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Sample records for a2b antagonist mediate

  1. Adenosine A2B-receptor-mediated cyclic AMP accumulation in primary rat astrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Peakman, M. C.; Hill, S. J.

    1994-01-01

    1. The effects of adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists on the accumulation of cyclic AMP have been investigated in primary cultures of rat astrocytes. 2. Adenosine A2-receptor stimulation caused a concentration-dependent increase in the accumulation of [3H]-cyclic AMP in cells prelabelled with [3H]-adenine. The rank order of agonist potencies was 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA; EC50 = 1 microM) > adenosine (EC50 = 5 microM) > 2-chloroadenosine (EC50 = 20 microM) >> CGS 21680 (EC50 > 10 microM). The presence of 0.5 microM dipyridamole, an adenosine uptake blocker, had no effect on the potency of adenosine. 3. The response to 10 microM NECA was antagonized in a concentration-dependent manner by the non-selective adenosine receptor antagonists, xanthine amine congener (apparent KD = 12 nM), PD 115,199 (apparent KD = 134 nM) and 8-phenyltheophylline (apparent KD = 126 nM). However, the A1-receptor-selective antagonist, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, had no significant effect on the responses to NECA or 2-chloroadenosine at concentrations up to 1 microM. 4. Stimulation of A1-receptors with the selective agonist, N6-cyclopentyladenosine, did not alter the basal accumulation of [3H]-cyclic AMP but inhibited a forskolin-mediated elevation of [3H]-cyclic AMP accumulation by a maximal value of 42%. This inhibition was fully reversed in the presence of 0.1 microM, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine. 5. The time course for NECA-mediated [3H]-cyclic AMP accumulation was investigated. The results suggest that there is a substantial efflux of cyclic AMP from the cells in addition to the rapid and sustained elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP (5 fold over basal) which was also observed. 6. These data indicate that rat astrocytes in primary culture express an A2B-adenosine receptor coupled positively to adenylyl cyclase. Furthermore, the presence of A1-receptors negatively coupled to adenylyl cyclase appears to have no significant effect on the A2B-receptor-mediated

  2. Discovery and optimization of potent and selective functional antagonists of the human adenosine A2B receptor.

    PubMed

    Bedford, Simon T; Benwell, Karen R; Brooks, Teresa; Chen, Ijen; Comer, Mike; Dugdale, Sarah; Haymes, Tim; Jordan, Allan M; Kennett, Guy A; Knight, Anthony R; Klenke, Burkhard; LeStrat, Loic; Merrett, Angela; Misra, Anil; Lightowler, Sean; Padfield, Anthony; Poullennec, Karine; Reece, Mark; Simmonite, Heather; Wong, Melanie; Yule, Ian A

    2009-10-15

    We herein report the discovery of a novel class of antagonists of the human adenosine A2B receptor. This low molecular weight scaffold has been optimized to offer derivatives with potential utility for the alleviation of conditions associated with this receptor subtype, such as nociception, diabetes, asthma and COPD. Furthermore, preliminary pharmacokinetic analysis has revealed compounds with profiles suitable for either inhaled or systemic routes of administration.

  3. Inhibitory effects of benzodiazepines on the adenosine A(2B) receptor mediated secretion of interleukin-8 in human mast cells.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Kristina; Xifró, Rosa Altarcheh; Hartweg, Julia Lisa; Spitzlei, Petra; Meis, Kirsten; Molderings, Gerhard J; von Kügelgen, Ivar

    2013-01-30

    The activation of adenosine A(2B) receptors in human mast cells causes pro-inflammatory responses such as the secretion of interleukin-8. There is evidence for an inhibitory effect of benzodiazepines on mast cell mediated symptoms in patients with systemic mast cell activation disease. Therefore, we investigated the effects of benzodiazepines on adenosine A(2B) receptor mediated interleukin-8 production in human mast cell leukaemia (HMC1) cells by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The adenosine analogue N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA, 0.3-3 μM) increased interleukin-8 production about 5-fold above baseline. This effect was attenuated by the adenosine A(2B) receptor antagonist MRS1754 (N-(4-cyanophenyl)-2-{4-(2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-2,6-dioxo-1,3-dipropyl-1H-purin-8-yl)phenoxy}-acetamide) 1 μM. In addition, diazepam, 4'-chlorodiazepam and flunitrazepam (1-30 μM) markedly reduced NECA-induced interleukin-8 production in that order of potency, whereas clonazepam showed only a modest inhibition. The inhibitory effect of diazepam was not altered by flumazenil 10 μM or PK11195 (1-(2-chlorophenyl)-N-methyl-N-(1-methylpropyl)-3-isoquinolinecarboxamide) 10 μM. Diazepam attenuated the NECA-induced expression of mRNA encoding for interleukin-8. Moreover, diazepam and flunitrazepam reduced the increasing effects of NECA on cAMP-response element- and nuclear factor of activated t-cells-driven luciferase reporter gene activities in HMC1 cells. Neither diazepam nor flunitrazepam affected NECA-induced increases in cellular cAMP levels in CHO Flp-In cells stably expressing recombinant human adenosine A(2B) receptors, excluding a direct action of benzodiazepines on human adenosine A(2B) receptors. In conclusion, this is the first study showing an inhibitory action of benzodiazepines on adenosine A(2B) receptor mediated interleukin-8 production in human mast (HMC1) cells. The rank order of potency indicates the involvement of an atypical benzodiazepine binding site.

  4. The effects of adenosine A2B receptor inhibition on VEGF and nitric oxide axis-mediated renal function in diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Patel, Leena; Thaker, Aswin

    2014-07-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. The pathophysiologic mechanisms of diabetic nephropathy are incompletely understood but include overproduction of various growth factors and cytokines. Upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a pathogenic event occurring in most forms of podocytopathy; however, the mechanisms that regulate this growth factor induction are not clearly identified. A2B receptors have been found to regulate VEGF expression under hypoxic environment in different tissues. One proposed hypothesis in mediating diabetic nephropathy is the modulation of VEGF-NO balance in renal tissue. We determined the role of adenosine A2B receptor in mediating VEGF overproduction and nitrite in diabetic nephropathy. The renal content of A2B receptors and VEGF was increased after 8 weeks of diabetes induction. The renal and plasma nitrite levels were also reduced in these animals. In vivo administration of A2B adenosine receptor antagonist (MRS1754) inhibited the renal over expression of VEGF and adverse renal function parameters. The antagonist administration also improved the kidney tissue nitrite levels. In conclusion, we demonstrated that VEGF induction via adenosine signaling might be the critical event in regulating VEGF-NO axis in diabetic nephropathy.

  5. The Effect of Adenosine A2A and A2B Antagonists on Tracheal Responsiveness, Serum Levels of Cytokines and Lung Inflammation in Guinea Pig Model of Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Pejman, Laleh; Omrani, Hasan; Mirzamohammadi, Zahra; Shahbazfar, Amir Ali; Khalili, Majid; Keyhanmanesh, Rana

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Nowadays adenosine is specified as an important factor in the pathophysiology of asthma. For determining the effect of different A2 receptors, in this investigation the effect of single dose of selective adenosine A2A and A2B antagonists (ZM241385 and MRS1706) on different inflammatory parameters; tracheal responsiveness to methacholine and ovalbumin, total and differential cell count in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), blood levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ and lung pathology of guinea pig model of asthma were assessed. Methods: All mentioned parameters were evaluated in two sensitized groups of guinea pigs pretreated with A2A and A2B antagonists (S+Anta A2A, S+Anta A2B) compared with sensitized (S) and control (C) groups. Results: The tracheal responsiveness to methacholine and OA, total cell and eosinophil and basophil count in BAL, blood IL-4 level and pathological changes in pre-treated group with MRS1706 (S+Anta A2B) was significantly lower than those of sensitized group (p<0.01 to p<0.05). In pretreated group with Anta A2A(S+Anta A2A), all the above changes were reversed. Conclusion: These results showed a preventive effect of A2B antagonist (MRS1706) on tracheal responsiveness to methacholine and OA, total and differential cell count in bronchoalveolar lavage, blood cytokines and pathological changes. Administration of ZM241385, selective A2A antagonist, deteriorated the induction effect of ovalbumin. PMID:24511476

  6. Ligand-, structure- and pharmacophore-based molecular fingerprints: a case study on adenosine A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 receptor antagonists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirci, Francesco; Goracci, Laura; Rodríguez, David; van Muijlwijk-Koezen, Jacqueline; Gutiérrez-de-Terán, Hugo; Mannhold, Raimund

    2012-11-01

    FLAP fingerprints are applied in the ligand-, structure- and pharmacophore-based mode in a case study on antagonists of all four adenosine receptor (AR) subtypes. Structurally diverse antagonist collections with respect to the different ARs were constructed by including binding data to human species only. FLAP models well discriminate "active" (=highly potent) from "inactive" (=weakly potent) AR antagonists, as indicated by enrichment curves, numbers of false positives, and AUC values. For all FLAP modes, model predictivity slightly decreases as follows: A2BR > A2AR > A3R > A1R antagonists. General performance of FLAP modes in this study is: ligand- > structure- > pharmacophore- based mode. We also compared the FLAP performance with other common ligand- and structure-based fingerprints. Concerning the ligand-based mode, FLAP model performance is superior to ECFP4 and ROCS for all AR subtypes. Although focusing on the early first part of the A2A, A2B and A3 enrichment curves, ECFP4 and ROCS still retain a satisfactory retrieval of actives. FLAP is also superior when comparing the structure-based mode with PLANTS and GOLD. In this study we applied for the first time the novel FLAPPharm tool for pharmacophore generation. Pharmacophore hypotheses, generated with this tool, convincingly match with formerly published data. Finally, we could demonstrate the capability of FLAP models to uncover selectivity aspects although single AR subtype models were not trained for this purpose.

  7. Excess adenosine A2B receptor signaling contributes to priapism through HIF-1α mediated reduction of PDE5 gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Chen; Wen, Jiaming; Zhang, Yujin; Dai, Yingbo; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Weiru; Qi, Lin; Grenz, Almut; Eltzschig, Holger K.; Blackburn, Michael R.; Kellems, Rodney E.; Xia, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Priapism is featured with prolonged and painful penile erection and is prevalent among males with sickle cell disease (SCD). The disorder is a dangerous urological and hematological emergency since it is associated with ischemic tissue damage and erectile disability. Here we report that phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) gene expression and PDE activity is significantly reduced in penile tissues of two independent priapic models: SCD mice and adenosine deaminase (ADA)-deficient mice. Moreover, using ADA enzyme therapy to reduce adenosine or a specific antagonist to block A2B adenosine receptor (ADORA2B) signaling, we successfully attenuated priapism in both ADA−/− and SCD mice by restoring penile PDE5 gene expression to normal levels. This finding led us to further discover that excess adenosine signaling via ADORA2B activation directly reduces PDE5 gene expression in a hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α)-dependent manner. Overall, we reveal that excess adenosine-mediated ADORA2B signaling underlies reduced penile PDE activity by decreasing PDE5 gene expression in a HIF-1α-dependent manner and provide new insight for the pathogenesis of priapism and novel therapies for the disease.—Ning, C., Wen, J., Zhang, Y., Dai, Y., Wang, W., Zhang, W., Qi, L., Grenz, A., Eltzschig, H. K., Blackburn, M. R., Kellems, R. E., Xia, Y. Excess adenosine A2B receptor signaling contributes to priapism through HIF-1α mediated reduction of PDE5 gene expression. PMID:24614760

  8. A2B adenosine receptor blockade enhances macrophage-mediated bacterial phagocytosis and improves polymicrobial sepsis survival in mice.

    PubMed

    Belikoff, Bryan G; Hatfield, Stephen; Georgiev, Peter; Ohta, Akio; Lukashev, Dmitriy; Buras, Jon A; Remick, Daniel G; Sitkovsky, Michail

    2011-02-15

    Antimicrobial treatment strategies must improve to reduce the high mortality rates in septic patients. In noninfectious models of acute inflammation, activation of A2B adenosine receptors (A2BR) in extracellular adenosine-rich microenvironments causes immunosuppression. We examined A2BR in antibacterial responses in the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of sepsis. Antagonism of A2BR significantly increased survival, enhanced bacterial phagocytosis, and decreased IL-6 and MIP-2 (a CXC chemokine) levels after CLP in outbred (ICR/CD-1) mice. During the CLP-induced septic response in A2BR knockout mice, hemodynamic parameters were improved compared with wild-type mice in addition to better survival and decreased plasma IL-6 levels. A2BR deficiency resulted in a dramatic 4-log reduction in peritoneal bacteria. The mechanism of these improvements was due to enhanced macrophage phagocytic activity without augmenting neutrophil phagocytosis of bacteria. Following ex vivo LPS stimulation, septic macrophages from A2BR knockout mice had increased IL-6 and TNF-α secretion compared with wild-type mice. A therapeutic intervention with A2BR blockade was studied by using a plasma biomarker to direct therapy to those mice predicted to die. Pharmacological blockade of A2BR even 32 h after the onset of sepsis increased survival by 65% in those mice predicted to die. Thus, even the late treatment with an A2BR antagonist significantly improved survival of mice (ICR/CD-1) that were otherwise determined to die according to plasma IL-6 levels. Our findings of enhanced bacterial clearance and host survival suggest that antagonism of A2BRs offers a therapeutic target to improve macrophage function in a late treatment protocol that improves sepsis survival.

  9. Excess adenosine A2B receptor signaling contributes to priapism through HIF-1α mediated reduction of PDE5 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Ning, Chen; Wen, Jiaming; Zhang, Yujin; Dai, Yingbo; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Weiru; Qi, Lin; Grenz, Almut; Eltzschig, Holger K; Blackburn, Michael R; Kellems, Rodney E; Xia, Yang

    2014-06-01

    Priapism is featured with prolonged and painful penile erection and is prevalent among males with sickle cell disease (SCD). The disorder is a dangerous urological and hematological emergency since it is associated with ischemic tissue damage and erectile disability. Here we report that phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) gene expression and PDE activity is significantly reduced in penile tissues of two independent priapic models: SCD mice and adenosine deaminase (ADA)-deficient mice. Moreover, using ADA enzyme therapy to reduce adenosine or a specific antagonist to block A(2B) adenosine receptor (ADORA2B) signaling, we successfully attenuated priapism in both ADA(-/-) and SCD mice by restoring penile PDE5 gene expression to normal levels. This finding led us to further discover that excess adenosine signaling via ADORA2B activation directly reduces PDE5 gene expression in a hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α)-dependent manner. Overall, we reveal that excess adenosine-mediated ADORA2B signaling underlies reduced penile PDE activity by decreasing PDE5 gene expression in a HIF-1α-dependent manner and provide new insight for the pathogenesis of priapism and novel therapies for the disease.

  10. A widespread sequence-specific mRNA decay pathway mediated by hnRNPs A1 and A2/B1

    PubMed Central

    Geissler, Rene; Simkin, Alfred; Floss, Doreen; Patel, Ravi; Fogarty, Elizabeth A.; Scheller, Jürgen; Grimson, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    3′-untranslated regions (UTRs) specify post-transcriptional fates of mammalian messenger RNAs (mRNAs), yet knowledge of the underlying sequences and mechanisms is largely incomplete. Here, we identify two related novel 3′ UTR motifs in mammals that specify transcript degradation. These motifs are interchangeable and active only within 3′ UTRs, where they are often preferentially conserved; furthermore, they are found in hundreds of transcripts, many encoding regulatory proteins. We found that degradation occurs via mRNA deadenylation, mediated by the CCR4–NOT complex. We purified trans factors that recognize the motifs and identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) A1 and A2/B1, which are required for transcript degradation, acting in a previously unknown manner. We used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to confirm hnRNP A1 and A2/B1 motif-dependent roles genome-wide, profiling cells depleted of these factors singly and in combination. Interestingly, the motifs are most active within the distal portion of 3′ UTRs, suggesting that their role in gene regulation can be modulated by alternative processing, resulting in shorter 3′ UTRs. PMID:27151978

  11. A2B adenosine receptor contributes to penile erection via PI3K/AKT signaling cascade-mediated eNOS activation

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Jiaming; Grenz, Almut; Zhang, Yujin; Dai, Yingbo; Kellems, Rodney E.; Blackburn, Michael R.; Eltzschig, Holger K.; Xia, Yang

    2011-01-01

    Normal penile erection is under the control of multiple factors and signaling pathways. Although adenosine signaling is implicated in normal and abnormal penile erection, the exact role and the underlying mechanism for adenosine signaling in penile physiology remain elusive. Here we report that shear stress leads to increased adenosine release from endothelial cells. Subsequently, we determined that ecto-5′-nucleotidase (CD73) is a key enzyme required for the production of elevated adenosine from ATP released by shear-stressed endothelial cells. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that shear stress-mediated elevated adenosine functions through the adenosine A2B receptor (A2BR) to activate the PI3K/AKT signaling cascade and subsequent increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation. These in vitro studies led us to discover further that adenosine was induced during sustained penile erection and contributes to PI3K/AKT activation and subsequent eNOS phosphorylation via A2BR signaling in intact animal. Finally, we demonstrate that lowering adenosine in wild-type mice or genetic deletion of A2BR in mutant mice significantly attenuated PI3K/AKT activation, eNOS phosphorylation, and subsequent impaired penile erection featured with the reduction of ratio of maximal intracavernosal pressure to systemic arterial pressure from 0.49 ± 0.03 to 0.41 ± 0.05 and 0.38 ± 0.04, respectively (both P<0.05). Overall, using biochemical, cellular, genetic, and physiological approaches, our findings reveal that adenosine is a novel molecule signaling via A2BR activation, contributing to penile erection via PI3K/AKT-dependent eNOS activation. These studies suggest that this signaling pathway may be a novel therapeutic target for erectile disorders.—Wen, J., Grenz, A., Zhang, Y., Dai, Y., Kellems, R. E., Blackburn, M. R., Eltzschig, H. K., Xia, Y. A2B adenosine receptor contributes to penile erection via PI3K/AKT signaling cascade-mediated eNOS activation. PMID

  12. Inosine attenuates spontaneous activity in the rat neurogenic bladder through an A2B pathway

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Claire; Cristofaro, Vivian; Sack, Bryan S.; Lukianov, Stefan N.; Schäfer, Mattias; Chung, Yeun Goo; Sullivan, Maryrose P.; Adam, Rosalyn M.

    2017-01-01

    Neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) is among the most challenging complications of spinal cord injury (SCI). A recent report by us demonstrated an improvement in NDO in SCI rats following chronic systemic treatment with the purine nucleoside inosine. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanism of action of inosine underlying improvement of NDO. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent complete spinal cord transection at T8. Inosine (1 mM) delivered intravesically to SCI rats during conscious cystometry significantly decreased the frequency of spontaneous non-voiding contractions. In isolated tissue assays, inosine (1 mM) significantly decreased the amplitude of spontaneous activity (SA) in SCI bladder muscle strips. This effect was prevented by a pan-adenosine receptor antagonist CGS15943, but not by A1 or A3 receptor antagonists. The A2A antagonist ZM241385 and A2B antagonist PSB603 prevented the effect of inosine. The effect of inosine was mimicked by the adenosine receptor agonist NECA and the A2B receptor agonist BAY60-6583. The inhibition of SA by inosine was not observed in the presence of the BK antagonist, iberiotoxin, but persisted in the presence of KATP and SK antagonists. These findings demonstrate that inosine acts via an A2B receptor-mediated pathway that impinges on specific potassium channel effectors. PMID:28294142

  13. Anti-antimicrobial peptides: folding-mediated host defense antagonists.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Lloyd; Lamarre, Baptiste; Diu, Ting; Ravi, Jascindra; Judge, Peter J; Temple, Adam; Carr, Matthew; Cerasoli, Eleonora; Su, Bo; Jenkinson, Howard F; Martyna, Glenn; Crain, Jason; Watts, Anthony; Ryadnov, Maxim G

    2013-07-12

    Antimicrobial or host defense peptides are innate immune regulators found in all multicellular organisms. Many of them fold into membrane-bound α-helices and function by causing cell wall disruption in microorganisms. Herein we probe the possibility and functional implications of antimicrobial antagonism mediated by complementary coiled-coil interactions between antimicrobial peptides and de novo designed antagonists: anti-antimicrobial peptides. Using sequences from native helical families such as cathelicidins, cecropins, and magainins we demonstrate that designed antagonists can co-fold with antimicrobial peptides into functionally inert helical oligomers. The properties and function of the resulting assemblies were studied in solution, membrane environments, and in bacterial culture by a combination of chiroptical and solid-state NMR spectroscopies, microscopy, bioassays, and molecular dynamics simulations. The findings offer a molecular rationale for anti-antimicrobial responses with potential implications for antimicrobial resistance.

  14. The A2B adenosine receptor promotes Th17 differentiation via stimulation of dendritic cell IL-6.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jeffrey M; Kurtz, Courtney C; Black, Steven G; Ross, William G; Alam, Mohammed S; Linden, Joel; Ernst, Peter B

    2011-06-15

    Adenosine is an endogenous metabolite produced during hypoxia or inflammation. Previously implicated as an anti-inflammatory mediator in CD4(+) T cell regulation, we report that adenosine acts via dendritic cell (DC) A(2B) adenosine receptor (A(2B)AR) to promote the development of Th17 cells. Mouse naive CD4(+) T cells cocultured with DCs in the presence of adenosine or the stable adenosine mimetic 5'-(N-ethylcarboximado) adenosine resulted in the differentiation of IL-17- and IL-22-secreting cells and elevation of mRNA that encode signature Th17-associated molecules, such as IL-23R and RORγt. The observed response was similar when DCs were generated from bone marrow or isolated from small intestine lamina propria. Experiments using adenosine receptor antagonists and cells from A(2B)AR(-/-) or A(2A)AR(-/-)/A(2B)AR(-/-) mice indicated that the DC A(2B)AR promoted the effect. IL-6, stimulated in a cAMP-independent manner, is an important mediator in this pathway. Hence, in addition to previously noted direct effects of adenosine receptors on regulatory T cell development and function, these data indicated that adenosine also acts indirectly to modulate CD4(+) T cell differentiation and suggested a mechanism for putative proinflammatory effects of A(2B)AR.

  15. Microbial Herd Protection Mediated by Antagonistic Interaction in Polymicrobial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Megan J. Q.; Liang, Xiaoye; Smart, Matt; Tang, Le; Moore, Richard; Ingalls, Brian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In host and natural environments, microbes often exist in complex multispecies communities. The molecular mechanisms through which such communities develop and persist, despite significant antagonistic interactions between species, are not well understood. The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a lethal weapon commonly employed by Gram-negative bacteria to inhibit neighboring species through the delivery of toxic effectors. It is well established that intraspecies protection is conferred by immunity proteins that neutralize effector toxicities. In contrast, the mechanisms for interspecies protection are not clear. Here we use two T6SS-active antagonistic bacterial species, Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio cholerae, to demonstrate that interspecies protection is dependent on effectors. A. hydrophila and V. cholerae do not share conserved immunity genes but could coexist equally in a mixture. However, mutants lacking the T6SS or effectors were effectively eliminated by the competing wild-type strain. Time-lapse microscopic analyses showed that mutually lethal interactions drive the segregation of mixed species into distinct single-species clusters by eliminating interspersed single cells. Cluster formation provides herd protection by abolishing lethal interactions inside each cluster and restricting the interactions to the boundary. Using an agent-based modeling approach, we simulated the antagonistic interactions of two hypothetical species. The resulting simulations recapitulated our experimental observations. These results provide mechanistic insights regarding the general role of microbial weapons in determining the structures of complex multispecies communities. IMPORTANCE Investigating the warfare of microbes allows us to better understand the ecological relationships in complex microbial communities such as the human microbiota. Here we use the T6SS, a deadly bacterial weapon, as a model to demonstrate the importance of lethal interactions in

  16. The A2B adenosine receptor impairs the maturation and immunogenicity of dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jeffrey M; Ross, William G; Agbai, Oma N; Frazier, Renea; Figler, Robert A; Rieger, Jayson; Linden, Joel; Ernst, Peter B

    2009-04-15

    The endogenous purine nucleoside adenosine is an important antiinflammatory mediator that contributes to the control of CD4(+) T cell responses. While adenosine clearly has direct effects on CD4(+) T cells, it remains to be determined whether actions on APC such as dendritic cells (DC) are also important. In this report we characterize DC maturation and function in BMDC stimulated with LPS in the presence or absence of the nonselective adenosine receptor agonist NECA (5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine). We found that NECA inhibited TNF-alpha and IL-12 in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas IL-10 production was increased. NECA-treated BMDC also expressed reduced levels of MHC class II and CD86 and were less effective at stimulating CD4(+) T cell proliferation and IL-2 production compared with BMDC exposed to vehicle control. Based on real-time RT-PCR, the A(2A) adenosine receptor (A(2A)AR) and A(2B)AR were the predominant adenosine receptors expressed in BMDC. Using adenosine receptor subtype selective antagonists and BMDC derived from A(2A)AR(-/-) and A(2B)AR(-/-)mice, it was shown that NECA modulates TNF-alpha, IL-12, IL-10, and CD86 responses predominantly via A(2B)AR. These data indicate that engagement of A(2B)AR modifies murine BMDC maturation and suggest that adenosine regulates CD4(+) T cell responses by selecting for DC with impaired immunogencity.

  17. Bradykinin as a pain mediator: receptors are localized to sensory neurons, and antagonists have analgesic actions

    SciTech Connect

    Steranka, L.R.; Manning, D.C.; DeHaas, C.J.; Ferkany, J.W.; Borosky, S.A.; Connor, J.R.; Vavrek, R.J.; Stewart, J.M.; Snyder, S.H.

    1988-05-01

    Autoradiographic studies localize (/sup 3/H)bradykinin receptor binding sites to the substantia gelatinosa, dorsal root, and a subset of small cells in both the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia of the guinea pig. (/sup 3/H)Bradykinin labeling is also observed over myocardinal/coronary visceral afferent fibers. The localization of (/sup 3/H)bradykinin receptors to nociceptive pathways supports a role for bradykinin in pain mediation. Several bradkykinin antagonists block bradykinin-induced acute vascular pain in the rat. The bradykinin antagonists also relieve bradykinin- and urate-induced hyperalgesia in the rat paw. These results indicate that bradykinin is a physiologic mediator of pain and that bradykinin antagonists have analgesic activity in both acute and chronic pain models.

  18. SSTR-mediated Breast Cancer Imaging: Is There A Role For Radiolabeled SSTR Antagonists?

    PubMed

    Dalm, Simone U; Haeck, Joost; Doeswijk, Gabriela N; de Blois, Erik; de Jong, Marion; van Deurzen, Carolien

    2017-04-27

    INTRODUCTION: Recent studies showed enhanced tumor targeting by novel somatostatin receptor (SSTR) antagonists compared to clinically widely used agonists. However, these results have mostly been obtained in neuroendocrine tumors and only limited data is available for cancer types with lower SSTR expression, including breast cancer (BC). To date, only two studies reported higher binding of the antagonist versus the agonist in BC, but in both studies a limited number of cases were evaluated. In this pre-clinical study, we further investigated whether the application of a SSTR antagonist could improve SSTR-mediated BC imaging in a large panel of BC specimens. We also generated an in vivo BC mouse model and performed single-photon emission computed tomography/Magnetic resonance imaging (SPECT/MRI) and biodistribution studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS:(111)In-DOTA-Tyr(3)-octreotate (SSTR agonist) and (111)In-DOTA-JR11 (SSTR antagonist) binding to 40 human BC specimens was compared using in vitro autoradiography. SSTR2-immunostaining was performed to confirm SSTR2 expression of the tumor cells. Furthermore, binding of the radiolabeled SSTR agonist and antagonist was analyzed in tissue material from 6 patient derived xenografts (pdx's). One pdx, the estrogen receptor positive model T126, was chosen to generate in vivo mouse models containing orthotopic breast tumors for in vivo SPECT/MR imaging and biodistribution studies after injection with (177)Lu-DOTA-Tyr(3)-octreotate or (177)Lu-DOTA-JR11. RESULTS:(111)In-DOTA-JR11 binding to human BC tissue was significantly higher than (111)In-DOTA-Tyr(3)-octreotate binding (p<0.001). The median (interquartile range) ratio of the antagonist versus the agonist binding was 3.39 (2-5)). SSTR2-immunostaining confirmed SSTR2 expression in the tumor cells. SPECT/MR imaging performed in the mouse model resulted in better tumor visualization with the antagonist. This was in line with the significantly higher tumor uptake of the radiolabeled

  19. NOP Receptor Mediates Anti-analgesia Induced by Agonist-Antagonist Opioids

    PubMed Central

    Gear, Robert W.; Bogen, Oliver; Ferrari, Luiz F.; Green, Paul G.; Levine, Jon D.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown that agonist-antagonist opioid analgesics that produce their analgesic effect via action on the kappa-opioid receptor, produce a delayed-onset anti-analgesia in men but not women, an effect blocked by co-administration of a low dose of naloxone. We now report the same time-dependent anti-analgesia and its underlying mechanism in an animal model. Using the Randall-Selitto paw-withdrawal assay in male rats, we found that nalbuphine, pentazocine, and butorphanol each produced analgesia during the first hour followed by anti-analgesia starting at ~90 minutes after administration in males but not females, closely mimicking its clinical effects. As observed in humans, co-administration of nalbuphine with naloxone in a dose ratio of 12.5:1 blocked anti-analgesia but not analgesia. Administration of the highly selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69,593 produced analgesia without subsequent anti-analgesia, and confirmed by the failure of the selective kappa antagonist nor-binaltorphimine to block nalbuphine-induced anti-analgesia, indicating that anti-analgesia is not mediated by kappa-opioid receptors. We therefore tested the role of other receptors in nalbuphine anti-analgesia. Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (NOP) and sigma-1 and sigma-2 receptors were chosen on the basis of their known anti-analgesic effects and receptor binding studies. The selective NOP receptor antagonists, JTC801, and J113397, but not the sigma receptor antagonist, BD 1047, antagonized nalbuphine anti-analgesia. Furthermore, the NOP receptor agonist NNC 63-0532 produced anti-analgesia with the same delay in onset observed with the three agonist-antagonists, but without producing preceding analgesia and this anti-analgesia was also blocked by naloxone. These results strongly support the suggestion that clinically used agonist-antagonists act at the NOP receptor to produce anti-analgesia. PMID:24188792

  20. PPARγ antagonist attenuates mouse immune-mediated bone marrow failure by inhibition of T cell function

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Kazuya; Feng, Xingmin; Chen, Jichun; Li, Jungang; Muranski, Pawel; Desierto, Marie J.; Keyvanfar, Keyvan; Malide, Daniela; Kajigaya, Sachiko; Young, Neal S.

    2016-01-01

    Acquired aplastic anemia is an immune-mediated disease, in which T cells target hematopoietic cells; at presentation, the bone marrow is replaced by fat. It was reported that bone marrow adipocytes were negative regulators of hematopoietic microenvironment. To examine the role of adipocytes in bone marrow failure, we investigated peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma, a key transcription factor in adipogenesis, utilizing an antagonist of this factor called bisphenol-A-diglycidyl-ether. While bisphenol-A-diglycidyl-ether inhibited adipogenesis as expected, it also suppressed T cell infiltration of bone marrow, reduced plasma inflammatory cytokines, decreased expression of multiple inflammasome genes, and ameliorated marrow failure. In vitro, bisphenol-A-diglycidyl-ether suppressed activation and proliferation, and reduced phospholipase C gamma 1 and nuclear factor of activated T-cells 1 expression, as well as inhibiting calcium flux in T cells. The in vivo effect of bisphenol-A-diglycidyl-ether on T cells was confirmed in a second immune-mediated bone marrow failure model, using different strains and non-major histocompatibility antigen mismatched: bisphenol-A-diglycidyl-ether ameliorated marrow failure by inhibition of T cell infiltration of bone marrow. Our data indicate that peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma antagonists may attenuate murine immune-mediated bone marrow failure, at least in part, by suppression of T cell activation, which might hold implications in the application of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma antagonists in immune-mediated pathophysiologies, both in the laboratory and in the clinic. Genetically “fatless” mice developed bone marrow failure with accumulation of marrow adipocytes in our model, even in the absence of body fat, suggesting different mechanisms of systematic and marrow adipogenesis and physiologic versus pathophysiologic fat accumulation. PMID:26589913

  1. PPARγ antagonist attenuates mouse immune-mediated bone marrow failure by inhibition of T cell function.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kazuya; Feng, Xingmin; Chen, Jichun; Li, Jungang; Muranski, Pawel; Desierto, Marie J; Keyvanfar, Keyvan; Malide, Daniela; Kajigaya, Sachiko; Young, Neal S

    2016-01-01

    Acquired aplastic anemia is an immune-mediated disease, in which T cells target hematopoietic cells; at presentation, the bone marrow is replaced by fat. It was reported that bone marrow adipocytes were negative regulators of hematopoietic microenvironment. To examine the role of adipocytes in bone marrow failure, we investigated peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma, a key transcription factor in adipogenesis, utilizing an antagonist of this factor called bisphenol-A-diglycidyl-ether. While bisphenol-A-diglycidyl-ether inhibited adipogenesis as expected, it also suppressed T cell infiltration of bone marrow, reduced plasma inflammatory cytokines, decreased expression of multiple inflammasome genes, and ameliorated marrow failure. In vitro, bisphenol-A-diglycidyl-ether suppressed activation and proliferation, and reduced phospholipase C gamma 1 and nuclear factor of activated T-cells 1 expression, as well as inhibiting calcium flux in T cells. The in vivo effect of bisphenol-A-diglycidyl-ether on T cells was confirmed in a second immune-mediated bone marrow failure model, using different strains and non-major histocompatibility antigen mismatched: bisphenol-A-diglycidyl-ether ameliorated marrow failure by inhibition of T cell infiltration of bone marrow. Our data indicate that peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma antagonists may attenuate murine immune-mediated bone marrow failure, at least in part, by suppression of T cell activation, which might hold implications in the application of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma antagonists in immune-mediated pathophysiologies, both in the laboratory and in the clinic. Genetically "fatless" mice developed bone marrow failure with accumulation of marrow adipocytes in our model, even in the absence of body fat, suggesting different mechanisms of systematic and marrow adipogenesis and physiologic versus pathophysiologic fat accumulation.

  2. Adenosine A2A and A2B Receptors Differentially Modulate Keratinocyte Proliferation: Possible Deregulation in Psoriatic Epidermis.

    PubMed

    Andrés, Rosa M; Terencio, María Carmen; Arasa, Jorge; Payá, Miguel; Valcuende-Cavero, Francisca; Navalón, Pedro; Montesinos, María Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Adenosine is a potent regulator of inflammation and immunity, but the role of adenosine receptors in keratinocytes remains controversial. We determined that in addition to A2B receptors, human epidermal keratinocytes also express A2A receptors, although to a lower extent. Through the use of selective adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists, we showed that physiological concentrations of adenosine activate A2B receptors in normal human keratinocytes, inducing cell cycle arrest through the increase of intracellular calcium but not through cAMP signaling. In contrast, the selective activation of A2A receptors by CGS-21680 induces keratinocyte proliferation via p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. Adenosine and selective A2A and A2B agonists presented anti-inflammatory profiles independent of adenosine receptors but mediated by membrane phosphatase activation. Finally, keratinocyte exposure to diverse inflammatory cytokines altered adenosine receptor expression by reducing A2B and increasing A2A, a pattern also observed in psoriatic epidermis. Because increased epidermal turnover and inflammatory response are characteristics of psoriatic disease, further studies are needed to assess the role and consequences of the altered adenosine receptor expression in lesional and nonlesional psoriatic keratinocytes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Serotonin receptor antagonists discriminate between PKA- and PKC-mediated plasticity in aplysia sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Dumitriu, Bogdan; Cohen, Jonathan E; Wan, Qin; Negroiu, Andreea M; Abrams, Thomas W

    2006-04-01

    Highly selective serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) receptor antagonists developed for mammals are ineffective in Aplysia due to the evolutionary divergence of neurotransmitter receptors and because the higher ionic strength of physiological saline for marine invertebrates reduces antagonist affinity. It has therefore been difficult to identify antagonists that specifically block individual signaling cascades initiated by 5-HT. We studied two broad-spectrum 5-HT receptor antagonists that have been characterized biochemically in Aplysia CNS: methiothepin and spiperone. Methiothepin is highly effective in inhibiting adenylyl cyclase (AC)-coupled 5-HT receptors in Aplysia. Spiperone, which blocks phospholipase C (PLC)-coupled 5-HT receptors in mammals, does not block AC-coupled 5-HT receptors in Aplysia. In electrophysiological studies, we explored whether methiothepin and spiperone can be used in parallel to distinguish between the AC-cAMP and PLC-protein kinase C (PKC) modulatory cascades that are initiated by 5-HT. 5-HT-induced broadening of the sensory neuron action potential in the presence of tetraethylammonium/nifedipine, which is mediated by modulation of the S-K+ currents, was used an assay for the AC-cAMP cascade. Spike broadening initiated by 5 microM 5-HT was unaffected by 100 microM spiperone, whereas it was effectively blocked by 100 microM methiothepin. Facilitation of highly depressed sensory neuron-to-motor neuron synapses by 5-HT was used as an assay for the PLC-PKC cascade. Spiperone completely blocked facilitation of highly depressed synapses by 5 microM 5-HT. In contrast, methiothepin produced a modest, nonsignificant, reduction in the facilitation of depressed synapses. Interestingly, these experiments revealed that the PLC-PKC cascade undergoes desensitization during exposure to 5-HT.

  4. The Macrophage A2b Adenosine Receptor Regulates Tissue Insulin Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Koupenova, Milka; Carroll, Shannon; Ravid, Katya

    2014-01-01

    High fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetes continues to be an epidemic with significant risk for various pathologies. Previously, we identified the A2b adenosine receptor (A2bAR), an established regulator of inflammation, as a regulator of HFD-induced insulin resistance. In particular, HFD was associated with vast upregulation of liver A2bAR in control mice, and while mice lacking this receptor showed augmented liver inflammation and tissue insulin resistance. As the A2bAR is expressed in different tissues, here, we provide the first lead to cellular mechanism by demonstrating that the receptor's influence on tissue insulin sensitivity is mediated via its expression in macrophages. This was shown using a newly generated transgenic mouse model expressing the A2bAR gene in the macrophage lineage on an otherwise A2bAR null background. Reinstatement of macrophage A2bAR expression in A2bAR null mice fed HFD restored insulin tolerance and tissue insulin signaling to the level of control mice. The molecular mechanism for this effect involves A2bAR-mediated changes in cyclic adenosine monophosphate in macrophages, reducing the expression and release of inflammatory cytokines, which downregulate insulin receptor-2. Thus, our results illustrate that macrophage A2bAR signaling is needed and sufficient for relaying the protective effect of the A2bAR against HFD-induced tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in mice. PMID:24892847

  5. Receptor-mediated binding and uptake of GnRH agonist and antagonist by pituitary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jennes, L.; Stumpf, W.E.; Conn, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    The intracellular pathway of an enzyme resistant GnRH agonist (D- Lys6 -GnRH) conjugated to ferritin or to colloidal gold was followed in cultured pituitary cells. After an initial uniform distribution over the cell surface of gonadotropes, the electrondense marker was internalized, either individually or in small groups. After longer incubation times, the marker appeared in the lysosomal compartment and the Golgi apparatus, where it could be found in the vesicular as well as cisternal portion. In addition, the receptor-mediated endocytosis of the GnRH antagonist D-p-Glu1-D-Phe2-D-Trp3-D- Lys6 -GnRH was studied by light and electron microscopic autoradiography after 30 and 60 min of incubation to ensure uptake. At both time points, in in vitro as well as in vivo studies, silver grains were localized over cytoplasmic organelles of castration cells, including dilated endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, and clear vesicles. No consistent association with cell nuclei, mitochondria, or secretory vesicles could be observed. The results suggest that both agonist and antagonist are binding selectively to the plasma membrane of gonadotropes and subsequently are taken up via receptor-mediated endocytosis for degradation or possible action on synthetic processes.

  6. Modulation of murine dendritic cell function by adenine nucleotides and adenosine: involvement of the A(2B) receptor.

    PubMed

    Ben Addi, Abduelhakem; Lefort, Anne; Hua, Xiaoyang; Libert, Frédérick; Communi, Didier; Ledent, Catherine; Macours, Pascale; Tilley, Stephen L; Boeynaems, Jean-Marie; Robaye, Bernard

    2008-06-01

    Adenosine triphosphate has previously been shown to induce semi-mature human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC). These are characterized by the up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules, the inhibition of IL-12 and the up-regulation of some genes involved in immune tolerance, such as thrombospondin-1 and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. The actions of adenosine triphosphate are mediated by the P2Y(11) receptor; since there is no functional P2Y(11) gene in the murine genome, we investigated the action of adenine nucleotides on murine DC. Adenosine 5'-(3-thiotriphosphate) and adenosine inhibited the production of IL-12p70 by bone marrow-derived DC (BMDC). These inhibitions were relieved by 8-p-sulfophenyltheophylline, an adenosine receptor antagonist. The use of selective ligands and A(2B) (-/-) BMDC indicated the involvement of the A(2B) receptor. A microarray experiment, confirmed by quantitative PCR, showed that, in presence of LPS, 5'-(N-ethylcarboxamido) adenosine (NECA, the most potent A(2B) receptor agonist) regulated the expression of several genes: arginase I and II, thrombospondin-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor were up-regulated whereas CCL2 and CCL12 were down-regulated. We further showed that NECA, in combination with LPS, increased the arginase I enzymatic activity. In conclusion, the described actions of adenine nucleotides on BMDC are mediated by their degradation product, adenosine, acting on the A(2B) receptor, and will possibly lead to an impairment of Th1 response or tolerance.

  7. Potential therapeutic relevance of adenosine A2B and A2A receptors in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Popoli, Patrizia; Pepponi, Rita

    2012-09-01

    Adenosine A2B and, much more importantly, adenosine A2A receptors modulate many physiological and pathological processes in the brain. In this review, the most recent evidence concerning the role of such receptors and their potential therapeutic relevance is discussed. The low affinity of A2B receptors for adenosine implies that they might represent a good therapeutic target, since they are activated only under pathological conditions (when adenosine levels raise up to micromolar concentrations). The availability of selective ligands for A2B receptors would allow exploration of such an hypothesis. Since adenosine A2A receptors mediate both potentially neuroprotective and potentially neurotoxic effects, their role in neurodegenerative diseases is highly controversial. Nevertheless, A2A receptor antagonists have shown clear antiparkinsonian effects, and a great interest exists on the role of A2A receptors in Alzheimer's disease, brain ischaemia, spinal cord injury, drug addiction and other conditions. In order to establish whether such receptors represent a target for CNS diseases, at least two conditions are needed: the full comprehension of A2A-dependent mechanisms and the availability of ligands capable of discriminating among the different receptor populations.

  8. Role of A2B adenosine receptor signaling in adenosine-dependent pulmonary inflammation and injury

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chun-Xiao; Zhong, Hongyan; Mohsenin, Amir; Morschl, Eva; Chunn, Janci L.; Molina, Jose G.; Belardinelli, Luiz; Zeng, Dewan; Blackburn, Michael R.

    2006-01-01

    Adenosine has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In vitro studies suggest that activation of the A2B adenosine receptor (A2BAR) results in proinflammatory and profibrotic effects relevant to the progression of lung diseases; however, in vivo data supporting these observations are lacking. Adenosine deaminase–deficient (ADA-deficient) mice develop pulmonary inflammation and injury that are dependent on increased lung adenosine levels. To investigate the role of the A2BAR in vivo, ADA-deficient mice were treated with the selective A2BAR antagonist CVT-6883, and pulmonary inflammation, fibrosis, and airspace integrity were assessed. Untreated and vehicle-treated ADA-deficient mice developed pulmonary inflammation, fibrosis, and enlargement of alveolar airspaces; conversely, CVT-6883–treated ADA-deficient mice showed less pulmonary inflammation, fibrosis, and alveolar airspace enlargement. A2BAR antagonism significantly reduced elevations in proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines as well as mediators of fibrosis and airway destruction. In addition, treatment with CVT-6883 attenuated pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in wild-type mice subjected to bleomycin-induced lung injury. These findings suggest that A2BAR signaling influences pathways critical for pulmonary inflammation and injury in vivo. Thus in chronic lung diseases associated with increased adenosine, antagonism of A2BAR-mediated responses may prove to be a beneficial therapy. PMID:16841096

  9. The A2B adenosine receptor modulates pulmonary hypertension associated with interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Karmouty-Quintana, Harry; Zhong, Hongyan; Acero, Luis; Weng, Tingting; Melicoff, Ernestina; West, James D; Hemnes, Anna; Grenz, Almut; Eltzschig, Holger K; Blackwell, Timothy S; Xia, Yang; Johnston, Richard A; Zeng, Dewan; Belardinelli, Luiz; Blackburn, Michael R

    2012-06-01

    Development of pulmonary hypertension is a common and deadly complication of interstitial lung disease. Little is known regarding the cellular and molecular mechanisms that lead to pulmonary hypertension in patients with interstitial lung disease, and effective treatment options are lacking. The purpose of this study was to examine the adenosine 2B receptor (A(2B)R) as a regulator of vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension secondary to pulmonary fibrosis. To accomplish this, cellular and molecular changes in vascular remodeling were monitored in mice exposed to bleomycin in conjunction with genetic removal of the A(2B)R or treatment with the A(2B)R antagonist GS-6201. Results demonstrated that GS-6201 treatment or genetic removal of the A(2B)R attenuated vascular remodeling and hypertension in our model. Furthermore, direct A(2B)R activation on vascular cells promoted interleukin-6 and endothelin-1 release. These studies identify a novel mechanism of disease progression to pulmonary hypertension and support the development of A(2B)R antagonists for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension secondary to interstitial lung disease.

  10. Procontractile G protein–mediated signaling pathways antagonistically regulate smooth muscle differentiation in vascular remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Althoff, Till F.; Juárez, Julián Albarrán; Troidl, Kerstin; Tang, Cong; Wang, Shengpeng; Wirth, Angela; Takefuji, Mikito; Wettschureck, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle (Sm) cells (VSMCs) are highly plastic. Their differentiation state can be regulated by serum response factor (SRF), which activates genes involved in Sm differentiation and proliferation by recruiting cofactors, such as members of the myocardin family and ternary complex factors (TCFs), respectively. However, the extracellular cues and upstream signaling mechanisms regulating SRF-dependent VSMC differentiation under in vivo conditions are poorly understood. In this study, we show that the procontractile signaling pathways mediated by the G proteins G12/G13 and Gq/G11 antagonistically regulate VSMC plasticity in different models of vascular remodeling. In mice lacking Gα12/Gα13 or their effector, the RhoGEF protein LARG, RhoA-dependent SRF-regulation was blocked and down-regulation of VSMC differentiation marker genes was enhanced. This was accompanied by an excessive vascular remodeling and exacerbation of atherosclerosis. In contrast, Sm-specific Gαq/Gα11 deficiency blocked activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and the TCF Elk-1, resulting in a reduced VSMC dedifferentiation in response to flow cessation or vascular injury. These data show that the balanced activity of both G protein–mediated pathways in VSMCs is required for an appropriate vessel remodeling response in vascular diseases and suggest new approaches to modulate Sm differentiation in vascular pathologies. PMID:23129751

  11. Root Bending Is Antagonistically Affected by Hypoxia and ERF-Mediated Transcription via Auxin Signaling.

    PubMed

    Eysholdt-Derzsó, Emese; Sauter, Margret

    2017-09-01

    When plants encounter soil water logging or flooding, roots are the first organs to be confronted with reduced gas diffusion resulting in limited oxygen supply. Since roots do not generate photosynthetic oxygen, they are rapidly faced with oxygen shortage rendering roots particularly prone to damage. While metabolic adaptations to low oxygen conditions, which ensure basic energy supply, have been well characterized, adaptation of root growth and development have received less attention. In this study, we show that hypoxic conditions cause the primary root to grow sidewise in a low oxygen environment, possibly to escape soil patches with reduced oxygen availability. This growth behavior is reversible in that gravitropic growth resumes when seedlings are returned to normoxic conditions. Hypoxic root bending is inhibited by the group VII ethylene response factor (ERFVII) RAP2.12, as rap2.12-1 seedlings show exaggerated primary root bending. Furthermore, overexpression of the ERFVII member HRE2 inhibits root bending, suggesting that primary root growth direction at hypoxic conditions is antagonistically regulated by hypoxia and hypoxia-activated ERFVIIs. Root bending is preceded by the establishment of an auxin gradient across the root tip as quantified with DII-VENUS and is synergistically enhanced by hypoxia and the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid. The protein abundance of the auxin efflux carrier PIN2 is reduced at hypoxic conditions, a response that is suppressed by RAP2.12 overexpression, suggesting antagonistic control of auxin flux by hypoxia and ERFVII. Taken together, we show that hypoxia triggers an escape response of the primary root that is controlled by ERFVII activity and mediated by auxin signaling in the root tip. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  12. A2a and a2b adenosine receptors affect HIF-1α signaling in activated primary microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Merighi, Stefania; Borea, Pier Andrea; Stefanelli, Angela; Bencivenni, Serena; Castillo, Carlos Alberto; Varani, Katia; Gessi, Stefania

    2015-05-15

    Microglia are central nervous system (CNS)-resident immune cells, that play a crucial role in neuroinflammation. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), the main transcription factor of hypoxia-inducible genes, is also involved in the immune response, being regulated in normoxia by inflammatory mediators. Adenosine is an ubiquitous nucleoside that has an influence on many immune properties of microglia through interaction with four receptor subtypes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether adenosine may affect microglia functions by acting on HIF-1α modulation. Primary murine microglia were activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with or without adenosine, adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists and HIF-1α accumulation and downstream genes regulation were determined. Adenosine increased LPS-induced HIF-1α accumulation leading to an increase in HIF-1α target genes involved in cell metabolism [glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1)] and pathogens killing [inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS)] but did not induce HIF-1α dependent genes related to angiogenesis [vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)] and inflammation [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)]. The stimulatory effect of adenosine on HIF-1α and its target genes was essentially exerted by activation of A2A through p44/42 and A2B subtypes via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and Akt phosphorylation. Furthermore the nucleoside raised VEGF and decreased TNF-α levels, by activating A2B subtypes. In conclusion adenosine increases GLUT-1 and iNOS gene expression in a HIF-1α-dependent way, through A2A and A2B receptors, suggesting their role in the regulation of microglial cells function following injury. However, inhibition of TNF-α adds an important anti-inflammatory effect only for the A2B subtype. GLIA 2015.

  13. Contribution of Adenosine A2B Receptors in Clostridium difficile Intoxication and Infection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuesheng; Calabrese, Gina M.; Freire, Rosemayre S.; Zaja-Milatovic, Snjezana; van Opstal, Edward; Figler, Robert A.; Linden, Joel; Guerrant, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    Clostridium difficile toxins A (TcdA) and B (TcdB) induce a pronounced systemic and intestinal inflammatory response. A2B adenosine receptors (A2BARs) are the predominant adenosine receptors in the intestinal epithelium. We investigated whether A2BARs are upregulated in human intestinal cells by TcdA or TcdB and whether blockade of A2BARs can ameliorate C. difficile TcdA-induced enteritis and alter the outcome of C. difficile infection (CDI). Adenosine receptor subtype (A1, A2A, A2B, and A3) mRNAs were assayed in HCT-8 cells. Ileal loops from wild-type rabbits and mice and A2BAR−/− mice were treated with TcdA, with or without the selective A2BAR antagonist ATL692 or PSB1115. A murine model of CDI was used to determine the effect of A2BAR deletion or blockade with the orally available agent ATL801, on clinical outcome, histopathology and intestinal interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression from infection. TcdA and TcdB upregulated A2BAR gene expression in HCT-8 cells. ATL692 decreased TcdA-induced secretion and epithelial injury in rabbit ileum. Deletion of A2BARs reduced secretion and histopathology in TcdA-challenged mouse ileum. Deletion or blockade of A2BARs reduced histopathology, IL-6 expression, weight loss, diarrhea, and mortality in C. difficile-infected mice. A2BARs mediate C. difficile toxin-induced enteritis and disease. Inhibition of A2BAR activation may be a potential strategy to limit morbidity and mortality from CDI. PMID:23045479

  14. Locus Coeruleus and Tuberomammillary Nuclei Ablations Attenuate Hypocretin/Orexin Antagonist-Mediated REM Sleep.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Michael D; Nguyen, Alexander T; Warrier, Deepti R; Palmerston, Jeremiah B; Thomas, Alexia M; Morairty, Stephen R; Neylan, Thomas C; Kilduff, Thomas S

    2016-01-01

    Hypocretin 1 and 2 (Hcrts; also known as orexin A and B), excitatory neuropeptides synthesized in cells located in the tuberal hypothalamus, play a central role in the control of arousal. Hcrt inputs to the locus coeruleus norepinephrine (LC NE) system and the posterior hypothalamic histaminergic tuberomammillary nuclei (TMN HA) are important efferent pathways for Hcrt-induced wakefulness. The LC expresses Hcrt receptor 1 (HcrtR1), whereas HcrtR2 is found in the TMN. Although the dual Hcrt/orexin receptor antagonist almorexant (ALM) decreases wakefulness and increases NREM and REM sleep time, the neural circuitry that mediates these effects is currently unknown. To test the hypothesis that ALM induces sleep by selectively disfacilitating subcortical wake-promoting populations, we ablated LC NE neurons (LCx) or TMN HA neurons (TMNx) in rats using cell-type-specific saporin conjugates and evaluated sleep/wake following treatment with ALM and the GABAA receptor modulator zolpidem (ZOL). Both LCx and TMNx attenuated the promotion of REM sleep by ALM without affecting ALM-mediated increases in NREM sleep. Thus, eliminating either HcrtR1 signaling in the LC or HcrtR2 signaling in the TMN yields similar effects on ALM-induced REM sleep without affecting NREM sleep time. In contrast, neither lesion altered ZOL efficacy on any measure of sleep-wake regulation. These results contrast with those of a previous study in which ablation of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons attenuated ALM-induced increases in NREM sleep time without affecting REM sleep, indicating that Hcrt neurotransmission influences distinct aspects of NREM and REM sleep at different locations in the sleep-wake regulatory network.

