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Sample records for a2ar ko mice

  1. GPR88 in A2AR Neurons Enhances Anxiety-Like Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Meirsman, Aura Carole; Robé, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Abstract GPR88 is an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor highly expressed in striatal dopamine D1 (receptor) R- and D2R-expressing medium spiny neurons. This receptor is involved in activity and motor responses, and we previously showed that this receptor also regulates anxiety-like behaviors. To determine whether GPR88 in D2R-expressing neurons contributes to this emotional phenotype, we generated conditional Gpr88 knock-out mice using adenosine A2AR (A2AR)-Cre-driven recombination, and compared anxiety-related responses in both total and A2AR-Gpr88 KO mice. A2AR-Gpr88 KO mice showed a selective reduction of Gpr88 mRNA in D2R-expressing, but not D1R-expressing, neurons. These mutant mice showed increased locomotor activity and decreased anxiety-like behaviors in light/dark and elevated plus maze tests. These phenotypes were superimposable on those observed in total Gpr88 KO mice, demonstrating that the previously reported anxiogenic activity of GPR88 operates at the level of A2AR-expressing neurons. Further, A2AR-Gpr88 KO mice showed no change in novelty preference and novelty-suppressed feeding, while these responses were increased and decreased, respectively, in the total Gpr88 KO mice. Also, A2AR-Gpr88 KO mice showed intact fear conditioning, while the fear responses were decreased in total Gpr88 KO. We therefore also show for the first time that GPR88 activity regulates approach behaviors and conditional fear; however, these behaviors do not seem mediated by receptors in A2AR neurons. We conclude that Gpr88 expressed in A2AR neurons enhances ethological anxiety-like behaviors without affecting conflict anxiety and fear responses. PMID:27570825

  2. Sesamin protects against renal ischemia reperfusion injury by promoting CD39-adenosine-A2AR signal pathway in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Gong, Xia; Kuang, Ge; Jiang, Rong; Wan, Jingyuan; Wang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is a leading cause of acute kidney injury with high morbidity and mortality due to limited therapy. Here, we examine whether sesamin attenuates renal IRI in an animal model and explore the underlying mechanisms. Male mice were subjected to right renal ischemia for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h with sesamin (100 mg/kg) during which the left kidney was removed. Renal damage and function were assessed subsequently. The results showed that sesamin reduced kidney ischemia reperfusion injury, as assessed by decreased serum creatinine (Scr) and Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), alleviated tubular damage and apoptosis. In addition, sesamin inhibited neutrophils infiltration and pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β production in IR-preformed kidney. Notably, sesamin promoted the expression of CD39, A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR), and A2BAR mRNA and protein as well as adenosine production. Furthermore, CD39 inhibitor or A2AR antagonist abolished partly the protection of sesamin in kidney IRI. In conclusion, sesamin could effectively protect kidney from IRI by inhibiting inflammatory responses, which might be associated with promoting the adenosine-CD39-A2AR signaling pathway.

  3. Sesamin protects against renal ischemia reperfusion injury by promoting CD39-adenosine-A2AR signal pathway in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ke; Gong, Xia; Kuang, Ge; Jiang, Rong; Wan, Jingyuan; Wang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is a leading cause of acute kidney injury with high morbidity and mortality due to limited therapy. Here, we examine whether sesamin attenuates renal IRI in an animal model and explore the underlying mechanisms. Male mice were subjected to right renal ischemia for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h with sesamin (100 mg/kg) during which the left kidney was removed. Renal damage and function were assessed subsequently. The results showed that sesamin reduced kidney ischemia reperfusion injury, as assessed by decreased serum creatinine (Scr) and Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), alleviated tubular damage and apoptosis. In addition, sesamin inhibited neutrophils infiltration and pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β production in IR-preformed kidney. Notably, sesamin promoted the expression of CD39, A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR), and A2BAR mRNA and protein as well as adenosine production. Furthermore, CD39 inhibitor or A2AR antagonist abolished partly the protection of sesamin in kidney IRI. In conclusion, sesamin could effectively protect kidney from IRI by inhibiting inflammatory responses, which might be associated with promoting the adenosine-CD39-A2AR signaling pathway. PMID:27347331

  4. Hyperactivity and depression-like traits in Bax KO mice.

    PubMed

    Krahe, Thomas E; Medina, Alexandre E; Lantz, Crystal L; Filgueiras, Cláudio C

    2015-11-02

    The Bax gene is a member of the Bcl-2 gene family and its pro-apoptotic Bcl-associated X (Bax) protein is believed to be crucial in regulating apoptosis during neuronal development as well as following injury. With the advent of mouse genomics, mice lacking the pro-apoptotic Bax gene (Bax KO) have been extensively used to study how cell death helps to determine synaptic circuitry formation during neurodevelopment and disease. Surprisingly, in spite of its wide use and the association of programmed neuronal death with motor dysfunctions and depression, the effects of Bax deletion on mice spontaneous locomotor activity and depression-like traits are unknown. Here we examine the behavioral characteristics of Bax KO male mice using classical paradigms to evaluate spontaneous locomotor activity and depressive-like responses. In the open field, Bax KO animals exhibited greater locomotor activity than their control littermates. In the forced swimming test, Bax KO mice displayed greater immobility times, a behavior despair state, when compared to controls. Collectively, our findings corroborate the notion that a fine balance between cell survival and death early during development is critical for normal brain function later in life. Furthermore, it points out the importance of considering depressive-like and hyperactivity behavioral phenotypes when conducting neurodevelopmental and other studies using the Bax KO strain.

  5. Aggressive Prostate Cancer Is Prevented in ERαKO Mice and Stimulated in ERβKO TRAMP Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ślusarz, Anna; Jackson, Glenn A.; Day, J. Kevin; Shenouda, Nader S.; Bogener, Jennifer L.; Browning, Jim D.; Fritsche, Kevin L.; MacDonald, Ruth S.; Besch-Williford, Cynthia L.

    2012-01-01

    Previous evidence suggests soy genistein may be protective against prostate cancer, but whether this protection involves an estrogen receptor (ER)-dependent mechanism is unknown. To test the hypothesis that phytoestrogens may act through ERα or ERβ to play a protective role against prostate cancer, we bred transgenic mice lacking functional ERα or ERβ with transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice. Dietary genistein reduced the incidence of cancer in ER wild-type (WT)/transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate mice but not in ERα knockout (KO) or ERβKO mice. Cancer incidence was 70% in ERWT mice fed the control diet compared with 47% in ERWT mice fed low-dose genistein (300 mg/kg) and 32% on the high-dose genistein (750 mg/kg). Surprisingly, genistein only affected the well differentiated carcinoma (WDC) incidence but had no effect on poorly differentiated carcinoma (PDC). No dietary effects have been observed in either of the ERKO animals. We observed a very strong genotypic influence on PDC incidence, a protective effect in ERαKO (only 5% developed PDC), compared with 19% in the ERWT, and an increase in the incidence of PDC in ERβKO mice to 41%. Interestingly, immunohistochemical analysis showed ERα expression changing from nonnuclear in WDC to nuclear in PDC, with little change in ERβ location or expression. In conclusion, genistein is able to inhibit WDC in the presence of both ERs, but the effect of estrogen signaling on PDC is dominant over any dietary treatment, suggesting that improved differential targeting of ERα vs. ERβ would result in prevention of advanced prostate cancer. PMID:22753646

  6. Both MC5r and A2Ar are required for protective regulatory immunity in the spleen of post-experimental autoimmune uveitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Darren J.; Taylor, Andrew W.

    2013-01-01

    The ocular microenvironment uses a poorly defined melanocortin 5 receptor (MC5r)-dependent pathway to recover immune tolerance following intraocular inflammation. This dependency is seen in experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU), a mouse model of endogenous human autoimmune uveitis, with the emergence of autoantigen-specific regulatory immunity in the spleen that protects the mice from recurrence of EAU. In this new study, it was found that the MC5r-dependent regulatory immunity was an increase of CD11b+ F4/80+ Ly-6Clow Ly-6G+ CD39+ CD73+ APC in the spleen of post-EAU mice. These MC5r-dependent APC require adenosine 2A receptor (A2Ar) expression on T cells to activate EAU-suppressing CD25+ CD4+ FoxP3+ Treg cells. Therefore, in the recovery from autoimmune disease the ocular microenvironment induces tolerance through a melanocortin mediated expansion of Ly-6G+ regulatory APC in the spleen that utilize the adenosinergic pathway to promote activation of autoantigen-specific Treg cells. PMID:24043903

  7. Organ Correlation with Tryptophan Metabolism Obtained by Analyses of TDO-KO and QPRT-KO Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to report the organ-specific correlation with tryptophan (Trp) metabolism obtained by analyses of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase knockout (TDO-KO) and quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase knockout (QPRT-KO) mice models. We found that TDO-KO mice could biosynthesize the necessary amount of nicotinamide (Nam) from Trp, resulting in the production of key intermediate, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid. Upstream metabolites, such as kynurenic acid and xanthurenic acid, in the urine were originated from nonhepatic tissues, and not from the liver. In QPRT-KO mice, the Trp to quinolinic acid conversion ratio was 6%; this value was higher than expected. Furthermore, we found that QPRT activity in hetero mice was half of that in wild-type (WT) mice. Urine quinolinic acid levels remain unchanged in both hetero and WT mice, and the conversion ratio of Trp to Nam was also unaffected. Collectively, these findings show that QPRT was not the rate-limiting enzyme in the conversion. In conclusion, the limiting factors in the conversion of Trp to Nam are the substrate amounts of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid and activity of 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid 3,4-dioxygenase in the liver. PMID:27147825

  8. Sarcocystis neurona infection in gamma interferon gene knockout (KO) mice: comparative infectivity of sporocysts in two strains of KO mice, effect of trypsin digestion on merozoite viability, and infectivity of bradyzoites to KO mice and cell culture.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Sundar, N; Kwok, O C H; Saville, W J A

    2013-09-01

    The protozoan Sarcocystis neurona is the primary cause of Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM). EPM or EPM-like illness has been reported in horses, sea otters, and several other mammals. The gamma interferon gene knockout (KO) mouse is often used as a model to study biology and discovery of new therapies against S. neurona because it is difficult to induce clinical EPM in other hosts, including horses. In the present study, infectivity of three life cycle stages (merozoites, bradyzoites, sporozoites) to KO mice and cell culture was studied. Two strains of KO mice (C57-black, and BALB/c-derived, referred here as black or white) were inoculated orally graded doses of S. neurona sporocysts; 12 sporocysts were infective to both strains of mice and all infected mice died or became ill within 70 days post-inoculation. Although there was no difference in infectivity of sporocysts to the two strains of KO mice, the disease was more severe in black mice. S. neurona bradyzoites were not infectious to KO mice and cell culture. S. neurona merozoites survived 120 min incubation in 0.25% trypsin, indicating that trypsin digestion can be used to recover S. neurona from tissues of acutely infected animals.

  9. Characterization of the insulin sensitivity of ghrelin receptor KO mice using glycemic clamps

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We and others have demonstrated previously that ghrelin receptor (GhrR) knock out (KO) mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) have increased insulin sensitivity and metabolic flexibility relative to WT littermates. A striking feature of the HFD-fed GhrR KO mouse is the dramatic decrease in hepatic steatosis. To characterize further the underlying mechanisms of glucose homeostasis in GhrR KO mice, we conducted both hyperglycemic (HG) and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic (HI-E) clamps. Additionally, we investigated tissue glucose uptake and specifically examined liver insulin sensitivity. Results Consistent with glucose tolerance-test data, in HG clamp experiments, GhrR KO mice showed a reduction in glucose-stimulated insulin release relative to WT littermates. Nevertheless, a robust 1st phase insulin secretion was still achieved, indicating that a healthy β-cell response is maintained. Additionally, GhrR KO mice demonstrated both a significantly increased glucose infusion rate and significantly reduced insulin requirement for maintenance of the HG clamp, consistent with their relative insulin sensitivity. In HI-E clamps, both LFD-fed and HFD-fed GhrR KO mice showed higher peripheral insulin sensitivity relative to WT littermates as indicated by a significant increase in insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (Rd), and decreased hepatic glucose production (HGP). HFD-fed GhrR KO mice showed a marked increase in peripheral tissue glucose uptake in a variety of tissues, including skeletal muscle, brown adipose tissue and white adipose tissue. GhrR KO mice fed a HFD also showed a modest, but significant decrease in conversion of pyruvate to glucose, as would be anticipated if these mice displayed increased liver insulin sensitivity. Additionally, the levels of UCP2 and UCP1 were reduced in the liver and BAT, respectively, in GhrR KO mice relative to WT mice. Conclusions These results indicate that improved glucose homeostasis of GhrR KO mice is characterized by robust

  10. Sexual dimorphism in the glucose homeostasis phenotype of the Aromatase Knockout (ArKO) mice.

    PubMed

    Van Sinderen, Michelle; Steinberg, Gregory; Jorgensen, Sebastian B; Honeyman, Jane; Chow, Jenny D Y; Simpson, Evan R; Jones, Margaret E E; Boon, Wah Chin

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the effects of estrogens on glucose homeostasis using the Aromatase Knockout (ArKO) mouse, which is unable to convert androgens into estrogens. The ArKO mouse is a model of total estrogen ablation which develops symptoms of metabolic syndrome. To determine the development and progression of whole body state of insulin resistance of ArKO mice, comprehensive whole body tolerance tests were performed on WT, ArKO and estrogen administrated mice at 3 and 12 months of age. The absence of estrogens in the male ArKO mice leads to hepatic insulin resistance, glucose and pyruvate intolerance from 3 to 12 months with consistent improvement upon estrogen treatment. Estrogen absence in the female ArKO mice leads to glucose intolerance without pyruvate intolerance or insulin resistance. The replacement of estrogens in the female WT and ArKO mice exhibited both insulin sensitizing and resistance effects depending on age and dosage. In conclusion, this study presents information on the sexually dimorphic roles of estrogens on glucose homeostasis regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Eplerenone-Resistant Salt-Sensitive Hypertension in Nedd4-2 C2 KO Mice.

    PubMed

    Kino, Tabito; Ishigami, Tomoaki; Murata, Tsumugi; Doi, Hiroshi; Nakashima-Sasaki, Rie; Chen, Lin; Sugiyama, Michiko; Azushima, Kengo; Wakui, Hiromichi; Minegishi, Shintaro; Tamura, Kouichi

    2017-06-11

    The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) plays critical roles in maintaining fluid and electrolyte homeostasis and is located in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron (ASDN). We previously found that Nedd4-2 C2 knockout (KO) mice showed salt-sensitive hypertension with paradoxically enhanced ENaC gene expression in ASDN under high oral salt intake. Eplerenone (EPL), a selective aldosterone blocker, is a promising therapeutic option for resistant or/and salt-sensitive hypertension. We examined the effect of EPL on Nedd4-2 C2 KO mice with respect to blood pressure, metabolic parameters, and molecular level changes in ASDN under high oral salt intake. We found that EPL failed to reduce blood pressure in KO mice with high oral salt intake and upregulated ENaC expression in ASDN. Thus, salt-sensitive hypertension in Nedd4-2 C2 KO was EPL-resistant. Gene expression analyses of laser-captured specimens in ASDN suggested the presence of non-aldosterone-dependent activation of ENaC transcription in ASDN of Nedd4-2 C2 KO mice, which was abolished by amiloride treatment. Our results from Nedd4-2 C2 KO mice suggest that enhanced ENaC gene expression is critically involved in salt-sensitive hypertension under certain conditions of specific enzyme isoforms for their ubiquitination.

  12. Altered fear circuits in 5-HT(1A) receptor KO mice.

    PubMed

    Gross, C; Santarelli, L; Brunner, D; Zhuang, X; Hen, R

    2000-12-15

    The study of genetically altered mice has been used successfully to determine the influence of different neurotransmitter receptors on fear and anxiety. Mice with a genetic deletion of the serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT(1A)R knockout [KO]) have been shown to be more fearful in a number of behavioral conflict tests, confirming the important role of this receptor in modulating anxiety. Factor analysis of the behavior of WT and 5-HT(1A)R KO mice in the open field test shows that locomotion and anxiety measures segregate independently, supporting the idea that the anxious behavior of the KO mice is not the result of altered locomotion. KO mice also show increased anxiety in the novelty-suppressed feeding task, which differs from the other conflict tests in the motivational drive of the animals. In response to a discrete aversive stimulus, foot shock, the KO mice show increased freezing and increased tachycardia. However, activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in response to stress appears to be slightly blunted in the KO animals. Together, these data support the idea that the 5-HT(1A)R modulates an important fear circuit in the brain. The dual function of the 5-HT(1A)R as both a presynaptic autoreceptor, negatively regulating serotonin activity, and a postsynaptic heteroreceptor, inhibiting the activity of nonserotonergic neurons in forebrain structures, has complicated interpretation of the anxious phenotype of these KO mice. A more complete understanding of the function of the 5-HT(1A)R awaits further study of its role in behaving animals using tissue-specific antagonists and novel transgenic mice with tissue-specific expression of the receptor.

  13. Decreased home cage movement and oromotor impairments in adult Fmr1-KO mice.

    PubMed

    Bonasera, S J; Chaudoin, T R; Goulding, E H; Mittek, M; Dunaevsky, A

    2017-06-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a common inherited disorder that significantly impacts family and patient day-to-day living across the entire life span. The childhood and adolescent behavioral consequences of FXS are well appreciated. However, there are significantly fewer studies (except those examining psychiatric comorbidities) assessing behavioral phenotypes seen in adults with FXS. Mice engineered with a genetic lesion of fragile X mental retardation 1 (Fmr1) recapitulate important molecular and neuroanatomical characteristics of FXS, and provide a means to evaluate adult behavioral phenotypes associated with FXS. We give the first description of baseline behaviors including feeding, drinking, movement and their circadian rhythms; all observed over 16 consecutive days following extensive environmental habituation in adult Fmr1-KO mutant mice. We find no genotypic changes in mouse food ingestion, feeding patterns, metabolism or circadian patterns of movement, feeding and drinking. After habituation, Fmr1-KO mice show significantly less daily movement during their active phase (the dark cycle). However, Fmr1-KO mice have more bouts of activity during the light cycle compared with wild types. In addition, Fmr1-KO mice show significantly less daily water ingestion during the circadian dark cycle, and this reduction in water intake is accompanied by a decrease in the amount of water ingested per lick. The observed water ingestion and circadian phenotypes noted in Fmr1-KO mice recapitulate known clinical aspects previously described in FXS. The finding of decreased movement in Fmr1-KO mice is novel, and suggests a dissociation between baseline and novelty-evoked activity for Fmr1-KO mice. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  14. Adaptive thermogenesis and thermal conductance in wild-type and UCP1-KO mice

    PubMed Central

    Willershäuser, Monja; Jastroch, Martin; Rourke, Bryan C.; Fromme, Tobias; Oelkrug, Rebecca; Heldmaier, Gerhard; Klingenspor, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We compared maximal cold-induced heat production (HPmax) and cold limits between warm (WA; 27°C), moderate cold (MCA; 18°C), or cold acclimated (CA; 5°C) wild-type and uncoupling-protein 1 knockout (UCP1-KO) mice. In wild-type mice, HPmax was successively increased after MCA and CA, and the cold limit was lowered to −8.3°C and −18.0°C, respectively. UCP1-KO mice also increased HPmax in response to MCA and CA, although to a lesser extent. Direct comparison revealed a maximal cold-induced recruitment of heat production by +473 mW and +227 mW in wild-type and UCP1-KO mice, respectively. The increase in cold tolerance of UCP1-KO mice from −0.9°C in MCA to −10.1°C in CA could not be directly related to changes in HPmax, indicating that UCP1-KO mice used the dissipated heat more efficiently than wild-type mice. As judged from respiratory quotients, acutely cold-challenged UCP1-KO mice showed a delayed transition toward lipid oxidation, and 5-h cold exposure revealed diminished physical activity and less variability in the control of metabolic rate. We conclude that BAT is required for maximal adaptive thermogenesis but also allows metabolic flexibility and a rapid switch toward sustained lipid-fuelled thermogenesis as an acute response to cold. In both CA groups, expression of contractile proteins (myosin heavy-chain isoforms) showed minor training effects in skeletal muscles, while cardiac muscle of UCP1-KO mice had novel expression of beta cardiac isoform. Neither respiration nor basal proton conductance of skeletal muscle mitochondria were different between genotypes. In subcutaneous white adipose tissue of UCP1-KO mice, cold exposure increased cytochrome-c oxidase activity and expression of the cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector A by 3.6-fold and 15-fold, respectively, indicating the recruitment of mitochondria-rich brown adipocyte-like cells. Absence of functional BAT leads to remodeling of white adipose tissue, which may significantly contribute

  15. Hearts of surviving MLP-KO mice show transient changes of intracellular calcium handling.

    PubMed

    Kemecsei, Péter; Miklós, Zsuzsanna; Bíró, Tamás; Marincsák, Rita; Tóth, Balázs I; Komlódi-Pásztor, Edina; Barnucz, Eniko; Mirk, Eva; Van der Vusse, Ger J; Ligeti, László; Ivanics, Tamás

    2010-09-01

    The muscle Lim protein knock-out (MLP-KO) mouse model is extensively used for studying the pathophysiology of dilated cardiomyopathy. However, explanation is lacking for the observed long survival of the diseased mice which develop until adulthood despite the gene defect, which theoretically predestines them to early death due to heart failure. We hypothesized that adaptive changes of cardiac intracellular calcium (Ca(i)(2+)) handling might explain the phenomenon. In order to study the progression of changes in cardiac function and Ca(i)(2+) cycling, myocardial Ca(i)(2+)-transients recorded by Indo-1 surface fluorometry were assessed with concomitant measurement of hemodynamic performance in isolated Langendorff-perfused hearts of 3- and 9-month old MLP-KO animals. Hearts were challenged with beta-agonist isoproterenol and the sarcoplasmic reticular Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA2a) inhibitor cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). Cardiac mRNA content and levels of key Ca(2+) handling proteins were also measured. A decline in lusitropic function was observed in 3-month old, but not in 9-month old MLP-KO mice under unchallenged conditions. beta-adrenergic responses to isoproterenol were similar in all the studied groups. The CPA induced an increase in end-diastolic Ca(i)(2+)-level and a decrease in Ca(2+)-sequestration capacity in 3-month old MLP-KO mice compared to age-matched controls. This unfavorable condition was absent at 9 months of age. SERCA2a expression was lower in 3-month old MLP-KO than in the corresponding controls and in 9-month old MLP-KO hearts. Our results show time-related recovery of hemodynamic function and an age-dependent compensatory upregulation of Ca(i)(2+) handling in hearts of MLP-KO mice, which most likely involve the normalization of the expression of SERCA2a in the affected hearts.

  16. Amygdala Lesions Reduce Cataplexy in Orexin KO mice

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, C.R.; Oishi, Y.; Mochizuki, T.; Peever, J.H.; Scammell, T.E.

    2013-01-01

    Narcolepsy is characterized by excessive sleepiness and cataplexy, sudden episodes of muscle weakness during waking that are thought to be an intrusion of REM sleep muscle atonia into wakefulness. One of the most striking aspects of cataplexy is that it is often triggered by strong, generally positive emotions, but little is known about the neural pathways through which positive emotions trigger muscle atonia. We hypothesized that the amygdala is functionally important for cataplexy because the amygdala has a role in processing emotional stimuli and it contains neurons that are active during cataplexy. Using anterograde and retrograde tracing in mice, we found that GABAergic neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala heavily innervate neurons that maintain waking muscle tone such as those in the ventrolateral periaqueductal grey, lateral pontine tegmentum, locus coeruleus, and dorsal raphe. We then found that bilateral, excitotoxic lesions of the amygdala markedly reduced cataplexy in orexin knockout mice, a model of narcolepsy. These lesions did not alter basic sleep/wake behavior, but substantially reduced the triggering of cataplexy. Lesions also reduced the cataplexy events triggered by conditions associated with high arousal and positive emotions (i.e., wheel running and chocolate). These observations demonstrate that the amygdala is a functionally important part of the circuitry underlying cataplexy and suggest that increased amygdala activity in response to emotional stimuli could directly trigger cataplexy by inhibiting brainstem regions that suppress muscle atonia. PMID:23739970

  17. Locomotor hyperactivity in 14-3-3ζ KO mice is associated with dopamine transporter dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Ramshaw, H; Xu, X; Jaehne, E J; McCarthy, P; Greenberg, Z; Saleh, E; McClure, B; Woodcock, J; Kabbara, S; Wiszniak, S; Wang, Ting-Yi; Parish, C; van den Buuse, M; Baune, B T; Lopez, A; Schwarz, Q

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) neurotransmission requires a complex series of enzymatic reactions that are tightly linked to catecholamine exocytosis and receptor interactions on pre- and postsynaptic neurons. Regulation of dopaminergic signalling is primarily achieved through reuptake of extracellular DA by the DA transporter (DAT) on presynaptic neurons. Aberrant regulation of DA signalling, and in particular hyperactivation, has been proposed as a key insult in the presentation of schizophrenia and related neuropsychiatric disorders. We recently identified 14-3-3ζ as an essential component of neurodevelopment and a central risk factor in the schizophrenia protein interaction network. Our analysis of 14-3-3ζ-deficient mice now shows that baseline hyperactivity of knockout (KO) mice is rescued by the antipsychotic drug clozapine. 14-3-3ζ KO mice displayed enhanced locomotor hyperactivity induced by the DA releaser amphetamine. Consistent with 14-3-3ζ having a role in DA signalling, we found increased levels of DA in the striatum of 14-3-3ζ KO mice. Although 14-3-3ζ is proposed to modulate activity of the rate-limiting DA biosynthesis enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), we were unable to identify any differences in total TH levels, TH localization or TH activation in 14-3-3ζ KO mice. Rather, our analysis identified significantly reduced levels of DAT in the absence of notable differences in RNA or protein levels of DA receptors D1–D5. Providing insight into the mechanisms by which 14-3-3ζ controls DAT stability, we found a physical association between 14-3-3ζ and DAT by co-immunoprecipitation. Taken together, our results identify a novel role for 14-3-3ζ in DA neurotransmission and provide support to the hyperdopaminergic basis of pathologies associated with schizophrenia and related disorders. PMID:24301645

  18. Vertical sleeve gastrectomy restores glucose homeostasis in apolipoprotein A-IV KO mice.

    PubMed

    Pressler, Josh W; Haller, April; Sorrell, Joyce; Wang, Fei; Seeley, Randy J; Tso, Patrick; Sandoval, Darleen A

    2015-02-01

    Bariatric surgery is the most successful strategy for treating obesity, yet the mechanisms for this success are not clearly understood. Clinical literature suggests that plasma levels of apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) rise with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). apoA-IV is secreted from the intestine postprandially and has demonstrated benefits for both glucose and lipid homeostasis. Because of the parallels in the metabolic improvements seen with surgery and the rise in apoA-IV levels, we hypothesized that apoA-IV was necessary for obtaining the metabolic benefits of bariatric surgery. To test this hypothesis, we performed vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), a surgery with clinical efficacy very similar to that for RYGB, in whole-body apoA-IV knockout (KO) mice. We found that VSG reduced body mass and improved both glucose and lipid homeostasis similarly in wild-type mice compared with apoA-IV KO mice. In fact, VSG normalized the impairment in glucose tolerance and caused a significantly greater improvement in hepatic triglyceride storage in the apoA-IV KO mice. Last, independent of surgery, apoA-IV KO mice had a significantly reduced preference for a high-fat diet. Altogether, these data suggest that apoA-IV is not necessary for the metabolic improvements shown with VSG, but also suggest an interesting role for apoA-IV in regulating macronutrient preference and hepatic triglyceride levels. Future studies are necessary to determine whether this is the case for RYGB as well.

  19. Exaggerated phosphorylation of brain tau protein in CRH KO mice exposed to repeated immobilization stress.

    PubMed

    Kvetnansky, Richard; Novak, Petr; Vargovic, Peter; Lejavova, Katarina; Horvathova, Lubica; Ondicova, Katarina; Manz, George; Filipcik, Peter; Novak, Michal; Mravec, Boris

    2016-07-01

    Neuroendocrine and behavioral stress responses are orchestrated by corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and norepinephrine (NE) synthesizing neurons. Recent findings indicate that stress may promote development of neurofibrillary pathology in Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, we investigated relationships among stress, tau protein phosphorylation, and brain NE using wild-type (WT) and CRH-knockout (CRH KO) mice. We assessed expression of phosphorylated tau (p-tau) at the PHF-1 epitope and NE concentrations in the locus coeruleus (LC), A1/C1 and A2/C2 catecholaminergic cell groups, hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus basalis magnocellularis, and frontal cortex of unstressed, singly stressed or repeatedly stressed mice. Moreover, gene expression and protein levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and CRH receptor mRNA were determined in the LC. Plasma corticosterone levels were also measured. Exposure to a single stress increases tau phosphorylation throughout the brain in WT mice when compared to singly stressed CRH KO animals. In contrast, repeatedly stressed CRH KO mice showed exaggerated tau phosphorylation relative to WT controls. We also observed differences in extent of tau phosphorylation between investigated structures, e.g. the LC and hippocampus. Moreover, CRH deficiency leads to different responses to stress in gene expression of TH, NE concentrations, CRH receptor mRNA, and plasma corticosterone levels. Our data indicate that CRH effects on tau phosphorylation are dependent on whether stress is single or repeated, and differs between brain regions. Our findings indicate that CRH attenuates mechanisms responsible for development of stress-induced tau neuropathology, particularly in conditions of chronic stress. However, the involvement of central catecholaminergic neurons in these mechanisms remains unclear and is in need of further investigation.

  20. Echium Oil Reduces Atherosclerosis in apoB100-only LDLrKO Mice

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, Lolita M.; Boudyguina, Elena; Wilson, Martha D.; Parks, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The anti-atherogenic and hypotriglyceridemic properties of fish oil are attributed to its enrichment in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5, n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6, n-3). Echium oil contains stearidonic acid (SDA; 18:4, n-3), which is metabolized to EPA in humans and mice, resulting in decreased plasma triglycerides. Objective We used apoB100 only, LDLrKO mice to investigate whether echium oil reduces atherosclerosis. Methods Mice were fed palm, echium, or fish oil-containing diets for 16 weeks and plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and atherosclerosis were measured. Results Compared to palm oil, echium oil feeding resulted in significantly less plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels, and atherosclerosis, comparable to that of fish oil. Conclusion This is the first report that echium oil is anti-atherogenic, suggesting that it may be a botanical alternative to fish oil for atheroprotection. PMID:22100249

  1. Expression pattern of immediate early genes in the cerebellum of D1R KO, D2R KO, and wild type mice under vestibular-controlled activity.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Toru; Sato, Asako; Kitsukawa, Takashi; Sasaoka, Toshikuni; Yamamori, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported the different motor abilities of D1R knockout (KO), D2R KO and wild-type (WT) mice. To understand the interaction between the cerebellum and the striatal direct and indirect pathways, we examined the expression patterns of immediate early genes (IEG) in the cerebellum of these three genotypes of mice. In the WT naive mice, there was little IEG expression. However, we observed a robust expression of c-fos mRNA in the vermis and hemisphere after running rota-rod tasks. In the vermis, c-fos was expressed throughout the lobules except lobule 7, and also in crus 1 of the ansiform lobule (Crus1), copula of the pyramis (Cop) and most significantly in the flocculus in the hemisphere. jun-B was much less expressed but more preferentially expressed in Purkinje cells. In addition, we observed significant levels of c-fos and jun-B expressions after handling mice, and after the stationary rota-rod task in naive mice. Surprisingly, we observed significant expression of c-fos and jun-B even 30 min after single weighing. Nonetheless, certain additional c-fos and jun-B expressions were observed in three genotypes of the mice that experienced several sessions of motor tasks 24 h after stationary rota-rod task and on days 1 and 5 after rota-rod tasks, but no significant differences in expressions after the running rota-rod tasks were observed among the three genotypes. In addition, there may be some differences 24 h after the stationary rota-rod task between the naive mice and the mice that experienced several sessions of motor tasks.

  2. Developmental restoration of LTP deficits in heterozygous CaMKIIα KO mice.

    PubMed

    Goodell, Dayton J; Benke, Tim A; Bayer, K Ulrich

    2016-11-01

    The Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a major mediator of long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD), two opposing forms of synaptic plasticity underlying learning, memory and cognition. The heterozygous CaMKIIα isoform KO (CaMKIIα(+/-)) mice have a schizophrenia-related phenotype, including impaired working memory. Here, we examined synaptic strength and plasticity in two brain areas implicated in working memory, hippocampus CA1 and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Young CaMKIIα(+/-) mice (postnatal days 12-16; corresponding to a developmental stage well before schizophrenia manifestation in humans) showed impaired hippocampal CA1 LTP. However, this LTP impairment normalized over development and was no longer detected in older CaMKIIα(+/-) mice (postnatal weeks 9-11; corresponding to young adults). By contrast, the CaMKIIα(+/-) mice failed to show the developmental increase of basal synaptic transmission in the CA1 seen in wild-type (WT) mice, resulting in impaired basal synaptic transmission in the older CaMKIIα(+/-) mice. Other electrophysiological parameters were normal, including mPFC basal transmission, LTP, and paired-pulse facilitation, as well as CA1 LTD, depotentiation, and paired-pulse facilitation at either age tested. Hippocampal CaMKIIα levels were ∼60% of WT in both the older CaMKIIα(+/-) mice and in the younger WT mice, resulting in ∼30% of adult WT expression in the younger CaMKIIα(+/-) mice; levels in frontal cortex were the same as in hippocampus. Thus, in young mice, ∼30% of adult CaMKIIα expression is sufficient for normal LTD and depotentiation, while normal LTP requires higher levels, with ∼60% of CaMKIIα expression sufficient for normal LTP in adult mice.

  3. Age-specific autistic-like behaviors in heterozygous Fmr1-KO female mice.

    PubMed

    Gauducheau, Manon; Lemaire-Mayo, Valerie; D'Amato, Francesca R; Oddi, Diego; Crusio, Wim E; Pietropaolo, Susanna

    2017-06-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a major developmental disorder and the most frequent monogenic cause of autism. Surprisingly, most existing studies on the Fmr1-KO mouse model for FXS have focused on males, although FX women, who are mostly heterozygous for the Fmr1 mutation, are known to exhibit several behavioral deficits, including autistic-like features. Furthermore, most animal research has been carried out on adults only; so that little is known about the age progression of the behavioral phenotype of Fmr1 mutants, which is a crucial issue to optimize the impact of therapeutic interventions. Here, we performed an extensive analysis of autistic-like social behaviors in heterozygous (HET) Fmr1-KO females and their WT littermates at different ages. No behavioral difference between HET and WT mice was observed at infancy, but some abnormalities in social interaction and communication were first detected at juvenile age. At adulthood some of these alterations disappeared, but avoidance of social novelty appeared, together with other FXS-relevant behavioral deficits, such as hyperactivity and reduced contextual fear response. Our data provide for the first time evidence for the presence of autistic-relevant behavioral abnormalities in Fmr1-HET female mice, demonstrating the utility of this mouse line to model autistic-like behaviors in both sexes. These results also highlight the importance of taking into account age differences when using the Fmr1-KO mouse model, suggesting that the early post-natal phases are the most promising target for preventive interventions and the adult age is the most appropriate to investigate the behavioral impact of potential therapies. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1067-1078. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. CaV3.2 KO mice have altered retinal waves but normal direction selectivity.

    PubMed

    Hamby, Aaron M; Rosa, Juliana M; Hsu, Ching-Hsiu; Feller, Marla B

    2015-01-01

    Early in development, before the onset of vision, the retina establishes direction-selective responses. During this time period, the retina spontaneously generates bursts of action potentials that propagate across its extent. The precise spatial and temporal properties of these "retinal waves" have been implicated in the formation of retinal projections to the brain. However, their role in the development of direction selective circuits within the retina has not yet been determined. We addressed this issue by combining multielectrode array and cell-attached recordings to examine mice that lack the CaV3.2 subunit of T-type Ca2+ channels (CaV3.2 KO) because these mice exhibit disrupted waves during the period that direction selective circuits are established. We found that the spontaneous activity of these mice displays wave-associated bursts of action potentials that are altered from that of control mice: the frequency of these bursts is significantly decreased and the firing rate within each burst is reduced. Moreover, the projection patterns of the retina demonstrate decreased eye-specific segregation in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN). However, after eye-opening, the direction selective responses of CaV3.2 KO direction selective ganglion cells (DSGCs) are indistinguishable from those of wild-type DSGCs. Our data indicate that although the temporal properties of the action potential bursts associated with retinal waves are important for activity-dependent refining of retinal projections to central targets, they are not critical for establishing direction selectivity in the retina.

  5. Heterozygous Che-1 KO mice show deficiencies in object recognition memory persistence.

    PubMed

    Zalcman, Gisela; Corbi, Nicoletta; Di Certo, Maria Grazia; Mattei, Elisabetta; Federman, Noel; Romano, Arturo

    2016-10-06

    Transcriptional regulation is a key process in the formation of long-term memories. Che-1 is a protein involved in the regulation of gene transcription that has recently been proved to bind the transcription factor NF-κB, which is known to be involved in many memory-related molecular events. This evidence prompted us to investigate the putative role of Che-1 in memory processes. For this study we newly generated a line of Che-1(+/-) heterozygous mice. Che-1 homozygous KO mouse is lethal during development, but Che-1(+/-) heterozygous mouse is normal in its general anatomical and physiological characteristics. We analyzed the behavioral characteristic and memory performance of Che-1(+/-) mice in two NF-κB dependent types of memory. We found that Che-1(+/-) mice show similar locomotor activity and thigmotactic behavior than wild type (WT) mice in an open field. In a similar way, no differences were found in anxiety-like behavior between Che-1(+/-) and WT mice in an elevated plus maze as well as in fear response in a contextual fear conditioning (CFC) and object exploration in a novel object recognition (NOR) task. No differences were found between WT and Che-1(+/-) mice performance in CFC training and when tested at 24h or 7days after training. Similar performance was found between groups in NOR task, both in training and 24h testing performance. However, we found that object recognition memory persistence at 7days was impaired in Che-1(+/-) heterozygous mice. This is the first evidence showing that Che-1 is involved in memory processes.

  6. Fmr1 KO mice as a possible model of autistic features.

    PubMed

    Bernardet, Maude; Crusio, Wim E

    2006-09-20

    Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder appearing before the age of 3, where communication and social interactions are impaired. It also entails stereotypic behavior or restricted interests. Although this disorder was first described in 1943, little is still known about its etiology and that of related developmental disorders. Work with human patients has provided many data on neuropathological and cognitive symptoms, but our understanding of the functional defects at the cellular level and how they come about remains sketchy. To improve this situation, autism research is in need of valid animal models. However, despite a strong hereditary component, attempts to identify genes have generally failed, suggesting that many different genes are involved. As a high proportion of patients suffering from the Fragile X Syndrome show many autistic symptoms, a mouse model of this disorder could potentially also serve as a model for autism. The Fmr1 KO mouse is a valid model of the Fragile X Syndrome and many data on behavioral and sensory-motor characteristics of this model have been gathered. We present here an assessment of autistic features in this candidate model. We conclude that Fmr1 KO mice display several autistic-like features, but more work is needed to validate this model.

  7. Dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids rescues fragile X phenotypes in Fmr1-Ko mice.

    PubMed

    Pietropaolo, Susanna; Goubran, Mina G; Joffre, Corinne; Aubert, Agnes; Lemaire-Mayo, Valerie; Crusio, Wim E; Layé, Sophie

    2014-11-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are known to critically influence brain development and functions. Dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFAs has been suggested as a non-pharmacological therapy for a number of developmental disorders, e.g., autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), but human studies so far have led to conflicting results. Furthermore, it has been hypothesized that the therapeutic impact of n-3 PUFAs on these disorders might be explained by their anti-inflammatory properties and their promoting effects on synaptic function and plasticity, but no clear evidence has been produced in this direction. We evaluated the impact of n-3 PUFA dietary supplementation in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome (FXS), i.e., a major developmental disease and the most frequent monogenic cause of ASD. Fmr1-KO and wild-type mice were provided with a diet enriched or not with n-3 PUFAs from weaning until adulthood when they were tested for multiple FXS-like behaviors. The brain expression of several cytokines and of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was concomitantly assessed as inflammatory and synaptic markers. n-3 PUFA supplementation rescued most of the behavioral abnormalities displayed by Fmr1-KO mice, including alterations in emotionality, social interaction and non-spatial memory, although not their deficits in social recognition and spatial memory. n-3 PUFAs also rescued most of the neuroinflammatory imbalances of KOs, but had a limited impact on their BDNF deficits. These results demonstrate that n-3 PUFAs dietary supplementation, although not a panacea, has a considerable therapeutic value for FXS and potentially for ASD, suggesting a major mediating role of neuroinflammatory mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Experimental transmission of AA amyloidosis by injecting the AA amyloid protein into interleukin-1 receptor antagonist knockout (IL-1raKO) mice.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, K; Uchida, K; Chambers, J K; Tei, M; Shoji, A; Ushio, N; Nakayama, H

    2015-05-01

    The incidence of AA amyloidosis is high in humans with rheumatoid arthritis and several animal species, including cats and cattle with prolonged inflammation. AA amyloidosis can be experimentally induced in mice using severe inflammatory stimuli and a coinjection of AA amyloid; however, difficulties have been associated with transmitting AA amyloidosis to a different animal species, and this has been attributed to the "species barrier." The interleukin-1 receptor antagonist knockout (IL-1raKO) mouse, a rodent model of human rheumatoid arthritis, has been used in the transmission of AA amyloid. When IL-1raKO and BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally injected with mouse AA amyloid together with a subcutaneous pretreatment of 2% AgNO3, all mice from both strains that were injected with crude or purified murine AA amyloid developed AA amyloidosis. However, the amyloid index, which was determined by the intensity of AA amyloid deposition, was significantly higher in IL-1raKO mice than in BALB/c mice. When IL-1raKO and BALB/c mice were injected with crude or purified bovine AA amyloid together with the pretreatment, 83% (5/6 cases) and 38% (3/8 cases) of IL-1raKO mice and 17% (1/6 cases) and 0% (0/6 cases) of BALB/c mice, respectively, developed AA amyloidosis. Similarly, when IL-1raKO and BALB/c mice were injected with crude or purified feline AA amyloid, 33% (2/6 cases) and 88% (7/8 cases) of IL-1raKO mice and 0% (0/6 cases) and 29% (2/6 cases) of BALB/c mice, respectively, developed AA amyloidosis. These results indicated that IL-1raKO mice are a useful animal model for investigating AA amyloidogenesis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Ganglioside accumulation in activated glia in the developing brain: comparison between WT and GalNAcT KO mice.

    PubMed

    Saito, Mariko; Wu, Gusheng; Hui, Maria; Masiello, Kurt; Dobrenis, Kostantin; Ledeen, Robert W; Saito, Mitsuo

    2015-08-01

    Our previous studies have shown accumulation of GM2 ganglioside during ethanol-induced neurodegeneration in the developing brain, and GM2 elevation has also been reported in other brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. Using GM2/GD2 synthase KO mice lacking GM2/GD2 and downstream gangliosides, the current study explored the significance of GM2 elevation in WT mice. Immunohistochemical studies indicated that ethanol-induced acute neurodegeneration in postnatal day 7 (P7) WT mice was associated with GM2 accumulation in the late endosomes/lysosomes of both phagocytic microglia and increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes. However, in KO mice, although ethanol induced robust neurodegeneration and accumulation of GD3 and GM3 in the late endosomes/lysosomes of phagocytic microglia, it did not increase the number of GFAP-positive astrocytes, and the accumulation of GD3/GM3 in astrocytes was minimal. Not only ethanol, but also DMSO, induced GM2 elevation in activated microglia and astrocytes along with neurodegeneration in P7 WT mice, while lipopolysaccharide, which did not induce significant neurodegeneration, caused GM2 accumulation mainly in lysosomes of activated astrocytes. Thus, GM2 elevation is associated with activation of microglia and astrocytes in the injured developing brain, and GM2, GD2, or other downstream gangliosides may regulate astroglial responses in ethanol-induced neurodegeneration.

  10. Ganglioside accumulation in activated glia in the developing brain: comparison between WT and GalNAcT KO mice

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Mariko; Wu, Gusheng; Hui, Maria; Masiello, Kurt; Dobrenis, Kostantin; Ledeen, Robert W.; Saito, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies have shown accumulation of GM2 ganglioside during ethanol-induced neurodegeneration in the developing brain, and GM2 elevation has also been reported in other brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. Using GM2/GD2 synthase KO mice lacking GM2/GD2 and downstream gangliosides, the current study explored the significance of GM2 elevation in WT mice. Immunohistochemical studies indicated that ethanol-induced acute neurodegeneration in postnatal day 7 (P7) WT mice was associated with GM2 accumulation in the late endosomes/lysosomes of both phagocytic microglia and increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes. However, in KO mice, although ethanol induced robust neurodegeneration and accumulation of GD3 and GM3 in the late endosomes/lysosomes of phagocytic microglia, it did not increase the number of GFAP-positive astrocytes, and the accumulation of GD3/GM3 in astrocytes was minimal. Not only ethanol, but also DMSO, induced GM2 elevation in activated microglia and astrocytes along with neurodegeneration in P7 WT mice, while lipopolysaccharide, which did not induce significant neurodegeneration, caused GM2 accumulation mainly in lysosomes of activated astrocytes. Thus, GM2 elevation is associated with activation of microglia and astrocytes in the injured developing brain, and GM2, GD2, or other downstream gangliosides may regulate astroglial responses in ethanol-induced neurodegeneration. PMID:26063460

  11. Resting-state functional connectivity changes in aging apoE4 and apoE-KO mice.

    PubMed

    Zerbi, Valerio; Wiesmann, Maximilian; Emmerzaal, Tim L; Jansen, Diane; Van Beek, Maarten; Mutsaers, Martina P C; Beckmann, Christian F; Heerschap, Arend; Kiliaan, Amanda J

    2014-10-15

    It is well established that the cholesterol-transporter apolipoprotein ε (APOE) genotype is associated with the risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, brain functional connectivity (FC) in apoE-ε4 carriers has been investigated by means of resting-state fMRI, showing a marked differentiation in several functional networks at different ages compared with carriers of other apoE isoforms. The causes of such hampered FC are not understood. We hypothesize that vascular function and synaptic repair processes, which are both impaired in carriers of ε4, are the major contributors to the loss of FC during aging. To test this hypothesis, we integrated several different MRI techniques with immunohistochemistry and investigated FC changes in relation with perfusion, diffusion, and synaptic density in apoE4 and apoE-knock-out (KO) mice at 12 (adult) and 18 months of age. Compared with wild-type mice, we detected FC deficits in both adult and old apoE4 and apoE-KO mice. In apoE4 mice, these changes occurred concomitant with increased mean diffusivity in the hippocampus, whereas perfusion deficits appear only later in life, together with reduced postsynaptic density levels. Instead, in apoE-KO mice FC deficits were mirrored by strongly reduced brain perfusion since adulthood. In conclusion, we provide new evidence for a relation between apoE and brain connectivity, possibly mediated by vascular risk factors and by the efficiency of APOE as synaptic modulator in the brain. Our results show that multimodal MR neuroimaging is an excellent tool to assess brain function and to investigate early neuropathology and aging effects in translational research. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3413963-13$15.00/0.

  12. Enhanced erythropoiesis in Hfe-KO mice indicates a role for Hfe in the modulation of erythroid iron homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Pedro; Guy, Ella; Chen, Nan; Proenca, Catia C.; Gardenghi, Sara; Casu, Carla; Follenzi, Antonia; Van Rooijen, Nico; Grady, Robert W.; de Sousa, Maria

    2011-01-01

    In hereditary hemochromatosis, mutations in HFE lead to iron overload through abnormally low levels of hepcidin. In addition, HFE potentially modulates cellular iron uptake by interacting with transferrin receptor, a crucial protein during erythropoiesis. However, the role of HFE in this process was never explored. We hypothesize that HFE modulates erythropoiesis by affecting dietary iron absorption and erythroid iron intake. To investigate this, we used Hfe-KO mice in conditions of altered dietary iron and erythropoiesis. We show that Hfe-KO mice can overcome phlebotomy-induced anemia more rapidly than wild-type mice (even when iron loaded). Second, we evaluated mice combining the hemochromatosis and β-thalassemia phenotypes. Our results suggest that lack of Hfe is advantageous in conditions of increased erythropoietic activity because of augmented iron mobilization driven by deficient hepcidin response. Lastly, we demonstrate that Hfe is expressed in erythroid cells and impairs iron uptake, whereas its absence exclusively from the hematopoietic compartment is sufficient to accelerate recovery from phlebotomy. In summary, we demonstrate that Hfe influences erythropoiesis by 2 distinct mechanisms: limiting hepcidin expression under conditions of simultaneous iron overload and stress erythropoiesis, and impairing transferrin-bound iron uptake by erythroid cells. Moreover, our results provide novel suggestions to improve the treatment of hemochromatosis. PMID:21059897

  13. Comparative analysis of single and combined APP/APLP knockouts reveals reduced spine density in APP-KO mice that is prevented by APPsα expression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Synaptic dysfunction and synapse loss are key features of Alzheimer’s pathogenesis. Previously, we showed an essential function of APP and APLP2 for synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. Here, we used organotypic hippocampal cultures to investigate the specific role(s) of APP family members and their fragments for dendritic complexity and spine formation of principal neurons within the hippocampus. Whereas CA1 neurons from APLP1-KO or APLP2-KO mice showed normal neuronal morphology and spine density, APP-KO mice revealed a highly reduced dendritic complexity in mid-apical dendrites. Despite unaltered morphology of APLP2-KO neurons, combined APP/APLP2-DKO mutants showed an additional branching defect in proximal apical dendrites, indicating redundancy and a combined function of APP and APLP2 for dendritic architecture. Remarkably, APP-KO neurons showed a pronounced decrease in spine density and reductions in the number of mushroom spines. No further decrease in spine density, however, was detectable in APP/APLP2-DKO mice. Mechanistically, using APPsα-KI mice lacking transmembrane APP and expressing solely the secreted APPsα fragment we demonstrate that APPsα expression alone is sufficient to prevent the defects in spine density observed in APP-KO mice. Collectively, these studies reveal a combined role of APP and APLP2 for dendritic architecture and a unique function of secreted APPs for spine density. PMID:24684730

  14. Expression of HLA Class II Molecules in Humanized NOD.Rag1KO.IL2RgcKO Mice Is Critical for Development and Function of Human T and B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Danner, Rebecca; Chaudhari, Snehal N.; Rosenberger, John; Surls, Jacqueline; Richie, Thomas L.; Brumeanu, Teodor-Doru; Casares, Sofia

    2011-01-01

    Background Humanized mice able to reconstitute a surrogate human immune system (HIS) can be used for studies on human immunology and may provide a predictive preclinical model for human vaccines prior to clinical trials. However, current humanized mouse models show sub-optimal human T cell reconstitution and limited ability to support immunoglobulin class switching by human B cells. This limitation has been attributed to the lack of expression of Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA) molecules in mouse lymphoid organs. Recently, humanized mice expressing HLA class I molecules have been generated but showed little improvement in human T cell reconstitution and function of T and B cells. Methods We have generated NOD.Rag1KO.IL2RγcKO mice expressing HLA class II (HLA-DR4) molecules under the I-Ed promoter that were infused as adults with HLA-DR-matched human hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). Littermates lacking expression of HLA-DR4 molecules were used as control. Results HSC-infused HLA-DR4.NOD.Rag1KO.IL-2RγcKO mice developed a very high reconstitution rate (>90%) with long-lived and functional human T and B cells. Unlike previous humanized mouse models reported in the literature and our control mice, the HLA-DR4 expressing mice reconstituted serum levels (natural antibodies) of human IgM, IgG (all four subclasses), IgA, and IgE comparable to humans, and elicited high titers of specific human IgG antibodies upon tetanus toxoid vaccination. Conclusions Our study demonstrates the critical role of HLA class II molecules for development of functional human T cells able to support immunoglobulin class switching and efficiently respond to vaccination. PMID:21611197

  15. p110Delta Inhibits Monocyte Infiltration by Thioglycollate-Induced Periotoneal Inflammation but Not HCD-Induced Inflammation and Atherosclerosis in APOE KO Mice.

    PubMed

    Tang, Futian; Li, Xiaoqiang; Gui, Yali; Qi, Cuiling; Lu, Meili; Dai, Chunmei; Wang, Hongxin; Wang, Lijing

    2015-09-01

    We have previously reported that phosphoinositide 3-kinase p110δ knockout (p110δ KO) diminished the adhesion of leukocytes to capillary venules and suppressed the peritoneal infiltration of leukocytes, both functions that play important roles in atherosclerosis. Therefore, we hypothesized that p110δ deficiency might be protective against atherosclerosis. Apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE KO) mice were crossed with p110δ KO mice to generate homozygous double knockout mice (ApoE/p110δ DKO). The present study showed that ApoE/p110δ DKO mice fed with a high cholesterol diet (HCD) demonstrated less peritoneal infiltration of leukocytes and monocytes compared with ApoE KO mice after intraperitoneal injection of thioglycollate, an inducer of acute peritoneal inflammation. Unexpectedly, atherosclerosis in the aortic root and in the entire aorta was similar between the ApoE/p110δ DKO and ApoE KO groups. No difference in Mac-3 expression, indicative of macrophage infiltration, was found between the two groups. Further analysis showed that ApoE KO mice chronically fed with HCD had increased levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein in the blood and counts and percentages of circulating monocytes compared with ApoE KO mice fed with a normal diet. Consistently, the deficiency of p110δ affected neither the counts nor the percentages of monocytes nor the lipid profiles in the blood. The results suggested that p110δ plays an important role in acute but not in chronic inflammation, the latter being included in the early characteristics of atherosclerosis, which might explain the finding that p110δ deficiency fails to inhibit early atherosclerosis.

  16. Histone acetylation rescues contextual fear conditioning in nNOS KO mice and accelerates extinction of cued fear conditioning in wild type mice.

    PubMed

    Itzhak, Yossef; Anderson, Karen L; Kelley, Jonathan B; Petkov, Martin

    2012-05-01

    Epigenetic regulation of chromatin structure is an essential molecular mechanism that contributes to the formation of synaptic plasticity and long-term memory (LTM). An important regulatory process of chromatin structure is acetylation and deacetylation of histone proteins. Inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) increases acetylation of histone proteins and facilitate learning and memory. Nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway has a role in synaptic plasticity, LTM and regulation of histone acetylation. We have previously shown that NO signaling pathway is required for contextual fear conditioning. The present study investigated the effects of systemic administration of the HDAC inhibitor sodium butyrate (NaB) on fear conditioning in neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) mice. The effect of single administration of NaB on total H3 and H4 histone acetylation in hippocampus and amygdala was also investigated. A single administration of NaB prior to fear conditioning (a) rescued contextual fear conditioning of nNOS KO mice and (b) had long-term (weeks) facilitatory effect on the extinction of cued fear memory of WT mice. The facilitatory effect of NaB on extinction of cued fear memory of WT mice was confirmed in a study whereupon NaB was administered during extinction. Results suggest that (a) the rescue of contextual fear conditioning in nNOS KO mice is associated with NaB-induced increase in H3 histone acetylation and (b) the accelerated extinction of cued fear memory in WT mice is associated with NaB-induced increase in H4 histone acetylation. Hence, a single administration of HDAC inhibitor may rescue NO-dependent cognitive deficits and afford a long-term accelerating effect on extinction of fear memory of WT mice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Senescent Atrophic Epidermis Retains Lrig1+ Stem Cells and Loses Wnt Signaling, a Phenotype Shared with CD44KO Mice

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Laurent; Saurat, Jean-Hilaire; Kaya, Gürkan

    2017-01-01

    Lrig1 is known to repress the epidermal growth through its inhibitory activity on EGFR, while CD44 promotes it. We analyzed the expression of these molecules in senescent atrophic human epidermis and in the epidermis of CD44KO mice. In normal human epidermis, Lrig1+ cells form clusters located in the basal layer in which CD44 expression is downregulated and Lef1 expression reflects an active Wnt signaling. In senescent atrophic human epidermis, we found retention of Lrig1high+ cells all along the basal layer, forming no clusters, with decrease of CD44 and lef1 expression. In vitro silencing of CD44 indicated that CD44 may be required for Wnt signaling. However, if looking at the ear epidermis of CD44KO mice, we only found a limited interfollicular epidermal atrophy and unchanged Lrig1high+ cells in the hair follicle. Cell lineage tracing further revealed that interfollicular epidermis did lost its self-renewing capacity but that its homeostasis relied on Lrig1-derived keratinocytes migrating from the hair follicle. Therefore, we conclude that CD44 downregulation is part of the phenotype of senescent atrophic human epidermis, and contributes to reduce Wnt signaling and to alter Lrig1high+ stem cell distribution. PMID:28099467

  18. Rescue of fragile X syndrome phenotypes in Fmr1 KO mice by a BKCa channel opener molecule.

    PubMed

    Hébert, Betty; Pietropaolo, Susanna; Même, Sandra; Laudier, Béatrice; Laugeray, Anthony; Doisne, Nicolas; Quartier, Angélique; Lefeuvre, Sandrine; Got, Laurence; Cahard, Dominique; Laumonnier, Frédéric; Crusio, Wim E; Pichon, Jacques; Menuet, Arnaud; Perche, Olivier; Briault, Sylvain

    2014-08-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability and is also associated with autism spectrum disorders. Previous studies implicated BKCa channels in the neuropathogenesis of FXS, but the main question was whether pharmacological BKCa stimulation would be able to rescue FXS neurobehavioral phenotypes. We used a selective BKCa channel opener molecule (BMS-204352) to address this issue in Fmr1 KO mice, modeling the FXS pathophysiology. In vitro, acute BMS-204352 treatment (10 μM) restored the abnormal dendritic spine phenotype. In vivo, a single injection of BMS-204352 (2 mg/kg) rescued the hippocampal glutamate homeostasis and the behavioral phenotype. Indeed, disturbances in social recognition and interaction, non-social anxiety, and spatial memory were corrected by BMS-204352 in Fmr1 KO mice. These results demonstrate that the BKCa channel is a new therapeutic target for FXS. We show that BMS-204352 rescues a broad spectrum of behavioral impairments (social, emotional and cognitive) in an animal model of FXS. This pharmacological molecule might open new ways for FXS therapy.

  19. Senescent Atrophic Epidermis Retains Lrig1+ Stem Cells and Loses Wnt Signaling, a Phenotype Shared with CD44KO Mice.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Laurent; Saurat, Jean-Hilaire; Kaya, Gürkan

    2017-01-01

    Lrig1 is known to repress the epidermal growth through its inhibitory activity on EGFR, while CD44 promotes it. We analyzed the expression of these molecules in senescent atrophic human epidermis and in the epidermis of CD44KO mice. In normal human epidermis, Lrig1+ cells form clusters located in the basal layer in which CD44 expression is downregulated and Lef1 expression reflects an active Wnt signaling. In senescent atrophic human epidermis, we found retention of Lrig1high+ cells all along the basal layer, forming no clusters, with decrease of CD44 and lef1 expression. In vitro silencing of CD44 indicated that CD44 may be required for Wnt signaling. However, if looking at the ear epidermis of CD44KO mice, we only found a limited interfollicular epidermal atrophy and unchanged Lrig1high+ cells in the hair follicle. Cell lineage tracing further revealed that interfollicular epidermis did lost its self-renewing capacity but that its homeostasis relied on Lrig1-derived keratinocytes migrating from the hair follicle. Therefore, we conclude that CD44 downregulation is part of the phenotype of senescent atrophic human epidermis, and contributes to reduce Wnt signaling and to alter Lrig1high+ stem cell distribution.

  20. Rescue of fragile X syndrome phenotypes in Fmr1 KO mice by a BKCa channel opener molecule

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability and is also associated with autism spectrum disorders. Previous studies implicated BKCa channels in the neuropathogenesis of FXS, but the main question was whether pharmacological BKCa stimulation would be able to rescue FXS neurobehavioral phenotypes. Methods and results We used a selective BKCa channel opener molecule (BMS-204352) to address this issue in Fmr1 KO mice, modeling the FXS pathophysiology. In vitro, acute BMS-204352 treatment (10 μM) restored the abnormal dendritic spine phenotype. In vivo, a single injection of BMS-204352 (2 mg/kg) rescued the hippocampal glutamate homeostasis and the behavioral phenotype. Indeed, disturbances in social recognition and interaction, non-social anxiety, and spatial memory were corrected by BMS-204352 in Fmr1 KO mice. Conclusion These results demonstrate that the BKCa channel is a new therapeutic target for FXS. We show that BMS-204352 rescues a broad spectrum of behavioral impairments (social, emotional and cognitive) in an animal model of FXS. This pharmacological molecule might open new ways for FXS therapy. PMID:25079250

  1. The effect of methanol extracts of tsao-ko (Amomum tsao-ko Crevost et Lemaire) on digestive enzyme and antioxidant activity in vitro, and plasma lipids and glucose and liver lipids in mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Longquan; Shirai, Nobuya; Suzuki, Hiramitsu; Sugane, Nozomi; Hosono, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Yoshijiro; Kajiwara, Masahiro; Takatori, Kazuhiro

    2010-01-01

    Our previous study showed that tsao-ko intake can lower plasma and liver triacylglycerol (TG) concentrations and has hypoglycemic and antioxidant activity in mice. This study involved separating two major fractions (A and B) from the methanol extracts (MeX) of tsao-ko using silica gel column chromatography, and then determining the effect of the fractions in vivo and in vitro to clarify the most effective components of tsao-ko. An intake of MeX and A fraction statistically significantly reduced body lipids and plasma thiobarbitutic acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentrations compared with the control and inhibited lipase and alpha-glucosidase activities. These reductions were not observed in mice fed the B fraction and these inhibitions of B fraction were mild compared with MeX and A fraction. The plasma and liver TG concentrations of each fraction group did not show significant differences compared with the control. The [M-H](+) and maximum UV absorption of the A fraction were 291 m/z and 279 nm, respectively. The peak of A fraction appeared at a similar time to the epicatechin standard in the LC/MS/MS analysis and the MS/MS spectrum of the A fraction was similar to that of the epicatechin standard. It was concluded that the most effective component of tsao-ko for body lipid reduction and hypoglycemic and antioxidant activity was contained in the polar fraction and the evidence suggested that this component could be epicatechin. However, the strongest TG lowering components of tsao-ko may be methanol insoluble.

  2. Calcium sensitivity and myofilament lattice structure in titin N2B KO mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Jeong; Nedrud, Joshua; Schemmel, Peter; Gotthardt, Michael; Irving, Thomas C; Granzier, Henk L

    2013-07-01

    The cellular basis of the Frank-Starling "Law of the Heart" is the length-dependence of activation, but the mechanisms by which the sarcomere detects length changes and converts this information to altered calcium sensitivity has remained elusive. Here the effect of titin-based passive tension on the length-dependence of activation (LDA) was studied by measuring the tension-pCa relation in skinned mouse LV muscle at two sarcomere lengths (SLs). N2B KO myocardium, where the N2B spring element in titin is deleted and passive tension is elevated, was compared to WT myocardium. Myofilament lattice structure was studied with low-angle X-ray diffraction; the myofilament lattice spacing (d1,0) was measured as well as the ratio of the intensities of the 1,1 and 1,0 diffraction peaks (I1,1/I1,0) as an estimate of the degree of association of myosin heads with the thin filaments. Experiments were carried out in skinned muscle in which the lattice spacing was reduced with Dextran-T500. Experiments with and without lattice compression were also carried out following PKA phosphorylation of the skinned muscle. Under all conditions that were tested, LDA was significantly larger in N2B KO myocardium compared to WT myocardium, with the largest differences following PKA phosphorylation. A positive correlation between passive tension and LDA was found that persisted when the myofilament lattice was compressed with Dextran and that was enhanced following PKA phosphorylation. Low-angle X-ray diffraction revealed a shift in mass from thin filaments to thick filaments as sarcomere length was increased. Furthermore, a positive correlation was obtained between myofilament lattice spacing and passive tension and the change in I1,1/I1,0 and passive tension and these provide possible explanations for how titin-based passive tension might regulate calcium sensitivity.

  3. Residual Chemoresponsiveness to Acids in the Superior Laryngeal Nerve in “Taste-Blind” (P2X2/P2X3 Double-KO) Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ohkuri, Tadahiro; Horio, Nao; Stratford, Jennifer M.; Finger, Thomas E.; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2012-01-01

    Mice lacking both the P2X2 and the P2X3 purinergic receptors (P2X-dblKO) exhibit loss of responses to all taste qualities in the taste nerves innervating the tongue. Similarly, these mice exhibit a near total loss of taste-related behaviors in brief access tests except for a near-normal avoidance of acidic stimuli. This persistent avoidance of acids despite the loss of gustatory neural responses to sour was postulated to be due to continued responsiveness of the superior laryngeal (SL) nerve. However, chemoresponses of the larynx are attributable both to taste buds and to free nerve endings. In order to test whether the SL nerve of P2X-dblKO mice remains responsive to acids but not to other tastants, we recorded responses from the SL nerve in wild-type (WT) and P2X-dblKO mice. WT mice showed substantial SL responses to monosodium glutamate, sucrose, urea, and denatonium—all of which were essentially absent in P2X-dblKO animals. In contrast, the SL nerve of P2X-dblKO mice exhibited near-normal responses to citric acid (50 mM) although responsiveness of both the chorda tympani and the glossopharyngeal nerves to this stimulus were absent or greatly reduced. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the residual avoidance of acidic solutions by P2X-dblKO mice may be attributable to the direct chemosensitivity of nerve fibers innervating the laryngeal epithelium and not to taste. PMID:22362867

  4. Comparative study of dermal components and plasma TGF-β1 levels in Slc39a13/Zip13-KO mice

    PubMed Central

    HIROSE, Takuya; OGURA, Takayuki; TANAKA, Keisuke; MINAGUCHI, Jun; YAMAUCHI, Takeshi; FUKADA, Toshiyuki; KOYAMA, Yoh-ichi; TAKEHANA, Kazushige

    2015-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a group of disorders caused by abnormalities that are identified in the extracellular matrix. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) plays a crucial role in formation of the extracellular matrix. It has been reported that the loss of function of zinc transporter ZRT/IRT-like protein 13 (ZIP13) causes the spondylocheiro dysplastic form of EDS (SCD-EDS: OMIM 612350), in which dysregulation of the TGF-β1 signaling pathway is observed, although the relationship between the dermis abnormalities and peripheral TGF-β1 level has been unclear. We investigated the characteristics of the dermis of the Zip13-knockout (KO) mouse, an animal model for SCD-EDS. Both the ratio of dermatan sulfate (DS) in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) components and the amount of collagen were decreased, and there were very few collagen fibrils with diameters of more than 150 nm in Zip13-KO mice dermis. We also found that the TGF-β1 level was significantly higher in Zip13-KO mice serum. These results suggest that collagen synthesis and collagen fibril fusion might be impaired in Zip13-KO mice and that the possible decrease of decorin level by reduction of the DS ratio probably caused an increase of free TGF-β1 in Zip13-KO mice. In conclusion, skin fragility due to defective ZIP13 protein may be attributable to impaired extracellular matrix synthesis accompanied by abnormal peripheral TGF-β homeostasis. PMID:26050750

  5. Sustained Toll-Like Receptor 9 Activation Promotes Systemic and Cardiac Inflammation, and Aggravates Diastolic Heart Failure in SERCA2a KO Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dhondup, Yangchen; Sjaastad, Ivar; Scott, Helge; Sandanger, Øystein; Zhang, Lili; Haugstad, Solveig Bjærum; Aronsen, Jan Magnus; Ranheim, Trine; Holmen, Sigve Dhondup; Alfsnes, Katrine; Ahmed, Muhammad Shakil; Attramadal, Håvard; Gullestad, Lars; Aukrust, Pål; Christensen, Geir; Yndestad, Arne; Vinge, Leif Erik

    2015-01-01

    Aim Cardiac inflammation is important in the pathogenesis of heart failure. However, the consequence of systemic inflammation on concomitant established heart failure, and in particular diastolic heart failure, is less explored. Here we investigated the impact of systemic inflammation, caused by sustained Toll-like receptor 9 activation, on established diastolic heart failure. Methods and Results Diastolic heart failure was established in 8–10 week old cardiomyocyte specific, inducible SERCA2a knock out (i.e., SERCA2a KO) C57Bl/6J mice. Four weeks after conditional KO, mice were randomized to receive Toll-like receptor 9 agonist (CpG B; 2μg/g body weight) or PBS every third day. After additional four weeks, echocardiography, phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging, histology, flow cytometry, and cardiac RNA analyses were performed. A subgroup was followed, registering morbidity and death. Non-heart failure control groups treated with CpG B or PBS served as controls. Our main findings were: (i) Toll-like receptor 9 activation (CpG B) reduced life expectancy in SERCA2a KO mice compared to PBS treated SERCA2a KO mice. (ii) Diastolic function was lower in SERCA2a KO mice with Toll-like receptor 9 activation. (iii) Toll-like receptor 9 stimulated SERCA2a KO mice also had increased cardiac and systemic inflammation. Conclusion Sustained activation of Toll-like receptor 9 causes cardiac and systemic inflammation, and deterioration of SERCA2a depletion-mediated diastolic heart failure. PMID:26461521

  6. Endogenously determined restriction of food intake overcomes excitation-contraction uncoupling in JP45KO mice with aging.

    PubMed

    Delbono, Osvaldo; Messi, Maria Laura; Wang, Zhong-Min; Treves, Susan; Mosca, Barbara; Bergamelli, Leda; Nishi, Miyuki; Takeshima, Hiroshi; Shi, Hang; Xue, Bingzhong; Zorzato, Francesco

    2012-04-01

    The decline in muscular strength with age is disproportionate to the loss in total muscle mass that causes it. Knocking out JP45, an integral protein of the junctional face membrane of the skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), results in decreased expression of the voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel, Ca(v)1.1; excitation-contraction uncoupling (ECU); and loss of muscle force (Delbono et al., 2007). Here, we show that Ca(v)1.1 expression, charge movement, SR Ca(2+) release, in vitro contractile force, and sustained forced running remain stable in male JP45KO mice at 12 and 18 months. They also exhibit the level of ECU reported for 3-4-month mice (Delbono et al., 2007). No further decline at later ages was recorded. Preserved ECC was not related to increased expression of any protein that directly or indirectly interacts with JP45 at the triad junction. However, maintained muscle force and physical performance were associated with ablation of JP45 expression in the brain, spontaneous and significantly diminished food intake and less tendency toward obesity when exposed to a high-fat diet compared to WT. We propose that (1) endogenously generated restriction in food intake overcomes the deleterious effects of JP45 ablation on ECC and skeletal muscle force mainly through downregulation of neuropeptide-Y expression in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus; and (2) the JP45KO mouse constitutes an invaluable model to examine the mechanisms controlling food intake as well as skeletal muscle function with aging.

  7. Endogenously Determined Restriction of Food Intake Overcomes Excitation-Contraction Uncoupling in JP45KO Mice with Aging

    PubMed Central

    Delbono, Osvaldo; Messi, Maria Laura; Wang, Zhong-Min; Treves, Susan; Mosca, Barbara; Bergamelli, Leda; Nishi, Miyuki; Takeshima, Hiroshi; Shi, Hang; Xue, Bingzhong; Zorzato, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    The decline in muscular strength with age is disproportionate to the loss in total muscle mass that causes it. Knocking out JP45, an integral protein of the junctional face membrane of the skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), results in decreased expression of the voltage-gated Ca2+ channel, Cav1.1; excitation-contraction uncoupling (ECU); and loss of muscle force (Delbono et al., 2007). Here, we show that Cav1.1 expression, charge movement, SR Ca2+ release, in vitro contractile force, and sustained forced running remain stable in male JP45KO mice at 12 and 18 months. They also exhibit the level of ECU reported for 3–4-month mice (Delbono et al., 2007). No further decline at later ages was recorded. Preserved ECC was not related to increased expression of any protein that directly or indirectly interacts with JP45 at the triad junction. However, maintained muscle force and physical performance were associated with ablation of JP45 expression in the brain, spontaneous and significantly diminished food intake and less tendency toward obesity when exposed to a high-fat diet compared to WT. We propose that (1) endogenously generated restriction in food intake overcomes the deleterious effects of JP45 ablation on ECC and skeletal muscle force mainly through downregulation of neuropeptide-Y expression in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus; and (2) the JP45KO mouse constitutes an invaluable model to examine the mechanisms controlling food intake as well as skeletal muscle function with aging. PMID:22297108

  8. ApoE gene delivery inhibits severe hypercholesterolemia in newborn ApoE-KO mice.

    PubMed

    Signori, Emanuela; Rinaldi, Monica; Fioretti, Daniela; Iurescia, Sandra; Seripa, Davide; Perrone, Giuseppe; Norata, Giuseppe Danilo; Catapano, Alberico Luigi; Fazio, Vito Michele

    2007-09-21

    Apolipoprotein E, a key regulator in cholesterol-rich lipoprotein metabolism, is considered a strong candidate for treating hypercholesterolemia and cardiovascular disease. Inherited deficiency of this protein results in type III hyperlipoproteinemia in humans. ApoE-knockout mice, which develop spontaneous hypercholesterolemia, are an excellent model of human atherosclerosis. Here we investigated the therapeutic effects of a plasmid vector encoding human APOE3 sequence intramuscularly injected in hypercholesterolemic newborn mice at the ages of 5 and 14 days. We further explored the possibility of inducing tolerance in newborns when injected early. Our data show that direct i.m. naked DNA injection reduces severe hypercholesterolemia in newborn mice. Moreover, when naked DNA is administrated early, no immune response is generated against the human APOE, allowing repeated administrations. Neonatal therapies are important for the treatment of many genetic childhood diseases where early administration is required to prevent developmental damage. We propose the use of direct i.m. naked gene transfer in newborns to prevent long-term damages arising from hypercholesterolemic conditions.

  9. Electrical Stimulation Using Conductive Polymer Polypyrrole Counters Reduced Neurite Outgrowth of Primary Prefrontal Cortical Neurons from NRG1-KO and DISC1-LI Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingsheng; Esrafilzadeh, Dorna; Crook, Jeremy M; Kapsa, Robert; Stewart, Elise M; Tomaskovic-Crook, Eva; Wallace, Gordon G; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2017-02-15

    Deficits in neurite outgrowth, possibly involving dysregulation of risk genes neuregulin-1 (NRG1) and disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) have been implicated in psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Electrical stimulation using conductive polymers has been shown to stimulate neurite outgrowth of differentiating human neural stem cells. This study investigated the use of the electroactive conductive polymer polypyrrole (Ppy) to counter impaired neurite outgrowth of primary pre-frontal cortical (PFC) neurons from NRG1-knock out (NRG1-KO) and DISC1-locus impairment (DISC1-LI) mice. Whereas NRG1-KO and DISC1-LI exhibited reduced neurite length and number of neurite branches compared to wild-type controls, this was not apparent for cultures on electroactive Ppy. Additionally, the use of the Ppy substrate normalised the synaptophysin and PSD95 protein and mRNA expression whereas both are usually reduced by NRG1-KO or DISC1-LI. Our findings support the utility of Ppy mediated electrical stimulation to prevent the reduction of neurite outgrowth and related synaptic protein expression in the primary PFC neurons from NRG1-KO and DISC1-LI mice, providing proof-of-concept for treating neurodevelopmental diseases including schizophrenia.

