 12 hours later by continuous exposure to 21% oxygen (control mice) or 60% oxygen for 1 to 3 days. We measured the phenotypic endpoints of lung injury and the alveolar macrophage inflammatory state. We tested an ADORA2A-specific agonist, CGS-21680 hydrochloride, in LPS plus oxygen-exposed WT and ADORA2A−/− mice. We determined the specific effects of myeloid ADORA2A, using chimera experiments. Compared with WT mice, ADORA2A−/− mice exposed to IT LPS and 60% oxygen demonstrated significantly more histologic lung injury, alveolar neutrophils, and protein. Macrophages from ADORA2A−/− mice exposed to LPS plus oxygen expressed higher concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and cosignaling molecules. CGS-21680 prevented the oxygen-induced augmentation of lung injury after LPS only in WT mice. Chimera experiments demonstrated that the transfer of WT but not ADORA2A−/− bone marrow cells into irradiated ADORA2A−/− mice reduced lung injury after LPS plus oxygen, demonstrating myeloid ADORA2A protection. ADORA2A is protective against lung injury after LPS and oxygen. Oxygen after LPS increases macrophage activation to augment lung injury by inhibiting the ADORA2A pathway. PMID:23349051

  2. Allosteric interactions between agonists and antagonists within the adenosine A2A receptor-dopamine D2 receptor heterotetramer.

    PubMed

    Bonaventura, Jordi; Navarro, Gemma; Casadó-Anguera, Verònica; Azdad, Karima; Rea, William; Moreno, Estefanía; Brugarolas, Marc; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I; Lluís, Carme; Cortés, Antoni; Volkow, Nora D; Schiffmann, Serge N; Ferré, Sergi; Casadó, Vicent

    2015-07-07

    Adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) heteromers are key modulators of striatal neuronal function. It has been suggested that the psychostimulant effects of caffeine depend on its ability to block an allosteric modulation within the A2AR-D2R heteromer, by which adenosine decreases the affinity and intrinsic efficacy of dopamine at the D2R. We describe novel unsuspected allosteric mechanisms within the heteromer by which not only A2AR agonists, but also A2AR antagonists, decrease the affinity and intrinsic efficacy of D2R agonists and the affinity of D2R antagonists. Strikingly, these allosteric modulations disappear on agonist and antagonist coadministration. This can be explained by a model that considers A2AR-D2R heteromers as heterotetramers, constituted by A2AR and D2R homodimers, as demonstrated by experiments with bioluminescence resonance energy transfer and bimolecular fluorescence and bioluminescence complementation. As predicted by the model, high concentrations of A2AR antagonists behaved as A2AR agonists and decreased D2R function in the brain.

  3. Allosteric interactions between agonists and antagonists within the adenosine A2A receptor-dopamine D2 receptor heterotetramer

    PubMed Central

    Bonaventura, Jordi; Navarro, Gemma; Casadó-Anguera, Verònica; Azdad, Karima; Rea, William; Moreno, Estefanía; Brugarolas, Marc; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I.; Lluís, Carme; Cortés, Antoni; Volkow, Nora D.; Schiffmann, Serge N.; Ferré, Sergi; Casadó, Vicent

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) heteromers are key modulators of striatal neuronal function. It has been suggested that the psychostimulant effects of caffeine depend on its ability to block an allosteric modulation within the A2AR-D2R heteromer, by which adenosine decreases the affinity and intrinsic efficacy of dopamine at the D2R. We describe novel unsuspected allosteric mechanisms within the heteromer by which not only A2AR agonists, but also A2AR antagonists, decrease the affinity and intrinsic efficacy of D2R agonists and the affinity of D2R antagonists. Strikingly, these allosteric modulations disappear on agonist and antagonist coadministration. This can be explained by a model that considers A2AR-D2R heteromers as heterotetramers, constituted by A2AR and D2R homodimers, as demonstrated by experiments with bioluminescence resonance energy transfer and bimolecular fluorescence and bioluminescence complementation. As predicted by the model, high concentrations of A2AR antagonists behaved as A2AR agonists and decreased D2R function in the brain. PMID:26100888

  4. Progesterone reduces depressive behavior of young ovariectomized, aged progestin receptor knockout, and aged wild type mice in the tail suspension test.

    PubMed

    Frye, Cheryl A

    2011-03-01

    Progestins may have effects to reduce depressive behavior, in part through actions of its metabolite, 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one (3α,5α-THP) at GABA(A) receptors, rather than through intracellular progestin receptors. In this study, we examined the effects of progesterone (10 mg/kg, subcutaneous injection) versus vehicle control (propylene glycol) on the depressive behavior of young and aged mice in the tail suspension test. In Experiment 1, we first characterized progesterone's anti-depressant effects by utilizing young (4-6-month-old) intact or ovariectomized female, and intact or gonadectomized male, C57BL/6 mice. Young female mice showed more depressive behavior than the young male mice. Compared with vehicle administration, progesterone reduced depressive behavior of ovariectomized female, but not male or intact female mice. In Experiment 2, mice were aged (20-24-month-old) intact wild type or progestin receptor knockout mice. Progestin receptor knockout mice showed less depressive behavior than wild type mice. Administration of progesterone to wild type and progestin receptor knockout mice reduced depressive behavior. Together, these data suggest that progesterone can decrease depressive behavior of young adult ovariectomized female, aged wild type and progestin receptor knockout mice. Thus, progesterone's effect to reduce depressive behavior of aged mice may not require actions at the intracellular progestin receptors.

  5. Fine structure of interleukin 18 (IL-18) receptor-immunoreactive neurons in the retrosplenial cortex and its changes in IL18 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Tetsu; Hata, Masaki; Kuwahara-Otani, Sachi; Yamanishi, Kyosuke; Yagi, Hideshi; Okamura, Haruki

    2016-12-01

    Interleukin 18 (IL-18) participates in the inflammatory immune response of lymphocytes. Delay in learning or memory are common in the IL-18 knockout mouse. Many IL-18-immunoreactive neurons are found in the retrosplenial cortex (RSC) and the subiculum. These neurons also contain the IL-18 receptor. We determined the location and the ultrastructure of the IL-18 receptor-immunoreactive neurons in the RSC and observed changes in the IL-18 receptor-immunoreactive neurons of the IL-18 knockout mouse. The IL-18 receptor-immunoreactive neurons were found specifically in layer V of the granular RSC. They were medium-sized neurons with a light oval nucleus and had little cytoplasm with many free ribosomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum and many mitochondria, but no Nissl bodies. The number of axosomatic terminals was about six per section. The IL-18 receptor-immunoreactive neurons were not found in the RSC in the IL-18 knockout mouse at 5 or 9 weeks of age. However, many small electron-dense neurons were found in layer V. Both the nucleus and cytoplasm were electron-dense, but not necrotic. The mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum were swollen. The IL-18 receptor-immunoreactive neurons were presumed to be degenerating. The degeneration of the IL18-receptor-immunoreactive neurons in the RSC may cause the abnormal behaviors of the IL-18 knockout mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A2A adenosine receptor upregulation correlates with disease activity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Bortoluzzi, Alessandra; Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Govoni, Marcello; Padovan, Melissa; Ravani, Annalisa; Borea, Pier Andrea; Varani, Katia

    2016-08-26

    Adenosine is a purine nucleoside implicated in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune systems, acting through its interaction with four cell surface receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. There is intense interest in understanding how adenosine functions in health and during disease, but surprisingly little is known about the actual role of adenosine-mediated mechanisms in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). With this background, the aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that dysregulation of A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 adenosine receptors (ARs) in lymphocytes of patients with SLE may be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease and to examine the correlations between the status of the ARs and the clinical parameters of SLE. ARs were analyzed by performing saturation-binding assays, as well as messenger RNA and Western blot analysis, with lymphocytes of patients with SLE in comparison with healthy subjects. We tested the effect of A2AAR agonists in the nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) pathway and on the release of interferon (IFN)-α; tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α; and interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-1β, and IL-10. In lymphocytes obtained from 80 patients with SLE, A2AARs were upregulated compared with those of 80 age-matched healthy control subjects, while A1, A2B, and A3 ARs were unchanged. A2AAR density was inversely correlated with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000 score disease activity through time evaluated according to disease course patterns, serositis, hypocomplementemia, and anti-double-stranded DNA positivity. A2AAR activation inhibited the NF-kB activation pathway and diminished inflammatory cytokines (IFN-α, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-6, IL-1β), but it potentiated the release of anti-inflammatory IL-10. These data suggest the involvement of A2AARs in the complex pathogenetic network of SLE, acting as a modulator of the inflammatory process. It could represent a compensatory pathway to better counteract disease activity. A2AAR

  7. Toward a molecular understanding of psychostimulant actions using genetically engineered dopamine receptor knockout mice as model systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Xu, M

    2001-01-01

    A major focus in studying the progression and prevention of addictive diseases has been to understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying drug addiction. The brain dopaminergic system plays a central role in reward and motivation and is thought to be the main neural substrate for the actions of abusive drugs. We have used the gene targeting technology to generate dopamine D1 and D3 receptor knockout mice and used these mice as model systems to gain a molecular understanding of acute effects of psychostimulants cocaine and amphetamine. The use of a combined approach involving behavioral, electrophysiological as well as molecular studies has allowed us to define initially the roles of dopamine D1 and D3 receptors in the acute effects of psychostimulants and will enable us to understand mechanisms underlying their chronic actions in the future.

  8. Striatal Pre- and Postsynaptic Profile of Adenosine A2A Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Quiroz, César; Beaumont, Vahri; Goldberg, Steven R.; Lluís, Carme; Cortés, Antoni; Franco, Rafael; Casadó, Vicent; Canela, Enric I.; Ferré, Sergi

    2011-01-01

    Striatal adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) are highly expressed in medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the indirect efferent pathway, where they heteromerize with dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs). A2ARs are also localized presynaptically in cortico-striatal glutamatergic terminals contacting MSNs of the direct efferent pathway, where they heteromerize with adenosine A1 receptors (A1Rs). It has been hypothesized that postsynaptic A2AR antagonists should be useful in Parkinson's disease, while presynaptic A2AR antagonists could be beneficial in dyskinetic disorders, such as Huntington's disease, obsessive-compulsive disorders and drug addiction. The aim or this work was to determine whether selective A2AR antagonists may be subdivided according to a preferential pre- versus postsynaptic mechanism of action. The potency at blocking the motor output and striatal glutamate release induced by cortical electrical stimulation and the potency at inducing locomotor activation were used as in vivo measures of pre- and postsynaptic activities, respectively. SCH-442416 and KW-6002 showed a significant preferential pre- and postsynaptic profile, respectively, while the other tested compounds (MSX-2, SCH-420814, ZM-241385 and SCH-58261) showed no clear preference. Radioligand-binding experiments were performed in cells expressing A2AR-D2R and A1R-A2AR heteromers to determine possible differences in the affinity of these compounds for different A2AR heteromers. Heteromerization played a key role in the presynaptic profile of SCH-442416, since it bound with much less affinity to A2AR when co-expressed with D2R than with A1R. KW-6002 showed the best relative affinity for A2AR co-expressed with D2R than co-expressed with A1R, which can at least partially explain the postsynaptic profile of this compound. Also, the in vitro pharmacological profile of MSX-2, SCH-420814, ZM-241385 and SCH-58261 was is in accordance with their mixed pre- and postsynaptic profile. On the basis of their preferential

  9. Past, present and future of A2A adenosine receptor antagonists in the therapy of Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Armentero, Marie Therese; Pinna, Annalisa; Ferré, Sergi; Lanciego, José Luis; Müller, Christa E.; Franco, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Several selective antagonists for adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) are currently under evaluation in clinical trials (phases I to III) to treat Parkinson’s disease, and they will probably soon reach the market. The usefulness of these antagonists has been deduced from studies demonstrating functional interactions between dopamine D2 and adenosine A2A receptors in the basal ganglia. At present it is believed that A2AR antagonists can be used in combination with the dopamine precursor L-DOPA to minimize the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s patients. However, a considerable body of data indicates that in addition to ameliorating motor symptoms, adenosine A2AR antagonists may also prevent neurodegeneration. Despite these promising indications, one further issue must be considered in order to develop fully optimized anti-parkinsonian drug therapy, namely the existence of receptor (hetero)dimers/oligomers of G protein-coupled receptors, a topic currently the focus of intense debate within the scientific community. Dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) expressed in the striatum are known to form heteromers with A2A adenosine receptors. Thus, the development of heteromer-specific A2A receptor antagonists represents a promising strategy for the identification of more selective and safer drugs. PMID:21810444

  10. Genetic background can result in a marked or minimal effect of gene knockout (GPR55 and CB2 receptor) in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis models of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sisay, Sofia; Pryce, Gareth; Jackson, Samuel J; Tanner, Carolyn; Ross, Ruth A; Michael, Gregory J; Selwood, David L; Giovannoni, Gavin; Baker, David

    2013-01-01

    Endocannabinoids and some phytocannabinoids bind to CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, transient receptor potential vanilloid one (TRPV1) receptor and the orphan G protein receptor fifty-five (GPR55). Studies using C57BL/10 and C57BL/6 (Cnr2 (tm1Zim)) CB2 cannabinoid receptor knockout mice have demonstrated an immune-augmenting effect in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models of multiple sclerosis. However, other EAE studies in Biozzi ABH mice often failed to show any treatment effect of either CB2 receptor agonism or antagonism on inhibition of T cell autoimmunity. The influence of genetic background on the induction of EAE in endocannabinoid system-related gene knockout mice was examined. It was found that C57BL/6.GPR55 knockout mice developed less severe disease, notably in female mice, following active induction with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55 peptide. In contrast C57BL/6.CB2 (Cnr2 (Dgen)) receptor knockout mice developed augmented severity of disease consistent with the genetically and pharmacologically-distinct, Cnr2 (tm1Zim) mice. However, when the knockout gene was bred into the ABH mouse background and EAE induced with spinal cord autoantigens the immune-enhancing effect of CB2 receptor deletion was lost. Likewise CB1 receptor and transient receptor potential vanilloid one knockout mice on the ABH background demonstrated no alteration in immune-susceptibility, in terms of disease incidence and severity of EAE, in contrast to that reported in some C57BL/6 mouse studies. Furthermore the immune-modulating influence of GPR55 was marginal on the ABH mouse background. Whilst sedative doses of tetrahydrocannabinol could induce immunosuppression, this was associated with a CB1 receptor rather than a CB2 receptor-mediated effect. These data support the fact that non-psychoactive doses of medicinal cannabis have a marginal influence on the immune response in MS. Importantly, it adds a note of caution for the translational value of some

  11. Genetic Background Can Result in a Marked or Minimal Effect of Gene Knockout (GPR55 and CB2 Receptor) in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Models of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Samuel J.; Tanner, Carolyn; Ross, Ruth A.; Michael, Gregory J.; Selwood, David L.; Giovannoni, Gavin; Baker, David

    2013-01-01

    Endocannabinoids and some phytocannabinoids bind to CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, transient receptor potential vanilloid one (TRPV1) receptor and the orphan G protein receptor fifty-five (GPR55). Studies using C57BL/10 and C57BL/6 (Cnr2 tm1Zim) CB2 cannabinoid receptor knockout mice have demonstrated an immune-augmenting effect in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models of multiple sclerosis. However, other EAE studies in Biozzi ABH mice often failed to show any treatment effect of either CB2 receptor agonism or antagonism on inhibition of T cell autoimmunity. The influence of genetic background on the induction of EAE in endocannabinoid system-related gene knockout mice was examined. It was found that C57BL/6.GPR55 knockout mice developed less severe disease, notably in female mice, following active induction with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55 peptide. In contrast C57BL/6.CB2 (Cnr2 Dgen) receptor knockout mice developed augmented severity of disease consistent with the genetically and pharmacologically-distinct, Cnr2 tm1Zim mice. However, when the knockout gene was bred into the ABH mouse background and EAE induced with spinal cord autoantigens the immune-enhancing effect of CB2 receptor deletion was lost. Likewise CB1 receptor and transient receptor potential vanilloid one knockout mice on the ABH background demonstrated no alteration in immune-susceptibility, in terms of disease incidence and severity of EAE, in contrast to that reported in some C57BL/6 mouse studies. Furthermore the immune-modulating influence of GPR55 was marginal on the ABH mouse background. Whilst sedative doses of tetrahydrocannabinol could induce immunosuppression, this was associated with a CB1 receptor rather than a CB2 receptor-mediated effect. These data support the fact that non-psychoactive doses of medicinal cannabis have a marginal influence on the immune response in MS. Importantly, it adds a note of caution for the translational value of some

  12. A muscle-specific knockout implicates nuclear receptor coactivator MED1 in the regulation of glucose and energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoting; Birsoy, Kivanc; Roeder, Robert G

    2010-06-01

    As conventional transcriptional factors that are activated in diverse signaling pathways, nuclear receptors play important roles in many physiological processes that include energy homeostasis. The MED1 subunit of the Mediator coactivator complex plays a broad role in nuclear receptor-mediated transcription by anchoring the Mediator complex to diverse promoter-bound nuclear receptors. Given the significant role of skeletal muscle, in part through the action of nuclear receptors, in glucose and fatty acid metabolism, we generated skeletal muscle-specific Med1 knockout mice. Importantly, these mice show enhanced insulin sensitivity and improved glucose tolerance as well as resistance to high-fat diet-induced obesity. Furthermore, the white muscle of these mice exhibits increased mitochondrial density and expression of genes specific to type I and type IIA fibers, indicating a fast-to-slow fiber switch, as well as markedly increased expression of the brown adipose tissue-specific UCP-1 and Cidea genes that are involved in respiratory uncoupling. These dramatic results implicate MED1 as a powerful suppressor in skeletal muscle of genetic programs implicated in energy expenditure and raise the significant possibility of therapeutical approaches for metabolic syndromes and muscle diseases through modulation of MED1-nuclear receptor interactions.

  13. Astrocytic Lrp4 (Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein 4) Contributes to Ischemia-Induced Brain Injury by Regulating ATP Release and Adenosine-A2AR (Adenosine A2A Receptor) Signaling.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xin-Chun; Hu, Jin-Xia; Li, Lei; Li, Qiang; Tang, Fu-Lei; Lin, Sen; Sun, Dong; Sun, Xiang-Dong; Cui, Gui-Yun; Mei, Lin; Xiong, Wen-Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Lrp4 (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4) is predominantly expressed in astrocytes, where it regulates glutamatergic neurotransmission by suppressing ATP release. Here, we investigated Lrp4's function in ischemia/stroke-induced brain injury response, which includes glutamate-induced neuronal death and reactive astrogliosis. The brain-specific Lrp4 conditional knockout mice (Lrp4 GFAP-Cre ), astrocytic-specific Lrp4 conditional knockout mice (Lrp4 GFAP-creER ), and their control mice (Lrp4 f/f ) were subjected to photothrombotic ischemia and the transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. After ischemia/stroke, mice or their brain samples were subjected to behavior tests, brain histology, immunofluorescence staining, Western blot, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. In addition, primary astrocytes and neurons were cocultured with or without oxygen and glucose deprivation and in the presence or absence of the antagonist for adenosine-A 2A R (adenosine A2A receptor) or ATP-P2X7R (P2X purinoceptor 7) signaling. Gliotransmitters, such as glutamate, d-serine, ATP, and adenosine, in the condition medium of cultured astrocytes were also measured. Lrp4, largely expressed in astrocytes, was increased in response to ischemia/stroke. Both Lrp4 GFAP-Cre and Lrp4 GFAP-creER mice showed less brain injury, including reduced neuronal death, and impaired reactive astrogliosis. Mechanistically, Lrp4 conditional knockout in astrocytes increased ATP release and the production of ATP derivative, adenosine, which were further elevated by oxygen and glucose deprivation. Pharmacological inhibition of ATP-P 2 X 7 R or adenosine-A 2A R signaling diminished Lrp4 GFAP-creER 's protective effect. The astrocytic Lrp4 plays an important role in ischemic brain injury response. Lrp4 deficiency in astrocytes seems to be protective in response to ischemic brain injury, likely because of the increased ATP release and adenosine-A 2A R signaling. © 2017 American Heart

  14. Exploring an interaction of adenosine A2A receptor variability with coffee and tea intake in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Tan, E K; Lu, Z Y; Fook-Chong, S M C; Tan, E; Shen, H; Chua, E; Yih, Y; Teo, Y Y; Zhao, Y

    2006-09-05

    Caffeine is an adenosine receptor A1 and A2A receptor antagonist and a putative functional genetic variant of the A2A receptor (2592C > Tins) mediates caffeine-induced anxiety. Here we investigated the potential interaction of this A2A genetic variant with the quantity of coffee and tea intake and their relationship with the risk of PD. A total of 441 subjects consisting of 222 PD and 219 race, gender and age matched controls were included. A multivariate analysis of the variables including the 2592C > Tins A2A genotypes, age of onset, gender, and the quantity of tea and coffee intake, interaction of the A2A genotypes with coffee intake, interaction of A2A genotypes with tea intake demonstrated the quantity of coffee intake to be significantly associated with PD (P < 0.0005, OR = 0.922, 95% CI: 0.881, 0.964). However, there was no significant interaction of the A2A genotypes with the quantity of coffee and tea intake in modulating the risk of PD. The dose dependent protective effect of coffee intake in PD was independent of the 2592C > Tins A2A genotype suggesting that the pharmacogenetic action of caffeine in PD may be mediated differently from other caffeine-induced neurologic syndromes.

  15. LASSBio-897 Reduces Lung Injury Induced by Silica Particles in Mice: Potential Interaction with the A2A Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Vinicius F.; Ferreira, Tatiana P. T.; de Arantes, Ana C. S.; Noël, François; Tesch, Roberta; Sant’Anna, Carlos M. R.; Barreiro, Eliezer J. L.; Fraga, Carlos A. M.; Rodrigues e Silva, Patrícia M.; Martins, Marco A.

    2017-01-01

    Silicosis is a lethal fibro-granulomatous pulmonary disease highly prevalent in developing countries, for which no proper therapy is available. Among a small series of N-acylhydrazones, the safrole-derived compound LASSBio-897 (3-thienylidene-3, 4-methylenedioxybenzoylhydrazide) raised interest due to its ability to bind to the adenosine A2A receptor. Here, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic potential of LASSBio-897, exploring translation to a mouse model of silicosis and the A2A receptor as a site of action. Pulmonary mechanics, inflammatory, and fibrotic changes were assessed 28 days after intranasal instillation of silica particles in Swiss–Webster mice. Glosensor cAMP HEK293G cells, CHO cells stably expressing human adenosine receptors and ligand binding assay were used to evaluate the pharmacological properties of LASSBio-897 in vitro. Molecular docking studies of LASSBio-897 were performed using the genetic algorithm software GOLD 5.2. We found that the interventional treatment with the A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680 reversed silica particle-induced airway hyper-reactivity as revealed by increased responses of airway resistance and lung elastance following aerosolized methacholine. LASSBio-897 (2 and 5 mg/kg, oral) similarly reversed pivotal lung pathological features of silicosis in this model, reducing levels of airway resistance and lung elastance, granuloma formation and collagen deposition. In competition assays, LASSBio-897 decreased the binding of the selective A2A receptor agonist [3H]-CGS21680 (IC50 = 9.3 μM). LASSBio-897 (50 μM) induced modest cAMP production in HEK293G cells, but it clearly synergized the cAMP production by adenosine in a mechanism sensitive to the A2A antagonist SCH 58261. This synergism was also seen in CHO cells expressing the A2A, but not those expressing A2B, A1 or A3 receptors. Based on the evidence that LASSBio-897 binds to A2A receptor, molecular docking studies were performed using the A2A receptor

  16. K+ channel TASK-1 knockout mice show enhanced sensitivities to ataxic and hypnotic effects of GABA(A) receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Linden, Anni-Maija; Aller, M Isabel; Leppä, Elli; Rosenberg, Per H; Wisden, William; Korpi, Esa R

    2008-10-01

    TASK two-pore-domain leak K(+) channels occur throughout the brain. However, TASK-1 and TASK-3 knockout (KO) mice have few neurological impairments and only mildly reduced sensitivities to inhalational anesthetics, contrasting with the anticipated functions and importance of these channels. TASK-1/-3 channel expression can compensate for the absence of GABA(A) receptors in GABA(A) alpha6 KO mice. To investigate the converse, we analyzed the behavior of TASK-1 and -3 KO mice after administering drugs with preferential efficacies at GABA(A) receptor subtypes: benzodiazepines (diazepam and flurazepam, active at alpha1betagamma2, alpha2betagamma2, alpha3betagamma2, and alpha5betagamma2 subtypes), zolpidem (alpha1betagamma2 subtype), propofol (beta2-3-containing receptors), gaboxadol (alpha4betadelta and alpha6betadelta subtypes), pregnanolone, and pentobarbital (many subtypes). TASK-1 KO mice showed increased motor impairment in rotarod and beam-walking tests after diazepam and flurazepam administration but not after zolpidem. They also showed prolonged loss of righting reflex induced by propofol and pentobarbital. Autoradiography indicated no change in GABA(A) receptor ligand binding levels. These altered behavioral responses to GABAergic drugs suggest functional up-regulation of alpha2beta2/3gamma2 and alpha3beta2/3gamma2 receptor subtypes in TASK-1 KO mice. In addition, female, but not male, TASK-1 KO mice were more sensitive to gaboxadol, suggesting an increased influence of alpha4betadelta or alpha6betadelta subtypes. The benzodiazepine sensitivity of TASK-3 KO mice was marginally increased. Our results underline that TASK-1 channels perform such key functions in the brain that compensation is needed for their absence. Furthermore, because inhalation anesthetics act partially through GABA(A) receptors, the up-regulation of GABA(A) receptor function in TASK-1 KO mice might mask TASK-1 channel's significance as a target for inhalation anesthetics.

  17. Characterization of central inhibitory muscarinic autoreceptors by the use of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weilie; Basile, Anthony S; Gomeza, Jesus; Volpicelli, Laura A; Levey, Allan I; Wess, Jürgen

    2002-03-01

    Forebrain muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (mAChRs; M1-M5) are predicted to play important roles in many fundamental central functions, including higher cognitive processes and modulation of extrapyramidal motor activity. Synaptic ACh levels are known to be regulated by the activity of presynaptic muscarinic autoreceptors mediating inhibition of ACh release. Primarily because of the use of ligands with limited receptor subtype selectivity, classical pharmacological studies have led to conflicting results regarding the identity of the mAChR subtypes mediating this activity in different areas of the brain. To investigate the molecular identity of hippocampal, cortical, and striatal inhibitory muscarinic autoreceptors in a more direct manner, we used genetically altered mice lacking functional M2 and/or M4 mAChRs [knock-out (KO) mice]. After labeling of cellular ACh pools with [3H]choline, potassium-stimulated [3H]ACh release was measured in superfused brain slices, either in the absence or the presence of muscarinic drugs. The nonsubtype-selective muscarinic agonist, oxotremorine (0.1-10 microm), inhibited potassium-stimulated [3H]ACh release in hippocampal, cortical, and striatal slices prepared from wild-type mice by up to 80%. This activity was totally abolished in tissues prepared from M2-M4 receptor double KO mice. Strikingly, release studies with brain slices from M2 and M4 receptor single KO mice indicated that autoinhibition of ACh release is mediated primarily by the M2 receptor in hippocampus and cerebral cortex, but predominantly by the M4 receptor in the striatum. These results, together with additional receptor localization studies, support the novel concept that autoinhibition of ACh release involves different mAChRs in different regions of the brain.

  18. Characterization of [3H] oxymorphone binding sites in mouse brain: Quantitative autoradiography in opioid receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Ji Hoon; Borsodi, Anna; Tóth, Géza; Benyhe, Sándor; Gaspar, Robert; Matifas, Audrey; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Metaxas, Athanasios; Kitchen, Ian; Bailey, Alexis

    2017-03-16

    Oxymorphone, one of oxycodone's metabolic products, is a potent opioid receptor agonist which is thought to contribute to the analgesic effect of its parent compound and may have high potential abuse liability. Nonetheless, the in vivo pharmacological binding profile of this drug is still unclear. This study uses mice lacking mu (MOP), kappa (KOP) or delta (DOP) opioid receptors as well as mice lacking all three opioid receptors to provide full characterisation of oxymorphone binding sites in the brain. Saturation binding studies using [ 3 H]oxymorphone revealed high affinity binding sites in mouse brain displaying Kd of 1.7nM and Bmax of 147fmol/mg. Furthermore, we performed quantitative autoradiography binding studies using [ 3 H]oxymorphone in mouse brain. The distribution of [ 3 H]oxymorphone binding sites was found to be similar to the selective MOP agonist [ 3 H]DAMGO in the mouse brain. [ 3 H]Oxymorphone binding was completely abolished across the majority of the brain regions in mice lacking MOP as well as in mice lacking all three opioid receptors. DOP and KOP knockout mice retained [ 3 H]oxymorphone binding sites suggesting oxymorphone may not target DOP or KOP. These results confirm that the MOP, and not the DOP or the KOP is the main high affinity binding target for oxymorphone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Morphologic and Histologic Comparison of Hypertrophic Scar in Nude Mice, T-Cell Receptor, and Recombination Activating Gene Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Momtazi, Moein; Ding, Jie; Kwan, Peter; Anderson, Colin C; Honardoust, Dariush; Goekjian, Serge; Tredget, Edward E

    2015-12-01

    Proliferative scars in nude mice have demonstrated morphologic and histologic similarities to human hypertrophic scar. Gene knockout technology provides the opportunity to study the effect of deleting immune cells in various disease processes. The authors' objective was to test whether grafting human skin onto T-cell receptor (TCR) αβ-/-γδ-/-, recombination activating gene (RAG)-1-/-, and RAG-2γ-/-c-/- mice results in proliferative scars consistent with human hypertrophic scar and to characterize the morphologic, histologic, and cellular changes that occur after removing immune cells. Nude TCRαβ-/-γδ-/-, RAG-1-/-, and RAG-2-/-γc-/- mice (n = 20 per strain) were grafted with human skin and euthanized at 30, 60, 120, and 180 days. Controls (n = 5 per strain) were autografted with mouse skin. Scars and normal skin were harvested at each time point. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome, and immunohistochemistry for anti-human leukocyte antigen-ABC, α-smooth muscle actin, decorin, and biglycan. TCRαβ-/-γδ-/-, RAG-1-/-, and RAG-2-/-γc-/- mice grafted with human skin developed firm, elevated scars with histologic and immunohistochemical similarities to human hypertrophic scar. Autografted controls showed no evidence of pathologic scarring. Knockout animals demonstrated a capacity for scar remodeling not observed in nude mice where reductions in α-smooth muscle actin staining pattern and scar thickness occurred over time. Human skin transplanted onto TCRαβ-/-γδ-/-, RAG-1-/-, and RAG-2-/-γc-/- mice results in proliferative scars with morphologic and histologic features of human hypertrophic scar. Remodeling of proliferative scars generated in knockout animals is analogous to changes in human hypertrophic scar. These animal models may better represent the natural history of human hypertrophic scar.

  20. Functional histamine H3 and adenosine A2A receptor heteromers in recombinant cells and rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Márquez-Gómez, Ricardo; Robins, Meridith T; Gutiérrez-Rodelo, Citlaly; Arias, Juan-Manuel; Olivares-Reyes, Jesús-Alberto; van Rijn, Richard M; Arias-Montaño, José-Antonio

    2018-03-01

    In the striatum, histamine H 3 receptors (H 3 Rs) are co-expressed with adenosine A 2A receptors (A 2A Rs) in the cortico-striatal glutamatergic afferents and the GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons that originate the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia. This location allows H 3 Rs and A 2A Rs to regulate the striatal GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission. However, whether these receptors can physically interact has not yet been assessed. To test this hypothesis, a heteromer-selective in vitro assay was used to detect functional complementation between a chimeric A 2A R 302 -Gα qi4 and wild-type H 3 Rs in transfected HEK-293T cells. H 3 R activation with the agonist RAMH resulted in Ca 2+ mobilization (pEC 50 7.31 ± 0.23; maximal stimulation, Emax 449 ± 25% of basal) indicative of receptor heterodimerization. Functional H 3 R-A 2A R heteromers were confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and observations of differential cAMP signaling when both receptors were co-expressed in the same cells. In membranes from rat striatal synaptosomes, H 3 R activation decreased A 2A R affinity for the agonist CGS-21680 (pKi values 8.10 ± 0.04 and 7.70 ± 0.04). Moreover, H 3 Rs and A 2A Rs co-immunoprecipitated in protein extracts from striatal synaptosomes. These results support the existence of a H 3 R-A 2A R heteromer with possible physiological implications for the modulation of the intra-striatal transmission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Adenosine A2A Receptors in the Amygdala Control Synaptic Plasticity and Contextual Fear Memory

    PubMed Central

    Simões, Ana Patrícia; Machado, Nuno J; Gonçalves, Nélio; Kaster, Manuella P; Simões, Ana T; Nunes, Ana; Pereira de Almeida, Luís; Goosens, Ki Ann; Rial, Daniel; Cunha, Rodrigo A

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of caffeine modulates working and reference memory through the antagonism of adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) controlling synaptic plasticity processes in hippocampal excitatory synapses. Fear memory essentially involves plastic changes in amygdala circuits. However, it is unknown if A2ARs in the amygdala regulate synaptic plasticity and fear memory. We report that A2ARs in the amygdala are enriched in synapses and located to glutamatergic synapses, where they selectively control synaptic plasticity rather than synaptic transmission at a major afferent pathway to the amygdala. Notably, the downregulation of A2ARs selectively in the basolateral complex of the amygdala, using a lentivirus with a silencing shRNA (small hairpin RNA targeting A2AR (shA2AR)), impaired fear acquisition as well as Pavlovian fear retrieval. This is probably associated with the upregulation and gain of function of A2ARs in the amygdala after fear acquisition. The importance of A2ARs to control fear memory was further confirmed by the ability of SCH58261 (0.1 mg/kg; A2AR antagonist), caffeine (5 mg/kg), but not DPCPX (0.5 mg/kg; A1R antagonist), treatment for 7 days before fear conditioning onwards, to attenuate the retrieval of context fear after 24–48 h and after 7–8 days. These results demonstrate that amygdala A2ARs control fear memory and the underlying process of synaptic plasticity in this brain region. This provides a neurophysiological basis for the association between A2AR polymorphisms and phobia or panic attacks in humans and prompts a therapeutic interest in A2ARs to manage fear-related pathologies. PMID:27312408

  2. Multi-Inhibitory Effects of A2A Adenosine Receptor Signaling on Neutrophil Adhesion Under Flow.

    PubMed

    Yago, Tadayuki; Tsukamoto, Hiroki; Liu, Zhenghui; Wang, Ying; Thompson, Linda F; McEver, Rodger P

    2015-10-15

    A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR) signaling negatively regulates inflammatory responses in many disease models, but the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. We used the selective A2AAR agonist, ATL313, to examine how A2AAR signaling affects human and murine neutrophil adhesion under flow. Treating neutrophils with ATL313 inhibited selectin-induced, β2 integrin-dependent slow rolling and chemokine-induced, β2 integrin-dependent arrest on ICAM-1. ATL313 inhibited selectin-induced β2 integrin extension, which supports slow rolling, and chemokine-induced hybrid domain "swing-out," which supports arrest. Furthermore, ATL313 inhibited integrin outside-in signaling as revealed by reduced neutrophil superoxide production and spreading on immobilized anti-β2 integrin Ab. ATL313 suppressed selectin-triggered activation of Src family kinases (SFKs) and p38 MAPK, chemokine-triggered activation of Ras-related protein 1, and β2 integrin-triggered activation of SFKs and Vav cytoskeletal regulatory proteins. ATL313 activated protein kinase A and its substrate C-terminal Src kinase, an inhibitor of SFKs. Treating neutrophils with a protein kinase A inhibitor blocked the actions of ATL313. In vivo, ATL313-treated neutrophils rolled faster and arrested much less frequently in postcapillary venules of the murine cremaster muscle after TNF-α challenge. Furthermore, ATL313 markedly suppressed neutrophil migration into the peritoneum challenged with thioglycollate. ATL313 did not affect A2AAR-deficient neutrophils, confirming its specificity. Our findings provide new insights into the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of A2AAR signaling and the potential utility of A2AAR agonists in inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  3. Regulatory functions of limbic Y1 receptors in body weight and anxiety uncovered by conditional knockout and maternal care

    PubMed Central

    Bertocchi, Ilaria; Oberto, Alessandra; Longo, Angela; Mele, Paolo; Sabetta, Marianna; Bartolomucci, Alessandro; Palanza, Paola; Sprengel, Rolf; Eva, Carola

    2011-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) plays an important role in stress, anxiety, obesity, and energy homeostasis via activation of NPY-Y1 receptors (Y1Rs) in the brain. However, global knockout of the Npy1r gene has low or no impact on anxiety and body weight. To uncover the role of limbic Y1Rs, we generated conditional knockout mice in which the inactivation of the Npy1r gene was restricted to excitatory neurons of the forebrain, starting from juvenile stages (Npy1rrfb). Npy1rrfb mice exhibited increased anxiety and reduced body weight, less adipose tissue, and lower serum leptin levels. Npy1rrfb mutants also had a hyperactive hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical axis, as indicated by higher peripheral corticosterone and higher density of NPY immunoreactive fibers and corticotropin releasing hormone immunoreactive cell bodies in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus. Importantly, through fostering experiments, we determined that differences in phenotype between Npy1rrfb and Npy1r2lox mice became apparent when both genotypes were raised by FVB/J but not by C57BL/6J dams, suggesting that limbic Y1Rs are key targets of maternal care-induced programming of anxiety and energy homeostasis. PMID:22084082

  4. Nucleus Accumbens Adenosine A2A Receptors Regulate Exertion of Effort by Acting on the Ventral Striatopallidal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mingote, Susana; Font, Laura; Farrar, Andrew M.; Vontell, Regina; Worden, Lila T.; Stopper, Colin M.; Port, Russell G.; Sink, Kelly S.; Bunce, Jamie G.; Chrobak, James J.; Salamone, John D.

    2009-01-01

    Goal-directed actions are sensitive to work-related response costs, and dopamine in nucleus accumbens is thought to modulate the exertion of effort in motivated behavior. Dopamine-rich striatal areas such as nucleus accumbens also contain high numbers of adenosine A2A receptors, and, for that reason, the behavioral and neurochemical effects of the adenosine A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680 [2-p-(2-carboxyethyl) phenethylamino-5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine] were investigated. Stimulation of accumbens adenosine A2A receptors disrupted performance of an instrumental task with high work demands (i.e., an interval lever-pressing schedule with a ratio requirement attached) but had little effect on a task with a lower work requirement. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that accumbens neurons that project to the ventral pallidum showed adenosine A2A receptors immunoreactivity. Moreover, activation of accumbens A2A receptors by local injections of CGS 21680 increased extracellular GABA levels in the ventral pallidum. Combined contralateral injections of CGS 21680 into the accumbens and the GABAA agonist muscimol into ventral pallidum (i.e., “disconnection” methods) also impaired response output, indicating that these structures are part of a common neural circuitry regulating the exertion of effort. Thus, accumbens adenosine A2A receptors appear to regulate behavioral activation and effort-related processes by modulating the activity of the ventral striatopallidal pathway. Research on the effort-related functions of these forebrain systems may lead to a greater understanding of pathological features of motivation, such as psychomotor slowing, anergia, and fatigue in depression. PMID:18768698

  5. Phenotypic screening of hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 4-gamma receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Gerdin, Anna Karin; Surve, Vikas V; Jönsson, Marie; Bjursell, Mikael; Björkman, Maria; Edenro, Anne; Schuelke, Meint; Saad, Alaa; Bjurström, Sivert; Lundgren, Elisabeth Jensen; Snaith, Michael; Fransson-Steen, Ronny; Törnell, Jan; Berg, Anna-Lena; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad

    2006-10-20

    Using the mouse as a model organism in pharmaceutical research presents unique advantages as its physiology in many ways resembles the human physiology, it also has a relatively short generation time, low breeding and maintenance costs, and is available in a wide variety of inbred strains. The ability to genetically modify mouse embryonic stem cells to generate mouse models that better mimic human disease is another advantage. In the present study, a comprehensive phenotypic screening protocol is applied to elucidate the phenotype of a novel mouse knockout model of hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 4-gamma. HNF4-gamma is expressed in the kidneys, gut, pancreas, and testis. The first level of the screen is aimed at general health, morphologic appearance, normal cage behaviour, and gross neurological functions. The second level of the screen looks at metabolic characteristics and lung function. The third level of the screen investigates behaviour more in-depth and the fourth level consists of a thorough pathological characterisation, blood chemistry, haematology, and bone marrow analysis. When compared with littermate wild-type mice (HNF4-gamma(+/+)), the HNF4-gamma knockout (HNF4-gamma(-/-)) mice had lowered energy expenditure and locomotor activity during night time that resulted in a higher body weight despite having reduced intake of food and water. HNF4-gamma(-/-) mice were less inclined to build nest and were found to spend more time in a passive state during the forced swim test.

  6. Toll-like receptor 4 knockout alleviates paraquat-induced cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction through an autophagy-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuyi; Zhu, Xiaoling; Xiong, Lize; Zhang, Yingmei; Ren, Jun

    2016-08-22

    Paraquat, a quarternary nitrogen herbicide, is a toxic prooxidant leading to multi-organ failure including the heart although the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. This study was designed to examine the role of the innate proinflammatory mediator toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in paraquat-induced cardiac contractile anomalies and the underlying mechanisms involved with a focus on autophagy, a conservative machinery governing protein and organelle degradation and recycling for cardiac homeostasis. Wild-type (WT) and TLR4 knockout (TLR4(-/-)) mice were challenged with paraquat (45mg/kg, i.p.) for 48h. Paraquat challenge did not affect mRNA levels of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 in WT mice nor did paraquat treatment alter TREM-1 levels. Paraquat challenge elicited cardiac mechanical defects including compromised cardiomyocyte contractile function, intracellular Ca(2+) handling, and overt autophagy as manifested by increased LC3BII-to-LC3BI ratio, Atg5, Atg7 and p62 levels. Interestingly, TLR4 knockout significantly attenuated paraquat-induced cardiac contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) derangement as well as alterations of autophagy markers. Paraquat-elicited changes in cardiac autophagy markers (LC3BII, LC3BII-to-LC3BI ratio and p62) were augmented by lysosomal inhibition using bafilomycin A1 in WT mice. TLR4 knockout significantly attenuated or negated paraquat-elicited increase in LC3BII, LC3BII-to-LC3BI ratio and p62 levels in the presence of lysosomal inhibition. In addition, paraquat challenge promoted phosphorylation of AMPK while suppressing the phosphorylation of mTOR and ULK1 (the autophagy inhibitory Ser(757)), the effects of which were significantly attenuated by TLR4 ablation. In vitro study revealed that AMPK activation using AICAR or mTOR inhibition using rapamycin effectively negated the beneficial cardiomyocyte mechanical effects of TLR4 inhibition (CLI-095) against paraquat toxicity, supporting a permissive role for AMPK-mTOR in TLR4 inhibition

  7. Enhancement of D1 dopamine receptor-mediated locomotor stimulation in M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Gomeza, Jesus; Zhang, Lu; Kostenis, Evi; Felder, Christian; Bymaster, Frank; Brodkin, Jesse; Shannon, Harlan; Xia, Bing; Deng, Chu-xia; Wess, Jürgen

    1999-01-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (M1–M5) regulate many key functions of the central and peripheral nervous system. Primarily because of the lack of receptor subtype-selective ligands, the precise physiological roles of the individual muscarinic receptor subtypes remain to be elucidated. Interestingly, the M4 receptor subtype is expressed abundantly in the striatum and various other forebrain regions. To study its potential role in the regulation of locomotor activity and other central functions, we used gene-targeting technology to create mice that lack functional M4 receptors. Pharmacologic analysis of M4 receptor-deficient mice indicated that M4 receptors are not required for muscarinic receptor-mediated analgesia, tremor, hypothermia, and salivation. Strikingly, M4 receptor-deficient mice showed an increase in basal locomotor activity and greatly enhanced locomotor responses (as compared with their wild-type littermates) after activation of D1 dopamine receptors. These results indicate that M4 receptors exert inhibitory control on D1 receptor-mediated locomotor stimulation, probably at the level of striatal projection neurons where the two receptors are coexpressed at high levels. Our findings offer new perspectives for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and other movement disorders that are characterized by an imbalance between muscarinic cholinergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission. PMID:10468635

  8. Membrane omega-3 fatty acids modulate the oligomerisation kinetics of adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guixà-González, Ramon; Javanainen, Matti; Gómez-Soler, Maricel; Cordobilla, Begoña; Domingo, Joan Carles; Sanz, Ferran; Pastor, Manuel; Ciruela, Francisco; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Selent, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Membrane levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA), are decreased in common neuropsychiatric disorders. DHA modulates key cell membrane properties like fluidity, thereby affecting the behaviour of transmembrane proteins like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). These receptors, which have special relevance for major neuropsychiatric disorders have recently been shown to form dimers or higher order oligomers, and evidence suggests that DHA levels affect GPCR function by modulating oligomerisation. In this study, we assessed the effect of membrane DHA content on the formation of a class of protein complexes with particular relevance for brain disease: adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptor oligomers. Using extensive multiscale computer modelling, we find a marked propensity of DHA for interaction with both A2A and D2 receptors, which leads to an increased rate of receptor oligomerisation. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) experiments performed on living cells suggest that this DHA effect on the oligomerisation of A2A and D2 receptors is purely kinetic. This work reveals for the first time that membrane ω-3 PUFAs play a key role in GPCR oligomerisation kinetics, which may have important implications for neuropsychiatric conditions like schizophrenia or Parkinson’s disease.

  9. Physical activity in the androgen receptor knockout mouse: evidence for reversal of androgen deficiency on cancellous bone.

    PubMed

    Ophoff, Jill; Callewaert, Filip; Venken, Katrien; De Gendt, Karel; Ohlsson, Claes; Gayan-Ramirez, Ghislaine; Decramer, Marc; Boonen, Steven; Bouillon, Roger; Verhoeven, Guido; Vanderschueren, Dirk

    2009-01-02

    Disruption of the androgen receptor (AR) in male mice reduces cortical bone expansion and muscle mass during puberty and results in high bone turnover-related cancellous osteopenia. We hypothesized that voluntary wheel running during growth is able to rescue the effects of AR disruption on bone. To this end, 5-week-old AR knockout (ARKO) mice were randomized to a running group (cage with running wheel) and a sedentary group (cage without wheel) and followed-up until 16 weeks of age. Voluntary wheel running in ARKO mice did not influence body weight, muscle mass or periosteal bone expansion. Interestingly, voluntary running significantly reduced bone turnover in ARKO mice and prevented cancellous bone loss due to a preservation of trabecular number. Thus, voluntary running in ARKO mice was able to reduce cancellous bone resorption, suggesting that sustained exercise may potentially compensate the effects of androgen disruption on cancellous bone.

  10. Differential actions of orexin receptors in brainstem cholinergic and monoaminergic neurons revealed by receptor knockouts: implications for orexinergic signaling in arousal and narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Kohlmeier, Kristi A.; Tyler, Christopher J.; Kalogiannis, Mike; Ishibashi, Masaru; Kristensen, Morten P.; Gumenchuk, Iryna; Chemelli, Richard M.; Kisanuki, Yaz Y.; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Leonard, Christopher S.

    2013-01-01

    Orexin neuropeptides influence multiple homeostatic functions and play an essential role in the expression of normal sleep-wake behavior. While their two known receptors (OX1 and OX2) are targets for novel pharmacotherapeutics, the actions mediated by each receptor remain largely unexplored. Using brain slices from mice constitutively lacking either receptor, we used whole-cell and Ca2+ imaging methods to delineate the cellular actions of each receptor within cholinergic [laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT)] and monoaminergic [dorsal raphe (DR) and locus coeruleus (LC)] brainstem nuclei—where orexins promote arousal and suppress REM sleep. In slices from OX−/−2 mice, orexin-A (300 nM) elicited wild-type responses in LDT, DR, and LC neurons consisting of a depolarizing current and augmented voltage-dependent Ca2+ transients. In slices from OX−/−1 mice, the depolarizing current was absent in LDT and LC neurons and was attenuated in DR neurons, although Ca2+-transients were still augmented. Since orexin-A produced neither of these actions in slices lacking both receptors, our findings suggest that orexin-mediated depolarization is mediated by both receptors in DR, but is exclusively mediated by OX1 in LDT and LC neurons, even though OX2 is present and OX2 mRNA appears elevated in brainstems from OX−/−1 mice. Considering published behavioral data, these findings support a model in which orexin-mediated excitation of mesopontine cholinergic and monoaminergic neurons contributes little to stabilizing spontaneous waking and sleep bouts, but functions in context-dependent arousal and helps restrict muscle atonia to REM sleep. The augmented Ca2+ transients produced by both receptors appeared mediated by influx via L-type Ca2+ channels, which is often linked to transcriptional signaling. This could provide an adaptive signal to compensate for receptor loss or prolonged antagonism and may contribute to the reduced severity of narcolepsy in single receptor

  11. Abolished thermal and mechanical antinociception but retained visceral chemical antinociception induced by butorphanol in μ-opioid receptor knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Ide, Soichiro; Minami, Masabumi; Ishihara, Kumatoshi; Uhl, George R.; Satoh, Masamichi; Sora, Ichiro; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2012-01-01

    Butorphanol is hypothesized to induce analgesia via opioid pathways, although the precise mechanisms for its effects remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of the μ-opioid receptor (MOP) in thermal, mechanical, and visceral chemical antinociception induced by butorphanol using MOP knockout (KO) mice. Butorphanol-induced thermal antinociception, assessed by the hot-plate and tail-flick tests, was significantly reduced in heterozygous and abolished in homozygous MOP-KO mice compared with wildtype mice. The results obtained from our butorphanol-induced mechanical antinociception experiments, assessed by the Randall-Selitto test, were similar to the results obtained from the thermal antinociception experiments in these mice. Interestingly, however, butorphanol retained its ability to induce significant visceral chemical antinociception, assessed by the writhing test, in homozygous MOP-KO mice. The butorphanol-induced visceral chemical antinociception that was retained in homozygous MOP-KO mice was completely blocked by pretreatment with nor-binaltorphimine, a κ-opioid receptor (KOP) antagonist. In vitro binding and cyclic adenosine monophosphate assays also showed that butorphanol possessed higher affinity for KOPs and MOPs than for δ-opioid receptors. These results molecular pharmacologically confirmed previous studies implicating MOPs, and partially KOPs, in mediating butorphanol-induced analgesia. PMID:18417173

  12. Adenosine A(2A) receptor up-regulates retinal wave frequency via starburst amacrine cells in the developing rat retina.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pin-Chien; Hsiao, Yu-Tien; Kao, Shao-Yen; Chen, Ching-Feng; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Chiang, Chung-Wei; Lee, Chien-Fei; Lu, Juu-Chin; Chern, Yijuang; Wang, Chih-Tien

    2014-01-01

    Developing retinas display retinal waves, the patterned spontaneous activity essential for circuit refinement. During the first postnatal week in rodents, retinal waves are mediated by synaptic transmission between starburst amacrine cells (SACs) and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). The neuromodulator adenosine is essential for the generation of retinal waves. However, the cellular basis underlying adenosine's regulation of retinal waves remains elusive. Here, we investigated whether and how the adenosine A(2A) receptor (A(2A)R) regulates retinal waves and whether A(2A)R regulation of retinal waves acts via presynaptic SACs. We showed that A(2A)R was expressed in the inner plexiform layer and ganglion cell layer of the developing rat retina. Knockdown of A(2A)R decreased the frequency of spontaneous Ca²⁺ transients, suggesting that endogenous A(2A)R may up-regulate wave frequency. To investigate whether A(2A)R acts via presynaptic SACs, we targeted gene expression to SACs by the metabotropic glutamate receptor type II promoter. Ca²⁺ transient frequency was increased by expressing wild-type A(2A)R (A2AR-WT) in SACs, suggesting that A(2A)R may up-regulate retinal waves via presynaptic SACs. Subsequent patch-clamp recordings on RGCs revealed that presynaptic A(2A)R-WT increased the frequency of wave-associated postsynaptic currents (PSCs) or depolarizations compared to the control, without changing the RGC's excitability, membrane potentials, or PSC charge. These findings suggest that presynaptic A(2A)R may not affect the membrane properties of postsynaptic RGCs. In contrast, by expressing the C-terminal truncated A(2A)R mutant (A(2A)R-ΔC) in SACs, the wave frequency was reduced compared to the A(2A)R-WT, but was similar to the control, suggesting that the full-length A(2A)R in SACs is required for A(2A)R up-regulation of retinal waves. A(2A)R up-regulates the frequency of retinal waves via presynaptic SACs, requiring its full-length protein structure. Thus, by

  13. Baicalin attenuates chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension via adenosine A2A receptor-induced SDF-1/CXCR4/PI3K/AKT signaling.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoying; Wu, Peiliang; Huang, Feifei; Xu, Min; Chen, Mayun; Huang, Kate; Li, Guo-Ping; Xu, Manhuan; Yao, Dan; Wang, Liangxing

    2017-08-03

    Baicalin, an important flavonoid in Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi extracts, exerts a variety of pharmacological effects. In this study, we explored the effects of baicalin on chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and investigated the mechanism underlying these effects. Moreover, we examined whether the inflammatory response was mediated by the A 2A receptor (A 2A R) and stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4)-induced phosphatidyl inositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling in vivo. We established a hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (HPH) mouse model by subjecting wild-type (WT) and A 2A R knockout (A 2A R -/- ) animals to chronic hypoxia, and we examined the effects of a 4-week treatment with baicalin or the A 2A R agonist CGS21680 in these animals. Invasive hemodynamic parameters, the right ventricular hypertrophy index, pulmonary congestion, the pulmonary arterial remodeling index, blood gas parameters, A 2A R expression, and the expression of SDF-1/CXCR4/PI3K/protein kinase B (PKB; AKT) signaling components were measured. Compared with WT mice, A 2A R -/- mice exhibited increased right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), right ventricle-to-left ventricle plus septum [RV/(LV + S)] ratio, RV weight-to-body weight (RV/BW) ratio, and lung wet weight-to-body weight (Lung/BW) ratio in the absence of an altered mean carotid arterial pressure (mCAP). These changes were accompanied by increases in pulmonary artery wall area and thickness and reductions in arterial oxygen pressure (P a O 2 ) and hydrogen ion concentration (pH). In the HPH model, A 2A R -/- mice displayed increased CXCR4, SDF-1, phospho-PI3K, and phospho-AKT expression compared with WT mice. Treating WT and A 2A R -/- HPH mice with baicalin or CGS21680 attenuated the hypoxia-induced increases in RVSP, RV/(LV + S) and Lung/BW, as well as pulmonary arterial remodeling. Additionally, baicalin or CGS21680 alone could reverse the hypoxia

  14. Serotonin/Dopamine Interactions in a Hyperactive Mouse: Reduced Serotonin Receptor 1B Activity Reverses Effects of Dopamine Transporter Knockout

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Frank Scott; Sora, Ichiro; Hen, René; Uhl, George R.

    2014-01-01

    Knockout (KO) mice that lack the dopamine transporter (SL6A3; DAT) display increased locomotion that can be attenuated, under some circumstances, by administration of drugs that normally produce psychostimulant-like effects, such as amphetamine and methylphenidate. These results have led to suggestions that DAT KO mice may model features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and that these drugs may act upon serotonin (5-HT) systems to produce these unusual locomotor decreasing effects. Evidence from patterns of brain expression and initial pharmacologic studies led us to use genetic and pharmacologic approaches to examine the influence of altered 5-HT1B receptor activity on hyperactivity in DAT KO mice. Heterozygous 5-HT1B KO and pharmacologic 5-HT1B antagonism both attenuated locomotor hyperactivity in DAT KO mice. Furthermore, DAT KO mice with reduced, but not eliminated, 5-HT1B receptor expression regained cocaine-stimulated locomotion, which was absent in DAT KO mice with normal levels of 5-HT1B receptor expression. Further experiments demonstrated that the degree of habituation to the testing apparatus determined whether cocaine had no effect on locomotion in DAT KO or reduced locomotion, helping to resolve differences among prior reports. These findings of complementation of the locomotor effects of DAT KO by reducing 5-HT1B receptor activity underscore roles for interactions between specific 5-HT receptors and dopamine (DA) systems in basal and cocaine-stimulated locomotion and support evaluation of 5-HT1B antagonists as potential, non-stimulant ADHD therapeutics. PMID:25514162

  15. Singular Location and Signaling Profile of Adenosine A2A-Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Heteromers in the Dorsal Striatum.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Estefanía; Chiarlone, Anna; Medrano, Mireia; Puigdellívol, Mar; Bibic, Lucka; Howell, Lesley A; Resel, Eva; Puente, Nagore; Casarejos, María J; Perucho, Juan; Botta, Joaquín; Suelves, Nuria; Ciruela, Francisco; Ginés, Silvia; Galve-Roperh, Ismael; Casadó, Vicent; Grandes, Pedro; Lutz, Beat; Monory, Krisztina; Canela, Enric I; Lluís, Carmen; McCormick, Peter J; Guzmán, Manuel

    2018-04-01

    The dorsal striatum is a key node for many neurobiological processes such as motor activity, cognitive functions, and affective processes. The proper functioning of striatal neurons relies critically on metabotropic receptors. Specifically, the main adenosine and endocannabinoid receptors present in the striatum, ie, adenosine A 2A receptor (A 2A R) and cannabinoid CB 1 receptor (CB 1 R), are of pivotal importance in the control of neuronal excitability. Facilitatory and inhibitory functional interactions between striatal A 2A R and CB 1 R have been reported, and evidence supports that this cross-talk may rely, at least in part, on the formation of A 2A R-CB 1 R heteromeric complexes. However, the specific location and properties of these heteromers have remained largely unknown. Here, by using techniques that allowed a precise visualization of the heteromers in situ in combination with sophisticated genetically modified animal models, together with biochemical and pharmacological approaches, we provide a high-resolution expression map and a detailed functional characterization of A 2A R-CB 1 R heteromers in the dorsal striatum. Specifically, our data unveil that the A 2A R-CB 1 R heteromer (i) is essentially absent from corticostriatal projections and striatonigral neurons, and, instead, is largely present in striatopallidal neurons, (ii) displays a striking G protein-coupled signaling profile, where co-stimulation of both receptors leads to strongly reduced downstream signaling, and (iii) undergoes an unprecedented dysfunction in Huntington's disease, an archetypal disease that affects striatal neurons. Altogether, our findings may open a new conceptual framework to understand the role of coordinated adenosine-endocannabinoid signaling in the indirect striatal pathway, which may be relevant in motor function and neurodegenerative diseases.