  15. Opioid antagonists block the acquisition of ethanol-mediated conditioned tactile preference in infant rats.

    PubMed

    Nizhnikov, Michael Eduard; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Truxell, Eric; Spear, Norman E

    2009-08-01

    It has been difficult to find conditioned preference for tactile cues paired with ethanol intoxication in rats. Toward understanding the ontogeny of ethanol reinforcement, we aimed at establishing a simple and reliable procedure for (1) assessing primary appetitive conditioning to ethanol in infant rats and (2) discerning the role the opioid system plays in ethanol-mediated conditioning at this age. Experiment 1 determined the parameters (i.e., dose, interval of conditioning) for assessing ethanol-mediated conditioning. Pups were then trained with differential Pavlovian conditioning (Experiments 2 and 3) in which ethanol intoxication (1.0-2.0 g/kg, intragastrically or intraperitoneally delivered) was paired with a tactile stimulus (sandpaper) while an alternative texture signaled the absence of ethanol's effects. Unpaired control conditions were also used. Tactile preferences were assessed after two conditioning sessions. Paired rats spent significantly more time on sandpaper than unpaired controls, an effect that was greater after intragastric administration of 1.0 than 2.0 g/kg ethanol. This effect was replicated in Experiments 4a and 4c and found to be inhibited by pretreatment with general (naloxone [NAL]) or specific (d-Pen-Cys-Tyr-d-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 [CTOP] and naltrindole) opioid antagonists. Blood ethanol levels at conditioning were not altered by NAL (Experiment 4b). The study outlines a procedure that reveals appetitive conditioning to ethanol by infant rats. The results are discussed in terms of a potential ethanol-induced activation of the endogenous opioid system during the onset of the intoxication process.

  16. OPIOID ANTAGONISTS BLOCK THE ACQUISITION OF ETHANOL-MEDIATED CONDITIONED TACTILE PREFERENCE IN INFANT RATS

    PubMed Central

    Nizhnikov, Michael Eduard; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Truxell, Eric; Spear, Norman E.

    2009-01-01

    It has been difficult to find conditioned preference for tactile cues paired with ethanol intoxication in rats. Toward understanding the ontogeny of ethanol reinforcement, we aimed at establishing a simple and reliable procedure for: (i) assessing primary appetitive conditioning to ethanol in infant rats and (ii) discerning the role the opioid system plays in ethanol-mediated conditioning at this age. Experiment 1 determined the parameters (i.e., dose, interval of conditioning) for assessing ethanol-mediated conditioning. Pups were then trained with differential Pavlovian conditioning (Experiments 2 and 3) in which ethanol intoxication (1.0 – 2.0 g/kg, intragastrically or intraperitoneally delivered) was paired with a tactile stimulus (sandpaper) while an alternative texture signaled the absence of ethanol’s effects. Unpaired control conditions were also employed. Tactile preferences were assessed after two conditioning sessions. Paired rats spent significantly more time on sandpaper than unpaired controls, an effect that was greater following intragastric administration of 1.0 than 2.0 g/kg ethanol. This effect was replicated in Experiments 4a and 4c and found to be inhibited by pretreatment with general (naloxone) or specific (D-Pen-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 [CTOP] and naltrindole) opioid antagonists. Blood ethanol levels at conditioning were not altered by naloxone (Exp. 4b). The study outlines a procedure that reveals appetitive conditioning to ethanol by infant rats. The results are discussed in terms of a potential ethanol-induced activation of the endogenous opioid system during the onset of the intoxication process. PMID:19671461

  17. Selective suppression of Th2-mediated airway eosinophil infiltration by low-molecular weight CCR3 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Mori, Akio; Ogawa, Koji; Someya, Koichiro; Kunori, Yuichi; Nagakubo, Daisuke; Yoshie, Osamu; Kitamura, Fujiko; Hiroi, Takachika; Kaminuma, Osamu

    2007-08-01

    The effects of selective CC chemokine receptor (CCR)-3 antagonists on antigen-induced leukocyte accumulation in the lungs of mice adoptively transferred with in vitro-differentiated T(h)1 and T(h)2 were investigated. Inhalation of antigen by mice injected with T(h)1 and T(h)2 initiated the migration of T cells themselves into the lungs. Subsequently, neutrophils massively accumulated in T(h)1-transferred mice, whereas eosinophil infiltration was specifically induced by T(h)2. CCR3 antagonists, SB-297006 and/or SB-328437, suppressed antigen-induced accumulation of T(h)2 as well as eosinophils in the lungs, whereas they failed to affect T(h)1-mediated airway inflammation. Not only T(h)2 and eosinophil infiltration but also cellular mobilization in T(h)1-transferred mice was attenuated by an anti-CC chemokine ligand-11 antibody. CCR3 antagonists reduced chemokine production in the lungs of mice transferred with T(h)2 but not T(h)1, suggesting that down-regulation of chemokine synthesis is involved in the selective inhibition of T(h)2-mediated eosinophil infiltration by CCR3 antagonists.

  18. Adenosine A2B receptor blockade slows growth of bladder and breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Cekic, Caglar; Sag, Duygu; Li, Yuesheng; Theodorescu, Dan; Strieter, Robert M; Linden, Joel

    2012-01-01

    The accumulation of high levels of adenosine in tumors activates A(2A) and A(2B) receptors on immune cells and inhibits their ability to suppress tumor growth. Deletion of adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A)ARs) has been reported to activate antitumor T cells, stimulate dendritic cell (DC) function, and inhibit angiogenesis. In this study, we evaluated the effects of intermittent intratumor injection of a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist, aminophylline (AMO; theophylline ethylenediamine) and, for the first time to our knowledge, a selective A(2B)AR antagonist, ATL801. AMO and ATL801 slowed the growth of MB49 bladder and 4T1 breast tumors in syngeneic mice and reduced by 85% metastasizes of breast cancer cells from mammary fat to lung. Based on experiments with A(2A)AR(-/-) or adenosine A(2B) receptor(-/-) mice, the effect of AMO injection was unexpectedly attributed to A(2B)AR and not to A(2A)AR blockade. AMO and ATL801 significantly increased tumor levels of IFN-γ and the IFN-inducible chemokine CXCL10, which is a ligand for CXCR3. This was associated with an increase in activated tumor-infiltrating CXCR3(+) T cells and a decrease in endothelial cell precursors within tumors. Tumor growth inhibition by AMO or ATL801 was eliminated in CXCR3(-/-) mice and RAG1(-/-) mice that lack mature T cells. In RAG1(-/-) mice, A(2B)AR deletion enhanced CD86 expression on CD11b(-) DCs. Bone marrow chimera experiments demonstrated that CXCR3 and A(2B)AR expression on bone marrow cells is required for the antitumor effects of AMO. The data suggest that blockade of A(2B)ARs enhances DC activation and CXCR3-dependent antitumor responses.

  19. Tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist co-administration attenuates opioid withdrawal-mediated spinal microglia and astrocyte activation

    PubMed Central

    Tumati, Suneeta; Largent-Milnes, Tally M.; Keresztes, Attila I.; Yamamoto, Takashi; Vanderah, Todd W.; Roeske, William R.; Hruby, Victor J.; Varga, Eva V.

    2012-01-01

    Prolonged morphine treatment increases pain sensitivity in many patients. Enhanced spinal Substance P release is one of the adaptive changes associated with sustained opioid exposure. In addition to pain transmitting second order neurons, spinal microglia and astrocytes also express functionally active Tachykinin NK1 (Substance P) receptors. In the present work we investigated the role of glial Tachykinin NK1 receptors in morphine withdrawal-mediated spinal microglia and astrocyte activation. Our data indicate that intrathecal co-administration (6 days, twice daily) of a selective Tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist (N-acetyl-l-tryptophan 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzylester (L-732,138; 20 μg/injection) attenuates spinal microglia and astrocyte marker and pro-inflammatory mediator immunoreactivity as well as hyperalgesia in morphine-withdrawn rats. Furthermore, covalent linkage of the opioid agonist with a Tachykinin NK1 antagonist pharmacophor yielded a bivalent compound that did not augment spinal microglia or astrocyte marker or pro-inflammatory mediator immunoreactivity and did not cause paradoxical pain sensitization upon drug withdrawal. Thus, bivalent opioid/Tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonists may provide a novel paradigm for long-term pain management. PMID:22724132

  20. Tachykinin NK₁ receptor antagonist co-administration attenuates opioid withdrawal-mediated spinal microglia and astrocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Tumati, Suneeta; Largent-Milnes, Tally M; Keresztes, Attila I; Yamamoto, Takashi; Vanderah, Todd W; Roeske, William R; Hruby, Victor J; Varga, Eva V

    2012-06-05

    Prolonged morphine treatment increases pain sensitivity in many patients. Enhanced spinal Substance P release is one of the adaptive changes associated with sustained opioid exposure. In addition to pain transmitting second order neurons, spinal microglia and astrocytes also express functionally active Tachykinin NK₁ (Substance P) receptors. In the present work we investigated the role of glial Tachykinin NK₁ receptors in morphine withdrawal-mediated spinal microglia and astrocyte activation. Our data indicate that intrathecal co-administration (6 days, twice daily) of a selective Tachykinin NK₁ receptor antagonist (N-acetyl-L-tryptophan 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzylester (L-732,138; 20 μg/injection)) attenuates spinal microglia and astrocyte marker and pro-inflammatory mediator immunoreactivity as well as hyperalgesia in withdrawn rats. Furthermore, covalent linkage of the opioid agonist with a Tachykinin NK₁ antagonist pharmacophore yielded a bivalent compound that did not augment spinal microglia or astrocyte marker or pro-inflammatory mediator immunoreactivity and did not cause paradoxical pain sensitization upon drug withdrawal. Thus, bivalent opioid/Tachykinin NK₁ receptor antagonists may provide a novel paradigm for long-term pain management.

  1. Antagonistic Rgg regulators mediate quorum sensing via competitive DNA binding in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Lasarre, Breah; Aggarwal, Chaitanya; Federle, Michael J

    2013-01-02

    Recent studies have established the fact that multiple members of the Rgg family of transcriptional regulators serve as key components of quorum sensing (QS) pathways that utilize peptides as intercellular signaling molecules. We previously described a novel QS system in Streptococcus pyogenes which utilizes two Rgg-family regulators (Rgg2 and Rgg3) that respond to neighboring signaling peptides (SHP2 and SHP3) to control gene expression and biofilm formation. We have shown that Rgg2 is a transcriptional activator of target genes, whereas Rgg3 represses expression of these genes, and that SHPs function to activate the QS system. The mechanisms by which Rgg proteins regulate both QS-dependent and QS-independent processes remain poorly defined; thus, we sought to further elucidate how Rgg2 and Rgg3 mediate gene regulation. Here we provide evidence that S. pyogenes employs a unique mechanism of direct competition between the antagonistic, peptide-responsive proteins Rgg2 and Rgg3 for binding at target promoters. The highly conserved, shared binding sites for Rgg2 and Rgg3 are located proximal to the -35 nucleotide in the target promoters, and the direct competition between the two regulators results in concentration-dependent, exclusive occupation of the target promoters that can be skewed in favor of Rgg2 in vitro by the presence of SHP. These results suggest that exclusionary binding of target promoters by Rgg3 may prevent Rgg2 binding under SHP-limiting conditions, thereby preventing premature induction of the quorum sensing circuit. Rgg-family transcriptional regulators are widespread among low-G+C Gram-positive bacteria and in many cases contribute to bacterial physiology and virulence. Only recently was it discovered that several Rgg proteins function in cell-to-cell communication (quorum sensing [QS]) via direct interaction with signaling peptides. The mechanism(s) by which Rgg proteins mediate regulation is poorly understood, and further insight into Rgg

  2. Leishmania amazonensis impairs DC function by inhibiting CD40 expression via A2B adenosine receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Amanda B; Serafim, Tiago D; Marques-da-Silva, Eduardo A; Meyer-Fernandes, José R; Afonso, Luís C C

    2012-05-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play an essential role in the modulation of immune responses and several studies have evaluated the interactions between Leishmania parasites and DCs. While extracellular ATP exhibits proinflammatory properties, adenosine is an important anti-inflammatory mediator. Here we investigated the effects of Leishmania infection on DC responses and the participation of purinergic signalling in this process. Bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) from C57BL/6J mice infected with Leishmania amazonensis, Leishmania braziliensis or Leishmania major metacyclic promastigotes showed decreased major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II and CD86 expression and increased ectonucleotidase expression as compared with uninfected cells. In addition, L. amazonensis-infected DCs, which had lower CD40 expression, exhibited a decreased ability to induce T-cell proliferation. The presence of MRS1754, a highly selective A(2B) adenosine receptor antagonist at the time of infection increased MHC class II, CD86 and CD40 expression in L. amazonensis-infected DCs and restored the ability of the infected DCs to induce T-cell proliferation. Similar results were obtained through the inhibition of extracellular ATP hydrolysis using suramin. In conclusion, we propose that A(2B) receptor activation may be used by L. amazonensis to inhibit DC function and evade the immune response. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Involvement of 5-HT(2A/2B/2C) receptors on memory formation: simple agonism, antagonism, or inverse agonism?

    PubMed

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2002-12-01

    1. The 5-HT2 receptors subdivision into the 5-HT(2A/2B/2C) subtypes along with the advent of the selective antagonists has allowed a more detailed investigation on the role and therapeutic significance of these subtypes in cognitive functions. The present study further analyzed the 5-HT2 receptors role on memory consolidation. 2. The SB-200646 (a selective 5-HT(2B/2C) receptor antagonist) and LY215840 (a nonselective 5-HT(2/7) receptor antagonist) posttraining administration had no effect on an autoshaped memory consolidation. However, both drugs significantly and differentially antagonized the memory impairments induced by 1-(3-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP), 1-naphtyl-piperazine (1-NP), mesulergine, or N-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl) piperazine (TFMPP). 3. In contrast, SB-200646 failed to modify the facilitatory procognitive effect produced by (+/-)-2.5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) or ketanserin, which were sensitive to MDL100907 (a selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist) and to a LY215840 high dose. 4. Finally, SB-200646 reversed the learning deficit induced by dizocilpine, but not that by scopolamine: while SB-200646 and MDL100907 coadministration reversed memory deficits induced by both drugs. 5. It is suggested that 5-HT(2B/2C) receptors might be involved on memory formation probably mediating a suppressive or constraining action. Whether the drug-induced memory impairments in this study are explained by simple agonism, antagonism, or inverse agonism at 5-HT2 receptors remains unclear at this time. 6. Notably, the 5-HT2 receptor subtypes blockade may provide some benefit to reverse poor memory consolidation conditions associated with decreasedcholinergic, glutamatergic, and/or serotonergic neurotransmission.

  4. Probing biased/partial agonism at the G protein-coupled A(2B) adenosine receptor.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhan-Guo; Balasubramanian, Ramachandran; Kiselev, Evgeny; Wei, Qiang; Jacobson, Kenneth A

    2014-08-01

    G protein-coupled A(2B) adenosine receptor (AR) regulates numerous important physiological functions, but its activation by diverse A(2B)AR agonists is poorly profiled. We probed potential partial and/or biased agonism in cell lines expressing variable levels of endogenous or recombinant A(2B)AR. In cAMP accumulation assays, both 5'-substituted NECA and C2-substituted MRS3997 are full agonists. However, only 5'-substituted adenosine analogs are full agonists in calcium mobilization, ERK1/2 phosphorylation and β-arrestin translocation. A(2B)AR overexpression in HEK293 cells markedly increased the agonist potency and maximum effect in cAMP accumulation, but less in calcium and ERK1/2. A(2B)AR siRNA silencing was more effective in reducing the maximum cAMP effect of non-nucleoside agonist BAY60-6583 than NECA's. A quantitative 'operational model' characterized C2-substituted MRS3997 as either balanced (cAMP accumulation, ERK1/2) or strongly biased agonist (against calcium, β-arrestin). N⁶-substitution biased against ERK1/2 (weakly) and calcium and β-arrestin (strongly) pathways. BAY60-6583 is ERK1/2-biased, suggesting a mechanism distinct from adenosine derivatives. BAY60-6583, as A(2B)AR antagonist in MIN-6 mouse pancreatic β cells expressing low A(2B)AR levels, induced insulin release. This is the first relatively systematic study of structure-efficacy relationships of this emerging drug target. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. The impact of adenosine and A(2B) receptors on glucose homoeostasis.

    PubMed

    Rüsing, D; Müller, C E; Verspohl, E J

    2006-12-01

    Adenosine and adenosine receptor antagonists are involved in glucose homoeostasis. The participating receptors are not known, mainly due to a lack of specific agonists and antagonists, but are reasonable targets for anti-diabetic therapy. The stable, albeit nonselective, adenosine analogue NECA (5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine) (10 microM) reduced glucose-stimulated insulin release from INS-1 cells. This was mimicked by A(1)-(CHA), A(2A)-(CGS-21680) and A(3)-receptor agonists (Cl-IB-MECA). Two newly synthesized A(2B)-receptor antagonists, PSB-53 and PSB-1115, counteracted the inhibitory effect of NECA. These in-vitro effects were mirrored by in-vivo data with respect to CHA, CGS and Cl-IB-MECA. Distinct concentrations of either PSB-53 or PSB-1115 reversed the decrease in plasma insulin induced by NECA. This was not mimicked by a corresponding change in blood glucose. The effect of PSB-1115 was also obvious in diabetic GotoKakizaki rats: plasma insulin was increased whereas blood glucose was unchanged. During most experiments the effects on blood glucose were not impressive probably because of the physiologically necessary homoeostasis. The adenosine levels were not different in normal Wistar rats and in diabetic GotoKakzaki rats. Altogether the A(2B)-receptor antagonists showed an anti-diabetic potential mainly by increasing plasma insulin levels under conditions when the adenosine tonus was elevated in-vivo and increased insulin release in-vitro.

  6. The antiemetic 5-HT3 receptor antagonist Palonosetron inhibits substance P-mediated responses in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Camilo; Li, Ying; Zhang, Jie; Stathis, Marigo; Alt, Jesse; Thomas, Ajit G; Cantoreggi, Sergio; Sebastiani, Silvia; Pietra, Claudio; Slusher, Barbara S

    2010-11-01

    Palonosetron is the only 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist approved for the treatment of delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in moderately emetogenic chemotherapy. Accumulating evidence suggests that substance P (SP), the endogenous ligand acting preferentially on neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptors, not serotonin (5-HT), is the dominant mediator of delayed emesis. However, palonosetron does not bind to the NK-1 receptor. Recent data have revealed cross-talk between the NK-1 and 5HT(3) receptor signaling pathways; we postulated that if palonosetron differentially inhibited NK-1/5-HT(3) cross-talk, it could help explain its efficacy profile in delayed emesis. Consequently, we evaluated the effect of palonosetron, granisetron, and ondansetron on SP-induced responses in vitro and in vivo. NG108-15 cells were preincubated with palonosetron, granisetron, or ondansetron; antagonists were removed and the effect on serotonin enhancement of SP-induced calcium release was measured. In the absence of antagonist, serotonin enhanced SP-induced calcium-ion release. After preincubation with palonosetron, but not ondansetron or granisetron, the serotonin enhancement of the SP response was inhibited. Rats were treated with cisplatin and either palonosetron, granisetron, or ondansetron. At various times after dosing, single neuronal recordings from nodose ganglia were collected after stimulation with SP; nodose ganglia neuronal responses to SP were enhanced when the animals were pretreated with cisplatin. Palonosetron, but not ondansetron or granisetron, dose-dependently inhibited the cisplatin-induced SP enhancement. The results are consistent with previous data showing that palonosetron exhibits distinct pharmacology versus the older 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists and provide a rationale for the efficacy observed with palonosetron in delayed CINV in the clinic.

  7. Brain regions mediating alpha3beta4 nicotinic antagonist effects of 18-MC on methamphetamine and sucrose self-administration.

    PubMed

    Glick, Stanley D; Sell, Elizabeth M; Maisonneuve, Isabelle M

    2008-12-03

    The novel iboga alkaloid congener 18-methoxycoronaridine (18-MC) is a putative anti-addictive agent that has been shown, in rats, to decrease the self-administration of several drugs of abuse. Previous work has established that 18-MC is a potent antagonist at alpha3beta4 nicotinic receptors. Because high densities of alpha3beta4 nicotinic receptors occur in the medial habenula and the interpeduncular nucleus and moderate densities occur in the dorsolateral tegmentum, ventral tegmental area, and basolateral amygdala, the present study was conducted to determine if 18-MC could act in these brain areas to modulate methamphetamine self-administration in rats. Local administration of 18-MC into either the medial habenula, the interpeduncular area or the basolateral amygdala decreased methamphetamine self-administration. Similar results were produced by local administration into the same brain areas of two other alpha3beta4 nicotinic antagonists, mecamylamine and alpha-conotoxin AuIB. Local administration of 18-MC, or the other antagonists, into the dorsolateral tegmentum or the ventral tegmental area had no effect on methamphetamine self-administration. In contrast, local administration of 18-MC and the other antagonists decreased sucrose self-administration when administered into the dorsolateral tegmentum or basolateral amygdala but had no effect when infused into the medial habenula, interpeduncular nucleus, or ventral tegmental area. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that 18-MC decreases methamphetamine self-administration by indirectly modulating the dopaminergic mesolimbic pathway via blockade of alpha3beta4 nicotinic receptors in the habenulo-interpeduncular pathway and the basolateral amygdala. The data also suggest that the basolateral amygdala along with a different pathway involving alpha3beta4 receptors in the dorsolateral tegmentum mediate the effect of 18-MC on sucrose self-administration.

  8. Inhibitory effects of calcium antagonists on alpha-adrenoceptor-mediated contraction in the human internal mammary artery.

    PubMed Central

    He, G W; Acuff, T E; Ryan, W H; Yang, C Q; Douthit, M B; Bowman, R T; Mack, M J

    1994-01-01

    1. The internal mammary artery has become a preferred coronary bypass graft. Sympathomimetic amines are spasmogens for vasospasm and calcium antagonists are frequently administered drugs perioperatively. The effect of calcium antagonists on alpha-adrenoceptor-mediated contraction depends on the subtype of alpha-adrenoceptor and the type of origin of vascular smooth muscle. This study was designed to investigate the effect of calcium antagonists on alpha-adrenoceptor-mediated contraction in the IMA. 2. Human IMA segments taken from 22 patients undergoing IMA--coronary artery bypass grafting were mounted in an organ bath under the physiological pressure determined from their own length-tension curves. 3. Three ring segments were allocated into three groups. One served as a control and the others were treated with clinically related concentrations of nifedipine (20 or 200 nM) for 25 min before concentration-contraction curves to alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonist methoxamine (MO) or full alpha-adrenoceptor agonist noradrenaline (NA) were established. 4. In separate experiments, the concentration-relaxation curves to nifedipine were established in the IMA rings precontracted with MO (30 microM) or NA (10 microM). Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN, 3 microM) was added to further relax the vessels. 5. Pretreatment with nifedipine (200 nM) only slightly inhibited the MO- (1.74 +/- 0.32 vs 2.88 +/- 0.56 g) or NA- (2.43 +/- 0.66 vs 3.60 +/- 0.82 g) induced contraction without statistical significance (P > 0.05). 6. On the other hand, nifedipine only caused 34.49% relaxation in the MO-precontracted and 24.39% relaxation in the NA-precontracted IMAs. In contrast, GTN caused 76.16% (against MO, P < 0.05) or 92.22% (against NA, P < 0.0001) relaxation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7910471

  9. Synergistic Antiproliferative Effects of Combined γ -Tocotrienol and PPAR γ Antagonist Treatment Are Mediated through PPAR γ -Independent Mechanisms in Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Malaviya, Abhita; Sylvester, Paul W

    2014-01-01

    Previous findings showed that the anticancer effects of combined γ -tocotrienol and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPAR γ ) antagonist treatment caused a large reduction in PPAR γ expression. However, other studies suggest that the antiproliferative effects of γ -tocotrienol and/or PPAR γ antagonists are mediated, at least in part, through PPAR γ -independent mechanism(s). Studies were conducted to characterize the role of PPAR γ in mediating the effects of combined treatment of γ -tocotrienol with PPAR γ agonists or antagonists on the growth of PPAR γ negative +SA mammary cells and PPAR γ -positive and PPAR γ -silenced MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Combined treatment of γ -tocotrienol with PPAR γ antagonist decreased, while combined treatment of γ -tocotrienol with PPAR γ agonist increased, growth of all cancer cells. However, treatment with high doses of 15d-PGJ2, an endogenous natural ligand for PPAR γ , had no effect on cancer cell growth. Western blot and qRT-PCR studies showed that the growth inhibitory effects of combined γ -tocotrienol and PPAR γ antagonist treatment decreased cyclooxygenase (COX-2), prostaglandin synthase (PGDS), and prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) synthesis. In conclusion, the anticancer effects of combined γ -tocotrienol and PPAR γ antagonists treatment in PPAR γ negative/silenced breast cancer cells are mediated through PPAR γ -independent mechanisms that are associated with a downregulation in COX-2, PGDS, and PGD2 synthesis.

  10. Impairment of opiate-mediated behaviors by the selective TRPV1 antagonist SB366791.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shi-Xun; Kwon, Seung-Hwan; Seo, Jee-Yeon; Hwang, Ji-Young; Hong, Sa-Ik; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Lee, Seok-Yong; Jang, Choon-Gon

    2016-10-11

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), the archetypal member of the vanilloid TRP family, was initially identified as the receptor for capsaicin, the pungent ingredient in hot chili peppers. We previously demonstrated that TRPV1 in the dorsal striatum significantly contributes to morphine reward by using the conditioned place preference paradigm in mice; however, it is unknown whether TRPV1 has the same effect in other reward models. In this study, we investigated the role of TRPV1 in morphine reward by using a self-administration paradigm in rats. We found that treatment with a selective TRPV1 antagonist, SB366791, significantly decreased morphine self-administration on a fixed-ratio 1 schedule or a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. In addition, treatment with another selective TRPV1 antagonist, AMG9810, not only significantly prevented morphine self-administration but also prevented morphine-induced c-fos expression in the nucleus accumbens. Furthermore, administration of SB366791 decreased an anxiolytic-like effect during the morphine abstinence period. Moreover, treatment with SB366791 significantly decreased morphine-priming reinstatement. Taken together, our findings suggest that blockade of TRPV1 receptors could provide an approach to limiting morphine addiction.

  11. In silico modelling of prostacyclin and other lipid mediators to nuclear receptors reveal novel thyroid hormone receptor antagonist properties.

    PubMed

    Perez Diaz, Noelia; Zloh, Mire; Patel, Pryank; Mackenzie, Louise S

    2016-01-01

    Prostacyclin (PGI2) is a key mediator involved in cardiovascular homeostasis, acting predominantly on two receptor types; cell surface IP receptor and cytosolic peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) β/δ. Having a very short half-life, direct methods to determine its long term effects on cells is difficult, and little is known of its interactions with nuclear receptors. Here we used computational chemistry methods to investigate the potential for PGI2, beraprost (IP receptor agonist), and GW0742 (PPARβ/δ agonist), to bind to nuclear receptors, confirmed with pharmacological methods. In silico screening predicted that PGI2, beraprost, and GW0742 have the potential to bind to different nuclear receptors, in particular thyroid hormone β receptor (TRβ) and thyroid hormone α receptor (TRα). Docking analysis predicts a binding profile to residues thought to have allosteric control on the TR ligand binding site. Luciferase reporter assays confirmed that beraprost and GW0742 display TRβ and TRα antagonistic properties; beraprost IC50 6.3 × 10(-5)mol/L and GW0742 IC50 4.9 × 10(-6) mol/L. Changes to triiodothyronine (T3) induced vasodilation of rat mesenteric arteries measured on the wire myograph were measured in the presence of the TR antagonist MLS000389544 (10(-5) mol/L), beraprost (10(-5) mol/L) and GW0742 (10(-5) mol/L); all significantly inhibited T3 induced vasodilation compared to controls. We have shown that both beraprost and GW0742 exhibit TRβ and TRα antagonist behaviour, and suggests that PGI2 has the ability to affect the long term function of cells through binding to and inactivating thyroid hormone receptors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Regulation of Retinoid-Mediated Signaling Involved in Skin Homeostasis by RAR and RXR Agonists/Antagonists in Mouse Skin

    PubMed Central

    Gericke, Janine; Ittensohn, Jan; Mihály, Johanna; Álvarez, Susana; Álvarez, Rosana; Töröcsik, Dániel; de Lera, Ángel R.; Rühl, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Endogenous retinoids like all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) play important roles in skin homeostasis and skin-based immune responses. Moreover, retinoid signaling was found to be dysregulated in various skin diseases. The present study used topical application of selective agonists and antagonists for retinoic acid receptors (RARs) α and γ and retinoid-X receptors (RXRs) for two weeks on mouse skin in order to determine the role of retinoid receptor subtypes in the gene regulation in skin. We observed pronounced epidermal hyperproliferation upon application of ATRA and synthetic agonists for RARγ and RXR. ATRA and the RARγ agonist further increased retinoid target gene expression (Rbp1, Crabp2, Krt4, Cyp26a1, Cyp26b1) and the chemokines Ccl17 and Ccl22. In contrast, a RARα agonist strongly decreased the expression of ATRA-synthesis enzymes, of retinoid target genes, markers of skin homeostasis, and various cytokines in the skin, thereby markedly resembling the expression profile induced by RXR and RAR antagonists. Our results indicate that RARα and RARγ subtypes possess different roles in the skin and may be of relevance for the auto-regulation of endogenous retinoid signaling in skin. We suggest that dysregulated retinoid signaling in the skin mediated by RXR, RARα and/or RARγ may promote skin-based inflammation and dysregulation of skin barrier properties. PMID:23638129

  13. A Visible Light-Mediated Radical Smiles Rearrangement and its Application to the Synthesis of a Difluorospirocyclic ORL-1 Antagonist**

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, James J.; Albright, Haley; Sevrin, Martin J.; Cole, Kevin P.; Stephenson, Corey R. J.

    2016-01-01

    A visible light-mediated radical Smiles rearrangement has been developed to address the challenging synthesis of a gem-difluoro group present in an opioid receptor-like 1 (ORL-1) antagonist currently in development. This method led to the direct and efficient introduction of the difluoroethanol motif into a range of aryl- and heteroaryl systems, representing a new disconnection for the synthesis of this versatile functionality. When applied to the target compound, the photochemical step was demonstrated on 15 g scale using industrially relevant catalyst loadings of Ru(bpy)3Cl2 (0.01 mol%). This transformation allowed an overall five-step route that compares favourably to the current synthetic sequence and demonstrates, in this specific case, a clear strategic benefit of photocatalysis. PMID:26474077

  14. Novel Indications for Benzodiazepine Antagonist Flumazenil in GABA Mediated Pathological Conditions of the Central Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Hulse, Gary; Kelty, Erin; Hood, Sean; Norman, Amanda; Basso, Maria Rita; Reece, Albert Stuart

    2015-01-01

    This review paper discusses the central role of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in diverse physiological systems and functions and the therapeutic potential of the benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil (Ro 15- 1788) for a wide range of disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). Our group and others have studied the potential of flumazenil as a treatment for benzodiazepine dependence. A small but growing body of research has indicated that flumazenil may also have clinical application in CNS disorders such as Parkinson's disease, idiopathic hypersomnia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Despite this body of research the therapeutic potential of flumazenil remains poorly understood and largely unrealized. The purpose of this paper is not to provide an exhaustive review of all possible therapeutic applications for flumazenil but rather to stimulate research interest, and discussion of the exciting therapeutic potential of this drug for a range of chronic debilitating conditions.

  15. Proteolytic enzyme mediated antagonistic potential of Pseudomonas aeruginosa against Macrophomina phaseolina.

    PubMed

    Illakkiam, Devaraj; Anuj, Nishanth Lipton; Ponraj, Paramasivan; Shankar, Manoharan; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy

    2013-11-01

    A new antagonistic bacterial strain PGPR2 was isolated from the mungbean rhizosphere and documented for the production of hydrolytic enzymes with antifungal activity. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence and phenotyping, this strain was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Maximum protease activity (235 U/mL) was obtained at 24 h of fermentation. The protease was purified to homogeneity in three steps: ammonium sulphate precipitation, anion exchange chromatography on DEAE- cellulose resin and gel filtration chromatography using P6 column. The purified enzyme had a molecular weight of -33 kDa. The purified protease exhibited maximum activity at pH 6.0 and retained 80% of activity in a pH range of 5.0 - 9.0. Proteolytic activity was maximum in a temperature range of 40-70 degrees C. However, the enzyme was stable at 40 degrees C for 60 min. Among the metals tested, Mg2+ enhanced the protease activity. Internal amino acid sequence of the protease obtained by MALDI -ToF and subsequent Mascot database search showed maximum similarity to the HtpX protease of P. aeruginosa strain PA7. Thus, by virtue of its early production time, thermostability and effective antifungal ability, the protease purified and characterized from P. aeruginosa PGPR2 has several potential applications as fungicidal agents in agriculture.

  16. Human monocytes respond to extracellular cAMP through A2A and A2B adenosine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Sciaraffia, Ester; Riccomi, Antonella; Lindstedt, Ragnar; Gesa, Valentina; Cirelli, Elisa; Patrizio, Mario; De Magistris, Maria Teresa; Vendetti, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we test the hypothesis that cAMP, acting as an extracellular mediator, affects the physiology and function of human myeloid cells. The cAMP is a second messenger recognized as a universal regulator of several cellular functions in different organisms. Many studies have shown that extracellular cAMP exerts regulatory functions, acting as first mediator in multiple tissues. However, the impact of extracellular cAMP on cells of the immune system has not been fully investigated. We found that human monocytes exposed to extracellular cAMP exhibit higher expression of CD14 and lower amount of MHC class I and class II molecules. When cAMP-treated monocytes are exposed to proinflammatory stimuli, they exhibit an increased production of IL-6 and IL-10 and a lower amount of TNF-α and IL-12 compared with control cells, resembling the features of the alternative-activated macrophages or M2 macrophages. In addition, we show that extracellular cAMP affects monocyte differentiation into DCs, promoting the induction of cells displaying an activated, macrophage-like phenotype with reduced capacity of polarized, naive CD4+ T cells into IFN-γ-producing lymphocytes compared with control cells. The effects of extracellular cAMP on monocytes are mediated by CD73 ecto-5′-nucleotidase and A2A and A2B adenosine receptors, as selective antagonists could reverse its effects. Of note, the expression of CD73 molecules has been found on the membrane of a small population of CD14+CD16+ monocytes. These findings suggest that an extracellular cAMP-adenosine pathway is active in cells of the immune systems. PMID:24652540

  17. Repeated dosing of ABT-102, a potent and selective TRPV1 antagonist, enhances TRPV1-mediated analgesic activity in rodents, but attenuates antagonist-induced hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Honore, Prisca; Chandran, Prasant; Hernandez, Gricelda; Gauvin, Donna M; Mikusa, Joseph P; Zhong, Chengmin; Joshi, Shailen K; Ghilardi, Joseph R; Sevcik, Molly A; Fryer, Ryan M; Segreti, Jason A; Banfor, Patricia N; Marsh, Kennan; Neelands, Torben; Bayburt, Erol; Daanen, Jerome F; Gomtsyan, Arthur; Lee, Chih-Hung; Kort, Michael E; Reilly, Regina M; Surowy, Carol S; Kym, Philip R; Mantyh, Patrick W; Sullivan, James P; Jarvis, Michael F; Faltynek, Connie R

    2009-03-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) is a ligand-gated ion channel that functions as an integrator of multiple pain stimuli including heat, acid, capsaicin and a variety of putative endogenous lipid ligands. TRPV1 antagonists have been shown to decrease inflammatory pain in animal models and to produce limited hyperthermia at analgesic doses. Here, we report that ABT-102, which is a potent and selective TRPV1 antagonist, is effective in blocking nociception in rodent models of inflammatory, post-operative, osteoarthritic, and bone cancer pain. ABT-102 decreased both spontaneous pain behaviors and those evoked by thermal and mechanical stimuli in these models. Moreover, we have found that repeated administration of ABT-102 for 5-12 days increased its analgesic activity in models of post-operative, osteoarthritic, and bone cancer pain without an associated accumulation of ABT-102 concentration in plasma or brain. Similar effects were also observed with a structurally distinct TRPV1 antagonist, A-993610. Although a single dose of ABT-102 produced a self-limiting increase in core body temperature that remained in the normal range, the hyperthermic effects of ABT-102 effectively tolerated following twice-daily dosing for 2 days. Therefore, the present data demonstrate that, following repeated administration, the analgesic activity of TRPV1 receptor antagonists is enhanced, while the associated hyperthermic effects are attenuated. The analgesic efficacy of ABT-102 supports its advancement into clinical studies.

  18. Farnesyl pyrophosphate is an endogenous antagonist to ADP-stimulated P2Y12 receptor-mediated platelet aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Högberg, Carl; Gidlöf, Olof; Deflorian, Francesca; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Abdelrahman, Aliaa; Miüller, Christa E.; Olde, Björn; Erlinge, David

    2012-01-01

    Summary Farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) is an intermediate in cholesterol biosynthesis, and it has also been reported to activate platelet LPA (lysophosphatidic acid) receptors. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of extracellular FPP in platelet aggregation. Human platelets were studied with light transmission aggregometry, flow cytometry and [35S]GTPγS binding assays. As shown previously, FPP could potentiate LPA-stimulated shape change. Surprisingly, FPP also acted as a selective insurmountable antagonist to ADP-induced platelet aggregation. FPP inhibited ADP-induced expression of P-selectin and the activated glycoprotein (Gp)llb/llla receptor. FPP blocked ADP-induced inhibition of cAMP accumulation and [35S]GTPγS binding in platelets. In Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the P2Y12 receptor, FPP caused a right-ward shift of the [35S]GTPγS binding curve. In Sf9 insect cells expressing the human P2Y12 receptor, FPP showed a concentration-dependent, although incomplete inhibition of [3H]PSB-0413 binding. Docking of FPP in a P2Y12 receptor model revealed molecular similarities with ADP and a good fit into the binding pocket for ADP. In conclusion, FPP is an insurmountable antagonist of ADP-induced platelet aggregation mediated by the P2Y12 receptor. It could be an endogenous antithrombotic factor modulating the strong platelet aggregatory effects of ADP in a manner similar to the use of clopidogrel, prasugrel or ticagrelor in the treatment of ischaemic heart disease. PMID:22628078

  19. Farnesyl pyrophosphate is an endogenous antagonist to ADP-stimulated P2Y₁₂ receptor-mediated platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Högberg, Carl; Gidlöf, Olof; Deflorian, Francesca; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Abdelrahman, Aliaa; Müller, Christa E; Olde, Björn; Erlinge, David

    2012-07-01

    Farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) is an intermediate in cholesterol biosynthesis, and it has also been reported to activate platelet LPA (lysophosphatidic acid) receptors. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of extracellular FPP in platelet aggregation. Human platelets were studied with light transmission aggregometry, flow cytometry and [³⁵S]GTPγS binding assays. As shown previously, FPP could potentiate LPA-stimulated shape change. Surprisingly, FPP also acted as a selective insurmountable antagonist to ADP-induced platelet aggregation. FPP inhibited ADP-induced expression of P-selectin and the activated glycoprotein (Gp)IIb/IIIa receptor. FPP blocked ADP-induced inhibition of cAMP accumulation and [³⁵S]GTPγS binding in platelets. In Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the P2Y₁₂ receptor, FPP caused a rightward shift of the [³⁵S]GTPγS binding curve. In Sf9 insect cells expressing the human P2Y₁₂ receptor, FPP showed a concentration-dependent, although incomplete inhibition of [³H]PSB-0413 binding. Docking of FPP in a P2Y₁₂ receptor model revealed molecular similarities with ADP and a good fit into the binding pocket for ADP. In conclusion, FPP is an insurmountable antagonist of ADP-induced platelet aggregation mediated by the P2Y₁₂ receptor. It could be an endogenous antithrombotic factor modulating the strong platelet aggregatory effects of ADP in a manner similar to the use of clopidogrel, prasugrel or ticagrelor in the treatment of ischaemic heart disease.

  20. Differential Effects of Oxytocin Receptor Antagonists, Atosiban and Nolasiban, on Oxytocin Receptor–Mediated Signaling in Human Amnion and Myometrium

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Hye; Pohl, Oliver; Chollet, Andre; Gotteland, Jean-Pierre; Fairhurst, Adam D. J.; Bennett, Phillip R.

    2017-01-01

    One of the most established roles of oxytocin (OT) is in inducing uterine contractions and labor. Apart from inducing contractions, our recent studies showed that OT can also activate proinflammatory pathways in both human myometrial and amnion cells, which suggests that the proinflammatory role of OT should be taken into account when developing tocolytics targeting the OT/oxytocin receptor (OTR) system. The OTR antagonist, atosiban, is currently used therapeutically for the treatment of preterm labor. We previously showed that atosiban fails to inhibit the proinflammatory effects of OT in human amnion; atosiban alone activates nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen activated protein kinases, thus upregulating downstream prolabor genes. In contrast with our findings with atosiban, the presence of the orally active OTR antagonist, nolasiban, reduced the effect of OT on NF-κB and p38 kinase activation in both myometrial and amnion cells. Consistent with the activation of these inflammatory mediators, OT led to increases in the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and phosphorylated cytosolic phospholipase A2, which was reflected in prostaglandin E2 synthesis. Inhibition of NF-κB activation by nolasiban also translated to suppression of downstream prolabor gene expression, such as cyclooxygenase-2, C-C motif chemokine ligand 2, interleukin-6, and interleukin-8. We also demonstrated that nolasiban treatment alone has no significant stimulatory effect on both the myometrium and amnion. In conclusion, our findings indicate that nolasiban possesses promising potential as a novel tocolytic agent for both acute and maintenance therapy, as it inhibits both myometrial contractions and the proinflammatory effects of OT without the biased agonist effects. PMID:28188254

  1. Effects of 12 Ca2+ antagonists on multidrug resistance, MDR1-mediated transport and MDR1 mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Takara, Kohji; Sakaeda, Toshiyuki; Tanigawara, Yusuke; Nishiguchi, Kohshi; Ohmoto, Nobuko; Horinouchi, Masanori; Komada, Fusao; Ohnishi, Noriaki; Yokoyama, Teruyoshi; Okumura, Katsuhiko

    2002-08-01

    The effects of 12 Ca(2+) antagonists on MDR1 were examined by two independent models: the inhibitory effect on MDR1-mediated transport of [(3)H]digoxin using MDR1-overexpressing LLC-GA5-COL150 cell monolayers and the reversal effect on cytotoxicity of vinblastine or paclitaxel using MDR1-overexpressing Hvr100-6 cells. The inhibitory effects on [(3)H]digoxin transport were assessed as the 50% inhibitory concentration during 4 h exposure, and the values were the lowest for nicardipine (4.54 microM), manidipine (4.65 microM) and benidipine (4.96 microM), followed by bepridil (10.6 microM), barnidipine (12.6 microM), efonidipine (13.0 microM), verapamil (13.2 microM) and nilvadipine (18.0 microM). The reversal effect on cytotoxicity was assessed by the 50% growth inhibitory concentration after 3 days exposure, and the resistance to vinblastine or paclitaxel in Hvr100-6 cells was reversed by manidipine, verapamil, benidipine, barnidipine, and nicardipine, in that order. Bepridil, barnidipine, efonidipine, verapamil and nilvadipine showed similar inhibitory effects on [(3)H]digoxin transport, but barnidipine and verapamil showed a stronger effect in reversal of cytotoxicity. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR assay indicated a decrease in MDR1 mRNA expression by barnidipine and verapamil. It is concluded that Ca(2+) antagonists cannot only be direct inhibitors of MDR1 but that some may at the same time act as inhibitors of expression of MDR1 via down-regulation of MDR1 mRNA.

  2. PGE2 receptor EP2 mediates the antagonistic effect of COX-2 on TGF-beta signaling during mammary tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Maozhen; Schiemann, William P

    2010-04-01

    The molecular mechanisms that enable cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and its mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) to inhibit transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling during mammary tumorigenesis remain unknown. We show here that TGF-beta selectively stimulated the expression of the PGE2 receptor EP2, which increased normal and malignant mammary epithelial cell (MEC) invasion, anchorage-independent growth, and resistance to TGF-beta-induced cytostasis. Mechanistically, elevated EP2 expression in normal MECs inhibited the coupling of TGF-beta to Smad2/3 activation and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI1) expression, while EP2 deficiency in these same MECs augmented Smad2/3 activation and PAI expression stimulated by TGF-beta. Along these lines, engineering malignant MECs to lack EP2 expression prevented their growth in soft agar, restored their cytostatic response to TGF-beta, decreased their invasiveness in response to TGF-beta, and potentiated their activation of Smad2/3 and expression of PAI stimulated by TGF-beta. More important, we show that COX-2 or EP2 deficiency both significantly decreased the growth, angiogenesis, and pulmonary metastasis of mammary tumors produced in mice. Collectively, this investigation establishes EP2 as a potent mediator of the anti-TGF-beta activities elicited by COX-2/PGE2 in normal and malignant MECs. Our findings also suggest that pharmacological targeting of EP2 receptors may provide new inroads to antagonize the oncogenic activities of TGF-beta during mammary tumorigenesis.-Tian, M., Schiemann, W. P. PGE2 receptor EP2 mediates the antagonistic effect of COX-2 on TGF-beta signaling during mammary tumorigenesis.

  3. PGE2 receptor EP2 mediates the antagonistic effect of COX-2 on TGF-β signaling during mammary tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Maozhen; Schiemann, William P.

    2010-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms that enable cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and its mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) to inhibit transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling during mammary tumorigenesis remain unknown. We show here that TGF-β selectively stimulated the expression of the PGE2 receptor EP2, which increased normal and malignant mammary epithelial cell (MEC) invasion, anchorage-independent growth, and resistance to TGF-β-induced cytostasis. Mechanistically, elevated EP2 expression in normal MECs inhibited the coupling of TGF-β to Smad2/3 activation and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI1) expression, while EP2 deficiency in these same MECs augmented Smad2/3 activation and PAI expression stimulated by TGF-β. Along these lines, engineering malignant MECs to lack EP2 expression prevented their growth in soft agar, restored their cytostatic response to TGF-β, decreased their invasiveness in response to TGF-β, and potentiated their activation of Smad2/3 and expression of PAI stimulated by TGF-β. More important, we show that COX-2 or EP2 deficiency both significantly decreased the growth, angiogenesis, and pulmonary metastasis of mammary tumors produced in mice. Collectively, this investigation establishes EP2 as a potent mediator of the anti-TGF-β activities elicited by COX-2/PGE2 in normal and malignant MECs. Our findings also suggest that pharmacological targeting of EP2 receptors may provide new inroads to antagonize the oncogenic activities of TGF-β during mammary tumorigenesis.—Tian, M., Schiemann, W. P. PGE2 receptor EP2 mediates the antagonistic effect of COX-2 on TGF-β signaling during mammary tumorigenesis. PMID:19897661

  4. A2B and A3 Adenosine Receptors Modulate Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Interleukin-8 Expression in Human Melanoma Cells Treated with Etoposide and Doxorubicin

    PubMed Central

    Merighi, Stefania; Simioni, Carolina; Gessi, Stefania; Varani, Katia; Mirandola, Prisco; Tabrizi, Mojgan Aghazadeh; Baraldi, Pier Giovanni; Borea, Pier Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Cancer patients undergoing treatment with systemic cancer chemotherapy drugs often have abnormal growth factor and cytokine profiles. Thus, serum levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8) are elevated in patients with malignant melanoma. In addition to IL-8, aggressive melanoma cells secrete, through its transcriptional regulator hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which promotes angiogenesis and metastasis of human cancerous cells. Whether these responses are related to adenosine, a ubiquitous mediator expressed at high concentrations in cancer and implicated in numerous inflammatory processes, is not known and is the focus of this study. We have examined whether the DNA-damaging agents etoposide (VP-16) and doxorubicin can affect IL-8, VEGF, and HIF-1 expressions in human melanoma cancer cells. In particular, we have investigated whether these responses are related to the modulation of the adenosine receptor subtypes, namely, A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. We have demonstrated that A2B receptor blockade can impair IL-8 production, whereas blocking A3 receptors, it is possible to further decrease VEGF secretion in melanoma cells treated with VP-16 and doxorubicin. This understanding may present the possibility of using adenosine antagonists to reduce chemotherapy-induced inflammatory cytokine production and to improve the ability of chemotherapeutic drugs to block angiogenesis. Consequently, we conclude that adenosine receptor modulation may be useful for refining the use of chemotherapeutic drugs to treat human cancer more effectively. PMID:19794965

  5. Thiamine deficiency caused by thiamine antagonists triggers upregulation of apoptosis inducing factor gene expression and leads to caspase 3-mediated apoptosis in neuronally differentiated rat PC-12 cells.

    PubMed

    Chornyy, Sergiy; Parkhomenko, Julia; Chorna, Nataliya

    2007-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that alterations in oxidative metabolism induced by thiamine deficiency lead to neuronal cell death. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are still under extensive investigation. Here, we report that rat pheochromocytoma PC-12 cells differentiated in the presence of NGF into neurons undergo apoptosis due to thiamine deficiency caused by antagonists of thiamine - amprolium, pyrithiamine and oxythiamine. Confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy revealed that annexin V binds to PC-12 cells in presence of thiamine antagonists after 72 h incubation. Results also show that thiamine antagonists trigger upregulation of gene expression of mitochondrial-derived apoptosis inducing factor, DNA fragmentation, cleavage of caspase 3 and translocation of active product to the nucleus. We therefore propose that apoptosis induced by amprolium, pyrithiamine or oxythiamine occurs via the mitochondria-dependent caspase 3-mediated signaling pathway. In addition, our data indicate that pyrithiamine and oxythiamine are more potent inducers of apoptosis than amprolium.

  6. Glutamine antagonist-mediated immune suppression decreases pathology but delays virus clearance in mice during nonfatal alphavirus encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Victoria K; Glowinski, Rebecca; Braxton, Alicia M; Potter, Michelle C; Slusher, Barbara S; Griffin, Diane E

    2017-08-01

    Infection of weanling C57BL/6 mice with the TE strain of Sindbis virus (SINV) causes nonfatal encephalomyelitis associated with hippocampal-based memory impairment that is partially prevented by treatment with 6-diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine (DON), a glutamine antagonist (Potter et al., J Neurovirol 21:159, 2015). To determine the mechanism(s) of protection, lymph node and central nervous system (CNS) tissues from SINV-infected mice treated daily for 1 week with low (0.3mg/kg) or high (0.6mg/kg) dose DON were examined. DON treatment suppressed lymphocyte proliferation in cervical lymph nodes resulting in reduced CNS immune cell infiltration, inflammation, and cell death compared to untreated SINV-infected mice. Production of SINV-specific antibody and interferon-gamma were also impaired by DON treatment with a delay in virus clearance. Cessation of treatment allowed activation of the antiviral immune response and viral clearance, but revived CNS pathology, demonstrating the ability of the immune response to mediate both CNS damage and virus clearance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. scAAV-mediated gene transfer of interleukin-1-receptor antagonist to synovium and articular cartilage in large mammalian joints.

    PubMed

    Watson, R S; Broome, T A; Levings, P P; Rice, B L; Kay, J D; Smith, A D; Gouze, E; Gouze, J-N; Dacanay, E A; Hauswirth, W W; Nickerson, D M; Dark, M J; Colahan, P T; Ghivizzani, S C

    2013-06-01

    With the long-term goal of developing a gene-based treatment for osteoarthritis (OA), we performed studies to evaluate the equine joint as a model for adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene transfer to large, weight-bearing human joints. A self-complementary AAV2 vector containing the coding regions for human interleukin-1-receptor antagonist (hIL-1Ra) or green fluorescent protein was packaged in AAV capsid serotypes 1, 2, 5, 8 and 9. Following infection of human and equine synovial fibroblasts in culture, we found that both were only receptive to transduction with AAV1, 2 and 5. For these serotypes, however, transgene expression from the equine cells was consistently at least 10-fold higher. Analyses of AAV surface receptor molecules and intracellular trafficking of vector genomes implicate enhanced viral uptake by the equine cells. Following delivery of 1 × 10(11) vector genomes of serotypes 2, 5 and 8 into the forelimb joints of the horse, all three enabled hIL-1Ra expression at biologically relevant levels and effectively transduced the same cell types, primarily synovial fibroblasts and, to a lesser degree, chondrocytes in articular cartilage. These results provide optimism that AAV vectors can be effectively adapted for gene delivery to large human joints affected by OA.

  8. Comparison of human recombinant adenosine A2B receptor function assessed by Fluo-3-AM fluorometry and microphysiometry.

    PubMed

    Patel, H; Porter, R H P; Palmer, A M; Croucher, M J

    2003-02-01

    1. The aim of this study was to establish the utility of a fluorometric imaging plate reader (FLIPR) assay to assess human adenosine A(2B) receptor function by characterizing its receptor pharmacology and comparing this profile to that obtained using a microphysiometer. 2. FLIPR was used, in conjunction with a Ca(2+)-sensitive dye (Fluo-3-AM), to measure rapid rises in intracellular calcium in a Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO-K1) cell line stably transfected with both the human A(2B) receptor and a promiscuous G(alpha16) protein. Microphysiometry was used to measure rapid changes in the rate of extracellular acidification in a Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK-293) cell line also stably transfected with human A(2B) receptor. 3. Activation of A(2B) receptors by various ligands caused a concentration-dependent increase in both the intracellular calcium concentration and the extracellular acidification rate in the cells tested, with a similar rank order of potency for agonists: NECA > N(6)-Benzyl NECA > adenosine > or = R-PIA > CPA > S-PIA > CHA > CGS 21680. No comparable effects were observed in the non-transfected control cell lines. 4. The rank order of potency of the agonists examined was the same in all studies, whereas absolute potency and efficacy varied. Thus, all compounds exhibited greater potency in FLIPR than the microphysiometer and the efficacies obtained with CHO-K1 + G(alpha16) + A(2B) cell line and FLIPR were greater than those obtained with HEK-293 + A(2B) cell line in the microphysiometer. 5. ZM-241385 was the most potent of a range of adenosine antagonists tested with a pA(2) of 8.0 in both the FLIPR and microphysiometer assays. 6. In conclusion, the profile of the responses to both A(2B) receptor agonists and antagonists in FLIPR were similar to those obtained by the microphysiometer, although both potency and efficacy values were higher in the FLIPR assay. With this caveat in mind, this study shows that FLIPR coupled with a cell line transfected with both

  9. Pharmacological significance of the interplay between angiotensin receptors: MAS receptors as putative final mediators of the effects elicited by angiotensin AT1 receptors antagonists.