  10. Electrical Stimulation Using Conductive Polymer Polypyrrole Counters Reduced Neurite Outgrowth of Primary Prefrontal Cortical Neurons from NRG1-KO and DISC1-LI Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingsheng; Esrafilzadeh, Dorna; Crook, Jeremy M.; Kapsa, Robert; Stewart, Elise M.; Tomaskovic-Crook, Eva; Wallace, Gordon G.; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Deficits in neurite outgrowth, possibly involving dysregulation of risk genes neuregulin-1 (NRG1) and disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) have been implicated in psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Electrical stimulation using conductive polymers has been shown to stimulate neurite outgrowth of differentiating human neural stem cells. This study investigated the use of the electroactive conductive polymer polypyrrole (Ppy) to counter impaired neurite outgrowth of primary pre-frontal cortical (PFC) neurons from NRG1-knock out (NRG1-KO) and DISC1-locus impairment (DISC1-LI) mice. Whereas NRG1-KO and DISC1-LI exhibited reduced neurite length and number of neurite branches compared to wild-type controls, this was not apparent for cultures on electroactive Ppy. Additionally, the use of the Ppy substrate normalised the synaptophysin and PSD95 protein and mRNA expression whereas both are usually reduced by NRG1-KO or DISC1-LI. Our findings support the utility of Ppy mediated electrical stimulation to prevent the reduction of neurite outgrowth and related synaptic protein expression in the primary PFC neurons from NRG1-KO and DISC1-LI mice, providing proof-of-concept for treating neurodevelopmental diseases including schizophrenia. PMID:28198409

  11. Insulin Resistance Promotes Early Atherosclerosis via Increased Proinflammatory Proteins and Oxidative Stress in Fructose-Fed ApoE-KO Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cannizzo, Beatriz; Luján, Agustín; Estrella, Natalia; Lembo, Carina; Cruzado, Montserrat; Castro, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    High fructose intake induces an insulin resistance state associated with metabolic syndrome (MS). The effect of vascular inflammation in this model is not completely addressed. The aim of this study was to evaluate vascular remodeling, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, and atheroma development in high-fructose diet-induced insulin resistance of ApoE-deficient mice (ApoE-KO). Mice were fed with either a normal chow or a 10% w/v fructose (HF) in drinking water over a period of 8 weeks. Thereafter, plasma metabolic parameters, vascular remodeling, atheroma lesion size, inflammatory markers, and NAD(P)H oxidase activity in the arteries were determined. HF diet induced a marked increase in plasma glucose, insulin, and triglycerides in ApoE-KO mice, provoked vascular remodeling, enhanced expression of vascular cell-adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and matrix metalloprotease 9 (MMP-9) and enlarged atherosclerotic lesion in aortic and carotid arteries. NAD(P)H oxidase activity was enhanced by fructose intake, and this effect was attenuated by tempol, a superoxide dismutase mimetic, and losartan, an Angiotensin II receptor antagonist. Our study results show that high-fructose-induced insulin resistance promotes a proinflammatory and prooxidant state which accelerates atherosclerotic plaque formation in ApoE-KO mice. PMID:22474431

  12. Cytokine Profile Associated with Selective Removal of Natural Anti-αGal Antibodies in a Sepsis Model in Gal-KO Mice.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Cruz, Magdiel; Bello-Gil, Daniel; Costa, Cristina; Mañez, Rafael

    2017-02-01

    Selective depletion of natural anti-Galα1-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc (so-called anti-αGal) antibodies is achieved in α1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout (Gal-KO) mice by administration of the soluble glycoconjugate of αGal GAS914. This molecule removed up to 90% of natural circulating anti-αGal antibodies without causing unspecific production of cytokines in wild-type (CBA) and Gal-KO mice. However, the removal of anti-αGal antibodies in Gal-KO mice with GAS914 in the context of sepsis after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was associated with a significant increase in the production of leptin, CXLC1, CXLC13, and TIMP-1 cytokines compared to vehicle (PBS)-treated controls. Despite the current lack of understanding of the underlying mechanism, our data suggest a putative role of natural anti-αGal antibodies in the regulation of some cytokines during sepsis.

  13. mTOR regulates the expression of DNA damage response enzymes in long-lived Snell dwarf, GHRKO, and PAPPA-KO mice.

    PubMed

    Dominick, Graham; Bowman, Jacqueline; Li, Xinna; Miller, Richard A; Garcia, Gonzalo G

    2017-02-01

    Studies of the mTOR pathway have prompted speculation that diminished mTOR complex-1 (mTORC1) function may be involved in controlling the aging process. Our previous studies have shown diminished mTORC1 activity in tissues of three long-lived mutant mice: Snell dwarf mice, growth hormone receptor gene disrupted mice (GHRKO), and in this article, mice deficient in the pregnancy-associated protein-A (PAPPA-KO). The ways in which lower mTOR signals slow aging and age-related diseases are, however, not well characterized. Here, we show that Snell, GHKRO, and PAPPA-KO mice express high levels of two proteins involved in DNA repair, O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) and N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1). Furthermore, we report that lowering mTOR enhances MGMT and NDRG1 protein expression via post-transcriptional mechanisms. We show that the CCR4-NOT complex, a post-transcriptional regulator of gene expression, is downstream of the mTORC1 pathway and may be responsible for the upregulation of MGMT and NDRG1 in all three varieties of long-lived mice. Our data thus suggest a novel link between DNA repair and mTOR signaling via post-transcriptional regulation involving specific alteration in the CCR4-NOT complex, whose modulation could control multiple aspects of the aging process.

  14. Massive formation of square array junctions dramatically alters cell shape but does not cause lens opacity in the cav1-KO mice.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Sondip K; Brako, Lawrence; Lo, Woo-Kuen

    2014-08-01

    The wavy square array junctions are composed of truncated aquaporin-0 (AQP0) proteins typically distributed in the deep cortical and nuclear fibers in wild-type lenses. These junctions may help maintain the narrowed extracellular spaces between fiber cells to minimize light scattering. Herein, we investigate the impact of the cell shape changes, due to abnormal formation of extensive square array junctions, on the lens opacification in the caveolin-1 knockout mice. The cav1-KO and wild-type mice at age 1-22 months were used. By light microscopy examinations, cav1-KO lenses at age 1-18 months were transparent in both cortical and nuclear regions, whereas some lenses older than 18 months old exhibited nuclear cataracts. Scanning EM consistently observed the massive formation of ridge-and-valley membrane surfaces in young fibers at approximately 150 μm deep in all cav1-KO lenses studied. In contrast, the typical ridge-and-valleys were only seen in mature fibers deeper than 400 μm in wild-type lenses. The resulting extensive ridge-and-valleys dramatically altered the overall cell shape in cav1-KO lenses. Remarkably, despite dramatic shape changes, these deformed fiber cells remained intact and made close contact with their neighboring cells. By freeze-fracture TEM, ridge-and-valleys exhibited the typical orthogonal arrangement of 6.6 nm square array intramembrane particles and displayed the narrowed extracellular spaces. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that AQP0 C-terminus labeling was significantly decreased in outer cortical fibers in cav1-KO lenses. However, freeze-fracture immunogold labeling showed that the AQP0 C-terminus antibody was sparsely distributed on the wavy square array junctions, suggesting that the cleavage of AQP0 C-termini might not yet be complete. The cav1-KO lenses with nuclear cataracts showed complete cellular breakdown and large globule formation in the lens nucleus. This study suggests that despite dramatic cell shape changes, the

  15. Massive formation of square array junctions dramatically alters cell shape but does not cause lens opacity in the cav1-KO mice

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Sondip K.; Brako, Lawrence; Lo, Woo-Kuen

    2014-01-01

    The wavy square array junctions are composed of truncated aquaporin-0 (AQP0) proteins typically distributed in the deep cortical and nuclear fibers in wild-type lenses. These junctions may help maintain the narrowed extracellular spaces between fiber cells to minimize light scattering. Herein, we investigate the impact of the cell shape changes, due to abnormal formation of extensive square array junctions, on the lens opacification in the caveolin-1 knockout mice. The cav1-KO and wild-type mice at age 1 to 22 months were used. By light microscopy examinations, cav1-KO lenses at age 1 to 18 months were transparent in both cortical and nuclear regions, whereas some lenses older than 18 months old exhibited nuclear cataracts. Scanning EM consistently observed the massive formation of ridge-and-valley membrane surfaces in young fibers at approximately 150 μm deep in all cav1-KO lenses studied. In contrast, the typical ridge-and-valleys were only seen in mature fibers deeper than 400 μm in wild-type lenses. The resulting extensive ridge-and-valleys dramatically altered the overall cell shape in cav1-KO lenses. Remarkably, despite dramatic shape changes, these deformed fiber cells remained intact and made close contact with their neighboring cells. By freeze-fracture TEM, ridge-and-valleys exhibited the typical orthogonal arrangement of 6.6 nm square array intramembrane particles and displayed the narrowed extracellular spaces. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that AQP0 C-terminus labeling was significantly decreased in outer cortical fibers in cav1-KO lenses. However, freeze-fracture immunogold labeling showed that the AQP0 C-terminus antibody was sparsely distributed on the wavy square array junctions, suggesting that the cleavage of AQP0 C-termini might not yet be complete. The cav1-KO lenses with nuclear cataracts showed complete cellular breakdown and large globule formation in the lens nucleus. This study suggests that despite dramatic cell shape changes, the

  16. MC5r and A2Ar Deficiencies During Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis Identifies Distinct T cell Polarization Programs and a Biphasic Regulatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Darren J.; Preble, Janine; Lee, Stacey; Foster, C. Stephen; Taylor, Andrew W.

    2016-01-01

    Autoantigen-specific regulatory immunity emerges in the spleen of mice recovering from experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU), a murine model for human autoimmune uveoretinitis. This regulatory immunity provides induced tolerance to ocular autoantigen, and requires melanocortin 5 receptor (MC5r) expression on antigen presenting cells with adenosine 2 A receptor (A2Ar) expression on T cells. During EAU it is not well understood what roles MC5r and A2Ar have on promoting regulatory immunity. Cytokine profile analysis during EAU revealed MC5r and A2Ar each mediate distinct T cell responses, and are responsible for a functional regulatory immune response in the spleen. A2Ar stimulation at EAU onset did not augment this regulatory response, nor bypass the MC5r requirement to induce regulatory immunity. The importance of this pathway in human autoimmune uveitis was assayed. PBMC from uveitis patients were assayed for MC5r expression on monocytes and A2Ar on T cells, and comparison between uveitis patients and healthy controls had no significant difference. The importance for MC5r and A2Ar expression in EAU to promote the induction of protective regulatory immunity, and the expression of MC5r and A2Ar on human immune cells, suggests that it may be possible to utilize the melanocortin-adenosinergic pathways to induce protective immunity in uveitic patients. PMID:27886238

  17. MC5r and A2Ar Deficiencies During Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis Identifies Distinct T cell Polarization Programs and a Biphasic Regulatory Response.

    PubMed

    Lee, Darren J; Preble, Janine; Lee, Stacey; Foster, C Stephen; Taylor, Andrew W

    2016-11-25

    Autoantigen-specific regulatory immunity emerges in the spleen of mice recovering from experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU), a murine model for human autoimmune uveoretinitis. This regulatory immunity provides induced tolerance to ocular autoantigen, and requires melanocortin 5 receptor (MC5r) expression on antigen presenting cells with adenosine 2 A receptor (A2Ar) expression on T cells. During EAU it is not well understood what roles MC5r and A2Ar have on promoting regulatory immunity. Cytokine profile analysis during EAU revealed MC5r and A2Ar each mediate distinct T cell responses, and are responsible for a functional regulatory immune response in the spleen. A2Ar stimulation at EAU onset did not augment this regulatory response, nor bypass the MC5r requirement to induce regulatory immunity. The importance of this pathway in human autoimmune uveitis was assayed. PBMC from uveitis patients were assayed for MC5r expression on monocytes and A2Ar on T cells, and comparison between uveitis patients and healthy controls had no significant difference. The importance for MC5r and A2Ar expression in EAU to promote the induction of protective regulatory immunity, and the expression of MC5r and A2Ar on human immune cells, suggests that it may be possible to utilize the melanocortin-adenosinergic pathways to induce protective immunity in uveitic patients.

  18. Physiological roles of A1 and A2A adenosine receptors in regulating heart rate, body temperature, and locomotion as revealed using knockout mice and caffeine

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiang-Ning; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Fredholm, Bertil B.

    2009-01-01

    Heart rate (HR), body temperature (Temp), locomotor activity (LA), and oxygen consumption (O2C) were studied in awake mice lacking one or both of the adenosine A1 or A2A receptors (A1R or A2AR, respectively) using telemetry and respirometry, before and after caffeine administration. All parameters were lower during day than night and higher in females than males. When compared with wild-type (WT) littermates, HR was higher in male A1R knockout (A1RKO) mice but lower in A2ARKO mice and intermediate in A1-A2AR double KO mice. A single dose of an unselective β-blocker (timolol; 1 mg/kg) abolished the HR differences between these genotypes. Deletion of A1Rs had little effect on Temp, whereas deletion of A2ARs increased it in females and decreased it in males. A1-A2ARKO mice had lower Temp than WT mice. LA was unaltered in A1RKO mice and lower in A2ARKO and A1-A2ARKO mice than in WT mice. Caffeine injection increased LA but only in mice expressing A2AR. Caffeine ingestion also increased LA in an A2AR-dependent manner in male mice. Caffeine ingestion significantly increased O2C in WT mice, but less in the different KO mice. Injection of 30 mg/kg caffeine decreased Temp, especially in KO mice, and hence in a manner unrelated to A1R or A2AR blockade. Selective A2B antagonism had little or no effect. Thus A1R and A2AR influence HR, Temp, LA, and O2C in mice in a sex-dependent manner, indicating effects of endogenous adenosine. The A2AR plays an important role in the modulation of O2C and LA by acute and chronic caffeine administration. There is also evidence for effects of higher doses of caffeine being independent of both A1R and A2AR. PMID:19218506

  19. Increased Lipocalin-2 in the retinal pigment epithelium of Cryba1 cKO mice is associated with a chronic inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    Valapala, Mallika; Edwards, Malia; Hose, Stacey; Grebe, Rhonda; Bhutto, Imran A; Cano, Marisol; Berger, Thorsten; Mak, Tak W; Wawrousek, Eric; Handa, James T; Lutty, Gerard A; Samuel Zigler, J; Sinha, Debasish

    2014-01-01

    Although chronic inflammation is believed to contribute to the pathology of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), knowledge regarding the events that elicit the change from para-inflammation to chronic inflammation in the pathogenesis of AMD is lacking. We propose here that lipocalin-2 (LCN2), a mammalian innate immunity protein that is trafficked to the lysosomes, may contribute to this process. It accumulates significantly with age in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells of Cryba1 conditional knockout (cKO) mice, but not in control mice. We have recently shown that these mice, which lack βA3/A1-crystallin specifically in RPE, have defective lysosomal clearance. The age-related increase in LCN2 in the cKO mice is accompanied by increases in chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), reactive gliosis, and immune cell infiltration. LCN2 may contribute to induction of a chronic inflammatory response in this mouse model with AMD-like pathology. PMID:25257511

  20. Increased Lipocalin-2 in the retinal pigment epithelium of Cryba1 cKO mice is associated with a chronic inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Valapala, Mallika; Edwards, Malia; Hose, Stacey; Grebe, Rhonda; Bhutto, Imran A; Cano, Marisol; Berger, Thorsten; Mak, Tak W; Wawrousek, Eric; Handa, James T; Lutty, Gerard A; Samuel Zigler, J; Sinha, Debasish

    2014-12-01

    Although chronic inflammation is believed to contribute to the pathology of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), knowledge regarding the events that elicit the change from para-inflammation to chronic inflammation in the pathogenesis of AMD is lacking. We propose here that lipocalin-2 (LCN2), a mammalian innate immunity protein that is trafficked to the lysosomes, may contribute to this process. It accumulates significantly with age in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells of Cryba1 conditional knockout (cKO) mice, but not in control mice. We have recently shown that these mice, which lack βA3/A1-crystallin specifically in RPE, have defective lysosomal clearance. The age-related increase in LCN2 in the cKO mice is accompanied by increases in chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), reactive gliosis, and immune cell infiltration. LCN2 may contribute to induction of a chronic inflammatory response in this mouse model with AMD-like pathology. © 2014 The Authors. Aging Cell publisshed by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. SNP in human ARHGEF3 promoter is associated with DNase hypersensitivity, transcript level and platelet function, and Arhgef3 KO mice have increased mean platelet volume.

    PubMed

    Zou, Siying; Teixeira, Alexandra M; Kostadima, Myrto; Astle, William J; Radhakrishnan, Aparna; Simon, Lukas Mikolaj; Truman, Lucy; Fang, Jennifer S; Hwa, John; Zhang, Ping-Xia; van der Harst, Pim; Bray, Paul F; Ouwehand, Willem H; Frontini, Mattia; Krause, Diane S

    2017-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified a genetic variant at 3p14.3 (SNP rs1354034) that strongly associates with platelet number and mean platelet volume in humans. While originally proposed to be intronic, analysis of mRNA expression in primary human hematopoietic subpopulations reveals that this SNP is located directly upstream of the predominantly expressed ARHGEF3 isoform in megakaryocytes (MK). We found that ARHGEF3, which encodes a Rho guanine exchange factor, is dramatically upregulated during both human and murine MK maturation. We show that the SNP (rs1354034) is located in a DNase I hypersensitive region in human MKs and is an expression quantitative locus (eQTL) associated with ARHGEF3 expression level in human platelets, suggesting that it may be the causal SNP that accounts for the variations observed in human platelet traits and ARHGEF3 expression. In vitro human platelet activation assays revealed that rs1354034 is highly correlated with human platelet activation by ADP. In order to test whether ARHGEF3 plays a role in MK development and/or platelet function, we developed an Arhgef3 KO/LacZ reporter mouse model. Reflecting changes in gene expression, LacZ expression increases during MK maturation in these mice. Although Arhgef3 KO mice have significantly larger platelets, loss of Arhgef3 does not affect baseline MK or platelets nor does it affect platelet function or platelet recovery in response to antibody-mediated platelet depletion compared to littermate controls. In summary, our data suggest that modulation of ARHGEF3 gene expression in humans with a promoter-localized SNP plays a role in human MKs and human platelet function-a finding resulting from the biological follow-up of human genetic studies. Arhgef3 KO mice partially recapitulate the human phenotype.

  2. Lack of GSK3β activation and modulation of synaptic plasticity by dopamine in 5-HT1A-receptor KO mice.

    PubMed

    Meunier, C N J; Cancela, J-M; Fossier, P

    2017-02-01

    Psychiatric disorders are associated with excitation-inhibition (E-I) balance impairment in the prefrontal cortex. However, how the E-I balance is regulated is poorly known. The E-I balance of neuronal networks is linked to the action of numerous neuromodulators such as dopamine and 5-HT. We investigated the role of D2-receptors in tuning the E-I balance in a mouse model of anxiety, the 5-HT1A-receptor KO mice. We focused on synaptic plasticity of excitation and inhibition on layer 5 pyramidal neurons. We show that D2-receptor activation decreases the excitation and favors HFS-induced LTD of excitatory synapses via the activation of GSK3β. This effect is absent in 5-HT1A-receptor KO mice. Our data show that the fine control of excitatory transmission by GSK3β requires recruitment of D2-receptors and depends on the presence of 5-HT1A-receptors. In psychiatric disorders in which the number of 5-HT1A-receptors decreased, therapies should reconsider how serotonin and dopamine receptors interact and control neuronal network activity.

  3. Perilla Oil Reduces Fatty Streak Formation at Aortic Sinus via Attenuation of Plasma Lipids and Regulation of Nitric Oxide Synthase in ApoE KO Mice.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sun Hee; Kim, Mijeong; Noh, Jeong Sook; Song, Yeong Ok

    2016-10-01

    Consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a reduced incidence of atherosclerosis. Perilla oil (PO) is a vegetable oil rich in α-linolenic acid (ALA), an n-3 PUFA. In this study, antiatherogenic effects and related mechanisms of PO were investigated in atherosclerotic mice. Apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE KO) mice (male, n = 27) were fed high-cholesterol and high-fat diets containing 10 % w/w lard (LD), PO, or sunflower oil (SO) for 10 weeks. Plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations reduced in the PO and SO groups compared to the concentrations in the LD group (P < 0.05). The PO group showed reduced fatty streak lesion size at the aortic sinus (P < 0.05) compared to the sizes in the LD and SO groups. A morphometric analysis showed enhancement of endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and reduction of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in the PO group compared to that in the LD group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, aortic protein expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule 1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 was diminished in the PO group compared to that in the LD and SO groups (P < 0.05). These findings suggested that PO inhibited the development of aortic atherosclerosis by improving the plasma lipid profile, regulating nitric oxide synthase, and suppressing the vascular inflammatory response in the aorta of ApoE KO mice.

  4. AAV2/8-humanFOXP3 gene therapy shows robust anti-atherosclerosis efficacy in LDLR-KO mice on high cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Cao, M; Theus, S A; Straub, K D; Figueroa, J A; Mirandola, L; Chiriva-Internati, M; Hermonat, P L

    2015-07-18

    Inflammation is a key etiologic component in atherogenesis. Previously we demonstrated that adeno-associated virus (AAV) 2/8 gene delivery of Netrin1 inhibited atherosclerosis in the low density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice on high-cholesterol diet (LDLR-KO/HCD). One important finding from this study was that FOXP3 was strongly up-regulated in these Netrin1-treated animals, as FOXP3 is an anti-inflammatory gene, being the master transcription factor of regulatory T cells. These results suggested that the FOXP3 gene might potentially be used, itself, as an agent to limit atherosclerosis. To test this hypothesis AAV2/8 (AAV)/hFOXP3 or AAV/Neo (control) gene therapy virus were tail vein injected into the LDLR-KO/HCD animal model. It was found that hFOXP3 gene delivery was associated with significantly lower HCD-induced atherogenesis, as measured by larger aortic lumen cross sectional area, thinner aortic wall thickness, and lower aortic systolic blood velocity compared with Neo gene-HCD-treated controls. Moreover these measurements taken from the hFOXP3/HCD-treated animals very closely matched those measurements taken from the normal diet (ND) control animals. These data strongly suggest that AAV/hFOXP3 delivery gave a robust anti-atherosclerosis therapeutic effect and further suggest that FOXP3 be examined more stringently as a therapeutic gene for clinical use.

  5. Ocular and systemic safety of a recombinant AAV8 vector for X-linked retinoschisis gene therapy: GLP studies in rabbits and Rs1-KO mice

    PubMed Central

    Marangoni, Dario; Bush, Ronald A; Zeng, Yong; Wei, Lisa L; Ziccardi, Lucia; Vijayasarathy, Camasamudram; Bartoe, Joshua T; Palyada, Kiran; Santos, Maria; Hiriyanna, Suja; Wu, Zhijian; Colosi, Peter; Sieving, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) is a retinal disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding the protein retinoschisin (RS1) and is one of the most common causes of macular degeneration in young men. Our therapeutic approach for XLRS is based on the administration of AAV8-scRS/IRBPhRS, an adeno-associated viral vector coding the human RS1 protein, via the intravitreal (IVT) route. Two Good Laboratory Practice studies, a 9-month study in New Zealand White rabbits (n = 124) injected with AAV8-scRS/IRBPhRS at doses of 2E9, 2E10, 2E11, and 1.5E12 vector genomes/eye (vg/eye), and a 6-month study in Rs1-KO mice (n = 162) dosed with 2E9 and 2E10 vg/eye of the same vector were conducted to assess ocular and systemic safety. A self-resolving, dose-dependent vitreal inflammation was the main ocular finding, and except for a single rabbit dosed with 1.5E12 vg/eye, which showed a retinal detachment, no other ocular adverse event was reported. Systemic toxicity was not identified in either species. Biodistribution analysis in Rs1-KO mice detected spread of vector genome in extraocular tissues, but no evidence of organ or tissues damage was found. These studies indicate that IVT administration of AAV8-scRS/IRBPhRS is safe and well tolerated and support its advancement into a phase 1/2a clinical trial for XLRS. PMID:27626041

  6. Amomum tsao-ko fruit extract suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase by inducing heme oxygenase-1 in macrophages and in septic mice.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ji-Sun; Ryu, Suran; Jang, Dae Sik; Cho, Young-Wuk; Chung, Eun Kyung; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2015-12-01

    Amomum tsao-ko Crevost et Lemarié (Zingiberaceae) has traditionally been used to treat inflammatory and infectious diseases, such as throat infections, malaria, abdominal pain and diarrhoea. This study was designed to assess the anti-inflammatory effects and the molecular mechanisms of the methanol extract of A. tsao-ko (AOM) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages and in a murine model of sepsis. In LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages, AOM reduced the production of nitric oxide (NO) by inhibiting inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and increased heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression at the protein and mRNA levels. Pretreatment with SnPP (a selective inhibitor of HO-1) and silencing HO-1 using siRNA prevented the AOM-mediated inhibition of NO production and iNOS expression. Furthermore, AOM increased the expression and nuclear accumulation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which enhanced Nrf2 binding to antioxidant response element (ARE). In addition, AOM induced the phosphorylation of extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and generated reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, pretreatment with N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC; a ROS scavenger) diminished the AOM-induced phosphorylation of ERK and JNK and AOM-induced HO-1 expression, suggesting that ERK and JNK are downstream mediators of ROS during the AOM-induced signalling of HO-1 expression. In LPS-induced endotoxaemic mice, pretreatment with AOM reduced NO serum levels and liver iNOS expression and increased HO-1 expression and survival rates. These results indicate that AOM strongly inhibits LPS-induced NO production by activating the ROS/MAPKs/Nrf2-mediated HO-1 signalling pathway, and supports its pharmacological effects on inflammatory diseases.

  7. Induction of WT1-specific human CD8+ T cells from human HSCs in HLA class I Tg NOD/SCID/IL2rgKO mice

    PubMed Central

    Najima, Yuho; Tomizawa-Murasawa, Mariko; Saito, Yoriko; Watanabe, Takashi; Ono, Rintaro; Ochi, Toshiki; Suzuki, Nahoko; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Ohara, Osamu; Shultz, Leonard D.; Yasukawa, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    Induction of specific immune response against therapy-resistant tumor cells can potentially improve clinical outcomes in malignancies. To optimize immunotherapy in the clinic, we aimed to create an in vivo model enabling us to analyze human cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses against human malignancies. To this end, we developed NOD/SCID/IL2rgKO (NSG) mice expressing the HLA class I molecules HLA-A*0201 and A*2402. In the bone marrow (BM) and spleen of HLA class I transgenic (Tg) NSG mice transplanted with cord blood hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), we found human memory CD8+ T cells and antigen-presenting cells. To evaluate antigen-specific human CTL responses, we immunized HLA class I Tg NSG mice using polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid mixed Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) peptides, with or without WT1 peptide–loaded autologous dendritic cells. After immunization, the frequencies of HLA-restricted WT1-specific CTLs increased significantly in the spleen. Next, we transplanted the WT1-specific T-cell receptor (WT1-TCR) gene–transduced human HSCs into HLA class I Tg NSG newborn mice. WT1 tetramer-positive CD8+ T cells differentiated from WT1-TCR-transduced HSCs in the recipients’ BM, spleen, and thymus. Upon stimulation with WT1 peptide in vitro, these CTLs produced interferon-γ and showed lytic activity against leukemia cells in an antigen-specific, HLA-restricted manner. HLA class I Tg NSG xenografts may serve as a preclinical model to develop effective immunotherapy against human malignancies. PMID:26702062

  8. Adenosine A2A Receptor Gene Knockout Prevents l-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine-Induced Dyskinesia by Downregulation of Striatal GAD67 in 6-OHDA-Lesioned Parkinson’s Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Su-bing; Zhang, Xiao-guang; Chen, Shuang; Yang, Wen-ting; Zheng, Xia-wei; Zheng, Guo-qing

    2017-01-01

    l-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) remains the primary pharmacological agent for the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the development of l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) limits the long-term use of l-DOPA for PD patients. Some data have reported that adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) antagonists prevented LID in animal model of PD. However, the mechanism in which adenosine A2AR blockade alleviates the symptoms of LID has not been fully clarified. Here, we determined to knock out (KO) the gene of A2AR and explored the possible underlying mechanisms implicated in development of LID in a mouse model of PD. A2AR gene KO mice were unilaterally injected into the striatum with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in order to damage dopamine neurons on one side of the brain. 6-OHDA-lesioned mice were then injected once daily for 21 days with l-DOPA. Abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) were evaluated on days 3, 8, 13, and 18 after l-DOPA administration, and real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry for glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 65 and GAD67 were performed. We found that A2AR gene KO was effective in reducing AIM scores and accompanied with decrease of striatal GAD67, rather than GAD65. These results demonstrated that the possible mechanism involved in alleviation of AIM symptoms by A2AR gene KO might be through reducing the expression of striatal GAD67. PMID:28377741

  9. Genetic blockade of adenosine A2A receptors induces cognitive impairments and anatomical changes related to psychotic symptoms in mice.

    PubMed

    Moscoso-Castro, Maria; Gracia-Rubio, Irene; Ciruela, Francisco; Valverde, Olga

    2016-07-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic severe mental disorder with a presumed neurodevelopmental origin, and no effective treatment. Schizophrenia is a multifactorial disease with genetic, environmental and neurochemical etiology. The main theories on the pathophysiology of this disorder include alterations in dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in limbic and cortical areas of the brain. Early hypotheses also suggested that nucleoside adenosine is a putative affected neurotransmitter system, and clinical evidence suggests that adenosine adjuvants improve treatment outcomes, especially in poorly responsive patients. Hence, it is important to elucidate the role of the neuromodulator adenosine in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. A2A adenosine receptor (A2AR) subtypes are expressed in brain areas controlling motivational responses and cognition, including striatum, and in lower levels in hippocampus and cerebral cortex. The aim of this study was to characterize A2AR knockout (KO) mice with complete and specific inactivation of A2AR, as an animal model for schizophrenia. We performed behavioral, anatomical and neurochemical studies to assess psychotic-like symptoms in adult male and female KO and wild-type (WT) littermates. Our results show impairments in inhibitory responses and sensory gating in A2AR KO animals. Hyperlocomotion induced by d-amphetamine and MK-801 was reduced in KO animals when compared to WT littermates. Moreover, A2AR KO animals show motor disturbances, social and cognitive alterations. Finally, behavioral impairments were associated with enlargement of brain lateral ventricles and decreased BDNF levels in the hippocampus. These data highlight the role of adenosine in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and provide new possibilities for the therapeutic management of schizophrenia.

  10. Impaired muscle regeneration and myoblast differentiation in mice with a muscle-specific KO of IGF-IR.

    PubMed

    Heron-Milhavet, Lisa; Mamaeva, Daria; LeRoith, Derek; Lamb, Ned J; Fernandez, Anne

    2010-10-01

    IGF-I and its receptor IGF-IR are seen as critical effectors of muscle hypertrophy, a notion recently questioned. Using MKR transgenic mice that express a dominant negative IGF-IR only in skeletal muscle, we have examined the role of the IGF-IR signaling in differentiation and repair of muscle fibers after damage-induced muscle regeneration. This process is impaired in MKR muscle, with incomplete regeneration, persistence of infiltrating cells and sustained expression of differentiation markers. Analysis of MKR and WT muscle-derived progenitor stem cells and myoblasts showed twice as many such cells in MKR muscle and an incomplete in vitro differentiation, that is, despite similar levels of myogenin expression, the level of fusion of MKR myoblasts was significantly reduced in comparison to WT myoblasts. These data show IGF-IR signaling is not only required at early hyperplasia stages of muscle differentiation, but also for late stages of myofiber maturation and hypertrophy.

  11. Generation of Evc2/Limbin global and conditional KO mice and its roles during mineralized tissue formation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Honghao; Takeda, Haruko; Tsuji, Takehito; Kamiya, Nobuhiro; Rajderkar, Sudha; Louie, Ke'Ale; Collier, Crystal; Scott, Greg; Ray, Manas; Mochida, Yoshiyuki; Kaartinen, Vesa; Kunieda, Tetsuo; Mishina, Yuji

    2015-07-28

    Ellis-van Creveld (EvC) syndrome (OMIM 225500) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized with chondrodysplastic dwarfism in association with abnormalities in oral cavity. Ciliary proteins EVC and EVC2 have been identified as causative genes and they play an important role on Hedgehog signal transduction. We have also identified a causative gene LIMBIN for bovine chondrodysplastic dwarfism (bcd) that is later identified as the bovine ortholog of EVC2. Here, we report generation of conventional and conditional mutant Evc2/Limbin alleles that mimics mutations found in EvC patients and bcd cattle. Resulted homozygous mice showed no ciliary localization of EVC2 and EVC and displayed reduced Hedgehog signaling activity in association with skeletal and oral defects similar to the EvC patients. Cartilage-specific disruption of Evc2/Limbin resulted in similar but milder skeletal defects, whereas osteoblast-specific disruption did not cause overt changes in skeletal system. Neural crest-specific disruption of Evc2/Limbin resulted in defective incisor growth similar to that seen in conventional knockouts; however, differentiation of amelobolasts was relatively normal in the conditional knockouts. These results showcased functions of EVC2/LIMBIN during formation of mineralized tissues. Availability of the conditional allele for this gene should facilitate further detailed analyses of the role of EVC2/LIMBIN in pathogenesis of EvC syndrome. genesis, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Generation of Evc2/Limbin global and conditional KO mice and its roles during mineralized tissue formation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Honghao; Takeda, Haruko; Tsuji, Takehito; Kamiya, Nobuhiro; Rajderkar, Sudha; Louie, Ke’ Ale; Collier, Crystal; Scott, Greg; Ray, Manas; Mochida, Yoshiyuki; Kaartinen, Vesa; Kunieda, Tetsuo; Mishina, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    Summary Ellis-van Creveld (EvC) syndrome (OMIM 225500) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized with chondrodysplastic dwarfism in association with abnormalities in oral cavity. Ciliary proteins EVC and EVC2 have been identified as causative genes and they play an important role on Hedgehog signal transduction. We have also identified a causative gene LIMBIN for bovine chondrodysplastic dwarfism (bcd) that is later identified as the bovine ortholog of EVC2. Here, we report generation of conventional and conditional mutant Evc2/Limbin alleles that mimics mutations found in EvC patients and bcd cattle. Resulted homozygous mice showed no ciliary localization of EVC2 and EVC and displayed reduced Hedgehog signaling activity in association with skeletal and oral defects similar to the EvC patients. Cartilage-specific disruption of Evc2/Limbin resulted in similar but milder skeletal defects, whereas osteoblast-specific disruption did not cause overt changes in skeletal system. Neural crest-specific disruption of Evc2/Limbin resulted in defective incisor growth similar to that seen in conventional knockouts; however, differentiation of amelobolasts was relatively normal in the conditional knockouts. These results showcased functions of EVC2/LIMBIN during formation of mineralized tissues. Availability of the conditional allele for this gene should facilitate further detailed analyses of the role of EVC2/LIMBIN in pathogenesis of EvC syndrome. PMID:26219237

  13. While systolic cardiomyocyte function is preserved, diastolic myocyte function and recovery from acidosis are impaired in CaMKIIδ-KO mice

    PubMed Central

    Neef, Stefan; Sag, Can M.; Daut, Maria; Bäumer, Henrik; Grefe, Clemens; El-Armouche, Ali; DeSantiago, Jaime; Pereira, Laetitia; Bers, Donald M.; Backs, Johannes; Maier, Lars S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective CaMKII contributes to impaired contractility in heart failure by inducing SR Ca2+-leak. CaMKII-inhibition in the heart was suggested to be a novel therapeutic principle. Different CaMKII isoforms exist. Specifically targeting CaMKIIδ, the dominant isoform in the heart, could be of therapeutic potential without impairing other CaMKII isoforms. Rationale We investigated whether cardiomyocyte function is affected by isoform-specific knockout (KO) of CaMKIIδ under basal conditions and upon stress, i.e. upon ß-adrenergic stimulation and during acidosis. Results Systolic cardiac function was largely preserved in the KO in vivo (echocardiography) corresponding to unchanged Ca2+-transient amplitudes and isolated myocyte contractility in vitro. CaMKII activity was dramatically reduced while phosphatase-1 inhibitor-1 was significantly increased. Surprisingly, while diastolic Ca2+-elimination was slower in KO most likely due to decreased phospholamban Thr-17 phosphorylation, frequency-dependent acceleration of relaxation was still present. Despite decreased SR Ca2+-reuptake at lower frequencies, SR Ca2+-content was not diminished, which might be due to reduced diastolic SR Ca2+-loss in the KO as a consequence of lower RyR Ser-2815 phosphorylation. Challenging KO myocytes with isoproterenol showed intact inotropic and lusitropic responses. During acidosis, SR Ca2+-reuptake and SR Ca2+-loading were significantly impaired in KO, resulting in an inability to maintain systolic Ca2+-transients during acidosis and impaired recovery. Conclusions Inhibition of CaMKIIδ appears to be safe under basal physiologic conditions. Specific conditions exist (e.g. during acidosis) under which CaMKII-inhibition might not be helpful or even detrimental. These conditions will have to be more clearly defined before CaMKII inhibition is used therapeutically. PMID:23473775

  14. Expression of HLA Class II Molecules in Humanized NOD.Rag1KO.IL2RgcKO Mice is Critical for Development and Function of Human T and B Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-17

    to reconstitute a surrogate human immune system (HIS) can be used for studies on human immunology and may provide a predictive preclinical model for...graft versus host disease ( GVHD ) as a consequence of human T cell reactivity against the mouse MHC antigens [4,5]. To increase the level of human cell...reconstitution and to overcome GVHD , investigators used scid mice infused with human hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) [3,7,8]. This model known as Hu

  15. Novel agonists for serotonin 5-HT7 receptors reverse metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated long-term depression in the hippocampus of wild-type and Fmr1 KO mice, a model of Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Lara; Sardone, Lara M.; Lacivita, Enza; Leopoldo, Marcello; Ciranna, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin 5-HT7 receptors are expressed in the hippocampus and modulate the excitability of hippocampal neurons. We have previously shown that 5-HT7 receptors modulate glutamate-mediated hippocampal synaptic transmission and long-term synaptic plasticity. In particular, we have shown that activation of 5-HT7 receptors reversed metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated long-term depression (mGluR-LTD) in wild-type (wt) and in Fmr1 KO mice, a mouse model of Fragile X Syndrome in which mGluR-LTD is abnormally enhanced, suggesting that 5-HT7 receptor agonists might be envisaged as a novel therapeutic strategy for Fragile X Syndrome. In this perspective, we have characterized the basic in vitro pharmacokinetic properties of novel molecules with high binding affinity and selectivity for 5-HT7 receptors and we have tested their effects on synaptic plasticity using patch clamp on acute hippocampal slices. Here we show that LP-211, a high affinity selective agonist of 5-HT7 receptors, reverses mGluR-LTD in wt and Fmr1 KO mice, correcting a synaptic malfunction in the mouse model of Fragile X Syndrome. Among novel putative agonists of 5-HT7 receptors, the compound BA-10 displayed improved affinity and selectivity for 5-HT7 receptors and improved in vitro pharmacokinetic properties with respect to LP-211. BA-10 significantly reversed mGluR-LTD in the CA3-CA1 synapse in wt and Fmr1KO mice, indicating that BA-10 behaved as a highly effective agonist of 5-HT7 receptors and reduced exaggerated mGluR-LTD in a mouse model of Fragile X Syndrome. On the other side, the compounds RA-7 and PM-20, respectively arising from in vivo metabolism of LP-211 and BA-10, had no effect on mGluR-LTD thus did not behave as agonists of 5-HT7 receptors in our conditions. The present results provide information about the structure-activity relationship of novel 5-HT7 receptor agonists and indicate that LP-211 and BA-10 might be used as novel pharmacological tools for the therapy of Fragile X Syndrome

  16. Novel agonists for serotonin 5-HT7 receptors reverse metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated long-term depression in the hippocampus of wild-type and Fmr1 KO mice, a model of Fragile X Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Costa, Lara; Sardone, Lara M; Lacivita, Enza; Leopoldo, Marcello; Ciranna, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin 5-HT7 receptors are expressed in the hippocampus and modulate the excitability of hippocampal neurons. We have previously shown that 5-HT7 receptors modulate glutamate-mediated hippocampal synaptic transmission and long-term synaptic plasticity. In particular, we have shown that activation of 5-HT7 receptors reversed metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated long-term depression (mGluR-LTD) in wild-type (wt) and in Fmr1 KO mice, a mouse model of Fragile X Syndrome in which mGluR-LTD is abnormally enhanced, suggesting that 5-HT7 receptor agonists might be envisaged as a novel therapeutic strategy for Fragile X Syndrome. In this perspective, we have characterized the basic in vitro pharmacokinetic properties of novel molecules with high binding affinity and selectivity for 5-HT7 receptors and we have tested their effects on synaptic plasticity using patch clamp on acute hippocampal slices. Here we show that LP-211, a high affinity selective agonist of 5-HT7 receptors, reverses mGluR-LTD in wt and Fmr1 KO mice, correcting a synaptic malfunction in the mouse model of Fragile X Syndrome. Among novel putative agonists of 5-HT7 receptors, the compound BA-10 displayed improved affinity and selectivity for 5-HT7 receptors and improved in vitro pharmacokinetic properties with respect to LP-211. BA-10 significantly reversed mGluR-LTD in the CA3-CA1 synapse in wt and Fmr1KO mice, indicating that BA-10 behaved as a highly effective agonist of 5-HT7 receptors and reduced exaggerated mGluR-LTD in a mouse model of Fragile X Syndrome. On the other side, the compounds RA-7 and PM-20, respectively arising from in vivo metabolism of LP-211 and BA-10, had no effect on mGluR-LTD thus did not behave as agonists of 5-HT7 receptors in our conditions. The present results provide information about the structure-activity relationship of novel 5-HT7 receptor agonists and indicate that LP-211 and BA-10 might be used as novel pharmacological tools for the therapy of Fragile X Syndrome.

  17. PNPLA1 defects in patients with autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis and KO mice sustain PNPLA1 irreplaceable function in epidermal omega-O-acylceramide synthesis and skin permeability barrier.

    PubMed

    Pichery, Mélanie; Huchenq, Anne; Sandhoff, Roger; Severino-Freire, Maella; Zaafouri, Sarra; Opálka, Lukáš; Levade, Thierry; Soldan, Vanessa; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Lhuillier, Emeline; Serre, Guy; Maruani, Annabel; Mazereeuw-Hautier, Juliette; Jonca, Nathalie

    2017-05-15

    Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) is a heterogeneous group of monogenic genodermatoses that encompasses non-syndromic disorders of keratinization. The pathophysiology of ARCI has been linked to a disturbance in epidermal lipid metabolism that impaired the stratum corneum function, leading to permeability barrier defects. Functional characterization of some genes involved in ARCI contributed to the identification of molecular actors involved in epidermal lipid synthesis, transport or processing. Recently, PNPLA1 has been identified as a gene causing ARCI. While other members of PNPLA family are key elements in lipid metabolism, the function of PNPLA1 remained unclear. We identified 5 novel PNPLA1 mutations in ARCI patients, mainly localized in the putative active enzymatic domain of PNPLA1. To investigate Pnpla1 biological role, we analysed Pnpla1-deficient mice. KO mice died soon after birth from severe epidermal permeability defects. Pnpla1-deficient skin presented an important impairment in the composition and organization of the epidermal lipids. Quantification of epidermal ceramide species highlighted a blockade in the production of ω-O-acylceramides with a concomitant accumulation of their precursors in the KO. The virtually loss of ω-O-acylceramides in the stratum corneum was linked to a defective lipid coverage of the resistant pericellular shell encapsulating corneocytes, the so-called cornified envelope, and most probably disorganized the extracellular lipid matrix. Finally, these defects in ω-O-acylceramides synthesis and cornified envelope formation were also evidenced in the stratum corneum from PNPLA1-mutated patients. Overall, our data support that PNPLA1/Pnpla1 is a key player in the formation of ω-O-acylceramide, a crucial process for the epidermal permeability barrier function. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Impairment of enzymatic antioxidant defenses is associated with bilirubin-induced neuronal cell death in the cerebellum of Ugt1 KO mice

    PubMed Central

    Bortolussi, G; Codarin, E; Antoniali, G; Vascotto, C; Vodret, S; Arena, S; Cesaratto, L; Scaloni, A; Tell, G; Muro, A F

    2015-01-01

    Severe hyperbilirubinemia is toxic during central nervous system development. Prolonged and uncontrolled high levels of unconjugated bilirubin lead to bilirubin-induced encephalopathy and eventually death by kernicterus. Despite extensive studies, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of bilirubin toxicity are still poorly defined. To fill this gap, we investigated the molecular processes underlying neuronal injury in a mouse model of severe neonatal jaundice, which develops hyperbilirubinemia as a consequence of a null mutation in the Ugt1 gene. These mutant mice show cerebellar abnormalities and hypoplasia, neuronal cell death and die shortly after birth because of bilirubin neurotoxicity. To identify protein changes associated with bilirubin-induced cell death, we performed proteomic analysis of cerebella from Ugt1 mutant and wild-type mice. Proteomic data pointed-out to oxidoreductase activities or antioxidant processes as important intracellular mechanisms altered during bilirubin-induced neurotoxicity. In particular, they revealed that down-representation of DJ-1, superoxide dismutase, peroxiredoxins 2 and 6 was associated with hyperbilirubinemia in the cerebellum of mutant mice. Interestingly, the reduction in protein levels seems to result from post-translational mechanisms because we did not detect significant quantitative differences in the corresponding mRNAs. We also observed an increase in neuro-specific enolase 2 both in the cerebellum and in the serum of mutant mice, supporting its potential use as a biomarker of bilirubin-induced neurological damage. In conclusion, our data show that different protective mechanisms fail to contrast oxidative burst in bilirubin-affected brain regions, ultimately leading to neurodegeneration. PMID:25950469

  19. Impairment of enzymatic antioxidant defenses is associated with bilirubin-induced neuronal cell death in the cerebellum of Ugt1 KO mice.

    PubMed

    Bortolussi, G; Codarin, E; Antoniali, G; Vascotto, C; Vodret, S; Arena, S; Cesaratto, L; Scaloni, A; Tell, G; Muro, A F

    2015-05-07

    Severe hyperbilirubinemia is toxic during central nervous system development. Prolonged and uncontrolled high levels of unconjugated bilirubin lead to bilirubin-induced encephalopathy and eventually death by kernicterus. Despite extensive studies, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of bilirubin toxicity are still poorly defined. To fill this gap, we investigated the molecular processes underlying neuronal injury in a mouse model of severe neonatal jaundice, which develops hyperbilirubinemia as a consequence of a null mutation in the Ugt1 gene. These mutant mice show cerebellar abnormalities and hypoplasia, neuronal cell death and die shortly after birth because of bilirubin neurotoxicity. To identify protein changes associated with bilirubin-induced cell death, we performed proteomic analysis of cerebella from Ugt1 mutant and wild-type mice. Proteomic data pointed-out to oxidoreductase activities or antioxidant processes as important intracellular mechanisms altered during bilirubin-induced neurotoxicity. In particular, they revealed that down-representation of DJ-1, superoxide dismutase, peroxiredoxins 2 and 6 was associated with hyperbilirubinemia in the cerebellum of mutant mice. Interestingly, the reduction in protein levels seems to result from post-translational mechanisms because we did not detect significant quantitative differences in the corresponding mRNAs. We also observed an increase in neuro-specific enolase 2 both in the cerebellum and in the serum of mutant mice, supporting its potential use as a biomarker of bilirubin-induced neurological damage. In conclusion, our data show that different protective mechanisms fail to contrast oxidative burst in bilirubin-affected brain regions, ultimately leading to neurodegeneration.

  20. Adeno-associated virus serotype 8 ApoA-I gene transfer reduces progression of atherosclerosis in ApoE-KO mice: comparison of intramuscular and intravenous administration.

    PubMed

    Cimmino, Giovanni; Giannarelli, Chiara; Chen, Wei; Alique, Matilde; Santos-Gallego, Carlos G; Fuster, Valentin; Hajjar, Roger J; Walsh, Christopher E; Badimon, Juan J

    2011-03-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I)/high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-raising treatments are effective antiatherosclerotic strategies. We have compared the antiatherogenic effects of human ApoA-I (hApoA-I) overexpression by intraportal and intramuscular gene transfer in atherosclerotic ApoE-knockout mice. Atherosclerotic lesions were induced by atherogenic diet. After atherosclerosis induction, a group of animals was killed and served as atherosclerosis baseline-control group. The remaining animals were randomized into the following groups: (1) atherosclerosis-progression-control, (2) intraportal/vector administration, and (3) intramuscular/vector administration. Aortas and hearts were processed for atherosclerotic quantification by en face Sudan IV and Oil Red-O, respectively. Liver and muscle specimens were processed for protein/gene expression analysis. A sustained increase in hApoA-I/HDL plasma levels was observed in both transduced groups. hApoA-I overexpression abolished plaque progression versus progression-control group. hApoA-I overexpression significantly reduced lesion macrophage, feature indicative of plaque stabilization. Scavenger receptor class-B type I (SR-BI), but not ATP-binding cassette, sub-family A (ABCA), member 1 (ABCA-1), was significantly upregulated in treated groups versus progression-controls. The results of this study show a similar effect of hApoA-I/HDL overexpression on plaque progression/stabilization by 2 different routes of administration. Our results showing similar effects using either intramuscular administration and intraportal route of administration may have significant clinical implications, given the reduced medical risk to patient and cost of intramuscular injections.

  1. Binding of the Antagonist Caffeine to the Human Adenosine Receptor hA2AR in Nearly Physiological Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Ruyin; Rossetti, Giulia; Bauer, Andreas; CarIoni, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Lipid composition may significantly affect membrane proteins function, yet its impact on the protein structural determinants is not well understood. Here we present a comparative molecular dynamics (MD) study of the human adenosine receptor type 2A (hA2AR) in complex with caffeine—a system of high neuro-pharmacological relevance—within different membrane types. These are POPC, mixed POPC/POPE and cholesterol-rich membranes. 0.8-μs MD simulations unambiguously show that the helical folding of the amphipathic helix 8 depends on membrane contents. Most importantly, the distinct cholesterol binding into the cleft between helix 1 and 2 stabilizes a specific caffeine-binding pose against others visited during the simulation. Hence, cholesterol presence (~33%-50% in synaptic membrane in central nervous system), often neglected in X-ray determination of membrane proteins, affects the population of the ligand binding poses. We conclude that including a correct description of neuronal membranes may be very important for computer-aided design of ligands targeting hA2AR and possibly other GPCRs. PMID:25992797

  2. MOLECULAR DETERMINANTS OF A2AR-D2R ALLOSTERISM: ROLE OF THE INTRACELLULAR LOOP 3 OF THE D2R

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Dueñas, Víctor; Gómez-Soler, Maricel; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Kumar, T. Santhosh; Fuxe, Kjell; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O.; Ciruela, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    In the central nervous system (CNS), an antagonistic interaction has been shown between adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors (A2ARs and D2Rs) that may be relevant both in normal and pathological conditions (i.e. Parkinson’s disease). Thus, the molecular determinants mediating this receptor-receptor interaction have recently been explored, since the fine tuning of this target (namely the A2AR/D2R oligomer) could possibly improve the treatment of certain CNS diseases. Here, we used a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based approach to examine the allosteric modulation of the D2R within the A2AR/D2R oligomer and the dependence of this receptor-receptor interaction on two regions rich in positive charges on intracellular loop 3 (IL3) of the D2R. Interestingly, we observed a negative allosteric effect of the D2R agonist quinpirole on A2AR ligand binding and activation. However, these allosteric effects were abolished upon mutation of specific arginine residues (217–222 and 267–269) on IL3 of the D2R, thus demonstrating a major role of these positively-charged residues in mediating the observed receptor-receptor interaction. Overall, these results provide structural insights to better understand the functioning of the A2AR/D2R oligomer in living cells. PMID:22924752

  3. A1R-A2AR heteromers coupled to Gs and G i/0 proteins modulate GABA transport into astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Cristóvão-Ferreira, Sofia; Navarro, Gemma; Brugarolas, Marc; Pérez-Capote, Kamil; Vaz, Sandra H; Fattorini, Giorgia; Conti, Fiorenzo; Lluis, Carmen; Ribeiro, Joaquim A; McCormick, Peter J; Casadó, Vicent; Franco, Rafael; Sebastião, Ana M

    2013-09-01

    Astrocytes play a key role in modulating synaptic transmission by controlling extracellular gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels via GAT-1 and GAT-3 GABA transporters (GATs). Using primary cultures of rat astrocytes, we show here that a further level of regulation of GABA uptake occurs via modulation of the GATs by the adenosine A1 (A1R) and A2A (A2AR) receptors. This regulation occurs through A1R-A2AR heteromers that signal via two different G proteins, Gs and Gi/0, and either enhances (A2AR) or inhibits (A1R) GABA uptake. These results provide novel mechanistic insight into how GPCR heteromers signal. Furthermore, we uncover a previously unknown mechanism where adenosine, in a concentration-dependent manner, acts via a heterocomplex of adenosine receptors in astrocytes to significantly contribute to neurotransmission at the tripartite (neuron-glia-neuron) synapse.

  4. In vivo assessment of coronary flow and cardiac function after bolus adenosine injection in adenosine receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Teng, Bunyen; Tilley, Stephen L; Ledent, Catherine; Mustafa, S Jamal

    2016-06-01

    Bolus injections of adenosine and the A2A adenosine receptor (AR) selective agonist (regadenoson) are used clinically as a substitute for a stress test in people who cannot exercise. Using isolated tissue preparations, our lab has shown that coronary flow and cardiac effects of adenosine are mostly regulated by the AR subtypes A1, A2A, and A2B In this study, we used ultrasound imaging to measure the in vivo effects of adenosine on coronary blood flow (left coronary artery) and cardiac function in anesthetized wild-type, A1 knockout (KO), A2AKO, A2BKO, A3KO, A1, and A3 double KO (A1/3 DKO) and A2A and A2B double KO (A2A/2B DKO) mice in real time. Echocardiographic and Doppler studies were performed using a Visualsonic Vevo 2100 ultrasound system. Coronary blood flow (CBF) baseline data were obtained when animals were anesthetized with 1% isoflourane. Diameter (D) and velocity time integral (VTI) were measured on the left coronary arteries (CBF = ((π/4) × D(2) × VTI × HR)/1000). CBF changes were the highest within 2 min of injection (about 10 mg/kg). Heart rate, cardiac output, and stroke volume were measured by tracing the left ventricle long axis. Our data support a role for the A2 AR in CBF and further support our conclusions of previous studies from isolated tissues. Adenosine-mediated decreases in cardiac output and stroke volume may be A2B and/or A3 AR-mediated; however, the A1 and A2 ARs also play roles in overall cardiac function. These data further provide a powerful translational tool in studying the cardiovascular effects of adenosine in disease states.

  5. Alterations in ventral and dorsal striatal allosteric A2AR-D2R receptor-receptor interactions after amphetamine challenge: Relevance for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pintsuk, Julia; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Lai, Terence K Y; Liu, Fang; Fuxe, Kjell

    2016-10-29

    Striatal dopamine D2R homodimerization is increased in the dorsal striatum after acute amphetamine challenge and in the amphetamine-induced sensitized state, a well-known animal model of schizophrenia. Therefore, it was tested if the increase in D2R homoreceptor complexes found after acute amphetamine challenge in the saline or the amphetamine sensitized state leads to changes in the antagonistic adenosine A2AR-D2R interactions in the striatum. [(3)H]-raclopride binding was performed in membrane preparations from the ventral and dorsal striatum involving competition with the D2R like agonist quinpirole. In the ventral striatum CGS 21680 produced a significant increase of the KiH values (p<0.05) in the amphetamine sensitized group when expressed in percent versus the corresponding values in saline sensitized rats after amphetamine challenge. However, in the dorsal striatum a significant change did not develop in the KiH values when expressed in percent of the corresponding values in saline sensitized rats after amphetamine challenge. In fact, the non-significant change was in the opposite direction towards a reduction of the KiH values. Taken together, a reduced affinity of the high affinity D2 agonist binding site (KiH value) developed in the ventral but not in the dorsal striatum as a result of increased antagonistic allosteric A2AR-D2R interactions in the amphetamine-induced sensitized state versus the saline sensitized state after an acute amphetamine challenge. The selective reappearance of antagonistic A2AR-D2R receptor-receptor interactions in the ventral striatum after amphetamine challenge in the amphetamine sensitized rat may give one possible mechanism for the atypical antipsychotic-like actions of A2AR receptor agonists.

  6. C3KO mouse expression analysis: downregulation of the muscular dystrophy Ky protein and alterations in muscle aging.

    PubMed

    Jaka, Oihane; Kramerova, Irina; Azpitarte, Margarita; López de Munain, Adolfo; Spencer, Melissa; Sáenz, Amets

    2012-11-01

    Mutations in CAPN3 gene cause limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A) characterized by muscle wasting and progressive degeneration of scapular and pelvic musculature. Since CAPN3 knockout mice (C3KO) display features of muscle pathology similar to those features observed in the earliest-stage or preclinical LGMD2A patients, gene expression profiling analysis in C3KO mice was performed to gain insight into mechanisms of disease. Two different comparisons were carried out in order to determine, first, the differential gene expression between wild-type (WT) and C3KO soleus and, second, to identify the transcripts differentially expressed in aging muscles of WT and C3KO mice. The up/downregulation of two genes, important for normal muscle function, was identified in C3KO mice: the Ky gene, encoding a protease implicated in muscle development, and Park2 gene encoding an E3 ubiquitin ligase (parkin). The Ky gene was downregulated in C3KO muscles suggesting that Ky protease may play a complementary role in regulating muscle cytoskeleton homeostasis in response to changes in muscle activity. Park2 was upregulated in the aged WT muscles but not in C3KO muscles. Taking into account the known functions of parkin E3 ligase, it is possible that it plays a role in ubiquitination and degradation of atrophy-specific and damaged proteins that are necessary to avoid cellular toxicity and a cellular stress response in aging muscles.

  7. Ko Displacement Theory for Structural Shape Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.

    2010-01-01

    The development of the Ko displacement theory for predictions of structure deformed shapes was motivated in 2003 by the Helios flying wing, which had a 247-ft (75-m) wing span with wingtip deflections reaching 40 ft (12 m). The Helios flying wing failed in midair in June 2003, creating the need to develop new technology to predict in-flight deformed shapes of unmanned aircraft wings for visual display before the ground-based pilots. Any types of strain sensors installed on a structure can only sense the surface strains, but are incapable to sense the overall deformed shapes of structures. After the invention of the Ko displacement theory, predictions of structure deformed shapes could be achieved by feeding the measured surface strains into the Ko displacement transfer functions for the calculations of out-of-plane deflections and cross sectional rotations at multiple locations for mapping out overall deformed shapes of the structures. The new Ko displacement theory combined with a strain-sensing system thus created a revolutionary new structure- shape-sensing technology.

  8. Cellular chloride and bicarbonate retention alters intracellular pH regulation in Cftr KO crypt epithelium.

    PubMed

    Walker, Nancy M; Liu, Jinghua; Stein, Sydney R; Stefanski, Casey D; Strubberg, Ashlee M; Clarke, Lane L

    2016-01-15

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an anion channel providing a major pathway for Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) efflux across the apical membrane of the epithelium. In the intestine, CF manifests as obstructive syndromes, dysbiosis, inflammation, and an increased risk for gastrointestinal cancer. Cftr knockout (KO) mice recapitulate CF intestinal disease, including intestinal hyperproliferation. Previous studies using Cftr KO intestinal organoids (enteroids) indicate that crypt epithelium maintains an alkaline intracellular pH (pHi). We hypothesized that Cftr has a cell-autonomous role in downregulating pHi that is incompletely compensated by acid-base regulation in its absence. Here, 2',7'-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein microfluorimetry of enteroids showed that Cftr KO crypt epithelium sustains an alkaline pHi and resistance to cell acidification relative to wild-type. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that Cftr KO enteroids exhibit downregulated transcription of base (HCO3 (-))-loading proteins and upregulation of the basolateral membrane HCO3 (-)-unloader anion exchanger 2 (Ae2). Although Cftr KO crypt epithelium had increased Ae2 expression and Ae2-mediated Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange with maximized gradients, it also had increased intracellular Cl(-) concentration relative to wild-type. Pharmacological reduction of intracellular Cl(-) concentration in Cftr KO crypt epithelium normalized pHi, which was largely Ae2-dependent. We conclude that Cftr KO crypt epithelium maintains an alkaline pHi as a consequence of losing both Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) efflux, which impairs pHi regulation by Ae2. Retention of Cl(-) and an alkaline pHi in crypt epithelium may alter several cellular processes in the proliferative compartment of Cftr KO intestine.

  9. Cellular chloride and bicarbonate retention alters intracellular pH regulation in Cftr KO crypt epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Nancy M.; Liu, Jinghua; Stein, Sydney R.; Stefanski, Casey D.; Strubberg, Ashlee M.

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an anion channel providing a major pathway for Cl− and HCO3− efflux across the apical membrane of the epithelium. In the intestine, CF manifests as obstructive syndromes, dysbiosis, inflammation, and an increased risk for gastrointestinal cancer. Cftr knockout (KO) mice recapitulate CF intestinal disease, including intestinal hyperproliferation. Previous studies using Cftr KO intestinal organoids (enteroids) indicate that crypt epithelium maintains an alkaline intracellular pH (pHi). We hypothesized that Cftr has a cell-autonomous role in downregulating pHi that is incompletely compensated by acid-base regulation in its absence. Here, 2′,7′-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein microfluorimetry of enteroids showed that Cftr KO crypt epithelium sustains an alkaline pHi and resistance to cell acidification relative to wild-type. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that Cftr KO enteroids exhibit downregulated transcription of base (HCO3−)-loading proteins and upregulation of the basolateral membrane HCO3−-unloader anion exchanger 2 (Ae2). Although Cftr KO crypt epithelium had increased Ae2 expression and Ae2-mediated Cl−/HCO3− exchange with maximized gradients, it also had increased intracellular Cl− concentration relative to wild-type. Pharmacological reduction of intracellular Cl− concentration in Cftr KO crypt epithelium normalized pHi, which was largely Ae2-dependent. We conclude that Cftr KO crypt epithelium maintains an alkaline pHi as a consequence of losing both Cl− and HCO3− efflux, which impairs pHi regulation by Ae2. Retention of Cl− and an alkaline pHi in crypt epithelium may alter several cellular processes in the proliferative compartment of Cftr KO intestine. PMID:26542396

  10. Effect of subtype-selective adenosine receptor antagonists on basal or haloperidol-regulated striatal function: studies of exploratory locomotion and c-Fos immunoreactivity in outbred and A(2A)R KO mice.

    PubMed

    Pardo, M; López-Cruz, L; Valverde, O; Ledent, C; Baqi, Y; Müller, C E; Salamone, J D; Correa, M

    2013-06-15

    Behavioral activation is regulated by dopamine (DA) in striatal areas. At low doses, while typical antipsychotic drugs produce psychomotor slowing, psychostimulants promote exploration. Minor stimulants such as caffeine, which act as adenosine receptor antagonists, can also potentiate behavioral activation. Striatal areas are rich in adenosine and DA receptors, and adenosine A2A receptors are mainly expressed in the striatum where they are co-localized with DA D2 receptors. Adenosine antagonists with different receptor-selectivity profiles were used to study spontaneous or haloperidol-impaired exploration and c-Fos expression in different striatal areas. Because A2A antagonists were expected to be more selective for reversing the effects of the D2 antagonist haloperidol, A2A receptor knockout (A2ARKO) mice were also assessed. CD1 and A2ARKO male mice were tested in an open field and in a running wheel. Only the A1/A2A receptor antagonist theophylline (5.0-15.0 mg/kg) and the A2A antagonist MSX-3 (2.0 mg/kg) increased spontaneous locomotion and rearing. Co-administration of theophylline (10.0-15.0 mg/kg), and MSX-3 (1.0-3.0 mg/kg) reversed haloperidol-induced suppression of locomotion. The A1 antagonist CPT was only marginally effective in reversing the effects of haloperidol. Although adenosine antagonists did not affect c-Fos expression on their own, theophylline and MSX-3, but not CPT, attenuated haloperidol induction of c-Fos expression. A2ARKO mice were resistant to the behavioral effects of haloperidol at intermediate doses (0.1 mg/kg) in the open field and in the running wheel. A2A receptors are important for regulating behavioral activation, and interact with D2 receptors in striatal areas to regulate neural processes involved in exploratory activity.

  11. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in ob/ob mice treated with yo jyo hen shi ko (YHK): effects on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP).

    PubMed

    Stefano, José Tadeu; de Oliveira, Claudia Pinto Marques Souza; Corrêa-Giannella, Maria Lúcia; de Lima, Vicência Mara Rodrigues; de Sá, Sandra Valéria; de Oliveira, Ellen Pierre; de Mello, Evandro Sobroza; Giannella-Neto, Daniel; Alves, Venâncio Avancini Ferreira; Carrilho, Flair José

    2007-12-01

    YHK has antioxidant properties, has a hypoglycemic effect, and may reduce plasma lipid levels. In this study, we examined the hepatic expression of PPAR-alpha and -gamma and MTP in ob/ob mice receiving or not receiving YHK. Ob/ob mice were assigned to receive oral YHK (20 mg/kg/day) fed solution (methionine/choline-deficient [MCD] diet+YHK group) or vehicle (MCD group) by gavage for 4 weeks. Liver fragments were collected for histologic examination and mRNA isolation. PPAR-alpha and -gamma and MTP gene expression was examined by RT-qPCR. YHK treatment was associated with NASH prevention, weight loss, and reduction of visceral fat and of serum concentrations of aminotransferases in comparison to the MCD group. YHK promoted an increment in PPAR-alpha and MTP and a decrement in PPAR-gamma mRNA contents. These findings suggest that modulation of PPAR-alpha and -gamma and MTP RNA expression may be implicated in the protective effect of YHK in experimental NASH, limiting hepatocyte lipid accumulation.

  12. Region-Specific Defects of Respiratory Capacities in the Ndufs4(KO) Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Ernst-Bernhard; Sedensky, Margaret M.; Morgan, Philip G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Lack of NDUFS4, a subunit of mitochondrial complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase), causes Leigh syndrome (LS), a progressive encephalomyopathy. Knocking out Ndufs4, either systemically or in brain only, elicits LS in mice. In patients as well as in KO mice distinct regions of the brain degenerate while surrounding tissue survives despite systemic complex I dysfunction. For the understanding of disease etiology and ultimately for the development of rationale treatments for LS, it appears important to uncover the mechanisms that govern focal neurodegeneration. Results Here we used the Ndufs4(KO) mouse to investigate whether regional and temporal differences in respiratory capacity of the brain could be correlated with neurodegeneration. In the KO the respiratory capacity of synaptosomes from the degeneration prone regions olfactory bulb, brainstem and cerebellum was significantly decreased. The difference was measurable even before the onset of neurological symptoms. Furthermore, neither compensating nor exacerbating changes in glycolytic capacity of the synaptosomes were found. By contrast, the KO retained near normal levels of synaptosomal respiration in the degeneration-resistant/resilient “rest” of the brain. We also investigated non-synaptic mitochondria. The KO expectedly had diminished capacity for oxidative phosphorylation (state 3 respiration) with complex I dependent substrate combinations pyruvate/malate and glutamate/malate but surprisingly had normal activity with α-ketoglutarate/malate. No correlation between oxidative phosphorylation (pyruvate/malate driven state 3 respiration) and neurodegeneration was found: Notably, state 3 remained constant in the KO while in controls it tended to increase with time leading to significant differences between the genotypes in older mice in both vulnerable and resilient brain regions. Neither regional ROS damage, measured as HNE-modified protein, nor regional complex I stability, assessed by blue

  13. Basal adenosine modulates the functional properties of AMPA receptors in mouse hippocampal neurons through the activation of A1R A2AR and A3R

    PubMed Central

    Di Angelantonio, Silvia; Bertollini, Cristina; Piccinin, Sonia; Rosito, Maria; Trettel, Flavia; Pagani, Francesca; Limatola, Cristina; Ragozzino, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine is a widespread neuromodulator within the CNS and its extracellular level is increased during hypoxia or intense synaptic activity, modulating pre- and postsynaptic sites. We studied the neuromodulatory action of adenosine on glutamatergic currents in the hippocampus, showing that activation of multiple adenosine receptors (ARs) by basal adenosine impacts postsynaptic site. Specifically, the stimulation of both A1R and A3R reduces AMPA currents, while A2AR has an opposite potentiating effect. The effect of ARs stimulation on glutamatergic currents in hippocampal cultures was investigated using pharmacological and genetic approaches. A3R inhibition by MRS1523 increased GluR1-Ser845 phosphorylation and potentiated AMPA current amplitude, increasing the apparent affinity for the agonist. A similar effect was observed blocking A1R with DPCPX or by genetic deletion of either A3R or A1R. Conversely, impairment of A2AR reduced AMPA currents, and decreased agonist sensitivity. Consistently, in hippocampal slices, ARs activation by AR agonist NECA modulated glutamatergic current amplitude evoked by AMPA application or afferent fiber stimulation. Opposite effects of AR subtypes stimulation are likely associated to changes in GluR1 phosphorylation and represent a novel mechanism of physiological modulation of glutamatergic transmission by adenosine, likely acting in normal conditions in the brain, depending on the level of extracellular adenosine and the distribution of AR subtypes. PMID:26528137

  14. Quantitative and qualitative estimation of atherosclerotic plaque burden in vivo at 7T MRI using Gadospin F in comparison to en face preparation evaluated in ApoE KO mice.

    PubMed

    Jung, Caroline; Christiansen, Sabine; Kaul, Michael Gerhard; Koziolek, Eva; Reimer, Rudolph; Heeren, Jörg; Adam, Gerhard; Heine, Markus; Ittrich, Harald

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify atherosclerotic plaque burden by volumetric assessment and T1 relaxivity measurement at 7T MRI using Gadospin F (GDF) in comparison to en face based measurements. 9-weeks old ApoE-/- (n = 5 for each group) and wildtype mice (n = 5) were set on high fat diet (HFD). Progression group received MRI at 9, 13, 17 and 21 weeks after HFD initiation. Regression group was reswitched to chow diet (CD) after 13 weeks HFD and monitored with MRI for 12 weeks. MRI was performed before and two hours after iv injection of GDF (100 μmol/kg) at 7T (Clinscan, Bruker) acquiring a 3D inversion recovery gradient echo sequence and T1 Mapping using Saturation Recovery sequences. Subsequently, aortas were prepared for en face analysis using confocal microscopy. Total plaque volume (TPV) and T1 relaxivity were estimated using ImageJ (V. 1.44p, NIH, USA). 2D and 3D en face analysis showed a strong and exponential increase of plaque burden over time, while plaque burden in regression group was less pronounced. Correspondent in vivo MRI measurements revealed a more linear increase of TPV and T1 relaxivity for regression group. A significant correlation was observed between 2D and 3D en face analysis (r = 0.79; p<0.001) as well as between 2D / 3D en face analysis and MRI (r = 0.79; p<0.001; r = 0.85; p<0.001) and delta R1 (r = 0.79; p<0.001; r = 0.69; p<0.01). GDF-enhanced in vivo MRI is a powerful non-invasive imaging technique in mice allowing for reliable estimation of atherosclerotic plaque burden, monitoring of disease progression and regression in preclinical studies.

  15. The Pure Rotational Spectrum of KO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Mark; Russ, Benjamin; Sheridan, Phillip M.; Bucchino, Matthew; Ziurys, Lucy M.

    2017-06-01

    The pure rotational spectrum of potassium monoxide (KO) has been recorded using millimeter-wave direct absorption spectroscopy. KO was synthesized by the reaction of potassium vapor, produced in a Broida-type oven, with nitrous oxide. No DC discharge was necessary. Eleven rotational transitions belonging to the ^{2}Π_{3/2} spin-orbit component have been measured and have been fit successfully to a case (c) Hamiltonian. Rotational and lambda-doubling constants for this spin-orbit component have been determined. It has been suggested that the ground electronic state of KO is either ^{2}Π (as for LiO and NaO) or ^{2}Σ (as for RbO and CsO), both of which lie close in energy. Recent computational studies favor a ^{2}Σ ground state. Further measurements of the rotational transitions of the ^{2}Π_{1/2} spin-orbit component and the ^{2}Σ state are currently in progress, as well as the potassium hyperfine structure.

  16. Impaired repair ability of hsp70.1 KO mouse after UVB irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Sun Bang; Young, Cui; Kim, Dong Seok; Choi, Hyun Ok; Kim, Kyu Han; Chung, Jin Ho; Eun, Hee Chul; Park, Kyoung Chan; Oh, Chang Kyu; Seo, Jeong Sun

    2002-02-01

    UV light is absorbed in the epidermis and induces sunburn cell formation. It has been reported that HSP70 increases the UVB resistance of cell lines by in vitro experiments using various cell lines. In this study, hsp70.1(-/-) KO mouse was used in order to study the role of HSP70 after UVB irradiation. Western blotting showed a decreased level of HSP70 in hsp70.1(-/-) KO mouse compared with wild type FVB mouse. Six h after UVB irradiation, there were no significant histologic differences between the hsp70.1(-/-) KO mouse and the wild type FVB mouse. A similar degree of nuclear swelling was observed. However, there were significant differences at 12 and 24 h after UVB irradiation. After 12 h, a few apoptotic cells were observed in the wild type mouse, but a large number of cells were apoptotic in the hsp70.1(-/-) KO mouse. After 24 h, the epidermis of the wild type FVB mouse was relatively intact, but almost the entire epidermis was necrotic in the hsp70.1(-/-) KO mouse. These results showed that epidermal injury of hsp70.1(-/-) KO mouse was much more severe than that of wild type mouse although initial changes are similar in both species of mice. These results suggest that susceptibility of hsp70.1(-/-) KO mouse to UVB irradiation may originate from a defect in the repair mechanism. This HSP deficient model may be useful in studies of the effects of tissue injury that relate to the impaired tissue repair mechanisms.

  17. Wild Type and PPAR KO Dataset

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Data set 1 consists of the experimental data for the Wild Type and PPAR KO animal study and includes data used to prepare Figures 1-4 and Table 1 of the Das et al, 2016 paper.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Das, K., C. Wood, M. Lin, A.A. Starkov, C. Lau, K.B. Wallace, C. Corton, and B. Abbott. Perfluoroalky acids-induced liver steatosis: Effects on genes controlling lipid homeostasis. TOXICOLOGY. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, USA, 378: 32-52, (2017).