  16. Regional brain uptake of the muscarinic ligand, [18F]FP-TZTP, is greatly decreased in M2 receptor knockout mice but not in M1, M3 and M4 receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Jagoda, E M; Kiesewetter, D O; Shimoji, K; Ravasi, L; Yamada, M; Gomeza, J; Wess, J; Eckelman, W C

    2003-04-01

    A muscarinic receptor radioligand, 3-(3-(3-fluoropropyl)thio) -1,2,5,thiadiazol-4-yl)-1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-1-methylpyridine (fP-TZTP) radiolabeled with the positron emitting radionuclide (18)F ([(18)F]FP-TZTP) displayed regional brain distribution consistent with M2 receptor densities in rat brain. The purpose of the present study is to further elucidate the subtype selectivity of [(18)F]FP-TZTP using genetically engineered mice which lacked functional M1, M2, M3, or M4 muscarinic receptors. Using ex vivo autoradiography, the regional brain localization of [(18)F]FP-TZTP in M2 knockout (M2 KO) was significantly decreased (51.3 to 61.4%; P<0.01) when compared to the wild-type (WT) mice in amygdala, brain stem, caudate putamen, cerebellum, cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, superior colliculus, and thalamus. In similar studies with M1KO, M3KO and M4KO compared to their WT mice, [(18)F]FP-TZTP uptakes in the same brain regions were not significantly decreased at P<0.01. However, in amygdala and hippocampus small decreases of 19.5% and 22.7%, respectively, were observed for M1KO vs WT mice at P<0.05. Given the fact that large decreases in [(18)F]FP-TZTP brain uptakes were seen only in M2 KO vs. WT mice, we conclude that [(18)F]FP-TZTP preferentially labels M2 receptors in vivo.

  17. Selective Attention to Visual Stimuli Using Auditory Distractors Is Altered in Alpha-9 Nicotinic Receptor Subunit Knock-Out Mice.

    PubMed

    Terreros, Gonzalo; Jorratt, Pascal; Aedo, Cristian; Elgoyhen, Ana Belén; Delano, Paul H

    2016-07-06

    During selective attention, subjects voluntarily focus their cognitive resources on a specific stimulus while ignoring others. Top-down filtering of peripheral sensory responses by higher structures of the brain has been proposed as one of the mechanisms responsible for selective attention. A prerequisite to accomplish top-down modulation of the activity of peripheral structures is the presence of corticofugal pathways. The mammalian auditory efferent system is a unique neural network that originates in the auditory cortex and projects to the cochlear receptor through the olivocochlear bundle, and it has been proposed to function as a top-down filter of peripheral auditory responses during attention to cross-modal stimuli. However, to date, there is no conclusive evidence of the involvement of olivocochlear neurons in selective attention paradigms. Here, we trained wild-type and α-9 nicotinic receptor subunit knock-out (KO) mice, which lack cholinergic transmission between medial olivocochlear neurons and outer hair cells, in a two-choice visual discrimination task and studied the behavioral consequences of adding different types of auditory distractors. In addition, we evaluated the effects of contralateral noise on auditory nerve responses as a measure of the individual strength of the olivocochlear reflex. We demonstrate that KO mice have a reduced olivocochlear reflex strength and perform poorly in a visual selective attention paradigm. These results confirm that an intact medial olivocochlear transmission aids in ignoring auditory distraction during selective attention to visual stimuli. The auditory efferent system is a neural network that originates in the auditory cortex and projects to the cochlear receptor through the olivocochlear system. It has been proposed to function as a top-down filter of peripheral auditory responses during attention to cross-modal stimuli. However, to date, there is no conclusive evidence of the involvement of olivocochlear

  18. Deletion of Adenosine A2A Receptors from Astrocytes Disrupts Glutamate Homeostasis Leading to Psychomotor and Cognitive Impairment: Relevance to Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Matos, Marco; Shen, Hai-Ying; Augusto, Elisabete; Wang, Yumei; Wei, Catherine J.; Wang, Yu Tian; Agostinho, Paula; Boison, Detlev; Cunha, Rodrigo A.; Chen, Jiang-Fan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) modulate dopamine and glutamate signaling and thereby may influence some of the psychomotor and cognitive processes associated with schizophrenia. Because astroglial A2AR regulate the availability of glutamate, we hypothesized that they might play an unprecedented role in some of the processes leading to the development of schizophrenia, which we investigated using a mouse line with a selective deletion of A2AR in astrocytes (Gfa2-A2AR knockout [KO] mice]. METHODS We examined Gfa2-A2AR KO mice for behaviors thought to recapitulate some features of schizophrenia, namely enhanced MK-801 psychomotor response (positive symptoms) and decreased working memory (cognitive symptoms). In addition, we probed for neurochemical alterations in the glutamatergic circuitry, evaluating glutamate uptake and release and the levels of key proteins defining glutamatergic signaling (glutamate transporter-I [GLT-I], N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors [NMDA-R] and α-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors [AMPA-R]) to provide a mechanistic understanding of the phenotype encountered. RESULTS We show that Gfa2-A2AR KO mice exhibited enhanced MK-801 psychomotor response and decreased working memory; this was accompanied by a disruption of glutamate homeostasis characterized by aberrant GLT-I activity, increased presynaptic glutamate release, NMDA-R 2B subunit upregulation, and increased internalization of AMPA-R. Accordingly, selective GLT-I inhibition or blockade of GluR1/2 endocytosis prevented the psychomotor and cognitive phenotypes in Gfa2-A2AR KO mice, namely in the nucleus accumbens. CONCLUSIONS These results show that the dysfunction of astrocytic A2AR, by controlling GLT-I activity, triggers an astrocyte-to-neuron wave of communication resulting in disrupted glutamate homeostasis, thought to underlie several endophenotypes relevant to schizophrenia. PMID:25869810

  19. Deletion of adenosine A2A receptors from astrocytes disrupts glutamate homeostasis leading to psychomotor and cognitive impairment: relevance to schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Matos, Marco; Shen, Hai-Ying; Augusto, Elisabete; Wang, Yumei; Wei, Catherine J; Wang, Yu Tian; Agostinho, Paula; Boison, Detlev; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Chen, Jiang-Fan

    2015-12-01

    Adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) modulate dopamine and glutamate signaling and thereby may influence some of the psychomotor and cognitive processes associated with schizophrenia. Because astroglial A2AR regulate the availability of glutamate, we hypothesized that they might play an unprecedented role in some of the processes leading to the development of schizophrenia, which we investigated using a mouse line with a selective deletion of A2AR in astrocytes (Gfa2-A2AR knockout [KO] mice]. We examined Gfa2-A2AR KO mice for behaviors thought to recapitulate some features of schizophrenia, namely enhanced MK-801 psychomotor response (positive symptoms) and decreased working memory (cognitive symptoms). In addition, we probed for neurochemical alterations in the glutamatergic circuitry, evaluating glutamate uptake and release and the levels of key proteins defining glutamatergic signaling (glutamate transporter-I [GLT-I], N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors [NMDA-R] and α-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors [AMPA-R]) to provide a mechanistic understanding of the phenotype encountered. We show that Gfa2-A2AR KO mice exhibited enhanced MK-801 psychomotor response and decreased working memory; this was accompanied by a disruption of glutamate homeostasis characterized by aberrant GLT-I activity, increased presynaptic glutamate release, NMDA-R 2B subunit upregulation, and increased internalization of AMPA-R. Accordingly, selective GLT-I inhibition or blockade of GluR1/2 endocytosis prevented the psychomotor and cognitive phenotypes in Gfa2-A2AR KO mice, namely in the nucleus accumbens. These results show that the dysfunction of astrocytic A2AR, by controlling GLT-I activity, triggers an astrocyte-to-neuron wave of communication resulting in disrupted glutamate homeostasis, thought to underlie several endophenotypes relevant to schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. A Role for a Specific Cholesterol Interaction in Stabilizing the Apo Configuration of the Human A2A Adenosine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Lyman, Edward; Higgs, Chris; Kim, Byungchan; Lupyan, Dmitry; Shelley, John C.; Farid, Ramy; Voth, Gregory A.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The function of G-protein coupled receptors is tightly modulated by the lipid environment. Long timescale molecular dynamics simulations (totaling ~3 microsec) of the A2A receptor in cholesterol-free bilayers, with and without the antagonist ZM241385 bound, demonstrate an instability of helix II in the apo receptor in cholesterol-poor membrane regions. We directly observe that the effect of cholesterol binding is to stabilize helix II against a buckling type deformation, perhaps rationalizing the observation that the A2A receptor couples to G-protein only in the presence of cholesterol (Zezula and Freissmuth, 2008). The results suggest a mechanism by which the A2A receptor may function as a coincidence detector, activating only in the presence of both cholesterol and agonist. We also observed a previously hypothesized conformation of the tryptophan “rotameric switch” on helix VI in which a phenylalanine on helix V positions the tryptophan out of the ligand binding pocket. PMID:20004169

  1. Reinforcing and neurochemical effects of cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists, but not cocaine, are altered by an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Justinová, Zuzana; Ferré, Sergi; Redhi, Godfrey H.; Mascia, Paola; Stroik, Jessica; Quarta, Davide; Yasar, Sevil; Müller, Christa E.; Franco, Rafael; Goldberg, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    Several recent studies suggest functional and molecular interactions between striatal adenosine A2A and cannabinoid CB1 receptors. Here we demonstrate that A2A receptors selectively modulate reinforcing effects of cannabinoids. We studied effects of A2A receptor blockade on the reinforcing effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and the endogenous CB1 receptor ligand anandamide under a fixed-ratio (FR) schedule of intravenous drug injection in squirrel monkeys. A low dose of the selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3 (1 mg/kg) caused downward shifts of THC and anandamide dose-response curves. In contrast, a higher dose of MSX-3 (3 mg/kg) shifted THC and anandamide dose-response curves to the left. MSX-3 did not modify cocaine or food-pellet self-administration. Also, MSX-3 neither promoted reinstatement of extinguished drug-seeking behavior nor altered reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior by non-contingent priming injections of THC. Finally, using in-vivo microdialysis in freely-moving rats, a behaviorally active dose of MSX-3 significantly counteracted THC-induced, but not cocaine-induced, increases in extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens shell. The significant and selective results obtained with the lower dose of MSX-3 suggest that adenosine A2A antagonists acting preferentially at presynaptic A2A receptors might selectively reduce reinforcing effects of cannabinoids that lead to their abuse. However, the appearance of potentiating rather than suppressing effects on cannabinoid reinforcement at the higher dose of MSX-3 would likely preclude the use of such a compound as a medication for cannabis abuse. Adenosine A2A antagonists with more selectivity for presynaptic versus postsynaptic receptors could be potential medications for treatment of cannabis abuse. PMID:21054689

  2. The neuronal Ca(2+) -binding protein 2 (NECAB2) interacts with the adenosine A(2A) receptor and modulates the cell surface expression and function of the receptor.

    PubMed

    Canela, Laia; Luján, Rafael; Lluís, Carme; Burgueño, Javier; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I; Franco, Rafael; Ciruela, Francisco

    2007-09-01

    Heptaspanning membrane also known as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) do interact with a variety of intracellular proteins whose function is regulate receptor traffic and/or signaling. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, NECAB2, a neuronal calcium binding protein, was identified as a binding partner for the adenosine A(2A) receptor (A(2A)R) interacting with its C-terminal domain. Co-localization, co-immunoprecipitation and pull-down experiments showed a close and specific interaction between A(2A)R and NECAB2 in both transfected HEK-293 cells and also in rat striatum. Immunoelectron microscopy detection of NECAB2 and A(2A)R in the rat striatopallidal structures indicated that both proteins are co-distributed in the same glutamatergic nerve terminals. The interaction of NECAB2 with A(2A)R modulated the cell surface expression, the ligand-dependent internalization and the receptor-mediated activation of the MAPK pathway. Overall, these results show that A(2A)R interacts with NECAB2 in striatal neurones co-expressing the two proteins and that the interaction is relevant for A(2A)R function.

  3. CHOLESTEROL 27-HYDROXYLASE BUT NOT APOLIPOPROTEIN apoE CONTRIBUTES TO A2A ADENOSINE RECEPTOR STIMULATED REVERSE CHOLESTEROL TRANSPORT

    PubMed Central

    Bingham, Taiese Crystal; Parathath, Saj; Tian, Heather; Reiss, Allison; Chan, Edwin; Fisher, Edward A.; Cronstein, Bruce N.

    2011-01-01

    Movement of free cholesterol between the cellular compartment and acceptor is governed by cholesterol gradients that are determined by several enzymes and reverse cholesterol transport proteins. We have previously demonstrated that adenosine A2A receptors inhibit foam cell formation and stimulate production of cholesterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1), an enzyme involved in the conversion of cholesterol to oxysterols. We therefore asked whether the effect of adenosine A2A receptors on foam cell formation in vitro are mediated by CYP27A1 or apoE, a carrier for cholesterol in the serum. We found that specific lentiviral siRNA infection markedly reduced apoE or 27-hydroxylase mRNA in THP-1 cells. Despite diminished apoE expression (p< 0.0002, IFNγ CGS vs. IFNγ alone, n= 4) CGS-21680, an adenosine A2A receptor agonist, inhibits foam cell formation. In contrast, CGS-21680 had no effect on reducing foam cell formation in CYP27A1 KD cells (4±2% p<0.5113 inhibition vs. IFNγ alone n= 4). Previously we reported the A2A agonist CGS-21680 increases apoAI-mediated cholesterol efflux nearly 2-fold in wildtype macrophages. Adenosine receptor activation had no effect on cholesterol efflux in CYP27A1 KD cells but reduced efflux in apoE KD cells. These results demonstrate that adenosine A2A receptor occupancy diminishes foam cell formation by increasing expression and function of CYP27A1. PMID:21258856

  4. Cholesterol 27-hydroxylase but not apolipoprotein apoE contributes to A2A adenosine receptor stimulated reverse cholesterol transport.

    PubMed

    Bingham, Taiese Crystal; Parathath, Saj; Tian, Heather; Reiss, Allison; Chan, Edwin; Fisher, Edward A; Cronstein, Bruce N

    2012-02-01

    Movement of free cholesterol between the cellular compartment and acceptor is governed by cholesterol gradients that are determined by several enzymes and reverse cholesterol transport proteins. We have previously demonstrated that adenosine A(2A) receptors inhibit foam cell formation and stimulate production of cholesterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1), an enzyme involved in the conversion of cholesterol to oxysterols. We therefore asked whether the effect of adenosine A(2A) receptors on foam cell formation in vitro is mediated by CYP27A1 or apoE, a carrier for cholesterol in the serum. We found that specific lentiviral siRNA infection markedly reduced apoE or 27-hydroxylase mRNA in THP-1 cells. Despite diminished apoE expression (p < 0.0002, interferon-gamma (IFNγ) CGS vs. IFNγ alone, n=4), CGS-21680, an adenosine A(2A) receptor agonist, inhibits foam cell formation. In contrast, CGS-21680 had no effect on reducing foam cell formation in CYP27A1 KD cells (4 ± 2%; p<0.5113, inhibition vs. IFNγ alone, n=4). Previously, we reported the A(2A) agonist CGS-21680 increases apoAI-mediated cholesterol efflux nearly twofold in wild-type macrophages. Adenosine receptor activation had no effect on cholesterol efflux in CYP27A1 KD cells but reduced efflux in apoE KD cells. These results demonstrate that adenosine A(2A) receptor occupancy diminishes foam cell formation by increasing expression and function of CYP27A1.

  5. Adenosine receptor A2A deficiency in leukocytes increases arterial neointima formation in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Zhang, Weiyu; Tang, Rong; Zhu, Chuhong; Bucher, Christoph; Blazar, Bruce R; Geng, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Chunxiang; Linden, Joel; Wu, Chaodong; Huo, Yuqing

    2010-05-01

    To use the mice deficient in both adenosine receptor A(2A)(A(2A)R(-/-)) and apolipoprotein E (apoE(-/-)) to investigate the role of A(2A)R in mediating the interactions of leukocytes with injured arterial walls and the formation of arterial neointima induced by a guide wire. In apoE(-/-) mice, A(2A)R deficiency increased the size of the arterial neointima in injured carotid arteries by 83%. Arterial neointima formation was also enhanced in chimeric mice that underwent bone marrow transplantation (these mice lacked A(2A)R in their bone marrow-derived cells). Epifluorescence intravital microscopy showed that neutrophil rolling and adherence to the injured arterial area were enhanced by 80% and 110% in A(2A)R(-/-)/apoE(-/-) mice, respectively. This phenomenon occurred even though the protein levels of homing molecules on A(2A)R-deficient neutrophils were unchanged from those of wild-type neutrophils. A(2A)R-deficient neutrophils exhibited an increase in the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) clustering, and the affinity of b(2) integrins. The inhibition of p38 phosphorylation abrogated the increased PSGL-1 clustering and beta(2) integrin affinity, thus reversing the increased homing ability of A(2A)R-deficient leukocytes. A(2A)R plays a complex role in inflammation and tissue injury. The deficiency of A(2A)R enhances the homing ability of leukocytes and increases the formation of the arterial neointima after injury. A(2A)R antagonists are being tested for the treatment of neurodegenerative and other chronic diseases. An evaluation of the effect of A(2A)R antagonists on arterial restenosis after arterial angioplasty should be conducted.

  6. Dysfunctional Presynaptic M2 Receptors in the Presence of Chronically High Acetylcholine Levels: Data from the PRiMA Knockout Mouse.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Franziska; Krejci, Eric; Zimmermann, Martina; Klein, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    The muscarinic M2 receptor (M2R) acts as a negative feedback regulator in central cholinergic systems. Activation of the M2 receptor limits acetylcholine (ACh) release, especially when ACh levels are increased because acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity is acutely inhibited. Chronically high ACh levels in the extracellular space, however, were reported to down-regulate M2R to various degrees. In the present study, we used the PRiMA knockout mouse which develops severely reduced AChE activity postnatally to investigate ACh release, and we used microdialysis to investigate whether the function of M2R to reduce ACh release in vivo was impaired in adult PRiMA knockout mice. We first show that striatal and hippocampal ACh levels, while strongly increased, still respond to AChE inhibitors. Infusion or injection of oxotremorine, a muscarinic M2 agonist, reduced ACh levels in wild-type mice but did not significantly affect ACh levels in PRiMA knockout mice or in wild-type mice in which ACh levels were artificially increased by infusion of neostigmine. Scopolamine, a muscarinic antagonist, increased ACh levels in wild-type mice receiving neostigmine, but not in wild-type mice or in PRiMA knockout mice. These results demonstrate that M2R are dysfunctional and do not affect ACh levels in PRiMA knockout mice, likely because of down-regulation and/or loss of receptor-effector coupling. Remarkably, this loss of function does not affect cognitive functions in PRiMA knockout mice. Our results are discussed in the context of AChE inhibitor therapy as used in dementia.

  7. Decreased Incentive Motivation Following Knockout or Acute Blockade of the Serotonin Transporter: Role of the 5-HT2C Receptor.

    PubMed

    Browne, Caleb J; Fletcher, Paul J

    2016-09-01

    Acute pharmacological elevation of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) activity decreases operant responding for primary reinforcers, suggesting that 5-HT reduces incentive motivation. The mechanism by which 5-HT alters incentive motivation is unknown, but parallel evidence that 5-HT2C receptor agonists also reduce responding for primary reinforcers implicates this receptor as a potential candidate. These experiments examined whether chronic and acute disruptions of serotonin transporter (SERT) activity altered incentive motivation, and whether the 5-HT2C receptor mediated the effects of elevated 5-HT on behavior. To assess incentive motivation, we measured responding for three different reinforcers: a primary reinforcer (saccharin), a conditioned reinforcer (CRf), and an unconditioned sensory reinforcer (USRf). In the chronic condition, responding was compared between SERT knockout (SERT-KO) mice and their wild-type littermates. In the acute condition, responding was examined in wild-type mice following treatment with 10 or 20 mg/kg citalopram, or its vehicle. The ability of the selective 5-HT2C antagonist SB 242084 to prevent the effects of SERT-KO and citalopram on responding was subsequently examined. Both SERT-KO and citalopram reduced responding for saccharin, a CRf, and a USRf. Treatment with SB 242084 enhanced responding for a CRf and a USRf in SERT-KO mice and blocked the effects of citalopram on CRf and USRf responding. However, SB 242084 was unable to prevent the effects of SERT-KO or citalopram on responding for saccharin. These results support a powerful inhibitory function for 5-HT in the control of incentive motivation, and indicate that the 5-HT2C receptor mediates these effects of 5-HT in a reinforcer-dependent manner.

  8. Increased mortality and aggravation of heart failure in liver X receptorknockout mice after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoqiang; Gao, Jianshu; Xia, Qiang; Lu, Tianfei; Wang, Fang

    2016-08-01

    Liver X receptors, LXRα (NR1H3) and LXRβ (NR1H2), are best known as nuclear oxysterol receptors and physiological master regulators of lipid and cholesterol metabolism. LXRα play a protective role in acute myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury, but its role in myocardial infarction (MI) is unknown. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of LXRα knockout on survival and development of chronic heart failure after MI. Wild-type (WT) and LXRα(-/-) mice were subjected to MI followed by serial echocardiographic and histological assessments. Greater myocyte apoptosis and inflammation within the infarcted zones were found in LXRα(-/-) group at 3 days after MI. At 4 weeks post-MI, LXRα(-/-) MI murine hearts demonstrated significantly increased infarct size, reduced ejection fraction (LXRα(-/-) 29.4 % versus WT 34.4 %), aggravated left ventricular (LV) chamber dilation, enhanced fibrosis and reduced angiogenesis. In addition, LXRα(-/-) mice had increased mortality compared with WT mice. LXRα deficiency increases mortality, aggravates pathological injury and LV remodeling induced by MI. Drugs specifically targeting LXRα may be promising in the treatment of MI.

  9. Orp8 deficiency in bone marrow-derived cells reduces atherosclerotic lesion progression in LDL receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    van Kampen, Erik; Beaslas, Olivier; Hildebrand, Reeni B; Lammers, Bart; Van Berkel, Theo J C; Olkkonen, Vesa M; Van Eck, Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Oxysterol binding protein Related Proteins (ORPs) mediate intracellular lipid transport and homeostatic regulation. ORP8 downregulates ABCA1 expression in macrophages and cellular cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein A-I. In line, ORP8 knockout mice display increased amounts of HDL cholesterol in blood. However, the role of macrophage ORP8 in atherosclerotic lesion development is unknown. LDL receptor knockout (KO) mice were transplanted with bone marrow (BM) from ORP8 KO mice and C57Bl/6 wild type mice. Subsequently, the animals were challenged with a high fat/high cholesterol Western-type diet to induce atherosclerosis. After 9 weeks of Western-Type diet feeding, serum levels of VLDL cholesterol were increased by 50% in ORP8 KO BM recipients compared to the wild-type recipients. However, no differences were observed in HDL cholesterol. Despite the increase in VLDL cholesterol, lesions in mice transplanted with ORP8 KO bone marrow were 20% smaller compared to WT transplanted controls. In addition, ORP8 KO transplanted mice displayed a modest increase in the percentage of macrophages in the lesion as compared to the wild-type transplanted group. ORP8 deficient macrophages displayed decreased production of pro-inflammatory factors IL-6 and TNFα, decreased expression of differentiation markers and showed a reduced capacity to form foam cells in the peritoneal cavity. Deletion of ORP8 in bone marrow-derived cells, including macrophages, reduces lesion progression after 9 weeks of WTD challenge, despite increased amounts of circulating pro-atherogenic VLDL. Reduced macrophage foam cell formation and lower macrophage inflammatory potential are plausible mechanisms contributing to the observed reduction in atherosclerosis.

  10. Integrating Pharmacophore into Membrane Molecular Dynamics Simulations to Improve Homology Modeling of G Protein-coupled Receptors with Ligand Selectivity: A2A Adenosine Receptor as an Example.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lingxiao; Guan, Mengxin; Jin, Hongwei; Liu, Zhenming; Zhang, Liangren

    2015-12-01

    Homology modeling has been applied to fill in the gap in experimental G protein-coupled receptors structure determination. However, achievement of G protein-coupled receptors homology models with ligand selectivity remains challenging due to structural diversity of G protein-coupled receptors. In this work, we propose a novel strategy by integrating pharmacophore and membrane molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to improve homology modeling of G protein-coupled receptors with ligand selectivity. To validate this integrated strategy, the A2A adenosine receptor (A2A AR), whose structures in both active and inactive states have been established, has been chosen as an example. We performed blind predictions of the active-state A2A AR structure based on the inactive-state structure and compared the performance of different refinement strategies. The blind prediction model combined with the integrated strategy identified ligand-receptor interactions and conformational changes of key structural elements related to the activation of A2 A AR, including (i) the movements of intracellular ends of TM3 and TM5/TM6; (ii) the opening of ionic lock; (iii) the movements of binding site residues. The integrated strategy of pharmacophore with molecular dynamics simulations can aid in the optimization in the identification of side chain conformations in receptor models. This strategy can be further investigated in homology modeling and expand its applicability to other G protein-coupled receptor modeling, which should aid in the discovery of more effective and selective G protein-coupled receptor ligands. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Antidepressant activity of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, istradefylline (KW-6002) on learned helplessness in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Koji; Kobayashi, Minoru; Shiozaki, Shizuo; Ohta, Teruko; Mori, Akihisa; Jenner, Peter; Kanda, Tomoyuki

    2014-07-01

    Istradefylline, an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, improves motor function in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD) and in patients with PD. In addition, some A2A antagonists exert antidepressant-like activity in rodent models of depression, such as the forced swim and the tail suspension tests. We have investigated the effect of istradefylline on depression-like behaviors using the rat learned helplessness (LH) model. Acute, as well as chronic, oral administration of istradefylline significantly improved the inescapable shock (IES)-induced escape deficit with a degree of efficacy comparable to chronic treatment with the tricyclic antidepressant desipramine and the selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine. Both the A1/A2A receptor nonspecific antagonist theophylline and the moderately selective antagonist CGS15943, but not the A1 selective antagonist DPCPX, ameliorated the IES-induced escape deficit. The enhancement of escape response by istradefylline was reversed by a local injection of the A2A specific agonist CGS21680 either into the nucleus accumbens, the caudate-putamen, or the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, but not by the A1 specific agonist R-PIA into the nucleus accumbens. Moreover, neither the 5-HT2A/2C receptor antagonist methysergide or the adrenergic α 2 antagonist yohimbine, nor the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol, affected the improvement of escape response induced by istradefylline. Istradefylline exerts antidepressant-like effects via modulation of A2A receptor activity which is independent of monoaminergic transmission in the brain. Istradefylline may represent a novel treatment option for depression in PD as well as for the motor symptoms.

  12. The protective effect of adenosine A2A receptor antagonism in cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Pedata, F; Gianfriddo, M; Turchi, D; Melani, A

    2005-03-01

    We reviewed our most recent work on the protective effect of adenosine A(2A)antagonism in cerebral ischemia. Focal ischemia was produced in rats by introducing a nylon monofilament pre-coated with silicone through the external carotid artery to occlude the right MCA at its origin. A(2A) antagonism was found protective in the model of permanent focal ischemia induced by the monofilament technique. This methodology provides the possibility of evaluating the protection against the outflow of excitatory amino acids and against an acute motor disturbance, i.e.contralateral turning to the ischemic side in the first hours after ischemia in awake rats. Hours later, a definite neurological deficit and necrotic neuronal damage can be evaluated. Our results suggest that A(2A) antagonism may be protective from the earliest up to several hours after the ischemic event.

  13. Deletion of striatal adenosine A2A receptor spares latent inhibition and prepulse inhibition but impairs active avoidance learning

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Philipp; Wei, Catherine J.; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Boison, Detlev; Yee, Benjamin K.

    2013-01-01

    Following early clinical leads, the adenosine A2AR receptor (A2AR) has continued to attract attention as a potential novel target for treating schizophrenia; especially against the negative and cognitive symptoms of the disease because of A2AR’s unique modulatory action over glutamatergic in addition to dopaminergic signaling. Through the antagonistic interaction with the dopamine D2 receptor, and by regulating glutamate release and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor function, striatal A2AR is ideally positioned to fine-tune the dopamine-glutamate balance whose disturbance is implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, the precise function of striatal A2ARsin the regulation of schizophrenia-relevant behavior is poorly understood. Here, we tested the impact of conditional striatum-specific A2AR knockout (st-A2AR-KO) on latent inhibition (LI) and prepulse inhibition (PPI) – behavior that is tightly regulated by striatal dopamine and glutamate. These are two common cross-species translational tests for the assessment of selective attention and sensorimotor gating deficits reported in schizophrenia patients; and enhanced performance in these tests is associated with antipsychotic drug action. We found that neither LI nor PPI was significantly affected in st-A2AR-KO mice; although a deficit in active avoidance learning was identified in these animals. The latter phenotype, however, was not replicated in another form of aversive conditioning – conditioned taste aversion. Hence, the present study shows that neither learned inattention (as measured by LI) nor sensory gating (as indexed by PPI) requires the integrity of striatal A2ARs– a finding that may undermine the hypothesized importance of A2AR in the genesis and/or treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:23276608

  14. Attenuated sensitivity to neuroactive steroids in γ-aminobutyrate type A receptor delta subunit knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Mihalek, Robert M.; Banerjee, Pradeep K.; Korpi, Esa R.; Quinlan, Joseph J.; Firestone, Leonard L.; Mi, Zhi-Ping; Lagenaur, Carl; Tretter, Verena; Sieghart, Werner; Anagnostaras, Stephan G.; Sage, Jennifer R.; Fanselow, Michael S.; Guidotti, Alessandro; Spigelman, Igor; Li, Zhiwei; DeLorey, Timothy M.; Olsen, Richard W.; Homanics, Gregg E.

    1999-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptors mediate fast inhibitory synaptic transmission and have been implicated in responses to sedative/hypnotic agents (including neuroactive steroids), anxiety, and learning and memory. Using gene targeting technology, we generated a strain of mice deficient in the δ subunit of the GABA type A receptors. In vivo testing of various behavioral responses revealed a strikingly selective attenuation of responses to neuroactive steroids, but not to other modulatory drugs. Electrophysiological recordings from hippocampal slices revealed a significantly faster miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current decay time in null mice, with no change in miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current amplitude or frequency. Learning and memory assessed with fear conditioning were normal. These results begin to illuminate the novel contributions of the δ subunit to GABA pharmacology and sedative/hypnotic responses and behavior and provide insights into the physiology of neurosteroids. PMID:10536021

  15. Serotonin₂A/C receptors mediate the aggressive phenotype of TLX gene knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Juárez, Pablo; Valdovinos, Maria G; May, Michael E; Lloyd, Blair P; Couppis, Maria H; Kennedy, Craig H

    2013-11-01

    Deleting the tailless (TLX) gene in mice produces a highly aggressive phenotype yet to be characterized in terms of heterozygous animals or neurotransmitter mechanisms. We sought to establish pharmacological control over aggression and study the role of serotonin (5-HT)(2A/C) receptors in mediating changes in aggression. We analyzed aggression in mice heterozygous (+/-) or homozygous (-/-) for the TLX gene and wild-types (+/+) using a resident-intruder paradigm. No +/+ mice were aggressive, 36% of +/- TLX and 100% of -/- TLX mice showed aggression. Dose-effect functions were established for clozapine (0.1-1.5mg/kg, ip), ketanserin (0.3-1.25 mg/kg, ip), and (±)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane [(±)DOI] (0.5-2.0 mg/kg, ip). Injecting clozapine decreased the frequency and duration of attacks for +/- TLX and -/- TLX mice. Clozapine did not decrease grooming in either +/- TLX or -/- TLX mice but may have increased locomotion for -/- TLX mice. Injecting ketanserin, a 5-HT(2A/C) receptor antagonist, produced differential decreases in frequency and latency to aggression between genotypes and corresponding increases in locomotor behavior. Injecting (±)DOI, a 5-HT(2A/C) receptor agonist, increased the frequency and duration of attacks, decreased the latency to attacks, and decreased locomotion in +/- and -/- TLX mice. Results of the current study suggest aggression displayed by TLX null and heterozygous mice involves 5-HT(2A/C) receptors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Adenosine A2A receptor inhibition restores the normal transport of endothelial glutamate transporters in the brain.

    PubMed

    Bai, Wei; Li, Ping; Ning, Ya-Lei; Peng, Yan; Xiong, Ren-Ping; Yang, Nan; Chen, Xing; Zhou, Yuan-Guo

    2018-04-15

    Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) on cerebral vascular endothelial cells play an important role in maintaining glutamate homeostasis in the brain. The dysfunction of endothelial EAATs is an important reason for the dramatically elevated brain glutamate levels after brain injury, such as traumatic brain injury (TBI). The adenosine A 2A receptor (A 2A R) plays an important role in regulating the brain glutamate level after brain injury; however, researchers have not clearly determined whether this role was related to its ability to regulate endothelial EAATs. Activation of A 2A R in vitro not only decreased the PKA- and glutamate level-dependent strengthening of the interaction between NKA-α1 and the FXYD1 subunit and the subsequent decrease in the activity of Na + /K + -ATPases (NKAs) but also enhanced its interaction with EAATs and ultimately aggravated the reverse transport function of endothelial EAATs under oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) conditions. Conversely, inhibition of A 2A R restored the normal transport of EAAT. Moreover, A 2A R inhibition increased NKA activity and decreased its interaction with EAATs in isolated brain capillaries after TBI, further confirming its role in endothelial EAATs in vivo. Based on our results, A 2A R played an important role in regulating endothelial EAAT function, and strategies that restore the normal transport of endothelial EAATs through the inhibition of A 2A R might serve as an effective treatment for brain injury. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Adenosine is required for sustained inflammasome activation via the A2A receptor and the HIF-1α pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Xinshou; Ghani, Ayaz; Malik, Ahsan; Wilder, Tuere; Colegio, Oscar Rene; Flavell, Richard Anthony; Cronstein, Bruce Neil; Mehal, Wajahat Zafar

    2013-12-01

    Inflammasome pathways are important in chronic diseases; however, it is not known how the signalling is sustained after initiation. Inflammasome activation is dependent on stimuli such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ATP that provide two distinct signals resulting in rapid production of interleukin (IL)-1β, with the lack of response to repeat stimulation. Here we report that adenosine is a key regulator of inflammasome activity, increasing the duration of the inflammatory response via the A2A receptor. Adenosine does not replace signals provided by stimuli such as LPS or ATP but sustains inflammasome activity via a cAMP/PKA/CREB/HIF-1α pathway. In the setting of the lack of IL-1β responses after previous exposure to LPS, adenosine can supersede this tolerogenic state and drive IL-1β production. These data reveal that inflammasome activity is sustained, after initial activation, by A2A receptor-mediated signalling.

  18. Crystal structure of the adenosine A2A receptor bound to an antagonist reveals a potential allosteric pocket

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bingfa; Bachhawat, Priti; Chu, Matthew Ling-Hon; Wood, Martyn; Ceska, Tom; Sands, Zara A.; Mercier, Joel; Lebon, Florence; Kobilka, Tong Sun; Kobilka, Brian K.

    2017-01-01

    The adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) has long been implicated in cardiovascular disorders. As more selective A2AR ligands are being identified, its roles in other disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, are starting to emerge, and A2AR antagonists are important drug candidates for nondopaminergic anti-Parkinson treatment. Here we report the crystal structure of A2A receptor bound to compound 1 (Cmpd-1), a novel A2AR/N-methyl d-aspartate receptor subtype 2B (NR2B) dual antagonist and potential anti-Parkinson candidate compound, at 3.5 Å resolution. The A2A receptor with a cytochrome b562-RIL (BRIL) fusion (A2AR–BRIL) in the intracellular loop 3 (ICL3) was crystallized in detergent micelles using vapor-phase diffusion. Whereas A2AR–BRIL bound to the antagonist ZM241385 has previously been crystallized in lipidic cubic phase (LCP), structural differences in the Cmpd-1–bound A2AR–BRIL prevented formation of the lattice observed with the ZM241385–bound receptor. The crystals grew with a type II crystal lattice in contrast to the typical type I packing seen from membrane protein structures crystallized in LCP. Cmpd-1 binds in a position that overlaps with the native ligand adenosine, but its methoxyphenyl group extends to an exosite not previously observed in other A2AR structures. Structural analysis revealed that Cmpd-1 binding results in the unique conformations of two tyrosine residues, Tyr91.35 and Tyr2717.36, which are critical for the formation of the exosite. The structure reveals insights into antagonist binding that are not observed in other A2AR structures, highlighting flexibility in the binding pocket that may facilitate the development of A2AR-selective compounds for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. PMID:28167788

  19. Crystal structure of the adenosine A 2A receptor bound to an antagonist reveals a potential allosteric pocket

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Bingfa; Bachhawat, Priti; Chu, Matthew Ling-Hon

    2017-02-06

    The adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) has long been implicated in cardiovascular disorders. As more selective A2AR ligands are being identified, its roles in other disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, are starting to emerge, and A2AR antagonists are important drug candidates for nondopaminergic anti-Parkinson treatment. Here we report the crystal structure of A2A receptor bound to compound 1 (Cmpd-1), a novel A2AR/N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subtype 2B (NR2B) dual antagonist and potential anti-Parkinson candidate compound, at 3.5 Å resolution. The A2A receptor with a cytochrome b562-RIL (BRIL) fusion (A2AR–BRIL) in the intracellular loop 3 (ICL3) was crystallized in detergent micelles using vapor-phasemore » diffusion. Whereas A2AR–BRIL bound to the antagonist ZM241385 has previously been crystallized in lipidic cubic phase (LCP), structural differences in the Cmpd-1–bound A2AR–BRIL prevented formation of the lattice observed with the ZM241385–bound receptor. The crystals grew with a type II crystal lattice in contrast to the typical type I packing seen from membrane protein structures crystallized in LCP. Cmpd-1 binds in a position that overlaps with the native ligand adenosine, but its methoxyphenyl group extends to an exosite not previously observed in other A2AR structures. Structural analysis revealed that Cmpd-1 binding results in the unique conformations of two tyrosine residues, Tyr91.35 and Tyr2717.36, which are critical for the formation of the exosite. The structure reveals insights into antagonist binding that are not observed in other A2AR structures, highlighting flexibility in the binding pocket that may facilitate the development of A2AR-selective compounds for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease.« less

  20. Role of D1-like receptors in amphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization: a study using D1A receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Karper, Patrick E; De la Rosa, Herminia; Newman, Eva R; Krall, Catherine M; Nazarian, Arbi; McDougall, Sanders A; Crawford, Cynthia A

    2002-02-01

    The role played by D(1)-like receptors in amphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization has been examined using both the D(1)-like receptor antagonist, SCH 23390, and the D(1A) receptor knockout mouse (i.e. D(1A)-deficient mice). Studies using these two approaches have provided conflicting evidence about the importance of D(1)-like receptors for amphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization. The purpose of the present study was to determine: (a) whether D(1A)-deficient mice exhibit amphetamine-induced locomotor sensitization after 3 and 17 drug abstinence days, and (b) whether SCH 23390, which binds to both D(1A) and D(1B) receptor subtypes, blocks development of amphetamine sensitization in wild-type and D(1A)-deficient mice. In the first experiment, adult wild-type and D(1A)-deficient mice were injected with amphetamine (0, 1, 2, 4, or 8 mg/kg, IP) for 7 consecutive days. In the second experiment, wild-type and D(1A)-deficient mice were pretreated with SCH 23390 (0, 0.15, or 0.5 mg/kg, IP) 30 min prior to being injected with amphetamine (0 or 8 mg/kg, IP). After each daily amphetamine injection, mice were placed in activity chambers where distance traveled (i.e. horizontal locomotor activity) was measured for 60 min. On the test days, which occurred after 3 or 17 drug abstinence days, mice were injected with 1 mg/kg amphetamine and locomotion was measured for 120 min. Both wild-type and D(1A)-deficient mice exhibited amphetamine-induced locomotor sensitization. Pretreatment with 0.5 mg/kg SCH 23390 blocked the development of locomotor sensitization in wild-type mice, but did not alter the sensitized responding of D(1A)-deficient mice. It appears that D(1)-like receptors are necessary for the development of amphetamine sensitization in wild-type mice, while neither the D(1A) nor D(1B) receptor subtypes are necessary for the amphetamine-induced locomotor sensitization of D(1A)-deficient mice. A possible explanation for these conflicting results is that D(1A

  1. The Corticostriatal Adenosine A2A Receptor Controls Maintenance and Retrieval of Spatial Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhihui; Chen, Xingjun; Wang, Tao; Gao, Ying; Li, Fei; Chen, Long; Xue, Jin; He, Yan; Li, Yan; Guo, Wei; Zheng, Wu; Zhang, Liping; Ye, Fenfen; Ren, Xiangpeng; Feng, Yue; Chan, Piu; Chen, Jiang-Fan

    2018-03-15

    Working memory (WM) taps into multiple executive processes including encoding, maintenance, and retrieval of information, but the molecular and circuit modulation of these WM processes remains undefined due to the lack of methods to control G protein-coupled receptor signaling with temporal resolution of seconds. By coupling optogenetic control of the adenosine A 2A receptor (A 2A R) signaling, the Cre-loxP-mediated focal A 2A R knockdown with a delayed non-match-to-place (DNMTP) task, we investigated the effect of optogenetic activation and focal knockdown of A 2A Rs in the dorsomedial striatum (n = 8 to 14 per group) and medial prefrontal cortex (n = 16 to 22 per group) on distinct executive processes of spatial WM. We also evaluated the therapeutic effect of the A 2A R antagonist KW6002 on delayed match-to-sample/place tasks in 6 normal and 6 MPTP-treated cynomolgus monkeys. Optogenetic activation of striatopallidal A 2A Rs in the dorsomedial striatum selectively at the delay and choice (not sample) phases impaired DNMTP performance. Optogenetic activation of A 2A Rs in the medial prefrontal cortex selectively at the delay (not sample or choice) phase improved DNMTP performance. The corticostriatal A 2A R control of spatial WM was specific for a novel but not well-trained DNMTP task. Focal dorsomedial striatum A 2A R knockdown or KW6002 improved DNMTP performance in mice. Last, KW6002 improved spatial WM in delayed match-to-sample and delayed match-to-place tasks of normal and dopamine-depleted cynomolgus monkeys. The A 2A Rs in striatopallidal and medial prefrontal cortex neurons exert distinctive control of WM maintenance and retrieval to achieve cognitive stability and flexibility. The procognitive effect of KW6002 in nonhuman primates provides the preclinical data to translate A 2A R antagonists for improving cognitive impairments in Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased bone loss and amount of osteoclasts in kinin B1 receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves-Zillo, Thais Oliveira; Pugliese, Lívia Souza; Sales, Vicência Micheline Toledo; Mori, Marcelo Alves da Silva; Squaiella-Baptistão, Carla Cristina; Longo-Maugéri, Ieda Maria; Lopes, José Daniel; de Oliveira, Suzana Macedo; Monteiro, Ana Carolina; Pesquero, João Bosco

    2013-07-01

    The pathophysiology of periodontal diseases involves aspects of immunity and bone remodelling. Considering the role of the kinin B1 receptor (Bdkrb1) in inflammation and healing, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the contribution of Bdkrb1 to the pathogenesis of periodontitis. We used a model of ligature-induced experimental periodontitis (LIEP) in mice lacking Bdkrb1 (Bdkrb1(-/-) ) to test the role of this receptor in bone loss and cytokine secretion by lymph nodes cells. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) was used as a pharmacological strategy to support the genetic model. Also, autonomous effect of Bdkrb1 deletion was evaluated in osteoclasts precursors from bone marrow. Bdkrb1(-/-) mice exhibit increased bone loss and IL-17 secretion in response to LIEP when compared to wild type. LIEP does not modify TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-10 levels in Bdkrb1(-/-) mice after 21 days. Bone marrow cells from Bdkrb1(-/-) displayed increased differentiation into functional osteoclasts with consistent artificial calcium phosphate degradation. Furthermore, treatment of mice with ACEi prevented bone destruction. Bdkrb1 participates in the pathogenesis of LIEP bone loss possibly through mechanisms that involve modulation of the TH 17 response, thereby demonstrating its role in the development of periodontitis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Upregulation of Cannabinoid Type 1 Receptors in Dopamine D2 Receptor Knockout Mice Is Reversed by Chronic Forced Ethanol Consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Thanos, P.K.; Wang, G.; Thanos, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    The anatomical proximity of the cannabinoid type 1 (CNR1/CB1R) and the dopamine D2 receptors (DRD2), their ability to form CB1R-DRD2 heteromers, their opposing roles in locomotion, and their involvement in ethanol's reinforcing and addictive properties prompted us to study the levels and distribution of CB1R after chronic ethanol intake, in the presence and absence of DRD2. We monitored the drinking patterns and locomotor activity of Drd2+/+ and Drd2-/- mice consuming either water or a 20% (v/v) ethanol solution (forced ethanol intake) for 6 months and used the selective CB1 receptor antagonist [{sup 3}H]SR141716A to quantify CB1R levels in different brainmore » regions with in vitro receptor autoradiography. We found that the lack of DRD2 leads to a marked upregulation (approximately 2-fold increase) of CB1R in the cerebral cortex, the caudate-putamen, and the nucleus accumbens, which was reversed by chronic ethanol intake. The results suggest that DRD2-mediated dopaminergic neurotransmission and chronic ethanol intake exert an inhibitory effect on cannabinoid receptor expression in cortical and striatal regions implicated in the reinforcing and addictive properties of ethanol.« less

  4. Structure-Activity Relationships of the Sustained Effects of Adenosine A2A Receptor Agonists Driven by Slow Dissociation Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Hothersall, J. Daniel; Guo, Dong; Sarda, Sunil; Sheppard, Robert J.; Chen, Hongming; Keur, Wesley; Waring, Michael J.; IJzerman, Adriaan P.; Hill, Stephen J.; Dale, Ian L.

    2017-01-01

    The duration of action of adenosine A2A receptor (A2A) agonists is critical for their clinical efficacy, and we sought to better understand how this can be optimized. The in vitro temporal response profiles of a panel of A2A agonists were studied using cAMP assays in recombinantly (CHO) and endogenously (SH-SY5Y) expressing cells. Some agonists (e.g., 3cd; UK-432,097) but not others (e.g., 3ac; CGS-21680) demonstrated sustained wash-resistant agonism, where residual receptor activation continued after washout. The ability of an antagonist to reverse pre-established agonist responses was used as a surrogate read-out for agonist dissociation kinetics, and together with radioligand binding studies suggested a role for slow off-rate in driving sustained effects. One compound, 3ch, showed particularly marked sustained effects, with a reversal t1/2 > 6 hours and close to maximal effects that remained for at least 5 hours after washing. Based on the structure-activity relationship of these compounds, we suggest that lipophilic N6 and bulky C2 substituents can promote stable and long-lived binding events leading to sustained agonist responses, although a high compound logD is not necessary. This provides new insight into the binding interactions of these ligands and we anticipate that this information could facilitate the rational design of novel long-acting A2A agonists with improved clinical efficacy. PMID:27803241

  5. Progesterone attenuates depressive behavior of younger and older adult C57/BL6, wildtype, and progesterone receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Frye, Cheryl A

    2011-10-01

    Progesterone may have actions independent of intracellular progestin receptors (PRs) to influence depressive behavior. To investigate this, we examined effects of progesterone (P; 10mg/kg, SC) on the depressive behavior of mice in the forced swim test (FST). In Experiment 1, subjects were 4 to 6 months old, intact or ovariectomized (OVX) female and intact or gonadectomized (GDX) male, C57/BL6 mice. Progesterone reduced depressive behavior of young diestrous and OVX mice but male mice were impervious to effects of P. In Experiment 2, subjects were intact aged (20-28 months old) C57/BL6 female and male mice. Progesterone reduced depressive behavior of aged female and male C57/BL6 mice, albeit effects were greater among males. In Experiment 3, effects of P were examined in 4 to 6 months old, gonadally-intact, female and male mice that were wildtype or PR knockouts (PRKOs). Progesterone decreased depressive behavior of young adult, wildtype and PRKO mice, which showed greater immobility than did their wildtype counterparts. In Experiment 4, subjects were 18-24 months old wildtype or PRKO mice (Exp 4). Progesterone decreased immobility among wildtype and PRKO mice (which were not different in terms of their baseline depressive behavior). Together these data demonstrate that P decreases depressive behavior of young and older adult C57/BL6, wildtype and PRKO mice, which suggest that acute anti-depressant effects of P may occur independent of actions at "classic" PRs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cholesterol-induced hepatic inflammation does not underlie the predisposition to insulin resistance in dyslipidemic female LDL receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Gruben, Nanda; Funke, Anouk; Kloosterhuis, Niels J; Schreurs, Marijke; Sheedfar, Fareeba; Havinga, Rick; Houten, Sander M; Shiri-Sverdlov, Ronit; van de Sluis, Bart; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Koonen, Debby P Y; Hofker, Marten H

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is considered a causal risk factor predisposing to insulin resistance. However, evidence is accumulating that inflammation confined to the liver may not be causal to metabolic dysfunction. To investigate this, we assessed if hepatic inflammation explains the predisposition towards insulin resistance in low-density lipoprotein receptor knock-out (Ldlr (-/-)) mice. For this, wild type (WT) and Ldlr (-/-) mice were fed a chow diet, a high fat (HF) diet, or a high fat, high cholesterol (HFC) diet for 2 weeks. Plasma lipid levels were elevated in chow-fed Ldlr (-/-) mice compared to WT mice. Although short-term HF or HFC feeding did not result in body weight gain and adipose tissue inflammation, dyslipidemia was worsened in Ldlr (-/-) mice compared to WT mice. In addition, dyslipidemic HF-fed Ldlr (-/-) mice had a higher hepatic glucose production rate than HF-fed WT mice, while peripheral insulin resistance was unaffected. This suggests that HF-fed Ldlr (-/-) mice suffered from hepatic insulin resistance. While HFC-fed Ldlr (-/-) mice displayed the anticipated increased hepatic inflammation, this did neither exacerbate systemic nor hepatic insulin resistance. Therefore, our results show that hepatic insulin resistance is unrelated to cholesterol-induced hepatic inflammation in Ldlr (-/-) mice, indicating that hepatic inflammation may not contribute to metabolic dysfunction per se.

  7. Cholesterol-Induced Hepatic Inflammation Does Not Underlie the Predisposition to Insulin Resistance in Dyslipidemic Female LDL Receptor Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gruben, Nanda; Funke, Anouk; Kloosterhuis, Niels J.; Schreurs, Marijke; Sheedfar, Fareeba; Havinga, Rick; Houten, Sander M.; van de Sluis, Bart; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Koonen, Debby P. Y.; Hofker, Marten H.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is considered a causal risk factor predisposing to insulin resistance. However, evidence is accumulating that inflammation confined to the liver may not be causal to metabolic dysfunction. To investigate this, we assessed if hepatic inflammation explains the predisposition towards insulin resistance in low-density lipoprotein receptor knock-out (Ldlr −/−) mice. For this, wild type (WT) and Ldlr −/− mice were fed a chow diet, a high fat (HF) diet, or a high fat, high cholesterol (HFC) diet for 2 weeks. Plasma lipid levels were elevated in chow-fed Ldlr −/− mice compared to WT mice. Although short-term HF or HFC feeding did not result in body weight gain and adipose tissue inflammation, dyslipidemia was worsened in Ldlr −/− mice compared to WT mice. In addition, dyslipidemic HF-fed Ldlr −/− mice had a higher hepatic glucose production rate than HF-fed WT mice, while peripheral insulin resistance was unaffected. This suggests that HF-fed Ldlr −/− mice suffered from hepatic insulin resistance. While HFC-fed Ldlr −/− mice displayed the anticipated increased hepatic inflammation, this did neither exacerbate systemic nor hepatic insulin resistance. Therefore, our results show that hepatic insulin resistance is unrelated to cholesterol-induced hepatic inflammation in Ldlr −/− mice, indicating that hepatic inflammation may not contribute to metabolic dysfunction per se. PMID:25815343

  8. Progesterone attenuates depressive behavior of younger and older adult C57/BL6, wildtype, and progesterone receptor knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Cheryl A.

    2012-01-01

    Progesterone may have actions independent of intracellular progestin receptors (PRs) to influence depressive behavior. To investigate this, we examined effects of progesterone (P; 10 mg/kg, SC) on the depressive behavior of mice in the forced swim test (FST). In Experiment 1, subjects were 4 to 6 months old, intact or ovariectomized (OVX) female and intact or gonadectomized (GDX) male, C57/BL6 mice. Progesterone reduced depressive behavior of young diestrous and OVX mice but male mice were impervious to effects of P. In Experiment 2, subjects were intact aged (20–28 months old) C57/BL6 female and male mice. Progesterone reduced depressive behavior of aged female and male C57/BL6 mice, albeit effects were greater among males. In Experiment 3, effects of P were examined in 4 to 6 months old, gonadally-intact, female and male mice that were wildtype or PR knockouts (PRKOs). Progesterone decreased depressive behavior of young adult, wildtype and PRKO mice, which showed greater immobility than did their wildtype counterparts. In Experiment 4, subjects were 18–24 months old wildtype or PRKO mice (Exp 4). Progesterone decreased immobility among wildtype and PRKO mice (which were not different in terms of their baseline depressive behavior). Together these data demonstrate that P decreases depressive behavior of young and older adult C57/BL6, wildtype and PRKO mice, which suggest that acute anti-depressant effects of P may occur independent of actions at “classic” PRs. PMID:21669220

  9. Endothelial cell-specific ETB receptor knockout: autoradiographic and histological characterisation and crucial role in the clearance of endothelin-1.

    PubMed

    Kelland, N F; Kuc, R E; McLean, D L; Azfer, A; Bagnall, A J; Gray, G A; Gulliver-Sloan, F H; Maguire, J J; Davenport, A P; Kotelevtsev, Y V; Webb, D J

    2010-06-01

    Inactivation of endothelin B receptors (ETB), either through selective pharmacological antagonism or genetic mutation, increases the circulating concentration of endothelin-1 (ET-1), suggesting ETB plays an important role in clearance of this peptide. However, the cellular site of ETB-mediated clearance has not yet been determined. We have used a novel mouse model of endothelial cell-specific knockout (KO) of ETB (EC ETB(-/-)) to evaluate the relative contribution of EC-ETB to the clearance of ET-1. Phenotypic evidence of EC-specific ETB KO was confirmed by immunocytochemistry and autoradiography. Binding of the radiolabelled selective ETB ligand BQ3020 was significantly and selectively decreased in EC-rich tissues of EC ETB(-/-) mice, including the lung, liver, and kidney. By contrast, ETA binding was unaltered. RT-PCR confirmed equal expression of ET-1 in tissue from EC ETB(-/-) mice and controls, despite increased concentration of plasma ET-1 in EC ETB(-/-). Clearance of an intravenous bolus of [(125)I]ET-1 was impaired in EC ETB(-/-) mice. Pretreatment with the selective ETB antagonist A192621 impaired [(125)I]ET-1 clearance in control animals to a similar extent, but did not further impair clearance in EC ETB(-/-) mice. These studies suggest that EC-ETB are largely responsible for the clearance of ET-1 from the circulation.

  10. Zika virus-induced acute myelitis and motor deficits in adult interferon αβ/γ receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Zukor, Katherine; Wang, Hong; Siddharthan, Venkatraman; Julander, Justin G; Morrey, John D

    2018-02-23

    Zika virus (ZIKV) has received widespread attention because of its effect on the developing fetus. It is becoming apparent, however, that severe neurological sequelae, such as Guillian-Barrë syndrome (GBS), myelitis, encephalitis, and seizures can occur after infection of adults. This study demonstrates that a contemporary strain of ZIKV can widely infect astrocytes and neurons in the brain and spinal cord of adult, interferon α/β receptor knockout mice (AG129 strain) and cause progressive hindlimb paralysis, as well as severe seizure-like activity during the acute phase of disease. The severity of hindlimb motor deficits correlated with increased numbers of ZIKV-infected lumbosacral spinal motor neurons and decreased numbers of spinal motor neurons. Electrophysiological compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitudes in response to stimulation of the lumbosacral spinal cord were reduced when obvious motor deficits were present. ZIKV immunoreactivity was high, intense, and obvious in tissue sections of the brain and spinal cord. Infection in the brain and spinal cord was also associated with astrogliosis as well as T cell and neutrophil infiltration. CMAP and histological analysis indicated that peripheral nerve and muscle functions were intact. Consequently, motor deficits in these circumstances appear to be primarily due to myelitis and possibly encephalitis as opposed to a peripheral neuropathy or a GBS-like syndrome. Thus, acute ZIKV infection of adult AG129 mice may be a useful model for ZIKV-induced myelitis, encephalitis, and seizure activity.