    PubMed

    Pernomian, Larissa; Pernomian, Laena; Gomes, Mayara S; da Silva, Carlos H T P

    2015-12-15

    The interplay between angiotensin AT1 receptors and MAS receptors relies on several inward regulatory mechanisms from renin-angiotensin system (RAS) including the functional crosstalk between angiotensin II and angiotensin-(1-7), the competitive AT1 antagonism exhibited by angiotensin-(1-7), the antagonist feature assigned to AT1/MAS heterodimerization on AT1 signaling and the AT1-mediated downregulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Recently, such interplay has acquired an important significance to RAS Pharmacology since a few studies have supporting strong evidences that MAS receptors mediate the effects elicited by AT1 antagonists. The present Perspective provides an overview of the regulatory mechanisms involving AT1 and MAS receptors, their significance to RAS Pharmacology and the future directions on the interplay between angiotensin receptors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Adenosine receptors and diabetes: Focus on the A(2B) adenosine receptor subtype.

    PubMed

    Merighi, Stefania; Borea, Pier Andrea; Gessi, Stefania

    2015-09-01

    Over the last two decades, diabetes mellitus has become one of the most challenging health problems worldwide. Diabetes mellitus, classified as type I and II, is a pathology concerning blood glucose level in the body. The nucleoside adenosine has long been known to affect insulin secretion, glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism, through activation of four G protein coupled adenosine receptors (ARs), named A1, A2A, A2B and A3. Currently, the novel promising subtype to develop new drugs for diabetes treatment is the A2BAR subtype. The use of selective agonists and antagonists for A2BAR subtype in various diabetic animal models allowed us to identify several effects of A2BAR signaling in cell metabolism. In particular, the focus of this review is to summarize the studies on purinergic signaling associated with diabetes through A2BARs modulation.

  11. Cytoplasmic Actin Is an Extracellular Insect Immune Factor which Is Secreted upon Immune Challenge and Mediates Phagocytosis and Direct Killing of Bacteria, and Is a Plasmodium Antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Sandiford, Simone L.; Dong, Yuemei; Pike, Andrew; Blumberg, Benjamin J.; Bahia, Ana C.; Dimopoulos, George

    2015-01-01

    Actin is a highly versatile, abundant, and conserved protein, with functions in a variety of intracellular processes. Here, we describe a novel role for insect cytoplasmic actin as an extracellular pathogen recognition factor that mediates antibacterial defense. Insect actins are secreted from cells upon immune challenge through an exosome-independent pathway. Anopheles gambiae actin interacts with the extracellular MD2-like immune factor AgMDL1, and binds to the surfaces of bacteria, mediating their phagocytosis and direct killing. Globular and filamentous actins display distinct functions as extracellular immune factors, and mosquito actin is a Plasmodium infection antagonist. PMID:25658622

  12. Brain regions mediating α3β4 nicotinic antagonist effects of 18-MC on nicotine self-administration.

    PubMed

    Glick, Stanley D; Sell, Elizabeth M; McCallum, Sarah E; Maisonneuve, Isabelle M

    2011-11-01

    18-Methoxycoronaridine (18-MC), a putative anti-addictive agent, has been shown to decrease the self-administration of several drugs of abuse in rats. 18-MC is a potent antagonist at α3β4 nicotinic receptors. Consistent with high densities of α3β4 nicotinic receptors being located in the medial habenula and the interpeduncular nucleus, 18-MC has been shown to act in these regions to decrease both morphine and methamphetamine self-administration. The present study was conducted to determine if 18-MC's effect on nicotine self-administration is mediated by acting in these same brain regions. Because moderate densities of α3β4 receptors occur in the dorsolateral tegmentum, ventral tegmental area, and basolateral amygdala, these brain areas were also examined as potential sites of action of 18-MC. Local administration of 18-MC into either the medial habenula, the basolateral amygdala or the dorsolateral tegmentum decreased nicotine self-administration. Surprisingly, local administration of 18-MC into the interpeduncular nucleus increased nicotine self-administration while local administration of 18-MC into the ventral tegmental area had no effect on nicotine self-administration. Similar effects were produced by local administration of either mecamylamine or conotoxin AuIB. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that 18-MC decreases nicotine self-administration by indirectly modulating the dopaminergic mesolimbic pathway via blockade of α3β4 nicotinic receptors in the medial habenula, basolateral amygdala, and dorsolateral tegmentum. The data also suggest that an action of 18-MC in the interpeduncular nucleus may attenuate aversive and/or depressive effects of nicotine.

  13. IFN-γ prevents adenosine receptor (A2bR) upregulation to sustain the macrophage activation response

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Heather B.; Ward, Amanda; Hamidzadeh, Kajal; Ravid, Katya; Mosser, David M.

    2015-01-01

    The priming of macrophages with IFN-γ prior to TLR stimulation results in enhanced and prolonged inflammatory cytokine production. Here, we demonstrate that following TLR stimulation, macrophages up regulate the adenosine 2b receptor (A2bR) to enhance their sensitivity to immunosuppressive extracellular adenosine. This up-regulation of A2bR leads to the induction of a macrophage with an immunoregulatory phenotype and the down regulation of inflammation. IFN-γ priming of macrophages, selectively prevents the induction of the A2bR in macrophages to mitigate sensitivity to adenosine and prevent this regulatory transition. IFN-γ-mediated A2bR blockade leads to a prolonged production of TNFα and IL-12 in response to TLR ligation. The pharmacological inhibition or the genetic deletion of the A2bR results in a hyper-inflammatory response to TLR ligation, similar to IFN-γ treatment of macrophages. Conversely, the overexpression of A2bR on macrophages blunts the IFN-γ effects and promotes the development of immunoregulatory macrophages. Thus, we propose a novel mechanism whereby IFN-γ contributes to host defense, by desensitizing macrophages to the immunoregulatory effects of adenosine. This mechanism overcomes the transient nature of TLR activation, and prolongs the anti-microbial state of the classically activated macrophage. This study may offer promising new targets to improve the clinical outcome of inflammatory diseases in which macrophage activation is dysregulated. PMID:26355158

  14. The A2B adenosine receptor modulates pulmonary hypertension associated with interstitial lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Karmouty-Quintana, Harry; Zhong, Hongyan; Acero, Luis; Weng, Tingting; Melicoff, Ernestina; West, James D.; Hemnes, Anna; Grenz, Almut; Eltzschig, Holger K.; Blackwell, Timothy S.; Xia, Yang; Johnston, Richard A.; Zeng, Dewan; Belardinelli, Luiz; Blackburn, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Development of pulmonary hypertension is a common and deadly complication of interstitial lung disease. Little is known regarding the cellular and molecular mechanisms that lead to pulmonary hypertension in patients with interstitial lung disease, and effective treatment options are lacking. The purpose of this study was to examine the adenosine 2B receptor (A2BR) as a regulator of vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension secondary to pulmonary fibrosis. To accomplish this, cellular and molecular changes in vascular remodeling were monitored in mice exposed to bleomycin in conjunction with genetic removal of the A2BR or treatment with the A2BR antagonist GS-6201. Results demonstrated that GS-6201 treatment or genetic removal of the A2BR attenuated vascular remodeling and hypertension in our model. Furthermore, direct A2BR activation on vascular cells promoted interleukin-6 and endothelin-1 release. These studies identify a novel mechanism of disease progression to pulmonary hypertension and support the development of A2BR antagonists for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension secondary to interstitial lung disease.—Karmouty-Quintana, H., Zhong, H., Acero, L., Weng, T., Melicoff, E., West, J. D., Hemnes, A., Grenz, A., Eltzschig, H. K., Blackwell, T. S., Xia, Y., Johnston, R. A., Zeng, D., Belardinelli, L., Blackburn, M. R. The A2B adenosine receptor modulates pulmonary hypertension associated with interstitial lung disease. PMID:22415303

  15. A T cell receptor antagonist peptide induces T cells that mediate bystander suppression and prevent autoimmune encephalomyelitis induced with multiple myelin antigens

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Lindsay B.; Murtaza, Anwar; Hafler, Brian P.; Sette, Alessandro; Kuchroo, Vijay K.

    1997-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced with myelin proteolipid protein (PLP) residues 139–151 (HSLGKWLGHPDKF) can be prevented by treatment with a T cell receptor (TCR) antagonist peptide (L144/R147) generated by substituting at the two principal TCR contact residues in the encephalitogenic peptide. The TCR antagonist peptide blocks activation of encephalitogenic Th1 helper cells in vitro, but the mechanisms by which the antagonist peptide blocks EAE in vivo are not clear. Immunization with L144/R147 did not inhibit generation of PLP-(139–151)-specific T cells in vivo. Furthermore, preimmunization with L144/R147 protected mice from EAE induced with the encephalitogenic peptides PLP-(178–191) and myelin oligodendrocyte protein (MOG) residues 92–106 and with mouse myelin basic protein (MBP). These data suggest that the L144/R147 peptide does not act as an antagonist in vivo but mediates bystander suppression, probably by the generation of regulatory T cells. To confirm this we generated T cell lines and clones from animals immunized with PLP-(139–151) plus L144/R147. T cells specific for L144/R147 peptide were crossreactive with the native PLP-(139–151) peptide, produced Th2/Th0 cytokines, and suppressed EAE upon adoptive transfer. These studies demonstrate that TCR antagonist peptides may have multiple biological effects in vivo. One of the principal mechanisms by which these peptides inhibit autoimmunity is by the induction of regulatory T cells, leading to bystander suppression of EAE. These results have important implications for the treatment of autoimmune diseases where there are autopathogenic responses to multiple antigens in the target organ. PMID:9256473

  16. (−)-Stepholidine is a potent pan-dopamine receptor antagonist of both G protein- and β-arrestin-mediated signaling

    PubMed Central

    Meade, Julie A.; Free, R. Benjamin; Miller, Nicole R.; Chun, Lani S.; Doyle, Trevor B.; Moritz, Amy E.; Conroy, Jennie L.; Watts, Val J.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale (−)-Stepholidine is a tetrahydroberberine alkaloid that is known to interact with dopamine receptors and has also been proposed as a novel antipsychotic agent. Its suggested novelty lies in the fact that it has been proposed to have D1-like receptor agonist and D2-like receptor antagonist properties. Thus, it might be effective in treating both positive and negative (cognition) symptoms of schizophrenia. However, its activity on specific dopamine receptor subtypes has not been clarified, especially with respect to its ability to activate D1-like receptors. Objectives We wished to examine the affinity and functional activity of (−)-stepholidine at each of the human dopamine receptor subtypes expressed in a defined cellular environment. Methods D1–D5 dopamine receptors were stably expressed in cell lines and their interactions with (−)-stepholidine were examined using radioligand binding and various functional signaling assays. Radioligand binding assays were also performed using bovine striatal membranes. Results (−)-Stepholidine exhibited high (nM) affinity for D1 and D5 receptors, somewhat lower (two- to four-fold) affinity for D2 and D3 receptors, and low micromolar affinity for D4 receptors. Functionally, (−)-stepholidine was ineffective in activating G protein-mediated signaling of D1-like and D2 receptors and was also ineffective in stimulating β-arrestin recruitment to any dopamine receptor subtype. It did, however, antagonize all of these responses. It also antagonized D1–D2 heteromer-mediated Ca2+ mobilization. Radioligand binding assays of D1-like receptors in brain membranes also indicated that (−)-stepholidine binds to the D1 receptor with antagonist-like properties. Conclusions (−)-Stepholidine is a pan-dopamine receptor antagonist and its in vivo effects are largely mediated through dopamine receptor blockade with potential cross-talk to other receptors or signaling proteins. PMID:25231919

  17. Different subtypes of alpha 1A-adrenoceptor mediating contraction of rat epididymal vas deferens, rat hepatic portal vein and human prostate distinguished by the antagonist RS 17053.

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, I.; Burt, R. P.; Green, G. M.; Hussain, M. B.; Chapple, C. R.

    1996-01-01

    1. The alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtype mediating contraction of the rat hepatic portal vein to phenylephrine was characterized by use of competitive antagonists previously shown to have selectivity between the expressed alpha 1-subtype clones. Prazosin competitively antagonized the phenylephrine contractions with a pA2 value of 9.2, as did WB 4101 (pA2 9.4), 5-methyl urapidil (pA2 8.6), indoramin (pA2 8.4) and BMY 7378 (pA2 6.5). 2. The pA2 values on the rat portal vein correlated highly with their previously published pA2 values for the alpha 1A-adrenoceptors mediating contraction of the rat epididymal vas deferens and human prostate and poorly with those for the alpha 1B- and alpha 1D-adrenoceptors mediating contraction of the rat spleen and aorta, respectively. The antagonist pA2 values on the rat portal vein correlated highly with their previously published pK1 values for the expressed alpha 1a-clone and poorly with those for the expressed alpha 1b- and alpha 1d-clones. Therefore the results show that contraction of the rat portal vein to phenylephrine is mediated by alpha 1A-adrenoceptors. 3. The novel alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist RS 17053 had a relatively high affinity for the alpha 1A-adrenoceptors mediating contraction of the rat epididymal vas deferens (pA2 9.5) compared with the alpha 1B-adrenoceptors in the rat spleen (pA2 7.2) or the alpha 1D-adrenoceptors in the rat aorta (pKB 7.1), in agreement with its selectivity for the expressed alpha 1a-clone. However, RS 17053 had over 100 fold lower affinity for the alpha 1A-adrenoceptors mediating contraction of the rat portal vein (pKB 7.1) and human prostate (pKB 7.1) compared with its affinity for the alpha 1A-adrenoceptors in the rat epididymal vas deferens or the expressed alpha 1a-clone. 4. The difference in affinity of RS 17053 between the rat epididymal vas deferens and rat portal vein cannot be explained by a species difference in the receptor. Therefore RS 17053 may distinguish between subtypes of

  18. Remifentanil-induced preconditioning has cross-talk with A1 and A2B adenosine receptors in ischemic-reperfused rat heart.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Cheol; Jung, Jiyoon; Park, Sang-Jin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a cross-talk between opioid receptors (OPRs) and adenosine receptors (ADRs) in remifentanil preconditioning (R-Pre) and, if so, to investigate the types of ADRs involved in the cross-talk. Isolated rat hearts received 30 min of regional ischemia followed by 2 hr of reperfusion. OPR and ADR antagonists were perfused from 10 min before R-Pre until the end of R-Pre. The heart rate, left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP),velocity of contraction (+dP/dtmax), and coronary flow (CF) were recorded. The area at risk and area of necrosis were measured. After reperfusion, the LVDP, +dP/dtmax,and CF showed a significant increase in the R-Pre group compared with the control group (no intervention before or after regional ischemia). These increases in the R-Pre group were blocked by naloxone, a nonspecific ADR antagonist, an A1 ADR antagonist, and an A2B ADR antagonist. The infarct size was reduced significantly in the R-Pre group compared with the control group. The infarct-reducing effect in the R-Pre group was blocked by naloxone, the nonspecific ADR antagonist, the A1 ADR antagonist, and the A2B ADR antagonist. The results of this study demonstrate that there is cross-talk between ADRs and OPRs in R-Pre and that A1 ADR and A2B ADR appear to be involved in the cross-talk.

  19. The SnRK2-APC/CTE regulatory module mediates the antagonistic action of gibberellic acid and abscisic acid pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qibing; Wu, Fuqing; Sheng, Peike; Zhang, Zhe; Zhang, Xin; Guo, Xiuping; Wang, Jiulin; Cheng, Zhijun; Wang, Jie; Wang, Haiyang; Wan, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) antagonistically regulate many developmental processes and responses to biotic or abiotic stresses in higher plants. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this antagonism is still poorly understood. Here, we show that loss-of-function mutation in rice Tiller Enhancer (TE), an activator of the APC/CTE complex, causes hypersensitivity and hyposensitivity to ABA and GA, respectively. We find that TE physically interacts with ABA receptor OsPYL/RCARs and promotes their degradation by the proteasome. Genetic analysis also shows OsPYL/RCARs act downstream of TE in mediating ABA responses. Conversely, ABA inhibits APC/CTE activity by phosphorylating TE through activating the SNF1-related protein kinases (SnRK2s), which may interrupt the interaction between TE and OsPYL/RCARs and subsequently stabilize OsPYL/RCARs. In contrast, GA can reduce the level of SnRK2s and may promote APC/CTE-mediated degradation of OsPYL/RCARs. Thus, we propose that the SnRK2-APC/CTE regulatory module represents a regulatory hub underlying the antagonistic action of GA and ABA in plants. PMID:26272249

  20. The SnRK2-APC/C(TE) regulatory module mediates the antagonistic action of gibberellic acid and abscisic acid pathways.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qibing; Wu, Fuqing; Sheng, Peike; Zhang, Zhe; Zhang, Xin; Guo, Xiuping; Wang, Jiulin; Cheng, Zhijun; Wang, Jie; Wang, Haiyang; Wan, Jianmin

    2015-08-14

    Abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) antagonistically regulate many developmental processes and responses to biotic or abiotic stresses in higher plants. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this antagonism is still poorly understood. Here, we show that loss-of-function mutation in rice Tiller Enhancer (TE), an activator of the APC/C(TE) complex, causes hypersensitivity and hyposensitivity to ABA and GA, respectively. We find that TE physically interacts with ABA receptor OsPYL/RCARs and promotes their degradation by the proteasome. Genetic analysis also shows OsPYL/RCARs act downstream of TE in mediating ABA responses. Conversely, ABA inhibits APC/C(TE) activity by phosphorylating TE through activating the SNF1-related protein kinases (SnRK2s), which may interrupt the interaction between TE and OsPYL/RCARs and subsequently stabilize OsPYL/RCARs. In contrast, GA can reduce the level of SnRK2s and may promote APC/C(TE)-mediated degradation of OsPYL/RCARs. Thus, we propose that the SnRK2-APC/C(TE) regulatory module represents a regulatory hub underlying the antagonistic action of GA and ABA in plants.

  1. Adenosine A2B receptor modulates intestinal barrier function under hypoxic and ischemia/reperfusion conditions

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Qiu, Yuan; Wang, Wensheng; Xiao, Weidong; Liang, Hongyin; Zhang, Chaojun; Yang, Hanwenbo; Teitelbaum, Daniel H; Sun, Li-Hua; Yang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Background: Intestinal barrier function failure from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and acute hypoxia has been implicated as a critical determinant in the predisposition to intestinal inflammation and a number of inflammatory disorders. Here, we identified the role of Adenosine A2B receptor (A2BAR) in the regulation of intestinal barrier function under I/R and acute hypoxic conditions. Methods: C57BL/6J mice were used, and were randomized into three groups: Sham, I/R, IR+PSB1115 (a specific A2BAR antagonist) groups. After surgery, the small bowel was harvested for immunohistochemical staining, RNA and protein content, and intestinal permeability analyses. Using an epithelial cell culture model, we investigated the influence of hypoxia on the epithelial function, and the role of A2BAR in the expressions of tight junction and epithelial permeability. The expressions of Claudin-1, occludin and ZO-1 were detected by RT-PCR and Western-Blot. Epithelial barrier function was assessed with transepithelial resistance (TER). Results and conclusions: The A2BAR antagonist, PSB1115, significantly increased tight junction protein expression after intestinal I/R or acute hypoxia conditions. PSB1115 also attenuated the disrupted distribution of TJ proteins. Furthermore, inhibition of A2BAR attenuated the decrease in TER induced by I/R or acute hypoxic conditions, and maintained intestinal barrier function. Antagonism of A2BAR activity improves intestinal epithelial structure and barrier function in a mouse model of intestinal I/R and a cell model of acute hypoxia. These findings support a potentially destructive role for A2BAR under intestinal I/R and acute hypoxic conditions. PMID:24966910

  2. Buprenorphine-Mediated Transition from Opioid Agonist to Antagonist Treatment: State of the Art and New Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Mannelli, Paolo; Peindl, Kathleen S.; Lee, Tong; Bhatia, Kamal S.; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2012-01-01

    Constant refinement of opioid dependence (OD) therapies is a condition to promote treatment access and delivery. Among other applications, the partial opioid agonist buprenorphine has been studied to improve evidence-based interventions for the transfer of patients from opioid agonist to antagonist medications. This paper summarizes PubMed-searched clinical investigations and conference papers on the transition from methadone maintenance to buprenorphine and from buprenorphine to naltrexone, discussing challenges and advances. The majority of the 26 studies we examined were uncontrolled investigations. Many small clinical trials have demonstrated the feasibility of in- or outpatient transfer to buprenorphine from low to moderate methadone doses (up to 60–70 mg). Results on the conversion from higher methadone doses, on the other hand, indicate significant withdrawal discomfort, and need for ancillary medications and inpatient treatment. Tapering high methadone doses before the transfer to buprenorphine is not without discomfort and the risk of relapse. The transition buprenorphine-naltrexone has been explored in several pilot studies, and a number of treatment methods to reduce withdrawal intensity warrant further investigation, including the co-administration of buprenorphine and naltrexone. Outpatient transfer protocols using buprenorphine, and direct comparisons with other modalities of transitioning from opioid agonist to antagonist medications are limited. Given its potential salience, the information gathered should be used in larger clinical trials on short and long-term outcomes of opioid agonist-antagonist transition treatments. Future studies should also test new pharmacological mechanisms to help reduce physical dependence, and identify individualized approaches, including the use of pharmacogenetics and long-acting opioid agonist and antagonist formulations. PMID:22280332

  3. Elevated Adenosine Induces Placental DNA Hypomethylation Independent of A2B Receptor Signaling in Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Aji; Wu, Hongyu; Iriyama, Takayuki; Zhang, Yujin; Sun, Kaiqi; Song, Anren; Liu, Hong; Peng, Zhangzhe; Tang, Lili; Lee, Minjung; Huang, Yun; Ni, Xin; Kellems, Rodney E; Xia, Yang

    2017-07-01

    Preeclampsia is a prevalent pregnancy hypertensive disease with both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Emerging evidence indicates that global placental DNA hypomethylation is observed in patients with preeclampsia and is linked to altered gene expression and disease development. However, the molecular basis underlying placental epigenetic changes in preeclampsia remains unclear. Using 2 independent experimental models of preeclampsia, adenosine deaminase-deficient mice and a pathogenic autoantibody-induced mouse model of preeclampsia, we demonstrate that elevated placental adenosine not only induces hallmark features of preeclampsia but also causes placental DNA hypomethylation. The use of genetic approaches to express an adenosine deaminase minigene specifically in placentas, or adenosine deaminase enzyme replacement therapy, restored placental adenosine to normal levels, attenuated preeclampsia features, and abolished placental DNA hypomethylation in adenosine deaminase-deficient mice. Genetic deletion of CD73 (an ectonucleotidase that converts AMP to adenosine) prevented the elevation of placental adenosine in the autoantibody-induced preeclampsia mouse model and ameliorated preeclampsia features and placental DNA hypomethylation. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that elevated placental adenosine-mediated DNA hypomethylation predominantly occurs in spongiotrophoblasts and labyrinthine trophoblasts and that this effect is independent of A2B adenosine receptor activation in both preeclampsia models. Extending our mouse findings to humans, we used cultured human trophoblasts to demonstrate that adenosine functions intracellularly and induces DNA hypomethylation without A2B adenosine receptor activation. Altogether, both mouse and human studies reveal novel mechanisms underlying placental DNA hypomethylation and potential therapeutic approaches for preeclampsia. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptor antagonists differentially mediate acquisition of fructose-conditioned flavor preference and quinine-conditioned flavor avoidance in rats.

    PubMed

    Rotella, Francis M; Olsson, Kerstin; Vig, Vishal; Yenko, Ira; Pagirsky, Jeremy; Kohen, Ilanna; Aminov, Alon; Dindyal, Trisha; Bodnar, Richard J

    2015-09-01

    Rats display both conditioned flavor preference (CFP) for fructose, and conditioned flavor avoidance (CFA) following sweet adulteration with quinine. Previous pharmacological analyses revealed that fructose-CFP expression was significantly reduced by dopamine (DA) D1 or D2 antagonists, but not NMDA or opioid antagonists. Fructose-CFP acquisition was significantly reduced by DA D1, DA D2 or NMDA antagonists, but not opioid antagonists. Quinine-CFA acquisition was significantly enhanced and prolonged by DA D1, NMDA or opioid, but not DA D2 antagonists. Cholinergic interneurons and projections interact with DA systems in the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area. Further, both muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptor signaling have been implicated in sweet intake and development of food-related preferences. Therefore, the present study examined whether systemic administration of muscarinic (scopolamine: SCOP) or nicotinic (mecamylamine: MEC) cholinergic receptor antagonists mediated fructose-CFP expression, fructose-CFP acquisition and quinine-CFA acquisition. For fructose-CFP expression, rats were trained over 10 sessions with a CS+ flavor in 8% fructose and 0.2% saccharin and a CS- flavor in 0.2% saccharin. Two-bottle choice tests with CS+ and CS- flavors mixed in 0.2% saccharin occurred following vehicle, SCOP (0.1-10mg/kg) and MEC (1-8mg/kg). For fructose-CFP acquisition, six groups of rats received vehicle, SCOP (1 or 2.5mg/kg), MEC (4 or 6mg/kg) or a limited intake vehicle control 0.5h prior to 10 CS+ and CS- training sessions followed by six 2-bottle CS+ and CS- choice tests in 0.2% saccharin. For quinine-CFA acquisition, five groups of rats received vehicle, SCOP (1 or 2.5mg/kg) or MEC (4 or 6mg/kg) 0.5h prior to 8 one-bottle CS- (8% fructose+0.2% saccharin: FS) and CS+ (fructose+saccharin+quinine (0.030%: FSQ) training sessions followed by six 2-bottle CS- and CS+ choice tests in fructose-saccharin solutions. Fructose-CFP expression was

  5. Surface-mediated delivery of siRNA from fibrin hydrogels for knockdown of the BMP-2 binding antagonist noggin.

    PubMed

    Kowalczewski, Christine J; Saul, Justin M

    2015-10-01

    Antagonists and inhibitory molecules responsible for maintaining tissue homeostasis can present a significant barrier to healing when tissue engineering/regenerative medicine strategies are employed. One example of this situation is the up-regulation of antagonists such as noggin in response to increasing concentrations of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) present from endogenous bone repair processes or delivered exogenously from biomaterials (synthetic bone grafts). While recombinant human (rh)BMP-2 delivered from synthetic bone grafts has been shown to be an effective alternative to autografts and allografts, the supraphysiological doses of rhBMP-2 have led to clinically-adverse side effects. The high rhBMP-2 dosage may be required, in part, to overcome the presence of antagonists such as noggin. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is an appealing approach to overcome this problem because it can knock-down antagonists or inhibitory molecules in a temporary manner. Here, we conducted fundamental studies on the delivery of siRNA from material surfaces as a means to knock-down antagonists like noggin. Non-viral cationic lipid (Lipofectamine)-siRNA complexes were delivered from a fibrin hydrogel surface to MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts that were treated with a supraphysiological dose of rhBMP-2 to achieve noggin mRNA expression levels higher than cells naïve to rhBMP-2. Confocal microscopy and flow cytometry showed intracellular uptake of siRNA in over 98% of MC3T3-E1 cells after 48 h. Doses of 0.5 and 1 μg noggin siRNA were able to significantly reduce noggin mRNA to levels equivalent to those in MC3T3-E1 cells not exposed to rhBMP-2 with no effects on cell viability. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) has been considered for treatment of diseases ranging from Alzheimer's to cancer. However, the ability to use siRNA in conjunction with biomaterials to direct tissue regeneration processes has received relatively little attention. Using the bone morphogenetic protein 2

  6. A comparison of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors mediating contraction in rabbit aorta and dog saphenous vein: evidence for different receptor types obtained by use of selective agonists and antagonists.

    PubMed Central

    Feniuk, W.; Humphrey, P. P.; Perren, M. J.; Watts, A. D.

    1985-01-01

    Using recently available selective agonists and antagonists we have examined further our postulate (Apperley et al., 1980) that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) mediates contraction of dog saphenous vein via a different 5-HT receptor type from that in the rabbit aorta. In the rabbit isolated aorta, ketanserin and spiperone were potent, specific, competitively-acting antagonists of the contractile effects of 5-HT. In contrast, in the dog isolated saphenous vein neither ketanserin nor spiperone caused any rightward displacement of concentration-response curves to 5-HT although the maximum response was reduced by about 10%. In the rabbit aorta 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CONH2-T) was a weak agonist whilst the 5-N,N-dimethyl and 5-N-ethyl derivatives were even weaker or inactive. The contractile effect of 5-CONH2-T in the rabbit aorta was potently and competitively antagonized by ketanserin. In contrast, in the dog saphenous vein 5-CONH2-T and its 5-N,N-dimethyl and 5-N-ethyl derivatives were all potent agonists. The contractile effect of 5-CONH2-T was not markedly affected by ketanserin. The profile of action of ketanserin and spiperone in the rabbit aorta is consistent with the view that 5-HT2 receptors mediate contraction in this preparation. However, the 5-HT receptor mediating contraction in the dog saphenous vein appears to be '5-HT1-like', sharing a number of characteristics with the 5-HT1 recognition site identified from [3H]-5-HT ligand binding studies in brain tissue. PMID:2933110

  7. mGluR5-antagonist mediated reversal of elevated stereotyped, repetitive behaviors in the VPA model of autism.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Mili V; Gandal, Michael J; Siegel, Steven J

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are highly disabling developmental disorders with a population prevalence of 1-3%. Despite a strong genetic etiology, there are no current therapeutic options that target the core symptoms of ASD. Emerging evidence suggests that dysfunction of glutamatergic signaling, in particular through metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) receptors, may contribute to phenotypic deficits and may be appropriate targets for pharmacologic intervention. This study assessed the therapeutic potential of 2-methyl-6-phenylethyl-pyrididine (MPEP), an mGluR5-receptor antagonist, on repetitive and anxiety-like behaviors in the valproic acid (VPA) mouse model of autism. Mice were exposed prenatally on day E13 to VPA and assessed for repetitive self-grooming and marble burying behaviors as adults. Anxiety-like behavior and locomotor activity were measured in an open-field. VPA-exposed mice displayed increased repetitive and anxiety-like behaviors, consistent with previously published results. Across both marble burying and self-grooming assays, MPEP significantly reduced repetitive behaviors in VPA-treated mice, but had no effect on locomotor activity. These results are consistent with emerging preclinical literature that mGluR5-antagonists may have therapeutic efficacy for core symptoms of autism.

  8. 5-HT1B receptor-mediated contractions in human temporal artery: evidence from selective antagonists and 5-HT receptor mRNA expression

    PubMed Central

    Verheggen, R; Hundeshagen, A G; Brown, A M; Schindler, M; Kaumann, A J

    1998-01-01

    In the human temporal artery both 5-HT1-like and 5-HT2A receptors mediate the contractile effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and we have suggested that the 5-HT1-like receptors resemble more closely recombinant 5-HT1B than 5-HT1D receptors. To investigate further which subtype is involved, we investigated the blockade of 5-HT-induced contractions by the 5-HT1B-selective antagonist SB-224289 (2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1′-methyl-5-{2-methyl-4′[(5-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiazole-3-yl) biphenyl-4-yl] carbonyl} furo[2,3-f]indole-3-spiro-4′-piperidine oxalate) and the 5-HT1D-selective antagonist BRL-15572 (1-phenyl-3[4-3-chlorophenyl piperazin-1-yl] phenylpropan-2-ol). We also used RT-PCR to search for the mRNA of 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D and other 5-HT receptors.The contractile effects of 5-HT in temporal artery rings were partially antagonized by SB-224289 (20, 200 nM) (apparent KB=1 nM) and ketanserin (1 μM) but not by BRL-15572 (500 nM).Sumatriptan evoked contractions (EC50, 170 nM) that were resistant to blockade by BRL-15572 (500 nM) but antagonized by SB-224289 (20, 200 nM).The potency of 5-HT (EC50) was estimated to be 94 nM for the ketanserin-sensitive receptor and 34 nM for the SB-224289-sensitive receptor. The fraction of maximal 5-HT response mediated through SB-224289-sensitive receptors was 0.20–0.67, the remainder being mediated through ketanserin-sensitive receptors.We detected arterial receptor mRNA for the following receptors (incidence): 5-HT1B (8/8), 5-HT1D (2/8), 5-HT1F (0/4), 5-HT2A (0/8), 5-HT2B (0/8), 5-HT2C (0/8), 5-HT4 (4/8) and 5-HT7 (4/8).We conclude that the ketanserin-resistant fraction of the 5-HT effects and the effects of sumatriptan are mediated by 5-HT1B receptors. The lack of antagonism by BRL-15572 rules out 5-HT1D receptors as mediators of the contractile effects of 5-HT and sumatriptan. PMID:9723944

  9. Role of adenosine A2b receptor overexpression in tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Cesar; Palomo, Iván; Fuentes, Eduardo

    2016-12-01

    The adenosine A2b receptor is a G-protein coupled receptor. Its activation occurs with high extracellular adenosine concentration, for example in inflammation or hypoxia. These conditions are generated in the tumor environment. Studies show that A2b receptor is overexpressed in various tumor lines and biopsies from patients with different cancers. This suggests that A2b receptor can be used by tumor cells to promote progression. Thus A2b participates in different events, such as angiogenesis and metastasis, besides exerting immunomodulatory effects that protect tumor cells. Therefore, adenosine A2b receptor appears as an interesting therapeutic target for cancer treatment.

  10. HSV-1-mediated IL-1 receptor antagonist gene therapy ameliorates MOG(35-55)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Furlan, R; Bergami, A; Brambilla, E; Butti, E; De Simoni, M G; Campagnoli, M; Marconi, P; Comi, G; Martino, G

    2007-01-01

    Primary proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1beta, play a crucial pathogenic role in multiple sclerosis and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), and may represent, therefore, a suitable therapeutic target. We have previously established the delivery of anti-inflammatory cytokine genes within the central nervous system (CNS), based on intracisternal (i.c.) injection of non-replicative HSV-1-derived vectors. Here we show the therapeutic efficacy of i.c. administration of an HSV-1-derived vector carrying the interleukin-1receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) gene, the physiological antagonist of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1, in C57BL/6 mice affected by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced EAE. IL-1ra gene therapy is effective preventively, delaying EAE onset by almost 1 week (22.4+/-1.4 days post-immunization vs 15.9+/-2.1 days in control mice; P=0.0229 log-rank test), and decreasing disease severity. Amelioration of EAE course was associated with a reduced number of macrophages infiltrating the CNS and in a decreased level of proinflammatory cytokine mRNA in the CNS, suggesting an inhibitory activity of IL-1ra on effector cell recruitment, as antigen-specific peripheral T-cell activation and T-cell recruitment to the CNS is unaffected. Thus, local IL-1ra gene therapy may represent a therapeutic alternative for the inhibition of immune-mediated demyelination of the CNS.

  11. A small molecule antagonist of chemokine receptors CCR1 and CCR3. Potent inhibition of eosinophil function and CCR3-mediated HIV-1 entry.

    PubMed

    Sabroe, I; Peck, M J; Van Keulen, B J; Jorritsma, A; Simmons, G; Clapham, P R; Williams, T J; Pease, J E

    2000-08-25

    We describe a small molecule chemokine receptor antagonist, UCB35625 (the trans-isomer J113863 published by Banyu Pharmaceutical Co., patent WO98/04554), which is a potent, selective inhibitor of CCR1 and CCR3. Nanomolar concentrations of UCB35625 were sufficient to inhibit eosinophil shape change responses to MIP-1alpha, MCP-4, and eotaxin, while greater concentrations could inhibit the chemokine-induced internalization of both CCR1 and CCR3. UCB35625 also inhibited the CCR3-mediated entry of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 primary isolate 89.6 into the glial cell line, NP-2 (IC(50) = 57 nm). Chemotaxis of transfected cells expressing either CCR1 or CCR3 was inhibited by nanomolar concentrations of the compound (IC(50) values of CCR1-MIP-1alpha = 9.6 nm, CCR3-eotaxin = 93.7 nm). However, competitive ligand binding assays on the same transfectants revealed that considerably larger concentrations of UCB35625 were needed for effective ligand displacement than were needed for the inhibition of receptor function. Thus, it appears that the compound may interact with a region present in both receptors that inhibits the conformational change necessary to initiate intracellular signaling. By virtue of its potency at the two major eosinophil chemokine receptors, UCB35625 is a prototypic therapy for the treatment of eosinophil-mediated inflammatory disorders, such as asthma and as an inhibitor of CCR3-mediated human immunodeficiency virus-1 entry.

  12. Short Communication: Inhibition of DC-SIGN-Mediated HIV-1 Infection by Complementary Actions of Dendritic Cell Receptor Antagonists and Env-Targeting Virus Inactivators.

    PubMed

    Pustylnikov, Sergey; Dave, Rajnish S; Khan, Zafar K; Porkolab, Vanessa; Rashad, Adel A; Hutchinson, Matthew; Fieschi, Frank; Chaiken, Irwin; Jain, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    The DC-SIGN receptor on human dendritic cells interacts with HIV gp120 to promote both infection of antigen-presenting cells and transinfection of T cells. We hypothesized that in DC-SIGN-expressing cells, both DC-SIGN ligands such as dextrans and gp120 antagonists such as peptide triazoles would inhibit HIV infection with potential complementary antagonist effects. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of dextran (D66), isomaltooligosaccharides (D06), and several peptide triazoles (HNG156, K13, and UM15) on HIV infection of B-THP-1/DC-SIGN cells. In surface plasmon resonance competition assays, D66 (IC50 = 35.4 μM) and D06 (IC50 = 3.4 mM) prevented binding of soluble DC-SIGN to immobilized mannosylated bovine serum albumin (BSA). An efficacious dose-dependent inhibition of DC-SIGN-mediated HIV infection in both pretreatment and posttreatment settings was observed, as indicated by inhibitory potentials (EC50) [D66 (8 μM), D06 (48 mM), HNG156 (40 μM), UM15 (100 nM), and K13 (25 nM)]. Importantly, both dextrans and peptide triazoles significantly decreased HIV gag RNA levels [D66 (7-fold), D06 (13-fold), HNG156 (7-fold), K-13 (3-fold), and UM15 (6-fold)]. Interestingly, D06 at the highest effective concentration showed a 14-fold decrease of infection, while its combination with 50 μM HNG156 showed a 26-fold decrease. Hence, these compounds can combine to inactivate the viruses and suppress DC-SIGN-mediated virus-cell interaction that as shown earlier leads to dendritic cell HIV infection and transinfection dependent on the DC-SIGN receptor.

  13. Adenosine A2B Receptor Deficiency Promotes Host Defenses against Gram-Negative Bacterial Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Barletta, Kathryn E.; Cagnina, R. Elaine; Burdick, Marie D.; Linden, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Activation of the adenosine A2B receptor (A2BR) promotes antiinflammatory effects in diverse biological settings, but the role of this receptor in antimicrobial host defense in the lung has not been established. Gram-negative bacillary pneumonia is a common and serious illness associated with high morbidity and mortality, the treatment of which is complicated by increasing rates of antibiotic resistance. Objectives: To test the hypothesis that absence of adenosine A2B receptor signaling promotes host defense against bacterial pneumonia. Methods: We used a model of Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia in wild-type mice and mice with targeted deletion of the A2BR. Host responses were compared in vivo and leukocyte responses to the bacteria were examined in vitro. Measurements and Main Results: A2BR–/– mice demonstrated enhanced bacterial clearance from the lung and improved survival after infection with K. pneumoniae compared with wild-type controls, an effect that was mediated by bone marrow–derived cells. Leukocyte recruitment to the lungs and expression of inflammatory cytokines did not differ between A2BR–/– and wild-type mice, but A2BR–/– neutrophils exhibited sixfold greater bactericidal activity and enhanced production of neutrophil extracellular traps compared with wild-type neutrophils when incubated with K. pneumoniae. Consistent with this finding, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from A2BR–/– mice with Klebsiella pneumonia contained more extracellular DNA compared with wild-type mice with pneumonia. Conclusions: These data suggest that the absence of A2BR signaling enhances antimicrobial activity in gram-negative bacterial pneumonia. PMID:22997203

  14. Kisspeptin antagonists.

    PubMed

    Roseweir, Antonia Kathryn; Millar, Robert P

    2013-01-01

    Kisspeptin is now known to be an important regulator of the hypothalamic--pituitary-gonadal axis and is the target of a range of regulators, such as steroid hormone feedback, nutritional and metabolic regulation. Kisspeptin binds to its cognate receptor, KISS1R (also called GPR54), on GnRH neurons and stimulates their activity, which in turn provides an obligatory signal for GnRH secretion-thus gating down-stream events supporting reproduction. The development of peripherally active kisspeptin antagonists could offer a unique therapeutic agent for treating hormone-dependent disorders of reproduction, including precocious puberty, endometriosis, and metastatic prostate cancer. The following chapter discusses the advances made in the search for both peptide and small molecule kisspeptin antagonists and their use in delineating the role of kisspeptin within the reproductive system. To date, four peptide antagonists and one small molecule antagonist have been designed.

  15. FGF2 mediates hepatic progenitor cell formation during human pluripotent stem cell differentiation by inducing the WNT antagonist NKD1

    PubMed Central

    Twaroski, Kirk; Mallanna, Sunil K.; Jing, Ran; DiFurio, Francesca; Urick, Amanda; Duncan, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are required to specify hepatic fate within the definitive endoderm through activation of the FGF receptors (FGFRs). While the signaling pathways involved in hepatic specification are well understood, the mechanisms through which FGFs induce hepatic character within the endoderm are ill defined. Here we report the identification of genes whose expression is directly regulated by FGFR activity during the transition from endoderm to hepatic progenitor cell. The FGFR immediate early genes that were identified include those encoding transcription factors, growth factors, and signaling molecules. One of these immediate early genes encodes naked cuticle homolog 1 (NKD1), which is a repressor of canonical WNT (wingless-type MMTV integration site) signaling. We show that loss of NKD1 suppresses the formation of hepatic progenitor cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells and that this phenotype can be rescued by using a pharmacological antagonist of canonical WNT signaling. We conclude that FGF specifies hepatic fate at least in large part by inducing expression of NKD1 to transiently suppress the canonical WNT pathway. PMID:26637527

  16. Antagonistic action on NMDA/GluN2B mediated currents of two peptides that were conantokin-G structure-based designed.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Guzman, Edwin A; Vega-Castro, Nohora; Reyes-Montaño, Edgar A; Recio-Pinto, Esperanza

    2017-05-16

    The GluN2B subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) modulates many physiological processes including learning, memory, and pain. Excessive increase in NMDAr/GluN2B activity has been associated with various disorders such neuropathic pain and neuronal death following hypoxia. Thus there is an interest in identifying NMDAr antagonists that interact specifically with the GluN2B subunit. Recently based on structural analysis between the GluN2B subunit and conantokin-G, a toxin that interacts selectively with the GluN2B subunit, we designed various peptides that are predicted to act as NMDAr antagonists by interacting with the GluN2B subunit. In this study we tested this prediction for two of these peptides EAR16 and EAR18. The effects of EAR16 and EAR18 in NMDA-evoked currents were measured in cultured rat embryonic hippocampal neurons and in HEK-293 cells expressing recombinant NMDAr comprised of GluN1a-GluN2A or GluN1a-GluN2B subunits. In hippocampal neurons, EAR16 and EAR18 reduced the NMDA-evoked calcium currents in a dose-dependent and reversible manner with comparable IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) values of 241 and 176 µM, respectively. At 500 µM, EAR16 blocked more strongly the NMDA-evoked currents mediated by the GluN1a-GluN2B (84%) than those mediated by the GluN1a-GluN2A (50%) subunits. At 500 µM, EAR18 blocked to a similar extent the NMDA-evoked currents mediated by the GluN1a-GluN2B (62%) and the GluN1a-GluN2A (55%) subunits. The newly designed EAR16 and EAR18 peptides were shown to block in reversible manner NMDA-evoked currents, and EAR16 showed a stronger selectivity for GluN2B than for GluN2A.

  17. NR2B Antagonist CP-101,606 Abolishes Pitch-Mediated Deviance Detection in Awake Rats.

    PubMed

    Sivarao, Digavalli V; Chen, Ping; Yang, Yili; Li, Yu-Wen; Pieschl, Rick; Ahlijanian, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients exhibit a decreased ability to detect change in their auditory environment as measured by auditory event-related potentials (ERP) such as mismatch negativity. This deficit has been linked to abnormal NMDA neurotransmission since, among other observations, non-selective channel blockers of NMDA reliably diminish automatic deviance detection in human subjects as well as in animal models. Recent molecular and functional evidence links NR2B receptor subtype to aberrant NMDA transmission in schizophrenia. However, it is unknown if NR2B receptors participate in pre-attentive deviance detection. We recorded ERP from the vertex of freely behaving rats in response to frequency mismatch protocols. We saw a robust increase in N1 response to deviants compared to standard as well as control stimuli indicating true deviance detection. Moreover, the increased negativity was highly sensitive to deviant probability. Next, we tested the effect of a non-selective NMDA channel blocker (ketamine, 30 mg/kg) and a highly selective NR2B antagonist, CP-101,606 (10 or 30 mg/kg) on deviance detection. Ketamine attenuated deviance mainly by increasing the amplitude of the standard ERP. Amplitude and/or latency of several ERP components were also markedly affected. In contrast, CP-101,606 robustly and dose-dependently inhibited the deviant's N1 amplitude, and as a consequence, completely abolished deviance detection. No other ERPs or components were affected. Thus, we report first evidence that NR2B receptors robustly participate in processes of automatic deviance detection in a rodent model. Lastly, our model demonstrates a path forward to test specific pharmacological hypotheses using translational endpoints relevant to aberrant sensory processing in schizophrenia.

  18. Antispasmodic and bronchorelaxant activities of Salsola imbricata are mediated through dual Ca(+2) antagonistic and β-adrenergic agonistic effects.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Naveed; Janbaz, Khalid Hussain

    2017-12-01

    Salsola imbricata Forssk. (Chenopodiaceae) has folkloric repute for the treatment of various gastrointestinal and respiratory ailments. The present study investigates spasmolytic and bronchorelaxant effects of S. imbricata. The crude aqueous-ethanol extract of the aerial parts of S. imbricata and its fractions, in cumulative concentrations (0.01-10 mg/mL), were tested on contractions of isolated rabbit jejunum and tracheal preparations. Furthermore, concentration response curves (CRCs) of Ca(+2) and carbachol were constructed in the absence and presence of the extract. Standard organ bath methods were used. The crude extract relaxed spontaneous, K(+ )(80 mM) and carbachol (1 μM)-induced contractions in jejunum preparations with respective EC50 values of 0.40 (0.35-0.46), 0.69 (0.60-0.79) and 0.66 (0.57-0.75) mg/mL. It shifted Ca(+2) CRCs rightward in nonparallel manner. In isolated tracheal preparations, the crude extract caused relaxation of K(+ )(80 mM) and carbachol (1 μM)-induced contractions with EC50 values of 0.86 (0.75-0.98) and 0.74 (0.66-0.84) mg/mL, respectively. It displaced carbachol CRCs rightward with suppression of maximal response. In both tissues, pretreatment with propranolol (1 μM) caused rightward shift in inhibitory CRCs of the extract against carbachol-induced contractions. The ethyl acetate fraction was found more potent in relaxing smooth muscle contractions than the parent extract and its aqueous fraction. The results suggest that the spasmolytic and bronchorelaxant activities of S. imbricata are related to Ca(+2) antagonistic and β-adrenergic agonistic effects, thus justifying some of the traditional uses of the plant.

  19. Nonsteroidal Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonist Finerenone Protects Against Acute Kidney Injury-Mediated Chronic Kidney Disease: Role of Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Lattenist, Lionel; Lechner, Sebastian M; Messaoudi, Smail; Le Mercier, Alan; El Moghrabi, Soumaya; Prince, Sonia; Bobadilla, Norma A; Kolkhof, Peter; Jaisser, Frédéric; Barrera-Chimal, Jonatan

    2017-05-01

    Acute kidney injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion (IR) is a frequent complication in hospitalized patients. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism has shown to be helpful against renal IR consequences; however, the potential benefit of novel nonsteroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists such as finerenone has to be further explored. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of finerenone to prevent the acute and chronic consequences of ischemic acute kidney injury. For the acute study (24 hours), 18 rats were divided into sham, bilateral renal ischemia of 25 minutes, and rats that received 3 doses of finerenone at 48, 24, and 1 hour before the ischemia. For the chronic study (4 months), 23 rats were divided into sham, rats that underwent 45 minutes of bilateral ischemia, and rats treated with finerenone at days 2 and 1 and 1 hour before IR. We found that after 24 hours of reperfusion, the untreated IR rats presented kidney dysfunction and tubular injury. Kidney injury molecule-1 and neutrophil gelatinase associated to lipolacin mRNA levels were increased. In contrast, the rats treated with finerenone displayed normal kidney function and significantly lesser tubular injury and kidney injury molecule-1 and neutrophil gelatinase associated to lipolacin levels. After 4 months, the IR rats developed chronic kidney disease, evidenced by kidney dysfunction, increased proteinuria and renal vascular resistance, tubular dilation, extensive tubule-interstitial fibrosis, and an increase in kidney transforming growth factor-β and collagen-I mRNA. The transition from acute kidney injury to chronic kidney disease was fully prevented by finerenone. Altogether, our data show that in the rat, finerenone is able to prevent acute kidney injury induced by IR and the chronic and progressive deterioration of kidney function and structure.

  20. FoxO3 mediates antagonistic effects of glucocorticoids and interleukin-2 on glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper expression.

    PubMed

    Asselin-Labat, Marie-Liesse; Biola-Vidamment, Armelle; Kerbrat, Stéphane; Lombès, Marc; Bertoglio, Jacques; Pallardy, Marc

    2005-07-01

    We have analyzed the promoter of human gilz (glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper), a dexamethasone-inducible gene that is involved in regulating apoptosis, and identified six glucocorticoid (GC)-responsive elements and three Forkhead responsive elements (FHREs). Promoter deletion analysis and point mutations showed that individual mutation of the GC-responsive elements does not affect GC-induced transcription and that FHRE-1 and FHRE-3 elements contribute to the effects of GCs. Furthermore, overexpression of the Forkhead transcription factor FoxO3 enhances GC-induced gilz mRNA expression. The functional significance of the interaction between FoxO3 and GC receptor was established in T lymphocytes. Indeed, we show that GCs failed to induce GILZ expression in the presence of IL-2, a cytokine known to antagonize GC effects in T cells. Using a constitutive active mutant of protein kinase B that inactivates FoxO3 or a FoxO3 mutant that cannot be inactivated by protein kinase B, we demonstrate that IL-2 inhibitory effects on GILZ expression are mediated through inhibition of FoxO3 transcriptional activity. Therefore, FoxO3 appears to be a key factor mediating GC and IL-2 antagonism for gilz regulation in T lymphocytes. This regulation of GILZ expression was placed in a meaningful context in evaluating the effects of GILZ on GC-induced apoptosis in T lymphocytes.