  18. Regulation of fear responses by striatal and extrastriatal adenosine A2A receptors in forebrain.

    PubMed

    Wei, Catherine J; Augusto, Elisabete; Gomes, Catarina A; Singer, Philipp; Wang, Yumei; Boison, Detlev; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Yee, Benjamin K; Chen, Jiang-Fan

    2014-06-01

    Adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) are enriched in the striatum but are also present at lower levels in the extrastriatal forebrain (i.e., hippocampus, cortex), integrating dopamine, glutamate, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling, and are thus essential for striatal neuroplasticity and fear and anxiety behavior. We tested two brain region-specific A2AR knockout lines with A2ARs selectively deleted either in the striatum (st-A2AR KO) or the entire forebrain (striatum, hippocampus, and cortex [fb-A2AR KO]) on fear and anxiety-related responses. We also examined the effect of hippocampus-specific A2AR deletion by local injection of adeno-associated virus type 5 (AAV5)-Cre into floxed-A2AR knockout mice. Selectively deleting A2ARs in the striatum increased Pavlovian fear conditioning (both context and tone) in st-A2AR KO mice, but extending the deletion to the rest of the forebrain apparently spared context fear conditioning and attenuated tone fear conditioning in fb-A2AR KO mice. Moreover, focal deletion of hippocampal A2ARs by AAV5-Cre injection selectively attenuated context (but not tone) fear conditioning. Deletion of A2ARs in the entire forebrain in fb-A2AR KO mice also produced an anxiolytic phenotype in both the elevated plus maze and open field tests, and increased the startle response. These extrastriatal forebrain A2AR behavioral effects were associated with reduced BDNF levels in the fb-A2AR KO hippocampus. This study provides evidence that inactivation of striatal A2ARs facilitates Pavlovian fear conditioning, while inactivation of extrastriatal A2ARs in the forebrain inhibits fear conditioning and also affects anxiety-related behavior. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Narp knockout mice show normal reactivity to novelty but attenuated recovery from neophobia.

    PubMed

    Blouin, Ashley M; Lee, Jongah J; Tao, Bo; Smith, Dani R; Johnson, Alexander W; Baraban, Jay M; Reti, Irving M

    2013-11-15

    Narp knockout (KO) mice demonstrate cognitive inflexibility and addictive behavior, which are associated with abnormal reactivity to a novel stimulus. To assess reactivity to novelty, we tested Narp KO and wild-type (WT) mice on a neophobia procedure. Both Narp KO and WT mice showed a similar decrease in consumption upon initial exposure to a novel flavor, but Narp KO mice did not increase consumption with subsequent exposures to the novel flavor like the WT mice. Therefore, Narp KO mice do not have abnormal reactivity to novelty but show deficits in adapting behavior to reflect the updated value of a stimulus.

  20. Flight Tests of the KO-1 Aircraft at Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Jong-Kwang; Kim, Whan-Woo

    The KO-1 aircraft which has the functionality of tactical observation, was successfully developed in August of 2004 in South Korea. It is important for the KO-1 aircraft to achieve successful missions at nighttime as well as during daytime. The aircraft, equipped with interior and exterior lighting systems and lighting control panel modified from those of the KT-1 basic trainer, provides improved safety, operational effectiveness, and situational awareness during operation at night when used with night-vision goggles (NVGs). KO-1 is the first domestic aircraft that utilizes the night-vision imaging system (NVIS) technology in Korea. KO-1 NVIS was developed with the goal of defining the components of NVIS and establishing test and evaluation procedures for both the subsystems and main system. In this paper, we present the establishment of a KO-1 NVIS lighting system, NVIS component development, and representative ground and flight test results.

  1. The Growth Hormone Receptor Gene-Disrupted (GHR-KO) Mouse Fails to Respond to an Intermittent Fasting (IF) Diet

    PubMed Central

    Arum, Oge; Bonkowski, Michael S.; Rocha, Juliana S.; Bartke, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The interaction of longevity-conferring genes with longevity-conferring diets is poorly understood. The growth hormone receptor gene-disrupted (GHR-KO) mouse is long-lived; and this longevity is not responsive to 30% caloric restriction (CR), in contrast to wild-type animals from the same strain. To determine whether this may have been limited to a particular level of dietary restriction (DR), we subjected GHR-KO mice to a different dietary restriction regimen, an intermittent fasting (IF) diet. The IF diet increased the survivorship and improved insulin sensitivity of normal males, but failed to affect either parameter in GHR-KO mice. From the results of two paradigms of dietary restriction we postulate that GHR-KO mice would be resistant to any manner of DR; potentially due to their inability to further enhance insulin sensitivity. Insulin sensitivity may be a mechanism and/or a marker of the lifespan-extending potential of an intervention. PMID:19747233

  2. Age of Kōko Seamount, Emperor Seamount chain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clague, David A.; Dalrymple, G. Brent

    1973-01-01

    KAr ages obtained by the conventional isotope-dilution and the 40Ar/39Ar techniques on two sanidine trachytes, four basalts, and a phonolite dredged from the top of Ko¯ko Seamount, 300 km north of the Hawaiian-Emperor bend, show that the seamount is 46.4 ± 1.1 my old. These data indicate that the volcanoes in the Hawaiian-Emperor chain continue to increase in age to the west and north beyond Midway Atoll, as predicted by the melting-spot hypothesis for the origin of the chain, and that the rate of volcanic migration along the chain was nonlinear between the time of formation of the island of Hawaii and Ko¯ko Seamount.

  3. Sucrose-conditioned flavor preferences in sweet ageusic T1r3 and Calhm1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Anthony; Marambaud, Philippe; Ackroff, Karen

    2014-03-14

    The present study compared the ability of sweet ageusic T1r3 knockout (KO) and Calhm1 KO mice to acquire preferences for a sucrose-paired flavor as well as for unflavored sucrose. The KO and wildtype (WT) mice were given 24-h one-bottle access to 8% sucrose containing one flavor CS+, e.g., grape) and to water containing a different flavor (CS-, e.g., cherry) over 4 training days. In subsequent two-bottle tests with the flavors in water only, the T1r3 KO and Calhm1 KO mice, like WT mice, preferred the CS+ to the CS-. After training with flavored solutions, both KO groups also preferred unflavored 8% sucrose to water although Calhm1 KO mice required more sugar experience to match the preference of the T1r3 KO mice. These findings demonstrate that Calhm1 KO mice, like T1r3 KO mice and WT mice, are sensitive to the post-oral preference conditioning actions of sucrose and can discriminate sugar from water. Yet, despite their acquired sucrose preferences, the Calhm1 KO and T1r3 KO mice consumed only half as much sugar per day as did WT mice. Thus, sweet taste signaling elements are not needed in the gut for sugar conditioning, but sweet taste signaling in the mouth is essential for the full expression of sugar appetite.

  4. Altered ERK/MAPK signaling in the hippocampus of the mrsk2_KO mouse model of Coffin-Lowry syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Anne; Mehmood, Tahir; Pannetier, Solange; Hanauer, André

    2011-11-01

    Coffin-Lowry syndrome is a syndromic form of mental retardation caused by mutations of the Rps6ka3 gene encoding ribosomal s6 kinase (RSK)2. RSK2 belongs to a family containing four members in mammals: RSK1-4. RSKs are serine/threonine kinases and cytosolic substrates of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway. RSK2 is highly expressed in the hippocampus, and mrsk2_KO mice display spatial learning and memory impairment. In the present study, we provide evidence of abnormally increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in the hippocampus of mrsk2_KO mice. Further studies based on cultured hippocampal neurons revealed that glutamate activates ERK1/2 and RSKs, and confirmed a stronger activation of ERK1/2 in mrsk2_KO neurons than in WT cells. We, thus, provide further evidence that RSK2 exerts a feedback inhibitory effect on the ERK1/2 pathway. We also observed a transient sequestration of P-ERK1/2 in the cytoplasm upon glutamate stimulation. In addition, the transcription factors cAMP response element binding and Ets LiKe gene1 show over-activation in RSK2-deficient neurons. Finally, c-Fos, Zif268 and Arc were significantly over-expressed in mrsk2_KO neurons upon glutamate stimulation. Importantly, the increased phosphorylation of other RSK family members observed in mutant neurons was unable to compensate for RSK2 deficiency. This aberrant ERK1/2 signaling can influence various neuronal functions, and thus play a significant role in cognitive dysfunction in mrsk2_KO mice and in the Coffin-Lowry syndrome.

  5. Energy homeostasis in apolipoprotein AIV and cholecystokinin-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Weng, Jonathan; Lou, Danwen; Benoit, Stephen C; Coschigano, Natalie; Woods, Stephen C; Tso, Patrick; Lo, Chunmin C

    2017-08-02

    Apolipoprotein AIV (ApoAIV) and cholecystokinin (CCK) are well-known satiating signals that are stimulated by fat consumption. Peripheral ApoAIV and CCK interact to prolong satiating signals. In the present study, we hypothesized that ApoAIV and CCK control energy homeostasis in response to high-fat diet feeding. To test this hypothesis, energy homeostasis in ApoAIV and CCK double knockout (ApoAIV/CCK-KO), ApoAIV knockout (ApoAIV-KO), and CCK knockout (CCK-KO) mice were monitored. When animals were maintained on a low-fat diet, ApoAIV/CCK-KO, ApoAIV-KO, and CCK-KO mice had comparable energy intake and expenditure, body weight, fat mass, fat absorption, and plasma parameters relative to the controls. In contrast, these KO mice exhibited impaired lipid transport to epididymal fat pads in response to intraduodenal infusion of dietary lipids. Furthermore, ApoAIV-KO mice had upregulated levels of CCK receptor 2 (CCK2R) in the small intestine while ApoAIV/CCK-KO mice had upregulated levels of CCK2R in the brown adipose tissue. After 20 weeks of a high-fat diet, ApoAIV-KO and CCK-KO mice had comparable body weight and fat mass, as well as lower energy expenditure at some time points. However, ApoAIV/CCK-KO mice exhibited reduced body weight and adiposity relative to wild-type mice, despite having normal food intake. Furthermore, ApoAIV/CCK-KO mice displayed normal fat absorption and locomotor activity, as well as enhanced energy expenditure. These observations suggest that mice lacking ApoAIV and CCK have reduced body weight and adiposity, possibly due to impaired lipid transport and elevated energy expenditure. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology.

  6. Basal Bone Phenotype and Increased Anabolic Responses to Intermittent Parathyroid Hormone in Healthy Male COX-2 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Manshan; Choudhary, Shilpa; Voznesensky, Olga; Gao, Qi; Adams, Douglas; Diaz-Doran, Vilmaris; Wu, Qian; Goltzman, David; Raisz, Lawrence G.; Pilbeam, Carol C.

    2011-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) knockout (KO) mice in inbred strains can have renal dysfunction with secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPTH), making direct effects of COX-2 KO on bone difficult to assess. COX-2 KO mice in an outbred CD-1 background did not have renal dysfunction but still had two-fold elevated PTH compared to wild type (WT) mice. Compared to WT mice, KO mice had increased serum markers of bone turnover, decreased femoral bone mineral density (BMD) and cortical bone thickness, but no differences in trabecular bone volume by μCT or dynamic histomorphometry. Because PTH is a potent inducer of COX-2 and prostaglandin (PG) production, we examined effects of COX-2 KO on bone responses after three weeks of intermittent PTH. Intermittent PTH increased femoral BMD and cortical bone area more in KO mice than in WT mice and increased trabecular bone volume in the distal femur in both WT and KO mice. Although not statistically significant, PTH-stimulated increases in trabecular bone tended to be greater in KO mice than in WT mice. PTH increased serum markers of bone formation and resorption more in KO than in WT mice but increased the ratio of osteoblastic surface to osteoclastic surface only in KO mice. PTH also increased femoral mineral apposition rates and bone formation rates in KO mice more than in WT mice. Acute mRNA responses to PTH of genes that might mediate some anabolic and catabolic effects of PTH tended to be greater in KO than WT mice. We conclude that (1) the basal bone phenotype in male COX-2 KO mice might reflect HPTH, COX-2 deficiency or both, and (2) increased responses to intermittent PTH in COX-2 KO mice, despite the presence of chronic HPTH, suggest that absence of COX-2 increased sensitivity to PTH. It is possible that manipulation of endogenous PGs could have important clinical implications for anabolic therapy with PTH. PMID:20471507

  7. Fat and Carbohydrate Preferences in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sclafani, Anthony; Zukerman, Steven; Glendinning, John I.; Margolskee, Robert F.

    2008-01-01

    Trpm5 and α-gustducin are key to the transduction of tastes of sugars, amino acids and bitter compounds. This study investigated the role of these signaling proteins in the preference for fat, starch, and starch-derived polysaccharides (Polycose), using Trpm5 knockout (Trpm5 KO) and α-gustducin knockout (Gust KO) mice. In initial two-bottle tests (24 h/day), Trpm5 KO mice showed no preference for soybean oil emulsions (0.313 - 2.5%), Polycose solutions (0.5 - 4%) or starch suspensions (0.5 - 4%). Gust KO mice displayed an attenuated preference for Polycose, but their preference for soybean oil and starch was comparable to that of C57BL/6J wild-type mice (WT). Gust KO mice preferred starch to Polycose whereas WT mice had the opposite preference. Following extensive experience with soybean oil emulsions (Intralipid) and Polycose solutions, the Trpm5 KO mice developed preferences comparable to the WT mice, although their absolute intakes remained suppressed. Similarly, Gust KO mice developed a strong Polycose preference with experience but they continued to consume less than WT mice. These results implicate α-gustducin and Trpm5 as mediators of polysaccharide taste and Trpm5 in fat taste. The disruption in Polycose, but not starch preference, in Gust KO mice indicates that distinct sensory signaling pathways mediate the response to these carbohydrates,. The experience-induced rescue of fat and Polycose preferences in the KO mice likely reflects the action of a post-oral conditioning mechanism, which functions in the absence of α-gustducin and Trpm5. PMID:17652359

  8. Micro-Raman spectroscopy of meteorite Košice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaňuchová, Z.; Baratta, G. A.

    2014-07-01

    The Raman microscope technique was used to characterize 3-5 μm structures in the matrix of the Košice meteorite, an H5 ordinary chondrite. Its fall is associated with a bright fireball that appeared over central-eastern Slovakia on February 28, 2010. Several micro-Raman spectra of the interior part of meteorite KoŠice sample were collected. On the basis of characteristic frequencies of Raman modes the main types of minerals (olivines, pyroxenes) as well as carbon material were identified. The Raman signature of the carbon material is consistent with the second stage of the amorphization trajectory between amorphous carbon and nanocrystalline graphite.

  9. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Knockout (VIP KO) mouse model of sulfite-sensitive asthma: up-regulation of novel lung carbonyl reductase

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We earlier reported spontaneous features of asthma in Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide knockout mice (VIP KO): 1) peribronchiolar airway inflammation, with accumulation of lymphocytes and eosinophils, 2) pro-inflammatory cytokine production of IL-5, IL-6, with IFN-γ, and 3) airway hyper-responsiveness to inhaled methacholine. In human asthma, a phenotype with sulfite sensitivity leads to airway inflammation and hyper-responsiveness to inhaled sulfites, and is associated with upregulation of anti-oxidant protein lung carbonyl reductase. For the present experiments, we examined the role of VIP in modulating anti-oxidant genes and their proteins, including lung carbonyl reductase. Results Four male VIP KO mice and four wild-type age- and gender matched mice had lungs examined for whole genome microarray and a proteomics approach using mass spectrometry. The proteomics analysis revealed that a novel variant of anti-oxidant protein lung carbonyl reductase (car3) was uniquely and markedly elevated in the VIP KO mice. RT-PCR indicated that carbonic anhydrase 3, which is an anti-oxidant protein, was elevated in the VIP KO mice. Conclusions These data support the concept that VIP influences the endogenous oxidant/antioxidant balance. One potential implication is that VIP and its analogues may be used to treat inflammatory diseases, including asthma. PMID:22103391

  10. Sociophonetic Variations in Korean Constituent Final "-Ko" and "-To"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, So Young L.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to examine (i) linguistic and extralinguistic factors that influence vowel raising of /o/ in constituent-final "-ko" and "-to" in Seoul Korean and (ii) listeners' perceptions of this vowel raising and social meanings of the raised variant. The analyses are based on production data collected…

  11. Sociophonetic Variations in Korean Constituent Final "-Ko" and "-To"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, So Young L.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to examine (i) linguistic and extralinguistic factors that influence vowel raising of /o/ in constituent-final "-ko" and "-to" in Seoul Korean and (ii) listeners' perceptions of this vowel raising and social meanings of the raised variant. The analyses are based on production data collected…

  12. Behavioral abnormalities in the Fmr1-KO2 mouse model of fragile X syndrome: The relevance of early life phases.

    PubMed

    Gaudissard, Julie; Ginger, Melanie; Premoli, Marika; Memo, Maurizio; Frick, Andreas; Pietropaolo, Susanna

    2017-06-07

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a developmental disorder caused by a mutation in the X-linked FMR1 gene, coding for the FMRP protein which is largely involved in synaptic function. FXS patients present several behavioral abnormalities, including hyperactivity, anxiety, sensory hyper-responsiveness, and cognitive deficits. Autistic symptoms, e.g., altered social interaction and communication, are also often observed: FXS is indeed the most common monogenic cause of autism. Mouse models of FXS are therefore of great interest for research on both FXS and autistic pathologies. The Fmr1-KO2 mouse line is the most recent FXS model, widely used for brain studies; surprisingly, little is known about the face validity of this model, i.e., its FXS-like behavioral phenotype. Furthermore, no data are available for the age-related expression of the pathological phenotypes in this mouse line, a critical issue for modelling neurodevelopmental disorders. Here we performed an extensive behavioral characterization of the KO2 model at infancy, adolescent and adult ages. Hyperactivity, altered emotionality, sensory hyper-responsiveness and memory deficits were already present in KO mice at adolescence and remained evident at adulthood. Alterations in social behaviors were instead observed only in young KO animals: during the first 2 weeks of life, KOs emitted longer ultrasonic vocalizations compared to their WT littermates and as adolescents they displayed more aggressive behaviors towards a conspecific. These results strongly support the face validity of the KO2 mouse as a model for FXS, at the same time demonstrating that its ability to recapitulate social autistic-relevant phenotypes depends on early testing ages. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. DSTYK kinase domain ablation impaired the mice capabilities of learning and memory in water maze test.

    PubMed

    Li, Kui; Liu, Ji-Wei; Zhu, Zhi-Chuan; Wang, Hong-Tao; Zu, Yong; Liu, Yong-Jie; Yang, Yan-Hong; Xiong, Zhi-Qi; Shen, Xu; Chen, Rui; Zheng, Jing; Hu, Ze-Lan

    2014-01-01

    DSTYK (Dual serine/threonine and tyrosine protein kinase) is a putative dual Ser/Thr and Tyr protein kinase with unique structural features. It is proposed that DSTYK may play important roles in brain because of its high expression in most brain areas. In the present study, a DSTYK knockout (KO) mouse line with the ablation of C-terminal of DSTYK including the kinase domain was generated to study the physiological function of DSTYK. The DSTYK KO mice are fertile and have no significant morphological defects revealed by Nissl staining compared with wildtype mice. Open field test and rotarod test showed there is no obvious difference in basic motor and balance capacity between the DSTYK homozygous KO mice and DSTYK heterozygous KO mice. In water maze test, however, the DSTYK homozygous KO mice show impaired capabilities of learning and memory compared with the DSTYK heterozygous KO mice.

  14. The 2S(+) - 2P separation in KO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Partridge, Harry; Dyall, Kenneth G.

    1991-01-01

    The 2S(+) - 2P separation in KO is investigated using large basis sets and high levels of correlation treatment. Relativistic effects are included at the Dirac-Fock level and reduce the separation only slightly. The basis set superposition error is considered in detail. On the basis of these calculations, our best estimate places the 2p sub 3/2 state about 200 cm(exp -1) above the ground 2 sigma(+) state in agreement with our previous estimate.

  15. The 2Sigma(+)-2Pi separation in KO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Partridge, Harry; Dyall, Kenneth G.

    1992-01-01

    The 2Sigma(+)-2Pi separation in KO is investigated using large basis sets and high levels of correlation treatment. Relativistic effects are included at the Dirac-Fock level and reduce the separation only slightly. The basis set superposition error is considered in detail. On the basis of these calculations, our best estimate places the 2Pi3/2 state about 200/cm above the ground 2Sigma(+) state, in agreement with our previous estimate.

  16. Gene expression profiling of dilated cardiomyopathy in older male EP4 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Pamela; Yang, Xiao-Ping; Yang, James; Shesely, Ed; He, Quan

    2010-01-01

    Using a line of mice with cardiac-specific knockout (KO) of the EP4 receptor gene, experiments were designed to determine whether a cardiac phenotype developed with age. Cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography in 23- to 33-wk-old male and female KO and littermate controls (WT) mice. After echocardiography, hearts were removed to assess weight, and then some were further processed for histology [myocyte cross-sectional area (MCSA), interstitial collagen fraction (ICF), and macrophage infiltration] and some for extraction of total RNA and protein. Older male KO mice had reduced ejection fraction (EF) coupled with left ventricular dilatation. MCSA and infiltrating macrophages were not different between groups, but ICF increased by 39% in KO mice. In contrast to male KO mice, 30- to 32-wk-old female KO mice had only a slight reduction in EF. To understand gene expression differences between male WT and KO mice, we performed whole genome gene expression profiling (Illumina BeadChips) on hearts of 30-to 32-wk-old mice. Data indicated that 156 genes were overexpressed in the KO hearts more than twofold, including genes involved in remodeling, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Overexpressed chemokines/cytokines were further examined in hearts of 10- to 12-wk-old male KO mice, and we found that growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) expression was higher in KO than in WT hearts. In conclusion, EP4 knockdown in cardiac myocytes in aged male KO mice is in part associated with increased fibrosis, reduced EF, and dilated cardiomyopathy. Early overexpression of GDF-15 in hearts of male KO mice may contribute to or be a marker of the disease phenotype. The absence of serious cardiac dysfunction in aged female mice suggests a sexual dimorphism in the phenotype. PMID:20008274

  17. Adenosine Receptor Antagonists and Behavioral Activation in NF-κB p50 Subunit Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xiaobin; Mhaskar, Yashanad; Arbogast, Lydia A.; Trammell, Rita A.; Hughes, Larry F.; Toth, Linda A.

    2009-01-01

    Aims Our previous work revealed that mice lacking the p50 subunit of transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) (p50 KO mice) and genetically intact F2 mice have similar locomotion under basal conditions, yet p50 KO mice show greater locomotor activation after caffeine ingestion. In this report, we test whether KO mice display altered caffeine pharmacokinetics or increased caffeine-induced DA turnover relative to F2 mice, and evaluate the impact of intraperitoneal administration of specific adenosine and DA receptor antagonists on locomotor activity. Main methods Concentrations of DA and caffeine were measured using high performance liquid chromatography. DA turnover was measured after treatment of mice with an inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase. Locomotor activity was measured using telemetry. Key findings The data reveal that 1) caffeine concentrations in blood and brain are similar in KO and F2 mice after oral or intraperitoneal administration; 2) KO mice show greater DA turnover under basal conditions, but turnover is similar in both strains after caffeine administration; 3) the specific A2AAR antagonist SCH 58261 induces greater locomotion in KO versus F2 mice; and 4) the activating effect of SCH 58261 in KO mice is prevented by prior treatment with the D2R antagonist raclopride. Significance These findings support the conclusions that 1) A2AAR has a major impact on behavioral activation of p50 KO mice, and 2) D2R mediated neurotransmission is critical to this effect. PMID:19508875

  18. Adenosine receptor antagonists and behavioral activation in NF-kappaB p50 subunit knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaobin; Mhaskar, Yashanad; Arbogast, Lydia A; Trammell, Rita A; Hughes, Larry F; Toth, Linda A

    2009-07-31

    Our previous work revealed that mice lacking the p50 subunit of transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) (p50 KO mice) and genetically intact F2 mice have similar locomotion under basal conditions, yet p50 KO mice show greater locomotor activation after caffeine ingestion. In this report, we test whether KO mice display altered caffeine pharmacokinetics or increased caffeine-induced DA turnover relative to F2 mice, and evaluate the impact of intraperitoneal administration of specific adenosine and DA receptor antagonists on locomotor activity. Concentrations of DA and caffeine were measured using high performance liquid chromatography. DA turnover was measured after treatment of mice with an inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase. Locomotor activity was measured using telemetry. The data reveal that 1) caffeine concentrations in blood and brain are similar in KO and F2 mice after oral or intraperitoneal administration; 2) KO mice show greater DA turnover under basal conditions, but turnover is similar in both strains after caffeine administration; 3) the specific A2AAR antagonist SCH 58261 induces greater locomotion in KO versus F2 mice; and 4) the activating effect of SCH 58261 in KO mice is prevented by prior treatment with the D2R antagonist raclopride. These findings support the conclusions that 1) A2AAR has a major impact on behavioral activation of p50 KO mice, and 2) D2R mediated neurotransmission is important to this effect.

  19. Koala retrovirus (KoRV) genotyping analyses reveal a low prevalence of KoRV-A in Victorian koalas and an association with clinical disease.

    PubMed

    Legione, Alistair Raymond; Patterson, Jade L S; Whiteley, Pam; Firestone, Simon M; Curnick, Megan; Bodley, Kate; Lynch, Michael; Gilkerson, James R; Sansom, Fiona M; Devlin, Joanne M

    2016-12-28

    Koala retrovirus (KoRV) is currently undergoing endogenisation into the genome of koalas in Australia, providing an opportunity to assess the effect of retrovirus infection on the health of a population. The prevalence of KoRV in north eastern Australia (Queensland and New South Wales) is 100%, whereas previous preliminary investigations in south eastern Australia (Victoria) suggested KoRV is present at a lower prevalence, although the values have varied widely. Here we describe a large study of free ranging koalas in Victoria to estimate the prevalence of KoRV and assess the clinical significance of KoRV infection in wild koalas. Blood or spleen samples from 648 koalas where tested for KoRV provirus using PCRs to detect pol and env genes. The prevalence of KoRV in these Victorian koalas was 24.7% (160/648) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 21.3, 28.1%). KoRV-A was detected in 141/160 cases but KoRV-B, a genotype associated with neoplasia in captive koalas, was not detected. Detection may have been precluded by genomic differences between KoRV in Victoria and type strains. Factors associated with KoRV infection, based on multivariable analysis, were low body condition score, region sampled, and 'wet bottom'(a staining of the fur around the rump associated with chronic urinary incontinence). Koalas with wet bottom were nearly twice as likely to have KoRV provirus detected than those without wet bottom (odds ratio = 1.90, 95% CI 1.21, 2.98). Our findings have important implications for the conservation of this iconic species, particularly in regards to translocation potential.

  20. Lack of antiviral antibody response in koalas infected with koala retroviruses (KoRV).

    PubMed

    Fiebig, Uwe; Keller, Martina; Möller, Annekatrin; Timms, Peter; Denner, Joachim

    2015-02-16

    Many wild koalas are infected with the koala retrovirus, KoRV, some of which suffer from lymphoma and chlamydial disease. Three subgroups, KoRV-A, KoRV-B and KoRV-J, have so far been described. It is well known that other closely related gammaretroviruses can induce tumours and severe immunodeficiencies in their respective hosts and a possible role for KoRV infection in lymphoma and chlamydial disease in koalas has been suggested. In many wild koalas, KoRV-A has become endogenised, i.e., it is integrated in the germ-line and is passed on with normal cellular genes. In this study, sera from koalas in European zoos and from wild animals in Australia were screened for antibodies against KoRV-A. These naturally infected animals all carry endogenous KoRV-A and two zoo animals are also infected with KoRV-B. The antibody response is generally an important diagnostic tool for detecting retrovirus infections. However, when Western blot analyses were performed using purified virus or recombinant proteins corresponding to KoRV-A, none of the koalas tested positive for specific antibodies, suggesting a state of tolerance. These results have implications for koala vaccination, as they suggest that therapeutic immunisation of animals carrying and expressing endogenous KoRV-A will not be successful. However, it remains unclear whether these animals can be immunised against KoRV-B and immunisation of uninfected koalas could still be worthwhile.

  1. Gender differences between hypocretin/orexin knockout and wild type mice: age, body weight, body composition, metabolic markers, leptin and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Lalini; Siegel, Jerome M

    2014-12-01

    Female hypocretin knockout (Hcrt KO) mice have increased body weight despite decreased food intake compared to wild type (WT) mice. In order to understand the nature of the increased body weight, we carried out a detailed study of Hcrt KO and WT, male, and female mice. Female KO mice showed consistently higher body weight than WT mice, from 4 to 20 months (20-60%). Fat, muscle, and free fluid levels were all significantly higher in adult (7-9 months) as well as old (18-20 months) female KO mice compared to age-matched WT mice. Old male KO mice showed significantly higher fat content (150%) compared to age-matched WT mice, but no significant change in body weight. Respiratory quotient (-19%) and metabolic rates (-14%) were significantly lower in KO mice compared to WT mice, regardless of gender or age. Female KO mice had significantly higher serum leptin levels (191%) than WT mice at 18-20 months, but no difference between male mice were observed. Conversely, insulin resistance was significantly higher in both male (73%) and female (93%) KO mice compared to age- and sex-matched WT mice. We conclude that absence of the Hcrt peptide has gender-specific effects. In contrast, Hcrt-ataxin mice and human narcoleptics, with loss of the whole Hcrt cell, show weight gain in both sexes. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  2. Fus1 KO Mouse As a Model of Oxidative Stress-Mediated Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease: Circadian Disruption and Long-Term Spatial and Olfactory Memory Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Coronas-Samano, Guillermo; Baker, Keeley L.; Tan, Winston J. T.; Ivanova, Alla V.; Verhagen, Justus V.

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient advances in the development of effective therapeutic treatments of sporadic Alzheimer's Disease (sAD) to date are largely due to the lack of sAD-relevant animal models. While the vast majority of models do recapitulate AD's hallmarks of plaques and tangles by virtue of tau and/or beta amyloid overexpression, these models do not reflect the fact that in sAD (unlike familial AD) these genes are not risk factors per se and that other mechanisms like oxidative stress, metabolic dysregulation and inflammation play key roles in AD etiology. Here we characterize and propose the Fus1 KO mice that lack a mitochondrial protein Fus1/Tusc2 as a new sAD model. To establish sAD relevance, we assessed sAD related deficits in Fus1 KO and WT adult mice of 4–5 months old, the equivalent human age when the earliest cognitive and olfactory sAD symptoms arise. Fus1 KO mice showed oxidative stress (increased levels of ROS, decreased levels of PRDX1), disruption of metabolic homeostasis (decreased levels of ACC2, increased phosphorylation of AMPK), autophagy (decreased levels of LC3-II), PKC (decreased levels of RACK1) and calcium signaling (decreased levels of Calb2) in the olfactory bulb and/or hippocampus. Mice were behaviorally tested using objective and accurate video tracking (Noldus), in which Fus1 KO mice showed clear deficits in olfactory memory (decreased habituation/cross-habituation in the short and long term), olfactory guided navigation memory (inability to reduce their latency to find the hidden cookie), spatial memory (learning impairments on finding the platform in the Morris water maze) and showed more sleep time during the diurnal cycle. Fus1 KO mice did not show clear deficits in olfactory perception (cross-habituation), association memory (passive avoidance) or in species-typical behavior (nest building) and no increased anxiety (open field, light-dark box) or depression/anhedonia (sucrose preference) at this relatively young age. These neurobehavioral

  3. Lack of stress responses to long-term effects of corticosterone in Caps2 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Mishima, Yuriko; Shinoda, Yo; Sadakata, Tetsushi; Kojima, Masami; Wakana, Shigeharu; Furuichi, Teiichi

    2015-03-10

    Chronic stress is associated with anxiety and depressive disorders, and can cause weight gain. Ca(2+)-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 (CAPS2) is involved in insulin release. Caps2 knockout (KO) mice exhibit decreased body weight, reduced glucose-induced insulin release, and abnormal psychiatric behaviors. We chronically administered the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT), which induces anxiety/depressive-like behavior and normally increases plasma insulin levels, via the drinking water for 10 weeks, and we examined the stress response in KO mice. Chronic CORT exposure inhibited stress-induced serum CORT elevation in wild-type (WT) mice, but not in KO mice. Poor weight gain in CORT-treated animals was observed until week 6 in WT mice, but persisted for the entire duration of the experiment in KO mice, although there is no difference in drug*genotype interaction. Among KO mice, food consumption was unchanged, while water consumption was higher, over the duration of the experiment in CORT-treated animals, compared with untreated animals. Moreover, serum insulin and leptin levels were increased in CORT-treated WT mice, but not in KO mice. Lastly, both WT and KO mice displayed anxiety/depressive-like behavior after CORT administration. These results suggest that Caps2 KO mice have altered endocrine responses to CORT administration, while maintaining CORT-induced anxiety/depressive-like behavior.

  4. Elevated body temperature during sleep in orexin knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Takatoshi; Klerman, Elizabeth B; Sakurai, Takeshi; Scammell, Thomas E

    2006-09-01

    Core body temperature (Tb) is influenced by many physiological factors, including behavioral state, locomotor activity, and biological rhythms. To determine the relative roles of these factors, we examined Tb in orexin knockout (KO) mice, which have a narcolepsy-like phenotype with severe sleep-wake fragmentation. Because orexin is released during wakefulness and is thought to promote heat production, we hypothesized that orexin KO mice would have lower Tb while awake. Surprisingly, Tb was the same in orexin KO mice and wild-type (WT) littermates during sustained wakefulness. Orexin KO mice had normal diurnal variations in Tb, but the ultradian rhythms of Tb, locomotor activity, and wakefulness were markedly reduced. During the first 15 min of spontaneous sleep, the Tb of WT mice decreased by 1.0 degrees C, but Tb in orexin KO mice decreased only 0.4 degrees C. Even during intense recovery sleep after 8 h of sleep deprivation, the Tb of orexin KO mice remained 0.7 degrees C higher than in WT mice. This blunted fall in Tb during sleep may be due to inadequate activation of heat loss mechanisms or sustained activity in heat-generating systems. These observations reveal an unexpected role for orexin in thermoregulation. In addition, because heat loss is an essential aspect of sleep, the blunted fall in Tb of orexin KO mice may provide an explanation for the fragmented sleep of narcolepsy.

  5. [Roles of histamine receptors in pain perception: a study using receptors gene knockout mice].

    PubMed

    Yanai, Kazuhiko; Mobarakeh, Jalal Izadi; Kuramasu, Atsuo; Sakurada, Shinobu

    2003-11-01

    To study the participation of histamine H1- and H2-receptors in pain perception, H1 and H2 receptor knockout (KO) mice were examined for pain threshold by means of three kinds of nociceptive tasks. These included assays for thermal, mechanical, and chemical nociception. H1KO mice showed significantly fewer nociceptive responses to the hot-plate, tail-flick, tail-pressure, paw-withdrawal, formalin, capsaicin, and abdominal constriction tests. Sensitivity to noxious stimuli in H1KO mice was significantly decreased when compared to wild-type mice. The antinociceptive phenotypes of H2KO were relatively less prominent when compared to H1KO mice. We also examined the antinociceptive effects of intrathecally-, intracerebroventricularly-, and subcutaneously-administered morphine in H1KO and H2KO mice. In these nociceptive assays, the antinociceptive effects produced by morphine were more enhanced in both H1KO and H2KO mice. The effects of histamine H1- and H2-receptor antagonists on morphine-induced antinociception were studied in ICR mice. The intrathecal, intracerebroventricular and subcutaneous co-administrations of d-chlorpheniramine enhanced the effects of morphine in all nociceptive assays examined. In addition, intrathecal co-administrations of cimetidine enhanced the antinociception of morphine in the hot plate tests. These results suggest that existing H1 and H2 receptors play an inhibitory role in morphine-induced antinociception in the spinal and supra-spinal levels.

  6. Neuroprotection by caffeine in the MPTP model of parkinson's disease and its dependence on adenosine A2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Xu, K; Di Luca, D G; Orrú, M; Xu, Y; Chen, J-F; Schwarzschild, M A

    2016-05-13

    Considerable epidemiological and laboratory data have suggested that caffeine, a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist, may protect against the underlying neurodegeneration of parkinson's disease (PD). Although both caffeine and more specific antagonists of the A2A subtype of adenosine receptor (A2AR) have been found to confer protection in animal models of PD, the dependence of caffeine's neuroprotective effects on the A2AR is not known. To definitively determine its A2AR dependence, the effect of caffeine on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetra-hydropyridine (MPTP) neurotoxicity was compared in wild-type (WT) and A2AR gene global knockout (A2A KO) mice, as well as in central nervous system (CNS) cell type-specific (conditional) A2AR knockout (cKO) mice that lack the receptor either in postnatal forebrain neurons or in astrocytes. In WT and in heterozygous A2AR KO mice caffeine pretreatment (25mg/kgip) significantly attenuated MPTP-induced depletion of striatal dopamine. By contrast in homozygous A2AR global KO mice caffeine had no effect on MPTP toxicity. In forebrain neuron A2AR cKO mice, caffeine lost its locomotor stimulant effect, whereas its neuroprotective effect was mostly preserved. In astrocytic A2AR cKO mice, both caffeine's locomotor stimulant and protective properties were undiminished. Taken together, these results indicate that neuroprotection by caffeine in the MPTP model of PD relies on the A2AR, although the specific cellular localization of these receptors remains to be determined.

  7. Neuroprotection by caffeine in the MPTP model of Parkinson’s disease and its dependence on adenosine A2A receptors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kui; Di Luca, Daniel Garbin; Orrú, Marco; Xu, Yuehang; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Schwarzschild, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Considerable epidemiological and laboratory data have suggested that caffeine, a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist, may protect against the underlying neurodegeneration of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Although both caffeine and more specific antagonists of the A2A subtype of adenosine receptor (A2AR) have been found to confer protection in animal models of PD, the dependence of caffeine’s neuroprotective effects on the A2AR is not known. To definitively determine its A2AR dependence, the effect of caffeine on MPTP neurotoxicity was compared in wild-type (WT) and A2AR gene global knockout (A2A KO) mice, as well as in CNS cell type-specific (conditional) A2AR knockout (cKO) mice that lack the receptor either in postnatal forebrain neurons or in astrocytes. In WT and in heterozygous A2AR KO mice caffeine pretreatment (25 mg/kg ip) significantly attenuated MPTP-induced depletion of striatal dopamine. By contrast in homozygous A2AR global KO mice caffeine had no effect on MPTP toxicity. In forebrain neuron A2AR cKO mice, caffeine lost its locomotor stimulant effect, whereas its neuroprotective effect was mostly preserved. In astrocytic A2AR cKO mice, both caffeine’s locomotor stimulant and protective properties were undiminished. Taken together, these results indicate that neuroprotection by caffeine in the MPTP model of PD relies on the A2AR, although the specific cellular localization of these receptors remains to be determined. PMID:26905951

  8. Evaluation of seasonal influenza vaccines for H1N1pdm09 and type B viruses based on a replication-incompetent PB2-KO virus.

    PubMed

    Ui, Hiroki; Yamayoshi, Seiya; Uraki, Ryuta; Kiso, Maki; Oishi, Kohei; Murakami, Shin; Mimori, Shigetaka; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2017-04-04

    Vaccination is the first line of protection against influenza virus infection in humans. Although inactivated and live-attenuated vaccines are available, each vaccine has drawbacks in terms of immunogenicity and safety. To overcome these issues, our group has developed a replication-incompetent PB2-knockout (PB2-KO) influenza virus that replicates only in PB2-expressing cells. Here we generated PB2-KO viruses possessing the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) segments from H1N1pdm09 or type B viruses and tested their vaccine potential. The two PB2-KO viruses propagated efficiently in PB2-expressing cells, and expressed chimeric HA as expected. Virus-specific IgG and IgA antibodies were detected in mice immunized with the viruses, and the immunized mice showed milder clinical signs and/or lower virus replication levels in the respiratory tract upon virus challenge. Our results indicate that these PB2-KO viruses have potential as vaccine candidates.

  9. Muscarinic receptor subtypes involved in regulation of colonic motility in mice: functional studies using muscarinic receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Takaji; Nakajima, Miwa; Teraoka, Hiroki; Unno, Toshihiro; Komori, Sei-ichi; Yamada, Masahisa; Kitazawa, Takio

    2011-11-16

    Although muscarinic M(2) and M(3) receptors are known to be important for regulation of gastric and small intestinal motility, muscarinic receptor subtypes regulating colonic function remain to be investigated. The aim of this study was to characterize muscarinic receptors involved in regulation of colonic contractility. M(2) and/or M(3) receptor knockout (KO) and wild-type mice were used in in vivo (defecation, colonic propulsion) and in vitro (contraction) experiments. Amount of feces was significantly decreased in M(3)R-KO and M(2)/M(3)R-KO mice but not in M(2)R-KO mice. Ranking of colonic propulsion was wild-type=M(2)R-KO>M(3)R-KO>M(2)/M(3)R-KO. In vitro, the amplitude of migrating motor complexes in M(2)R-KO, M(3)R-KO and M(2)/M(3)R-KO mice was significantly lower than that in wild-type mice. Carbachol caused concentration-dependent contraction of the proximal colon and distal colon from wild-type mice. In M(2)R-KO mice, the concentration-contraction curves shifted to the right and downward. In contrast, carbachol caused non-sustained contraction and relaxation in M(3)R-KO mice depending on its concentration. Carbachol did not cause contraction but instead caused relaxation of colonic strips from M(2)/M(3)R-KO mice. 4-[[[(3-chlorophenyl)amino]carbonyl]oxy]-N,N,N-trimethyl-2-butyn-1-aminium chloride (McN-A-343) caused a non-sustained contraction of colonic strips from wild-type mice, and this contraction was changed to a sustained contraction by tetrodotoxin, pirenzepine and L-nitroarginine methylester (L-NAME). In the colon of M(2)/M(3)R-KO mice, McN-A-343 caused only relaxation, which was decreased by tetrodotoxin, pirenzepine and L-NAME. In conclusion, M(1), M(2) and M(3) receptors regulate colonic motility of the mouse. M(2) and M(3) receptors mediate cholinergic contraction, but M(1) receptors on inhibitory nitrergic nerves counteract muscarinic contraction.

  10. Pregnant phenotype in aquaporin 8-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Sha, Xiao-yan; Xiong, Zheng-fang; Liu, Hui-shu; Zheng, Zheng; Ma, Tong-hui

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Aquaporin 8 (AQP8) is expressed within the female reproductive system but its physiological function reminds to be elucidated. This study investigates the role of AQP8 during pregnancy using AQP8-knockout (AQP8-KO) mice. Methods: Homozygous AQP8-KO mice were mated, and the conception rate was recorded. AQP8-KO pregnant mice or their offspring were divided into 5 subgroups according to fetal gestational day (7, 13, 16, 18 GD) and newborn. Wild type C57 pregnant mice served as the control group. The number of pregnant mice, total embryos and atrophic embryos, as well as fetal weight, placental weight and placental area were recorded for each subgroup. The amount of amniotic fluid in each sac at 13, 16, and 18 GD was calculated. Statistical significance was determined by analysis of variance of factorial design and chi-square tests. Results: Conception rates did not differ significantly between AQP8-KO and wild type mice. AQP8-KO pregnant mice had a significantly higher number of embryos compared to wild type controls. Fetal/neonatal weight was also significantly greater in the AQP8-KO group compared to age-matched wild type controls. The amount of amniotic fluid was greater in AQP8-KO pregnant mice than wild type controls, although the FM/AFA (fetal weight/amniotic fluid amount) did not differ. While AQP8-KO placental weight was significantly larger than wild type controls, there was no evidence of placental pathology in either group. Conclusion: The results suggest that AQP8 deficiency plays an important role in pregnancy outcome. PMID:21602842

  11. IL-4 Knock out Mice Display Anxiety-like Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Morgan L.; Joesting, Jennifer J.; Blevins, Neil A.; Lawson, Marcus A.; Gainey, Stephen J.; Towers, Albert E.; McNeil, Leslie K.; Freund, Gregory G.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a recognized antecedent and coincident factor when examining the biology of anxiety. Little is known, however, about how reductions in endogenous anti-inflammatory mediators impact anxiety. Therefore, mood- cognition- and anxiety-associated/like behaviors were examined in IL-4 knock out (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) mice. In comparison to WT mice, IL-4 KO mice demonstrated decreased burrowing and increased social exploration. No differences were seen in forced swim or saccharine preference testing. IL-4 KO mice had similar performance to WT mice in the Morris water maze and during object location and novel object recognition. In the elevated zero-maze, IL-4 KO mice, in comparison to WT mice, demonstrated anxiety-like behavior. Anxiety-like behavior in IL-4 KO mice was not observed, however, during open-field testing. Taken together, these data indicate that IL-4 KO mice display state, but not trait, anxiety suggesting that reductions in endogenous anti-inflammatory bioactives can engender subtypes of anxiety. PMID:25772794

  12. IL-4 Knock Out Mice Display Anxiety-Like Behavior.

    PubMed

    Moon, Morgan L; Joesting, Jennifer J; Blevins, Neil A; Lawson, Marcus A; Gainey, Stephen J; Towers, Albert E; McNeil, Leslie K; Freund, Gregory G

    2015-07-01

    Inflammation is a recognized antecedent and coincident factor when examining the biology of anxiety. Little is known, however, about how reductions in endogenous anti-inflammatory mediators impact anxiety. Therefore, mood- cognition- and anxiety-associated/like behaviors were examined in IL-4 knock out (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) mice. In comparison to WT mice, IL-4 KO mice demonstrated decreased burrowing and increased social exploration. No differences were seen in forced swim or saccharine preference testing. IL-4 KO mice had similar performance to WT mice in the Morris water maze and during object location and novel object recognition. In the elevated zero-maze, IL-4 KO mice, in comparison to WT mice, demonstrated anxiety-like behavior. Anxiety-like behavior in IL-4 KO mice was not observed, however, during open-field testing. Taken together, these data indicate that IL-4 KO mice display state, but not trait, anxiety suggesting that reductions in endogenous anti-inflammatory bioactives can engender subtypes of anxiety.

  13. Sinomenine Protects against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice via Adenosine A2A Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Zhao, Li; He, Xie; Zeng, Yi-Jun; Dai, Shuang-Shuang

    2013-01-01

    Sinomenine (SIN) is a bioactive alkaloid extracted from the Chinese medicinal plant Sinomenium acutum, which is widely used in the clinical treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, its role in acute lung injury (ALI) is unclear. In this study, we investigate the role of SIN in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI in mice. After ALI, lung water content and histological signs of pulmonary injury were attenuated, whereas the PaO2/FIO2 (P/F) ratios were elevated significantly in the mice pretreated with SIN. Additionally, SIN markedly inhibited inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and IL-1β expression levels as well as neutrophil infiltration in the lung tissues of the mice. Microarray analysis and real-time PCR showed that SIN treatment upregulated adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) expression, and the protective effect of SIN was abolished in A2AR knockout mice. Further investigation in isolated mouse neutrophils confirmed the upregulation of A2AR by SIN and showed that A2AR-cAMP-PKA signaling was involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of SIN. Taken together, these findings demonstrate an A2AR-associated anti-inflammatory effect and the protective role of SIN in ALI, which suggests a potential novel approach to treat ALI. PMID:23555007

  14. The Rpe65rd12 Allele Exerts a Semidominant Negative Effect on Vision in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Charles B.; Chrenek, Micah A.; Feng, Wei; Getz, Shannon E.; Duncan, Todd; Pardue, Machelle T.; Feng, Yue; Redmond, T. Michael; Boatright, Jeffrey H.; Nickerson, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The rd12 mouse was reported as a recessively inherited Rpe65 mutation. We asked if the rd12 mutation resides in Rpe65 and how the mutation manifests itself. Methods. A complementation test was performed by mating Rpe65KO (KO/KO) and rd12 mice together to determine if the rd12 mutation is in the Rpe65 gene. Visual function of wild-type (+/+), KO/+, rd12/+, KO/KO, rd12/rd12, and KO/rd12 mice was measured by optokinetic tracking (OKT) and ERG. Morphology was assessed by retinal cross section. qRT-PCR quantified Rpe65 mRNA levels. Immunoblotting measured the size and level of RPE65 protein. Rpe65 mRNA localization was visualized with RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Fractions of Rpe65 mRNA-bound proteins were separated by linear sucrose gradient fractionation. Results. The KO and rd12 alleles did not complement. The rd12 allele induced a negative semidominant effect on visual function; OKT responses became undetectable 120 days earlier in rd12/rd12 mice compared with KO/KO mice. rd12/+ mice lost approximately 21% visual acuity by P210. rd12/rd12 mice had fewer cone photoreceptor nuclei than KO/KO mice at P60. rd12/rd12 mice expressed 71% +/+ levels of Rpe65 mRNA, but protein was undetectable. Mutant mRNA was appropriately spliced, exported to the cytoplasm, trafficked, and contained no other coding mutation aside from the known nonsense mutation. Mutant mRNA was enriched on ribosome-free messenger ribonucleoproteins (mRNPs), whereas wild-type mRNA was enriched on actively translating polyribosomes. Conclusions. The rd12 lesion is in Rpe65. The rd12 mutant phenotype inherits in a semidominant manner. The effects of the mutant mRNA on visual function may result from inefficient binding to ribosomes for translation. PMID:24644049

  15. Infection with koala retrovirus subgroup B (KoRV-B), but not KoRV-A, is associated with chlamydial disease in free-ranging koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    PubMed

    Waugh, Courtney A; Hanger, Jonathan; Loader, Joanne; King, Andrew; Hobbs, Matthew; Johnson, Rebecca; Timms, Peter

    2017-03-09

    The virulence of chlamydial infection in wild koalas is highly variable between individuals. Some koalas can be infected (PCR positive) with Chlamydia for long periods but remain asymptomatic, whereas others develop clinical disease. Chlamydia in the koala has traditionally been studied without regard to coinfection with other pathogens, although koalas are usually subject to infection with koala retrovirus (KoRV). Retroviruses can be immunosuppressive, and there is evidence of an immunosuppressive effect of KoRV in vitro. Originally thought to be a single endogenous strain, a new, potentially more virulent exogenous variant (KoRV-B) was recently reported. We hypothesized that KoRV-B might significantly alter chlamydial disease outcomes in koalas, presumably via immunosuppression. By studying sub-groups of Chlamydia and KoRV infected koalas in the wild, we found that neither total KoRV load (either viraemia or proviral copies per genome), nor chlamydial infection level or strain type, was significantly associated with chlamydial disease risk. However, PCR positivity with KoRV-B was significantly associated with chlamydial disease in koalas (p = 0.02961). This represents an example of a recently evolved virus variant that may be predisposing its host (the koala) to overt clinical disease when co-infected with an otherwise asymptomatic bacterial pathogen (Chlamydia).

  16. Altered Clock and Lipid Metabolism-Related Genes in Atherosclerotic Mice Kept with Abnormal Lighting Condition

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhu; Hua, Bingxuan; Shang, Zhanxian; Yuan, Gongsheng; Xu, Lirong; Li, Ermin; Li, Xiaobo; Yan, Zuoqin; Qian, Ruizhe

    2016-01-01

    Background. The risk of atherosclerosis is elevated in abnormal lipid metabolism and circadian rhythm disorder. We investigated whether abnormal lighting condition would have influenced the circadian expression of clock genes and clock-controlled lipid metabolism-related genes in ApoE-KO mice. Methods. A mouse model of atherosclerosis with circadian clock genes expression disorder was established using ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO LD/DL mice) by altering exposure to light. C57 BL/6J mice (C57 mice) and ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO mice) exposed to normal day and night and normal diet served as control mice. According to zeitgeber time samples were acquired, to test atheromatous plaque formation, serum lipids levels and rhythmicity, clock genes, and lipid metabolism-related genes along with Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) levels and rhythmicity. Results. Atherosclerosis plaques were formed in the aortic arch of ApoE-KO LD/DL mice. The serum lipids levels and oscillations in ApoE-KO LD/DL mice were altered, along with the levels and diurnal oscillations of circadian genes, lipid metabolism-associated genes, and Sirt1 compared with the control mice. Conclusions. Abnormal exposure to light aggravated plaque formation and exacerbated disorders of serum lipids and clock genes, lipid metabolism genes and Sirt1 levels, and circadian oscillation. PMID:27631008

  17. Altered Clock and Lipid Metabolism-Related Genes in Atherosclerotic Mice Kept with Abnormal Lighting Condition.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhu; Hua, Bingxuan; Shang, Zhanxian; Yuan, Gongsheng; Xu, Lirong; Li, Ermin; Li, Xiaobo; Sun, Ning; Yan, Zuoqin; Qian, Ruizhe; Lu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Background. The risk of atherosclerosis is elevated in abnormal lipid metabolism and circadian rhythm disorder. We investigated whether abnormal lighting condition would have influenced the circadian expression of clock genes and clock-controlled lipid metabolism-related genes in ApoE-KO mice. Methods. A mouse model of atherosclerosis with circadian clock genes expression disorder was established using ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO LD/DL mice) by altering exposure to light. C57 BL/6J mice (C57 mice) and ApoE-KO mice (ApoE-KO mice) exposed to normal day and night and normal diet served as control mice. According to zeitgeber time samples were acquired, to test atheromatous plaque formation, serum lipids levels and rhythmicity, clock genes, and lipid metabolism-related genes along with Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) levels and rhythmicity. Results. Atherosclerosis plaques were formed in the aortic arch of ApoE-KO LD/DL mice. The serum lipids levels and oscillations in ApoE-KO LD/DL mice were altered, along with the levels and diurnal oscillations of circadian genes, lipid metabolism-associated genes, and Sirt1 compared with the control mice. Conclusions. Abnormal exposure to light aggravated plaque formation and exacerbated disorders of serum lipids and clock genes, lipid metabolism genes and Sirt1 levels, and circadian oscillation.

  18. In-vivo administration of clozapine affects behaviour but does not reverse dendritic spine deficits in the 14-3-3ζ KO mouse model of schizophrenia-like disorders.

    PubMed

    Jaehne, Emily J; Ramshaw, Hayley; Xu, Xiangjun; Saleh, Eiman; Clark, Scott R; Schubert, Klaus Oliver; Lopez, Angel; Schwarz, Quenten; Baune, Bernhard T

    2015-11-01

    Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug used in the treatment of schizophrenia, which has been shown to reverse behavioural and dendritic spine deficits in mice. It has recently been shown that deficiency of 14-3-3ζ has an association with schizophrenia, and that a mouse model lacking this protein displays several schizophrenia-like behavioural deficits. To test the effect of clozapine in this mouse model, 14-3-3ζ KO mice were administered clozapine (5mg/kg) for two weeks prior to being analysed in a test battery of cognition, anxiety, and despair (depression-like) behaviours. Following behavioural testing brain samples were collected for analysis of specific anatomical defects and dendritic spine formation. We found that clozapine reduced despair behaviour of 14-3-3ζ KO mice in the forced swim test (FST) and altered the behaviour of wild types and 14-3-3ζ KO mice in the Y-maze task. In contrast, clozapine had no effects on hippocampal laminar defects or decreased dendritic spine density observed in 14-3-3ζ KO mice. Our results suggest that clozapine may have beneficial effects on clinical behaviours associated with deficiencies in the 14-3-3ζ molecular pathway, despite having no effects on morphological defects. These findings may provide mechanistic insight to the action of this drug.

  19. Sirt1-deficient mice exhibit an altered cartilage phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Gabay, Odile; Zaal, Kristien J.; Sanchez, Christelle; Dvir-Ginzberg, Mona; Gagarina, Viktoria; Song, Yingjie; He, Xiao Hong; McBurney, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We previously demonstrated that Sirt1 regulates apoptosis in cartilage in vitro. Here we attempt to examine in vivo cartilage homeostasis, using Sirt1 total body knockout (KO) mice. Method Articular cartilage was harvested from hind paws of 1-week and 3-week-old mice carrying wild type (WT) or null Sirt1 gene. Knees of Sirt1 haploinsufficient mice also were examined, at 6 months. Joint cartilage was processed for histologic examination or biochemical analyses of chondrocyte cultures. Results We found that articular cartilage tissue sections from Sirt1 KO mice up to 3 weeks of age exhibited low levels of type 2 collagen, aggrecan, and glycosaminoglycan content. In contrast, protein levels of MMP-13 were elevated in the Sirt1 KO mice, leading to a potential increase of cartilage breakdown, already shown in the heterozygous mice. Additional results showed elevated chondrocyte apoptosis in Sirt1 KO mice, as compared to WT controls. In addition to these observations, PTP1b (protein tyrosine phosphatase b) was elevated in the Sirt1 KO mice, in line with previous reports. Conclusion The findings from this animal model demonstrated that Sirt1 KO mice presented an altered cartilage phenotype, with an elevated apoptotic process and a potential degradative cartilage process. PMID:23587642

  20. Detection of koala retrovirus subgroup B (KoRV-B) in animals housed at European zoos.

    PubMed

    Fiebig, Uwe; Keller, Martina; Denner, Joachim

    2016-12-01

    Many koalas carry an endogenous retrovirus, KoRV-A, in their genome. Recently, a second retrovirus, KoRV-B, was detected in koalas in Japanese and U.S. zoos. However, this virus is not endogenous, differs in the receptor binding site of the surface envelope protein, and uses a receptor different from that of KoRV-A. We describe here a KoRV-B found in koalas at zoos in Germany and Belgium that differs slightly from that found in the Los Angeles zoo.

  1. Nqrs Data for C8H9KO6 [C8H5KO4·2(H2O)] (Subst. No. 1092)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Substances Containing Ag … C10H15' of Volume 48 `Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III `Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section `3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter `3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C8H9KO6 [C8H5KO4·2(H2O)] (Subst. No. 1092)

  2. Behavioral analysis of relaxin-3 deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masaki; Furube, Eriko; Aoki, Miku; Watanabe, Yoshihisa

    2013-01-01

    Relaxin-3 is a neuropeptide belonging to the relaxin/insulin superfamily. Studies using rodents have revealed that relaxin-3 is predominantly expressed in neurons in the nucleus incertus of the pons, projecting axons to forebrain regions including the hypothalamus. There is evidence that relaxin-3 is involved in several functions, including food intake and stress responses. We generated relaxin-3 gene knockout (KO) mice and examined them using a battery of behavioral tests of sensory/motor functions and emotion-related behaviors. Relaxin-3 KO mice exhibited normal growth and appearance. There was no difference in bodyweight among genotypes in both normal and high fat diet feeding. In addition, there were no significant differences between wild-type and KO mice in social interaction, depression-like behavior, and short memory test. However, in the elevated plus maze test, KO mice exhibited a robust increase in the tendency to enter open arms, although they exhibited normal performance in a light/dark transition test and showed no difference from wild-type mice in the open field test. Taken together, these results indicate that relaxin-3 KO mice exhibit mild anxiolytic characteristics relative to wild-type mice, suggesting that this peptide is involved in anxiety-related behavior.

  3. Oxytocin knockout mice demonstrate enhanced intake of sweet and nonsweet carbohydrate solutions.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Anthony; Rinaman, Linda; Vollmer, Regis R; Amico, Janet A

    2007-05-01

    Oxytocin knockout (OT KO) mice display enhanced intake of nutritive and nonnutritive sweet solutions (i.e., sucrose and saccharin) compared with wild-type (WT) mice of the same C57BL/6 background strain. The present study further investigated the differential behavioral response of OT KO and WT mice to sucrose solutions and also examined intake preferences of OT KO and WT mice for palatable but nonsweet isocaloric solutions of carbohydrate and fat. A progressive ratio operant licking procedure demonstrated that OT KO and WT mice display a similar motivational drive to consume 10% sucrose. A series of two-bottle intake tests revealed that OT KO mice consume significantly larger amounts of both sweet and nonsweet carbohydrate solutions (i.e., sucrose, Polycose, and cornstarch) compared with WT cohorts. Intake pattern analyses revealed that OT KO mice overconsume carbohydrate solutions by initiating more drinking bouts compared with WT mice; bout sizes did not differ between the genotypes. In contrast, OT KO and WT mice did not differ in their intake of Intralipid, a palatable soybean oil emulsion. These findings indicate that the absence of OT in mice does not affect their appetitive drive to consume palatable sucrose solutions. Instead, the absence of OT may increase daily intake of palatable sweet and nonsweet solutions of carbohydrate (but not fat) by selectively blunting or masking processes that contribute to postingestive satiety.

  4. Impairment of neuropsychological behaviors in ganglioside GM3-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Niimi, Kimie; Nishioka, Chieko; Miyamoto, Tomomi; Takahashi, Eiki; Miyoshi, Ichiro; Itakura, Chitoshi; Yamashita, Tadashi

    2011-03-25

    The ganglioside GM3 synthase (SAT-I), encoded by a single-copy gene, is a primary glycosyltransferase for the synthesis of complex gangliosides. Although its expression is tightly controlled during early embryo development and postnatal development and maturation in the brain, the physiological role of ganglioside GM3 in the regulation of neuronal functions has not been elucidated. In the present study, we examined motor activity, cognitive and emotional behaviors, and drug administration in juvenile GM3-knockout (GM3-KO) mice. GM3-KO male and female mice showed hyperactivity in the motor activity test, Y-maze test, and elevated plus maze test. In the Y-maze test, there was significantly less spontaneous alternation behavior in GM3-KO male mice than in wild-type mice. In the elevated plus maze test, the amount of time spent on the open arms by GM3-KO male mice was significantly higher than that of sex-matched wild-type mice. In contrast, there was no significant difference between GM3-KO and wild-type female mice in these tests. Thus, juvenile GM3-KO mice show gender-specific phenotypes resembling attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), namely hyperactivity, reduced attention, and increased impulsive behaviors. However, administration of methylphenidate hydrochloride (MPH) did not ameliorate hyperactivity in either male or female GM3-KO mice. Although these data demonstrate the involvement of ganglioside GM3 in ADHD and the ineffectiveness of MPH, the first-choice psychostimulant for ADHD medication, our studies indicate that juvenile GM3-KO mice are a useful tool for neuropsychological studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Trpc2-deficient lactating mice exhibit altered brain and behavioral responses to bedding stimuli.

    PubMed

    Hasen, Nina S; Gammie, Stephen C

    2011-03-01

    The trpc2 gene encodes an ion channel involved in pheromonal detection and is found in the vomeronasal organ. In tprc2(-/-) knockout (KO) mice, maternal aggression (offspring protection) is impaired and brain Fos expression in females in response to a male are reduced. Here we examine in lactating wild-type (WT) and KO mice behavioral and brain responses to different olfactory/pheromonal cues. Consistent with previous studies, KO dams exhibited decreased maternal aggression and nest building, but we also identified deficits in nighttime nursing and increases in pup weight. When exposed to the bedding tests, WT dams typically ignored clean bedding, but buried male-soiled bedding from unfamiliar males. In contrast, KO dams buried both clean and soiled bedding. Differences in brain Fos expression were found between WT and KO mice in response to either no bedding, clean bedding, or soiled bedding. In the accessory olfactory bulb, a site of pheromonal signal processing, KO mice showed suppressed Fos activation in the anterior mitral layer relative to WT mice in response to clean and soiled bedding. However, in the medial and basolateral amygdala, KO mice showed a robust Fos response to bedding, suggesting that regions of the amygdala canonically associated with pheromonal sensing can be active in the brains of KO mice, despite compromised signaling from the vomeronasal organ. Together, these results provide further insights into the complex ways by which pheromonal signaling regulates the brain and behavior of the maternal female.

  6. Trpc2-deficient lactating mice exhibit altered brain and behavioral responses to bedding stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Hasen, Nina S.; Gammie, Stephen C.

    2010-01-01

    The trpc2 gene encodes an ion channel involved in pheromonal detection and is found in the vomeronasal organ. In tprc2-/- knockout (KO) mice, maternal aggression (offspring protection) is impaired and brain Fos expression in females in response to a male are reduced. Here we examine in lactating wild-type (WT) and KO mice behavioral and brain responses to different olfactory/pheromonal cues. Consistent with previous studies, KO dams exhibited decreased maternal aggression and nest building, but we also identified deficits in nighttime nursing and increases in pup weight. When exposed to the bedding tests, WT dams typically ignored clean bedding, but buried male-soiled bedding from unfamiliar males. In contrast, KO dams buried both clean and soiled bedding. Differences in brain Fos expression were found between WT and KO mice in response to either no bedding, clean bedding, or soiled bedding. In the accessory olfactory bulb, a site of pheromonal signal processing, KO mice showed suppressed Fos activation in the anterior mitral layer relative to WT mice in response to clean and soiled bedding. However, in the medial and basolateral amygdala, KO mice showed a robust Fos response to bedding, suggesting that regions of the amygdala canonically associated with pheromonal sensing can be active in the brains of KO mice, despite compromised signaling from the vomeronasal organ. Together, these results provide further insights into the complex ways by which pheromonal signaling regulates the brain and behavior of the maternal female. PMID:21070815

  7. Probing Mechanisms for Inverse Correlation between Rate Performance and Capacity in K-O2 Batteries.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Neng; Ren, Xiaodi; He, Mingfu; McCulloch, William D; Wu, Yiying

    2017-02-08

    Owing to the formation of potassium superoxide (K(+) + O2 + e(-) = KO2), K-O2 batteries exhibit superior round-trip efficiency and considerable energy density in the absence of any electrocatalysts. For further improving the practical performance of K-O2 batteries, it is important to carry out a systematic study on parameters that control rate performance and capacity to comprehensively understand the limiting factors in superoxide-based metal-oxygen batteries. Herein, we investigate the influence of current density and oxygen diffusion on the nucleation, growth, and distribution of potassium superoxide (KO2) during the discharge process. It is observed that higher current results in smaller average sizes of KO2 crystals but a larger surface coverage on the carbon fiber electrode. As KO2 grows and covers the cathode surface, the discharge will eventually end due to depletion of the oxygen-approachable electrode surface. Additionally, higher current also induces a greater gradient of oxygen concentration in the porous carbon electrode, resulting in less efficient loading of the discharge product. These two factors explain the observed inverse correlation between current and capacity of K-O2 batteries. Lastly, we demonstrate a reduced graphene oxide-based K-O2 battery with a large specific capacity (up to 8400 mAh/gcarbon at a discharge rate of 1000 mA/gcarbon) and a long cycle life (over 200 cycles).

  8. Supra-subduction zone magmatism of the Koçali ophiolite, SE Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyarslan, Melahat

    2017-05-01

    The Late Cretaceous Koçali ophiolite is an important element within the southeastern Anatolian ophiolite belt and contains all components of a complete ophiolite, including mantle peridotites (harzburgites, and subordinate dunite) gabbros, sheeted dyke complexes, lower volcanic unit (pillowed basalts), and upper volcanic unit (andesite and andesitic pyroclastics) plagiogranite and ultramafic rocks intruded into the gabbros. All components of the Koçali ophiolites show strong suprasubduction-zone affinities, from harzburgitic mantle to basaltic lavas. The radiolarian faunas and geochronological data indicate that there are two different volcanic units: Tarasa volcanics and volcanics of the Koçali ophiolite. While the Tarasa volcanics are of Carnian to Rhaetian age, the Koçali ophiolite is of the Late Cretaceous age. The geochemical features indicate an E-MORB source for the Tarasa volcanics, and a forearc source for the Koçali ophiolite.

  9. Mct8-Deficient Mice Have Increased Energy Expenditure and Reduced Fat Mass That Is Abrogated by Normalization of Serum T3 Levels

    PubMed Central

    Di Cosmo, Caterina; Liao, Xiao-Hui; Ye, Honggang; Ferrara, Alfonso Massimiliano; Weiss, Roy E.; Refetoff, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Children with monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) deficiency lose weight, even when adequately nourished. Changes in serum markers of thyroid hormone (TH) action compatible with thyrotoxicosis suggested that this might be due to T3 excess in peripheral tissues. Mct8-deficient mice (Mct8KO) replicate the human thyroid phenotype and are thus suitable for metabolic studies so far unavailable in humans. In the current work, compared with wild-type (Wt) mice, Mct8KO mice were leaner due to reduced fat mass. They tended to use more carbohydrates and fewer lipids during the dark phase. Mct8KO mice had increased total energy expenditure (TEE) and food and water intake, with normal total activity, indicating hypermetabolism. To determine whether this is due to the high serum T3, we studied mice deficient in both Mct8 and deiodinase 1 (Mct8D1KO) with serum T3 similar to Wt mice and Wt mice given L-T3 to raise their serum T3 to the level of Mct8KO mice. Contrary to Mct8KO, Mct8D1KO mice had similar fat mass, TEE, and food intake as their D1KO littermates, whereas T3-treated Wt mice showed increased food intake and TEE, similar to Mct8KO mice. In skeletal muscle, Mct8KO mice had increased T3 content and TH action and increased glucose metabolism, which improved in Mct8D1KO mice. These studies indicate that the high serum T3 in MCT8 deficiency increases the TEE and fails to maintain weight despite adequate calorie intake. This is mediated by tissues that are not predominantly MCT8 dependent for TH transport, including skeletal muscle. Normalizing serum T3 level by deleting deiodinase 1 corrects body composition and the metabolic alterations caused by the MCT8 deficiency. PMID:24029243

  10. Mct8-deficient mice have increased energy expenditure and reduced fat mass that is abrogated by normalization of serum T3 levels.

    PubMed

    Di Cosmo, Caterina; Liao, Xiao-Hui; Ye, Honggang; Ferrara, Alfonso Massimiliano; Weiss, Roy E; Refetoff, Samuel; Dumitrescu, Alexandra M

    2013-12-01

    Children with monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) deficiency lose weight, even when adequately nourished. Changes in serum markers of thyroid hormone (TH) action compatible with thyrotoxicosis suggested that this might be due to T3 excess in peripheral tissues. Mct8-deficient mice (Mct8KO) replicate the human thyroid phenotype and are thus suitable for metabolic studies so far unavailable in humans. In the current work, compared with wild-type (Wt) mice, Mct8KO mice were leaner due to reduced fat mass. They tended to use more carbohydrates and fewer lipids during the dark phase. Mct8KO mice had increased total energy expenditure (TEE) and food and water intake, with normal total activity, indicating hypermetabolism. To determine whether this is due to the high serum T3, we studied mice deficient in both Mct8 and deiodinase 1 (Mct8D1KO) with serum T3 similar to Wt mice and Wt mice given L-T3 to raise their serum T3 to the level of Mct8KO mice. Contrary to Mct8KO, Mct8D1KO mice had similar fat mass, TEE, and food intake as their D1KO littermates, whereas T3-treated Wt mice showed increased food intake and TEE, similar to Mct8KO mice. In skeletal muscle, Mct8KO mice had increased T3 content and TH action and increased glucose metabolism, which improved in Mct8D1KO mice. These studies indicate that the high serum T3 in MCT8 deficiency increases the TEE and fails to maintain weight despite adequate calorie intake. This is mediated by tissues that are not predominantly MCT8 dependent for TH transport, including skeletal muscle. Normalizing serum T3 level by deleting deiodinase 1 corrects body composition and the metabolic alterations caused by the MCT8 deficiency.

  11. Transgenic Expression of the Vitamin D Receptor Restricted to the Ileum, Cecum and Colon of Vitamin D Receptor Knockout Mice Rescues Vitamin D Receptor Dependent Rickets.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Puneet; Veldurthy, Vaishali; Yehia, Ghassan; Hsaio, Connie; Porta, Angela; Kim, Ki-In; Patel, Nishant; Lieben, Liesbet; Verlinden, Lieve; Carmeliet, Geert; Christakos, Sylvia

    2017-09-11

    Although the intestine plays the major role in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) action on calcium homeostasis, the mechanisms involved remain incompletely understood. The established model of 1,25(OH)2D3 regulated intestinal calcium absorption postulates a critical role for the duodenum. However it is the distal intestine where 70 -80% of the ingested calcium is absorbed. In order to test directly the role of 1,25(OH)2D3 and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the distal intestine, 3 independent knockout (KO) /transgenic (TG) lines expressing VDR exclusively in the ileum, cecum and colon were generated by breeding VDR KO mice with TG mice expressing human (h)VDR under the control of the 9.5kb CDX2 promoter. Mice from one TG line (KO/TG3) showed low VDR expression in distal intestine (<50% of the levels observed in KO/TG1, KO/TG2 and WT mice). In the KO/TG mice hVDR was not expressed in duodenum, jejunum, kidney or other tissues. Growth arrest, elevated parathyroid hormone and hypocalcemia of the VDR KO mice were prevented in mice from KO/TG lines 1 and 2. µCT analysis revealed that the expression of hVDR in the distal intestine of KO/TG1 and KO/TG2 mice rescued the bone defects associated with systemic VDR deficiency, including growth plate abnormalities and altered trabecular and cortical parameters. KO/TG3 mice showed rickets, yet less severely compared to VDR KO mice. These findings show that expression of VDR exclusively in the distal intestine can prevent abnormalities in calcium homeostasis and bone mineralization associated with systemic VDR deficiency. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  12. Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Null Mice Exhibit Female and Male Differences In Regulation of Vascular Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Vanella, Luca; Canestraro, Martina; Lee, Craig R.; Cao, Jian; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Schwartzman, Michal L.; Abraham, Nader G.