  11. Macrophage Adipose Triglyceride Lipase Deficiency Attenuates Atherosclerotic Lesion Development in Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lammers, Bart; Chandak, Prakash G.; Aflaki, Elma; Van Puijvelde, Gijs H.M.; Radovic, Branislav; Hildebrand, Reeni B.; Meurs, Illiana; Out, Ruud; Kuiper, Johan; Van Berkel, Theo J.C.; Kolb, Dagmar; Haemmerle, Guenter; Zechner, Rudolf; Levak-Frank, Sanja; Van Eck, Miranda; Kratky, Dagmar

    2011-01-01

    Objective The consequences of macrophage triglyceride (TG) accumulation on atherosclerosis have not been studied in detail so far. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is the rate-limiting enzyme for the initial step in TG hydrolysis. Because ATGL knockout (KO) mice exhibit massive TG accumulation in macrophages, we used ATGL KO mice to study the effects of macrophage TG accumulation on atherogenesis. Methods and Results Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) KO mice were transplanted with bone marrow from ATGL KO (ATGL KO→LDLr KO) or wild-type (wild-type→LDLr KO) mice and challenged with a Western-type diet for 9 weeks. Despite TG accumulation in ATGL KO macrophages, atherosclerosis in ATGL KO→LDLr KO mice was 43% reduced associated with decreased plasma MCP-1 and macrophage interleukin-6 concentrations. This coincided with a reduced amount of macrophages, possibly because of a 39% increase in intraplaque apoptosis and a decreased migratory capacity of ATGL KO macrophages. The reduced number of white blood cells might be due to a 36% decreased Lin−Sca-1+cKit+ hematopoietic stem cell population. Conclusion We conclude that the attenuation of atherogenesis in ATGL KO→LDLr KO mice is due to decreased infiltration of less inflammatory macrophages into the arterial wall and increased macrophage apoptosis. PMID:21030715

  12. Curcumin Protects against Atherosclerosis in Apolipoprotein E-Knockout Mice by Inhibiting Toll-like Receptor 4 Expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shanshan; Zou, Jun; Li, Peiyang; Zheng, Xiumei; Feng, Dan

    2018-01-17

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been reported to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, the current study aimed to investigate whether curcumin suppresses atherosclerosis development in ApoE-knockout (ApoE -/- ) mice by inhibiting TLR4 expression. ApoE -/- mice were fed a high-fat diet supplemented with or without curcumin (0.1% w/w) for 16 weeks. Curcumin supplementation significantly reduced TLR4 expression and macrophage infiltration in atherosclerotic plaques. Curcumin also reduced aortic interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity, and plasma IL-1β, TNF-α, soluble VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 levels. In addition, aortic sinus sections revealed that curcumin treatment reduced the extent of atherosclerotic lesions and inhibited atherosclerosis development. In vitro, curcumin inhibited NF-κB activation in macrophages and reduced TLR4 expression induced by lipopolysaccharide. Our results indicate that curcumin protects against atherosclerosis at least partially by inhibiting TLR4 expression and its related inflammatory reaction.

  13. Intestinal Resistance to 1,25 Dihydroxyvitamin D in Mice Heterozygous for the Vitamin D Receptor Knockout Allele

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yurong

    2008-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that low vitamin D receptor (VDR) level causes intestinal vitamin D resistance and intestinal calcium (Ca) malabsorption. To do so, we examined vitamin D regulated duodenal Ca absorption and gene expression [transient receptor potential channel, vallinoid subfamily member 6 (TRPV6), 24-hydroxylase, calbindin D9k (CaBP) mRNA, and CaBP protein] in wild-type mice and mice with reduced tissue VDR levels [i.e. heterozygotes for the VDR gene knockout (HT)]. Induction of 24-hydroxylase mRNA levels by 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2 D3] injection was significantly reduced in the duodenum and kidney of HT mice in both time-course and dose-response experiments. TRPV6 and CaBP mRNA levels in duodenum were significantly induced after 1,25(OH)2 D3 injection, but there was no difference in response between wild-type and HT mice. Feeding a low-calcium diet for 1 wk increased plasma PTH, renal 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) mRNA level, and plasma 1,25(OH)2 D3, and this response was greater in HT mice (by 88, 55, and 37% higher, respectively). In contrast, duodenal TRPV6 and CaBP mRNA were not higher in HT mice fed the low-calcium diet. However, the response of duodenal Ca absorption and CaBP protein to increasing 1,25(OH)2 D3 levels was blunted by 40% in HT mice. Our data show that low VDR levels lead to resistance of intestinal Ca absorption to 1,25(OH)2 D3, and this resistance may be due to a role for the VDR (and VDR level) in the translation of CaBP. PMID:17110426

  14. Progesterone enhances learning and memory of aged wildtype and progestin receptor knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Cheryl A.; Walf, Alicia A.

    2013-01-01

    Progesterone can enhance cognitive performance among young and aged mice; however, the mechanisms underlying these effects of progesterone are not well-understood. Aged, mice which lack functional progestin receptors (PRKO), or wildtype mice were administered progesterone (10 mg/kg, SC), or vehicle, and learning/memory was evaluated. Progesterone, compared to vehicle, produced a conditioned place preference in PRKO and wildtype mice. Progesterone improved performance of PRKO and wildtype mice in the object placement, water maze, contextual and cued fear conditioning tasks. PRKO, compared to wildtype, mice performed better in the inhibitory avoidance task, irrespective of progesterone. Thus, progesterone to aged mice enhances performance across a variety of tasks and this may not require actions at PRs. PMID:20117174

  15. Progesterone receptor knockout mice have an improved glucose homeostasis secondary to -cell proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, Frédéric; Wanatabe, Mitsuhiro; Schoonjans, Kristina; Lydon, John; O'Malley, Bert W.; Auwerx, Johan

    2002-11-01

    Gestational diabetes coincides with elevated circulating progesterone levels. We show that progesterone accelerates the progression of diabetes in female db/db mice. In contrast, RU486, an antagonist of the progesterone receptor (PR), reduces blood glucose levels in both female WT and db/db mice. Furthermore, female, but not male, PR-/- mice had lower fasting glycemia than PR+/+ mice and showed higher insulin levels on glucose injection. Pancreatic islets from female PR-/- mice were larger and secreted more insulin consequent to an increase in -cell mass due to an increase in -cell proliferation. These findings demonstrate an important role of progesterone signaling in insulin release and pancreatic function and suggest that it affects the susceptibility to diabetes.

  16. Small heterodimer partner overexpression partially protects against liver tumor development in farnesoid X receptor knockout mice

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Guodong; Kong, Bo; Zhu, Yan

    2013-10-15

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR, Nr1h4) and small heterodimer partner (SHP, Nr0b2) are nuclear receptors that are critical to liver homeostasis. Induction of SHP serves as a major mechanism of FXR in suppressing gene expression. Both FXR{sup −/−} and SHP{sup −/−} mice develop spontaneous hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). SHP is one of the most strongly induced genes by FXR in the liver and is a tumor suppressor, therefore, we hypothesized that deficiency of SHP contributes to HCC development in the livers of FXR{sup −/−} mice and therefore, increased SHP expression in FXR{sup −/−} mice reduces liver tumorigenesis. To test this hypothesis, wemore » generated FXR{sup −/−} mice with overexpression of SHP in hepatocytes (FXR{sup −/−}/SHP{sup Tg}) and determined the contribution of SHP in HCC development in FXR{sup −/−} mice. Hepatocyte-specific SHP overexpression did not affect liver tumor incidence or size in FXR{sup −/−} mice. However, SHP overexpression led to a lower grade of dysplasia, reduced indicator cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. All tumor-bearing mice had increased serum bile acid levels and IL-6 levels, which was associated with activation of hepatic STAT3. In conclusion, SHP partially protects FXR{sup −/−} mice from HCC formation by reducing tumor malignancy. However, disrupted bile acid homeostasis by FXR deficiency leads to inflammation and injury, which ultimately results in uncontrolled cell proliferation and tumorigenesis in the liver. - Highlights: • SHP does not prevent HCC incidence nor size in FXR KO mice but reduces malignancy. • Increased SHP promotes apoptosis. • Bile acids and inflammation maybe critical for HCC formation with FXR deficiency.« less

  17. Polyomic profiling reveals significant hepatic metabolic alterations in glucagon-receptor (GCGR) knockout mice: implications on anti-glucagon therapies for diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Glucagon is an important hormone in the regulation of glucose homeostasis, particularly in the maintenance of euglycemia and prevention of hypoglycemia. In type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), glucagon levels are elevated in both the fasted and postprandial states, which contributes to inappropriate hyperglycemia through excessive hepatic glucose production. Efforts to discover and evaluate glucagon receptor antagonists for the treatment of T2DM have been ongoing for approximately two decades, with the challenge being to identify an agent with appropriate pharmaceutical properties and efficacy relative to potential side effects. We sought to determine the hepatic & systemic consequence of full glucagon receptor antagonism through the study of the glucagon receptor knock-out mouse (Gcgr-/-) compared to wild-type littermates. Results Liver transcriptomics was performed using Affymetric expression array profiling, and liver proteomics was performed by iTRAQ global protein analysis. To complement the transcriptomic and proteomic analyses, we also conducted metabolite profiling (~200 analytes) using mass spectrometry in plasma. Overall, there was excellent concordance (R = 0.88) for changes associated with receptor knock-out between the transcript and protein analysis. Pathway analysis tools were used to map the metabolic processes in liver altered by glucagon receptor ablation, the most notable being significant down-regulation of gluconeogenesis, amino acid catabolism, and fatty acid oxidation processes, with significant up-regulation of glycolysis, fatty acid synthesis, and cholesterol biosynthetic processes. These changes at the level of the liver were manifested through an altered plasma metabolite profile in the receptor knock-out mice, e.g. decreased glucose and glucose-derived metabolites, and increased amino acids, cholesterol, and bile acid levels. Conclusions In sum, the results of this study suggest that the complete ablation of hepatic glucagon

  18. Knockout of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor results in distinct hepatic and renal phenotypes in rats and mice

    SciTech Connect

    Harrill, Joshua A.; Hukkanen, Renee R.; Lawson, Marie

    2013-10-15

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor which plays a role in the development of multiple tissues and is activated by a large number of ligands, including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). In order to examine the roles of the AHR in both normal biological development and response to environmental chemicals, an AHR knockout (AHR-KO) rat model was created and compared with an existing AHR-KO mouse. AHR-KO rats harboring either 2-bp or 29-bp deletion mutation in exon 2 of the AHR were created on the Sprague–Dawley genetic background using zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) technology. Rats harboring either mutation type lacked expressionmore » of AHR protein in the liver. AHR-KO rats were also insensitive to thymic involution, increased hepatic weight and the induction of AHR-responsive genes (Cyp1a1, Cyp1a2, Cyp1b1, Ahrr) following acute exposure to 25 μg/kg TCDD. AHR-KO rats had lower basal expression of transcripts for these genes and also accumulated ∼ 30–45-fold less TCDD in the liver at 7 days post-exposure. In untreated animals, AHR-KO mice, but not AHR-KO rats, had alterations in serum analytes indicative of compromised hepatic function, patent ductus venosus of the liver and persistent hyaloid arteries in the eye. AHR-KO rats, but not AHR-KO mice, displayed pathological alterations to the urinary tract: bilateral renal dilation (hydronephrosis), secondary medullary tubular and uroepithelial degenerative changes and bilateral ureter dilation (hydroureter). The present data indicate that the AHR may play significantly different roles in tissue development and homeostasis and toxicity across rodent species. - Highlights: • An AHR knockout rat was generated on a Sprague–Dawley outbred background. • AHR-KO rats lack expression of AHR protein. • AHR-KO rats are insensitive to TCDD-mediated effects. • Data suggests difference in the role of AHR in tissue development of rats and mice. • Abnormalities in

  19. Involvement of multiple taste receptors in umami taste: analysis of gustatory nerve responses in metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Yasumatsu, Keiko; Manabe, Tomohiro; Yoshida, Ryusuke; Iwatsuki, Ken; Uneyama, Hisayuki; Takahashi, Ichiro; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2015-01-01

    Umami taste is elicited by l-glutamate and some other amino acids and is thought to be initiated by G-protein-coupled receptors. Proposed umami receptors include heterodimers of taste receptor type 1, members 1 and 3 (T1R1 + T1R3), and metabotropic glutamate receptors 1 and 4 (mGluR1 and mGluR4). Accumulated evidences support the involvement of T1R1 + T1R3 in umami responses in mice. However, little is known about the in vivo function of mGluR in umami taste. Here, we examined taste responses of the chorda tympani (CT) and the glossopharyngeal (GL) nerves in wild-type mice and mice genetically lacking mGluR4 (mGluR4-KO). Our results indicated that compared to wild-type mice, mGluR4-KO mice showed significantly smaller gustatory nerve responses to glutamate and l-(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (an agonist for group III mGluR) in both the CT and GL nerves without affecting responses to other taste stimuli. Residual glutamate responses in mGluR4-KO mice were not affected by (RS)-alpha-cyclopropyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine (an antagonist for group III mGluR), but were suppressed by gurmarin (a T1R3 blocker) in the CT and (RS)-1-aminoindan-1,5-dicarboxylic acid (an antagonist for group I mGluR) in the CT and GL nerve. In wild-type mice, both quisqualic acid (an agonist for group I mGluR) and l-(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate elicited gustatory nerve responses and these responses were suppressed by addition of (RS)-1-aminoindan-1,5-dicarboxylic acid and (RS)-alpha-cyclopropyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine, respectively. Collectively, the present study provided functional evidences for the involvement of mGluR4 in umami taste responses in mice. The results also suggest that T1R1 + T1R3 and mGluR1 are involved in umami taste responses in mice. Thus, umami taste would be mediated by multiple receptors. PMID:25529865

  20. Glucagon receptor knockout mice are protected against acute olanzapine-induced hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Castellani, Laura N; Peppler, Willem T; Sutton, Charles D; Whitfield, Jamie; Charron, Maureen J; Wright, David C

    2017-08-01

    To determine if glucagon is involved in mediating the increase in blood glucose levels caused by the second-generation antipsychotic drug olanzapine. Whole body glucagon receptor deficient mice (Gcgr -/- ) or WT littermate controls were injected with olanzapine (5mg/kg BW IP) and changes in blood glucose measured over the following 120min. Separate cohorts of mice were treated with olanzapine and changes in pyruvate tolerance, insulin tolerance and whole body substrate oxidation were determined. Olanzapine treatment increased serum glucagon and lead to rapid increases in blood glucose concentrations in WT mice. Gcgr -/- mice were protected against olanzapine-induced increases in blood glucose but this was not explained by differences in terminal serum insulin concentrations, enhanced AKT phosphorylation in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue or liver or differences in RER. In both genotypes olanzapine induced an equivalent degree of insulin resistance as measured using an insulin tolerance test. Olanzapine treatment led to an exaggerated glucose response to a pyruvate challenge in WT but not Gcgr -/- mice and this was paralleled by reductions in the protein content of PEPCK and G6Pase in livers from Gcgr -/- mice. Gcgr -/- mice are protected against olanzapine-induced increases in blood glucose. This is likely a result of reductions in liver glucose output, perhaps secondary to decreases in PEPCK and G6Pase protein content. Our findings highlight the central role of the liver in mediating olanzapine-induced disturbances in glucose homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sleep architecture of the melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Adamantidis, Antoine; Salvert, Denise; Goutagny, Romain; Lakaye, Bernard; Gervasoni, Damien; Grisar, Thierry; Luppi, Pierre-Hervé; Fort, Patrice

    2008-04-01

    Growing amounts of data indicate involvement of the posterior hypothalamus in the regulation of sleep, especially paradoxical sleep (PS). Accordingly, we previously showed that the melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH)-producing neurons of the rat hypothalamus are selectively activated during a PS rebound. In addition, intracerebroventricular infusion of MCH increases total sleep duration, suggesting a new role for MCH in sleep regulation. To determine whether activation of the MCH system promotes sleep, we studied spontaneous sleep and its homeostatic regulation in mice with deletion of the MCH-receptor 1 gene (MCH-R1-/- vs. MCH-R1+/+) and their behavioural response to modafinil, a powerful antinarcoleptic drug. Here, we show that the lack of functional MCH-R1 results in a hypersomniac-like phenotype, both in basal conditions and after total sleep deprivation, compared to wild-type mice. Further, we found that modafinil was less potent at inducing wakefulness in MCH-R1-/- than in MCH-R1+/+ mice. We report for the first time that animals with genetically inactivated MCH signaling exhibit altered vigilance state architecture and sleep homeostasis. This study also suggests that the MCH system may modulate central pathways involved in the wake-promoting effect of modafinil.

  2. Development of schemas revealed by prior experience and NMDA receptor knock-out

    PubMed Central

    Dragoi, George; Tonegawa, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    Prior experience accelerates acquisition of novel, related information through processes like assimilation into mental schemas, but the underlying neuronal mechanisms are poorly understood. We investigated the roles that prior experience and hippocampal CA3 N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent synaptic plasticity play in CA1 place cell sequence encoding and learning during novel spatial experiences. We found that specific representations of de novo experiences on linear environments were formed on a framework of pre configured network activity expressed in the preceding sleep and were rapidly, flexibly adjusted via NMDAR-dependent activity. This prior experience accelerated encoding of subsequent experiences on contiguous or isolated novel tracks, significantly decreasing their NMDAR-dependence. Similarly, de novo learning of an alternation task was facilitated by CA3 NMDARs; this experience accelerated subsequent learning of related tasks, independent of CA3 NMDARs, consistent with a schema-based learning. These results reveal the existence of distinct neuronal encoding schemes which could explain why hippocampal dysfunction results in anterograde amnesia while sparing recollection of old, schema-based memories. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01326.001 PMID:24327561

  3. Acetate supplementation modulates brain adenosine metabolizing enzymes and adenosine A2A receptor levels in rats subjected to neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acetate supplementation reduces neuroglia activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in rat models of neuroinflammation and Lyme neuroborreliosis. Because single-dose glyceryl triacetate (GTA) treatment increases brain phosphocreatine and reduces brain AMP levels, we postulate that GTA modulates adenosine metabolizing enzymes and receptors, which may be a possible mechanism to reduce neuroinflammation. Methods To test this hypothesis, we quantified the ability of GTA to alter brain levels of ecto-5’-nucleotidase (CD73), adenosine kinase (AK), and adenosine A2A receptor using western blot analysis and CD73 activity by measuring the rate of AMP hydrolysis. Neuroinflammation was induced by continuous bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion in the fourth ventricle of the brain for 14 and 28 days. Three treatment strategies were employed, one and two where rats received prophylactic GTA through oral gavage with LPS infusion for 14 or 28 days. In the third treatment regimen, an interventional strategy was used where rats were subjected to 28 days of neuroinflammation, and GTA treatment was started on day 14 following the start of the LPS infusion. Results We found that rats subjected to neuroinflammation for 28 days had a 28% reduction in CD73 levels and a 43% increase in AK levels that was reversed with prophylactic acetate supplementation. CD73 activity in these rats was increased by 46% with the 28-day GTA treatment compared to the water-treated rats. Rats subjected to neuroinflammation for 14 days showed a 50% increase in levels of the adenosine A2A receptor, which was prevented with prophylactic acetate supplementation. Interventional GTA therapy, beginning on day 14 following the induction of neuroinflammation, resulted in a 67% increase in CD73 levels and a 155% increase in adenosine A2A receptor levels. Conclusion These results support the hypothesis that acetate supplementation can modulate brain CD73, AK and adenosine A2A receptor

  4. Comparison of the hepatic and thyroid gland effects of sodium phenobarbital in wild type and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) knockout rats and pregnenolone-16α-carbonitrile in wild type and pregnane X receptor (PXR) knockout rats.

    PubMed

    Haines, Corinne; Chatham, Lynsey R; Vardy, Audrey; Elcombe, Clifford R; Foster, John R; Lake, Brian G

    2018-03-13

    A number of chemicals produce liver and thyroid gland tumours in rodents by nongenotoxic modes of action (MOAs). In this study the hepatic and thyroid gland effects of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activator sodium phenobarbital (NaPB) were examined in male Sprague-Dawley wild type (WT) rats and in CAR knockout (CAR KO) rats and the effects of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) activator pregnenolone-16α-carbonitrile (PCN) were examined in WT and PXR knockout (PXR KO) rats. Rats were either fed diets containing 0 (control) or 500 ppm NaPB or were dosed with 0 (control) or 100 mg/kg/day PCN orally for 7 days. The treatment of WT rats with NaPB and PCN for 7 days resulted in increased relative liver weight, increased hepatocyte replicative DNA synthesis (RDS) and the induction of cytochrome P450 CYP2B and CYP3A subfamily enzyme, mRNA and protein levels. In marked contrast, the treatment of CAR KO rats with NaPB and PXR KO rats with PCN did not result in any increases in liver weight and induction of CYP2B and CYP3A enzymes. The treatment of CAR KO rats with NaPB had no effect on hepatocyte RDS, while PCN produced only a small increase in hepatocyte RDS in PXR KO rats. Treatment with NaPB had no effect on thyroid gland weight in WT and CAR KO rats, whereas treatment with PCN resulted in an increase in relative thyroid gland weight in WT, but not in PXR KO, rats. Thyroid gland follicular cell RDS was increased by the treatment of WT rats with NaPB and PCN, with NaPB also producing a small increase in thyroid gland follicular cell RDS in CAR KO rats. Overall, the present study with CAR KO rats demonstrates that a functional CAR is required for NaPB-mediated increases in liver weight, stimulation of hepatocyte RDS and induction of hepatic CYP enzymes. The studies with PXR KO rats demonstrate that a functional PXR is required for PCN-mediated increases in liver weight and induction of hepatic CYP enzymes; with induction of hepatocyte RDS also being

  5. Adenosine A2A Receptor Signaling in the Immunopathogenesis of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Rajasundaram, Skanda

    2018-01-01

    Our increasing appreciation of adenosine as an endogenous signaling molecule that terminates inflammation has generated excitement regarding the potential to target adenosine receptors (ARs) in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS), a disease of chronic neuroinflammation. Of the four G protein-coupled ARs, A2ARs are the principal mediator of adenosine’s anti-inflammatory effects and accordingly, there is a growing body of evidence surrounding the role of A2ARs in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the dominant animal model of MS. Such evidence points to a complex, often paradoxical role for A2ARs in the immunopathogenesis of EAE, where they have the ability to both exacerbate and alleviate disease severity. This review seeks to interpret these paradoxical findings and evaluate the therapeutic promise of A2ARs. In essence, the complexities of A2AR signaling arise from two properties. Firstly, A2AR signaling downregulates the inflammatory potential of TH lymphocytes whilst simultaneously facilitating the recruitment of these cells into the CNS. Secondly, A2AR expression by myeloid cells – infiltrating macrophages and CNS-resident microglia – has the capacity to promote both tissue injury and repair in chronic neuroinflammation. Consequently, the therapeutic potential of targeting A2ARs is greatly undermined by the risk of collateral tissue damage in the periphery and/or CNS. PMID:29559972

  6. Selecting an optimal number of binding site waters to improve virtual screening enrichments against the adenosine A2A receptor.

    PubMed

    Lenselink, Eelke B; Beuming, Thijs; Sherman, Woody; van Vlijmen, Herman W T; IJzerman, Adriaan P

    2014-06-23

    A major challenge in structure-based virtual screening (VS) involves the treatment of explicit water molecules during docking in order to improve the enrichment of active compounds over decoys. Here we have investigated this in the context of the adenosine A2A receptor, where water molecules have previously been shown to be important for achieving high enrichment rates with docking, and where the positions of some binding site waters are known from a high-resolution crystal structure. The effect of these waters (both their presence and orientations) on VS enrichment was assessed using a carefully curated set of 299 high affinity A2A antagonists and 17,337 decoys. We show that including certain crystal waters greatly improves VS enrichment and that optimization of water hydrogen positions is needed in order to achieve the best results. We also show that waters derived from a molecular dynamics simulation - without any knowledge of crystallographic waters - can improve enrichments to a similar degree as the crystallographic waters, which makes this strategy applicable to structures without experimental knowledge of water positions. Finally, we used decision trees to select an ensemble of structures with different water molecule positions and orientations that outperforms any single structure with water molecules. The approach presented here is validated against independent test sets of A2A receptor antagonists and decoys from the literature. In general, this water optimization strategy could be applied to any target with waters-mediated protein-ligand interactions.

  7. Wild rice (Zizania palustris L.) prevents atherogenesis in LDL receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Surendiran, Gangadaran; Goh, Chunyan; Le, Khuong; Zhao, Zhaohui; Askarian, Fatemeh; Othman, Rgia; Nicholson, Tiffany; Moghadasian, Paymahn; Wang, Ya-Jane; Aliani, Michel; Shen, Garry; Beta, Trust; Moghadasian, Mohammed H

    2013-10-01

    Dietary modifications including healthy eating constitute one of the first line strategies for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors including high cholesterol and atherosclerosis. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential cardiovascular benefits of wild rice in male and female LDL-receptor-deficient (LDLr-KO) mice. Wild rice was used to create a semi-synthetic diet containing approximately 60% of total energy from carbohydrate. Two other experimental diets were similar in macronutrient composition, but containing either white rice or commercial carbohydrate sources. All diets were supplemented with 0.06% (w/w) dietary cholesterol. The mice were divided into six experimental groups and fed with these diets over 24 weeks. Consumption of wild rice significantly reduced the size and severity of atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic roots of male and female mice by 71 and 61% respectively, compared to the control group of the same gender. This effect was associated with significant reductions of plasma cholesterol levels by 15 and 40%, low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels by 12 and 42%, and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) levels by 35 and 75% respectively, in male and female mice compared to the control group of the same gender. Increased fecal cholesterol excretion of up to 34% was also noted, compared to the control group of the same gender. However, the antiatherogenic effect of wild rice was not associated with increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. Current data suggest that cholesterol-lowering effects of wild rice may be the main factor for the prevention of atherogenesis in LDLr-KO mice. Additional studies are needed to understand the mechanism of action. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular Evidence of Adenosine Deaminase Linking Adenosine A2A Receptor and CD26 Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Estefanía; Canet, Júlia; Gracia, Eduard; Lluís, Carme; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I.; Cortés, Antoni; Casadó, Vicent

    2018-01-01

    Adenosine is an endogenous purine nucleoside that acts in all living systems as a homeostatic network regulator through many pathways, which are adenosine receptor (AR)-dependent and -independent. From a metabolic point of view, adenosine deaminase (ADA) is an essential protein in the regulation of the total intracellular and extracellular adenosine in a tissue. In addition to its cytosolic localization, ADA is also expressed as an ecto-enzyme on the surface of different cells. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (CD26) and some ARs act as binding proteins for extracellular ADA in humans. Since CD26 and ARs interact with ADA at opposite sites, we have investigated if ADA can function as a cell-to-cell communication molecule by bridging the anchoring molecules CD26 and A2AR present on the surfaces of the interacting cells. By combining site-directed mutagenesis of ADA amino acids involved in binding to A2AR and a modification of the bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) technique that allows detection of interactions between two proteins expressed in different cell populations with low steric hindrance (NanoBRET), we show direct evidence of the specific formation of trimeric complexes CD26-ADA-A2AR involving two cells. By dynamic mass redistribution assays and ligand binding experiments, we also demonstrate that A2AR-NanoLuc fusion proteins are functional. The existence of this ternary complex is in good agreement with the hypothesis that ADA could bridge T-cells (expressing CD26) and dendritic cells (expressing A2AR). This is a new metabolic function for ecto-ADA that, being a single chain protein, it has been considered as an example of moonlighting protein, because it performs more than one functional role (as a catalyst, a costimulator, an allosteric modulator and a cell-to-cell connector) without partitioning these functions in different subunits. PMID:29497379

  9. Characterization of EP receptor subtypes responsible for prostaglandin E2-induced pain responses by use of EP1 and EP3 receptor knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Minami, Toshiaki; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Takuya; Sugimoto, Yukihiko; Ushikubi, Fumitaka; Ichikawa, Atsushi; Narumiya, Shuh; Ito, Seiji

    2001-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is known to be the principal pro-inflammatory prostanoid and play an important role in nociception. To identify PGE receptor (EP) subtypes that mediate pain responses to noxious and innocuous stimuli, we studied them by use of EP1 and EP3 knockout (EP1−/− and EP3−/−) mice. PGE2 could induce mechanical allodynia in EP1+/+, EP3+/+ and EP3−/− mice, but not in EP1−/− mice. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), the substrate of nitric oxide (NO) synthase L-arginine, or the NO donor sodium nitroprusside administered intrathecal (i.t.) could induce allodynia in EP3−/− and EP1−/− mice. Activation of EP1 receptors appears to be upstream, rather than downstream, of NMDA receptor activation and NO production in the PGE2-induced allodynia. Although PGE2 produced thermal hyperalgesia over a wide range of dosages from 50 pg to 0.5 μg kg−1 in EP3+/+ mice, it showed a monophasic hyperalgesic action at 5 ng kg−1 or higher doses in EP3−/− mice. The selective EP3 agonist, ONO-AE-248, induced hyperalgesia at 500 pg kg−1 in EP3+/+ mice, but not in EP3−/− mice. Saline-injected EP1−/− mice showed hyperalgesia, which was reversed by i.t. PGE2 in a dose-dependent manner. There was no significant difference in the formalin-induced behaviours between EP1−/− or EP3−/− mice and the cognate wild-type mice. These results demonstrate that spinal EP1 receptors are involved in the PGE2-induced allodynia and that spinal EP3 receptors are involved in the hyperalgesia induced by low doses of PGE2. However, the formalin-induced pain cannot be ascribed to a single EP receptor subtype EP1 or EP3. PMID:11375261

  10. Adenosine A(2A) receptor modulation of hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapse plasticity during associative learning in behaving mice.

    PubMed

    Fontinha, Bruno M; Delgado-García, José M; Madroñal, Noelia; Ribeiro, Joaquim A; Sebastião, Ana M; Gruart, Agnès

    2009-06-01

    Previous in vitro studies have characterized the electrophysiological and molecular signaling pathways of adenosine tonic modulation on long-lasting synaptic plasticity events, particularly for hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). However, it remains to be elucidated whether the long-term changes produced by endogenous adenosine in the efficiency of synapses are related to those required for learning and memory formation. Our goal was to understand how endogenous activation of adenosine excitatory A(2A) receptors modulates the associative learning evolution in conscious behaving mice. We have studied here the effects of the application of a highly selective A(2A) receptor antagonist, SCH58261, upon a well-known associative learning paradigm-classical eyeblink conditioning. We used a trace paradigm, with a tone as the conditioned stimulus (CS) and an electric shock presented to the supraorbital nerve as the unconditioned stimulus (US). A single electrical pulse was presented to the Schaffer collateral-commissural pathway to evoke field EPSPs (fEPSPs) in the pyramidal CA1 area during the CS-US interval. In vehicle-injected animals, there was a progressive increase in the percentage of conditioning responses (CRs) and in the slope of fEPSPs through conditioning sessions, an effect that was completely prevented (and lost) in SCH58261 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) -injected animals. Moreover, experimentally evoked LTP was impaired in SCH58261-injected mice. In conclusion, the endogenous activation of adenosine A(2A) receptors plays a pivotal effect on the associative learning process and its relevant hippocampal circuits, including activity-dependent changes at the CA3-CA1 synapse.

  11. Blockade of adenosine A2A receptors reverses short-term social memory impairments in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Prediger, Rui D S; Fernandes, Daniel; Takahashi, Reinaldo N

    2005-04-30

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) exhibit impairment across several cognitive domains such as attention, short-term memory and spatial reference memory. These cognitive deficits have been variously attributed to disrupted dopaminergic, cholinergic and adenosinergic neurotransmitter function. However, social memory in SHR has not been investigated. In the present study, we therefore evaluated whether SHR exhibit altered short-term social memory abilities compared to normotensive Wistar rats (WIS) through two experimental paradigms (social recognition and habituation-dishabituation tests). We also compared the performance of SHR and WIS rats in the object recognition test. SHR exhibited significantly impaired performance in both models of social memory, but not in the object recognition test, demonstrating a selective deficit in the ability to recognize a juvenile rat after a short period of time. The administration of acute doses of the non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist caffeine (3.0 or 10.0 mg/kg, i.p.) and the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist 4-(2-[7-amino-2-[2-furyl][1,2,4]triazolo-[2,3-a][1,3,5]triazin-5-yl-amino]ethyl) phenol (ZM241385, 0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) but not the adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX, 1.0 or 3.0 mg/kg, i.p.) reversed this social memory impairment in SHR, but these treatments did not alter the hypertension state. These results demonstrate an impairment of short-term social memory in SHR and the involvement of the adenosine A2A receptors in this alteration.

  12. Dipyridamole attenuates ischemia reperfusion induced acute kidney injury through adenosinergic A1 and A2A receptor agonism in rats.

    PubMed

    Puri, Nikkita; Mohey, Vinita; Singh, Manjinder; Kaur, Tajpreet; Pathak, Devendra; Buttar, Harpal Singh; Singh, Amrit Pal

    2016-04-01

    Dipyridamole (DYP) is an anti-platelet agent with marked vasodilator, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory activity. The present study investigated the role of adenosine receptors in DYP-mediated protection against ischemia reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in rats. The rats were subjected to bilateral renal ischemia for 40 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h. The renal damage induced by ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) was assessed by measuring creatinine clearance, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, plasma potassium, fractional excretion of sodium, and microproteinuria in rats. The oxidative stress in renal tissues was assessed by quantification of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, superoxide anion generation, and reduced glutathione level. The hematoxylin-eosin staining was carried out to observe histopathological changes in renal tissues. DYP (10 and 30 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, i.p.) was administered 30 min before subjecting the rats to renal IRI. In separate groups, caffeine (50 mg/kg, i.p.), an adenosinergic A1 and A2A receptor antagonist was administered with and without DYP treatment before subjecting the rats to renal IRI. The ischemia reperfusion-induced AKI was demonstrated by significant changes in serum as well as urinary parameters, enhanced oxidative stress, and histopathological changes in renal tissues. The administration of DYP demonstrated protection against AKI. The prior treatment with caffeine abolished DYP-mediated reno-protection suggesting role of A1 and A2A adenosine receptors in DYP-mediated reno-protection in rats. It is concluded that adenosine receptors find their definite involvement in DYP-mediated anti-oxidative and reno-protective effect against ischemia reperfusion-induced AKI.

  13. Cocaine-Induced Changes of Synaptic Transmission in the Striatum are Modulated by Adenosine A2A Receptors and Involve the Tyrosine Phosphatase STEP

    PubMed Central

    Chiodi, Valentina; Mallozzi, Cinzia; Ferrante, Antonella; Chen, Jiang F; Lombroso, Paul J; Di Stasi, Anna Maria Michela; Popoli, Patrizia; Domenici, Maria Rosaria

    2014-01-01

    The striatum is a brain area implicated in the pharmacological action of drugs of abuse. Adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) are highly expressed in the striatum and mediate, at least in part, cocaine-induced psychomotor effects in vivo. Here we studied the synaptic mechanisms implicated in the pharmacological action of cocaine in the striatum and investigated the influence of A2ARs. We found that synaptic transmission was depressed in corticostriatal slices after perfusion with cocaine (10 μM). This effect was reduced by the A2AR antagonist ZM241385 and almost abolished in striatal A2AR-knockout mice (mice lacking A2ARs in striatal neurons, stA2ARKO). The effect of cocaine on synaptic transmission was also prevented by the protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) inhibitor sodium orthovanadate (Na3VO4). In synaptosomes prepared from striatal slices, we found that the activity of striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) was upregulated by cocaine, prevented by ZM241385, and absent in synaptosomes from stA2ARKO. The role played by STEP in cocaine modulation of synaptic transmission was investigated in whole-cell voltage clamp recordings from medium spiny neurons of the striatum. We found that TAT-STEP, a peptide that renders STEP enzymatically inactive, prevented cocaine-induced reduction in AMPA- and NMDA-mediated excitatory post-synaptic currents, whereas the control peptide, TAT-myc, had no effect. These results demonstrate that striatal A2ARs modulate cocaine-induced synaptic depression in the striatum and highlight the potential role of PTPs and specifically STEP in the effects of cocaine. PMID:23989619

  14. Partial IFN-alpha/beta and IFN-gamma receptor knockout trisomy 16 mouse fetuses show improved growth and cultured neuron viability.

    PubMed

    Maroun, L E; Heffernan, T N; Hallam, D M

    2000-02-01

    The trisomy 16 mouse fetus is a well-studied model for Down syndrome (trisomy 21), the leading genetic cause of mental retardation in the newborn population. Human chromosome 21 and mouse chromosome 16 each carry a large cluster of genes that code for components of the interferon (IFN)-alpha/beta and IFN-gamma receptors, and Down syndrome cells display significantly increased sensitivity to IFN action. We have previously reported that in utero anti-IFN IgG treatment of mice pregnant with trisomy 16 fetuses results in a significant improvement in trisomy 16 fetus growth and morphology and that anti-IFN-gamma IgG treatment can prevent the premature death of trisomy 16 fetal mouse cortical neurons in culture. We have now used IFN receptor subunit knockout mice to produce mouse fetuses that carry three No. 16 chromosomes and one copy each of disabled IFN-gamma receptor (IFNGR) and IFN-alpha/beta receptor (IFNAR-2) component genes. We report here that this partial IFN receptor knockout trisomy (PIRKOT) mouse fetus has significantly improved growth and yields cortical neurons whose viability is the equivalent of that seen in their euploid counterparts.

  15. Macrophage ABCA2 deletion modulates intracellular cholesterol deposition, affects macrophage apoptosis, and decreases early atherosclerosis in LDL receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Calpe-Berdiel, Laura; Zhao, Ying; de Graauw, Marjo; Ye, Dan; van Santbrink, Peter J; Mommaas, A Mieke; Foks, Amanda; Bot, Martine; Meurs, Illiana; Kuiper, Johan; Mack, Jody T; Van Eck, Miranda; Tew, Kenneth D; van Berkel, Theo J C

    2012-08-01

    The ABCA2 transporter shares high structural homology to ABCA1, which is crucial for the removal of excess cholesterol from macrophages and, by extension, in atherosclerosis. It has been suggested that ABCA2 sequesters cholesterol inside the lysosomes, however, little is known of the macrophage-specific role of ABCA2 in regulating lipid homeostasis in vivo and in modulating susceptibility to atherosclerosis. Chimeras with dysfunctional macrophage ABCA2 were generated by transplantation of bone marrow from ABCA2 knockout (KO) mice into irradiated LDL receptor (LDLr) KO mice. Interestingly, lack of ABCA2 in macrophages resulted in a diminished lesion size in the aortic root (-24.5%) and descending thoracic aorta (-36.6%) associated with a 3-fold increase in apoptotic cells, as measured by both caspase 3 and TUNEL. Upon oxidized LDL exposure, macrophages from wildtype (WT) transplanted animals developed filipin-positive droplets in lysosomal-like compartments, corresponding to free cholesterol (FC) accumulation. In contrast, ABCA2-deficient macrophages displayed an abnormal diffuse distribution of FC over peripheral regions. The accumulation of neutral sterols in lipid droplets was increased in ABCA2-deficient macrophages, but primarily in cytoplasmic clusters and not in lysosomes. Importantly, apoptosis of oxLDL loaded macrophages lacking ABCA2 was increased 2.7-fold, probably as a consequence of the broad cellular distribution of FC. Lack of functional ABCA2 generates abnormalities in intracellular lipid distribution/trafficking in macrophages consistent with its lysosomal sequestering role, leading to an increased susceptibility to apoptosis in response to oxidized lipids and reduced atherosclerotic lesion development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Yellow wine polyphenolic compounds inhibit matrix metalloproteinase-2, -9 expression and improve atherosclerotic plaque in LDL-receptor-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Xiaoya; Chi, Jufang; Tang, Weiliang; Ji, Zheng; Zhao, Fei; Jiang, Chengjian; Lv, Haitao; Guo, Hangyuan

    2014-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies have strongly suggested an inverse correlation between dietary polyphenol consumption and reduced risks of cardiovascular diseases. Yellow rice wine is a Chinese specialty and one of the three most ancient wines in the world (Shaoxing rice wine, beer, and grape wine). There is a large amount of polyphenol substances in yellow rice wine. This experiment was designed to study the potential beneficial effects of yellow wine polyphenolic compounds (YWPC) from yellow rice wine on progression of atherosclerosis in vivo and to further explore its underlying mechanisms. Six-week-old male LDL-receptor-knockout mice were treated with high-fat diet to establish the mouse model with atherosclerosis. Animals received 10, 30, or 50 mg/kg per day of YWPC or 10 mg/kg per day rosuvastatin or water (vehicle) for 14 weeks. The results indicated that YWPC and rosuvastatin significantly decreased circulating total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Compared to the control group, the atherosclerosis lesion area in the rosuvastatin-intervention group and YWPC at doses of 10, 30, and 50 mg/kg per day intervention groups decreased by 74.14%, 18.51%, 40.09%, and 38.42%, respectively. YWPC and rosuvastatin decreased the expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2, 9, whereas the expression of the endogenous inhibitors of these proteins, namely, tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1, 2, increased when compared to the control group. It can be concluded that the YWPC is similar to the benefic effects of rosuvastatin on cardiovascular system. These effects may be attributed to their anti-atherosclerotic actions by lowering lipid and modulating the activity and expression of MMP-2, 9 and TIMP-1, 2.

  17. Chinese yellow wine and red wine inhibit matrix metalloproteinase-2 and improve atherosclerotic plaque in LDL receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hangyuan; Liu, Longbin; Shi, Yafei; Sun, Aijing; Xu, Fukang; Chi, Jufang; Huang, Dilai

    2010-06-01

    Our previous study found that Chinese yellow wine could inhibit the production of homocysteine (HCY) induced extracellular matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in the cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells. Little is known about the relationship between Chinese yellow wine and atherosclerosis or MMP-2 in vivo. Thirty-two LDL Receptor knockout mice on a high-fat and L-methionine diet developed plasma hyperhomocysteinemia and atherosclerosis. They were randomly divided into yellow wine group (n = 8), red wine group (n = 8), ethanol group (n = 8), and control group (n = 8), they were sacrificed after 14 weeks. There were no significant differences with plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in the four groups. Plasma HCY was significantly decreased in the yellow wine group compared to the other three groups (P < 0.01). Yellow wine and red wine groups significantly reduced the atherosclerosis lesion area compared to ethanol and control groups (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant discrepancy between the yellow wine group and red wine group. Compared to the control group and ethanol group, the production of MMP-2 reduced 26.8% and 23.6% in the aortic sinus and the activation of MMP-2 reduced 32.6% and 27.3% in the aortic arch in the yellow wine group; the production of MMP-2 reduced 25.7% and 22.4% in the aortic sinus and the activation of MMP-2 reduced 30.2% and 26.6% in the aortic arch in the red wine group. These results suggest that Chinese yellow wine and red wine can inhibit MMP-2 and improve atherosclerosis, and maybe both Chinese yellow wine and red wine have beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease by inhibiting MMP-2.

  18. Sex differences in the effects of adolescent social deprivation on alcohol consumption in μ-opioid receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Yuki; Kasahara, Yoshiyuki; Hall, F Scott; Sakakibara, Yasufumi; Uhl, George R; Tomita, Hiroaki; Sora, Ichiro

    2015-04-01

    Evidence based on clinical and experimental animal studies indicates that adolescent social deprivation influences alcohol consumption in a sex-dependent manner, perhaps by influencing stress responses. However, the mechanisms underlying the interaction between these phenomena remain to be elucidated. Since the μ-opioid receptor (MOP) has been reported to have key roles in social stress responses as well as the reinforcing/addictive effects of ethanol, MOP is a candidate molecule that may link adolescent social deprivation and subsequent alterations in alcohol consumption. To evaluate the involvement of MOP and social isolation-induced changes in alcohol consumption, as well as the effect of sex differences on responses to social isolation, alcohol consumption was assessed using a two-bottle home-cage consumption procedure (8 % ethanol vs. water) in MOP knockout (MOP-KO) and wild type (WT) mice of both sexes exposed to adolescent social deprivation or reared socially. Isolation rearing had no effects upon alcohol consumption of WT mice, whereas it significantly altered alcohol consumption in both male and female MOP-KO mice. Interestingly, social isolation affected ethanol consumption differently in male and female mice. Ethanol consumption was increased in male MOP-KO mice, but decreased in female MOP-KO mice, by isolation rearing. These results indicate that disturbances of MOP function influence the effects of isolation rearing on ethanol consumption in a sex-dependent manner. Consequently, this suggests the possibility that genetic variation that influences MOP function may have differential roles in alcoholism in men and women, and alcoholism treatments that target MOP function may be differentially effective in males and females.

  19. Impact of purification conditions and history on A 2A adenosine receptor activity: The role of CHAPS and lipids

    SciTech Connect

    Naranjo, Andrea N.; McNeely, Patrick M.; Katsaras, John

    2016-05-27

    The adenosine A 2A receptor (A 2AR) is a much-studied class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). For biophysical studies, A 2AR is commonly purified in a detergent mixture of dodecylmaltoside (DDM), 3-(3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammoniopropane sulfonate (CHAPS), and cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHS). Here we studied the effects of CHAPS on the ligand binding activity and stability of wild type, full-length human A 2AR. We also tested the cholesterol requirement for maintaining the active conformation of the receptor when solubilized in detergent micelles. To this end, the receptor was purified using DDM, DDM/CHAPS, or the short hydrocarbon chain lipid 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC, di-6:0PC). After solubilizationmore » in DDM, DDM/CHAPS, or DHPC micelles, although A 2AR was found to retain its native-like fold, its binding ability was significantly compromised compared to DDM or DDM/CHAPS with CHS. It therefore appears that although cholesterol is not needed for A 2AR to retain a native-like, α-helical conformation, it may be a critical component for high affinity ligand binding. Further, this result suggests that the conformational differences between the active and inactive protein may be so subtle that commonly used spectroscopic methods are unable to differentiate between the two forms, highlighting the need for activity measurements. Furthermore, the studies presented in this paper also underline the importance of the protein’s purification history; i.e., detergents that interact with the protein during purification affect the ligand binding properties of the receptor in an irreversible manner.« less

  20. Adenosine A(2A) receptor gene (ADORA2A) variants may increase autistic symptoms and anxiety in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Freitag, Christine M; Agelopoulos, Konstantin; Huy, Ellen; Rothermundt, Matthias; Krakowitzky, Petra; Meyer, Jobst; Deckert, Jürgen; von Gontard, Alexander; Hohoff, Christa

    2010-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are heterogeneous disorders presenting with increased rates of anxiety. The adenosine A(2A) receptor gene (ADORA2A) is associated with panic disorder and is located on chromosome 22q11.23. Its gene product, the adenosine A(2A) receptor, is strongly expressed in the caudate nucleus, which also is involved in ASD. As autistic symptoms are increased in individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, and large 22q11.2 deletions and duplications have been observed in ASD individuals, in this study, 98 individuals with ASD and 234 control individuals were genotyped for eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms in ADORA2A. Nominal association with the disorder was observed for rs2236624-CC, and phenotypic variability in ASD symptoms was influenced by rs3761422, rs5751876 and rs35320474. In addition, association of ADORA2A variants with anxiety was replicated for individuals with ASD. Findings point toward a possible mediating role of ADORA2A variants on phenotypic expression in ASD that need to be replicated in a larger sample.

  1. Resetting microbiota by Lactobacillus reuteri inhibits T reg deficiency–induced autoimmunity via adenosine A2A receptors

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Thomas K.; Tian, Xiangjun; Luo, Meng; Zhou, Jain; Tatevian, Nina; Molina, Jose G.; Blackburn, Michael R.; Gomez, Thomas H.

    2017-01-01

    Regulatory T (T reg) cell deficiency causes lethal, CD4+ T cell–driven autoimmune diseases. Stem cell transplantation is used to treat these diseases, but this procedure is limited by the availability of a suitable donor. The intestinal microbiota drives host immune homeostasis by regulating the differentiation and expansion of T reg, Th1, and Th2 cells. It is currently unclear if T reg cell deficiency–mediated autoimmune disorders can be treated by targeting the enteric microbiota. Here, we demonstrate that Foxp3+ T reg cell deficiency results in gut microbial dysbiosis and autoimmunity over the lifespan of scurfy (SF) mouse. Remodeling microbiota with Lactobacillus reuteri prolonged survival and reduced multiorgan inflammation in SF mice. L. reuteri changed the metabolomic profile disrupted by T reg cell deficiency, and a major effect was to restore levels of the purine metabolite inosine. Feeding inosine itself prolonged life and inhibited multiorgan inflammation by reducing Th1/Th2 cells and their associated cytokines. Mechanistically, the inhibition of inosine on the differentiation of Th1 and Th2 cells in vitro depended on adenosine A2A receptors, which were also required for the efficacy of inosine and of L. reuteri in vivo. These results reveal that the microbiota–inosine–A2A receptor axis might represent a potential avenue for combatting autoimmune diseases mediated by T reg cell dysfunction. PMID:27994068

  2. Muscle-restricted nuclear receptor interaction protein knockout causes motor neuron degeneration through down-regulation of myogenin at the neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsin-Hsiung; Tsai, Li-Kai; Liao, Kuan-Yu; Wu, Tung-Chien; Huang, Yun-Hsin; Huang, Yuan-Chun; Chang, Szu-Wei; Wang, Pei-Yu; Tsao, Yeou-Ping; Chen, Show-Li

    2018-04-02

    Nuclear receptor interaction protein (NRIP) is a calcium/calmodulin (CaM) binding protein. Nuclear receptor interaction protein interacts with CaM to activate calcineurin and CaMKII signalling. The conventional NRIP knockout mice (global knockout) showed muscular abnormality with reduction of muscle oxidative functions and motor function defects. To investigate the role of NRIP on neuromuscular system, we generated muscle-restricted NRIP knockout mice [conditional knockout (cKO)]. The muscle functions (including oxidative muscle markers and muscle strength) and lumbar motor neuron functions [motor neuron number, axon denervation, neuromuscular junction (NMJ)] were tested. The laser-captured microdissection at NMJ of skeletal muscles and adenovirus gene therapy for rescued effects were performed. The cKO mice showed muscular abnormality with reduction of muscle oxidative functions and impaired motor performances as global knockout mice. To our surprise, cKO mice also displayed motor neuron degeneration with abnormal architecture of NMJ. Specifically, the cKO mice revealed reduced motor neuron number with small neuronal size in lumbar spinal cord as well as denervating change, small motor endplates, and decreased myonuclei number at NMJ in skeletal muscles. To explore the mechanisms, we screened various muscle-derived factors and found that myogenin is a potential candidate that myogenin expression was lower in skeletal muscles of cKO mice than wild-type mice. Because NRIP and myogenin were colocalized around acetylcholine receptors at NMJ, we extracted RNA from synaptic and extrasynaptic regions of muscles using laser capture microdissection and showed that myogenin expression was especially lower at synaptic region in cKO than wild-type mice. Notably, overexpression of myogenin using intramuscular adenovirus encoding myogenin treatment rescued abnormal NMJ architecture and preserved motor neuron death in cKO mice. In summary, we demonstrated that deprivation of

  3. Studies using the estrogen receptor alpha knockout uterus demonstrate that implantation but not decidualization-associated signaling is estrogen dependent.

    PubMed

    Curtis Hewitt, Sylvia; Goulding, Eugenia H; Eddy, E M; Korach, Kenneth S

    2002-10-01

    Ovarian hormonal signaling is essential for proper functioning of the uterus in the establishment of pregnancy. Previous studies have demonstrated that decidualization, a stromal transformation that occurs in response to embryo implantation, can be elicited in the uterus of estrogen receptor alpha knockout (alphaERKO) mice in the absence of the estrogen dependence normally seen in wild-type (WT) mice for this response. While the alphaERKO stromal compartment demonstrated the necessary decidual response, embryo implantation is a process initiated in the epithelial layer, a uterine component that lacks estrogen responsiveness in the alphaERKO. To determine if the alphaERKO uterus would be competent for implantation, donor embryos were transferred into the uterine lumen of WT and alphaERKO females that had been ovariectomized and treated with exogenous estradiol and progesterone to mimic early pregnancy. No implantation occurred in the alphaERKO, while implantation sites containing live embryos were seen in similarly treated WT uteri, indicating that functional estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) is required for implantation. Previous observations of estrogen-independent decidualization in the alphaERKO prompted investigation of the mechanism leading to estrogen independence of this process. The disruption of progesterone receptor (PR), Hoxa10, Cox2, or LIF in transgenic mice results in the loss of decidualization response. Therefore, the expression of these genes was studied in WT and alphaERKO uteri by comparing expression following vehicle, progesterone alone (P), or estradiol priming followed by progesterone with nidatory estradiol (E+Pe) and by comparing expression following the above hormonal manipulations in addition to luminal infusion of oil used previously as decidualization-initiating stimulus. The whole-uterus level of PR and Hoxa10 mRNAs did not vary; however, the PR protein was induced in the stroma 24 h after oil infusion. Interestingly, in the WT, this

  4. Up-regulation of striatal adenosine A2A receptors with iron deficiency in rats. Effects on locomotion and cortico-striatal neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Quiroz, César; Pearson, Virginia; Gulyani, Seema; Allen, Richard; Earley, Christopher; Ferré, Sergi

    2010-01-01

    Brain iron deficiency leads to altered dopaminergic function in experimental animals, which can provide a mechanistic explanation for iron deficiency-related human sensory-motor disorders, such as Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS). However, mechanisms linking both conditions have not been determined. Considering the strong modulation exerted by adenosine on dopamine signaling, one connection could involve changes in adenosine receptor expression or function. In the striatum, presynaptic A2A receptors are localized in glutamatergic terminals contacting GABAergic dynorphinergic neurons and their function can be analyzed by the ability of A2A receptor antagonists to block the motor output induced by cortical electrical stimulation. Postsynaptic A2A receptors are localized in the dendritic field of GABAergic enkephalinergic neurons and their function can be analyzed by studying the ability of A2A receptor antagonists to produce locomotor activity and to counteract striatal ERK1/2 phosphorylation induced by cortical electrical stimulation. Increased density of striatal A2A receptors was found in rats fed during three weeks with an iron-deficient diet during the post-weaning period. In iron-deficient rats, the selective A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3, at doses of 1 and 3 mg/kg, was more effective at blocking motor output induced by cortical electrical stimulation (presynaptic A2A receptor-mediated effect) and at enhancing locomotor activation and blocking striatal ERK phosphorylation induced by cortical electrical stimulation (postsynaptic A2A receptor-mediated effects). These results indicate that brain iron deficiency induces a functional up-regulation of both striatal pre- and postsynaptic A2A receptor, which could be involved in sensory-motor disorders associated with iron deficiency such as RLS. PMID:20385128

  5. Up-regulation of striatal adenosine A(2A) receptors with iron deficiency in rats: effects on locomotion and cortico-striatal neurotransmission.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, César; Pearson, Virginia; Gulyani, Seema; Allen, Richard; Earley, Christopher; Ferré, Sergi

    2010-07-01

    Brain iron deficiency leads to altered dopaminergic function in experimental animals, which can provide a mechanistic explanation for iron deficiency-related human sensory-motor disorders, such as Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS). However, mechanisms linking both conditions have not been determined. Considering the strong modulation exerted by adenosine on dopamine signaling, one connection could involve changes in adenosine receptor expression or function. In the striatum, presynaptic A(2A) receptors are localized in glutamatergic terminals contacting GABAergic dynorphinergic neurons and their function can be analyzed by the ability of A(2A) receptor antagonists to block the motor output induced by cortical electrical stimulation. Postsynaptic A(2A) receptors are localized in the dendritic field of GABAergic enkephalinergic neurons and their function can be analyzed by studying the ability of A(2A) receptor antagonists to produce locomotor activity and to counteract striatal ERK1/2 phosphorylation induced by cortical electrical stimulation. Increased density of striatal A(2A) receptors was found in rats fed during 3 weeks with an iron-deficient diet during the post-weaning period. In iron-deficient rats, the selective A(2A) receptor antagonist MSX-3, at doses of 1 and 3 mg/kg, was more effective at blocking motor output induced by cortical electrical stimulation (presynaptic A(2A) receptor-mediated effect) and at enhancing locomotor activation and blocking striatal ERK phosphorylation induced by cortical electrical stimulation (postsynaptic A(2A) receptor-mediated effects). These results indicate that brain iron deficiency induces a functional up-regulation of both striatal pre- and postsynaptic A(2A) receptor, which could be involved in sensory-motor disorders associated with iron deficiency such as RLS. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. β-Arrestin-2 knockout prevents development of cellular μ-opioid receptor tolerance but does not affect opioid-withdrawal-related adaptations in single PAG neurons.

    PubMed

    Connor, M; Bagley, E E; Chieng, B C; Christie, M J

    2015-01-01

    Tolerance to the behavioural effects of morphine is blunted in β-arrestin-2 knockout mice, but opioid withdrawal is largely unaffected. The cellular mechanisms of tolerance have been studied in some neurons from β-arrestin-2 knockouts, but tolerance and withdrawal mechanisms have not been examined at the cellular level in periaqueductal grey (PAG) neurons, which are crucial for central tolerance and withdrawal phenomena. μ-Opioid receptor (MOPr) inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channel currents (ICa ) was examined by patch-clamp recordings from acutely dissociated PAG neurons from wild-type and β-arrestin-2 knockout mice treated chronically with morphine (CMT) or vehicle. Opioid withdrawal-induced activation of GABA transporter type 1 (GAT-1) currents was determined using perforated patch recordings from PAG neurons in brain slices. MOPr inhibition of ICa in PAG neurons was unaffected by β-arrestin-2 deletion. CMT impaired coupling of MOPrs to ICa in PAG neurons from wild-type mice, but this cellular tolerance was not observed in neurons from CMT β-arrestin-2 knockouts. However, β-arrestin-2 knockouts displayed similar opioid-withdrawal-induced activation of GAT-1 currents as wild-type PAG neurons. In β-arrestin-2 knockout mice, the central neurons involved in the anti-nociceptive actions of opioids also fail to develop cellular tolerance to opioids following chronic morphine. The results also provide the first cellular physiological evidence that opioid withdrawal is not disrupted by β-arrestin-2 deletion. However, the unaffected basal sensitivity to opioids in PAG neurons provides further evidence that changes in basal MOPr sensitivity cannot account for the enhanced acute nociceptive response to morphine reported in β-arrestin-2 knockouts. This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2. © 2014 The British

  7. Antinociceptive and hypothermic effects of Salvinorin A are abolished in a novel strain of kappa-opioid receptor-1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Ansonoff, Michael A; Zhang, Jiwen; Czyzyk, Traci; Rothman, Richard B; Stewart, Jeremy; Xu, Heng; Zjwiony, Jordan; Siebert, Daniel J; Yang, Feng; Roth, Bryan L; Pintar, John E

    2006-08-01

    Salvia divinorum is a natural occurring hallucinogen that is traditionally used by the Mazatec Indians of central Mexico. The diterpene salvinorin A was identified as an active component of S. divinorum over 20 years ago, but only recently has biochemical screening indicated that a molecular target of salvinorin A in vitro is the kappa-opioid receptor. We have examined whether salvinorin A, the C2-substituted derivative salvinorinyl-2-propionate, and salvinorin B can act as kappa-opioid receptor agonists in vivo. We found that following intracerebroventricular injection over a dose range of 1 to 30 microg of both salvinorin A and salvinorinyl-2-propionate produces antinociception in wild-type mice but not in a novel strain of kappa-opioid receptor knockout mice. Moreover, both salvinorin A and salvinorinyl-2-propionate reduce rectal body temperature, similar to conventional kappa-opioid receptor agonists, in a genotype-dependent manner. In addition, we determined that salvinorin A has high affinity for kappa 1- but not kappa 2-opioid receptors, demonstrating selectivity for this receptor subclass. Finally, treatment over the same dose range with salvinorin B, which is inactive in vitro, produced neither antinociceptive nor hypothermic effects in wild-type mice. These data demonstrate that salvinorin A is the active component of S. divinorum, selective for kappa(1)-opioid receptors, and that salvinorin A and specific structurally related analogs produce behavioral effects that require the kappa-opioid receptor.