  1. A Competition between Stimulators and Antagonists of Upf Complex Recruitment Governs Human Nonsense-Mediated mRNA Decay

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Guramrit; Rebbapragada, Indrani; Lykke-Andersen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    The nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) pathway subjects mRNAs with premature termination codons (PTCs) to rapid decay. The conserved Upf1–3 complex interacts with the eukaryotic translation release factors, eRF3 and eRF1, and triggers NMD when translation termination takes place at a PTC. Contrasting models postulate central roles in PTC-recognition for the exon junction complex in mammals versus the cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) in other eukaryotes. Here we present evidence for a unified model for NMD, in which PTC recognition in human cells is mediated by a competition between 3′ UTR–associated factors that stimulate or antagonize recruitment of the Upf complex to the terminating ribosome. We identify cytoplasmic PABP as a human NMD antagonizing factor, which inhibits the interaction between eRF3 and Upf1 in vitro and prevents NMD in cells when positioned in proximity to the termination codon. Surprisingly, only when an extended 3′ UTR places cytoplasmic PABP distally to the termination codon does a downstream exon junction complex enhance NMD, likely through increasing the affinity of Upf proteins for the 3′ UTR. Interestingly, while an artificial 3′ UTR of >420 nucleotides triggers NMD, a large subset of human mRNAs contain longer 3′ UTRs but evade NMD. We speculate that these have evolved to concentrate NMD-inhibiting factors, such as PABP, in spatial proximity of the termination codon. PMID:18447585

  2. Estrogen Receptor α Mediates Proliferation of Osteoblastic Cells Stimulated by Estrogen and Mechanical Strain, but Their Acute Down-regulation of the Wnt Antagonist Sost Is Mediated by Estrogen Receptor β*

    PubMed Central

    Galea, Gabriel L.; Meakin, Lee B.; Sugiyama, Toshihiro; Zebda, Noureddine; Sunters, Andrew; Taipaleenmaki, Hanna; Stein, Gary S.; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Lanyon, Lance E.; Price, Joanna S.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical strain and estrogens both stimulate osteoblast proliferation through estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated effects, and both down-regulate the Wnt antagonist Sost/sclerostin. Here, we investigate the differential effects of ERα and -β in these processes in mouse long bone-derived osteoblastic cells and human Saos-2 cells. Recruitment to the cell cycle following strain or 17β-estradiol occurs within 30 min, as determined by Ki-67 staining, and is prevented by the ERα antagonist 1,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-methyl-5-[4-(2-piperidinylethoxy)phenol]-1H-pyrazole dihydrochloride. ERβ inhibition with 4-[2-phenyl-5,7-bis(trifluoromethyl)pyrazolo[1,5-β]pyrimidin-3-yl] phenol (PTHPP) increases basal proliferation similarly to strain or estradiol. Both strain and estradiol down-regulate Sost expression, as does in vitro inhibition or in vivo deletion of ERα. The ERβ agonists 2,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile and ERB041 also down-regulated Sost expression in vitro, whereas the ERα agonist 4,4′,4″-[4-propyl-(1H)-pyrazol-1,3,5-triyl]tris-phenol or the ERβ antagonist PTHPP has no effect. Tamoxifen, a nongenomic ERβ agonist, down-regulates Sost expression in vitro and in bones in vivo. Inhibition of both ERs with fulvestrant or selective antagonism of ERβ, but not ERα, prevents Sost down-regulation by strain or estradiol. Sost down-regulation by strain or ERβ activation is prevented by MEK/ERK blockade. Exogenous sclerostin has no effect on estradiol-induced proliferation but prevents that following strain. Thus, in osteoblastic cells the acute proliferative effects of both estradiol and strain are ERα-mediated. Basal Sost down-regulation follows decreased activity of ERα and increased activity of ERβ. Sost down-regulation by strain or increased estrogens is mediated by ERβ, not ERα. ER-targeting therapy may facilitate structurally appropriate bone formation by enhancing the distinct ligand-independent, strain-related contributions to proliferation

  3. QSAR modeling of mono- and bis-quaternary ammonium salts that act as antagonists at neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors mediating dopamine release.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fang; Bayram, Ersin; Sumithran, Sangeetha P; Ayers, Joshua T; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Schmitt, Jeffrey D; Dwoskin, Linda P; Crooks, Peter A

    2006-05-01

    Back-propagation artificial neural networks (ANNs) were trained on a dataset of 42 molecules with quantitative IC50 values to model structure-activity relationships of mono- and bis-quaternary ammonium salts as antagonists at neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) mediating nicotine-evoked dopamine release. The ANN QSAR models produced a reasonable level of correlation between experimental and calculated log(1/IC50) (r2=0.76, r(cv)2=0.64). An external test for the models was performed on a dataset of 18 molecules with IC50 values >1 microM. Fourteen of these were correctly classified. Classification ability of various models, including self-organizing maps (SOM), for all 60 molecules was also evaluated. A detailed analysis of the modeling results revealed the following relative contributions of the used descriptors to the trained ANN QSAR model: approximately 44.0% from the length of the N-alkyl chain attached to the quaternary ammonium head group, approximately 20.0% from Moriguchi octanol-water partition coefficient of the molecule, approximately 13.0% from molecular surface area, approximately 12.6% from the first component shape directional WHIM index/unweighted, approximately 7.8% from Ghose-Crippen molar refractivity, and 2.6% from the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy. The ANN QSAR models were also evaluated using a set of 13 newly synthesized compounds (11 biologically active antagonists and two biologically inactive compounds) whose structures had not been previously utilized in the training set. Twelve among 13 compounds were predicted to be active which further supports the robustness of the trained models. Other insights from modeling include a structural modification in the bis-quinolinium series that involved replacing the 5 and/or 8 as well as the 5' and/or 8' carbon atoms with nitrogen atoms, predicting inactive compounds. Such data can be effectively used to reduce synthetic and in vitro screening activities by eliminating

  4. The A2B adenosine receptor protects against inflammation and excessive vascular adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dan; Zhang, Ying; Nguyen, Hao G.; Koupenova, Milka; Chauhan, Anil K.; Makitalo, Maria; Jones, Matthew R.; Hilaire, Cynthia St.; Seldin, David C.; Toselli, Paul; Lamperti, Edward; Schreiber, Barbara M.; Gavras, Haralambos; Wagner, Denisa D.; Ravid, Katya

    2006-01-01

    Adenosine has been described as playing a role in the control of inflammation, but it has not been certain which of its receptors mediate this effect. Here, we generated an A2B adenosine receptor–knockout/reporter gene–knock-in (A2BAR-knockout/reporter gene–knock-in) mouse model and showed receptor gene expression in the vasculature and macrophages, the ablation of which causes low-grade inflammation compared with age-, sex-, and strain-matched control mice. Augmentation of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, and a consequent downregulation of IκB-α are the underlying mechanisms for an observed upregulation of adhesion molecules in the vasculature of these A2BAR-null mice. Intriguingly, leukocyte adhesion to the vasculature is significantly increased in the A2BAR-knockout mice. Exposure to an endotoxin results in augmented proinflammatory cytokine levels in A2BAR-null mice compared with control mice. Bone marrow transplantations indicated that bone marrow (and to a lesser extent vascular) A2BARs regulate these processes. Hence, we identify the A2BAR as a new critical regulator of inflammation and vascular adhesion primarily via signals from hematopoietic cells to the vasculature, focusing attention on the receptor as a therapeutic target. PMID:16823489

  5. An A2B Adenosine Receptor Agonist Promotes Th17 Autoimmune Responses in Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis (EAU) via Dendritic Cell Activation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingjiazi; Liang, Dongchun; Zuo, Aijun; Shao, Hui; Kaplan, Henry J; Sun, Deming

    2015-01-01

    We have recently reported that, although adenosine receptor (AR) agonists have a suppressive effect on Th1 autoreactive T cells, their effect on Th17 autoreactive T cells and γδ T cells is stimulatory and this effect is mainly mediated via A2A adenosine receptors (A2ARs). In this study, we further demonstrate that treatment of C57BL/6 (B6) mice with a selective A2B adenosine receptor (A2BR) agonist greatly enhanced the development of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU), whereas treatment with an A2BR antagonist significantly ameliorated severity of EAU. The A2BR agonist-treated mice showed augmented Th17, but not Th1, responses. Mechanistic studies showed that the A2BR agonist-induced enhancement of the Th17 response was significantly lower when TCR-δ-/- mice received the same treatment and that transfer of γδ T cells into TCR-δ-/- mice partially restored this effect. We also showed that dendritic cells (DCs) from A2BR agonist-treated mice showed a significantly increased ability to activate γδ T cells and Th17 autoreactive T cells. Thus, our previous studies have shown that, in EAU, activated γδ T cells possess greatly increased ability to enhance Th17 autoimmune responses. In the present study, we showed that exposure of DCs to A2BR agonist facilitated γδ T cell activation, leading to augmented Th17 responses and progressive EAU development. Our results further support our previous finding that AR agonists have distinct effects on Th1 and Th17 autoimmune responses.

  6. An A2B Adenosine Receptor Agonist Promotes Th17 Autoimmune Responses in Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis (EAU) via Dendritic Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mingjiazi; Liang, Dongchun; Zuo, Aijun; Shao, Hui; Kaplan, Henry J.; Sun, Deming

    2015-01-01

    We have recently reported that, although adenosine receptor (AR) agonists have a suppressive effect on Th1 autoreactive T cells, their effect on Th17 autoreactive T cells and γδ T cells is stimulatory and this effect is mainly mediated via A2A adenosine receptors (A2ARs). In this study, we further demonstrate that treatment of C57BL/6 (B6) mice with a selective A2B adenosine receptor (A2BR) agonist greatly enhanced the development of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU), whereas treatment with an A2BR antagonist significantly ameliorated severity of EAU. The A2BR agonist-treated mice showed augmented Th17, but not Th1, responses. Mechanistic studies showed that the A2BR agonist-induced enhancement of the Th17 response was significantly lower when TCR-δ-/- mice received the same treatment and that transfer of γδ T cells into TCR-δ-/- mice partially restored this effect. We also showed that dendritic cells (DCs) from A2BR agonist-treated mice showed a significantly increased ability to activate γδ T cells and Th17 autoreactive T cells. Thus, our previous studies have shown that, in EAU, activated γδ T cells possess greatly increased ability to enhance Th17 autoimmune responses. In the present study, we showed that exposure of DCs to A2BR agonist facilitated γδ T cell activation, leading to augmented Th17 responses and progressive EAU development. Our results further support our previous finding that AR agonists have distinct effects on Th1 and Th17 autoimmune responses. PMID:26147733

  7. TDP-43 suppresses CGG repeat-induced neurotoxicity through interactions with HnRNP A2/B1

    PubMed Central

    He, Fang; Krans, Amy; Freibaum, Brian D.; Taylor, J. Paul; Todd, Peter K.

    2014-01-01

    Nucleotide repeat expansions can elicit neurodegeneration as RNA by sequestering specific RNA-binding proteins, preventing them from performing their normal functions. Conversely, mutations in RNA-binding proteins can trigger neurodegeneration at least partly by altering RNA metabolism. In Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), a CGG repeat expansion in the 5′UTR of the fragile X gene (FMR1) leads to progressive neurodegeneration in patients and CGG repeats in isolation elicit toxicity in Drosophila and other animal models. Here, we identify the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-associated RNA-binding protein TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) as a suppressor of CGG repeat-induced toxicity in a Drosophila model of FXTAS. The rescue appears specific to TDP-43, as co-expression of another ALS-associated RNA-binding protein, FUS, exacerbates the toxic effects of CGG repeats. Suppression of CGG RNA toxicity was abrogated by disease-associated mutations in TDP-43. TDP-43 does not co-localize with CGG RNA foci and its ability to bind RNA is not required for rescue. TDP-43-dependent rescue does, however, require fly hnRNP A2/B1 homologues Hrb87F and Hrb98DE. Deletions in the C-terminal domain of TDP-43 that preclude interactions with hnRNP A2/B1 abolish TDP-43-dependent rescue of CGG repeat toxicity. In contrast, suppression of CGG repeat toxicity by hnRNP A2/B1 is not affected by RNAi-mediated knockdown of the fly TDP-43 orthologue, TBPH. Lastly, TDP-43 suppresses CGG repeat-triggered mis-splicing of an hnRNP A2/B1-targeted transcript. These data support a model in which TDP-43 suppresses CGG-mediated toxicity through interactions with hnRNP A2/B1 and suggest a convergence of pathogenic cascades between repeat expansion disorders and RNA-binding proteins implicated in neurodegenerative disease. PMID:24920338

  8. Inhibition of mediator release in RBL-2H3 cells by some H1-antagonist derived anti-allergic drugs: relation to lipophilicity and membrane effects.

    PubMed

    Fischer, M J; Paulussen, J J; Horbach, D A; Roelofsen, E P; van Miltenburg, J C; de Mol, N J; Janssen, L H

    1995-02-01

    In a model for mucosal mast cells (RBL-2H3 cells) a set H1-antagonist derived anti-allergic drugs containing a diphenylmethyl piperazinyl moiety was examined for their ability to inhibit release of the mediator beta-hexosaminidase. Cells were activated with antigen or the calcium ionophore A23187, whether or not in combination with the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Oxatomide, hydroxyzine and cetirizine inhibit the antigen induced beta-hexosaminidase release. The release triggered by A23187, whether or not in combination with TPA is hardly influenced by the compounds. A biphasic dependence of the inhibition of exocytosis in RBL cells on lipophilicity is observed with the optimum at log P is 5-6. The extremely lipophilic compounds meclozine and buclizine are not active in this model. pH dependence of the effect of the drugs shows that especially the uncharged species are active in inhibiting exocytosis. The investigated compounds show an effect on phase transitions in L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine dipalmitoyl liposomes as assayed with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). For the less extremely lipophilic compounds the induced changes in the phospholipid membranes increased with lipophilicity. The relation between structural features of the drug and the interaction with phospholipids is discussed in view of the DSC results. We conclude that location of the active drugs at the membrane or the membrane/protein interface is important for the inhibiting activity on exocytosis. This could affect several membrane related processes, which are abundant in the early phases of the IgE-mediated signal transduction process.

  9. Testis dysfunction by isoproterenol is mediated by upregulating endothelin receptor A, leptin and protein kinase Cvarepsilon and is attenuated by an endothelin receptor antagonist CPU0213.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Si; Dai, De-Zai; Dai, Yin

    2010-07-01

    This study has examined whether upregulation of endothelin receptor A, leptin and phosphorylated protein kinase Cvarepsilon contributes to stress-induced testicular damaged and its possible reversal by endothelial (ET) antagonism. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control and isoproterenol (ISO 1mg/kg, subcutaneous (s.c.), 10 days) groups, and intervened with the ET receptor antagonist CPU0213 (20mg/kg, s.c.), on days 6-10. In ISO group, testicular succinate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, acid phosphotase, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and serum testosterone decreased, whereas FSH increased, relative to control. The seminiferous tubules were damaged in association with testicular upregulation of protein abundance of leptin and pPKCvarepsilon, and mRNA and protein expression of leptin receptor (OBRb) and ET(A). CPU0213 was effective in ameliorating these abnormalities. Over-expression of ET(A) and leptin accounting for the testis dysfunction is likely to be mediated by pPKCvarepsilon in the ISO treated rats. The upregulated ET pathway appears to be critical in pathologies of the testis.

  10. HnRNP L and hnRNP LL antagonistically modulate PTB-mediated splicing suppression of CHRNA1 pre-mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Mohammad Alinoor; Masuda, Akio; Ohe, Kenji; Ito, Mikako; Hutchinson, David O.; Mayeda, Akila; Engel, Andrew G.; Ohno, Kinji

    2013-01-01

    CHRNA1 gene, encoding the muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha subunit, harbors an inframe exon P3A. Inclusion of exon P3A disables assembly of the acetylcholine receptor subunits. A single nucleotide mutation in exon P3A identified in congenital myasthenic syndrome causes exclusive inclusion of exon P3A. The mutation gains a de novo binding affinity for a splicing enhancing RNA-binding protein, hnRNP LL, and displaces binding of a splicing suppressing RNA-binding protein, hnRNP L. The hnRNP L binds to another splicing repressor PTB through the proline-rich region and promotes PTB binding to the polypyrimidine tract upstream of exon P3A, whereas hnRNP LL lacking the proline-rich region cannot bind to PTB. Interaction of hnRNP L with PTB inhibits association of U2AF65 and U1 snRNP with the upstream and downstream of P3A, respectively, which causes a defect in exon P3A definition. HnRNP L and hnRNP LL thus antagonistically modulate PTB-mediated splicing suppression of exon P3A. PMID:24121633

  11. New POU dimer configuration mediates antagonistic control of an osteopontin preimplantation enhancer by Oct-4 and Sox-2

    PubMed Central

    Botquin, Valérie; Hess, Heike; Fuhrmann, Guy; Anastassiadis, Constantinos; Gross, Michael K.; Vriend, Gerrit; Schöler, Hans R.

    1998-01-01

    The POU transcription factor Oct-4 is expressed specifically in the germ line, pluripotent cells of the pregastrulation embryo and stem cell lines derived from the early embryo. Osteopontin (OPN) is a protein secreted by cells of the preimplantation embryo and contains a GRGDS motif that can bind to specific integrin subtypes and modulate cell adhesion/migration. We show that Oct-4 and OPN are coexpressed in the preimplantation mouse embryo and during differentiation of embryonal cell lines. Immunoprecipitation of the first intron of OPN (i-opn) from covalently fixed chromatin of embryonal stem cells by Oct-4-specific antibodies indicates that Oct-4 binds to this fragment in vivo. The i-opn fragment functions as an enhancer in cell lines that resemble cells of the preimplantation embryo. Furthermore, it contains a novel palindromic Oct factor recognition element (PORE) that is composed of an inverted pair of homeodomain-binding sites separated by exactly 5 bp (ATTTG +5 CAAAT). POU proteins can homo- and heterodimerize on the PORE in a configuration that has not been described previously. Strong transcriptional activation of the OPN element requires an intact PORE. In contrast, the canonical octamer overlapping with the downstream half of the PORE is not essential. Sox-2 is a transcription factor that contains an HMG box and is coexpressed with Oct-4 in the early mouse embryo. Sox-2 represses Oct-4 mediated activation of i-opn by way of a canonical Sox element that is located close to the PORE. Repression depends on a carboxy-terminal region of Sox-2 that is outside of the HMG box. Expression, DNA binding, and transactivation data are consistent with the hypothesis that OPN expression is regulated by Oct-4 and Sox-2 in preimplantation development. PMID:9649510

  12. EWS-FLI1-mediated suppression of the RAS-antagonist Sprouty 1 (SPRY1) confers aggressiveness to Ewing sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Cidre-Aranaz, F; Grünewald, T G P; Surdez, D; García-García, L; Carlos Lázaro, J; Kirchner, T; González-González, L; Sastre, A; García-Miguel, P; López-Pérez, S E; Monzón, S; Delattre, O; Alonso, J

    2017-02-09

    Ewing sarcoma is characterized by chromosomal translocations fusing the EWS gene with various members of the ETS family of transcription factors, most commonly FLI1. EWS-FLI1 is an aberrant transcription factor driving Ewing sarcoma tumorigenesis by either transcriptionally inducing or repressing specific target genes. Herein, we showed that Sprouty 1 (SPRY1), which is a physiological negative feedback inhibitor downstream of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors (FGFRs) and other RAS-activating receptors, is an EWS-FLI1 repressed gene. EWS-FLI1 knockdown specifically increased the expression of SPRY1, while other Sprouty family members remained unaffected. Analysis of SPRY1 expression in a panel of Ewing sarcoma cells showed that SPRY1 was not expressed in Ewing sarcoma cell lines, suggesting that it could act as a tumor suppressor gene in these cells. In agreement, induction of SPRY1 in three different Ewing sarcoma cell lines functionally impaired proliferation, clonogenic growth and migration. In addition, SPRY1 expression inhibited extracellular signal-related kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling induced by serum and basic FGF (bFGF). Moreover, treatment of Ewing sarcoma cells with the potent FGFR inhibitor PD-173074 reduced bFGF-induced proliferation, colony formation and in vivo tumor growth in a dose-dependent manner, thus mimicking SPRY1 activity in Ewing sarcoma cells. Although the expression of SPRY1 was low when compared with other tumors, SPRY1 was variably expressed in primary Ewing sarcoma tumors and higher expression levels were significantly associated with improved outcome in a large patient cohort. Taken together, our data indicate that EWS-FLI1-mediated repression of SPRY1 leads to unrestrained bFGF-induced cell proliferation, suggesting that targeting the FGFR/MAPK pathway can constitute a promising therapeutic approach for this devastating disease.

  13. Bivalent IAP antagonists, but not monovalent IAP antagonists, inhibit TNF-mediated NF-κB signaling by degrading TRAF2-associated cIAP1 in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuuchi, Y; Benetatos, CA; Deng, Y; Haimowitz, T; Beck, SC; Arnone, MR; Kapoor, GS; Seipel, ME; Chunduru, SK; McKinlay, MA; Begley, CG; Condon, SM

    2017-01-01

    The inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins have pivotal roles in cell proliferation and differentiation, and antagonizing IAPs in certain cancer cell lines results in induction of cell death. A variety of IAP antagonist compounds targeting the baculovirus IAP protein repeat 3 (BIR3) domain of cIAP1have advanced into clinical trials. Here we sought to compare and contrast the biochemical activities of selected monovalent and bivalent IAP antagonists with the intent of identifying functional differences between these two classes of IAP antagonist drug candidates. The anti-cellular IAP1 (cIAP1) and pro-apoptotic activities of monovalent IAP antagonists were increased by using a single covalent bond to combine the monovalent moieties at the P4 position. In addition, regardless of drug concentration, treatment with monovalent compounds resulted in consistently higher levels of residual cIAP1 compared with that seen following bivalent compound treatment. We found that the remaining residual cIAP1 following monovalent compound treatment was predominantly tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2)-associated cIAP1. As a consequence, bivalent compounds were more effective at inhibiting TNF-induced activation of p65/NF-κB compared with monovalent compounds. Moreover, extension of the linker chain at the P4 position of bivalent compounds resulted in a decreased ability to degrade TRAF2-associated cIAP1 in a manner similar to monovalent compounds. This result implied that specific bivalent IAP antagonists but not monovalent compounds were capable of inducing formation of a cIAP1 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex with the capacity to effectively degrade TRAF2-associated cIAP1. These results further suggested that only certain bivalent IAP antagonists are preferred for the targeting of TNF-dependent signaling for the treatment of cancer or infectious diseases. PMID:28149532

  14. Progesterone-mediated angiogenic activity of endothelial progenitor cell and angiogenesis in traumatic brain injury rats were antagonized by progesterone receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Yu, Peng; Li, Shengjie; Zhang, Zhifei; Wen, Xiaolong; Quan, Wei; Tian, Qilong; Gao, Chuang; Su, Wanqiang; Zhang, Jianning; Jiang, Rongcai

    2017-10-01

    Progesterone (P4) has the potential therapeutic effects for traumatic brain injury (TBI) whose recovery depended on the enhanced angiogenesis. Endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) plays an essential role in vascular biology. We previously demonstrated that P4 administration improved circulating EPC level and neurological recovery of rat with TBI. Here, we hypothesized that P4 augmented angiogenic potential of EPC and the angiogenesis-related neurorestoration after TBI through classical progesterone receptor (PR). EPC derived from rats were stimulated with graded concentrations (0, 10(-10) , 10(-9) , 5 × 10(-9) , 10(-8) , 10(-7)  mol/L) of P4 or 10(-6)  mol/L ulipristal acetate (UPA, a PR antagonist). Male rats were subjected to cortical impact injury and treated with (i) DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide), (ii) P4 and (iii) P4 and UPA. It showed that P4 improved the angiogenic potential of EPC, including tube formation, adhesion, migration and vascular endothelial growth factor secretion, in a dose-dependent fashion with the maximal effect achieved at 10(-9)  mol/L P4. High concentration (10(-7)  mol/L) of P4 impaired the angiogenic potential of EPC. Notably, 10(-6)  mol/L UPA antagonized the stimulatory effects of 10(-9 ) mol/L P4. After administrating P4, a significant improvement of neurological function and the restoration of the leaked blood-brain barrier were observed as well as a reduction of the brain water content. Both vessel density and expression of occludin of vessels were increased. When UPA was administered with P4, the neural restoration and angiogenesis were all reversed. Western blot showed that 10(-9)  mol/L P4 increased the content of PRA and PRB of EPC, while 10(-7)  mol/L P4 reduced the content of both PR isoforms, but there was no change found in the TBI rats. It may suggest that P4-mediated angiogenic activity of EPC and angiogenesis in TBI rats were antagonized by PR antagonist. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Dickkopf-1, the Wnt antagonist, is induced by acidic pH and mediates epithelial cellular senescence in human reflux esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Lyros, Orestis; Rafiee, Parvaneh; Nie, Linghui; Medda, Rituparna; Jovanovic, Nebojsa; Schmidt, Jamie; Mackinnon, Alexander; Venu, Nanda

    2014-01-01

    Squamous esophageal epithelium adapts to acid reflux-mediated injury by proliferation and differentiation via signal transduction pathways. Induction of the Wnt antagonist Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1) is involved in tissue repair during inflammation and cellular injury. In this study, we aimed to identify the biological role of Dkk1 in human reflux esophagitis with respect to cell growth and regulation of Wnt signaling. Esophageal biopsies from reflux-esophagitis patients (n = 15) and healthy individuals (n = 10) were characterized in terms of Dkk1 expression. The role of Dkk1 in response to acid-mediated epithelial injury was analyzed by cellular assays in vitro utilizing squamous esophageal epithelial cell lines (EPC1-hTERT, EPC2-hTERT, and HEEC). Dkk1 was significantly overexpressed in human reflux-esophagitis tissue compared with healthy esophageal mucosa at transcriptional and translational levels. After acute and chronic acid (pH 4) exposure, esophageal squamous epithelial cell lines expressed and secreted high levels of Dkk1 in response to stress-associated DNA injury. High extracellular levels of human recombinant Dkk1 inhibited epithelial cell growth and induced cellular senescence in vitro, as demonstrated by reduced cell proliferation, G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, elevated senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, and upregulation of p16. Acid pulsing induced Dkk1-mediated senescence, which was directly linked to the ability of Dkk1 to antagonize the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling. In healthy esophageal mucosa, Dkk1 expression was associated with low expression of transcriptionally active β-catenin, while in reflux-esophagitis tissue, Dkk1 overexpression correlated with increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and p16 upregulation. The data indicate that, in human reflux esophagitis, Dkk1 functions as a secreted growth inhibitor by suppressing Wnt/β-catenin signaling and promoting cellular senescence. These findings suggest a significant

  16. Dual A1/A2B Receptor Blockade Improves Cardiac and Renal Outcomes in a Rat Model of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Tofovic, Stevan P.; Salah, Eman M.; Smits, Glenn J.; Whalley, Eric T.; Ticho, Barry; Deykin, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is prevalent and often accompanied by metabolic syndrome. Current treatment options are limited. Here, we test the hypothesis that combined A1/A2B adenosine receptor blockade is beneficial in obese ZSF1 rats, an animal model of HFpEF with metabolic syndrome. The combined A1/A2B receptor antagonist 3-[4-(2,6-dioxo-1,3-dipropyl-7H-purin-8-yl)-1-bicyclo[2.2.2]octanyl]propanoic acid (BG9928) was administered orally (10 mg/kg/day) to obese ZSF1 rats (n = 10) for 24 weeks (from 20 to 44 weeks of age). Untreated ZSF1 rats (n = 9) served as controls. After 24 weeks of administration, BG9928 significantly lowered plasma triglycerides (in mg/dl: control group, 4351 ± 550; BG9928 group, 2900 ± 551) without adversely affecting plasma cholesterol or activating renin release. BG9928 significantly decreased 24-hour urinary glucose excretion (in mg/kg/day: control group, 823 ± 179; BG9928 group, 196 ± 80) and improved oral glucose tolerance, polydipsia, and polyuria. BG9928 significantly augmented left ventricular diastolic function in association with a reduction in cardiac vasculitis and cardiac necrosis. BG9928 significantly reduced 24-hour urinary protein excretion (in mg/kg/day: control group, 1702 ± 263; BG9928 group, 1076 ± 238), and this was associated with a reduction in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, tubular atrophy, tubular dilation, and deposition of proteinaceous material in the tubules. These findings show that, in a model of HFpEF with metabolic syndrome, A1/A2B receptor inhibition improves hyperlipidemia, exerts antidiabetic actions, reduces HFpEF, improves cardiac histopathology, and affords renal protection. We conclude that chronic administration of combined A1/A2B receptor antagonists could be beneficial in patients with HFpEF, in particular those with comorbidities such as obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemias. PMID:26585572

  17. Olmesartan, an AT1 Antagonist, Attenuates Oxidative Stress, Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Cardiac Inflammatory Mediators in Rats with Heart Failure Induced by Experimental Autoimmune Myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Sukumaran, Vijayakumar; Watanabe, Kenichi; Veeraveedu, Punniyakoti T.; Gurusamy, Narasimman; Ma, Meilei; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A.; Lakshmanan, Arun Prasath; Yamaguchi, Ken'ichi; Suzuki, Kenji; Kodama, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that angiotensin II has been involved in immune and inflammatory responses which might contribute to the pathogenesis of immune-mediated diseases. Recent evidence suggests that oxidative stress may play a role in myocarditis. Here, we investigated whether olmesartan, an AT1R antagonist protects against experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) by suppression of oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammatory cytokines. EAM was induced in Lewis rats by immunization with porcine cardiac myosin, were divided into two groups and treated with either olmesartan (10 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for a period of 21 days. Myocardial functional parameters measured by hemodynamic and echocardiographic analyses were significantly improved by the treatment with olmesartan compared with those of vehicle-treated rats. Treatment with olmesartan attenuated the myocardial mRNA expressions of proinflammatory cytokines, [Interleukin (IL)-1β, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ)] and the protein expression of tumor necrosis factor-α compared with that of vehicle-treated rats. Myocardial protein expressions of AT1R, NADPH oxidase subunits (p47phox, p67phox, gp91phox) and the expression of markers of oxidative stress (3-nitrotyrosine and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal), and the cardiac apoptosis were also significantly decreased by the treatment with olmesartan compared with those of vehicle-treated rats. Furthermore, olmesartan treatment down-regulated the myocardial expressions of glucose regulated protein-78, growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gene, caspase-12, phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phospho-JNK. These findings suggest that olmesartan protects against EAM in rats, at least in part via suppression of oxidative stress, ER stress and inflammatory cytokines. PMID:21383952

  18. Olmesartan, an AT1 antagonist, attenuates oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress and cardiac inflammatory mediators in rats with heart failure induced by experimental autoimmune myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Sukumaran, Vijayakumar; Watanabe, Kenichi; Veeraveedu, Punniyakoti T; Gurusamy, Narasimman; Ma, Meilei; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A; Lakshmanan, Arun Prasath; Yamaguchi, Ken'ichi; Suzuki, Kenji; Kodama, Makoto

    2011-02-11

    Studies have demonstrated that angiotensin II has been involved in immune and inflammatory responses which might contribute to the pathogenesis of immune-mediated diseases. Recent evidence suggests that oxidative stress may play a role in myocarditis. Here, we investigated whether olmesartan, an AT(1)R antagonist protects against experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) by suppression of oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammatory cytokines. EAM was induced in Lewis rats by immunization with porcine cardiac myosin, were divided into two groups and treated with either olmesartan (10 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for a period of 21 days. Myocardial functional parameters measured by hemodynamic and echocardiographic analyses were significantly improved by the treatment with olmesartan compared with those of vehicle-treated rats. Treatment with olmesartan attenuated the myocardial mRNA expressions of proinflammatory cytokines, [Interleukin (IL)-1β, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ)] and the protein expression of tumor necrosis factor-α compared with that of vehicle-treated rats. Myocardial protein expressions of AT(1)R, NADPH oxidase subunits (p47phox, p67phox, gp91phox) and the expression of markers of oxidative stress (3-nitrotyrosine and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal), and the cardiac apoptosis were also significantly decreased by the treatment with olmesartan compared with those of vehicle-treated rats. Furthermore, olmesartan treatment down-regulated the myocardial expressions of glucose regulated protein-78, growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gene, caspase-12, phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phospho-JNK. These findings suggest that olmesartan protects against EAM in rats, at least in part via suppression of oxidative stress, ER stress and inflammatory cytokines.

  19. Immunodiagnosis of tumors in vivo using radiolabeled monoclonal antibody A2B5

    SciTech Connect

    Reintgen, D.S.; Shimizu, K.; Coleman, E.; Briner, W.; Kitzmiller, J.; Eisenbarth, G.; Seigler, H.F.

    1983-07-01

    Recently a murine monoclonal antibody (A2B5) has been described that reacts with a membrane associated GQ ganglioside common to peptide secreting normal cells and tumors. In vitro binding data demonstrated the presence of this ganglioside on neurons, adrenal medulla, and pancreatic islets, along with neuroendocrine tumors such as insulinomas, pheochromocytomas, melanomas and neuroblastomas. Negative binding has previously been shown for tissue sections from liver, kidney, colon, lung, stomach, and tumors not derived from the neural crest. Because of the specificity at A2B5 in vitro, this monoclonal antibody was labeled with /sup 131/I for in vivo tumor localization studies. Daily radionuclear scans were obtained in 5 KX rats bearing the radiation induced rat insulinoma with disappearance of the label from the blood pool and concentration in the tumor so that by the fourth day, the only activity present by scan was in the insulinoma. In addition A2B5 also localized to five different human melanoma cells lines grown in nude mice with high tumor/blood levels compared to normal tissues, while no localization is seen in nudes carrying osteosarcomas, colon, bladder, and renal cell carcinomas. In addition antibody A2B5 did not concentrate in any normal tissue though the antigen is present on several. The finding that A2B5 reacts across species lines (mouse, rat, man) lends itself to obvious diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities.

  20. A nonsteroidal glucocorticoid receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Miner, Jeffrey N; Tyree, Curtis; Hu, Junlian; Berger, Elaine; Marschke, Keith; Nakane, Masaki; Coghlan, Michael J; Clemm, Dave; Lane, Ben; Rosen, Jon

    2003-01-01

    Selective intracellular receptor antagonists are used clinically to ameliorate hormone-dependent disease states. Patients with Cushing's syndrome have high levels of the glucocorticoid, cortisol, and suffer significant consequences from this overexposure. High levels of this hormone are also implicated in exacerbating diabetes and the stress response. Selectively inhibiting this hormone may have clinical benefit in these disease states. To this end, we have identified the first selective, nonsteroidal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist. This compound is characterized by a tri-aryl methane core chemical structure. This GR-specific antagonist binds with nanomolar affinity to the GR and has no detectable binding affinity for the highly related receptors for mineralocorticoids, androgens, estrogens, and progestins. We demonstrate that this antagonist inhibits glucocorticoid-mediated transcriptional regulation. This compound binds competitively with steroids, likely occupying a similar site within the ligand-binding domain. Once bound, however, the compound fails to induce critical conformational changes in the receptor necessary for agonist activity.

  1. Homology modelling of the human adenosine A2B receptor based on X-ray structures of bovine rhodopsin, the β2-adrenergic receptor and the human adenosine A2A receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherbiny, Farag F.; Schiedel, Anke C.; Maaß, Astrid; Müller, Christa E.

    2009-11-01

    A three-dimensional model of the human adenosine A2B receptor was generated by means of homology modelling, using the crystal structures of bovine rhodopsin, the β2-adrenergic receptor, and the human adenosine A2A receptor as templates. In order to compare the three resulting models, the binding modes of the adenosine A2B receptor antagonists theophylline, ZM241385, MRS1706, and PSB601 were investigated. The A2A-based model was much better able to stabilize the ligands in the binding site than the other models reflecting the high degree of similarity between A2A and A2B receptors: while the A2B receptor shares about 21% of the residues with rhodopsin, and 31% with the β2-adrenergic receptor, it is 56% identical to the adenosine A2A receptor. The A2A-based model was used for further studies. The model included the transmembrane domains, the extracellular and the intracellular hydrophilic loops as well as the terminal domains. In order to validate the usefulness of this model, a docking analysis of several selective and nonselective agonists and antagonists was carried out including a study of binding affinities and selectivities of these ligands with respect to the adenosine A2A and A2B receptors. A common binding site is proposed for antagonists and agonists based on homology modelling combined with site-directed mutagenesis and a comparison between experimental and calculated affinity data. The new, validated A2B receptor model may serve as a basis for developing more potent and selective drugs.

  2. Immunodiagnosis of tumors in vivo using radiolabeled monoclonal antibody A2B5.

    PubMed

    Reintgen, D S; Shimizu, K; Coleman, E; Briner, W; Kitzmiller, J; Eisenbarth, G; Seigler, H F

    1983-07-01

    Recently a murine monoclonal antibody (A2B5) has been described that reacts with a membrane associated GQ ganglioside common to peptide secreting normal cells and tumors. In vitro binding data demonstrated the presence of this ganglioside on neurons, adrenal medulla, and pancreatic islets, along with neuroendocrine tumors such as insulinomas, pheochromocytomas, melanomas and neuroblastomas. Negative binding has previously been shown for tissue sections from liver, kidney, colon, lung, stomach, and tumors not derived from the neural crest. Because of the specificity at A2B5 in vitro, this monoclonal antibody was labeled with 131I for in vivo tumor localization studies. Daily radionuclear scans were obtained in 5 KX rats bearing the radiation induced rat insulinoma with disappearance of the label from the blood pool and concentration in the tumor so that by the fourth day, the only activity present by scan was in the insulinoma. Tissue-counting data showed tumor/blood ratios (av +/- SE, 1.29 +/- 0.25) of A2B5 activity two to ten times the average activity found in other organs (0.28 +/- 0.05). No tumor concentration of the control nonspecific monoclonal antibody P3X63 was evident (0.27 +/- 0.04). In addition A2B5 also localized to five different human melanoma cells lines grown in nude mice with high tumor/blood levels (1.04 +/- 0.27) compared to normal tissues (0.32 +/- 0.05) (P = .0005), while no localization is seen in nudes carrying osteosarcomas, colon, bladder, and renal cell carcinomas. In addition antibody A2B5 did not concentrate in any normal tissue though the antigen is present on several. The finding that A2B5 reacts across species lines (mouse, rat, man) lends itself to obvious diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities.

  3. Recent improvements in the development of A2B adenosine receptor agonists

    PubMed Central

    Tabrizi, Mojgan Aghazadeh; Fruttarolo, Francesca; Romagnoli, Romeo; Preti, Delia

    2008-01-01

    Adenosine is known to exert most of its physiological functions by acting as local modulator at four receptor subtypes named A1, A2A, A2B and A3 (ARs). Principally as a result of the difficulty in identifying potent and selective agonists, the A2B AR is the least extensively characterised of the adenosine receptors family. Despite these limitations, growing understanding of the physiological meaning of this target indicates promising therapeutic perspectives for specific ligands. As A2B AR signalling seems to be associated with pre/postconditioning cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory mechanisms, selective agonists may represent a new therapeutic group for patients suffering from coronary artery disease. Herein we present an overview of the recent advancements in identifying potent and selective A2B AR agonists reported in scientific and patent literature. These compounds can be classified into adenosine-like and nonadenosine ligands. Nucleoside-based agonists are the result of modifying adenosine by substitution at the N6-, C2-positions of the purine heterocycle and/or at the 5′-position of the ribose moiety or combinations of these substitutions. Compounds 1-deoxy-1-{6-[N′-(furan-2-carbonyl)-hydrazino]-9H-purin-9-yl}-N-ethyl-β-D-ribofuranuronamide (19, hA1Ki = 1050 nM, hA2AKi = 1550 nM, hA2B EC50 = 82 nM, hA3Ki > 5 μM) and its 2-chloro analogue 23 (hA1Ki = 3500 nM, hA2AKi = 4950 nM, hA2B EC50 = 210 nM, hA3Ki > 5 μM) were confirmed to be potent and selective full agonists in a cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) functional assay in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing hA2B AR. Nonribose ligands are represented by conveniently substituted dicarbonitrilepyridines, among which 2-[6-amino-3,5-dicyano-4-[4-(cyclopropylmethoxy)phenyl]pyridin-2-ylsulfanyl]acetamide (BAY-60–6583, hA1, hA2A, hA3 EC50 > 10 μM; hA2B EC50 = 3 nM) is currently under preclinical-phase investigation for treating coronary

  4. Recent improvements in the development of A2B adenosine receptor agonists

    PubMed Central

    Tabrizi, Mojgan Aghazadeh; Fruttarolo, Francesca; Romagnoli, Romeo; Preti, Delia

    2009-01-01

    Adenosine is known to exert most of its physiological functions by acting as local modulator at four receptor subtypes named A1, A2A, A2B and A3 (ARs). Principally as a result of the difficulty in identifying potent and selective agonists, the A2B AR is the least extensively characterised of the adenosine receptors family. Despite these limitations, growing understanding of the physiological meaning of this target indicates promising therapeutic perspectives for specific ligands. As A2B AR signalling seems to be associated with pre/postconditioning cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory mechanisms, selective agonists may represent a new therapeutic group for patients suffering from coronary artery disease. Herein we present an overview of the recent advancements in identifying potent and selective A2B AR agonists reported in scientific and patent literature. These compounds can be classified into adenosine-like and nonadenosine ligands. Nucleoside-based agonists are the result of modifying adenosine by substitution at the N6-, C2-positions of the purine heterocycle and/or at the 5′-position of the ribose moiety or combinations of these substitutions. Compounds 1-deoxy-1-{6-[N′-(furan-2-carbonyl)-hydrazino]-9H-purin-9-yl}-N-ethyl-β-D-ribofuranuronamide (19, hA1Ki = 1050 nM, hA2AKi = 1550 nM, hA2B EC50 = 82 nM, hA3Ki > 5 μM) and its 2-chloro analogue 23 (hA1Ki = 3500 nM, hA2AKi = 4950 nM, hA2B EC50 = 210 nM, hA3Ki > 5 μM) were confirmed to be potent and selective full agonists in a cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) functional assay in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing hA2B AR. Nonribose ligands are represented by conveniently substituted dicarbonitrilepyridines, among which 2-[6-amino-3,5-dicyano-4-[4-(cyclopropylmethoxy)phenyl]pyridin-2-ylsulfanyl]acetamide (BAY-60–6583, hA1, hA2A, hA3 EC50 > 10 μM; hA2B EC50 = 3 nM) is currently under preclinical-phase investigation for treating coronary

  5. Textbook Evaluation: An Analysis of Listening Comprehension Parts in Top Notch 2A & 2B

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soori, Afshin; Haghani, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Textbooks are the instruments that assist both teachers and learners in process of second language learning. With respect to the importance of textbooks in a language course, evaluation of course books is a significant issue for most researchers. The present study investigated and analyzed Listening Comprehension parts in Top Notch 2A & 2B 2nd…

  6. Excess adenosine in murine penile erectile tissues contributes to priapism via A2B adenosine receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Tiejuan; Abbasi, Shahrzad; Zhang, Hong; Uray, Karen; Chunn, Janci L.; Xia, Ling Wei; Molina, Jose G.; Weisbrodt, Norman W.; Kellems, Rodney E.; Blackburn, Michael R.; Xia, Yang

    2008-01-01

    Priapism, abnormally prolonged penile erection in the absence of sexual excitation, is associated with ischemia-mediated erectile tissue damage and subsequent erectile dysfunction. It is common among males with sickle cell disease (SCD), and SCD transgenic mice are an accepted model of the disorder. Current strategies to manage priapism suffer from a poor fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the disorder. Here we report that mice lacking adenosine deaminase (ADA), an enzyme necessary for the breakdown of adenosine, displayed unexpected priapic activity. ADA enzyme therapy successfully corrected the priapic activity both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that it was dependent on elevated adenosine levels. Further genetic and pharmacologic evidence demonstrated that A2B adenosine receptor–mediated (A2BR-mediated) cAMP and cGMP induction was required for elevated adenosine–induced prolonged penile erection. Finally, priapic activity in SCD transgenic mice was also caused by elevated adenosine levels and A2BR activation. Thus, we have shown that excessive adenosine accumulation in the penis contributes to priapism through increased A2BR signaling in both Ada–/– and SCD transgenic mice. These findings provide insight regarding the molecular basis of priapism and suggest that strategies to either reduce adenosine or block A2BR activation may prove beneficial in the treatment of this disorder. PMID:18340377

  7. ACTH Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Adrian John; Forfar, Rachel; Hussain, Mashal; Jerman, Jeff; McIver, Ed; Taylor, Debra; Chan, Li

    2016-01-01

    Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) acts via a highly selective receptor that is a member of the melanocortin receptor subfamily of type 1 G protein-coupled receptors. The ACTH receptor, also known as the melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), is unusual in that it is absolutely dependent on a small accessory protein, melanocortin receptor accessory protein (MRAP) for cell surface expression and function. ACTH is the only known naturally occurring agonist for this receptor. This lack of redundancy and high degree of ligand specificity suggests that antagonism of this receptor could provide a useful therapeutic aid and a potential investigational tool. Clinical situations in which this could be useful include (1) Cushing’s disease and ectopic ACTH syndrome – especially while preparing for definitive treatment of a causative tumor, or in refractory cases, or (2) congenital adrenal hyperplasia – as an adjunct to glucocorticoid replacement. A case for antagonism in other clinical situations in which there is ACTH excess can also be made. In this article, we will explore the scientific and clinical case for an ACTH antagonist, and will review the evidence for existing and recently described peptides and modified peptides in this role. PMID:27547198

  8. Characterization of SB-705498, a potent and selective vanilloid receptor-1 (VR1/TRPV1) antagonist that inhibits the capsaicin-, acid-, and heat-mediated activation of the receptor.

    PubMed

    Gunthorpe, Martin J; Hannan, Sara Luis; Smart, Darren; Jerman, Jeffrey C; Arpino, Sandra; Smith, Graham D; Brough, Stephen; Wright, Jim; Egerton, Julie; Lappin, Sarah C; Holland, Vicky A; Winborn, Kim; Thompson, Mervyn; Rami, Harshad K; Randall, Andrew; Davis, John B

    2007-06-01

    Vanilloid receptor-1 (TRPV1) is a nonselective cation channel, predominantly expressed by sensory neurons, which plays a key role in the detection of noxious painful stimuli such as capsaicin, acid, and heat. TRPV1 antagonists may represent novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of a range of conditions including chronic pain, migraine, and gastrointestinal disorders. Here we describe the in vitro pharmacology of N-(2-bromophenyl)-N'-[((R)-1-(5-trifluoromethyl-2-pyridyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)]urea (SB-705498), a novel TRPV1 antagonist identified by lead optimization of N-(2-bromophenyl)-N'-[2-[ethyl(3-methylphenyl)amino]ethyl]urea (SB-452533), which has now entered clinical trials. Using a Ca(2+)-based fluorometric imaging plate reader (FLIPR) assay, SB-705498 was shown to be a potent competitive antagonist of the capsaicin-mediated activation of the human TRPV1 receptor (pK(i) = 7.6) with activity at rat (pK(i) = 7.5) and guinea pig (pK(i) = 7.3) orthologs. Whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology was used to confirm and extend these findings, demonstrating that SB-705498 can potently inhibit the multiple modes of receptor activation that may be relevant to the pathophysiological role of TRPV1 in vivo: SB-705498 caused rapid and reversible inhibition of the capsaicin (IC(50) = 3 nM)-, acid (pH 5.3)-, or heat (50 degrees C; IC(50) = 6 nM)-mediated activation of human TRPV1 (at -70 mV). Interestingly, SB-705498 also showed a degree of voltage dependence, suggesting an effective enhancement of antagonist action at negative potentials such as those that might be encountered in neurons in vivo. The selectivity of SB-705498 was defined by broad receptor profiling and other cellular assays in which it showed little or no activity versus a wide range of ion channels, receptors, and enzymes. SB-705498 therefore represents a potent and selective multimodal TRPV1 antagonist, a pharmacological profile that has contributed to its definition as a suitable drug candidate for

  9. Mysterious link between iron overload and CDKN2A/2B

    PubMed Central

    Toyokuni, Shinya

    2011-01-01

    Persistent oxidative stress has been associated with carcinogenesis. Iron overload is considered one such condition that causes oxidative stress. Epidemiological studies support a close link between iron overload and carcinogenesis. Reportedly, regular semiannual phlebotomies reduced cancer risk in an otherwise normal population. More specifically, genetic hemochromatosis, chronic viral hepatitis, ovarian endometriosis and asbestosis induce iron overload, which can lead to hepatocellular carcinoma, ovarian carcinoma or mesothelioma in humans. Through a combination of animal experiments and microarray analyses, homozygous deletion of CDKN2A/2B has been recognized as one of the major target genes involved in iron overload-induced carcinogenesis. CDKN2A/2B are the second most frequently inactivated tumor suppressing genes in human cancers. Currently, when infection is becoming sufficiently controlled worldwide, iron regulation may be the next target for human longevity. PMID:21297911

  10. The contractile effect of the ghrelin receptor antagonist, D-Lys3-GHRP-6, in rat fundic strips is mediated through 5-HT receptors.

    PubMed

    Depoortere, Inge; Thijs, Theo; Peeters, Theo

    2006-05-10

    Ghrelin is an orexigenic peptide present in the stomach with gastroprokinetic properties. Previous in vivo studies have shown that the ghrelin receptor antagonist, D-Lys(3)-GHRP-6, reduced food intake and delayed gastric emptying in rodents but these effects are at variance with the normal phenotype of the ghrelin knockout mice. To verify the specificity of the effects observed with D-Lys(3)-GHRP-6 this study aimed to investigate the pharmacology of D-Lys(3)-GHRP-6 in vitro. Rat fundic strips were suspended in a tissue bath and the contraction of strips to 10(-5) M of ghrelin, GHRP-6 or D-Lys(3)-GHRP-6 was measured isometrically in the absence and presence of blockers. Neither ghrelin, nor GHRP-6, induced significant contractions in the absence of electrical field stimulation thereby excluding the presence of ghrelin receptors on smooth muscle cells. In contrast D-Lys(3)-GHRP-6, induced a pronounced biphasic contraction of 13.9+/-1.8% and 40.5+/-3.2% relative to the response to 60 mM KCl. The contraction was blocked by the 5-HT(1,2) receptor antagonist methysergide and was markedly reduced by the 5-HT(2B) receptor antagonist, yohimbine, which also profoundly affected 5-HT induced contractions in fundic strips. The existence of 5-HT(2B) receptors in the fundus was confirmed by use of the 5-HT(2B) receptor agonist, BW 723C86. In contrast to ghrelin and GHRP-6, the ghrelin receptor antagonist, D-Lys(3)-GHRP-6, induced pronounced smooth muscle contractions in the rat fundus by interacting with 5-HT(2B) receptors. This may question the role of endogenous ghrelin in the effects observed with D-Lys(3)-GHRP-6 on food intake and gastric emptying in vivo.

  11. Skin-Targeted Inhibition of PPAR β/δ by Selective Antagonists to Treat PPAR β/δ – Mediated Psoriasis-Like Skin Disease In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hack, Katrin; Reilly, Louise; Palmer, Colin; Read, Kevin D.; Norval, Suzanne; Kime, Robert; Booth, Kally; Foerster, John

    2012-01-01

    We have previously shown that peroxisome proliferator activating receptor ß/δ (PPAR β/δ is overexpressed in psoriasis. PPAR β/δ is not present in adult epidermis of mice. Targeted expression of PPAR β/δ and activation by a selective synthetic agonist is sufficient to induce an inflammatory skin disease resembling psoriasis. Several signalling pathways dysregulated in psoriasis are replicated in this model, suggesting that PPAR β/δ activation contributes to psoriasis pathogenesis. Thus, inhibition of PPAR β/δ might harbour therapeutical potential. Since PPAR β/δ has pleiotropic functions in metabolism, skin-targeted inhibition offer the potential of reducing systemic adverse effects. Here, we report that three selective PPAR β/δ antagonists, GSK0660, compound 3 h, and GSK3787 can be formulated for topical application to the skin and that their skin concentration can be accurately quantified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)/mass spectrometry. These antagonists show efficacy in our transgenic mouse model in reducing psoriasis – like changes triggered by activation of PPAR β/δ. PPAR β/δ antagonists GSK0660 and compound 3 do not exhibit systemic drug accumulation after prolonged application to the skin, nor do they induce inflammatory or irritant changes. Significantly, the irreversible PPAR β/δ antagonist (GSK3787) retains efficacy when applied topically only three times per week which could be of practical clinical usefulness. Our data suggest that topical inhibition of PPAR β/δ to treat psoriasis may warrant further exploration. PMID:22606335

  12. Angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2 R) localization and antagonist-mediated inhibition of capsaicin responses and neurite outgrowth in human and rat sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Anand, U; Facer, P; Yiangou, Y; Sinisi, M; Fox, M; McCarthy, T; Bountra, C; Korchev, Y E; Anand, P

    2013-08-01

    The angiotensin II (AngII) receptor subtype 2 (AT2 R) is expressed in sensory neurons and may play a role in nociception and neuronal regeneration. We used immunostaining with characterized antibodies to study the localization of AT2 R in cultured human and rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and a range of human tissues. The effects of AngII and AT2 R antagonist EMA401 on capsaicin responses in cultured human and rat (DRG) neurons were measured with calcium imaging, on neurite length and density with Gap43 immunostaining, and on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) expression using immunofluorescence. AT2 R expression was localized in small-/medium-sized cultured neurons of human and rat DRG. Treatment with the AT2 R antagonist EMA401 resulted in dose-related functional inhibition of capsaicin responses (IC50  = 10 nmol/L), which was reversed by 8-bromo-cAMP, and reduced neurite length and density; AngII treatment significantly enhanced capsaicin responses, cAMP levels and neurite outgrowth. The AT1 R antagonist losartan had no effect on capsaicin responses. AT2 R was localized in sensory neurons of human DRG, and nerve fibres in peripheral nerves, skin, urinary bladder and bowel. A majority sub-population (60%) of small-/medium-diameter neuronal cells were immunopositive in both control post-mortem and avulsion-injured human DRG; some very small neurons appeared to be intensely immunoreactive, with TRPV1 co-localization. While AT2 R levels were reduced in human limb peripheral nerve segments proximal to injury, they were preserved in painful neuromas. AT2 R antagonists could be particularly useful in the treatment of chronic pain and hypersensitivity associated with abnormal nerve sprouting. © 2012 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  13. Angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) localization and antagonist-mediated inhibition of capsaicin responses and neurite outgrowth in human and rat sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Anand, U; Facer, P; Yiangou, Y; Sinisi, M; Fox, M; McCarthy, T; Bountra, C; Korchev, YE; Anand, P

    2013-01-01

    Background The angiotensin II (AngII) receptor subtype 2 (AT2R) is expressed in sensory neurons and may play a role in nociception and neuronal regeneration. Methods We used immunostaining with characterized antibodies to study the localization of AT2R in cultured human and rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and a range of human tissues. The effects of AngII and AT2R antagonist EMA401 on capsaicin responses in cultured human and rat (DRG) neurons were measured with calcium imaging, on neurite length and density with Gap43 immunostaining, and on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) expression using immunofluorescence. Results AT2R expression was localized in small-/medium-sized cultured neurons of human and rat DRG. Treatment with the AT2R antagonist EMA401 resulted in dose-related functional inhibition of capsaicin responses (IC50 = 10 nmol/L), which was reversed by 8-bromo-cAMP, and reduced neurite length and density; AngII treatment significantly enhanced capsaicin responses, cAMP levels and neurite outgrowth. The AT1R antagonist losartan had no effect on capsaicin responses. AT2R was localized in sensory neurons of human DRG, and nerve fibres in peripheral nerves, skin, urinary bladder and bowel. A majority sub-population (60%) of small-/medium-diameter neuronal cells were immunopositive in both control post-mortem and avulsion-injured human DRG; some very small neurons appeared to be intensely immunoreactive, with TRPV1 co-localization. While AT2R levels were reduced in human limb peripheral nerve segments proximal to injury, they were preserved in painful neuromas. Conclusions AT2R antagonists could be particularly useful in the treatment of chronic pain and hypersensitivity associated with abnormal nerve sprouting. PMID:23255326

  14. A2B Adenosine Receptor Agonist Improves Erectile Function in Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jiaming; Wang, Bohan; Du, Chuanjun; Xu, Gang; Zhang, Zhewei; Li, Yi; Zhang, Nan

    2015-10-01

    Diabetes is an important risk factor for erectile dysfunction (ED). Recent studies have indicated that A2B adenosine receptor (ADORA2B) signaling is essential for penile erection. Thus, we hypothesize that diabetic ED may be attributed to impaired A2B adenosine signaling. To test this hypothesis, we generated diabetic rats by injecting streptozocin as animal model. After 12 weeks, immunohistochemistry staining was used to localize the expression of ADORA2B. Western Blot and quantitative PCR were employed to determine ADORA2B expression level. Intracavernosal pressure (ICP) measurement was used to evaluate erectile function. Diabetic rats received a single intravenous injection of BAY 60-6583, an ADORA2B agonist, or vehicle solution, at 60 min before the ICP measurement. The results showed that ADORA2B expressed in the nerve bundle, smooth muscle, and endothelium in penile tissue of control mice. Western Blot and quantitative PCR results indicated that the expression levels of ADORA2B protein and mRNA were significantly reduced in penile tissues of diabetic rats. Functional studies showed that the erectile response induced by electrical stimulation was remarkably decreased in diabetic rats, compared with age-matched control rats. However, at 60 min after BAY 60-6583 treatment, the erectile function was improved in diabetic rats, suggesting that enhancement of ADORA2B signaling may improve erectile function in diabetic ED. This preclinical study has revealed a previously unrecognized therapeutic possibility of BAY 60-6583 as an effective and mechanism-based drug to treat diabetic ED. In conclusion, we propose that impaired A2B adenosine signaling is one of the pathological mechanisms of diabetic ED.