    2015-01-01

    Increased CYP epoxygenase activity and consequently up regulation of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) levels provides protection against metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. Conversion of arachidonic acid epoxides to diols by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) diminishes the beneficial cardiovascular properties of these epoxyeicosanoids. We therefore examined the possible biochemical consequences of sEH deletion on vascular responses in male and female mice. Through the use of the sEH KO mouse, we provide evidence of differences in the compensatory response in the balance between nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), EETs and the vasoconstrictor 20-HETE in male and female KO mice. Serum levels of adiponectin, TNFα, IL-1b and MCP1 and protein expression in vascular tissue of p-AMPK, p-AKT and p-eNOS were measured. Deletion of sEH caused a significant (p<0,05) decrease in body weight, and an increase in adiponectin, pAMPK and pAKT levels in female KO mice compared to male KO mice. Gene deletion resulted in a higher production of renal EETs in female KO compared to male KO mice and, concomitantly, we observed an increase in renal 20-HETEs levels and superoxide anion production only in male KO mice. sEH deletion increased p-AKT and p-eNOS protein expression but decreased p-AMPK levels in female KO mice. Increased levels of p-eNOS at Thr-495 were observed only in KO male mice. While p-eNOS at 1177 were not significantly different between male and female. Nitric oxide production was unaltered in male KO mice. These results provide evidence of gender differences in the preservation of vascular homeostasis in response to sEH deletion which involves regulation of phosphorylation of eNOS at the 495 site. PMID:25908301

  13. Cyclooxygenase-2 Suppresses the Anabolic Response to PTH Infusion in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Shilpa; Canalis, Ernesto; Estus, Thomas; Adams, Douglas; Pilbeam, Carol

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that the ability of continuously elevated PTH to stimulate osteoblastic differentiation in bone marrow stromal cell cultures was abrogated by an osteoclastic factor secreted in response to cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox2)-produced prostaglandin E2. We now examine the impact of Cox2 (Ptgs2) knockout (KO) on the anabolic response to continuously elevated PTH in vivo. PTH (40 μg/kg/d) or vehicle was infused for 12 or 21 days in 3-mo-old male wild type (WT) and KO mice in the outbred CD-1 background. Changes in bone phenotype were assessed by bone mineral density (BMD), μCT and histomorphometry. PTH infusion for both 12 and 21 days increased femoral BMD in Cox2 KO mice and decreased BMD in WT mice. Femoral and vertebral trabecular bone volume fractions were increased in KO mice, but not in WT mice, by PTH infusion. In the femoral diaphysis, PTH infusion increased cortical area in Cox2 KO, but not WT, femurs. PTH infusion markedly increased trabecular bone formation rate in the femur, serum markers of bone formation, and expression of bone formation-related genes, growth factors, and Wnt target genes in KO mice relative to WT mice, and decreased gene expression of Wnt antagonists only in KO mice. In contrast to the differential effects of PTH on anabolic factors in WT and KO mice, PTH infusion increased serum markers of resorption, expression of resorption-related genes, and the percent bone surface covered by osteoclasts similarly in both WT and KO mice. We conclude that Cox2 inhibits the anabolic, but not the catabolic, effects of continuous PTH. These data suggest that the bone loss with continuously infused PTH in mice is due largely to suppression of bone formation and that this suppression is mediated by Cox2. PMID:25781979

  14. Cyclooxygenase-2 suppresses the anabolic response to PTH infusion in mice.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Shilpa; Canalis, Ernesto; Estus, Thomas; Adams, Douglas; Pilbeam, Carol

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that the ability of continuously elevated PTH to stimulate osteoblastic differentiation in bone marrow stromal cell cultures was abrogated by an osteoclastic factor secreted in response to cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox2)-produced prostaglandin E2. We now examine the impact of Cox2 (Ptgs2) knockout (KO) on the anabolic response to continuously elevated PTH in vivo. PTH (40 μg/kg/d) or vehicle was infused for 12 or 21 days in 3-mo-old male wild type (WT) and KO mice in the outbred CD-1 background. Changes in bone phenotype were assessed by bone mineral density (BMD), μCT and histomorphometry. PTH infusion for both 12 and 21 days increased femoral BMD in Cox2 KO mice and decreased BMD in WT mice. Femoral and vertebral trabecular bone volume fractions were increased in KO mice, but not in WT mice, by PTH infusion. In the femoral diaphysis, PTH infusion increased cortical area in Cox2 KO, but not WT, femurs. PTH infusion markedly increased trabecular bone formation rate in the femur, serum markers of bone formation, and expression of bone formation-related genes, growth factors, and Wnt target genes in KO mice relative to WT mice, and decreased gene expression of Wnt antagonists only in KO mice. In contrast to the differential effects of PTH on anabolic factors in WT and KO mice, PTH infusion increased serum markers of resorption, expression of resorption-related genes, and the percent bone surface covered by osteoclasts similarly in both WT and KO mice. We conclude that Cox2 inhibits the anabolic, but not the catabolic, effects of continuous PTH. These data suggest that the bone loss with continuously infused PTH in mice is due largely to suppression of bone formation and that this suppression is mediated by Cox2.

  15. Inhibition of Interleukin-10 Signaling Induces Microbiota-Dependent Chronic Colitis in Apolipoprotein E Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vishal; Kumar, Manish; Yeoh, Beng San; Xiao, Xia; Saha, Piu; Kennett, Mary J.; Vijay-Kumar, Matam

    2015-01-01

    Background Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) mediates potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties in addition to its roles in regulating cholesterol transport and metabolism. However, its role in the intestine, specifically during inflammation is largely unknown. Methods Mice [C57BL/6 or ApoE deficient (ApoE-KO) mice] were administered either single or four injections (weekly) of anti-interleukin (IL)-10 receptor monoclonal antibody (1.0 mg/mouse; intraperitoneally) and euthanized one week after the last injection. 16S rRNA sequencing was performed in fecal samples to analyze the gut bacterial load and its composition. Microbiota was ablated by administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics in drinking water. IL-10KO mice were cohoused with ApoE-KO mice or their WT littermates to monitor the colitogenic potential of gut microbiota harbored in ApoE-KO mice. Results ApoE-KO mice developed severe colitis upon neutralization of IL-10 signaling as assessed by every parameter analyzed. 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that the ApoE-KO mice display elevated and altered gut microbiota that were accompanied with impaired production of intestinal antimicrobial peptides. Interestingly, microbiota ablation ameliorates the colitis development in ApoE-KO mice. Exacerbated and accelerated colitis was observed in IL-10KO mice when cohoused with ApoE-KO mice. Conclusions Our study highlights a novel interplay between ApoE and IL-10 in maintaining gut homeostasis and that such cross-talk may play a critical role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pathogenesis. Gut sterilization and cohousing experiment suggests that microbiota play pivotal role in the development of IBD in mice lacking ApoE. PMID:26891260

  16. M4 muscarinic receptor knockout mice display abnormal social behavior and decreased prepulse inhibition

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the central nervous system (CNS), the muscarinic system plays key roles in learning and memory, as well as in the regulation of many sensory, motor, and autonomic processes, and is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of several major diseases of the CNS, such as Alzheimer's disease, depression, and schizophrenia. Previous studies reveal that M4 muscarinic receptor knockout (M4R KO) mice displayed an increase in basal locomotor activity, an increase in sensitivity to the prepulse inhibition (PPI)-disrupting effect of psychotomimetics, and normal basal PPI. However, other behaviorally significant roles of M4R remain unclear. Results In this study, to further investigate precise functional roles of M4R in the CNS, M4R KO mice were subjected to a battery of behavioral tests. M4R KO mice showed no significant impairments in nociception, neuromuscular strength, or motor coordination/learning. In open field, light/dark transition, and social interaction tests, consistent with previous studies, M4R KO mice displayed enhanced locomotor activity compared to their wild-type littermates. In the open field test, M4R KO mice exhibited novelty-induced locomotor hyperactivity. In the social interaction test, contacts between pairs of M4R KO mice lasted shorter than those of wild-type mice. In the sensorimotor gating test, M4R KO mice showed a decrease in PPI, whereas in the startle response test, in contrast to a previous study, M4R KO mice demonstrated normal startle response. M4R KO mice also displayed normal performance in the Morris water maze test. Conclusions These findings indicate that M4R is involved in regulation of locomotor activity, social behavior, and sensorimotor gating in mice. Together with decreased PPI, abnormal social behavior, which was newly identified in the present study, may represent a behavioral abnormality related to psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. PMID:22463818

  17. APP Causes Hyperexcitability in Fragile X Mice.

    PubMed

    Westmark, Cara J; Chuang, Shih-Chieh; Hays, Seth A; Filon, Mikolaj J; Ray, Brian C; Westmark, Pamela R; Gibson, Jay R; Huber, Kimberly M; Wong, Robert K S

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid-beta protein precursor (APP) and metabolite levels are altered in fragile X syndrome (FXS) patients and in the mouse model of the disorder, Fmr1(KO) mice. Normalization of APP levels in Fmr1(KO) mice (Fmr1(KO) /APP(HET) mice) rescues many disease phenotypes. Thus, APP is a potential biomarker as well as therapeutic target for FXS. Hyperexcitability is a key phenotype of FXS. Herein, we determine the effects of APP levels on hyperexcitability in Fmr1(KO) brain slices. Fmr1(KO) /APP(HET) slices exhibit complete rescue of UP states in a neocortical hyperexcitability model and reduced duration of ictal discharges in a CA3 hippocampal model. These data demonstrate that APP plays a pivotal role in maintaining an appropriate balance of excitation and inhibition (E/I) in neural circuits. A model is proposed whereby APP acts as a rheostat in a molecular circuit that modulates hyperexcitability through mGluR5 and FMRP. Both over- and under-expression of APP in the context of the Fmr1(KO) increases seizure propensity suggesting that an APP rheostat maintains appropriate E/I levels but is overloaded by mGluR5-mediated excitation in the absence of FMRP. These findings are discussed in relation to novel treatment approaches to restore APP homeostasis in FXS.

  18. APP Causes Hyperexcitability in Fragile X Mice

    PubMed Central

    Westmark, Cara J.; Chuang, Shih-Chieh; Hays, Seth A.; Filon, Mikolaj J.; Ray, Brian C.; Westmark, Pamela R.; Gibson, Jay R.; Huber, Kimberly M.; Wong, Robert K. S.

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid-beta protein precursor (APP) and metabolite levels are altered in fragile X syndrome (FXS) patients and in the mouse model of the disorder, Fmr1KO mice. Normalization of APP levels in Fmr1KO mice (Fmr1KO/APPHET mice) rescues many disease phenotypes. Thus, APP is a potential biomarker as well as therapeutic target for FXS. Hyperexcitability is a key phenotype of FXS. Herein, we determine the effects of APP levels on hyperexcitability in Fmr1KO brain slices. Fmr1KO/APPHET slices exhibit complete rescue of UP states in a neocortical hyperexcitability model and reduced duration of ictal discharges in a CA3 hippocampal model. These data demonstrate that APP plays a pivotal role in maintaining an appropriate balance of excitation and inhibition (E/I) in neural circuits. A model is proposed whereby APP acts as a rheostat in a molecular circuit that modulates hyperexcitability through mGluR5 and FMRP. Both over- and under-expression of APP in the context of the Fmr1KO increases seizure propensity suggesting that an APP rheostat maintains appropriate E/I levels but is overloaded by mGluR5-mediated excitation in the absence of FMRP. These findings are discussed in relation to novel treatment approaches to restore APP homeostasis in FXS. PMID:28018172

  19. Lipid transport in cholecystokinin knockout mice.

    PubMed

    King, Alexandra; Yang, Qing; Huesman, Sarah; Rider, Therese; Lo, Chunmin C

    2015-11-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) is released in response to lipid feeding and regulates pancreatic digestive enzymes vital to the absorption of nutrients. Our previous reports demonstrated that cholecystokinin knockout (CCK-KO) mice fed for 10 weeks of HFD had reduced body fat mass, but comparable glucose uptake by white adipose tissues and skeletal muscles. We hypothesized that CCK is involved in energy homeostasis and lipid transport from the small intestine to tissues in response to acute treatment with dietary lipids. CCK-KO mice with comparable fat absorption had increased energy expenditure and were resistant to HFD-induced obesity. Using intraduodenal infusion of butter fat and intravenous infusion using Liposyn III, we determined the mechanism of lipid transport from the small intestine to deposition in lymph and adipocytes in CCK-KO mice. CCK-KO mice had delayed secretion of Apo B48-chylomicrons, lipid transport to the lymphatic system, and triglyceride (TG)-derived fatty acid uptake by epididymal fat in response to acute treatment of intraduodenal lipids. In contrast, CCK-KO mice had comparable TG clearance and lipid uptake by white adipocytes in response to TGs in chylomicron-like emulsion. Thus, we concluded that CCK is important for lipid transport and energy expenditure to control body weight in response to dietary lipid feeding.

  20. Deficient melanocortin-4 receptor causes abnormal reproductive neuroendocrine profile in female mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaolin; Huang, Lili; Tan, Hwee Y; Li, Hongzhuo; Wan, Ying; Cowley, Michael; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Chen, Chen

    2017-03-01

    Deletion of the melanocortin-4-receptor (Mc4r) gene in mice causes hyperphagia, followed by hyperinsulinemia, obesity and progressive infertility. Evidence shows that the number of developed corpora lutea is reduced in obese MC4R-knockout (MC4R KO) female mice, but the mechanism is unclear. The effect of hyperphagia and obesity by MC4R KO on pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and ovulation remains unknown. In MC4R KO mice and wild-type littermates (WT LM) during the diestrus period throughout different ages, we examined and monitored their metabolic status, pulsatile LH profiles, follicular morphology and the number of corpora lutea. MC4R KO mice were hyperphagic, obese, hyperglycemic, hyperinsulinemic and demonstrated insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. Irregular estrous cycles and significant changes in the LH secretion profiles were observed in sexually matured 16- to 28-week MC4R KO mice, without any difference in testosterone levels. In addition, MC4R KO mice at 16 weeks of age had significantly fewer corpora lutea than same age WT LM mice. The ovary examinations of MC4R KO mice at 28 weeks of age showed predominantly antral and preovulatory follicles with no corpora lutea. These findings were consistent with the decrease in total, pulsatile, mass and basal LH releases in MC4R KO mice. The characteristics of hormone profiles in obese MC4R KO mice indicate that MC4R plays an important role in regulating LH release, ovulation and reproductive ability probably via hyperphagia-induced obesity. Further study of correlation between metabolic and reproductive regulatory hormones is warranted to dissect the pathological mechanism underlying obesity-induced infertility.Free Chinese abstract: A Chinese translation of this abstract is freely available at http://www.reproduction-online.org/content/153/3/267/suppl/DC1. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  1. GPR10 deficiency in mice results in altered energy expenditure and obesity.

    PubMed

    Bjursell, Mikael; Lennerås, Maria; Göransson, Melker; Elmgren, Anders; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad

    2007-11-23

    In this study, mice carrying a disrupted gene encoding GPR10 (GPR10 KO) were studied to elucidate the function and importance of this receptor regarding metabolism. Female and male GPR10 KO mice had higher body weight after 11 and 15 weeks of age, respectively. The increased body weight was a result of increased fat mass. The obesity was much more pronounced in female mice, which also had a significant decrease in energy expenditure. In correlation to obesity, higher plasma levels of leptin, total cholesterol, and fractions of LDL and HDL were found in GPR10 KO compared to WT mice. Interestingly, GPR10 KO female mice had decreased relative food intake in correlation to higher hypothalamic expression levels of the anorexic signals CRH and POMC. In conclusion, female mice deficient of the gene encoding GPR10 develop higher body weight and obesity due to lower energy expenditure.

  2. The susceptibility of Aire(-/-) mice to experimental myasthenia gravis involves alterations in regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Aricha, Revital; Feferman, Tali; Scott, Hamish S; Souroujon, Miriam C; Berrih-Aknin, Sonia; Fuchs, Sara

    2011-02-01

    The autoimmune regulator (Aire) is involved in the prevention of autoimmunity by promoting thymic expression of tissue restricted antigens which leads to elimination of self-reactive T cells. We found that Aire knockout (KO) mice as well as mouse strains that are susceptible to experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) have lower thymic expression of acetylcholine receptor (AChR- the main autoantigen in MG), compared to wild type (WT) mice and EAMG-resistant mouse strains, respectively. We demonstrated that Aire KO mice have a significant and reproducible lower frequency of CD4+Foxp3+ cells and a higher expression of Th17 markers in their thymus, compared to wild type (WT) mice. These findings led us to expect that Aire KO mice would display increased susceptibility to EAMG. Surprisingly, when EAMG was induced in young (2 month-old) mice, EAMG was milder in Aire KO than in WT mice for several weeks until the age of about 5 months. However, when EAMG was induced in relatively aged (6 month-old) mice, Aire KO mice presented higher disease severity than WT controls. This age-related change in susceptibility to EAMG correlated with an elevated proportion of Treg cells in the spleens of young but not old KO, compared to WT mice, suggesting a role for peripheral Treg cells in the course of disease. Our observations point to a possible link between Aire and Treg cells and suggest an involvement for both in the pathogenesis of myasthenia.

  3. Impact of T1r3 and Trpm5 on Carbohydrate Preference and Acceptance in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Knockout (KO) mice missing the sweet taste receptor subunit T1r3 or the signaling protein Trpm5 have greatly attenuated sweetener preferences but learn to prefer sucrose in 24-h tests. Here, we examined 24-h preferences of T1r3 KO, Trpm5 KO, and C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice for glucose, fructose, galactose, and corn starch. Unlike glucose, fructose has little postoral reward effect in WT mice, whereas conflicting data have been obtained with galactose. Naïve KO mice were initially indifferent to dilute glucose solutions (0.5–4%) but exhibited strong preferences for 8–32% concentrations. In a second test, they strongly preferred (~90%) all glucose concentrations although they drank less sugar than WT mice. Naïve KO mice were indifferent to 0.5–8% fructose and avoided 16–32% fructose. However, the glucose-experienced KO mice displayed significant preferences for all fructose solutions. Naïve KO mice preferred only 8% galactose, whereas WT mice preferred 4–16% galactose, and all mice avoided 32% galactose. Galactose experience enhanced the preference for this sugar in KO and WT mice. Naïve T1r3 KO and WT mice displayed similar preferences for 0.5–32% corn starch, which were enhanced by starch experience. Naïve Trpm5 KO mice did not prefer starch but did so after 1-bottle starch experience. The results confirm the sweet taste deficits of T1r3 KO and Trpm5 KO mice but demonstrate their ability to develop strong glucose and milder galactose preferences attributed to the postoral actions of these sugars. The acquired preference for the non-sweet flavor properties of glucose generalized to those of fructose. The findings further demonstrate that although Trpm5 (but not T1r3) signaling is essential for starch preference, Trpm5 KO mice can learn to prefer starch based on its postoral effects. PMID:23547138

  4. Ultrasound and microbubble-assisted gene delivery in Achilles tendons: long lasting gene expression and restoration of fibromodulin KO phenotype.

    PubMed

    Delalande, Anthony; Bouakaz, Ayache; Renault, Gilles; Tabareau, Flore; Kotopoulis, Spiros; Midoux, Patrick; Arbeille, Brigitte; Uzbekov, Rustem; Chakravarti, Shukti; Postema, Michiel; Pichon, Chantal

    2011-12-10

    The aim of this study is to deliver genes in Achilles tendons using ultrasound and microbubbles. The rationale is to combine ultrasound-assisted delivery and the stimulation of protein expression induced by US. We found that mice tendons injected with 10 μg of plasmid encoding luciferase gene in the presence of 5×10⁵ BR14 microbubbles, exposed to US at 1 MHz, 200 kPa, 40% duty cycle for 10 min were efficiently transfected without toxicity. The rate of luciferase expression was 100-fold higher than that obtained when plasmid alone was injected. Remarkably, the luciferase transgene was stably expressed for up to 108 days. DNA extracted from these sonoporated tendons was efficient in transforming competent E. coli bacteria, indicating that persistent intact pDNA was responsible for this long lasting gene expression. We used this approach to restore expression of the fibromodulin gene in fibromodulin KO mice. A significant fibromodulin expression was detected by quantitative PCR one week post-injection. Interestingly, ultrastructural analysis of these tendons revealed that collagen fibrils diameter distribution and circularity were similar to that of wild type mice. Our results suggest that this gene delivery method is promising for clinical applications aimed at modulating healing or restoring a degenerative tendon while offering great promise for gene therapy due its safety compared to viral methods. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Bex1 knock out mice show altered skeletal muscle regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Jae Hyung; Smiley, Mark A.; Lovering, Richard M.; Margolis, Frank L.

    2008-01-01

    Bex1 and Calmodulin (CaM) are upregulated during skeletal muscle regeneration. We confirm this finding and demonstrate the novel finding that they interact in a calcium-dependent manner. To study the role of Bex1 and its interaction with CaM in skeletal muscle regeneration, we generated Bex1 knock out (Bex1-KO) mice. These mice appeared to develop normally and are fertile, but displayed a functional deficit in exercise performance compared to wild type (WT) mice. After intramuscular injection of cardiotoxin, which causes extensive and reproducible myotrauma followed by recovery, regenerating muscles of Bex1-KO mice exhibited elevated and prolonged cell proliferation, as well as delayed cell differentiation, compared to WT mice. Thus, our results provide the first evidence that Bex1-KO mice show altered muscle regeneration, and allow us to propose that the interaction of Bex1 with Ca2+/CaM may be involved in skeletal muscle regeneration. PMID:17884015

  6. Bex1 knock out mice show altered skeletal muscle regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Koo, Jae Hyung Smiley, Mark A.; Lovering, Richard M.; Margolis, Frank L.

    2007-11-16

    Bex1 and Calmodulin (CaM) are upregulated during skeletal muscle regeneration. We confirm this finding and demonstrate the novel finding that they interact in a calcium-dependent manner. To study the role of Bex1 and its interaction with CaM in skeletal muscle regeneration, we generated Bex1 knock out (Bex1-KO) mice. These mice appeared to develop normally and are fertile, but displayed a functional deficit in exercise performance compared to wild type (WT) mice. After intramuscular injection of cardiotoxin, which causes extensive and reproducible myotrauma followed by recovery, regenerating muscles of Bex1-KO mice exhibited elevated and prolonged cell proliferation, as well as delayed cell differentiation, compared to WT mice. Thus, our results provide the first evidence that Bex1-KO mice show altered muscle regeneration, and allow us to propose that the interaction of Bex1 with Ca{sup 2+}/CaM may be involved in skeletal muscle regeneration.

  7. The Metabotropic Glutamate 5 Receptor Modulates Extinction and Reinstatement of Methamphetamine-Seeking in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chesworth, Rose; Brown, Robyn M.; Kim, Jee Hyun; Lawrence, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly addictive psychostimulant with no therapeutics registered to assist addicts in discontinuing use. Glutamatergic dysfunction has been implicated in the development and maintenance of addiction. We sought to assess the involvement of the metabotropic glutamate 5 receptor (mGlu5) in behaviours relevant to METH addiction because this receptor has been implicated in the actions of other drugs of abuse, including alcohol, cocaine and opiates. mGlu5 knockout (KO) mice were tested in intravenous self-administration, conditioned place preference and locomotor sensitization. Self-administration of sucrose was used to assess the response of KO mice to a natural reward. Acquisition and maintenance of self-administration, as well as the motivation to self-administer METH was intact in mGlu5 KO mice. Importantly, mGlu5 KO mice required more extinction sessions to extinguish the operant response for METH, and exhibited an enhanced propensity to reinstate operant responding following exposure to drug-associated cues. This phenotype was not present when KO mice were tested in an equivalent paradigm assessing operant responding for sucrose. Development of conditioned place preference and locomotor sensitization were intact in KO mice; however, conditioned hyperactivity to the context previously paired with drug was elevated in KO mice. These data demonstrate a role for mGlu5 in the extinction and reinstatement of METH-seeking, and suggests a role for mGlu5 in regulating contextual salience. PMID:23861896

  8. Enhanced synaptic connectivity and epilepsy in C1q knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yunxiang; Jin, Xiaoming; Parada, Isabel; Pesic, Alexei; Stevens, Beth; Barres, Ben; Prince, David A

    2010-04-27

    Excessive CNS synapses are eliminated during development to establish mature patterns of neuronal connectivity. A complement cascade protein, C1q, is involved in this process. Mice deficient in C1q fail to refine retinogeniculate connections resulting in excessive retinal innervation of lateral geniculate neurons. We hypothesized that C1q knockout (KO) mice would exhibit defects in neocortical synapse elimination resulting in enhanced excitatory synaptic connectivity and epileptiform activity. We recorded spontaneous and evoked field potential activity in neocortical slices and obtained video-EEG recordings from implanted C1q KO and wild-type (WT) mice. We also used laser scanning photostimulation of caged glutamate and whole cell recordings to map excitatory and inhibitory synaptic connectivity. Spontaneous and evoked epileptiform field potentials occurred at multiple sites in neocortical slices from C1q KO, but not WT mice. Laser mapping experiments in C1q KO slices showed that the proportion of glutamate uncaging sites from which excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) could be evoked ("hotspot ratio") increased significantly in layer IV and layer V, although EPSC amplitudes were unaltered. Density of axonal boutons was significantly increased in layer V pyramidal neurons of C1q KO mice. Implanted KO mice had frequent behavioral seizures consisting of behavioral arrest associated with bihemispheric spikes and slow wave activity lasting from 5 to 30 s. Results indicate that epileptogenesis in C1q KO mice is related to a genetically determined failure to prune excessive excitatory synapses during development.

  9. The metabotropic glutamate 5 receptor modulates extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking in mice.

    PubMed

    Chesworth, Rose; Brown, Robyn M; Kim, Jee Hyun; Lawrence, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly addictive psychostimulant with no therapeutics registered to assist addicts in discontinuing use. Glutamatergic dysfunction has been implicated in the development and maintenance of addiction. We sought to assess the involvement of the metabotropic glutamate 5 receptor (mGlu5) in behaviours relevant to METH addiction because this receptor has been implicated in the actions of other drugs of abuse, including alcohol, cocaine and opiates. mGlu5 knockout (KO) mice were tested in intravenous self-administration, conditioned place preference and locomotor sensitization. Self-administration of sucrose was used to assess the response of KO mice to a natural reward. Acquisition and maintenance of self-administration, as well as the motivation to self-administer METH was intact in mGlu5 KO mice. Importantly, mGlu5 KO mice required more extinction sessions to extinguish the operant response for METH, and exhibited an enhanced propensity to reinstate operant responding following exposure to drug-associated cues. This phenotype was not present when KO mice were tested in an equivalent paradigm assessing operant responding for sucrose. Development of conditioned place preference and locomotor sensitization were intact in KO mice; however, conditioned hyperactivity to the context previously paired with drug was elevated in KO mice. These data demonstrate a role for mGlu5 in the extinction and reinstatement of METH-seeking, and suggests a role for mGlu5 in regulating contextual salience.

  10. Hepcidin knockout mice spontaneously develop chronic pancreatitis owing to cytoplasmic iron overload in acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Lunova, Mariia; Schwarz, Peggy; Nuraldeen, Renwar; Levada, Kateryna; Kuscuoglu, Deniz; Stützle, Michael; Vujić Spasić, Maja; Haybaeck, Johannes; Ruchala, Piotr; Jirsa, Milan; Deschemin, Jean-Christophe; Vaulont, Sophie; Trautwein, Christian; Strnad, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Iron is both an essential and a potentially toxic element, and its systemic homeostasis is controlled by the iron hormone hepcidin. Hepcidin binds to the cellular iron exporter ferroportin, causes its degradation, and thereby diminishes iron uptake from the intestine and the release of iron from macrophages. Given that hepcidin-resistant ferroportin mutant mice show exocrine pancreas dysfunction, we analysed pancreata of aging hepcidin knockout (KO) mice. Hepcidin and Hfe KO mice were compared with wild-type (WT) mice kept on standard or iron-rich diets. Twelve-month-old hepcidin KO mice were subjected to daily minihepcidin PR73 treatment for 1 week. Six-month-old hepcidin KO mice showed cytoplasmic acinar iron overload and mild pancreatitis, together with elevated expression of the iron uptake mediators DMT1 and Zip14. Acinar atrophy, massive macrophage infiltration, fatty changes and pancreas fibrosis were noted in 1-year-old hepcidin KO mice. As an underlying mechanism, 6-month-old hepcidin KO mice showed increased pancreatic oxidative stress, with elevated DNA damage, apoptosis and activated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signalling. Neither iron overload nor pancreatic damage was observed in WT mice fed iron-rich diet or in Hfe KO mice. Minihepcidin application to hepcidin KO mice led to an improvement in general health status and to iron redistribution from acinar cells to macrophages. It also resulted in decreased NF-κB activation and reduced DNA damage. In conclusion, loss of hepcidin signalling in mice leads to iron overload-induced chronic pancreatitis that is not seen in situations with less severe iron accumulation. The observed tissue injury can be reversed by hepcidin supplementation. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Requirements and tasks of cohorts and registers, the German KoRegIT project.

    PubMed

    Michalik, Claudia; Dress, Jochen; Ngouongo, Sylvie; Stäubert, Sebastian; Weber, Ulrike; Brockmeyer, Norbert; Paulus, Ursula; Stausberg, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological cohorts and registers (KoReg) are long lasting and complex research projects, which need systematic and extensive planning and steering. The aim of the KoRegIT project was to develop a generic catalogue of requirements to support the organisational- and IT-structure of KoReg. The catalogue of requirements comprises the top level (TL) tasks of the core processes. All TL were classified into the following project phases: 1. Development, 2. Operation, 3. Completion. According to the defined TL tasks, the appropriate use cases (UC) were identified. The catalogue currently specifies 45 TL tasks and 207 UC. The UC were elaborated by a short and standardized description of the task, the involved actors (human or external systems), the preconditions, which have to be fulfilled in order to realize this task, the normal flow of the task and the post conditions. The developed catalogue was reviewed by representatives of different KoReg in Germany. The draft catalogue of requirements was revised according to the reviewer's feedback and discussion. The revised and complete catalogue with all elaborated UC was reviewed again by further experts. The developed KoRegIT catalogue of requirements offers a supporting tool to set-up the organisational structures and processes of KoReg as well as the definition of the needed IT-infrastructure. In addition it can be used to optimize or to expand these structures.

  12. Enhanced ethanol fermentation of brewery wastewater using the genetically modified strain E. coli KO11.

    PubMed

    Rao, Kripa; Chaudhari, Vaibhav; Varanasi, Sasidhar; Kim, Dong-Shik

    2007-02-01

    We have used liquid waste obtained from a beer brewery process to produce ethanol. To increase the productivity, genetically modified organism, Escherichia coli KO11, was used for ethanol fermentation. Yeast was also used to produce ethanol from the same feed stock, and the ethanol production rates and resulting concentrations of sugars and ethanol were compared with those of KO11. In the experiments, first the raw wastewater was directly fermented using two strains with no saccharification enzymes added. Then, commercial enzymes, alpha-amylase, pectinase, or a combination of both, were used for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, and the results were compared with those of the no-enzyme experiments for KO11 and yeast. Under the given conditions with or without the enzymes, yeast produced ethanol more rapidly than E. coli KO11, but the final ethanol concentrations were almost the same. For both yeast and KO11, the enzymes were observed to enhance the ethanol yields by 61-84% as compared to the fermentation without enzymes. The combination of the two enzymes increased ethanol production the most for the both strains. The advantages of using KO11 were not demonstrated clearly as compared to the yeast fermentation results.

  13. Fluoxetine Protection in Decompression Sickness in Mice is Enhanced by Blocking TREK-1 Potassium Channel with the "spadin" Antidepressant.

    PubMed

    Vallée, Nicolas; Lambrechts, Kate; De Maistre, Sébastien; Royal, Perrine; Mazella, Jean; Borsotto, Marc; Heurteaux, Catherine; Abraini, Jacques; Risso, Jean-Jacques; Blatteau, Jean-Eric

    2016-01-01

    In mice, disseminated coagulation, inflammation, and ischemia induce neurological damage that can lead to death. These symptoms result from circulating bubbles generated by a pathogenic decompression. Acute fluoxetine treatment or the presence of the TREK-1 potassium channel increases the survival rate when mice are subjected to an experimental dive/decompression protocol. This is a paradox because fluoxetine is a blocker of TREK-1 channels. First, we studied the effects of an acute dose of fluoxetine (50 mg/kg) in wild-type (WT) and TREK-1 deficient mice (knockout homozygous KO and heterozygous HET). Then, we combined the same fluoxetine treatment with a 5-day treatment protocol with spadin, in order to specifically block TREK-1 activity (KO-like mice). KO and KO-like mice were regarded as antidepressed models. In total, 167 mice (45 WTcont 46 WTflux 30 HETflux and 46 KOflux) constituting the flux-pool and 113 supplementary mice (27 KO-like 24 WTflux2 24 KO-likeflux 21 WTcont2 17 WTno dive) constituting the spad-pool were included in this study. Only 7% of KO-TREK-1 treated with fluoxetine (KOflux) and 4% of mice treated with both spadin and fluoxetine (KO-likeflux) died from decompression sickness (DCS) symptoms. These values are much lower than those of WT control (62%) or KO-like mice (41%). After the decompression protocol, mice showed significant consumption of their circulating platelets and leukocytes. Spadin antidepressed mice were more likely to exhibit DCS. Nevertheless, mice which had both blocked TREK-1 channels and fluoxetine treatment were better protected against DCS. We conclude that the protective effect of such an acute dose of fluoxetine is enhanced when TREK-1 is inhibited. We confirmed that antidepressed models may have worse DCS outcomes, but concomitant fluoxetine treatment not only decreased DCS severity but increased the survival rate.

  14. Transspecies Transmission of Gammaretroviruses and the Origin of the Gibbon Ape Leukaemia Virus (GaLV) and the Koala Retrovirus (KoRV)

    PubMed Central

    Denner, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Transspecies transmission of retroviruses is a frequent event, and the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is a well-known example. The gibbon ape leukaemia virus (GaLV) and koala retrovirus (KoRV), two gammaretroviruses, are also the result of a transspecies transmission, however from a still unknown host. Related retroviruses have been found in Southeast Asian mice although the sequence similarity was limited. Viruses with a higher sequence homology were isolated from Melomys burtoni, the Australian and Indonesian grassland melomys. However, only the habitats of the koalas and the grassland melomys in Australia are overlapping, indicating that the melomys virus may not be the precursor of the GaLV. Viruses closely related to GaLV/KoRV were also detected in bats. Therefore, given the fact that the habitats of the gibbons in Thailand and the koalas in Australia are far away, and that bats are able to fly over long distances, the hypothesis that retroviruses of bats are the origin of GaLV and KoRV deserves consideration. Analysis of previous transspecies transmissions of retroviruses may help to evaluate the potential of transmission of related retroviruses in the future, e.g., that of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) during xenotransplantation using pig cells, tissues or organs. PMID:27999419

  15. Transspecies Transmission of Gammaretroviruses and the Origin of the Gibbon Ape Leukaemia Virus (GaLV) and the Koala Retrovirus (KoRV).

    PubMed

    Denner, Joachim

    2016-12-20

    Transspecies transmission of retroviruses is a frequent event, and the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is a well-known example. The gibbon ape leukaemia virus (GaLV) and koala retrovirus (KoRV), two gammaretroviruses, are also the result of a transspecies transmission, however from a still unknown host. Related retroviruses have been found in Southeast Asian mice although the sequence similarity was limited. Viruses with a higher sequence homology were isolated from Melomys burtoni, the Australian and Indonesian grassland melomys. However, only the habitats of the koalas and the grassland melomys in Australia are overlapping, indicating that the melomys virus may not be the precursor of the GaLV. Viruses closely related to GaLV/KoRV were also detected in bats. Therefore, given the fact that the habitats of the gibbons in Thailand and the koalas in Australia are far away, and that bats are able to fly over long distances, the hypothesis that retroviruses of bats are the origin of GaLV and KoRV deserves consideration. Analysis of previous transspecies transmissions of retroviruses may help to evaluate the potential of transmission of related retroviruses in the future, e.g., that of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) during xenotransplantation using pig cells, tissues or organs.

  16. Up-regulation of Thrombospondin-2 in Akt1-null Mice Contributes to Compromised Tissue Repair Due to Abnormalities in Fibroblast Function*

    PubMed Central

    Bancroft, Tara; Bouaouina, Mohamed; Roberts, Sophia; Lee, Monica; Calderwood, David A.; Schwartz, Martin; Simons, Michael; Sessa, William C.; Kyriakides, Themis R.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular remodeling is essential for tissue repair and is regulated by multiple factors, including thrombospondin-2 (TSP2) and hypoxia/VEGF-induced activation of Akt. In contrast to TSP2 knock-out (KO) mice, Akt1 KO mice have elevated TSP2 expression and delayed tissue repair. To investigate the contribution of increased TSP2 to Akt1 KO mice phenotypes, we generated Akt1/TSP2 double KO (DKO) mice. Full-thickness excisional wounds in DKO mice healed at an accelerated rate when compared with Akt1 KO mice. Isolated dermal Akt1 KO fibroblasts expressed increased TSP2 and displayed altered morphology and defects in migration and adhesion. These defects were rescued in DKO fibroblasts or after TSP2 knockdown. Conversely, the addition of exogenous TSP2 to WT cells induced cell morphology and migration rates that were similar to those of Akt1 KO cells. Akt1 KO fibroblasts displayed reduced adhesion to fibronectin with manganese stimulation when compared with WT and DKO cells, revealing an Akt1-dependent role for TSP2 in regulating integrin-mediated adhesions; however, this effect was not due to changes in β1 integrin surface expression or activation. Consistent with these results, Akt1 KO fibroblasts displayed reduced Rac1 activation that was dependent upon expression of TSP2 and could be rescued by a constitutively active Rac mutant. Our observations show that repression of TSP2 expression is a critical aspect of Akt1 function in tissue repair. PMID:25389299

  17. Bone status of acetylcholinesterase-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Kauschke, Vivien; Kneffel, Mathias; Floel, Wolfgang; Hartmann, Sonja; Kampschulte, Marian; Dürselen, Lutz; Ignatius, Anita; Schnettler, Reinhard; Heiss, Christian; Lips, Katrin Susanne

    2015-11-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) hydrolyzes acetylcholine (ACh) to acetate and choline and thereby terminates nerve impulse transmission. ACh is also expressed in bone tissue and enhances here proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, which makes it interesting to investigate effects of AChE deficiency on bone. To our knowledge, this is the first study that analyzed bone of heterozygous acetylcholinesterase-knockout (AChE-KO) mice. Tibia, femur, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae of 16-week-old female heterozygous AChE-KO mice and their corresponding wildtypes (WT) were analyzed using real-time RT-PCR, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, biomechanics, micro-computed tomography, histology and histomorphometry. Our data revealed that heterozygous AChE-KO did not cause negative effects upon bone parameters analyzed. In contrast, the number of osteoclasts per perimeter was significantly reduced in lumbar vertebrae. In addition, we found a significant decrease in trabecular perimeter of lumbar vertebrae and cortical area fraction (Ct.Ar/Tt.Ar) in the mid-diaphysis of femurs of AChE-KO mice compared to their WT. Therefore, presumably a local homozygous knockout of AChE or AChE-inhibitor administration might be beneficial for bone formation due to ACh accumulation. However, many other bone parameters analyzed did not differ statistically significantly between AChE-KO and WT mice. That might be reasoned by the compensating effect of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Functionally improved bone in Calbindin-D28k knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, David S.; Kim, Devin; Szivek, John A.; Lai, Li-Wen; Lien, Yeong-Hau H.

    2008-01-01

    In vitro studies indicate that Calbindin-D28k, a calcium binding protein, is important in regulating the life span of osteoblasts as well as the mineralization of bone extracellular matrix. The recent creation of a Calbindin-D28k knockout mouse has provided the opportunity to study the physiological effects of the Calbindin-D28k protein on bone remodeling in vivo. In this experiment, histomorphometry, μCT, and bend testing were used to characterize bones in Calbindin-D28k KO (knockout) mice. The femora of Calbindin-D28k KO mice had significantly increased cortical bone volume (60.4% ± 3.1) compared to wild-type (WT) mice (45.4% ± 4.6). The increased bone volume was due to a decrease in marrow cavity area, and significantly decreased endosteal perimeters (3.397 mm ± 0.278 in Calbindin-D28k KO mice, and 4.046 mm ± 0.450 in WT mice). Similar changes were noted in the analysis of the tibias in both mice. The bone formation rates were similar in the femoral and tibial cortical bones of both mice. μCT analysis of the trabecular bone in the tibial plateau indicated that Calbindin-D28k KO mice had an increased bone volume (35.2% ± 3.1) compared to WT mice (24.7% ± 4.9) which was primarily due to increased trabecular number (8.99 mm−1 ± 0.94 in Calbindin-D28k KO mice compared to 6.75 mm−1 ± 0.85 in WT mice). Bone mineral content analysis of the tibias indicated that there is no difference in the calcium or phosphorus content between the Calbindin-D28k KO and WT mice. Cantilever bend testing of the femora demonstrated significantly lower strains in the bones of Calbindin-D28k KO mice (4135 μstrain/kg ± 1266) compared to WT mice (6973 μstrain/kg ± 998) indicating that the KO mice had stiffer bones. Three-point bending demonstrated increased failure loads in bones of Calbindin-D28k KO mice (31.6 N ± 2.1) compared to WT mice (15.0 N ± 1.7). In conclusion, Calbindin-D28k KO mice had increased bone volume and stiffness indicating that Calbindin-D28k plays an

  19. CEP290 alleles in mice disrupt tissue-specific cilia biogenesis and recapitulate features of syndromic ciliopathies

    PubMed Central

    Rachel, Rivka A.; Yamamoto, Erin A.; Dewanjee, Mrinal K.; May-Simera, Helen L.; Sergeev, Yuri V.; Hackett, Alice N.; Pohida, Katherine; Munasinghe, Jeeva; Gotoh, Norimoto; Wickstead, Bill; Fariss, Robert N.; Dong, Lijin; Li, Tiansen; Swaroop, Anand

    2015-01-01

    Distinct mutations in the centrosomal-cilia protein CEP290 lead to diverse clinical findings in syndromic ciliopathies. We show that CEP290 localizes to the transition zone in ciliated cells, precisely to the region of Y-linkers between central microtubules and plasma membrane. To create models of CEP290-associated ciliopathy syndromes, we generated Cep290ko/ko and Cep290gt/gt mice that produce no or a truncated CEP290 protein, respectively. Cep290ko/ko mice exhibit early vision loss and die from hydrocephalus. Retinal photoreceptors in Cep290ko/ko mice lack connecting cilia, and ciliated ventricular ependyma fails to mature. The minority of Cep290ko/ko mice that escape hydrocephalus demonstrate progressive kidney pathology. Cep290gt/gt mice die at mid-gestation, and the occasional Cep290gt/gt mouse that survives shows hydrocephalus and severely cystic kidneys. Partial loss of CEP290-interacting ciliopathy protein MKKS mitigates lethality and renal pathology in Cep290gt/gt mice. Our studies demonstrate domain-specific functions of CEP290 and provide novel therapeutic paradigms for ciliopathies. PMID:25859007

  20. Abnormal Type I Collagen Post-translational Modification and Crosslinking in a Cyclophilin B KO Mouse Model of Recessive Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    PubMed Central

    Cabral, Wayne A.; Perdivara, Irina; Weis, MaryAnn; Terajima, Masahiko; Blissett, Angela R.; Chang, Weizhong; Perosky, Joseph E.; Makareeva, Elena N.; Mertz, Edward L.; Leikin, Sergey; Tomer, Kenneth B.; Kozloff, Kenneth M.; Eyre, David R.; Yamauchi, Mitsuo; Marini, Joan C.

    2014-01-01

    Cyclophilin B (CyPB), encoded by PPIB, is an ER-resident peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) that functions independently and as a component of the collagen prolyl 3-hydroxylation complex. CyPB is proposed to be the major PPIase catalyzing the rate-limiting step in collagen folding. Mutations in PPIB cause recessively inherited osteogenesis imperfecta type IX, a moderately severe to lethal bone dysplasia. To investigate the role of CyPB in collagen folding and post-translational modifications, we generated Ppib−/− mice that recapitulate the OI phenotype. Knock-out (KO) mice are small, with reduced femoral areal bone mineral density (aBMD), bone volume per total volume (BV/TV) and mechanical properties, as well as increased femoral brittleness. Ppib transcripts are absent in skin, fibroblasts, femora and calvarial osteoblasts, and CyPB is absent from KO osteoblasts and fibroblasts on western blots. Only residual (2–11%) collagen prolyl 3-hydroxylation is detectable in KO cells and tissues. Collagen folds more slowly in the absence of CyPB, supporting its rate-limiting role in folding. However, treatment of KO cells with cyclosporine A causes further delay in folding, indicating the potential existence of another collagen PPIase. We confirmed and extended the reported role of CyPB in supporting collagen lysyl hydroxylase (LH1) activity. Ppib−/− fibroblast and osteoblast collagen has normal total lysyl hydroxylation, while increased collagen diglycosylation is observed. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis of bone and osteoblast type I collagen revealed site-specific alterations of helical lysine hydroxylation, in particular, significantly reduced hydroxylation of helical crosslinking residue K87. Consequently, underhydroxylated forms of di- and trivalent crosslinks are strikingly increased in KO bone, leading to increased total crosslinks and decreased helical hydroxylysine- to lysine-derived crosslink ratios. The altered

  1. Sensitive method for plasma and tumor Ko143 quantification using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Zander, Serge A L; Beijnen, Jos H; van Tellingen, Olaf

    2013-01-15

    The fumitremorgin C analogue Ko143 is a potent and selective inhibitor of the ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG2. To support in vivo ABCG2 resistance studies, we developed a sensitive and selective method for Ko143 quantification in plasma and tumor samples, using the parent compound fumitremorgin C as internal standard. Sample pretreatment by liquid-liquid extraction in diethyl ether yielded a recovery of 50% from human and mouse plasma. Pretreated samples were separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection at 295nm excitation and 350nm emission wavelengths. Sharp chromatographic peaks were obtained with a 5μm GraceSmart C18 column. The mobile phase consisted of methanol:10mM ammonium acetate pH 5.0 (62:38, v/v), delivered at a flow rate of 0.2mL/min. Acceptable accuracy and precision of ±15% were achieved within the linear dynamic range of the calibration curve (2-500ng/mL) for human and mouse plasma samples. Mouse tumor tissue samples required the use of a calibration curve prepared in the same matrix due to the lower recovery of 40% from this matrix. Then, accuracy and precision were within the generally accepted range of ±15% for bioanalytical assays. Ko143 was stable in human plasma for up to 3 repeated freeze-thaw cycles and when stored at room temperature for up to 72h. However, when kept at room temperature in mouse plasma, Ko143 was rapidly degraded by esterase activity, which could be prevented by collection of blood into sodium fluoride-containing tubes and maintaining samples on ice during pretreatment. A preliminary pharmacokinetics study in mice demonstrated the applicability of this assay for ABCG2 resistance studies in vivo.

  2. Role of connexin 32 in acetaminophen toxicity in a knockout mice model.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Isao; Maejima, Takanori; Kai, Kiyonori; Arakawa, Shingo; Teranishi, Munehiro; Sanbuissho, Atsushi

    2014-03-01

    Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC), by which glutathione (GSH) and inorganic ions are transmitted to neighboring cells, is recognized as being largely involved in toxic processes of chemicals. We examined acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity clinicopathologically using male wild-type mice and mice lacking the gene for connexin32, a major gap junction protein in the liver [knockout (Cx32KO) mice]. When APAP was intraperitoneally administered at doses of 100, 200, or 300mg/kg, hepatic centrilobular necrosis with elevated plasma aminotransferase activities was observed in wild-type mice receiving 300mg/kg, and in Cx32KO mice given 100mg/kg or more. At 200mg/kg or more, hepatic GSH and GSSG contents decreased significantly and the effect was more severe in wild-type mice than in Cx32KO mice. On the other hand, markedly decreased GSH staining was observed in the hepatic centrilobular zones of Cx32KO mice compared to that of wild-type mice. These results demonstrate that Cx32KO mice are more susceptible to APAP hepatotoxicity than wild-type mice, and indicate that the distribution of GSH of the centrilobular zones in the hepatic lobules, rather than GSH and GSSG contents in the liver, is important in APAP hepatotoxicity. In conclusion, Cx32 protects against APAP-induced hepatic centrilobular necrosis in mice, which may be through the GSH transmission to neighboring hepatocytes by GJIC.

  3. Altered glucose and lipid homeostasis in liver and adipose tissue pre-dispose inducible NOS knockout mice to insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Kanuri, Babu Nageswararao; Kanshana, Jitendra S.; Rebello, Sanjay C.; Pathak, Priya; Gupta, Anand P.; Gayen, Jiaur R.; Jagavelu, Kumaravelu; Dikshit, Madhu

    2017-01-01

    On the basis of diet induced obesity and KO mice models, nitric oxide is implied to play an important role in the initiation of dyslipidemia induced insulin resistance. However, outcomes using iNOS KO mice have so far remained inconclusive. The present study aimed to assess IR in iNOS KO mice after 5 weeks of LFD feeding by monitoring body composition, energy homeostasis, insulin sensitivity/signaling, nitrite content and gene expressions changes in the tissues. We found that body weight and fat content in KO mice were significantly higher while the respiratory exchange ratio (RER), volume of carbon dioxide (VCO2), and heat production were lower as compared to WT mice. Furthermore, altered systemic glucose tolerance, tissue insulin signaling, hepatic gluconeogenesis, augmented hepatic lipids, adiposity, as well as gene expression regulating lipid synthesis, catabolism and efflux were evident in iNOS KO mice. Significant reduction in eNOS and nNOS gene expression, hepatic and adipose tissue nitrite content, circulatory nitrite was also observed. Oxygen consumption rate of mitochondrial respiration has remained unaltered in KO mice as measured using extracellular flux analyzer. Our findings establish a link between the NO status with systemic and tissue specific IR in iNOS KO mice at 5 weeks. PMID:28106120

  4. Fat-specific Dicer deficiency accelerates aging and mitigates several effects of dietary restriction in mice

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Felipe C. G.; Branquinho, Jéssica L. O.; Brandão, Bruna B.; Guerra, Beatriz A.; Silva, Ismael D.; Frontini, Andrea; Thomou, Thomas; Sartini, Loris; Cinti, Saverio; Kahn, C. Ronald; Festuccia, William T.; Kowaltowski, Alicia J.; Mori, Marcelo A.

    2016-01-01

    Aging increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, and this can be prevented by dietary restriction (DR). We have previously shown that DR inhibits the downregulation of miRNAs and their processing enzymes - mainly Dicer - that occurs with aging in mouse white adipose tissue (WAT). Here we used fat-specific Dicer knockout mice (AdicerKO) to understand the contributions of adipose tissue Dicer to the metabolic effects of aging and DR. Metabolomic data uncovered a clear distinction between the serum metabolite profiles of Lox control and AdicerKO mice, with a notable elevation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in AdicerKO. These profiles were associated with reduced oxidative metabolism and increased lactate in WAT of AdicerKO mice and were accompanied by structural and functional changes in mitochondria, particularly under DR. AdicerKO mice displayed increased mTORC1 activation in WAT and skeletal muscle, where Dicer expression is not affected. This was accompanied by accelerated age-associated insulin resistance and premature mortality. Moreover, DR-induced insulin sensitivity was abrogated in AdicerKO mice. This was reverted by rapamycin injection, demonstrating that insulin resistance in AdicerKO mice is caused by mTORC1 hyperactivation. Our study evidences a DR-modulated role for WAT Dicer in controlling metabolism and insulin resistance. PMID:27241713

  5. R-Ras deficiency does not affect papain-induced IgE production in mice.

    PubMed

    Kummola, Laura; Ortutay, Zsuzsanna; Vähätupa, Maria; Prince, Stuart; Uusitalo-Järvinen, Hannele; Järvinen, Tero A H; Junttila, Ilkka S

    2017-09-01

    R-Ras GTPase has recently been implicated in the regulation of immune functions, particularly in dendritic cell (DC) maturation, immune synapse formation, and subsequent T cell responses. Here, we investigated the role of R-Ras in allergen-induced immune response (type 2 immune response) in Rras deficient (R-Ras KO) and wild type (WT) mice. Initially, we found that the number of conventional DC's in the lymph nodes (LNs) was reduced in R-Ras KO mice. The expression of co-stimulatory CD80 and CD86 molecules on these cells was also reduced on DC's from the R-Ras KO mice. However, there was no difference in papain-induced immune response between the R-Ras WT and KO as measured by serum IgE levels after the immunization. Interestingly, neither the DC number nor co-stimulatory molecule expression was different between WT and R-Ras KO animals after the immunization. Taken together, despite having reduced number of conventional DC's in the R-Ras KO mice and low expression of CD80 on DC's, the R-Ras KO mice are capable of mounting papain-induced IgE responses comparable to that of the WT mice. To our knowledge, this is the first report addressing potential differences in in vivo allergen responses regulated by the R-Ras GTPase. © 2017 The Authors. Immunity, Inflammation and Disease Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas axis modulates fear memory and extinction in mice.

    PubMed

    Lazaroni, Thiago Luiz do Nascimento; Bastos, Cristiane Perácio; Moraes, Márcio Flávio Dutra; Santos, Robson Souza; Pereira, Grace Schenatto

    2016-01-01

    Inappropriate defense-alerting reaction to fear is a common feature of neuropsychiatric diseases. Therefore, impairments in brain circuits, as well as in molecular pathways underlying the neurovegetative adjustments to fear may play an essential role on developing neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we tested the hypothesis that interfering with angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)]/Mas receptor axis homeostasis, which appears to be essential to arterial pressure control, would affect fear memory and extinction. Mas knockout (MasKO) mice, in FVB/N background, showed normal cued fear memory and extinction, but increased freezing in response to context. Next, as FVB/N has poor performance in contextual fear memory, we tested MasKO in mixed 129xC57BL/6 background. MasKO mice behaved similarly to wild-type (WT), but memory extinction was slower in contextual fear conditioning to a weak protocol (1CS/US). In addition, delayed extinction in MasKO mice was even more pronounced after a stronger protocol (3CS/US). We showed previously that Angiotensin II receptor AT1 antagonist, losantan, rescued object recognition memory deficit in MasKO mice. Here, losartan was also effective. Memory extinction was accelerated in MasKO mice after treatment with losartan. In conclusion, we showed for the first time that Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis may modulate fear memory extinction. Furthermore, we suggest MasKO mice as an animal model to study post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

  7. Impaired Discrimination Learning in Mice Lacking the NMDA Receptor NR2A Subunit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigman, Jonathan L.; Feyder, Michael; Saksida, Lisa M.; Bussey, Timothy J.; Mishina, Masayoshi; Holmes, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) mediate certain forms of synaptic plasticity and learning. We used a touchscreen system to assess NR2A subunit knockout mice (KO) for (1) pairwise visual discrimination and reversal learning and (2) acquisition and extinction of an instrumental response requiring no pairwise discrimination. NR2A KO mice…

  8. Impaired Discrimination Learning in Mice Lacking the NMDA Receptor NR2A Subunit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigman, Jonathan L.; Feyder, Michael; Saksida, Lisa M.; Bussey, Timothy J.; Mishina, Masayoshi; Holmes, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) mediate certain forms of synaptic plasticity and learning. We used a touchscreen system to assess NR2A subunit knockout mice (KO) for (1) pairwise visual discrimination and reversal learning and (2) acquisition and extinction of an instrumental response requiring no pairwise discrimination. NR2A KO mice…

  9. CD34 EXPRESSION BY HAIR FOLLICLE STEM CELLS IS REQUIRED FOR SKIN TUMOR DEVELOPMENT IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used knockout mice to show that a cell surface protein called CD34 is required for skin tumor formation in mice. Wild type mice treated with 7-12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and a tumor promoter developed papillomas. When we treated CD34 knockout (KO) mice the same way, n...

  10. CD34 EXPRESSION BY HAIR FOLLICLE STEM CELLS IS REQUIRED FOR SKIN TUMOR DEVELOPMENT IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used knockout mice to show that a cell surface protein called CD34 is required for skin tumor formation in mice. Wild type mice treated with 7-12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and a tumor promoter developed papillomas. When we treated CD34 knockout (KO) mice the same way, n...

  11. Hematological, hepatic, and retinal phenotypes in mice deficient for prolyl hydroxylase domain proteins in the liver.

    PubMed

    Duan, Li-Juan; Takeda, Kotaro; Fong, Guo-Hua

    2014-04-01

    Prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD) proteins catalyze oxygen-dependent prolyl hydroxylation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α and 2α, tagging them for pVHL-dependent polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. In this study, albumin Cre (Alb(Cre))-mediated, hepatocyte-specific triple disruption of Phd1, Phd2, and Phd3 (Phd(1/2/3)hKO) promoted liver erythropoietin (EPO) expression 1246-fold, whereas renal EPO was down-regulated to 6.7% of normal levels. In Phd(1/2/3)hKO mice, hematocrit levels reached 82.4%, accompanied by severe vascular malformation and steatosis in the liver. In mice double-deficient for hepatic PHD2 and PHD3 (Phd(2/3)hKO), liver EPO increase and renal EPO loss both occurred but were much less dramatic than in Phd(1/2/3)hKO mice. Hematocrit levels, vascular organization, and liver lipid contents all appeared normal in Phd(2/3)hKO mice. In a chronic renal failure model, Phd(2/3)hKO mice maintained normal hematocrit levels throughout the 8-week time course, whereas floxed controls developed severe anemia. Maintenance of normal hematocrit levels in Phd(2/3)hKO mice was accomplished by sensitized induction of liver EPO expression. Consistent with such a mechanism, liver HIF-2α accumulated to higher levels in Phd(2/3)hKO mice in response to conditions causing modest systemic hypoxia. Besides promoting erythropoiesis, EPO is also known to modulate retinal vascular integrity and neovascularization. In Phd(1/2/3)hKO mice, however, neonatal retinas remained sensitive to oxygen-induced retinopathy, suggesting that local EPO may be more important than hepatic and/or renal EPO in mediating protective effects in the retina.

  12. Increased consumption of ethanol and sugar water in mice lacking the dopamine D2 long receptor

    PubMed Central

    Bulwa, Zachary B.; Sharlin, Jordan A.; Clark, Peter J.; Bhattacharya, Tushar K.; Kilby, Chessa N.; Wang, Yanyan; Rhodes, Justin S.

    2011-01-01

    Individual differences in dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) expression in the brain are thought to influence motivation and reinforcement for ethanol and other rewards. D2R exists in two isoforms, D2 long (D2LR) and D2 short (D2SR), produced by alternative splicing of the same gene. The relative contributions of D2LR versus D2SR to ethanol and sugar water drinking are not known. Genetic engineering was used to produce a line of knockout (KO) mice that lack D2LR and consequently have increased expression of D2SR. KO and wild-type (WT) mice of both sexes were tested for intake of 20% ethanol, 10% sugar water and plain tap water using established drinking-in-the-dark procedures. Mice were also tested for effects of the D2 antagonist eticlopride on intake of ethanol to determine whether KO responses were caused by lack of D2LR or over-representation of D2SR. Locomotor activity on running wheels and in cages without wheels was also measured for comparison. D2L KO mice drank significantly more ethanol than WT in both sexes. KO mice drank more sugar water than WT in females but not in males. Eticlopride dose- dependently decreased ethanol intake in all groups except male KO. KO mice were less physically active than WT in cages with or without running wheels. Results suggest that over-representation of D2SR contributes to increased intake of ethanol in the KO mice. Decreasing wheel running and general levels of physical activity in the KO mice rules out the possibility that higher intake results from higher motor activity. Results extend the literature implicating altered expression of D2R in risk for addiction by delineating the contribution of individual D2R isoforms. These findings suggest that D2LR and D2SR play differential roles in consumption of alcohol and sugar rewards. PMID:21803530

  13. Knock-out of nexilin in mice leads to dilated cardiomyopathy and endomyocardial fibroelastosis.

    PubMed

    Aherrahrou, Zouhair; Schlossarek, Saskia; Stoelting, Stephanie; Klinger, Matthias; Geertz, Birgit; Weinberger, Florian; Kessler, Thorsten; Aherrahrou, Redouane; Moreth, Kristin; Bekeredjian, Raffi; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Just, Steffen; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Eschenhagen, Thomas; Schunkert, Heribert; Carrier, Lucie; Erdmann, Jeanette

    2016-01-01

    Cardiomyopathy is one of the most common causes of chronic heart failure worldwide. Mutations in the gene encoding nexilin (NEXN) occur in patients with both hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM); however, little is known about the pathophysiological mechanisms and relevance of NEXN to these disorders. Here, we evaluated the functional role of NEXN using a constitutive Nexn knock-out (KO) mouse model. Heterozygous (Het) mice were inter-crossed to produce wild-type (WT), Het, and homozygous KO mice. At birth, 32, 46, and 22 % of the mice were WT, Het, and KO, respectively, which is close to the expected Mendelian ratio. After postnatal day 6, the survival of the Nexn KO mice decreased dramatically and all of the animals died by day 8. Phenotypic characterizations of the WT and KO mice were performed at postnatal days 1, 2, 4, and 6. At birth, the relative heart weights of the WT and KO mice were similar; however, at day 4, the relative heart weight of the KO group was 2.3-fold higher than of the WT group. In addition, the KO mice developed rapidly progressive cardiomyopathy with left ventricular dilation and wall thinning and decreased cardiac function. At day 6, the KO mice developed a fulminant DCM phenotype characterized by dilated ventricular chambers and systolic dysfunction. At this stage, collagen deposits and some elastin deposits were observed within the left ventricle cavity, which resembles the features of endomyocardial fibroelastosis (EFE). Overall, these results further emphasize the role of NEXN in DCM and suggest a novel role in EFE.

  14. Increased consumption of ethanol and sugar water in mice lacking the dopamine D2 long receptor.

    PubMed

    Bulwa, Zachary B; Sharlin, Jordan A; Clark, Peter J; Bhattacharya, Tushar K; Kilby, Chessa N; Wang, Yanyan; Rhodes, Justin S

    2011-11-01

    Individual differences in dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) expression in the brain are thought to influence motivation and reinforcement for ethanol and other rewards. D2R exists in two isoforms, D2 long (D2LR) and D2 short (D2SR), produced by alternative splicing of the same gene. The relative contributions of D2LR versus D2SR to ethanol and sugar water drinking are not known. Genetic engineering was used to produce a line of knockout (KO) mice that lack D2LR and consequently have increased expression of D2SR. KO and wild-type (WT) mice of both sexes were tested for intake of 20% ethanol, 10% sugar water and plain tap water using established drinking-in-the-dark procedures. Mice were also tested for effects of the D2 antagonist eticlopride on intake of ethanol to determine whether KO responses were caused by lack of D2LR or overrepresentation of D2SR. Locomotor activity on running wheels and in cages without wheels was also measured for comparison. D2L KO mice drank significantly more ethanol than WT in both sexes. KO mice drank more sugar water than WT in females but not in males. Eticlopride dose dependently decreased ethanol intake in all groups except male KO. KO mice were less physically active than WT in cages with or without running wheels. Results suggest that overrepresentation of D2SR contributes to increased intake of ethanol in the KO mice. Decreasing wheel running and general levels of physical activity in the KO mice rules out the possibility that higher intake results from higher motor activity. Results extend the literature implicating altered expression of D2R in risk for addiction by delineating the contribution of individual D2R isoforms. These findings suggest that D2LR and D2SR play differential roles in consumption of alcohol and sugar rewards.

  15. Altered Immune Cytokine Expression Associated with KoRV B Infection and Season in Captive Koalas.

    PubMed

    Maher, Iona E; Higgins, Damien P

    2016-01-01

    Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations are increasingly vulnerable and one of the main threats is chlamydial infection. Koala retrovirus (KoRV) has been proposed as an underlying cause of the koala's susceptibility to infection with Chlamydia and high rates of lymphoid neoplasia; however, the regionally ubiquitous, endogenous nature of this virus suggests that KoRV A infection is not sufficient for immune suppression to occur. A recently discovered exogenous variant of KoRV, KoRV B, has several structural elements that cause increased pathogenicity in related retroviruses and was associated with lymphoid neoplasia in one study. The present study assesses whether KoRV B infection is associated with alterations in immune function. Cytokine gene expression by mitogen stimulated lymphocytes of KoRV B positive (n = 5-6) and negative (n = 6-7) captive koalas was evaluated by qPCR four times (April 2014-February 2015) to control for seasonal variation. Key immune genes in the Th1 pathway (IFNγ, TNFα), Th2 pathway (IL 10, IL4, IL6) and Th17 pathway (IL17A), along with CD4:CD8 ratio, were assessed. KoRV B positive koalas showed significantly increased up-regulation of IL17A and IL10 in three out of four sampling periods and IFNγ, IL6, IL4 and TNFα in two out of four. IL17A is an immune marker for chlamydial pathogenesis in the koala; increased expression of IL17A in KoRV B positive koalas, and concurrent immune dysregulation, may explain the differences in susceptibility to chlamydial infection and severity of disease seen between individuals and populations. There was also marked seasonal variation in up-regulation for most of the cytokines and the CD4:CD8 ratio. The up-regulation in both Th1 and Th2 cytokines mirrors changes associated with immune dysregulation in humans and felids as a result of retroviral infections. This is the first report of altered immune expression in koalas infected by an exogenous variant of KoRV and also the first report of seasonal

  16. Altered Immune Cytokine Expression Associated with KoRV B Infection and Season in Captive Koalas

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Damien P.

    2016-01-01

    Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations are increasingly vulnerable and one of the main threats is chlamydial infection. Koala retrovirus (KoRV) has been proposed as an underlying cause of the koala’s susceptibility to infection with Chlamydia and high rates of lymphoid neoplasia; however, the regionally ubiquitous, endogenous nature of this virus suggests that KoRV A infection is not sufficient for immune suppression to occur. A recently discovered exogenous variant of KoRV, KoRV B, has several structural elements that cause increased pathogenicity in related retroviruses and was associated with lymphoid neoplasia in one study. The present study assesses whether KoRV B infection is associated with alterations in immune function. Cytokine gene expression by mitogen stimulated lymphocytes of KoRV B positive (n = 5–6) and negative (n = 6–7) captive koalas was evaluated by qPCR four times (April 2014-February 2015) to control for seasonal variation. Key immune genes in the Th1 pathway (IFNγ, TNFα), Th2 pathway (IL 10, IL4, IL6) and Th17 pathway (IL17A), along with CD4:CD8 ratio, were assessed. KoRV B positive koalas showed significantly increased up-regulation of IL17A and IL10 in three out of four sampling periods and IFNγ, IL6, IL4 and TNFα in two out of four. IL17A is an immune marker for chlamydial pathogenesis in the koala; increased expression of IL17A in KoRV B positive koalas, and concurrent immune dysregulation, may explain the differences in susceptibility to chlamydial infection and severity of disease seen between individuals and populations. There was also marked seasonal variation in up-regulation for most of the cytokines and the CD4:CD8 ratio. The up-regulation in both Th1 and Th2 cytokines mirrors changes associated with immune dysregulation in humans and felids as a result of retroviral infections. This is the first report of altered immune expression in koalas infected by an exogenous variant of KoRV and also the first report of

  17. CALHM1 Deletion in Mice Affects Glossopharyngeal Taste Responses, Food Intake, Body Weight, and Life Span.

    PubMed

    Hellekant, Göran; Schmolling, Jared; Marambaud, Philippe; Rose-Hellekant, Teresa A

    2015-07-01

    Stimulation of Type II taste receptor cells (TRCs) with T1R taste receptors causes sweet or umami taste, whereas T2Rs elicit bitter taste. Type II TRCs contain the calcium channel, calcium homeostasis modulator protein 1 (CALHM1), which releases adenosine triphosphate (ATP) transmitter to taste fibers. We have previously demonstrated with chorda tympani nerve recordings and two-bottle preference (TBP) tests that mice with genetically deleted Calhm1 (knockout [KO]) have severely impaired perception of sweet, bitter, and umami compounds, whereas their sour and salty tasting ability is unaltered. Here, we present data from KO mice of effects on glossopharyngeal (NG) nerve responses, TBP, food intake, body weight, and life span. KO mice have no NG response to sweet and a suppressed response to bitter compared with control (wild-type [WT]) mice. KO mice showed some NG response to umami, suggesting that umami taste involves both CALHM1- and non-CALHM1-modulated signals. NG responses to sour and salty were not significantly different between KO and WT mice. Behavioral data conformed in general with the NG data. Adult KO mice consumed less food, weighed significantly less, and lived almost a year longer than WT mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate that sweet taste majorly influences food intake, body weight, and life span.

  18. CALHM1 Deletion in Mice Affects Glossopharyngeal Taste Responses, Food Intake, Body Weight, and Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Schmolling, Jared; Marambaud, Philippe; Rose-Hellekant, Teresa A.

    2015-01-01

    Stimulation of Type II taste receptor cells (TRCs) with T1R taste receptors causes sweet or umami taste, whereas T2Rs elicit bitter taste. Type II TRCs contain the calcium channel, calcium homeostasis modulator protein 1 (CALHM1), which releases adenosine triphosphate (ATP) transmitter to taste fibers. We have previously demonstrated with chorda tympani nerve recordings and two-bottle preference (TBP) tests that mice with genetically deleted Calhm1 (knockout [KO]) have severely impaired perception of sweet, bitter, and umami compounds, whereas their sour and salty tasting ability is unaltered. Here, we present data from KO mice of effects on glossopharyngeal (NG) nerve responses, TBP, food intake, body weight, and life span. KO mice have no NG response to sweet and a suppressed response to bitter compared with control (wild-type [WT]) mice. KO mice showed some NG response to umami, suggesting that umami taste involves both CALHM1- and non-CALHM1-modulated signals. NG responses to sour and salty were not significantly different between KO and WT mice. Behavioral data conformed in general with the NG data. Adult KO mice consumed less food, weighed significantly less, and lived almost a year longer than WT mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate that sweet taste majorly influences food intake, body weight, and life span. PMID:25855639

  19. Osteopontin Deficiency Accelerates Spontaneous Colitis in Mice with Disrupted Gut Microbiota and Macrophage Phagocytic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Toyonaga, Takahiko; Nakase, Hiroshi; Ueno, Satoru; Matsuura, Minoru; Yoshino, Takuya; Honzawa, Yusuke; Itou, Ayako; Namba, Kazuyoshi; Minami, Naoki; Yamada, Satoshi; Koshikawa, Yorimitsu; Uede, Toshimitsu; Chiba, Tsutomu; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2015-01-01

    Background Osteopontin (OPN) is a multifunctional protein expressed in a variety of tissues and cells. Recent studies revealed increased OPN expression in the inflamed intestinal tissues of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The role of OPN in the pathophysiology of IBD, however, remains unclear. Aims To investigate the role of OPN in the development of intestinal inflammation using a murine model of IBD, interleukin-10 knock out (IL-10 KO) mice. Methods We compared the development of colitis between IL-10 KO and OPN/IL-10 double KO (DKO) mice. OPN expression in the colonic tissues of IL-10 KO mice was examined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. Enteric microbiota were compared between IL-10 KO and OPN/IL-10 DKO mice by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The effect of OPN on macrophage phagocytic function was evaluated by phagocytosis assay. Results OPN/IL-10 DKO mice had an accelerated onset of colitis compared to IL-10 KO mice. FISH analysis revealed enhanced OPN synthesis in the colonic epithelial cells of IL-10 KO mice. OPN/IL-10 DKO mice had a distinctly different enteric bacterial profile with a significantly lower abundance of Clostridium subcluster XIVa and a greater abundance of Clostridium cluster XVIII compared to IL-10 KO mice. Intracellular OPN deletion in macrophages impaired phagocytosis of fluorescence particle-conjugated Escherichia coli in vitro. Exogenous OPN enhanced phagocytosis by OPN-deleted macrophages when administered at doses of 1 to 100 ng/ml, but not 1000 ng/ml. Conclusions OPN deficiency accelerated the spontaneous development of colitis in mice with disrupted gut microbiota and macrophage phagocytic activity. PMID:26274807

  20. A Conditioned Aversion Study of Sucrose and SC45647 Taste in TRPM5 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Eddy, Meghan C.; Eschle, Benjamin K.; Peterson, Darlene; Lauras, Nathan; Margolskee, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Previously, published studies have reported mixed results regarding the role of the TRPM5 cation channel in signaling sweet taste by taste sensory cells. Some studies have reported a complete loss of sweet taste preference in TRPM5 knockout (KO) mice, whereas others have reported only a partial loss of sweet taste preference. This study reports the results of conditioned aversion studies designed to motivate wild-type (WT) and KO mice to respond to sweet substances. In conditioned taste aversion experiments, WT mice showed nearly complete LiCl-induced response suppression to sucrose and SC45647. In contrast, TRPM5 KO mice showed a much smaller conditioned aversion to either sweet substance, suggesting a compromised, but not absent, ability to detect sweet taste. A subsequent conditioned flavor aversion experiment was conducted to determine if TRPM5 KO mice were impaired in their ability to learn a conditioned aversion. In this experiment, KO and WT mice were conditioned to a mixture of SC45647 and amyl acetate (an odor cue). Although WT mice avoided both components of the stimulus mixture, they avoided SC45647 more than the odor cue. The KO mice also avoided both stimuli, but they avoided the odor component more than SC45647, suggesting that while the KO mice are capable of learning an aversion, to them the odor cue was more salient than the taste cue. Collectively, these findings suggest the TRPM5 KO mice have some residual ability to detect SC45647 and sucrose, and, like bitter, there may be a TRPM5-independent transduction pathway for detecting these substances. PMID:21987728

  1. White to beige conversion in PDE3B KO adipose tissue through activation of AMPK signaling and mitochondrial function

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Youn Wook; Ahmad, Faiyaz; Tang, Yan; Hockman, Steven C.; Kee, Hyun Jung; Berger, Karin; Guirguis, Emilia; Choi, Young Hun; Schimel, Dan M.; Aponte, Angel M.; Park, Sunhee; Degerman, Eva; Manganiello, Vincent C.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding mechanisms by which a population of beige adipocytes is increased in white adipose tissue (WAT) reflects a potential strategy in the fight against obesity and diabetes. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is very important in the development of the beige phenotype and activation of its thermogenic program. To study effects of cyclic nucleotides on energy homeostatic mechanisms, mice were generated by targeted inactivation of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 3b (Pde3b) gene, which encodes PDE3B, an enzyme that catalyzes hydrolysis of cAMP and cGMP and is highly expressed in tissues that regulate energy homeostasis, including adipose tissue, liver, and pancreas. In epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) of PDE3B KO mice on a SvJ129 background, cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathways are activated, resulting in “browning” phenotype, with a smaller increases in body weight under high-fat diet, smaller fat deposits, increased β-oxidation of fatty acids (FAO) and oxygen consumption. Results reported here suggest that PDE3B and/or its downstream signaling partners might be important regulators of energy metabolism in adipose tissue, and potential therapeutic targets for treating obesity, diabetes and their associated metabolic disorders. PMID:28084425

  2. Lithological and petrographic features of tills in the Koźmin region and their value for stratigraphical interpretation of glacial Lake Koźmin deposits, Central Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czubla, Piotr; Forysiak, Jacek; Petera-Zganiacz, Joanna

    2010-12-01

    In the middle section, the Warta River valley runs through the Adamów graben. The graben was characterized by subsidence since the end of the Paleogene and favoured accumulation during the Neogene and the Quaternary. The Quaternary deposits consist of several till horizons separated mainly by a series of fluvioglacial sand and a thick series of glaciolacustrine sediments. The research was concentrated on three upper levels of tills and selected series of sand available in Koźmin and Koźmin-Północ "Adamów" opencast mines. The lithological, petrographical features and long-axis azimuth of pebbles were analyzed. The results showed that the lower till could be dated to the Elsterian, middle till to the Wartanian, and the upper till is probably also Wartanian. Glaciolacustrine deposits which filled the erosional form and appeared in the middle till correlate with the end of the Wartanian.