  8. Angiotensin-(1-7) receptor Mas agonist ameliorates progress of atherosclerosis in apoE-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Jawien, J; Toton-Zuranska, J; Gajda, M; Niepsuj, A; Gebska, A; Kus, K; Suski, M; Pyka-Fosciak, G; Nowak, B; Guzik, T J; Marcinkiewicz, J; Olszanecki, R; Korbut, R

    2012-02-01

    Our interest focused on an open question whether AT-(1-7), nonpeptide receptor agonist: AVE 0991, is able to ameliorate atherosclerosis. We used an apolipoprotein E (apoE) - knockout mice model of atherosclerosis. Experimental groups received the same diet as control, mixed with: AVE 0991 at a dose of 0.58 μmol/kg b.w./day, perindopril at a dose of 0.4 mg/kg b.w./day or with tiorphan at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg b.w./day. A-779 [(D-alanine)-angiotensin (1-7)] was given at a dose of 3.3 mg/kg b.w., 3 times a week i.p. Measured by "en face" method, the percentage of occupied by Sudan IV-stained surfaces were as follows: 14.2±1.9 % in control group, whereas in AVE 0991-treated as well as in perindopril-treated groups percentages were statistically significantly lower. In tiorphan group there was no change comparing to control group, whereas in A-779 group percentage was statistically significantly higher. "Cross-section" of aortic roots revealed also the difference in atherosclerotic lesions. The mean surfaces, occupied by oil red O-stained changes were: 91.213±8.123 μm(2) in control group, while in AVE 0991-treated as well as in perindopril-treated groups lesions were statistically significantly lower. In tiorphan group there was no change; however, in A-779 group lesions were statistically significantly higher. Measured by real time RT-PCR relative p22phox (submit of NADPH oxidase) expression was significantly decreased in AVE 0991-treated mice. As revealed by flow cytometry, the expression of co-stimulatory molecules: CD86, CD80 and CD40 on both dendritic cells (CD11c+) and macrophages (F4/80+) was reduced in AVE 0991-treated group, which correlated with decreased expression of CD69 activation marker on CD4+T cells. In our report we showed the beneficial effect of AVE 0991 on atherogenesis in gene-targeted mice.

  9. Novel Alexa Fluor-488 labeled antagonist of the A(2A) adenosine receptor: Application to a fluorescence polarization-based receptor binding assay.

    PubMed

    Kecskés, Miklós; Kumar, T Santhosh; Yoo, Lena; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Jacobson, Kenneth A

    2010-08-15

    Fluorescence polarization (FP) assay has many advantages over the traditional radioreceptor binding studies. We developed an A(2A) adenosine receptor (AR) FP assay using a newly synthesized fluorescent antagonist of the A(2A)AR (MRS5346), a pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidin-5-amine derivative conjugated to the fluorescent dye Alexa Fluor-488. MRS5346 displayed a K(i) value of 111+/-16nM in radioligand binding using [(3)H]CGS21680 and membranes prepared from HEK293 cells stably expressing the human A(2A)AR. In a cyclic AMP functional assay, MRS5346 was shown to be an A(2A)AR antagonist. MRS5346 did not show any effect on A(1) and A(3) ARs in binding or the A(2B)AR in a cyclic AMP assay at 10microM. Its suitability as a fluorescent tracer was indicated in an initial observation of an FP signal following A(2A)AR binding. The FP signal was optimal with 20nM MRS5346 and 150microg protein/mL HEK293 membranes. The association and dissociation kinetic parameters were readily determined using this FP assay. The K(d) value of MRS5346 calculated from kinetic parameters was 16.5+/-4.7nM. In FP competition binding experiments using MRS5346 as a tracer, K(i) values of known AR agonists and antagonists consistently agreed with K(i) values from radioligand binding. Thus, this FP assay, which eliminates using radioisotopes, appears to be appropriate for both routine receptor binding and high-throughput screening with respect to speed of analysis, displaceable signal and precision. The approach used in the present study could be generally applicable to other GPCRs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Enhanced effects of amphetamine but reduced effects of the hallucinogen, 5-MeO-DMT, on locomotor activity in 5-HT(1A) receptor knockout mice: implications for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    van den Buuse, Maarten; Ruimschotel, Emma; Martin, Sally; Risbrough, Victoria B; Halberstadt, Adam L

    2011-01-01

    Serotonin-1A (5-HT(1A)) receptors may play a role in schizophrenia and the effects of certain antipsychotic drugs. However, the mechanism of interaction of 5-HT(1A) receptors with brain systems involved in schizophrenia, remains unclear. Here we show that 5-HT(1A) receptor knockout mice display enhanced locomotor hyperactivity to acute treatment with amphetamine, a widely used animal model of hyperdopaminergic mechanisms in psychosis. In contrast, the effect of MK-801 on locomotor activity, modeling NMDA receptor hypoactivity, was unchanged in the knockouts. The effect of the hallucinogen 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) was markedly reduced in 5-HT(1A) receptor knockout mice. There were no changes in apomorphine-induced disruption of PPI, a model of sensory gating deficits seen in schizophrenia. Similarly, there were no major changes in density of dopamine transporters (DAT) or dopamine D(1) or D(2) receptors which could explain the behavioural changes observed in 5-HT(1A) receptor knockout mice. These results extend our insight into the possible role of these receptors in aspects of schizophrenia. As also suggested by previous studies using agonist and antagonist drugs, 5-HT(1A) receptors may play an important role in hallucinations and to modulate dopaminergic activity in the brain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Direct or indirect stimulation of adenosine A2A receptors enhances bone regeneration as well as bone morphogenetic protein-2

    PubMed Central

    Mediero, Aránzazu; Wilder, Tuere; Perez-Aso, Miguel; Cronstein, Bruce N.

    2015-01-01

    Promoting bone regeneration and repair of bone defects is a need that has not been well met to date. We have previously found that adenosine, acting via A2A receptors (A2AR) promotes wound healing and inhibits inflammatory osteolysis and hypothesized that A2AR might be a novel target to promote bone regeneration. Therefore, we determined whether direct A2AR stimulation or increasing endogenous adenosine concentrations via purine transport blockade with dipyridamole regulates bone formation. We determined whether coverage of a 3 mm trephine defect in a mouse skull with a collagen scaffold soaked in saline, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2; 200 ng), 1 μM CGS21680 (A2AR agonist, EC50 = 160 nM), or 1 μM dipyridamole (EC50 = 32 nM) promoted bone regeneration. Microcomputed tomography examination demonstrated that CGS21680 and dipyridamole markedly enhanced bone regeneration as well as BMP-2 8 wk after surgery (60 ± 2%, 79 ± 2%, and 75 ± 1% bone regeneration, respectively, vs. 32 ± 2% in control, P < 0.001). Blockade by a selective A2AR antagonist (ZM241385, 1 μM) or deletion of A2AR abrogated the effect of CGS21680 and dipyridamole on bone regeneration. Both CGS21680 and dipyridamole treatment increased alkaline phosphatase-positive osteoblasts and diminished tartrate resistance acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts in the defects. In vivo imaging with a fluorescent dye for new bone formation revealed a strong fluorescent signal in treated animals that was equivalent to BMP-2. In conclusion, stimulation of A2AR by specific agonists or by increasing endogenous adenosine levels stimulates new bone formation as well as BMP-2 and represents a novel approach to stimulating bone regeneration.—Mediero, A., Wilder, T., Perez-Aso, M., Cronstein, B. N. Direct or indirect stimulation of adenosine A2A receptors enhances bone regeneration as well as bone morphogenetic protein-2. PMID:25573752

  12. The effect of neuronal conditional knock-out of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Mounsey, R.B.; Martin, H.L.; Nelson, M.C.; Evans, R.M.; Teismann, P.

    2015-01-01

    Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), namely PPARγ and PPARδ, has been shown to provide neuroprotection in a number of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease (PD). The observed neuroprotective effects in experimental models of PD have been linked to anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory actions. This study aimed to analyze the full influence of these receptors in neuroprotection by generating a nerve cell-specific conditional knock-out of these receptors and subjecting these genetically modified mice to the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) neurotoxin to model dopaminergic degeneration. Mice null for both receptors show the lowest levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive cell bodies following MPTP administration. Presence of one or both these receptors show a trend toward protection against this degeneration, as higher dopaminergic cell immunoreactivity and striatal monoamine levels are evident. These data supplement recent studies that have elected to use agonists of the receptors to regulate immune responses. The results place further importance on the activation of PPARs and the neuroprotective roles these have in inflammatory processes linked to neurodegenerative processes. PMID:26028469

  13. Modulation of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors in C6 glioma cells during hypoxia: involvement of endogenous adenosine.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Carlos A; León, David; Ruiz, María Angeles; Albasanz, José Luis; Martín, Mairena

    2008-06-01

    During hypoxia, extracellular adenosine levels are increased to prevent cell damage, playing a neuroprotective role mainly through adenosine A(1) receptors. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of hypoxia in both adenosine A(1) and A(2A) receptors endogenously expressed in C6 glioma cells. Two hours of hypoxia (5% O(2)) caused a significant decrease in adenosine A(1) receptors. The same effect was observed at 6 h and 24 h of hypoxia. However, adenosine A(2A) receptors were significantly increased at the same times. These effects were not due to hypoxia-induced alterations in cells number or viability. Changes in receptor density were not associated with variations in the rate of gene expression. Furthermore, hypoxia did not alter HIF-1alpha expression in C6 cells. However, HIF-3alpha, CREB and CREM were decreased. Adenosine A(1) and A(2A) receptor density in normoxic C6 cells treated with adenosine for 2, 6 and 24 h was similar to that observed in cells after oxygen deprivation. When C6 cells were subjected to hypoxia in the presence of adenosine deaminase, the density of receptors was not significantly modulated. Moreover, DPCPX, an A(1) receptor antagonist, blocked the effects of hypoxia on these receptors, while ZM241385, an A(2A) receptor antagonist, was unable to prevent these changes. These results suggest that moderate hypoxia modulates adenosine receptors and cAMP response elements in glial cells, through a mechanism in which endogenous adenosine and tonic A(1) receptor activation is involved.

  14. Caffeine acts through neuronal adenosine A2A receptors to prevent mood and memory dysfunction triggered by chronic stress

    PubMed Central

    Kaster, Manuella P.; Machado, Nuno J.; Silva, Henrique B.; Nunes, Ana; Ardais, Ana Paula; Santana, Magda; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E.; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S.; Porciúncula, Lisiane O.; Chen, Jiang Fan; Tomé, Ângelo R.; Agostinho, Paula; Canas, Paula M.; Cunha, Rodrigo A.

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of caffeine (an adenosine receptor antagonist) correlates inversely with depression and memory deterioration, and adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) antagonists emerge as candidate therapeutic targets because they control aberrant synaptic plasticity and afford neuroprotection. Therefore we tested the ability of A2AR to control the behavioral, electrophysiological, and neurochemical modifications caused by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), which alters hippocampal circuits, dampens mood and memory performance, and enhances susceptibility to depression. CUS for 3 wk in adult mice induced anxiogenic and helpless-like behavior and decreased memory performance. These behavioral changes were accompanied by synaptic alterations, typified by a decrease in synaptic plasticity and a reduced density of synaptic proteins (synaptosomal-associated protein 25, syntaxin, and vesicular glutamate transporter type 1), together with an increased density of A2AR in glutamatergic terminals in the hippocampus. Except for anxiety, for which results were mixed, CUS-induced behavioral and synaptic alterations were prevented by (i) caffeine (1 g/L in the drinking water, starting 3 wk before and continued throughout CUS); (ii) the selective A2AR antagonist KW6002 (3 mg/kg, p.o.); (iii) global A2AR deletion; and (iv) selective A2AR deletion in forebrain neurons. Notably, A2AR blockade was not only prophylactic but also therapeutically efficacious, because a 3-wk treatment with the A2AR antagonist SCH58261 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) reversed the mood and synaptic dysfunction caused by CUS. These results herald a key role for synaptic A2AR in the control of chronic stress-induced modifications and suggest A2AR as candidate targets to alleviate the consequences of chronic stress on brain function. PMID:26056314

  15. The adenosine metabolite inosine is a functional agonist of the adenosine A2A receptor with a unique signaling bias

    PubMed Central

    Welihinda, Ajith A.; Kaur, Manmeet; Greene, Kelly; Zhai, Yongjiao; Amento, Edward P.

    2016-01-01

    Inosine is an endogenous purine nucleoside that is produced by catabolism of adenosine. Adenosine has a short half-life (approximately 10 s) and is rapidly deaminated to inosine, a stable metabolite with a half-life of approximately 15 h. Resembling adenosine, inosine acting through adenosine receptors (ARs) exerts a wide range of anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects in vivo. The immunomodulatory effects of inosine in vivo, at least in part, are mediated via the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR), an observation that cannot be explained fully by in vitro pharmacological characterization of inosine at the A2AR. It is unclear whether the in vivo effects of inosine are due to inosine or a metabolite of inosine engaging the A2AR. Here, utilizing a combination of label-free, cell-based, and membrane-based functional assays in conjunction with an equilibrium agonist-binding assay we provide evidence for inosine engagement at the A2AR and subsequent activation of downstream signaling events. Inosine-mediated A2AR activation leads to cAMP production with an EC50 of 300.7 μM and to extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and -2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation with an EC50 of 89.38 μM. Our data demonstrate that inosine produces ERKl/2-biased signaling whereas adenosine produces cAMP-biased signaling at the A2AR, highlighting pharmacological differences between these two agonists. Given the in vivo stability of inosine, our data suggest an additional, previously unrecognized, mechanism that utilizes inosine to functionally amplify and prolong A2AR activation in vivo. PMID:26903141

  16. The adenosine metabolite inosine is a functional agonist of the adenosine A2A receptor with a unique signaling bias.

    PubMed

    Welihinda, Ajith A; Kaur, Manmeet; Greene, Kelly; Zhai, Yongjiao; Amento, Edward P

    2016-06-01

    Inosine is an endogenous purine nucleoside that is produced by catabolism of adenosine. Adenosine has a short half-life (approximately 10s) and is rapidly deaminated to inosine, a stable metabolite with a half-life of approximately 15h. Resembling adenosine, inosine acting through adenosine receptors (ARs) exerts a wide range of anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects in vivo. The immunomodulatory effects of inosine in vivo, at least in part, are mediated via the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR), an observation that cannot be explained fully by in vitro pharmacological characterization of inosine at the A2AR. It is unclear whether the in vivo effects of inosine are due to inosine or a metabolite of inosine engaging the A2AR. Here, utilizing a combination of label-free, cell-based, and membrane-based functional assays in conjunction with an equilibrium agonist-binding assay we provide evidence for inosine engagement at the A2AR and subsequent activation of downstream signaling events. Inosine-mediated A2AR activation leads to cAMP production with an EC50 of 300.7μM and to extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and -2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation with an EC50 of 89.38μM. Our data demonstrate that inosine produces ERK1/2-biased signaling whereas adenosine produces cAMP-biased signaling at the A2AR, highlighting pharmacological differences between these two agonists. Given the in vivo stability of inosine, our data suggest an additional, previously unrecognized, mechanism that utilizes inosine to functionally amplify and prolong A2AR activation in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Neuroprotection afforded by nicotine against oxygen and glucose deprivation in hippocampal slices is lost in alpha7 nicotinic receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Egea, J; Rosa, A O; Sobrado, M; Gandía, L; López, M G; García, A G

    2007-03-30

    Although alpha7-receptors are considered the main target for neuroprotection, other receptor subtypes (alpha4beta2 or alpha3beta4) have also been implicated. Hence, we have used alpha7-transgenic mice, to study the hypothesis that alpha7-receptors play a dominant role in mediating neuroprotection in an in vitro model of ischemia. We have used rat and mouse hippocampal slices to establish the model of nicotinic neuroprotection against oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). Neuronal damage caused by OGD during 1 h plus 3 h re-oxygenation, was quantified by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release from hippocampal slices. In rat hippocampal slices, OGD increased over twofold basal LDH release. Such increase was reduced when treated with 10-100 microM nicotine; maximal protection afforded by nicotine amounted to 46%. This neuroprotection was antagonized by the non-selective nicotinic receptor for acetylcholine (nAChR) blocker mecamylamine (10 microM). In hippocampal slices from wild-type control mice, nicotine (100 microM) decreased by 54.4% LDH release evoked by OGD plus re-oxygenation. In contrast, nicotine failed to exert neuroprotection in alpha7 knockout mice. This finding reinforces the view that the hippocampal neuroprotective effects of nicotine are predominantly linked to alpha7 receptors.

  18. Activation of the adenosine A2A receptor attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and is associated with increased intracellular calcium levels.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yumei; Zou, Haifeng; Zhao, Ping; Sun, Bo; Wang, Jinghua; Kong, Qingfei; Mu, Lili; Zhao, Sihan; Wang, Guangyou; Wang, Dandan; Zhang, Yao; Zhao, Jiaying; Yin, Pengqi; Liu, Lei; Zhao, Xiuli; Li, Hulun

    2016-08-25

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common autoimmune disease that inevitably causes inflammatory nerve demyelination. However, an effective approach to prevent its course is still lacking and urgently needed. Recently, the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) has emerged as a novel inflammation regulator. Manipulation of A2AR activity may suppress the MS process and protect against nerve damage. To test this hypothesis, we treated murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model for MS, with the selective A2AR agonist, CGS21680 (CGS). We evaluated the effects of CGS on the pathological features of EAE progression, including CNS cellular infiltration, inflammatory cytokine expression, lymphocyte proliferation, and cell surface markers. Treatment with CGS significantly suppressed specific lymphocyte proliferation, reduced infiltration of CD4(+) T lymphocytes, and attenuated the expression of inflammatory cytokines, which in turn inhibited the EAE progression. For the first time, we demonstrate that CGS can increase the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in murine lymphocytes, which may be the mechanism underlying the suppressive effects of CGS-induced A2AR activation on EAE progression. Our findings strongly suggest that A2AR is a potential therapeutic target for MS and provide insight into the mechanism of action of A2AR agonists, which may offer a therapeutic option for this disease. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Striatal adenosine A2A receptor neurons control active-period sleep via parvalbumin neurons in external globus pallidus

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Wei-Min; Yang, Su-Rong; Cherasse, Yoan; Lazarus, Michael; Schiffmann, Serge N; d'Exaerde, Alban de Kerchove

    2017-01-01

    Dysfunction of the striatum is frequently associated with sleep disturbances. However, its role in sleep-wake regulation has been paid little attention even though the striatum densely expresses adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs), which are essential for adenosine-induced sleep. Here we showed that chemogenetic activation of A2AR neurons in specific subregions of the striatum induced a remarkable increase in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Anatomical mapping and immunoelectron microscopy revealed that striatal A2AR neurons innervated the external globus pallidus (GPe) in a topographically organized manner and preferentially formed inhibitory synapses with GPe parvalbumin (PV) neurons. Moreover, lesions of GPe PV neurons abolished the sleep-promoting effect of striatal A2AR neurons. In addition, chemogenetic inhibition of striatal A2AR neurons led to a significant decrease of NREM sleep at active period, but not inactive period of mice. These findings reveal a prominent contribution of striatal A2AR neuron/GPe PV neuron circuit in sleep control. PMID:29022877

  20. Mechanistic insights into allosteric regulation of the A 2A adenosine G protein-coupled receptor by physiological cations

    DOE PAGES

    Ye, Libin; Neale, Chris Andrew; Sljoka, Adnan; ...

    2018-04-10

    Cations play key roles in regulating G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), although their mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, 19F NMR is used to delineate the effects of cations on functional states of the adenosine A 2A GPCR. While Na + reinforces an inactive ensemble and a partial-agonist stabilized state, Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ shift the equilibrium toward active states. Positive allosteric effects of divalent cations are more pronounced with agonist and a G-protein-derived peptide. In cell membranes, divalent cations enhance both the affinity and fraction of the high affinity agonist-bound state. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest high concentrations of divalent cations bridgemore » specific extracellular acidic residues, bringing TM5 and TM6 together at the extracellular surface and allosterically driving open the G-protein-binding cleft as shown by rigidity-transmission allostery theory. Lastly, an understanding of cation allostery should enable the design of allosteric agents and enhance our understanding of GPCR regulation in the cellular milieu.« less

  1. Role of histamine H1-receptor on behavioral states and wake maintenance during deficiency of a brain activating system: A study using a knockout mouse model.

    PubMed

    Parmentier, Régis; Zhao, Yan; Perier, Magali; Akaoka, Hideo; Lintunen, Minnamaija; Hou, Yiping; Panula, Pertti; Watanabe, Takeshi; Franco, Patricia; Lin, Jian-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Using knockout (KO) mice lacking the histamine (HA)-synthesizing enzyme (histidine decarboxylase, HDC), we have previously shown the importance of histaminergic neurons in maintaining wakefulness (W) under behavioral challenges. Since the central actions of HA are mediated by several receptor subtypes, it remains to be determined which one(s) could be responsible for such a role. We have therefore compared the cortical-EEG, sleep and W under baseline conditions or behavioral/pharmacological stimuli in littermate wild-type (WT) and H1-receptor KO (H1-/-) mice. We found that H1-/- mice shared several characteristics with HDC KO mice, i.e. 1) a decrease in W after lights-off despite its normal baseline daily amount; 2) a decreased EEG slow wave sleep (SWS)/W power ratio; 3) inability to maintain W in response to behavioral challenges demonstrated by a decreased sleep latency when facing various stimuli. These effects were mediated by central H1-receptors. Indeed, in WT mice, injection of triprolidine, a brain-penetrating H1-receptor antagonist increased SWS, whereas ciproxifan (H3-receptor antagonist/inverse agonist) elicited W; all these injections had no effect in H1-/- mice. Finally, H1-/- mice showed markedly greater changes in EEG power (notably in the 0.8-5 Hz band) and sleep-wake cycle than in WT mice after application of a cholinergic antagonist or an indirect agonist, i.e., scopolamine or physostigmine. Hence, the role of HA in wake-promotion is largely ensured by H1-receptors. An upregulated cholinergic system may account for a quasi-normal daily amount of W in HDC or H1-receptor KO mice and likely constitutes a major compensatory mechanism when the brain is facing deficiency of an activating system. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Histamine Receptors'. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Orofacial movements in phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein-1/2 double knockout mice: Effect of the GABAergic agent diazepam and the D(1) dopamine receptor agonist SKF 83959.

    PubMed

    Tomiyama, Katsunori; Song, Liqiu; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Kinsella, Anthony; Kanematsu, Takashi; Hirata, Masato; Koshikawa, Noriaki; Waddington, John L

    2010-09-01

    Orofacial movements are regulated by D(1)-like dopamine receptors interacting with additional mechanisms. Phospholipase C-related catalytically inactive protein (PRIP) regulates cell surface expression of GABA(A) receptors containing a gamma2 subunit. Mutant mice with double knockout of PRIP-1 and PRIP-2 were used to investigate aspects of GABAergic regulation of orofacial movements and interactions with D(1) mechanisms. Vertical jaw movements, tongue protrusions and movements of the head and vibrissae were reduced in PRIP-1/2 double knockouts. The GABA(A)ergic agent diazepam reduced movements of the head and vibrissae; these effects were unaltered in PRIP-1/2 double knockouts. The D(1)-like agonist SKF 83959 induced vertical jaw movements, incisor chattering, and movements of the head and vibrissae that were unaltered in PRIP-1/2 double knockouts. However, SKF 83959-induced tongue protrusions were reduced in PRIP-1/2 double knockouts. PRIP-mediated regulation of GABA(A)ergic receptor mechanisms influences topographically distinct aspects of orofacial movement and interacts with D(1) receptor systems.

  3. Fibroblast growth factor 21, fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, and β-Klotho expression in bovine growth hormone transgenic and growth hormone receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Nicole E; Hjortebjerg, Rikke; Henry, Brooke E; List, Edward O; Kopchick, John J; Berryman, Darlene E

    Although growth hormone (GH) and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) have a reported relationship, FGF21 and its receptor, fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) and cofactor β-Klotho (KLB), have not been analyzed in chronic states of altered GH action. The objective of this study was to quantify circulating FGF21 and tissue specific expression of Fgf21, Fgfr1, and Klb in mice with modified GH action. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that bovine GH transgenic (bGH) mice will be FGF21 resistant and GH receptor knockout (GHR-/-) mice will have normal FGF21 action. Seven-month-old male bGH mice (n=9) and wild type (WT) controls (n=10), and GHR-/- mice (n=8) and WT controls (n=8) were used for all measurements. Body composition was determined before dissection, and tissue weights were measured at the time of dissection. Serum FGF21 levels were evaluated by ELISA. Expression of Fgf21, Fgfr1, and Klb mRNA in white adipose tissue (AT), brown AT, and liver were evaluated by reverse transcription quantitative PCR. As expected, bGH mice had increased body weight (p=3.70E -8 ) but decreased percent fat mass (p=4.87E -4 ). Likewise, GHR-/- mice had decreased body weight (p=1.78E -10 ) but increased percent fat mass (p=1.52E -9 ), due to increased size of the subcutaneous AT depot when normalized to body weight (p=1.60E -10 ). Serum FGF21 levels were significantly elevated in bGH mice (p=0.041) and unchanged in GHR-/- mice (p=0.88). Expression of Fgf21, Fgfr1, and Klb mRNA in white AT and liver were downregulated or unchanged in both bGH and GHR-/- mice. The only exception was Fgf21 expression in brown AT of GHR-/-, which trended toward increased expression (p=0.075). In accordance with our hypothesis, we provide evidence that circulating FGF21 is increased in bGH animals, but remains unchanged in GHR-/- mice. Downregulation or no change in Fgf21, Fgfr1, and Klb expression are seen in white AT, brown AT, and liver of bGH and GHR-/- mice when compared to their

  4. Persistent reduction of cocaine seeking by pharmacological manipulation of adenosine A1 and A 2A receptors during extinction training in rats.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Casey E; Hobson, Benjamin D; Levis, Sophia C; Bachtell, Ryan K

    2014-08-01

    Adenosine receptor stimulation and blockade have been shown to modulate a variety of cocaine-related behaviors. These studies identify the direct effects of adenosine receptor stimulation on cocaine seeking during extinction training and the persistent effects on subsequent reinstatement to cocaine seeking. Rats self-administered cocaine on a fixed ratio one schedule in daily sessions over 3 weeks. Following a 1-week withdrawal, the direct effects of adenosine receptor modulation were tested by administering the adenosine A1 receptor agonist, N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA, 0.03 and 0.1 mg/kg), the adenosine A2A agonist, CGS 21680 (0.03 and 0.1 mg/kg), the presynaptic adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, SCH 442416 (0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg), or vehicle prior to each of six daily extinction sessions. The persistent effects of adenosine receptor modulation during extinction training were subsequently tested on reinstatement to cocaine seeking induced by cues, cocaine, and the dopamine D2 receptor agonist, quinpirole. All doses of CPA and CGS 21680 impaired initial extinction responding; however, only CPA treatment during extinction produced persistent impairment in subsequent cocaine- and quinpirole-induced seeking. Dissociating CPA treatment from extinction did not alter extinction responding or subsequent reinstatement. Administration of SCH 442416 had no direct effects on extinction responding but produced dose-dependent persistent impairment of cocaine- and quinpirole-induced seeking. These findings demonstrate that adenosine A1 or A2A receptor stimulation directly impair extinction responding. Interestingly, adenosine A1 receptor stimulation or presynaptic adenosine A2A receptor blockade during extinction produces lasting changes in relapse susceptibility.

  5. Mu opioid receptors on primary afferent nav1.8 neurons contribute to opiate-induced analgesia: insight from conditional knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Weibel, Raphaël; Reiss, David; Karchewski, Laurie; Gardon, Olivier; Matifas, Audrey; Filliol, Dominique; Becker, Jérôme A J; Wood, John N; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Gaveriaux-Ruff, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Opiates are powerful drugs to treat severe pain, and act via mu opioid receptors distributed throughout the nervous system. Their clinical use is hampered by centrally-mediated adverse effects, including nausea or respiratory depression. Here we used a genetic approach to investigate the potential of peripheral mu opioid receptors as targets for pain treatment. We generated conditional knockout (cKO) mice in which mu opioid receptors are deleted specifically in primary afferent Nav1.8-positive neurons. Mutant animals were compared to controls for acute nociception, inflammatory pain, opiate-induced analgesia and constipation. There was a 76% decrease of mu receptor-positive neurons and a 60% reduction of mu-receptor mRNA in dorsal root ganglia of cKO mice. Mutant mice showed normal responses to heat, mechanical, visceral and chemical stimuli, as well as unchanged morphine antinociception and tolerance to antinociception in models of acute pain. Inflammatory pain developed similarly in cKO and controls mice after Complete Freund's Adjuvant. In the inflammation model, however, opiate-induced (morphine, fentanyl and loperamide) analgesia was reduced in mutant mice as compared to controls, and abolished at low doses. Morphine-induced constipation remained intact in cKO mice. We therefore genetically demonstrate for the first time that mu opioid receptors partly mediate opiate analgesia at the level of Nav1.8-positive sensory neurons. In our study, this mechanism operates under conditions of inflammatory pain, but not nociception. Previous pharmacology suggests that peripheral opiates may be clinically useful, and our data further demonstrate that Nav1.8 neuron-associated mu opioid receptors are feasible targets to alleviate some forms of persistent pain.

  6. Mu Opioid Receptors on Primary Afferent Nav1.8 Neurons Contribute to Opiate-Induced Analgesia: Insight from Conditional Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Karchewski, Laurie; Gardon, Olivier; Matifas, Audrey; Filliol, Dominique; Becker, Jérôme A. J.; Wood, John N.; Kieffer, Brigitte L.; Gaveriaux-Ruff, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Opiates are powerful drugs to treat severe pain, and act via mu opioid receptors distributed throughout the nervous system. Their clinical use is hampered by centrally-mediated adverse effects, including nausea or respiratory depression. Here we used a genetic approach to investigate the potential of peripheral mu opioid receptors as targets for pain treatment. We generated conditional knockout (cKO) mice in which mu opioid receptors are deleted specifically in primary afferent Nav1.8-positive neurons. Mutant animals were compared to controls for acute nociception, inflammatory pain, opiate-induced analgesia and constipation. There was a 76% decrease of mu receptor-positive neurons and a 60% reduction of mu-receptor mRNA in dorsal root ganglia of cKO mice. Mutant mice showed normal responses to heat, mechanical, visceral and chemical stimuli, as well as unchanged morphine antinociception and tolerance to antinociception in models of acute pain. Inflammatory pain developed similarly in cKO and controls mice after Complete Freund’s Adjuvant. In the inflammation model, however, opiate-induced (morphine, fentanyl and loperamide) analgesia was reduced in mutant mice as compared to controls, and abolished at low doses. Morphine-induced constipation remained intact in cKO mice. We therefore genetically demonstrate for the first time that mu opioid receptors partly mediate opiate analgesia at the level of Nav1.8-positive sensory neurons. In our study, this mechanism operates under conditions of inflammatory pain, but not nociception. Previous pharmacology suggests that peripheral opiates may be clinically useful, and our data further demonstrate that Nav1.8 neuron-associated mu opioid receptors are feasible targets to alleviate some forms of persistent pain. PMID:24069332

  7. Beneficial effects of a novel agonist of the adenosine A2A receptor on monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats

    PubMed Central

    Alencar, Allan K N; Pereira, Sharlene L; Montagnoli, Tadeu L; Maia, Rodolfo C; Kümmerle, Arthur E; Landgraf, Sharon S; Caruso-Neves, Celso; Ferraz, Emanuelle B; Tesch, Roberta; Nascimento, José H M; de Sant'Anna, Carlos M R; Fraga, Carlos A M; Barreiro, Eliezer J; Sudo, Roberto T; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by enhanced pulmonary vascular resistance, right ventricular hypertrophy and increased right ventricular systolic pressure. Here, we investigated the effects of a N-acylhydrazone derivative, 3,4-dimethoxyphenyl-N-methyl-benzoylhydrazide (LASSBio-1359), on monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats. Experimental Approach PAH was induced in male Wistar rats by a single i.p. injection of MCT (60 mg·kg−1) and 2 weeks later, oral LASSBio-1359 (50 mg·kg−1) or vehicle was given once daily for 14 days. Echocardiography was used to measure cardiac function and pulmonary artery dimensions, with histological assay of vascular collagen. Studies of binding to human recombinant adenosine receptors (A1, A2A, A3) and of docking with A2A receptors were also performed. Key Results MCT administration induced changes in vascular and ventricular structure and function, characteristic of PAH. These changes were reversed by treatment with LASSBio-1359. MCT also induced endothelial dysfunction in pulmonary artery, as measured by diminished relaxation of pre-contracted arterial rings, and this dysfunction was reversed by LASSBio-1359. In pulmonary artery rings from normal Wistar rats, LASSBio-1359 induced relaxation, which was decreased by the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, ZM 241385. In adenosine receptor binding studies, LASSBio-1359 showed most affinity for the A2A receptor and in the docking analyses, binding modes of LASSBio-1359 and the A2A receptor agonist, CGS21680, were very similar. Conclusion and Implications In rats with MCT-induced PAH, structural and functional changes in heart and pulmonary artery were reversed by treatment with oral LASSBio-1359, most probably through the activation of adenosine A2A receptors. PMID:23530610

  8. Adenosine A2A Receptor Up-Regulates Retinal Wave Frequency via Starburst Amacrine Cells in the Developing Rat Retina

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Pin-Chien; Hsiao, Yu-Tien; Kao, Shao-Yen; Chen, Ching-Feng; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Chiang, Chung-Wei; Lee, Chien-fei; Lu, Juu-Chin; Chern, Yijuang; Wang, Chih-Tien

    2014-01-01

    Background Developing retinas display retinal waves, the patterned spontaneous activity essential for circuit refinement. During the first postnatal week in rodents, retinal waves are mediated by synaptic transmission between starburst amacrine cells (SACs) and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). The neuromodulator adenosine is essential for the generation of retinal waves. However, the cellular basis underlying adenosine's regulation of retinal waves remains elusive. Here, we investigated whether and how the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) regulates retinal waves and whether A2AR regulation of retinal waves acts via presynaptic SACs. Methodology/Principal Findings We showed that A2AR was expressed in the inner plexiform layer and ganglion cell layer of the developing rat retina. Knockdown of A2AR decreased the frequency of spontaneous Ca2+ transients, suggesting that endogenous A2AR may up-regulate wave frequency. To investigate whether A2AR acts via presynaptic SACs, we targeted gene expression to SACs by the metabotropic glutamate receptor type II promoter. Ca2+ transient frequency was increased by expressing wild-type A2AR (A2AR-WT) in SACs, suggesting that A2AR may up-regulate retinal waves via presynaptic SACs. Subsequent patch-clamp recordings on RGCs revealed that presynaptic A2AR-WT increased the frequency of wave-associated postsynaptic currents (PSCs) or depolarizations compared to the control, without changing the RGC's excitability, membrane potentials, or PSC charge. These findings suggest that presynaptic A2AR may not affect the membrane properties of postsynaptic RGCs. In contrast, by expressing the C-terminal truncated A2AR mutant (A2AR-ΔC) in SACs, the wave frequency was reduced compared to the A2AR-WT, but was similar to the control, suggesting that the full-length A2AR in SACs is required for A2AR up-regulation of retinal waves. Conclusions/Significance A2AR up-regulates the frequency of retinal waves via presynaptic SACs, requiring its full

  9. Insulin-Increased L-Arginine Transport Requires A2A Adenosine Receptors Activation in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán-Gutiérrez, Enrique; Westermeier, Francisco; Salomón, Carlos; González, Marcelo; Pardo, Fabián; Leiva, Andrea; Sobrevia, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine causes vasodilation of human placenta vasculature by increasing the transport of arginine via cationic amino acid transporters 1 (hCAT-1). This process involves the activation of A2A adenosine receptors (A2AAR) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Insulin increases hCAT-1 activity and expression in HUVECs, and A2AAR stimulation increases insulin sensitivity in subjects with insulin resistance. However, whether A2AAR plays a role in insulin-mediated increase in L-arginine transport in HUVECs is unknown. To determine this, we first assayed the kinetics of saturable L-arginine transport (1 minute, 37°C) in the absence or presence of nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBTI, 10 µmol/L, adenosine transport inhibitor) and/or adenosine receptors agonist/antagonists. We also determined hCAT-1 protein and mRNA expression levels (Western blots and quantitative PCR), and SLC7A1 (for hCAT-1) reporter promoter activity. Insulin and NBTI increased the extracellular adenosine concentration, the maximal velocity for L-arginine transport without altering the apparent K m for L-arginine transport, hCAT-1 protein and mRNA expression levels, and SLC7A1 transcriptional activity. An A2AAR antagonist ZM-241385 blocked these effects. ZM241385 inhibited SLC7A1 reporter transcriptional activity to the same extent in cells transfected with pGL3-hCAT-1−1606 or pGL3-hCAT-1−650 constructs in the presence of NBTI + insulin. However, SLC7A1 reporter activity was increased by NBTI only in cells transfected with pGL3-hCAT-1−1606, and the ZM-241385 sensitive fraction of the NBTI response was similar in the absence or in the presence of insulin. Thus, insulin modulation of hCAT-1 expression and activity requires functional A2AAR in HUVECs, a mechanism that may be applicable to diseases associated with fetal insulin resistance, such as gestational diabetes. PMID:22844517

  10. Absence seizures in C3H/HeJ and knockout mice caused by mutation of the AMPA receptor subunit Gria4

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Barbara; Deleuze, Charlotte; Letts, Verity A.; Mahaffey, Connie L.; Boumil, Rebecca M.; Lew, Timothy A.; Huguenard, John R.; Frankel, Wayne N.

    2008-01-01

    Absence epilepsy, characterized by spike–wave discharges (SWD) in the electroencephalogram, arises from aberrations within the circuitry of the cerebral cortex and thalamus that regulates awareness. The inbred mouse strain C3H/HeJ is prone to absence seizures, with a major susceptibility locus, spkw1, accounting for most of the phenotype. Here we find that spkw1 is associated with a hypomorphic retroviral-like insertion mutation in the Gria4 gene, encoding one of the four amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunits in the brain. Consistent with this, Gria4 knockout mice also have frequent SWD and do not complement spkw1. In contrast, null mutants for the related gene Gria3 do not have SWD, and Gria3 loss actually lowers SWD of spkw1 homozygotes. Gria3 and Gria4 encode the predominant AMPA receptor subunits in the reticular thalamus, which is thought to play a central role in seizure genesis by inhibiting thalamic relay cells and promoting rebound burst firing responses. In Gria4 mutants, synaptic excitation of inhibitory reticular thalamic neurons is enhanced, with increased duration of synaptic responses—consistent with what might be expected from reduction of the kinetically faster subunit of AMPA receptors encoded by Gria4. These results demonstrate for the first time an essential role for Gria4 in the brain, and suggest that abnormal AMPA receptor-dependent synaptic activity can be involved in the network hypersynchrony that underlies absence seizures. PMID:18316356

  11. Absence seizures in C3H/HeJ and knockout mice caused by mutation of the AMPA receptor subunit Gria4.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Barbara; Deleuze, Charlotte; Letts, Verity A; Mahaffey, Connie L; Boumil, Rebecca M; Lew, Timothy A; Huguenard, John R; Frankel, Wayne N

    2008-06-15

    Absence epilepsy, characterized by spike-wave discharges (SWD) in the electroencephalogram, arises from aberrations within the circuitry of the cerebral cortex and thalamus that regulates awareness. The inbred mouse strain C3H/HeJ is prone to absence seizures, with a major susceptibility locus, spkw1, accounting for most of the phenotype. Here we find that spkw1 is associated with a hypomorphic retroviral-like insertion mutation in the Gria4 gene, encoding one of the four amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunits in the brain. Consistent with this, Gria4 knockout mice also have frequent SWD and do not complement spkw1. In contrast, null mutants for the related gene Gria3 do not have SWD, and Gria3 loss actually lowers SWD of spkw1 homozygotes. Gria3 and Gria4 encode the predominant AMPA receptor subunits in the reticular thalamus, which is thought to play a central role in seizure genesis by inhibiting thalamic relay cells and promoting rebound burst firing responses. In Gria4 mutants, synaptic excitation of inhibitory reticular thalamic neurons is enhanced, with increased duration of synaptic responses-consistent with what might be expected from reduction of the kinetically faster subunit of AMPA receptors encoded by Gria4. These results demonstrate for the first time an essential role for Gria4 in the brain, and suggest that abnormal AMPA receptor-dependent synaptic activity can be involved in the network hypersynchrony that underlies absence seizures.

  12. Knockout crickets for the study of learning and memory: Dopamine receptor Dop1 mediates aversive but not appetitive reinforcement in crickets.

    PubMed

    Awata, Hiroko; Watanabe, Takahito; Hamanaka, Yoshitaka; Mito, Taro; Noji, Sumihare; Mizunami, Makoto

    2015-11-02

    Elucidation of reinforcement mechanisms in associative learning is an important subject in neuroscience. In mammals, dopamine neurons are thought to play critical roles in mediating both appetitive and aversive reinforcement. Our pharmacological studies suggested that octopamine and dopamine neurons mediate reward and punishment, respectively, in crickets, but recent studies in fruit-flies concluded that dopamine neurons mediates both reward and punishment, via the type 1 dopamine receptor Dop1. To resolve the discrepancy between studies in different insect species, we produced Dop1 knockout crickets using the CRISPR/Cas9 system and found that they are defective in aversive learning with sodium chloride punishment but not appetitive learning with water or sucrose reward. The results suggest that dopamine and octopamine neurons mediate aversive and appetitive reinforcement, respectively, in crickets. We suggest unexpected diversity in neurotransmitters mediating appetitive reinforcement between crickets and fruit-flies, although the neurotransmitter mediating aversive reinforcement is conserved. This study demonstrates usefulness of the CRISPR/Cas9 system for producing knockout animals for the study of learning and memory.

  13. Knockout crickets for the study of learning and memory: Dopamine receptor Dop1 mediates aversive but not appetitive reinforcement in crickets

    PubMed Central

    Awata, Hiroko; Watanabe, Takahito; Hamanaka, Yoshitaka; Mito, Taro; Noji, Sumihare; Mizunami, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Elucidation of reinforcement mechanisms in associative learning is an important subject in neuroscience. In mammals, dopamine neurons are thought to play critical roles in mediating both appetitive and aversive reinforcement. Our pharmacological studies suggested that octopamine and dopamine neurons mediate reward and punishment, respectively, in crickets, but recent studies in fruit-flies concluded that dopamine neurons mediates both reward and punishment, via the type 1 dopamine receptor Dop1. To resolve the discrepancy between studies in different insect species, we produced Dop1 knockout crickets using the CRISPR/Cas9 system and found that they are defective in aversive learning with sodium chloride punishment but not appetitive learning with water or sucrose reward. The results suggest that dopamine and octopamine neurons mediate aversive and appetitive reinforcement, respectively, in crickets. We suggest unexpected diversity in neurotransmitters mediating appetitive reinforcement between crickets and fruit-flies, although the neurotransmitter mediating aversive reinforcement is conserved. This study demonstrates usefulness of the CRISPR/Cas9 system for producing knockout animals for the study of learning and memory. PMID:26521965

  14. Effect of AVE 0991 angiotensin-(1-7) receptor agonist treatment on elemental and biomolecular content and distribution in atherosclerotic plaques of apoE-knockout mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalska, J.; Gajda, M.; Jawień, J.; Kwiatek, W. M.; Appel, K.; Dumas, P.

    2013-12-01

    Gene-targeted apolipoprotein E-knockout (apoE-KO) mice display early and highly progressive vascular lesions containing lipid deposits and they became a reliable animal model to study atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of AVE 0991 angiotensin-(1-7) receptor agonist on the distribution of selected pro- and anti- inflammatory elements as well as biomolecules in atherosclerotic plaques of apoE-knockout mice. Synchrotron radiation-based X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) and Fourier Transform Infrared (micro-FTIR) microspectroscopies were applied. Two-month-old apoE-KO mice were fed for following four months diet supplemented with AVE 0991 (0.58 μmol/kg b.w. per day). Histological sections of ascending aortas were analyzed spectroscopically. The distribution of P, Ca, Fe and Zn were found to correspond with histological structure of the lesion. Significantly lower contents of P, Ca, Zn and significantly higher content of Fe were observed in animals treated with AVE 0991. Biomolecular analysis showed lower lipids saturation level and lower lipid to protein ratio in AVE 0991 treated group. Protein secondary structure was studied according to the composition of amide I band (1660 cm-1) and it demonstrated higher proportion of β-sheet structure as compared to α-helix in both studied groups.

  15. Anti-inflammatory effects of inosine in allergic lung inflammation in mice: evidence for the participation of adenosine A2A and A 3 receptors.

    PubMed

    da Rocha Lapa, Fernanda; de Oliveira, Ana Paula Ligeiro; Accetturi, Beatriz Golega; de Oliveira Martins, Isabelli; Domingos, Helory Vanni; de Almeida Cabrini, Daniela; de Lima, Wothan Tavares; Santos, Adair Roberto Soares

    2013-09-01

    Inosine, a naturally occurring purine formed from the breakdown of adenosine, is associated with immunoregulatory effects. Evidence shows that inosine modulates lung inflammation and regulates cytokine generation. However, its role in controlling allergen-induced lung inflammation has yet to be identified. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of inosine and adenosine receptors in a murine model of lung allergy induced by ovalbumin (OVA). Intraperitoneal administration of inosine (0.001-10 mg/kg, 30 min before OVA challenge) significantly reduced the number of leukocytes, macrophages, lymphocytes and eosinophils recovered in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of sensitized mice compared with controls. Interestingly, our results showed that pre-treatment with the selective A2A receptor antagonist (ZM241385), but not with the selective A2B receptor antagonist (alloxazine), reduced the inhibitory effects of inosine against macrophage count, suggesting that A2A receptors mediate monocyte recruitment into the lungs. In addition, the pre-treatment of mice with selective A3 antagonist (MRS3777) also prevented inosine effects against macrophages, lymphocytes and eosinophils. Histological analysis confirmed the effects of inosine and A2A adenosine receptors on cell recruitment and demonstrated that the treatment with ZM241385 and alloxazine reverted inosine effects against mast cell migration into the lungs. Accordingly, the treatment with inosine reduced lung elastance, an effect related to A2 receptors. Moreover, inosine reduced the levels of Th2-cytokines, interleukin-4 and interleukin-5, an effect that was not reversed by A2A or A2B selective antagonists. Our data show that inosine acting on A2A or A3 adenosine receptors can regulate OVA-induced allergic lung inflammation and also implicate inosine as an endogenous modulator of inflammatory processes observed in the lungs of asthmatic patients.

  16. 15 years of genetic approaches in vivo for addiction research: Opioid receptor and peptide gene knockout in mouse models of drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Charbogne, Pauline; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Befort, Katia

    2014-01-01

    The endogenous opioid system is expressed throughout the brain reinforcement circuitry, and plays a major role in reward processing, mood control and the development of addiction. This neuromodulator system is composed of three receptors, mu, delta and kappa, interacting with a family of opioid peptides derived from POMC (β-endorphin), preproenkephalin (pEnk) and preprodynorphin (pDyn) precursors. Knockout mice targeting each gene of the opioid system have been created almost two decades ago. Extending classical pharmacology, these mutant mice represent unique tools to tease apart the specific role of each opioid receptor and peptide in vivo, and a powerful approach to understand how the opioid system modulates behavioral effects of drugs of abuse. The present review summarizes these studies, with a focus on major drugs of abuse including morphine/heroin, cannabinoids, psychostimulants, nicotine or alcohol. Genetic data, altogether, set the mu receptor as the primary target for morphine and heroin. In addition, this receptor is essential to mediate rewarding properties of non-opioid drugs of abuse, with a demonstrated implication of β-endorphin for cocaine and nicotine. Delta receptor activity reduces levels of anxiety and depressive-like behaviors, and facilitates morphine-context association. pEnk is involved in these processes and delta/pEnk signaling likely regulates alcohol intake. The kappa receptor mainly interacts with pDyn peptides to limit drug reward, and mediate dysphoric effects of cannabinoids and nicotine. Kappa/dynorphin activity also increases sensitivity to cocaine reward under stressful conditions. The opioid system remains a prime candidate to develop successful therapies in addicted individuals, and understanding opioid-mediated processes at systems level, through emerging genetic and imaging technologies, represents the next challenging goal and a promising avenue in addiction research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'NIDA

  17. Knockouts reveal overlapping functions of M2 and M4 muscarinic receptors and evidence for a local glutamatergic circuit within the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Kohlmeier, Kristi A.; Ishibashi, Masaru; Wess, Jürgen; Bickford, Martha E.

    2012-01-01

    Cholinergic neurons in the laterodorsal tegmental (LDT) and peduncolopontine tegmental (PPT) nuclei regulate reward, arousal, and sensory gating via major projections to midbrain dopamine regions, the thalamus, and pontine targets. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) on LDT neurons produce a membrane hyperpolarization and inhibit spike-evoked Ca2+ transients. Pharmacological studies suggest M2 mAChRs are involved, but the role of these and other localized mAChRs (M1--M4) has not been definitively tested. To identify the underlying receptors and to circumvent the limited receptor selectivity of available mAChR ligands, we used light- and electron-immunomicroscopy and whole cell recording with Ca2+ imaging in brain slices from knockout mice constitutively lacking either M2, M4, or both mAChRs. Immunomicroscopy findings support a role for M2 mAChRs, since cholinergic and noncholinergic LDT and pedunculopontine tegmental neurons contain M2-specific immunoreactivity. However, whole cell recording revealed that the presence of either M2 or M4 mAChRs was sufficient, and that the presence of at least one of these receptors was required for these carbachol actions. Moreover, in the absence of M2 and M4 mAChRs, carbachol elicited both direct excitation and barrages of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic potentials (sEPSPs) in cholinergic LDT neurons mediated by M1 and/or M3 mAChRs. Focal carbachol application to surgically reduced slices suggest that local glutamatergic neurons are a source of these sEPSPs. Finally, neither direct nor indirect excitation were knockout artifacts, since each was detected in wild-type slices, although sEPSP barrages were delayed, suggesting M2 and M4 receptors normally delay excitation of glutamatergic inputs. Collectively, our findings indicate that multiple mAChRs coordinate cholinergic outflow from the LDT in an unexpectedly complex manner. An intriguing possibility is that a local circuit transforms LDT muscarinic inputs from a

  18. Evidence from knockout mice for distinct implications of neuropeptide-Y Y2 and Y4 receptors in the circadian control of locomotion, exploration, water and food intake.

    PubMed

    Edelsbrunner, M E; Painsipp, E; Herzog, H; Holzer, P

    2009-12-01

    Members of the neuropeptide-Y (NPY) family acting via Y2 and/or Y4 receptors have been proposed to participate in the control of ingestive behaviour and energy homeostasis. Since these processes vary between day and night, we explored the circadian patterns of locomotor, exploratory and ingestive behaviour in mice with disrupted genes for Y2 (Y2-/-) or Y4 (Y4-/-) receptors. To this end, the LabMaster system was used and its utility for the analysis of changes in circadian activity and ingestion caused by gene knockout evaluated. Female animals, aged 27weeks on average, were housed singly in cages fitted with sensors for water and food intake and two infrared frames for recording ambulation and rearing under a 12h light/dark cycle for 4days. Relative to WT animals, diurnal locomotion, exploration, drinking and feeding were reduced, whereas nocturnal locomotion was enhanced in Y2-/- mice. In contrast, Y4-/- mice moved more but ate and drank less during the photophase, while they ate more and explored less during the scotophase. Both Y2-/- and Y4-/- mice weighed more than WT mice. These findings attest to a differential role of Y2 and Y4 receptor signalling in the circadian control of behaviours that balance energy intake and energy expenditure. These phenotypic traits can be sensitively and continuously recorded by the LabMaster system.

  19. Effect of P2X(7) receptor knockout on exocrine secretion of pancreas, salivary glands and lacrimal glands.

    PubMed

    Novak, Ivana; Jans, Ida M; Wohlfahrt, Louise

    2010-09-15

    The purinergic P2X(7) receptors are expressed in different cell types where they have varied functions, including regulation of cell survival. The P2X(7) receptors are also expressed in exocrine glands, but their integrated role in secretion is unclear. The aim of our study was to determine whether the P2X(7) receptors affect fluid secretion in pancreas, salivary glands and tear glands. We monitored gland secretions in in vivo preparations of wild-type and P2X(7)(-/-) (Pfizer) mice stimulated with pilocarpine. In cell preparations from pancreas, parotid and lacrimal glands we measured ATP release and intracellular Ca(2+) activity using Fura-2. The data showed that pancreatic secretion and salivary secretions were reduced in P2X(7)(-/-) mice, and in contrast, tear secretion was increased in P2X(7)(-/-) mice. The secretory phenotype was also dependent on the sex of the animal, such that males were more dependent on the P2X(7) receptor expression. ATP release in all cell preparations could be elicited by carbachol and other agonists, and this was independent of the P2X(7) receptor expression. ATP and carbachol increased intracellular Ca(2+) activity, but responses depended on the gland type, presence of the P2X(7) receptor and the sex of the animal. Together, these results demonstrate that cholinergic stimulation leads to release of ATP that can via P2X(7) receptors up-regulate pancreatic and salivary secretion but down-regulate tear secretion. Our data also indicate that there is an interaction between purinergic and cholinergic receptor signalling and that function of the P2X(7) receptor is suppressed in females. We conclude that the P2X(7) receptors are important in short-term physiological regulation of exocrine gland secretion.

  20. Effect of P2X7 receptor knockout on exocrine secretion of pancreas, salivary glands and lacrimal glands

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Ivana; Jans, Ida M; Wohlfahrt, Louise

    2010-01-01

    The purinergic P2X7 receptors are expressed in different cell types where they have varied functions, including regulation of cell survival. The P2X7 receptors are also expressed in exocrine glands, but their integrated role in secretion is unclear. The aim of our study was to determine whether the P2X7 receptors affect fluid secretion in pancreas, salivary glands and tear glands. We monitored gland secretions in in vivo preparations of wild-type and P2X7−/− (Pfizer) mice stimulated with pilocarpine. In cell preparations from pancreas, parotid and lacrimal glands we measured ATP release and intracellular Ca2+ activity using Fura-2. The data showed that pancreatic secretion and salivary secretions were reduced in P2X7−/− mice, and in contrast, tear secretion was increased in P2X7−/− mice. The secretory phenotype was also dependent on the sex of the animal, such that males were more dependent on the P2X7 receptor expression. ATP release in all cell preparations could be elicited by carbachol and other agonists, and this was independent of the P2X7 receptor expression. ATP and carbachol increased intracellular Ca2+ activity, but responses depended on the gland type, presence of the P2X7 receptor and the sex of the animal. Together, these results demonstrate that cholinergic stimulation leads to release of ATP that can via P2X7 receptors up-regulate pancreatic and salivary secretion but down-regulate tear secretion. Our data also indicate that there is an interaction between purinergic and cholinergic receptor signalling and that function of the P2X7 receptor is suppressed in females. We conclude that the P2X7 receptors are important in short-term physiological regulation of exocrine gland secretion. PMID:20643770

  1. METABOTROPIC GLUTAMATE TYPE 5, DOPAMINE D2 AND ADENOSINE A2A RECEPTORS FORM HIGHER-ORDER OLIGOMERS IN LIVING CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Cabello, Nuria; Gandía, Jorge; Bertarelli, Daniela C. G.; Watanabe, Masahiko; Lluís, Carme; Franco, Rafael; Ferré, Sergi; Luján, Rafael; Ciruela, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors are known to form homo- and heteromers at the plasma membrane, but the stoichiometry of these receptor oligomers are relatively unknown. Here, by using bimolecular fluorescence complementation, we visualized for the first time the occurrence of heterodimers of metabotropic glutamate mGlu5 receptors (mGlu5R) and dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) in living cells. Furthermore, the combination of bimolecular fluorescence complementation and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer techniques, as well as the sequential resonance energy transfer (SRET) technique, allowed us to detect the occurrence receptor oligomers containing more than two protomers, mGlu5R, D2R and adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR). Interestingly, by using high-resolution immunoelectron microscopy we could confirm that the three receptors co-distribute within the extrasynaptic plasma membrane of the same dendritic spines of asymmetrical, putative glutamatergic, striatal synapses. Also, co-immunoprecipitation experiments in native tissue demonstrated the existence of an association of mGlu5R, D2R and A2AR in rat striatum homogenates. Overall, these results provide new insights into the molecular composition of G protein-coupled receptor oligomers in general and the mGlu5R/D2R/A2AR oligomer in particular, a receptor oligomer that might constitute an important target for the treatment of some neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:19344374

  2. Altered learning, memory, and social behavior in type 1 taste receptor subunit 3 knock-out mice are associated with neuronal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Martin, Bronwen; Wang, Rui; Cong, Wei-Na; Daimon, Caitlin M; Wu, Wells W; Ni, Bin; Becker, Kevin G; Lehrmann, Elin; Wood, William H; Zhang, Yongqing; Etienne, Harmonie; van Gastel, Jaana; Azmi, Abdelkrim; Janssens, Jonathan; Maudsley, Stuart

    2017-07-07

    The type 1 taste receptor member 3 (T1R3) is a G protein-coupled receptor involved in sweet-taste perception. Besides the tongue, the T1R3 receptor is highly expressed in brain areas implicated in cognition, including the hippocampus and cortex. As cognitive decline is often preceded by significant metabolic or endocrinological dysfunctions regulated by the sweet-taste perception system, we hypothesized that a disruption of the sweet-taste perception in the brain could have a key role in the development of cognitive dysfunction. To assess the importance of the sweet-taste receptors in the brain, we conducted transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of cortical and hippocampal tissues isolated from T1R3 knock-out (T1R3KO) mice. The effect of an impaired sweet-taste perception system on cognition functions were examined by analyzing synaptic integrity and performing animal behavior on T1R3KO mice. Although T1R3KO mice did not present a metabolically disrupted phenotype, bioinformatic interpretation of the high-dimensionality data indicated a strong neurodegenerative signature associated with significant alterations in pathways involved in neuritogenesis, dendritic growth, and synaptogenesis. Furthermore, a significantly reduced dendritic spine density was observed in T1R3KO mice together with alterations in learning and memory functions as well as sociability deficits. Taken together our data suggest that the sweet-taste receptor system plays an important neurotrophic role in the extralingual central nervous tissue that underpins synaptic function, memory acquisition, and social behavior. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Differential effects of presynaptic versus postsynaptic adenosine A2A receptor blockade on Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) self-administration in squirrel monkeys.