  15. Effects of hnRNP A2/B1 Knockdown on Inhibition of Glioblastoma Cell Invasion, Growth and Survival.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jinmu; Chen, Song; Wang, Feng; Zhao, Hongxin; Xie, Zongyi; Xu, Zhongye; Zhang, Qingtao; Liang, Ping; Zhai, Xuan; Cheng, Yuan

    2016-03-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1 (hnRNP A2/B1) plays an important role in influence of pre-messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) processing and mRNA metabolism and transportation in cells. Increasing evidence indicates that hnRNP A2/B1 played an important role in development and progression of various human cancers. Forty cases of normal and human glioma tissue samples were analyzed using immunohistochemistry to reveal the expression of hnRNP A2/B1 protein in the samples. Then, knockdown of hnRNP A2/B1 expression induced by RNA interference (RNAi) method was used to analyze the role of hnRNP A2/B1 in glioblastoma cell viability, adhesion, migration, invasion, and chemoresistance for temozolomide (TMZ). The data showed that hnRNP A2/B1 protein was overexpressed in glioma tissue specimens and associated with advanced glioma grades. Knockdown of hnRNP A2/B1 could reduce glioblastoma cell viability, adhesion, migration, invasion, and chemoresistance for TMZ capacity, but induced tumor cells to apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in glioma U251 and SHG44 cells. Molecularly, hnRNP A2/B1 knockdown reduced expression of phospho-STAT3 and MMP-2. Detection of hnRNP A2/B1 expression may be useful as a biomarker for prediction of glioma progression and knockdown of hnRNP A2/B1 expression as a novel strategy in future control of glioblastoma in clinic.

  16. Summary report on the fuel performance modeling of the AFC-2A, 2B irradiation experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Pavel G. Medvedev

    2013-09-01

    The primary objective of this work at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is to determine the fuel and cladding temperature history during irradiation of the AFC-2A, 2B transmutation metallic fuel alloy irradiation experiments containing transuranic and rare earth elements. Addition of the rare earth elements intends to simulate potential fission product carry-over from pyro-metallurgical reprocessing. Post irradiation examination of the AFC-2A, 2B rodlets revealed breaches in the rodlets and fuel melting which was attributed to the release of the fission gas into the helium gap between the rodlet cladding and the capsule which houses six individually encapsulated rodlets. This release is not anticipated during nominal operation of the AFC irradiation vehicle that features a double encapsulated design in which sodium bonded metallic fuel is separated from the ATR coolant by the cladding and the capsule walls. The modeling effort is focused on assessing effects of this unanticipated event on the fuel and cladding temperature with an objective to compare calculated results with the temperature limits of the fuel and the cladding.

  17. LINGO-1-mediated inhibition of oligodendrocyte differentiation does not require the leucine-rich repeats and is reversed by p75(NTR) antagonists.

    PubMed

    Bourikas, Dimitris; Mir, Anis; Walmsley, Adrian Robert

    2010-12-01

    LINGO-1 is a potent negative regulator of oligodendrocyte differentiation and hence may play a pivotal restrictive role during remyelination in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. However, little is known as to which stages of oligodendrocyte differentiation are inhibited by LINGO-1, which domains of the protein are involved and whether accessory proteins are required. Here, we show that LINGO-1 expression in the human oligodendroglial cell line MO3.13 inhibited process extension and this was reversed by an anti-LINGO-1 antibody or the antagonist LINGO-1-Fc. LINGO-1 expression was also found to inhibit myelin basic protein transcription in the rat oligodendroglial cell line CG4. Both of these inhibitory actions of LINGO-1 were abrogated by deletion of the entire ectodomain or cytoplasmic domains but, surprisingly, were unaffected by deletion of the leucine-rich repeats (LRRs). As in neurons, LINGO-1 physically associated with endogenous p75(NTR) in MO3.13 cells and, correspondingly, its inhibition of process extension was reversed by antagonists of p75(NTR). Thus, LINGO-1 inhibits multiple aspects of oligodendrocyte differentiation independently of the LRRs via a process that requires p75(NTR) signalling.

  18. Lack of effect of a selective vasopressin V1A receptor antagonist, SR 49,059, on potentiation by vasopressin of adrenoceptor-mediated pressor responses in the rat mesenteric arterial bed

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Akos; Horina, Gabi; Stauber, Rudolf E; Pertl, Christof; Holzer, Peter; Peskar, Bernhard A

    1998-01-01

    The vasopressin receptor subtype involved in the enhancement by vasopressin of adrenoceptor-mediated vasoconstriction was investigated in rat isolated perfused mesenteric arteries.[Arg8]vasopressin (1–10 nM) dose-dependently increased the perfusion pressure and enhanced the pressor response to the adrenoceptor agonist methoxamine (40 nmol) or electrical stimulation of periarterial nerves (16 Hz), at the concentration of 10 nM of [Arg8]vasopressin up to 4 and 3 fold, respectively.During prolonged exposure (45 min) the direct vasoconstrictor effect of [Arg8]vasopressin (10 nM) rapidly declined whereas the potentiation of methoxamine-induced vasoconstriction was maintained.The selective vasopressin V1A receptor antagonist SR 49,059 (1–3 nM) and the non-selective V1A/B and oxytocin receptor antagonist [deamino-Pen1,Tyr(Me)2,Arg8]vasopressin (15–45 nM) inhibited the direct vasoconstrictor action of [Arg8]vasopressin but had no effect on the enhancement of the pressor response to methoxamine or electrical stimulation.The V1B receptor agonist [deamino-Cys1,β-(3-pyridyl)-D-Ala2,Arg8]vasopressin (100–1000 nM) and the V2 receptor agonist [deamino-Cys1,D-Arg8]vasopressin (1–10 nM) were devoid of any pressor activity and did not potentiate methoxamine-evoked vasoconstriction. In contrast, [1-triglycyl,Lys8]vasopressin (100–1000 nM) potentiated the methoxamine responses without per se inducing vasoconstriction.In arteries precontracted with methoxamine (7.5 μM) pressor responses to [Arg8]vasopressin (3–10 nM) were not inhibited by a dose of SR 49,059 (3 nM) which abolished the peptide's vasoconstrictor effect under control conditions.These data show that the direct vasoconstrictor effect of [Arg8]vasopressin is mediated by V1A receptors while the enhancement of adrenoceptor-mediated pressor responses is insensitive to V1A, V1B, and oxytocin receptor antagonists and is not mimicked by selective agonists of V1B and V2 receptors. In

  19. Probes for narcotic receptor mediated phenomena. 44. Synthesis of an N-substituted 4-hydroxy-5-(3-hydroxyphenyl)morphan with high affinity and selective μ-antagonist activity

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Malliga R.; Lee, Yong Sok; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.; Dersch, Christina M.; Rothman, Richard B.; Jacobson, Arthur E.; Rice, Kenner C.

    2012-01-01

    A simple three-step synthesis of 5-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-2-methyl-2-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-4-ol (3a) was achieved using an osmium tetroxide mediated oxidation of the known intermediate 6. A pyrrolidine-ring variant of 3a (3-(7-(hydroxymethyl)-6-methyl-6-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-1-yl)phenol (5)) was isolated when other routes were used. The epimeric hydroxy analogue 4a was synthesized by simple inversion of the stereochemistry at C-4. Both N-methyl (3a and 4a) and N-phenethyl (3b and 4b) derivatives were synthesized. The compounds were examined for their opioid receptor affinity and the N-phenethyl analogue 3b was found to have relatively weak affinity for the μ-opioid receptor (Ki = 74 nM). However, the N-phenethyl analogue of the C-4 epimer, 4b, had about 15 fold higher affinity than 3b and was selective for the μ-opioid receptor (Ki = 4.6 nM). Compound 4b was a moderately potent μ-opioid antagonist (Ke = 12 nM), as determined by [35S]GTP-γ-S assays. Compounds 3b and 4b were energy minimized at the level of B3LYP/6-31G*, and then overlaid onto the 5-phenylmorphan, the (1R,5R,9S)-(−)-enantiomer of 2b (Fig. 1) with the α or β-OH group at the C-9 position. The spatial orientation of the hydroxyl moiety in 3b, 4b, 2a, and 2b is proposed to be the structural requirement for high μ-opioid receptor binding affinity and their agonist or antagonist activity. The modest change in spatial position of the hydroxyl moiety, and not the N-substituent, induced the change from potent agonist to an antagonist of moderate potency. PMID:22341895

  20. Structural basis of the histidine-mediated vitamin D receptor agonistic and antagonistic mechanisms of (23S)-25-dehydro-1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D3-26,23-lactone.

    PubMed

    Kakuda, Shinji; Ishizuka, Seiichi; Eguchi, Hiroshi; Mizwicki, Mathew T; Norman, Anthony W; Takimoto-Kamimura, Midori

    2010-08-01

    TEI-9647 antagonizes vitamin D receptor (VDR) mediated genomic actions of 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 in human cells but is agonistic in rodent cells. The presence of Cys403, Cys410 or of both residues in the C-terminal region of human VDR (hVDR) results in antagonistic action of this compound. In the complexes of TEI-9647 with wild-type hVDR (hVDRwt) and H397F hVDR, TEI-9647 functions as an antagonist and forms a covalent adduct with hVDR according to MALDI-TOF MS. The crystal structures of complexes of TEI-9647 with rat VDR (rVDR), H305F hVDR and H305F/H397F hVDR showed that the agonistic activity of TEI-9647 is caused by a hydrogen-bond interaction with His397 or Phe397 located in helix 11. Both biological activity assays and the crystal structure of H305F hVDR complexed with TEI-9647 showed that the interaction between His305 and TEI-9647 is crucial for antagonist activity. This study indicates the following stepwise mechanism for TEI-9647 antagonism. Firstly, TEI-9647 forms hydrogen bonds to His305, which promote conformational changes in hVDR and draw Cys403 or Cys410 towards the ligand. This is followed by the formation of a 1,4-Michael addition adduct between the thiol (-SH) group of Cys403 or Cys410 and the exo-methylene group of TEI-9647.

  1. Epithelial-specific A2B adenosine receptor signaling protects the colonic epithelial barrier during acute colitis

    PubMed Central

    Aherne, CM; Saeedi, B; Collins, CB; Masterson, JC; McNamee, EN; Perrenoud, L; Rapp, CR; Curtis, VF; Bayless, A; Fletcher, A; Glover, LE; Evans, CM; Jedlicka, P; Furuta, GT; de Zoeten, EF; Colgan, SP; Eltzschig, HK

    2015-01-01

    Central to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pathogenesis is loss of mucosal barrier function. Emerging evidence implicates extracellular adenosine signaling in attenuating mucosal inflammation. We hypothesized that adenosine-mediated protection from intestinal barrier dysfunction involves tissue-specific signaling through the A2B adenosine receptor (Adora2b) at the intestinal mucosal surface. To address this hypothesis, we combined pharmacologic studies and studies in mice with global or tissue-specific deletion of the Adora2b receptor. Adora2b−/− mice experienced a significantly heightened severity of colitis, associated with a more acute onset of disease and loss of intestinal epithelial barrier function. Comparison of mice with Adora2b deletion on vascular endothelial cells (Adora2bfl/flVeCadCre+) or intestinal epithelia (Adora2bfl/flVillinCre+) revealed a selective role for epithelial Adora2b signaling in attenuating colonic inflammation. In vitro studies with Adora2b knockdown in intestinal epithelial cultures or pharmacologic studies highlighted Adora2b-driven phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) as a specific barrier repair response. Similarly, in vivo studies in genetic mouse models or treatment studies with an Adora2b agonist (BAY 60-6583) recapitulate these findings. Taken together, our results suggest that intestinal epithelial Adora2b signaling provides protection during intestinal inflammation via enhancing mucosal barrier responses. PMID:25850656

  2. Elevated adenosine signaling via adenosine A2B receptor induces normal and sickle erythrocyte sphingosine kinase 1 activity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Kaiqi; Zhang, Yujin; Bogdanov, Mikhail V; Wu, Hongyu; Song, Anren; Li, Jessica; Dowhan, William; Idowu, Modupe; Juneja, Harinder S; Molina, Jose G; Blackburn, Michael R; Kellems, Rodney E; Xia, Yang

    2015-03-05

    Erythrocyte possesses high sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) activity and is the major cell type supplying plasma sphingosine-1-phosphate, a signaling lipid regulating multiple physiological and pathological functions. Recent studies revealed that erythrocyte SphK1 activity is upregulated in sickle cell disease (SCD) and contributes to sickling and disease progression. However, how erythrocyte SphK1 activity is regulated remains unknown. Here we report that adenosine induces SphK1 activity in human and mouse sickle and normal erythrocytes in vitro. Next, using 4 adenosine receptor-deficient mice and pharmacological approaches, we determined that the A2B adenosine receptor (ADORA2B) is essential for adenosine-induced SphK1 activity in human and mouse normal and sickle erythrocytes in vitro. Subsequently, we provide in vivo genetic evidence that adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency leads to excess plasma adenosine and elevated erythrocyte SphK1 activity. Lowering adenosine by ADA enzyme therapy or genetic deletion of ADORA2B significantly reduced excess adenosine-induced erythrocyte SphK1 activity in ADA-deficient mice. Finally, we revealed that protein kinase A-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation functioning downstream of ADORA2B underlies adenosine-induced erythrocyte SphK1 activity. Overall, our findings reveal a novel signaling network regulating erythrocyte SphK1 and highlight innovative mechanisms regulating SphK1 activity in normal and SCD.

  3. Discovery of new antagonists aimed at discriminating UII and URP-mediated biological activities: insight into UII and URP receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Chatenet, D; Létourneau, M; Nguyen, Q T; Doan, N D; Dupuis, J; Fournier, A

    2013-02-01

    Recent evidence suggested that urotensin II (UII) and its paralog peptide UII-related peptide (URP) might exert common but also divergent physiological actions. Unfortunately, none of the existing antagonists were designed to discriminate specific UII- or URP-associated actions, and our understanding, on how these two endogenous peptides can trigger different, but also common responses, is limited. Ex vivo rat and monkey aortic ring contraction as well as dissociation kinetics studies using transfected CHO cells expressing the human urotensin (UT) receptors were used in this study. Ex vivo rat and monkey aortic ring contraction studies revealed the propensity of [Pep(4)]URP to decrease the maximal response of human UII (hUII) without any significant change in potency, whereas no effect was noticeable on the URP-induced vasoconstriction. Dissociation experiments demonstrated the ability of [Pep(4)]URP to increase the dissociation rate of hUII, but not URP. Surprisingly, URP, an equipotent UII paralog, was also able to accelerate the dissociation rate of membrane-bound (125)I-hUII, whereas hUII had no noticeable effect on URP dissociation kinetics. Further experiments suggested that an interaction between the glutamic residue at position 1 of hUII and the UT receptor seems to be critical to induce conformational changes associated with agonistic activation. Finally, we demonstrated that the N-terminal domain of the rat UII isoform was able to act as a specific antagonist of the URP-associated actions. Such compounds, that is [Pep(4)]URP and rUII(1-7), should prove to be useful as new pharmacological tools to decipher the specific role of UII and URP in vitro but also in vivo. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. H1 but not H2 histamine antagonist receptors mediate anxiety-related behaviors and emotional memory deficit in mice subjected to elevated plus-maze testing

    PubMed Central

    Serafim, K.R.; Kishi, M.S.; Canto-de-Souza, A.; Mattioli, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the role of H1 and H2 receptors in anxiety and the retrieval of emotional memory using a Trial 1/Trial 2 (T1/T2) protocol in an elevated plus-maze (EPM). Tests were performed on 2 consecutive days, designated T1 and T2. Before T1, the mice received intraperitoneal injections of saline (SAL), 20 mg/kg zolantidine (ZOL, an H2 receptor antagonist), or 8.0 or 16 mg/kg chlorpheniramine (CPA, an H1 receptor antagonist). After 40 min, they were subjected to the EPM test. In T2 (24 h later), each group was subdivided into two additional groups, and the animals from each group were re-injected with SAL or one of the drugs. In T1, the Student t-test showed no difference between the SAL and ZOL or 8 mg/kg CPA groups with respect to the percentages of open arm entries (%OAE) and open arm time (%OAT). However, administration of CPA at the highest dose of 16 mg/kg decreased %OAE and %OAT, but not locomotor activity, indicating anxiogenic-like behavior. Emotional memory, as revealed by a reduction in open arm exploration between the two trials, was observed in all experimental groups, indicating that ZOL and 8 mg/kg CPA did not affect emotional memory, whereas CPA at the highest dose affected acquisition and consolidation, but not retrieval of memory. Taken together, these results suggest that H1 receptor, but not H2, is implicated in anxiety-like behavior and in emotional memory acquisition and consolidation deficits in mice subjected to EPM testing. PMID:23598647

  5. Discovery of new antagonists aimed at discriminating UII and URP-mediated biological activities: insight into UII and URP receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Chatenet, D; Létourneau, M; Nguyen, QT; Doan, ND; Dupuis, J; Fournier, A

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Recent evidence suggested that urotensin II (UII) and its paralog peptide UII-related peptide (URP) might exert common but also divergent physiological actions. Unfortunately, none of the existing antagonists were designed to discriminate specific UII- or URP-associated actions, and our understanding, on how these two endogenous peptides can trigger different, but also common responses, is limited. Experimental Approach Ex vivo rat and monkey aortic ring contraction as well as dissociation kinetics studies using transfected CHO cells expressing the human urotensin (UT) receptors were used in this study. Key Results Ex vivo rat and monkey aortic ring contraction studies revealed the propensity of [Pep4]URP to decrease the maximal response of human UII (hUII) without any significant change in potency, whereas no effect was noticeable on the URP-induced vasoconstriction. Dissociation experiments demonstrated the ability of [Pep4]URP to increase the dissociation rate of hUII, but not URP. Surprisingly, URP, an equipotent UII paralog, was also able to accelerate the dissociation rate of membrane-bound 125I-hUII, whereas hUII had no noticeable effect on URP dissociation kinetics. Further experiments suggested that an interaction between the glutamic residue at position 1 of hUII and the UT receptor seems to be critical to induce conformational changes associated with agonistic activation. Finally, we demonstrated that the N-terminal domain of the rat UII isoform was able to act as a specific antagonist of the URP-associated actions. Conclusion Such compounds, that is [Pep4]URP and rUII(1–7), should prove to be useful as new pharmacological tools to decipher the specific role of UII and URP in vitro but also in vivo. PMID:22994258

  6. Adenosine A2B receptor: from cell biology to human diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ying; Huang, Pingbo

    2016-08-01

    Extracellular adenosine is a ubiquitous signaling molecule that modulates a wide array of biological processes. Recently, significant advances have been made in our understanding of A2B adenosine receptor (A2BAR). In this review, we first summarize some of the general characteristics of A2BAR, and then we describe the multiple binding partners of the receptor, such as newly identified α-actinin-1 and p105, and discuss how these associated proteins could modulate A2BAR’s functions, including certain seemingly paradoxical functions of the receptor. Growing evidence indicates a critical role of A2BAR in cancer, renal disease, and diabetes, in addition to its importance in the regulation of vascular diseases and lung disease. Here, we also discuss the role of A2BAR in cancer, renal disease, and diabetes and the potential of the receptor as a target for treating these three diseases.

  7. Adenosine A2B Receptor: From Cell Biology to Human Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ying; Huang, Pingbo

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular adenosine is a ubiquitous signaling molecule that modulates a wide array of biological processes. Recently, significant advances have been made in our understanding of A2B adenosine receptor (A2BAR). In this review, we first summarize some of the general characteristics of A2BAR, and then we describe the multiple binding partners of the receptor, such as newly identified α-actinin-1 and p105, and discuss how these associated proteins could modulate A2BAR's functions, including certain seemingly paradoxical functions of the receptor. Growing evidence indicates a critical role of A2BAR in cancer, renal disease, and diabetes, in addition to its importance in the regulation of vascular diseases, and lung disease. Here, we also discuss the role of A2BAR in cancer, renal disease, and diabetes and the potential of the receptor as a target for treating these three diseases. PMID:27606311

  8. Leishmania amazonensis-Induced cAMP Triggered by Adenosine A2B Receptor Is Important to Inhibit Dendritic Cell Activation and Evade Immune Response in Infected Mice.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Amanda Braga; Souza-Testasicca, Míriam Conceição; Mineo, Tiago Wilson Patriarca; Afonso, Luís Carlos Crocco

    2017-01-01

    Differently from others Leishmania species, infection by the protozoan parasite L. amazonensis is associated with a lack of antigen-specific T-cell responses. Dendritic cells (DC) are essential for the innate immune response and for directing the differentiation of T-helper lymphocytes. Previously, we showed that L. amazonensis infection impairs DC activation through the activation of adenosine A2B receptor, and here, we evaluated the intracellular events triggered by this receptor in infected cells. To this aim, bone marrow-derived DC from C57BL/6J mice were infected with metacyclic promastigotes of L. amazonensis. Our results show, for the first time, that L. amazonensis increases the production of cAMP and the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) in infected DC by a mechanism dependent on the A2B receptor. Furthermore, L. amazonensis impairs CD40 expression and IL-12 production by DC, and the inhibition of adenylate cyclase, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and ERK1/2 prevent these effects. The increase of ERK1/2 phosphorylation and the inhibition of DC activation by L. amazonensis are independent of protein kinase A (PKA). In addition, C57BL/6J mice were inoculated in the ears with metacyclic promastigotes, in the presence of PSB1115, an A2B receptor antagonist. PSB1115 treatment increases the percentage of CD40(+) DC on ears and draining lymph nodes. Furthermore, this treatment reduces lesion size and tissue parasitism. Lymph node cells from treated mice produce higher levels of IFN-γ than control mice, without altering the production of IL-10. In conclusion, we suggest a new pathway used by the parasite (A2B receptor → cAMP → PI3K → ERK1/2) to suppress DC activation, which may contribute to the decrease of IFN-γ production following by the deficiency in immune response characteristic of L. amazonensis infection.

  9. In Search of the Molecular Mechanisms Mediating the Inhibitory Effect of the GnRH Antagonist Degarelix on Human Prostate Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Monica; Martinez-Arguelles, Daniel B.; Patterson, Nathan H.; Chaurand, Pierre; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2015-01-01

    Degarelix is a gonadrotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor (GnRHR) antagonist used in patients with prostate cancer who need androgen deprivation therapy. GnRHRs have been found in extra-pituitary tissues, including prostate, which may be affected by the GnRH and GnRH analogues used in therapy. The direct effect of degarelix on human prostate cell growth was evaluated. Normal prostate myofibroblast WPMY-1 and epithelial WPE1-NA22 cells, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)-1 cells, androgen-independent PC-3 and androgen-dependent LNCaP prostate cancer cells, as well as VCaP cells derived from a patient with castration-resistant prostate cancer were used. Discriminatory protein and lipid fingerprints of normal, hyperplastic, and cancer cells were generated by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS). The investigated cell lines express GNRHR1 and GNRHR2 and their endogenous ligands. Degarelix treatment reduced cell viability in all prostate cell lines tested, with the exception of the PC-3 cells; this can be attributed to increased apoptosis, as indicated by increased caspase 3/7, 8 and 9 levels. WPE1-NA22, BPH-1, LNCaP, and VCaP cell viability was not affected by treatment with the GnRH agonists leuprolide and goserelin. Using MALDI MS, we detected changes in m/z signals that were robust enough to create a complete discriminatory profile induced by degarelix. Transcriptomic analysis of BPH-1 cells provided a global map of genes affected by degarelix and indicated that the biological processes affected were related to cell growth, G-coupled receptors, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, angiogenesis and cell adhesion. Taken together, these data demonstrate that (i) the GnRH antagonist degarelix exerts a direct effect on prostate cell growth through apoptosis; (ii) MALDI MS analysis provided a basis to fingerprint degarelix-treated prostate cells; and (iii) the clusters of genes affected by degarelix suggest that

  10. Downregulated hypothalamic 5-HT3 receptor expression and enhanced 5-HT3 receptor antagonist-mediated improvement in fatigue-like behaviour in cholestatic rats.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, H; Wang, H; le, T; Ho, W; Sharkey, K A; Swain, M G

    2008-03-01

    The serotonin neurotransmitter system, including the 5-HT(3) receptor, has been implicated in the genesis of fatigue in patients with liver disease. Therefore, we examined the possible role of 5-HT(3) receptors in cholestasis-associated fatigue. Rats were either bile duct resected (BDR) or sham resected and studied 10 days postsurgery. A significant decrease in hypothalamic 5-HT(3) receptor expression was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot in BDR vs sham rats, coupled with increased hypothalamic serotonin turnover identified by an elevated 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) to 5-HT ratio in BDR vs sham rats. To examine fatigue-like behaviour, an activity meter was used. BDR rats exhibited significantly lower locomotor activity than did sham animals. Subcutaneous injection of the 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist tropisetron (0.1 mg kg(-1)) resulted in significantly increased locomotor activity in BDR rats compared to the activity in saline-treated controls, but was without effect in sham rats. However, a 10-fold higher dose of tropisetron significantly increased locomotor activity in both BDR and sham rats compared to saline-injected controls. These findings indicate that cholestasis in the rat is associated with increased hypothalamic serotonin turnover, decreased hypothalamic 5-HT(3) receptor expression, and enhanced sensitivity to locomotor activation induced by 5-HT(3) receptor antagonism, thereby implicating the 5-HT(3) receptor system in cholestasis associated fatigue.

  11. Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein A2/B1 as a Target Antigen in Han Chinese for BD Patients.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jinghui; Yang, Weikang; Meng, Xiangyu; Chen, Peng; Du, Hongwu

    2015-01-01

    Behcet's disease (BD) is a recurrent pathema with a typical symptom of inflammation involved in many organs. Previous report indicated that the serum of Korean patients with BD stimulates membrane expression of hnRNP A2/B1 in endothelial cells. In this study, the target 35 kDa recombinant human hnRNP A2/B1 were over-expressed and purified, then sequenced with MALDI-TOF- TOF mass spectrometry. Western blotting and ELISA were applied to detect serum reactivity against hnRNP A2/B1 respectively. The results demonstrate that hnRNP A2/B1 is an autoantigen of BD in Han Chinese population.

  12. A2B adenosine receptors stimulate IL-6 production in primary murine microglia through p38 MAPK kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Merighi, Stefania; Bencivenni, Serena; Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Varani, Katia; Borea, Pier Andrea; Gessi, Stefania

    2017-03-01

    The hallmark of neuroinflammation is the activation of microglia, the immunocompetent cells of the CNS, releasing a number of proinflammatory mediators implicated in the pathogenesis of neuronal diseases. Adenosine is an ubiquitous autacoid regulating several microglia functions through four receptor subtypes named A1, A2A, A2B and A3 (ARs), that represent good targets to suppress inflammation occurring in CNS. Here we investigated the potential role of ARs in the modulation of IL-6 secretion and cell proliferation in primary microglial cells. The A2BAR agonist 2-[[6-Amino-3,5-dicyano-4-[4-(cyclopropylmethoxy)phenyl]-2-pyridinyl]thio]-acetamide (BAY60-6583) stimulated IL-6 increase under normoxia and hypoxia, in a dose- and time-dependent way. In cells incubated with the blockers of phospholipase C (PLC), protein kinase C epsilon (PKC-ε) and PKC delta (PKC-δ) the IL-6 increase due to A2BAR activation was strongly reduced, whilst it was not affected by the inhibitor of adenylyl cyclase (AC). Investigation of cellular signalling involved in the A2BAR effect revealed that only the inhibitor of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) was able to block the agonist's effect on IL-6 secretion, whilst inhibitors of pERK1/2, JNK1/2 MAPKs and Akt were not. Stimulation of p38 by BAY60-6583 was A2BAR-dependent, through a pathway affecting PLC, PKC-ε and PKC-δ but not AC, in both normoxia and hypoxia. Finally, BAY60-6583 increased microglial cell proliferation involving A2BAR, PLC, PKC-ε, PKC-δ and p38 signalling. In conclusion, A2BARs activation increased IL-6 secretion and cell proliferation in murine primary microglial cells, through PLC, PKC-ε, PKC-δ and p38 pathways, thus suggesting their involvement in microglial activation and neuroinflammation.

  13. The Anti-inflammatory Effect of the CXCR4 Antagonist-N15P Peptide and Its Modulation on Inflammation-Associated Mediators in LPS-Induced PBMC.

    PubMed

    Mo, Xue-mei; Sun, Han-xiao

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation was the important pathological process of many disease developments, but current therapeutic means for inflammatory diseases are not satisfactory. Chemokines and their receptors represent valuable targets for anti-inflammatory drug discovery. The N15P polypeptide (sequence: LGASWHRPDKCCLGY) is independently developed by our research group, it is a new CXCR4 antagonist drug derived from viral macrophage inflammatory protein-II (vMIP-II). This study aims to clarify the anti-inflammatory potency of N15P polypeptide on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in vitro. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of N15P polypeptide by the LPS-induced peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) model and measured the level of inflammatory factors (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-6, IL-8, nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), MyD88, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and Akt). The messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of inflammatory factors were analyzed by real-time PCR (RT-PCR) microarray analysis, and the production of inflammatory factors was measured further by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot. The results showed that the expression of inflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, NF-κB, COX-2, TLR4, MyD88, PI3K, and Akt) was downregulated by N15P peptide, suggesting that N15P peptide has a strong inhibitory effect on the inflammatory responses induced by LPS.

  14. CART Peptide Stimulation of G Protein-Mediated Signaling in Differentiated PC12 Cells: Identification of PACAP 6-38 as a CART Receptor Antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yiming; Hall, Randy A.; Kuhar, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    CART peptides are peptide neurotransmitters and hormones that are involved in many different physiological responses. While much is known about the peptides regarding their structure, processing and gene regulation, less is known about their postsynaptic actions and receptors. Using 125I-CART 61-102 as a ligand and unlabeled CART 61-102 or CART 55-102 as displacers, high-affinity specific binding was detected in PC12 cells. Differentiation of the PC12 cells increased specific binding several-fold. The increase in specific binding found after differentiation was inhibited by actinomycin D and cycloheximide, suggesting that the increase in specific binding was dependent on RNA and protein synthesis. CART 1-27, a peptide that has never been shown to elicit responses, did not displace 125I-CART61-102 binding, nor did more than 20 other peptides that were examined. Surprisingly, however, PACAP 1-38 and PACAP 6-38 were found to be low-affinity inhibitors of CART binding. CART treatment increased binding of 35S-GTPgamma-S to PC12 cell membranes. Moreover, CART treatment of intact PC12 cells elicited robust increases in phospho-ERK in a manner that was increased with differentiation, blocked by pertussis toxin and antagonized by PACAP 6-38. These findings extend previous research and suggest that the CART binding site in PC12 cells reflects a G protein-coupled receptor linked with Gi/o, and also demonstrate that PACAP 6-38 may be useful as a CART receptor antagonist. PMID:21855138

  15. Brain Interleukin-1β and the Intrinsic Receptor Antagonist Control Peripheral Toll-Like Receptor 3-Mediated Suppression of Spontaneous Activity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yamato, Masanori; Tamura, Yasuhisa; Eguchi, Asami; Kume, Satoshi; Miyashige, Yukiharu; Nakano, Masayuki; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Kataoka, Yosky

    2014-01-01

    During acute viral infections such as influenza, humans often experience not only transient fever, but also prolonged fatigue or depressive feelings with a decrease in social activity for days or weeks. These feelings are thought to be due to neuroinflammation in the brain. Recent studies have suggested that chronic neuroinflammation is a precipitating event of various neurological disorders, but the mechanism determining the duration of neuroinflammation has not been elucidated. In this study, neuroinflammation was induced by intraperitoneal injection of polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidylic acid (poly I:C), a Toll-like receptor-3 agonist that mimics viral infection in male Sprague-Dawley rats, and then investigated how the neuroinflammation shift from acute to the chronic state. The rats showed transient fever and prolonged suppression of spontaneous activity for several days following poly I:C injection. NS-398, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, completely prevented fever, but did not improve spontaneous activity, indicating that suppression of spontaneous activity was not induced by the arachidonate cascade that generated the fever. The animals overexpressed interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) in the brain including the cerebral cortex. Blocking the IL-1 receptor in the brain by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of recombinant IL-1ra completely blocked the poly I:C-induced suppression of spontaneous activity and attenuated amplification of brain interferon (IFN)-α expression, which has been reported to produce fatigue-like behavior by suppressing the serotonergic system. Furthermore, i.c.v. infusion of neutralizing antibody for IL-1ra prolonged recovery from suppression of spontaneous activity. Our findings indicated that IL-1β is the key trigger of neuroinflammation and that IL-1ra prevents the neuroinflammation entering the chronic state. PMID:24621600

  16. Partial agonist activity of the progesterone receptor antagonist RU486 mediated by an amino-terminal domain coactivator and phosphorylation of serine400.

    PubMed

    Wardell, Suzanne E; Narayanan, Ramesh; Weigel, Nancy L; Edwards, Dean P

    2010-02-01

    Jun dimerization protein-2 (JDP-2) is a progesterone receptor (PR) coregulatory protein that acts by inducing structure and transcriptional activity in the disordered amino-terminal domain (NTD) of PR. JDP-2 can also potentiate the partial agonist activity of the PR antagonist RU486 by mechanisms that have not been defined. Functional mutagenesis experiments revealed that a subregion of the NTD (amino acids 323-427) was required for the partial agonist activity of RU486 induced by PR interaction with JDP-2. However, this subregion was not required for JDP-2 enhancement of the activity of progestin agonists. Mutation of phosphorylation sites within this region of the NTD showed that phosphorylation of serine 400 was required for the partial agonist activity of RU486 stimulated by JDP-2, but was not required for activity of hormone agonist, either in the presence or absence of JDP-2. Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2)/cyclin A is a novel PR coregulator that binds the NTD and acts by phosphorylating steroid receptor coactivator-1 and modulating steroid receptor coactivator-1 interaction with PR. Cdk2/cyclin A also potentiated the partial agonist activity of RU486; however, phosphorylation of serine 400 was not required, indicating that JDP-2 and Cdk2/cyclin A act by distinct mechanisms. We conclude that PR bound to RU486 and associated with JDP-2 adopts an active conformation in a subregion of the NTD requiring phosphorylation of serine 400 that is distinct from that promoted by progestin agonists. These data underscore the structural flexibility of the NTD of PR, and the ability of steroid ligands together with interacting proteins to affect the conformation and activity of the NTD.

  17. Expression of Receptors for Tetanus Toxin and Monoclonal Antibody A2B5 by Pancreatic Islet Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenbarth, G. S.; Shimizu, K.; Bowring, M. A.; Wells, S.

    1982-08-01

    Studies of the reaction of antibody A2B5 and tetanus toxin with pancreatic islet cells, islet cell tumors, and other human amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation (APUD) tumors are described. By indirect immunofluorescence, antibody A2B5 and tetanus toxin were shown to specifically bind to the plasma membrane of human, rat, chicken, and mouse islet cells. The binding of antibody A2B5 to the cell surface of living islet cells has allowed isolation of these cells from a suspension of pancreatic cells by using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter. In studies designed to determine whether tetanus toxin and antibody A2B5 bound to the same surface antigen, A2B5 and tetanus toxin did not compete for binding to normal islet cells, a human islet cell tumor, or a rat islet cell tumor. In addition to binding to islet cell tumors, antibody A2B5 reacts with frozen sections, isolated cells, and cell lines of neural, neural crest, and APUD origin.

  18. Shallow oceanic crust: Full waveform tomographic images of the seismic layer 2A/2B boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christeson, Gail L.; Morgan, Joanna V.; Warner, Michael R.

    2012-05-01

    We present results of full-waveform tomographic inversions of four profiles acquired over young intermediate- and fast spreading rate oceanic crust. The mean velocity-depth functions from our study include a 0.25-0.30 km-thick low-velocity, low-gradient region beneath the seafloor overlying a 0.24-0.28-km-thick high-gradient region; together these regions compose seismic layer 2A. Mean layer 2A interval velocities are 3.0-3.2 km/s. The mean depth to the layer 2A/2B boundary is 0.49-0.54 km, and mean velocities within the upper 0.25 km of layer 2B are 4.7-4.9 km/s. Previous velocity analyses of the study areas using 1-D ray tracing underestimate the thickness of the high-gradient region at the base of layer 2A. We observe differences in the waveform inversion velocity models that correspond to imaging of the layer 2A event; regions with a layer 2A event have higher velocity gradients at the base of layer 2A. Intermittent high velocities, which we interpret as massive flows, are observed in the waveform inversion velocity models at 0.05-0.10 km below the seafloor (bsf) over 10-25% of the intermediate-spreading profiles and 20-45% of the fast spreading profiles. The high-gradient region located 0.25-0.54 km bsf at the base of layer 2A may be associated with an increased prevalence of massive flows, the first appearance of dikes (lava-dike transition zone), or with increased crack sealing by hydrothermal products. The upper portion of layer 2B, which begins at 0.49-0.54 km bsf, may correspond to sheeted dikes or the top of the transition zone of lavas and dikes.

  19. NK-1 Antagonists and Itch.

    PubMed

    Ständer, Sonja; Luger, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    Substance P (SP) is an important mediator of pro-inflammatory mechanisms in the skin. It targets multiple cells such as keratinocytes, mast cells, and fibroblasts which are involved in the cutaneous generation of pruritus. This suggests that SP is an interesting target for therapy. In fact, in recent case reports and case series, SP antagonists demonstrated a significant antipruritic effect in acute and chronic pruritus such as drug-induced pruritus, paraneoplastic pruritus, prurigo nodularis, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, and brachioradial pruritus.

  20. The Pore-Domain of TRPA1 Mediates the Inhibitory Effect of the Antagonist 6-Methyl-5-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-1H-indazole

    PubMed Central

    Moldenhauer, Hans; Latorre, Ramon; Grandl, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    The transient receptor potential ion channel TRPA1 confers the ability to detect tissue damaging chemicals to sensory neurons and as a result mediates chemical nociception in vivo. Mouse TRPA1 is activated by electrophilic compounds such as mustard-oil and several physical stimuli such as cold temperature. Due to its sensory function inhibition of TRPA1 activity might provide an effective treatment against chronic and inflammatory pain. Therefore, TRPA1 has become a target for the development of analgesic drugs. 6-Methyl-5-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-1H-indazole (Compound 31) has been identified by a chemical screen and lead optimization as an inhibitor of chemical activation of TRPA1. However, the structures or domains of TRPA1 that mediate the inhibitory effect of Compound 31 are unknown. Here, we screened 12,000 random mutant clones of mouse TRPA1 for their sensitivity to mustard-oil and the ability of Compound 31 to inhibit chemical activation by mustard-oil. In addition, we separately screened this mutant library while stimulating it with cold temperatures. We found that the single-point mutation I624N in the N-terminus of TRPA1 specifically affects the sensitivity to mustard-oil, but not to cold temperatures. This is evidence that sensitivity of TRPA1 to chemicals and cold temperatures is conveyed by separable mechanisms. We also identified five mutations located within the pore domain that cause loss of inhibition by Compound 31. This result demonstrates that the pore-domain is a regulator of chemical activation and suggests that Compound 31 might be acting directly on the pore-domain. PMID:25181545

  1. 5′-AMP impacts lymphocyte recirculation through activation of A2B receptors

    PubMed Central

    Bouma, Hjalmar R.; Mandl, Judith N.; Strijkstra, Arjen M.; Boerema, Ate S.; Kok, Jan-Willem; van Dam, Annie; IJzerman, Ad; Kroese, Frans G. M.; Henning, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Natural hibernation consists of torpid phases with metabolic suppression alternating with euthermic periods. Induction of torpor holds substantial promise in various medical conditions, including trauma, major surgery, and transplantation. Torpor in mice can be induced pharmacologically by 5′-AMP. Previously, we showed that during natural torpor, the reduction in body temperature results in lymphopenia via a reduction in plasma S1P. Here, we show that during torpor induced by 5′-AMP, there is a similar reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes that is a result of their retention in secondary lymphoid organs. This lymphopenia could be mimicked by engagement of A2BRs by a selective A2BR agonist (LUF6210) in the absence of changes in temperature and prevented by A2BR antagonists during 5′-AMP-induced torpor. In addition, forced cooling of mice led to peripheral blood lymphopenia, independent of A2BR signaling. The induction of torpor using 5′-AMP impacted the migration of lymphocytes within and between secondary lymphoid organs. During torpor, the homing into LNs was impaired, and two-photon intravital microscopy revealed that cell motility was decreased significantly and rapidly upon 5′-AMP administration. Furthermore, the S1P plasma concentration was reduced by 5′-AMP but not by LUF6210. S1P plasma levels restored upon arousal. Likely, the reduced migration in LNs combined with the reduced S1P plasma level substantially reduces lymphocyte egress after injection of 5′-AMP. In conclusion, 5′-AMP induces a state of pharmacological torpor in mice, during which, lymphopenia is governed primarily by body temperature-independent suppression of lymphocyte egress from LNs. PMID:23682128

  2. StyA1 and StyA2B from Rhodococcus opacus 1CP: a Multifunctional Styrene Monooxygenase System▿

    PubMed Central

    Tischler, Dirk; Kermer, René; Gröning, Janosch A. D.; Kaschabek, Stefan R.; van Berkel, Willem J. H.; Schlömann, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Two-component flavoprotein monooxygenases are emerging biocatalysts that generally consist of a monooxygenase and a reductase component. Here we show that Rhodococcus opacus 1CP encodes a multifunctional enantioselective flavoprotein monooxygenase system composed of a single styrene monooxygenase (SMO) (StyA1) and another styrene monooxygenase fused to an NADH-flavin oxidoreductase (StyA2B). StyA1 and StyA2B convert styrene and chemical analogues to the corresponding epoxides at the expense of FADH2 provided from StyA2B. The StyA1/StyA2B system presents the highest monooxygenase activity in an equimolar ratio of StyA1 and StyA2B, indicating (transient) protein complex formation. StyA1 is also active when FADH2 is supplied by StyB from Pseudomonas sp. VLB120 or PheA2 from Rhodococcus opacus 1CP. However, in both cases the reductase produces an excess of FADH2, resulting in a high waste of NADH. The epoxidation rate of StyA1 heavily depends on the type of reductase. This supports that the FADH2-induced activation of StyA1 requires interprotein communication. We conclude that the StyA1/StyA2B system represents a novel type of multifunctional flavoprotein monooxygenase. Its unique mechanism of cofactor utilization provides new opportunities for biotechnological applications and is highly relevant from a structural and evolutionary point of view. PMID:20675468

  3. Muscarinic Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Matera, Maria Gabriella; Cazzola, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Parasympathetic activity is increased in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma and appears to be the major reversible component of airway obstruction. Therefore, treatment with muscarinic receptor antagonists is an effective bronchodilator therapy in COPD and also in asthmatic patients. In recent years, the accumulating evidence that the cholinergic system controls not only contraction by airway smooth muscle but also the functions of inflammatory cells and airway epithelial cells has suggested that muscarinic receptor antagonists could exert other effects that may be of clinical relevance when we must treat a patient suffering from COPD or asthma. There are currently six muscarinic receptor antagonists licenced for use in the treatment of COPD, the short-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists (SAMAs) ipratropium bromide and oxitropium bromide and the long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists (LAMAs) aclidinium bromide, tiotropium bromide, glycopyrronium bromide and umeclidinium bromide. Concerns have been raised about possible associations of muscarinic receptor antagonists with cardiovascular safety, but the most advanced compounds seem to have an improved safety profile. Further beneficial effects of SAMAs and LAMAs are seen when added to existing treatments, including LABAs, inhaled corticosteroids and phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors. The importance of tiotropium bromide in the maintenance treatment of COPD, and likely in asthma, has spurred further research to identify new LAMAs. There are a number of molecules that are being identified, but only few have reached the clinical development.

  4. Antagonistic interactions of soil pseudomonads are structured in time.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Susanne A; Soucy, Jean-Paul R; Kassen, Rees

    2017-04-06

    Social interactions have been invoked as potential major selective forces structuring natural microbial communities and thus may help explain the astonishing bacterial diversity of natural ecosystems. Here, we investigate the prevalence and structure of exotoxin-mediated antagonistic interactions among free-living soil Pseudomonas strains collected over the course of two years at distances of up to one kilometer. Unlike some previous studies on antagonistic interactions among natural isolates, we found the prevalence of exotoxin-mediated inhibitions to be relatively low. When present, antagonistic interactions show a weakly negative relationship with genetic relatedness and metabolic similarity. Intriguingly, isolates sampled from the same growing season were significantly more likely to inhibit each other than they were to inhibit isolates from different growing seasons. Exotoxin-mediated antagonistic interactions between soil pseudomonads thus seem to be structured in time but do not appear to be a major selective force structuring free-living soil bacterial communities of soil pseudomonads.

  5. Opioid antagonists for smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    David, Sean P; Lancaster, Tim; Stead, Lindsay F; Evins, A. Eden; Prochaska, Judith J

    2014-01-01

    Background The reinforcing properties of nicotine may be mediated through release of various neurotransmitters both centrally and systemically. People who smoke report positive effects such as pleasure, arousal, and relaxation as well as relief of negative affect, tension, and anxiety. Opioid (narcotic) antagonists are of particular interest to investigators as potential agents to attenuate the rewarding effects of cigarette smoking. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of opioid antagonists in promoting long-term smoking cessation. The drugs include naloxone and the longer-acting opioid antagonist naltrexone. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register for trials of naloxone, naltrexone and other opioid antagonists and conducted an additional search of MEDLINE using ’Narcotic antagonists’ and smoking terms in April 2013. We also contacted investigators, when possible, for information on unpublished studies. Selection criteria We considered randomised controlled trials comparing opioid antagonists to placebo or an alternative therapeutic control for smoking cessation. We included in the meta-analysis only those trials which reported data on abstinence for a minimum of six months. We also reviewed, for descriptive purposes, results from short-term laboratory-based studies of opioid antagonists designed to evaluate psycho-biological mediating variables associated with nicotine dependence. Data collection and analysis We extracted data in duplicate on the study population, the nature of the drug therapy, the outcome measures, method of randomisation, and completeness of follow-up. The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow-up in patients smoking at baseline. Abstinence at end of treatment was a secondary outcome. We extracted cotinine- or carbon monoxide-verified abstinence where available. Where appropriate, we performed meta-analysis, pooling risk ratios using a Mantel

  6. The simultaneous blockade of chemokine receptors CCR2, CCR5 and CXCR3 by a non-peptide chemokine receptor antagonist protects mice from dextran sodium sulfate-mediated colitis.

    PubMed

    Tokuyama, Hirotake; Ueha, Satoshi; Kurachi, Makoto; Matsushima, Kouji; Moriyasu, Fuminori; Blumberg, Richard S; Kakimi, Kazuhiro

    2005-08-01

    Chemokine receptors CCR2, CCR5 and CXCR3 are involved in the regulation of macrophage- and T cell-mediated immune responses and in the migration and activation of these cells. In order to determine whether blockade of these chemokine receptors modulates intestinal inflammation, we investigated here the effect of a non-peptide chemokine receptor antagonist, TAK-779 (N,N-dimethyl-N-[4-[[[2-(4-methylphenyl)-6,7-dihydro-5H-benzocyclohepten-8-yl]carbonyl]amino]benzyl]-tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-aminium chloride), in mice with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced experimental colitis. C57BL/6 mice were fed 5% DSS in their drinking water for up to 7 days with or without the administration of TAK-779. The severity of inflammation in the colon was assessed by clinical signs and histological examination. Infiltration of inflammatory cells into the mucosa was analyzed by immunohistochemistry, and the expression of cytokine and chemokine mRNAs in tissues was quantitated by reverse transcription-PCR. During DSS-induced colitis, the recruitment of monocytes/macrophages into the colonic mucosa and the induction of proinflammatory cytokines correlated with the severity of intestinal inflammation. The onset of clinical signs and histopathologic features were delayed in animals treated with TAK-779. The expression of CCR2, CCR5 and CXCR3 mRNAs was inhibited in the TAK-779-treated mice. Consistent with these results, infiltration of monocytes/macrophages into the lamina propria was almost completely inhibited and the expression of colonic IL-1beta and IL-6 was significantly decreased in the TAK-779-treated mice. The blockade of CCR2, CCR5 and CXCR3 prevents murine experimental colitis by inhibiting the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the mucosa. Therefore, chemokines and their receptors may be therapeutic targets for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

  7. The Synergistic Enhancing-Memory Effect of Donepezil and S 38093 (a Histamine H3 Antagonist) Is Mediated by Increased Neural Activity in the Septo-hippocampal Circuitry in Middle-Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sors, Aurore; Krazem, Ali; Kehr, Jan; Yoshitake, Takashi; Dominguez, Gaelle; Henkous, Nadia; Letondor, Claire; Mocaer, Elisabeth; Béracochéa, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, induces only moderate symptomatic effects on memory in Alzheimer’s disease patients. An alternative strategy for treatment of cognitive symptoms could be to act simultaneously on both histaminergic and cholinergic pathways, to create a synergistic effect. To that aim, 14 month old C57/Bl6 mice were administered per oesophagy during nine consecutive days with Donepezil (at 0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg) and S 38093 (at 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 mg/kg), a H3 histaminergic antagonist developed by Servier, alone or in combination and tested for memory in a contextual memory task that modelized the age-induced memory dysfunction. The present study shows that the combination of Donepezil and S 38093 induced a dose-dependent synergistic memory-enhancing effect in middle-aged mice with a statistically higher size of effect never obtained with compounds alone and without any pharmacokinetic interaction between both compounds. We demonstrated that the memory-enhancing effect of the S 38093 and Donepezil combination is mediated by its action on the septo-hippocampal circuitry, since it canceled out the reduction of CREB phosphorylation (pCREB) observed in these brain areas in vehicle-treated middle-aged animals. Overall, the effects of drug combinations on pCREB in the hippocampus indicate that the synergistic promnesiant effects of the combination on memory performance in middle-aged mice stem primarily from an enhancement of neural activity in the septo-hippocampal system. PMID:28066242

  8. Clinical relevance of Helicobacter pylori babA2 and babA2/B in Costa Rica and Japan

    PubMed Central

    Con, Sergio A; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Nishioka, Mitsuaki; Morimoto, Norihito; Sugiura, Tetsuro; Yasuda, Nobufumi; Con-Wong, Reinaldo

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) babA2, babB and a recombinant gene between babA2 and babB (babA2/B), and their role in the development of atrophic gastritis in Costa Rican and Japanese clinical isolates. METHODS: A total of 95 continuous H. pylori-positive Costa Rican (41 males and 54 females; mean age, 50.65 years; SD, ± 13.04 years) and 95 continuous H. pylori-positive Japanese (50 males and 45 females; mean age, 63.43; SD, ± 13.21 years) patients underwent upper endoscopy from October 2005 to July 2006. They were enrolled for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genotyping of the H. pylori babA2, babB and babA2/B genes. Statistical analysis was performed using the χ2 test and the Fisher’s exact probability test and multivariate analysis was performed by logistic regression adjusting for gender and age. P < 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. RESULTS: The PCR-based genotyping of 95 Costa Rican and 95 Japanese isolates showed a higher prevalence of babA2 in Japan (96.8%) than in Costa Rica (73.7%), while that of babA2/B was higher in Costa Rica (11.6%) than in Japan (1.1%). In Costa Rican isolates only, babA2 was significantly associated with atrophic gastritis (P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the status of babA2 and babA2/B shows geographic differences, and that babA2 has clinical relevance in Costa Rica. PMID:20101774

  9. Oxides of Nitrogen Emissions from the Testing of TF41-A-2B Engines at Naval Air Station, Lemoore, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    for each engine test run. The procedure involves the use of a correlation coefficient which relates the weight (pounds) of NOx emissions to the...individual engines. This report establishes a correlation coefficient for the TF41-A-2B engine based on actual emissions data and the run sheets from 27...engine tests conducted in test cells at NAS Lemoore, CA. The correlation coefficient , equal to 0.01515 pounds of NOx formed per pound of fuel consumed

  10. A new alcohol antagonist: Phaclofen

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, A.M. ); Harris, R.A. )

    1989-01-01

    The ability of the GABA{sub B} receptor antagonist, phaclofen to alter behavioral effects of ethanol was evaluated by loss of righting reflex (sleep time), motor incoordination (bar holding), spontaneous locomotion (open field activity) and hypothermia. Pretreatment with phaclofen significantly decreased the effects of ethanol on motor incoordination, locomotor activity and hypothermia. However, phaclofen had no effect on either pentobarbital- or diazepam-induced motor incoordination. Phaclofen slightly increased the ED{sub 50} for loss of the righting reflex but did not alter either the duration of reflex loss produced by ethanol or blood ethanol levels at awakening. Our results suggest phaclofen is rapidly inactivated resulting in difficulty in observing antagonism of long duration ethanol effects. These findings suggest that the GABA{sub B} system may play a role in mediating several important actions of ethanol.

  11. CCR2 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Struthers, Mary; Pasternak, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Inhibition of CCR2 has been considered as a target for multiple therapeutic diseases including autoimmune disease, atherosclerosis, pain, and metabolic disease, based in part on the critical role this receptor plays on monocyte migration. Numerous companies have reported programs to identify CCR2 antagonists. Common challenges to the development of CCR2 agents have included poor activity at the rodent receptor and selectivity for both other chemokine receptors and ion channels. This review summarizes the rationale for targeting CCR2 in disease, the recent progress in the identification of potent and select CCR2 antagonists, and the current status of clinical trials for CCR2 agents.

  12. Subtype-selective N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists: synthesis and biological evaluation of 1-(arylalkynyl)-4-benzylpiperidines.