  3. Lower urogenital tract anatomical and functional phenotype in lysyl oxidase like-1 knockout mice resembles female pelvic floor dysfunction in humans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Una J; Gustilo-Ashby, A Marcus; Daneshgari, Firouz; Kuang, Mei; Vurbic, Drina; Lin, Dan Li; Flask, Chris A; Li, Tiansen; Damaser, Margot S

    2008-08-01

    Female pelvic floor dysfunction (FPFD) is a complex group of conditions that include urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse (POP). In humans, elastin homeostasis has been implicated in the pathophysiology of FPFD. Lysyl oxidase-like 1 knockout (LOXL1-KO) mice demonstrate abnormal elastic fiber homeostasis and develop FPFD after parturition. We compared the lower urogenital tract (LUT) anatomy and function in LOXL1-KO mice with and without POP. LUT anatomy was assessed in LOXL1-KO mice over 28 wk. Pelvic visceral anatomy in LOXL1-KO was evaluated with a 7-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. LUT function was assessed using conscious cystometry and leak point pressure (LPP) testing. Quantitative histological analysis of elastic fibers was performed on external urethral sphincter (EUS) cross sections. By 25 wk of age, 50% of parous LOXL1-KO mice developed POP. LOXL1-KO mice with POP had greater variability in the size and location of the bladder on MRI compared with mice without POP. Parity and POP were associated with lower LPP. Elastin clusters were significantly increased in the EUS of LOXL1-KO mice with POP. Because parity triggers POP in LOXL1-KO mice, LOXL1-KO mice with POP have variable internal pelvic anatomy, and both parity and POP are associated with a decrease in LPP, we conclude that LOXL1 LUT anatomical and functional phenotype resembles FPFD in humans. The increase in elastin clusters in the urethra of LOXL1-KO mice with POP suggests that elastin disorganization may lead to functional abnormalities. We conclude that LOXL1 warrants further investigation in the pathphysiology of FPFD.

  4. Effects of gender on locomotor sensitivity to amphetamine, body weight, and fat mass in regulator of G protein signaling 9 (RGS9) knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Walker, Paul D; Jarosz, Patricia A; Bouhamdan, Mohamad; MacKenzie, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    Regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) protein 9-2 is enriched in the striatum where it modulates dopamine and opioid receptor-mediated signaling. RGS9 knockout (KO) mice show increased psychostimulant-induced behavioral sensitization, as well as exhibit higher body weights and greater fat accumulation compared to wild-type (WT) littermates. In the present study, we found gender influences on each of these phenotypic characteristics. Female RGS9 KO mice exhibited greater locomotor sensitization to amphetamine (1.0mg/kg) treatment as compared to male RGS9 KO mice. Male RGS9 KO mice showed increased body weights as compared to male WT littermates, while no such differences were detected in female mice. Quantitative magnetic resonance showed that male RGS9 KO mice accumulated greater fat mass vs. WT littermates at 5months of age. Such observations could not be explained by increased caloric consumption since male and female RGS9 KO mice demonstrated equivalent daily food intake as compared to their respective WT littermates. Although indirect calorimetry methods found decreased oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production during the 12-hour dark phase in male RGS9 KO vs. WT mice which are indicative of less energy expenditure, male RGS9 KO mice exhibited lower levels of locomotor activity during this period. Genotype had no effect on metabolic activities when KO and WT groups were compared under fasting vs. feeding treatments. In summary, these results highlight the importance of factoring gender into the experimental design since many studies conducted in RGS9 KO mice utilize locomotor activity as a measured outcome. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Obese carboxypeptidase E knockout mice exhibit multiple defects in peptide hormone processing contributing to low bone mineral density

    PubMed Central

    Cawley, Niamh X.; Yanik, Tulin; Woronowicz, Alicja; Chang, Weizhong; Marini, Joan C.

    2010-01-01

    Carboxypeptidase E (CPE) is a prohormone/proneuropeptide processing enzyme, and mice bearing CPE mutations exhibit an obese and diabetic phenotype. Studies on CPE knockout (KO) mice revealed poor prohormone processing, resulting in deficiencies in peptide hormones/neuropeptides such as insulin, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART). Here, we show that CPE KO mice, an obese animal model, have low bone mineral density (BMD) accompanied by elevated plasma CTX-1 (carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks), and osteocalcin, indicators of increased bone turnover. Receptor activator for NF-κB ligand (RANKL) expression was elevated ∼2-fold relative to osteoprotegerin in the femur of KO animals, suggesting increased osteoclastic activity in the KO mice. In the hypothalamus, mature CART, a peptide involved in eating behavior and implicated in bone metabolism, was undetectable. The melanocortin and neuropeptide Y (NPY) systems in the hypothalamus have also been implicated in bone remodeling, since MC4R KO and NPY KO mice have increased BMD. However, reduction of α-MSH, the primary ligand of MC4R by up to 94% and the lack of detectable NPY in the hypothalamus of CPE KO do not recapitulate the single-gene KO phenotypes. This study highlights the complex physiological interplay between peptides involved in energy metabolism and bone formation and furthermore suggests the possibility that patients, bearing CPE and CART mutations leading to inactive forms of these molecules, may be at a higher risk of developing osteoporosis. PMID:20460579

  6. Increased anxiety-related behaviour in Hint1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Varadarajulu, Jeeva; Lebar, Maria; Krishnamoorthy, Gurumoorthy; Habelt, Sonja; Lu, Jia; Bernard Weinstein, I; Li, Haiyang; Holsboer, Florian; Turck, Christoph W; Touma, Chadi

    2011-07-07

    Several reports have implicated a role for the histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein-1 (Hint1) in psychiatric disorders. We have studied the emotional behaviour of male Hint1 knockout (Hint1 KO) mice in a battery of tests and performed biochemical analyses on brain tissue. The behavioural analysis revealed that Hint1 KO mice exhibit an increased emotionality phenotype compared to wildtype (WT) mice, while no significant differences in locomotion or general exploratory activity were noted. In the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test, the Hint1 KO animals entered the open arms of the apparatus less often than WT littermates. Similarly, in the dark-light box test, Hint1 KO mice spent less time in the lit compartment and the number of entries were reduced, which further confirmed an increased anxiety-related behaviour. Moreover, the Hint1 KO animals showed significantly more struggling and less floating behaviour in the forced swim test (FST), indicating an increased emotional arousal in aversive situations. Hint1 is known as a protein kinase C (PKC) interacting protein. Western blot analysis showed that PKCγ expression was elevated in Hint1 KO compared to WT mice. Interestingly, PKCγ mRNA levels of the two groups did not show a significant difference, implying a post-transcriptional PKCγ regulation. In addition, PKC enzymatic activity was increased in Hint1 KO compared to WT mice. In summary, our results indicate a role for Hint1 and PKCγ in modulating anxiety-related and stress-coping behaviour in mice.

  7. Distinct motor impairments of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor knockout mice revealed by three types of motor behavior.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Toru; Sato, Asako; Kitsukawa, Takashi; Momiyama, Toshihiko; Yamamori, Tetsuo; Sasaoka, Toshikuni

    2014-01-01

    Both D1R and D2R knock out (KO) mice of the major dopamine receptors show significant motor impairments. However, there are some discrepant reports, which may be due to the differences in genetic background and experimental procedures. In addition, only few studies directly compared the motor performance of D1R and D2R KO mice. In this paper, we examined the behavioral difference among N10 congenic D1R and D2R KO, and wild type (WT) mice. First, we examined spontaneous motor activity in the home cage environment for consecutive 5 days. Second, we examined motor performance using the rota-rod task, a standard motor task in rodents. Third, we examined motor ability with the Step-Wheel task in which mice were trained to run in a motor-driven turning wheel adjusting their steps on foothold pegs to drink water. The results showed clear differences among the mice of three genotypes in three different types of behavior. In monitoring spontaneous motor activities, D1R and D2R KO mice showed higher and lower 24 h activities, respectively, than WT mice. In the rota-rod tasks, at a low speed, D1R KO mice showed poor performance but later improved, whereas D2R KO mice showed a good performance at early days without further improvement. When first subjected to a high speed task, the D2R KO mice showed poorer rota-rod performance at a low speed than the D1R KO mice. In the Step-Wheel task, across daily sessions, D2R KO mice increased the duration that mice run sufficiently close to the spout to drink water, and decreased time to touch the floor due to missing the peg steps and number of times the wheel was stopped, which performance was much better than that of D1R KO mice. These incongruent results between the two tasks for D1R and D2R KO mice may be due to the differences in the motivation for the rota-rod and Step-Wheel tasks, aversion- and reward-driven, respectively. The Step-Wheel system may become a useful tool for assessing the motor ability of WT and mutant mice.

  8. The skeletal structure of insulin-like growth factor I-deficient mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bikle, D.; Majumdar, S.; Laib, A.; Powell-Braxton, L.; Rosen, C.; Beamer, W.; Nauman, E.; Leary, C.; Halloran, B.

    2001-01-01

    The importance of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) for growth is well established. However, the lack of IGF-I on the skeleton has not been examined thoroughly. Therefore, we analyzed the structural properties of bone from mice rendered IGF-I deficient by homologous recombination (knockout [k/o]) using histomorphometry, peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (pQCT), and microcomputerized tomography (muCT). The k/o mice were 24% the size of their wild-type littermates at the time of study (4 months). The k/o tibias were 28% and L1 vertebrae were 26% the size of wild-type bones. Bone formation rates (BFR) of k/o tibias were 27% that of the wild-type littermates. The k/o bones responded normally to growth hormone (GH; 1.7-fold increase) and supranormally to IGF-I (5.2-fold increase) with respect to BFR. Cortical thickness of the proximal tibia was reduced 17% in the k/o mouse. However, trabecular bone volume (bone volume/total volume [BV/TV]) was increased 23% (male mice) and 88% (female mice) in the k/o mice compared with wild-type controls as a result of increased connectivity, increased number, and decreased spacing of the trabeculae. These changes were either less or not found in L1. Thus, lack of IGF-I leads to the development of a bone structure, which, although smaller, appears more compact.

  9. The skeletal structure of insulin-like growth factor I-deficient mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bikle, D.; Majumdar, S.; Laib, A.; Powell-Braxton, L.; Rosen, C.; Beamer, W.; Nauman, E.; Leary, C.; Halloran, B.

    2001-01-01

    The importance of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) for growth is well established. However, the lack of IGF-I on the skeleton has not been examined thoroughly. Therefore, we analyzed the structural properties of bone from mice rendered IGF-I deficient by homologous recombination (knockout [k/o]) using histomorphometry, peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (pQCT), and microcomputerized tomography (muCT). The k/o mice were 24% the size of their wild-type littermates at the time of study (4 months). The k/o tibias were 28% and L1 vertebrae were 26% the size of wild-type bones. Bone formation rates (BFR) of k/o tibias were 27% that of the wild-type littermates. The k/o bones responded normally to growth hormone (GH; 1.7-fold increase) and supranormally to IGF-I (5.2-fold increase) with respect to BFR. Cortical thickness of the proximal tibia was reduced 17% in the k/o mouse. However, trabecular bone volume (bone volume/total volume [BV/TV]) was increased 23% (male mice) and 88% (female mice) in the k/o mice compared with wild-type controls as a result of increased connectivity, increased number, and decreased spacing of the trabeculae. These changes were either less or not found in L1. Thus, lack of IGF-I leads to the development of a bone structure, which, although smaller, appears more compact.

  10. Effects of cinnarizine, a calcium antagonist that produces human parkinsonism, in parkin knock out mice.

    PubMed

    Serrano, A; Menéndez, J; Casarejos, M J; Solano, R M; Gallego, E; Sánchez, M; Mena, M A; García de Yebenes, J

    2005-08-01

    Cinnarizine, a calcium antagonist that produces parkinsonism in humans, induces behavioural changes such as alopecia, buco-lingual dyskinesia and reduction of motor activity in female parkin knock out (PK-KO) mice but not in wild-type (WT) controls. PK-KO mice have high striatal dopamine levels and increased dopamine metabolism in spite of low reduced tyrosine hydroxylase protein. Cinnarizine, which blocks dopamine receptors and increases dopamine release, further increased dopamine metabolism. PK-KO mice increased GSH levels as a compensatory mechanism against enhanced free radical production related to acceleration of dopamine turnover. Neuronal markers, such as beta-tubulin slightly increased in PK-KO and furthermore with cinnarizine. Astroglial markers were decreased in PK-KO mice, and this effect was potentiated by cinnarizine, suggesting abnormal glia in these animals. Microglia was hyperactivated in PK-KO midbrain, suggesting inflammation in these animals. Proapoptotic proteins were increased by cinnarizine and, to a lesser extent, in PK-KO mice. Our data indicate that mutation of parkin is a risk factor for drug-induced parkinsonism.

  11. Motivational effects of ethanol in DARPP-32 knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Risinger, F O; Freeman, P A; Greengard, P; Fienberg, A A

    2001-01-01

    DARPP-32 (dopamine and adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate-regulated phosphoprotein, 32 kDa) is an important component of dopaminergic function in brain areas thought to be important for drug and alcohol addiction. The present experiments characterized the acquisition of ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion, ethanol-induced conditioned place preference, and ethanol self-administration in DARPP-32 knock-out (KO) mice compared to wild-type (WT) controls. For taste conditioning, KO and WT mice received access to 0.2 m NaCl solution followed immediately by intraperitoneal injection of 0-4 gm/kg ethanol. Ethanol produced dose-dependent conditioned taste aversion that was the same in both genotypes. For place conditioning, KO and WT mice received eight pairings of a tactile stimulus with ethanol (2 gm/kg, i.p.), and a different stimulus with saline. Ethanol produced increases in locomotor activity during conditioning, with KO mice showing higher activity levels after ethanol compared to WT mice. WT mice, but not KO mice, acquired conditioned preference for the ethanol-paired stimulus. In the self-administration procedure, KO and WT mice were trained to lever press for access to 10% v/v ethanol. Subsequently, the mice had 23 hr/d access to food, ethanol, and water. Response patterns were determined using 0-30% v/v ethanol concentrations. WT mice displayed concentration-dependent responding for ethanol. Responding on the ethanol lever by KO mice did not change as a function of ethanol concentration. Saccharin (0.2% w/v) was subsequently added to the ethanol mixture, and responding was examined at 0, 5, 10, and 20% ethanol concentrations. Ethanol responding increased in both genotypes, although WT mice showed higher rates at all concentrations.

  12. Fluoxetine Protection in Decompression Sickness in Mice is Enhanced by Blocking TREK-1 Potassium Channel with the “spadin” Antidepressant

    PubMed Central

    Vallée, Nicolas; Lambrechts, Kate; De Maistre, Sébastien; Royal, Perrine; Mazella, Jean; Borsotto, Marc; Heurteaux, Catherine; Abraini, Jacques; Risso, Jean-Jacques; Blatteau, Jean-Eric

    2016-01-01

    In mice, disseminated coagulation, inflammation, and ischemia induce neurological damage that can lead to death. These symptoms result from circulating bubbles generated by a pathogenic decompression. Acute fluoxetine treatment or the presence of the TREK-1 potassium channel increases the survival rate when mice are subjected to an experimental dive/decompression protocol. This is a paradox because fluoxetine is a blocker of TREK-1 channels. First, we studied the effects of an acute dose of fluoxetine (50 mg/kg) in wild-type (WT) and TREK-1 deficient mice (knockout homozygous KO and heterozygous HET). Then, we combined the same fluoxetine treatment with a 5-day treatment protocol with spadin, in order to specifically block TREK-1 activity (KO-like mice). KO and KO-like mice were regarded as antidepressed models. In total, 167 mice (45 WTcont 46 WTflux 30 HETflux and 46 KOflux) constituting the flux-pool and 113 supplementary mice (27 KO-like 24 WTflux2 24 KO-likeflux 21 WTcont2 17 WTno dive) constituting the spad-pool were included in this study. Only 7% of KO-TREK-1 treated with fluoxetine (KOflux) and 4% of mice treated with both spadin and fluoxetine (KO-likeflux) died from decompression sickness (DCS) symptoms. These values are much lower than those of WT control (62%) or KO-like mice (41%). After the decompression protocol, mice showed significant consumption of their circulating platelets and leukocytes. Spadin antidepressed mice were more likely to exhibit DCS. Nevertheless, mice which had both blocked TREK-1 channels and fluoxetine treatment were better protected against DCS. We conclude that the protective effect of such an acute dose of fluoxetine is enhanced when TREK-1 is inhibited. We confirmed that antidepressed models may have worse DCS outcomes, but concomitant fluoxetine treatment not only decreased DCS severity but increased the survival rate. PMID:26909044

  13. Nrf2 deficiency impairs fracture healing in mice.

    PubMed

    Lippross, Sebastian; Beckmann, Rainer; Streubesand, Nadine; Ayub, Ferda; Tohidnezhad, Mersedeh; Campbell, Graeme; Kan, Yuet Wai; Horst, Fischer; Sönmez, Tolga Taha; Varoga, Deike; Lichte, Philipp; Jahr, Holger; Pufe, Thomas; Wruck, Christoph Jan

    2014-10-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in wound healing but data relating oxidative stress to fracture healing are scarce. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is the major transcription factor that controls the cellular defence essential to combat oxidative stress by regulating the expression of antioxidative enzymes. This study examined the impact of Nrf2 on fracture healing using a standard closed femoral shaft fracture model in wild-type (WT) and Nrf2-knockout (Nrf2-KO)-mice. Healing was evaluated by histology, real-time RT-PCR, µCT and biomechanical measurements. We showed that Nrf2 expression is activated during fracture healing. Bone healing and remodelling were retarded in the Nrf2-KO compared to the WT-mice. Nrf2-KO-mice developed significantly less callus tissue compared to WT-mice. In addition, biomechanical testing demonstrated lower strength against shear stress in the Nrf2-KO-group compared to WT. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and osteocalcin is reduced during fracture healing in Nrf2-KO-mice. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Nrf2 deficiency in mice results in impaired fracture healing suggesting that Nrf2 plays an essential role in bone regeneration. Pharmacological activation of Nrf2 may have therapeutic potential for the enhancement of fracture healing.

  14. Maladaptive defensive behaviours in monoamine oxidase A-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Godar, Sean C.; Bortolato, Marco; Frau, Roberto; Dousti, Mona; Chen, Kevin; Shih, Jean C.

    2012-01-01

    Rich evidence indicates that monoamine oxidase (MAO) A, the major enzyme catalysing the degradation of monoamine neurotransmitters, plays a key role in emotional regulation. Although MAOA deficiency is associated with reactive aggression in humans and mice, the involvement of this enzyme in defensive behaviour remains controversial and poorly understood. To address this issue, we tested MAOA knockout (KO) mice in a spectrum of paradigms and settings associated with variable degrees of threat. The presentation of novel inanimate objects induced a significant reduction in exploratory approaches and increase in defensive behaviours, such as tail-rattling, biting and digging. These neophobic responses were context-dependent and particularly marked in the home cage. In the elevated plus- and T-mazes, MAOA KO mice and wild-type (WT) littermates displayed equivalent locomotor activity and time in closed and open arms; however, MAOA KO mice featured significant reductions in risk assessment, as well as unconditioned avoidance and escape. No differences between genotypes were observed in the defensive withdrawal and emergence test. Conversely, MAOA KO mice exhibited a dramatic reduction of defensive and fear-related behaviours in the presence of predator-related cues, such as predator urine or an anaesthetized rat, in comparison with those observed in their WT littermates. The behavioural abnormalities in MAOA KO mice were not paralleled by overt alterations in sensory and microvibrissal functions. Collectively, these results suggest that MAOA deficiency leads to a general inability to appropriately assess contextual risk and attune defensive and emotional responses to environmental cues. PMID:21156093

  15. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Satoko; Takao, Keizo; Tanda, Koichi; Toyama, Keiko; Shintani, Norihito; Baba, Akemichi; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide acting as a neurotransmitter, neuromodulator, or neurotrophic factor. PACAP is widely expressed throughout the brain and exerts its functions through the PACAP-specific receptor (PAC(1)). Recent studies reveal that genetic variants of the PACAP and PAC(1) genes are associated with mental disorders, and several behavioral abnormalities of PACAP knockout (KO) mice are reported. However, an insufficient number of backcrosses was made using PACAP KO mice on the C57BL/6J background due to their postnatal mortality. To elucidate the effects of PACAP on neuropsychiatric function, the PACAP gene was knocked out in F1 hybrid mice (C57BL/6J × 129SvEv) for appropriate control of the genetic background. The PACAP KO mice were then subjected to a behavioral test battery. PACAP deficiency had no significant effects on neurological screen. As shown previously, the mice exhibited significantly increased locomotor activity in a novel environment and abnormal anxiety-like behavior, while no obvious differences between genotypes were shown in home cage (HC) activity. In contrast to previous reports, the PACAP KO mice showed normal prepulse inhibition (PPI) and slightly decreased depression-like behavior. Previous study demonstrates that the social interaction (SI) in a resident-intruder test was decreased in PACAP KO mice. On the other hand, we showed that PACAP KO mice exhibited increased SI in Crawley's three-chamber social approach test, although PACAP KO had no significant impact on SI in a HC. PACAP KO mice also exhibited mild performance deficit in working memory in an eight-arm radial maze (RM) and the T-maze (TM), while they did not show any significant abnormalities in the left-right discrimination task in the TM. These results suggest that PACAP has an important role in the regulation of locomotor activity, social behavior, anxiety-like behavior and, potentially, working memory.

  16. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Satoko; Takao, Keizo; Tanda, Koichi; Toyama, Keiko; Shintani, Norihito; Baba, Akemichi; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide acting as a neurotransmitter, neuromodulator, or neurotrophic factor. PACAP is widely expressed throughout the brain and exerts its functions through the PACAP-specific receptor (PAC1). Recent studies reveal that genetic variants of the PACAP and PAC1 genes are associated with mental disorders, and several behavioral abnormalities of PACAP knockout (KO) mice are reported. However, an insufficient number of backcrosses was made using PACAP KO mice on the C57BL/6J background due to their postnatal mortality. To elucidate the effects of PACAP on neuropsychiatric function, the PACAP gene was knocked out in F1 hybrid mice (C57BL/6J × 129SvEv) for appropriate control of the genetic background. The PACAP KO mice were then subjected to a behavioral test battery. PACAP deficiency had no significant effects on neurological screen. As shown previously, the mice exhibited significantly increased locomotor activity in a novel environment and abnormal anxiety-like behavior, while no obvious differences between genotypes were shown in home cage (HC) activity. In contrast to previous reports, the PACAP KO mice showed normal prepulse inhibition (PPI) and slightly decreased depression-like behavior. Previous study demonstrates that the social interaction (SI) in a resident-intruder test was decreased in PACAP KO mice. On the other hand, we showed that PACAP KO mice exhibited increased SI in Crawley's three-chamber social approach test, although PACAP KO had no significant impact on SI in a HC. PACAP KO mice also exhibited mild performance deficit in working memory in an eight-arm radial maze (RM) and the T-maze (TM), while they did not show any significant abnormalities in the left-right discrimination task in the TM. These results suggest that PACAP has an important role in the regulation of locomotor activity, social behavior, anxiety-like behavior and, potentially, working memory. PMID:23060763

  17. Functional identification of a rice ent-kaurene oxidase, OsKO2, using the Pichia pastoris expression system.

    PubMed

    Ko, Kwang-Wook; Lin, Fengqiu; Katsumata, Takumi; Sugai, Yoshinori; Miyazaki, Sho; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Okada, Kazunori; Nojiri, Hideaki; Yamane, Hisakazu

    2008-12-01

    Rice ent-kaurene oxidase 2 (OsKO2) perhaps functions in the early steps of gibberellin biosynthesis. We found that microsomes from the methylotropic yeast Pichia pastoris expressing both OsKO2 and a fungal cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) reductase converted ent-kaurene to ent-kaurenoic acid. This is direct evidence that OsKO2 is involved in the sequential oxidation of ent-kaurene to ent-kaurenoic acid in gibberellin biosynthesis in rice.

  18. The effects of fish oil consumption on cardiovascular remodeling in ApoE deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Cleverley, Kelby; Du, Xiaozhou; Premecz, Sheena; Le, Khuong; Zeglinski, Matthew; Nicholson, Tiffany; Goh, Chun Y; Lu, Yan; Anderson, Hope D; Moghadasian, Mohammed H; Jassal, Davinder S

    2013-11-01

    Owing to their spontaneous development of atherosclerosis, apolipoprotein E knockout mice (ApoE(KO)) are one of the best studied animal models for this disease. Little is known about the utility of various omega-3 fatty acid regimens, in particular fish oils, in preventing cardiac disease in ApoE(KO) mice. The purpose of this study was to determine the cardiovascular effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation with either safflower oil (control), fish oil, flaxseed oil, or designed oil in ApoE(KO) mice fed a high-fat diet for a total of 16 weeks. In-vivo cardiac function was assessed weekly using murine echocardiography. Blood pressure, plasma lipid levels, and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were serially measured. The results show that ApoE(KO) mice fed fish oil demonstrated an increase in left ventricular wall thickness as a result of increased afterload. Despite chronic treatment with fish oil over 16 weeks, blood pressure increased in ApoE(KO) mice by 20% compared with the baseline. Both echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy and biochemical increase in BNP levels confirmed diastolic dysfunction in ApoE(KO) mice fed fish oil. This suggests that high-fat diet supplemented with fish oil may lead to adverse cardiovascular effects in ApoE deficient mice.

  19. Brain GLUT4 Knockout Mice Have Impaired Glucose Tolerance, Decreased Insulin Sensitivity, and Impaired Hypoglycemic Counterregulation.

    PubMed

    Reno, Candace M; Puente, Erwin C; Sheng, Zhenyu; Daphna-Iken, Dorit; Bree, Adam J; Routh, Vanessa H; Kahn, Barbara B; Fisher, Simon J

    2017-03-01

    GLUT4 in muscle and adipose tissue is important in maintaining glucose homeostasis. However, the role of insulin-responsive GLUT4 in the central nervous system has not been well characterized. To assess its importance, a selective knockout of brain GLUT4 (BG4KO) was generated by crossing Nestin-Cre mice with GLUT4-floxed mice. BG4KO mice had a 99% reduction in GLUT4 protein expression throughout the brain. Despite normal feeding and fasting glycemia, BG4KO mice were glucose intolerant, demonstrated hepatic insulin resistance, and had reduced glucose uptake in the brain. In response to hypoglycemia, BG4KO mice had impaired glucose sensing, noted by impaired epinephrine and glucagon responses and impaired c-fos activation in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Moreover, in vitro glucose sensing of glucose-inhibitory neurons from the ventromedial hypothalamus was impaired in BG4KO mice. In summary, BG4KO mice are glucose intolerant, insulin resistant, and have impaired glucose sensing, indicating a critical role for brain GLUT4 in sensing and responding to changes in blood glucose.

  20. β-catenin links hepatic metabolic zonation with lipid metabolism and diet-induced obesity in mice.

    PubMed

    Behari, Jaideep; Li, Huanan; Liu, Shiguang; Stefanovic-Racic, Maja; Alonso, Laura; O'Donnell, Christopher P; Shiva, Sruti; Singamsetty, Srikanth; Watanabe, Yoshio; Singh, Vijay P; Liu, Qing

    2014-12-01

    β-catenin regulates the establishment of hepatic metabolic zonation. To elucidate the functional significance of liver metabolic zonation in the chronically overfed state in vivo, we fed a high-fat diet (HFD) to hepatocyte-specific β-catenin transgenic (TG) and knockout (KO) mice. Chow-fed TG and KO mice had normal liver histologic findings and body weight. However, HFD-fed TG mice developed prominent perivenous steatosis with periportal sparing. In contrast, HFD-fed KO mice had increased lobular inflammation and hepatocyte apoptosis. HFD-fed TG mice rapidly developed diet-induced obesity and systemic insulin resistance, but KO mice were resistant to diet-induced obesity. However, β-catenin did not directly affect hepatic insulin signaling, suggesting that the metabolic effects of β-catenin occurred via a parallel pathway. Hepatic expression of key glycolytic and lipogenic genes was higher in HFD-fed TG and lower in KO mice compared with wild-type mice. KO mice also exhibited defective hepatic fatty acid oxidation and fasting ketogenesis. Hepatic levels of hypoxia inducible factor-1α, an oxygen-sensitive transcriptional regulator of glycolysis and a known β-catenin binding partner, were higher in HFD-fed TG and lower in KO mice. KO mice had attenuated perivenous hypoxia, suggesting disruption of the normal sinusoidal oxygen gradient, a major determinant of liver carbohydrate and liver metabolism. Canonical Wnt signaling in hepatocytes is essential for the development of diet-induced fatty liver and obesity. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Caspr3-Deficient Mice Exhibit Low Motor Learning during the Early Phase of the Accelerated Rotarod Task

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Haruna; Takahashi, Aki; Shimoda, Yasushi; Koide, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Caspr3 (Contactin-associated protein-like 3, Cntnap3) is a neural cell adhesion molecule belonging to the Caspr family. We have recently shown that Caspr3 is expressed abundantly between the first and second postnatal weeks in the mouse basal ganglia, including the striatum, external segment of the globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, and substantia nigra. However, its physiological role remains largely unknown. In this study, we conducted a series of behavioral analyses on Capsr3-knockout (KO) mice and equivalent wild-type (WT) mice to investigate the role of Caspr3 in brain function. No significant differences were observed in most behavioral traits between Caspr3-KO and WT mice, but we found that Caspr3-KO mice performed poorly during the early phase of the accelerated rotarod task in which latency to falling off a rod rotating with increasing velocity was examined. In the late phase, the performance of the Caspr3-KO mice caught up to the level of WT mice, suggesting that the deletion of Caspr3 caused a delay in motor learning. We then examined changes in neural activity after training on the accelerated rotarod by conducting immunohistochemistry using antibody to c-Fos, an indirect marker for neuronal activity. Experience of the accelerated rotarod task caused increases in the number of c-Fos-positive cells in the dorsal striatum, cerebellum, and motor cortex in both Caspr3-KO and WT mice, but the number of c-Fos-positive cells was significantly lower in the dorsal striatum of Caspr3-KO mice than in that of WT mice. The expression of c-Fos in the ventral striatum of Caspr3-KO and WT mice was not altered by the training. Our findings suggest that reduced activation of neural cells in the dorsal striatum in Caspr3-KO mice leads to a decline in motor learning in the accelerated rotarod task. PMID:26807827

  2. Generation and Characterization of Mice Carrying a Conditional Allele of the Wwox Tumor Suppressor Gene

    PubMed Central

    Ludes-Meyers, John H.; Kil, Hyunsuk; Parker-Thornburg, Jan; Kusewitt, Donna F.; Bedford, Mark T.; Aldaz, C. Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    WWOX, the gene that spans the second most common human chromosomal fragile site, FRA16D, is inactivated in multiple human cancers and behaves as a suppressor of tumor growth. Since we are interested in understanding WWOX function in both normal and cancer tissues we generated mice harboring a conditional Wwox allele by flanking Exon 1 of the Wwox gene with LoxP sites. Wwox knockout (KO) mice were developed by breeding with transgenic mice carrying the Cre-recombinase gene under the control of the adenovirus EIIA promoter. We found that Wwox KO mice suffered from severe metabolic defect(s) resulting in growth retardation and all mice died by 3 wk of age. All Wwox KO mice displayed significant hypocapnia suggesting a state of metabolic acidosis. This finding and the known high expression of Wwox in kidney tubules suggest a role for Wwox in acid/base balance. Importantly, Wwox KO mice displayed histopathological and hematological signs of impaired hematopoeisis, leukopenia, and splenic atrophy. Impaired hematopoeisis can also be a contributing factor to metabolic acidosis and death. Hypoglycemia and hypocalcemia was also observed affecting the KO mice. In addition, bone metabolic defects were evident in Wwox KO mice. Bones were smaller and thinner having reduced bone volume as a consequence of a defect in mineralization. No evidence of spontaneous neoplasia was observed in Wwox KO mice. We have generated a new mouse model to inactivate the Wwox tumor suppressor gene conditionally. This will greatly facilitate the functional analysis of Wwox in adult mice and will allow investigating neoplastic transformation in specific target tissues. PMID:19936220

  3. Effect of peripheral administration of cholecystokinin on food intake in apolipoprotein AIV knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimichi, Go; Lo, Chunmin C.; Tamashiro, Kellie L. K.; Ma, Liyun; Lee, Dana M.; Begg, Denovan P.; Liu, Min; Sakai, Randall R.; Woods, Stephen C.; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu

    2012-01-01

    Apolipoprotein AIV (apo AIV) and cholecystokinin (CCK) are satiation factors secreted by the small intestine in response to lipid meals. Apo AIV and CCK-8 has an additive effect to suppress food intake relative to apo AIV or CCK-8 alone. In this study, we determined whether CCK-8 (1, 3, or 5 μg/kg ip) reduces food intake in fasted apo AIV knockout (KO) mice as effectively as in fasted wild-type (WT) mice. Food intake was monitored by the DietMax food system. Apo AIV KO mice had significantly reduced 30-min food intake following all doses of CCK-8, whereas WT mice had reduced food intake only at doses of 3 μg/kg and above. Post hoc analysis revealed that the reduction of 10-min and 30-min food intake elicited by each dose of CCK-8 was significantly larger in the apo AIV KO mice than in the WT mice. Peripheral CCK 1 receptor (CCK1R) gene expression (mRNA) in the duodenum and gallbladder of the fasted apo AIV KO mice was comparable to that in WT mice. In contrast, CCK1R mRNA in nodose ganglia of the apo AIV KO mice was upregulated relative to WT animals. Similarly, upregulated CCK1R gene expression was found in the brain stem of apo AIV KO mice by in situ hybridization. Although it is possible that the increased satiating potency of CCK in apo AIV KO mice is mediated by upregulation of CCK 1R in the nodose ganglia and nucleus tractus solitarius, additional experiments are required to confirm such a mechanism. PMID:22461023

  4. Effect of peripheral administration of cholecystokinin on food intake in apolipoprotein AIV knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshimichi, Go; Lo, Chunmin C; Tamashiro, Kellie L K; Ma, Liyun; Lee, Dana M; Begg, Denovan P; Liu, Min; Sakai, Randall R; Woods, Stephen C; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu; Tso, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Apolipoprotein AIV (apo AIV) and cholecystokinin (CCK) are satiation factors secreted by the small intestine in response to lipid meals. Apo AIV and CCK-8 has an additive effect to suppress food intake relative to apo AIV or CCK-8 alone. In this study, we determined whether CCK-8 (1, 3, or 5 μg/kg ip) reduces food intake in fasted apo AIV knockout (KO) mice as effectively as in fasted wild-type (WT) mice. Food intake was monitored by the DietMax food system. Apo AIV KO mice had significantly reduced 30-min food intake following all doses of CCK-8, whereas WT mice had reduced food intake only at doses of 3 μg/kg and above. Post hoc analysis revealed that the reduction of 10-min and 30-min food intake elicited by each dose of CCK-8 was significantly larger in the apo AIV KO mice than in the WT mice. Peripheral CCK 1 receptor (CCK1R) gene expression (mRNA) in the duodenum and gallbladder of the fasted apo AIV KO mice was comparable to that in WT mice. In contrast, CCK1R mRNA in nodose ganglia of the apo AIV KO mice was upregulated relative to WT animals. Similarly, upregulated CCK1R gene expression was found in the brain stem of apo AIV KO mice by in situ hybridization. Although it is possible that the increased satiating potency of CCK in apo AIV KO mice is mediated by upregulation of CCK 1R in the nodose ganglia and nucleus tractus solitarius, additional experiments are required to confirm such a mechanism.

  5. Dopamine D5 receptor modulates male and female sexual behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Kudwa, A E; Dominguez-Salazar, E; Cabrera, D M; Sibley, D R; Rissman, E F

    2005-07-01

    Dopamine exerts its actions through at least five receptor (DAR) isoforms. In female rats, D5 DAR may be involved in expression of sexual behavior. We used a D5 knockout (D5KO) mouse to assess the role of D5 DAR in mouse sexual behavior. Both sexes of D5KO mice are fertile and exhibit only minor disruptions in exploratory locomotion, startle, and prepulse inhibition responses. This study was conducted to characterize the sexual behavior of male and female D5KO mice relative to their WT littermates. Female WT and D5KO littermates were ovariectomized and given a series of sexual behavior tests after treatment with estradiol benzoate (EB) and progesterone (P). Once sexual performance was optimal the dopamine agonist, apomorphine (APO), was substituted for P. Male mice were observed in pair- and trio- sexual behavior tests. To assess whether the D5 DAR is involved in rewarding aspects of sexual behavior, WT and D5KO male mice were tested for conditioned place preference. Both WT and D5KO females can display receptivity after treatment with EB and P, but APO was only able to facilitate receptivity in EB-primed WT, not in D5KO, mice. Male D5KO mice display normal masculine sexual behavior in mating tests. In conditioned preference tests, WT males formed a conditioned preference for context associated with either intromissions alone or ejaculation as the unconditioned stimulus. In contrast, D5KO males only showed a place preference when ejaculation was paired with the context. In females, the D5 DAR is essential for the actions of dopamine on receptivity. In males, D5 DAR influences rewarding aspects of intromissions. Taken together, the work suggests that the D5 receptor mediates dopamine's action on sexual behavior in both sexes, perhaps via a reward pathway.

  6. Age dependent course of EAE in Aire-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Aharoni, Rina; Aricha, Revital; Eilam, Raya; From, Ido; Mizrahi, Keren; Arnon, Ruth; Souroujon, Miriam C; Fuchs, Sara

    2013-09-15

    This study explores the consequences of deficiency in the autoimmune regulator (Aire) on the susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Increased susceptibility to EAE was found in Aire knockout (KO) compared to wild type (WT) in 6month old mice. In contrast, 2month old Aire KO mice were less susceptible to EAE than WT mice, and this age-related resistance correlated with elevated proportions of T regulatory (Treg) cells in their spleen and brain. Combined with our previous findings in experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis, we suggest an age-related association between Aire and Treg cells in the susceptibility to autoimmunity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Macrophage peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ deficiency delays skin wound healing through impairing apoptotic cell clearance in mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, H; Shi, R; Luo, B; Yang, X; Qiu, L; Xiong, J; Jiang, M; Liu, Y; Zhang, Z; Wu, Y

    2015-01-01

    Skin wound macrophages are key regulators of skin repair and their dysfunction causes chronic, non-healing skin wounds. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) regulates pleiotropic functions of macrophages, but its contribution in skin wound healing is poorly defined. We observed that macrophage PPARγ expression was upregulated during skin wound healing. Furthermore, macrophage PPARγ deficiency (PPARγ-knock out (KO)) mice exhibited impaired skin wound healing with reduced collagen deposition, angiogenesis and granulation formation. The tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) expression in wounds of PPARγ-KO mice was significantly increased and local restoration of TNF-α reversed the healing deficit in PPARγ-KO mice. Wound macrophages produced higher levels of TNF-α in PPARγ-KO mice compared with control. In vitro, the higher production of TNF-α by PPARγ-KO macrophages was associated with impaired apoptotic cell clearance. Correspondingly, increased apoptotic cell accumulation was found in skin wound of PPARγ-KO mice. Mechanically, peritoneal and skin wound macrophages expressed lower levels of various phagocytosis-related molecules. In addition, PPARγ agonist accelerated wound healing and reduced local TNF-α expression and wound apoptotic cells accumulation in wild type but not PPARγ-KO mice. Therefore, PPARγ has a pivotal role in controlling wound macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells to ensure efficient skin wound healing, suggesting a potential new therapeutic target for skin wound healing. PMID:25590807

  8. Serotonergic involvement in the amelioration of behavioral abnormalities in dopamine transporter knockout mice by nicotine.

    PubMed

    Uchiumi, Osamu; Kasahara, Yoshiyuki; Fukui, Asami; Hall, F Scott; Uhl, George R; Sora, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine transporter knockout (DAT KO) mice exhibit elevated extracellular dopamine levels in brain regions that include the striatum and the nucleus accumbens, but not the prefrontal cortex. DAT KO mice model some aspects of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Smoking is more common in patients with schizophrenia, suggesting that nicotine might ameliorate aspects of the behavioral abnormalities and/or treatment side effects seen in these individuals. We report nicotine-induced normalization of effects on locomotion and prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (PPI) in DAT KO mice that require intact serotonin 5-HT1A systems. First, we observed that the marked hyperactivity displayed by DAT KO mice was reduced by administration of nicotine. This nicotine effect was blocked by pretreatment with the non-specific nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptor antagonist mecamylamine, or the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY100635. Secondly, we examined the effects of nicotine on PPI in DAT KO mice. Treatment with nicotine significantly ameliorated the PPI deficits observed in DAT KO mice. The ameliorating action of nicotine on PPI deficits in DAT KO mice was blocked by mecamylamine, the α₇ nACh receptor antagonist methyllycaconitine or WAY100635, while the α₄β₂ nACh receptor antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidinehydrobromide (DHβE) produced only a non-significant trend toward attenuation of nicotine effects. Finally, we observed that administration of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT also ameliorated the deficit in PPI observed in DAT KO mice. This amelioration was antagonized by pretreatment with WAY100635. These data support the idea that nicotine might ameliorate some of the cognitive dysfunctions found in schizophrenia in a 5-HT1A-dependent fashion. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'.

  9. Kv4.2 Knockout Mice Have Hippocampal-Dependent Learning and Memory Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lugo, Joaquin N.; Brewster, Amy L.; Spencer, Corinne M.; Anderson, Anne E.

    2012-01-01

    Kv4.2 channels contribute to the transient, outward K[superscript +] current (A-type current) in hippocampal dendrites, and modulation of this current substantially alters dendritic excitability. Using Kv4.2 knockout (KO) mice, we examined the role of Kv4.2 in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. We found that Kv4.2 KO mice showed a deficit…

  10. Disruption of BCAA metabolism in mice impairs exercise metabolism and endurance.

    PubMed

    She, Pengxiang; Zhou, Yingsheng; Zhang, Zhiyou; Griffin, Kathleen; Gowda, Kavitha; Lynch, Christopher J

    2010-04-01

    Exercise enhances branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolism, and BCAA supplementation influences exercise metabolism. However, it remains controversial whether BCAA supplementation improves exercise endurance, and unknown whether the exercise endurance effect of BCAA supplementation requires catabolism of these amino acids. Therefore, we examined exercise capacity and intermediary metabolism in skeletal muscle of knockout (KO) mice of mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase (BCATm), which catalyzes the first step of BCAA catabolism. We found that BCATm KO mice were exercise intolerant with markedly decreased endurance to exhaustion. Their plasma lactate and lactate-to-pyruvate ratio in skeletal muscle during exercise and lactate release from hindlimb perfused with high concentrations of insulin and glucose were significantly higher in KO than wild-type (WT) mice. Plasma and muscle ammonia concentrations were also markedly higher in KO than WT mice during a brief bout of exercise. BCATm KO mice exhibited 43-79% declines in the muscle concentration of alanine, glutamine, aspartate, and glutamate at rest and during exercise. In response to exercise, the increments in muscle malate and alpha-ketoglutarate were greater in KO than WT mice. While muscle ATP concentration tended to be lower, muscle IMP concentration was sevenfold higher in KO compared with WT mice after a brief bout of exercise, suggesting elevated ammonia in KO is derived from the purine nucleotide cycle. These data suggest that disruption of BCAA transamination causes impaired malate/aspartate shuttle, thereby resulting in decreased alanine and glutamine formation, as well as increases in lactate-to-pyruvate ratio and ammonia in skeletal muscle. Thus BCAA metabolism may regulate exercise capacity in mice.

  11. Kv4.2 Knockout Mice Have Hippocampal-Dependent Learning and Memory Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lugo, Joaquin N.; Brewster, Amy L.; Spencer, Corinne M.; Anderson, Anne E.

    2012-01-01

    Kv4.2 channels contribute to the transient, outward K[superscript +] current (A-type current) in hippocampal dendrites, and modulation of this current substantially alters dendritic excitability. Using Kv4.2 knockout (KO) mice, we examined the role of Kv4.2 in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. We found that Kv4.2 KO mice showed a deficit…

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of the Methanotrophic Gammaproteobacterium Methyloglobulus morosus DSM 22980 Strain KoM1

    PubMed Central

    Poehlein, Anja; Deutzmann, Jörg S.; Daniel, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the methanotrophic gammaproteobacterium Methyloglobulus morosus DSM 22980 strain KoM1, which is proposed to be the type species for the novel genus Methyloglobulus. The genome (4.143 Mb) consists of a single circular chromosome and harbors genes for 2-aminoethylphosphonate (ciliatine) biosynthesis. PMID:24356841

  13. A Note on Ko-Type O-Ending Syllables in Old Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unger, J. Marshall

    1975-01-01

    Further evidence is offered to support the argument that ko-type o-ending syllables may have been secondary in nature in Old Japanese. Pre-Old Japanese indicates the */uwa/ sequence was manifested as /uwe/ and /uwu/ endings of o-ending syllable verbs. (SCC)

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Lichen-Forming Fungus Cladonia metacorallifera Strain KoLRI002260.

    PubMed

    Park, Sook-Young; Choi, Jaeyoung; Lee, Gir-Won; Kim, Jung A; Oh, Soon-Ok; Jeong, Min-Hye; Yu, Nan-Hee; Kim, Soonok; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2014-02-13

    The lichen-forming fungus Cladonia metacorallifera strain KoLRI002260 is capable of producing a number of secondary metabolites, including usnic, didymic, and squamatic acids, which have antitumor, antioxidant, and antibiotic activities. The draft genome assembly has a size of 36,682,060 bp, with a G+C content of 44.91%, and consists of 30 scaffolds.

  15. Altered food consumption in mice lacking lysophosphatidic acid receptor-1.

    PubMed

    Dusaulcy, R; Daviaud, D; Pradère, J P; Grès, S; Valet, Ph; Saulnier-Blache, J S

    2009-12-01

    The release of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) by adipocytes has previously been proposed to play a role in obesity and associated pathologies such as insulin resistance and diabetes. In the present work, the sensitivity to diet-induced obesity was studied in mice lacking one of the LPA receptor subtype (LPA1R). Conversely to what was observed in wild type (WT) mice, LPA1R-KO-mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) showed no significant increase in body weight or fat mass when compared to low fat diet (LFD). In addition, in contrast to what was observed in WT mice, LPA1R-KO mice did not exhibit over-consumption of food associated with HFD. Surprisingly, when fed a LFD, LPA1R-KO mice exhibited significant higher plasma leptin concentration and higher level of adipocyte leptin mRNA than WT mice. In conclusion, LPA1R-KO mice were found to be resistant to diet-induced obesity consecutive to a resistance to fat-induced over-consumption of food that may result at least in part from alterations in leptin expression and production.

  16. Mice lacking the IFN-gamma receptor or fyn develop severe experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis characterized by different immune responses.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Atsuki; Yamaguchi, Tomoko; Ishida, Waka; Fukata, Kazuyo; Udaka, Keiko; Ueno, Hisayuki

    2005-06-01

    Endogenous interferon (IFN)-gamma negatively regulates experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU), a Th1-mediated disease. Although it is well known that IFN-gamma exerts its effects by binding to the IFN-gamma receptor (IFN-gammaR), the role that IFN-gammaR plays in the development of EAU has not been investigated. Fyn has been reported to inhibit Th2 differentiation. We aimed to investigate how endogenous IFN-gammaR and fyn, which influence Th1/Th2 differentiation, participate in the development of EAU. Sex-matched 6- to 10-week-old C57BL/6 wild-type (WT), IFN-gammaR knockout (GRKO) and fyn knockout (fyn KO) mice were compared. Mice were immunized subcutaneously with human interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein peptide 1-20 emulsified in Freund's complete adjuvant together with an intraperitoneal injection of Bordetella pertussis toxin. Three weeks later, mice were sacrificed, and their eyes and spleens were harvested for histopathologic analyses and examination of cellular immune responses, respectively. Cellular immune responses were evaluated by measuring the proliferative responses and cytokine production [interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-13, IFN-gamma and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha] of splenocytes. The incidence of EAU was 40.0% in WT mice, 59.3% in GRKO mice and 78.6% in fyn KO mice. The average EAU score was 0.294 in WT mice, 0.917 in GRKO mice and 1.063 in fyn KO mice. Upon EAU induction, significant infiltration of eosinophils into the eyes was observed in GRKO and fyn KO mice compared to WT mice. Splenocytes from GRKO mice proliferated against the antigen and a mitogen more vigorously than those from WT and fyn KO mice. Stimulation of splenocytes with the antigen induced a higher production of IL-4, IL-6, IL-13 and IFN-gamma in GRKO mice compared to WT and fyn KO mice. In contrast, IL-5 and TNF-alpha were most abundantly produced by splenocytes from fyn KO mice compared to WT and GRKO mice. The incidence and mean severity of EAU were

  17. Oxytocin hypersensitivity in pregnant P-LAP deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Masakazu; Naruse, Katsuhiko; Hattori, Akira; Tsujimoto, Masafumi; Ishiura, Shoichi; Numaguchi, Yasushi; Murohara, Toyoaki; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Mizutani, Shigehiko

    2009-05-08

    Oxytocin (OT) is the strongest uterotonic substance and has been used widely to induce labor. The physiological importance of OT in modulating the initiation and progression of labor remains unclear. In this study, we showed the roles of OT with onset of labor and also the arginine vasopressin (AVP) effect on urine volume in vivo using both wild type (WT) and placental leucine aminopeptidase (P-LAP)-deficient (KO) mice. OT (1, 2, 2.5 U/day) or recombinant P-LAP (0.01 U/day) was continuously infused from gestation day 15.5 in WT and P-LAP KO mice. Duration until onset of labor was observed. Before and after administration of AVP (1 U/day) in WT and P-LAP KO mice, urine volume was measured. A significant shortening of pregnancy term was observed in P-LAP KO mice. Continuous infusion of OT (1 U/day) revealed that P-LAP KO mice resulted in premature delivery (OT hypersensitivity). We could observe a significant decrease of urine volume in P-LAP KO mice by administration of AVP. Administration of recombinant P-LAP in WT mice resulted in the delay of the onset of labor about 1.5 days compared with control mice. Our present study shows that the regulation of the onset of labor mainly depends on OT and its degradation by P-LAP and also the possible role of P-LAP in the regulation of urine output. P-LAP might be involved in the increased OT sensitivity just prior to onset of labor and also in the onset of labor by degradation of OT.

  18. RhoA mediates defective stem cell function and heterotopic ossification in dystrophic muscle of mice.

    PubMed

    Mu, Xiaodong; Usas, Arvydas; Tang, Ying; Lu, Aiping; Wang, Bing; Weiss, Kurt; Huard, Johnny

    2013-09-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) and fatty infiltration (FI) often occur in diseased skeletal muscle and have been previously described in various animal models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD); however, the pathological mechanisms remain largely unknown. Dystrophin-deficient mdx mice and dystrophin/utrophin double-knockout (dKO) mice are mouse models of DMD; however, mdx mice display a strong muscle regeneration capacity, while dKO mice exhibit a much more severe phenotype, which is similar to patients with DMD. Our results revealed that more extensive HO, but not FI, occurred in the skeletal muscle of dKO mice versus mdx mice, and RhoA activation specifically occurred at the sites of HO. Moreover, the gene expression of RhoA, BMPs, and several inflammatory factors were significantly up-regulated in muscle stem cells isolated from dKO mice; while inactivation of RhoA in the cells with RhoA/ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 led to reduced osteogenic potential and improved myogenic potential. Finally, inactivation of RhoA signaling in the dKO mice with Y-27632 improved muscle regeneration and reduced the expression of BMPs, inflammation, HO, and intramyocellular lipid accumulation in both skeletal and cardiac muscle. Our results revealed that RhoA represents a major molecular switch in the regulation of HO and muscle regeneration in dystrophic skeletal muscle of mice.

  19. NQO1-Knockout Mice Are Highly Sensitive to Clostridium Difficile Toxin A-Induced Enteritis.

    PubMed

    Nam, Seung Taek; Hwang, Jung Hwan; Kim, Dae Hong; Lu, Li Fang; Hong, Ji; Zhang, Peng; Yoon, I Na; Hwang, Jae Sam; Chung, Hyo Kyun; Shong, Minho; Lee, Chul-Ho; Kim, Ho

    2016-08-28

    Clostridium difficile toxin A causes acute gut inflammation in animals and humans. It is known to downregulate the tight junctions between colonic epithelial cells, allowing luminal contents to access body tissues and trigger acute immune responses. However, it is not yet known whether this loss of the barrier function is a critical factor in the progression of toxin A-induced pseudomembranous colitis. We previously showed that NADH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) KO (knockout) mice spontaneously display weak gut inflammation and a marked loss of colonic epithelial tight junctions. Moreover, NQO1 KO mice exhibited highly increased inflammatory responses compared with NQO1 WT (wild-type) control mice when subjected to DSS-induced experimental colitis. Here, we tested whether toxin A could also trigger more severe inflammatory responses in NQO1 KO mice compared with NQO1 WT mice. Indeed, our results show that C. difficile toxin A-mediated enteritis is significantly enhanced in NQO1 KO mice compared with NQO1 WT mice. The levels of fluid secretion, villus disruption, and epithelial cell apoptosis were also higher in toxin A-treated NQO1 KO mice compared with WT mice. The previous and present results collectively show that NQO1 is involved in the formation of tight junctions in the small intestine, and that defects in NQO1 enhance C. difficile toxin A-induced acute inflammatory responses, presumably via the loss of epithelial cell tight junctions.

  20. Animal models of depression in dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine transporter knockout mice: prominent effects of dopamine transporter deletions.

    PubMed

    Perona, Maria T G; Waters, Shonna; Hall, Frank Scott; Sora, Ichiro; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Murphy, Dennis L; Caron, Marc; Uhl, George R

    2008-09-01

    Antidepressant drugs produce therapeutic actions and many of their side effects via blockade of the plasma membrane transporters for serotonin (SERT/SLC6A2), norepinephrine (NET/SLC6A1), and dopamine (DAT/SLC6A3). Many antidepressants block several of these transporters; some are more selective. Mouse gene knockouts of these transporters provide interesting models for possible effects of chronic antidepressant treatments. To examine the role of monoamine transporters in models of depression DAT, NET, and SERT knockout (KO) mice and wild-type littermates were studied in the forced swim test (FST), the tail suspension test, and for sucrose consumption. To dissociate general activity from potential antidepressant effects three types of behavior were assessed in the FST: immobility, climbing, and swimming. In confirmation of earlier reports, both DAT KO and NET KO mice exhibited less immobility than wild-type littermates whereas SERT KO mice did not. Effects of DAT deletion were not simply because of hyperactivity, as decreased immobility was observed in DAT+/- mice that were not hyperactive as well as in DAT-/- mice that displayed profound hyperactivity. Climbing was increased, whereas swimming was almost eliminated in DAT-/- mice, and a modest but similar effect was seen in NET KO mice, which showed a modest decrease in locomotor activity. Combined increases in climbing and decreases in immobility are characteristic of FST results in antidepressant animal models, whereas selective effects on swimming are associated with the effects of stimulant drugs. Therefore, an effect on climbing is thought to more specifically reflect antidepressant effects, as has been observed in several other proposed animal models of reduced depressive phenotypes. A similar profile was observed in the tail suspension test, where DAT, NET, and SERT knockouts were all found to reduce immobility, but much greater effects were observed in DAT KO mice. However, to further determine whether

  1. The High Calcium, High Phosphorus Rescue Diet Is Not Suitable to Prevent Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in Vitamin D Receptor Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Grundmann, Sarah M; Brandsch, Corinna; Rottstädt, Daniela; Kühne, Hagen; Stangl, Gabriele I

    2017-01-01

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR) knockout (KO) mouse is a common model to unravel novel metabolic functions of vitamin D. It is recommended to feed these mice a high calcium (2%), high phosphorus (1.25%) diet, termed rescue diet (RD) to prevent hypocalcaemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism. First, we characterized the individual response of VDR KO mice to feeding a RD and found that the RD was not capable of normalizing the parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations in each VDR KO mouse. In a second study, we aimed to study whether RD with additional 1 and 2% calcium (in total 3 and 4% of the diet) is able to prevent secondary hyperparathyroidism in the VDR KO mice. Wild type (WT) mice and VDR KO mice that received a normal calcium and phosphorus diet (ND) served as controls. Data demonstrated that the RD was no more efficient than the ND in normalizing PTH levels. An excessive dietary calcium concentration of 4% was required to reduce serum PTH concentrations in the VDR KO mice to PTH levels measured in WT mice. This diet, however, resulted in higher concentrations of circulating intact fibroblast growth factor 23 (iFGF23). To conclude, the commonly used RD is not suitable to normalize the serum PTH in VDR KO mice. Extremely high dietary calcium concentrations are necessary to prevent secondary hyperthyroidism in these mice, with the consequence that iFGF23 concentrations are being raised. Considering that PTH and iFGF23 exert numerous VDR independent effects, data obtained from VDR KO mice cannot be attributed solely to vitamin D.

  2. GPR40/FFAR1 deficient mice increase noradrenaline levels in the brain and exhibit abnormal behavior.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Fuka; Nishinaka, Takashi; Yamashita, Takuya; Nakamoto, Kazuo; Kurihara, Takashi; Hirasawa, Akira; Kasuya, Fumiyo; Miyata, Atsuro; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2016-12-01

    The free fatty acid receptor 1 (GPR40/FFAR1) is a G protein-coupled receptor, which is activated by long chain fatty acids. We have previously demonstrated that activation of brain GPR40/FFAR1 exerts an antinociceptive effect that is mediated by the modulation of the descending pain control system. However, it is unclear whether brain GPR40/FFAR1 contributes to emotional function. In this study, we investigated the involvement of GPR40/FFAR1 in emotional behavior using GPR40/FFAR1 deficient (knockout, KO) mice. The emotional behavior in wild and KO male mice was evaluated at 9-10 weeks of age by the elevated plus-maze test, open field test, social interaction test, and sucrose preference test. Brain monoamines levels were measured using LC-MS/MS. The elevated plus-maze test and open field tests revealed that the KO mice reduced anxiety-like behavior. There were no differences in locomotor activity or social behavior between the wild and KO mice. In the sucrose preference test, the KO mice showed reduction in sucrose preference and intake. The level of noradrenaline was higher in the hippocampus, medulla oblongata, hypothalamus and midbrain of KO mice. Therefore, these results suggest that brain GPR40/FFAR1 is associated with anxiety- and depression-related behavior regulated by the increment of noradrenaline in the brain. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Claudin 4 knockout mice: normal physiological phenotype with increased susceptibility to lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Kage, Hidenori; Flodby, Per; Gao, Danping; Kim, Yong Ho; Marconett, Crystal N.; DeMaio, Lucas; Kim, Kwang-Jin; Crandall, Edward D.

    2014-01-01

    Claudins are tight junction proteins that regulate paracellular ion permeability of epithelium and endothelium. Claudin 4 has been reported to function as a paracellular sodium barrier and is one of three major claudins expressed in lung alveolar epithelial cells (AEC). To directly assess the role of claudin 4 in regulation of alveolar epithelial barrier function and fluid homeostasis in vivo, we generated claudin 4 knockout (Cldn4 KO) mice. Unexpectedly, Cldn4 KO mice exhibited normal physiological phenotype although increased permeability to 5-carboxyfluorescein and decreased alveolar fluid clearance were noted. Cldn4 KO AEC monolayers exhibited unchanged ion permeability, higher solute permeability, and lower short-circuit current compared with monolayers from wild-type mice. Claudin 3 and 18 expression was similar between wild-type and Cldn4 KO alveolar epithelial type II cells. In response to either ventilator-induced lung injury or hyperoxia, claudin 4 expression was markedly upregulated in wild-type mice, whereas Cldn4 KO mice showed greater degrees of lung injury. RNA sequencing, in conjunction with differential expression and upstream analysis after ventilator-induced lung injury, suggested Egr1, Tnf, and Il1b as potential mediators of increased lung injury in Cldn4 KO mice. These results demonstrate that claudin 4 has little effect on normal lung physiology but may function to protect against acute lung injury. PMID:25106430

  4. A high-calcium diet failed to rescue an osteopenia phenotype in claudin-18 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Alshbool, Fatima Z; Alarcon, Catrina; Wergedal, Jon; Mohan, Subburaman

    2014-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that mice with disruption of claudin-18 (Cldn-18) gene exhibited osteopenia due to increased bone resorption (BR). In this study, we found that gastric pH was significantly higher in Cldn-18 knockout (KO) mice compared to heterozygous control mice at 10 weeks of age. To test the possibility that the increased BR in the Cldn-18 KO mice fed a normal-Ca diet is a consequence of decreased Ca absorption caused by increased stomach pH, we subjected KO and control mice to a normal-Ca and high-Ca diet at birth. Serum Ca levels were significantly lower in Cldn-18 KO mice compared to control mice at a normal-Ca diet but not at high-Ca diet. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry revealed that a high-Ca diet significantly increased lumbar bone mineral density (BMD), but had no effect on femur/tibia BMD in both Cldn-18 KO and control mice compared to a normal-Ca diet. While a high-Ca diet did not affect volumetric BMD, trabecular, and cortical parameters of the lumbar vertebra (LV) as measured by μCT, the size of the LV did increase, in both genotypes due to reduced BR. Comparison of the skeletal phenotype of high-Ca Cldn-18 KO and control mice revealed that an osteopenia phenotype seen at a normal-Ca diet was still maintained at different skeletal sites in the KO mice till 10 weeks of age. In conclusion, our findings suggest that increased BR is likely caused by direct effects of a lack of Cldn-18 on osteoclasts rather than gastric pH changes.

  5. A high‐calcium diet failed to rescue an osteopenia phenotype in claudin‐18 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Alshbool, Fatima Z.; Alarcon, Catrina; Wergedal, Jon; Mohan, Subburaman

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We have recently demonstrated that mice with disruption of claudin‐18 (Cldn‐18) gene exhibited osteopenia due to increased bone resorption (BR). In this study, we found that gastric pH was significantly higher in Cldn‐18 knockout (KO) mice compared to heterozygous control mice at 10 weeks of age. To test the possibility that the increased BR in the Cldn‐18 KO mice fed a normal‐Ca diet is a consequence of decreased Ca absorption caused by increased stomach pH, we subjected KO and control mice to a normal‐Ca and high‐Ca diet at birth. Serum Ca levels were significantly lower in Cldn‐18 KO mice compared to control mice at a normal‐Ca diet but not at high‐Ca diet. Dual energy X‐ray absorptiometry revealed that a high‐Ca diet significantly increased lumbar bone mineral density (BMD), but had no effect on femur/tibia BMD in both Cldn‐18 KO and control mice compared to a normal‐Ca diet. While a high‐Ca diet did not affect volumetric BMD, trabecular, and cortical parameters of the lumbar vertebra (LV) as measured by μCT, the size of the LV did increase, in both genotypes due to reduced BR. Comparison of the skeletal phenotype of high‐Ca Cldn‐18 KO and control mice revealed that an osteopenia phenotype seen at a normal‐Ca diet was still maintained at different skeletal sites in the KO mice till 10 weeks of age. In conclusion, our findings suggest that increased BR is likely caused by direct effects of a lack of Cldn‐18 on osteoclasts rather than gastric pH changes. PMID:24744879

  6. Adenosine A2A Receptors Mediate Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Electroacupuncture on Synovitis in Mice with Collagen-Induced Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qi-hui; Xie, Wen-xia; Li, Xiao-pei; Huang, Ka-te; Du, Zhong-heng; Cong, Wen-jie; Zhou, Long-hua; Ye, Tian-shen; Chen, Jiang-Fan

    2015-01-01

    To study the role of adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) in mediating the anti-inflammatory effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on synovitis in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), C57BL/6 mice were divided into five treatment groups: Sham-control, CIA-control, CIA-EA, CIA-SCH58261 (A2AR antagonist), and CIA-EA-SCH58261. All mice except those in the Sham-control group were immunized with collagen II for arthritis induction. EA treatment was administered using the stomach 36 and spleen 6 points, and stimulated with a continuous rectangular wave for 30 min daily. EA treatment and SCH58261 were administered daily from days 35 to 49 (n = 10). After treatment, X-ray radiography of joint bone morphology was established at day 60 and mouse blood was collected for ELISA determination of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels. Mice were sacrificed and processed for histological examination of pathological changes of joint tissue, including hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry of A2AR expression. EA treatment resulted in significantly reduced pathological scores, TNF-α concentrations, and bone damage X-ray scores. Importantly, the anti-inflammatory and tissue-protective effect of EA treatment was reversed by coadministration of SCH58261. Thus, EA treatment exerts an anti-inflammatory effect resulting in significant protection of cartilage by activation of A2AR in the synovial tissue of CIA. PMID:25784951

  7. Bone response to intermittent parathyroid hormone is altered in mice null for {beta}-Arrestin2.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, S L; Pierroz, D D; Glatt, V; Goddard, D S; Bianchi, E N; Lin, F T; Manen, D; Bouxsein, M L

    2005-04-01

    Intermittent PTH administration increases bone turnover, resulting in net anabolic effects on bone. These effects are primarily mediated by intracellular cAMP signaling. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate PTH activity in bone remain incompletely understood. beta-Arrestin2, a G protein-coupled receptor regulatory protein, inhibits PTH-stimulated cAMP accumulation in vitro. Using beta-arrestin2(-/-) (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice, we investigated the response to PTH in primary osteoblasts (POB) and the effects of intermittent PTH administration on bone mass and microarchitecture in vivo. Compared with that in WT mice, PTH-stimulated intracellular cAMP was increased and sustained in KO POB. Intermittent exposure of POB to PTH significantly decreased the ratio of osteoprotegerin (OPG) receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) mRNA expression in KO POB, whereas it increased this ratio in WT POB. Total body bone mass and cortical and trabecular bone parameters were 5-10% lower in male KO mice compared with WT, and these differences were magnified upon in vivo administration of intermittent PTH (80 mug/kg.d) for 1 month. Thus, PTH significantly increased total body bone mineral content as well as vertebral trabecular bone volume and thickness in WT, but not KO mice. The anabolic response to PTH in cortical bone was also slightly more pronounced in WT than KO mice. Histomorphometry indicated that PTH prominently stimulated indexes of bone formation in both WT and KO mice, whereas it significantly increased indexes of bone resorption (i.e. osteoclast number and surface) in KO mice only. In conclusion, these results suggest that beta-arrestins may specify the activity of intermittent PTH on the skeleton by limiting PTH-induced osteoclastogenesis.

  8. Inactivation of the adrenergic receptor β2 disrupts glucose homeostasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Gustavo W; Ueta, Cintia B; Fonseca, Tatiane L; Gouveia, Cecilia H A; Lancellotti, Carmen L; Brum, Patrícia C; Christoffolete, Marcelo A; Bianco, Antonio C; Ribeiro, Miriam O

    2014-06-01

    Three types of beta adrenergic receptors (ARβ1-3) mediate the sympathetic activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT), the key thermogenic site for mice which is also present in adult humans. In this study, we evaluated adaptive thermogenesis and metabolic profile of a mouse with Arβ2 knockout (ARβ2KO). At room temperature, ARβ2KO mice have normal core temperature and, upon acute cold exposure (4 °C for 4 h), ARβ2KO mice accelerate energy expenditure normally and attempt to maintain body temperature. ARβ2KO mice also exhibited normal interscapular BAT thermal profiles during a 30-min infusion of norepinephrine or dobutamine, possibly due to marked elevation of interscapular BAT (iBAT) and of Arβ1, and Arβ3 mRNA levels. In addition, ARβ2KO mice exhibit similar body weight, adiposity, fasting plasma glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides when compared with WT controls, but exhibit marked fasting hyperinsulinemia and elevation in hepatic Pepck (Pck1) mRNA levels. The animals were fed a high-fat diet (40% fat) for 6 weeks, ARβ2KO mice doubled their caloric intake, accelerated energy expenditure, and induced Ucp1 expression in a manner similar to WT controls, exhibiting a similar body weight gain and increase in the size of white adipocytes to the WT controls. However, ARβ2KO mice maintain fasting hyperglycemia as compared with WT controls despite very elevated insulin levels, but similar degrees of liver steatosis and hyperlipidemia. In conclusion, inactivation of the ARβ2KO pathway preserves cold- and diet-induced adaptive thermogenesis but disrupts glucose homeostasis possibly by accelerating hepatic glucose production and insulin secretion. Feeding on a high-fat diet worsens the metabolic imbalance, with significant fasting hyperglycemia but similar liver structure and lipid profile to the WT controls. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  9. Task-specific enhancement of hippocampus-dependent learning in mice deficient in monoacylglycerol lipase, the major hydrolyzing enzyme of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol

    PubMed Central

    Kishimoto, Yasushi; Cagniard, Barbara; Yamazaki, Maya; Nakayama, Junko; Sakimura, Kenji; Kirino, Yutaka; Kano, Masanobu

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the endocannabinoid system is important for the acquisition and/or extinction of learning and memory. However, it is unclear which endocannabinoid(s) play(s) a crucial role in these cognitive functions, especially memory extinction. To elucidate the physiological role of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), a major endocannabinoid, in behavioral and cognitive functions, we conducted a comprehensive behavioral test battery in knockout (KO) mice deficient in monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL), the major hydrolyzing enzyme of 2-AG. We found age-dependent increases in spontaneous physical activity (SPA) in MGL KO mice. Next, we tested the MGL KO mice using 5 hippocampus-dependent learning paradigms (i.e., Morris water maze (MWM), contextual fear conditioning, novel object recognition test, trace eyeblink conditioning, and water-finding test). In the MWM, MGL KO mice showed normal acquisition of reference memory, but exhibited significantly faster extinction of the learned behavior. Moreover, they showed faster memory acquisition on the reversal-learning task of the MWM. In contrast, in the contextual fear conditioning, MGL KO mice tended to show slower memory extinction. In the novel object recognition and water-finding tests, MGL KO mice exhibited enhanced memory acquisition. Trace eyeblink conditioning was not altered in MGL KO mice throughout the acquisition and extinction phases. These results indicate that 2-AG signaling is important for hippocampus-dependent learning and memory, but its contribution is highly task-dependent. PMID:26082696

  10. Loss or Mislocalization of Aquaporin-4 Affects Diffusion Properties and Intermediary Metabolism in Gray Matter of Mice.

    PubMed

    Pavlin, T; Nagelhus, E A; Brekken, C; Eyjolfsson, E M; Thoren, A; Haraldseth, O; Sonnewald, U; Ottersen, O P; Håberg, A K

    2017-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to determine how complete or perivascular loss of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels affects membrane permeability for water in the mouse brain grey matter in the steady state. Time-dependent diffusion magnetic resonance imaging was performed on global Aqp4 knock out (KO) and α-syntrophin (α-syn) KO mice, in the latter perivascular AQP4 are mislocalized, but still functioning. Control animals were corresponding wild type (WT) mice. By combining in vivo diffusion measurements with the effective medium theory and previously measured extra-cellular volume fractions, the effects of membrane permeability and extracellular volume fraction were uncoupled for Aqp4 and α-syn KO. The second aim was to assess the effect of α-syn KO on cortical intermediary metabolism combining in vivo [1-(13)C]glucose and [1,2-(13)C]acetate injection with ex vivo (13)C MR spectroscopy. Aqp4 KO increased the effective diffusion coefficient at long diffusion times by 5%, and a 14% decrease in membrane water permeability was estimated for Aqp4 KO compared with WT mice. α-syn KO did not affect the measured diffusion parameters. In the metabolic analyses, significantly lower amounts of [4-(13)C]glutamate and [4-(13)C]glutamine, and percent enrichment in [4-(13)C]glutamate were detected in the α-syn KO mice. [1,2-(13)C]acetate metabolism was unaffected in α-syn KO, but the contribution of astrocyte derived metabolites to GABA synthesis was significantly increased. Taken together, α-syn KO mice appeared to have decreased neuronal glucose metabolism, partly compensated for by utilization of astrocyte derived metabolites.

  11. Heavy metal characteristics in Kočani Field soil-plant system (Republic of Macedonia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogan Šmuc, Nastja; Dolenec, Tadej; Serafimovski, Todor; Tasev, Goran; Dolenec, Matej; Komar, Darja; Vrhovnik, Petra

    2014-05-01

    Contamination of soils with heavy metals is globally widespread and induces a long-term risk to ecosystem health. This research focuses on the heavy metal contamination, transfer values and health risk assessment in the Kočani Field soil-plant system (Republic of Macedonia). To identify the heavy metal concentrations in Kočani soils and crops (rice and maize) the geochemical analysis were performed by inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS), thereupon the transfer factor (TF) and estimated daily intake amount (EDIA) values in Kočani crops were calculated. Heavy metal contamination status of Kočani soils was also assessed by using sequential extraction procedure and by several environmental indexes: geoaccumulation index, contamination factor and contamination degree. The detected total concentrations of As, Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn in soil samples were highly above the threshold values considered to be phytotoxically excessive for the surface soils. The results of the applied indexes confirmed a very high contamination status for Kočani soils. According to the sum of the water soluble (1) and exchangeable (2) fractions for Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb and Zn measured in the soils, the mobility and bioavailability potential of the heavy metals studied declined in the following order: Cd > Mo > Sb > Zn > Cu > As > Pb > Ni > Ag. The highest As, Cd, Mo, Pb and Zn values were determined in the rice samples grown in the paddy fields near the Zletovska River. The highest Pb and Mo concentrations measured in the maize samples were from the maize fields near the Zletovska River and Ciflik city. High transfer factor values for Mo, Zn, Cd and Cu revealed a strong accumulation of Mo, Zn and Cd by rice and Mo and Zn by maize crops. The results of the estimated dialy intake showed that the regular consumption of rice and maize crops containing the highest Cd, Mo, Pb and Zn concentrations could pose a serious threat to human health, because the daily intake of Cd, Mo

  12. Mineralogy, petrography, geochemistry, and classification of the Košice meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    OzdíN, Daniel; PlavčAn, Jozef; HoråáčKová, Michaela; Uher, Pavel; PorubčAn, VladimíR.; Veis, Pavel; Rakovský, Jozef; Tóth, Juraj; KonečNý, Patrik; Svoreå, JáN.