    PubMed

    Justinová, Zuzana; Redhi, Godfrey H; Goldberg, Steven R; Ferré, Sergi

    2014-05-07

    Different doses of an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3 [3,7-dihydro-8-[(1E)-2-(3-ethoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-7 methyl-3-[3-(phosphooxy)propyl-1-(2 propynil)-1H-purine-2,6-dione] were found previously to either decrease or increase self-administration of cannabinoids delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or anandamide in squirrel monkeys. It was hypothesized that the decrease observed with a relatively low dose of MSX-3 was related to blockade of striatal presynaptic A2A receptors that modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission, whereas the increase observed with a higher dose was related to blockade of postsynaptic A2A receptors localized in striatopallidal neurons. This hypothesis was confirmed in the present study by testing the effects of the preferential presynaptic and postsynaptic A2A receptor antagonists SCH-442416 [2-(2-furanyl)-7-[3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propyl]-7H-pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidin-5-amine] and KW-6002 [(E)-1, 3-diethyl-8-(3,4-dimethoxystyryl)-7-methyl-3,7-dihydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione], respectively, in squirrel monkeys trained to intravenously self-administer THC. SCH-442416 produced a significant shift to the right of the THC self-administration dose-response curves, consistent with antagonism of the reinforcing effects of THC. Conversely, KW-6002 produced a significant shift to the left, consistent with potentiation of the reinforcing effects of THC. These results show that selectively blocking presynaptic A2A receptors could provide a new pharmacological approach to the treatment of marijuana dependence and underscore corticostriatal glutamatergic neurotransmission as a possible main mechanism involved in the rewarding effects of THC.

  4. Potentiation of cytokine induction of group IIA phospholipase A(2) in rat mesangial cells by ATP and adenosine via the A2A adenosine receptor.

    PubMed

    Scholz-Pedretti, K; Pfeilschifter, J; Kaszkin, M

    2001-01-01

    1. In rat mesangial cells extracellular nucleotides were found to increase arachidonic acid release by a cytosolic phospholipase A(2) through the P2Y(2) purinergic receptor. 2. In this study we investigated the effects of ATP and UTP on interleukin-1ss (IL-1ss)-induced mRNA expression and activity of group IIA phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)-IIA) in rat mesangial cells. 3. Treatment of cells for 24 h with extracellular ATP potentiated IL-1ss-stimulated sPLA(2)-IIA induction, whereas UTP had no effect. 4. We obtained the following evidence that the P2Y(2) receptor is not involved in the potentiation of sPLA(2)-IIA induction: (i) ATP-gamma-S had no enhancing effect; (ii) suramin, a P(2) receptor antagonist, did not inhibit ATP-mediated potentiation; (iii) inhibition of degradation of extracellular nucleotides by the 5'-ectonucleotidase inhibitor AOPCP did not enhance sPLA(2)-IIA induction and (iv) adenosine deaminase treatment completely abolished the ATP-mediated potentiation of sPLA(2)-IIA induction. 5. In contrast, treatment of mesangial cells with adenosine or the A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680 mimicked the effects of ATP in enhancing IL-1ss-stimulated sPLA(2)-IIA induction, whereas the specific A2A receptor antagonist ZM 241385 completely abolished the potentiating effect of ATP or adenosine. 6. The protein kinase A inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cyclic AMPS dose-dependently inhibited the enhancing effect of ATP or adenosine indicating the participation of an adenosine receptor-mediated cyclic AMP-dependent signalling pathway. 7. These data indicate that ATP mediates proinflammatory long-term effects in rat mesangial cells via its degradation product adenosine through the A2A receptor resulting in potentiation of sPLA(2)-IIA induction.

  5. Difference in Perseverative Errors during a Visual Attention Task with Auditory Distractors in Alpha-9 Nicotinic Receptor Subunit Wild Type and Knock-Out Mice.

    PubMed

    Jorratt, Pascal; Delano, Paul H; Delgado, Carolina; Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies; Terreros, Gonzalo

    2017-01-01

    The auditory efferent system is a neural network that originates in the auditory cortex and projects to the cochlear receptor through olivocochlear (OC) neurons. Medial OC neurons make cholinergic synapses with outer hair cells (OHCs) through nicotinic receptors constituted by α9 and α10 subunits. One of the physiological functions of the α9 nicotinic receptor subunit (α9-nAChR) is the suppression of auditory distractors during selective attention to visual stimuli. In a recent study we demonstrated that the behavioral performance of alpha-9 nicotinic receptor knock-out (KO) mice is altered during selective attention to visual stimuli with auditory distractors since they made less correct responses and more omissions than wild type (WT) mice. As the inhibition of the behavioral responses to irrelevant stimuli is an important mechanism of the selective attention processes, behavioral errors are relevant measures that can reflect altered inhibitory control. Errors produced during a cued attention task can be classified as premature, target and perseverative errors. Perseverative responses can be considered as an inability to inhibit the repetition of an action already planned, while premature responses can be considered as an index of the ability to wait or retain an action. Here, we studied premature, target and perseverative errors during a visual attention task with auditory distractors in WT and KO mice. We found that α9-KO mice make fewer perseverative errors with longer latencies than WT mice in the presence of auditory distractors. In addition, although we found no significant difference in the number of target error between genotypes, KO mice made more short-latency target errors than WT mice during the presentation of auditory distractors. The fewer perseverative error made by α9-KO mice could be explained by a reduced motivation for reward and an increased impulsivity during decision making with auditory distraction in KO mice.

  6. The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1: Unique tissue-specific functions revealed by selective gene knockout studies

    PubMed Central

    Lillis, Anna P.; Van Duyn, Lauren B.; Murphy-Ullrich, Joanne E.; Strickland, Dudley K.

    2008-01-01

    The low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein (originally called LRP, but now referred to as LRP1) is a large endocytic receptor that is widely expressed in several tissues. LRP1 is a member of the LDL receptor family that plays diverse roles in various biological processes including lipoprotein metabolism, degradation of proteases, activation of lysosomal enzymes and cellular entry of bacterial toxins and viruses. Deletion of the LRP1 gene leads to lethality in mice, revealing a critical, but as of yet, undefined role in development. Tissue-specific gene deletion studies reveal an important contribution of LRP1 in the vasculature, central nervous system, in macrophages and in adipocytes. Three important properties of LRP1 dictate its diverse role in physiology: first, its ability to recognize more than thirty distinct ligands; second, its ability to bind a large number of cytoplasmic adaptor proteins via determinants located on its cytoplasmic domain in a phosphorylation-specific manner; and third, its ability to associate with and modulate the activity of other transmembrane receptors such as integrins and receptor tyrosine kinases. PMID:18626063

  7. Inhibitory Effects of North American Wild Rice on Monocyte Adhesion and Inflammatory Modulators in Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Moghadasian, Mohammed H; Zhao, Ruozhi; Ghazawwi, Nora; Le, Khuong; Apea-Bah, Franklin B; Beta, Trust; Shen, Garry X

    2017-10-18

    The present study examined the effects of wild rice on monocyte adhesion, inflammatory and fibrinolytic mediators in low-density lipoprotein receptor-knockout (LDLr-KO) mice. Male LDLr-KO mice received a cholesterol (0.06%, w/w)-supplemented diet with or without white or wild rice (60%, w/w) for 20 weeks. White rice significantly increased monocyte adhesion and abundances of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tissue necrosis factor-α, intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), and uPA receptor in aortae and hearts of LDLr-KO mice compared to the control diet. Wild rice inhibited monocyte adhesion to the aorta, atherosclerosis, and abundances of the inflammatory and fibrinolytic regulators in the cardiovascular tissue of LDLr-KO mice compared to white rice. White or wild rice did not significantly alter the levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, or antioxidant enzymes in plasma. The anti-atherosclerotic effect of wild rice may result from its inhibition on monocyte adhesion and inflammatory modulators in LDLr-KO mice.

  8. High Affinity Dopamine D3 Receptor (D3R)-Selective Antagonists Attenuate Heroin Self-Administration in Wild-Type but not D3R Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) is a promising target for the development of pharmacotherapeutics to treat substance use disorders. Several D3R-selective antagonists are effective in animal models of drug abuse, especially in models of relapse. Nevertheless, poor bioavailability, metabolic instability, and/or predicted toxicity have impeded success in translating these drug candidates to clinical use. Herein, we report a series of D3R-selective 4-phenylpiperazines with improved metabolic stability. A subset of these compounds was evaluated for D3R functional efficacy and off-target binding at selected 5-HT receptor subtypes, where significant overlap in SAR with D3R has been observed. Several high affinity D3R antagonists, including compounds 16 (Ki = 0.12 nM) and 32 (Ki = 0.35 nM), showed improved metabolic stability compared to the parent compound, PG648 (6). Notably, 16 and the classic D3R antagonist SB277011A (2) were effective in reducing self-administration of heroin in wild-type but not D3R knockout mice. PMID:26203768

  9. Dose-related neuroprotective effects of chronic nicotine in 6-hydroxydopamine treated rats, and loss of neuroprotection in α4 nicotinic receptor subunit knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, R E; Ross, S A; Drago, J; Loiacono, R E

    2001-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of a range of doses of chronic nicotine (0.75, 1.5, 3.0 and 30.0 mg kg−1 day−1, s.c., 14 days) upon striatal dopaminergic nerve terminal survival following 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA; 10 μg intrastriatal unilaterally) in rats; and the effects of acute nicotine (1 mg kg−1, s.c.) pretreatment upon striatal neurodegeneration induced by methamphetamine (5 mg kg−1, i.p., three doses at 2 h intervals) in wild-type and α4 nicotinic receptor (nAChR) subunit knockout mice.In both models of Parkinsonian-like damage, loss of striatal dopaminergic nerve terminals was assessed by [3H]-mazindol autoradiography.In rats, chronic nicotine infusion delivered by osmotic minipump implanted subcutaneously 7 days prior to intrastriatal 6-OHDA injection produced significant and dose-related protection against 6-OHDA-induced neurodegeneration. Low (0.75 and 1.5 mg kg−1 day−1) but not high (3.0 and 30.0 mg kg−1 day−1) nicotine doses significantly inhibited 6-OHDA-induced degeneration.In wild-type mice, acute nicotine treatment produced significant inhibition of methamphetamine-induced neurodegeneration. In α4 nAChR subunit knockout mice, acute nicotine treatment failed to inhibit methamphetamine-induced neurodegeneration.Nicotine is capable of protecting dopaminergic neurons against Parkinsonian-like neurodegeneration in vivo. In rats, this neuroprotective effect is critically dependent upon nicotine dose and is consistent with the activation of nAChRs, as high, desensitizing doses of nicotine fail to be neuroprotective. Further, neuroprotection is absent in α4 nAChR subunit knockout mice. The current results therefore suggest that activation of α4 subunit containing nAChRs constitutes a major component of the neuroprotective effect of nicotine upon Parkinsonian-like damage in vivo. PMID:11309235

  10. Genetic knockout of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene alters hippocampal long-term potentiation in a background strain-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Freund, Ronald K; Graw, Sharon; Choo, Kevin S; Stevens, Karen E; Leonard, Sherry; Dell'Acqua, Mark L

    2016-08-03

    Reduced α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) function is linked to impaired hippocampal-dependent sensory processing and learning and memory in schizophrenia. While knockout of the Chrna7 gene encoding the α7nAChR on a C57/Bl6 background results in changes in cognitive measures, prior studies found little impact on hippocampal synaptic plasticity in these mice. However, schizophrenia is a multi-genic disorder where complex interactions between specific genetic mutations and overall genetic background may play a prominent role in determining phenotypic penetrance. Thus, we compared the consequences of knocking out the α7nAChR on synaptic plasticity in C57/Bl6 and C3H mice, which differ in their basal α7nAChR expression levels. Homozygous α7 deletion in C3H mice, which normally express higher α7nAChR levels, resulted in impaired long-term potentiation (LTP) at hippocampal CA1 synapses, while C3H α7 heterozygous mice maintained robust LTP. In contrast, homozygous α7 deletion in C57 mice, which normally express lower α7nAChR levels, did not alter LTP, as had been previously reported for this strain. Thus, the threshold of Chrna7 expression required for LTP may be different in the two strains. Measurements of auditory gating, a hippocampal-dependent behavioral paradigm used to identify schizophrenia-associated sensory processing deficits, was abnormal in C3H α7 knockout mice confirming that auditory gating also requires α7nAChR expression. Our studies highlight the importance of genetic background on the regulation of synaptic plasticity and could be relevant for understanding genetic and cognitive heterogeneity in human studies of α7nAChR dysfunction in mental disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like activity of purinedione-derivatives with affinity for adenosine A2A receptors in mice.

    PubMed

    Dziubina, Anna; Szmyd, Karina; Zygmunt, Małgorzata; Sapa, Jacek; Dudek, Magdalena; Filipek, Barbara; Drabczyńska, Anna; Załuski, Michał; Pytka, Karolina; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-12-01

    It has recently been suggested that the adenosine A 2A receptor plays a role in several animal models of depression. Additionally, A 2A antagonists have reversed behavioral deficits and exhibited a profile similar to classical antidepressants. In the present study, imidazo- and pyrimido[2,1-f]purinedione derivatives (KD 66, KD 167, KD 206) with affinity to A 2A receptors but poor A 1 affinity were evaluated for their antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activity. The activity of these derivatives was tested using a tail suspension and forced swim test, two widely-used behavioral paradigms for the evaluation of antidepressant-like activity. In turn, the anxiolytic activity was evaluated using the four-plate test. The results showed the antidepressant-like activity of pyrimido- and imidazopurinedione derivatives (i.e. KD 66, KD 167 and KD 206) in acute and chronic behavioral tests in mice. KD 66 revealed an anxiolytic-like effect, while KD 167 increased anxiety behaviors. KD 206 had no effect on anxiety. Furthermore, none of the tested compounds increased locomotor activity. Available data support the proposition that the examined compounds with adenosine A 2A receptor affinity may be an interesting target for the development of antidepressant and/or anxiolytic agents. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  12. Decreases in yeast expression yields of the human adenosine A2a receptor are a result of translational or post-translational events.

    PubMed

    Niebauer, Ronald T; Wedekind, Alison; Robinson, Anne Skaja

    2004-09-01

    The human adenosine receptor (A2a), a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), was C-terminally tagged with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to gain an understanding of the expression limitations of this medically relevant class of membrane proteins. The A2a-GFP protein was able to bind adenosine analogs indicating that the GFP tag did not alter the ligand binding activity of the receptor. A screen based on whole cell fluorescence was developed and a library of clones with various gene copy numbers was screened via flow cytometry to isolate clones with the highest protein expression levels. All clones studied exhibited a decrease in the net A2a-GFP protein production rate over time as determined by whole cell fluorescence, Western blotting, confocal microscopy, and ligand binding. Quantitative PCR showed that A2a-GFP mRNA levels remained relatively high even as the protein production rate decreased. A cycloheximide chase experiment showed that the mature protein was stable over time and was not significantly degraded. Taken together, these results suggest that heterologous expression of GPCRs is limited by a translational or post-translational bottleneck that is unique from expression limitations seen for soluble proteins.

  13. CA1-specific N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor knockout mice are deficient in solving a nonspatial transverse patterning task.

    PubMed

    Rondi-Reig, L; Libbey, M; Eichenbaum, H; Tonegawa, S

    2001-03-13

    In both humans and animals, the hippocampus is critical to memory across modalities of information (e.g., spatial and nonspatial memory) and plays a critical role in the organization and flexible expression of memories. Recent studies have advanced our understanding of cellular basis of hippocampal function, showing that N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in area CA1 are required in both the spatial and nonspatial domains of learning. Here we examined whether CA1 NMDA receptors are specifically required for the acquisition and flexible expression of nonspatial memory. Mice lacking CA1 NMDA receptors were impaired in solving a transverse patterning problem that required the simultaneous acquisition of three overlapping odor discriminations, and their impairment was related to an abnormal strategy by which they failed to adequately sample and compare the critical odor stimuli. By contrast, they performed normally, and used normal stimulus sampling strategies, in the concurrent learning of three nonoverlapping concurrent odor discriminations. These results suggest that CA1 NMDA receptors play a crucial role in the encoding and flexible expression of stimulus relations in nonspatial memory.

  14. CA1-specific N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor knockout mice are deficient in solving a nonspatial transverse patterning task

    PubMed Central

    Rondi-Reig, Laure; Libbey, Megan; Eichenbaum, Howard; Tonegawa, Susumu

    2001-01-01

    In both humans and animals, the hippocampus is critical to memory across modalities of information (e.g., spatial and nonspatial memory) and plays a critical role in the organization and flexible expression of memories. Recent studies have advanced our understanding of cellular basis of hippocampal function, showing that N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in area CA1 are required in both the spatial and nonspatial domains of learning. Here we examined whether CA1 NMDA receptors are specifically required for the acquisition and flexible expression of nonspatial memory. Mice lacking CA1 NMDA receptors were impaired in solving a transverse patterning problem that required the simultaneous acquisition of three overlapping odor discriminations, and their impairment was related to an abnormal strategy by which they failed to adequately sample and compare the critical odor stimuli. By contrast, they performed normally, and used normal stimulus sampling strategies, in the concurrent learning of three nonoverlapping concurrent odor discriminations. These results suggest that CA1 NMDA receptors play a crucial role in the encoding and flexible expression of stimulus relations in nonspatial memory. PMID:11248114

  15. Growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a) knockout mice exhibit improved spatial memory and deficits in contextual memory.

    PubMed

    Albarran-Zeckler, Rosie G; Brantley, Alicia Faruzzi; Smith, Roy G

    2012-06-15

    Although the hormone ghrelin is best known for its stimulatory effect on appetite and regulation of growth hormone release, it is also reported to have beneficial effects on learning and memory formation in mice. Nevertheless, controversy exists about whether endogenous ghrelin acts on its receptors in extra-hypothalamic areas of the brain. The ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1a) is co-expressed in neurons that express dopamine receptor type-1 (DRD1a) and type-2 (DRD2), and we have shown that a subset of GHS-R1a, which are not occupied by the agonist (apo-GHSR1a), heterodimerize with these two receptors to regulate dopamine signaling in vitro and in vivo. To determine the consequences of ghsr ablation on brain function, congenic ghsr -/- mice on the C57BL6/J background were subjected to a battery of behavioral tests. We show that the ghsr -/- mice exhibit normal balance, movement, coordination, and pain sensation, outperform ghsr +/+ mice in the Morris water maze, but show deficits in contextual fear conditioning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor (GHS-R1a) Knockout Mice Exhibit Improved Spatial Memory and Deficits in Contextual Memory

    PubMed Central

    Albarran-Zeckler, Rosie G.; Brantley, Alicia Faruzzi; Smith, Roy G.

    2012-01-01

    Although the hormone ghrelin is best known for its stimulatory effect on appetite and regulation of growth hormone release, it is also reported to have beneficial effects on learning and memory formation in mice. Nevertheless, controversy exists about whether endogenous ghrelin acts on its receptors in extra-hypothalamic areas of the brain. The ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1a) is co-expressed in neurons that express dopamine receptor type-1 (DRD1a) and type-2 (DRD2), and we have shown that a subset of GHS-R1a, which are not occupied by the agonist (apo-GHSR1a), heterodimerize with these two receptors to regulate dopamine signaling in vitro and in vivo. To determine the consequences of ghsr ablation on brain function, congenic ghsr−/− mice on the C57BL6/J background were subjected to a battery of behavioral tests. We show that the ghsr−/− mice exhibit normal balance, movement, coordination, and pain sensation, outperform ghsr+/+ mice in the Morris water maze, but show deficits in contextual fear conditioning. PMID:22484009

  17. Lack of Genotype Effect on D1, D2 Receptors and Dopamine Transporter Binding in Triple MOP-, DOP-, and KOP-Opioid Receptor Knockout Mice of Three Different Genetic Backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Ji-Hoon; Bailey, Alexis; Ansonoff, Micheal; Pintar, John E.; Matifas, Audrey; Kieffer, Brigitte L.; Kitchen, Ian

    2015-01-01

    We investigated D1, D2 receptors and dopamine transporter (DAT) binding levels in mice lacking all three opioid receptors and wild-type (WT) mice on three different genetic backgrounds. Quantitative autoradiography was used to determine the level of radioligand binding to the D1 and D2 receptors and DAT labeled with [3H]SCH23390, [3H]raclopride, and [3H]mazindol, respectively in triple-opioid receptor knockout (KO) and WT maintained on C57BL/6 (B6) and 129/SvEvTac (129) as well as C57BL/6 × 129/SvPas (B6 × 129) strains. No significant genotype effect was observed in D1, D2 receptors and DAT binding in any regions analyzed in any of the strains studied, suggesting that a lack of all three opioid receptors does not influence D1, D2 receptors and DAT expression, irrespective of their genetic strain background. However, strain differences were observed in D1 binding between the three strains of mice studied. Lower levels of D1 binding were observed in the substantia nigra of B6 × 129 WT mice compared with the 129 WT mice and in the olfactory tubercle of B6 × 129 WT compared with B6 WT and 129 WT mice. Lower levels of D1 binding were observed in the caudate putamen of B6 × 129 KO mice compared with 129 KO mice. In contrast, no significant strain differences were observed in D2 and DAT binding between the three strains of mice in any regions analyzed. Overall, these results indicate a lack of modulation of the dopaminergic system by the deletion of all three opioid receptors regardless of different background strains. PMID:20196137

  18. Comparison of the Human A2A Adenosine Receptor Recognition by Adenosine and Inosine: New Insight from Supervised Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Deganutti, Giuseppe; Welihinda, Ajith; Moro, Stefano

    2017-08-22

    Adenosine deaminase converts adenosine into inosine. In contrast to adenosine, relatively little attention has been paid to the physiological roles of inosine. Nevertheless, recent studies have demonstrated that inosine has neuroprotective, cardioprotective, immunomodulatory, and antidepressive effects. Inosine was recently shown to be a less potent agonist than adenosine at the A 2A adenosine receptor. To better depict the differences in the mechanisms of receptor recognition between adenosine and inosine, we carried out supervised molecular dynamics (SuMD) simulations, and the results are analyzed herein. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. The role of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors in cognition and anxiety: comparative studies in GRM2(-/-), GRM3(-/-) and GRM2/3(-/-) knockout mice.

    PubMed

    De Filippis, Bianca; Lyon, Louisa; Taylor, Amy; Lane, Tracy; Burnet, Philip W J; Harrison, Paul J; Bannerman, David M

    2015-02-01

    Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu2 and mGlu3, encoded by GRM2 and GRM3) have been implicated in both cognitive and emotional processes, although their precise role remains to be established. Studies with knockout (KO) mice provide an important approach for investigating the role of specific receptor genes in behaviour. In the present series of experiments we extended our prior characterisation of GRM2/3(-/-) double KO mice and, in complementary experiments, investigated the behavioural phenotype of single GRM2(-/-) and GRM3(-/-) mice. We found no consistent effect on anxiety in either the double or single KO mice. The lack of an anxiety phenotype in any of the lines contrasts with the clear anxiolytic effects of mGlu2/3 ligands. Motor co-ordination was impaired in GRM2/3(-/-) mice, but spared in single GRM2(-/-) and GRM3(-/-) mice. Spatial working memory (rewarded alternation) testing on the elevated T-maze revealed a deficit in GRM2(-/-) mice throughout testing, whereas GRM3(-/-) mice exhibited a biphasic effect (initially impaired, but performing better than controls by the end of training). A biphasic effect on activity levels was seen for the GRM2(-/-) mice. Overall, the phenotype in both GRM2(-/-) and GRM3(-/-) mice was less pronounced - if present at all - compared to GRM2/3(-/-) mice, across the range of task domains. This is consistent with possible redundancy of function and/or compensation in the single KO lines. Results are discussed with reference to a possible role for group II metabotropic glutamate receptors at the interface between arousal and behavioural performance, according to an inverted U-shaped function. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Delayed stress-induced differences in locomotor and depression-related behaviour in female neuropeptide-Y Y1 receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Painsipp, E; Sperk, G; Herzog, H; Holzer, P

    2010-10-01

    Neuropeptide-Y acting through Y1 receptors reduces anxiety and stress sensitivity in rodents. In Y1 receptor knockout (Y1⁻/⁻) mice, however, anxiety-related behaviour is altered only in a context-dependent manner. Here, we investigated whether stress causes a delayed change in the emotional-affective behaviour of female Y1⁻/⁻ mice. Locomotor and anxiety-related behaviour was assessed with the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test and depression-like behaviour with the forced swim test (FST). These behavioural tests were also used as experimental stress paradigms. Locomotion and anxiety-like behaviour did not differ between naïve control and Y1⁻/⁻ mice. One week after the FST, locomotion was reduced in control animals but unchanged in Y1⁻/⁻ mice, whereas anxiety-like behaviour remained unaltered in both genotypes. Depression-like behaviour (immobility) was identical in naïve control and Y1⁻/⁻ mice but, 1 week after the EPM test, was attenuated in Y1⁻/⁻ mice relative to control animals. Our data show that naïve female Y1⁻/⁻ mice do not grossly differ from female control animals in their locomotor and depression-like behaviour. Exposure to the stress associated with behavioural testing, however, leads to delayed genotype-dependent differences in locomotion and depression-like behaviour. These findings attest to a role of Y1 receptor signalling in the control of stress coping and/or adaptation.

  1. Impairment of the natriuretic peptide system in follitropin receptor knockout mice and reversal by estradiol: implications for obesity-associated hypertension in menopause.

    PubMed

    Belo, Najara O; Sairam, M Ram; Dos Reis, Adelina M

    2008-03-01

    Estrogen is considered a major regulator of adipose tissue in females. Estrogen increases circulating levels of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a hormone with renal and cardiovascular effects. The aim of this study was to determine the status of the natriuretic peptide system in female follitropin-receptor knockout (FORKO) mice that could be associated with obesity and hypertension observed in these mutants. Furthermore, estradiol treatment was used to reverse alterations observed. FORKO and wild-type (WT) mice received daily injections of estradiol for 4 d. On the fifth day, blood was collected for determination of plasma ANP levels, and selected tissues were collected for determination of ANP, natriuretic peptide receptor type-A (NPR-A) and type-C (NPR-C) gene expression by RT-PCR and binding of [(125)I]ANP by autoradiography. At 5 months of age, FORKO mice were heavier and had more adipose tissue than WT mice. FORKO mice had lower plasma ANP levels and atrial ANP gene expression and higher renal and adipocyte NPR-C gene expression than WT mice. Estradiol treatment reduced weight gain and increased atrial ANP synthesis as well as decreased ANP clearance NPR-C receptors, resulting in elevation of circulating ANP level. In conclusion, this study shows that FORKO females have an impaired natriuretic peptide system, which may contribute to the susceptibility of FORKO mice to developing age-related hypertension previously shown in these animals. This study establishes a relation between estrogen, adipose tissue, and ANP, which may have important implications in menopausal women.

  2. Role and Function of A2A and A3 Adenosine Receptors in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis, Psoriatic Arthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ravani, Annalisa; Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Bortoluzzi, Alessandra; Padovan, Melissa; Pasquini, Silvia; Gessi, Stefania; Merighi, Stefania; Borea, Pier Andrea; Govoni, Marcello; Varani, Katia

    2017-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) are chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases that affect joints, causing debilitating pain and disability. Adenosine receptors (ARs) play a key role in the mechanism of inflammation, and the activation of A2A and A3AR subtypes is often associated with a reduction of the inflammatory status. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of ARs in patients suffering from early-RA (ERA), RA, AS and PsA. Messenger RNA (mRNA) analysis and saturation binding experiments indicated an upregulation of A2A and A3ARs in lymphocytes obtained from patients when compared with healthy subjects. A2A and A3AR agonists inhibited nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activation and reduced inflammatory cytokines release, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6. Moreover, A2A and A3AR activation mediated a reduction of metalloproteinases (MMP)-1 and MMP-3. The effect of the agonists was abrogated by selective antagonists demonstrating the direct involvement of these receptor subtypes. Taken together, these data confirmed the involvement of ARs in chronic autoimmune rheumatic diseases highlighting the possibility to exploit A2A and A3ARs as therapeutic targets, with the aim to limit the inflammatory responses usually associated with RA, AS and PsA. PMID:28338619

  3. Role and Function of A2A and A₃ Adenosine Receptors in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis, Psoriatic Arthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ravani, Annalisa; Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Bortoluzzi, Alessandra; Padovan, Melissa; Pasquini, Silvia; Gessi, Stefania; Merighi, Stefania; Borea, Pier Andrea; Govoni, Marcello; Varani, Katia

    2017-03-24

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) are chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases that affect joints, causing debilitating pain and disability. Adenosine receptors (ARs) play a key role in the mechanism of inflammation, and the activation of A 2A and A₃AR subtypes is often associated with a reduction of the inflammatory status. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of ARs in patients suffering from early-RA (ERA), RA, AS and PsA. Messenger RNA (mRNA) analysis and saturation binding experiments indicated an upregulation of A 2A and A₃ARs in lymphocytes obtained from patients when compared with healthy subjects. A 2A and A₃AR agonists inhibited nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activation and reduced inflammatory cytokines release, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6. Moreover, A 2A and A₃AR activation mediated a reduction of metalloproteinases (MMP)-1 and MMP-3. The effect of the agonists was abrogated by selective antagonists demonstrating the direct involvement of these receptor subtypes. Taken together, these data confirmed the involvement of ARs in chronic autoimmune rheumatic diseases highlighting the possibility to exploit A 2A and A₃ARs as therapeutic targets, with the aim to limit the inflammatory responses usually associated with RA, AS and PsA.

  4. Adenosine A2A receptors are required for glutamate mGluR5- and dopamine D1 receptor-evoked ERK1/2 phosphorylation in rat hippocampus: involvement of NMDA receptor.

    PubMed

    Krania, Paraskevi; Dimou, Eleni; Bantouna, Maria; Kouvaros, Stylianos; Tsiamaki, Eirini; Papatheodoropoulos, Costas; Sarantis, Konstantinos; Angelatou, Fevronia

    2018-05-01

    Interaction between mGluR5 and NMDA receptors (NMDAR) is vital for synaptic plasticity and cognition. We recently demonstrated that stimulation of mGluR5 enhances NMDAR responses in hippocampus by phosphorylating NR2B(Tyr1472) subunit, and this reaction was enabled by adenosine A 2A receptors (A 2A R) (J Neurochem, 135, 2015, 714). In this study, by using in vitro phosphorylation and western blot analysis in hippocampal slices of male Wistar rats, we show that mGluR5 stimulation or mGluR5/NMDARs co-stimulation synergistically activate ERK1/2 signaling leading to c-Fos expression. Interestingly, both reactions are under the permissive control of endogenous adenosine acting through A 2A Rs. Moreover, mGluR5-mediated ERK1/2 phosphorylation depends on NMDAR, which however exhibits a metabotropic way of function, since no ion influx through its ion channel is required. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that mGluR5 and mGluR5/NMDAR-evoked ERK1/2 activation correlates well with the mGluR5/NMDAR-evoked NR2B(Tyr1472) phosphorylation, since both phenomena coincide temporally, are Src dependent, and are both enabled by A 2A Rs. This indicates a functional involvement of NR2B(Tyr1472) phosphorylation in the ERK1/2 activation. Our biochemical results are supported by electrophysiological data showing that in CA1 region of hippocampus, the theta burst stimulation (TBS)-induced long-term potentiation coincides temporally with an increase in ERK1/2 activation and both phenomena are dependent on the tripartite A 2A , mGlu5, and NMDARs. Furthermore, we show that the dopamine D1 receptors evoked ERK1/2 activation as well as the NR2B(Tyr1472) phosphorylation are also regulated by endogenous adenosine and A 2A Rs. In conclusion, our results highlight the A 2A Rs as a crucial regulator not only for NMDAR responses, but also for regulating ERK1/2 signaling and its downstream pathways, leading to gene expression, synaptic plasticity, and memory consolidation. © 2017 International

  5. H(N), N, C(α), C(β) and C' assignments of the intrinsically disordered C-terminus of human adenosine A2A receptor.

    PubMed

    Tossavainen, Helena; Hellman, Maarit; Piirainen, Henni; Jaakola, Veli-Pekka; Permi, Perttu

    2015-10-01

    The C-terminus of the human adenosine A2A receptor differs from the other human adenosine receptors by its exceptional length and lack of a canonical cysteine residue. We have previously structurally characterized this C-terminal domain and its interaction with calmodulin. It was shown to be structurally disordered and flexible, and to bind calmodulin with high affinity in a calcium-dependent manner. Interaction with calmodulin takes place at the N-terminal end of the A2A C-terminal domain without major conformational changes in the latter. NMR was one of the biophysical methods used in the study. Here we present the H(N), N, C(α), C(β) and C' chemical shift assignments of the free form of the C-terminus residues 293-412, used in the NMR spectroscopic characterization of the domain.

  6. A genetic variation in the adenosine A2A receptor gene (ADORA2A) contributes to individual sensitivity to caffeine effects on sleep.

    PubMed

    Rétey, J V; Adam, M; Khatami, R; Luhmann, U F O; Jung, H H; Berger, W; Landolt, H-P

    2007-05-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used stimulant in Western countries. Some people voluntarily reduce caffeine consumption because it impairs the quality of their sleep. Studies in mice revealed that the disruption of sleep after caffeine is mediated by blockade of adenosine A2A receptors. Here we show in humans that (1) habitual caffeine consumption is associated with reduced sleep quality in self-rated caffeine-sensitive individuals, but not in caffeine-insensitive individuals; (2) the distribution of distinct c.1083T>C genotypes of the adenosine A2A receptor gene (ADORA2A) differs between caffeine-sensitive and -insensitive adults; and (3) the ADORA2A c.1083T>C genotype determines how closely the caffeine-induced changes in brain electrical activity during sleep resemble the alterations observed in patients with insomnia. These data demonstrate a role of adenosine A2A receptors for sleep in humans, and suggest that a common variation in ADORA2A contributes to subjective and objective responses to caffeine on sleep.

  7. Novel homozygous splice acceptor site GnRH receptor (GnRHR) mutation: human GnRHR "knockout".

    PubMed

    Silveira, L F G; Stewart, P M; Thomas, M; Clark, D A; Bouloux, P M G; MacColl, G S

    2002-06-01

    Mutations in the GnRH receptor (GnRHR) have been shown to be responsible for a significant number of autosomic recessive and, less commonly, sporadic cases of idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. We describe a woman with complete GnRH resistance secondary to a novel homozygous GnRHR gene mutation, transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait. The propositus presented with primary amenorrhea and absent thelarche and pubarche. Dynamic tests demonstrated absent spontaneous gonadotropin pulsatility, and no response to either exogenous pulsatile (10 microg/pulse at 90-min intervals over 6 h) or acute (100 microg) GnRH administration. However, she responded to exogenous gonadotropin administration, with a resulting normal pregnancy. Genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood was PCR amplified using amplimers spanning intron-exon boundaries for the three exons of GnRHR and revealed a homozygous splice junction mutation (G to A transversion) at the intron 1-exon 2 boundary. Her unaffected sister, with a totally normal phenotype, was heterozygous for this mutation. After lymphocyte Epstein-Barr virus transformation, RNA was extracted and subjected to RT-PCR, using primers located in the first and third exons. Results showed a transcript lacking all of exon 2 (exon 2 skipping), with splicing of exon 1 to exon 3. This created a frame shift, generating a coding sequence for three new amino acids, followed by a stop codon. Although it is not clear whether the mutant receptor is actually expressed, the resultant mRNA sequence was presumed to produce a truncated receptor with no binding or signaling capacity.

  8. Chronic minocycline treatment improves hippocampal neuronal structure, NMDA receptor function, and memory processing in Fmr1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Yau, S Y; Bettio, Luis; Vetrici, M; Truesdell, A; Chiu, C; Chiu, J; Truesdell, E; Christie, B R

    2018-05-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability, and is the leading known single-gene cause of autism spectrum disorder. FXS patients display varied behavioural deficits that include mild to severe cognitive impairments in addition to mood disorders. Currently there is no cure for this condition, however minocycline is becoming commonly prescribed as a treatment for FXS patients. Minocycline has been reported to alleviate social behavioural deficits, and improve verbal functioning in patients with FXS; however, its mode of action is not well understood. Previously we have shown that FXS results in learning impairments that involve deficits in N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). Here we tested whether chronic treatment with minocycline can improve these deficits by enhancing NMDA receptor-dependent functional and structural plasticity in the DG. Minocycline treatment resulted in a significant enhancement in NMDA receptor function in the dentate granule cells. This was accompanied by an increase in PSD-95 and GluN2A and GluN2B subunits in hippocampal synaptoneurosome fractions. Minocycline treatment also enhanced dentate granule cell dendritic length and branching. In addition, our results show that chronic minocycline treatment can rescue performance in novel object recognition in FXS mice. These findings indicate that minocycline treatment has both structural and functional benefits for hippocampal cells, which may partly contribute to the pro-cognitive effects minocycline appears to have for treating FXS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Anti-atherogenic effects of a phenol-rich fraction from Brazilian red wine (Vitis labrusca L.) in hypercholesterolemic low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Hort, Mariana Appel; Schuldt, Elke Zuleika; Bet, Angela Cristina; DalBó, Silvia; Siqueira, Jarbas Mota; Ianssen, Carla; Abatepaulo, Fátima; de Souza, Heraldo Possolo; Veleirinho, Beatriz; Maraschin, Marcelo; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria

    2012-10-01

    Moderate wine intake (i.e., 1-2 glasses of wine a day) is associated with a reduced risk of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-atherosclerotic effects of a nonalcoholic ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) from a South Brazilian red wine obtained from Vitis labrusca grapes. Experiments were carried out on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor knockout (LDLr⁻/⁻) mice, which were subjected to a hypercholesterolemic diet and treated with doses of EAF (3, 10, and 30 mg/kg) for 12 weeks. At the end of the treatment, the level of plasma lipids, the vascular reactivity, and the atherosclerotic lesions were evaluated. Our results demonstrated that the treatment with EAF at 3 mg/kg significantly decreased total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL plus very low-density lipoprotein levels compared with control hypercholesterolemic mice. The treatment of mice with EAF at 3 mg/kg also preserved the vasodilatation induced by acetylcholine on isolated thoracic aorta from hypercholesterolemic LDLr⁻/⁻ mice. This result is in agreement with the degree of lipid deposit on arteries. Taken together, the results show for the first time that the lowest concentration of an EAF obtained from a red wine produced in southern Brazil significantly reduced the progression of atherosclerosis in mice.

  10. Molecular dynamics simulations of the adenosine A2a receptor in POPC and POPE lipid bilayers: effects of membrane on protein behavior.

    PubMed

    Ng, Hui Wen; Laughton, Charles A; Doughty, Stephen W

    2014-02-24

    Analysis of 300 ns (ns) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of an adenosine A2a receptor (A2a AR) model, conducted in triplicate, in 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (POPE) bilayers reveals significantly different protein dynamical behavior. Principal component analysis (PCA) shows that the dissimilarities stem from interhelical rather than intrahelical motions. The difference in the hydrophobic thicknesses of these simulated lipid bilayers is potentially a significant reason for the observed difference in results. The distinct lipid headgroups might also lead to different molecular interactions and hence different protein loop motions. Overall, the A2a AR shows higher mobility and flexibility in POPC as compared to POPE.

  11. Subtle alterations in breathing and heart rate control in the 5-HT1A receptor knockout mouse in early postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Karlene T; Kinney, Hannah C; Li, Aihua; Daubenspeck, J Andrew; Leiter, James C; Nattie, Eugene E

    2012-11-01

    We hypothesized that absence of the 5-HT(1A) receptor would negatively affect the development of cardiorespiratory control. In conscious wild type (WT) and 5-HT(1A) receptor knockout (KO) mice, we measured resting ventilation (Ve), oxygen consumption (Vo(2)), heart rate (HR), breathing and HR variability, and the hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR) at postnatal day 5 (P5), day 15 (P15), and day 25 (P25). In KO mice compared with WT, we found a 17% decrease in body weight at only P5 (P < 0.01) and no effect on Vo(2). Ve was significantly (P < 0.001) lower at P5 and P25, but there was no effect on the HCVR. Breathing variability (interbreath interval), measured by standard deviation, the root mean square of the standard deviation (RMSSD), and the product of the major (L) and minor axes (T) of the Poincaré first return plot, was 57% to 187% higher only at P5 (P < 0.001). HR was 6-10% slower at P5 (P < 0.001) but 7-9% faster at P25 (P < 0.001). This correlated with changes in the spectral analysis of HR variability; the low frequency to high frequency ratio was 47% lower at P5 but 68% greater at P25. The RMSSD and (L × T) of HR variability were ~2-fold greater at P5 only (P < 0.001; P < 0.05). We conclude that 5-HT(1A) KO mice have a critical period of potential vulnerability at P5 when pups hypoventilate and have a slower respiratory frequency and HR with enhanced variability of both, suggesting abnormal maturation of cardiorespiratory control.

  12. Automated pipeline to analyze non-contact infrared images of the paraventricular nucleus specific leptin receptor knock-out mouse model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz Martinez, Myriam; Ghamari-Langroudi, Masoud; Gifford, Aliya; Cone, Roger; Welch, E. B.

    2015-03-01

    Evidence of leptin resistance is indicated by elevated leptin levels together with other hallmarks of obesity such as a defect in energy homeostasis.1 As obesity is an increasing epidemic in the US, the investigation of mechanisms by which leptin resistance has a pathophysiological impact on energy is an intensive field of research.2 However, the manner in which leptin resistance contributes to the dysregulation of energy, specifically thermoregulation,3 is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the leptin receptor expressed in paraventricular nucleus (PVN) neurons plays a role in thermoregulation at different temperatures. Non-contact infrared (NCIR) thermometry was employed to measure surface body temperature (SBT) of nonanesthetized mice with a specific deletion of the leptin receptor in the PVN after exposure to room (25 °C) and cold (4 °C) temperature. Dorsal side infrared images of wild type (LepRwtwt/sim1-Cre), heterozygous (LepRfloxwt/sim1-Cre) and knock-out (LepRfloxflox/sim1-Cre) mice were collected. Images were input to an automated post-processing pipeline developed in MATLAB to calculate average and maximum SBTs. Linear regression was used to evaluate the relationship between sex, cold exposure and leptin genotype with SBT measurements. Findings indicate that average SBT has a negative relationship to the LepRfloxflox/sim1-Cre genotype, the female sex and cold exposure. However, max SBT is affected by the LepRfloxflox/sim1-Cre genotype and the female sex. In conclusion this data suggests that leptin within the PVN may have a neuroendocrine role in thermoregulation and that NCIR thermometry combined with an automated imaging-processing pipeline is a promising approach to determine SBT in non-anesthetized mice.

  13. Ultrasonic Vocalizations Induced by Sex and Amphetamine in M2, M4, M5 Muscarinic and D2 Dopamine Receptor Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haoran; Liang, Shuyin; Burgdorf, Jeffrey; Wess, Jurgen; Yeomans, John

    2008-01-01

    Adult mice communicate by emitting ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) during the appetitive phases of sexual behavior. However, little is known about the genes important in controlling call production. Here, we study the induction and regulation of USVs in muscarinic and dopaminergic receptor knockout (KO) mice as well as wild-type controls during sexual behavior. Female mouse urine, but not female rat or human urine, induced USVs in male mice, whereas male urine did not induce USVs in females. Direct contact of males with females is required for eliciting high level of USVs in males. USVs (25 to120 kHz) were emitted only by males, suggesting positive state; however human-audible squeaks were produced only by females, implying negative state during male-female pairing. USVs were divided into flat and frequency-modulated calls. Male USVs often changed from continuous to broken frequency-modulated calls after initiation of mounting. In M2 KO mice, USVs were lost in about 70–80% of the mice, correlating with a loss of sexual interaction. In M5 KO mice, mean USVs were reduced by almost 80% even though sexual interaction was vigorous. In D2 KOs, the duration of USVs was extended by 20%. In M4 KOs, no significant differences were observed. Amphetamine dose-dependently induced USVs in wild-type males (most at 0.5 mg/kg i.p.), but did not elicit USVs in M5 KO or female mice. These studies suggest that M2 and M5 muscarinic receptors are needed for male USV production during male-female interactions, likely via their roles in dopamine activation. These findings are important for the understanding of the neural substrates for positive affect. PMID:18382674

  14. Chronic oral administration of MPEP, an antagonist of mGlu5 receptor, during gestation and lactation alters mGlu5 and A2A receptors in maternal and neonatal brain.

    PubMed

    López-Zapata, Antonio; León-Navarro, David Agustín; Crespo, María; Albasanz, José Luis; Martín, Mairena

    2017-03-06

    Antidepressant and anxiolytic drugs are widely consumed even by pregnant and lactating women. The metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu 5 ) antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP) exerts antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like actions. Given that treatment for anxiety and depression use to be prolonged in time, it is conceivable a possible modulation of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu receptors) after prolonged MPEP exposure, which could also modify adenosine A 2A receptors (A 2A R) since functional cross-talk between them has been reported. Here we report that MPEP crosses placental barrier and reaches neonatal brain through maternal milk using LC-MS/MS methods. Therefore, we analyzed mGlu receptors, mainly mGlu 5 , and A 2A R in both maternal and fetal brain after chronic maternal consumption of MPEP during gestation and/or lactation using radioligand binding, Western-blotting, real-time PCR and phospholipase C (PLC) activity assays. In maternal brain, chronic MPEP consumption caused a significant loss of mGlu, including mGlu 5 , and A 2A R receptors level in plasma membrane. PLC activity assays showed that mGlu 5 signaling pathway was desensitized. No variations on mRNA level coding A 2A R, A 1 R and mGlu 5 were found after MPEP treatments. In female neonatal brain, maternal consumption of MPEP caused a significant increase in mGlu, including mGlu 5 , and A 2A R receptors level. Neither mGlu receptors nor A 2A R were modified in male neonatal brain after maternal MPEP intake. Finally, neither molecular nor behavioral changes (anxiety- and depression-like behavior) were observed in 3-month-old female offspring. In summary, mGlu 5 and A 2A R are altered in both maternal and female neonatal brain after chronic maternal consumption of MPEP during gestation and/or lactation. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nucleus accumbens and effort-related functions: behavioral and neural markers of the interactions between adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Farrar, A M; Segovia, K N; Randall, P A; Nunes, E J; Collins, L E; Stopper, C M; Port, R G; Hockemeyer, J; Müller, C E; Correa, M; Salamone, J D

    2010-04-14

    Nucleus accumbens dopamine (DA) is a critical component of the brain circuitry regulating work output in reinforcement-seeking behavior and effort-related choice behavior. Moreover, there is evidence of an interaction between DA D(2) and adenosine A(2A) receptor function. Systemic administration of adenosine A(2A) antagonists reverses the effects of D(2) antagonists on tasks that assess effort related choice. The present experiments were conducted to determine if nucleus accumbens is a brain locus at which adenosine A(2A) and DA D(2) antagonists interact to regulate effort-related choice behavior. A concurrent fixed ratio 5 (FR5)/chow feeding procedure was used; with this procedure, rats can choose between completing an FR5 lever-pressing requirement for a preferred food (i.e., high carbohydrate operant pellets) or approaching and consuming a freely available food (i.e., standard rodent chow). Rats trained with this procedure spend most of their time pressing the lever for the preferred food, and eat very little of the concurrently available chow. Intracranial injections of the selective DA D(2) receptor antagonist eticlopride (1.0, 2.0, 4.0 microg) into nucleus accumbens core, but not a dorsal control site, suppressed FR5 lever-pressing and increased consumption of freely available chow. Either systemic or intra-accumbens injections of the adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist MSX-3 reversed these effects of eticlopride on effort-related choice. Intra-accumbens injections of eticlopride also increased local expression of c-Fos immunoreactivity, and this effect was attenuated by co-administration of MSX-3. Adenosine and DA systems interact to regulate instrumental behavior and effort-related processes, and nucleus accumbens is an important locus for this interaction. These findings may have implications for the treatment of psychiatric symptoms such as psychomotor slowing, anergia and fatigue. Copyright 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Imidazo[2,1-i]purin-5-ones and related tricyclic water-soluble purine derivatives: potent A(2A)- and A(3)-adenosine receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christa E; Thorand, Mark; Qurishi, Ramatullah; Diekmann, Martina; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Padgett, William L; Daly, John W

    2002-08-01

    A series of tricyclic imidazo[2,1-i]purinones and ring-enlarged analogues derived from xanthine derivatives have been prepared as adenosine receptor (AR) antagonists. In comparison with xanthines, the tricyclic compounds exhibit increased water solubility due to a basic nitrogen atom, which can be protonated under physiological conditions. Substituents were introduced that confer high affinity for A(2A) or A(3) ARs, respectively. A new capillary electrophoresis method was developed for the determination of the enantiomeric purity of selected chiral products using native and modified beta-cyclodextrins as chiral discriminators. The compounds were investigated in radioligand binding assays at rat brain A(1) and A(2A) ARs. Selected compounds were additionally investigated in radioligand binding assays at human recombinant A(3) ARs and in functional studies (adenylate cyclase assays) at A(1) ARs of rat fat cell membranes, A(2A) ARs of rat PC 12 cell membranes, and mouse A(2B) ARs of NIH 3T3 cell membranes. Structure-activity relationships were similar to those of corresponding xanthine derivatives. The 2-styrylimidazopurinones were less potent at A(2A) ARs as compared to 8-styrylxanthine derivatives. The most potent compound at A(2A) ARs was (S)-1,4-dimethyl-8-ethyl-2-styryl-imidazo[2,1-i]purinone (S-25) exhibiting a K(i) value of 424 nM at rat A(2A) ARs. The compound was highly selective for A(2A) receptors vs A(1) and A(3) ARs. Selectivity vs A(2B) ARs, however, was low. Among the 1-unsubstituted 2-phenyl-imidazo[2,1-i]purin-5-one derivatives, very potent and highly selective antagonists for human A(3) ARs were identified. The most potent A(3) antagonist of the present series was (R)-4-methyl-8-ethyl-2-phenyl-imidazo[2,1-i]purin-5-one (R-24) exhibiting a K(i) value of 2.3 nM and high selectivity for A(3) receptors vs all other AR subtypes.

  17. Collagen receptors integrin alpha2beta1 and discoidin domain receptor 1 regulate maturation of the glomerular basement membrane and loss of integrin alpha2beta1 delays kidney fibrosis in COL4A3 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Rubel, Diana; Frese, Jenny; Martin, Maria; Leibnitz, Alexander; Girgert, Rainer; Miosge, Nicolai; Eckes, Beate; Müller, Gerhard-Anton; Gross, Oliver

    2014-02-01

    Maturation of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is essential for maintaining the integrity of the renal filtration barrier. Impaired maturation causes proteinuria and renal fibrosis in the type IV collagen disease Alport syndrome. This study evaluates the role of collagen receptors in maturation of the GBM, matrix accumulation and renal fibrosis by using mice deficient for discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1), integrin subunit α2 (ITGA2), and type IV collagen α3 (COL4A3). Loss of both collagen receptors DDR1 and integrin α2β1 delays maturation of the GBM: due to a porous GBM filtration barrier high molecular weight proteinuria that more than doubles between day 60 and day 100. Thereafter, maturation of the GBM causes proteinuria to drop down to one tenth until day 200. Proteinuria and the porous GBM cause accumulation of glomerular and tubulointerstitial matrix, which both decrease significantly after GBM-maturation until day 250. In parallel, in a disease with impaired GBM-maturation such as Alport syndrome, loss of integrin α2β1 positively delays renal fibrosis: COL4A3(-/-)/ITGA2(-/-) double knockouts exhibited reduced proteinuria and urea nitrogen compared to COL4A3(-/-)/ITGA2(+/-) and COL4A3(-/-)/ITGA2(+/+) mice. The double knockouts lived 20% longer and showed less glomerular and tubulointerstitial extracellular matrix deposition than the COL4A3(-/-) Alport mice with normal integrin α2β1 expression. Electron microscopy illustrated improvements in the glomerular basement membrane structure. MMP2, MMP9, MMP12 and TIMP1 were expressed at significantly higher levels (compared to wild-type mice) in COL4A3(-/-)/ITGA2(+/+) Alport mice, but not in COL4A3(+/+)/ITGA2(-/-) mice. In conclusion, the collagen receptors DDR1 and integrin α2β1 contribute to regulate GBM-maturation and to control matrix accumulation. As demonstrated in the type IV collagen disease Alport syndrome, glomerular cell-matrix interactions via collagen receptors play an important role in

  18. Prenatal minocycline treatment alters synaptic protein expression, and rescues reduced mother call rate in oxytocin receptor-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Shinji; Hiraoka, Yuichi; Hidema, Shizu; Nishimori, Katsuhiko

    2016-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired communication, difficulty in companionship, repetitive behaviors and restricted interests. Recent studies have shown amelioration of ASD symptoms by intranasal administration of oxytocin and demonstrated the association of polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor (Oxtr) gene with ASD patients. Deficient pruning of synapses by microglial cells in the brain has been proposed as potential mechanism of ASD. Other researchers have shown specific activation of microglial cells in brain regions related to sociality in patients with ASD. Although the roles of Oxtr and microglia in ASD are in the spotlight, the relationship between them remains to be elucidated. In this study, we found abnormal activation of microglial cells and a reduction of postsynaptic density protein PSD95 expression in the Oxtr-deficient brain. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of microglia during development can alter the expression of PSD95 and ameliorate abnormal mother-infant communication in Oxtr-deficient mice. Our results suggest that microglial abnormality is a potential mechanism of the development of Oxt/Oxtr mediated ASD-like phenotypes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Spatiotemporal brain dynamics of emotional face processing modulations induced by the serotonin 1A/2A receptor agonist psilocybin.

    PubMed

    Bernasconi, Fosco; Schmidt, André; Pokorny, Thomas; Kometer, Michael; Seifritz, Erich; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2014-12-01

    Emotional face processing is critically modulated by the serotonergic system. For instance, emotional face processing is impaired by acute psilocybin administration, a serotonin (5-HT) 1A and 2A receptor agonist. However, the spatiotemporal brain mechanisms underlying these modulations are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the spatiotemporal brain dynamics underlying psilocybin-induced modulations during emotional face processing. Electrical neuroimaging analyses were applied to visual evoked potentials in response to emotional faces, following psilocybin and placebo administration. Our results indicate a first time period of strength (i.e., Global Field Power) modulation over the 168-189 ms poststimulus interval, induced by psilocybin. A second time period of strength modulation was identified over the 211-242 ms poststimulus interval. Source estimations over these 2 time periods further revealed decreased activity in response to both neutral and fearful faces within limbic areas, including amygdala and parahippocampal gyrus, and the right temporal cortex over the 168-189 ms interval, and reduced activity in response to happy faces within limbic and right temporo-occipital brain areas over the 211-242 ms interval. Our results indicate a selective and temporally dissociable effect of psilocybin on the neuronal correlates of emotional face processing, consistent with a modulation of the top-down control. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. In search of novel ligands using a structure-based approach: a case study on the adenosine A2A receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenselink, Eelke B.; Beuming, Thijs; van Veen, Corine; Massink, Arnault; Sherman, Woody; van Vlijmen, Herman W. T.; IJzerman, Adriaan P.

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we present a case study to explore the challenges associated with finding novel molecules for a receptor that has been studied in depth and has a wealth of chemical information available. Specifically, we apply a previously described protocol that incorporates explicit water molecules in the ligand binding site to prospectively screen over 2.5 million drug-like and lead-like compounds from the commercially available eMolecules database in search of novel binders to the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AAR). A total of seventy-one compounds were selected for purchase and biochemical assaying based on high ligand efficiency and high novelty (Tanimoto coefficient ≤0.25 to any A2AAR tested compound). These molecules were then tested for their affinity to the adenosine A2A receptor in a radioligand binding assay. We identified two hits that fulfilled the criterion of 50 % radioligand displacement at a concentration of 10 μM. Next we selected an additional eight novel molecules that were predicted to make a bidentate interaction with Asn2536.55, a key interacting residue in the binding pocket of the A2AAR. None of these eight molecules were found to be active. Based on these results we discuss the advantages of structure-based methods and the challenges associated with finding chemically novel molecules for well-explored targets.