    PubMed

    Wright, J L; Gregory, T F; Bigge, C F; Boxer, P A; Serpa, K; Meltzer, L T; Wise, L D; Cai, S X; Hawkinson, J E; Konkoy, C S; Whittemore, E R; Woodward, R M; Zhou, Z L

    1999-07-01

    A search of our compound library for compounds with structural similarity to ifenprodil (5) and haloperidol (7) followed by in vitro screening revealed that 4-benzyl-1-(4-phenyl-3-butynyl)piperidine (8) was a moderately potent and selective antagonist of the NR1A/2B subtype of NMDA receptors. Substitution on the benzyl group of 8 did not significantly affect NR1A/2B potency, while addition of hydrogen bond donors in the para position of the phenyl group enhanced NR1A/2B potency. Addition of a hydroxyl moiety to the 4-position of the piperidine group slightly reduced NR1A/2B potency while reducing alpha-1 adrenergic and dopamine D2 receptor binding affinities substantially, resulting in improved overall selectivity for NR1A/2B receptors. Finally, the butynyl linker was replaced with propynyl or pentynyl. When the phenyl was para substituted with amine or acetamide groups, the NR1A/2B potency order was butynyl > pentynyl > propynyl. For the para methanesulfonamide or hydroxyl groups, the order was butynyl approximately propynyl > pentynyl. The hydroxyl propyne (48) and butyne (23) were among the most potent NR1A/2B antagonists from this study. They both potentiated the effects of L-DOPA in the 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat, a model of Parkinson's disease, dosed at 10 mg/kg ip, but 48 was not active at 30 mg/kg po.

  13. Opioid Antagonist Impedes Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merluzzi, Thomas V.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Thirty spider-phobic adults underwent exposure to 17 phobic-related, graded performance tests. Fifteen subjects were assigned to naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, and 15 were assigned to placebo. Naltrexone had a significant effect on exposure, with naltrexone subjects taking significantly longer to complete first 10 steps of exposure and with…

  14. Opioid Antagonist Impedes Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merluzzi, Thomas V.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Thirty spider-phobic adults underwent exposure to 17 phobic-related, graded performance tests. Fifteen subjects were assigned to naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, and 15 were assigned to placebo. Naltrexone had a significant effect on exposure, with naltrexone subjects taking significantly longer to complete first 10 steps of exposure and with…

  15. Effects of the 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist Ro 04-6790 on learning consolidation.

    PubMed

    Meneses, A

    2001-01-08

    The 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist Ro-04-6790 or 8-OH-DPAT injection improved learning consolidation on an autoshaping task, while mCPP, scopolamine and dizocilpine decreased the performance. The effect induced by scopolamine, but not that induced by mCPP, was reversed completely by Ro-04-6790, while dizocilpine effect was antagonized partially. Nevertheless, ritanserin or WAY 100635, but not Ro 04-6790, antagonized the 8-OH-DPAT facilitatory effects on learning consolidation. As WAY 100635 did not modify the Ro 04-6790 facilitatory effect, hence 5-HT(1A), and/or 5-HT(7), but not 5-HT(6), receptors might mediate the 8-OH-DPAT facilitatory effect on learning consolidation. Since, the Ro 04-6790 facilitatory effect was unaffected by 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A)/(2B)/(2C), 5-HT(3) or 5-HT(4) receptor blockade, thereby, the facilitatory effect induced by Ro 04-6790 involved specifically 5-HT(6) receptors. Indeed, the present data provide further support to the notion that, 5-HT(6) receptors play a significant part in the learning consolidation under normal and dysfunctional memory conditions.

  16. Advantages of an antagonist: bicuculline and other GABA antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Graham AR

    2013-01-01

    The convulsant alkaloid bicuculline continues to be investigated more than 40 years after the first publication of its action as an antagonist of receptors for the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. This historical perspective highlights key aspects of the discovery of bicuculline as a GABA antagonist and the sustained interest in this and other GABA antagonists. The exciting advances in the molecular biology, pharmacology and physiology of GABA receptors provide a continuing stimulus for the discovery of new antagonists with increasing selectivity for the myriad of GABA receptor subclasses. Interesting GABA antagonists not structurally related to bicuculline include gabazine, salicylidene salicylhydrazide, RU5135 and 4-(3-biphenyl-5-(4-piperidyl)-3-isoxazole. Bicuculline became the benchmark antagonist for what became known as GABAA receptors, but not all ionotropic GABA receptors are susceptible to bicuculline. In addition, not all GABAA receptor antagonists are convulsants. Thus there are still surprises in store as the study of GABA receptors evolves. PMID:23425285

  17. Phylogeography of Y-chromosome haplogroup O3a2b2-N6 reveals patrilineal traces of Austronesian populations on the eastern coastal regions of Asia

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Yik-Ying; Huang, Yun-Zhi; Wang, Ling-Xiang; Yu, Ge; Saw, Woei-Yuh; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Lu, Yan; Zhang, Chao; Xu, Shu-Hua; Jin, Li; Li, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Austronesian diffusion is considered one of the greatest dispersals in human history; it led to the peopling of an extremely vast region, ranging from Madagascar in the Indian Ocean to Easter Island in Remote Oceania. The Y-chromosome haplogroup O3a2b*-P164(xM134), a predominant paternal lineage of Austronesian populations, is found at high frequencies in Polynesian populations. However, the internal phylogeny of this haplogroup remains poorly investigated. In this study, we analyzed -seventeen Y-chromosome sequences of haplogroup O3a2b*-P164(xM134) and generated a revised phylogenetic tree of this lineage based on 310 non-private Y-chromosome polymorphisms. We discovered that all available O3a2b*-P164(xM134) samples belong to the newly defined haplogroup O3a2b2-N6 and samples from Austronesian populations belong to the sublineage O3a2b2a2-F706. Additionally, we genotyped a series of Y-chromosome polymorphisms in a large collection of samples from China. We confirmed that the sublineage O3a2b2a2b-B451 is unique to Austronesian populations. We found that O3a2b2-N6 samples are widely distributed on the eastern coastal regions of Asia, from Korea to Vietnam. Furthermore, we propose- that the O3a2b2a2b-B451 lineage represents a genetic connection between ancestors of Austronesian populations and ancient populations in North China, where foxtail millet was domesticated about 11,000 years ago. The large number of newly defined Y-chromosome polymorphisms and the revised phylogenetic tree of O3a2b2-N6 will be helpful to explore the origin of proto-Austronesians and the early diffusion process of Austronesian populations. PMID:28380021

  18. Phylogeography of Y-chromosome haplogroup O3a2b2-N6 reveals patrilineal traces of Austronesian populations on the eastern coastal regions of Asia.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lan-Hai; Yan, Shi; Teo, Yik-Ying; Huang, Yun-Zhi; Wang, Ling-Xiang; Yu, Ge; Saw, Woei-Yuh; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Lu, Yan; Zhang, Chao; Xu, Shu-Hua; Jin, Li; Li, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Austronesian diffusion is considered one of the greatest dispersals in human history; it led to the peopling of an extremely vast region, ranging from Madagascar in the Indian Ocean to Easter Island in Remote Oceania. The Y-chromosome haplogroup O3a2b*-P164(xM134), a predominant paternal lineage of Austronesian populations, is found at high frequencies in Polynesian populations. However, the internal phylogeny of this haplogroup remains poorly investigated. In this study, we analyzed -seventeen Y-chromosome sequences of haplogroup O3a2b*-P164(xM134) and generated a revised phylogenetic tree of this lineage based on 310 non-private Y-chromosome polymorphisms. We discovered that all available O3a2b*-P164(xM134) samples belong to the newly defined haplogroup O3a2b2-N6 and samples from Austronesian populations belong to the sublineage O3a2b2a2-F706. Additionally, we genotyped a series of Y-chromosome polymorphisms in a large collection of samples from China. We confirmed that the sublineage O3a2b2a2b-B451 is unique to Austronesian populations. We found that O3a2b2-N6 samples are widely distributed on the eastern coastal regions of Asia, from Korea to Vietnam. Furthermore, we propose- that the O3a2b2a2b-B451 lineage represents a genetic connection between ancestors of Austronesian populations and ancient populations in North China, where foxtail millet was domesticated about 11,000 years ago. The large number of newly defined Y-chromosome polymorphisms and the revised phylogenetic tree of O3a2b2-N6 will be helpful to explore the origin of proto-Austronesians and the early diffusion process of Austronesian populations.

  19. Indications for Opioid Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Coppes, O J Michael; Sang, Christine N

    2017-06-01

    As opioids have become more common in clinical practice for the treatment of both acute and chronic pain, so too has the need for a deeper understanding of the clinical applications of opioid antagonists. The purpose of this review is to present both the longstanding and potential new indications for the use of drugs that block the effects of opioid receptors. There is a growing body of data demonstrating the modulation of pain by opioid antagonists. Additional clinical studies that show their direct antinociceptive effects and/or enhancement of the analgesic potency of opioid agonists are warranted. We briefly discuss the well-established role that these agents play in the reversal of life-threatening opioid toxicity and explore both existing and expanding clinical applications, including their apparent paradox that they may themselves be associated with analgesia.

  20. Purification and characterization of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pestis LcrV-cholera toxin A(2)/B chimeras.

    PubMed

    Tinker, Juliette K; Davis, Chadwick T; Arlian, Britni M

    2010-11-01

    Yersinia pestis is a virulent human pathogen and potential biological weapon. Despite a long history of research on this organism, there is no licensed vaccine to protect against pneumonic forms of Y. pestis disease. In the present study, plasmids were constructed to express cholera toxin A(2)/B chimeric molecules containing the LcrV protective antigen from Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pestis. These chimeras were expressed and purified to high yields from the supernatant of transformed Escherichia coli. Western and GM(1) ELISA assays were used to characterize the composition, receptor-binding and relative stability of the LcrV-CTA(2)/B chimera in comparison to cholera toxin. In addition, we investigated the ability of the Y. pestis LcrV-CTA(2)/B chimera to bind to and internalize into cultured epithelial cells and macrophages by confocal microscopy. These studies indicate that the uptake and trafficking of the LcrV antigen from the chimera is comparable to the trafficking of native toxin. Together these findings report that stable, receptor-binding, non-toxic LcrV-cholera toxin A(2)/B chimeras can be expressed at high levels in E. coli and purified from the supernatant. In addition, the internalization of antigen in vitro reported here supports the development of these molecules as novel mucosal vaccine candidates. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Purification and characterization of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pestis LcrV–cholera toxin A2/B chimeras

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Chadwick T.; Arlian, Britni M.

    2010-01-01

    Yersinia pestis is a virulent human pathogen and potential biological weapon. Despite a long history of research on this organism, there is no licensed vaccine to protect against pneumonic forms of Y. pestis disease. In the present study, plasmids were constructed to express cholera toxin A2/B chimeric molecules containing the LcrV protective antigen from Y. enterocolitica and Y. pestis. These chimeras were expressed and purified to high yields from the supernatant of transformed E. coli. Western and GM1 ELISA assays were used to characterize the composition, receptor-binding and relative stability of the LcrV-CTA2/B chimera in comparison to cholera toxin. In addition, we investigated the ability of the Y. pestis LcrV-CTA2/B chimera to bind to and internalize into cultured epithelial cells and macrophages by confocal microscopy. These studies indicate that the uptake and trafficking of the LcrV antigen from the chimera is comparable to the trafficking of native toxin. Together these findings report that stable, receptor-binding, non-toxic LcrV-cholera toxin A2/B chimeras can be expressed at high levels in E. coli and purified from the supernatant. In addition, the internalization of antigen in vitro reported here supports the development of these molecules as novel mucosal vaccine candidates. PMID:20438844

  2. alpha2-Adrenoreceptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Mayer, P; Imbert, T

    2001-06-01

    A review of the literature relating to the therapeutic potential of alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonists published between 1990 and 2000 is presented. Although extensively studied since the early 1970s in a wide spectrum of therapeutic applications, the distinction of alpha2-adrenoceptor subtypes and some emerging evidence concerning new applications in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, obesity and schizophrenia, have refreshed an interest in this class of agents.

  3. Calcium antagonists and vasospasm.

    PubMed

    Meyer, F B

    1990-04-01

    A critical review of the clinical data supports the conclusion that nimodipine decreases the severity of neurologic deficits and improves outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage. The mechanisms by which mortality and morbidity are reduced are still controversial. First, the frequency of vasospasm is not altered (Figs. 5 and 6). Second, the consistent reversal of vasospasm once present has not been demonstrated either angiographically or by noninvasive cerebral blood flow studies. These observations suggest that there is either modification of microcirculatory flow (i.e., dilation of pial conducting vessels or decreased platelet aggregation) or a direct neuronal protective effect. As suggested previously, support for either mechanism is not resolute, and further investigation is necessary. Currently, nimodipine has been the most thoroughly investigated calcium antagonist both from an experimental and clinical perspective. Oral administration has had few reported complications. Therefore, the benefit/risk ratio clearly supports the prophylactic use of this calcium antagonist in patients of all clinical grades after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Evidence also indicates that starting nimodipine after the onset of delayed ischemic deficits is of benefit. Finally, it can be predicted that in the future additional calcium antagonists with more selective vascular or neuronal effects will be developed for use in neurologic disorders.

  4. Molecular motor KIF17 is fundamental for memory and learning via differential support of synaptic NR2A/2B levels.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiling; Takei, Yosuke; Kido, Mizuho A; Hirokawa, Nobutaka

    2011-04-28

    Kinesin superfamily motor protein 17 (KIF17) is a candidate transporter of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit 2B (NR2B). Disruption of the murine kif17 gene inhibits NR2B transport, accompanied by decreased transcription of nr2b, resulting in a loss of synaptic NR2B. In kif17(-/-) hippocampal neurons, the NR2A level is also decreased because of accelerated ubiquitin-proteasome system-dependent degradation. Accordingly, NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic currents, early and late long-term potentiation, long-term depression, and CREB responses are attenuated in kif17(-/-) neurons, concomitant with a hippocampus-dependent memory impairment in knockout mice. In wild-type neurons, CREB is activated by synaptic inputs, which increase the levels of KIF17 and NR2B. Thus, KIF17 differentially maintains the levels of NR2A and NR2B, and, when synapses are stimulated, the NR2B/KIF17 complex is upregulated on demand through CREB activity. These KIF17-based mechanisms for maintaining NR2A/2B levels could underlie multiple phases of memory processes in vivo.

  5. Tetrahydroindolizinone NK1 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Bao, Jianming; Lu, Huagang; Morriello, Gregori J; Carlson, Emma J; Wheeldon, Alan; Chicchi, Gary G; Kurtz, Marc M; Tsao, Kwei-Lan C; Zheng, Song; Tong, Xinchun; Mills, Sander G; DeVita, Robert J

    2010-04-01

    A new class of potent NK(1) receptor antagonists with a tetrahydroindolizinone core has been identified. This series of compounds demonstrated improved functional activities as compared to previously identified 5,5-fused pyrrolidine lead structures. SAR at the 7-position of the tetrahydroindolizinone core is discussed in detail. A number of compounds displayed high NK(1) receptor occupancy at both 1 h and 24 h in a gerbil foot tapping model. Compound 40 has high NK(1) binding affinity, good selectivity for other NK receptors and promising in vivo properties. It also has clean P(450) inhibition and hPXR induction profiles. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Lungs donated after circulatory death and prolonged warm ischemia are transplanted successfully after enhanced ex vivo lung perfusion using adenosine A2B receptor antagonism.

    PubMed

    Charles, Eric J; Mehaffey, J Hunter; Sharma, Ashish K; Zhao, Yunge; Stoler, Mark H; Isbell, James M; Lau, Christine L; Tribble, Curtis G; Laubach, Victor E; Kron, Irving L

    2017-04-12

    The current supply of acceptable donor lungs is not sufficient for the number of patients awaiting transplantation. We hypothesized that ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) with targeted drug therapy would allow successful rehabilitation and transplantation of donation after circulatory death lungs exposed to 2 hours of warm ischemia. Donor porcine lungs were procured after 2 hours of warm ischemia postcardiac arrest and subjected to 4 hours of cold preservation or EVLP. ATL802, an adenosine A2B receptor antagonist, was administered to select groups. Four groups (n = 4/group) were randomized: cold preservation (Cold), cold preservation with ATL802 during reperfusion (Cold + ATL802), EVLP (EVLP), and EVLP with ATL802 during ex vivo perfusion (EVLP + ATL802). Lungs subsequently were transplanted, reperfused, and assessed by measuring dynamic lung compliance and oxygenation capacity. EVLP + ATL802 significantly improved dynamic lung compliance compared with EVLP (25.0 ± 1.8 vs 17.0 ± 2.4 mL/cmH2O, P = .04), and compared with cold preservation (Cold: 12.2 ± 1.3, P = .004; Cold + ATL802: 10.6 ± 2.0 mL/cmH2O, P = .002). Oxygenation capacity was highest in EVLP (440.4 ± 37.0 vs Cold: 174.0 ± 61.3 mm Hg, P = .037). No differences in oxygenation or pulmonary edema were observed between EVLP and EVLP + ATL802. A significant decrease in interleukin-12 expression in tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage was identified between groups EVLP and EVLP + ATL802, along with less neutrophil infiltration. Severely injured donation after circulatory death lungs subjected to 2 hours of warm ischemia are transplanted successfully after enhanced EVLP with targeted drug therapy. Increased use of lungs after uncontrolled donor cardiac death and prolonged warm ischemia may be possible and may improve transplant wait list times and mortality. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Activation of the A2B adenosine receptor in B16 melanomas induces CXCL12 expression in FAP-positive tumor stromal cells, enhancing tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    Sorrentino, Claudia; Miele, Lucio; Porta, Amalia; Pinto, Aldo; Morello, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    The A2B receptor (A2BR) can mediate adenosine-induced tumor proliferation, immunosuppression and angiogenesis. Targeting the A2BR has proved to be therapeutically effective in some murine tumor models, but the mechanisms of these effects are still incompletely understood. Here, we report that pharmacologic inhibition of A2BR with PSB1115, which inhibits tumor growth, decreased the number of fibroblast activation protein (FAP)-expressing cells in tumors in a mouse model of melanoma. This effect was associated with reduced expression of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2. Treatment of melanoma-associated fibroblasts with the A2BR agonist Bay60-6583 enhanced CXCL12 and FGF2 expression. This effect was abrogated by PSB1115. The A2AR agonist CGS21680 did not induce CXCL12 or FGF2 expression in tumor associated fibroblasts. Similar results were obtained under hypoxic conditions in skin-derived fibroblasts, which responded to Bay60-6583 in an A2BR-dependent manner, by stimulating pERK1/2. FGF2 produced by Bay60-6583-treated fibroblasts directly enhanced the proliferation of melanoma cells. This effect could be reversed by PSB1115 or an anti-FGF2 antibody. Interestingly, melanoma growth in mice receiving Bay60-6583 was attenuated by inhibition of the CXCL12/CXCR4 pathway with AMD3100. CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 are involved in angiogenesis and immune-suppression. Treatment of mice with AMD3100 reduced the number of CD31+ cells induced by Bay60-6583. Conversely, CXCR4 blockade did not affect the accumulation of tumor-infiltrating MDSCs or Tregs. Together, our data reveal an important role for A2BR in stimulating FGF2 and CXCL12 expression in melanoma-associated fibroblasts. These factors contribute to create a tumor-promoting microenvironment. Our findings support the therapeutic potential of PSB1115 for melanoma. PMID:27590504

  8. Synthesis, photophysical, electrochemical and electrochemiluminescence properties of A2B2 zinc porphyrins: the effect of π-extended conjugation.

    PubMed

    Galván-Miranda, Elizabeth K; Castro-Cruz, Hiram M; Arturo Arias-Orea, J; Iurlo, Matteo; Valenti, Giovanni; Marcaccio, Massimo; Macías-Ruvalcaba, Norma A

    2016-06-01

    The synthesis of two A2B2 porphyrins, {5,15-bis-[4-(octyloxy)phenyl]-porphyrinato}zinc(ii) () and {5,15-bis-(carbazol-3-yl-ethynyl)-10,20-bis-[4-(octyloxy)phenyl]-porphinato}-zinc(ii) (), is reported. Their photophysical properties were studied by steady-state absorption and emission. Substituting the carbazolylethynyl moieties at two of the meso positions results in a large bathochromic shift of all the absorption bands, a notable increase in the absorption coefficient of the Q(0,0) band, and higher fluorescence quantum yield compared to porphyrin , with two unsubstituted meso positions. Cyclic voltammetry and digital simulation show that electrogenerated radical ions of are more stable than those of . The lack of substituents at the meso positions of leads to dimerization reactions of the radical cation. Despite this, the annihilation reaction of and produces very similar electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) intensity. Spectroelectrochemical experiments demonstrate that the electroreduction of leads to a strong absorption band that might quench the ECL.

  9. a Nonthermal Model for Catalytic Surface Reaction of the Type A2+B2→2AB:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, K. M.; Ahmad, W.; Iqbal, K.

    The kinetics of irreversible dimer-dimer reaction of the type A2+B2→2AB has already been studied through Monte Carlo simulation via a model based on Langmuir-Hinshelwood (thermal) mechanism. The results of this study are well known. There is single transition point (yC) at yB=0.5 (where yB is partial pressure of B2 dimer in gas phase), which separates the two poisoned states from each other. Here, we have studied this reaction on the basis of a nonthermal model, which involves the precursor motion of B2 molecule. The most interesting feature of this model is that it yields a steady reactive window. The phase diagram is similar to the ZGB model. The reactive window is separated by continuous and discontinuous irreversible phase transitions. The width of the reactive window depends upon the mobility of the precursors. The dependence of production rate on partial pressure of B2 is shown by simple mathematical equations in our model. Some interesting results are observed when reaction between precursors and chemisorbed B atoms is considered.

  10. Oxides of nitrogen emissions from the testing of Tf41-A-2B engines at Naval Air Station, Lemoore, California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    NOx are air pollutants from the testing of gas turbine engines. Out-of-airframe engine testing is regulated by air pollution control agencies which require NOx emissions data on applications for permits to construct and operate engine test facilities. Aside from continuous emissions monitoring, current methods of determining NOx emissions from test cells depend on the availability of accurate records of engine operational data. This degree of record keeping is excessive given the difficult conditions under which engine testing is normally conducted. To avoid excessive record keeping, the Aircraft Environmental Support Office recommends a simple procedure for determining NOx emissions. Its use depends only on accurate records of fuel usage for each engine test run. The procedure involves the use of a correlation coefficient which relates the weight (pounds) of NOx emissions to the weight (pounds) of fuel consumed during engine testing. The coefficient is characteristic of a given engine type, demonstrating little variation among individual engines. This report establishes a correlation coefficient for the TF41-A-2B engine based on actual emissions data and the run sheets from 27 engine tests conducted in test cells at NAS Lemoore, CA. The correlation coefficient, equal to 0.01515 pounds of NOx formed per pound of fuel consumed, determined NOx emissions to within 1% of actual values. Analysis of the statistical validity of the coefficient supports its use as a reliable procedure.

  11. Successful unintentional ABO-incompatible renal transplantation: Blood group A1B donor into an A2B recipient.

    PubMed

    Fadeyi, Emmanuel A; Stratta, Robert J; Farney, Alan C; Pomper, Gregory J

    2014-05-01

    To report a successful unintentional transplantation of a deceased donor kidney from an "incompatible" A1B donor into a recipient who was blood group A2B with unsuspected preformed anti-A1 antibodies. The donor and recipient were both typed for ABO antigens. The recipient was tested for ABO and non-ABO antibodies. The recipient was typed for HLA class I and class II antigens, including HLA antibody screen. The T-and B-flow cytometry crossmatch test was performed using standard protocol. The donor-recipient pair was a complete six-antigen human leukocyte antigen mismatch, but final T- and B-flow cytometry cross-match tests were compatible. The recipient was a 65-year-old woman with a medical history of end-stage renal disease secondary to diabetic nephropathy who underwent kidney transplantation from a 46-year-old brain-dead standard criteria donor. The recipient's RBCs were negative with A1 lectin, and the recipient was thus typed as an A2 subgroup. Anti-A1 could be demonstrated in the recipient's plasma. The donor's RBCs were positive with A1 lectin, thereby conferring an A1 blood type. It is safe to transplant across the A1/A2 blood group barrier provided that the preformed antibodies are not reactive at 37°C and with anti-human globulin.

  12. Targeted Segment Transfer from Rye Chromosome 2R to Wheat Chromosomes 2A, 2B, and 7B.

    PubMed

    Ren, Tianheng; Li, Zhi; Yan, Benju; Tan, Feiquan; Tang, Zongxiang; Fu, Shulan; Yang, Manyu; Ren, Zhenglong

    2017-01-01

    Increased chromosome instability was induced by a rye (Secale cereale L.) monosomic 2R chromosome into wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Centromere breakage and telomere dysfunction result in high rates of chromosome aberrations, including breakages, fissions, fusions, deletions, and translocations. Plants with target traits were sequentially selected to produce a breeding population, from which 3 translocation lines with target traits have been selected. In these lines, wheat chromosomes 2A, 2B, and 7B recombined with segments of the rye chromosome arm 2RL. This was detected by FISH analysis using repeat sequences pSc119.2, pAs1 and genomic DNA of rye together as probes. The translocation chromosomes in these lines were named as 2ASMR, 2BSMR, and 7BSMR. The small segments that were transferred into wheat consisted of pSc119.2 repeats and other chromatin regions that conferred resistance to stripe rust and expressed target traits. These translocation lines were highly resistant to stripe rust, and expressed several typical traits that were associated with chromosome arm 2RL, which are better than those of its wheat parent, disomic addition, and substitution lines that show agronomic characteristics. The integration of molecular methods and conventional techniques to improve wheat breeding schemes are discussed. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Purinergic A2b Receptor Activation by Extracellular Cues Affects Positioning of the Centrosome and Nucleus and Causes Reduced Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Ou, Young; Chan, Gordon; Zuo, Jeremy; Rattner, Jerome B; van der Hoorn, Frans A

    2016-07-15

    The tight, relative positioning of the nucleus and centrosome in mammalian cells is important for the regulation of cell migration. Under pathophysiological conditions, the purinergic A2b receptor can regulate cell motility, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Expression of A2b, normally low, is increased in tissues experiencing adverse physiological conditions, including hypoxia and inflammation. ATP is released from such cells. We investigated whether extracellular cues can regulate centrosome-nucleus positioning and cell migration. We discovered that hypoxia as well as extracellular ATP cause a reversible increase in the distance between the centrosome and nucleus and reduced cell motility. We uncovered the underlying pathway: both treatments act through the A2b receptor and specifically activate the Epac1/RapGef3 pathway. We show that cells lacking A2b do not respond in this manner to hypoxia or ATP but transfection of A2b restores this response, that Epac1 is critically involved, and that Rap1B is important for the relative positioning of the centrosome and nucleus. Our results represent, to our knowledge, the first report demonstrating that pathophysiological conditions can impact the distance between the centrosome and nucleus. Furthermore, we identify the A2b receptor as a central player in this process. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Purinergic A2b Receptor Activation by Extracellular Cues Affects Positioning of the Centrosome and Nucleus and Causes Reduced Cell Migration*

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Young; Chan, Gordon; Zuo, Jeremy; Rattner, Jerome B.; van der Hoorn, Frans A.

    2016-01-01

    The tight, relative positioning of the nucleus and centrosome in mammalian cells is important for the regulation of cell migration. Under pathophysiological conditions, the purinergic A2b receptor can regulate cell motility, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Expression of A2b, normally low, is increased in tissues experiencing adverse physiological conditions, including hypoxia and inflammation. ATP is released from such cells. We investigated whether extracellular cues can regulate centrosome-nucleus positioning and cell migration. We discovered that hypoxia as well as extracellular ATP cause a reversible increase in the distance between the centrosome and nucleus and reduced cell motility. We uncovered the underlying pathway: both treatments act through the A2b receptor and specifically activate the Epac1/RapGef3 pathway. We show that cells lacking A2b do not respond in this manner to hypoxia or ATP but transfection of A2b restores this response, that Epac1 is critically involved, and that Rap1B is important for the relative positioning of the centrosome and nucleus. Our results represent, to our knowledge, the first report demonstrating that pathophysiological conditions can impact the distance between the centrosome and nucleus. Furthermore, we identify the A2b receptor as a central player in this process. PMID:27226580

  15. Small Molecule CXCR3 Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Stephen P; Cox, Rhona J

    2016-04-14

    Chemokines and their receptors are known to play important roles in disease. More than 40 chemokine ligands and 20 chemokine receptors have been identified, but, to date, only two small molecule chemokine receptor antagonists have been approved by the FDA. The chemokine receptor CXCR3 was identified in 1996, and nearly 20 years later, new areas of CXCR3 disease biology continue to emerge. Several classes of small molecule CXCR3 antagonists have been developed, and two have shown efficacy in preclinical models of inflammatory disease. However, only one CXCR3 antagonist has been evaluated in clinical trials, and there remain many opportunities to further investigate known classes of CXCR3 antagonists and to identify new chemotypes. This Perspective reviews the known CXCR3 antagonists and considers future opportunities for the development of small molecules for clinical evaluation.

  16. High-pressure behavior of A2B2O7 pyrochlore (A=Eu, Dy; B=Ti, Zr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rittman, Dylan R.; Turner, Katlyn M.; Park, Sulgiye; Fuentes, Antonio F.; Yan, Jinyuan; Ewing, Rodney C.; Mao, Wendy L.

    2017-01-01

    In situ high-pressure X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were used to determine the influence of composition on the high-pressure behavior of A2B2O7 pyrochlore (A = Eu, Dy; B = Ti, Zr) up to ˜50 GPa. Based on X-ray diffraction results, all compositions transformed to the high-pressure cotunnite structure. The B-site cation species had a larger effect on the transition pressure than the A-site cation species, with the onset of the phase transformation occurring at ˜41 GPa for B = Ti and ˜16 GPa B = Zr. However, the A-site cation affected the kinetics of the phase transformation, with the transformation for compositions with the smaller ionic radii, i.e., A = Dy, proceeding faster than those with a larger ionic radii, i.e., A = Eu. These results were consistent with previous work in which the radius-ratio of the A- and B-site cations determined the energetics of disordering, and compositions with more similarly sized A- and B-site cations had a lower defect formation energy. Raman spectra revealed differences in the degree of short-range order of the different compositions. Due to the large phase fraction of cotunnite at high pressure for B = Zr compositions, Raman modes for cotunnite could be observed, with more modes recorded for A = Eu than A = Dy. These additional modes are attributed to increased short-to-medium range ordering in the initially pyrochlore structured Eu2Zr2O7 as compared with the initially defect-fluorite structured Dy2Zr2O7.

  17. Fluorescence and FTIR Spectra Analysis of Trans-A2B2-Substituted Di- and Tetra-Phenyl Porphyrins

    PubMed Central

    Şen, Pınar; Hirel, Catherine; Andraud, Chantal; Aronica, Christophe; Bretonnière, Yann; Mohammed, Abdelsalam; Ågren, Hans; Minaev, Boris; Minaeva, Valentina; Baryshnikov, Gleb; Lee, Hung-Hsun; Duboisset, Julien; Lindgren, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    A series of asymmetrically substituted free-base di- and tetra-phenylporphyrins and the associated Zn-phenylporphyrins were synthesized and studied by X-ray diffraction, NMR, infrared, electronic absorption spectra, as well as fluorescence emission spectroscopy, along with theoretical simulations of the electronic and vibration structures. The synthesis selectively afforded trans-A2B2 porphyrins, without scrambling observed, where the AA and BB were taken as donor- and acceptor-substituted phenyl groups. The combined results point to similar properties to symmetrically substituted porphyrins reported in the literature. The differences in FTIR and fluorescence were analyzed by means of detailed density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The X-ray diffraction analysis for single crystals of zinc-containing porphyrins revealed small deviations from planarity for the porphyrin core in perfect agreement with the DFT optimized structures. All calculated vibrational modes (2162 modes for all six compounds studied) were found and fully characterized and assigned to the observed FTIR spectra. The most intense IR bands are discussed in connection with the generic similarity and differences of calculated normal modes. Absorption spectra of all compounds in the UV and visible regions show the typical ethio type feature of meso-tetraarylporphyrins with a very intense Soret band and weak Q bands of decreasing intensity. In diphenyl derivatives, the presence of only two phenyl rings causes a pronounced hypsochromic shift of all bands in the absorption spectra. Time-dependent DFT calculations revealed some peculiarities in the electronic excited states structure and connected them with vibronic bands in the absorption and fluorescence spectra from associated vibrational sublevels. PMID:28883336

  18. Transcriptional regulation of heat shock proteins and ascorbate peroxidase by CtHsfA2b from African bermudagrass conferring heat tolerance in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiuyun; Huang, Wanlu; Yang, Zhimin; Liu, Jun; Huang, Bingru

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress transcription factor A2s (HsfA2s) are key regulators in plant response to high temperature. Our objectives were to isolate an HsfA2 gene (CtHsfA2b) from a warm-season grass species, African bermudagrass (Cynodon transvaalensis Burtt-Davy), and to determine the physiological functions and transcriptional regulation of HsfA2 for improving heat tolerance. Gene expression analysis revealed that CtHsfA2b was heat-inducible and exhibited rapid response to increasing temperature. Ectopic expression of CtHsfA2b improved heat tolerance in Arabidopsis and restored heat-sensitive defects of Arabidopsis hsfa2 mutant, which was demonstrated by higher survival rate and photosynthetic parameters, and lower electrolyte leakage in transgenic plants compared to the WT or hsfa2 mutant. CtHsfA2b transgenic plants showed elevated transcriptional regulation of several downstream genes, including those encoding ascorbate peroxidase (AtApx2) and heat shock proteins [AtHsp18.1-CI, AtHsp22.0-ER, AtHsp25.3-P and AtHsp26.5-P(r), AtHsp70b and AtHsp101-3]. CtHsfA2b was found to bind to the heat shock element (HSE) on the promoter of AtApx2 and enhanced transcriptional activity of AtApx2. These results suggested that CtHsfA2b could play positive roles in heat protection by up-regulating antioxidant defense and chaperoning mechanisms. CtHsfA2b has the potential to be used as a candidate gene to genetically modify cool-season species for improving heat tolerance. PMID:27320381

  19. PAR1 inhibition suppresses the self-renewal and growth of A2B5-defined glioma progenitor cells and their derived gliomas in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Auvergne, R; Wu, C; Connell, A; Au, S; Cornwell, A; Osipovitch, M; Benraiss, A; Dangelmajer, S; Guerrero-Cazares, H; Quinones-Hinojosa, A; Goldman, SA

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) remains the most common and lethal intracranial tumor. In a comparison of gene expression by A2B5-defined tumor-initiating progenitor cells (TPCs) to glial progenitor cells derived from normal adult human brain, we found that the F2R gene encoding PAR1 was differentially overexpressed by A2B5-sorted TPCs isolated from gliomas at all stages of malignant development. In this study, we asked if PAR1 is causally associated with glioma progression. Lentiviral knockdown of PAR1 inhibited the expansion and self-renewal of human GBM-derived A2B5+ TPCs in vitro, while pharmacological inhibition of PAR 1 similarly slowed both the growth and migration of A2B5+ TPCs in culture. In addition, PAR1 silencing potently suppressed tumor expansion in vivo, and significantly prolonged the survival of mice following intracranial transplantation of human TPCs. These data strongly suggest the importance of PAR1 to the self-renewal and tumorigenicity of A2B5-defined glioma TPCs; as such, the abrogation of PAR1-dependent signaling pathways may prove a promising strategy for gliomas. PMID:26616854

  20. Tumor vasculature is regulated by FGF/FGFR signaling-mediated angiogenesis and bone marrow-derived cell recruitment: this mechanism is inhibited by SSR128129E, the first allosteric antagonist of FGFRs.

    PubMed

    Fons, Pierre; Gueguen-Dorbes, Geneviève; Herault, Jean-Pascal; Geronimi, Fabien; Tuyaret, Joël; Frédérique, Dol; Schaeffer, Paul; Volle-Challier, Cécile; Herbert, Jean-Marc; Bono, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Tumor angiogenesis is accompanied by vasculogenesis, which is involved in the differentiation and mobilization of human bone marrow cells. In order to further characterize the role of vasculogenesis in the tumor growth process, the effects of FGF2 on the differentiation of human bone marrow AC133(+) cells (BM-AC133(+)) into vascular precursors were studied in vitro. FGF2, like VEGFA, induced progenitor cell differentiation into cell types with endothelial cell characteristics. SSR128129E, a newly discovered specific FGFR antagonist acting by allosteric interaction with FGFR, abrogated FGF2-induced endothelial cell differentiation, showing that FGFR signaling is essential during this process. To assess the involvement of the FGF/FRGR signaling in vivo, the pre-clinical model of Lewis lung carcinoma (LL2) in mice was used. Subcutaneous injection of LL2 cells into mice induced an increase of circulating EPCs from peripheral blood associated with tumor growth and an increase of intra-tumoral vascular index. Treatment with the FGFR antagonist SSR128129E strongly decreased LL2 tumor growth as well as the intra-tumoral vascular index (41% and 50% decrease vs. vehicle-treated mice respectively, P < 0.01). Interestingly, SSR128129E treatment significantly decreased the number of circulating EPCs from the peripheral blood (53% inhibition vs. vehicle-treated mice, P < 0.01). These results demonstrate for the first time that the blockade of the FGF/FGFR pathway by SSR128129E reduces EPC recruitment during angiogenesis-dependent tumor growth. In this context, circulating EPCs could be a reliable surrogate marker for tumor growth and angiogenic activity.

  1. Concurrent agonism of adenosine A2B and glucocorticoid receptors in human airway epithelial cells cooperatively induces genes with anti-inflammatory potential: a novel approach to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Greer, Stephanie; Page, Cara W; Joshi, Taruna; Yan, Dong; Newton, Robert; Giembycz, Mark A

    2013-09-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a neutrophilic inflammatory disorder that is weakly responsive to glucocorticoids. Identification of ways to enhance the anti-inflammatory activity of glucocorticoids is, therefore, a major research objective. Adenosine receptor agonists that target the A2B-receptor subtype are efficacious in several cell-based assays and preclinical models of inflammation. Accordingly, the present study was designed to determine if a selective A2B-receptor agonist, 2-[6-amino-3,5-dicyano-4-[4-(cyclopropylmethoxy)phenyl]pyridin-2-ylsulphanyl]acetamide (Bay 60-6583), and a glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, in combination display putative anti-inflammatory activity that is superior to either drug alone. In BEAS-2B human airway epithelial cells stably transfected with cAMP-response element (CRE) and glucocorticoid response element (GRE) reporter constructs, Bay 60-6583 promoted CRE-dependent transcription and enhanced GRE-dependent transcription by an adenosine A2B-receptor-mediated mechanism that was associated with cAMP formation and abolished by an inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Analysis of the concentration-response relationship that described the enhancement of GRE-dependent transcription showed that Bay 60-6583 increased the magnitude of response without affecting the potency of dexamethasone. Bay 60-6583 and dexamethasone also induced a panel of genes that, collectively, could have benefit in COPD. These were categorized into genes that were induced in a positive cooperative manner (RGS2, p57(kip2)), an additive manner (TTP, BRL-1), or by Bay 60-6583 (CD200, CRISPLD2, SOCS3) or dexamethasone (GILZ) only. Thus, the gene induction "fingerprints" produced by Bay 60-6583 and dexamethasone, alone and in combination, were distinct. Collectively, through their actions on gene expression, an adenosine A2B-receptor agonist and a glucocorticoid administered together may have utility in the treatment of inflammatory disorders that

  2. Enhancer Responses to Similarly Distributed Antagonistic Gradients in Development

    PubMed Central

    Zinzen, Robert P; Papatsenko, Dmitri

    2007-01-01

    Formation of spatial gene expression patterns in development depends on transcriptional responses mediated by gene control regions, enhancers. Here, we explore possible responses of enhancers to overlapping gradients of antagonistic transcriptional regulators in the Drosophila embryo. Using quantitative models based on enhancer structure, we demonstrate how a pair of antagonistic transcription factor gradients with similar or even identical spatial distributions can lead to the formation of distinct gene expression domains along the embryo axes. The described mechanisms are sufficient to explain the formation of the anterior and the posterior knirps expression, the posterior hunchback expression domain, and the lateral stripes of rhomboid expression and of other ventral neurogenic ectodermal genes. The considered principles of interaction between antagonistic gradients at the enhancer level can also be applied to diverse developmental processes, such as domain specification in imaginal discs, or even eyespot pattern formation in the butterfly wing. PMID:17500585

  3. Platelet-activating factor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Negro Alvarez, J M; Miralles López, J C; Ortiz Martínez, J L; Abellán Alemán, A; Rubio del Barrio, R

    1997-01-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF), identified as 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glyceryl-3-phosphorylcholine, exhibits potent proinflammatory properties. PAF is produced by numerous cell types, including endothelial cells, neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, basophils, eosinophils and mastocytes. Since the discovery and identification of the chemical structure of PAF, a large variety of specific PAF-receptor antagonists, both natural and synthetic compounds, have been described. Intensive research has been conducted and development programs set up by more 25 pharmaceutical companies world-wide, studying the therapeutic interest of more than 50 PAF-receptors antagonists in various pathophysiological conditions. Medline (1966-1996), Embase (Excerpta Medica; 1974-1996), and other biomedical and drug directory databases were searched to identify English-language articles (basic science, clinical trial research, and review articles) and abstracts of conference proceedings on PAF receptor antagonists and related terms. The most important PAF receptor antagonists are reviewed with their effectiveness in various experimental tests. Fundamentally, PAF antagonists may be divided in two groups: natural and synthetic compounds. Natural (Ginkgolides, Kadsurenone, Chantancin, Phomactin, Swietemohonin A, Prehispalone, THC-7-oic acid, Aglafoline, FR 900452, PCA 4248 and SCH 37370), and synthetic antagonists (CV-3988, CV-6209, SRI 63-072, SRI 63-441, UR-10324, UR-11353, E-5880, CL 184005, 6-Mono and Bis-aryl phosphate antagonists, TCV-309, Ro-74719, WEB 2086, Y 24180, BN 50726, BN 50727, BN 50730, BN 50739, Ro 24-4736, Ro 24-0238, RP 55778, RP 59227, RP 66681, YM 264, YM 461, SM 10661, SR 27417, UK 74505, BB 182, BB 823, BB 654, SDZ 64-412, SDZ 65-123, L 652731, L 659898, L 668750, L 671284, L680573, L 680574, CIS 19, ABT-299 and Pinusolide) have a great variability in their chemical structure that might have importance in their different pharmacological profile. The great majority of these

  4. Whole-Genome Sequence of Clostridium botulinum A2B3 87, a Highly Virulent Strain Involved in a Fatal Case of Foodborne Botulism in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Giordani, Francesco; Fillo, Silvia; Anselmo, Anna; Palozzi, Anna Maria; Fortunato, Antonella; Gentile, Bernardina; Pittiglio, Valentina; Spagnolo, Ferdinando; Anniballi, Fabrizio; Fiore, Alfonsina; Auricchio, Bruna; De Medici, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the genome sequence of a rare bivalent strain of Clostridium botulinum, A2B3 87. The strain was isolated from a foodborne botulism case that occurred in Italy in 1995. The case was characterized by rapid evolution of the illness and failure of conventional treatments. PMID:25814616

  5. NK-1 receptor antagonists: a new paradigm in pharmacological therapy.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, M; Coveñas, R

    2011-01-01

    The neuropeptide substance P (SP) shows a widespread distribution in both the central and peripheral nervous systems and it is known that after binding to the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptors, SP regulates many biological functions in the central nervous system such as emotional behaviour, stress, depression, anxiety, emesis, migraine, alcohol addiction and neurodegeneration. SP has been also implicated in pain, inflammation, hepatotoxicity and in virus proliferation, and it plays an important role in cancer (e.g., tumour cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and the migration of tumour cells for invasion and metastasis). By contrast, it is known that after binding to NK-1 receptors, NK-1 receptor antagonists specifically inhibit the above-mentioned biological functions mediated by SP. Thus, these antagonists exert an anxyolitic, antidepressant, antiemetic, antimigraine, antialcohol addiction or neuroprotector effect in the central nervous system, and they play a role in analgesic, antiinflammatory, hepatoprotector processes and in antivirus proliferation. Regarding cancer, NK-1 receptor antagonists exert an antitumour action (inducing tumour cell death by apoptosis), and induce antiangiogenesis and inhibit the migration of tumour cells. It is also known that NK-1 receptors have a widespread distribution and that they are overexpressed in tumour cells. Thus, NK-1 receptor antagonists are molecularly targeted agents. In general, current drugs have a single therapeutic effect, although less commonly they may exert several. However, the data reported above indicate that NK-1 receptor antagonists are promising drugs, exerting many therapeutic effects (the action of such antagonists is dose-dependent and, depending on the concentration, has more positive effects). In this review, we update the multiple therapeutic effects exerted by NK-1 receptor antagonists.

  6. Antagonistic coevolution between quantitative and Mendelian traits.

    PubMed

    Yamamichi, Masato; Ellner, Stephen P

    2016-03-30

    Coevolution is relentlessly creating and maintaining biodiversity and therefore has been a central topic in evolutionary biology. Previous theoretical studies have mostly considered coevolution between genetically symmetric traits (i.e. coevolution between two continuous quantitative traits or two discrete Mendelian traits). However, recent empirical evidence indicates that coevolution can occur between genetically asymmetric traits (e.g. between quantitative and Mendelian traits). We examine consequences of antagonistic coevolution mediated by a quantitative predator trait and a Mendelian prey trait, such that predation is more intense with decreased phenotypic distance between their traits (phenotype matching). This antagonistic coevolution produces a complex pattern of bifurcations with bistability (initial state dependence) in a two-dimensional model for trait coevolution. Furthermore, with eco-evolutionary dynamics (so that the trait evolution affects predator-prey population dynamics), we find that coevolution can cause rich dynamics including anti-phase cycles, in-phase cycles, chaotic dynamics and deterministic predator extinction. Predator extinction is more likely to occur when the prey trait exhibits complete dominance rather than semidominance and when the predator trait evolves very rapidly. Our study illustrates how recognizing the genetic architectures of interacting ecological traits can be essential for understanding the population and evolutionary dynamics of coevolving species. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Antagonistic coevolution between quantitative and Mendelian traits

    PubMed Central

    Ellner, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    Coevolution is relentlessly creating and maintaining biodiversity and therefore has been a central topic in evolutionary biology. Previous theoretical studies have mostly considered coevolution between genetically symmetric traits (i.e. coevolution between two continuous quantitative traits or two discrete Mendelian traits). However, recent empirical evidence indicates that coevolution can occur between genetically asymmetric traits (e.g. between quantitative and Mendelian traits). We examine consequences of antagonistic coevolution mediated by a quantitative predator trait and a Mendelian prey trait, such that predation is more intense with decreased phenotypic distance between their traits (phenotype matching). This antagonistic coevolution produces a complex pattern of bifurcations with bistability (initial state dependence) in a two-dimensional model for trait coevolution. Furthermore, with eco-evolutionary dynamics (so that the trait evolution affects predator–prey population dynamics), we find that coevolution can cause rich dynamics including anti-phase cycles, in-phase cycles, chaotic dynamics and deterministic predator extinction. Predator extinction is more likely to occur when the prey trait exhibits complete dominance rather than semidominance and when the predator trait evolves very rapidly. Our study illustrates how recognizing the genetic architectures of interacting ecological traits can be essential for understanding the population and evolutionary dynamics of coevolving species. PMID:27009218

  8. 180-Nucleotide Duplication in the G Gene of Human metapneumovirus A2b Subgroup Strains Circulating in Yokohama City, Japan, since 2014

    PubMed Central

    Saikusa, Miwako; Kawakami, Chiharu; Nao, Naganori; Takeda, Makoto; Usuku, Shuzo; Sasao, Tadayoshi; Nishimoto, Kimiko; Toyozawa, Takahiro

    2017-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV), a member of the family Paramyxoviridae, was first isolated in 2001. Seroepidemiological studies have shown that HMPV has been a major etiological agent of acute respiratory infections in humans for more than 50 years. Molecular epidemiological, genetic, and antigenetic evolutionary studies of HMPV will strengthen our understanding of the epidemic behavior of the virus and provide valuable insight for the control of HMPV and the development of vaccines and antiviral drugs against HMPV infection. In this study, the nucleotide sequence of and genetic variations in the G gene were analyzed in HMPV strains prevalent in Yokohama City, in the Kanto area, Japan, between January 2013 and June 2016. As a part of the National Epidemiological Surveillance of Infectious Diseases, Japan, 1308 clinical specimens (throat swabs, nasal swabs, nasal secretions, and nasal aspirate fluids) collected at 24 hospitals or clinics in Yokohama City were screened for 15 major respiratory viruses with a multiplex reverse transcription–PCR assay. HMPV was detected in 91 specimens, accounting for 7.0% of the total specimens, and the nucleotide sequences of the G genes of 84 HMPV strains were determined. Among these 84 strains, 6, 43, 10, and 25 strains were classified into subgroups A2a, A2b, B1, and B2, respectively. Approximately half the HMPV A2b subgroup strains detected since 2014 had a 180-nucleotide duplication (180nt-dup) in the G gene and clustered on a phylogenic tree with four classical 180nt-dup-lacking HMPV A2b strains prevalent between 2014 and 2015. The 180nt-dup causes a 60-amino-acid duplication (60aa-dup) in the G protein, creating 23–25 additional potential acceptor sites for O-linked sugars. Our data suggest that 180nt-dup occurred between 2011 and 2013 and that HMPV A2b strains with 180nt-dup (A2b180nt-dup HMPV) became major epidemic strains within 3 years. The detailed mechanism by which the A2b180nt-dup HMPV strains gained an advantage

  9. Design and synthesis of peripherally restricted transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) antagonists.

    PubMed

    Tamayo, Nuria; Liao, Hongyu; Stec, Markian M; Wang, Xianghong; Chakrabarti, Partha; Retz, Dan; Doherty, Elizabeth M; Surapaneni, Sekhar; Tamir, Rami; Bannon, Anthony W; Gavva, Narender R; Norman, Mark H

    2008-05-08

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel antagonists may have clinical utility for the treatment of chronic nociceptive and neuropathic pain. We recently advanced a TRPV1 antagonist, 3 (AMG 517), into clinical trials as a new therapy for the treatment of pain. However, in addition to the desired analgesic effects, this TRPV1 antagonist significantly increased body core temperature following oral administration in rodents. Here, we report one of our approaches to eliminate or minimize the on-target hyperthermic effect observed with this and other TRPV1 antagonists. Through modifications of our clinical candidate, 3 a series of potent and peripherally restricted TRPV1 antagonists have been prepared. These analogues demonstrated on-target coverage in vivo but caused increases in body core temperature, suggesting that peripheral restriction was not sufficient to separate antagonism mediated antihyperalgesia from hyperthermia. Furthermore, these studies demonstrate that the site of action for TRPV1 blockade elicited hyperthermia is outside the blood-brain barrier.

  10. Downregulation of A(1) and A(2B) adenosine receptors in human trisomy 21 mesenchymal cells from first-trimester chorionic villi.

    PubMed

    Gessi, Stefania; Merighi, Stefania; Stefanelli, Angela; Mirandola, Prisco; Bonfatti, Alessandra; Fini, Sergio; Sensi, Alberto; Marci, Roberto; Varani, Katia; Borea, Pier Andrea; Vesce, Fortunato

    2012-11-01

    Human reproduction is complex and prone to failure. Though causes of miscarriage remain unclear, adenosine, a proangiogenic nucleoside, may help determine pregnancy outcome. Although adenosine receptor (AR) expression has been characterized in euploid pregnancies, no information is available for aneuploidies, which, as prone to spontaneous abortion (SA), are a potential model for shedding light on the mechanism regulating this event. AR expression was investigated in 71 first-trimester chorionic villi (CV) samples and cultured mesenchymal cells (MC) from euploid and TR21 pregnancies, one of the most frequent autosomal aneuploidy, with a view to elucidating their potential role in the modulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nitric oxide (NO). Compared to euploid cells, reduced A(1) and A(2B) expression was revealed in TR21 CV and MCs. The non-selective adenosine agonist 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) increased NO, by activating, predominantly, A(1)AR and A(2A)AR through a molecular pathway involving hypoxia-inducible-factor-1 (HIF-1α), and increased VEGF, mainly through A(2B). In conclusion the adenosine transduction cascade appears to be disturbed in TR21 through reduced expression of A(2B) and A(1)ARs. These anomalies may be implicated in complications such as fetal growth restriction, malformation and/or SA, well known features of aneuploid pregnancies. Therefore A(1) and A(2B)ARs could be potential biomarkers able to provide an early indication of SA risk and their stimulation may turn out to improve fetoplacental perfusion by increasing NO and VEGF.

  11. The cellular protein hnRNP A2/B1 enhances HIV-1 transcription by unfolding LTR promoter G-quadruplexes

    PubMed Central

    Scalabrin, Matteo; Frasson, Ilaria; Ruggiero, Emanuela; Perrone, Rosalba; Tosoni, Elena; Lago, Sara; Tassinari, Martina; Palù, Giorgio; Richter, Sara N.

    2017-01-01

    G-quadruplexes are four-stranded conformations of nucleic acids that act as cellular epigenetic regulators. A dynamic G-quadruplex forming region in the HIV-1 LTR promoter represses HIV-1 transcription when in the folded conformation. This activity is enhanced by nucleolin, which induces and stabilizes the HIV-1 LTR G-quadruplexes. In this work by a combined pull-down/mass spectrometry approach, we consistently found hnRNP A2/B1 as an additional LTR-G-quadruplex interacting protein. Surface plasmon resonance confirmed G-quadruplex specificity over linear sequences and fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis indicated that hnRNP A2/B1 is able to efficiently unfold the LTR G-quadruplexes. Evaluation of the thermal stability of the LTR G-quadruplexes in different-length oligonucleotides showed that the protein is fit to be most active in the LTR full-length environment. When hnRNP A2/B1 was silenced in cells, LTR activity decreased, indicating that the protein acts as a HIV-1 transcription activator. Our data highlight a tightly regulated control of transcription based on G-quadruplex folding/unfolding, which depends on interacting cellular proteins. These findings provide a deeper understanding of the viral transcription mechanism and may pave the way to the development of drugs effective against the integrated HIV-1, present both in actively and latently infected cells. PMID:28338097

  12. Adrenergic antagonists restrict replication of Legionella.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Christopher F; Kicka, Sébastien; Kranjc, Agata; Finsel, Ivo; Chiriano, Gianpaolo; Ouertatani-Sakouhi, Hajer; Soldati, Thierry; Scapozza, Leonardo; Hilbi, Hubert

    2015-07-01

    Legionella pneumophila is a facultative intracellular bacterium, which upon inhalation can cause a potentially fatal pneumonia termed Legionnaires' disease. The opportunistic pathogen grows in environmental amoebae and mammalian macrophages within a unique membrane-bound compartment, the 'Legionella-containing vacuole'. Bacteria are exposed to many environmental cues including small signalling molecules from eukaryotic cells. A number of pathogenic bacteria sense and respond to catecholamine hormones, such as adrenalin and noradrenalin, a process mediated via the QseBC two-component system in some bacteria. In this study, we examined the effect of adrenergic compounds on L. pneumophila, and discovered that the adrenergic receptor antagonists benoxathian, naftopidil, propranolol and labetalol, as well as the QseC sensor kinase inhibitor LED209, reduced the growth of L. pneumophila in broth or amoebae, while replication in macrophages was enhanced. Growth restriction was common to members of the genus Legionella and Mycobacterium, and was observed for L. pneumophila in the replicative but not stationary phase of the biphasic life cycle. Deletion of the L. pneumophila qseBC genes indicated that growth inhibition by adrenergics or LED209 is mediated only to a minor extent by this two-component system, implying the presence of other adrenergic sensing systems. This study identifies adrenergic molecules as novel inhibitors of extra- and intracellular growth of Legionella and reveals LED209 as a potential lead compound to combat infections with Legionella or Mycobacterium spp.