    2015-05-01

    The Košice meteorite was observed to fall on 28 February 2010 at 23:25 UT near the city of Košice in eastern Slovakia and its mineralogy, petrology, and geochemistry are described. The characteristic features of the meteorite fragments are fan-like, mosaic, lamellar, and granular chondrules, which were up to 1.2 mm in diameter. The fusion crust has a black-gray color with a thickness up to 0.6 mm. The matrix of the meteorite is formed mainly by forsterite (Fo80.6); diopside; enstatite (Fs16.7); albite; troilite; Fe-Ni metals such as iron and taenite; and some augite, chlorapatite, merrillite, chromite, and tetrataenite. Plagioclase-like glass was also identified. Relative uniform chemical composition of basic silicates, partially brecciated textures, as well as skeletal taenite crystals into troilite veinlets suggest monomict breccia formed at conditions of rapid cooling. The Košice meteorite is classified as ordinary chondrite of the H5 type which has been slightly weathered, and only short veinlets of Fe hydroxides are present. The textural relationships indicate an S3 degree of shock metamorphism and W0 weathering grade. Some fragments of the meteorite Košice are formed by monomict breccia of the petrological type H5. On the basis of REE content, we suggest the Košice chondrite is probably from the same parent body as H5 chondrite Morávka from Czech Republic. Electron-microprobe analysis (EMPA) with focused and defocused electron beam, whole-rock analysis (WRA), inductively coupled plasma mass and optical emission spectroscopy (ICP MS, ICP OES), and calibration-free laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (CF-LIBS) were used to characterize the Košice fragments. The results provide further evidence that whole-rock analysis gives the most accurate analyses, but this method is completely destructive. Two other proposed methods are partially destructive (EMPA) or nondestructive (CF-LIBS), but only major and minor elements can be evaluated due to the

  13. Oxidation state specific analysis of arsenic species in tissues of wild-type and arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Currier, Jenna M; Douillet, Christelle; Drobná, Zuzana; Stýblo, Miroslav

    2016-11-01

    Arsenic methyltransferase (As3mt) catalyzes the conversion of inorganic arsenic (iAs) to its methylated metabolites, including toxic methylarsonite (MAs(III)) and dimethylarsinite (DMAs(III)). Knockout (KO) of As3mt was shown to reduce the capacity to methylate iAs in mice. However, no data are available on the oxidation states of As species in tissues of these mice. Here, we compare the oxidation states of As species in tissues of male C57BL/6 As3mt-KO and wild-type (WT) mice exposed to arsenite (iAs(III)) in drinking water. WT mice were exposed to 50mg/L As and As3mt-KO mice that cannot tolerate 50mg/L As were exposed to 0, 15, 20, 25 or 30mg/L As. iAs(III) accounted for 53% to 74% of total As in liver, pancreas, adipose, lung, heart, and kidney of As3mt-KO mice; tri- and pentavalent methylated arsenicals did not exceed 10% of total As. Tissues of WT mice retained iAs and methylated arsenicals: iAs(III), MAs(III) and DMAs(III) represented 55%-68% of the total As in the liver, pancreas, and brain. High levels of methylated species, particularly MAs(III), were found in the intestine of WT, but not As3mt-KO mice, suggesting that intestinal bacteria are not a major source of methylated As. Blood of WT mice contained significantly higher levels of As than blood of As3mt-KO mice. This study is the first to determine oxidation states of As species in tissues of As3mt-KO mice. Results will help to design studies using WT and As3mt-KO mice to examine the role of iAs methylation in adverse effects of iAs exposure. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Oxidation state specific analysis of arsenic species in tissues of wild-type and arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase-knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Currier, Jenna M.; Douillet, Christelle; Drobná, Zuzana; Stýblo, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Arsenic methyltransferase (As3mt) catalyzes the conversion of inorganic arsenic (iAs) to its methylated metabolites, including toxic methylarsonite (MAsIII) and dimethylarsinite (DMAsIII). Knockout (KO) of As3mt was shown to reduce the capacity to methylate iAs in mice. However, no data are available on the oxidation states of As species in tissues of these mice. Here, we compare the oxidation states of As species in tissues of male C57BL/6 As3mt-KO and wild-type (WT) mice exposed to arsenite (iAsIII) in drinking water. WT mice were exposed to 50 mg/L As and As3mt-KO mice that cannot tolerate 50 mg/L As were exposed to 0, 15, 20, 25 or 30 mg/L As. iAsIII accounted for 53% to 74% of total As in liver, pancreas, adipose, lung, heart, and kidney of As3mt-KO mice; tri- and pentavalent methylated arsenicals did not exceed 10% of total As. Tissues of WT mice retained iAs and methylated arsenicals: iAsIII, MAsIII and DMAsIII represented 55%–68% of the total As in the liver, pancreas, and brain. High levels of methylated species, particularly MAsIII, were found in the intestine of WT, but not As3mt-KO mice, suggesting that intestinal bacteria are not a major source of methylated As. Blood of WT mice contained significantly higher levels of As than blood of As3mt-KO mice. This study is the first to determine oxidation states of As species in tissues of As3mt-KO mice. Results will help to design studies using WT and As3mt-KO mice to examine the role of iAs methylation in adverse effects of iAs exposure. PMID:28007165

  15. Delayed olfactory nerve regeneration in ApoE-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Britto P; Nisar, Rafia; Short, Jody; Randall, Shari; Grissom, Elin; Griffin, Gwen; Switzer, Paul V; Struble, Robert G

    2005-04-11

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE), a lipid transporting protein, is extensively expressed in the primary olfactory pathway, but its function is unknown. We previously reported increased apoE levels in the olfactory bulb (OB) following olfactory epithelium (OE) lesion in mice, and hypothesized that apoE may play a vital role in olfactory nerve (ON) regeneration. To directly test this hypothesis, we examined the rate of ON regeneration following OE lesion in apoE deficient/knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. OE was lesioned in 2- to 3-month-old mice by intranasal irrigation with Triton X-100 (TX). OB were collected at 0, 3, 7, 21, 42, and 56 days post-lesion. OB recovery was measured by both immunoblotting and immunohistochemical analysis of growth cone associated protein (GAP) 43 and olfactory marker protein (OMP). The results revealed that (1) OMP recovery in the OB was significantly slower in apoE KO compared to WT mice; (2) recovery of glomerular area was similarly slower; and (3) GAP43 increases and return to prelesion levels in the OB were slower in KO mice. Together, these results show that olfactory nerve regeneration is significantly slower in KO mice as compared to WT mice, suggesting apoE facilitates olfactory nerve regeneration.

  16. Neither Dectin-2 nor the Mannose Receptor Is Required for Resistance to Coccidioides immitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Viriyakosol, Suganya; Jimenez, Maria del Pilar; Saijo, Sinobu

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the roles of the mannose receptor (MR) and Dectin-2 in resistance to pulmonary coccidioidomycosis in C57BL/6 (B6) mice and in the interaction of myeloid cells with spherules, using B6 mice with targeted mutations in Mrc1 and Clec4n. Spherules are the tissue form of Coccidioides, and we determined that the MR on bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) was important for recognition of spherules (formalin-killed spherules [FKS]) and for secretion of interleukin 10 (IL-10) and proinflammatory cytokines in response to FKS by both elicited macrophages and BMDC. Infected MR knockout (KO) mice produced more IL-10 in their lungs than did B6 mice, and MR KO mice also made more protective Th-17 cytokines. In contrast to the MR, Dectin-2 was not required for recognition of FKS by BMDC or for the production of cytokines by BMDC in response to FKS. However, Dectin-2 KO was required for stimulation of elicited peritoneal macrophages. Despite that, lung cytokine levels were not significantly different in Dectin-2 KO mice and B6 mice 14 days after infection, except for IL-1β, which was higher in Dectin-2 KO lungs. Although both Dectin-2−/− and MR−/− myeloid cells had reduced proinflammatory cytokine responses to FKS in vitro, neither MR nor Dectin-2 deficiency reduced the resistance of B6 mice to pulmonary coccidioidomycosis. PMID:24379281

  17. Energy metabolism and thyroid function of mice with deleted wolframin (Wfs1) gene.

    PubMed

    Noormets, K; Kõks, S; Ivask, M; Aunapuu, M; Arend, A; Vasar, E; Tillmann, V

    2014-05-01

    There is no data about the energy metabolism of patients with Wolfram syndrome caused by mutations in the wolframin (Wfs1) gene. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Wfs1 in energy metabolism and thyroid function in Wfs1 deficient mice (Wfs1KO). 16 male (8 Wfs1KO, 8 wild type (wt)) and 16 female (8 Wfs1KO, 8wt) mice aged 11-13 weeks were studied alone in a specific metabolic cage for 48 h. Body weight, food, water and O2 consumption, motor activity, CO2 and heat production of mice were recorded. At the age of 14-20 weeks, plasma levels of thyroxine (T4), TSH and leptin were measured and histology of thyroid tissues examined. Mean CO2 and heat production was not different between the groups. Mean O2 consumption was higher in the Wfs1KO females compared to the Wfs1KO males (3 410.0±127.0 vs. 2 806.0±82.4 ml/kg/h; p<0.05), but not compared to the wt mice. The mean movement activity was not different between the groups except that the Wfs1KO females reared up more often than the wt females (199.8±63.46 vs. 39.26±24.71 cnts/48 h; p<0.05). Both male and female Wfs1KO mice had significantly lower body mass and food intake than wt mice. Male Wfs1KO mice also lost more weight in metabolic cage than wt males (20.43±0.41 vs. 16.07±0.86%; p<0.05) indicating more pronounced response to isolation. Male Wfs1KO mice had significantly lower levels of plasma leptin than wt male mice (3.37±0.40 vs. 5.82±0.71 ng/ml; p<0.01). Thyroid function measured by serum TSH and T4 levels was not different between Wfs1KO and wt groups, but both Wfs1KO and wt male mice had significantly higher mean T4 levels than female mice. The histology of thyroid tissue of Wfs1KO males showed a trend to a smaller mean number of epithelial cells per follicle than the wt male mice.Although Wfs1KO mice were smaller and lost more weight during the experiment, their energy metabolism was not different from wt mice except that the female Wfs1KO mice consumed more O2. As mice in

  18. β-Catenin is Essential for Ethanol Metabolism and Protection Against Alcohol-mediated Liver Steatosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shiguang; Yeh, Tzu-Hsuan; Singh, Vijay P.; Shiva, Sruti; Krauland, Lindsay; Li, Huanan; Zhang, Pili; Kharbanda, Kusum; Ritov, Vladimir; Monga, Satdarshan P. S.; Scott, Donald K.; Eagon, Patricia K.; Behari, Jaideep

    2011-01-01

    The liver plays a central role in ethanol metabolism and oxidative stress is implicated in alcohol-mediated liver injury. β-Catenin regulates hepatic metabolic zonation and adaptive response to oxidative stress. We hypothesized that β-catenin regulates the hepatic response to ethanol ingestion. Female liver-specific β-catenin knockout (KO) mice and wild type (WT) littermates were fed the Lieber-Decarli liquid diet (5% ethanol) in a pair-wise fashion. Liver histology, biochemistry, and gene expression studies were performed. Plasma alcohol and ammonia levels were measured using standard assays. Ethanol-fed KO mice exhibited systemic toxicity and early mortality. KO mice exhibited severe macrovesicular steatosis and five to six-fold higher serum ALT and AST levels. KO mice had modest increase in hepatic oxidative stress, lower expression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD-2), and lower citrate synthase activity, the first step in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. N-Acetyl cysteine (NAC) did not prevent ethanol-induced mortality in KO mice. In WT livers, β-catenin was found to co-precipitate with FoxO3, the upstream regulator of SOD-2. Hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activities and expression were lower in KO mice. Hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 protein levels were upregulated in ethanol-fed WT mice but were nearly undetectable in KO mice. These changes in ethanol-metabolizing enzymes were associated with 30-fold higher blood alcohol levels in KO mice. Conclusion β-catenin is essential for hepatic ethanol metabolism and plays a protective role in alcohol-mediated liver steatosis. Our results strongly suggest that integration of these functions by β-catenin is critical for adaptation to ethanol ingestion in vivo. PMID:22031168

  19. Low-Salt Diet and Circadian Dysfunction Synergize to Induce Angiotensin II-Dependent Hypertension in Mice.

    PubMed

    Pati, Paramita; Fulton, David J R; Bagi, Zsolt; Chen, Feng; Wang, Yusi; Kitchens, Julia; Cassis, Lisa A; Stepp, David W; Rudic, R Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Blood pressure exhibits a robust circadian rhythm in health. In hypertension, sleep apnea, and even shift work, this balanced rhythm is perturbed via elevations in night-time blood pressure, inflicting silent damage to the vasculature and body organs. Herein, we examined the influence of circadian dysfunction during experimental hypertension in mice. Using radiotelemetry to measure ambulatory blood pressure and activity, the effects of angiotensin II administration were studied in wild-type (WT) and period isoform knockout (KO) mice (Per2-KO, Per2, 3-KO, and Per1, 2, 3-KO/Per triple KO [TKO] mice). On a normal diet, administration of angiotensin II caused nondipping blood pressure and exacerbated vascular hypertrophy in the Period isoform KO mice relative to WT mice. To study the endogenous effects of angiotensin II stimulation, we then administered a low-salt diet to the mice, which does stimulate endogenous angiotensin II in addition to lowering blood pressure. A low-salt diet decreased blood pressure in wild-type mice. In contrast, Period isoform KO mice lost their circadian rhythm in blood pressure on a low-salt diet, because of an increase in resting blood pressure, which was restorable to rhythmicity by the angiotensin receptor blocker losartan. Chronic administration of low salt caused vascular hypertrophy in Period isoform KO mice, which also exhibited increased renin levels and altered angiotensin 1 receptor expression. These data suggest that circadian clock genes may act to inhibit or control renin/angiotensin signaling. Moreover, circadian disorders such as sleep apnea and shift work may alter the homeostatic responses to sodium restriction to potentially influence nocturnal hypertension. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Aggressive mammary carcinoma progression in Nrf2 knockout mice treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2), which belongs to the basic leucine zipper transcription factor family, is a strategy for cancer chemopreventive phytochemicals. It is an important regulator of genes induced by oxidative stress, such as glutathione S-transferases, heme oxygenase-1 and peroxiredoxin 1, by activating the antioxidant response element (ARE). We hypothesized that (1) the citrus coumarin auraptene may suppress premalignant mammary lesions via activation of Nrf2/ARE, and (2) that Nrf2 knockout (KO) mice would be more susceptible to mammary carcinogenesis. Methods Premalignant lesions and mammary carcinomas were induced by medroxyprogesterone acetate and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene treatment. The 10-week pre-malignant study was performed in which 8 groups of 10 each female wild-type (WT) and KO mice were fed either control diet or diets containing auraptene (500 ppm). A carcinogenesis study was also conducted in KO vs. WT mice (n = 30-34). Comparisons between groups were evaluated using ANOVA and Kaplan-Meier Survival statistics, and the Mann-Whitney U-test. Results All mice treated with carcinogen exhibited premalignant lesions but there were no differences by genotype or diet. In the KO mice, there was a dramatic increase in mammary carcinoma growth rate, size, and weight. Although there was no difference in overall survival, the KO mice had significantly lower mammary tumor-free survival. Also, in the KO mammary carcinomas, the active forms of NF-κB and β-catenin were increased ~2-fold whereas no differences in oxidized proteins were observed. Many other tumors were observed, including lymphomas. Interestingly, the incidences of lung adenomas in the KO mice were significantly higher than in the WT mice. Conclusions We report, for the first time, that there was no apparent difference in the formation of premalignant lesions, but rather, the KO mice exhibited rapid, aggressive mammary carcinoma progression

  1. Mood and memory-associated behaviors in neuropeptide Y5 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Ito, Masanobu; Dumont, Yvan; Quirion, Remi

    2013-04-01

    Recent data led to suggest that in addition to Y1 and Y2 subtypes, Y5 receptors may be involved in mood-related behaviors (Morales-Medina et al., 2010). In the present study, using a battery of behavioral tests to assess anxiety and depression-like paradigms, as well as memory function, we evaluated the potential behavioral changes induced in mice devoid of Y5 receptors. Those paradigms were assessed using the open field (OF), elevated plus maze (EPM), forced swim test (FST), social interaction test (SI), object recognition test (ORT) and Morris water maze (MWM) in Y5 knockout (KO) mice and wild type (WT) animals. In the tests associated to anxiety related behaviors (OF, EPM and SI), no difference for locomotion and time spent in the lateral area of open field were observed between Y5 KO and WT mice. Similar results were observed for time and number of entries in open arms in EPM. Additionally, in SI test, Y5 KO mice spent same amount of time and number of entries in the stranger chamber as compared to WT animals. In the FST, as compared to WT mice, Y5 KO mice had similar immobility time on day 1. No memory dysfunction was observed in the MWM and ORT in Y5 KO mice, as compared to WT. Altogether these data suggest that under basal conditions Y5 KO and WT mice display similar mood behaviors and memory functions. However, as compared to WT, Y5 KO mice display increased grooming and rearing in the OF, lower ratio entries in open arms in the EPM and increased immobility time on the second day of the FST.

  2. Impaired glucose and lipid metabolism in ageing aryl hydrocarbon receptor deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Biljes, Daniel; Hammerschmidt-Kamper, Christiane; Kadow, Stephanie; Diel, Patrick; Weigt, Carmen; Burkart, Volker; Esser, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Disturbed homeostasis of glucose and lipid metabolism are dominant features of the so-called metabolic syndrome (MetS) and can increase the risk for the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D), a severe metabolic disease. T2D prevalence increases with age. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a sensor of small molecules including dietary components. AHR has been identified as potential regulator of glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism. Epidemiologically, exposure to xenobiotic AHR ligands such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is linked to T2D. We assess here the potential role of the AHR in disturbances of glucose and lipid metabolism in young (age 2-5 months) and old (age > 1,5 years) AHR-deficient (AHR KO) mice. Fasted young wildtype (WT) and AHR-KO mice displayed similar blood glucose kinetics after challenge with intra-peritoneal glucose injection. However, old AHR-KO mice showed lower tolerance than WT to i.p. administered glucose, i.e. glucose levels rose higher and returned more slowly to normal levels. Old mice had overall higher insulin levels than young mice, and old AHR-KO had a somewhat disturbed insulin kinetic in the serum after glucose challenge. Surprisingly, young AHR-KO mice had significantly lower triglycerides, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein values than WT, i.e., a dyslipidemic profile. With ageing, AHR-KO and WT mice did not differ in these lipid levels, except for slightly reduced levels of triglycerides and cholesterol. In conclusion, our findings in AHR KO mice suggest that AHR expression is relevant for the maintenance of glucose and lipid homeostasis in old mice. PMID:26664351

  3. Quantitative Proteomics of Intestinal Mucosa From Male Mice Lacking Intestinal Epithelial Insulin Receptors.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Stina Rikke; Schoof, Erwin M; Wheeler, Sarah E; Hvid, Henning; Ahnfelt-Rønne, Jonas; Hansen, Bo Falck; Nishimura, Erica; Olsen, Grith Skytte; Kislinger, Thomas; Brubaker, Patricia L

    2017-08-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine whether loss of the insulin receptor alters the molecular landscape of the intestinal mucosa, using intestinal-epithelial insulin receptor knockout (IE-irKO) mice and both genetic (IRfl/fl and Villin-cre) controls. Quantitative proteomic analysis by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry was applied to jejunal and colonic mucosa from mice fed a normal chow diet and mice fed a Western diet (WD). Jejunal mucosa from IE-irKO mice demonstrated alterations in all intestinal cell lineages: Paneth, goblet, absorptive, and enteroendocrine cells. Only goblet and absorptive cells were affected in the colon. Also, a marked effect of WD consumption was found on the gut proteome. A substantial reduction was detected in Paneth cell proteins with antimicrobial activity, including lysozyme C-1, angiogenin-4, cryptdin-related sequence 1C-3 and -2, α-defensin 17, and intelectin-1a. The key protein expressed by goblet cells, mucin-2, was also reduced in the IE-irKO mice. Proteins involved in lipid metabolism, including aldose reductase-related protein 1, 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase, apolipoprotein A-II, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isozyme 4, were increased in the mucosa of WD-fed IE-irKO mice compared with controls. In contrast, expression of the nutrient-responsive gut hormones, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and neurotensin, was reduced in the jejunal mucosa of IE-irKO mice, and the expression of proteins of the P-type adenosine triphosphatases and the solute carrier-transporter family was reduced in the colon of WD-fed IE-irKO mice. In conclusion, IE-irKO mice display a distinct molecular phenotype, suggesting a biological role of insulin and its receptor in determining differentiated cell specificity in the intestinal epithelium. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  4. Attenuation of lithium-induced natriuresis and kaliuresis in P2Y₂ receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Li, Lijun; Kohan, Donald E; Ecelbarger, Carolyn M; Kishore, Bellamkonda K

    2013-08-01

    Whole body knockout (KO) of the P2Y₂ receptor (P2Y₂R) results in enhanced vasopressin V2 receptor activity and increased renal Na⁺ conservation. We hypothesized that P2Y₂R KO mice would be less sensitive to lithium-induced natriuresis and kaliuresis due to attenuated downregulation of one or more of the major renal Na⁺ or K⁺ transporter/channel proteins. KO and wild-type (WT) mice were fed a control or lithium-added diet (40 mmol/kg food) for 14 days. Lithium-induced natriuresis and kaliuresis were significantly (~25%) attenuated in KO mice. The subunits of the epithelial Na⁺ channel (ENaC) were variably affected by lithium and genotype, but, overall, medullary levels were decreased substantially by lithium (15-60%) in both genotypes. In contrast, cortical, β-, and γ-ENaC were increased by lithium (~50%), but only in WT mice. Moreover, an assessment of ENaC activity by benzamil sensitivity suggested that lithium increased ENaC activity in WT mice but in not KO mice. In contrast, medullary levels of Na⁺-K⁺-2Cl⁻ cotransporter 2 and cortical levels of the renal outer medullary K⁺ channel were not downregulated by lithium and were significantly (15-76%) higher in KO mice under both dietary conditions. In addition, under control conditions, tissue osmolality of the inner medulla as well as furosemide sensitivity were significantly higher in KO mice versus WT mice. Therefore, we suggest that increased expression of these proteins, particularly in the control state, reduces Na⁺ delivery to the distal nephron and provides a buffer to attenuate collecting duct-mediated natriuresis and kaliuresis. Additional studies are warranted to explore the potential therapeutic benefits of purinergic antagonism.

  5. Metformin Improves Ileal Epithelial Barrier Function in Interleukin-10 Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yansong; Zhang, Hanying; Sun, Xiaofei; Zhu, Mei-Jun

    2016-01-01

    The impairment of intestinal epithelial barrier is the main etiologic factor of inflammatory bowel disease. The proper intestinal epithelial proliferation and differentiation is crucial for maintaining intestinal integrity. Metformin is a common anti-diabetic drug. The objective is to evaluate the protective effects of metformin on ileal epithelial barrier integrity using interleukin-10 deficient (IL10KO) mice. Wild-type and IL10KO mice were fed with/without metformin for 6 weeks and then ileum was collected for analyses. The mediatory role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was further examined by gain and loss of function study in vitro. Compared to wild-type mice, IL10KO mice had increased proliferation, reduced goblet cell and Paneth cell lineage differentiation in the ileum tissue, which was accompanied with increased crypt expansion. Metformin supplementation mitigated intestinal cell proliferation, restored villus/crypt ratio, increased goblet cell and Paneth cell differentiation and improved barrier function. In addition, metformin supplementation in IL10KO mice suppressed macrophage pro-inflammatory activity as indicated by reduced M1 macrophage abundance and decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, TNF-α and IFN-γ expressions. As a target of metformin, AMPK phosphorylation was enhanced in mice treated with metformin, regardless of mouse genotypes. In correlation, the mRNA level of differentiation regulator including bmp4, bmpr2 and math1 were also increased in IL10KO mice supplemented with metformin, which likely explains the enhanced epithelial differentiation in IL10KO mice with metformin. Consistently, in Caco-2 cells, metformin promoted claudin-3 and E-cadherin assembly and mitigated TNF-α-induced fragmentation of tight junction proteins. Gain and loss of function assay also demonstrated AMPK was correlated with epithelial differentiation and proliferation. Metformin supplementation promotes secretory cell lineage differentiation, suppresses

  6. Diet-Genotype Interactions in the Development of the Obese, Insulin-Resistant Phenotype of C57BL/6J Mice Lacking Melanocortin-3 or -4 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Gregory M.; Trevaskis, James L.; Hulver, Matthew W.; McMillan, Ryan P.; Markward, Nathan J.; Babin, M. Josephine; Meyer, Emily A.; Butler, Andrew A.

    2009-01-01

    Loss of brain melanocortin receptors (Mc3rKO and Mc4rKO) causes increased adiposity and exacerbates diet-induced obesity (DIO). Little is known about how Mc3r or Mc4r genotype, diet, and obesity affect insulin sensitivity. Insulin resistance, assessed by insulin and glucose tolerance tests, Ser307 phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1, and activation of protein kinase B, was examined in control and DIO wild-type (WT), Mc3rKO and Mc4rKO C57BL/6J mice. Mc4rKO mice were hyperphagic and had increased metabolic efficiency (weight gain per kilojoule consumed) relative to WT; both parameters increased further on high-fat diet. Obesity of Mc3rKO was more dependent on fat intake, involving increased metabolic efficiency. Fat mass of DIO Mc3rKO and Mc4rKO was similar, although Mc4rKO gained weight more rapidly. Mc4rKO develop hepatic insulin resistance and severe hepatic steatosis with obesity, independent of diet. DIO caused further deterioration of insulin action in Mc4rKO of either sex and, in male Mc3rKO, compared with controls, associated with increased fasting insulin, severe glucose intolerance, and reduced insulin signaling in muscle and adipose tissue. DIO female Mc3rKO exhibited very modest perturbations in glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Consistent with previous data suggesting impaired fat oxidation, both Mc3rKO and Mc4rKO had reduced muscle oxidative metabolism, a risk factor for weight gain and insulin resistance. Energy expenditure was, however, increased in Mc4rKO compared with Mc3rKO and controls, perhaps due to hyperphagia and metabolic costs associated with rapid growth. In summary, DIO affects insulin sensitivity more severely in Mc4rKO compared with Mc3rKO, perhaps due to a more positive energy balance. PMID:16469808

  7. Gomafu lncRNA knockout mice exhibit mild hyperactivity with enhanced responsiveness to the psychostimulant methamphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Ip, Joanna Y.; Sone, Masamitsu; Nashiki, Chieko; Pan, Qun; Kitaichi, Kiyoyuki; Yanaka, Kaori; Abe, Takaya; Takao, Keizo; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Blencowe, Benjamin J.; Nakagawa, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    The long noncoding RNA Gomafu/MIAT/Rncr2 is thought to function in retinal cell specification, stem cell differentiation and the control of alternative splicing. To further investigate physiological functions of Gomafu, we created mouse knockout (KO) model that completely lacks the Gomafu gene. The KO mice did not exhibit any developmental deficits. However, behavioral tests revealed that the KO mice are hyperactive. This hyperactive behavior was enhanced when the KO mice were treated with the psychostimulant methamphetamine, which was associated with an increase in dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. RNA sequencing analyses identified a small number of genes affected by the deficiency of Gomafu, a subset of which are known to have important neurobiological functions. These observations suggest that Gomafu modifies mouse behavior thorough a mild modulation of gene expression and/or alternative splicing of target genes. PMID:27251103

  8. Longevity and Age-Related Pathology of Mice Deficient in Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein-A

    PubMed Central

    Bale, Laurie K.; Mader, Jessica R.; Mason, Megan A.; Keenan, Kevin P.; Marler, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    The pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A knockout (PAPP-A KO) mouse is a model of reduced local insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I activity with normal circulating IGF-I levels. In this study, PAPP-A KO mice had significantly increased mean (27%), median (27%), and maximum (35%) life span compared with wild-type (WT) littermates. End-of-life pathology indicated that the incidence of neoplastic disease was not significantly different in the two groups of mice; however, it occurred in older aged PAPP-A KO compared with WT mice. Furthermore, PAPP-A KO mice were less likely to show degenerative changes of age. Scheduled pathologies at 78, 104, and 130 weeks of age indicated that WT mice, in general, had more degenerative changes and tumors earlier than PAPP-A KO mice. This was particularly true for abnormalities in heart, testes, brain, kidney, spleen, and thymus. In summary, the major contributors to the extended life span of PAPP-A KO mice are delayed occurrence of fatal neoplasias and decreased incidence of age-related degenerative changes. PMID:20351075

  9. Longevity and age-related pathology of mice deficient in pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A.

    PubMed

    Conover, Cheryl A; Bale, Laurie K; Mader, Jessica R; Mason, Megan A; Keenan, Kevin P; Marler, Ronald J

    2010-06-01

    The pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A knockout (PAPP-A KO) mouse is a model of reduced local insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I activity with normal circulating IGF-I levels. In this study, PAPP-A KO mice had significantly increased mean (27%), median (27%), and maximum (35%) life span compared with wild-type (WT) littermates. End-of-life pathology indicated that the incidence of neoplastic disease was not significantly different in the two groups of mice; however, it occurred in older aged PAPP-A KO compared with WT mice. Furthermore, PAPP-A KO mice were less likely to show degenerative changes of age. Scheduled pathologies at 78, 104, and 130 weeks of age indicated that WT mice, in general, had more degenerative changes and tumors earlier than PAPP-A KO mice. This was particularly true for abnormalities in heart, testes, brain, kidney, spleen, and thymus. In summary, the major contributors to the extended life span of PAPP-A KO mice are delayed occurrence of fatal neoplasias and decreased incidence of age-related degenerative changes.

  10. Minimal Effects of Age and Exposure to a Noisy Environment on Hearing in Alpha9 Nicotinic Receptor Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lauer, Amanda M.

    2017-01-01

    Studies have suggested a role of weakened medial olivocochlear (OC) efferent feedback in accelerated hearing loss and increased susceptibility to noise. The present study investigated the progression of hearing loss with age and exposure to a noisy environment in medial OC-deficient mice. Alpha9 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor knockout (α9KO) and wild types were screened for hearing loss using auditory brainstem responses. α9KO mice housed in a quiet environment did not show increased hearing loss compared to wild types in young adulthood and middle age. Challenging the medial OC system by housing in a noisy environment did not increase hearing loss in α9KO mice compared to wild types. ABR wave 1 amplitudes also did not show differences between α9KO mice and wild types. These data suggest that deficient medial OC feedback does not result in early onset of hearing loss. PMID:28626386

  11. Toll-like receptor 2 mediates a cutaneous reaction induced by repetitive ultraviolet B irradiation in C57/BL6 mice in vivo.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Sun; Jin, Seon Pil; Lee, Youngae; Oh, In Gyung; Lee, Serah; Kim, Jung Ho; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Chung, Jin Ho

    2014-08-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate not only innate immunity against infection and but also sterile inflammation triggered by endogenous molecules. We conducted a comparative study of the different inflammatory responses induced by repetitive ultraviolet (UV) B irradiation in wild-type (WT) and TLR2 knockout (KO) mice, to provide in vivo evidence of the role of TLRs in mediating UVB-induced responses. UVB-induced inflammatory responses were less severe in TLR2 KO mice than in WT mice after 6 weeks of repeated UVB irradiation. UVB-treated TLR2 KO mice displayed less prominent erythema and scaling, and histopathology showed significantly thinner skin and less inflammatory cell infiltration than that in WT mice. UVB-induced expression of heat-shock protein 70 (an endogenous ligand of TLR2) was lower in TLR2 KO mice. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed significantly lower gene expression levels of UVB-induced interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 in TLR2 KO mice. TLR2 KO mice also showed significantly lower protein level expression of UVB-induced IL-1β in ELISA and MMP-13 in Western blots. Our study demonstrated that TLR2 was associated with inflammatory responses to repetitive UVB irradiation in C57/BL6 mice. Moreover, it suggests that the role of TLR2 in the cutaneous response of UV irradiation and in developing new agents for modulating the effects of UV irradiation should be considered.

  12. The Deficiency of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Aggravates the CCl4-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ogiso, Hideyuki; Ito, Hiroyasu; Ando, Tatsuya; Arioka, Yuko; Kanbe, Ayumu; Ando, Kazuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Saito, Kuniaki; Hara, Akira; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Shimizu, Masahito; Seishima, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the role of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in the development of CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis. The liver fibrosis induced by repetitive administration with CCl4 was aggravated in IDO-KO mice compared to WT mice. In IDO-KO mice treated with CCl4, the number of several inflammatory cells and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines increased in the liver. In the results, activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and fibrogenic factors on HSCs increased after repetitive CCl4 administration in IDO-KO mice compared to WT mice. Moreover, the treatment with l-tryptophan aggravated the CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in WT mice. Our findings demonstrated that the IDO deficiency enhanced the inflammation in the liver and aggravated liver fibrosis in repetitive CCl4-treated mice. PMID:27598994

  13. The Deficiency of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Aggravates the CCl4-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ogiso, Hideyuki; Ito, Hiroyasu; Ando, Tatsuya; Arioka, Yuko; Kanbe, Ayumu; Ando, Kazuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Saito, Kuniaki; Hara, Akira; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Shimizu, Masahito; Seishima, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the role of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in the development of CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis. The liver fibrosis induced by repetitive administration with CCl4 was aggravated in IDO-KO mice compared to WT mice. In IDO-KO mice treated with CCl4, the number of several inflammatory cells and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines increased in the liver. In the results, activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and fibrogenic factors on HSCs increased after repetitive CCl4 administration in IDO-KO mice compared to WT mice. Moreover, the treatment with l-tryptophan aggravated the CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in WT mice. Our findings demonstrated that the IDO deficiency enhanced the inflammation in the liver and aggravated liver fibrosis in repetitive CCl4-treated mice.

  14. Accelerated retinal aging in PACAP knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Kovács-Valasek, Andrea; Szabadfi, Krisztina; Dénes, Viktória; Szalontai, Bálint; Tamás, Andrea; Kiss, Péter; Szabó, Aliz; Setalo, Gyorgy; Reglődi, Dóra; Gábriel, Robert

    2017-02-13

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neurotrophic and neuroprotective peptide. PACAP and its receptors are widely distributed in the retina. A number of reports provided evidence that PACAP is neuroprotective in retinal degenerations. The current study compared retina cell type-specific differences in young (3-4months) and aged adults (14-16months), of wild-type (WT) mice and knock-out (KO) mice lacking endogenous PACAP production during the course of aging. Histological, immunocytochemical and Western blot examinations were performed. The staining for standard neurochemical markers (tyrosine hydroxylase for dopaminergic cells, calbindin 28 kDa for horizontal cells, protein kinase Cα for rod bipolar cells) of young adult PACAP KO retinas showed no substantial alterations compared to young adult WT retinas, except for the specific PACAP receptor (PAC1-R) staining. We could not detect PAC1-R immunoreactivity in bipolar and horizontal cells in young adult PACAP KO animals. Some other age-related changes were observed only in the PACAP KO mice only. These alterations included horizontal and rod bipolar cell dendritic sprouting into the photoreceptor layer and decreased ganglion cell number. Also, Müller glial cells showed elevated GFAP expression compared to the aging WT retinas. Furthermore, Western blot analyses revealed significant differences between the phosphorylation state of ERK1/2 and JNK in KO mice, indicating alterations in the MAPK signaling pathway. These results support the conclusion that endogenous PACAP contributes to protection against aging of the nervous system.

  15. Expression of anion exchanger 3 influences respiratory rate in awake and isoflurane anesthetized mice.

    PubMed

    Meier, S; Hübner, C A; Groeben, H; Peters, J; Bingmann, D; Wiemann, M

    2007-11-01

    The anion exchanger 3 (AE3) is involved in neuronal pH regulation of which may include chemosensitive neurons. Here we examined the effect of AE3 expression on respiratory rate (RR) in vivo. AE3 knockout (KO, n=5) and wild type (WT, n=6) mice were subjected to body plethysmography, both while awake and during isoflurane anesthesia. RR was significantly lower in awake AE3 KO (162+/-7SE min(-1)) than in WT mice (212+/-20 min(-1), P=0.036). The same was found during isoflurane anesthesia at 0.5 MAC (KO: 123+/-9 min(-1), WT: 168+/-15 min(-1), P=0.026) and 1.0 MAC (KO: 51+/-6 min(-1), WT: 94+/-6 min(-1), P=0.001). Hypercapnia (5% CO2) increased RR in awake and decreased RR in nesthetized (1.0 MAC) mice, whereby relative changes were larger in AE3 KO mice. Recovery from isoflurane anesthesia in respect to RR regaining baseline values was more pronounced in AE3 KO. Results show that AE3 expression profoundly influences control of breathing in mice.

  16. TGFbeta inducible early gene-1 knockout mice display defects in bone strength and microarchitecture.

    PubMed

    Bensamoun, Sabine F; Hawse, John R; Subramaniam, Malayannan; Ilharreborde, Brice; Bassillais, Armelle; Benhamou, Claude L; Fraser, Daniel G; Oursler, Merry J; Amadio, Peter C; An, Kai-Nan; Spelsberg, Thomas C

    2006-12-01

    TGFbeta inducible early gene-1 (TIEG) is a member of the Sp/Krüppel-like transcription factor family originally cloned from human osteoblasts. We have previously demonstrated that TIEG plays a role in the expression of important osteoblast marker genes and in the maturation/differentiation of osteoblasts. To elucidate the function of TIEG in skeletal development and maintenance, we have generated a TIEG knockout (KO) mouse. Three-point bending tests demonstrated that the femurs of TIEG KO mice are significantly weaker than those of wild-type animals. pQCT analysis of tibias revealed significant decreases in bone content, density and size in KO animals compared to wild-type mice. Micro-CT analysis of the femoral head and vertebrae revealed increases in femoral head trabecular separation and decreases in cortical bone thickness and vertebral bone volume in KO mice relative to wild-type controls. In addition, electron microscopy indicated a significant decrease in osteocyte number in the femurs of KO mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the bones of TIEG KO mice display an osteopenic phenotype with significantly weaker bones and reduced amounts of cortical and trabecular bone. In summary, an important role for TIEG in skeletal development and/or homeostasis is indicated.

  17. Decellularized GGTA1-KO pig heart valves do not bind preformed human xenoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Ramm, Robert; Niemann, Heiner; Petersen, Björn; Haverich, Axel; Hilfiker, Andres

    2016-07-01

    Pre-clinical and clinical data have unequivocally demonstrated the usefulness of decellularized heart valve (HV) matrices implanted for HV replacement therapy. However, human donor valves applicable for decellularization are in short supply, which prompts the search for suitable alternatives, such as porcine grafts. Since decellularization might be insufficient to remove all xenoantigens, we analysed the interaction of human preformed antibodies with decellularized porcine HV in vitro to assess potential immune reactions upon implantation. Detergent-decellularized pulmonary HV from German Landrace wild-type (wt) or α1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout (GGTA1-KO) pigs were investigated by inhibition ELISA and GSL I-B4 staining to localize and quantify matrix-bound αGal epitopes, which represent the most prominent xenoantigen. Additionally, preformed human xenoantibodies were affinity purified by perfusing porcine kidneys. Binding of purified human antibodies to decellularized HV was investigated by inhibition ELISA. Furthermore, binding of human plasma proteins to decellularized matrices was determined by western blot. Decellularized human pulmonary artery served as controls. Decellularization of wt HV led to a reduction of αGal epitopes by 70 %. Residual epitopes were associated with the subendothelial extracellular matrix. As expected, no αGal epitopes were found on decellularized GGTA1-KO matrix. The strongest binding of preformed human anti-pig antibodies was found on wt matrices, whereas GGTA1-KO matrices bound similar or even fewer xenoantibodies than human controls. These results demonstrate the suitability of GGTA1-KO pigs as donors for decellularized heart valves for human patients. Besides the presence of αGal antibodies on decellularized heart valves, no further preformed xenoantibodies against porcine matrix were detected in tested human sera.

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Lichen-Forming Fungus Cladonia metacorallifera Strain KoLRI002260

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sook-Young; Choi, Jaeyoung; Lee, Gir-Won; Kim, Jung A; Oh, Soon-Ok; Jeong, Min-Hye; Yu, Nan-Hee; Kim, Soonok

    2014-01-01

    The lichen-forming fungus Cladonia metacorallifera strain KoLRI002260 is capable of producing a number of secondary metabolites, including usnic, didymic, and squamatic acids, which have antitumor, antioxidant, and antibiotic activities. The draft genome assembly has a size of 36,682,060 bp, with a G+C content of 44.91%, and consists of 30 scaffolds. PMID:24526650

  19. Delayed liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in adiponectin knockout mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ezaki, Hisao; Yoshida, Yuichi; Saji, Yukiko; Takemura, Takayo; Fukushima, Juichi; Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Kamada, Yoshihiro; Wada, Akira; Igura, Takumi; Kihara, Shinji; Funahashi, Tohru; Shimomura, Iichiro; Tamura, Shinji; Kiso, Shinichi Hayashi, Norio

    2009-01-02

    We previously demonstrated that adiponectin has anti-fibrogenic and anti-inflammatory effects in the liver of mouse models of various liver diseases. However, its role in liver regeneration remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the role of adiponectin in liver regeneration. We assessed liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in wild-type (WT) and adiponectin knockout (KO) mice. We analyzed DNA replication and various signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation and metabolism. Adiponectin KO mice exhibited delayed DNA replication and increased lipid accumulation in the regenerating liver. The expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) {alpha} and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1), a key enzyme in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, were decreased in adiponectin KO mice, suggesting possible contribution of altered fat metabolism to these phenomena. Collectively, the present results highlight a new role for adiponectin in the process of liver regeneration.

  20. Neurolysin knockout mice generation and initial phenotype characterization.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Diogo M L P; Castro, Leandro M; Rosa Neto, José C; Seelaender, Marilia; Neves, Rodrigo X; Oliveira, Vitor; Forti, Fábio L; Iwai, Leo K; Gozzo, Fabio C; Todiras, Mihail; Schadock, Ines; Barros, Carlos C; Bader, Michael; Ferro, Emer S

    2014-05-30

    The oligopeptidase neurolysin (EC 3.4.24.16; Nln) was first identified in rat brain synaptic membranes and shown to ubiquitously participate in the catabolism of bioactive peptides such as neurotensin and bradykinin. Recently, it was suggested that Nln reduction could improve insulin sensitivity. Here, we have shown that Nln KO mice have increased glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and gluconeogenesis. KO mice have increased liver mRNA for several genes related to gluconeogenesis. Isotopic label semiquantitative peptidomic analysis suggests an increase in specific intracellular peptides in gastrocnemius and epididymal adipose tissue, which likely is involved with the increased glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in the KO mice. These results suggest the exciting new possibility that Nln is a key enzyme for energy metabolism and could be a novel therapeutic target to improve glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity.

  1. Neurolysin Knockout Mice Generation and Initial Phenotype Characterization*

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcanti, Diogo M. L. P.; Castro, Leandro M.; Rosa Neto, José C.; Seelaender, Marilia; Neves, Rodrigo X.; Oliveira, Vitor; Forti, Fábio L.; Iwai, Leo K.; Gozzo, Fabio C.; Todiras, Mihail; Schadock, Ines; Barros, Carlos C.; Bader, Michael; Ferro, Emer S.

    2014-01-01

    The oligopeptidase neurolysin (EC 3.4.24.16; Nln) was first identified in rat brain synaptic membranes and shown to ubiquitously participate in the catabolism of bioactive peptides such as neurotensin and bradykinin. Recently, it was suggested that Nln reduction could improve insulin sensitivity. Here, we have shown that Nln KO mice have increased glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and gluconeogenesis. KO mice have increased liver mRNA for several genes related to gluconeogenesis. Isotopic label semiquantitative peptidomic analysis suggests an increase in specific intracellular peptides in gastrocnemius and epididymal adipose tissue, which likely is involved with the increased glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in the KO mice. These results suggest the exciting new possibility that Nln is a key enzyme for energy metabolism and could be a novel therapeutic target to improve glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity. PMID:24719317

  2. Maternal profiling of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 2 deficient mice in association with restraint stress.

    PubMed

    D'Anna, Kimberly L; Stevenson, Sharon A; Gammie, Stephen C

    2008-11-19

    Mice deficient in corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 2 (CRF2) (C57BL/6J:129Sv background) exhibit impaired maternal defense (protection of offspring) and are more reactive to stressors than wild-type mice. To further understand CRF2's role in maternal behavior, we crossed the knockout mice with a line bred for high maternal defense that also has elevated maternal care relative to inbred lines. Maternal care was normal in knockout mice (relative to wild-type). Maternal defense was impaired as previously observed. Exposure to a mild stressor (15 min restraint) did not trigger deficits in maternal defense in either genotype as determined by a two-way repeated measures ANOVA analysis. However, when examining difference scores between unrestrained and restrained conditions, knockout mice exhibited significant decreases in maternal defense with stress, suggesting knockouts are more susceptible to a mild stressor's effects. To gain possible insights into brain activity differences between WT and KO mice, we examined c-Fos expression in association with stress. Unrestrained KO mice exhibited significantly lower c-Fos levels relative to unrestrained WT mice in 9 regions, including lateral septum and periaqueductal gray. For WT mice, restraint stress triggered c-Fos activity increases in 3 regions while for KO mice, restraint stress triggered c-Fos increases in 16 regions. Taken together, our results suggest both altered behavioral and c-Fos responses to stress in lactating CRF2 KO mice.

  3. Automated genome annotation and pathway identification using the KEGG Orthology (KO) as a controlled vocabulary.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xizeng; Cai, Tao; Olyarchuk, John G; Wei, Liping

    2005-10-01

    High-throughput technologies such as DNA sequencing and microarrays have created the need for automated annotation of large sets of genes, including whole genomes, and automated identification of pathways. Ontologies, such as the popular Gene Ontology (GO), provide a common controlled vocabulary for these types of automated analysis. Yet, while GO offers tremendous value, it also has certain limitations such as the lack of direct association with pathways. We demonstrated the use of the KEGG Orthology (KO), part of the KEGG suite of resources, as an alternative controlled vocabulary for automated annotation and pathway identification. We developed a KO-Based Annotation System (KOBAS) that can automatically annotate a set of sequences with KO terms and identify both the most frequent and the statistically significantly enriched pathways. Results from both whole genome and microarray gene cluster annotations with KOBAS are comparable and complementary to known annotations. KOBAS is a freely available stand-alone Python program that can contribute significantly to genome annotation and microarray analysis.

  4. Reduced binding of human antibodies to cells from GGTA1/CMAH KO pigs.

    PubMed

    Burlak, C; Paris, L L; Lutz, A J; Sidner, R A; Estrada, J; Li, P; Tector, M; Tector, A J

    2014-08-01

    Xenotransplantation using genetically modified pig organs could solve the donor organ shortage problem. Two inactivated genes that make humans unique from pigs are GGTA1 and CMAH, the products of which produce the carbohydrate epitopes, aGal and Neu5Gc that attract preformed human antibody. When the GGTA1 and CMAH genes were deleted in pigs, human antibody binding was reduced in preliminary analysis. We analyzed the binding of human IgM and IgG from 121 healthy human serum samples for binding to GGTA1 KO and GGTA1/CMAH KO peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We analyzed a sub population for reactivity toward genetically modified pig PBMCs as compared to chimpanzee and human PBMCs. Deletion of the GGTA1 and CMAH genes in pigs improved the crossmatch results beyond those observed with chimpanzees. Sorting the 121 human samples tested against the GGTA1/CMAH KO pig PBMCs did not reveal a distinguishing feature such as blood group, age or gender. Modification of genes to make pig carbohydrates more similar to humans has improved the crossmatch with human serum significantly. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  5. Kdo hydroxylase is an inner core assembly enzyme in the Ko-containing lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hak Suk; Yang, Eun Gyeong; Hwang, Dohyeon; Lee, Ji Eun; Guan, Ziqiang; Raetz, Christian R H

    2014-09-26

    The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) isolated from certain important Gram-negative pathogens including a human pathogen Yersinia pestis and opportunistic pathogens Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei contains d-glycero-d-talo-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Ko), an isosteric analog of 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo). Kdo 3-hydroxylase (KdoO), a Fe(2+)/α-KG/O2 dependent dioxygenase from Burkholderia ambifaria and Yersinia pestis is responsible for Ko formation with Kdo2-lipid A as a substrate, but in which stage KdoO functions during the LPS biosynthesis has not been established. Here we purify KdoO from B. ambifaria (BaKdoO) to homogeneity for the first time and characterize its substrates. BaKdoO utilizes Kdo2-lipid IVA or Kdo2-lipid A as a substrate, but not Kdo-lipid IVAin vivo as well as in vitro and Kdo-(Hep)kdo-lipid A in vitro. These data suggest that KdoO is an inner core assembly enzyme that functions after the Kdo-transferase KdtA but before the heptosyl-transferase WaaC enzyme during the Ko-containing LPS biosynthesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Elementary model of severe plastic deformation by KoBo process

    SciTech Connect

    Gusak, A.; Storozhuk, N.; Danielewski, M. Korbel, A.; Bochniak, M.

    2014-01-21

    Self-consistent model of generation, interaction, and annihilation of point defects in the gradient of oscillating stresses is presented. This model describes the recently suggested method of severe plastic deformation by combination of pressure and oscillating rotations of the die along the billet axis (KoBo process). Model provides the existence of distinct zone of reduced viscosity with sharply increased concentration of point defects. This zone provides the high extrusion velocity. Presented model confirms that the Severe Plastic Deformation (SPD) in KoBo may be treated as non-equilibrium phase transition of abrupt drop of viscosity in rather well defined spatial zone. In this very zone, an intensive lateral rotational movement proceeds together with generation of point defects which in self-organized manner make rotation possible by the decrease of viscosity. The special properties of material under KoBo version of SPD can be described without using the concepts of nonequilibrium grain boundaries, ballistic jumps and amorphization. The model can be extended to include different SPD processes.

  7. Elementary model of severe plastic deformation by KoBo process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusak, A.; Danielewski, M.; Korbel, A.; Bochniak, M.; Storozhuk, N.

    2014-01-01

    Self-consistent model of generation, interaction, and annihilation of point defects in the gradient of oscillating stresses is presented. This model describes the recently suggested method of severe plastic deformation by combination of pressure and oscillating rotations of the die along the billet axis (KoBo process). Model provides the existence of distinct zone of reduced viscosity with sharply increased concentration of point defects. This zone provides the high extrusion velocity. Presented model confirms that the Severe Plastic Deformation (SPD) in KoBo may be treated as non-equilibrium phase transition of abrupt drop of viscosity in rather well defined spatial zone. In this very zone, an intensive lateral rotational movement proceeds together with generation of point defects which in self-organized manner make rotation possible by the decrease of viscosity. The special properties of material under KoBo version of SPD can be described without using the concepts of nonequilibrium grain boundaries, ballistic jumps and amorphization. The model can be extended to include different SPD processes.

  8. What have we learned about GPER function in physiology and disease from knockout mice?

    PubMed Central

    Prossnitz, Eric R.; Hathaway, Helen J.

    2015-01-01

    Estrogens, predominantly 17β-estradiol, exert diverse effects throughout the body in both normal and patho-physiology, during development and in reproductive, metabolic, endocrine, cardiovascular, nervous, musculoskeletal and immune systems. Estrogen and its receptors also play important roles in carcinogenesis and therapy, particularly for breast cancer. In addition to the classical nuclear estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) that traditionally mediate predominantly genomic signaling, the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor GPER has become recognized as a critical mediator of rapid signaling in response to estrogen. Mouse models, and in particular knockout (KO) mice, represent an important approach to understand the functions of receptors in normal physiology and disease. Whereas ERα KO mice display multiple significant defects in reproduction and mammary gland development, ERβ KO phenotypes are more limited, and GPER KO exhibit no reproductive deficits. However, the study of GPER KO mice over the last six years has revealed that GPER deficiency results in multiple physiological alterations including obesity, cardiovascular dysfunction, insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. In addition, the lack of estrogen-mediated effects in numerous tissues of GPER KO mice, studied in vivo or ex vivo, including those of the cardiovascular, endocrine, nervous and immune systems, reveals GPER as a genuine mediator of estrogen action. Importantly, GPER KO mice have also revealed roles for GPER in breast carcinogenesis and metastasis. In combination with the supporting effects of GPER-selective ligands and GPER knockdown approaches, GPER KO mice demonstrate the therapeutic potential of targeting GPER activity in diseases as diverse as obesity, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, hypertension, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, stroke and cancer. PMID:26189910

  9. What have we learned about GPER function in physiology and disease from knockout mice?

    PubMed

    Prossnitz, Eric R; Hathaway, Helen J

    2015-09-01

    Estrogens, predominantly 17β-estradiol, exert diverse effects throughout the body in both normal and pathophysiology, during development and in reproductive, metabolic, endocrine, cardiovascular, nervous, musculoskeletal and immune systems. Estrogen and its receptors also play important roles in carcinogenesis and therapy, particularly for breast cancer. In addition to the classical nuclear estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) that traditionally mediate predominantly genomic signaling, the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor GPER has become recognized as a critical mediator of rapid signaling in response to estrogen. Mouse models, and in particular knockout (KO) mice, represent an important approach to understand the functions of receptors in normal physiology and disease. Whereas ERα KO mice display multiple significant defects in reproduction and mammary gland development, ERβ KO phenotypes are more limited, and GPER KO exhibit no reproductive deficits. However, the study of GPER KO mice over the last six years has revealed that GPER deficiency results in multiple physiological alterations including obesity, cardiovascular dysfunction, insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. In addition, the lack of estrogen-mediated effects in numerous tissues of GPER KO mice, studied in vivo or ex vivo, including those of the cardiovascular, endocrine, nervous and immune systems, reveals GPER as a genuine mediator of estrogen action. Importantly, GPER KO mice have also demonstrated roles for GPER in breast carcinogenesis and metastasis. In combination with the supporting effects of GPER-selective ligands and GPER knockdown approaches, GPER KO mice demonstrate the therapeutic potential of targeting GPER activity in diseases as diverse as obesity, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, hypertension, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, stroke and cancer. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Functional β-Adrenoceptors Are Important for Early Muscle Regeneration in Mice through Effects on Myoblast Proliferation and Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Church, Jarrod E.; Trieu, Jennifer; Sheorey, Radhika; Chee, Annabel Y. -M.; Naim, Timur; Baum, Dale M.; Ryall, James G.; Gregorevic, Paul; Lynch, Gordon S.

    2014-01-01

    Muscles can be injured in different ways and the trauma and subsequent loss of function and physical capacity can impact significantly on the lives of patients through physical impairments and compromised quality of life. The relative success of muscle repair after injury will largely determine the extent of functional recovery. Unfortunately, regenerative processes are often slow and incomplete, and so developing novel strategies to enhance muscle regeneration is important. While the capacity to enhance muscle repair by stimulating β2-adrenoceptors (β-ARs) using β2-AR agonists (β2-agonists) has been demonstrated previously, the exact role β-ARs play in regulating the regenerative process remains unclear. To investigate β-AR-mediated signaling in muscle regeneration after myotoxic damage, we examined the regenerative capacity of tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus muscles from mice lacking either β1-AR (β1-KO) and/or β2-ARs (β2-KO), testing the hypothesis that muscles from mice lacking the β2-AR would exhibit impaired functional regeneration after damage compared with muscles from β1-KO or β1/β2-AR null (β1/β2-KO) KO mice. At 7 days post-injury, regenerating muscles from β1/β2-KO mice produced less force than those of controls but muscles from β1-KO or β2-KO mice did not exhibit any delay in functional restoration. Compared with controls, β1/β2-KO mice exhibited an enhanced inflammatory response to injury, which delayed early muscle regeneration, but an enhanced myoblast proliferation later during regeneration ensured a similar functional recovery (to controls) by 14 days post-injury. This apparent redundancy in the β-AR signaling pathway was unexpected and may have important implications for manipulating β-AR signaling to improve the rate, extent and efficacy of muscle regeneration to enhance functional recovery after injury. PMID:25000590

  11. Age-related changes of anandamide metabolism in CB1 cannabinoid receptor knockout mice: correlation with behaviour.

    PubMed

    Maccarrone, Mauro; Valverde, Olga; Barbaccia, Maria L; Castañé, Anna; Maldonado, Rafael; Ledent, Catherine; Parmentier, Marc; Finazzi-Agrò, Alessandro

    2002-04-01

    Anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine, AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) are the most active endocannabinoids at brain (CB1) cannabinoid receptors. CD1 mice lacking the CB1 receptors ("knockout" [KO] mutants) were compared with wildtype (WT) littermates for their ability to degrade AEA through an AEA membrane transporter (AMT) and an AEA hydrolase (fatty acid amide hydrolase, FAAH). The age dependence of AMT and FAAH activity were investigated in 1- or 4-month-old WT and KO animals, and found to increase with age in KO, but not WT, mice and to be higher in the hippocampus than in the cortex of all animals. AEA and 2-AG were detected in nmol/mg protein (microm) concentrations in both regions, though the hippocampus showed approximately twice the amount found in the cortex. In the same regions, 2-AG failed to change across groups, while AEA was significantly decreased (approximately 30%) in hippocampus, but not in cortex, of old KO mice, when compared with young KO or age-matched WT animals. In the open-field test under bright light and in the lit-dark exploration model of anxiety, young KO mice, compared with old KO, exhibited a mild anxiety-related behaviour. In contrast, neither the increase in memory performance assessed by the object recognition test, nor the reduction of morphine withdrawal symptoms, showed age dependence in CB1 KO mice. These results suggest that invalidation of the CB1 receptor gene is associated with age-dependent adaptive changes of endocannabinoid metabolism which appear to correlate with the waning of the anxiety-like behaviour exhibited by young CB1 KO mice.

  12. Feeding-elicited cataplexy in orexin knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Clark, E L; Baumann, C R; Cano, G; Scammell, T E; Mochizuki, T

    2009-07-21

    Mice lacking orexin/hypocretin signaling have sudden episodes of atonia and paralysis during active wakefulness. These events strongly resemble cataplexy, episodes of sudden muscle weakness triggered by strong positive emotions in people with narcolepsy, but it remains unknown whether murine cataplexy is triggered by positive emotions. To determine whether positive emotions elicit murine cataplexy, we placed orexin knockout (KO) mice on a scheduled feeding protocol with regular or highly palatable food. Baseline sleep/wake behavior was recorded with ad libitum regular chow. Mice were then placed on a scheduled feeding protocol in which they received 60% of their normal amount of chow 3 h after dark onset for the next 10 days. Wild-type and KO mice rapidly entrained to scheduled feeding with regular chow, with more wake and locomotor activity prior to the feeding time. On day 10 of scheduled feeding, orexin KO mice had slightly more cataplexy during the food-anticipation period and more cataplexy in the second half of the dark period, when they may have been foraging for residual food. To test whether more palatable food increases cataplexy, mice were then switched to scheduled feeding with an isocaloric amount of Froot Loops, a food often used as a reward in behavioral studies. With this highly palatable food, orexin KO mice had much more cataplexy during the food-anticipation period and throughout the dark period. The increase in cataplexy with scheduled feeding, especially with highly palatable food, suggests that positive emotions may trigger cataplexy in mice, just as in people with narcolepsy. Establishing this connection helps validate orexin KO mice as an excellent model of human narcolepsy and provides an opportunity to better understand the mechanisms that trigger cataplexy.

  13. Host resistance of CD18 knockout mice against systemic infection with Listeria monocytogenes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Huaizhu; Prince, Joseph E.; Brayton, Cory F.; Shah, Chirayu; Zeve, Daniel; Gregory, Stephen H.; Smith, C. Wayne; Ballantyne, Christie M.

    2003-01-01

    Mice with targeted mutations of CD18, the common beta2 subunit of CD11/CD18 integrins, have leukocytosis, impaired transendothelial neutrophil emigration, and reduced host defense to Streptococcus pneumoniae, a gram-positive extracellular bacterium. Previous studies using blocking monoclonal antibodies suggested roles for CD18 and CD11b in hepatic neutrophil recruitment and host innate response to Listeria monocytogenes, a gram-positive intracellular bacterium. We induced systemic listeriosis in CD18 knockout (CD18-ko) and wild-type (WT) mice by tail vein injection with Listeria. By 14 days postinjection (dpi), 8 of 10 WT mice died, compared with 2 of 10 CD18-ko mice (P < 0.01). Quantitative organ culture showed that numbers of Listeria organisms in livers and spleens were similar in both groups at 20 min postinfection. By 3, 5, and 7 dpi, however, numbers of Listeria organisms were significantly lower in livers and spleens of CD18-ko mice than in WT mice. Histopathology showed that following Listeria infection, CD18-ko mice had milder inflammatory and necrotizing lesions in both spleens and livers than did WT mice. Cytokine assays indicated that baseline interleukin-1beta and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) levels were higher in CD18-ko mice than in WT mice and that CD18-ko splenocytes produced higher levels of interleukin-1beta and G-CSF than WT splenocytes under the same amount of Listeria stimulation. These findings show that CD18 is not an absolute requirement for antilisterial innate immunity or hepatic neutrophil recruitment. We propose that the absence of CD18 in the mice results in the priming of innate immunity, as evidenced by elevated cytokine expression, and neutrophilic leukocytosis, which augments antilisterial defense.

  14. Role of CB2 receptors in social and aggressive behavior in male mice.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Arias, Marta; Navarrete, Francisco; Blanco-Gandia, M Carmen; Arenas, M Carmen; Aguilar, María A; Bartoll-Andrés, Adrián; Valverde, Olga; Miñarro, José; Manzanares, Jorge

    2015-08-01

    Male CB1KO mice exhibit stronger aggressive responses than wild-type mice. This study was designed to examine the role of cannabinoid CB2r in social and aggressive behavior. The social interaction test and resident-intruder paradigm were performed in mice lacking CB2r (CB2KO) and in wild-type (WT) littermates. The effects of the CB2r selective agonist JWH133 (1 and 2 mg/kg) on aggression were also evaluated in Oncins France 1 (OF1) mice. Gene expression analyses of monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT), 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter (5-HTT), and 5-HT1B receptor (5HT1Br) in the dorsal raphe nuclei (DR) and the amygdala (AMY) were carried out using real-time PCR. Group-housed CB2KO mice exhibited higher levels of aggression in the social interaction test and displayed more aggression than resident WT mice. Isolation increased aggressive behavior in WT mice but did not affect CB2KO animals; however, the latter mice exhibited higher levels of social interaction with their WT counterparts. MAO-A and 5-HTT gene expression was significantly higher in grouped CB2KO mice. The expression of 5HT1Br, COMT, and MAO-A in the AMY was more pronounced in CB2KO mice than in WT counterparts. Acute administration of the CB2 agonist JWH133 significantly reduced the level of aggression in aggressive isolated OF1 mice, an effect that decreased after pretreatment with the CB2 receptor antagonist AM630. Our results suggest that CB2r is implicated in social interaction and aggressive behavior and deserves further consideration as a potential new target for the management of aggression.

  15. Host resistance of CD18 knockout mice against systemic infection with Listeria monocytogenes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Huaizhu; Prince, Joseph E.; Brayton, Cory F.; Shah, Chirayu; Zeve, Daniel; Gregory, Stephen H.; Smith, C. Wayne; Ballantyne, Christie M.

    2003-01-01

    Mice with targeted mutations of CD18, the common beta2 subunit of CD11/CD18 integrins, have leukocytosis, impaired transendothelial neutrophil emigration, and reduced host defense to Streptococcus pneumoniae, a gram-positive extracellular bacterium. Previous studies using blocking monoclonal antibodies suggested roles for CD18 and CD11b in hepatic neutrophil recruitment and host innate response to Listeria monocytogenes, a gram-positive intracellular bacterium. We induced systemic listeriosis in CD18 knockout (CD18-ko) and wild-type (WT) mice by tail vein injection with Listeria. By 14 days postinjection (dpi), 8 of 10 WT mice died, compared with 2 of 10 CD18-ko mice (P < 0.01). Quantitative organ culture showed that numbers of Listeria organisms in livers and spleens were similar in both groups at 20 min postinfection. By 3, 5, and 7 dpi, however, numbers of Listeria organisms were significantly lower in livers and spleens of CD18-ko mice than in WT mice. Histopathology showed that following Listeria infection, CD18-ko mice had milder inflammatory and necrotizing lesions in both spleens and livers than did WT mice. Cytokine assays indicated that baseline interleukin-1beta and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) levels were higher in CD18-ko mice than in WT mice and that CD18-ko splenocytes produced higher levels of interleukin-1beta and G-CSF than WT splenocytes under the same amount of Listeria stimulation. These findings show that CD18 is not an absolute requirement for antilisterial innate immunity or hepatic neutrophil recruitment. We propose that the absence of CD18 in the mice results in the priming of innate immunity, as evidenced by elevated cytokine expression, and neutrophilic leukocytosis, which augments antilisterial defense.

  16. Anti-depressant and anxiolytic like behaviors in PKCI/HINT1 knockout mice associated with elevated plasma corticosterone level.

    PubMed

    Barbier, Elisabeth; Wang, Jia Bei

    2009-11-13

    Protein kinase C interacting protein (PKCI/HINT1) is a small protein belonging to the histidine triad (HIT) family proteins. Its brain immunoreactivity is located in neurons and neuronal processes. PKCI/HINT1 gene knockout (KO) mice display hyper-locomotion in response to D-amphetamine which is considered a positive symptom of schizophrenia in animal models. Postmortem studies identified PKCI/HINT1 as a candidate molecule for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We investigated the hypothesis that the PKCI/HINT1 gene may play an important role in regulating mood function in the CNS. We submitted PKCI/HINT1 KO mice and their wild type (WT) littermates to behavioral tests used to study anti-depressant, anxiety like behaviors, and goal-oriented behavior. Additionally, as many mood disorders coincide with modifications of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, we assessed the HPA activity through measurement of plasma corticosterone levels. Compared to the WT controls, KO mice exhibited less immobility in the forced swim (FST) and the tail suspension (TST) tests. Activity in the TST tended to be attenuated by acute treatment with valproate at 300 mg/kg in KO mice. The PKCI/HINT1 KO mice presented less thigmotaxis in the Morris water maze and spent progressively more time in the lit compartment in the light/dark test. In a place navigation task, KO mice exhibited enhanced acquisition and retention. Furthermore, the afternoon basal plasma corticosterone level in PKCI/HINT1 KO mice was significantly higher than in the WT. PKCI/HINT1 KO mice displayed a phenotype of behavioral and endocrine features which indicate changes of mood function, including anxiolytic-like and anti-depressant like behaviors, in conjunction with an elevated corticosterone level in plasma. These results suggest that the PKCI/HINT 1 gene could be important for the mood regulation function in the CNS.

  17. Anti-depressant and anxiolytic like behaviors in PKCI/HINT1 knockout mice associated with elevated plasma corticosterone level

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Protein kinase C interacting protein (PKCI/HINT1) is a small protein belonging to the histidine triad (HIT) family proteins. Its brain immunoreactivity is located in neurons and neuronal processes. PKCI/HINT1 gene knockout (KO) mice display hyper-locomotion in response to D-amphetamine which is considered a positive symptom of schizophrenia in animal models. Postmortem studies identified PKCI/HINT1 as a candidate molecule for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We investigated the hypothesis that the PKCI/HINT1 gene may play an important role in regulating mood function in the CNS. We submitted PKCI/HINT1 KO mice and their wild type (WT) littermates to behavioral tests used to study anti-depressant, anxiety like behaviors, and goal-oriented behavior. Additionally, as many mood disorders coincide with modifications of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, we assessed the HPA activity through measurement of plasma corticosterone levels. Results Compared to the WT controls, KO mice exhibited less immobility in the forced swim (FST) and the tail suspension (TST) tests. Activity in the TST tended to be attenuated by acute treatment with valproate at 300 mg/kg in KO mice. The PKCI/HINT1 KO mice presented less thigmotaxis in the Morris water maze and spent progressively more time in the lit compartment in the light/dark test. In a place navigation task, KO mice exhibited enhanced acquisition and retention. Furthermore, the afternoon basal plasma corticosterone level in PKCI/HINT1 KO mice was significantly higher than in the WT. Conclusion PKCI/HINT1 KO mice displayed a phenotype of behavioral and endocrine features which indicate changes of mood function, including anxiolytic-like and anti-depressant like behaviors, in conjunction with an elevated corticosterone level in plasma. These results suggest that the PKCI/HINT 1 gene could be important for the mood regulation function in the CNS. PMID:19912621

  18. Lack of endogenous IL-10 enhances production of proinflammatory cytokines and leads to Brucella abortus clearance in mice.

    PubMed

    Corsetti, Patrícia P; de Almeida, Leonardo A; Carvalho, Natália B; Azevedo, Vasco; Silva, Teane M A; Teixeira, Henrique C; Faria, Ana C; Oliveira, Sergio C

    2013-01-01

    IL-10 is a cytokine that regulates the balance between pathogen clearance and immunopathology. Brucella abortus is an intracellular bacterium that causes chronic disease in humans and domestic animals. Here we evaluated the contribution of IL-10 in host immune response and pathology during B. abortus infection. To assess the role of IL-10 in vivo, IL-10 knockout (KO) or 129 Sv/Ev (wild-type) mice were infected with B. abortus and the number of viable bacteria from the spleen was determined at 1, 2, 3, 6 and 14-weeks postinfection. IL-10 KO mice showed reduced bacterial loads in the spleen when compared to wild-type mice during all time points studied. Additionally, at 14-weeks postinfection IL-10 KO mice had totally cleared the infection. This clearance was preceded by an enhanced IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-17 responses in both the serum and the spleen of IL-10 KO mice. Additionally, dendritic cells from infected IL-10 KO mice produced elevated levels of IL-12 and TNF-α compared to wild-type animals. Histopathology analysis was performed and both KO and wild-type mice developed multifocal granulomas and necrosis in the liver. However, at six-weeks postinfection reduced numbers of granulomas was detected in IL-10 KO mice compared to wild-type animals. This reduced liver pathology at later stage of infection was accompanied by increased numbers of CD4+CD25+foxp3+ T cells and expression of TGF-β in IL-10 KO splenocytes. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that IL-10 modulates the proinflammatory immune response to B. abortus infection and the lack of IL-10 increases resistance to Brucella infection.

  19. Somatostatin Is Essential for the Sexual Dimorphism of GH Secretion, Corticosteroid-Binding Globulin Production, and Corticosterone Levels in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Jessica M.; Otero-Corchon, Veronica; Hammond, Geoffrey L.; Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Qi, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Distinct male and female patterns of pituitary GH secretion produce sexually differentiated hepatic gene expression profiles, thereby influencing steroid and xenobiotic metabolism. We used a fully automated system to obtain serial nocturnal blood samples every 15 minutes from cannulated wild-type (WT) and somatostatin knockout (Sst-KO) mice to determine the role of SST, the principal inhibitor of GH release, in the generation of sexually dimorphic GH pulsatility. WT males had lower mean and median GH values, less random GH secretory bursts, and longer trough periods between GH pulses than WT females. Each of these parameters was feminized in male Sst-KO mice, whereas female Sst-KO mice had higher GH levels than all other groups, but GH pulsatility was unaffected. We next performed hepatic mRNA profiling with high-density microarrays. Male Sst-KO mice exhibited a globally feminized pattern of GH-dependent mRNA levels, but female Sst-KO mice were largely unaffected. Among the differentially expressed female-predominant genes was Serpina6, which encodes corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG). Increased CBG was associated with elevated diurnal peak plasma corticosterone in unstressed WT females and both sexes of Sst-KO mice compared with WT males. Sst-KO mice also had exaggerated ACTH and corticosterone responses to acute restraint stress. However, consistent with their lack of phenotypic signs of excess glucocorticoids, cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of free corticosterone in Sst-KO mice were not elevated. In summary, SST is necessary for the prolonged interpulse troughs that define masculinized pituitary GH secretion. SST also contributes to sexual dimorphism of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis via GH-dependent regulation of hepatic CBG production. PMID:25551181

  20. Mice lacking hypertension candidate gene ATP2B1 in vascular smooth muscle cells show significant blood pressure elevation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yusuke; Hirawa, Nobuhito; Tabara, Yasuharu; Muraoka, Hidenori; Fujita, Megumi; Miyazaki, Nobuko; Fujiwara, Akira; Ichikawa, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Yuichiro; Ichihara, Naoaki; Saka, Sanae; Wakui, Hiromichi; Yoshida, Shin-ichiro; Yatsu, Keisuke; Toya, Yoshiyuki; Yasuda, Gen; Kohara, Katsuhiko; Kita, Yoshikuni; Takei, Kohtaro; Goshima, Yoshio; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Miki, Tetsuro; Umemura, Satoshi

    2012-04-01

    We reported previously that ATP2B1 was one of the genes for hypertension receptivity in a large-scale Japanese population, which has been replicated recently in Europeans and Koreans. ATP2B1 encodes the plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoform 1, which plays a critical role in intracellular calcium homeostasis. In addition, it is suggested that ATP2B1 plays a major role in vascular smooth muscle contraction. Because the ATP2B1 knockout (KO) mouse is embryo-lethal, we generated mice with vascular smooth muscle cell-specific KO of ATP2B1 using the Cre-loxP system to clarify the relationship between ATP2B1 and hypertension. The KO mice expressed significantly lower levels of ATP2B1 mRNA and protein in the aorta compared with control mice. KO mice showed significantly higher systolic blood pressure as measured by tail-cuff method and radiotelemetric method. Similar to ATP2B1, the expression of the Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger isoform 1 mRNA was decreased in vascular smooth muscle cells of KO mice. However, ATP2B4 expression was increased in KO mice. The cultured vascular smooth muscle cells of KO mice showed increased intracellular calcium concentration not only in basal condition but also in phenylephrine-stimulated condition. Furthermore, phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction was significantly increased in vascular rings of the femoral artery of KO mice. These results suggest that ATP2B1 plays important roles in the regulation of blood pressure through alteration of calcium handling and vasoconstriction in vascular smooth muscle cells.

  1. Parturition failure in mice lacking Mamld1.

    PubMed

    Miyado, Mami; Miyado, Kenji; Katsumi, Momori; Saito, Kazuki; Nakamura, Akihiro; Shihara, Daizou; Ogata, Tsutomu; Fukami, Maki

    2015-10-05

    In mice, the onset of parturition is triggered by a rapid decline in circulating progesterone. Progesterone withdrawal occurs as a result of functional luteolysis, which is characterized by an increase in the enzymatic activity of 20α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20α-HSD) in the corpus luteum and is mediated by the prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) signaling. Here, we report that the genetic knockout (KO) of Mamld1, which encodes a putative non-DNA-binding regulator of testicular steroidogenesis, caused defective functional luteolysis and subsequent parturition failure and neonatal deaths. Progesterone receptor inhibition induced the onset of parturition in pregnant KO mice, and MAMLD1 regulated the expression of Akr1c18, the gene encoding 20α-HSD, in cultured cells. Ovaries of KO mice at late gestation were morphologically unremarkable; however, Akr1c18 expression was reduced and expression of its suppressor Stat5b was markedly increased. Several other genes including Prlr, Cyp19a1, Oxtr, and Lgals3 were also dysregulated in the KO ovaries, whereas PGF2α signaling genes remained unaffected. These results highlight the role of MAMLD1 in labour initiation. MAMLD1 likely participates in functional luteolysis by regulating Stat5b and other genes, independent of the PGF2α signaling pathway.