  1. Comparison of the hepatic and thyroid gland effects of sodium phenobarbital and pregnenolone-16α-carbonitrile in wild-type and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR)/pregnane X receptor (PXR) knockout rats.

    PubMed

    Haines, Corinne; Chatham, Lynsey R; Vardy, Audrey; Elcombe, Clifford R; Foster, John R; Lake, Brian G

    2018-03-26

    The hepatic and thyroid gland effects of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activator sodium phenobarbital (NaPB) and the pregnane X receptor (PXR) activator pregnenolone-16α-carbonitrile (PCN) were examined in male Sprague-Dawley wild-type (WT) and knockout (KO) rats lacking both hepatic CAR and PXR receptors (CAR KO/PXR KO rats). The treatment of WT rats for 7 d with 500 ppm NaPB in the diet and 100 mg/kg/d PCN by gavage resulted in increased relative liver weight, hepatocyte hypertrophy, increased hepatocyte replicative DNA synthesis (RDS) and induction of cytochrome P450 CYP2B and CYP3A subfamily enzymes. NaPB and PCN also induced thyroid gland follicular cell RDS and hepatic microsomal UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity towards thyroxine as substrate. These effects were not observed in the liver and thyroid gland of CAR KO/PXR KO rats. Male C57BL/6 J (WT) and CAR KO/PXR KO mice were given 1000 ppm NaPB in the diet for 7 d. In WT, but not in CAR KO/PXR KO, mice NaPB treatment resulted in liver hypertrophy and induction of hepatocyte RDS and Cyp2b enzymes. These results suggest that the CAR KO/PXR KO rat and mouse models are useful experimental models for mode of action studies with rodent CAR activators.

  2. Increased oxidative stress and apoptosis in the hypothalamus of diabetic male mice in the insulin receptor substrate-2 knockout model.

    PubMed

    Baquedano, Eva; Burgos-Ramos, Emma; Canelles, Sandra; González-Rodríguez, Agueda; Chowen, Julie A; Argente, Jesús; Barrios, Vicente; Valverde, Angela M; Frago, Laura M

    2016-05-01

    Insulin receptor substrate-2-deficient (IRS2(-/-)) mice are considered a good model to study the development of diabetes because IRS proteins mediate the pleiotropic effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin on metabolism, mitogenesis and cell survival. The hypothalamus might play a key role in the early onset of diabetes, owing to its involvement in the control of glucose homeostasis and energy balance. Because some inflammatory markers are elevated in the hypothalamus of diabetic IRS2(-/-) mice, our aim was to analyze whether the diabetes associated with the absence of IRS2 results in hypothalamic injury and to analyze the intracellular mechanisms involved. Only diabetic IRS2(-/-) mice showed increased cell death and activation of caspase-8 and -3 in the hypothalamus. Regulators of apoptosis such as FADD, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and p53 were also increased, whereas p-IκB and c-FLIPL were decreased. This was accompanied by increased levels of Nox-4 and catalase, enzymes involved in oxidative stress. In summary, the hypothalamus of diabetic IRS2(-/-) mice showed an increase in oxidative stress and inflammatory markers that finally resulted in cell death via substantial activation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Conversely, non-diabetic IRS2(-/-) mice did not show cell death in the hypothalamus, possibly owing to an increase in the levels of circulating IGF-I and in the enhanced hypothalamic IGF-IR phosphorylation that would lead to the stimulation of survival pathways. In conclusion, diabetes in IRS2-deficient male mice is associated with increased oxidative stress and apoptosis in the hypothalamus. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Impact of high-fat diet and voluntary running on body weight and endothelial function in LDL receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Langbein, Heike; Hofmann, Anja; Brunssen, Coy; Goettsch, Winfried; Morawietz, Henning

    2015-05-01

    Obesity and physical inactivity are important cardiovascular risk factors. Regular physical exercise has been shown to mediate beneficial effects in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. However, the impact of physical exercise on endothelial function in proatherosclerotic low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (LDLR(-/-)) mice has not been studied so far. Six-week-old male LDLR(-/-) mice were fed a standard diet or a high-fat diet (39 kcal% fat diet) for 20 weeks. The impact of high-fat diet and voluntary running on body weight and amount of white adipose tissue was monitored. Basal tone and endothelial function was investigated in aortic rings using a Mulvany myograph. LDLR(-/-) mice on high-fat diet had increased cumulative food energy intake, but also higher physical activity compared to mice on control diet. Body weight and amount of visceral and retroperitoneal white adipose tissue of LDLR(-/-) mice were significantly increased by high-fat diet and partially reduced by voluntary running. Endothelial function in aortae of LDLR(-/-) mice was impaired after 20 weeks on standard and high-fat diet and could not be improved by voluntary running. Basal tone showed a trend to be increased by high-fat diet. Voluntary running reduced body weight and amount of white adipose tissue in LDLR(-/-) mice. Endothelial dysfunction in LDLR(-/-) mice could not be improved by voluntary running. In a clinical context, physical exercise alone might not have an influence on functional parameters and LDL-C levels in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. However, physical activity in these patients may be in general beneficial and should be performed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Knockout Mice Are Protected against Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Induced by a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Pierre, Nicolas; Deldicque, Louise; Barbé, Caroline; Naslain, Damien; Cani, Patrice D.; Francaux, Marc

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is implicated in the development of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) observed after a high-fat diet (HFD) in liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. TLR4−/− and C57BL/6J wild-type mice (WT) were fed with chow or HFD (45% calories from fat) during 18 weeks. An oral glucose tolerance-test was performed. The animals were sacrificed in a fasted state and the tissues were removed. TLR4 deletion protected from body weight gain and glucose intolerance induced by HFD whereas energy intake was higher in transgenic mice suggesting larger energy expenditure. HFD induced an ER stress in skeletal muscle, liver and adipose tissue of WT mice as assessed by BiP, CHOP, spliced and unspliced XBP1 and phospho-eIF2α. TLR4−/− mice were protected against HFD-induced ER stress. Then, we investigated the main signaling downstream of TLR4 namely the NF-κB pathway, expecting to identify the mechanism by which TLR4 is able to activate ER stress. The mRNA levels of cytokines regulated by NF-κB namely TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6, were not changed after HFD and phospho-IκB-α (ser 32) was not changed. Our results indicate that TLR4 is essential for the development of ER stress related to HFD. Nevertheless, the NFκ-B pathway does not seem to be directly implicated. The reduced fat storage in TLR4−/− mice could explain the absence of an ER stress after HFD. PMID:23741455

  5. Increased oxidative stress and apoptosis in the hypothalamus of diabetic male mice in the insulin receptor substrate-2 knockout model

    PubMed Central

    Canelles, Sandra; Argente, Jesús; Barrios, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Insulin receptor substrate-2-deficient (IRS2−/−) mice are considered a good model to study the development of diabetes because IRS proteins mediate the pleiotropic effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin on metabolism, mitogenesis and cell survival. The hypothalamus might play a key role in the early onset of diabetes, owing to its involvement in the control of glucose homeostasis and energy balance. Because some inflammatory markers are elevated in the hypothalamus of diabetic IRS2−/− mice, our aim was to analyze whether the diabetes associated with the absence of IRS2 results in hypothalamic injury and to analyze the intracellular mechanisms involved. Only diabetic IRS2−/− mice showed increased cell death and activation of caspase-8 and -3 in the hypothalamus. Regulators of apoptosis such as FADD, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and p53 were also increased, whereas p-IκB and c-FLIPL were decreased. This was accompanied by increased levels of Nox-4 and catalase, enzymes involved in oxidative stress. In summary, the hypothalamus of diabetic IRS2−/− mice showed an increase in oxidative stress and inflammatory markers that finally resulted in cell death via substantial activation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Conversely, non-diabetic IRS2−/− mice did not show cell death in the hypothalamus, possibly owing to an increase in the levels of circulating IGF-I and in the enhanced hypothalamic IGF-IR phosphorylation that would lead to the stimulation of survival pathways. In conclusion, diabetes in IRS2-deficient male mice is associated with increased oxidative stress and apoptosis in the hypothalamus. PMID:27013528

  6. Impaired compensatory beta-cell function and growth in response to high-fat diet in LDL receptor knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Ricardo B d; Carvalho, Carolina P d F; Polo, Carla C; Dorighello, Gabriel d G; Boschero, Antônio C; Oliveira, Helena C F d; Collares-Buzato, Carla B

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) deficiency on gap junctional connexin 36 (Cx36) islet content and on the functional and growth response of pancreatic beta-cells in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. After 60 days on regular or HF diet, the metabolic state and morphometric islet parameters of wild-type (WT) and LDLr−/− mice were assessed. HF diet-fed WT animals became obese and hypercholesterolaemic as well as hyperglycaemic, hyperinsulinaemic, glucose intolerant and insulin resistant, characterizing them as prediabetic. Also they showed a significant decrease in beta-cell secretory response to glucose. Overall, LDLr−/− mice displayed greater susceptibility to HF diet as judged by their marked cholesterolaemia, intolerance to glucose and pronounced decrease in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. HF diet induced similarly in WT and LDLr−/− mice, a significant decrease in Cx36 beta-cell content as revealed by immunoblotting. Prediabetic WT mice displayed marked increase in beta-cell mass mainly due to beta-cell hypertrophy/replication. Nevertheless, HF diet-fed LDLr−/− mice showed no significant changes in beta-cell mass, but lower islet–duct association (neogenesis) and higher beta-cell apoptosis index were seen as compared to controls. The higher metabolic susceptibility to HF diet of LDLr−/− mice may be explained by a deficiency in insulin secretory response to glucose associated with lack of compensatory beta-cell expansion. PMID:24853046

  7. Impairment of in vitro and in vivo heart function in angiotensin-(1-7) receptor MAS knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Santos, Robson A S; Castro, Carlos H; Gava, Elisandra; Pinheiro, Sérgio V B; Almeida, Alvair P; Paula, Renata Dutra de; Cruz, Jader S; Ramos, Anderson S; Rosa, Kaleizu T; Irigoyen, Maria C; Bader, Michael; Alenina, Natalia; Kitten, Gregory T; Ferreira, Anderson J

    2006-05-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of the genetic deletion of the angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7) receptor Mas on heart function. Localization of Mas in the mouse heart was evaluated by binding of rhodamine-labeled Ang-(1-7). Cardiac function was examined using isolated heart preparations. Echocardiography was used to confirm the results obtained with isolated heart studies. To elucidate the possible mechanisms involved in the cardiac phenotype observed in Mas(-/-) mice, whole-cell calcium currents in cardiomyocytes and the expression of collagen types I, III, and VI and fibronectin were analyzed. Ang-(1-7) binding showed that Mas is localized in cardiomyocytes of the mouse heart. Isolated heart techniques revealed that Mas-deficient mice present a lower systolic tension (average: 1.4+/-0.09 versus 2.1+/-0.03 g in Mas(+/+) mice), +/-dT/dt, and heart rate. A significantly higher coronary vessel resistance was also observed in Mas-deficient mice. Echocardiography revealed that hearts of Mas-deficient mice showed a significantly decreased fractional shortening, posterior wall thickness in systole and left ventricle end-diastolic dimension, and a higher left ventricle end-systolic dimension. A markedly lower global ventricular function, as defined by a higher myocardial performance index, was observed. A higher delayed time to the peak of calcium current was also observed. The changes in cardiac function could be partially explained by a marked change in collagen expression to a profibrotic profile in Mas-deficient mice. These results indicate that Ang-(1-7)-Mas axis plays a key role in the maintenance of the structure and function of the heart.

  8. Caffeine Reverts Memory But Not Mood Impairment in a Depression-Prone Mouse Strain with Up-Regulated Adenosine A2A Receptor in Hippocampal Glutamate Synapses.

    PubMed

    Machado, Nuno J; Simões, Ana Patrícia; Silva, Henrique B; Ardais, Ana Paula; Kaster, Manuella P; Garção, Pedro; Rodrigues, Diana I; Pochmann, Daniela; Santos, Ana Isabel; Araújo, Inês M; Porciúncula, Lisiane O; Tomé, Ângelo R; Köfalvi, Attila; Vaugeois, Jean-Marie; Agostinho, Paula; El Yacoubi, Malika; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Gomes, Catarina A

    2017-03-01

    Caffeine prophylactically prevents mood and memory impairments through adenosine A 2A receptor (A 2A R) antagonism. A 2A R antagonists also therapeutically revert mood and memory impairments, but it is not known if caffeine is also therapeutically or only prophylactically effective. Since depression is accompanied by mood and memory alterations, we now explored if chronic (4 weeks) caffeine consumption (0.3 g/L) reverts mood and memory impairment in helpless mice (HM, 12 weeks old), a bred-based model of depression. HM displayed higher immobility in the tail suspension and forced swimming tests, greater anxiety in the elevated plus maze, and poorer memory performance (modified Y-maze and object recognition). HM also had reduced density of synaptic (synaptophysin, SNAP-25), namely, glutamatergic (vGluT1; -22 ± 7 %) and GABAergic (vGAT; -23 ± 8 %) markers in the hippocampus. HM displayed higher A 2A R density (72 ± 6 %) in hippocampal synapses, an enhanced facilitation of hippocampal glutamate release by the A 2A R agonist, CGS21680 (30 nM), and a larger LTP amplitude (54 ± 8 % vs. 21 ± 5 % in controls) that was restored to control levels (30 ± 10 %) by the A 2A R antagonist, SCH58261 (50 nM). Notably, caffeine intake reverted memory deficits and reverted the loss of hippocampal synaptic markers but did not affect helpless or anxiety behavior. These results reinforce the validity of HM as an animal model of depression by showing that they also display reference memory deficits. Furthermore, caffeine intake selectively reverted memory but not mood deficits displayed by HM, which are associated with an increased density and functional impact of hippocampal A 2A R controlling synaptic glutamatergic function.

  9. The effect of caffeine to increase reaction time in the rat during a test of attention is mediated through antagonism of adenosine A2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Guy A; Grzelak, Michael E; Pond, Annamarie J; Cohen-Williams, Mary E; Hodgson, Robert A; Varty, Geoffrey B

    2007-12-11

    Caffeine produces effects on cognitive function particularly relating to aspects of attention such as reaction time. Considering the plasma exposure levels following regular caffeine intake, and the affinity of caffeine for known protein targets, these effects are likely mediated by either the adenosine A(1) or A(2A) receptor. In the present studies, two rat strains [Long-Evans (LE) and CD] were trained to asymptote performance in a test of selective attention, the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT). Next, the effects of caffeine were compared to the selective A(2A) antagonists, SCH 412348 and KW-6002 (Istradefylline), and the A(1) antagonist, DPCPX. Further studies compared the psychostimulant effects of each drug. Finally, we tested the A(2A) agonist, CGS-21680, on 5-CSRTT performance and given the antipsychotic potential of this drug class, studied the interaction between CGS-21680 and amphetamine in this task. Caffeine (3-10mg/kg IP) increased reaction time in both LE and CD rats, with no effect on accuracy, an effect replicated by SCH 412348 (0.1-1mg/kg PO) and KW-6002 (1-3mg/kg PO), but not DPCPX (3-30 mg/kg PO). At least with SCH 412348, these effects were at doses that were not overtly psychostimulant. In contrast, CGS-21680 (0.03-0. 3mg/kg IP) slowed reaction speed and increased omissions. Interestingly, at a comparatively low dose of 0.03 mg/kg, CGS-21680 attenuated the increased premature responding produced by amphetamine (1mg/kg IP). The present results suggest that the attention-enhancing effects of caffeine are mediated through A(2A) receptor blockade, and selective A(2A) receptor antagonists may have potential as therapies for attention-related disorders. Furthermore, the improvement in response control in amphetamine-treated rats following CGS-21680 pretreatment supports the view that A(2A) agonists have potential as novel antipsychotics.

  10. Caffeine reverses age-related deficits in olfactory discrimination and social recognition memory in rats. Involvement of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Prediger, Rui D S; Batista, Luciano C; Takahashi, Reinaldo N

    2005-06-01

    Caffeine, a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist, has been suggested as a potential drug to counteract age-related cognitive decline since critical changes in adenosinergic neurotransmission occur with aging. In the present study, olfactory discrimination and short-term social memory of 3, 6, 12 and 18 month-old rats were assessed with the olfactory discrimination and social recognition tasks, respectively. The actions of caffeine (3.0, 10.0 and 30.0 mg/kg, i.p.), the A1 receptor antagonist DPCPX (1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg, i.p.) and the A2A receptor antagonist ZM241385 (0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) in relation to age-related effects on olfactory functions were also studied. The 12 and 18 month-old rats exhibited significantly impaired performance in both models, demonstrating deficits in their odor discrimination and in their ability to recognize a juvenile rat after a short period of time. Acute treatment with caffeine or ZM241385, but not with DPCPX, reversed these age-related olfactory deficits. The present results suggest the participation of adenosine receptors in the control of olfactory functions and confirm the potential of caffeine for the treatment of aged-related cognitive decline.

  11. Distinct motor impairments of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor knockout mice revealed by three types of motor behavior

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Toru; Sato, Asako; Kitsukawa, Takashi; Momiyama, Toshihiko; Yamamori, Tetsuo; Sasaoka, Toshikuni

    2014-01-01

    Both D1R and D2R knock out (KO) mice of the major dopamine receptors show significant motor impairments. However, there are some discrepant reports, which may be due to the differences in genetic background and experimental procedures. In addition, only few studies directly compared the motor performance of D1R and D2R KO mice. In this paper, we examined the behavioral difference among N10 congenic D1R and D2R KO, and wild type (WT) mice. First, we examined spontaneous motor activity in the home cage environment for consecutive 5 days. Second, we examined motor performance using the rota-rod task, a standard motor task in rodents. Third, we examined motor ability with the Step-Wheel task in which mice were trained to run in a motor-driven turning wheel adjusting their steps on foothold pegs to drink water. The results showed clear differences among the mice of three genotypes in three different types of behavior. In monitoring spontaneous motor activities, D1R and D2R KO mice showed higher and lower 24 h activities, respectively, than WT mice. In the rota-rod tasks, at a low speed, D1R KO mice showed poor performance but later improved, whereas D2R KO mice showed a good performance at early days without further improvement. When first subjected to a high speed task, the D2R KO mice showed poorer rota-rod performance at a low speed than the D1R KO mice. In the Step-Wheel task, across daily sessions, D2R KO mice increased the duration that mice run sufficiently close to the spout to drink water, and decreased time to touch the floor due to missing the peg steps and number of times the wheel was stopped, which performance was much better than that of D1R KO mice. These incongruent results between the two tasks for D1R and D2R KO mice may be due to the differences in the motivation for the rota-rod and Step-Wheel tasks, aversion- and reward-driven, respectively. The Step-Wheel system may become a useful tool for assessing the motor ability of WT and mutant mice. PMID

  12. Inosine reduces pain-related behavior in mice: involvement of adenosine A1 and A2A receptor subtypes and protein kinase C pathways.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Francisney P; Figueredo, Sonia M; Marcon, Rodrigo; Martins, Daniel F; Macedo, Sérgio J; Lima, Denise A N; Almeida, Rúbia C; Ostroski, Rosana M; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; Santos, Adair Roberto Soares

    2010-08-01

    Inosine, an endogenous purine, is the first metabolite of adenosine in a reaction catalyzed by adenosine deaminase. This study aimed to investigate the antinociceptive effects of inosine against several models of pain in mice and rats. In mice, inosine given by systemic or central routes inhibited acetic acid-induced nociception. Furthermore, inosine also decreased the late phase of formalin-induced licking and the nociception induced by glutamate. Inosine produced inhibition (for up to 4 h) of mechanical allodynia induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injected into the mouse's paw. Given chronically for 21 days, inosine reversed the mechanical allodynia caused by CFA. Moreover, inosine also reduced the thermal (cold stimuli) and mechanical allodynia caused by partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL) for 4 h; when inosine was chronically administered, it decreased the mechanical allodynia induced by PSNL for 22 days. Antinociception caused by inosine in the acetic acid test was attenuated by treatment of mice with 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX; a selective adenosine A(1) receptor antagonist), 8-phenyltheophylline (8-PT; a nonselective adenosine A(1) receptor antagonist), and 4-{2- [7-amino-2-(2-furyl)[1,2,4]triazolo-[2,3-a][1,3,5]triazin-5-yl- amino]ethyl}phenol (ZM241385; a selective adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist). In rats, inosine inhibited the mechanical and heat hyperalgesia induced by bradykinin and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, without affecting similar responses caused by prostaglandin E(2) or forskolin. These results indicate that inosine induces antinociceptive, antiallodynic, and antihyperalgesic effects in rodents. The precise mechanisms through which inosine produces antinociception are currently under investigation, but involvement of adenosine A(1) and A(2A) receptors and blockade of the protein kinase C pathway seem to largely account for inosine's antinociceptive effect.

  13. Development of Human-Like Advanced Coronary Plaques in Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Knockout Pigs and Justification for Statin Treatment Before Formation of Atherosclerotic Plaques.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuxin; Fuchimoto, Daiichiro; Sudo, Mitsumasa; Haruta, Hironori; Lin, Qing-Fei; Takayama, Tadateru; Morita, Shotaro; Nochi, Tomonori; Suzuki, Shunichi; Sembon, Shoichiro; Nakai, Michiko; Kojima, Misaki; Iwamoto, Masaki; Hashimoto, Michiko; Yoda, Shunichi; Kunimoto, Satoshi; Hiro, Takafumi; Matsumoto, Taro; Mitsumata, Masako; Sugitani, Masahiko; Saito, Satoshi; Hirayama, Atsushi; Onishi, Akira

    2016-04-18

    Although clinical trials have proved that statin can be used prophylactically against cardiovascular events, the direct effects of statin on plaque development are not well understood. We generated low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLR(-/-)) pigs to study the effects of early statin administration on development of atherosclerotic plaques, especially advanced plaques. LDLR(-/-) pigs were generated by targeted deletion of exon 4 of the LDLR gene. Given a standard chow diet, LDLR(-/-) pigs showed atherosclerotic lesions starting at 6 months of age. When 3-month-old LDLR(-/-) pigs were fed a high-cholesterol, high-fat (HCHF) diet for 4 months (HCHF group), human-like advanced coronary plaques developed. We also fed 3-month-old LDLR(-/-) pigs an HCHF diet with pitavastatin for 4 months (Statin Prophylaxis Group). Although serum cholesterol concentrations did not differ significantly between the 2 groups, intravascular ultrasound revealed 52% reduced plaque volume in statin-treated pigs. Pathological examination revealed most lesions (87%) in the statin prophylaxis group were early-stage lesions, versus 45% in the HCHF diet group (P<0.01). Thin-cap fibroatheroma characterized 40% of the plaques in the HCHF diet group versus 8% in the statin prophylaxis group (P<0.01), intraplaque hemorrhage characterized 11% versus 1% (P<0.01), and calcification characterized 22% versus 1% (P<0.01). Results of our large animal experiment support statin prophylaxis before the occurrence of atherosclerosis. Early statin treatment appears to retard development of coronary artery atherosclerosis and ensure lesion stability. In addition, the LDLR(-/-) pigs we developed represent a large animal model of human-like advanced coronary plaque suitable for translational research. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  14. Indoleamine 2 3-dioxygenase knockout limits angiotensin II-induced aneurysm in low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice fed with high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Metghalchi, Sarvenaz; Vandestienne, Marie; Haddad, Yacine; Esposito, Bruno; Dairou, Julien; Tedgui, Alain; Mallat, Ziad; Potteaux, Stephane; Taleb, Soraya

    2018-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an age-associated disease characterized by chronic inflammation, vascular cell apoptosis and metalloproteinase-mediated extracellular matrix degradation. Despite considerable progress in identifying targets involved in these processes, therapeutic approaches aiming to reduce aneurysm growth and rupture are still scarce. Indoleamine 2-3 dioxygenase 1 (IDO) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme involved in the conversion of tryptophan (Trp) into kynurenine (Kyn) pathway. In this study, we investigated the role of IDO in two different models of AAA in mice. Mice with deficiencies in both low density receptor-deficient (Ldlr-/-) and IDO (Ldlr-/-Ido1-/-) were generated by cross-breeding Ido1-/- mice with Ldlr-/-mice. To induce aneurysm, these mice were infused with angiotensin II (Ang II) (1000 ng/min/kg) and fed with high fat diet (HFD) during 28 days. AAAs were present in almost all Ldlr-/- infused with AngII, but only in 50% of Ldlr-/-Ido1-/- mice. Immunohistochemistry at an early time point (day 7) revealed no changes in macrophage and T lymphocyte infiltration within the vessel wall, but showed reduced apoptosis, as assessed by TUNEL assay, and increased α-actin staining within the media of Ldlr-/-Ido1-/- mice, suggesting enhanced survival of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in the absence of IDO. In another model of elastase-induced AAA in C57Bl/6 mice, IDO deficiency had no effect on aneurysm formation. Our study showed that the knockout of IDO prevented VSMC apoptosis in AngII -treated Ldlr-/- mice fed with HFD, suggesting a detrimental role of IDO in AAA formation and thus would be an important target for the treatment of aneurysm.

  15. Tempol improves lipid profile and prevents left ventricular hypertrophy in LDL receptor gene knockout (LDLr-/-) mice on a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Viana Gonçalves, Igor Cândido; Cerdeira, Cláudio Daniel; Poletti Camara, Eduardo; Dias Garcia, José Antônio; Ribeiro Pereira Lima Brigagão, Maísa; Bessa Veloso Silva, Roberta; Bitencourt Dos Santos, Gérsika

    2017-09-01

    Dyslipidemia is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis, and hence with high morbidity and mortality. This study investigated the effects of the nitroxide 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine 1-oxyl (Tempol) on lipid profile and cardiac morphology in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene knockout (LDLr-/-) mice. Male LDLr-/- mice (three months old, approximately 22 g weight) were divided into the following groups: controls, including (1) standard chow (SC, n=8) and (2) high-fat diet (HFD, n=8); and treatment, including (3) standard chow + Tempol (SC+T, n=8) (30 mg/kg administered by gavage, once daily) and (4) high-fat diet + Tempol (HFD+T, n=8) (30 mg/kg). After 30 days of the diet/treatment, whole blood was collected for analysis of biochemical parameters (total cholesterol, triglycerides [TG], high-density lipoprotein [HDL], LDL, and very low-density lipoprotein [VLDL]). The heart was removed through thoracotomy and histological analysis of the left ventricle was performed. A significant increase in TG, LDL, and VLDL and marked left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) were demonstrated in the HFD group relative to the SC group (p<0.05), while Tempol treatment (HFD+T group) significantly (p<0.05) prevented increases in the levels of these lipid profile markers and attenuated LVH compared with the HFD group. In this study, Tempol showed potential for the prevention of events related to serious diseases of the cardiovascular system. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Knockout of the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-products on Bone Mineral Density and Synovitis in Mice with Intra-Articular Fractures.

    PubMed

    Seol, Dongrim; Tochigi, Yuki; Bogner, Ashley M; Song, Ino; Fredericks, Douglas C; Kurriger, Gail L; Smith, Sonja M; Goetz, Jessica E; Buckwalter, Joseph A; Martin, James A

    2018-04-17

    Our group employed the mouse closed intra-articular fracture (IAF) model to test the hypothesis that the innate immune system plays a role in initiating synovitis and post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) in fractured joints. A transgenic strategy featuring knockout of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE -/- ) was pursued. The 42 and 84 mJ impacts used to create fractures were in the range previously reported to cause PTOA at 60 days post-fracture. MicroCT (µCT) was used to assess fracture patterns and epiphyseal and metaphyseal bone loss at 30 and 60 days post-fracture. Cartilage degeneration, synovitis, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-3, -13) expression were evaluated by histologic analyses. In wild-type mice, µCT imaging showed that 84 mJ impacts led to significant bone loss at 30 days (p < 0.05), but recovered to normal at 60 days. Bone losses did not occur in RAGE -/- mice. Synovitis was significantly elevated in 84 mJ impact wild-type mice at both endpoints (30 day, p = 0.001; 60 day, p = 0.05), whereas in RAGE -/- mice synovitis was elevated only at 30 days (p = 0.02). Mankin scores were slightly elevated in both mouse strains at 30 days, but not at 60 days. Immunohistochemistry revealed significant fracture-related increases in MMP-3 and -13 expression at 30 days (p < 0.05), with no significant difference between genotypes. These findings indicated that while RAGE -/- accelerated recovery from fracture and diminished synovitis, arthritic changes were temporary and too modest to detect an effect on the pathogenesis of PTOA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. High Fat High Cholesterol Diet (Western Diet) Aggravates Atherosclerosis, Hyperglycemia and Renal Failure in Nephrectomized LDL Receptor Knockout Mice: Role of Intestine Derived Lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Siddhartha S.; Righi, Samuel; Krieg, Richard; Kang, Le; Carl, Daniel; Wang, Jing; Massey, H. Davis; Sica, Domenic A.; Gehr, Todd W. B.; Ghosh, Shobha

    2015-01-01

    A high fat meal, frequently known as western diet (WD), exacerbates atherosclerosis and diabetes. Both these diseases are frequently associated with renal failure. Recent studies have shown that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) leaks into the circulation from the intestine in the setting of renal failure and after WD. However, it is not clear how renal function and associated disorders are affected by LPS. This study demonstrates that circulatory LPS exacerbates renal insufficiency, atherosclerosis and glucose intolerance. Renal insufficiency was induced by 2/3 nephrectomy in LDL receptor knockout mice. Nx animals were given normal diet (Nx) or WD (Nx+WD). The controls were sham operated animals on normal diet (control) and WD (WD). To verify if LPS plays a role in exaggerating renal insufficiency, polymyxin (PM), a known LPS antagonist, and curcumin (CU), a compound known to ameliorate chronic kidney disease (CKD), was given to Nx animals on western diet (Nx+WD+PM and Nx+WD+CU, respectively). Compared to control, all other groups displayed increased circulatory LPS. The Nx+WD cohort had the highest levels of LPS. Nx group had significant renal insufficiency and glucose intolerance but not atherosclerosis. WD had intense atherosclerosis and glucose intolerance but it did not show signs of renal insufficiency. Compared to other groups, Nx+WD had significantly higher cytokine expression, macrophage infiltration in the kidney, renal insufficiency, glucose intolerance and atherosclerosis. PM treatment blunted the expression of cytokines, deterioration of renal function and associated disorders, albeit not to the levels of Nx, and was significantly inferior to CU. PM is a non-absorbable antibiotic with LPS binding properties, hence its beneficial effect can only be due to its effect within the GI tract. We conclude that LPS may not cause renal insufficiency but can exaggerate kidney failure and associated disorders following renal insufficiency. PMID:26580567

  18. High Fat High Cholesterol Diet (Western Diet) Aggravates Atherosclerosis, Hyperglycemia and Renal Failure in Nephrectomized LDL Receptor Knockout Mice: Role of Intestine Derived Lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Siddhartha S; Righi, Samuel; Krieg, Richard; Kang, Le; Carl, Daniel; Wang, Jing; Massey, H Davis; Sica, Domenic A; Gehr, Todd W B; Ghosh, Shobha

    2015-01-01

    A high fat meal, frequently known as western diet (WD), exacerbates atherosclerosis and diabetes. Both these diseases are frequently associated with renal failure. Recent studies have shown that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) leaks into the circulation from the intestine in the setting of renal failure and after WD. However, it is not clear how renal function and associated disorders are affected by LPS. This study demonstrates that circulatory LPS exacerbates renal insufficiency, atherosclerosis and glucose intolerance. Renal insufficiency was induced by 2/3 nephrectomy in LDL receptor knockout mice. Nx animals were given normal diet (Nx) or WD (Nx+WD). The controls were sham operated animals on normal diet (control) and WD (WD). To verify if LPS plays a role in exaggerating renal insufficiency, polymyxin (PM), a known LPS antagonist, and curcumin (CU), a compound known to ameliorate chronic kidney disease (CKD), was given to Nx animals on western diet (Nx+WD+PM and Nx+WD+CU, respectively). Compared to control, all other groups displayed increased circulatory LPS. The Nx+WD cohort had the highest levels of LPS. Nx group had significant renal insufficiency and glucose intolerance but not atherosclerosis. WD had intense atherosclerosis and glucose intolerance but it did not show signs of renal insufficiency. Compared to other groups, Nx+WD had significantly higher cytokine expression, macrophage infiltration in the kidney, renal insufficiency, glucose intolerance and atherosclerosis. PM treatment blunted the expression of cytokines, deterioration of renal function and associated disorders, albeit not to the levels of Nx, and was significantly inferior to CU. PM is a non-absorbable antibiotic with LPS binding properties, hence its beneficial effect can only be due to its effect within the GI tract. We conclude that LPS may not cause renal insufficiency but can exaggerate kidney failure and associated disorders following renal insufficiency.

  19. Ecto-5′-Nucleotidase (CD73)-Mediated Formation of Adenosine Is Critical for the Striatal Adenosine A2A Receptor Functions

    PubMed Central

    Augusto, Elisabete; Matos, Marco; Sévigny, Jean; El-Tayeb, Ali; Bynoe, Margaret S.; Müller, Christa E.

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine is a neuromodulator acting through inhibitory A1 receptors (A1Rs) and facilitatory A2ARs, which have similar affinities for adenosine. It has been shown that the activity of intracellular adenosine kinase preferentially controls the activation of A1Rs, but the source of the adenosine activating A2ARs is unknown. We now show that ecto-5′-nucleotidase (CD73), the major enzyme able to convert extracellular AMP into adenosine, colocalizes with A2ARs in the basal ganglia. In addition to astrocytes, striatal CD73 is prominently localized to postsynaptic sites. Notably, CD73 coimmunoprecipitated with A2ARs and proximity ligation assays confirmed the close proximity of CD73 and A2ARs in the striatum. Accordingly, the cAMP formation in synaptosomes as well as the hypolocomotion induced by a novel A2AR prodrug that requires CD73 metabolization to activate A2ARs were observed in wild-type mice, but not in CD73 knock-out (KO) mice or A2AR KO mice. Moreover, CD73 KO mice displayed increased working memory performance and a blunted amphetamine-induced sensitization, mimicking the phenotype of global or forebrain-A2AR KO mice, as well as upon pharmacological A2AR blockade. These results show that CD73-mediated formation of extracellular adenosine is responsible for the activation of striatal A2AR function. This study points to CD73 as a new target that can fine-tune A2AR activity, and a novel therapeutic target to manipulate A2AR-mediated control of striatal function and neurodegeneration. PMID:23843511

  20. The antidepressant-like effect of inosine in the FST is associated with both adenosine A1 and A 2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Kaster, Manuella P; Budni, Josiane; Gazal, Marta; Cunha, Mauricio P; Santos, Adair R S; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2013-09-01

    Inosine is an endogenous purine nucleoside, which is formed during the breakdown of adenosine. The adenosinergic system was already described as capable of modulating mood in preclinical models; we now explored the effects of inosine in two predictive models of depression: the forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). Mice treated with inosine displayed higher anti-immobility in the FST (5 and 50 mg/kg, intraperitoneal route (i.p.)) and in the TST (1 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) when compared to vehicle-treated groups. These antidepressant-like effects started 30 min and lasted for 2 h after intraperitoneal administration of inosine and were not accompanied by any changes in the ambulatory activity in the open-field test. Both adenosine A1 and A2A receptor antagonists prevented the antidepressant-like effect of inosine in the FST. In addition, the administration of an adenosine deaminase inhibitor (1 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) also caused an antidepressant-like effect in the FST. These results indicate that inosine possesses an antidepressant-like effect in the FST and TST probably through the activation of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors, further reinforcing the potential of targeting the purinergic system to the management of mood disorders.

  1. Effects of a Proprietary Standardized Orthosiphon stamineus Ethanolic Leaf Extract on Enhancing Memory in Sprague Dawley Rats Possibly via Blockade of Adenosine A2A Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Yogendra; Choudhary, Vandana Kotak; Bommu, Praveen; Wong, Hoi Jin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore a propriety standardized ethanolic extract from leaves of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth in improving impairments in short-term social memory in vivo, possibly via blockade of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR). The ethanolic extract of O. stamineus leaves showed significant in vitro binding activity of A2AR with 74% inhibition at 150 μg/ml and significant A2AR antagonist activity with 98% inhibition at 300 μg/mL. A significant adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) antagonist activity with 100% inhibition was observed at 300 μg/mL. Its effect on learning and memory was assessed via social recognition task using Sprague Dawley rats whereby the ethanolic extract of O. stamineus showed significant (p < 0.001) change in recognition index (RI) at 300 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg p.o and 120 mg/kg i.p., respectively, compared to the vehicle control. In comparison, the ethanolic extract of Polygonum minus aerial parts showed small change in inflexion; however, it remained insignificant in RI at 200 mg/kg p.o. Our findings suggest that the ethanolic extract of O. stamineus leaves improves memory by reversing age-related deficits in short-term social memory and the possible involvement of adenosine A1 and adenosine A2A as a target bioactivity site in the restoration of memory. PMID:26649059

  2. Major dorsoventral differences in the modulation of the local CA1 hippocampal network by NMDA, mGlu5, adenosine A2A and cannabinoid CB1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Kouvaros, S; Papatheodoropoulos, C

    2016-03-11

    Recent research points to diversification in the local neuronal circuitry between dorsal (DH) and ventral (VH) hippocampus that may be involved in the large-scale functional segregation along the long axis of the hippocampus. Here, using CA1 field recordings from rat hippocampal slices, we show that activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) reduced excitatory transmission more in VH than in DH, with an adenosine A1 receptor-independent mechanism, and reduced inhibition and enhanced postsynaptic excitability only in DH. Strikingly, co-activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor-5 (mGluR5) with NMDAR, by CHPG and NMDA respectively, strongly potentiated the effects of NMDAR in DH but had not any potentiating effect in VH. Furthermore, the synergistic actions in DH were occluded by blockade of adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) by their antagonist ZM 241385 demonstrating a tonic action of these receptors in DH. Exogenous activation of A2ARs by 4-[2-[[6-amino-9-(N-ethyl-β-D-ribofuranuronamidosyl)-9H-purin-2-yl]amino]ethyl]benzenepropanoic acid hydrochloride (CGS 21680) did not change the effects of mGluR5-NMDAR co-activation in either hippocampal pole. Importantly, blockade of cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1Rs) by their antagonist 1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-4-methyl-N-4-morpholinyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (AM 281) restricted the synergistic actions of mGluR5-NMDARs on excitatory synaptic transmission and postsynaptic excitability and abolished their effect on inhibition. Furthermore, AM 281 increased the excitatory transmission only in DH indicating that CB1Rs were tonically active in DH but not VH. Removing the magnesium ions from the perfusion medium neither stimulated the interaction between mGluR5 and NMDAR in VH nor augmented the synergy of the two receptors in DH. These findings show that the NMDAR-dependent modulation of fundamental parameters of the local neuronal network, by mGluR5, A2AR and CB1R, markedly differs between DH and VH. We

  3. Andrographolide protects liver cells from H2O2 induced cell death by upregulation of Nrf-2/HO-1 mediated via adenosine A2a receptor signalling.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Smriti P K; Khole, Swati; Jagadish, Nidhi; Ghosh, Debjani; Gadgil, Vijay; Sinkar, Vilas; Ghaskadbi, Saroj S

    2016-11-01

    Andrographolide, principle constituent of Andrographis paniculata Nees is used in traditional medicine in Southeast Asia and is known to exhibit various biological activities. Its antioxidant activity is due to its ability to activate one of the antioxidant enzymes, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) which is regulated transcriptionally through Nrf-2. However, molecular mechanism underlying activation of Nrf-2/HO-1 has not yet been clearly understood. Protective effect of andrographolide against H2O2 induced cell death, reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation was observed in HepG2 cells. Ability of andrographolide to modulate G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) mediated signalling was determined using in silico docking and gene expression was analyzed by qRT-PCR, confocal microscopy and western blot analysis. We clearly show that andrographolide via adenosine A2A receptor signalling leads to activation of p38 MAP kinase, resulting in upregulation of Nrf-2, its translocation to nucleus and activation of HO-1. Additionally, it activates adenylate cyclase resulting in cAMP formation which in turn activates protein kinase A leading to inhibition of GSK-3β by phosphorylation. Inactivated GSK-3β leads to retention of Nrf-2 in the nucleus leading to sustained expression of HO-1 by binding to its antioxidant response element (ARE). Thus, andrographolide probably by binding to adenosine A2a receptor activates Nrf-2 transcription and also inhibits its exclusion from the nucleus by inactivating GSK-3β, together resulting in activation of HO-1. We speculate that andrographolide can be used as a therapeutic drug to combat oxidative stress implicated in pathogenesis of various diseases such as diabetes, osteoporosis, neurodegenerative diseases etc. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ex vivo lung perfusion with adenosine A2A receptor agonist allows prolonged cold preservation of lungs donated after cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Cynthia E; Pope, Nicolas H; Charles, Eric J; Huerter, Mary E; Sharma, Ashish K; Salmon, Morgan D; Carter, Benjamin T; Stoler, Mark H; Lau, Christine L; Laubach, Victor E; Kron, Irving L

    2016-02-01

    Ex vivo lung perfusion has been successful in the assessment of marginal donor lungs, including donation after cardiac death (DCD) donor lungs. Ex vivo lung perfusion also represents a unique platform for targeted drug delivery. We sought to determine whether ischemia-reperfusion injury would be decreased after transplantation of DCD donor lungs subjected to prolonged cold preservation and treated with an adenosine A2A receptor agonist during ex vivo lung perfusion. Porcine DCD donor lungs were preserved at 4°C for 12 hours and underwent ex vivo lung perfusion for 4 hours. Left lungs were then transplanted and reperfused for 4 hours. Three groups (n = 4/group) were randomized according to treatment with the adenosine A2A receptor agonist ATL-1223 or the dimethyl sulfoxide vehicle: Infusion of dimethyl sulfoxide during ex vivo lung perfusion and reperfusion (DMSO), infusion of ATL-1223 during ex vivo lung perfusion and dimethyl sulfoxide during reperfusion (ATL-E), and infusion of ATL-1223 during ex vivo lung perfusion and reperfusion (ATL-E/R). Final Pao2/Fio2 ratios (arterial oxygen partial pressure/fraction of inspired oxygen) were determined from samples obtained from the left superior and inferior pulmonary veins. Final Pao2/Fio2 ratios in the ATL-E/R group (430.1 ± 26.4 mm Hg) were similar to final Pao2/Fio2 ratios in the ATL-E group (413.6 ± 18.8 mm Hg), but both treated groups had significantly higher final Pao2/Fio2 ratios compared with the dimethyl sulfoxide group (84.8 ± 17.7 mm Hg). Low oxygenation gradients during ex vivo lung perfusion did not preclude superior oxygenation capacity during reperfusion. After prolonged cold preservation, treatment of DCD donor lungs with an adenosine A2A receptor agonist during ex vivo lung perfusion enabled Pao2/Fio2 ratios greater than 400 mm Hg after transplantation in a preclinical porcine model. Pulmonary function during ex vivo lung perfusion was not predictive of outcomes after transplantation. Copyright

  5. Lidocaine relaxation in isolated rat aortic rings is enhanced by endothelial removal: possible role of Kv, KATP channels and A2a receptor crosstalk.

    PubMed

    Arsyad, Aryadi; Dobson, Geoffrey P

    2016-12-03

    Lidocaine is an approved local anesthetic and Class 1B antiarrhythmic with a number of ancillary properties. Our aim was to investigate lidocaine's vasoreactivity properties in intact versus denuded rat thoracic aortic rings, and the effect of inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO), prostenoids, voltage-dependent K v and K ATP channels, membrane Na + /K + pump, and A 2a and A 2b receptors. Aortic rings were harvested from adult male Sprague Dawley rats and equilibrated in an organ bath containing oxygenated, modified Krebs-Henseleit solution, pH 7.4, 37 °C. The rings were pre-contracted sub-maximally with 0.3 μM norepinephrine (NE), and the effect of increasing lidocaine concentrations was examined. Rings were tested for viability after each experiment with maximally dilating 100 μM papaverine. The drugs 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), glibenclamide, 5-hydroxydecanoate, ouabain, 8-(3-chlorostyryl) caffeine and PSB-0788 were examined. All drugs tested had no significant effect on basal tension. Lidocaine relaxation in intact rings was biphasic between 1 and 10 μM (Phase 1) and 10 and 1000 μM (Phase 2). Mechanical removal of the endothelium resulted in further relaxation, and at lower concentrations ring sensitivity (% relaxation per μM lidocaine) significantly increased 3.5 times compared to intact rings. The relaxing factor(s) responsible for enhancing ring relaxation did not appear to be NO- or prostacyclin-dependent, as L-NAME and indomethacin had little or no effect on intact ring relaxation. In denuded rings, lidocaine relaxation was completely abolished by K v channel inhibition and significantly reduced by antagonists of the MitoK ATP channel, and to a lesser extent the SarcK ATP channel. Curiously, A 2a subtype receptor antagonism significantly inhibited lidocaine relaxation above 100 μM, but not the A 2b receptor. We show that lidocaine relaxation in rat thoracic aorta was biphasic and significantly enhanced by endothelial removal, which did not appear to be

  6. Oleylphosphocholine (OlPC) arrests Cryptosporidium parvum growth in vitro and prevents lethal infection in interferon gamma receptor knock-out mice

    PubMed Central

    Sonzogni-Desautels, Karine; Renteria, Axel E.; Camargo, Fabio V.; Di Lenardo, Thomas Z.; Mikhail, Alexandre; Arrowood, Michael J.; Fortin, Anny; Ndao, Momar

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a species of protozoa that causes cryptosporidiosis, an intestinal disease affecting many mammals including humans. Typically, in healthy individuals, cryptosporidiosis is a self-limiting disease. However, C. parvum can cause a severe and persistent infection that can be life-threatening for immunocompromised individuals, such as AIDS patients. As there are no available treatments for these patients that can cure the disease, there is an urgent need to identify treatment options. We tested the anti-parasitic activity of the alkylphosphocholine oleylphosphocholine (OlPC), an analog of miltefosine, against C. parvum in in vitro and in vivo studies. In vitro experiments using C. parvum infected human ileocecal adenocarcinoma cells (HCT-8 cells) showed that OlPC has an EC50 of 18.84 nM. Moreover, no cell toxicity has been seen at concentrations ≤50 μM. C57BL/6 interferon gamma receptor knock-out mice, were infected by gavage with 4000 C. parvum oocysts on Day 0. Oral treatments, with OlPC, miltefosine, paromomycin or PBS, began on Day 3 post-infection for 10 days. Treatment with OlPC, at 40 mg/kg/day resulted in 100% survival, complete clearance of parasite in stools and a 99.9% parasite burden reduction in the intestines at Day 30. Doses of 30 and 20 mg/kg/day also demonstrated an increased survival rate and a dose-dependent parasite burden reduction. Mice treated with 10 mg/kg/day of miltefosine resulted in 50% survival at Day 30. In contrast, control mice, treated with PBS or 100 mg/kg/day of paromomycin, died or had to be euthanized between Days 6 and 13 due to severe illness. Results of parasite burden were obtained by qPCR and cross-validated by both flow cytometry of stool oocysts and histological sections of the ileum. Together, our results strongly support that OlPC represents a potential candidate for the treatment of C. parvum infections in immunocompromised patients. PMID:26441906

  7. Oleylphosphocholine (OlPC) arrests Cryptosporidium parvum growth in vitro and prevents lethal infection in interferon gamma receptor knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Sonzogni-Desautels, Karine; Renteria, Axel E; Camargo, Fabio V; Di Lenardo, Thomas Z; Mikhail, Alexandre; Arrowood, Michael J; Fortin, Anny; Ndao, Momar

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a species of protozoa that causes cryptosporidiosis, an intestinal disease affecting many mammals including humans. Typically, in healthy individuals, cryptosporidiosis is a self-limiting disease. However, C. parvum can cause a severe and persistent infection that can be life-threatening for immunocompromised individuals, such as AIDS patients. As there are no available treatments for these patients that can cure the disease, there is an urgent need to identify treatment options. We tested the anti-parasitic activity of the alkylphosphocholine oleylphosphocholine (OlPC), an analog of miltefosine, against C. parvum in in vitro and in vivo studies. In vitro experiments using C. parvum infected human ileocecal adenocarcinoma cells (HCT-8 cells) showed that OlPC has an EC50 of 18.84 nM. Moreover, no cell toxicity has been seen at concentrations ≤50 μM. C57BL/6 interferon gamma receptor knock-out mice, were infected by gavage with 4000 C. parvum oocysts on Day 0. Oral treatments, with OlPC, miltefosine, paromomycin or PBS, began on Day 3 post-infection for 10 days. Treatment with OlPC, at 40 mg/kg/day resulted in 100% survival, complete clearance of parasite in stools and a 99.9% parasite burden reduction in the intestines at Day 30. Doses of 30 and 20 mg/kg/day also demonstrated an increased survival rate and a dose-dependent parasite burden reduction. Mice treated with 10 mg/kg/day of miltefosine resulted in 50% survival at Day 30. In contrast, control mice, treated with PBS or 100 mg/kg/day of paromomycin, died or had to be euthanized between Days 6 and 13 due to severe illness. Results of parasite burden were obtained by qPCR and cross-validated by both flow cytometry of stool oocysts and histological sections of the ileum. Together, our results strongly support that OlPC represents a potential candidate for the treatment of C. parvum infections in immunocompromised patients.

  8. Adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonism reverses the effects of dopamine receptor antagonism on instrumental output and effort-related choice in the rat: implications for studies of psychomotor slowing.

    PubMed

    Farrar, Andrew M; Pereira, Mariana; Velasco, Francisco; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E; Salamone, John D

    2007-04-01

    Organisms frequently make effort-related decisions based upon assessments of motivational value and response costs. Energy-related dysfunctions such as psychomotor slowing and apathy are critically involved in some clinical syndromes. Dopamine (DA), particularly in the nucleus accumbens, regulates effort-related processes. Dopamine antagonism and accumbens dopamine depletions cause rats performing on choice tasks to reallocate their behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements. There is evidence of a functional interaction between DA and adenosine A(2A) receptors in the neostriatum and nucleus accumbens. The present experiments were conducted to determine if adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonism could reverse the effects of dopamine receptor antagonism on instrumental behavior and effort-related choice. The adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist MSX-3 was investigated for its ability to reverse the effects of the dopamine receptor antagonist haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg) on fixed ratio 5 instrumental lever-pressing and on response allocation using a concurrent lever-pressing/chow-feeding choice task. Haloperidol significantly suppressed fixed ratio 5 responding, and with rats responding on the concurrent choice task, it altered choice behavior, significantly reducing lever-pressing for food and increasing chow intake. Injections of MSX-3 (0.5-2.0 mg/kg) produced a dose-related attenuation of the effects of 0.1 mg/kg haloperidol on both tasks. The high dose of MSX-3, when administered in the absence of haloperidol, did not significantly affect responding on either task. Adenosine and dopamine systems interact to regulate instrumental behavior and effort-related processes, which may have implications for the treatment of psychiatric symptoms such as psychomotor slowing or anergia.

  9. Unprecedented Therapeutic Potential with a Combination of A2A/NR2B Receptor Antagonists as Observed in the 6-OHDA Lesioned Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Anne; Downey, Patrick; Nicolas, Jean-Marie; Scheller, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    In Parkinson's disease, the long-term use of dopamine replacing agents is associated with the development of motor complications; therefore, there is a need for non-dopaminergic drugs. This study evaluated the potential therapeutic impact of six different NR2B and A2A receptor antagonists given either alone or in combination in unilateral 6-OHDA-lesioned rats without (monotherapy) or with (add-on therapy) the co-administration of L-Dopa: Sch-58261+ Merck 22; Sch-58261+Co-101244; Preladenant + Merck 22; Preladenant + Radiprodil; Tozadenant + Radiprodil; Istradefylline + Co-101244. Animals given monotherapy were assessed on distance traveled and rearing, whereas those given add-on therapy were assessed on contralateral rotations. Three-way mixed ANOVA were conducted to assess the main effect of each drug separately and to determine whether any interaction between two drugs was additive or synergistic. Additional post hoc analyses were conducted to compare the effect of the combination with the effect of the drugs alone. Motor activity improved significantly and was sustained for longer when the drugs were given in combination than when administered separately at the same dose. Similarly, when tested as add-on treatment to L-Dopa, the combinations resulted in higher levels of contralateral rotation in comparison to the single drugs. Of special interest, the activity observed with some combinations could not be described by a simplistic additive effect and involved more subtle synergistic pharmacological interactions. The combined administration of A2A/NR2B-receptor antagonists improved motor behaviour in 6-OHDA rats. Given the proven translatability of this model such a combination may be expected to be effective in improving motor symptoms in patients. PMID:25513815

  10. Rubimetide, humanin, and MMK1 exert anxiolytic-like activities via the formyl peptide receptor 2 in mice followed by the successive activation of DP1, A2A, and GABAA receptors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Sonada, Soushi; Yoshikawa, Akihiro; Ohinata, Kousaku; Yoshikawa, Masaaki

    2016-09-01

    Rubimetide (Met-Arg-Trp), which had been isolated as an antihypertensive peptide from an enzymatic digest of spinach ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), showed anxiolytic-like activity prostaglandin (PG) D2-dependent manner in the elevated plus-maze test after administration at a dose of 0.1mg/kg (ip.) or 1mg/kg (p.o.) in male mice of ddY strain. In this study, we found that rubimetide has weak affinities for the FPR1 and FPR2, subtypes of formyl peptide receptor (FPR). The anxiolytic-like activity of rubimetide (0.1mg/kg, ip.) was blocked by WRW4, an antagonist of FPR2, but not by Boc-FLFLF, an antagonist of FPR1, suggesting that the anxiolytic-like activity was mediated by the FPR2. Humanin, an endogenous agonist peptide of the FPR2, exerted an anxiolytic-like activity after intracerebroventricular (icv) administration, which was also blocked by WRW4. MMK1, a synthetic agonist peptide of the FPR2, also exerted anxiolytic-like activity. Thus, FPR2 proved to mediate anxiolytic-like effect as the first example of central effect exerted by FPR agonists. As well as the anxiolytic-like activity of rubimetide, that of MMK1 was blocked by BW A868C, an antagonist of the DP1-receptor. Furthermore, anxiolytic-like activity of rubimetide was blocked by SCH58251 and bicuculline, antagonists for adenosine A2A and GABAA receptors, respectively. From these results, it is concluded that the anxiolytic-like activities of rubimetide and typical agonist peptides of the FPR2 were mediated successively by the PGD2-DP1 receptor, adenosine-A2A receptor, and GABA-GABAA receptor systems downstream of the FPR2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Protective effect of caffeine and a selective A2A receptor antagonist on impairment of memory and oxidative stress of aged rats.

    PubMed

    Leite, Marlon Régis; Wilhelm, Ethel A; Jesse, Cristiano R; Brandão, Ricardo; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne

    2011-04-01

    In this study, the effects of caffeine (CAF) and SCH58261, a selective A(2A) receptor antagonist, on memory impairment and oxidative stress generated by aging in rats were investigated. Young and aged rats were treated daily per 10 days with CAF (30 mg/kg p.o.) or SCH58261 (0.5mg/kg, p.o.) or vehicle (1 ml/kg p.o.). Rats were trained and tested in a novel object recognition task. After the behavioral test, ascorbic acid and oxygen and nitrogen reactive species levels as well as Na(+)K(+) ATPase activity were determined in rat brain. The results demonstrated that the age-related memory deficit was reversed by treatment with CAF or SCH58261. Treatment with CAF or SCH58261 significantly normalized oxygen and nitrogen reactive species levels increased in brains of aged rats. Na(+)K(+) ATPase activity inhibited in brains of aged rats was also normalized by CAF or SCH58261 treatment. A decrease in basal ascorbic acid levels in brains of aged rats was not changed by CAF or SCH58261. These results demonstrated that CAF and SCH58261, modulators of adenosinergic receptors, were able to reverse age-associated memory impairment and to partially reduce oxidative stress. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cannabidiol provides long-lasting protection against the deleterious effects of inflammation in a viral model of multiple sclerosis: a role for A2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Mecha, M; Feliú, A; Iñigo, P M; Mestre, L; Carrillo-Salinas, F J; Guaza, C

    2013-11-01

    Inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) is a complex process that involves a multitude of molecules and effectors, and it requires the transmigration of blood leukocytes across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the activation of resident immune cells. Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychotropic cannabinoid constituent of Cannabis sativa, has potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. Yet, how this compound modifies the deleterious effects of inflammation in TMEV-induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD) remains unknown. Using this viral model of multiple sclerosis (MS), we demonstrate that CBD decreases the transmigration of blood leukocytes by downregulating the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), chemokines (CCL2 and CCL5) and the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β, as well as by attenuating the activation of microglia. Moreover, CBD administration at the time of viral infection exerts long-lasting effects, ameliorating motor deficits in the chronic phase of the disease in conjunction with reduced microglial activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Adenosine A2A receptors participate in some of the anti-inflammatory effects of CBD, as the A2A antagonist ZM241385 partially blocks the protective effects of CBD in the initial stages of inflammation. Together, our findings highlight the anti-inflammatory effects of CBD in this viral model of MS and demonstrate the significant therapeutic potential of this compound for the treatment of pathologies with an inflammatory component. © 2013.