  13. Cannabinoid Discrimination and Antagonism by CB1 Neutral and Inverse Agonist Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Delatte, Marcus S.; Vemuri, V. Kiran; Thakur, Ganesh A.; Nikas, Spyridon P.; Subramanian, Kumara V.; Shukla, Vidyanand G.; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Bergman, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) inverse agonists (e.g., rimonabant) have been reported to produce adverse effects including nausea, emesis, and anhedonia that limit their clinical applications. Recent laboratory studies suggest that the effects of CB1 neutral antagonists differ from those of such inverse agonists, raising the possibility of improved clinical utility. However, little is known regarding the antagonist properties of neutral antagonists. In the present studies, the CB1 inverse agonist SR141716A (rimonabant) and the CB1 neutral antagonist AM4113 were compared for their ability to modify CB1 receptor–mediated discriminative stimulus effects in nonhuman primates trained to discriminate the novel CB1 full agonist AM4054. Results indicate that AM4054 serves as an effective CB1 discriminative stimulus, with an onset and time course of action comparable with that of the CB1 agonist Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, and that the inverse agonist rimonabant and the neutral antagonist AM4113 produce dose-related rightward shifts in the AM4054 dose-effect curve, indicating that both drugs surmountably antagonize the discriminative stimulus effects of AM4054. Schild analyses further show that rimonabant and AM4113 produce highly similar antagonist effects, as evident in comparable pA2 values (6.9). Taken together with previous studies, the present data suggest that the improved safety profile suggested for CB1 neutral antagonists over inverse agonists is not accompanied by a loss of antagonist action at CB1 receptors. PMID:23287700

  14. Cannabinoid discrimination and antagonism by CB(1) neutral and inverse agonist antagonists.

    PubMed

    Kangas, Brian D; Delatte, Marcus S; Vemuri, V Kiran; Thakur, Ganesh A; Nikas, Spyridon P; Subramanian, Kumara V; Shukla, Vidyanand G; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Bergman, Jack

    2013-03-01

    Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB(1)) inverse agonists (e.g., rimonabant) have been reported to produce adverse effects including nausea, emesis, and anhedonia that limit their clinical applications. Recent laboratory studies suggest that the effects of CB(1) neutral antagonists differ from those of such inverse agonists, raising the possibility of improved clinical utility. However, little is known regarding the antagonist properties of neutral antagonists. In the present studies, the CB(1) inverse agonist SR141716A (rimonabant) and the CB(1) neutral antagonist AM4113 were compared for their ability to modify CB(1) receptor-mediated discriminative stimulus effects in nonhuman primates trained to discriminate the novel CB(1) full agonist AM4054. Results indicate that AM4054 serves as an effective CB(1) discriminative stimulus, with an onset and time course of action comparable with that of the CB(1) agonist Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, and that the inverse agonist rimonabant and the neutral antagonist AM4113 produce dose-related rightward shifts in the AM4054 dose-effect curve, indicating that both drugs surmountably antagonize the discriminative stimulus effects of AM4054. Schild analyses further show that rimonabant and AM4113 produce highly similar antagonist effects, as evident in comparable pA(2) values (6.9). Taken together with previous studies, the present data suggest that the improved safety profile suggested for CB(1) neutral antagonists over inverse agonists is not accompanied by a loss of antagonist action at CB(1) receptors.

  15. TRPV1 Antagonists and Chronic Pain: Beyond Thermal Perception

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Michael R.; Beyer, Chad E.; Stahl, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, considerable evidence as accumulated to support the development of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) antagonists for the treatment of various chronic pain conditions. Whereas there is a widely accepted rationale for the development of TRPV1 antagonists for the treatment of various inflammatory pain conditions, their development for indications of chronic pain, where conditions of tactical, mechanical and spontaneous pain predominate, is less clear. Preclinical localization and expression studies provide a firm foundation for the use of molecules targeting TRPV1 for conditions of bone pain, osteoarthritis and neuropathic pain. Selective TRPV1 antagonists weakly attenuate tactile and mechanical hypersensivity and are partially effective for behavioral and electrophysiological endpoints that incorporate aspects of spontaneous pain. While initial studies with TRPV1 antagonist in normal human subjects indicate a loss of warm thermal perception, clinical studies assessing allelic variants suggests that TRPV1 may mediate other sensory modalities under certain conditions. The focus of this review is to summarize the current perspectives of TRPV1 for the treatment of conditions beyond those with a primary thermal sensitivity. PMID:24288084

  16. Endothelin receptor antagonists and cardiovascular diseases of aging.

    PubMed

    Love, M P; McMurray, J J

    2001-01-01

    Our understanding of the role of the endothelin system in human cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology has evolved very rapidly since the initial description of its constituent parts in 1988. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is the predominant endothelin isoform in the human cardiovascular system and has potent vasoconstrictor, mitogenic and antinatriuretic properties which have implicated it in the pathophysiology of a number of cardiovascular diseases. The effects of ET-1 have been shown to be mediated by 2 principal endothelin receptor subtypes: ET(A) and ET(B). The development of a range of peptidic and nonpeptidic endothelin receptor antagonists represents an exciting breakthrough in human cardiovascular therapeutics. Two main classes of endothelin receptor antagonist have been developed for possible human therapeutic use: ET(A)-selective and nonselective antagonists. Extensive laboratory and clinical research with these agents has highlighted their promise in various cardiovascular diseases. Randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trials have yielded very encouraging results in patients with hypertension and chronic heart failure with more preliminary data suggesting a possible role in the treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis and stroke. Much more research is needed, however, before endothelin receptor antagonists can be considered for clinical use.

  17. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel antagonist compounds of Toll-like receptors 7, 8 and 9

    PubMed Central

    Kandimalla, Ekambar R.; Bhagat, Lakshmi; Wang, Daqing; Yu, Dong; Sullivan, Tim; La Monica, Nicola; Agrawal, Sudhir

    2013-01-01

    Oligonucleotides containing an immune-stimulatory motif and an immune-regulatory motif act as antagonists of Toll-like receptor (TLR)7 and TLR9. In the present study, we designed and synthesized oligonucleotide-based antagonists of TLR7, 8 and 9 containing a 7-deaza-dG or arabino-G modification in the immune-stimulatory motif and 2′-O-methylribonucleotides as the immune-regulatory motif. We evaluated the biological properties of these novel synthetic oligoribonucleotides as antagonists of TLRs 7, 8 and 9 in murine and human cell-based assays and in vivo in mice and non-human primates. In HEK293, mouse and human cell-based assays, the antagonist compounds inhibited signaling pathways and production of a broad range of cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-12, IL-6, interferon (IFN)-α, IL-1β and interferon gamma-induced protein (IP)-10, mediated by TLR7, 8 and 9. In vivo in mice, the antagonist compounds inhibited TLR7- and TLR9-mediated cytokine induction in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from antagonist compound-treated monkeys secreted lower levels of TLR7-, 8- and 9-mediated cytokines than did PBMCs taken before antagonist administration. The antagonist compounds described herein provide novel agents for the potential treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. PMID:23396449

  18. hnRNP A2/B1 interacts with influenza A viral protein NS1 and inhibits virus replication potentially through suppressing NS1 RNA/protein levels and NS1 mRNA nuclear export

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yimeng; Zhou, Jianhong; Du, Yuchun

    2014-01-20

    The NS1 protein of influenza viruses is a major virulence factor and exerts its function through interacting with viral/cellular RNAs and proteins. In this study, we identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1 (hnRNP A2/B1) as an interacting partner of NS1 proteins by a proteomic method. Knockdown of hnRNP A2/B1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) resulted in higher levels of NS vRNA, NS1 mRNA, and NS1 protein in the virus-infected cells. In addition, we demonstrated that hnRNP A2/B1 proteins are associated with NS1 and NS2 mRNAs and that knockdown of hnRNP A2/B1 promotes transport of NS1 mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in the infected cells. Lastly, we showed that knockdown of hnRNP A2/B1 leads to enhanced virus replication. Our results suggest that hnRNP A2/B1 plays an inhibitory role in the replication of influenza A virus in host cells potentially through suppressing NS1 RNA/protein levels and NS1 mRNA nucleocytoplasmic translocation. - Highlights: • Cellular protein hnRNP A2/B1 interacts with influenza viral protein NS1. • hnRNP A2/B1 suppresses the levels of NS1 protein, vRNA and mRNA in infected cells. • hnRNP A2/B1 protein is associated with NS1 and NS2 mRNAs. • hnRNP A2/B1 inhibits the nuclear export of NS1 mRNAs. • hnRNP A2/B1 inhibits influenza virus replication.

  19. MicroRNA-128b suppresses tumor growth and promotes apoptosis by targeting A2bR in gastric cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ping; Guo, Xueyan; Zong, Wei; Song, Bin; Liu, Guisheng; He, Shuixiang

    2015-11-27

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in the development and progression of human cancers, including gastric cancer (GC). The discovery of miRNAs may provide a new and powerful tool for studying the mechanism, diagnosis, and treatment of GC. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role and mechanism of miR-128b in the development and progression of GC. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to measure the expression level of miR-128b in GC tissues and cell lines. We found that miR-128b was significantly down-regulated in GC tissues and cell lines. In addition, over-expression of miR-128b inhibited GC cell proliferation, migration and invasion of GC cells in vitro. Gain-of-function in vitro experiments further showed that the miR-128b mimic significantly promoted GC cell apoptosis. Subsequent dual-luciferase reporter assay identified one of the proto-oncogene A2bR as direct target of miR-128b. Therefore, our results indicate that miR-128b is a proto-oncogene miRNA that can suppresses GC proliferation and migration through down-regulation of the oncogene gene A2bR. Taken together, our results indicate that miR-128b could serve as a potential diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic option for human GC in the near future. - Highlights: • The expression of MiR-128b is significantly down-regulated in GC tissues and cell lines. • Ectopic expression of miR-128b directly affects cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro. • Overexpression of miR-128b increases apoptosis in GC cells. • A2bR is a candidate target gene of miR-128b. • MiR-128b represses cell proliferation, migration and invasion and promotes apoptosis by targeting A2bR in GC.

  20. Identification of hnRNPs K, L and A2/B1 as candidate proteins involved in the nutritional regulation of mRNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Brian N; Walsh, Callee M; Szeszel-Fedorowicz, Wioletta; Timperman, Aaron T; Salati, Lisa M

    2006-01-01

    Nutrient regulation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) expression occurs through changes in the rate of splicing of G6PD pre-mRNA. This posttranscriptional mechanism accounts for the 12- to 15-fold increase in G6PD expression in livers of mice that were starved and then refed a high-carbohydrate diet. Regulation of G6PD pre-mRNA splicing requires a cis-acting element in exon 12 of the pre-mRNA. Using RNA probes to exon 12 and nuclear extracts from livers of mice that were starved or refed, proteins of 60 kDa and 37 kDa were detected bound to nucleotides 65-79 of exon 12 and this binding was decreased by 50% with nuclear extracts from refed mice. The proteins were identified as hnRNPs K, L, and A2/B1 by LC-MS/MS. The decrease in binding of these proteins to exon 12 during refeeding was not accompanied by a decrease in the total amount of these proteins in total nuclear extract. HnRNPs K, L and A2/B1 have known roles in the regulation of mRNA splicing. The decrease in binding of these proteins during treatments that increase G6PD expression is consistent with a role for these proteins in the inhibition of G6PD mRNA splicing.

  1. Mineralcorticoid antagonists in heart failure.

    PubMed

    D'Elia, Emilia; Krum, Henry

    2014-10-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) have become mandated therapy in patients with reduced ejection fraction (systolic) heart failure (HF) across all symptom classes. These agents should also be prescribed in the early post-myocardial infarction setting in those with reduced ejection fraction and either HF symptoms or diabetes. This article explores the pathophysiological role of aldosterone, an endogenous ligand for the mineralcorticoid receptor (MR), and summarizes the clinical data supporting guideline recommendations for these agents in systolic HF. The use of MRAs in novel areas beyond systolic HF ejection is also explored. Finally, the current status of newer agents will be examined.

  2. Autoimmune encephalomyelitis ameliorated by AMPA antagonists.

    PubMed

    Smith, T; Groom, A; Zhu, B; Turski, L

    2000-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an immune-mediated disorder of the central nervous system leading to progressive decline of motor and sensory functions and permanent disability. The therapy of multiple sclerosis is only partially effective, despite anti-inflammatory, immunosuppresive and immunomodulatory measures. White matter inflammation and loss of myelin, the pathological hallmarks of multiple sclerosis, are thought to determine disease severity. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis reproduces the features of multiple sclerosis in rodents and in nonhuman primates. The dominant early clinical symptom of acute autoimmune encephalomyelitis is progressive ascending muscle weakness. However, demyelination may not be profound and its extent may not correlate with severity of neurological decline, indicating that targets unrelated to myelin or oligodendrocytes may contribute to the pathogenesis of acute autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Here we report that within the spinal cord in the course of autoimmune encephalomyelitis not only myelin but also neurons are subject to lymphocyte attack and may degenerate. Blockade of glutamate AMPA receptors ameliorated the neurological sequelae of autoimmune encephalomyelitis, indicating the potential for AMPA antagonists in the therapy of multiple sclerosis.

  3. Antagonists of alcohol inhibition of cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Wilkemeyer, Michael F.; Sebastian, Anita B.; Smith, Sherri A.; Charness, Michael E.

    2000-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that alcohols act within specific binding pockets of selective neural proteins; however, antagonists at these sites have not been identified. 1-Alcohols from methanol through 1-butanol inhibit with increasing potency the cell–cell adhesion mediated by the immunoglobulin cell adhesion molecule L1. An abrupt cutoff exists after 1-butanol, with 1-pentanol and higher 1-alcohols showing no effect. Here, we demonstrate surprisingly strict structural requirements for alcohol inhibition of cell–cell adhesion in L1-transfected NIH 3T3 fibroblasts and in NG108–15 neuroblastoma × glioma hybrid cells treated with BMP-7, an inducer of L1 and neural cell adhesion molecule. The target site discriminates the tertiary structure of straight-chain and branched-chain alcohols and appears to comprise both a hydrophobic binding site and an adjacent hydrophilic allosteric site. Modifications to the 2- and 3-carbon positions of 1-butanol increased potency, whereas modifications that restrict movement about the 4-carbon abolished activity. The effects of ethanol and 1-butanol on cell–cell adhesion were antagonized by 1-pentanol (IC50 = 715 μM) and 1-octanol (IC50 = 3.6 μM). Antagonism by 1-octanol was complete, reversible, and noncompetitive. 1-Octanol also antagonized ethanol inhibition of BMP-7 morphogenesis in NG108–15 cells. 1-Octanol and related compounds may prove useful in dissecting the role of altered cell adhesion in ethanol-induced injury of the nervous system. PMID:10725368

  4. Synthetic peptide antagonists of glucagon.

    PubMed Central

    Unson, C G; Andreu, D; Gurzenda, E M; Merrifield, R B

    1987-01-01

    Several glucagon analogs were synthesized in an effort to find derivatives that would bind with high affinity to the glucagon receptor of rat liver membranes but would not activate membrane-bound adenylate cyclase and, therefore, would serve as antagonists of the hormone. Measurements on a series of glucagon/secretin hybrids indicated that replacement of Asp9 in glucagon by Glu9, found in secretin, was the important sequence difference in the N terminus of the two hormones. Further deletion of His1 and introduction of a C-terminal amide resulted in des-His1-[Glu9]glucagon amide, which had a 40% binding affinity relative to that of native glucagon but caused no detectable adenylate cyclase activation in the rat liver membrane. This antagonist completely inhibited the effect of a concentration of glucagon that alone gave a full agonist response. It had an inhibition index of 12. The pA2 was 7.2. An attempt was made to relate conformation with receptor binding. The peptides were synthesized by solid-phase methods and purified to homogeneity by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography on C18-silica columns. PMID:3035568

  5. Vitamin K antagonists: beyond bleeding.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Thilo; Floege, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Warfarin is the most widely used oral anticoagulant in clinical use today. Indications range from prosthetic valve replacement to recurrent thromboembolic events due to antiphospholipid syndrome. In hemodialysis (HD) patients, warfarin use is even more frequent than in the nonrenal population due to increased cardiovascular comorbidities. The use of warfarin in dialysis patients with atrial fibrillation requires particular caution because side effects may outweigh the assumed benefit of reduced stroke rates. Besides increased bleeding risk, coumarins exert side effects which are not in the focus of clinical routine, yet they deserve special consideration in dialysis patients and should influence the decision of whether or not to prescribe vitamin K antagonists in cases lacking clear guidelines. Issues to be taken into consideration in HD patients are the induction or acceleration of cardiovascular calcifications, a 10-fold increased risk of calciphylaxis and problems related to maintaining a target INR range. New anticoagulants like direct thrombin inhibitors are promising but have not yet been approved for ESRD patients. Here, we summarize the nontraditional side effects of coumarins and give recommendations about the use of vitamin K antagonists in ESRD patients.

  6. Hematopoietic stem cell fate decisions are regulated by Wnt antagonists: comparisons and current controversies.

    PubMed

    Cain, Corey J; Manilay, Jennifer O

    2013-01-01

    Wingless and int (Wnt) proteins are secreted proteins that are important for regulating hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal and differentiation in the bone marrow microenvironment in mice. The mechanisms by which Wnt signaling regulates these hematopoietic cell fate decisions are not fully understood. Secreted Wnt antagonists, which are expressed in bone and bone marrow stromal cells, either bind to Wnt ligands directly or block Wnt receptors and co-receptors to halt Wnt-mediated signal transduction in both osteolineage and hematopoietic cell types. Secreted frizzled related proteins-1 and -2, Wnt inhibitory factor-1, Dickkopf-1, and Sclerostin are Wnt antagonists that influence hematopoietic cell fate decisions in the bone marrow niche. In this review, we compare and contrast the roles of these Wnt antagonists and their effects on hematopoietic development in mice, and also discuss the clinical significance of targeting Wnt antagonists within the context of hematopoietic disease.

  7. Straub tail reaction in mice treated with σ(1) receptor antagonist in combination with methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Kitanaka, Junichi; Kitanaka, Nobue; Hall, F Scott; Uhl, George R; Tanaka, Koh-Ichi; Nishiyama, Nobuyoshi; Takemura, Motohiko

    2012-10-30

    Straub tail reaction (STR) was observed in male ddY mice after simultaneous administration with BMY 14802 (a non-specific σ receptor antagonist) and methamphetamine (METH). The intensity and duration of STR depended on the dose of BMY 14802. The tail reaction was inhibited completely by (+)-SKF 10,047 (a putative σ(1) receptor agonist) and partially by PB 28 (a putative σ(2) receptor agonist). The STR was mimicked in mice treated with BD 1047 (a putative σ(1) receptor antagonist), but not SM-21, a putative σ(2) receptor antagonist, in combination with METH. STR evoked with BD 1047 plus METH was inhibited by (+)-SKF 10,047. STR induced by BMY 14802 and METH was abolished by naloxone (a relatively non-selective opioid receptor antagonist) or U-50,488H (a selective κ-agonist), suggesting that the STR may be mediated by activation of opioid receptor system.

  8. Crystal structure of human glycine receptor-α3 bound to antagonist strychnine.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin; Chen, Hao; Michelsen, Klaus; Schneider, Stephen; Shaffer, Paul L

    2015-10-08

    Neurotransmitter-gated ion channels of the Cys-loop receptor family are essential mediators of fast neurotransmission throughout the nervous system and are implicated in many neurological disorders. Available X-ray structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic Cys-loop receptors provide tremendous insights into the binding of agonists, the subsequent opening of the ion channel, and the mechanism of channel activation. Yet the mechanism of inactivation by antagonists remains unknown. Here we present a 3.0 Å X-ray structure of the human glycine receptor-α3 homopentamer in complex with a high affinity, high-specificity antagonist, strychnine. Our structure allows us to explore in detail the molecular recognition of antagonists. Comparisons with previous structures reveal a mechanism for antagonist-induced inactivation of Cys-loop receptors, involving an expansion of the orthosteric binding site in the extracellular domain that is coupled to closure of the ion pore in the transmembrane domain.

  9. Cholinergic antagonists in a solitary wasp venom.

    PubMed

    Piek, T; Mantel, P

    1986-01-01

    The venom of the solitary wasp Philanthus triangulum contains a cholinergic antagonist of the nicotinic receptor of the rectus abdominis muscle of the frog, Xenopus laevis. The venom of African P. triangulum contains two different cholinergic factors, a competitive and a non-competitive antagonist. The venom of the European P. triangulum may not contain a competitive antagonist of the nicotinic receptor of X. laevis, but only a very strong non-competitive antagonist. The possible non-synonymity of both groups of P. triangulum is discussed.

  10. MicroRNA signatures predict dysregulated vitamin D receptor and calcium pathways status in limb girdle muscle dystrophies (LGMD) 2A/2B.

    PubMed

    Aguennouz, M; Lo Giudice, C; Licata, N; Rodolico, C; Musumeci, O; Fanin, M; Migliorato, A; Ragusa, M; Macaione, V; Di Giorgio, R M; Angelini, C; Toscano, A

    2016-08-01

    miRNA expression profile and predicted pathways involved in selected limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD)2A/2B patients were investigated. A total of 187 miRNAs were dysregulated in all patients, with six miRNAs showing opposite regulation in LGMD2A versus LGMD2B patients. Silico analysis evidence: (1) a cluster of the dysregulated miRNAs resulted primarily involved in inflammation and calcium metabolism, and (2) two genes predicted as controlled by calcium-assigned miRNAs (Vitamin D Receptor gene and Guanine Nucleotide Binding protein beta polypeptide 1gene) showed an evident upregulation in LGMD2B patients, in accordance with miRNA levels. Our data support alterations in calcium pathway status in LGMD 2A/B, suggesting myofibre calcium imbalance as a potential therapeutic target. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of monoisomeric 1,8,15,22-substituted (A3B and A2B2) phthalocyanines and phthalocyanine-fullerene dyads.

    PubMed

    Ranta, Jenni; Kumpulainen, Tatu; Lemmetyinen, Helge; Efimov, Alexander

    2010-08-06

    Synthesis and characterization of three phthalocyanine-fullerene (Pc-C(60)) dyads, corresponding monoisomeric phthalocyanines (Pc), and building blocks, phthalonitriles, are described. Six novel bisaryl phthalonitriles were prepared by the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction from trifluoromethanesulfonic acid 2,3-dicyanophenyl ester and various oxaborolanes. Two phthalonitriles were selected for the synthesis of A(3)B- and A(2)B(2)-type phthalocyanines. Phthalonitrile 4 has a bulky 3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl substituent at the alpha-phthalo position, which forces only one regioisomer to form and greatly increases the solubility of phthalocyanine. Phthalonitrile 8 has a 3-phenylpropanol side chain at the alpha-position making further modifications of the side group possible. Synthesized monoisomeric A(3)B- and A(2)B(2)-type phthalocyanines are modified by attachment of malonic residues. Finally, fullerene is covalently linked to phthalocyanine with one or two malonic bridges to produce Pc-C(60) dyads. Due to the monoisomeric structure and increased solubility of phthalocyanines, the quality of NMR spectra of the compounds is enhanced significantly, making detailed NMR analysis of the structures possible. The synthesized dyads have different orientations of phthalocyanine and fullerene, which strongly influence the electron transfer (ET) from phthalocyanine to fullerene moiety. Fluorescence quenchings of the dyads were measured in both polar and nonpolar solvents, and in all cases, the quenching was more efficient in the polar environment. As expected, most efficient fluorescence quenching was observed for dyad 20b, with two linkers and phthalocyanine and fullerene in face-to-face orientation.

  12. Long-acting muscarinic antagonists.

    PubMed

    Melani, Andrea S

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Inhaled bronchodilators are the mainstay of COPD pharmacological treatment. Long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) are a major class of inhaled bronchodilators. Some LAMA/device systems with different characteristics and dosing schedules are currently approved for maintenance therapy of COPD and a range of other products are being developed. They improve lung function and patient-reported outcomes and reduce acute bronchial exacerbations with good safety. LAMAs are used either alone or associated with long-acting β₂-agonists, eventually in fixed dose combinations. Long-acting β₂-agonist/LAMA combinations assure additional benefits over the individual components alone. The reader will obtain a view of the safety and efficacy of the different LAMA/device systems in COPD patients.

  13. hnRNP A2/B1 interacts with influenza A viral protein NS1 and inhibits virus replication potentially through suppressing NS1 RNA/protein levels and NS1 mRNA nuclear export.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yimeng; Zhou, Jianhong; Du, Yuchun

    2014-01-20

    The NS1 protein of influenza viruses is a major virulence factor and exerts its function through interacting with viral/cellular RNAs and proteins. In this study, we identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1 (hnRNP A2/B1) as an interacting partner of NS1 proteins by a proteomic method. Knockdown of hnRNP A2/B1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) resulted in higher levels of NS vRNA, NS1 mRNA, and NS1 protein in the virus-infected cells. In addition, we demonstrated that hnRNP A2/B1 proteins are associated with NS1 and NS2 mRNAs and that knockdown of hnRNP A2/B1 promotes transport of NS1 mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in the infected cells. Lastly, we showed that knockdown of hnRNP A2/B1 leads to enhanced virus replication. Our results suggest that hnRNP A2/B1 plays an inhibitory role in the replication of influenza A virus in host cells potentially through suppressing NS1 RNA/protein levels and NS1 mRNA nucleocytoplasmic translocation.

  14. Client Perceptions of Two Antagonist Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capone, Thomas A.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Reports results of a questionnaire administered to participants in an antagonist drug outpatient clinic and an antagonist drug work-release program to obtain awareness of acceptance of the program participants. Naltrexone patients recommended an alternative method of administering the drug and changing the money system to award deserving inmates…

  15. The mu-opioid receptor antagonist D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 (CTOP) [but not D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Arg-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 (CTAP)] produces a nonopioid receptor-mediated increase in K+ conductance of rat locus ceruleus neurons.

    PubMed

    Chieng, B; Connor, M; Christie, M J

    1996-09-01

    The somatostatin analogues D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 (CTOP) and D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Arg-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 (CTAP) have been used widely as selective antagonists of mu-opioid receptors. Actions of CTOP and CTAP on the membrane properties of rat locus ceruleus neurons were studied using intracellular recordings of membrane currents in superfused brain slices. CTOP increased a K+ conductance with an EC50 of 560 nM. The maximal conductance increase produced by CTOP (10 microM) was similar to that produced by high concentrations of the mu-opioid agonists D-Ala-Met-enkephalinglyol (1 microM) and Met-enkephalin (10 microM), as well as an alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist (UK14304, 3 microM) and somatostatin (1 microM). The K+ current produced by CTOP was not antagonized by naloxone (1 microM), suggesting it was not mediated by mu-opioid receptors. The K+ currents induced by high concentrations of CTOP desensitized to 42% of the initial maximum after prolonged superfusion (t1/2 = 247 sec). In the presence of fully desensitized CTOP responses, somatostatin (1 microM) still produced near-maximal K+ currents; i.e., there was no cross-desensitization, which suggests that CTOP might act on a receptor distinct from somatostatin receptors. However, the converse did not apply; high concentrations of CTOP (30 microM) did not produce any additional current in the presence of desensitized somatostatin responses. No cross-desensitization was observed between CTOP (10-30 microM) and Met-enkephalin (30 microM) or nociceptin (3 microM) regardless of the order of drug application. Cyclo-(7-aminoheptanoyl-Phe-D-Trp-Lys-Thr[Bzl], antagonized both somatostatin-(KD = 10 microM) and CTOP-(KD = 8 microM) induced K+ currents with similar potency. Concentrations of CTOP (100 nM) that produced a small K+ current partially antagonized the actions of Met-enkephalin (10 microM) on mu-opioid receptors. In contrast to CTOP, CTAP produced no K+ current at concentrations of 300 nM and 1 microM and

  16. Discovery of non-peptide small molecular CXCR4 antagonists as anti-HIV agents: Recent advances and future opportunities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Heng; Kang, Dongwei; Huang, Boshi; Liu, Na; Zhao, Fabao; Zhan, Peng; Liu, Xinyong

    2016-05-23

    CXCR4 plays vital roles in HIV-1 life cycle for it's essential in mediating the interaction of host and virus and completing the entry process in the lifecycle of HIV-1 infection. Compared with some traditional targets, CXCR4 provides a novel and less mutated drug target in the battle against AIDS. Its antagonists have no cross resistance with other antagonists. Great achievements have been made recent years and a number of small molecular CXCR4 antagonists with diversity scaffolds have been discovered. In this review, recent advances in the discovery of CXCR4 antagonists with special attentions on their evolution and structure-activity relationships of representative CXCR4 antagonists are described. Moreover, some classical medicinal chemistry strategies and novel methodologies are also introduced.

  17. Surfen, a small molecule antagonist of heparan sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Schuksz, Manuela; Fuster, Mark M.; Brown, Jillian R.; Crawford, Brett E.; Ditto, David P.; Lawrence, Roger; Glass, Charles A.; Wang, Lianchun; Tor, Yitzhak; Esko, Jeffrey D.

    2008-01-01

    In a search for small molecule antagonists of heparan sulfate, we examined the activity of bis-2-methyl-4-amino-quinolyl-6-carbamide, also known as surfen. Fluorescence-based titrations indicated that surfen bound to glycosaminoglycans, and the extent of binding increased according to charge density in the order heparin > dermatan sulfate > heparan sulfate > chondroitin sulfate. All charged groups in heparin (N-sulfates, O-sulfates, and carboxyl groups) contributed to binding, consistent with the idea that surfen interacted electrostatically. Surfen neutralized the anticoagulant activity of both unfractionated and low molecular weight heparins and inhibited enzymatic sulfation and degradation reactions in vitro. Addition of surfen to cultured cells blocked FGF2-binding and signaling that depended on cell surface heparan sulfate and prevented both FGF2- and VEGF165-mediated sprouting of endothelial cells in Matrigel. Surfen also blocked heparan sulfate-mediated cell adhesion to the Hep-II domain of fibronectin and prevented infection by HSV-1 that depended on glycoprotein D interaction with heparan sulfate. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of identifying small molecule antagonists of heparan sulfate and raise the possibility of developing pharmacological agents to treat disorders that involve glycosaminoglycan–protein interactions. PMID:18725627

  18. Dual action of neurokinin-1 antagonists on Mas-related GPCRs

    PubMed Central

    Azimi, Ehsan; Reddy, Vemuri B.; Shade, Kai-Ting C.; Anthony, Robert M.; Pereira, Paula Juliana Seadi; Lerner, Ethan A.

    2016-01-01

    The challenge of translating findings from animal models to the clinic is well known. An example of this challenge is the striking effectiveness of neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) antagonists in mouse models of inflammation coupled with their equally striking failure in clinical investigations in humans. Here, we provide an explanation for this dichotomy: Mas-related GPCRs (Mrgprs) mediate some aspects of inflammation that had been considered mediated by NK-1R. In support of this explanation, we show that conventional NK-1R antagonists have off-target activity on the mouse receptor MrgprB2 but not on the homologous human receptor MRGPRX2. An unrelated tripeptide NK-1R antagonist has dual activity on MRGPRX2. This tripeptide both suppresses itch in mice and inhibits degranulation from the LAD-2 human mast cell line elicited by basic secretagogue activation of MRGPRX2. Antagonists of Mrgprs may fill the void left by the failure of NK-1R antagonists. PMID:27734033

  19. Pharmacological characterisation of the adenosine receptor mediating increased ion transport in the mouse isolated trachea and the effect of allergen challenge

    PubMed Central

    Kornerup, Kristin N; Page, Clive P; Moffatt, James D

    2005-01-01

    The effect of adenosine on transepithelial ion transport was investigated in isolated preparations of murine trachea mounted in Ussing chambers. The possible regulation of adenosine receptors in an established model of allergic airway inflammation was also investigated. Mucosally applied adenosine caused increases in short-circuit current (ISC) that corresponded to approximately 50% of the response to the most efficacious secretogogue, ATP (ΔISC 69.5±6.7 μA cm2). In contrast, submucosally applied adenosine caused only small (<20%) increases in ISC, which were not investigated further. The A1-selective (N6-cyclopentyladenosine, CPA, 1 nM–10 μM), A2A-selective (2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5′-N-ethylcarboxoamido adenosine; CGS 21680; 0.1–100 μM) and A3-selective (1-deoxy-1-[6-[[(3-iodophenyl)-methyl]amino]-9H-purin-9-yl]-N-methyl-β-D-ribofuranuronamide; IB-MECA; 30 nM–100 μM) adenosine receptor agonists were either equipotent or less potent than adenosine, suggesting that these receptors do not mediate the response to adenosine. The A1 receptor selective antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX; 10 nM–1 μM) caused a rightward shift of the adenosine concentration–effect curve only at 1 μM. The mixed A2A/A2B receptor antagonist 4-(2-[7-amino-2-(2-furyl)[1,2,4]triazolo[2,3-a][1,3,5]triazin-5-ylamino]ethyl)phenol (ZM 241385) also caused rightward shift of the adenosine concentration–effect curve, again only at micromolar concentrations, suggestive of the involvement of A2B receptors. In preparations from animals sensitised to ovalbumin and challenged over 3 days with aerosol ovalbumin, a decrease in baseline ISC was observed and responses to ATP were diminished. Similarly, the amplitude of responses to adenosine were attenuated although there was no change in potency. These results suggest that the A2B receptor mediates the ISC response to adenosine in the mouse trachea. This receptor does not appear to be

  20. Pharmacological characterisation of the adenosine receptor mediating increased ion transport in the mouse isolated trachea and the effect of allergen challenge.

    PubMed

    Kornerup, Kristin N; Page, Clive P; Moffatt, James D

    2005-04-01

    The effect of adenosine on transepithelial ion transport was investigated in isolated preparations of murine trachea mounted in Ussing chambers. The possible regulation of adenosine receptors in an established model of allergic airway inflammation was also investigated. Mucosally applied adenosine caused increases in short-circuit current (I(SC)) that corresponded to approximately 50% of the response to the most efficacious secretogogue, ATP (delta I(SC) 69.5 +/- 6.7 microA cm2). In contrast, submucosally applied adenosine caused only small (<20%) increases in I(SC), which were not investigated further. The A1-selective (N6-cyclopentyladenosine, CPA, 1 nM-10 microM), A2A-selective (2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxoamido adenosine; CGS 21680; 0.1-100 microM) and A3-selective (1-deoxy-1-[6-[[(3-iodophenyl)-methyl]amino]-9H-purin-9-yl]-N-methyl-beta-D-ribofuranuronamide; IB-MECA; 30 nM-100 microM) adenosine receptor agonists were either equipotent or less potent than adenosine, suggesting that these receptors do not mediate the response to adenosine. The A1 receptor selective antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX; 10 nM-1 microM) caused a rightward shift of the adenosine concentration-effect curve only at 1 microM. The mixed A2A/A2B receptor antagonist 4-(2-[7-amino-2-(2-furyl)[1,2,4]triazolo[2,3-a][1,3,5]triazin-5-ylamino]ethyl)phenol (ZM 241385) also caused rightward shift of the adenosine concentration-effect curve, again only at micromolar concentrations, suggestive of the involvement of A2B receptors. In preparations from animals sensitised to ovalbumin and challenged over 3 days with aerosol ovalbumin, a decrease in baseline I(SC) was observed and responses to ATP were diminished. Similarly, the amplitude of responses to adenosine were attenuated although there was no change in potency. These results suggest that the A2B receptor mediates the I(SC) response to adenosine in the mouse trachea. This receptor does not appear to be

  1. Simple multiplex RT-PCR for identifying common fusion BCR-ABL transcript types and evaluation of molecular response of the a2b2 and a2b3 transcripts to Imatinib resistance in north Indian chronic myeloid leukemia patients.

    PubMed

    Mir, Rashid; Ahmad, I; Javid, J; Zuberi, M; Yadav, P; Shazia, R; Masroor, M; Guru, S; Ray, P C; Gupta, N; Saxena, A

    2015-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is characterized by the Philadelphia chromosome, an abnormally shortened chromosome 22. It is the result of a reciprocal translocation of chromosomes 9 and 22, creating BCR-ABL fusion transcripts, b3a2, b2a2, and e1a2. The aim of our study was to determine the type of BCR-ABL fusion transcripts for molecular diagnosis and investigate the frequency of BCR-ABL fusion transcripts in CML patients by multiplex RT-PCR in CML. A single reaction with multiple primers multiplex PCR was used to detect and investigate the type and frequency in 200 CML patients among which 116, 33, and 51 were in CP, AP, and BC phase, respectively. The study included 200 CML patients, among whom breakpoints in b3a2, b2a2 transcripts were detected in 68% and 24%, respectively, while 8% of the patients showed both b3a2/b2a2. A statistically significant difference was seen between frequency of BCR-ABL fusion transcripts and gender (P = 0.03), molecular response (P = 0.04), and hematological response (P = 0.05). However, there was no correlation found between frequencies of BCR-/ABL fusion transcripts and other clinicopathological parameters like age, type of therapy, thrombocytopenia, and white blood cell count. Multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction is useful and saves time in the detection of BCR-ABL variants; the occurrence of these transcripts associated with CML can assist in prognosis and treatment of disease.

  2. Anti-idiotypic antibody: A new strategy for the development of a growth hormone receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Lan, Hainan; Zheng, Xin; Khan, Muhammad Akram; Li, Steven

    2015-11-01

    In general, traditional growth hormone receptor antagonist can be divided into two major classes: growth hormone (GH) analogues and anti-growth hormone receptor (GHR) antibodies. Herein, we tried to explore a new class of growth hormone receptor (GHR) antagonist that may have potential advantages over the traditional antagonists. For this, we developed a monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody growth hormone, termed CG-86. A series of experiments were conducted to characterize and evaluate this antibody, and the results from a competitive receptor-binding assay, Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) and epitope mapping demonstrate that CG-86 behaved as a typical Ab2β. Next, we examined its antagonistic activity using in vitro cell models, and the results showed that CG-86 could effectively inhibit growth hormone receptor-mediated signalling and effectively inhibit growth hormone-induced Ba/F3-GHR638 proliferation. In summary, these studies show that an anti-idiotypic antibody (CG-86) has promise as a novel growth hormone receptor antagonist. Furthermore, the current findings also suggest that anti-idiotypic antibody may represent a novel strategy to produce a new class of growth hormone receptor antagonist, and this strategy may be applied with other cytokines or growth factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The prevalent deep intronic c. 639+919 G>A GLA mutation causes pseudoexon activation and Fabry disease by abolishing the binding of hnRNPA1 and hnRNP A2/B1 to a splicing silencer.

    PubMed

    Palhais, Bruno; Dembic, Maja; Sabaratnam, Rugivan; Nielsen, Kira S; Doktor, Thomas Koed; Bruun, Gitte Hoffmann; Andresen, Brage Storstein

    2016-11-01

    Fabry disease is an X-linked recessive inborn disorder of the glycosphingolipid metabolism, caused by total or partial deficiency of the lysosomal α-galactosidase A enzyme due to mutations in the GLA gene. The prevalent c.639+919 G>A mutation in GLA leads to pathogenic insertion of a 57bp pseudoexon sequence from intron 4, which is responsible for the cardiac variant phenotype. In this study we investigate the splicing regulatory mechanism leading to GLA pseudoexon activation. Splicing analysis of GLA minigenes revealed that pseudoexon activation is influenced by cell-type. We demonstrate that the wild-type sequence harbors an hnRNP A1 and hnRNP A2/B1-binding exonic splicing silencer (ESS) overlapping the 5'splice site (5'ss) that prevents pseudoexon inclusion. The c.639+919 G>A mutation disrupts this ESS allowing U1 snRNP recognition of the 5'ss. We show that the wild-type GLA 5'ss motif with the ESS is also able to inhibit inclusion of an unrelated pseudoexon in the FGB gene, and that also in the FGB context inactivation of the ESS by the c.639+919 G>A mutation causes pseudoexon activation, underscoring the universal nature of the ESS. Finally, we demonstrate that splice switching oligonucleotide (SSO) mediated blocking of the pseudoexon 3'ss and 5'ss effectively restores normal GLA splicing. This indicates that SSO based splicing correction may be a therapeutic alternative in the treatment of Fabry disease.

  4. Bulk and mechanical properties of the Paintbrush tuff recovered from boreholes UE25 NRG-2, 2A, 2B, and 3: Data report

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, P.J.; Martin, R.J.; Noel, J.S.; Price, R.H.

    1996-09-01

    An integral part of the licensing procedure for the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, involves characterization of the in situ rheology for the design and construction of the facility and the emplacement of canisters containing radioactive waste. The data used to model the thermal and mechanical behavior of the repository and surrounding lithologies include dry and saturated bulk densities, average grain density, porosity, compressional and shear wave velocities, elastic moduli, and compressional and tensional fracture strengths. In this study, a suite of experiments was performed on cores recovered from boreholes UE25 NRG-2, 2A, 2B, and 3 drilled in support of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. The holes penetrated the Timber Mountain tuff and two thermal/mechanical units of the Paintbrush tuff. The thermal/mechanical stratigraphy was defined by Ortiz to group rock horizons of similar properties for the purpose of simplifying modeling efforts. The relationship between the geologic stratigraphy and the thermal/mechanical stratigraphy for each borehole is presented. The tuff samples in this study have a wide range of welding characteristics (usually reflected in sample porosity), and a smaller range of mineralogy and petrology characteristics. Generally, the samples are silicic, ash-fall tuffs that exhibit large variability in their elastic and strength properties.

  5. DFT+ U study of electronic structure and Curie temperature of A2 B ReO6 (A=Sr, Ca and B=Cr, Fe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Alex; Marianetti, Chris

    Re-based double perovskites (DPs) have attracted much attention due to their high Curie temperature (TC) and colossal magneto resistance with large potential for spintronic applications. Here we investigate the electronic and magnetic properties of the Re-based DPs A2 B ReO6 (A=Sr, Ca and B=Cr, Fe) using density functional theory + U (DFT+ U) calculations. While monoclinic Ca2CrReO6 and Ca2FeReO6 (monoclinic) are insulating within GGA+ U, tetragonal Sr2CrReO6 (a0a0c0) and Sr2FeReO6 (a0a0c-) remain metallic. We show that both on-site interaction U and octahedral tilting are critical to obtain the insulating phases. The a0a0c- -phase of Sr2CrReO6 is most stable and insulating with nonzero U, suggesting that the high quality Sr2CrReO6 film on STO substrate can be a semiconductor as reported in recent experiments. We explain that the insulator-to-metal transition (MIT) of Ca2FeReO6 at 140K is predominantly due to a structural phase transition which drives the insulating state. Curie temperatures of Re-based DPs are calculated using the classical Monte Carlo simulations based on the Heisenberg model.

  6. Successful ABO-Incompatible Renal Transplantation:  Blood Group A1B Donor Into A2B Recipient With Anti-A1 Isoagglutinins.

    PubMed

    Fadeyi, Emmanuel A; Stratta, Robert J; Farney, Alan C; Pomper, Gregory J

    2016-08-01

    Transplantation of the blood group A2B in a recipient was successfully performed in the setting of receiving a deceased donor kidney from an "incompatible" A1B donor. The donor and recipient were both typed for ABO blood group, including ABO genotyping. The donor and recipient were tested for ABO, non-ABO, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies. The donor and recipient were typed for HLA antigens, including T- and B-flow cytometry crossmatch tests. The recipient's RBCs were negative with A1 lectin, and immunoglobulin G anti-A1 was demonstrated in the recipient's plasma. The donor-recipient pair was a four-antigen HLA mismatch, but final T- and B-flow cytometry crossmatch tests were compatible. The transplant procedure was uneventful; the patient experienced immediate graft function with no episodes of rejection or readmissions more than 2 years later. It may be safe to transplant across the A1/A2 blood group AB mismatch barrier in the setting of low titer anti-A1 isoagglutinins without the need for pretransplant desensitization even if the antibody produced reacts with anti-human globulin. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Antagonistic coevolution accelerates molecular evolution

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, Steve; Vogwill, Tom; Buckling, Angus; Benmayor, Rebecca; Spiers, Andrew J.; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Quail, Mike; Smith, Frances; Walker, Danielle; Libberton, Ben; Fenton, Andrew; Hall, Neil; Brockhurst, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    The Red Queen hypothesis proposes that coevolution of interacting species (such as hosts and parasites) should drive molecular evolution through continual natural selection for adaptation and counter-adaptation1–3. Although the divergence observed at some host-resistance4–6 and parasite-infectivity7–9 genes is consistent with this, the long time periods typically required to study coevolution have so far prevented any direct empirical test. Here we show, using experimental populations of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 and its viral parasite, phage Φ2 (refs 10, 11), that the rate of molecular evolution in the phage was far higher when both bacterium and phage coevolved with each other than when phage evolved against a constant host genotype. Coevolution also resulted in far greater genetic divergence between replicate populations, which was correlated with the range of hosts that coevolved phage were able to infect. Consistent with this, the most rapidly evolving phage genes under coevolution were those involved in host infection. These results demonstrate, at both the genomic and phenotypic level, that antagonistic coevolution is a cause of rapid and divergent evolution, and is likely to be a major driver of evolutionary change within species. PMID:20182425

  8. Antianginal Actions of Beta-Adrenoceptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Angina pectoris is usually the first clinical sign of underlying myocardial ischemia, which results from an imbalance between oxygen supply and oxygen demand in the heart. This report describes the pharmacology of β-adrenoceptor antagonists as it relates to the treatment of angina. The β-adrenoceptor antagonists are widely used in long-term maintenance therapy to prevent acute ischemic episodes in patients with chronic stable angina. Beta-adrenoceptor antagonists competitively inhibit the binding of endogenous catecholamines to β1-adrenoceptors in the heart. Their anti-ischemic effects are due primarily to a reduction in myocardial oxygen demand. By decreasing heart rate, myocardial contractility and afterload, β-adrenoceptor antagonists reduce myocardial workload and oxygen consumption at rest as well as during periods of exertion or stress. Predictable adverse effects include bradycardia and cardiac depression, both of which are a direct result of the blockade of cardiac β1-adrenoceptors, but adverse effects related to the central nervous system (eg, lethargy, sleep disturbances, and depression) may also be bothersome to some patients. Beta-adrenoceptor antagonists must be used cautiously in patients with diabetes mellitus, peripheral vascular disease, heart failure, and asthma or other obstructive airway diseases. Beta-adrenoceptor antagonists may be used in combination with nitrates or calcium channel blockers, which takes advantage of the diverse mechanisms of action of drugs from each pharmacologic category. Moreover, concurrent use of β-adrenoceptor antagonists may alleviate the reflex tachycardia that sometimes occurs with other antianginal agents. PMID:17998992

  9. High antagonist potency of GT-2227 and GT-2331, new histamine H3 receptor antagonists, in two functional models.

    PubMed

    Tedford, C E; Hoffmann, M; Seyedi, N; Maruyama, R; Levi, R; Yates, S L; Ali, S M; Phillips, J G

    1998-06-26

    GT-2227 (4-(6-cyclohexylhex-cis-3-enyl)imidazole) and GT-2331 ((1R,2R)-4-(2-(5,5-dimethylhex-1-ynyl)cyclopropyl)imidazole) were developed as new potent histamine H3 receptor antagonists. The functional activity of these ligands on the histamine H3 receptor-mediated inhibition of neurogenic contraction of the guinea-pig jejunum and histamine H3 receptor-mediated inhibition of norepinephrine release from guinea-pig heart synaptosomes were investigated. GT-2227 and GT-2331 both antagonized the inhibitory effects of (R)-alpha-methylhistamine on the contraction induced by electrical field stimulation in the guinea-pig jejunum with pA2 values of 7.9+/-0.1 and 8.5+/-0.03, respectively. In addition, GT-2227 and GT-2331 antagonized the inhibition of norepinephrine release in cardiac synaptosomes by GT-2203 ((1R,2R)-trans-2-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)cyclopropylamine), a histamine H3 receptor agonist. The current results demonstrate the antagonist activity for both GT-2227 and GT-2331 in two functional assays for histamine H3 receptors.

  10. Identification of a GPER/GPR30 Antagonist with Improved Estrogen Receptor Counterselectivity

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Megan K.; Field, Angela S.; Burai, Ritwik; Ramesh, Chinnasamy; Petrie, Whitney K.; Bologa, Cristian G.; Oprea, Tudor I.; Yamaguchi, Yuri; Hayashi, Shin-ichi; Sklar, S. Larry A.; Hathaway, Helen J.; Arterburn, Jeffrey B.; Prossnitz, Eric R.

    2011-01-01

    GPER/GPR30 is a seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled estrogen receptor that regulates many aspects of mammalian biology and physiology. We have previously described both a GPER-selective agonist G-1 and antagonist G15 based on a tetrahydro-3H-cyclopenta[c]quinoline scaffold. The antagonist lacks an ethanone moiety that likely forms important hydrogen bonds involved in receptor activation. Computational docking studies suggested that the lack of the ethanone substituent in G15 could minimize key steric conflicts, present in G-1, that limit binding within the ERα ligand binding pocket. In this report, we identify low-affinity cross-reactivity of the GPER antagonist G15 to the classical estrogen receptor ERα. To generate an antagonist with enhanced selectivity, we therefore synthesized an isosteric G-1 derivative, G36, containing an isopropyl moiety in place of the ethanone moiety. We demonstrate that G36 shows decreased binding and activation of ERα, while maintaining its antagonist profile towards GPER. G36 selectively inhibits estrogen-mediated activation of PI3K by GPER but not ERα. It also inhibits estrogen- and G-1-mediated calcium mobilization as well as ERK1/2 activation, with no effect on EGF-mediated ERK1/2 activation. Similar to G15, G36 inhibits estrogen- and G-1-stimulated proliferation of uterine epithelial cells in vivo. The identification of G36 as a GPER antagonist with improved ER counterselectivity represents a significant step towards the development of new highly selective therapeutics for cancer and other diseases. PMID:21782022

  11. Ago-antagonist theory in Darwinian evolution.

    PubMed

    Bazzani, Armando; Freguglia, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a proposal on the essential structural aspects of Darwinian Evolution Theory. Using this point of view we apply a mathematical ago-antagonist theory inspired by Y. Cherruault's (1998) ideas, which we have extended. In the ago-antagonist model, the phenotype characters measure the individual propensity to perform an innovative x(t) (agonist) or conservative y(t) (antagonist) action with respect to mutation and to speciation process. We have mathematically introduced the conflict concept and we present a model that takes into account the environmental effects by means of a stochastic multiplicative process. We shortly discuss the properties of the related stochastic differential equations.

  12. Antagonists of the kappa opioid receptor.

    PubMed

    Urbano, Mariangela; Guerrero, Miguel; Rosen, Hugh; Roberts, Edward

    2014-05-01

    The research community has increasingly focused on the development of OPRK antagonists as pharmacotherapies for the treatment of depression, anxiety, addictive disorders and other psychiatric conditions produced or exacerbated by stress. Short-acting OPRK antagonists have been recently developed as a potential improvement over long-acting prototypic ligands including nor-BNI and JDTic. Remarkably the short-acting LY2456302 is undergoing phase II clinical trials for the augmentation of the antidepressant therapy in treatment-resistant depression. This Letter reviews relevant chemical and pharmacological advances in the identification and development of OPRK antagonists.

  13. Therapeutic Opportunities for Caffeine and A2A Receptor Antagonists in Retinal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Boia, Raquel; Ambrósio, António Francisco; Santiago, Ana Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine, the major component of coffee, is the most consumed psychostimulant in the world. Caffeine is an adenosine analog and acts as a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist. The majority of the effects of caffeine are mainly mediated by the blockade of adenosine receptors, and the proved neuroprotective effects of caffeine in brain disorders have been mimicked by the blockade of adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR). A growing body of evidence demonstrates that microglia-mediated neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of brain and retinal diseases. Moreover, the control of microglia reactivity by blocking A2AR has been proposed to be the mechanism underlying the observed protective effects of caffeine. Hence, it is conceivable that caffeine and A2AR antagonists offer therapeutic value for the treatment of retinal diseases, mainly those involving microglia-mediated neuroinflammation. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Plant Evolution: Evolving Antagonistic Gene Regulatory Networks.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Endymion D

    2016-06-20

    Developing a structurally complex phenotype requires a complex regulatory network. A new study shows how gene duplication provides a potential source of antagonistic interactions, an important component of gene regulatory networks.