  2. Parturition failure in mice lacking Mamld1

    PubMed Central

    Miyado, Mami; Miyado, Kenji; Katsumi, Momori; Saito, Kazuki; Nakamura, Akihiro; Shihara, Daizou; Ogata, Tsutomu; Fukami, Maki

    2015-01-01

    In mice, the onset of parturition is triggered by a rapid decline in circulating progesterone. Progesterone withdrawal occurs as a result of functional luteolysis, which is characterized by an increase in the enzymatic activity of 20α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20α-HSD) in the corpus luteum and is mediated by the prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) signaling. Here, we report that the genetic knockout (KO) of Mamld1, which encodes a putative non-DNA-binding regulator of testicular steroidogenesis, caused defective functional luteolysis and subsequent parturition failure and neonatal deaths. Progesterone receptor inhibition induced the onset of parturition in pregnant KO mice, and MAMLD1 regulated the expression of Akr1c18, the gene encoding 20α-HSD, in cultured cells. Ovaries of KO mice at late gestation were morphologically unremarkable; however, Akr1c18 expression was reduced and expression of its suppressor Stat5b was markedly increased. Several other genes including Prlr, Cyp19a1, Oxtr, and Lgals3 were also dysregulated in the KO ovaries, whereas PGF2α signaling genes remained unaffected. These results highlight the role of MAMLD1 in labour initiation. MAMLD1 likely participates in functional luteolysis by regulating Stat5b and other genes, independent of the PGF2α signaling pathway. PMID:26435405

  3. FKBP51 Null Mice Are Resistant to Diet-Induced Obesity and the PPARγ Agonist Rosiglitazone.

    PubMed

    Stechschulte, Lance A; Qiu, Bin; Warrier, Manya; Hinds, Terry D; Zhang, Man; Gu, Hao; Xu, Yuxue; Khuder, Saja S; Russo, Lucia; Najjar, Sonia M; Lecka-Czernik, Beata; Yong, Weidong; Sanchez, Edwin R

    2016-10-01

    FK506-binding protein-51 (FKBP51) is a molecular cochaperone recently shown to be a positive regulator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ, the master regulator of adipocyte differentiation and function. In cellular models of adipogenesis, loss of FKBP51 not only reduced PPARγ activity but also reduced lipid accumulation, suggesting that FKBP51 knock-out (KO) mice might have insufficient development of adipose tissue and lipid storage ability. This model was tested by examining wild-type (WT) and FKBP51-KO mice under regular and high-fat diet conditions. Under both diets, FKBP51-KO mice were resistant to weight gain, hepatic steatosis, and had greatly reduced white adipose tissue (WAT) but higher amounts of brown adipose tissue. Under high-fat diet, KO mice were highly resistant to adiposity and exhibited reduced plasma lipids and elevated glucose and insulin tolerance. Profiling of perigonadal and sc WAT revealed elevated expression of brown adipose tissue lineage genes in KO mice that correlated increased energy expenditure and a shift of substrate oxidation to carbohydrates, as measured by indirect calorimetry. To directly test PPARγ involvement, WT and KO mice were fed rosiglitazone agonist. In WT mice, rosiglitazone induced whole-body weight gain, increased WAT mass, a shift of substrate oxidation to lipids, and elevated expression of PPARγ-regulated lipogenic genes in WAT. In contrast, KO mice had reduced rosiglitazone responses for these parameters. Our results identify FKBP51 as an important regulator of PPARγ in WAT and as a potential new target in the treatment of obesity and diabetes.

  4. Striatal magnetic resonance spectroscopy abnormalities in young adult SAPAP3 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Mintzopoulos, Dionyssios; Gillis, Timothy E.; Robertson, Holly R.; Dalia, Triana; Feng, Guoping; Rauch, Scott L.; Kaufman, Marc J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a debilitating condition with lifetime prevalence of 1–3%. OCD typically arises in youth but delays in diagnosis impede optimal treatment and developmental studies of the disorder. Research using genetically modified rodents may provide models of etiology that enable earlier detection and intervention. The SAPAP3 knockout (KO) transgenic mouse was developed as an animal model of OCD and related disorders (OCRD). KO mice exhibit compulsive self-grooming behavior analogous to behaviors found in people with OCRD. Striatal hyperactivity has been reported in these mice and in humans with OCD. Methods Striatal and medial frontal cortex 9.4 Tesla proton spectra were acquired from young adult SAPAP3 KO and wild-type control mice to determine whether KO mice have metabolic and neurochemical abnormalities. Results Young adult KO mice had lower striatal lactate (P=0.006) and glutathione (P=0.039) levels. Among all mice, striatal lactate and glutathione levels were associated (R=0.73, P=0.007). We found no group differences in medial frontal cortex metabolites. At the age range studied, only 1 of 8 KO mice had skin lesions indicative of severe compulsive grooming. Conclusion Young adult SAPAP3 KO mice have striatal but not medial frontal cortex MRS abnormalities that may reflect striatal hypermetabolism accompanied by oxidative stress. These abnormalities typically preceded the onset of severe compulsive grooming. Our findings are consistent with striatal hypermetabolism in OCD. Together, these results suggest that striatal MRS measures of lactate or glutathione might be useful biomarkers for early detection of risk for developing compulsive behavior disorders. PMID:26858992

  5. MicroRNA-155 deletion reduces anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors in mice.

    PubMed

    Fonken, Laura K; Gaudet, Andrew D; Gaier, Kristopher R; Nelson, Randy J; Popovich, Phillip G

    2016-01-01

    Depressive disorders have complex and multi-faceted underlying mechanisms, rendering these disorders difficult to treat consistently and effectively. One under-explored therapeutic strategy for alleviating mood disorders is the targeting of microRNAs (miRs). miRs are small non-coding RNAs that cause sequestration/degradation of specific mRNAs, thereby preventing protein translation and downstream functions. miR-155 has validated and predicted neurotrophic factor and inflammatory mRNA targets, which led to our hypothesis that miR-155 deletion would modulate affective behaviors. To evaluate anxiety-like behavior, wildtype (wt) and miR-155 knockout (ko) mice (littermates; both male and female) were assessed in the open field and on an elevated plus maze. In both tests, miR-155 ko mice spent more time in open areas, suggesting they had reduced anxiety-like behavior. Depressive-like behaviors were assessed using the forced swim test. Compared to wt mice, miR-155 ko mice exhibited reduced float duration and increased latency to float. Further, although all mice exhibited a strong preference for a sucrose solution over water, this preference was enhanced in miR-155 ko mice. miR-155 ko mice had no deficiencies in learning and memory (Barnes maze) or social preference/novelty suggesting that changes in mood were specific. Finally, compared to wt hippocampi, miR-155 ko hippocampi had a reduced inflammatory signature (e.g., decreased IL-6, TNF-a) and female miR-155 ko mice increased ciliary neurotrophic factor expression. Together, these data highlight the importance of studying microRNAs in the context of anxiety and depression and identify miR-155 as a novel potential therapeutic target for improving mood disorders.

  6. Unusual retinal layer organization in HPC-1/syntaxin 1A knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Yuko; Suge, Rie; Fujiwara, Tomonori; Akagawa, Kimio; Watanabe, Shu-Ichi

    2011-10-01

    HPC-1/syntaxin 1A (STX1A) is abundantly expressed in neurons. STX1A is believed to regulate exocytosis in synaptic vesicles. In our recent studies, STX1A knockout (KO) mice showed normal development, and basal synaptic transmission in cultured hippocampal neurons appeared to be normal. However, behavioral abnormalities were observed in STX1A KO mice. In the normal rodent retina, the STX1A protein is expressed in two synaptic layers (plexiform layers). Here, to evaluate the effects of the loss of STX1A on retinal structure, we examined the retinal layer structure in STX1A KO mice using hematoxylin staining and immunostaining. We found that the general layer structures in the retina were preserved in all genotypes. However, the outer plexiform layer (OPL) was significantly thicker in KO and heterozygous mutant (HT) mice compared with that in wild-type (WT) mice. No significant differences were observed in the thicknesses of the other layers. Immunostaining for protein kinase C α showed that the alignment of rod bipolar cell bodies in the inner nuclear layer (INL) was slightly disrupted in HT and KO retinas. Furthermore, the dendrites of these cells in the OPL of KO mice were sparse, compared to those in WT mice. Our results show that STX1A KO mice have increased thickness of the OPL and changes in the morphology of the INL that may contribute to the change in OPL thickness. We suggest that STX1A may play a role in the structural formation of the INL and OPL in the retina.

  7. CD34 Expression by Hair Follicle Stem Cells Is Required for Skin Tumor Development in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Trempus, Carol S.; Morris, Rebecca J.; Ehinger, Matthew; Elmore, Amy; Bortner, Carl D.; Ito, Mayumi; Cotsarelis, George; Nijhof, Joanne G.W.; Peckham, John; Flagler, Norris; Kissling, Grace; Humble, Margaret M.; King, Leon C.; Adams, Linda D.; Desai, Dhimant; Amin, Shantu; Tennant, Raymond W.

    2007-01-01

    The cell surface marker CD34 marks mouse hair follicle bulge cells, which have attributes of stem cells, including quiescence and multipotency. Using a CD34 knockout (KO) mouse, we tested the hypothesis that CD34 may participate in tumor development in mice because hair follicle stem cells are thought to be a major target of carcinogens in the two-stage model of mouse skin carcinogenesis. Following initiation with 200 nmol 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA), mice were promoted with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) for 20 weeks. Under these conditions, CD34KO mice failed to develop papillomas. Increasing the initiating dose of DMBA to 400 nmol resulted in tumor development in the CD34KO mice, albeit with an increased latency and lower tumor yield compared with the wild-type (WT) strain. DNA adduct analysis of keratinocytes from DMBA-initiated CD34KO mice revealed that DMBA was metabolically activated into carcinogenic diol epoxides at both 200 and 400 nmol. Chronic exposure to TPA revealed that CD34KO skin developed and sustained epidermal hyperplasia. However, CD34KO hair follicles typically remained in telogen rather than transitioning into anagen growth, confirmed by retention of bromodeoxyuridine-labeled bulge stem cells within the hair follicle. Unique localization of the hair follicle progenitor cell marker MTS24 was found in interfollicular basal cells in TPA-treated WT mice, whereas staining remained restricted to the hair follicles of CD34KO mice, suggesting that progenitor cells migrate into epidermis differently between strains. These data show that CD34 is required for TPA-induced hair follicle stem cell activation and tumor formation in mice. PMID:17483328

  8. Accumulation of cytolytic CD8{sup +} T cells in B16-melanoma and proliferation of mature T cells in TIS21-knockout mice after T cell receptor stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Min Sook; Woo, Min-Yeong; Kwon, Daeho; Hong, Allen E.; Song, Kye Yong; Park, Sun; Lim, In Kyoung

    2014-10-01

    In vivo and in vitro effects of TIS21 gene on the mature T cell activation and antitumor activities were explored by employing MO5 melanoma orthograft and splenocytes isolated from the TIS21-knockout (KO) mice. Proliferation and survival of mature T cells were significantly increased in the KO than the wild type (WT) cells, indicating that TIS21 inhibits the rate of mature T cell proliferation and its survival. In MO5 melanoma orthograft model, the KO mice recruited much more CD8{sup +} T cells into the tumors at around day 14 after tumor cell injection along with reduced tumor volumes compared with the WT. The increased frequency of granzyme B{sup +} CD8{sup +} T cells in splenocytes of the KO mice compared with the WT may account for antitumor-immunity of TIS21 gene in the melanoma orthograft. In contrast, reduced frequencies of CD107a{sup +} CD8{sup +} T cells in the splenocytes of KO mice may affect the loss of CD8{sup +} T cell infiltration in the orthograft at around day 19. These results indicate that TIS21 exhibits antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects in mature T cells, and differentially affects the frequencies of granzyme B{sup +} CD8{sup +} T-cells and CD107a{sup +} CD8{sup +} T-cells, thus transiently regulating in vivo anti-tumor immunity. - Highlights: • Constitutive expression of TIS21 in splenocytes and upregulation by TCR stimulation. • Proliferation of mature T-cells in spleen of TIS21KO mice after TCR stimulation. • Inhibition of cell death in mature T-cells of TIS21KO mice compared with the wild type. • Inhibition of melanoma growth in TIS21KO mice and CD8{sup +} T cell infiltration in tumor. • Reduction of CD 107{sup +}CD8{sup +} T cells, but increased granzyme B{sup +} CD8{sup +} T cells in TIS21KO mice.

  9. The role of T1r3 and Trpm5 in carbohydrate-induced obesity in mice.

    PubMed

    Glendinning, John I; Gillman, Jennifer; Zamer, Haley; Margolskee, Robert F; Sclafani, Anthony

    2012-08-20

    We examined the role of T1r3 and Trpm5 taste signaling proteins in carbohydrate-induced overeating and obesity. T1r3, encoded by Tas1r3, is part of the T1r2+T1r3 sugar taste receptor, while Trpm5 mediates signaling for G protein-coupled receptors in taste cells. It is known that C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice are attracted to the tastes of both Polycose (a glucose polymer) and sucrose, whereas Tas1r3 KO mice are attracted to the taste of Polycose but not sucrose. In contrast, Trpm5 KO mice are not attracted to the taste of sucrose or Polycose. In Experiment 1, we maintained the WT, Tas1r3 KO and Trpm5 KO mice on one of three diets for 38days: lab chow plus water (Control diet); chow, water and 34% Polycose solution (Polycose diet); or chow, water and 34% sucrose solution (Sucrose diet). The WT and Tas1r3 KO mice overconsumed the Polycose diet and became obese. The WT and Tas1r3 KO mice also overconsumed the Sucrose diet, but only the WT mice became obese. The Trpm5 KO mice, in contrast, showed little or no overeating on the Sucrose and Polycose diets, and gained less weight than WT mice on these diets. In Experiment 2, we asked whether the Tas1r3 KO mice exhibited impaired weight gain on the Sucrose diet because it was insipid. To test this hypothesis, we maintained the WT and Tas1r3 KO mice on one of two diets for 38 days: chow, water and a dilute (1%) but highly palatable Intralipid emulsion (Control diet); or chow, water and a 34% sucrose+1% Intralipid solution (Suc+IL diet). The WT and Tas1r3 KO mice both exhibited little or no overeating but became obese on the Suc+IL diet. Our results suggest that nutritive solutions must be highly palatable to cause carbohydrate-induced obesity in mice, and that palatability produces this effect in part by enhancing nutrient utilization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bisphosphonates Improve Trabecular Bone Mass and Normalize Cortical Thickness in Ovariectomized, Osteoblast Connexin43 Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Marcus P.; Norris, Jin Yi; Grimston, Susan K.; Zhang, Xiaowen; Phipps, Roger J.; Ebetino, Frank H.; Civitelli, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The gap junction protein, connexin43 (Cx43) controls both bone formation and osteoclastogenesis via osteoblasts and/or osteocytes. Cx43 has also been proposed to mediate an anti-apoptotic effect of bisphosphonates, potent inhibitors of bone resorption. We studied whether bisphosphonates are effective in protecting mice with a conditional Cx43 gene deletion in osteoblasts and osteocytes (cKO) from the consequences of ovariectomy on bone mass and strength. Ovariectomy resulted in rapid loss of trabecular bone followed by a slight recovery in wild type (WT) mice, and a similar degree of trabecular bone loss, albeit slightly delayed, occurred in cKO mice. Treatment with either risedronate (20µg/kg) or alendronate (40µg/kg) prevented ovariectomy-induced bone loss in both genotypes. In basal conditions, bones of cKO mice have larger marrow area, higher endocortical osteoclast number, and lower cortical thickness and strength relative to WT. Ovariectomy increased endocortical osteoclast number in WT but not in cKO mice. Both bisphosphonates prevented these increases in WT mice, and normalized endocortical osteoclast number, cortical thickness and bone strength in cKO mice. Thus, lack of osteoblast/osteocyte Cx43 does not alter bisphosphonate action on bone mass and strength in estrogen deficiency. These results support the notion that one of the main functions of Cx43 in cortical bone is to restrain osteoblast and/or osteocytes from inducing osteoclastogenesis at the endocortical surface. PMID:22750450

  11. Bisphosphonates improve trabecular bone mass and normalize cortical thickness in ovariectomized, osteoblast connexin43 deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Marcus P; Norris, Jin Yi; Grimston, Susan K; Zhang, Xiaowen; Phipps, Roger J; Ebetino, Frank H; Civitelli, Roberto

    2012-10-01

    The gap junction protein, connexin43 (Cx43) controls both bone formation and osteoclastogenesis via osteoblasts and/or osteocytes. Cx43 has also been proposed to mediate an anti-apoptotic effect of bisphosphonates, potent inhibitors of bone resorption. We studied whether bisphosphonates are effective in protecting mice with a conditional Cx43 gene deletion in osteoblasts and osteocytes (cKO) from the consequences of ovariectomy on bone mass and strength. Ovariectomy resulted in rapid loss of trabecular bone followed by a slight recovery in wild type (WT) mice, and a similar degree of trabecular bone loss, albeit slightly delayed, occurred in cKO mice. Treatment with either risedronate (20 μg/kg) or alendronate (40 μg/kg) prevented ovariectomy-induced bone loss in both genotypes. In basal conditions, bones of cKO mice have larger marrow area, higher endocortical osteoclast number, and lower cortical thickness and strength relative to WT. Ovariectomy increased endocortical osteoclast number in WT but not in cKO mice. Both bisphosphonates prevented these increases in WT mice, and normalized endocortical osteoclast number, cortical thickness and bone strength in cKO mice. Thus, lack of osteoblast/osteocyte Cx43 does not alter bisphosphonate action on bone mass and strength in estrogen deficiency. These results support the notion that one of the main functions of Cx43 in cortical bone is to restrain osteoblast and/or osteocytes from inducing osteoclastogenesis at the endocortical surface.

  12. Environmental enrichment induces behavioural disturbances in neuropeptide Y knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Reichmann, Florian; Wegerer, Vanessa; Jain, Piyush; Mayerhofer, Raphaela; Hassan, Ahmed M; Fröhlich, Esther E; Bock, Elisabeth; Pritz, Elisabeth; Herzog, Herbert; Holzer, Peter; Leitinger, Gerd

    2016-06-16

    Environmental enrichment (EE) refers to the provision of a complex and stimulating housing condition which improves well-being, behaviour and brain function of laboratory animals. The mechanisms behind these beneficial effects of EE are only partially understood. In the current report, we describe a link between EE and neuropeptide Y (NPY), based on findings from NPY knockout (KO) mice exposed to EE. Relative to EE-housed wildtype (WT) animals, NPY KO mice displayed altered behaviour as well as molecular and morphological changes in amygdala and hippocampus. Exposure of WT mice to EE reduced anxiety and decreased central glucocorticoid receptor expression, effects which were absent in NPY KO mice. In addition, NPY deletion altered the preference of EE items, and EE-housed NPY KO mice responded to stress with exaggerated hyperthermia, displayed impaired spatial memory, had higher hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA levels and altered hippocampal synaptic plasticity, effects which were not seen in WT mice. Accordingly, these findings suggest that NPY contributes to the anxiolytic effect of EE and that NPY deletion reverses the beneficial effects of EE into a negative experience. The NPY system could thus be a target for "enviromimetics", therapeutics which reproduce the beneficial effects of enhanced environmental stimulation.

  13. Reduced MPTP toxicity in noradrenaline transporter knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Rommelfanger, Karen S; Weinshenker, David; Miller, Gary W

    2004-12-01

    The noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus (LC) are damaged in Parkinson's disease (PD). Neurotoxin ablation of the LC noradrenergic neurons has been shown to exacerbate the dopaminergic toxicity of MPTP, suggesting that the noradrenergic system protects dopamine neurons. We utilized mice that exhibit elevated synaptic noradrenaline (NA) by genetically deleting the noradrenaline transporter (NET), a key regulator of the noradrenergic system (NET KO mice). NET KO and wild-type littermates were administered MPTP and striatal dopamine terminal integrity was assessed by HPLC of monoamines, immmunoblotting for dopaminergic markers and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemistry. MPTP significantly reduced striatal dopamine in wild-type mice, but not in the NET KO mice. To confirm that the protection observed in the NET KO mice was due to the lack of NET, we treated wild-type mice with the specific NET inhibitor, nisoxetine, and then challenged them with MPTP. Nisoxetine conferred protection to the dopaminergic system. These data indicate that NA can modulate MPTP toxicity and suggest that manipulation of the noradrenergic system may have therapeutic value in PD.

  14. Environmental enrichment induces behavioural disturbances in neuropeptide Y knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Reichmann, Florian; Wegerer, Vanessa; Jain, Piyush; Mayerhofer, Raphaela; Hassan, Ahmed M.; Fröhlich, Esther E.; Bock, Elisabeth; Pritz, Elisabeth; Herzog, Herbert; Holzer, Peter; Leitinger, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) refers to the provision of a complex and stimulating housing condition which improves well-being, behaviour and brain function of laboratory animals. The mechanisms behind these beneficial effects of EE are only partially understood. In the current report, we describe a link between EE and neuropeptide Y (NPY), based on findings from NPY knockout (KO) mice exposed to EE. Relative to EE-housed wildtype (WT) animals, NPY KO mice displayed altered behaviour as well as molecular and morphological changes in amygdala and hippocampus. Exposure of WT mice to EE reduced anxiety and decreased central glucocorticoid receptor expression, effects which were absent in NPY KO mice. In addition, NPY deletion altered the preference of EE items, and EE-housed NPY KO mice responded to stress with exaggerated hyperthermia, displayed impaired spatial memory, had higher hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA levels and altered hippocampal synaptic plasticity, effects which were not seen in WT mice. Accordingly, these findings suggest that NPY contributes to the anxiolytic effect of EE and that NPY deletion reverses the beneficial effects of EE into a negative experience. The NPY system could thus be a target for “enviromimetics”, therapeutics which reproduce the beneficial effects of enhanced environmental stimulation. PMID:27305846

  15. Deficiency in lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 3 reduces plasma levels of lipids by reducing lipid absorption in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Hui; Ding, Tingbo; Lou, Caixia; Bui, Hai H; Kuo, Ming-Shang; Jiang, Xian-Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Phosphatidylcholines (PCs) are structural and functional constituents of cell membranes. The activity of acyltransferase (lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase [LPCAT]) is required for addition of polyunsaturated fatty acids to the sn-2 position of PCs and is therefore required to maintain cell membrane structure and function. LPCAT3 is the most abundant isoform of LPCAT in the small intestine and liver, which are important sites of plasma lipoprotein metabolism. We investigated the effects of Lpcat3 disruption on lipid metabolism in mice. We disrupted the gene Lpcat3 in C57BL/6J mice to create LPCAT3 knockout (KO) mice. Livers and small intestinal tissues were collected from LPCAT3 KO and C57BL/6J parental strain (controls), and levels of LPCAT messenger RNAs and protein were measured. Levels of lipids and lipoproteins were measured in plasma samples. We isolated enterocytes from mice and measured levels of RNAs and proteins involved in lipid uptake by real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot assays, respectively. We assessed lipid absorption and PC subspecies in the enterocyte plasma membrane using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectometry. LPCAT3 KO mice survived only 3 weeks after birth. Oil Red O staining showed that the control but not LPCAT3 KO mice accumulated lipids in the small intestine; levels of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) and fatty acid transporter protein 4 (FATP4), which regulate lipid uptake, were greatly reduced in the small intestines of LPCAT3 KO mice. Oral administration of PC and olive oil allowed the LPCAT3 KO mice to survive with the same body weights as controls, but the KO mice had shorter and wider small-intestinal villi and longer and bigger small intestines. Plasma membranes of enterocytes from LPCAT3 KO mice also had significant reductions in the composition of polyunsaturated PCs and reduced levels of NPC1L1, CD36, and FATP4 proteins. These reductions were associated with reduced intestinal uptake of lipid by

  16. CD36 gene deletion reduces fat preference and intake but not post-oral fat conditioning in mice.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, A; Ackroff, K; Abumrad, N A

    2007-11-01

    Several findings suggest the existence of a "fatty" taste, and the CD36 fatty acid translocase is a candidate taste receptor. The present study compared fat preference and acceptance in CD36 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice using nutritive (triglyceride and fatty acid) and nonnutritive (Sefa Soyate oil) emulsions. In two-bottle tests (24 h/day) naive KO mice, unlike WT mice, displayed little or no preference for dilute soybean oil, linoleic acid, or Sefa Soyate emulsions. At high concentrations (2.5-20%), KO mice developed significant soybean oil preferences, although they consumed less oil than WT mice. The postoral actions of fat likely conditioned these preferences. KO mice, like WT mice, learned to prefer a flavored solution paired with intragastric soybean oil infusions. These findings support CD36 mediation of a gustatory component to fat preference but demonstrate that it is not essential for fat-conditioned flavor preferences. The finding that oil-naive KO mice failed to prefer a nonnutritive oil, assumed to provide texture rather than taste cues, requires explanation. Finally, CD36 deletion decreased fat consumption and enhanced the ability of the mice to compensate for the calories provided by their optional fat intake.

  17. Reduced acute nociception and chronic pain in Shank2-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Ko, Hyoung-Gon; Oh, Seog-Bae; Zhuo, Min; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is a debilitating mental illness and social issue. Autism spectrum disorder patients suffer from social isolation, cognitive deficits, compulsive behavior, and sensory deficits, including hyposensitivity to pain. However, recent studies argued that autism spectrum disorder patients show physiological pain response and, in some cases, even extremely intense pain response to harmless stimulation. Recently, Shank gene family was reported as one of the genetic risk factors of autism spectrum disorder. Thus, in this study, we used Shank2(-) (/) (-) (Shank2 knock-out, KO) mice to investigate the controversial pain sensitivity issue and found that Shank2 KO mice showed reduced tactile perception and analgesia to chronic pain.

  18. Effect of genetic deletion of the vanilloid receptor TRPV1 on the expression of Substance P in sensory neurons of mice with adjuvant-induced arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Willcockson, Helen H.; Chen, Yong; Han, Ji Eun; Valtschanoff, Juli G.

    2010-01-01

    The neuropeptide Substance P (SP), expressed by nociceptive sensory afferents in joints, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of arthritis. Capsaicin causes neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) to release SP from their central and peripheral axons, suggesting a functional link between SP and the capsaicin receptor, the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). The expression of both TRPV1 and SP have been reported to increase in several models of arthritis but the specific involvement of TRPV1-expressing articular afferents that can release SP is not completely understood. We here wanted to ascertain whether the increase in the number of SP-positive primary afferents in arthritis may be affected by genetic deletion of TRPV1. For this, we used immunohistochemistry to quantify the expression of SP in primary afferent neurons in wild type mice (WT) vs. TRPV1-knockout (KO) mice with adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA). We found that the expression of SP in DRG 1) increased significantly over naïve level in both WT and KO mice 3 weeks after AIA, 2) was significantly higher in KO mice than in WT mice in naïve mice and 2-3 weeks after AIA, 3) was significantly higheron the side of AIA than on the contralateral, vehicle-injected side at all time points in WT mice, but not in KO mice, and 4) increased predominantly in small-size neurons in KO mice and in small- and medium-size neurons in WT mice. Since the size distribution of SP-positive DRG neurons in arthritic TRPV1-KO mice was not significantly different from that in naïve mice, we speculate that the increased expression of SP is unlikely to reflect recruitment of A-fiber primary afferents and that the higher expression of SP in KO mice may represent a plastic change to compensate for the missing receptor in a major sensory circuit. PMID:20303589

  19. Inhibition of Nitric Oxide Synthase 1 Induces Salt-Sensitive Hypertension in Nitric Oxide Synthase 1α Knockout and Wild-Type Mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ximing; Chandrashekar, Kiran; Wang, Lei; Lai, En Yin; Wei, Jin; Zhang, Gensheng; Wang, Shaohui; Zhang, Jie; Juncos, Luis A; Liu, Ruisheng

    2016-04-01

    We recently showed that α, β, and γ splice variants of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS1) expressed in the macula densa and NOS1β accounts for most of the NO generation. We have also demonstrated that the mice with deletion of NOS1 specifically from the macula densa developed salt-sensitive hypertension. However, the global NOS1 knockout (NOS1KO) strain is neither hypertensive nor salt sensitive. This global NOS1KO strain is actually an NOS1αKO model. Consequently, we hypothesized that inhibition of NOS1β in NOS1αKO mice induces salt-sensitive hypertension. NOS1αKO and C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice were implanted with telemetry transmitters and divided into 7-nitroindazole (10 mg/kg/d)-treated and nontreated groups. All of the mice were fed a normal salt (0.4% NaCl) diet for 5 days, followed by a high-salt diet (4% NaCl). NO generation by the macula densa was inhibited by >90% in WT and NOS1αKO mice treated with 7-nitroindazole. Glomerular filtration rate in conscious mice was increased by ≈ 40% after a high-salt diet in both NOS1αKO and WT mice. In response to acute volume expansion, glomerular filtration rate, diuretic and natriuretic response were significantly blunted in the WT and knockout mice treated with 7-nitroindazole. Mean arterial pressure had no significant changes in mice fed a high-salt diet, but increased ≈ 15 mm Hg similarly in NOS1αKO and WT mice treated with 7-nitroindazole. We conclude that NOS1β, but not NOS1α, plays an important role in control of sodium excretion and hemodynamics in response to either an acute or a chronic salt loading. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Factor XI deficiency enhances the pulmonary allergic response to house dust mite in mice independent of factor XII.

    PubMed

    Stroo, Ingrid; Yang, Jack; de Boer, J Daan; Roelofs, Joris J T H; van 't Veer, Cornelis; Castellino, Francis J; Zeerleder, Sacha; van der Poll, Tom

    2017-02-01

    Asthma is associated with activation of coagulation in the airways. The coagulation system can be initiated via the extrinsic tissue factor-dependent pathway or via the intrinsic pathway, in which the central player factor XI (FXI) can be either activated via active factor XII (FXIIa) or via thrombin. We aimed to determine the role of the intrinsic coagulation system and its possible route of activation in allergic lung inflammation induced by the clinically relevant human allergen house dust mite (HDM). Wild-type (WT), FXI knockout (KO), and FXII KO mice were subjected to repeated exposure to HDM via the airways, and inflammatory responses were compared. FXI KO mice showed increased influx of eosinophils into lung tissue, accompanied by elevated local levels of the main eosinophil chemoattractant eotaxin. Although gross lung pathology and airway mucus production did not differ between groups, FXI KO mice displayed an impaired endothelial/epithelial barrier function, as reflected by elevated levels of total protein and IgM in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. FXI KO mice had a stronger systemic IgE response with an almost completely absent HDM-specific IgG1 response. The phenotype of FXII KO mice was, except for a higher HDM-specific IgG1 response, similar to that of WT mice. In conclusion, FXI attenuates part of the allergic response to repeated administration of HDM in the airways by a mechanism that is independent of activation via FXII.

  1. Cognitive impairments associated with alterations in synaptic proteins induced by the genetic loss of adenosine A2A receptors in mice.

    PubMed

    Moscoso-Castro, Maria; López-Cano, Marc; Gracia-Rubio, Irene; Ciruela, Francisco; Valverde, Olga

    2017-11-01

    The study of psychiatric disorders usually focuses on emotional symptoms assessment. However, cognitive deficiencies frequently constitute the core symptoms, are often poorly controlled and handicap individual's quality of life. Adenosine receptors, through the control of both dopamine and glutamate systems, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of several psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Indeed, clinical data indicate that poorly responsive schizophrenia patients treated with adenosine adjuvants show improved treatment outcomes. The A2A adenosine receptor subtype (A2AR) is highly expressed in brain areas controlling cognition and motivational responses including the striatum, hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Accordingly, we study the role of A2AR in the regulation of cognitive processes based on a complete cognitive behavioural analysis coupled with the assessment of neurogenesis and sub-synaptic protein expression in adult and middle-aged A2AR constitutional knockout mice and wild-type littermates. Our results show overall cognitive impairments in A2AR knockout mice associated with a decrease in new-born hippocampal neuron proliferation and concomitant changes in synaptic protein expression, in both the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus. These results suggest a deficient adenosine signalling in cognitive processes, thus providing new opportunities for the therapeutic management of cognitive deficits associated with psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of T-cell-specific Smad4 deficiency on the development of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Donghee; Lee, Song Mi; Jun, Hee-Sook

    2017-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes results from autoimmune-mediated pancreatic beta-cell destruction and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is known to play a preventive role in type 1 diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. In this study, we investigated the role of Smad4, a key molecule for Smad-dependent TGF-β signaling, in T cells of NOD mice in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes. We generated T-cell-specific Smad4 knockout (Smad4 tKO) NOD mice and assessed the pathological and immunological changes. Smad4 tKO showed earlier onset and increased incidence of diabetes than wild type (WT) NOD mice. Pathological features such as insulitis, anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase auto-antibody levels and serum IFN-γ levels were significantly increased in Smad4 tKO compared with WT NOD mice. Proportion and number of activated/memory CD4+ T cell were significantly increased in pancreatic lymph nodes of Smad4 tKO compared with WT NOD mice. However, the proportion and function of regulatory T cells was not different. Effector CD4+ T cells from Smad4 tKO were more resistant to suppression by regulatory T cells than effector cells from WT NOD mice. The proliferative potential of effector T cells from Smad4 tKO was significantly elevated compared with WT NOD mice, and activation of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) in T cells of Smad4 tKO NOD mice was correlated with this proliferative activity. We conclude that Smad4 deletion in T cells of NOD mice accelerated the development of autoimmune diabetes and increased the incidence of the disease by dysregulation of T cell activation at least in part via SREBP-1c activation. PMID:27686408

  3. Scavenger Receptor Class B Type 1 Deletion Led to Coronary Atherosclerosis and Ischemic Heart Disease in Low-density Lipoprotein Receptor Knockout Mice on Modified Western-type Diet

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Jiawei; Guo, Xin; Wang, Mengyu; Dong, Chengyan; Gao, Mingming; Wang, Huan; Kayoumu, Abudurexiti; Shen, Qiang; Wang, Yuhui; Wang, Fan; Liu, George

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein E (apoE) or low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) knockout (KO) mice are generally resistant to developing coronary atherosclerosis (CA) and ischemic heart disease (IHD). However, studies have demonstrated the occurrence of spontaneous CA and IHD in scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-BI)/apoE double KO (dKO) mice, which suggests that SR-BI could be a potential target for the prevention and therapy of CA and IHD. This possibility was later investigated in SR-BI/LDL-R dKO mice, but no signs of CA or IHD was identified when mice were fed a normal western-type diet. Here we explored whether SR-BI deletion could result in CA and IHD in LDL-R KO mice when fed a modified western-type diet containing higher (0.5%) cholesterol. Methods: Cardiac functions were detected by electrocardiography, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), echocardiography (Echo) and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. CA was visualized by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Results: After 12 weeks on the modified diet, SR-BI/LDL-R dKO mice developed cardiac ischemia/infarction, together with systolic dysfunction and left ventricular dilatation. CA was most severe at the aortic sinus level to an extent that no dKO mice survived to 20 weeks on the modified diet. None of control mice, however, developed CA or IHD. Conclusions: SR-BI deletion led to CA and IHD in LDL-R KO mice when fed the modified western-type diet. We established SR-BI/LDL-R dKO mice as a diet-induced murine model of human IHD and developed detection methods, using a combination of SPECT and Echo, for effective in vivo evaluation of cardiac functions. PMID:27373983

  4. Glial dysfunction in parkin null mice: effects of aging.

    PubMed

    Solano, Rosa M; Casarejos, Maria J; Menéndez-Cuervo, Jamie; Rodriguez-Navarro, Jose A; García de Yébenes, Justo; Mena, Maria A

    2008-01-16

    Parkin mutations in humans produce parkinsonism whose pathogenesis is related to impaired protein degradation, increased free radicals, and abnormal neurotransmitter release. The role of glia in parkin deficiency is little known. We cultured midbrain glia from wild-type (WT) and parkin knock-out (PK-KO) mice. After 18-20 d in vitro, PK-KO glial cultures had less astrocytes, more microglia, reduced proliferation, and increased proapoptotic protein expression. PK-KO glia had greater levels of intracellular glutathione (GSH), increased mRNA expression of the GSH-synthesizing enzyme gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase, and greater glutathione S-transferase and lower glutathione peroxidase activities than WT. The reverse happened in glia cultured in serum-free defined medium (EF12) or in old cultures. PK-KO glia was more susceptible than WT to transference to EF12 or neurotoxins (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, blockers of GSH synthesis or catalase, inhibitors of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinases), aging of the culture, or combination of these insults. PK-KO glia was less susceptible than WT to Fe2+ plus H2O2 and less responsive to protection by deferoxamine. Old WT glia increased the expression of heat shock protein 70, but PK-KO did not. Glia conditioned medium (GCM) from PK-KO was less neuroprotective and had lower levels of GSH than WT. GCM from WT increased the levels of dopamine markers in midbrain neuronal cultures transferred to EF12 more efficiently than GCM from PK-KO, and the difference was corrected by supplementation with GSH. PK-KO-GCM was a less powerful suppressor of apoptosis and microglia in neuronal cultures. Our data prove that abnormal glial function is critical in parkin mutations, and its role increases with aging.

  5. Toll-like receptors, NF-κB, and IL-27 mediate adenosine A2A receptor signaling in BTBR T(+) Itpr3(tf)/J mice.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Sheikh F; Ansari, Mushtaq A; Nadeem, Ahmed; Bakheet, Saleh A; Al-Ayadhi, Laila Yousef; Attia, Sabry M

    2017-10-03

    Autism is a predominant neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired communication, social deficits, and repetitive behaviors. Recent research has proposed that the impairment of innate immunity may play an important role in autism. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are potential therapeutic targets against neuroinflammation. The BTBR T(+) Itpr3(tf/)J (BTBR) mouse is a well-known model of autism, showing repetitive behaviors such as cognitive inflexibility and increased grooming as compared to C57BL/6 (B6) mice. Adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) signaling is involved in inflammation, brain injury, and lymphocyte infiltration into the CNS, but the role of A2AR in autism remains unknown. We investigated the effect of A2AR antagonist SCH 5826 (SCH) and agonist CGS 21680 (CGS) on the expression levels of TLRs, IL-27, NF-κB p65, and IκBα in BTBR mice. Treatment of BTBR mice with SCH increased the percentage of splenic CD14(+)TLR2(+) cells, CD14(+)TLR3(+) cells, CD14(+)TLR4(+) cells, and decreased the percentage of CD14(+)IL-27(+) cells, as compared to the untreated BTBR mice. Our results reveal that BTBR mice treated with CGS had reversal of SCH-induced immunological responses. Moreover, mRNA and protein expression analyses confirmed increased expression of TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, and NF-κB p65 in brain tissue, and decreased IL-27 and IκBα expression following SCH treatment, as compared to the untreated-BTBR and CGS-treated BTBR mice. Together, these results suggest that the A2AR agonist corrects neuroimmune dysfunction observed in BTBR mice, and thus has the potential as a therapeutic approach in autism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cardiac proteasome activity in muscle ring finger-1 null mice at rest and following synthetic glucocorticoid treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hwee, Darren T.; Gomes, Aldrin V.

    2011-01-01

    Muscle ring finger-1 (MuRF1) is a muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligase that has been implicated in the regulation of cardiac mass through its control of the ubiquitin proteasome system. While it has been suggested that MuRF1 is required for cardiac atrophy, a resting cardiac phenotype has not been reported in mice with a null deletion [knockout (KO)] of MuRF1. Here, we report that MuRF1 KO mice have significantly larger hearts than age-matched wild-type (WT) littermates at ≥6 mo of age and that loss of cardiac mass can occur in the absence of MuRF1. The objective of this study was to determine whether changes in proteasome activity were responsible for the cardiac phenotypes observed in MuRF1 KO mice. Cardiac function, architecture, and proteasome activity were analyzed at rest and following 28 days of dexamethasone (Dex) treatment in 6-mo-old WT and MuRF1 KO mice. Echocardiography demonstrated normal cardiac function in the enlarged hearts in MURF1 KO mice. At rest, heart mass and cardiomyocyte diameter were significantly greater in MuRF1 KO than in WT mice. The increase in cardiac size in MuRF1 KO mice was related to a decrease in proteasome activity and an increase in Akt signaling relative to WT mice. Dex treatment induced a significant loss of cardiac mass in MuRF1 KO, but not WT, mice. Furthermore, Dex treatment resulted in an increase in proteasome activity in KO, but a decrease in WT, mice. In contrast, Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling decreased in MuRF1 KO mice and increased in WT mice in response to Dex treatment. These findings demonstrate that MuRF1 plays an important role in regulating cardiac size through alterations in protein turnover and that MuRF1 is not required to induce cardiac atrophy. PMID:21828340

  7. Cardiac proteasome activity in muscle ring finger-1 null mice at rest and following synthetic glucocorticoid treatment.

    PubMed

    Hwee, Darren T; Gomes, Aldrin V; Bodine, Sue C

    2011-11-01

    Muscle ring finger-1 (MuRF1) is a muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligase that has been implicated in the regulation of cardiac mass through its control of the ubiquitin proteasome system. While it has been suggested that MuRF1 is required for cardiac atrophy, a resting cardiac phenotype has not been reported in mice with a null deletion [knockout (KO)] of MuRF1. Here, we report that MuRF1 KO mice have significantly larger hearts than age-matched wild-type (WT) littermates at ≥ 6 mo of age and that loss of cardiac mass can occur in the absence of MuRF1. The objective of this study was to determine whether changes in proteasome activity were responsible for the cardiac phenotypes observed in MuRF1 KO mice. Cardiac function, architecture, and proteasome activity were analyzed at rest and following 28 days of dexamethasone (Dex) treatment in 6-mo-old WT and MuRF1 KO mice. Echocardiography demonstrated normal cardiac function in the enlarged hearts in MURF1 KO mice. At rest, heart mass and cardiomyocyte diameter were significantly greater in MuRF1 KO than in WT mice. The increase in cardiac size in MuRF1 KO mice was related to a decrease in proteasome activity and an increase in Akt signaling relative to WT mice. Dex treatment induced a significant loss of cardiac mass in MuRF1 KO, but not WT, mice. Furthermore, Dex treatment resulted in an increase in proteasome activity in KO, but a decrease in WT, mice. In contrast, Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling decreased in MuRF1 KO mice and increased in WT mice in response to Dex treatment. These findings demonstrate that MuRF1 plays an important role in regulating cardiac size through alterations in protein turnover and that MuRF1 is not required to induce cardiac atrophy.

  8. The role of T1r3 and Trpm5 in carbohydrate-induced obesity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Glendinning, John I.; Gillman, Jennifer; Zamer, Haley; Margolskee, Robert F.; Sclafani, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    We examined the role of T1r3 and Trpm5 taste signaling proteins in carbohydrate-induced overeating and obesity. T1r3, encoded by Tas1r3, is part of the T1r2+T1r3 sugar taste receptor, while Trpm5 mediates signaling for G protein-coupled receptors in taste cells. It is known that C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and Tas1r3 knock-out (KO) mice are attracted to the taste of Polycose (a glucose polymer), but not sucrose. In contrast, Trpm5 KO mice are not attracted to the taste of sucrose or Polycose. In Experiment 1, we maintained the WT, Tas1r3 KO and Trpm5 KO mice on one of three diets for 38 days: lab chow plus water (Control diet); chow, water and 34% Polycose solution (Polycose diet); or chow, water and 34% sucrose solution (Sucrose diet). The WT and Tas1r3 KO mice overconsumed the Polycose diet and became obese. The WT and Tas1r3 KO mice also overconsumed the Sucrose diet, but only the WT mice became obese. The Trpm5 KO mice, in contrast, showed little or no overeating on the Sucrose and Polycose diets, and gained slightly or significantly less weight than WT mice on these diets. In Experiment 2, we asked whether the Tas1r3 KO mice exhibited impaired weight gain on the Sucrose diet because it was insipid. To test this hypothesis, we maintained the WT and Tas1r3 KO mice on one of two diets for 38 days: chow, water and a dilute (1%) but highly palatable Intralipid emulsion (Control diet); or chow, water and a 34% sucrose + 1% Intralipid solution (Suc+IL diet). The WT and Tas1r3 KO mice both gained weight and became obese on the Suc+IL diet. Our results suggest that nutritive solutions must be highly palatable to cause carbohydrate-induced obesity in mice, and that palatability produces this effect in part by enhancing nutrient utilization. PMID:22683548

  9. A pathophysiological role of TRPV1 in ischemic injury after transient focal cerebral ischemia in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Miyanohara, Jun; Shirakawa, Hisashi; Sanpei, Kazuaki; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Kaneko, Shuji

    2015-11-20

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective cation channel with high Ca{sup 2+} permeability, which functions as a polymodal nociceptor activated by heat, protons and several vanilloids, including capsaicin and anandamide. Although TRPV1 channels are widely distributed in the mammalian brain, their pathophysiological roles in the brain remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated whether TRPV1 is involved in cerebral ischemic injury using a middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion model in wild-type (WT) and TRPV1-knockout (KO) mice. For transient ischemia, the left MCA of C57BL/6 mice was occluded for 60 min and reperfused at 1 and 2 days after ischemia. We found that neurological and motor deficits, and infarct volumes in TRPV1-KO mice were lower than those of WT mice. Consistent with these results, intracerebroventricular injection of a TRPV1 antagonist, capsazepine (20 nmol), 30 min before the onset of ischemia attenuated neurological and motor deficits and improved infarct size without influencing cerebral blood flow in the occluded MCA territory. The protective effect of capsazepine on ischemic brain damage was not observed in TRPV1-KO mice. WT and TRPV1-KO mice did not show any differences with respect to the increased number of Iba1-positive microglia/macrophages, GFAP-positive astrocytes, and Gr1-positive neutrophils at 1 and 2 days after cerebral ischemia. Taken together, we conclude that brain TRPV1 channels are activated by ischemic stroke and cause neurological and motor deficits and infarction after brain ischemia. - Highlights: • We investigated whether TRPV1 is involved in transient ischemic brain damage in mice. • Neurological deficits and infarct volumes were lower in TRPV1-KO mice than in WT mice. • Injection of a TRPV1 antagonist, capsazepine, attenuated neurological deficits and improved infarct size. • No differences in astrocytic or microglial activation were observed between WT and TRPV1-KO mice.

  10. Sexually dimorphic phenotype of arteriolar responsiveness to shear stress in soluble epoxide hydrolase-knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jun; Kandhi, Sharath; Froogh, Ghezal; Jiang, Houli; Luo, Meng; Sun, Dong

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that potentiating the bioavailability of endothelial epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) via deletion of the gene for soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), or downregulation of sEH expression, enhances flow/shear stress-induced dilator responses (FID) of arterioles. With the use of male (M) and female (F) wild-type (WT) and sEH-knockout (KO) mice, isolated gracilis muscle arterioles were cannulated and pressurized at 80 mmHg. Basal tone and increases in diameter of arterioles as a function of perfusate flow (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 μl/min) were recorded. The magnitude of FID was significantly smaller and associated with a greater arteriolar tone in M-WT than F-WT mice, revealing a sex difference in FID. This sex difference was abolished by deletion of the sEH gene, as evidenced by an enhanced FID in M-KO mice to a level comparable with those observed in F-KO and F-WT mice. These three groups of mice coincidentally exhibited an increased endothelial sensitivity to shear stress (smaller WSS50) and were hypotensive. Endothelial EETs participated in the mediation of enhanced FID in M-KO, F-KO, and F-WT mice, without effects on FID of M-WT mice. Protein expression of sEH was downregulated by approximately fourfold in vessels of F-WT compared with M-WT mice, paralleled with greater vascular EET levels that were statistically comparable with those observed in both male and female sEH-KO mice. In conclusion, sex-different regulation of sEH accounts for sex differences in flow-mediated dilation of microvessels in gonadally intact mice. PMID:26453332

  11. Effects of Estrogens on Adipokines and Glucose Homeostasis in Female Aromatase Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Van Sinderen, Michelle L.; Steinberg, Gregory R.; Jørgensen, Sebastian B.; Honeyman, Jane; Chow, Jenny D.; Herridge, Kerrie A.; Winship, Amy L.; Dimitriadis, Evdokia; Jones, Margaret E. E.; Simpson, Evan R.; Boon, Wah Chin

    2015-01-01

    The maintenance of glucose homeostasis within the body is crucial for constant and precise performance of energy balance and is sustained by a number of peripheral organs. Estrogens are known to play a role in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Aromatase knockout (ArKO) mice are estrogen-deficient and display symptoms of dysregulated glucose metabolism. We aim to investigate the effects of estrogen ablation and exogenous estrogen administration on glucose homeostasis regulation. Six month-old female wildtype, ArKO, and 17β-estradiol (E2) treated ArKO mice were subjected to whole body tolerance tests, serum examination of estrogen, glucose and insulin, ex-vivo muscle glucose uptake, and insulin signaling pathway analyses. Female ArKO mice display increased body weight, gonadal (omental) adiposity, hyperinsulinemia, and liver triglycerides, which were ameliorated upon estrogen treatment. Tolerance tests revealed that estrogen-deficient ArKO mice were pyruvate intolerant hence reflecting dysregulated hepatic gluconeogenesis. Analyses of skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissues supported a hepatic-based glucose dysregulation, with a down-regulation of Akt phosphorylation (a key insulin signaling pathway molecule) in the ArKO liver, which was improved with E2 treatment. Concurrently, estrogen treatment lowered ArKO serum leptin and adiponectin levels and increased inflammatory adipokines such as tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin 6 (IL6). Furthermore, estrogen deficiency resulted in the infiltration of CD45 macrophages into gonadal adipose tissues, which cannot be reversed by E2 treatment. This study describes the effects of estrogens on glucose homeostasis in female ArKO mice and highlights a primary phenotype of hepatic glucose dysregulation and a parallel estrogen modified adipokine profile. PMID:26317527

  12. Effects of Estrogens on Adipokines and Glucose Homeostasis in Female Aromatase Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Van Sinderen, Michelle L; Steinberg, Gregory R; Jørgensen, Sebastian B; Honeyman, Jane; Chow, Jenny D; Herridge, Kerrie A; Winship, Amy L; Dimitriadis, Evdokia; Jones, Margaret E E; Simpson, Evan R; Boon, Wah Chin

    2015-01-01

    The maintenance of glucose homeostasis within the body is crucial for constant and precise performance of energy balance and is sustained by a number of peripheral organs. Estrogens are known to play a role in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Aromatase knockout (ArKO) mice are estrogen-deficient and display symptoms of dysregulated glucose metabolism. We aim to investigate the effects of estrogen ablation and exogenous estrogen administration on glucose homeostasis regulation. Six month-old female wildtype, ArKO, and 17β-estradiol (E2) treated ArKO mice were subjected to whole body tolerance tests, serum examination of estrogen, glucose and insulin, ex-vivo muscle glucose uptake, and insulin signaling pathway analyses. Female ArKO mice display increased body weight, gonadal (omental) adiposity, hyperinsulinemia, and liver triglycerides, which were ameliorated upon estrogen treatment. Tolerance tests revealed that estrogen-deficient ArKO mice were pyruvate intolerant hence reflecting dysregulated hepatic gluconeogenesis. Analyses of skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissues supported a hepatic-based glucose dysregulation, with a down-regulation of Akt phosphorylation (a key insulin signaling pathway molecule) in the ArKO liver, which was improved with E2 treatment. Concurrently, estrogen treatment lowered ArKO serum leptin and adiponectin levels and increased inflammatory adipokines such as tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin 6 (IL6). Furthermore, estrogen deficiency resulted in the infiltration of CD45 macrophages into gonadal adipose tissues, which cannot be reversed by E2 treatment. This study describes the effects of estrogens on glucose homeostasis in female ArKO mice and highlights a primary phenotype of hepatic glucose dysregulation and a parallel estrogen modified adipokine profile.

  13. Study on molecular structure and hydration mechanism of Domyoji-ko starch by IR and NIR hetero 2D analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Norihisa; Kondo, Miyuki; Miyazawa, Mitsuhiro

    2010-06-01

    The hydration structure of starch molecule in Domyoji-ko, which is made from gluey rice, was investigated by hetero 2D correlation analysis of IR and NIR spectroscopy. The feature near 1020 cm -1 in the IR spectra of Domyoji-ko is changed by rehydration process, indicating that the molecular structure of amylopectin in the starch has been varied by the hydration without heating. The intensity of a band at 4770 cm -1 in NIR spectra is decreasing with the increasing of either the heating time with water or rehydration time without heating. These results suggest that the hydration of Domyoji-ko has proceeded in similar mechanisms on these processes. The generalized hetero 2D IR-NIR correlation analysis for rehydration of Domyoji-ko has supported the assignments for NIR bands concerning the gelatinization of starch.

  14. Cluster and principal component analysis based on SSR markers of Amomum tsao-ko in Jinping County of Yunnan Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Mengli; Lei, En; Meng, Hengling; Wang, Tiantao; Xie, Linyan; Shen, Dong; Xianwang, Zhou; Lu, Bingyue

    2017-08-01

    Amomum tsao-ko is a commercial plant that used for various purposes in medicinal and food industries. For the present investigation, 44 germplasm samples were collected from Jinping County of Yunnan Province. Clusters analysis and 2-dimensional principal component analysis (PCA) was used to represent the genetic relations among Amomum tsao-ko by using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Clustering analysis clearly distinguished the samples groups. Two major clusters were formed; first (Cluster I) consisted of 34 individuals, the second (Cluster II) consisted of 10 individuals, Cluster I as the main group contained multiple sub-clusters. PCA also showed 2 groups: PCA Group 1 included 29 individuals, PCA Group 2 included 12 individuals, consistent with the results of cluster analysis. The purpose of the present investigation was to provide information on genetic relationship of Amomum tsao-ko germplasm resources in main producing areas, also provide a theoretical basis for the protection and utilization of Amomum tsao-ko resources.

  15. NADPH oxidase-1 deficiency offers little protection in Salmonella typhimurium-induced typhlitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Fong-Fong; Esworthy, R Steven; Doroshow, James H; Shen, Binghui

    2016-01-01

    AIM To test whether Nox1 plays a role in typhlitis induced by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Tm) in a mouse model. METHODS Eight-week-old male wild-type (WT) and Nox1 knockout (KO) C57BL6/J (B6) mice were administered metronidazole water for 4 d to make them susceptible to S. Tm infection by the oral route. The mice were given plain water and administered with 4 different doses of S. Tm by oral gavage. The mice were followed for another 4 d. From the time of the metronidazole application, the mice were observed twice daily and weighed daily. The ileum, cecum and colon were removed for sampling at the fourth day post-inoculation. Portions of all three tissues were fixed for histology and placed in RNAlater for mRNA/cDNA preparation and quantitative real-time PCR. The contents of the cecum were recovered for estimation of S. Tm CFU. RESULTS We found Nox1-knockout (Nox1-KO) mice were not more sensitive to S. Tm colonization and infection than WT B6 mice. This conclusion is based on the following observations: (1) S. Tm-infection induced similar weight loss in Nox1-KO mice compared to WT mice; (2) the same S. Tm CFU was recovered from the cecal content of Nox1-KO and WT mice regardless of the inoculation dose, except the lowest inoculation dose (2 × 106 CFU) for which the Nox1-KO had one-log lower CFU than WT mice; (3) there is no difference in cecal pathology between WT and Nox1-KO groups; and (4) there are no S. Tm infection-induced changes in gene expression levels (IL-1b, TNF-α, and Duox2) between WT and Nox1-KO groups. The Alpi gene expression was more suppressed by S. Tm treatment in WT than the Nox1-KO cecum. CONCLUSION Nox1 does not protect mice from S. Tm colonization. Nox1-KO provides a very minor protective effect against S. Tm infection. Using NOX1-specific inhibitors for colitis therapy should not increase risks in bacterial infection. PMID:28028364

  16. Generation of tension by skinned fibers and intact skeletal muscles from desmin-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Wieneke, S; Stehle, R; Li, Z; Jockusch, H

    2000-11-19

    We have investigated the physiological role of desmin in skeletal muscle by measuring isometric tension generated in skinned fibres and intact skeletal muscles from desmin knock-out (DES-KO) mice. About 80% of skinned single extensor digitorum longus (EDL) fibres from adult DES-KO mice generated tensions close to that of wild-type (WT) controls. Weights and maximum tensions of intact EDL but not of soleus (SOL) muscles were lowered in DES-KO mice. Repeated contractions with stretch did not affect subsequent isometric tension in EDL muscles of DES-KO mice. Tension during high frequency fatigue (HFF) declined faster and this deficiency was compensated in DES-KO EDL muscles by 5 mM caffeine which had no influence on HFF in WT EDL. Furthermore, caffeine evoked twitch potentiation was higher in DES-KO than in WT muscles. We conclude that desmin is not essential for acute tensile strength but rather for optimal activation of intact myofibres during E-C coupling. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  17. Infusion of oxytocin induces successful delivery in prostanoid FP-receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Kawamata, Masaki; Yoshida, Masahide; Sugimoto, Yukihiko; Kimura, Tadashi; Tonomura, Yutaka; Takayanagi, Yuki; Yanagisawa, Teruyuki; Nishimori, Katsuhiko

    2008-02-13

    The dramatic increase of oxytocin (OT) receptor (OTR) in the myometrium as well as circulating progesterone withdrawal has been thought to be the most important factor in the induction and accomplishment of parturition since delivery fails in prostaglandin F2alpha receptor (FP) knockout (FP KO) mice. The expression levels of OTR mRNA/protein were not dramatically increased in the near-term uteri of FP KO mice. However, OT-induced myometrial contractions and the concentration-response curves in FP KO in vitro were almost similar to those in wild-type (WT) mice. OT-infusion (0.3 U/day) enabled FP KO mice to experience successful delivery, and furthermore the duration until the onset was hastened by a higher dose of OT (3 U/day). The plasma progesterone levels of FP KO females were maintained at high levels, but decreased during labor by OT-infusion (3 U/day). These results suggest that OT has potentials to induce strong myometrial contractions in uterus with low expression levels of OTR and luteolysis in ovary, which enabled FP KO females to undergo successful delivery.

  18. DISTINCT BEHAVIORAL PHENOTYPES IN MALE MICE LACKING THE THYROID HORMONE RECEPTOR α1 OR β ISOFORMS

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevan, Nandini; Morgan, Maria; Pfaff, Donald; Ogawa, Sonoko

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hormones influence both neuronal development and anxiety via the thyroid hormone receptors (TRs). The TRs are encoded by two different genes, TRα and TRβ. The loss of TRα1 is implicated in increased anxiety in males, possibly via a hippocampal increase in GABAergic activity. We compared both social behaviors and two underlying and related non-social behaviors, state anxiety and responses to acoustic and tactile startle in the gonadally intact TRα1 knockout (α1KO) and TRβ (βKO) male mice to their wild-type counterparts. For the first time, we show an opposing effect of the two TR isoforms, TRα1 and TRβ, in the regulation of state anxiety, with α1 knockout animals (α1KO) showing higher levels of anxiety and βKO males showing less anxiety compared to respective wild-type mice. At odds with the increased anxiety in non-social environments, α1KO males also show lower levels of responsiveness to acoustic and tactile startle stimuli. Consistent with the data that T4 is inhibitory to lordosis in female mice, we show subtly increased sex behavior in α1KO male mice. These behaviors support the idea that TRα1 could be inhibitory to ERα driven transcription that ultimately impacts ERα driven behaviors such as lordosis. The behavioral phenotypes point to novel roles for the TRs, particularly in non-social behaviors such as state anxiety and startle. PMID:23567476

  19. Oxytocin receptor knockout mice display deficits in the expression of autism-related behaviors.

    PubMed

    Pobbe, Roger L H; Pearson, Brandon L; Defensor, Erwin B; Bolivar, Valerie J; Young, W Scott; Lee, Heon-Jin; Blanchard, D Caroline; Blanchard, Robert J

    2012-03-01

    A wealth of studies has implicated oxytocin (Oxt) and its receptors (Oxtr) in the mediation of social behaviors and social memory in rodents. It has been suggested that failures in this system contribute to deficits in social interaction that characterize autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the current analyses, we investigated the expression of autism-related behaviors in mice that lack the ability to synthesize the oxytocin receptor itself, Oxtr knockout (KO) mice, as compared to their wild-type (WT) littermates. In the visible burrow system, Oxtr KO mice showed robust reductions in frontal approach, huddling, allo-grooming, and flight, with more time spent alone, and in self-grooming, as compared to WT. These results were corroborated in the three-chambered test: unlike WT, Oxtr KO mice failed to spend more time in the side of the test box containing an unfamiliar CD-1 mouse. In the social proximity test, Oxtr KO mice showed clear reductions in nose to nose and anogenital sniff behaviors oriented to an unfamiliar C57BL/6J (B6) mouse. In addition, our study revealed no differences between Oxtr WT and KO genotypes in the occurrence of motor and cognitive stereotyped behaviors. A significant genotype effect was found in the scent marking analysis, with Oxtr KO mice showing a decreased number of scent marks, as compared to WT. Overall, the present data indicate that the profile for Oxtr KO mice, including consistent social deficits, and reduced levels of communication, models multiple components of the ASD phenotype. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and Social Behavior.

  20. Binding Specificities of the Telomere Phage ϕKO2 Prophage Repressor CB and Lytic Repressor Cro.

    PubMed

    Hammerl, Jens Andre; Jäckel, Claudia; Lanka, Erich; Roschanski, Nicole; Hertwig, Stefan

    2016-08-03

    Temperate bacteriophages possess a genetic switch which regulates the lytic and lysogenic cycle. The genomes of the temperate telomere phages N15, PY54, and ϕKO2 harbor a primary immunity region (immB) comprising genes for the prophage repressor (cI or cB), the lytic repressor (cro) and a putative antiterminator (q). The roles of these products are thought to be similar to those of the lambda proteins CI (CI prophage repressor), Cro (Cro repressor), and Q (antiterminator Q), respectively. Moreover, the gene order and the location of several operator sites in the prototype telomere phage N15 and in ϕKO2 are reminiscent of lambda-like phages. We determined binding sites of the ϕKO2 prophage repressor CB and lytic repressor Cro on the ϕKO2 genome in detail by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) studies. Unexpectedly, ϕKO2 CB and Cro revealed different binding specificities. CB was bound to three OR operators in the intergenic region between cB and cro, two OL operators between cB and the replication gene repA and even to operators of N15. Cro bound exclusively to the 16 bp operator site OR3 upstream of the ϕKO2 prophage repressor gene. The ϕKO2 genes cB and cro are regulated by several strong promoters overlapping with the OR operators. The data suggest that Cro represses cB transcription but not its own synthesis, as already reported for PY54 Cro. Thus, not only PY54, but also phage ϕKO2 possesses a genetic switch that diverges significantly from the switch of lambda-like phages.

  1. Binding Specificities of the Telomere Phage ϕKO2 Prophage Repressor CB and Lytic Repressor Cro

    PubMed Central

    Hammerl, Jens Andre; Jäckel, Claudia; Lanka, Erich; Roschanski, Nicole; Hertwig, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Temperate bacteriophages possess a genetic switch which regulates the lytic and lysogenic cycle. The genomes of the temperate telomere phages N15, PY54, and ϕKO2 harbor a primary immunity region (immB) comprising genes for the prophage repressor (cI or cB), the lytic repressor (cro) and a putative antiterminator (q). The roles of these products are thought to be similar to those of the lambda proteins CI (CI prophage repressor), Cro (Cro repressor), and Q (antiterminator Q), respectively. Moreover, the gene order and the location of several operator sites in the prototype telomere phage N15 and in ϕKO2 are reminiscent of lambda-like phages. We determined binding sites of the ϕKO2 prophage repressor CB and lytic repressor Cro on the ϕKO2 genome in detail by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) studies. Unexpectedly, ϕKO2 CB and Cro revealed different binding specificities. CB was bound to three OR operators in the intergenic region between cB and cro, two OL operators between cB and the replication gene repA and even to operators of N15. Cro bound exclusively to the 16 bp operator site OR3 upstream of the ϕKO2 prophage repressor gene. The ϕKO2 genes cB and cro are regulated by several strong promoters overlapping with the OR operators. The data suggest that Cro represses cB transcription but not its own synthesis, as already reported for PY54 Cro. Thus, not only PY54, but also phage ϕKO2 possesses a genetic switch that diverges significantly from the switch of lambda-like phages. PMID:27527206

  2. Over-Expression of CD200 Protects Mice from Dextran Sodium Sulfate Induced Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhiqi; Yu, Kai; Zhu, Fang; Gorczynski, Reginald

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim CD200:CD200 receptor (CD200R) interactions lead to potent immunosuppression and inhibition of autoimmune inflammation. We investigated the effect of "knockout"of CD200 or CD200R, or over-expression of CD200, on susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)—induced colitis, a mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods Acute or chronic colitis was induced by administration of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in four groups of age-matched C57BL/6 female mice: (1) CD200-transgenic mice (CD200tg); (2) wild-type (WT) mice; (3) CD200 receptor 1-deficient (CD200R1KO) mice; and (4) CD200-deficient (CD200KO) mice. The extent of colitis was determined using a histological scoring system. Colon tissues were collected for quantitative RT-PCR and Immunohistochemical staining. Supernatants from colonic explant cultures and mononuclear cells isolated from colonic tissue were used for ELISA. Results CD200KO and CD200R1KO mice showed greater sensitivity to acute colitis than WT mice, with accelerated loss of body weight, significantly higher histological scores, more severe infiltration of macrophages, neutrophils and CD3+ cells, and greater expression of macrophage-derived inflammatory cytokines, whose production was inhibited in vitro (in WT/CD200KO mouse cells) by CD200. In contrast, CD200tg mice showed less sensitivity to DSS compared with WT mice, with attenuation of all of the features seen in other groups. In a chronic colitis model, greater infiltration of Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells was seen in the colon of CD200tg mice compared to WT mice, and anti-CD25 mAb given to these mice attenuated protection. Conclusions The CD200:CD200R axis plays an immunoregulatory role in control of DSS induced colitis in mice. PMID:26841120

  3. GABA type B receptor signaling in proopiomelanocortin neurons protects against obesity, insulin resistance, and hypothalamic inflammation in male mice on a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yoshihiro; Banno, Ryoichi; Shibata, Miyuki; Adachi, Koichi; Hagimoto, Shigeru; Hagiwara, Daisuke; Ozawa, Yoshiharu; Goto, Motomitsu; Suga, Hidetaka; Sugimura, Yoshihisa; Bettler, Bernhard; Oiso, Yutaka; Arima, Hiroshi

    2013-10-23

    There is evidence suggesting that the GABA system in the arcuate nucleus, where orexigenic neuropeptide Y and agouti-related peptide as well as anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) are expressed, plays an important role in energy balance. In this study, we generated POMC-specific GABAB receptor-deficient [knock-out (KO)] mice. Male KO mice on a high-fat diet (HFD) showed mild increases in body weight (BW) at the age of 9 weeks compared to wild-type (WT) mice, and the differences remained significant until 16 weeks old. However, there was no difference in BW in females between genotypes. While food intake was similar between genotypes, oxygen consumption was significantly decreased in the male KO mice. The insulin tolerance test revealed that the male KO mice were less insulin sensitive compared to WT mice at the age of 8 weeks, when there was no significant difference in BW between genotypes. Despite increased BW, POMC mRNA expression in the arcuate nucleus was significantly decreased in the KO mice compared to WT mice at the age of 16 weeks. Furthermore, the expression of TNFα as well as IL-6, proinflammatory markers in the hypothalamus, was significantly increased in the KO mice on a HFD compared to WT mice. This demonstrates that the deletion of GABAB receptors in POMC neurons in the male mice on a HFD results in obesity, insulin resistance, and hypothalamic inflammation. Furthermore, the decreased POMC expression in the obese KO mice suggests that the regulation of POMC expression through GABAB receptors is essential for proper energy balance.

  4. Severe systemic toxicity and urinary bladder cytotoxicity and regenerative hyperplasia induced by arsenite in arsenic (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase knockout mice. A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Yokohira, Masanao; Arnold, Lora L.; Pennington, Karen L.; Suzuki, Shugo; Kakiuchi-Kiyota, Satoko; Herbin-Davis, Karen; Thomas, David J.; Cohen, Samuel M.

    2010-07-15

    Arsenic (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) catalyzes reactions which convert inorganic arsenic to methylated metabolites. This study determined whether the As3mt null genotype in the mouse modifies cytotoxic and proliferative effects seen in urinary bladders of wild type mice after exposure to inorganic arsenic. Female wild type C57BL/6 mice and As3mt KO mice were divided into 3 groups each (n = 8) with free access to a diet containing 0, 100 or 150 ppm of arsenic as arsenite (As{sup III}). During the first week of As{sup III} exposure, As3mt KO mice exhibited severe and lethal systemic toxicity. At termination, urinary bladders of both As3mt KO and wild type mice showed hyperplasia by light microscopy. As expected, arsenic-containing granules were found in the superficial urothelial layer of wild type mice. In As3mt KO mice these granules were present in all layers of the bladder epithelium and were more abundant and larger than in wild type mice. Scanning electron microscopy of the bladder urothelium of As3mt KO mice treated with 100 ppm As{sup III} showed extensive superficial necrosis and hyperplastic changes. In As3mt KO mice, livers showed severe acute inflammatory changes and spleen size and lymphoid areas were decreased compared with wild type mice. Thus, diminished arsenic methylation in As3mt KO mice exacerbates systemic toxicity and the effects of As{sup III} on the bladder epithelium, showing that altered kinetic and dynamic behavior of arsenic can affect its toxicity.

  5. Impact of chronic low to moderate alcohol consumption on blood lipid and heart energy profile in acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Fan, Fan; Cao, Quan; Wang, Cong; Ma, Xin; Shen, Cheng; Liu, Xiang-wei; Bu, Li-ping; Zou, Yun-zeng; Hu, Kai; Sun, Ai-jun; Ge, Jun-bo

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the roles of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), the key enzyme of ethanol metabolism, in chronic low to moderate alcohol consumption-induced heart protective effects in mice. Twenty-one male wild-type (WT) or ALDH2-knockout (KO) mice were used in this study. In each genotype, 14 animals received alcohol (2.5%, 5% and 10% in week 1-3, respectively, and 18% in week 4-7), and 7 received water for 7 weeks. After the treatments, survival rate and general characteristics of the animals were evaluated. Serum ethanol and acetaldehyde levels and blood lipids were measured. Metabolomics was used to characterize the heart and serum metabolism profiles. Chronic alcohol intake decreased the survival rate of KO mice by 50%, and significantly decreased their body weight, but did not affect those of WT mice. Chronic alcohol intake significantly increased the serum ethanol levels in both WT and KO mice, but KO mice had significantly higher serum acetaldehyde levels than WT mice. Chronic alcohol intake significantly increased the serum HDL cholesterol levels in WT mice, and did not change the serum HDL cholesterol levels in KO mice. After chronic alcohol intake, WT and KO mice showed differential heart and serum metabolism profiles, including the 3 main energy substrate types (lipids, glucose and amino acids) and three carboxylic acid cycles. Low to moderate alcohol consumption increases HDL cholesterol levels and improves heart energy metabolism profile in WT mice but not in ALDH2-KO mice. Thus, preserved ALDH2 function is essential for the protective effect of low to moderate alcohol on the cardiovascular system.

  6. Rate constant and thermochemistry for K + O2 + N2 = KO2 + N2.

    PubMed

    Sorvajärvi, Tapio; Viljanen, Jan; Toivonen, Juha; Marshall, Paul; Glarborg, Peter

    2015-04-09

    The addition reaction of potassium atoms with oxygen has been studied using the collinear photofragmentation and atomic absorption spectroscopy (CPFAAS) method. KCl vapor was photolyzed with 266 nm pulses and the absorbance by K atoms at 766.5 nm was measured at various delay times with a narrow line width diode laser. Experiments were carried out with O2/N2 mixtures at a total pressure of 1 bar, over 748-1323 K. At the lower temperatures single exponential decays of [K] yielded the third-order rate constant for addition, kR1, whereas at higher temperatures equilibration was observed in the form of double exponential decays of [K], which yielded both kR1 and the equilibrium constant for KO2 formation. kR1 can be summarized as 1.07 × 10(-30)(T/1000 K)(-0.733) cm(6) molecule(-2) s(-1). Combination with literature values leads to a recommended kR1 of 5.5 × 10(-26)T(-1.55) exp(-10/T) cm(6) molecule(-2) s(-1) over 250-1320 K, with an error limit of a factor of 1.5. A van't Hoff analysis constrained to fit the computed ΔS298 yields a K-O2 bond dissociation enthalpy of 184.2 ± 4.0 kJ mol(-1) at 298 K and ΔfH298(KO2) = -95.2 ± 4.1 kJ mol(-1). The corresponding D0 is 181.5 ± 4.0 kJ mol(-1). This value compares well with a CCSD(T) extrapolation to the complete basis set limit, with all electrons correlated, of 177.9 kJ mol(-1).

  7. The Košice meteoroid investigation: from trajectory data to analytic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, Daria; Gritsevich, Maria; Vinnikov, Vladimir

    2014-02-01

    Impact rate estimates for the upper atmosphere are significantly higher than for the Earth's surface due to the presence of the atmosphere. Thus to account for this properly, one needs to model drag and ablation processes along the atmospheric trajectory (e.g. Bland and Artemieva, 2003). The best way to validate the resulting model is to apply it to meteorite-producing fireballs with a complete observational record. We consider the recent meteorite fall - Košice (2010). In this investigation, we propose a special model based on the analytical solution of the drag and mass-loss equations (Gritsevich, 2009; Gritsevich et al.; 2012). Using the available trajectory data (Borovička et al.; 2013), two key dimensionless parameters (the ballistic coefficient and mass loss parameter) are obtained which allow us to describe the mass and velocity changes of the main fragment of the meteoroid entering the atmosphere, as well as to estimate the pre-atmospheric meteoroid mass. Good agreement between the calculated functions and real trajectory characteristics is shown. We also apply statistical methods to describe the fragmentation process and provide insights into the pre-atmospheric meteoroid shape (Vinnikov et al.; 2014). Furthermore, the most probable scenario suggests that the Košice meteoroid, prior to further extensive fragmentation in the lower atmosphere, consisted of two independent pieces with cumulative residual masses of approximately 2 kg and 9 kg respectively (Gritsevich et al.; 2014a). The conducted analysis leads to the conclusion that two to three larger Košice fragments of 500-1000 g each should exist in addition to the already reported meteorite finds.

  8. Dietary krill oil supplementation reduces hepatic steatosis, glycemia, and hypercholesterolemia in high-fat-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Tandy, Sally; Chung, Rosanna W S; Wat, Elaine; Kamili, Alvin; Berge, Kjetil; Griinari, Mikko; Cohn, Jeffrey S

    2009-10-14

    Krill oil (KO) is rich in n-3 fatty acids that are present in phospholipids rather than in triglycerides. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dietary KO on cardiometabolic risk factors in male C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet. Mice (n = 6-10 per group) were fed for 8 weeks either: (1) a nonpurified chow diet (N); (2) a high-fat semipurified diet containing 21 wt % buttermilk + 0.15 wt % cholesterol (HF); (3) HF supplemented with 1.25 wt % KO (HFKO1.25); (4) HF with 2.5 wt % KO (HFKO2.5); or (5) HF with 5 wt % KO (HFKO5.0). Dietary KO supplementation caused a significant reduction in liver wt (i.e., hepatomegaly) and total liver fat (i.e., hepatic steatosis), due to a dose-dependent reduction in hepatic triglyceride (mean +/- SEM: 35 +/- 6, 47 +/- 4, and 51 +/- 5% for HFKO1.25, -2.5, and -5.0 vs HF, respectively, P < 0.001) and cholesterol (55 +/- 5, 66 +/- 3, and 71 +/- 3%, P < 0.001). Serum cholesterol levels were reduced by 20 +/- 3, 29 +/- 4, and 29 +/- 5%, and blood glucose was reduced by 36 +/- 5, 34 +/- 6, and 42 +/- 6%, respectively. Serum adiponectin was increased in KO-fed animals (HF vs HFKO5.0: 5.0 +/- 0.2 vs 7.5 +/- 0.6 microg/mL, P < 0.01). These results demonstrate that dietary KO is effective in improving metabolic parameters in mice fed a high-fat diet, suggesting that KO may be of therapeutic value in patients with the metabolic syndrome and/or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  9. Dysfunction of mitochondria and deformed gap junctions in the heart of IL-18-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Jin, Denan; Hata, Masaki; Takai, Shinji; Yamanishi, Kyosuke; Shen, Weili; El-Darawish, Yosif; Yamanishi, Hiromichi; Okamura, Haruki

    2016-08-01

    Interleukin-18 (IL-18) was discovered as an interferon-γ-inducing factor and has been regarded as a proinflammatory cytokine. However, IL-18 is ubiquitously expressed both in immune/inflammatory cells and in nonimmune cells, and its biological roles have not been sufficiently elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that IL-18-deficient [IL-18 knockout (KO)] mice have heart abnormalities that may be related to impaired autophagy. In endurance running tests, IL-18KO mice ran significantly shorter distances compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Echocardiographs indicated disability in the systolic and diastolic functions of the IL-18KO mouse heart. Immunostaining of connexin 43 showed heterogeneous localization of gap junctions in the lateral membranes of the IL-18KO cardiac myocytes. Western blotting analysis revealed decreased phosphorylated connexin 43 in the IL-18KO heart. Electron microscopy revealed unusual localization of intercalated disks, swollen or damaged mitochondria, and broad, indistinct Z-lines in the IL-18KO heart. In accordance with the morphological observation, mitochondrial respiratory function, including that of complexes I and IV, was impaired, and production of reactive oxygen species was augmented in IL-18KO hearts. Notably, levels of LC3-II were markedly lower in the IL-18KO hearts than in WT hearts. In the culture of cardiac myocytes of IL-18KO neonates, exogenous IL-18 upregulated LC3-II and increased the number of intact mitochondria with high mitochondrial membrane potential. These results indicated that IL-18 has roles apart from those as a proinflammatory cytokine in cardiac myocytes and suggested that IL-18 contributes to the homeostatic maintenance of mitochondrial function and gap-junction turnover in cardiac myocytes, possibly by upregulating autophagy.