  13. Excitatory effect of the A2A adenosine receptor agonist CGS-21680 on spontaneous and K+-evoked acetylcholine release at the mouse neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Palma, A G; Muchnik, S; Losavio, A S

    2011-01-13

    The mechanism of action of the A2A adenosine receptor agonist 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl) phenethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine hydrochloride (CGS-21680) in the facilitation of spontaneous (isotonic and hypertonic condition) and K+-evoked acetylcholine (ACh) release was investigated in the mouse diaphragm muscles. At isotonic condition, the CGS-21680-induced excitatory effect on miniature end-plate potential (MEPP) frequency was not modified in the presence of CdCl2 and in a medium free of Ca2+ (0Ca2+-EGTA), but it was abolished after buffering the rise of intracellular Ca2+ with 1,2-bis-(2-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetra(acetoxy-methyl) (BAPTA-AM) and when the Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin was used to deplete intracellular Ca2+ stores. CGS-21680 did not have a direct effect on the Ca2+-independent neurotransmitter-releasing machinery, since the modulatory effect on the hypertonic response was also occluded by BAPTA-AM and thapsigargin. CGS-21680 facilitation on K+-evoked ACh release was not altered by the P/Q-type voltage-dependent calcium channel (VDCC) blocker ω-Agatoxin IVA, but it was completely prevented by both, the L-type VDCC blocker nitrendipine (which is known to immobilize their gating charges), or thapsigargin, suggesting that the effects of CGS-21680 on L-type VDCC and thapsigargin-sensitive internal stores are associated. We found that the VDCC pore blocker Cd2+ (2 mM Ca2+ or 0Ca2+-EGTA) failed to affect the CGS-21680 effect in high K+ whereas nitrendipine in 0Ca2+-EGTA+Cd2+ occluded its action. The blockade of Ca2+ release from endoplasmic reticulum with ryanodine antagonized the facilitating effect of CGS-21680 in control and high K+ concentration. It is concluded that, at the mouse neuromuscular junction, activation of A2A receptors facilitates spontaneous and K+-evoked ACh release by an external Ca2+-independent mechanism but that involves mobilization of Ca2+ from internal stores: during spontaneous ACh release

  14. Ephrin receptor (Eph) -A1, -A2, -A4 and -A7 expression in mobile tongue squamous cell carcinoma: associations with clinicopathological parameters and patients survival.

    PubMed

    Theocharis, Stamatios; Klijanienko, Jerzy; Giaginis, Constantinos; Alexandrou, Paraskevi; Patsouris, Efstratios; Sastre-Garau, Xavier

    2014-04-01

    Ephrin receptors (Ephs) are frequently overexpressed in a wide variety of human malignant tumors, being associated with tumor growth, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of Eph-A1, -A2, -A4 and -A7 protein expression in mobile tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Eph-A1, -A2, -A4 and -A7 protein expression was assessed immunohistochemically on 37 mobile tongue SCC tissue samples and was analyzed in relation with clinicopathological characteristics, overall and disease-free patients' survival. All the examined mobile tongue SCC cases were found positive for Eph-A1, -A2, -A4 and -A7. Significant associations were noted between high Eph-A1, -A4 and -A7 expression and absence of lymph node metastases (p = 0.0263, p = 0.0461 and p = 0.0461, respectively). High Eph-A1, -A2 and -A7 expression was significantly more frequently observed in patients presenting absence of vascular invasion (p = 0.0444), dense stromal inflammatory reaction (p = 0.0063) and female gender (p = 0.0327), respectively. Mobile tongue SCC patients with high Eph-A7 expression presented longer overall and disease-free survival compared to those with low Eph-A7 expression (log-rank test, p = 0.0093 and p = 0.0164, respectively). In multivariate analysis, Eph-A7 expression was identified as independent prognostic factor of overall survival (Cox-regression analysis, p = 0.0426). The present study supported evidence that Ephs may participate in the malignant transformation of mobile tongue SCC, reinforcing their utility as clinical markers for patients' management and prognosis, as also as targets for potential therapeutic intervention in tongue chemoprevention.

  15. Scavenger Receptor Class B Type 1 Deletion Led to Coronary Atherosclerosis and Ischemic Heart Disease in Low-density Lipoprotein Receptor Knockout Mice on Modified Western-type Diet.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jiawei; Guo, Xin; Wang, Mengyu; Dong, Chengyan; Gao, Mingming; Wang, Huan; Kayoumu, Abudurexiti; Shen, Qiang; Wang, Yuhui; Wang, Fan; Huang, Wei; Liu, George

    2017-02-01

    Atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein E (apoE) or low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) knockout (KO) mice are generally resistant to developing coronary atherosclerosis (CA) and ischemic heart disease (IHD). However, studies have demonstrated the occurrence of spontaneous CA and IHD in scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-BI)/apoE double KO (dKO) mice, which suggests that SR-BI could be a potential target for the prevention and therapy of CA and IHD. This possibility was later investigated in SR-BI/LDL-R dKO mice, but no signs of CA or IHD was identified when mice were fed a normal western-type diet. Here we explored whether SR-BI deletion could result in CA and IHD in LDL-R KO mice when fed a modified western-type diet containing higher (0.5%) cholesterol. Cardiac functions were detected by electrocardiography, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), echocardiography (Echo) and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. CA was visualized by hematoxylin-eosin staining. After 12 weeks on the modified diet, SR-BI/LDL-R dKO mice developed cardiac ischemia/infarction, together with systolic dysfunction and left ventricular dilatation. CA was most severe at the aortic sinus level to an extent that no dKO mice survived to 20 weeks on the modified diet. None of control mice, however, developed CA or IHD. SR-BI deletion led to CA and IHD in LDL-R KO mice when fed the modified western-type diet. We established SR-BI/LDL-R dKO mice as a diet-induced murine model of human IHD and developed detection methods, using a combination of SPECT and Echo, for effective in vivo evaluation of cardiac functions.

  16. Scavenger Receptor Class B Type 1 Deletion Led to Coronary Atherosclerosis and Ischemic Heart Disease in Low-density Lipoprotein Receptor Knockout Mice on Modified Western-type Diet

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Jiawei; Guo, Xin; Wang, Mengyu; Dong, Chengyan; Gao, Mingming; Wang, Huan; Kayoumu, Abudurexiti; Shen, Qiang; Wang, Yuhui; Wang, Fan; Liu, George

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein E (apoE) or low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) knockout (KO) mice are generally resistant to developing coronary atherosclerosis (CA) and ischemic heart disease (IHD). However, studies have demonstrated the occurrence of spontaneous CA and IHD in scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-BI)/apoE double KO (dKO) mice, which suggests that SR-BI could be a potential target for the prevention and therapy of CA and IHD. This possibility was later investigated in SR-BI/LDL-R dKO mice, but no signs of CA or IHD was identified when mice were fed a normal western-type diet. Here we explored whether SR-BI deletion could result in CA and IHD in LDL-R KO mice when fed a modified western-type diet containing higher (0.5%) cholesterol. Methods: Cardiac functions were detected by electrocardiography, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), echocardiography (Echo) and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. CA was visualized by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Results: After 12 weeks on the modified diet, SR-BI/LDL-R dKO mice developed cardiac ischemia/infarction, together with systolic dysfunction and left ventricular dilatation. CA was most severe at the aortic sinus level to an extent that no dKO mice survived to 20 weeks on the modified diet. None of control mice, however, developed CA or IHD. Conclusions: SR-BI deletion led to CA and IHD in LDL-R KO mice when fed the modified western-type diet. We established SR-BI/LDL-R dKO mice as a diet-induced murine model of human IHD and developed detection methods, using a combination of SPECT and Echo, for effective in vivo evaluation of cardiac functions. PMID:27373983

  17. Villin promoter-mediated transgenic expression of transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 6 (TRPV6) increases intestinal calcium absorption in wild-type and vitamin D receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Cui, Min; Li, Qiang; Johnson, Robert; Fleet, James C

    2012-10-01

    Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 6 (TRPV6) is an apical membrane calcium (Ca) channel in the small intestine proposed to be essential for vitamin D-regulated intestinal Ca absorption. Recent studies have challenged the proposed role for TRPV6 in Ca absorption. We directly tested intestinal TRPV6 function in Ca and bone metabolism in wild-type (WT) and vitamin D receptor knockout (VDRKO) mice. TRPV6 transgenic mice (TG) were made with intestinal epithelium-specific expression of a 3X Flag-tagged human TRPV6 protein. TG and VDRKO mice were crossed to make TG-VDRKO mice. Ca and bone metabolism was examined in WT, TG, VDRKO, and TG-VDRKO mice. TG mice developed hypercalcemia and soft tissue calcification on a chow diet. In TG mice fed a 0.25% Ca diet, Ca absorption was more than three-fold higher and femur bone mineral density (BMD) was 26% higher than WT. Renal 1α hydroxylase (CYP27B1) mRNA and intestinal expression of the natural mouse TRPV6 gene were reduced to <10% of WT but small intestine calbindin-D(9k) expression was elevated >15 times in TG mice. TG-VDRKO mice had high Ca absorption that prevented the low serum Ca, high renal CYP27B1 mRNA, low BMD, and abnormal bone microarchitecture seen in VDRKO mice. In addition, small intestinal calbindin D(9K) mRNA and protein levels were elevated in TG-VDRKO. Transgenic TRPV6 expression in intestine is sufficient to increase Ca absorption and bone density, even in VDRKO mice. VDR-independent upregulation of intestinal calbindin D(9k) in TG-VDRKO suggests this protein may buffer intracellular Ca during Ca absorption. © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  18. The knockout mouse project.

    PubMed

    Austin, Christopher P; Battey, James F; Bradley, Allan; Bucan, Maja; Capecchi, Mario; Collins, Francis S; Dove, William F; Duyk, Geoffrey; Dymecki, Susan; Eppig, Janan T; Grieder, Franziska B; Heintz, Nathaniel; Hicks, Geoff; Insel, Thomas R; Joyner, Alexandra; Koller, Beverly H; Lloyd, K C Kent; Magnuson, Terry; Moore, Mark W; Nagy, Andras; Pollock, Jonathan D; Roses, Allen D; Sands, Arthur T; Seed, Brian; Skarnes, William C; Snoddy, Jay; Soriano, Philippe; Stewart, David J; Stewart, Francis; Stillman, Bruce; Varmus, Harold; Varticovski, Lyuba; Verma, Inder M; Vogt, Thomas F; von Melchner, Harald; Witkowski, Jan; Woychik, Richard P; Wurst, Wolfgang; Yancopoulos, George D; Young, Stephen G; Zambrowicz, Brian

    2004-09-01

    Mouse knockout technology provides a powerful means of elucidating gene function in vivo, and a publicly available genome-wide collection of mouse knockouts would be significantly enabling for biomedical discovery. To date, published knockouts exist for only about 10% of mouse genes. Furthermore, many of these are limited in utility because they have not been made or phenotyped in standardized ways, and many are not freely available to researchers. It is time to harness new technologies and efficiencies of production to mount a high-throughput international effort to produce and phenotype knockouts for all mouse genes, and place these resources into the public domain.

  19. The Knockout Mouse Project

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Christopher P; Battey, James F; Bradley, Allan; Bucan, Maja; Capecchi, Mario; Collins, Francis S; Dove, William F; Duyk, Geoffrey; Dymecki, Susan; Eppig, Janan T; Grieder, Franziska B; Heintz, Nathaniel; Hicks, Geoff; Insel, Thomas R; Joyner, Alexandra; Koller, Beverly H; Lloyd, K C Kent; Magnuson, Terry; Moore, Mark W; Nagy, Andras; Pollock, Jonathan D; Roses, Allen D; Sands, Arthur T; Seed, Brian; Skarnes, William C; Snoddy, Jay; Soriano, Philippe; Stewart, David J; Stewart, Francis; Stillman, Bruce; Varmus, Harold; Varticovski, Lyuba; Verma, Inder M; Vogt, Thomas F; von Melchner, Harald; Witkowski, Jan; Woychik, Richard P; Wurst, Wolfgang; Yancopoulos, George D; Young, Stephen G; Zambrowicz, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Mouse knockout technology provides a powerful means of elucidating gene function in vivo, and a publicly available genome-wide collection of mouse knockouts would be significantly enabling for biomedical discovery. To date, published knockouts exist for only about 10% of mouse genes. Furthermore, many of these are limited in utility because they have not been made or phenotyped in standardized ways, and many are not freely available to researchers. It is time to harness new technologies and efficiencies of production to mount a high-throughput international effort to produce and phenotype knockouts for all mouse genes, and place these resources into the public domain. PMID:15340423

  20. A2A Adenosine Receptors Are Differentially Modulated by Pharmacological Treatments in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients and Their Stimulation Ameliorates Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Padovan, Melissa; Targa, Martina; Corciulo, Carmen; Giacuzzo, Sarah; Merighi, Stefania; Gessi, Stefania; Govoni, Marcello; Borea, Pier Andrea; Varani, Katia

    2013-01-01

    A2A adenosine receptors (ARs) play a key role in the inhibition of the inflammatory process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the modulation of A2AARs in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients after different pharmacological treatments and to investigate the effect of A2AAR stimulation in a rat model of arthritis. We investigated A2AAR density and functionality in RA progression by using a longitudinal study in RA patients before and after methotrexate (MTX), anti-TNFα agents or rituximab treatments. A2AARs were analyzed by saturation binding assays in lymphocytes from RA patients throughout the 24-month study timeframe. In an adjuvant-induced arthritis model in rats we showed the efficacy of the A2AAR agonist, CGS 21680 in comparison with standard therapies by means of paw volume assessment, radiographic and ultrasonographic imaging. Arthritic-associated pain was investigated in mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia tests. IL-10 release following A2AAR stimulation in lymphocytes from RA patients and in serum from arthritic rats was measured. In lymphocytes obtained from RA patients, the A2AAR up-regulation was gradually reduced in function of the treatment time and the stimulation of these receptors mediated a significant increase of IL-10 production. In the same cells, CGS 21680 did not affected cell viability and did not produced cytotoxic effects. The A2AAR agonist CGS 21680 was highly effective, as suggested by the marked reduction of clinical signs, in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis and associated pain. This study highlighted that A2AAR agonists represent a physiological-like therapeutic alternative for RA treatment as suggested by the anti-inflammatory role of A2AARs in lymphocytes from RA patients. The effectiveness of A2AAR stimulation in a rat model of arthritis supported the role of A2AAR agonists as potential pharmacological treatment for RA. PMID:23326596

  1. Dual blockade of the A1 and A2A adenosine receptor prevents amyloid beta toxicity in neuroblastoma cells exposed to aluminum chloride.

    PubMed

    Giunta, Salvatore; Andriolo, Violetta; Castorina, Alessandro

    2014-09-01

    In a previous work we have shown that exposure to aluminum (Al) chloride (AlCl3) enhanced the neurotoxicity of the amyloid beta(25-35) fragment (Abeta(25-35)) in neuroblastoma cells and affected the expression of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related genes. Caffein, a compound endowed with beneficial effects against AD, exerts neuroprotection primarily through its antagonist activity on A2A adenosine receptors (A2AR), although it also inhibits A1Rs with similar potency. Still, studies on the specific involvement of these receptors in neuroprotection in a model of combined neurotoxicity (Abeta(25-35)+AlCl3) are missing. To address this issue, cultured SH-SY5Y cells exposed to Abeta(25-35)+AlCl3 were assessed for cell viability, morphology, intracellular ROS activity and expression of apoptosis-, stress- and AD-related proteins. To define the role of A1R and A2ARs, pretreatment with caffein, specific receptor antagonists (DPCPX or SCH58261) or siRNA-mediated gene knockdown were delivered. Results indicate that AlCl3 treatment exacerbated Abeta(25-35) toxicity, increased ROS production, lipid peroxidation, β-secretase-1 (BACE1) and amyloid precursor protein (APP). Interestingly, SCH58261 successfully prevented toxicity associated to Abeta(25-35) only, whereas pretreatment with both DPCPX and SCH58261 was required to fully avert Abeta(25-35)+AlCl3-induced damage, suggesting that A1Rs might also be critically involved in protection during combined toxicity. The effects of caffein were mimicked by both N-acetyl cysteine, an antioxidant, and desferrioxamine, likely acting through distinct mechanisms. Altogether, our data establish a novel protective function associated with A1R inhibition in the setting of combined Abeta(25-35)+AlCl3 neurotoxicity, and expand our current knowledge on the potential beneficial role of caffein to prevent AD progression in subjects environmentally exposed to aluminum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Adenosine A2A Receptors Mediate Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Electroacupuncture on Synovitis in Mice with Collagen-Induced Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qi-hui; Xie, Wen-xia; Li, Xiao-pei; Huang, Ka-te; Du, Zhong-heng; Cong, Wen-jie; Zhou, Long-hua; Ye, Tian-shen; Chen, Jiang-Fan

    2015-01-01

    To study the role of adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) in mediating the anti-inflammatory effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on synovitis in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), C57BL/6 mice were divided into five treatment groups: Sham-control, CIA-control, CIA-EA, CIA-SCH58261 (A2AR antagonist), and CIA-EA-SCH58261. All mice except those in the Sham-control group were immunized with collagen II for arthritis induction. EA treatment was administered using the stomach 36 and spleen 6 points, and stimulated with a continuous rectangular wave for 30 min daily. EA treatment and SCH58261 were administered daily from days 35 to 49 (n = 10). After treatment, X-ray radiography of joint bone morphology was established at day 60 and mouse blood was collected for ELISA determination of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels. Mice were sacrificed and processed for histological examination of pathological changes of joint tissue, including hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry of A2AR expression. EA treatment resulted in significantly reduced pathological scores, TNF-α concentrations, and bone damage X-ray scores. Importantly, the anti-inflammatory and tissue-protective effect of EA treatment was reversed by coadministration of SCH58261. Thus, EA treatment exerts an anti-inflammatory effect resulting in significant protection of cartilage by activation of A2AR in the synovial tissue of CIA. PMID:25784951

  3. Structure-Activity Relationships of Truncated C2- or C8-Substituted Adenosine Derivatives as Dual Acting A2A and A3 Adenosine Receptor Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Xiyan; Majik, Mahesh S.; Kim, Kyunglim; Pyee, Yuna; Lee, Yoonji; Alexander, Varughese; Chung, Hwa-Jin; Lee, Hyuk Woo; Chandra, Girish; Lee, Jin Hee; Park, Seul-gi; Choi, Won Jun; Kim, Hea Ok; Phan, Khai; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Choi, Sun; Lee, Sang Kook; Jeong, Lak Shin

    2011-01-01

    Truncated N6-substituted-4′-oxo- and 4′-thioadenosine derivatives with C2 or C8 substitution were studied as dual acting A2A and A3 adenosine receptor (AR) ligands. The lithiation-mediated stannyl transfer and palladium-catalyzed cross coupling reactions were utilized for functionalization of the C2 position of 6-chloropurine nucleosides. An unsubstituted 6-amino group and a hydrophobic C2 substituent were required for high affinity at the hA2AAR, but hydrophobic C8 substitution abolished binding at the hA2AAR. However, most of synthesized compounds displayed medium to high binding affinity at the hA3AR, regardless of C2 or C8 substitution, and low efficacy in a functional cAMP assay. Several compounds tended to be full hA2AAR agonists. C2 substitution probed geometrically through hA2AAR-docking, was important for binding in order of hexynyl > hexenyl > hexanyl. Compound 4g was the most potent ligand acting dually as hA2AAR agonist and hA3AR antagonist, which might be useful for treatment of asthma or other inflammatory diseases. PMID:22142423

  4. Ligand-, structure- and pharmacophore-based molecular fingerprints: a case study on adenosine A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 receptor antagonists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirci, Francesco; Goracci, Laura; Rodríguez, David; van Muijlwijk-Koezen, Jacqueline; Gutiérrez-de-Terán, Hugo; Mannhold, Raimund

    2012-11-01

    FLAP fingerprints are applied in the ligand-, structure- and pharmacophore-based mode in a case study on antagonists of all four adenosine receptor (AR) subtypes. Structurally diverse antagonist collections with respect to the different ARs were constructed by including binding data to human species only. FLAP models well discriminate "active" (=highly potent) from "inactive" (=weakly potent) AR antagonists, as indicated by enrichment curves, numbers of false positives, and AUC values. For all FLAP modes, model predictivity slightly decreases as follows: A2BR > A2AR > A3R > A1R antagonists. General performance of FLAP modes in this study is: ligand- > structure- > pharmacophore- based mode. We also compared the FLAP performance with other common ligand- and structure-based fingerprints. Concerning the ligand-based mode, FLAP model performance is superior to ECFP4 and ROCS for all AR subtypes. Although focusing on the early first part of the A2A, A2B and A3 enrichment curves, ECFP4 and ROCS still retain a satisfactory retrieval of actives. FLAP is also superior when comparing the structure-based mode with PLANTS and GOLD. In this study we applied for the first time the novel FLAPPharm tool for pharmacophore generation. Pharmacophore hypotheses, generated with this tool, convincingly match with formerly published data. Finally, we could demonstrate the capability of FLAP models to uncover selectivity aspects although single AR subtype models were not trained for this purpose.

  5. Adenosine transporter ENT1 regulates the acquisition of goal-directed behavior and ethanol drinking through A2A receptor in the dorsomedial striatum.

    PubMed

    Nam, Hyung Wook; Hinton, David J; Kang, Na Young; Kim, Taehyun; Lee, Moonnoh R; Oliveros, Alfredo; Adams, Chelsea; Ruby, Christina L; Choi, Doo-Sup

    2013-03-06

    Adenosine signaling has been implicated in the pathophysiology of many psychiatric disorders including alcoholism. Striatal adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) play an essential role in both ethanol drinking and the shift from goal-directed action to habitual behavior. However, direct evidence for a role of striatal A2AR signaling in ethanol drinking and habit development has not been established. In the present study, we found that decreased A2AR-mediated CREB activity in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) enhanced initial behavioral acquisition of goal-directed behaviors and the vulnerability to progress to excessive ethanol drinking during operant conditioning in mice lacking ethanol-sensitive adenosine transporter ENT1 (ENT1(-/-)). Using mice expressing β-galactosidase (lacZ) under the control of seven repeated CRE sites in both genotypes (CRE-lacZ/ENT1(+/+) mice and CRE-lacZ/ENT1(-/-) mice) and the dominant-negative form of CREB, we found that reduced CREB activity in the DMS was causally associated with decreased A2AR signaling and increased goal-directed ethanol drinking. Finally, we have demonstrated that the A2AR antagonist ZM241385 dampened protein kinase A activity-mediated signaling in the DMS and promoted excessive ethanol drinking in ENT1(+/+) mice, but not in ENT1(-/-) mice. Our results indicate that A2AR-mediated CREB signaling in the DMS is a key determinant in enhancing the development of goal-directed ethanol drinking in mice.

  6. A(2a) adenosine receptor mediates PKA-dependent glutamate release from synaptic-like vesicles and Ca(2+) efflux from an IP(3)- and ryanodine-insensitive intracellular calcium store in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Takeshi; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism underlying transmitter release from astrocytes is not fully understood. The present study examined A(2a) adenosine receptor-mediated glutamate release and intracellular Ca(2+) rise in cultured rat hippocampal astrocytes. Intracellular amino acids were measured with HPLC. Glutamate release from astrocytes and intracellular Ca(2+) mobilizations were monitored in the NADH imaging, FM1-43 imaging, and fura-2 imaging. The siRNA to silence the A(2a) adenosine receptor-targeted gene was constructed and transfected into cells. Glutamate was condensed in 'synaptic-like vesicle' fractions. In the NADH imaging, CGS21680, an agonist of A2a adenosine receptors, increased NADH fluorescent signals, that reflects glutamate release, and the effect was inhibited by DMPX, an inhibitor of A(2a) adenosine receptors, H-89, a PKA inhibitor, vesicular transport inhibitors, or botulinum toxin-A, an exocytosis inhibitor. In the FM1-43 imaging to see vesicular recycling, CGS21680 decreased FM1-43 fluorescent signals, that was also prevented by DMPX, H-89, vesicular transport inhibitors, or botulinum toxin-A. CGS21680 increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations both in Ca(2+)-containing and -free extracellular solution. The Ca(2+) rise was inhibited by DMPX, H-89, or the vesicular transport inhibitor brefeldin A, but it was not affected by inhibitors for phospholipase C, IP(3) receptor, and ryanodine receptor. CGS21680-induced glutamate release and intracellular Ca(2+) rise were prevented by knocking-down A(2a) adenosine receptor. The results of the present study show that A(2a) adenosine receptor/PKA promotes glutamate release from synaptic-like vesicles and stimulates Ca(2+) efflux from an IP(3)- and ryanodine-insensitive intracellular calcium store. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. 2-n-Butyl-9-methyl-8-[1,2,3]triazol-2-yl-9H-purin-6-ylamine and analogues as A2A adenosine receptor antagonists. Design, synthesis, and pharmacological characterization.

    PubMed

    Minetti, Patrizia; Tinti, Maria Ornella; Carminati, Paolo; Castorina, Massimo; Di Cesare, Maria Assunta; Di Serio, Stefano; Gallo, Grazia; Ghirardi, Orlando; Giorgi, Fabrizio; Giorgi, Luca; Piersanti, Giovanni; Bartoccini, Francesca; Tarzia, Giorgio

    2005-11-03

    Two types of adenosine receptor ligands were designed, i.e., 9H-purine and 1H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridines, to obtain selective A(2A) antagonists, and we report here their synthesis and binding affinities for the four adenosine receptor subtypes A(1), A(2A), A(2B) and A(3). The design was carried out on the basis of the molecular modeling of a number of potent adenosine receptor antagonists described in the literature. Three compounds (25b-d) showed an interesting affinity and selectivity for the A(2A) subtype. One of them, i.e., ST1535 (2-n-butyl-9-methyl-8-[1,2,3]triazol-2-yl-9H-purin-6-ylamine, 25b) (K(i) A(2A) = 6.6 nM, K(i) A(1)/A(2A) = 12; K(i) A(2B)/A(2A) = 58; K(i) A(3)/A(2A) > 160), was selected for in vivo study and shown to induce a dose-related increase in locomotor activity, suggestive of an A(2A) antagonist type of activity.

  8. Inosine, an Endogenous Purine Nucleoside, Suppresses Immune Responses and Protects Mice from Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis: a Role for A2A Adenosine Receptor.

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Stella Célio; Dos Santos Coelho, Igor; Lieberknecht, Vicente; Cunha, Mauricio Peña; Calixto, João B; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; Santos, Adair Roberto Soares; Dutra, Rafael Cypriano

    2017-07-01

    were blocked by inosine treatment. Additionally, inosine consistently inhibited IL-17 levels in peripheral lymphoid tissue, as well as IL-4 levels and A2AR up-regulation in the spinal cord, likely, through an ERK1-independent pathway. EAE: experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis; MS: multiple sclerosis; A2AR: adenosine A2A receptor; IL-17: interleukin-17; IL-4: interleukin-4.

  9. Optogenetic activation of intracellular adenosine A2A receptor signaling in the hippocampus is sufficient to trigger CREB phosphorylation and impair memory.

    PubMed

    Li, P; Rial, D; Canas, P M; Yoo, J-H; Li, W; Zhou, X; Wang, Y; van Westen, G J P; Payen, M-P; Augusto, E; Gonçalves, N; Tomé, A R; Li, Z; Wu, Z; Hou, X; Zhou, Y; IJzerman, A P; PIJzerman, Ad; Boyden, E S; Cunha, R A; Qu, J; Chen, J-F

    2015-11-01

    Human and animal studies have converged to suggest that caffeine consumption prevents memory deficits in aging and Alzheimer's disease through the antagonism of adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs). To test if A2AR activation in the hippocampus is actually sufficient to impair memory function and to begin elucidating the intracellular pathways operated by A2AR, we have developed a chimeric rhodopsin-A2AR protein (optoA2AR), which retains the extracellular and transmembrane domains of rhodopsin (conferring light responsiveness and eliminating adenosine-binding pockets) fused to the intracellular loop of A2AR to confer specific A2AR signaling. The specificity of the optoA2AR signaling was confirmed by light-induced selective enhancement of cAMP and phospho-mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-MAPK) (but not cGMP) levels in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells, which was abolished by a point mutation at the C terminal of A2AR. Supporting its physiological relevance, optoA2AR activation and the A2AR agonist CGS21680 produced similar activation of cAMP and p-MAPK signaling in HEK293 cells, of p-MAPK in the nucleus accumbens and of c-Fos/phosphorylated-CREB (p-CREB) in the hippocampus, and similarly enhanced long-term potentiation in the hippocampus. Remarkably, optoA2AR activation triggered a preferential p-CREB signaling in the hippocampus and impaired spatial memory performance, while optoA2AR activation in the nucleus accumbens triggered MAPK signaling and modulated locomotor activity. This shows that the recruitment of intracellular A2AR signaling in the hippocampus is sufficient to trigger memory dysfunction. Furthermore, the demonstration that the biased A2AR signaling and functions depend on intracellular A2AR loops prompts the possibility of targeting the intracellular A2AR-interacting partners to selectively control different neuropsychiatric behaviors.

  10. Assessment of exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms in the adenosine A2A receptor gene to high myopia susceptibility in Chinese subjects

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Xue, Anquan; Chen, Wei; Ding, Yang; Yan, Dongsheng; Peng, Jiqing; Zeng, Changqing; Qu, Jia

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) modulates collagen synthesis and extracellular matrix production in ocular tissues that contribute to eye growth and the development of myopia. We aimed to determine if single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in A2AR exons associates with high myopia found in Chinese subjects. Methods DNA samples were prepared from venous lymphocytes of 175 Chinese subjects with high myopia of less than –8.00 diopters (D) correction and 101 ethnically similar controls with between –1.00 D and +1.00 D correction. The coding region sequences of A2AR were amplified by PCR and analyzed by Sanger sequencing. The detected variations were confirmed by reverse sequencing. Allelic frequencies of all detected common SNPs were assessed for Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. Results Five variations in A2AR exons, 5675 A>G, 5765 C>T, 13325 G>A, 13448 C>T, and 14000 T>A, were detected in controls at a low frequency (<1%). However, one SNP, 13772 T>C (rs5751876), showed its polymorphism in 53.3% of the total study population. The rs5751876 is a synonymous substitution located in a tyrosine codon of exon 2. Despite no significant difference in genotype distribution between cases and controls, the frequency of heterozygotes with the rs5751876 genotype was significantly lower in subjects with high myopia. Conclusions The reduced frequency of the heterozygote rs5751876 genotype in subjects suggests a possible association of A2AR with high myopia in a Chinese population. PMID:22740769

  11. Adenosine Transporter ENT1 Regulates the Acquisition of Goal-Directed Behavior and Ethanol Drinking Through A2A Receptor in the Dorsomedial Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Hyung Wook; Hinton, David J.; Kang, Na Young; Kim, Taehyun; Lee, Moonnoh R.; Oliveros, Alfredo; Adams, Chelsea; Ruby, Christina L.; Choi, Doo-Sup

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine signaling has been implicated in the pathophysiology of many psychiatric disorders including alcoholism. Striatal adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) play an essential role in both ethanol drinking and the shift from goal-directed action to habitual behavior. However, direct evidence for a role of striatal A2AR signaling in ethanol drinking and habit development has not been established. Here, we identified that decreased A2AR-mediated CREB activity in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) enhanced initial behavioral acquisition of goal-directed behaviors and the vulnerability to progress to excessive ethanol drinking during operant conditioning in mice lacking ethanol-sensitive adenosine transporter ENT1 (ENT1−/−). Utilizing mice expressing β-galactosidase (lacZ) under the control of seven-repeated CRE sites in both genotypes (CRE-lacZ/ENT1+/+ mice and CRE-lacZ/ENT1−/− mice) as well as dnCREB (dominant negative form of CREB), we found that reduced CREB activity in the DMS is causally associated with decreased A2AR signaling and increased goal-directed ethanol drinking. Finally, we demonstrated that A2AR antagonist (ZM241385) dampened PKA-activity mediated signaling in the DMS and promoted excessive ethanol drinking in ENT1+/+ mice, but not in ENT1−/− mice. Taken together, our studies indicate that A2AR-mediated CREB signaling in the DMS is a key determinant to enhance the development of goal-directed ethanol drinking in mice. PMID:23467349

  12. Selective A2A receptor antagonist prevents microglia-mediated neuroinflammation and protects retinal ganglion cells from high intraocular pressure-induced transient ischemic injury.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Maria H; Boia, Raquel; Elvas, Filipe; Martins, Tiago; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Ambrósio, António Francisco; Santiago, Ana Raquel

    2016-03-01

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of vision loss and blindness worldwide, characterized by chronic and progressive neuronal loss. Reactive microglial cells have been recognized as a neuropathologic feature, contributing to local inflammation and retinal neurodegeneration. In a recent in vitro work (organotypic cultures), we demonstrated that blockade of adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) prevents the neuroinflammatory response and affords protection to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) against exposure to elevated hydrostatic pressure (EHP), to mimic elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), the main risk factor for glaucoma development. Herein, we investigated whether a selective A2AR antagonist (SCH 58261) could modulate retinal microglia reactivity and their inflammatory response. Furthermore, we took advantage of the high IOP-induced transient ischemia (ischemia-reperfusion, I-R) animal model to evaluate the protective role of A2AR blockade in the control of retinal neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Primary microglial cell cultures were challenged either with lipopolysaccharide or with EHP, in the presence or absence of A2AR antagonist SCH 58261 (50 nM). In addition, I-R injury was induced in adult Wistar rats after intravitreal administration of SCH 58261 (100 nM, 5 μL). Our results showed that SCH 58261 attenuated microglia reactivity and the increased expression and release of proinflammatory cytokines. Moreover, intravitreal administration of SCH 58261 prevented I-R-induced cell death and RGC loss, by controlling microglial-mediated neuroinflammatory response. These results prompt the proposal that A2AR blockade may have great potential in the management of retinal neurodegenerative diseases characterized by microglia reactivity and RGC death, such as glaucoma and ischemic diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary alpha-cyclodextrin lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and alters plasma fatty acid profile in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice on a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Elke Maria; Jen, Kai-Lin Catherine; Artiss, Joseph Donald; Remaley, Alan Thomas

    2008-08-01

    High dietary intake of saturated fat and cholesterol, and elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels are some of the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Alpha-cyclodextrin (a-CD) when given orally has been shown in rats to increase fecal saturated fat excretion and to reduce blood total cholesterol levels in obese hypertriglyceridemic subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, the effects of dietary a-CD on lipid metabolism in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice were investigated. Low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice were fed a "Western diet" (21% milk fat) with or without 2.1% of a-CD (10% of dietary fat content) for 14 weeks. At sacrifice, there was no difference in body weight; but significant decreases were observed in plasma cholesterol (15.3%), free cholesterol (20%), cholesterol esters (14%), and phospholipid (17.5%) levels in mice treated with alpha-CD compared with control mice. The decrease in total cholesterol was primarily in the proatherogenic apolipoprotein B-containing lipoprotein fractions, with no significant change in the high-density lipoprotein fraction. Furthermore, alpha-CD improved the blood fatty acid profile, reducing the saturated fatty acids (4.5%) and trans-isomers (11%) while increasing (2.5%) unsaturated fatty acids. In summary, the addition of alpha-CD improved the lipid profile by lowering proatherogenic lipoproteins and trans-fatty acids and by decreasing the ratio of saturated and trans-fatty acids to polyunsaturated fatty acids (-5.8%), thus suggesting that it may be useful as a dietary supplement for reducing cardiovascular disease.

  14. mRNA transfection of a novel TAL effector nuclease (TALEN) facilitates efficient knockout of HIV co-receptor CCR5

    PubMed Central

    Mock, Ulrike; Machowicz, Rafał; Hauber, Ilona; Horn, Stefan; Abramowski, Pierre; Berdien, Belinda; Hauber, Joachim; Fehse, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Homozygosity for a natural deletion variant of the HIV-coreceptor molecule CCR5, CCR5Δ32, confers resistance toward HIV infection. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation from a CCR5Δ32-homozygous donor has resulted in the first cure from HIV (‘Berlin patient’). Based thereon, genetic disruption of CCR5 using designer nucleases was proposed as a promising HIV gene-therapy approach. Here we introduce a novel TAL-effector nuclease, CCR5-Uco-TALEN that can be efficiently delivered into T cells by mRNA electroporation, a gentle and truly transient gene-transfer technique. CCR5-Uco-TALEN mediated high-rate CCR5 knockout (>90% in PM1 and >50% in primary T cells) combined with low off-target activity, as assessed by flow cytometry, next-generation sequencing and a newly devised, very convenient gene-editing frequency digital-PCR (GEF-dPCR). GEF-dPCR facilitates simultaneous detection of wild-type and gene-edited alleles with remarkable sensitivity and accuracy as shown for the CCR5 on-target and CCR2 off-target loci. CCR5-edited cells were protected from infection with HIV-derived lentiviral vectors, but also with the wild-type CCR5-tropic HIV-1BaL strain. Long-term exposure to HIV-1BaL resulted in almost complete suppression of viral replication and selection of CCR5-gene edited T cells. In conclusion, we have developed a novel TALEN for the targeted, high-efficiency knockout of CCR5 and a useful dPCR-based gene-editing detection method. PMID:25964300

  15. Effects of adenosine and a selective A2A adenosine receptor agonist on hemodynamic and thallium-201 and technetium-99m-sestaMIBI biodistribution and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Mekkaoui, Choukri; Jadbabaie, Farid; Dione, Donald P; Meoli, David F; Purushothaman, Kailasnath; Belardinelli, Luiz; Sinusas, Albert J

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare a selective A(2A) adenosine receptor agonist (regadenoson) with adenosine in clinically relevant canine models with regard to effects on hemodynamics and thallium-201 ((201)Tl) and technetium-99m ((99m)Tc)-sestaMIBI biodistribution and kinetics. The clinical application of vasodilator stress for perfusion imaging requires consideration of the effects of these vasodilating agents on systemic hemodynamics, coronary flow, and radiotracer uptake and clearance kinetics. Sequential imaging and arterial blood sampling was performed on control, anesthetized closed-chest canines (n = 7) to evaluate radiotracer biodistribution and kinetics after either a bolus administration of regadenoson (2.5 microg/kg) or 4.5-min infusion of adenosine (280 microg/kg). The effects of regadenoson on coronary flow and myocardial radiotracer uptake were then evaluated in an open-chest canine model of a critical stenosis (n = 7). Results from ex vivo single-photon emission computed tomography were compared with tissue well-counting. The use of regadenoson compared favorably with adenosine in regard to the duration and magnitude of the hemodynamic effects and the effect on (201)Tl and (99m)Tc-sestaMIBI biodistribution and kinetics. The arterial blood clearance half-time was significantly faster for (99m)Tc-sestaMIBI (regadenoson: 1.4 +/- 0.03 min; adenosine: 1.5 +/- 0.08 min) than for (201)Tl (regadenoson: 2.5 +/- 0.16 min, p < 0.01; adenosine: 2.7 +/- 0.04 min, p < 0.01) for both vasodilator stressors. The relative microsphere flow deficit (0.34 +/- 0.02%) during regadenoson stress was significantly greater than the relative perfusion defect with (99m)Tc-sestaMIBI (0.69 +/- 0.03%, p < 0.001) or (201)Tl (0.53 +/- 0.02%, p < 0.001), although (201)Tl tracked the flow deficit within the ischemic region better than (99m)Tc-sestaMIBI. The perfusion defect score was larger with (201)Tl (22 +/- 2.8% left ventricular) than with (99m)Tc-sestaMIBI (17 +/- 1

  16. Bitopic fluorescent antagonists of the A2A adenosine receptor based on pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidin-5-amine functionalized congeners.

    PubMed

    Duroux, Romain; Ciancetta, Antonella; Mannes, Philip; Yu, Jinha; Boyapati, Shireesha; Gizewski, Elizabeth; Yous, Said; Ciruela, Francisco; Auchampach, John A; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Jacobson, Kenneth A

    2017-08-01

    A pyrazolo[4,3- e ][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5- c ]pyrimidin-5-amine antagonist of the A 2A adenosine receptor (AR) was functionalized as amine congeners, fluorescent conjugates and a sulfonate, and the A 2A AR binding modes were predicted computationally. The optimal n -butyl spacer was incorporated into the following A 2A AR-selective ( K i , nM) conjugates: BODIPY630/650 derivative 11 (MRS7396, 24.6) and AlexaFluor488 derivative 12 (MRS7416, 30.3). Flow cytometry of 12 in hA 2A AR-expressing HEK-293 cells displayed saturable binding (low nonspecific) and inhibition by known A 2A AR antagonists. Water-soluble sulfonate 13 was a highly potent ( K i = 6.2 nM) and selective A 2A AR antagonist based on binding and functional assays. Docking and molecular dynamics simulations predicted the regions of interaction of the distal portions of these chain-extended ligands with the A 2A AR. The BODIPY630/650 fluorophore of 11 was buried in a hydrophobic interhelical (TM1/TM7) region, while AlexaFluor488 of 12 associated with the hydrophilic extracellular loops. In conclusion, we have identified novel high affinity antagonist probes for A 2A AR drug discovery and characterization.

  17. The role of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors in cognition and anxiety: Comparative studies in GRM2−/−, GRM3−/− and GRM2/3−/− knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    De Filippis, Bianca; Lyon, Louisa; Taylor, Amy; Lane, Tracy; Burnet, Philip W.J.; Harrison, Paul J.; Bannerman, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu2 and mGlu3, encoded by GRM2 and GRM3) have been implicated in both cognitive and emotional processes, although their precise role remains to be established. Studies with knockout (KO) mice provide an important approach for investigating the role of specific receptor genes in behaviour. In the present series of experiments we extended our prior characterisation of GRM2/3−/− double KO mice and, in complementary experiments, investigated the behavioural phenotype of single GRM2−/− and GRM3−/− mice. We found no consistent effect on anxiety in either the double or single KO mice. The lack of an anxiety phenotype in any of the lines contrasts with the clear anxiolytic effects of mGlu2/3 ligands. Motor co-ordination was impaired in GRM2/3−/− mice, but spared in single GRM2−/− and GRM3−/− mice. Spatial working memory (rewarded alternation) testing on the elevated T-maze revealed a deficit in GRM2−/− mice throughout testing, whereas GRM3−/− mice exhibited a biphasic effect (initially impaired, but performing better than controls by the end of training). A biphasic effect on activity levels was seen for the GRM2−/− mice. Overall, the phenotype in both GRM2−/− and GRM3−/− mice was less pronounced – if present at all – compared to GRM2/3−/− mice, across the range of task domains. This is consistent with possible redundancy of function and/or compensation in the single KO lines. Results are discussed with reference to a possible role for group II metabotropic glutamate receptors at the interface between arousal and behavioural performance, according to an inverted U-shaped function. PMID:25158312

  18. Pharmacological evaluation of pioglitazone and candesartan cilexetil in a novel mouse model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, modified choline-deficient, amino acid-defined diet fed low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Shuntarou; Amano, Yuichiro; Isono, Osamu; Imai, Mayumi; Shimizu, Fumi; Asada, Mari; Imai, Shigemitsu; Harada, Ayako; Yasuhara, Yoshitaka; Tozawa, Ryuichi; Nagabukuro, Hiroshi

    2017-05-01

    Low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLR-KO) mice fed a modified choline-deficient and amino acid-defined (mCDAA) diet show non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-like pathophysiology. In order to pharmacologically benchmark this model, effects of pioglitazone (a thiazolidinedione) and candesartan cilexetil (an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker) on steatosis and liver fibrosis were examined. Pioglitazone (10 mg/kg) and candesartan cilexetil (3 mg/kg) were given orally once daily to LDLR-KO mice under mCDAA diet for 7 weeks. Blood biochemistry and hepatic histology were assessed, and hepatic gene expression levels and triglyceride content were measured. Pioglitazone suppressed hepatic COL1A1 gene expression by 43% and attenuated hepatic fibrosis areas by 49%. Pioglitazone also decreased plasma alanine aminotransferase levels, liver weight, hepatic triglyceride content, and hepatic expression of other fibrosis-related genes such as TGFB1, SPP1, TIMP1, and IL6. Candesartan cilexetil suppressed hepatic COL1A1 gene expression by 33%, whereas the other end-points including hepatic fibrosis areas were not affected. Pioglitazone showed anti-fibrotic effects accompanied by improving hepatic transaminase activity and hepatic lipid accumulation, but the effect of candesartan cilexetil was only limited, unlike previous reports for angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers. As the pharmacological effects of pioglitazone in the current animal model are similar to those reported in patients with NASH, this model may represent some aspects of the pathophysiology of NASH. Further profiling using other agents or mechanisms that have been tested in the clinic will better clarify the utility of the animal model. © 2016 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  19. The influence of angiotensin-(1-7) Mas receptor agonist (AVE 0991) on mitochondrial proteome in kidneys of apoE knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Suski, Maciej; Olszanecki, Rafał; Stachowicz, Aneta; Madej, Józef; Bujak-Giżycka, Beata; Okoń, Krzysztof; Korbut, Ryszard

    2013-12-01

    Excessive action of angiotensin II on mitochondria has been shown to play an important role in mitochondrial dysfunction, a common feature of atherogenesis and kidney injury. Angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis constitutes a countermeasure to the detrimental effects of angiotensin II on AT1 receptors. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of angiotensin-(1-7) peptidomimetic AVE0991 on the kidney mitochondrial proteome in widely used animal model of atherosclerosis (apoE(-/-) mice). Proteins changed in apoE(-/-) mice belonged to the groups of antioxidant enzymes, apoptosis regulators, inflammatory factors and metabolic enzymes. Importantly, AVE0991 partially reversed atherosclerosis-related changes in apoE(-/-) mice. © 2013.

  20. Accumulation of cytolytic CD8{sup +} T cells in B16-melanoma and proliferation of mature T cells in TIS21-knockout mice after T cell receptor stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Min Sook; Woo, Min-Yeong; Department of Biomedical Sciences, The Graduate School, Ajou University

    2014-10-01

    In vivo and in vitro effects of TIS21 gene on the mature T cell activation and antitumor activities were explored by employing MO5 melanoma orthograft and splenocytes isolated from the TIS21-knockout (KO) mice. Proliferation and survival of mature T cells were significantly increased in the KO than the wild type (WT) cells, indicating that TIS21 inhibits the rate of mature T cell proliferation and its survival. In MO5 melanoma orthograft model, the KO mice recruited much more CD8{sup +} T cells into the tumors at around day 14 after tumor cell injection along with reduced tumor volumes compared with themore » WT. The increased frequency of granzyme B{sup +} CD8{sup +} T cells in splenocytes of the KO mice compared with the WT may account for antitumor-immunity of TIS21 gene in the melanoma orthograft. In contrast, reduced frequencies of CD107a{sup +} CD8{sup +} T cells in the splenocytes of KO mice may affect the loss of CD8{sup +} T cell infiltration in the orthograft at around day 19. These results indicate that TIS21 exhibits antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects in mature T cells, and differentially affects the frequencies of granzyme B{sup +} CD8{sup +} T-cells and CD107a{sup +} CD8{sup +} T-cells, thus transiently regulating in vivo anti-tumor immunity. - Highlights: • Constitutive expression of TIS21 in splenocytes and upregulation by TCR stimulation. • Proliferation of mature T-cells in spleen of TIS21KO mice after TCR stimulation. • Inhibition of cell death in mature T-cells of TIS21KO mice compared with the wild type. • Inhibition of melanoma growth in TIS21KO mice and CD8{sup +} T cell infiltration in tumor. • Reduction of CD 107{sup +}CD8{sup +} T cells, but increased granzyme B{sup +} CD8{sup +} T cells in TIS21KO mice.« less

  1. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) enhances hippocampal N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) function via d-serine and adenosine receptor type A2 (A2AR) activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play fundamental roles in basic brain functions such as excitatory neurotransmission and learning and memory processes. Their function is largely regulated by factors released by glial cells, including the coagonist d-serine. We investigated whether the activation of microglial CX3CR1 induces the release of factors that modulate NMDAR functions. Methods We recorded the NMDAR component of the field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (NMDA-fEPSPs) elicited in the CA1 stratum radiatum of mouse hippocampal slices by Shaffer collateral stimulation and evaluated d-serine content in the extracellular medium of glial primary cultures by mass spectrometry analysis. Results We demonstrated that CX3CL1 increases NMDA-fEPSPs by a mechanism involving the activity of the adenosine receptor type A2 (A2AR) and the release of the NMDAR coagonist d-serine. Specifically (1) the selective A2AR blocker 7-(2-phenylethyl)-5-amino-2-(2-furyl)-pyrazolo-[4,3-e]-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidine (SCH58261) and the genetic ablation of A2AR prevent CX3CL1 action while the A2AR agonist 5-(6-amino-2-(phenethylthio)-9H-purin-9-yl)-N-ethyl-3,4-dihydroxytetrahydrofuran-2-carboxamide (VT7) mimics CX3CL1 effect, and (2) the selective blocking of the NMDAR glycine (and d-serine) site by 5,7-dicholorokynurenic acid (DCKA), the enzymatic degradation of d-serine by d-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) and the saturation of the coagonist site by d-serine, all block the CX3CL1 effect. In addition, mass spectrometry analysis demonstrates that stimulation of microglia and astrocytes with CX3CL1 or VT7 increases d-serine release in the extracellular medium. Conclusions CX3CL1 transiently potentiates NMDAR function though mechanisms involving A2AR activity and the release of d-serine. PMID:23981568

  2. In vivo activation of leukocyte GPR120/FFAR4 by PUFAs has minimal impact on atherosclerosis in LDL receptor knockout mice[S

    PubMed Central

    Shewale, Swapnil V.; Brown, Amanda L.; Bi, Xin; Boudyguina, Elena; Sawyer, Janet K.; Alexander-Miller, Martha A.; Parks, John S.

    2017-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)120/FFA receptor (FFAR)4 (GPR120/FFAR4) activation by n-3 PUFAs attenuates inflammation, but its impact on atherosclerosis is unknown. We determined whether in vivo activation of leukocyte GPR120/FFAR4 by n-3 versus n-6 PUFAs is atheroprotective. Leukocyte GPR120/FFAR4 WT or KO mice in the LDL receptor KO background were generated by bone marrow transplantation. Mice were fed one of the four atherogenic diets containing 0.2% cholesterol and 10% calories as palm oil (PO) + 10% calories as: 1) PO, 2) fish oil (FO; 20:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3 enriched), 3) echium oil (EO; 18:4 n-3 enriched), or 4) borage oil (BO; 18:3 n-6 enriched) for 16 weeks. Compared with PO, mice fed BO, EO, and FO had significantly reduced plasma cholesterol, TG, VLDL cholesterol, hepatic neutral lipid, and atherosclerosis that were equivalent for WT and KO mice. In BO-, EO-, and FO-fed mice, but not PO-fed mice, lack of leukocyte GPR120/FFAR4 resulted in neutrophilia, pro-inflammatory Ly6Chi monocytosis, increased aortic root monocyte recruitment, and increased hepatic inflammatory gene expression. In conclusion, leukocyte GPR120 expression has minimal effects on dietary PUFA-induced plasma lipid/lipoprotein reduction and atheroprotection, and there is no distinction between n-3 versus n-6 PUFAs in activating anti-inflammatory effects of leukocyte GPR120/FFAR4 in vivo. PMID:27811230

  3. 17 Beta-estradiol-induced antidepressant-like effect in the forced swim test is absent in estrogen receptor-beta knockout (BERKO) mice.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Beatriz A; Fleischer, Rebecca; Schaeffer, James M; Rohrer, Susan P; Hickey, Gerry J

    2005-05-01

    The decrease in levels of estrogens (ER) that occurs in menopause has been correlated with depressive disorders, probably due to ER direct and/or indirect effects in the brain, where these hormones act through both genomic (i.e. interaction as transcription factors with nuclear receptors ER-alpha and ER-beta) and non-genomic (i.e. binding with cell-membrane receptors) mechanisms. With respect to mood related disorders the interaction between ER-beta and the serotonin (5-HT) system is highly relevant. 17beta-Estradiol (E2) induces expression of the enzyme implicated in 5-HT synthesis - tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), and this effect is mediated through ER-beta located in 5-HT cell bodies of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). The present studies tested the hypothesis that E2 induces antidepressant-like effects in female ovariectomized (OVX) mice, and that expression of ER-beta is mandatory for such effects. The Forced Swim Test (FST) was used in three experiments to assess (a) dose response effect of E2 in outbred and inbred mouse strains, (b) length of treatment necessary for effect, (c) and role of ER-beta receptors. E2 (100 or 200 microg/kg), as well as the antidepressant desipramine (DMI), significantly reduced total duration of immobility in the FST in mice from different strains. Four consecutive daily doses (200 microg/kg) were required for such effect, which was absent in mice lacking the gene coding for ER-beta (BERKO mice). These data suggest that E2-induced antidepressant-like effects in mice are mediated through activation of ER-beta. They offer preliminary support to the hypothesis that specific compounds acting at ER-beta may influence mood in postmenopausal women.

  4. BDNF prevents NMDA-induced toxicity in models of Huntington's disease: the effects are genotype specific and adenosine A2A receptor is involved.

    PubMed

    Martire, Alberto; Pepponi, Rita; Domenici, Maria Rosaria; Ferrante, Antonella; Chiodi, Valentina; Popoli, Patrizia

    2013-04-01

    NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity is thought to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease (HD). The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is also highly involved in HD and whose effects are modulated by adenosine A2 ARs, influences the activity and expression of striatal NMDA receptors. In electrophysiology experiments, we investigated the role of BDNF toward NMDA-induced effects in HD models, and the possible involvement of A2ARs. In corticostriatal slices from wild-type mice and age-matched symptomatic R6/2 mice (a model of HD), NMDA application (75 μM) induced a transient or a permanent (i.e., toxic) reduction of field potential amplitude, respectively. BDNF (10 ng/mL) potentiated NMDA effects in wild-type, while it protected from NMDA toxicity in R6/2 mice. Both effects of BDNF were prevented by A2 AR blockade. The protective effect of BDNF against NMDA-induced toxicity was reproduced in a cellular model of HD. These findings may have very important implications for the neuroprotective potential of BDNF and A2 AR ligands in HD. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  5. Transcriptional profiling of striatal neurons in response to single or concurrent activation of dopamine D2, adenosine A(2A) and metabotropic glutamate type 5 receptors: focus on beta-synuclein expression.

    PubMed

    Canela, Laia; Selga, Elisabet; García-Martínez, Juan Manuel; Amaral, Olavo B; Fernández-Dueñas, Víctor; Alberch, Jordi; Canela, Enric I; Franco, Rafael; Noé, Véronique; Lluís, Carme; Ciudad, Carlos J; Ciruela, Francisco

    2012-10-25

    G protein-coupled receptor oligomerization is a concept which is changing the understanding of classical pharmacology. Both, oligomerization and functional interaction between adenosine A(2A,) dopamine D(2) and metabotropic glutamate type 5 receptors have been demonstrated in the striatum. However, the transcriptional consequences of receptors co-activation are still unexplored. We aim here to determine the changes in gene expression of striatal primary cultured neurons upon isolated or simultaneous receptor activation. Interestingly, we found that 95 genes of the total analyzed (15,866 transcripts and variants) changed their expression in response to simultaneous stimulation of all three receptors. Among these genes, we focused on the β-synuclein (β-Syn) gene (SCNB). Quantitative PCR verified the magnitude and direction of change in expression of SCNB. Since β-Syn belongs to the homologous synuclein family and may be considered a natural regulator of α-synuclein (α-Syn), it has been proposed that β-Syn might act protectively against α-Syn neuropathology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Double P2X2/P2X3 Purinergic Receptor Knockout Mice Do Not Taste NaCl or the Artificial Sweetener SC45647

    PubMed Central

    Eddy, Meghan C.; Eschle, Benjamin K.; Barrows, Jennell; Hallock, Robert M.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    The P2X ionotropic purinergic receptors, P2X2 and P2X3, are essential for transmission of taste information from taste buds to the gustatory nerves. Mice lacking both P2X2 and P2X3 purinergic receptors (P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/−) exhibit no taste-evoked activity in the chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerves when stimulated with taste stimuli from any of the 5 classical taste quality groups (salt, sweet, sour, bitter, and umami) nor do the mice show taste preferences for sweet or umami, or avoidance of bitter substances (Finger et al. 2005. ATP signaling is crucial for communication from taste buds to gustatory nerves. Science. 310[5753]:1495–1499). Here, we compare the ability of P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice and P2X2/P2X3Dbl+/+ wild-type (WT) mice to detect NaCl in brief-access tests and conditioned aversion paradigms. Brief-access testing with NaCl revealed that whereas WT mice decrease licking at 300 mM and above, the P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice do not show any change in lick rates. In conditioned aversion tests, P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice did not develop a learned aversion to NaCl or the artificial sweetener SC45647, both of which are easily avoided by conditioned WT mice. The inability of P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice to show avoidance of these taste stimuli was not due to an inability to learn the task because both WT and P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice learned to avoid a combination of SC45647 and amyl acetate (an odor cue). These data suggest that P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice are unable to respond to NaCl or SC45647 as taste stimuli, mirroring the lack of gustatory nerve responses to these substances. PMID:19833661

  7. DNA Damage-Inducible Transcript 4 Is an Innate Surveillant of Hair Follicular Stress in Vitamin D Receptor Knockout Mice and a Regulator of Wound Re-Epithelialization.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hengguang; Rieger, Sandra; Abe, Koichiro; Hewison, Martin; Lisse, Thomas S

    2016-11-26

    Mice and human patients with impaired vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling have normal developmental hair growth but display aberrant post-morphogenic hair cycle progression associated with alopecia. In addition, VDR -/- mice exhibit impaired cutaneous wound healing. We undertook experiments to determine whether the stress-inducible regulator of energy homeostasis, DNA damage-inducible transcript 4 (Ddit4), is involved in these processes. By analyzing hair cycle activation in vivo, we show that VDR -/- mice at day 14 exhibit increased Ddit4 expression within follicular stress compartments. At day 29, degenerating VDR -/- follicular keratinocytes, but not bulge stem cells, continue to exhibit an increase in Ddit4 expression. At day 47, when normal follicles and epidermis are quiescent and enriched for Ddit4, VDR -/- skin lacks Ddit4 expression. In a skin wound healing assay, the re-epithelialized epidermis in wildtype (WT) but not VDR -/- animals harbor a population of Ddit4- and Krt10-positive cells. Our study suggests that VDR regulates Ddit4 expression during epidermal homeostasis and the wound healing process, while elevated Ddit4 represents an early growth-arresting stress response within VDR -/- follicles.

  8. DNA Damage-Inducible Transcript 4 Is an Innate Surveillant of Hair Follicular Stress in Vitamin D Receptor Knockout Mice and a Regulator of Wound Re-Epithelialization

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hengguang; Rieger, Sandra; Abe, Koichiro; Hewison, Martin; Lisse, Thomas S.

    2016-01-01

    Mice and human patients with impaired vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling have normal developmental hair growth but display aberrant post-morphogenic hair cycle progression associated with alopecia. In addition, VDR–/– mice exhibit impaired cutaneous wound healing. We undertook experiments to determine whether the stress-inducible regulator of energy homeostasis, DNA damage-inducible transcript 4 (Ddit4), is involved in these processes. By analyzing hair cycle activation in vivo, we show that VDR−/− mice at day 14 exhibit increased Ddit4 expression within follicular stress compartments. At day 29, degenerating VDR−/− follicular keratinocytes, but not bulge stem cells, continue to exhibit an increase in Ddit4 expression. At day 47, when normal follicles and epidermis are quiescent and enriched for Ddit4, VDR−/− skin lacks Ddit4 expression. In a skin wound healing assay, the re-epithelialized epidermis in wildtype (WT) but not VDR−/− animals harbor a population of Ddit4- and Krt10-positive cells. Our study suggests that VDR regulates Ddit4 expression during epidermal homeostasis and the wound healing process, while elevated Ddit4 represents an early growth-arresting stress response within VDR−/− follicles. PMID:27898044

  9. Culture as a mediator of gene-environment interaction: Cultural consonance, childhood adversity, a 2A serotonin receptor polymorphism, and depression in urban Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dressler, William W; Balieiro, Mauro C; Ferreira de Araújo, Luiza; Silva, Wilson A; Ernesto Dos Santos, José

    2016-07-01

    Research on gene-environment interaction was facilitated by breakthroughs in molecular biology in the late 20th century, especially in the study of mental health. There is a reliable interaction between candidate genes for depression and childhood adversity in relation to mental health outcomes. The aim of this paper is to explore the role of culture in this process in an urban community in Brazil. The specific cultural factor examined is cultural consonance, or the degree to which individuals are able to successfully incorporate salient cultural models into their own beliefs and behaviors. It was hypothesized that cultural consonance in family life would mediate the interaction of genotype and childhood adversity. In a study of 402 adult Brazilians from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds, conducted from 2011 to 2014, the interaction of reported childhood adversity and a polymorphism in the 2A serotonin receptor was associated with higher depressive symptoms. Further analysis showed that the gene-environment interaction was mediated by cultural consonance in family life, and that these effects were more pronounced in lower social class neighborhoods. The findings reinforce the role of the serotonergic system in the regulation of stress response and learning and memory, and how these processes in turn interact with environmental events and circumstances. Furthermore, these results suggest that gene-environment interaction models should incorporate a wider range of environmental experience and more complex pathways to better understand how genes and the environment combine to influence mental health outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Involvement of CD73, equilibrative nucleoside transporters and inosine in rhythm and conduction disturbances mediated by adenosine A1 and A2A receptors in the developing heart.

    PubMed

    Robin, Elodie; Sabourin, Jessica; Marcillac, Fabrice; Raddatz, Eric

    2013-10-01

    We previously established that exogenous adenosine (ADO) induces transient arrhythmias in the developing heart via the adenosine A1 receptor (A1AR) and downstream activation of NADPH oxidase/ERK and PLC/PKC pathways. Here, we investigated the mechanisms by which accumulation of endogenous ADO and its derived compound inosine (INO) in the interstitial compartment induce rhythm and conduction troubles. The validated model of the spontaneously beating heart obtained from 4-day-old chick embryos was used. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that enzymes involved in ADO and INO metabolism (CD39, CD73 and eADA) as well as equilibrative (ENT1, -3, -4) and concentrative (CNT3) nucleoside transporters were differentially expressed in atria, ventricle and outflow tract. Inactivation of ENTs by dipyridamole, 1) increased myocardial ADO level, 2) provoked atrial arrhythmias and atrio-ventricular blocks (AVB) in 70% of the hearts, 3) prolonged P wave and QT interval without altering contractility, and 4) increased ERK2 phosphorylation. Blockade of CD73-mediated phosphohydrolysis of AMP to ADO, MEK/ERK pathway inhibition or A1AR inhibition prevented these arrhythmias. Exposure to exogenous INO also caused atrial ectopy associated with AVB and ERK2 phosphorylation which were prevented by A1AR or A2AAR antagonists exclusively or by MEK/ERK inhibitor. Inhibition of ADA-mediated conversion of ADO to INO increased myocardial ADO and decreased INO as expected, but slightly augmented heart rate variability without provoking AVB. Thus, during cardiogenesis, disturbances of nucleosides metabolism and transport, can lead to interstitial accumulation of ADO and INO and provoke arrhythmias in an autocrine/paracrine manner through A1AR and A2AAR stimulation and ERK2 activation. © 2013.

  11. Performance deficits of NK1 receptor knockout mice in the 5-choice serial reaction-time task: effects of d-amphetamine, stress and time of day.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ting Carrie; Dudley, Julia A; Weir, Ruth K; Grabowska, Ewelina M; Peña-Oliver, Yolanda; Ripley, Tamzin L; Hunt, Stephen P; Stephens, David N; Stanford, S Clare

    2011-03-07

    The neurochemical status and hyperactivity of mice lacking functional substance P-preferring NK1 receptors (NK1R-/-) resemble abnormalities in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Here we tested whether NK1R-/- mice express other core features of ADHD (impulsivity and inattentiveness) and, if so, whether they are diminished by d-amphetamine, as in ADHD. Prompted by evidence that circadian rhythms are disrupted in ADHD, we also compared the performance of mice that were trained and tested in the morning or afternoon. The 5-Choice Serial Reaction-Time Task (5-CSRTT) was used to evaluate the cognitive performance of NK1R-/- mice and their wildtypes. After training, animals were tested using a long (LITI) and a variable (VITI) inter-trial interval: these tests were carried out with, and without, d-amphetamine pretreatment (0.3 or 1 mg/kg i.p.). NK1R-/- mice expressed greater omissions (inattentiveness), perseveration and premature responses (impulsivity) in the 5-CSRTT. In NK1R-/- mice, perseveration in the LITI was increased by injection-stress but reduced by d-amphetamine. Omissions by NK1R-/- mice in the VITI were unaffected by d-amphetamine, but premature responses were exacerbated by this psychostimulant. Omissions in the VITI were higher, overall, in the morning than the afternoon but, in the LITI, premature responses of NK1R-/- mice were higher in the afternoon than the morning. In addition to locomotor hyperactivity, NK1R-/- mice express inattentiveness, perseveration and impulsivity in the 5-CSRTT, thereby matching core criteria for a model of ADHD. Because d-amphetamine reduced perseveration in NK1R-/- mice, this action does not require functional NK1R. However, the lack of any improvement of omissions and premature responses in NK1R-/- mice given d-amphetamine suggests that beneficial effects of this psychostimulant in other rodent models, and ADHD patients, need functional NK1R. Finally, our results reveal experimental variables (stimulus

  12. Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields Increased the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of A2A and A3 Adenosine Receptors in Human T/C-28a2 Chondrocytes and hFOB 1.19 Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Targa, Martina; Corciulo, Carmen; Gessi, Stefania; Merighi, Stefania; Setti, Stefania; Cadossi, Ruggero; Goldring, Mary B.; Borea, Pier Andrea; Varani, Katia

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine receptors (ARs) have an important role in the regulation of inflammation and their activation is involved in the inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine release. The effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) on inflammation have been reported and we have demonstrated that PEMFs increased A2A and A3AR density and functionality in different cell lines. Chondrocytes and osteoblasts are two key cell types in the skeletal system that play important role in cartilage and bone metabolism representing an interesting target to study the effect of PEMFs. The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate if PEMF exposure potentiated the anti-inflammatory effect of A2A and/or A3ARs in T/C-28a2 chondrocytes and hFOB 1.19 osteoblasts. Immunofluorescence, mRNA analysis and saturation binding assays revealed that PEMF exposure up-regulated A2A and A3AR expression. A2A and A3ARs were able to modulate cAMP production and cell proliferation. The activation of A2A and A3ARs resulted in the decrease of some of the most relevant pro-inflammatory cytokine release such as interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8, following the treatment with IL-1β as an inflammatory stimuli. In human chondrocyte and osteoblast cell lines, the inhibitory effect of A2A and A3AR stimulation on the release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), an important lipid inflammatory mediator, was observed. In addition, in T/C-28a2 cells, the activation of A2A or A3ARs elicited an inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion. In hFOB 1.19 osteoblasts, PEMF exposure determined an increase of osteoprotegerin (OPG) production. The effect of the A2A or A3AR agonists in the examined cells was enhanced in the presence of PEMFs and completely blocked by using well-known selective antagonists. These results demonstrated that PEMF exposure significantly increase the anti-inflammatory effect of A2A or A3ARs suggesting their potential therapeutic use in the therapy of inflammatory bone and joint disorders

  13. 2’,3’-cAMP, 3’-AMP, 2’-AMP and Adenosine Inhibit TNF-α and CXCL10 Production From Activated Primary Murine Microglia via A2A Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Newell, Elizabeth A.; Exo, Jennifer L.; Verrier, Jonathan D.; Jackson, Travis C.; Gillespie, Delbert G.; Janesko-Feldman, Keri; Kochanek, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Some cells, tissues and organs release 2’,3’-cAMP (a positional isomer of 3’,5’-cAMP) and convert extracellular 2’,3’-cAMP to 2’-AMP plus 3’-AMP and convert these AMPs to adenosine (called the extracellular 2’,3’-cAMP-adenosine pathway). Recent studies show that microglia have an extracellular 2’,3’-cAMP-adenosine pathway. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether the extracellular 2’,3’-cAMP-adenosine pathway could have functional consequences on the production of cytokines/chemokines by activated microglia. Methods Experiments were conducted in cultures of primary murine microglia. In the first experiment, the effect of 2’,3’-cAMP, 3’-AMP, 2’-AMP and adenosine on LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production was determined. In the next experiment, the first protocol was replicated but with the addition of 1,3-dipropyl-8-p-sulfophenylxanthine (DPSPX) (0.1 µM; antagonist of adenosine receptors). The last experiment compared the ability of 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA) (10 µM; selective A1 agonist), 5’-N-ethylcarboxamide adenosine (NECA) (10 µM; agonist for all adenosine receptor subtypes) and CGS21680 (10 µM; selective A2A agonist) to inhibit LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production. Results 1) 2’,3’-cAMP, 3’-AMP, 2’-AMP and adenosine similarly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production; 2) DPSPX nearly eliminated the inhibitory effects of 2’,3’-cAMP, 3’-AMP, 2’-AMP and adenosine on LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production; 3) CCPA did not affect LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10; 4) NECA and CGS21680 similarly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production. Conclusions 2’,3’-cAMP and its metabolites (3’-AMP, 2’-AMP and adenosine) inhibit LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production via A2A-receptor activation. Adenosine and its precursors, via A2A receptors, likely suppress TNF-α and CXCL10 production by activated microglia in brain diseases. PMID:25451117

  14. 2',3'-cAMP, 3'-AMP, 2'-AMP and adenosine inhibit TNF-α and CXCL10 production from activated primary murine microglia via A2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Newell, Elizabeth A; Exo, Jennifer L; Verrier, Jonathan D; Jackson, Travis C; Gillespie, Delbert G; Janesko-Feldman, Keri; Kochanek, Patrick M; Jackson, Edwin K

    2015-01-12

    Some cells, tissues and organs release 2',3'-cAMP (a positional isomer of 3',5'-cAMP) and convert extracellular 2',3'-cAMP to 2'-AMP plus 3'-AMP and convert these AMPs to adenosine (called the extracellular 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway). Recent studies show that microglia have an extracellular 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether the extracellular 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway could have functional consequences on the production of cytokines/chemokines by activated microglia. Experiments were conducted in cultures of primary murine microglia. In the first experiment, the effect of 2',3'-cAMP, 3'-AMP, 2'-AMP and adenosine on LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production was determined. In the next experiment, the first protocol was replicated but with the addition of 1,3-dipropyl-8-p-sulfophenylxanthine (DPSPX) (0.1 μM; antagonist of adenosine receptors). The last experiment compared the ability of 2-chloro-N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA) (10 μM; selective A1 agonist), 5'-N-ethylcarboxamide adenosine (NECA) (10 μM; agonist for all adenosine receptor subtypes) and CGS21680 (10 μM; selective A2A agonist) to inhibit LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production. (1) 2',3'-cAMP, 3'-AMP, 2'-AMP and adenosine similarly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production; (2) DPSPX nearly eliminated the inhibitory effects of 2',3'-cAMP, 3'-AMP, 2'-AMP and adenosine on LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production; (3) CCPA did not affect LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10; (4) NECA and CGS21680 similarly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production. 2',3'-cAMP and its metabolites (3'-AMP, 2'-AMP and adenosine) inhibit LPS-induced TNF-α and CXCL10 production via A2A-receptor activation. Adenosine and its precursors, via A2A receptors, likely suppress TNF-α and CXCL10 production by activated microglia in brain diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Preemptive Caffeine Administration Blocks the Increase in Postoperative Pain Caused by Previous Sleep Loss in the Rat: A Potential Role for Preoptic Adenosine A2A Receptors in Sleep-Pain Interactions.

    PubMed

    Hambrecht-Wiedbusch, Viviane S; Gabel, Maya; Liu, Linda J; Imperial, John P; Colmenero, Angelo V; Vanini, Giancarlo

    2017-09-01

    Sleep and pain are reciprocally related, but the precise mechanisms underlying this relationship are poorly understood. This study used a rat model of surgical pain to examine the effect of previous sleep loss on postoperative pain and tested the hypothesis that preoptic adenosinergic mechanisms regulate sleep-pain interactions. Relative to ad libitum sleep, 6 hours of total sleep deprivation prior to a surgical incision significantly enhanced postoperative mechanical hypersensitivity in the affected paw and prolonged the time to recovery from surgery. There were no sex-specific differences in these measures. There were also no changes in adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone levels after sleep deprivation, suggesting that this effect was not mediated by the stress associated with the sleep perturbation. Systemic administration of the nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist caffeine at the onset of sleep deprivation prevented the sleep deprivation-induced increase in postoperative hypersensitivity. Microinjection of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist ZM 241385 into the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) blocked the increase in surgical pain levels and duration caused by prior sleep deprivation and eliminated the thermal hyperalgesia induced by sleep deprivation in a group of nonoperated (i.e., without surgical incision) rats. These data show that even a brief sleep disturbance prior to surgery worsens postoperative pain and are consistent with our hypothesis that adenosine A2A receptors in the MnPO contribute to regulate these sleep-pain interactions. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Knockout beyond the dripline

    SciTech Connect

    Bonaccorso, A.; Charity, R. J.; Kumar, R.

    2015-02-24

    In this contribution, we will describe neutron and proton removal from {sup 9}C and {sup 7}Be which are two particularly interesting nuclei entering the nucleo-synthesis pp-chain [1, 2]. Neutron and proton removal reactions have been used in the past twenty years to probe the single-particle structure of exotic nuclei. The core parallel-momentum distribution can give information on the angular momentum and spin of the nucleon initial state while the total removal cross section is sensitive to the asymptotic part of the initial wave function and also to the reaction mechanism. Because knockout is a peripheral reaction from which the Asymptoticmore » Normalization Constant (ANC) of the single-particle wave function can be extracted, it has been used as an indirect method to obtain the rate of reactions like {sup 8}B(p,γ){sup 9}C or {sup 7}Be(p,γ){sup 8}B. Nucleon removal has recently been applied by the HiRA collaboration [3] to situations in which the remaining “core” is beyond the drip line, such as {sup 8}C and {sup 6}Be, unbound by one or more protons, and whose excitation-energy spectrum can be obtained by the invariant-mass method. By gating on the ground-state peak, “core” parallel-momentum distributions and total knockout cross sections have been obtained similar to previous studies with well-bound “cores”. In addition for each projectile, knock out to final bound states has also been obtained in several cases. We will report on the theoretical description and comparison to this experimental data for a few cases for which advances in the accuracy of the transfer-to-the continuum model [4, 5] have been made [6]. These include the use, when available, of “ab-initio” overlaps for the initial state [7] and in particular their ANC values [8]. Also, the construction of a nucleus-target folding potential for the treatment of the core-target S-matrix [9] using for the cores “ab-initio” densities [10] and state-of-the-art n−{sup 9}Be optical

  17. Activation of A2aR attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis via the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis-related pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanfan; Yu, Xiaoming; He, Yicheng; Zhang, Lin; Huang, Xiaoying; Xu, Xiaomei; Chen, Mayun; Chen, Xiang; Wang, Liangxing

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies in our lab have demonstrated that Adenosine A2a receptor (A 2a R) gene-knockout mice were vulnerable to pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin (BLM). Inhibition of the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis has been reported to protect the lungs from fibrogenesis in BLM-exposed mice. Little is yet known about the relationships between A 2a R and the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). This study probes the role of A 2a R in the fibrotic process and explores the relationship between A 2a R and the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. In the study, A 2a R-/- and A 2a R+/+ BALB/c mice were exposed to BLM by intratracheal instillation, and CGS-21680 (CGS), an A 2a R agonist, was administered daily for 28 days to the A 2a R+/+ mice in the BLM-induced fibrosis group. Activation of A 2a R produced an anti-fibrotic effect as indicated by the evaluations of the lung architecture, microstructure and ultrastructure. The quantitative analysis indicated that treatment with CGS significantly reduced the collagen content in lungs. To explore the potential mechanisms, the expression levels of A 2a R, SDF-1, and CXCR4 were subsequently determined using ELISA, in situ hybridization (ISH), immunohistochemical staining and western blotting techniques. Administration of CGS markedly suppressed the elevated expression levels of SDF-1 and CXCR4. Moreover, the A 2a R-/- mice developed more severe pulmonary fibrosis than the normal mice when exposed to BLM. Furthermore, the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis was aberrantly uninhibited in the knockout mice. Together, these findings indicated that A 2a R alleviated BLM-induced lung fibrosis, at least partially via the SDF-1/CXCR4 pathway, which could be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of IPF.

  18. Inducible knockout of the interleukin-2 receptor alpha chain: expression of the high-affinity IL-2 receptor is not required for the in vitro growth of HTLV-I-transformed cell lines.

    PubMed

    Richardson, J H; Waldmann, T A; Sodroski, J G; Marasco, W A

    1997-10-27

    Adult T cell leukemia (ATL) is an aggressive malignancy that is associated with HTLV-I infection and characterized by constitutive expression of the high-affinity interleukin-2 receptor. The alpha subunit of the high-affinity receptor (IL-2Ralpha), which is normally present only on activated T cells, is specifically upregulated by HTLV-I and constitutively expressed on fresh leukemic cells from ATL patients as well as cell lines transformed by HTLV-I in vitro. Here we directly address the functional significance of IL-2Ralpha expression in HTLV-I transformed cell lines by using an endoplasmic reticulum-targeted single-chain antibody to inhibit the cell surface expression of IL-2Ralpha. Using constitutive and tetracycline-repressible systems to express the ER-targeted antibody against IL-2Ralpha, we have reduced cell surface expression of IL-2Ralpha by more that 2 logs of mean fluorescence intensity to virtually undetectable levels in the IL-2-independent HTLV-I-transformed cell lines C8166-45 and HUT102. No toxicity was associated with the intracellular retention of IL-2Ralpha, and the growth rate of the IL-2Ralpha-negative cells was in each case comparable to that of the parental cell line. We conclude that cell surface expression of IL-2Ralpha is dispensable for the in vitro growth of these HTLV-I-transformed cells. Copyright 1997 Academic Press.

  19. Caffeine, Adenosine Receptors and Estrogen in Toxin Models of Parkinson’s Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    right). Adjacent coronal brain sections were processed for A2A receptor immunohistochemsitry (B) with a HRP-coupled secondary antibody yielding a...declines steadily with increasing intake of caffeine or of coffee (but not decaffeinated coffee). The mechanisms that underlie this epidemiological...ad Sju - 5261.[7 of decaffeinated coffee was not associated with an Furthermore. A2A knockout mice (lacking function- altered risk of PD). clearly

  20. Role of CYP epoxygenases in A2A AR-mediated relaxation using A2A AR-null and wild-type mice.

    PubMed

    Nayeem, Mohammed A; Poloyac, Samuel M; Falck, John R; Zeldin, Darryl C; Ledent, Catherine; Ponnoth, Dovenia S; Ansari, Habib R; Mustafa, S Jamal

    2008-11-01

    We hypothesized that A2A adenosine receptor (A2A AR) activation causes vasorelaxation through cytochrome P-450 (CYP) epoxygenases and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors, whereas lack of A2A AR activation promotes vasoconstriction through Cyp4a in the mouse aorta. Adenosine 5'-N-ethylcarboxamide (NECA; 10(-6) M), an adenosine analog, caused relaxation in wild-type A2A AR (A2A AR+/+; +33.99 +/- 4.70%, P < 0.05) versus contraction in A2A AR knockout (A2A AR(-/-); -27.52 +/- 4.11%) mouse aortae. An A2A AR-specific antagonist (SCH-58261; 1 microM) changed the NECA (10(-6) M) relaxation response to contraction (-35.82 +/- 4.69%, P < 0.05) in A2A AR+/+ aortae, whereas no effect was noted in A2A AR(-/-) aortae. Significant contraction was seen in the absence of the endothelium in A2A AR+/+ (-2.58 +/- 2.25%) aortae compared with endothelium-intact aortae. An endothelial nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester; 100 microM) and a cyclooxygenase inhibitor (indomethacin; 10 microM) failed to block NECA-induced relaxation in A2A AR+/+ aortae. A selective inhibitor of CYP epoxygenases (methylsulfonyl-propargyloxyphenylhexanamide; 10 microM) changed NECA-mediated relaxation (-22.74 +/- 5.11% at 10(-6) M) and CGS-21680-mediated relaxation (-18.54 +/- 6.06% at 10(-6) M) to contraction in A2A AR+/+ aortae, whereas no response was noted in A2A AR(-/-) aortae. Furthermore, an epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) antagonist [14,15-epoxyeicosa-5(Z)-enoic acid; 10 microM] was able to block NECA-induced relaxation in A2A AR+/+ aortae, whereas omega-hydroxylase inhibitors (10 microM dibromo-dodecenyl-methylsulfimide and 10 microM HET-0016) changed contraction into relaxation in A2A AR(-/-) aorta. Cyp2c29 protein was upregulated in A2A AR+/+ aortae, whereas Cyp4a was upregulated in A2A AR(-/-) aortae. Higher levels of dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs; 14,15-DHET, 11,12-DHET, and 8,9-DHET, P < 0.05) were found in A2A AR+/+ versus A2A AR(-/-) aortae. EET levels

  1. Caffeine Inhibits the Activation of Hepatic Stellate Cells Induced by Acetaldehyde via Adenosine A2A Receptor Mediated by the cAMP/PKA/SRC/ERK1/2/P38 MAPK Signal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wanzhi; Wang, Qi; Zhao, Han; Yang, Feng; Lv, Xiongwen; Li, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation is an essential event during alcoholic liver fibrosis. Evidence suggests that adenosine aggravates liver fibrosis via the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR). Caffeine, which is being widely consumed during daily life, inhibits the action of adenosine. In this study, we attempted to validate the hypothesis that caffeine influences acetaldehyde-induced HSC activation by acting on A2AR. Acetaldehyde at 50, 100, 200, and 400 μM significantly increased HSC-T6 cells proliferation, and cell proliferation reached a maximum at 48 h after exposure to 200 μM acetaldehyde. Caffeine and the A2AR antagonist ZM241385 decreased the cell viability and inhibited the expression of procollagen type I and type III in acetaldehyde-induced HSC-T6 cells. In addition, the inhibitory effect of caffeine on the expression of procollagen type I was regulated by A2AR-mediated signal pathway involving cAMP, PKA, SRC, and ERK1/2. Interestingly, caffeine’s inhibitory effect on the expression of procollagen type III may depend upon the A2AR-mediated P38 MAPK-dependent pathway. Conclusions: Caffeine significantly inhibited acetaldehyde-induced HSC-T6 cells activation by distinct A2AR mediated signal pathway via inhibition of cAMP-PKA-SRC-ERK1/2 for procollagen type I and via P38 MAPK for procollagen type III. PMID:24682220

  2. Adenosine receptor neurobiology: overview.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiang-Fan; Lee, Chien-fei; Chern, Yijuang

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine is a naturally occurring nucleoside that is distributed ubiquitously throughout the body as a metabolic intermediary. In the brain, adenosine functions as an important upstream neuromodulator of a broad spectrum of neurotransmitters, receptors, and signaling pathways. By acting through four G-protein-coupled receptors, adenosine contributes critically to homeostasis and neuromodulatory control of a variety of normal and abnormal brain functions, ranging from synaptic plasticity, to cognition, to sleep, to motor activity to neuroinflammation, and cell death. This review begun with an overview of the gene and genome structure and the expression pattern of adenosine receptors (ARs). We feature several new developments over the past decade in our understanding of AR functions in the brain, with special focus on the identification and characterization of canonical and noncanonical signaling pathways of ARs. We provide an update on functional insights from complementary genetic-knockout and pharmacological studies on the AR control of various brain functions. We also highlight several novel and recent developments of AR neurobiology, including (i) recent breakthrough in high resolution of three-dimension structure of adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) in several functional status, (ii) receptor-receptor heterodimerization, (iii) AR function in glial cells, and (iv) the druggability of AR. We concluded the review with the contention that these new developments extend and strengthen the support for A1 and A2ARs in brain as therapeutic targets for neurologic and psychiatric diseases. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, istradefylline enhances anti-parkinsonian activity induced by combined treatment with low doses of L-DOPA and dopamine agonists in MPTP-treated common marmosets.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Shin-ichi; Soshiroda, Kazuhiro; Okita, Eri; Kawai-Uchida, Mika; Mori, Akihisa; Jenner, Peter; Kanda, Tomoyuki

    2015-11-05

    The adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, istradefylline improves motor function in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) optimally treated with a combination of L-DOPA and a dopamine agonist without increasing the risk of troublesome dyskinesia. However, the effects of istradefylline on motor function when administered in combination with low dose of L-DOPA and dopamine agonists as occurs in early PD are unknown. We investigated whether istradefylline enhances the combined anti-parkinsonian effects of a suboptimal dose of L-DOPA and a threshold dose of either the non-ergot dopamine agonist, ropinirole or the ergot dopamine agonist, pergolide in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated common marmoset. Threshold doses of ropinirole (0.025-0.075 mg/kg p.o.) and pergolide (0.01 mg/kg p.o.) produced a weak anti-parkinsonian effect. Co-administration of a suboptimal dose of L-DOPA (2.5mg/kg p.o.) with threshold doses of the dopamine agonists enhanced their anti-parkinsonian effect that led to increased 'ON' time without dyskinesia appearing. Administering istradefylline (10mg/kg p.o.) with the threshold doses of dopamine agonists and the suboptimal dose of L-DOPA in a triple combination caused a further enhancement of the anti-parkinsonian response but dyskinesia was still absent. In early PD, dopamine agonists are often used as first-line monotherapy, but efficacy is usually lost within a few years, at which time L-DOPA is added but with the risk of dyskinesia appearance. These results show that istradefylline is effective in improving motor function in combination with low dose dopaminergic drug treatment without provoking dyskinesia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Pharmacological characterisation and inhibitory effects of (2R,3R,4S,5R)-2-(6-amino-2-{[(1S)-2-hydroxy-1-(phenylmethyl)ethyl]amino}-9H-purin-9-yl)-5-(2-ethyl-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)tetrahydro-3,4-furandiol, a novel ligand that demonstrates both adenosine A(2A) receptor agonist and adenosine A(3) receptor antagonist activity.

    PubMed

    Bevan, Nicola; Butchers, Peter R; Cousins, Rick; Coates, Jill; Edgar, Emma V; Morrison, Val; Sheehan, Michael J; Reeves, Julian; Wilson, David J

    2007-06-14

    The pharmacological properties of the novel ligand, (2R,3R,4S,5R)-2-(6-amino-2-{[(1S)-2-hydroxy-1-(phenylmethyl)ethyl]amino}-9H-purin-9-yl)-5-(2-ethyl-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)tetrahydro-3,4-furandiol (I), at the human adenosine receptors were investigated using Chinese hamster ovary cell lines recombinantly expressing these receptors. Functional studies were performed using a cyclic AMP-coupled reporter gene system. Binding studies were performed using membranes from these cells. The effects of ligand (I) were also determined on functional responses of human neutrophils and eosinophils. Ligand (I) had a high affinity for the adenosine A(2A) receptor (pKi 7.8+/-0.2) and was a potent agonist at this receptor (pEC(50) 9.0+/-0.2). Ligand (I) had a similar affinity for the adenosine A(3) receptor (pKi 7.8+/-0.1) but displayed no agonist activity, acting instead as a competitive antagonist (pA(2) 8.3+/-0.04). Ligand (I) had lower affinity for adenosine A(1) and A(2B) receptors (pKireceptors (pEC(50) 7.1 at both receptors). Ligand (I) was a potent inhibitor of the generation of reactive oxygen species from human neutrophils and eosinophils (pEC(50) 9.7+/-0.1 and 9.4+/-0.2 respectively). The inhibitory effect of ligand (I) on the release of reactive oxygen species from neutrophils was antagonised competitively by the adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist 9-chloro-2-(2-furanyl)-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]quinazolin-5-amine (CGS15943) with a pA(2) value (10.03+/-0.44) consistent with an effect on adenosine A(2A) receptors. Ligand (I) also inhibited the release of granule proteins from neutrophils and eosinophils (pEC(50) 8.7 and 8.9 respectively), albeit less potently than as an inhibitor of reactive oxygen species generation. In summary, ligand (I) is a potent and selective agonist for the adenosine A(2A) receptor and a competitive antagonist at the adenosine A(3) receptor. Ligand (I) has potent anti-inflammatory effects on human

  5. Generation of conditional knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kazuhito; Gurumurthy, Channabasavaiah B; Wagner, Kay-Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Conditional knockout mouse models are powerful tools to examine the biological and molecular function(s) of genes in specific tissues. The general procedure to generate such genetically engineered mouse models consists of three main steps. The first step is to find the appropriate genomic clone of the gene of interest and to design the cloning and Southern blot strategies. The second step is the cloning of the gene-targeting vector with all its essential components including positive and negative selection cassettes and the insertion of LoxP sites. Although conventional methods are still being widely used for DNA cloning, we describe in this book chapter the use of λ Red phage-based homologous recombination in Escherichia coli to capture the genomic DNA of the gene of interest and to assemble the gene-targeting vector. This new method provides several advantages as it does not require the presence of restriction sites within the gene of interest to insert LoxP-flanked DNA fragments. In the final step, the gene-targeting vector is transferred into embryonic stem (ES) cells, and successfully targeted ES cell clones are injected into mouse blastocysts to generate conditional knockout mice.

  6. Enhanced Long-Term and Impaired Short-Term Spatial Memory in GluA1 AMPA Receptor Subunit Knockout Mice: Evidence for a Dual-Process Memory Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, David J.; Good, Mark A.; Skelton, Kathryn; Sprengel, Rolf; Seeburg, Peter H.; Rawlins, J. Nicholas P.; Bannerman, David M.

    2009-01-01

    The GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit is a key mediator of hippocampal synaptic plasticity and is especially important for a rapidly-induced, short-lasting form of potentiation. GluA1 gene deletion impairs hippocampus-dependent, spatial working memory, but spares hippocampus-dependent spatial reference memory. These findings may reflect the necessity of…

  7. Renal autoregulation in P2X1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Inscho, E W; Cook, A K; Imig, J D; Vial, C; Evans, R J

    2004-08-01

    Autoregulation of renal blood flow is an established physiological phenomenon, however the signalling mechanisms involved remain elusive. Autoregulatory adjustments in preglomerular resistance involve myogenic and tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) influences. While there is general agreement on the participation of these two regulatory pathways, the signalling molecules and effector mechanisms have not been identified. Currently, there are two major hypotheses being considered to explain the mechanism by which TGF signals are transmitted from the macula densa to the afferent arteriole. The adenosine hypothesis proposes that the released adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is hydrolysed to adenosine and this product stimulates preglomerular vasoconstriction by activation of A(1) receptors on the afferent arteriole. Alternatively, the P2 receptor hypothesis postulates that ATP released from the macula densa directly stimulates afferent arteriolar vasoconstriction by activation of ATP-sensitive P2X(1) receptors. This hypothesis has emerged from the realization that P2X(1) receptors are heavily expressed along the preglomerular vasculature. Inactivation of P2X(1) receptors impairs autoregulatory responses while afferent arteriolar responses to A(1) adenosine receptor activation are retained. Autoregulatory behaviour is markedly attenuated in mice lacking P2X(1) receptors but responses to adenosine A(1) receptor activation remain intact. More recent experiments suggest that P2X(1) receptors play an essential role in TGF-dependent vasoconstriction of the afferent arteriole. Interruption of TGF-dependent influences on afferent arteriolar diameter, by papillectomy or furosemide treatment, significantly attenuated pressure-mediated afferent arteriolar vasoconstriction in wild-type mice but had no effect on the response in P2X(1) knockout mice. Collectively, these observations support an essential role for P2X(1) receptors in TGF-mediated afferent arteriolar vasoconstriction.

  8. Repetitive grooming and sensorimotor abnormalities in an ephrin-A knockout model for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wurzman, Rachel; Forcelli, Patrick A.; Griffey, Christopher J.; Kromer, Lawrence F.

    2014-01-01

    EphA receptors and ephrin-A ligands play important roles in neural development and synaptic plasticity in brain regions where expression persists into adulthood. Recently, EPHA3 and EPHA7 gene mutations were linked with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) and developmental neurological delays, respectively. Furthermore, deletions of ephrin-A2 or ephrin-A3, which exhibit high binding affinity for EphA3 and EphA7 receptors, are associated with subtle deficits in learning and memory behavior and abnormalities in dendritic spine morphology in the cortex and hippocampus in mice. To better characterize a potential role for these ligands in ASDs, we performed a comprehensive behavioral characterization of anxiety-like, sensorimotor, learning, and social behaviors in ephrin-A2/-A3 double knockout (DKO) mice. The predominant phenotype in DKO mice was repetitive and self-injurious grooming behaviors such as have been associated with corticostriatal circuit abnormalities in other rodent models of neuropsychiatric disorders. Consistent with ASDs specifically, DKO mice exhibited decreased preference for social interaction in the social approach assay, decreased locomotor activity in the open field, increased prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle, and a shift towards self-directed activity (e.g., grooming) in novel environments, such as marble burying. Although there were no gross deficits in cognitive assays, subtle differences in performance on fear conditioning and in the Morris water maze resembled traits observed in other rodent models of ASD. We therefore conclude that ephrin-A2/-A3 DKO mice have utility as a novel ASD model with an emphasis on sensory abnormalities and restricted, repetitive behavioral symptoms. PMID:25281279

  9. Repetitive grooming and sensorimotor abnormalities in an ephrin-A knockout model for Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Wurzman, Rachel; Forcelli, Patrick A; Griffey, Christopher J; Kromer, Lawrence F

    2015-02-01

    EphA receptors and ephrin-A ligands play important roles in neural development and synaptic plasticity in brain regions where expression persists into adulthood. Recently, EPHA3 and EPHA7 gene mutations were linked with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) and developmental neurological delays, respectively. Furthermore, deletions of ephrin-A2 or ephrin-A3, which exhibit high binding affinity for EphA3 and EphA7 receptors, are associated with subtle deficits in learning and memory behavior and abnormalities in dendritic spine morphology in the cortex and hippocampus in mice. To better characterize a potential role for these ligands in ASDs, we performed a comprehensive behavioral characterization of anxiety-like, sensorimotor, learning, and social behaviors in ephrin-A2/-A3 double knockout (DKO) mice. The predominant phenotype in DKO mice was repetitive and self-injurious grooming behaviors such as have been associated with corticostriatal circuit abnormalities in other rodent models of neuropsychiatric disorders. Consistent with ASDs specifically, DKO mice exhibited decreased preference for social interaction in the social approach assay, decreased locomotor activity in the open field, increased prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle, and a shift towards self-directed activity (e.g., grooming) in novel environments, such as marble burying. Although there were no gross deficits in cognitive assays, subtle differences in performance on fear conditioning and in the Morris water maze resembled traits observed in other rodent models of ASD. We therefore conclude that ephrin-A2/-A3 DKO mice have utility as a novel ASD model with an emphasis on sensory abnormalities and restricted, repetitive behavioral symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Animal models of Parkinson׳s disease: Effects of two adenosine A2A receptor antagonists ST4206 and ST3932, metabolites of 2-n-Butyl-9-methyl-8-[1,2,3]triazol-2-yl-9H-purin-6-ylamine (ST1535).

    PubMed

    Stasi, Maria Antonietta; Minetti, Patrizia; Lombardo, Katia; Riccioni, Teresa; Caprioli, Antonio; Vertechy, Mario; Di Serio, Stefano; Pace, Silvia; Borsini, Franco

    2015-08-15

    Antagonism of the adenosine A2A receptor represents a promising strategy for non-dopaminergic treatment of Parkinson׳s disease (PD). Previously, the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist ST1535 was shown to possess potential beneficial effects in animal models of PD. Two metabolites of ST1535, namely ST3932 and ST4206, were tested in vitro to assess their affinity and activity on cloned human A2A adenosine receptors, and their metabolic profile. Additionally, ST3932 and ST4206 were investigated in vivo in animal models of PD following oral/intraperitoneal administration of 10, 20 and 40mg/kg using ST1535 as a reference compound. ST3932 and ST4206 displayed high affinity and antagonist behaviour for cloned human adenosine A2A receptors. The Ki values for ST1535, ST3932 and ST4206 were 8, 8 and 12nM, respectively, and their IC50 values on cyclic AMP were 427, 450 and 990nM, respectively. ST1535, ST3932 and ST4206 antagonized (orally) haloperidol-induced catalepsy in mice, potentiated (intraperitoneally) the number of contralateral rotations induced by l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) (3mg/kg) plus benserazide (6mg/kg) in 6-Hydroxydopamine hydrobromide (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats, and increased mouse motor activity by oral route. Thus, ST3932 and ST4206, two ST1535 metabolites, show a pharmacological activity similar to ST1535, both in vitro and in vivo, and may be regarded as an interesting pharmacological alternative to ST1535. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Pathway knockout and redundancy in metabolic networks.

    PubMed

    Min, Yong; Jin, Xiaogang; Chen, Ming; Pan, Zhengzheng; Ge, Ying; Chang, Jie

    2011-02-07

    The robustness and stability of complex cellular networks is often attributed to the redundancy of components, including genes, enzymes and pathways. Estimation of redundancy is still an open question in systems biology. Current theoretical tools to measure redundancy have various strengths and shortcomings in providing a comprehensive description of metabolic networks. Specially, there is a lack of effective measures to cover different perturbation situations. Here we present a pathway knockout algorithm to improve quantitative measure of redundancy in metabolic networks grounded on the elementary flux mode (EFM) analysis. The proposed redundancy measure is based on the average ratio of remaining EFMs after knockout of one EFM in the unperturbed state. We demonstrated with four example systems that our algorithm overcomes limits of previous measures, and provides additional information about redundancy in the situation of targeted attacks. Additionally, we compare existing enzyme knockout and our pathway knockout algorithm by the mean-field analysis, which provides mathematical expression for the average ratio of remaining EFMs after both types of knockout. Our results prove that multiple-enzymes knockout does not always yield more information than single-enzyme knockout for evaluating redundancy. Indeed, pathway knockout considers additional effects of structural asymmetry. In the metabolic networks of amino acid anabolism in Escherichia coli and human hepatocytes, and the central metabolism in human erythrocytes, we validate our mean-field solutions and prove the capacity of pathway knockout algorithm. Moreover, in the E. coli model the two sub-networks synthesizing amino acids that are essential and those that are non-essential for humans are studied separately. In contrast to previous studies, we find that redundancy of two sub-networks is similar with each other, and even sub-networks synthesizing essential amino acids can be more redundant. Copyright

  12. The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril, prevents the hyperactivity and impulsivity of neurokinin-1 receptor gene 'knockout' mice: sex differences and implications for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Porter, Ashley J; Pillidge, Katharine; Grabowska, Ewelina M; Stanford, S Clare

    2015-04-01

    Mice lacking functional neurokinin-1 receptors (NK1R-/-) display behavioural abnormalities resembling attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): locomotor hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattentiveness. The preferred ligand for NK1R, substance P, is metabolised by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), which forms part of the brain renin angiotensin system (BRAS). In view of evidence that the BRAS modulates locomotor activity and cognitive performance, we tested the effects of drugs that target the BRAS on these behaviours in NK1R-/- and wildtype mice. We first tested the effects of the ACE inhibitor, captopril, on locomotor activity. Because there are well-established sex differences in both ADHD and ACE activity, we compared the effects of captopril in both male and female mice. Locomotor hyperactivity was evident in male NK1R-/- mice, only, and this was abolished by treatment with captopril. By contrast, male wildtypes and females of both genotypes were unaffected by ACE inhibition. We then investigated the effects of angiotensin AT1 (losartan) and AT2 (PD 123319) receptor antagonists on the locomotor activity of male NK1R-/- and wildtype mice. Both antagonists increased the locomotor activity of NK1R-/- mice, but neither affected the wildtypes. Finally, we tested the effects of captopril on the performance of male NK1R-/- and wildtype mice in the 5-choice serial reaction-time task (5-CSRTT) and found that ACE inhibition prevented the impulsivity of NK1R-/- mice. These results indicate that certain behaviours, disrupted in ADHD, are influenced by an interaction between the BRAS and NK1R, and suggest that ACE inhibitors could provide a novel treatment for this disorder. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A critical role of striatal A2A R-mGlu5 R interactions in modulating the psychomotor and drug-seeking effects of methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Wright, Sherie R; Zanos, Panos; Georgiou, Polymnia; Yoo, Ji-Hoon; Ledent, Catherine; Hourani, Susanna M; Kitchen, Ian; Winsky-Sommerer, Raphaelle; Bailey, Alexis

    2016-07-01

    Addiction to psychostimulants is a major public health problem with no available treatment. Adenosine A2A receptors (A2A R) co-localize with metabotropic glutamate 5 receptors (mGlu5 R) in the striatum and functionally interact to modulate behaviours induced by addictive substances, such as alcohol. Using genetic and pharmacological antagonism of A2A R in mice, we investigated whether A2A R-mGlu5 R interaction can regulate the locomotor, stereotypic and drug-seeking effect of methamphetamine and cocaine, two drugs that exhibit distinct mechanism of action. Genetic deletion of A2A R, as well as combined administration of sub-threshold doses of the selective A2A R antagonist (SCH 58261, 0.01 mg/kg, i.p.) with the mGlu5 R antagonist, 3-((2-methyl-4-thiazolyl)ethynyl)pyridine (0.01 mg/kg, i.p.), prevented methamphetamine- but not cocaine-induced hyperactivity and stereotypic rearing behaviour. This drug combination also prevented methamphetamine-rewarding effects in a conditioned-place preference paradigm. Moreover, mGlu5 R binding was reduced in the nucleus accumbens core of A2A R knockout (KO) mice supporting an interaction between these receptors in a brain region crucial in mediating addiction processes. Chronic methamphetamine, but not cocaine administration, resulted in a significant increase in striatal mGlu5 R binding in wild-type mice, which was absent in the A2A R KO mice. These data are in support of a critical role of striatal A2A R-mGlu5 R functional interaction in mediating the ambulatory, stereotypic and reinforcing effects of methamphetamine but not cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion or stereotypy. The present study highlights a distinct and selective mechanistic role for this receptor interaction in regulating methamphetamine-induced behaviours and suggests that combined antagonism of A2A R and mGlu5 R may represent a novel therapy for methamphetamine addiction. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Attenuation of Th1 effector cell responses and susceptibility to experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in histamine H2 receptor knockout mice is due to dysregulation of cytokine production by antigen-presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Teuscher, Cory; Poynter, Matthew E; Offner, Halina; Zamora, Alex; Watanabe, Takeshi; Fillmore, Parley D; Zachary, James F; Blankenhorn, Elizabeth P

    2004-03-01

    Histamine, a biogenic amine with both neurotransmitter and vasoactive properties, is well recognized as an immunomodulatory agent in allergic and inflammatory reactions. It also plays a regulatory role in the development of antigen-specific immune responses. CD4+ T-cells from histamine H1 receptor (H1R)-deficient (H1RKO) mice produce significantly less interferon-gamma and more interleukin (IL)-4 in in vitro recall assays compared to wild-type controls. H1RKO mice are also less susceptible to acute early-phase experimental allergic encephalomyelitis indicating that H1R signaling in CD4+ T cells plays a central role in regulating pathogenic T-cell responses. In this study, we show that mice lacking histamine H2 receptor (H2RKO) are similar to H1RKO mice in that they develop encephalitogen-specific T-cell responses as assessed by proliferation and IL-2 production and present with less severe acute early-phase experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. However, unlike T cells from H1RKO mice, which exhibit a strong Th2 bias, T cells from H2RKO mice do not. Rather, they are uniquely characterized by a significant inhibition of Th1 effector cell responses. Given that both histamine and adjuvants such as pertussis toxin modulate antigen-presenting cell (APC) maturation and function, including T-cell-polarizing activity, we analyzed the cytokines/chemokines secreted by APCs from wild-type, H1RKO, and H2RKO mice. Significant differences in cytokine/chemokine production by APCs from unimmunized and immunized mice were delineated. APCs from H2RKO mice produce significantly less IL-12 and IL-6 and markedly greater amounts of MCP-1 compared to wild-type and H1RKO mice. Because MCP-1 is known to inhibit IL-12 production, the failure of H2RKO mice to generate encephalitogenic Th1 effector cell responses is consistent with inhibition of negative regulation of MCP-1 secretion by H2R signaling in APCs.

  15. Attenuation of Th1 Effector Cell Responses and Susceptibility to Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis in Histamine H2 Receptor Knockout Mice Is Due to Dysregulation of Cytokine Production by Antigen-Presenting Cells

    PubMed Central

    Teuscher, Cory; Poynter, Matthew E.; Offner, Halina; Zamora, Alex; Watanabe, Takeshi; Fillmore, Parley D.; Zachary, James F.; Blankenhorn, Elizabeth P.

    2004-01-01

    Histamine, a biogenic amine with both neurotransmitter and vasoactive properties, is well recognized as an immunomodulatory agent in allergic and inflammatory reactions. It also plays a regulatory role in the development of antigen-specific immune responses. CD4+ T-cells from histamine H1 receptor (H1R)-deficient (H1RKO) mice produce significantly less interferon-γ and more interleukin (IL)-4 in in vitro recall assays compared to wild-type controls. H1RKO mice are also less susceptible to acute early-phase experimental allergic encephalomyelitis indicating that H1R signaling in CD4+ T cells plays a central role in regulating pathogenic T-cell responses. In this study, we show that mice lacking histamine H2 receptor (H2RKO) are similar to H1RKO mice in that they develop encephalitogen-specific T-cell responses as assessed by proliferation and IL-2 production and present with less severe acute early-phase experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. However, unlike T cells from H1RKO mice, which exhibit a strong Th2 bias, T cells from H2RKO mice do not. Rather, they are uniquely characterized by a significant inhibition of Th1 effector cell responses. Given that both histamine and adjuvants such as pertussis toxin modulate antigen-presenting cell (APC) maturation and function, including T-cell-polarizing activity, we analyzed the cytokines/chemokines secreted by APCs from wild-type, H1RKO, and H2RKO mice. Significant differences in cytokine/chemokine production by APCs from unimmunized and immunized mice were delineated. APCs from H2RKO mice produce significantly less IL-12 and IL-6 and markedly greater amounts of MCP-1 compared to wild-type and H1RKO mice. Because MCP-1 is known to inhibit IL-12 production, the failure of H2RKO mice to generate encephalitogenic Th1 effector cell responses is consistent with inhibition of negative regulation of MCP-1 secretion by H2R signaling in APCs. PMID:14982842

  16. Enhanced long-term and impaired short-term spatial memory in GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit knockout mice: evidence for a dual-process memory model.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, David J; Good, Mark A; Skelton, Kathryn; Sprengel, Rolf; Seeburg, Peter H; Rawlins, J Nicholas P; Bannerman, David M

    2009-06-01

    The GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit is a key mediator of hippocampal synaptic plasticity and is especially important for a rapidly-induced, short-lasting form of potentiation. GluA1 gene deletion impairs hippocampus-dependent, spatial working memory, but spares hippocampus-dependent spatial reference memory. These findings may reflect the necessity of GluA1-dependent synaptic plasticity for short-term memory of recently visited places, but not for the ability to form long-term associations between a particular spatial location and an outcome. This hypothesis is in concordance with the theory that short-term and long-term memory depend on dissociable psychological processes. In this study we tested GluA1-/- mice on both short-term and long-term spatial memory using a simple novelty preference task. Mice were given a series of repeated exposures to a particular spatial location (the arm of a Y-maze) before their preference for a novel spatial location (the unvisited arm of the maze) over the familiar spatial location was assessed. GluA1-/- mice were impaired if the interval between the trials was short (1 min), but showed enhanced spatial memory if the interval between the trials was long (24 h). This enhancement was caused by the interval between the exposure trials rather than the interval prior to the test, thus demonstrating enhanced learning and not simply enhanced performance or expression of memory. This seemingly paradoxical enhancement of hippocampus-dependent spatial learning may be caused by GluA1 gene deletion reducing the detrimental effects of short-term memory on subsequent long-term learning. Thus, these results support a dual-process model of memory in which short-term and long-term memory are separate and sometimes competitive processes.

  17. Knockout of endothelial cell-derived endothelin-1 attenuates skin fibrosis but accelerates cutaneous wound healing.

    PubMed

    Makino, Katsunari; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Aoi, Jun; Kajihara, Ikko; Makino, Takamitsu; Fukushima, Satoshi; Sakai, Keisuke; Nakayama, Kazuhiko; Emoto, Noriaki; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Ihn, Hironobu

    2014-01-01

    Endothelin (ET)-1 is known for the most potent vasoconstrictive peptide that is released mainly from endothelial cells. Several studies have reported ET-1 signaling is involved in the process of wound healing or fibrosis as well as vasodilation. However, little is known about the role of ET-1 in these processes. To clarify its mechanism, we compared skin fibrogenesis and wound repair between vascular endothelial cell-specific ET-1 knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. Bleomycin-injected fibrotic skin of the knockout mice showed significantly decreased skin thickness and collagen content compared to that of wild-type mice, indicating that bleomycin-induced skin fibrosis is attenuated in the knockout mice. The mRNA levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β were decreased in the bleomycin-treated skin of ET-1 knockout mice. On the other hand, skin wound healing was accelerated in ET-1 knockout mice, which was indicated by earlier granulation tissue reduction and re-epithelialization in these mice. The mRNA levels of TGF-β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) were reduced in the wound of ET-1 knockout mice. In endothelial ET-1 knockout mouse, the expression of TNF-α, CTGF and TGF-β was down-regulated. Bosentan, an antagonist of dual ET receptors, is known to attenuate skin fibrosis and accelerate wound healing in systemic sclerosis, and such contradictory effect may be mediated by above molecules. The endothelial cell-derived ET-1 is the potent therapeutic target in fibrosis or wound healing, and investigations of the overall regulatory mechanisms of these pathological conditions by ET-1 may lead to a new therapeutic approach.

  18. Phenotypic assessment of THC discriminative stimulus properties in fatty acid amide hydrolase knockout and wildtype mice

    PubMed Central

    Walentiny, D. Matthew; Vann, Robert E.; Wiley, Jenny L.

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have examined the ability of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide to elicit Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-like subjective effects, as modeled through the THC discrimination paradigm. In the present study, we compared transgenic mice lacking fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme primarily responsible for anandamide catabolism, to wildtype counterparts in a THC discrimination procedure. THC (5.6 mg/kg) served as a discriminative stimulus in both genotypes, with similar THC dose-response curves between groups. Anandamide fully substituted for THC in FAAH knockout, but not wildtype, mice. Conversely, the metabolically stable anandamide analog O-1812 fully substituted in both groups, but was more potent in knockouts. The CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant dose-dependently attenuated THC generalization in both groups and anandamide substitution in FAAH knockouts. Pharmacological inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the primary catabolic enzyme for the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), with JZL184 resulted in full substitution for THC in FAAH knockout mice and nearly full substitution in wildtypes. Quantification of brain endocannabinoid levels revealed expected elevations in anandamide in FAAH knockout mice compared to wildtypes and equipotent dose-dependent elevations in 2-AG following JZL184 administration. Dual inhibition of FAAH and MAGL with JZL195 resulted in roughly equipotent increases in THC-appropriate responding in both groups. While the notable similarity in THC's discriminative stimulus effects across genotype suggests that the increased baseline brain anandamide levels (as seen in FAAH knockout mice) do not alter THC's subjective effects, FAAH knockout mice are more sensitive to the THC-like effects of pharmacologically induced increases in anandamide and MAGL inhibition (e.g., JZL184). PMID:25698527

  19. Phenotypic assessment of THC discriminative stimulus properties in fatty acid amide hydrolase knockout and wildtype mice.

    PubMed

    Walentiny, D Matthew; Vann, Robert E; Wiley, Jenny L

    2015-06-01

    A number of studies have examined the ability of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide to elicit Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-like subjective effects, as modeled through the THC discrimination paradigm. In the present study, we compared transgenic mice lacking fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme primarily responsible for anandamide catabolism, to wildtype counterparts in a THC discrimination procedure. THC (5.6 mg/kg) served as a discriminative stimulus in both genotypes, with similar THC dose-response curves between groups. Anandamide fully substituted for THC in FAAH knockout, but not wildtype, mice. Conversely, the metabolically stable anandamide analog O-1812 fully substituted in both groups, but was more potent in knockouts. The CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant dose-dependently attenuated THC generalization in both groups and anandamide substitution in FAAH knockouts. Pharmacological inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the primary catabolic enzyme for the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), with JZL184 resulted in full substitution for THC in FAAH knockout mice and nearly full substitution in wildtypes. Quantification of brain endocannabinoid levels revealed expected elevations in anandamide in FAAH knockout mice compared to wildtypes and equipotent dose-dependent elevations in 2-AG following JZL184 administration. Dual inhibition of FAAH and MAGL with JZL195 resulted in roughly equipotent increases in THC-appropriate responding in both groups. While the notable similarity in THC's discriminative stimulus effects across genotype suggests that the increased baseline brain anandamide levels (as seen in FAAH knockout mice) do not alter THC's subjective effects, FAAH knockout mice are more sensitive to the THC-like effects of pharmacologically induced increases in anandamide and MAGL inhibition (e.g., JZL184). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthesis and biological evaluation of metabolites of 2-n-butyl-9-methyl-8-[1,2,3]triazol-2-yl-9H-purin-6-ylamine (ST1535), a potent antagonist of the A2A adenosine receptor for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Piersanti, Giovanni; Bartoccini, Francesca; Lucarini, Simone; Cabri, Walter; Stasi, Maria Antonietta; Riccioni, Teresa; Borsini, Franco; Tarzia, Giorgio; Minetti, Patrizia

    2013-07-11

    The synthesis and preliminary in vitro evaluation of five metabolites of the A2A antagonist ST1535 (1) are reported. The metabolites, originating in vivo from enzymatic oxidation of the 2-butyl group of the parent compound, were synthesized from 6-chloro-2-iodo-9-methyl-9H-purine (2) by selective C-C bond formation via halogen/magnesium exchange reaction and/or palladium-catalyzed reactions. The metabolites behaved in vitro as antagonist ligands of cloned human A2A receptor with affinities (Ki 7.5-53 nM) comparable to that of compound 1 (Ki 10.7 nM), thus showing that the long duration of action of 1 could be in part due to its metabolites. General behavior after oral administration in mice was also analyzed.

  1. The Knockout of Secretin in Cerebellar Purkinje Cells Impairs Mouse Motor Coordination and Motor Learning

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Chung, Sookja Kim; Chow, Billy Kwok Chong

    2014-01-01

    Secretin (SCT) was first considered to be a gut hormone regulating gastrointestinal functions when discovered. Recently, however, central actions of SCT have drawn intense research interest and are supported by the broad distribution of SCT in specific neuronal populations and by in vivo physiological studies regarding its role in water homeostasis and food intake. The direct action of SCT on a central neuron was first discovered in cerebellar Purkinje cells in which SCT from cerebellar Purkinje cells was found to potentiate GABAergic inhibitory transmission from presynaptic basket cells. Because Purkinje neurons have a major role in motor coordination and learning functions, we hypothesize a behavioral modulatory function for SCT. In this study, we successfully generated a mouse model in which the SCT gene was deleted specifically in Purkinje cells. This mouse line was tested together with SCT knockout and SCT receptor knockout mice in a full battery of behavioral tasks. We found that the knockout of SCT in Purkinje neurons did not affect general motor ability or the anxiety level in open field tests. However, knockout mice did exhibit impairments in neuromuscular strength, motor coordination, and motor learning abilities, as shown by wire hanging, vertical climbing, and rotarod tests. In addition, SCT knockout in Purkinje cells possibly led to the delayed development of motor neurons, as supported by the later occurrence of key neural reflexes. In summary, our data suggest a role in motor coordination and motor learning for SCT expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells. PMID:24356714

  2. Human knockout research: new horizons and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Alkuraya, Fowzan S

    2015-02-01

    Although numerous approaches have been pursued to understand the function of human genes, Mendelian genetics has by far provided the most compelling and medically actionable dataset. Biallelic loss-of-function (LOF) mutations are observed in the majority of autosomal recessive Mendelian disorders, representing natural human knockouts and offering a unique opportunity to study the physiological and developmental context of these genes. The restriction of such context to 'disease' states is artificial, however, and the recent ability to survey entire human genomes for biallelic LOF mutations has revealed a surprising landscape of knockout events in 'healthy' individuals, sparking interest in their role in phenotypic diversity beyond disease causation. As I discuss in this review, the potentially wide implications of human knockout research warrant increased investment and multidisciplinary collaborations to overcome existing challenges and reap its benefits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterizing a Rat Brca2 Knockout Model