  10. Enhanced Mortality to Metastatic Bladder Cancer Cell Line MB49 in Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Gene Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mirsaidi, Niely; Burns, Matthew P.; McClain, Steve A.; Forsyth, Edward; Li, Jonathan; Dukes, Brittany; Lin, David; Nahvi, Roxanna; Giraldo, Jheison; Patton, Megan; Wang, Ping; Lin, Ke; Miller, Edmund; Ratliff, Timothy; Hamidi, Sayyed; Crist, Scott; Takemaru, Ken-Ichi; Szema, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    To identify if the absence of the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) gene enhances susceptibility to death from metastatic bladder cancer, two strains of mice were injected with MB49 murine bladder cancer cells. The growth and spread of the cancer was measured over a period of 4 weeks in C57BL/6 mice and 5 weeks in VIP knockout (KO) mice. A Kaplan–Meier plot was constructed to compare control C57BL/6 mice and C57BL/6 mice with MB49 vs. VIP KO controls and VIP KO mice with MB49. The wild-type (WT) strain (C57BL/6) contained the VIP gene, while the other strain, VIP knockout backcrossed to C57BL/6 (VIP KO) did not and was thus unable to endogenously produce VIP. VIP KO mice had increased mortality compared to C57BL/6 mice at 4 weeks. The number of ulcers between both groups was not statistically significant. In vitro studies indicated that the presence VIP in high doses reduced MB49 cell growth, as well as macrophage inhibitory factor (MIF), a growth factor in bladder cancer cells. These findings support the concept that VIP may attenuate susceptibility to death from bladder cancer, and that it exerts its effect via downregulation of MIF. PMID:28824540

  11. Activation of the central histaminergic system is involved in hypoxia-induced stroke tolerance in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yan-ying; Hu, Wei-wei; Dai, Hai-bin; Zhang, Jian-xiang; Zhang, Lu-yi; He, Ping; Shen, Yao; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Wei, Er-qing; Chen, Zhong

    2011-01-01

    We hypothesized that activation of the central histaminergic system is required for neuroprotection induced by hypoxic preconditioning. Wild-type (WT) and histidine decarboxylase knockout (HDC-KO) mice were preconditioned by 3 hours of hypoxia (8% O2) and, 48 hours later, subjected to 30 minutes of middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion, followed by 24 hours of reperfusion. Hypoxic preconditioning improved neurologic function and decreased infarct volume in WT or HDC-KO mice treated with histamine, but not in HDC-KO or WT mice treated with α-fluoromethylhistidine (α-FMH, an inhibitor of HDC). Laser-Doppler flowmetry analysis showed that hypoxic preconditioning ameliorated cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the periphery of the MCA territory during ischemia in WT mice but not in HDC-KO mice. Histamine decreased in the cortex of WT mice after 2, 3, and 4 hours of hypoxia, and HDC activity increased after 3 hours of hypoxia. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA and protein expressions showed a greater increase after hypoxia than those in HDC-KO or α-FMH-treated WT mice. In addition, the VEGF receptor-2 antagonist SU1498 prevented the protective effect of hypoxic preconditioning in infarct volume and reversed increased peripheral CBF in WT mice. Therefore, endogenous histamine is an essential mediator of hypoxic preconditioning. It may function by enhancing hypoxia-induced VEGF expression. PMID:20588322

  12. Characterization of Chronic Cutaneous Lesions from TNF-Receptor-1-Deficient Mice Infected by Leishmania major

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Carolina Ferreira; Manzoni-de-Almeida, Daniel; Mello, Paula Seixas; Natale, Caio Cotta; Santiago, Helton da Costa; Miranda, Luíza da Silva; Ferraz, Fernanda Oliveira; dos Santos, Liliane Martins; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Arantes, Rosa Maria Esteves; Vieira, Leda Quercia

    2012-01-01

    Leishmania major-infected TNF receptor 1 deficient (TNFR1 KO) mice resolve parasitism but fail to resolve lesions, while wild-type mice completely heal. We investigated the cell composition, cytokine production, and apoptosis in lesions from L. major-infected TNFR1 KO and wild-type (WT) mice. Chronic lesions from L. major-infected TNFR1 KO mice presented larger number of CD8+ T and Ly6G+ cells. In addition, higher concentrations of mRNA for IFN-γ CCL2 and CCL5, as well as protein, but lower numbers of apoptotic cells, were found in lesions from TNFR1 KO mice than in WT, at late time points of infection. Our studies showed that persistent lesions in L. major-infected TNFR1 KO mice may be mediated by continuous migration of cells to the site of inflammation due to the presence of chemokines and also by lower levels of apoptosis. We suggest that this model has some striking similarities to the mucocutaneous clinical form of leishmaniasis. PMID:22203861

  13. Increased cardiac remodeling in cardiac-specific Flt-1 receptor knockout mice with pressure overload.

    PubMed

    Mei, Liqin; Huang, Yinqing; Lin, Jiafeng; Chu, Maoping; Hu, Chaohui; Zhou, Ning; Wu, Lianpin

    2015-11-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition has previously been shown to have damaging effects on the heart. Because the role of Flt-1 (a phosphotyrosine kinase receptor for VEGF) in cardiac function and hypertrophy is unclear, we generated mice lacking Flt-1 only in their cardiomyocytes (Flt-1 KO). The hearts from 8- to 10-week-old mice were measured by using echocardiography and histology. No significant differences were seen in fraction shortening, cross-sectional area of cardiomyocytes, and interstitial collagen fraction between littermate controls and KO mice at baseline. To test the hypothesis that Flt-1 is involved in cardiac remodeling, we performed transverse aorta constriction (TAC) by ligating the transverse ascending aorta. Four weeks after TAC, echocardiography of the mice was performed, and the hearts were excised for pathological analysis and Western blotting. No difference in mortality was found between Flt-1 KO mice and controls; however, KO mice showed a greater cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area and interstitial collagen fraction than controls. Western blotting indicated that AKT was activated less in Flt-1 KO hearts after TAC compared with that in control hearts. Thus, Flt-1 deletion in cardiomyocytes increased hypertrophy, fibrosis, and regression of AKT phosphorylation. Our study suggests that Flt-1 plays a critical role in cardiac hypertrophy induced by pressure overload via the activation of AKT, which seems to be cardioprotective.

  14. The Idea of an Innovated Concept of the Košice Geothermal Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bujanská, Alena; Böszörményi, László

    2015-11-01

    Slovakia has very limited amounts of fossil resources. However, it has a relatively high potential of geothermal energy which use is far below its possibilities. The most abundant geothermal resource, not only in Slovakia but throughout the central Europe, is Košice basin. Since the publication of the first ideas about the ambitious goal to exploit the geothermal potential of this site, 20 years has passed and three geothermal wells has been made but without any progress. In the article the authors present the idea of a fundamental change in the approach to improve the energy and economic efficiency of the project.

  15. Sex differences in the development of diabetes in mice with deleted wolframin (Wfs1) gene.

    PubMed

    Noormets, K; Kõks, S; Muldmaa, M; Mauring, L; Vasar, E; Tillmann, V

    2011-05-01

    Wolfram syndrome, caused by mutations in the wolframin (Wfs1) gene, is characterised by juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus, progressive optic atrophy, diabetes insipidus and deafness. Diabetes tend to start earlier in boys. This study investigated sex differences in longitudinal changes in blood glucose concentration (BGC) in wolframin-deficient mice (Wfs1KO) and compared their plasma proinsulin and insulin levels with those of wild-type (wt) mice. Non-fasting BGC was measured weekly in 42 (21 males) mice from both groups at nine weeks of age. An intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was conducted at the 30 (th) week and plasma insulin, c-peptide and proinsulin levels were measured at the 32 (nd) week. At the 32 (nd) week, Wfs1KO males had increased BGC compared to wt males (9.40±0.60 mmol/l vs. 7.91±0.20 mmol/l; p<0.05). The opposite tendency was seen in females. Both male and female Wfs1KO mice had impaired glucose tolerance on IPGTT. Wfs1KO males had significantly lower mean plasma insulin levels than wt males (57.78±1.80 ng/ml vs. 69.42±3.06 ng/ml; p<0.01) and Wfs1KO females (70.30±4.42 ng/ml; p<0.05). Wfs1KO males had a higher proinsulin/insulin ratio than wt males (0.09±0.02 vs. 0.05±0.01; p=0.05) and Wfs1KO females (0.04±0.01; p<0.05). Plasma c-peptide levels in males were lower in Wfs1KO males (mean 55.3±14.0 pg/ml vs. 112.7±21.9 pg/ml; p<0.05). Male Wfs1KO mice had a greater risk of developing diabetes than female Wfs1KO mice. Low plasma insulin concentration with an increased proinsulin/insulin ratio in Wfs1KO males indicates possible disturbances in converting proinsulin to insulin which in long-term may lead to insulin deficiency. Further investigation is needed to clarify the mechanism for the sex differences in the development of diabetes in Wolfram syndrome. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Attenuating GABA(A) receptor signaling in dopamine neurons selectively enhances reward learning and alters risk preference in mice.

    PubMed

    Parker, Jones G; Wanat, Matthew J; Soden, Marta E; Ahmad, Kinza; Zweifel, Larry S; Bamford, Nigel S; Palmiter, Richard D

    2011-11-23

    Phasic dopamine (DA) transmission encodes the value of reward-predictive stimuli and influences both learning and decision-making. Altered DA signaling is associated with psychiatric conditions characterized by risky choices such as pathological gambling. These observations highlight the importance of understanding how DA neuron activity is modulated. While excitatory drive onto DA neurons is critical for generating phasic DA responses, emerging evidence suggests that inhibitory signaling also modulates these responses. To address the functional importance of inhibitory signaling in DA neurons, we generated mice lacking the β3 subunit of the GABA(A) receptor specifically in DA neurons (β3-KO mice) and examined their behavior in tasks that assessed appetitive learning, aversive learning, and risk preference. DA neurons in midbrain slices from β3-KO mice exhibited attenuated GABA-evoked IPSCs. Furthermore, electrical stimulation of excitatory afferents to DA neurons elicited more DA release in the nucleus accumbens of β3-KO mice as measured by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. β3-KO mice were more active than controls when given morphine, which correlated with potential compensatory upregulation of GABAergic tone onto DA neurons. β3-KO mice learned faster in two food-reinforced learning paradigms, but extinguished their learned behavior normally. Enhanced learning was specific for appetitive tasks, as aversive learning was unaffected in β3-KO mice. Finally, we found that β3-KO mice had enhanced risk preference in a probabilistic selection task that required mice to choose between a small certain reward and a larger uncertain reward. Collectively, these findings identify a selective role for GABA(A) signaling in DA neurons in appetitive learning and decision-making.

  17. Enhancement of synaptic transmission and nociceptive behaviour in HPC-1/syntaxin 1A knockout mice following peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Takasusuki, T; Fujiwara, T; Yamaguchi, S; Fukushima, T; Akagawa, K; Hori, Y

    2007-10-01

    Our previous analysis of HPC-1/syntaxin 1A knockout (KO) mice indicated that HPC-1/syntaxin 1A plays an important role in the synaptic plasticity of the hippocampus in vitro and learning behaviour in vivo. In order to gain further insights into the physiological functions of HPC-1/syntaxin 1A, we studied the changes in the plasticity of synaptic transmission in the superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord following a peripheral nerve injury in HPC-1/syntaxin 1A KO and wild-type (WT) mice. The von Frey filament test revealed that partial ligation of the sciatic nerve caused neuropathic pain in both WT and KO mice. However, KO mice showed significant enhancement of mechanical allodynia as compared with WT mice. Tight-seal whole-cell recordings were obtained from neurons in the superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord slices. Electrical stimulus-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs), asynchronous EPSCs (aEPSCs) in the presence of strontium, and spontaneously occurring miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs) were analysed. Prior to peripheral nerve ligation, no significant differences were observed in the properties of evoked EPSCs, aEPSCs and mEPSCs in KO and WT mice. Seven-14 days after partial ligation, the amplitude of evoked EPSCs and the frequency of aEPSCs and mEPSCs in KO mice were significantly greater than those in WT mice; however, the amplitude of aEPSCs and mEPSCs remained unchanged in both groups. Enhanced allodynia behaviour and significant enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission following peripheral nerve ligation in KO mice suggest that HPC-1/syntaxin 1A might play a role in synaptic plasticity in the nociceptive pathway.

  18. Cure of metastatic growth of EMT6 tumor cells in mice following manipulation of CD200:CD200R signaling.

    PubMed

    Gorczynski, Reginald M; Chen, Zhiqi; Khatri, Ismat; Podnos, Anna; Yu, Kai

    2013-11-01

    In previous studies, we observed that regulation of expression of CD200, both on cells of a transplantable breast cancer, EMT6, and of the host, as well as of the receptor, CD200R in host mice, regulated local tumor growth and metastasis in immunocompetent animals. This in turn led to an improved ability to document immunity to EMT6 in CD200R1KO mice. In the current study, we have explored the ability to cure BALB/c CD200KO or CD200R1KO mice of tumors ≤1 cm(3) in size by surgical resection of localized tumor, followed by immunization with irradiated EMT6 cells along with CpG as adjuvant. While control animals treated in this fashion developed significant pulmonary and liver metastases within 30 days of surgery, significant protection was seen in both CD200KO or CD200R1KO mice, with no macroscopic lung/liver metastases observed in CD200R1KO mice on sacrifice at day 300. Following surgical resection and immunization, draining lymph nodes from control mice contained tumor cells cloned at limiting dilution in vitro even before pulmonary and hepatic metastasis was seen. In contrast, within the limits of detection of the assay used (sensitivity ~1 in 10(7) cells), no tumor cells were detected at limiting dilution in similarly treated CD200R1KO mice, and significant reductions were seen in CD200KO mice. Infusion of anti-CD4, but less so anti-CD8, mAb into surgically treated and immunized CD200R1KO mice attenuated protection from both macroscopic (liver/lung) and microscopic (assayed by limiting dilution of DLN) metastasis. Adoptive transfer of lymphocytes from treated CD200R1KO mice to surgically treated control mice also attenuated metastatic growth of tumor, which was abolished by pretreatment of transferred cells with anti-CD4 mAb. Our data suggest that CD200:CD200R attenuates a potentially tumor-protective CD4 host response to breast cancer.

  19. Aged Garlic Extract Suppresses the Development of Atherosclerosis in Apolipoprotein E-Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Morihara, Naoaki; Hino, Atsuko; Yamaguchi, Takako; Suzuki, Jun-Ichiro

    2016-02-01

    Aged garlic extract (AGE) has been shown to retard the progression of coronary calcification in patients with coronary artery disease. To clarify the mechanism of AGE's action to retard atherosclerosis, we investigated whether AGE suppresses the formation and progression of atherosclerosis in Apolipoprotein E (Apoe)-knockout (ApoE-KO) mice. Male C57BL/6J mice (control mice, 5 wk old) were fed a standard diet, whereas male ApoE-KO mice (5 wk old) were fed a standard diet with or without 3% AGE for 12 or 24 wk. After the treatment, blood samples, aortas, and spleens were collected from all mice. Concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides (TGs) in serum were measured. The area of atherosclerotic lesion in the aorta was examined by Oil Red O staining. The relative abundances of monocytes plus macrophages (CD11b(+) cells) and interferon-γ-producing CD4(+) T cells in spleen were assessed by flow cytometric analysis. The atherosclerotic lesion areas in the aortas of ApoE-KO mice were 87 and 114 times as great (P < 0.01) as those in control mice at 12 and 24 wk, respectively. AGE feeding significantly inhibited the progression of atherosclerotic lesion area in ApoE-KO mice by 22% (P < 0.05) at 12 wk. In addition, serum concentrations of TC and TGs in ApoE-KO mice were significantly higher than those in control mice at 12 and 24 wk. Treatment with AGE significantly suppressed the increases in serum concentrations of TC and TGs in ApoE-KO mice by 21% (P < 0.05) and 19% (P < 0.05) at 24 wk, respectively, and reduced the relative abundance of CD11b(+) cells in ApoE-KO mice by 24% (P < 0.05) at 12 wk. These data suggest that the antiatherosclerotic activity of AGE is at least partly due to the suppression of inflammation and lipid deposition in the vessels during the early stage of atherosclerotic development in ApoE-KO mice. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Tumor suppressor p53 protects mice against Listeria monocytogenes infection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaohui; Liu, Pingping; Wei, Jianchao; Zhu, Zixiang; Shi, Zixue; Shao, Donghua; Ma, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Tumor suppressor p53 is involved in regulating immune responses, which contribute to antitumor and antiviral activity. However, whether p53 has anti-bacterial functions remains unclear. Listeria monocytogenes (LM) causes listeriosis in humans and animals, and it is a powerful model for studying innate and adaptive immunity. In the present study, we illustrate an important regulatory role of p53 during LM infection. p53 knockout (p53KO) mice were more susceptible to LM infection, which was manifested by a shorter survival time and lower survival rate. p53KO mice showed significant impairments in LM eradication. Knockdown of p53 in RAW264.7 and HeLa cells resulted in increased invasion and intracellular survival of LM. Furthermore, the invasion and intracellular survival of LM was inhibited in p53-overexpressing RAW264.7 and HeLa cells. LM-infected p53KO mice exhibited severe clinical symptoms and organ injury, presumably because of the abnormal production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12, and IL-18. Decreased IFN-γ and GBP1 productions were observed in LM-infected p53-deficient mice or cells. The combination of these defects likely resulted in the overwhelming LM infection in the p53KO mice. These observations indicate that p53 serves as an important regulator of the host innate immune that protects against LM infection. PMID:27644341

  1. Effects of clonidine and methylphenidate on motor activity in Fmr1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Wrenn, Craige C; Heitzer, Andrew M; Roth, Alexandra K; Nawrocki, Lauren; Valdovinos, Maria G

    2015-01-12

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS), a disorder caused by a mutation in the FMR1 gene, is often associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Common treatments for the hyperactivity often seen in ADHD involve the use of stimulants and α2-adrenergic agonists. The Fmr1 knockout (KO) mouse has been found to be a valid model for FXS both biologically and behaviorally. Of particular interest to our research, the Fmr1 KO mouse has been demonstrated to show increased locomotion in comparison to wild type (WT) littermates. In the present study, we assessed the effects of clonidine (0.05 mg/kg) and methylphenidate (5 mg/kg) on motor activity in Fmr1 KO mice and their WT littermates in the open field test. Results showed that methylphenidate increased motor activity in both genotypes. Clonidine decreased motor activity in both genotypes, but the effect was delayed in the Fmr1 KO mice.

  2. Caveolin-1 knockout mice exhibit airway hyperreactivity

    PubMed Central

    Aravamudan, Bharathi; VanOosten, Sarah K.; Meuchel, Lucas W.; Vohra, Pawan; Thompson, Michael; Sieck, Gary C.; Prakash, Y. S.

    2012-01-01

    Caveolae are flask-shaped plasma membrane invaginations expressing the scaffolding caveolin proteins. Although caveolins have been found in endothelium and epithelium (where they regulate nitric oxide synthase activity), their role in smooth muscle is still under investigation. We and others have previously shown that caveolae of human airway smooth muscle (ASM), which express caveolin-1, contain Ca2+ and force regulatory proteins and are involved in mediating the effects of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α on intracellular Ca2+ concentration responses to agonist. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that in vivo, absence of caveolin-1 leads to reduced airway hyperresponsiveness, using a knockout (KO) (Cav1 KO) mouse and an ovalbumin-sensitized/challenged (OVA) model of allergic airway hyperresponsiveness. Surprisingly, airway responsiveness to methacholine, tested by use of a FlexiVent system, was increased in Cav1 KO control (CTL) as well as KO OVA mice, which could not be explained by a blunted immune response to OVA. In ASM of wild-type (WT) OVA mice, expression of caveolin-1, the caveolar adapter proteins cavins 1–3, and caveolae-associated Ca2+ and force regulatory proteins such as Orai1 and RhoA were all increased, effects absent in Cav1 KO CTL and OVA mice. However, as with WT OVA, both CTL and OVA Cav1 KO airways showed signs of enhanced remodeling, with high expression of proliferation markers and increased collagen. Separately, epithelial cells from airways of all three groups displayed lower endothelial but higher inducible nitric oxide synthase and arginase expression. Arginase activity was also increased in these three groups, and the inhibitor nor-NOHA (N-omega-nor-l-arginine) enhanced sensitivity of isolated tracheal rings to ACh, especially in Cav1 KO mice. On the basis of these data disproving our original hypothesis, we conclude that caveolin-1 has complex effects on ASM vs. epithelium, resulting in airway hyperreactivity in vivo mediated

  3. TNF-α and temporal changes in sleep architecture in mice exposed to sleep fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Kaushal, Navita; Ramesh, Vijay; Gozal, David

    2012-01-01

    TNF-α plays critical roles in host-defense, sleep-wake regulation, and the pathogenesis of various disorders. Increases in the concentration of circulating TNF-α after either sleep deprivation or sleep fragmentation (SF) appear to underlie excessive daytime sleepiness in patients with sleep apnea (OSA). Following baseline recordings, mice were subjected to 15 days of SF (daily for 12 h/day from 07.00 h to 19.00 h), and sleep parameters were recorded on days1, 7 and 15. Sleep architecture and sleep propensity were assessed in both C57BL/6J and in TNF-α double receptor KO mice (TNFR KO). To further confirm the role of TNF-α, we also assessed the effect of treatment with a TNF- α neutralizing antibody in C57BL/6J mice. SF was not associated with major changes in global sleep architecture in C57BL/6J and TNFR KO mice. TNFR KO mice showed higher baseline SWS delta power. Further, following 15 days of SF, mice injected with TNF-α neutralizing antibody and TNFR KO mice showed increased EEG SWS activity. However, SWS latency, indicative of increased propensity to sleep, was only decreased in C57BL/6J, and was unaffected in TNFR KO mice as well as in C57BL/6J mice exposed to SF but treated with TNF-α neutralizing antibody. Taken together, our findings show that the excessive sleepiness incurred by recurrent arousals during sleep may be due to activation of TNF-alpha-dependent inflammatory pathways, despite the presence of preserved sleep duration and global sleep architecture.

  4. Adenosine A2A receptors induced on iNKT and NK cells reduce pulmonary inflammation and injury in mice with sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Kori L.

    2010-01-01

    We showed previously that pulmonary function and arterial oxygen saturation in NY1DD mice with sickle cell disease (SCD) are improved by depletion of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells or blockade of their activation. Here we demonstrate that SCD causes a 9- and 6-fold induction of adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) mRNA in mouse pulmonary iNKT and natural killer (NK) cells, respectively. Treating SCD mice with the A2AR agonist ATL146e produced a dose-dependent reversal of pulmonary dysfunction with maximal efficacy at 10 ng/kg/minute that peaked within 3 days and persisted throughout 7 days of continuous infusion. Crossing NY1DD mice with Rag1−/− mice reduced pulmonary injury that was restored by adoptive transfer of 106 purified iNKT cells. Reconstituted injury was reversed by ATL146e unless the adoptively transferred iNKT cells were pretreated with the A2AR alkylating antagonist, FSPTP (5-amino-7-[2-(4-fluorosulfonyl)phenylethyl]-2-(2-furyl)-pryazolo[4,3-ϵ]-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidine), which completely prevented pro-tection. In NY1DD mice exposed to hypoxia-reoxygenation, treatment with ATL146e at the start of reoxygenation prevented further lung injury. Together, these data indicate that activation of induced A2ARs on iNKT and NK cells in SCD mice is sufficient to improve baseline pulmonary function and prevent hypoxia-reoxygenation–induced exacerbation of pulmonary injury. A2A agonists have promise for treating diseases associated with iNKT or NK cell activation. PMID:20798237

  5. Altered postnatal development of cortico-hippocampal neuronal electric activity in mice deficient for the mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate transporter.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Galán, Marta; Makarova, Julia; Llorente-Folch, Irene; Saheki, Takeyori; Pardo, Beatriz; Satrústegui, Jorgina; Herreras, Oscar

    2012-02-01

    The deficiency in the mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate transporter Aralar/AGC1 results in a loss of the malate-aspartate NADH shuttle in the brain neurons, hypomyelination, and additional defects in the brain metabolism. We studied the development of cortico/hippocampal local field potential (LFP) in Aralar/AGC1 knockout (KO) mice. Laminar profiles of LFP, evoked potentials, and unit activity were recorded under anesthesia in young (P15 to P22) Aralar-KO and control mice as well as control adults. While LFP power increased 3 to 7 times in both cortex and hippocampus of control animals during P15 to P22, the Aralar-KO specimens hardly progressed. The divergence was more pronounced in the CA3/hilus region. In parallel, spontaneous multiunit activity declined severely in KO mice. Postnatal growth of hippocampal-evoked potentials was delayed in KO mice, and indicated abnormal synaptic and spike electrogenesis and reduced output at P20 to P22. The lack of LFP development in KO mice was accompanied by the gradual appearance of epileptic activity in the CA3/hilus region that evolved to status epilepticus. Strikingly, CA3 bursts were poorly conducted to the CA1 field. We conclude that disturbed substrate supply to neuronal mitochondria impairs development of cortico-hippocampal LFPs. Aberrant neuronal electrogenesis and reduced neuron output may explain circuit dysfunction and phenotype deficiencies.

  6. Sleep in Kcna2 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Christopher L; Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav; Southard, Teresa; Chiu, Shing-Yan; Messing, Albee; Tononi, Giulio; Cirelli, Chiara

    2007-01-01

    Background Shaker codes for a Drosophila voltage-dependent potassium channel. Flies carrying Shaker null or hypomorphic mutations sleep 3–4 h/day instead of 8–14 h/day as their wild-type siblings do. Shaker-like channels are conserved across species but it is unknown whether they affect sleep in mammals. To address this issue, we studied sleep in Kcna2 knockout (KO) mice. Kcna2 codes for Kv1.2, the alpha subunit of a Shaker-like voltage-dependent potassium channel with high expression in the mammalian thalamocortical system. Results Continuous (24 h) electroencephalograph (EEG), electromyogram (EMG), and video recordings were used to measure sleep and waking in Kcna2 KO, heterozygous (HZ) and wild-type (WT) pups (P17) and HZ and WT adult mice (P67). Sleep stages were scored visually based on 4-s epochs. EEG power spectra (0–20 Hz) were calculated on consecutive 4-s epochs. KO pups die by P28 due to generalized seizures. At P17 seizures are either absent or very rare in KO pups (< 1% of the 24-h recording time), and abnormal EEG activity is only present during the seizure. KO pups have significantly less non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep (-23%) and significantly more waking (+21%) than HZ and WT siblings with no change in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep time. The decrease in NREM sleep is due to an increase in the number of waking episodes, with no change in number or duration of sleep episodes. Sleep patterns, daily amounts of sleep and waking, and the response to 6 h sleep deprivation are similar in HZ and WT adult mice. Conclusion Kv1.2, a mammalian homologue of Shaker, regulates neuronal excitability and affects NREM sleep. PMID:17925011

  7. Copepod community succession during warm season in Lagoon Notoro-ko, northeastern Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Yoshizumi; Ichikawa, Hideaki; Kitamura, Mitsuaki; Nishino, Yasuto; Taniguchi, Akira

    2015-06-01

    Lagoon Notoro-ko, located on the northeastern coast of Hokkaido, Japan, and connected to the Okhotsk Sea by a human-made channel, is strongly influenced by local hydrography, as water masses in the lagoon are seasonally influenced by the Soya Warm Current and the East Sakhalin Current. We here report on the succession of copepod communities during the warm season in relation to water mass exchange. Copepods were categorized into four seasonal communities (spring/early-summer, mid-summer, late-summer/fall, and early-winter) via a cluster analysis based on Bray-Curtis similarities. Spring/early-summer and early-winter communities were characterized by the temperate-boreal calanoid Pseudocalanus newmani, comprising 34.9%-77.6% of the total abundance of copepods during times of low temperature/salinity, as influenced by the prevailing East Sakhalin Current. Late-summer/fall communities were characterized by the neritic warm-water calanoid Paracalanus parvus s.l., comprising 63.9%-96.3% of the total abundance, as influenced by the Soya Warm Current. Mid-summer communities comprised approximately equal abundances of P. parvus, Eurytemora herdmani, Scolecithricella minor, and Centropages abdominalis (12.8%-28.2%); this community is transitional between those of the spring/early-summer and late-summer/fall. Copepod community succession in Lagoon Notoro-ko can be largely explained by seasonal changes in water masses.

  8. Further Development of Ko Displacement Theory for Deformed Shape Predictions of Nonuniform Aerospace Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Fleischer, Van Tran

    2009-01-01

    The Ko displacement theory previously formulated for deformed shape predictions of nonuniform beam structures is further developed mathematically. The further-developed displacement equations are expressed explicitly in terms of geometrical parameters of the beam and bending strains at equally spaced strain-sensing stations along the multiplexed fiber-optic sensor line installed on the bottom surface of the beam. The bending strain data can then be input into the displacement equations for calculations of local slopes, deflections, and cross-sectional twist angles for generating the overall deformed shapes of the nonuniform beam. The further-developed displacement theory can also be applied to the deformed shape predictions of nonuniform two-point supported beams, nonuniform panels, nonuniform aircraft wings and fuselages, and so forth. The high degree of accuracy of the further-developed displacement theory for nonuniform beams is validated by finite-element analysis of various nonuniform beam structures. Such structures include tapered tubular beams, depth-tapered unswept and swept wing boxes, width-tapered wing boxes, and double-tapered wing boxes, all under combined bending and torsional loads. The Ko displacement theory, combined with the fiber-optic strain-sensing system, provide a powerful tool for in-flight deformed shape monitoring of unmanned aerospace vehicles by ground-based pilots to maintain safe flights.

  9. The Košice meteorite fall: Recovery and strewn field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, Juraj; Svoreå, JáN.; BorovičKa, Jiří; Spurný, Pavel; Igaz, Antal; Kornoš, Leonard; Vereš, Peter; HusáRik, Marek; Koza, Július; KučEra, Aleš; Zigo, Pavel; Gajdoš, Å. Tefan; ViláGi, Jozef; ČApek, David; KrišAndová, Zuzana; Tomko, Šdušan; Ilha, Jiří; Schunová, Eva; BodnáRová, Marcela; Búzová, Diana; KrejčOvá, Tereza

    2015-05-01

    We provide the circumstances and details of the fireball observation, search expeditions, recovery, strewn field, and physical characteristics of the Košice meteorite that fell in Slovakia on February 28, 2010. The meteorite was only the 15th case of an observed bolide with a recovered mass and subsequent orbit determination. Despite multiple eyewitness reports of the bolide, only three videos from security cameras in Hungary were used for the strewn field determination and orbit computation. Multiple expeditions of professionals and individual searchers found 218 fragments with total weight of 11.3 kg. The strewn field with the size of 5 × 3 km is characterized with respect to the space distribution of the fragments, their mass and size-frequency distribution. This work describes a catalog of 78 fragments, mass, size, volume, fusion crust, names of discoverers, geographic location, and time of discovery, which represents the most complex study of a fresh meteorite fall. From the analytical results, we classified the Košice meteorite as an ordinary H5 chondrite.

  10. Alternans Resonance and Propagation Block during Supernormal Conduction in Cardiac Tissue with Decreased [K+]o

    PubMed Central

    de Lange, Enno; Kucera, Jan P.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac restitution is an important factor in arrhythmogenesis. Steep positive action potential duration and conduction velocity (CV) restitution slopes promote alternans and reentrant arrhythmias. We examined the consequences of supernormal conduction (characterized by a negative CV restitution slope) on patterns of conduction and alternans in strands of Luo-Rudy model cells and in cultured cardiac cell strands. Interbeat intervals (IBIs) were analyzed as a function of distance during S1S2 protocols and during pacing at alternating cycle lengths. Supernormal conduction was induced by decreasing [K+]o. In control [K+]o simulations, S1S2 intervals converged toward basic cycle length with a length constant determined by both CV and the CV restitution slope. During alternant pacing, the amplitude of IBI alternans converged with a shorter length constant, determined also by the action potential duration restitution slope. In contrast, during supernormal conduction, S1S2 intervals and the amplitude of alternans diverged. This amplification (resonance) led to phase-locked or more complex alternans patterns, and then to distal conduction block. The convergence/divergence of IBIs was verified in the cultured strands, in which naturally occurring tissue heterogeneities resulted in prominent discontinuities of the spatial IBI profiles. We conclude that supernormal conduction potentiates alternans and spatial analysis of IBIs represents a powerful method to locate tissue heterogeneities. PMID:20371312

  11. Bioethanol production from steam-exploded rice husk by recombinant Escherichia coli KO11.

    PubMed

    Tabata, Takamitsu; Yoshiba, Yusuke; Takashina, Tomonori; Hieda, Kazuo; Shimizu, Norio

    2017-03-01

    Rice husk is one of the most abundant types of lignocellulosic biomass. Because of its significant amount of sugars, such as cellulose and hemicellulose, it can be used for the production of biofuels such as bioethanol. However, the complex structure of lignocellulosic biomass, consisting of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, is resistant to degradation, which limits biomass utilization for ethanol production. The protection of cellulose by lignin contributes to the recalcitrance of lignocelluloses to hydrolysis. Therefore, we conducted steam-explosion treatment as pretreatment of rice husk. However, recombinant Escherichia coli KO11 did not ferment the reducing sugar solution obtained by enzymatic saccharification of steam-exploded rice husk. When the steam-exploded rice husk was washed with hot water to remove inhibitory substances and M9 medium (without glucose) was used as a fermentation medium, E. coli KO11 completely fermented the reducing sugar solution obtained by enzymatic saccharification of hot water washing-treated steam-exploded rice husk to ethanol. We report here the efficient production of bioethanol using steam-exploded rice husk.

  12. Comparison of muscarinic receptor selectivity of solifenacin and oxybutynin in the bladder and submandibular gland of muscarinic receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yoshihiko; Oyunzul, Luvsandorj; Yoshida, Akira; Fujino, Tomomi; Noguchi, Yukiko; Yuyama, Hironori; Ohtake, Akiyoshi; Suzuki, Masanori; Sasamata, Masao; Matsui, Minoru; Yamada, Shizuo

    2009-08-01

    Solifenacin is a novel selective antagonist of M(3) muscarinic receptor developed for the treatment of overactive bladder. The current study was undertaken to characterize in vivo muscarinic receptor subtype selectivity of solifenacin in the bladder and submandibular gland by using muscarinic receptor subtype knockout (KO) mice. Muscarinic receptors in the bladder and submandibular gland of wild type, M(2)R KO and M(3)R KO mice under in vitro and after oral administration of solifenacin and oxybutynin were measured by radioligand binding assay using [N-methyl-(3)H]scopolamine ([(3)H]NMS). There was little difference between the bladder and submandibular gland of M(2)R KO mice in the receptor binding activities of oxybutynin and solifenacin in vitro, suggesting equal affinity for residual (predominantly M(3) subtype) muscarinic receptors in both tissues. In contrast, compared with oral oxybutynin, oral administration of solifenacin exerted a significantly greater activity to bind muscarinic receptors in the bladder of M(2)R KO mice, while exhibiting a significantly less activity to bind those in the submandibular gland. In the bladder and submandibular gland of M(3)R KO mice, the binding activity of solifenacin and oxybutynin showed no significant difference. Plasma concentrations of solifenacin and oxybutynin after oral administration differed little among wild type, M(2)R KO and M(3)R KO mice. The results indicate that oral solifenacin, unlike oral oxybutynin, may selectively bind to the muscarinic M(3) subtype in the bladder compared with such receptors in the submandibular gland in vivo. Oral solifenacin may be advantageous for the treatment of overactive bladder, in terms of high affinity for M(3) receptors in the bladder.

  13. Inquiries into the Biological Significance of Transmembrane AMPA Receptor Regulatory Protein (TARP) γ-8 Through Investigations of TARP γ-8 Null Mice§.

    PubMed

    Gleason, Scott D; Kato, Akihiko; Bui, Hai H; Thompson, Linda K; Valli, Sabrina N; Stutz, Patrick V; Kuo, Ming-Shang; Falcone, Julie F; Anderson, Wesley H; Li, Xia; Witkin, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    Transmembrane AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) receptor regulatory protein (TARP) γ-8 is an auxiliary protein associated with some AMPA receptors. Most strikingly, AMPA receptors associated with this TARP have a relatively high localization in the hippocampus. TARP γ-8 also modifies the pharmacology and trafficking of AMPA receptors. However, to date there is little understanding of the biological significance of this auxiliary protein. In the present set of studies we provide a characterization of the differential pharmacology and behavioral consequences of deletion of TARP γ-8 by comparing the wild type (WT) and γ-8 -/- (knock-out, KO) mouse. KO mice were mildly hyperactive in a locomotor arena but not in other environments compared to WT mice. Additionally, the KO mice demonstrated enhanced locomotor stimulatory effects of both d-amphetamine and phencyclidine. Marble-burying and digging behaviors were dramatically reduced in KO mice. In another assay that can detect anxiety-like phenotypes, the elevated plus maze, no differences were observed in overall movement or open arm entries. In the forced-swim assay, KO mice displayed decreases in immobility time like the antidepressant imipramine and the AMPA receptor potentiator, LY392098. In KO mice, the antidepressant-like effects of LY392098 were prevented whereas the effects of imipramine were unaffected. Convulsions were induced by pentylenetetrazole, N-methyl-D-aspartate, and by kainic acid. However, in KO mice, kainic acid produced less tonic convulsions and lethality. KO mice had reduced levels of norepinephrine in hippocampus and cerebellum but not in hypothalamus or prefrontal cortex, decreased levels of cAMP in hippocampus, and increased levels of acetylcholine in the hypothalamus and prefrontal cortex. KO mice displayed decreased turnover of dopamine and increased histamine turnover in multiple brain areas In contrast, serotonin and its metabolites were not significantly

  14. Gastrin Is an Essential Cofactor for Helicobacter-Associated Gastric Corpus Carcinogenesis in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Takaishi, Shigeo; Tu, Shuiping; Dubeykovskaya, Zinaida A.; Whary, Mark T.; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Rickman, Barry H.; Rogers, Arlin B.; Lertkowit, Nantaporn; Varro, Andrea; Fox, James G.; Wang, Timothy C.

    2009-01-01

    We have previously described a synergistic interaction between hypergastrinemia and Helicobacter felis infection on gastric corpus carcinogenesis in FVB/N mice housed under specific-pathogen-free conditions. However, gastrin-deficient (GAS-KO) mice on a mixed C57BL/6/129Sv genetic background maintained in conventional housing were reported to develop spontaneous gastric antral tumors. Therefore, we investigated the role of gastrin in Helicobacter-associated gastric carcinogenesis in H. felis-infected mice on a uniform C57BL/6 background housed in specific-pathogen-free conditions. Hypergastrinemic transgenic (INS-GAS) mice, GAS-KO mice, and C57BL/6 wild-type mice were infected with H. felis for either 12 or 18 months. At 12 months postinfection, INS-GAS mice had mild corpus dysplasia, while B6 wild-type mice had either severe gastritis or metaplasia, and GAS-KO mice had only mild to moderate gastritis. At 18 months postinfection, both INS-GAS and B6 wild-type mice had both severe atrophic gastritis and corpus dysplasia, while GAS-KO mice had severe gastritis with mild gastric atrophy, but no corpus dysplasia. In contrast, both GAS-KO and B6 wild-type mice had mild to moderate antral dysplasia, while INS-GAS mice did not. H. felis antral colonization remained stable over time among the three groups of mice. These results point to a distinct effect of gastrin on carcinogenesis of both the gastric corpus and antrum, suggesting that gastrin is an essential cofactor for gastric corpus carcinogenesis in C57BL/6 mice. PMID:19556515

  15. Insulin Knockout Mice Have Extended Survival but Volatile Blood Glucose Levels on Leptin Therapy.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Ursula H; Denroche, Heather C; Mojibian, Majid; Covey, Scott D; Kieffer, Timothy J

    2016-03-01

    Leptin can reverse hyperglycemia in rodent models of type 1 diabetes. However, these models have used chemical or immune mediated β-cell destruction where insulin depletion is incomplete. Thus it is unknown which actions of leptin are entirely insulin independent, versus those which require insulin. To directly assess this we maximized blockage of insulin action using an insulin receptor antagonist in combination with streptozotocin-diabetic mice; leptin treatment was still able to reduce blood glucose. Next, we leptin-treated adult insulin knockout (InsKO) mice. Remarkably, leptin-treated InsKO mice were viable for up to 3 weeks without insulin therapy. Leptin treatment reduced plasma corticosterone, glucagon, β-hydroxybutyrate, triglycerides, cholesterol, fatty acids and glycerol. However, leptin-treated InsKO mice exhibited overt fed hyperglycemia and severe fasting hypoglycemia. Therefore, leptin can normalize many metabolic parameters in the complete absence of insulin, but blood glucose levels are volatile and the length of survival finite.

  16. Mice lacking GD3 synthase display morphological abnormalities in the sciatic nerve and neuronal disturbances during peripheral nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Resende, Victor Túlio; Araújo Gomes, Tiago; de Lima, Silmara; Nascimento-Lima, Maiara; Bargas-Rega, Michele; Santiago, Marcelo Felipe; Reis, Ricardo Augusto de Melo; de Mello, Fernando Garcia

    2014-01-01

    The ganglioside 9-O-acetyl GD3 is overexpressed in peripheral nerves after lesioning, and its expression is correlated with axonal degeneration and regeneration in adult rodents. However, the biological roles of this ganglioside during the regenerative process are unclear. We used mice lacking GD3 synthase (Siat3a KO), an enzyme that converts GM3 to GD3, which can be further converted to 9-O-acetyl GD3. Morphological analyses of longitudinal and transverse sections of the sciatic nerve revealed significant differences in the transverse area and nerve thickness. The number of axons and the levels of myelin basic protein were significantly reduced in adult KO mice compared to wild-type (WT) mice. The G-ratio was increased in KO mice compared to WT mice based on quantification of thin transverse sections stained with toluidine blue. We found that neurite outgrowth was significantly reduced in the absence of GD3. However, addition of exogenous GD3 led to neurite growth after 3 days, similar to that in WT mice. To evaluate fiber regeneration after nerve lesioning, we compared the regenerated distance from the lesion site and found that this distance was one-fourth the length in KO mice compared to WT mice. KO mice in which GD3 was administered showed markedly improved regeneration compared to the control KO mice. In summary, we suggest that 9-O-acetyl GD3 plays biological roles in neuron-glia interactions, facilitating axonal growth and myelination induced by Schwann cells. Moreover, exogenous GD3 can be converted to 9-O-acetyl GD3 in mice lacking GD3 synthase, improving regeneration.

  17. Adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase are involved in fat loss in JunB-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Pinent, Montserrat; Prokesch, Andreas; Hackl, Hubert; Voshol, Peter J; Klatzer, Ariane; Walenta, Evelyn; Panzenboeck, Ute; Kenner, Lukas; Trajanoski, Zlatko; Hoefler, Gerald; Bogner-Strauss, Juliane G

    2011-07-01

    Proteins of the activator protein-1 family are known to have roles in many physiological processes such as proliferation, apoptosis, and inflammation. However, their role in fat metabolism has yet to be defined in more detail. Here we study the impact of JunB deficiency on the metabolic state of mice. JunB knockout (JunB-KO) mice show markedly decreased weight gain, reduced fat mass, and a low survival rate compared with control mice. If fed a high-fat diet, the weight gain of JunB-KO mice is comparable to control mice and the survival rate improves dramatically. Along with normal expression of adipogenic marker genes in white adipose tissue (WAT) of JunB-KO mice, this suggests that adipogenesis per se is not affected by JunB deficiency. This is supported by in vitro data, because neither JunB-silenced 3T3-L1 cells nor mouse embryonic fibroblasts from JunB-KO mice show a change in adipogenic potential. Interestingly, the key enzymes of lipolysis, adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase, were significantly increased in WAT of fasted JunB-KO mice. Concomitantly, the ratio of plasma free fatty acids per gram fat mass was increased, suggesting an elevated lipolytic rate under fasting conditions. Furthermore, up-regulation of TNFα and reduced expression of perilipin indicate that this pathway is also involved in increased lipolytic rate in these mice. Additionally, JunB-KO mice are more insulin sensitive than controls and show up-regulation of lipogenic genes in skeletal muscle, indicating a shuttling of energy substrates from WAT to skeletal muscle. In summary, this study provides valuable insights into the impact of JunB deficiency on the metabolic state of mice.

  18. Mice Lacking GD3 Synthase Display Morphological Abnormalities in the Sciatic Nerve and Neuronal Disturbances during Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro-Resende, Victor Túlio; Gomes, Tiago Araújo; de Lima, Silmara; Nascimento-Lima, Maiara; Bargas-Rega, Michele; Santiago, Marcelo Felipe; Reis, Ricardo Augusto de Melo; de Mello, Fernando Garcia

    2014-01-01

    The ganglioside 9-O-acetyl GD3 is overexpressed in peripheral nerves after lesioning, and its expression is correlated with axonal degeneration and regeneration in adult rodents. However, the biological roles of this ganglioside during the regenerative process are unclear. We used mice lacking GD3 synthase (Siat3a KO), an enzyme that converts GM3 to GD3, which can be further converted to 9-O-acetyl GD3. Morphological analyses of longitudinal and transverse sections of the sciatic nerve revealed significant differences in the transverse area and nerve thickness. The number of axons and the levels of myelin basic protein were significantly reduced in adult KO mice compared to wild-type (WT) mice. The G-ratio was increased in KO mice compared to WT mice based on quantification of thin transverse sections stained with toluidine blue. We found that neurite outgrowth was significantly reduced in the absence of GD3. However, addition of exogenous GD3 led to neurite growth after 3 days, similar to that in WT mice. To evaluate fiber regeneration after nerve lesioning, we compared the regenerated distance from the lesion site and found that this distance was one-fourth the length in KO mice compared to WT mice. KO mice in which GD3 was administered showed markedly improved regeneration compared to the control KO mice. In summary, we suggest that 9-O-acetyl GD3 plays biological roles in neuron-glia interactions, facilitating axonal growth and myelination induced by Schwann cells. Moreover, exogenous GD3 can be converted to 9-O-acetyl GD3 in mice lacking GD3 synthase, improving regeneration. PMID:25330147

  19. Female mice target deleted for the neuromedin B receptor have partial resistance to diet-induced obesity

    PubMed Central

    Paula, Gabriela Silva Monteiro; Souza, Luana Lopes; Cabanelas, Adriana; Bloise, Flavia Fonseca; Mello-Coelho, Valéria; Wada, Etsuko; Ortiga-Carvalho, Tania Maria; Oliveira, Karen Jesus; Pazos-Moura, Carmen Cabanelas

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have proposed a role for neuromedin B (NB), a bombesin-like peptide, in the control of body weight homeostasis. However, the nature of this role is unclear. The actions of NB are mediated preferentially by NB-preferring receptors (NBRs). Here we examined the consequences of targeted deletion of NBRs in female mice on body weight homeostasis in mice fed a normolipid diet (ND) or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 13 weeks. Body weight and food ingestion of neuromedin B receptor knockout (NBR-KO) mice fed a normolipid diet showed no difference in relation to wild-type (WT). However, the high-fat diet induced an 8.9- and 4.8-fold increase in body weight of WT and NBR-KO, respectively, compared to their controls maintained with a normolipid diet, even though the mice ingested the same amount of calories, regardless of genotype. Comparing mice fed the high-fat diet, NBR-KO mice accumulated approximately 45% less fat depot mass than WT, exhibited a lower percentage of fat in their carcasses (19.2 vs. 31.3%), and their adipocytes were less hypertrophied. Serum leptin and leptin mRNA in inguinal and perigonadal fat were lower in HFD NBR-KO than HFD WT, and serum adiponectin was similar among HFD groups and unaltered in comparison to ND-fed mice. HFD-fed WT mice developed glucose intolerance but not the HFD-fed NBR-KO mice, although they had similar glycaemia and insulinaemia. NBR-KO and WT mice on the normolipid diet showed no differences in any parameters, except for a trend to lower insulin levels. Therefore, disruption of the neuromedin B receptor pathway did not change body weight homeostasis in female mice fed a normolipid diet; however, it did result in partial resistance to diet-induced obesity. PMID:20211980

  20. Expression of striatal adenosine and dopamine receptors in mice deficient in the p50 subunit of NF-κB

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xiaobin; Jhaveri, Krishna A.; Ding, Ming; Hughes, Larry F.; Toth, Linda A.; Ramkumar, Vickram

    2007-01-01

    The striatal dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) and adenosine A2A receptor (A2AAR) exhibit mutually antagonistic effects through physical interactions and by differential modulation of post-receptor signaling pathways. The expression of the A2AAR and the D2R are differentially regulated by nuclear factor-κB (NFkB). In this report, we determined the role of NFkB in regulation of these receptors by comparing mice deficient in the NFκB p50 subunit (p50 KO) with genetically intact B6129PF2/J (F2) mice. Quantification of adenosine receptor (AR) subtypes in mouse striatum by real time PCR, immunocytochemistry and radioligand binding assays showed more A2AAR but less A1AR in p50 KO mice as compared with F2 mice. Striata from p50 KO mice also had less D2R mRNA and [3H]-methylspiperone binding than did striata from F2 mice. Gαolf and Gαs proteins, which are transducers of A2AAR signals, were also present at a higher level in striata from the p50 KO versus F2 mice. In contrast, the Gαi1 protein, which transduces signals from the A1AR and D2R, was significantly reduced in striata from p50-/ mice. Behaviorally, p50 KO mice exhibited increased locomotor activity relative to that of F2 mice after caffeine ingestion. These data are consistent with a role for the NFkB in the regulation of A1AR, A2AAR, D2R and possibly their coupling G proteins in the striatum. Dysregulation of these receptors in the striata of p50 KO mice might sensitize these animals to locomotor stimulatory action of caffeine. PMID:17869311

  1. Elastase-2, an angiotensin II-generating enzyme, contributes to increased Ang II in resistance arteries of mice with myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Becari, Christiane; Silva, Marcondes A B; Durand, Marina T; Prado, Cibele M; Oliveira, Eduardo B; Ribeiro, Mauricio S; Salgado, Helio C; Salgado, Maria Cristina O; Tostes, Rita C

    2017-02-21

    Angiotensin II (Ang II), whose generation largely depends on angiotensin-converting enzyme activity, mediates most of the renin-angiotensin-system effects. Elastase-2 (ELA-2), a chymotrypsin-serine protease elastase family member 2A, alternatively generates Ang II in rat arteries. Myocardial infarction (MI) leads to intense RAS activation, but mechanisms involved on Ang II-generation in resistance arteries are unknown. We hypothesized that ELA-2 contributes to vascular Ang II generation and to cardiac damage in mice submitted to MI. Concentration-effect curves to Ang I and Ang II were performed in mesenteric resistance arteries from male wild type (WT) and ELA-2 knockout (ELA-2KO) mice submitted to left anterior descending coronary artery ligation (myocardial infarction, MI). MI size was similar in WT (29.5 ± 9 %) and ELA-2KO (32 ± 4%) mice. Ejection fraction and fractional shortening after MI similarly decreased in both strains. However, MI decreased stroke volume and cardiac output in WT, but not in ELA-2KO mice. Ang I-induced contractions increased in WT mice submitted to MI (MI-WT) compared to Sham-WT mice. No differences were observed in Ang I reactivity between arteries from Sham-ELA-2KO and ELA-2KO submitted to MI (MI-ELA-2KO). Ang I contractions increased in arteries from MI-WT vs. MI-ELA-2KO mice. Chymostatin attenuated Ang I-induced vascular contractions in WT mice (P < 0.05), but did not affect Ang I responses in ELA-2KO arteries. These results provide the first evidence that ELA-2 contributes to increased Ang II formation in resistance arteries and modulates cardiac function after MI, implicating ELA-2 as a key player in ACE-independent dysregulation of the RAS.

  2. Mice deficient in Group VIB phospholipase A2 (iPLA2γ) exhibit relative resistance to obesity and metabolic abnormalities induced by a Western diet

    PubMed Central

    Song, Haowei; Wohltmann, Mary; Bao, Shunzhong; Ladenson, Jack H.; Semenkovich, Clay F.

    2010-01-01

    Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) play important roles in metabolic processes, and the Group VI PLA2 family is comprised of intracellular enzymes that do not require Ca2+ for catalysis. Mice deficient in Group VIA PLA2 (iPLA2β) develop more severe glucose intolerance than wild-type (WT) mice in response to dietary stress. Group VIB PLA2 (iPLA2γ) is a related enzyme distributed in membranous organelles, including mitochondria, and iPLA2γ knockout (KO) mice exhibit altered mitochondrial morphology and function. We have compared metabolic responses of iPLA2γ-KO and WT mice fed a Western diet (WD) with a high fat content. We find that KO mice are resistant to WD-induced increases in body weight and adiposity and in blood levels of cholesterol, glucose, and insulin, even though WT and KO mice exhibit similar food consumption and dietary fat digestion and absorption. KO mice are also relatively resistant to WD-induced insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and altered patterns of fat vs. carbohydrate fuel utilization. KO skeletal muscle exhibits impaired mitochondrial β-oxidation of fatty acids, as reflected by accumulation of larger amounts of long-chain acylcarnitine (LCAC) species in KO muscle and liver compared with WT in response to WD feeding. This is associated with increased urinary excretion of LCAC and much reduced deposition of triacylglycerols in liver by WD-fed KO compared with WT mice. The iPLA2γ-deficient genotype thus results in a phenotype characterized by impaired mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids and relative resistance to the metabolic abnormalities induced by WD. PMID:20179248

  3. Rubicon deficiency enhances cardiac autophagy and protects mice from lipopolysaccharide-induced lethality and reduction in stroke volume.

    PubMed

    Zi, Zhenguo; Song, Zongpei; Zhang, Shasha; Ye, Yong; Li, Can; Xu, Mingqing; Zou, Yunzeng; He, Lin; Zhu, Hongxin

    2015-03-01

    : Rubicon has been suggested to suppress autophagosome maturation by negatively regulating PI3KC3/Vps34 activity. However, the physiological function of Rubicon remains elusive. We hypothesized that Rubicon deficiency enhances autophagic flux in the heart and affects cardiac function. Rubicon knockout (KO) mice were generated by piggyBac transposition. Loss of Rubicon was demonstrated at both mRNA and protein levels. Rubicon KO mice were born in Mendelian ratios. Autophagic flux, assessed by bafilomycin A1-induced changes in LC3 II protein abundance, was enhanced in the heart of Rubicon KO mice compared with wild-type (WT) controls. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and picrosirius red staining showed that Rubicon KO mice exhibited normal baseline cardiac morphology. Echocardiography revealed that ejection fraction and fractional shortening, 2 indices of cardiac function, were comparable between Rubicon KO mice at 2, 8, and 12 months of age (n = 6-8 for each age group) and the corresponding WT controls (n = 6-8 for each age group). In a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis, the survival time of LPS-treated Rubicon KO mice (n = 10) was prolonged compared with LPS-treated WT controls (n = 11). Echocardiography revealed that Rubicon deficiency partially normalized LPS-induced reduction in stroke volume and cardiac output 12 hours after LPS administration compared with LPS-treated WT controls (n = 6 for each group). Autophagic flux was enhanced in Rubicon-deficient hearts 12 hours after LPS treatment compared with LPS-treated WT controls. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction suggested that proinflammatory cytokine expression was not significantly different between LPS-treated Rubicon KO mice and WT controls (n = 3 for each group). Our data demonstrate for the first time that Rubicon deficiency enhances autophagic flux in the heart and protects mice from lethality and reduction in stroke volume induced by LPS.

  4. Impaired Angiogenesis during Fracture Healing in GPCR Kinase 2 Interacting Protein-1 (GIT1) Knock Out Mice

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Prashanthi; Pang, Jinjiang; Ho, Hsin-Chiu; Shi, Shanshan; Xie, Chao; Smolock, Elaine; Yan, Chen; Zuscik, Michael J.; Berk, Bradford C.

    2014-01-01

    G protein coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) interacting protein-1 (GIT1), is a scaffold protein that plays an important role in angiogenesis and osteoclast activity. We have previously demonstrated that GIT1 knockout (GIT1 KO) mice have impaired angiogenesis and dysregulated osteoclast podosome formation leading to a reduction in the bone resorbing ability of these cells. Since both angiogenesis and osteoclast-mediated bone remodeling are involved in the fracture healing process, we hypothesized that GIT1 participates in the normal progression of repair following bone injury. In the present study, comparison of fracture healing in wild type (WT) and GIT1 KO mice revealed altered healing in mice with loss of GIT1 function. Alcian blue staining of fracture callus indicated a persistence of cartilagenous matrix in day 21 callus samples from GIT1 KO mice which was temporally correlated with increased type 2 collagen immunostaining. GIT1 KO mice also showed a decrease in chondrocyte proliferation and apoptosis at days 7 and 14, as determined by PCNA and TUNEL staining. Vascular microcomputed tomography analysis of callus samples at days 7, 14 and 21 revealed decreased blood vessel volume, number, and connection density in GIT1 KO mice compared to WT controls. Correlating with this, VEGF-A, phospho-VEGFR2 and PECAM1 (CD31) were decreased in GIT1 KO mice, indicating reduced angiogenesis with loss of GIT1. Finally, calluses from GIT1 KO mice displayed a reduced number of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts at days 14 and 21. Collectively, these results indicate that GIT1 is an important signaling participant in fracture healing, with gene ablation leading to reduced callus vascularity and reduced osteoclast number in the healing callus. PMID:24586541

  5. Inhibition of Nogo-66 receptor 1 enhances recovery of cognitive function after traumatic brain injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Tong, Jing; Liu, Weimin; Wang, Xiaowei; Han, Xiaodi; Hyrien, Ollivier; Samadani, Uzma; Smith, Douglas H; Huang, Jason H

    2013-02-15

    Central nervous system (CNS) axons recover poorly following injury because of the expression of myelin-derived inhibitors of axonal outgrowth such as Nogo, myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), and oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein (OMgp), all of which bind to the Nogo-66 receptor 1 (NgR1). Herein we examine the role of NgR1 in the recovery of motor and cognitive function after traumatic brain injury (TBI) using a controlled cortical impact (CCI) model in NgR1 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. Four weeks post-injury, scores on the Novel Object Recognition test were significantly increased in NgR1 KO mice compared with WT mice (p<0.05), but motor behavior test scores did not differ significantly between the two groups. Nissl staining showed that NgR1 KO mice had less brain injury volume 2 weeks after CCI (p<0.05). Histological analysis revealed more doublecortin (DCX+) cells (p<0.01) and more Ki-67+ cells in the contralateral dentate gyrus (DG) (p<0.05) 2 weeks after CCI in NgR1 KO mice than in WT. Furthermore, DCX+ cells still retained their longer processes in KO mice (p<0.01) 4 weeks following trauma. The number of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)+ cells did not differ between the two groups at 4 weeks post-trauma, but KO mice had higher numbers of cells that co-stained with NeuN, a marker of mature neurons. Increased transcription of growth-associated protein (GAP)-43 in both the injured and contralateral sides of the hippocampus (both p<0.05) was detected in NgR1 KO mice relative to WT. These data suggest that NgR1 negatively influences plasticity and cognitive recovery after TBI.

  6. Diacylglycerol Kinase β Knockout Mice Exhibit Attention-Deficit Behavior and an Abnormal Response on Methylphenidate-Induced Hyperactivity

    PubMed Central

    Ishisaka, Mitsue; Kakefuda, Kenichi; Oyagi, Atsushi; Ono, Yoko; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Kitaichi, Kiyoyuki; Hara, Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    Background Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) is an enzyme that phosphorylates diacylglycerol to produce phosphatidic acid. DGKβ is one of the subtypes of the DGK family and regulates many intracellular signaling pathways in the central nervous system. Previously, we demonstrated that DGKβ knockout (KO) mice showed various dysfunctions of higher brain function, such as cognitive impairment (with lower spine density), hyperactivity, reduced anxiety, and careless behavior. In the present study, we conducted further tests on DGKβ KO mice in order to investigate the function of DGKβ in the central nervous system, especially in the pathophysiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methodology/Principal Findings DGKβ KO mice showed attention-deficit behavior in the object-based attention test and it was ameliorated by methylphenidate (MPH, 30 mg/kg, i.p.). In the open field test, DGKβ KO mice displayed a decreased response to the locomotor stimulating effects of MPH (30 mg/kg, i.p.), but showed a similar response to an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, MK-801 (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.), when compared to WT mice. Examination of the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which is involved in regulation of locomotor activity, indicated that ERK1/2 activation induced by MPH treatment was defective in the striatum of DGKβ KO mice. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that DGKβ KO mice showed attention-deficit and hyperactive phenotype, similar to ADHD. Furthermore, the hyporesponsiveness of DGKβ KO mice to MPH was due to dysregulation of ERK phosphorylation, and that DGKβ has a pivotal involvement in ERK regulation in the striatum. PMID:22590645

  7. Accumulation of adiponectin in inflamed adipose tissues of obese mice.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuji, Hideaki; Kishida, Ken; Sekimoto, Ryohei; Komura, Noriyuki; Kihara, Shinji; Funahashi, Tohru; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2014-04-01

    Adipose tissue inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated complications, such as atherosclerosis. Adiponectin secreted from adipocytes has various beneficial effects including anti-inflammatory effect. Obesity often presents with hypoadiponectinemia. However, the mechanism and adiponectin movement in obesity remain uncharacterized. Here we investigated tissue distribution of adiponectin protein in lean and obese mice. Adiponectin protein levels were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting. Adipose tissues were fractionated into mature adipocyte fraction (MAF) and stromal vascular fraction (SVF). Adiponectin protein was detected not only in MAF but also in SVF, which lacks adiponectin mRNA expression, of adipose tissue remarkably. SVF adiponectin protein level was higher in obese mice than in lean mice. The mechanism of adiponectin accumulation was investigated in adiponectin-deficient (APN-KO) mice after injection of plasma from wild-type mice. These mice showed accumulation of exogenous adiponectin, which derived from wild type mice, in adipose tissues, and the adiponectin was more observed in SVF of diet induced obese APN-KO mice than lean APN-KO mice. Among the adiponectin binding proteins, T-cadherin mRNA and protein levels in SVF of obese mice were remarkably higher than in lean mice. Oxidative stress levels were also significantly higher in SVF of obese mice than lean mice. Mechanistically, H2O2 up-regulated T-cadherin mRNA level in murine macrophages. The results demonstrated adiponectin targets to adipose SVF of obese mice. These findings should shed a new light on the pathology of adipose tissue inflammation and hypoadiponectinemia of obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Multiple Sleep Alterations in Mice Lacking Cannabinoid Type 1 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Bastianini, Stefano; Lo Martire, Viviana; Mazza, Roberta; Pagotto, Uberto; Quarta, Carmelo; Zoccoli, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    Cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors are highly expressed in the brain and play a role in behavior control. Endogenous cannabinoid signaling is modulated by high-fat diet (HFD). We investigated the consequences of congenital lack of CB1 receptors on sleep in mice fed standard diet (SD) and HFD. CB1 cannabinoid receptor knock-out (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were fed SD or HFD for 4 months (n = 9–10 per group). Mice were instrumented with electroencephalographic (EEG) and electromyographic electrodes. Recordings were performed during baseline (48 hours), sleep deprivation (gentle handling, 6 hours), sleep recovery (18 hours), and after cage switch (insomnia model paradigm, 6 hours). We found multiple significant effects of genotype on sleep. In particular, KO spent more time awake and less time in non-rapid-eye-movement sleep (NREMS) and rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) than WT during the dark (active) period but not during the light (rest) period, enhancing the day-night variation of wake-sleep amounts. KO had slower EEG theta rhythm during REMS. REMS homeostasis after sleep deprivation was less effective in KO than in WT. Finally, KO habituated more rapidly to the arousing effect of the cage-switch test than WT. We did not find any significant effects of diet or of diet x genotype interaction on sleep. The occurrence of multiple sleep alterations in KO indicates important roles of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in limiting arousal during the active period of the day, in sleep regulation, and in sleep EEG in mice. PMID:24586776

  9. Multiple sleep alterations in mice lacking cannabinoid type 1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Silvani, Alessandro; Berteotti, Chiara; Bastianini, Stefano; Lo Martire, Viviana; Mazza, Roberta; Pagotto, Uberto; Quarta, Carmelo; Zoccoli, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    Cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors are highly expressed in the brain and play a role in behavior control. Endogenous cannabinoid signaling is modulated by high-fat diet (HFD). We investigated the consequences of congenital lack of CB1 receptors on sleep in mice fed standard diet (SD) and HFD. CB1 cannabinoid receptor knock-out (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were fed SD or HFD for 4 months (n = 9-10 per group). Mice were instrumented with electroencephalographic (EEG) and electromyographic electrodes. Recordings were performed during baseline (48 hours), sleep deprivation (gentle handling, 6 hours), sleep recovery (18 hours), and after cage switch (insomnia model paradigm, 6 hours). We found multiple significant effects of genotype on sleep. In particular, KO spent more time awake and less time in non-rapid-eye-movement sleep (NREMS) and rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) than WT during the dark (active) period but not during the light (rest) period, enhancing the day-night variation of wake-sleep amounts. KO had slower EEG theta rhythm during REMS. REMS homeostasis after sleep deprivation was less effective in KO than in WT. Finally, KO habituated more rapidly to the arousing effect of the cage-switch test than WT. We did not find any significant effects of diet or of diet x genotype interaction on sleep. The occurrence of multiple sleep alterations in KO indicates important roles of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in limiting arousal during the active period of the day, in sleep regulation, and in sleep EEG in mice.

  10. IL-1 receptor-antagonist (IL-1Ra) knockout mice show anxiety-like behavior by aging.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Chisato; Numakawa, Tadahiro; Odaka, Haruki; Ooshima, Yoshiko; Kiyama, Yuji; Manabe, Toshiya; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Iwakura, Yoichiro

    2015-07-10

    Interleukin 1 (IL-1) plays a critical role in stress responses, and its mRNA is induced in the brain by restraint stress. Previously, we reported that IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) knockout (KO) mice, which lacked IL-1Ra molecules that antagonize the IL-1 receptor, showed anti-depression-like behavior via adrenergic modulation at the age of 8 weeks. Here, we report that IL-1Ra KO mice display an anxiety-like phenotype that is induced spontaneously by aging in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test. This anxiety-like phenotype was improved by the administration of diazepam. The expression of the anxiety-related molecule glucocorticoid receptor (GR) was significantly reduced in 20-week-old but not in 11-week-old IL-1Ra KO mice compared to wild-type (WT) littermates. The expression of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) was not altered between IL-1Ra KO mice and WT littermates at either 11 or 20 weeks old. Analysis of monoamine concentration in the hippocampus revealed that tryptophan, the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), and the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA) were significantly increased in 20-week-old IL-1Ra KO mice compared to littermate WT mice. These findings strongly suggest that the anxiety-like behavior observed in older mice was caused by the complicated alteration of monoamine metabolism and/or GR expression in the hippocampus.

  11. Bexarotene protects against traumatic brain injury in mice partially through apolipoprotein E.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jianjun; Cheng, Chongjie; Liu, Han; Huang, Zhijian; Wu, Yue; Teng, Zhipeng; He, Junchi; Zhang, Hongrong; Wu, Jinchuan; Cao, Fang; Jiang, Li; Sun, Xiaochuan

    2017-02-20

    Bexarotene has been proved to have neuroprotective effects in many animal models of neurological diseases. However, its neuroprotection in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is still unknown. This study aims to explore the neuroprotective effects of bexarotene on TBI and its possible mechanism. Controlled cortical impact (CCI) model was used to simulate TBI in C57BL/6 mice as well as APOE gene knockout (APOE-KO) mice. After CCI, mice were daily dosed with bexarotene or vehicle solution intraperitoneally. The motor function, learning and memory, inflammatory factors, microglia amount, apoptosis condition around injury site and main side-effects were all measured. The results showed that, after CCI, bexarotene treatment markedly improved the motor function and spatial memory in C57BL/6 compare to APOE-KO mice which showed no improvement. The inflammatory cytokines, microglia amount, cell apoptosis rate, and protein of cleaved caspase-3 around the injury site were markedly upregulated after TBI in both C57BL/6 and APOE-KO mice, and all these upregulation were significantly mitigated by bexarotene treatment in C57BL/6 mice, but not in APOE-KO mice. No side-effects were detected after consecutive administration. Taken together, bexarotene inhibits the inflammatory response as well as cell apoptosis and improves the neurological function of mice after TBI partially through apolipoprotein E. This may make it a promising candidate for the therapeutic treatment after TBI.

  12. Neuroprotective effects of metallothionein against rotenone-induced myenteric neurodegeneration in parkinsonian mice.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Shinki; Miyazaki, Ikuko; Sogawa, Norio; Miyoshi, Ko; Asanuma, Masato

    2014-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease with motor symptoms as well as non-motor symptoms that precede the onset of motor symptoms. Mitochondrial complex I inhibitor, rotenone, has been widely used to reproduce PD pathology in the central nervous system (CNS) and enteric nervous system (ENS). We reported previously that metallothioneins (MTs) released from astrocytes can protect dopaminergic neurons against oxidative stress. The present study examined the changes in MT expression by chronic systemic rotenone administration in the striatum and colonic myenteric plexus of C57BL mice. In addition, we investigated the effects of MT depletion on rotenone-induced neurodegeneration in CNS and ENS using MT-1 and MT-2 knockout (MT KO) mice, or using primary cultured neurons from MT KO mice. In normal C57BL mice, subcutaneous administration of rotenone for 6 weeks caused neurodegeneration, increased MT expression with astrocytes activation in the striatum and myenteric plexus. MT KO mice showed more severe myenteric neuronal damage by rotenone administration after 4 weeks than wild-type mice, accompanied by reduced astroglial activation. In primary cultured mesencephalic neurons from MT KO mice, rotenone exposure induced neurotoxicity in dopaminergic neurons, which was complemented by addition of recombinant protein. The present results suggest that MT seems to provide protection against neurodegeneration in ENS of rotenone-induced PD model mice.

  13. Oxytocin gene deletion mice overconsume palatable sucrose solution but not palatable lipid emulsions.

    PubMed

    Miedlar, J A; Rinaman, L; Vollmer, R R; Amico, J A

    2007-09-01

    We previously reported that oxytocin knockout (OT KO) mice display markedly enhanced intake of sweet and nonsweet carbohydrate solutions compared with intake by wild-type (WT) mice of the same background strain. The present study was conducted to determine whether OT KO mice demonstrate enhanced intake of Intralipid, a palatable lipid emulsion. Male or female mice of both genotypes that were naive to the test solution were given continuous two-bottle access to Intralipid and water with food available ad libitum for 3 days. Throughout the experiment, mice of both genotypes showed a marked preference for Intralipid over water. On the 1st day, OT KO mice displayed twofold greater preference and consumed nearly twice as much Intralipid compared with WT cohorts. However, on subsequent days of exposure, Intralipid preference and intake did not differ between genotypes over a range of lipid concentrations presented in descending or ascending order. Daily and hourly measures of lipid vs. sucrose intake confirmed that OT KO mice consumed more sucrose solution, but not lipid emulsion, than WT mice. During ad libitum access to Intralipid, both genotypes consumed significantly more calories from the emulsion as concentration increased. Both genotypes maintained consistent total daily caloric intake (lipid plus chow) and compensated by decreasing chow intake over the course of the study. These findings, coupled with prior reports from our laboratory, support the view that OT signaling pathways participate in limiting intake of palatable carbohydrate-containing solutions, but do not appear to play a role in limiting intake of Intralipid.

  14. Role of WNT16 in the regulation of periosteal bone formation in female mice.

    PubMed

    Wergedal, Jon E; Kesavan, Chandrasekhar; Brommage, Robert; Das, Subhashri; Mohan, Subburaman

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we evaluated the role of WNT16 in regulating bone size, an important determinant of bone strength. Mice with targeted disruption of the Wnt16 gene exhibited a 24% reduction in tibia cross-sectional area at 12 weeks of age compared with that of littermate wild-type (WT) mice. Histomorphometric studies revealed that the periosteal bone formation rate and mineral apposition rate were reduced (P < .05) by 55% and 32%, respectively, in Wnt16 knockout (KO) vs WT mice at 12 weeks of age. In contrast, the periosteal tartrate resistant acid phosphatase-labeled surface was increased by 20% in the KO mice. Because mechanical strain is an important physiological regulator of periosteal bone formation (BF), we determined whether mechanical loading-induced periosteal BF is compromised in Wnt16 KO mice. Application of 4800-μe strain to the right tibia using a 4-point bending loading method for 2 weeks (2-Hz frequency, 36 cycles per day, 6 days/wk) produced a significant increase in cross-sectional area (11% above that of the unloaded left tibia, P < .05, n = 6) in the WT but not in the KO mice (-0.2% change). Histomorphometric analyses revealed increases in the periosteal bone formation rate and mineral apposition rate in the loaded bones of WT but not KO mice. Wnt16 KO mice showed significant (20%-70%) reductions in the expression levels of markers of canonical (β-catenin and Axin2) but not noncanonical (Nfatc1 and Tnnt2) WNT signaling in the periosteum at 5 weeks of age. Our findings suggest that WNT16 acting via canonical WNT signaling regulates mechanical strain-induced periosteal BF and bone size.

  15. Aromatase Deficient Female Mice Demonstrate Altered Expression of Molecules Critical for Renal Calcium Reabsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öz, Orhan K.; Hajibeigi, Asghar; Cummins, Carolyn; van Abel, Monique; Bindels, René J.; Kuro-o, Makoto; Pak, Charles Y. C.; Zerwekh, Joseph E.

    2007-04-01

    The incide