  15. The Evolution of Sexually Antagonistic Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Jennifer C.; Rowe, Locke

    2015-01-01

    Sexual conflict occurs whenever there is sexually antagonistic selection on shared traits. When shared traits result from interactions (e.g., mating rate) and have a different genetic basis in each sex (i.e., interlocus conflict), then sex-specific traits that shift the value of these interaction traits toward the sex-specific optimum will be favored. Male traits can be favored that increase the fitness of their male bearers, but decrease the fitness of interacting females. Likewise, female traits that reduce the costs of interacting with harmful males may simultaneously impose costs on males. If the evolution of these antagonistic traits changes the nature of selection acting on the opposite sex, interesting coevolutionary dynamics will result. Here we examine three current issues in the study of sexually antagonistic interactions: the female side of sexual conflict, the ecological context of sexual conflict, and the strength of evidence for sexually antagonistic coevolution. PMID:26032715

  16. Emerging cardiovascular indications of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Parviz, Yasir; Iqbal, Javaid; Pitt, Bertram; Adlam, David; Al-Mohammad, Abdallah; Zannad, Faiez

    2015-04-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonism is a well-established treatment modality for patients with hypertension, heart failure, and left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) post-myocardial infarction (MI). There are emerging data showing potential benefits of MR antagonists in other cardiovascular conditions. Studies have shown association between MR activation and the development of myocardial fibrosis, coronary artery disease, metabolic syndrome, and cerebrovascular diseases. This review examines the preclinical and clinical data of MR antagonists for novel indications including heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF), pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), arrhythmia, sudden cardiac death, valvular heart disease, metabolic syndrome, renal disease, and stroke. MR antagonists are not licensed for these conditions yet; however, emerging data suggest that indication for MR antagonists are likely to broaden; further studies are warranted.

  17. Primary structures of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2, B1, and C2 proteins: a diversity of RNA binding proteins is generated by small peptide inserts.

    PubMed Central

    Burd, C G; Swanson, M S; Görlach, M; Dreyfuss, G

    1989-01-01

    We have isolated cDNAs for the major heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A2, B1, and C2 proteins and determined their nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences. The A2 and B1 cDNAs are identical except for a 36-nucleotide in-frame insert in B1. Similarly, the sequence of the C2 protein cDNA is related to that of C1 in that C2 contains an extra 39 in-frame nucleotides. Therefore, the B1 amino acid sequence is identical to A2 except for the insertion of 12 amino acids near its amino terminus, and C1 and C2 are also identical to each other except for an extra 13 amino acids near the middle of C2. All three proteins are members of a large family of RNA binding proteins that contain the consensus sequence-type RNA binding domain (CS-RBD). The A2 and B1 proteins have a modular structure similar to that of the hnRNP protein A1: they contain two CS-RBDs and a glycine-rich auxiliary domain at the carboxyl terminus. The CS-RBDs of A2 and B1 have approximately 80% amino acid identity with those of A1, whereas the glycine-rich auxiliary domain is considerably more divergent with less than 30% of the amino acids being identical. These findings indicate that the addition of small peptides, probably by alternative pre-mRNA splicing, generates some of the diversity apparent among hnRNP proteins. Images PMID:2557628

  18. Macrophages: micromanagers of antagonistic signaling nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Eggeling, Christian; Davis, Simon J

    2017-04-03

    How cells integrate antagonistic receptor signaling events is enigmatic. Using superresolution optical microscopy, Lopes et al. (2017. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201608094) demonstrate the nanometer-scale molecular reorganization of antagonistic signaling receptors in macrophages, after engagement by the receptors of activating and inhibitory ligands. They propose that large-scale rearrangements of this type underpin decision-making by these cells.

  19. Human natural killer cell microRNA: differential expression of MIR181A1B1 and MIR181A2B2 genes encoding identical mature microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Presnell, S R; Al-Attar, A; Cichocki, F; Miller, J S; Lutz, C T

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) and T lymphocytes share many properties, yet only NK cells respond rapidly to infection and cancer without pre-activation. We found that few microRNAs (miRNAs) differed significantly between human NK and T cells. Among those miRNAs, miR-181a and miR-181b levels rose during NK cell differentiation. Prior studies indicate that miR-181a and miR-181b are critical for human NK cell development and are co-transcribed from genes on chromosome 1 (MIR181A1B1) and on chromosome 9 (MIR181A2B2). We mapped human MIR181A1B1 and MIR181A2B2 transcription start sites to 78.3 kb and 34.0 kb upstream of the mature miRNAs, generating predominantly unspliced transcripts of 80-127 kb and ~60 kb, respectively. Unlike mouse thymocytes, human T cells expressed both MIR181A1B1 and MIR181A2B2. We tested the hypothesis that NK cells differentially transcribe the two genes during development and in response to immune regulatory cytokines. During NK-cell differentiation, MIR181A2B2 expression rose markedly and exceeded that of MIR181A1B1. TGF-β treatment increased NK-cell MIR181A2B2 transcription, whereas IL-2, IL-15 and IL-12/IL-18 treatments upregulated MIR181A1B1. The MIR181A2B2 promoter was strongly transactivated by SMAD3 and SMAD4 transcription factors, suggesting that TGF-β signaling upregulates MIR181A2B2 expression, at least in part, through SMAD-dependent promoter activation.

  20. Adenosine receptor antagonists alter the stability of human epileptic GABAA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Roseti, Cristina; Martinello, Katiuscia; Fucile, Sergio; Piccari, Vanessa; Mascia, Addolorata; Di Gennaro, Giancarlo; Quarato, Pier Paolo; Manfredi, Mario; Esposito, Vincenzo; Cantore, Gianpaolo; Arcella, Antonella; Simonato, Michele; Fredholm, Bertil B.; Limatola, Cristina; Miledi, Ricardo; Eusebi, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    We examined how the endogenous anticonvulsant adenosine might influence γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor stability and which adenosine receptors (ARs) were involved. Upon repetitive activation (GABA 500 μM), GABAA receptors, microtransplanted into Xenopus oocytes from neurosurgically resected epileptic human nervous tissues, exhibited an obvious GABAA-current (IGABA) run-down, which was consistently and significantly reduced by treatment with the nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist CGS15943 (100 nM) or with adenosine deaminase (ADA) (1 units/ml), that inactivates adenosine. It was also found that selective antagonists of A2B (MRS1706, 10 nM) or A3 (MRS1334, 30 nM) receptors reduced IGABA run-down, whereas treatment with the specific A1 receptor antagonist DPCPX (10 nM) was ineffective. The selective A2A receptor antagonist SCH58261 (10 nM) reduced or potentiated IGABA run-down in ≈40% and ≈20% of tested oocytes, respectively. The ADA-resistant, AR agonist 2-chloroadenosine (2-CA) (10 μM) potentiated IGABA run-down but only in ≈20% of tested oocytes. CGS15943 administration again decreased IGABA run-down in patch-clamped neurons from either human or rat neocortex slices. IGABA run-down in pyramidal neurons was equivalent in A1 receptor-deficient and wt neurons but much larger in neurons from A2A receptor-deficient mice, indicating that, in mouse cortex, GABAA-receptor stability is tonically influenced by A2A but not by A1 receptors. IGABA run-down from wt mice was not affected by 2-CA, suggesting maximal ARs activity by endogenous adenosine. Our findings strongly suggest that cortical A2–A3 receptors alter the stability of GABAA receptors, which could offer therapeutic opportunities. PMID:18809912

  1. Time and Sex-Dependent Effects of an Adenosine A2A/A1 Receptor Antagonist on Motivation to Self-Administer Cocaine in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Susan E.; Breslin, Florence J.; Rieger, Jayson M.; Beauglehole, Anthony; Lynch, Wendy J.

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine is an important neuromodulator, known to interact with both dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems to influence psychostimulant action. In the present study, we examined the effects of ATL444, a novel adenosine receptor antagonist, on motivation for cocaine in male and female rats. Adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to self-administer cocaine (1.5 mg/kg/infusion) on a fixed-ratio 1 schedule with a daily maximum of 20 infusions. Following 5 consecutive sessions during which all 20 available infusions were obtained, motivation for cocaine (0.5 mg/kg/infusion) was assessed under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule, and once responding stabilized, the effect of treatment with ATL444 (0, 15, and 30 mg/kg, i.p.) was examined. As a control, we also assessed its effects on PR responding for sucrose. Binding studies revealed that ATL 444 was 3-fold, 25-fold, and 400-fold more selective for the A2A receptor as compared to A1, A2B, and A3 receptors, respectively. ATL444 produced a significant increase in motivation for cocaine on the day of treatment in females with a trend for an increase in males. In addition, over the two PR sessions following ATL444 treatment a significant decrease in responding was observed in males but not females. Responding for sucrose was unaffected by ATL444 treatment. Our results reveal that adenosine receptor blockade may mediate both acute increases in the reinforcing effects of cocaine, and longer term inhibitory effects on cocaine reinforcement that differ according to sex. PMID:22579716

  2. Immunopharmacological role of the leukotriene receptor antagonists and inhibitors of leukotrienes generating enzymes in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Mirshafiey, Abbas; Jadidi-Niaragh, Farhad

    2010-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease that involves central nervous system, and is generally associated with demyelination and axonal lesion. The effective factors for initiation of the inflammatory responses have not been known precisely so far. Leukotrienes (LTs) are inflammatory mediators with increased levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of MS patients and in experimental models of multiple sclerosis. Inhibition of LT receptors with specific antagonists can decrease inflammatory responses. In this review article we try to clarify the role of LT receptor antagonists and also inhibitors of enzymes which are involved in LTs generating pathway for treating multiple sclerosis as new targets for MS therapy. Moreover, we suggest that blockage of LT receptors by potent specific antagonists and/or agonists can be as a novel useful method in treatment of MS.

  3. In vitro digestion of purified β-casein variants A(1), A(2), B, and I: effects on antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory capacity.

    PubMed

    Petrat-Melin, B; Andersen, P; Rasmussen, J T; Poulsen, N A; Larsen, L B; Young, J F

    2015-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms of bovine milk proteins affect the protein profile of the milk and, hence, certain technological properties, such as casein (CN) number and cheese yield. However, reports show that such polymorphisms may also affect the health-related properties of milk. Therefore, to gain insight into their digestion pattern and bioactive potential, β-CN was purified from bovine milk originating from cows homozygous for the variants A(1), A(2), B, and I by a combination of cold storage, ultracentrifugation, and acid precipitation. The purity of the isolated β-CN was determined by HPLC, variants were verified by mass spectrometry, and molar extinction coefficients at λ=280nm were determined. β-Casein from each of the variants was subjected to in vitro digestion using pepsin and pancreatic enzymes. Antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory capacities of the hydrolysates were assessed at 3 stages of digestion and related to that of the undigested samples. Neither molar extinction coefficients nor overall digestibility varied significantly between these 4 variants; however, clear differences in digestion pattern were indicated by gel electrophoresis. In particular, after 60min of pepsin followed by 5min of pancreatic enzyme digestion, one ≈4kDa peptide with the N-terminal sequence (106)H-K-E-M-P-F-P-K- was absent from β-CN variant B. This is likely a result of the (122)Ser to (122)Arg substitution in variant B introducing a novel trypsin cleavage site, leading to the changed digestion pattern. All investigated β-CN variants exhibited a significant increase in antioxidant capacity upon digestion, as measured by the Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity assay. After 60min of pepsin + 120min of pancreatic enzyme digestion, the accumulated increase in antioxidant capacity was ≈1.7-fold for the 4 β-CN variants. The ACE inhibitory capacity was also significantly increased by digestion, with the B variant reaching the highest inhibitory

  4. Breadth of neutralization and synergy of clinically relevant human monoclonal antibodies against HCV genotypes 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 2c, and 3a.

    PubMed

    Carlsen, Thomas H R; Pedersen, Jannie; Prentoe, Jannick C; Giang, Erick; Keck, Zhen-Yong; Mikkelsen, Lotte S; Law, Mansun; Foung, Steven K H; Bukh, Jens

    2014-11-01

    Human monoclonal antibodies (HMAbs) with neutralizing capabilities constitute potential immune-based treatments or prophylaxis against hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, lack of cell culture-derived HCV (HCVcc) harboring authentic envelope proteins (E1/E2) has hindered neutralization investigations across genotypes, subtypes, and isolates. We investigated the breadth of neutralization of 10 HMAbs with therapeutic potential against a panel of 16 JFH1-based HCVcc-expressing patient-derived Core-NS2 from genotypes 1a (strains H77, TN, and DH6), 1b (J4, DH1, and DH5), 2a (J6, JFH1, and T9), 2b (J8, DH8, and DH10), 2c (S83), and 3a (S52, DBN, and DH11). Virus stocks used for in vitro neutralization analysis contained authentic E1/E2, with the exception of full-length JFH1 that acquired the N417S substitution in E2. The 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) for each HMAb against the HCVcc panel was determined by dose-response neutralization assays in Huh7.5 cells with antibody concentrations ranging from 0.0012 to 100 μg/mL. Interestingly, IC50 values against the different HCVcc's exhibited large variations among the HMAbs, and only three HMAbs (HC-1AM, HC84.24, and AR4A) neutralized all 16 HCVcc recombinants. Furthermore, the IC50 values for a given HMAb varied greatly with the HCVcc strain, which supports the use of a diverse virus panel. In cooperation analyses, HMAbs HC84.24, AR3A, and, especially HC84.26, demonstrated synergistic effects towards the majority of the HCVcc's when combined individually with AR4A. Through a neutralization analysis of 10 clinically relevant HMAbs against 16 JFH1-based Core-NS2 recombinants from genotypes 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 2c, and 3a, we identified at least three HMAbs with potent and broad neutralization potential. The neutralization synergism obtained when pooling the most potent HMAbs could have significant implications for developing novel strategies to treat and control HCV. © 2014 by the American Association for the Study of Liver

  5. Identification of coregulators influenced by estrogen receptor subtype specific binding of the ER antagonists 4-hydroxytamoxifen and fulvestrant.

    PubMed

    Evers, Nynke M; Wang, Si; van den Berg, Johannes H J; Houtman, René; Melchers, Diana; de Haan, Laura H J; Ederveen, Antwan G H; Groten, John P; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2014-09-05

    The aim of the present study was to investigate modulation of the interaction of ERα and ERβ with coregulators in the ligand dependent responses induced by the ER antagonistic compounds 4OHT and fulvestrant. Comparison with the modulation index (MI) profiles for the ER agonist estradiol (E2) will elucidate whether differences in the (ant)agonist dependent interaction of ERα and ERβ with coregulators expressed in MI profiles contribute to the differences in (ant)agonist responses. To this end, the selected ER antagonistic compounds were first characterized for intrinsic relative potency and efficacy towards ERα and ERβ using ER selective U2OS reporter gene assays, and subsequently tested for ligand dependent modulation of the interaction of ERα and ERβ with coregulators using the MARCoNI assay. Results obtained indicate a preference of 4OHT to antagonize ERβ and find fulvestrant to be less ER specific. MARCoNI assay responses reveal that ERα and ERβ mediated interaction with coregulators expressed in MI profiles are similar for 4OHT and fulvestrant and generally opposite to the MI profile of the ER agonist E2. Hierarchical clustering based on the MI profiles appeared able to clearly discriminate the two compounds with ER antagonistic properties from the ER agonist E2. Taken together the data reveal that modulation of the interaction of ERs with coregulators discriminates ER agonists from antagonists but does not discriminate between the less specific ER antagonist fulvestrant and the preferential ERβ antagonistic compound 4OHT. It is concluded that differences in modulation of the interaction of ERα and ERβ with coregulators contribute to the differences in ligand dependent responses induced by ER agonists and ER antagonists but the importance of the subtle differences in modulation of the interaction of ERs with coregulators between the ER antagonistic compounds 4OHT and fulvestrant for the ultimate biological effect remains to be established.

  6. Implementation of a fluorescence-based screening assay identifies histamine H3 receptor antagonists clobenpropit and iodophenpropit as subunit-selective N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Kasper B; Mullasseril, Praseeda; Dawit, Sara; Kurtkaya, Natalie L; Yuan, Hongjie; Vance, Katie M; Orr, Anna G; Kvist, Trine; Ogden, Kevin K; Le, Phuong; Vellano, Kimberly M; Lewis, Iestyn; Kurtkaya, Serdar; Du, Yuhong; Qui, Min; Murphy, T J; Snyder, James P; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Traynelis, Stephen F

    2010-06-01

    N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate a slow, Ca(2+)-permeable component of excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system and play a pivotal role in synaptic plasticity, neuronal development, and several neurological diseases. We describe a fluorescence-based assay that measures NMDA receptor-mediated changes in intracellular calcium in a BHK-21 cell line stably expressing NMDA receptor NR2D with NR1 under the control of a tetracycline-inducible promoter (Tet-On). The assay selectively identifies allosteric modulators by using supramaximal concentrations of glutamate and glycine to minimize detection of competitive antagonists. The assay is validated by successfully identifying known noncompetitive, but not competitive NMDA receptor antagonists among 1800 screened compounds from two small focused libraries, including the commercially available library of pharmacologically active compounds. Hits from the primary screen are validated through a secondary screen that used two-electrode voltage-clamp recordings on recombinant NMDA receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. This strategy identified several novel modulators of NMDA receptor function, including the histamine H3 receptor antagonists clobenpropit and iodophenpropit, as well as the vanilloid receptor transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1) antagonist capsazepine. These compounds are noncompetitive antagonists and the histamine H3 receptor ligand showed submicromolar potency at NR1/NR2B NMDA receptors, which raises the possibility that compounds can be developed that act with high potency on both glutamate and histamine receptor systems simultaneously. Furthermore, it is possible that some actions attributed to histamine H3 receptor inhibition in vivo may also involve NMDA receptor antagonism.

  7. Calcium antagonists and atherosclerosis protection in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Rafael Hernández; Armas-Hernández, María José; Velasco, Manuel; Israili, Zafar H; Armas-Padilla, María Cristina

    2003-01-01

    Calcium antagonists are effective in hypertensive patients of all ethnic groups, irrespective of age, dietary salt intake, salt-sensitivity status or plasma renin activity profile. Some prospective studies show that the calcium antagonists, nifedipine GITS and nitrendipine, reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality at least to the same extent as the diuretics. Other prospective studies are in progress to evaluate the effect of calcium antagonists on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and the progression of atherosclerosis in hypertensive patients. Calcium antagonists, especially the highly lipophilic amlodipine, lacidipine and nisoldipine, are shown to possess antioxidant properties. These drugs reduce the oxidation of LDL and its influx into the arterial wall, and reduce atherosclerotic lesions in animals. Platelet production of malondialdehyde, a marker of oxygen free radical formation, is suppressed by amlodipine, lacidipine or nifedipine in hypertensive patients. New evidence from long-term clinical trials of calcium antagonists indicates that these drugs can reduce the rate of progression of atherosclerosis in hypertensive and coronary heart disease patients. In the Regression Growth Evaluation Statin Study (REGRESS), co-administration of calcium antagonist, amlodipine or nifedipine with pravasatin caused a significant reduction in the appearance of new angiographic lesions. In the Verapamil in Hypertension and Atherosclerosis Study (VHAS), verapamil was more effective than chlorthalidone in promoting regression of thicker carotid lesions in parallel with a reduction in the incidence of cardiovascular events. In the Prospective Randomized Evaluation of the Vascular Effects of Norvasc Trial (PREVENT), amlodipine slowed the progression of early coronary atherosclerosis in patients with coronary artery disease. In a subprotocol of the Intervention as a Goal in the Hypertension Treatment (INSIGHT) study, nifedipine GITS significantly decreased intima

  8. Sexually Antagonistic “Zygotic Drive” of the Sex Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Rice, William R.; Gavrilets, Sergey; Friberg, Urban

    2008-01-01

    Genomic conflict is perplexing because it causes the fitness of a species to decline rather than improve. Many diverse forms of genomic conflict have been identified, but this extant tally may be incomplete. Here, we show that the unusual characteristics of the sex chromosomes can, in principle, lead to a previously unappreciated form of sexual genomic conflict. The phenomenon occurs because there is selection in the heterogametic sex for sex-linked mutations that harm the sex of offspring that does not carry them, whenever there is competition among siblings. This harmful phenotype can be expressed as an antagonistic green-beard effect that is mediated by epigenetic parental effects, parental investment, and/or interactions among siblings. We call this form of genomic conflict sexually antagonistic “zygotic drive”, because it is functionally equivalent to meiotic drive, except that it operates during the zygotic and postzygotic stages of the life cycle rather than the meiotic and gametic stages. A combination of mathematical modeling and a survey of empirical studies is used to show that sexually antagonistic zygotic drive is feasible, likely to be widespread in nature, and that it can promote a genetic “arms race” between the homo- and heteromorphic sex chromosomes. This new category of genomic conflict has the potential to strongly influence other fundamental evolutionary processes, such as speciation and the degeneration of the Y and W sex chromosomes. It also fosters a new genetic hypothesis for the evolution of enigmatic fitness-reducing traits like the high frequency of spontaneous abortion, sterility, and homosexuality observed in humans. PMID:19096519

  9. Neuronal eotaxin and the effects of ccr3 antagonist on airway hyperreactivity and M2 receptor dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Fryer, Allison D.; Stein, Louis H.; Nie, Zhenying; Curtis, Damian E.; Evans, Christopher M.; Hodgson, Simon T.; Jose, Peter J.; Belmonte, Kristen E.; Fitch, Erin; Jacoby, David B.

    2006-01-01

    Eosinophils cluster around airway nerves in patients with fatal asthma and in antigen-challenged animals. Activated eosinophils release major basic protein, which blocks inhibitory M2 muscarinic receptors (M2Rs) on nerves, increasing acetylcholine release and potentiating vagally mediated bronchoconstriction. We tested whether GW701897B, an antagonist of CCR3 (the receptor for eotaxin as well as a group of eosinophil active chemokines), affected vagal reactivity and M2R function in ovalbumin-challenged guinea pigs. Sensitized animals were treated with the CCR3 antagonist before inhaling ovalbumin. Antigen-challenged animals were hyperresponsive to vagal stimulation, but those that received the CCR3 antagonist were not. M2R function was lost in antigen-challenged animals, but not in those that received the CCR3 antagonist. Although the CCR3 antagonist did not decrease the number of eosinophils in lung tissues as assessed histologically, CCR3 antagonist prevented antigen-induced clustering of eosinophils along the nerves. Immunostaining revealed eotaxin in airway nerves and in cultured airway parasympathetic neurons from both guinea pigs and humans. Both IL-4 and IL-13 increased expression of eotaxin in cultured airway parasympathetic neurons as well as in human neuroblastoma cells. Thus, signaling via CCR3 mediates eosinophil recruitment to airway nerves and may be a prerequisite to blockade of inhibitory M2Rs by eosinophil major basic protein. PMID:16374515

  10. Embryo implantation and GnRH antagonists: embryo implantation: the Rubicon for GnRH antagonists.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, E R

    2000-06-01

    When gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) was discovered, the agonist and antagonist of GnRH were developed to control the release of FSH and LH by the gonadotrophs. More than 10 years of research were needed to develop a GnRH antagonist free of histamine release. Recent studies have shown that these GnRH antagonists are effective in preventing a rise in LH during ovarian stimulation in IVF. However, a decrease in ongoing pregnancies seems to suggest that implantation rates per transferred embryo are reduced in GnRH antagonist-stimulated cycles. In my opinion, these data highlight an area less well known to clinicians: the role of the GnRH antagonist at the cellular level in extrapituitary tissues. There are sufficient data in the literature suggesting that GnRH antagonist is an inhibitor of the cell cycle by decreasing the synthesis of growth factors. Given that, for folliculogenesis, blastomere formation and endometrium development, mitosis is everything; the interaction between the GnRH antagonist and the GnRH receptor (present in all these cells and tissues) may compromise the mitotic programme of these cells. This is the Rubicon for the GnRH antagonist: to demonstrate irrevocably that, at the minimal doses necessary to suppress LH release, it does not affect processes such as implantation, embryo development and folliculogenesis.

  11. From Chemotherapy-Induced Emesis to Neuroprotection: Therapeutic Opportunities for 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Fakhfouri, Gohar; Mousavizadeh, Kazem; Mehr, Sharam Ejtemaei; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Zirak, Mohammad Reza; Ghia, Jean-Eric; Rahimian, Reza

    2015-12-01

    5-HT3 receptor antagonists are extensively used as efficacious agents in counteracting chemotherapy-induced emesis. Recent investigations have shed light on other potential effects (analgesic, anxiolytic, and anti-psychotic). Some studies have reported neuroprotective properties for the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in vitro and in vivo. When administered to Aβ-challenged rat cortical neurons, 5-HT3 receptor antagonists substantially abated apoptosis, elevation of cytosolic Ca(2), glutamate release, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and caspase-3 activity. In addition, in vivo studies show that 5-HT3 receptor antagonists possess, alongside their anti-emetic effects, notable immunomodulatory properties in CNS. We found that pretreatment with tropisetron significantly improved neurological deficits and diminished leukocyte transmigration into the brain, TNF-α level, and brain infarction in a murine model of embolic stroke. Our recent investigation revealed that tropisetron protects against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in vivo through both 5-HT3 receptor-dependent and -independent pathways. Tropisetron, in vitro, was found to be an efficacious inhibitor of the signaling pathway leading to the activation of pro-inflammatory NF-κB, a transcription factor pivotal to the upregulation of several neuroinflammatory mediators in brain. This mini review summarizes novel evidence concerning effects of 5-HT3 antagonists and their possible mechanisms of action in ameliorating neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. Further, we discuss some newly synthesized 5-HT3 receptor antagonists with dual properties of 5-HT3 receptor blockade/alpha-7 nicotinic receptor activator and their potential in management of memory impairment. Since 5-HT3 receptor antagonists possess a large therapeutic window, they can constitute a scaffold for design and synthesis of new neuroprotective medications.

  12. Two Potent OXE-R Antagonists: Assignment of Stereochemistry

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    5-Oxo-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-oxo-ETE) is formed by the oxidation of 5-hydroxy-6E,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE), which is a major metabolite of enzymatic oxidation of arachidonic acid (AA). 5-Oxo-ETE is the most potent lipid chemoattractant for human eosinophils. Its actions are mediated by the selective OXE receptor, which is therefore an attractive target in eosinophilic diseases such as allergic rhinitis and asthma. Recently, we have reported two excellent OXE receptor antagonists that have IC50 values at low nanomolar concentrations. Each of these antagonists has a chiral center, and the isolation of the individual enantiomers by chiral high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) revealed that in each case one enantiomer is over 300 times more potent than the other. To unambiguously assign the stereochemistry of these enantiomers and to provide access to larger amounts of the active compounds for biological testing, we report here their total synthesis. PMID:25050171

  13. A prototypical Sigma-1 receptor antagonist protects against brain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Schetz, John A; Perez, Evelyn; Liu, Ran; Chen, Shiuhwei; Lee, Ivan; Simpkins, James W

    2007-11-21

    Previous studies indicate that the Sigma-1 ligand 4-phenyl-1-(4-phenylbutyl) piperidine (PPBP) protects the brain from ischemia. Less clear is whether protection is mediated by agonism or antagonism of the Sigma-1 receptor, and whether drugs already in use for other indications and that interact with the Sigma-1 receptor might also prevent oxidative damage due to conditions such as cerebral ischemic stroke. The antipsychotic drug haloperidol is an antagonist of Sigma-1 receptors and in this study it potently protects against oxidative stress-related cell death in vitro at low concentrations. The protective potency of haloperidol and a number of other butyrophenone compounds positively correlate with their affinity for a cloned Sigma-1 receptor, and the protection is mimicked by a Sigma-1 receptor-selective antagonist (BD1063), but not an agonist (PRE-084). In vivo, an acute low dose (0.05 mg/kg s.c.) of haloperidol reduces by half the ischemic lesion volume induced by a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. These in vitro and in vivo pre-clinical results suggest that a low dose of acutely administered haloperidol might have a novel application as a protective agent against ischemic cerebral stroke and other types of brain injury with an ischemic component.

  14. [Antagonistic activity of novel green microalgae strain].

    PubMed

    Selivanova, E A; Ignatenko, M E; Nemtseva, N V

    2014-01-01

    Screening of novel microalgae strains for the presence of pronounced antagonistic (antibacterial) activity against opportunistic bacteria. 11 pure cultures of green unicellular algae isolated from fresh and salt basins of Orenburg region were studied for the presence of antagonistic activity against 4 test-strains of opportunistic bacteria by a photometric method. The effect of water extracts of microalgae Astermonas gracilis on the speed of self-purification of brine from Escherichia coli as well as antibacterial activity of peloid were evaluated under co-cultivation conditions. Pure cultures of green unicellular algae Scenedesmus obliquus (Turpin) Kütz, Scenedesmus magnus Meyen var. magnus, Pediastru duplex Meyen var. duplex, Chlorella vulgaris Bory, Monoraphidium arcuatum (Korschikov) Hindak (=Ankistrodesmus arcuatus Korschikov), Dictyosphaerium sp. had the most pronounced antagonistic activit against opportunistic bacteria. Water extract ofA. gracilis microalgae accelerated brine self-purification fro E. coli due to antibacterial effect. Peloid containing extracts of microorganism cells had a pronounced antibacterial effect against opportunistic bacteria. Antagonistic substances localized inside cells of microalgae increased the speed of allochthonic microorganism elimination that is one of the mechanisms of self-purification of a basin and antibacterial effect of peloid. The novel green microalgae strains studied due to the presence of pronounced antagonistic activity may have a wide practical application.

  15. Structure-Based Design of a Periplasmic Binding Protein Antagonist that Prevents Domain Closure

    SciTech Connect

    Borrok, M. Jack; Zhu, Yimin; Forest, Katrina T.; Kiessling, Laura L.

    2009-07-31

    Many receptors undergo ligand-induced conformational changes to initiate signal transduction. Periplasmic binding proteins (PBPs) are bacterial receptors that exhibit dramatic conformational changes upon ligand binding. These proteins mediate a wide variety of fundamental processes including transport, chemotaxis, and quorum sensing. Despite the importance of these receptors, no PBP antagonists have been identified and characterized. In this study, we identify 3-O-methyl-D-glucose as an antagonist of glucose/galactose-binding protein and demonstrate that it inhibits glucose chemotaxis in E. coli. Using small-angle X-ray scattering and X-ray crystallography, we show that this antagonist acts as a wedge. It prevents the large-scale domain closure that gives rise to the active signaling state. Guided by these results and the structures of open and closed glucose/galactose-binding protein, we designed and synthesized an antagonist composed of two linked glucose residues. These findings provide a blueprint for the design of new bacterial PBP inhibitors. Given the key role of PBPs in microbial physiology, we anticipate that PBP antagonists will have widespread uses as probes and antimicrobial agents.

  16. Inverse agonism of histamine H2 antagonist accounts for upregulation of spontaneously active histamine H2 receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Smit, M J; Leurs, R; Alewijnse, A E; Blauw, J; Van Nieuw Amerongen, G P; Van De Vrede, Y; Roovers, E; Timmerman, H

    1996-01-01

    Histamine H2 receptors transfected in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are time- and dose-dependently upregulated upon exposure to the H2 antagonists cimetidine and ranitidine. This effect appears to be H2 receptor-mediated as no change in receptor density was observed after H1 or H3 antagonist treatment or after incubation with the structural analogue of cimetidine, VUF 8299, which has no H2 antagonistic effects. By using transfected CHO cells expressing different densities of wild-type H2 receptors or an uncoupled H2Leu124Ala receptor, the histamine H2 receptor was found to display considerable agonist-independent H2 receptor activity. Cimetidine and ranitidine, which both induce H2 receptor upregulation, actually functioned as inverse agonists in those cell lines displaying spontaneous agonist-independent H2 receptor activity. Burimamide, on the other hand, was shown to act as a neutral antagonist and did as expected not induce H2 receptor upregulation after long-term exposure. The displayed inverse agonism of H2 antagonists appears to be a mechanistic basis for the observed H2 antagonist-induced H2 receptor upregulation in transfected CHO cells. These observations shed new light on the pharmacological classification of the H2 antagonists and may offer a plausible explanation for the observed development of tolerance after prolonged clinical use. Images Fig. 3 PMID:8692899

  17. No evidence for priming response in Galleria mellonella larvae exposed to toxin protein PirA2B2 from Photorhabdus luminescens TT01: An association with the inhibition of the host cellular immunity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gongqing; Yi, Yunhong; Sun, Jianyu; Li, Mei; Qiu, Lihong

    2015-11-17

    There is accumulating evidence that many invertebrates including insects can acquire enhanced immune protection against subsequently pathogens infection through immune priming. However, whether the toxin protein from pathogenic bacteria can induce such priming response remains unclear. Here we cloned, expressed and purified the toxin Photorhabdus insect-related proteins A2B2 (PirA2B2) from Photorhabdus luminescens TT01. We primed Galleria mellonella with sublethal dose of PirA2B2 and then challenged the larvae with viable P. luminescens TT01 at 48 h after priming. We found no evidence for immune priming in G. mellonella larvae exposed to PirA2B2. Priming the larvae with PirA2B2 did not improve their resistance in a subsequent challenge with P. luminescens TT01. Whereas a robust priming response was observed when the larvae exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extracted from P. luminescens TT01. Because the larvae primed with LPS showed significant higher resistance against P. luminescens TT01 infection than those of the PBS and BSA controls. Furthermore, we investigated the changes of the cellular immune parameters, such as hemocyte counts, phagocytic activity and encapsulation ability of the hemocytes, after priming. We found that the toxin PirA2B2 significantly decreased the cellular immunity of the larvae, whereas the LPS significantly increased them. These results indicated that the degree of priming response in G. mellonella correlated positively to the levels of cellular immune parameters, and the underlying mechanism in regulating the immune priming of invertebrates was not homologous to that of the immunological memory of vertebrates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Selective opioid agonist and antagonist competition for [3H]-naloxone binding in amphibian spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Newman, L C; Wallace, D R; Stevens, C W

    2000-11-24

    Opioids elicit antinociception in mammals through three distinct types of receptors designated as mu, kappa and delta. However, it is not clear what type of opioid receptor mediates antinociception in non-mammalian vertebrates. Radioligand binding techniques were employed to characterize the site(s) of opioid action in the amphibian, Rana pipiens. Naloxone is a general opioid antagonist that has not been characterized in Rana pipiens. Using the non-selective opioid antagonist, [3H]-naloxone, opioid binding sites were characterized in amphibian spinal cord. Competitive binding assays were done using selective opioid agonists and highly-selective opioid antagonists. Naloxone bound to a single-site with an affinity of 11.3 nM and 18.7 nM for kinetic and saturation studies, respectively. A B(max) value of 2725 fmol/mg protein in spinal cord was observed. The competition constants (K(i)) of unlabeled mu, kappa and delta ranged from 2.58 nM to 84 microM. The highly-selective opioid antagonists yielded similar K(i) values ranging from 5.37 to 31.1 nM. These studies are the first to examine opioid binding in amphibian spinal cord. In conjunction with previous behavioral data, these results suggest that non-mammalian vertebrates express a unique opioid receptor which mediates the action of selective mu, kappa and delta opioid agonists.

  19. High-affinity neuropeptide Y receptor antagonists.

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, A J; Matthews, J E; Slepetis, R J; Jansen, M; Viveros, O H; Tadepalli, A; Harrington, W; Heyer, D; Landavazo, A; Leban, J J

    1995-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is one of the most abundant peptide transmitters in the mammalian brain. In the periphery it is costored and coreleased with norepinephrine from sympathetic nerve terminals. However, the physiological functions of this peptide remain unclear because of the absence of specific high-affinity receptor antagonists. Three potent NPY receptor antagonists were synthesized and tested for their biological activity in in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo functional assays. We describe here the effects of these antagonists inhibiting specific radiolabeled NPY binding at Y1 and Y2 receptors and antagonizing the effects of NPY in human erythroleukemia cell intracellular calcium mobilization perfusion pressure in the isolated rat kidney, and mean arterial blood pressure in anesthetized rats. PMID:7568074

  20. High-affinity neuropeptide Y receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Daniels, A J; Matthews, J E; Slepetis, R J; Jansen, M; Viveros, O H; Tadepalli, A; Harrington, W; Heyer, D; Landavazo, A; Leban, J J; Spaltenstein, A

    1995-09-26

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is one of the most abundant peptide transmitters in the mammalian brain. In the periphery it is costored and coreleased with norepinephrine from sympathetic nerve terminals. However, the physiological functions of this peptide remain unclear because of the absence of specific high-affinity receptor antagonists. Three potent NPY receptor antagonists were synthesized and tested for their biological activity in in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo functional assays. We describe here the effects of these antagonists inhibiting specific radiolabeled NPY binding at Y1 and Y2 receptors and antagonizing the effects of NPY in human erythroleukemia cell intracellular calcium mobilization perfusion pressure in the isolated rat kidney, and mean arterial blood pressure in anesthetized rats.

  1. Development of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist mutants with enhanced antagonistic activity in vitro and improved therapeutic efficacy in collagen-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Dahlén, Eva; Barchan, Karin; Herrlander, Daniel; Höjman, Patrik; Karlsson, Marie; Ljung, Lill; Andersson, Mats; Bäckman, Eva; Hager, Ann-Christin Malmborg; Walse, Björn; Joosten, Leo; van den Berg, Wim

    2008-04-01

    Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is a naturally occurring inhibitor of the pro-inflammatory interleukin-1-mediated activation of the interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R). Although wild-type IL-1Ra is used for treatment of inflammatory diseases, its effect is moderate and/or short-lived. The objective of this study was to generate IL-1Ra mutants with enhanced antagonistic activity for potential therapeutic use. Using a directed evolution approach in which libraries of IL-1Ra gene mutants were generated and screened in functional assays, mutants with desired properties were identified. Initially, diversity was introduced into the IL-1Ra using random mutagenesis. Mutations resulting in enhanced antagonistic activity were identified by screening in a reporter cell assay. To further enhance the antagonistic activity, selected mutations were recombined using the DNA recombination technology Fragment-INduced Diversity (FIND). Following three rounds of FIND recombination, several mutants with up to nine times enhanced antagonistic activity (mean IC50 +/- SEM value: 0.78 +/- 0.050 vs. 6.8 +/- 1.1 ng/ml for mutant and wild-type, respectively) were identified. Sequence analysis identified the mutations D47N, E52R and E90Y as being most important for this effect, however, the mutations P38Y, H54R, Q129L and M136N further enhanced the antagonistic function. Analysis of identified mutations in protein models based on the crystal structure of the IL-1Ra/IL-1R complex suggested that mutations found to enhance the antagonistic activity had a stabilizing effect on the IL-1Ra mutants or increased the affinity for the IL-1R. Finally, the therapeutic effect of one mutant was compared to that of wild-type IL-1Ra in collagen-induced arthritis in mice. Indeed, the enhanced antagonistic effect of the mutants observed in vitro was also seen in vivo. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that directed evolution of IL-1Ra is an effective means of generating highly potent therapeutic

  2. Increased Uterine NK cell numbers and perforin expression during the implantation phase in IVF Cycles with GnRH Antagonist Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bufang; Wang, Jingwen; Xia, Lan; Zhang, Dan; Wu, Xian; Zhang, Aijun

    2017-01-01

    GnRH antagonist negatively affects endometrial receptivity in in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles, however, its underlying mechanism remains unclear. To explore its target molecules, we studied endometria in the window phase of fixed GnRH antagonist, low-dose flexible GnRH antagonist, GnRH agonist long protocol, and untreated control groups. There were 384 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the fixed antagonist group with greater than twofold expression change compared with the control group and 197 DEGs between the fixed antagonist and agonist groups, the majority of which were associated with the natural killer (NK) cell-mediated cytotoxicity pathway. We then analysed the PRF1 and FASLG protein levels. The perforin level were significantly higher in both the antagonist groups than in other two groups, and was higher in the fixed antagonist group. Similarly, the uNK cell numbers were higher in the antagonist groups, and the highest uNK cell number occurred in the fixed group (p < 0.05). No significant differences existed in the Fas ligand levels and apoptosis rates among the three treatment groups, but were higher in the treatment groups than the control group. Together, these data indicate that GnRH antagonist may increase the uNK cell numbers and perforin expression, and this effect may be dose-dependent. PMID:28045093

  3. Alpha-hydroxy amides as a novel class of bradykinin B1 selective antagonists.

    PubMed

    Wood, Michael R; Schirripa, Kathy M; Kim, June J; Kuduk, Scott D; Chang, Ronald K; Di Marco, Christina N; DiPardo, Robert M; Wan, Bang-Lin; Murphy, Kathy L; Ransom, Richard W; Chang, Raymond S L; Holahan, Marie A; Cook, Jacquelynn J; Lemaire, Wei; Mosser, Scott D; Bednar, Rodney A; Tang, Cuyue; Prueksaritanont, Thomayant; Wallace, Audrey A; Mei, Qin; Yu, Jian; Bohn, Dennis L; Clayton, Frank C; Adarayn, Emily D; Sitko, Gary R; Leonard, Yvonne M; Freidinger, Roger M; Pettibone, Douglas J; Bock, Mark G

    2008-01-15

    Antagonism of the bradykinin B(1) receptor represents a potential treatment for chronic pain and inflammation. Novel antagonists incorporating alpha-hydroxy amides were designed that display low-nanomolar affinity for the human bradykinin B(1) receptor and good bioavailability in the rat and dog. In addition, these functionally active compounds show high passive permeability and low susceptibility to phosphoglycoprotein mediated efflux, predictive of good CNS exposure.

  4. An angiotensin II receptor antagonist suppresses running-enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis in rat.

    PubMed

    Mukuda, Takao; Sugiyama, Hiroyuki

    2007-06-01

    Hippocampal neurogenesis is enhanced by voluntary running exercise in adult mammals. To elucidate the factors involved in this enhancement, we examined the effects of losartan, an antagonist of angiotensin II type 1 receptors, on the running-enhanced neurogenesis in the adult rat hippocampus. When losartan was administered orally via the drinking water, the running-enhanced cell proliferation in the subgranular zone was almost completely suppressed, indicating that this enhancement may be mediated by angiotensin II and its receptors.

  5. Autophagy and TGF-Beta Antagonist Signaling in Breast Cancer Dormancy at Premetastatic Sites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    antagonist Coco as a mediator of the reactivation of lung-disseminated breast cancer cells. We also made contributions to the mechanistic...we investigate the role of autophagy and its interplay with Coco signaling in breast cancer dormancy and metastatic relapse, and the therapeutic...understanding of the Coco signaling in dormancy reactivation, and the mechanisms and tumorigenic role of autophagy. We have developed a series of genetically

  6. Autophagy and TGF-Beta Antagonist Signaling in Breast Cancer Dormancy at Premetastatic Sites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    for the prevention and treatment of metastatic diseases. We discovered the TGFβ signaling antagonist Coco as a mediator of the reactivation of lung... Coco signaling in breast cancer dormancy and metastatic relapse, and the therapeutic potential of targeting autophagy for the treatment of breast...cancer metastasis. Over the last reporting period, we have further deepened our understanding of the Coco signaling in dormancy reactivation, and the

  7. Downstream Regulatory Element Antagonist Modulator (DREAM), a target for anti-thrombotic agents.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jaehyung

    2017-03-01

    Circulating platelets participate in the process of numerous diseases including thrombosis, inflammation, and cancer. Thus, it is of great importance to understand the underlying mechanisms mediating platelet activation under disease conditions. Emerging evidence indicates that despite the lack of a nucleus, platelets possess molecules that are involved in gene transcription in nucleated cells. This review will summarize downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM), a transcriptional repressor, and highlight recent findings suggesting its novel non-transcriptional role in hemostasis and thrombosis.

  8. Antagonistic Interactions among Marine Pelagic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Long, Richard A.; Azam, Farooq

    2001-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that bacterial abundance and species diversity in the ocean's water column are variable at the millimeter scale, apparently in response to the small-scale heterogeneity in the distribution of organic matter. We hypothesized that bacterium-bacterium antagonistic interactions may contribute to variations in community structure at the microscale. We examined each of the 86 isolates for their inhibition of growth of the remaining 85 isolates by the Burkholder agar diffusion assay. More than one-half of the isolates expressed antagonistic activity, and this trait was more common with particle-associated bacteria than with free-living bacteria. This was exemplified by members of the α subclass of the class Proteobacteria (α-proteobacteria), in which production of antagonistic molecules was dominated by attached bacteria. We found that γ-proteobacteria (members of the orders Alteromonadales and Vibrionales) are the most prolific producers of inhibitory materials and also the most resilient to them, while members of the Bacteriodetes were the organisms that were least productive and most sensitive to antagonistic interactions. Widespread interspecies growth inhibition is consistent with the role of this phenomenon in structuring bacterial communities at the microscale. Furthermore, our results suggest that bacteria from pelagic marine particles may be an underutilized source of novel antibiotics. PMID:11679315

  9. Methylnaltrexone, a novel peripheral opioid receptor antagonist for the treatment of opioid side effects.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chun-Su; Israel, Robert J

    2006-05-01

    Methylnaltrexone is an investigational peripheral opioid receptor antagonist, a quaternary derivative of naltrexone. Methylnaltrexone has greater polarity and lower lipid solubility, thus it does not cross the blood-brain barrier in humans. Methylnaltrexone offers the therapeutic potential to block or reverse the undesired side effects of opioids that are mediated by receptors located in the periphery (e.g., in the gastrointestinal tract), without affecting analgesia or precipitating the opioid withdrawal symptoms that are predominantly mediated by receptors in the CNS. This article reviews preclinical studies and clinical opioid bowel dysfunction trial data, and briefly discusses other potential roles of this compound in clinical practice.

  10. Antagonistic and synergistic interactions among predators.

    PubMed

    Huxel, Gary R

    2007-08-01

    The structure and dynamics of food webs are largely dependent upon interactions among consumers and their resources. However, interspecific interactions such as intraguild predation and interference competition can also play a significant role in the stability of communities. The role of antagonistic/synergistic interactions among predators has been largely ignored in food web theory. These mechanisms influence predation rates, which is one of the key factors regulating food web structure and dynamics, thus ignoring them can potentially limit understanding of food webs. Using nonlinear models, it is shown that critical aspects of multiple predator food web dynamics are antagonistic/synergistic interactions among predators. The influence of antagonistic/synergistic interactions on coexistence of predators depended largely upon the parameter set used and the degree of feeding niche differentiation. In all cases when there was no effect of antagonism or synergism (a ( ij )=1.00), the predators coexisted. Using the stable parameter set, coexistence occurred across the range of antagonism/synergism used. However, using the chaotic parameter strong antagonism resulted in the extinction of one or both species, while strong synergism tended to coexistence. Whereas using the limit cycle parameter set, coexistence was strongly dependent on the degree of feeding niche overlap. Additionally increasing the degree of feeding specialization of the predators on the two prey species increased the amount of parameter space in which coexistence of the two predators occurred. Bifurcation analyses supported the general pattern of increased stability when the predator interaction was synergistic and decreased stability when it was antagonistic. Thus, synergistic interactions should be more common than antagonistic interactions in ecological systems.

  11. Antagonist-Elicited Cannabis Withdrawal in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Gorelick, David A.; Goodwin, Robert S.; Schwilke, Eugene; Schwope, David M.; Darwin, William D.; Kelly, Deanna L.; McMahon, Robert P.; Liu, Fang; Ortemann-Renon, Catherine; Bonnet, Denis; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists have potential therapeutic benefits, but antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal has not been reported in humans. Ten male daily cannabis smokers received 8 days of increasingly frequent 20-mg oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) dosages (40–120 mg/d) around-the-clock to standardize cannabis dependence while residing on a closed research unit. On the ninth day, double-blind placebo or 20- (suggested therapeutic dose) or 40-mg oral rimonabant, a CB1-cannabinoid receptor antagonist, was administered. Cannabis withdrawal signs and symptoms were assessed before and for 23.5 hours after rimonabant. Rimonabant, THC, and 11-hydroxy-THC plasma concentrations were quantified by mass spectrometry. The first 6 subjects received 20-mg rimonabant (1 placebo); the remaining 4 subjects received 40-mg rimonabant (1 placebo). Fourteen subjects enrolled; 10 completed before premature termination because of withdrawal of rimonabant from clinical development. Three of 5 subjects in the 20-mg group, 1 of 3 in the 40-mg group, and none of 2 in the placebo group met the prespecified withdrawal criterion of 150% increase or higher in at least 3 visual analog scales for cannabis withdrawal symptoms within 3 hours of rimonabant dosing. There were no significant associations between visual analog scale, heart rate, or blood pressure changes and peak rimonabant plasma concentration, area-under-the-rimonabant-concentration-by-time curve (0–8 hours), or peak rimonabant/THC or rimonabant/(THC + 11-hydroxy-THC) plasma concentration ratios. In summary, prespecified criteria for antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal were not observed at the 20- or 40-mg rimonabant doses. These data do not preclude antagonist-elicited withdrawal at higher rimonabant doses. PMID:21869692

  12. Antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal in humans.

    PubMed

    Gorelick, David A; Goodwin, Robert S; Schwilke, Eugene; Schwope, David M; Darwin, William D; Kelly, Deanna L; McMahon, Robert P; Liu, Fang; Ortemann-Renon, Catherine; Bonnet, Denis; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2011-10-01

    Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists have potential therapeutic benefits, but antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal has not been reported in humans. Ten male daily cannabis smokers received 8 days of increasingly frequent 20-mg oral Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) dosages (40-120 mg/d) around-the-clock to standardize cannabis dependence while residing on a closed research unit. On the ninth day, double-blind placebo or 20- (suggested therapeutic dose) or 40-mg oral rimonabant, a CB1-cannabinoid receptor antagonist, was administered. Cannabis withdrawal signs and symptoms were assessed before and for 23.5 hours after rimonabant. Rimonabant, THC, and 11-hydroxy-THC plasma concentrations were quantified by mass spectrometry. The first 6 subjects received 20-mg rimonabant (1 placebo); the remaining 4 subjects received 40-mg rimonabant (1 placebo). Fourteen subjects enrolled; 10 completed before premature termination because of withdrawal of rimonabant from clinical development. Three of 5 subjects in the 20-mg group, 1 of 3 in the 40-mg group, and none of 2 in the placebo group met the prespecified withdrawal criterion of 150% increase or higher in at least 3 visual analog scales for cannabis withdrawal symptoms within 3 hours of rimonabant dosing. There were no significant associations between visual analog scale, heart rate, or blood pressure changes and peak rimonabant plasma concentration, area-under-the-rimonabant-concentration-by-time curve (0-8 hours), or peak rimonabant/THC or rimonabant/(THC + 11-hydroxy-THC) plasma concentration ratios. In summary, prespecified criteria for antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal were not observed at the 20- or 40-mg rimonabant doses. These data do not preclude antagonist-elicited withdrawal at higher rimonabant doses.

  13. Combining Elements from Two Antagonists of Formyl Peptide Receptor 2 Generates More Potent Peptidomimetic Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Skovbakke, Sarah Line; Holdfeldt, André; Nielsen, Christina; Hansen, Anna Mette; Perez-Gassol, Iris; Dahlgren, Claes; Forsman, Huamei; Franzyk, Henrik

    2017-08-24

    Structural optimization of a peptidomimetic antagonist of formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) was explored by an approach involving combination of elements from the two most potent FPR2 antagonists described: a Rhodamine B-conjugated 10-residue gelsonin-derived peptide (i.e., PBP10, RhB-QRLFQVKGRR-OH) and the palmitoylated α-peptide/β-peptoid hybrid Pam-(Lys-βNspe)6-NH2. This generated an array of hybrid compounds from which a new subclass of receptor-selective antagonists was identified. The most potent representatives displayed activity in the low nanomolar range. The resulting stable and potent FPR2-selective antagonists (i.e., RhB-(Lys-βNphe)n-NH2; n = 4-6) are expected to become valuable tools in further elucidation of the physiological role of FPR2 in health and disease.

  14. Antithrombotic effects of PAR1 and PAR4 antagonists evaluated under flow and static conditions.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Kazuya; Ohnishi, Tomoko; Miura, Naoki; Sameshima, Hisayo; Koide, Takehiko; Tanaka, Kenichi A; Maruyama, Ikuro

    2014-01-01

    Thrombin-mediated activation of human platelets involves the G-protein-coupled protease-activated receptors PAR1 and PAR4. Inhibition of PAR1 and/or PAR4 is thought to modulate platelet activation and subsequent procoagulant reactions. However, the antithrombotic effects of PAR1 and PAR4 antagonism have not been fully elucidated, particularly under flow conditions. A microchip-based flow chamber system was used to evaluate the influence of SCH79797 (PAR1 antagonist) and YD-3 (PAR4 antagonist) on thrombus formation mediated by collagen and tissue thromboplastin at shear rates simulating those experienced in small- to medium-sized arteries (600s(-1)) and large arteries and small veins (240s(-1)). At a shear rate of 600s(-1), SCH79797 (10μM) efficiently reduced fibrin-rich platelet thrombi and significantly delayed occlusion of the flow chamber capillary (1.44 fold of control; P<0.001). The inhibitory activity of SCH79797 was diminished at 240s(-1). YD-3 (20μM) had no significant effect at either shear rate. The antithrombotic effects of SCH79797 were significantly augmented when combined with aspirin and AR-C66096 (P2Y12 antagonist), but not with YD-3. In contrast, no significant inhibition of tissue factor-induced clot formation under static conditions was observed in blood treated with SCH79797 and YD-3, although thrombin generation in platelet-rich plasma was weakly delayed by these antagonists. Our results suggest that the antithrombotic activities of PAR1 and/or PAR4 antagonism is influenced by shear conditions as well as by combined platelet inhibition with aspirin and a P2Y12-antagonist. © 2013.

  15. Modulation of bitter taste perception by a small molecule hTAS2R antagonist.

    PubMed

    Slack, Jay P; Brockhoff, Anne; Batram, Claudia; Menzel, Susann; Sonnabend, Caroline; Born, Stephan; Galindo, Maria Mercedes; Kohl, Susann; Thalmann, Sophie; Ostopovici-Halip, Liliana; Simons, Christopher T; Ungureanu, Ioana; Duineveld, Kees; Bologa, Cristian G; Behrens, Maik; Furrer, Stefan; Oprea, Tudor I; Meyerhof, Wolfgang

    2010-06-22

    Human bitter taste is mediated by the hTAS2R family of G protein-coupled receptors. The discovery of the hTAS2Rs enables the potential to develop specific bitter receptor antagonists that could be beneficial as chemical probes to examine the role of bitter receptor function in gustatory and nongustatory tissues. In addition, they could have widespread utility in food and beverages fortified with vitamins, antioxidants, and other nutraceuticals, because many of these have unwanted bitter aftertastes. We employed a high-throughput screening approach to discover a novel bitter receptor antagonist (GIV3727) that inhibits activation of hTAS2R31 (formerly hTAS2R44) by saccharin and acesulfame K, two common artificial sweeteners. Pharmacological analyses revealed that GIV3727 likely acts as an orthosteric, insurmountable antagonist of hTAS2R31. Surprisingly, we also found that this compound could inhibit five additional hTAS2Rs, including the closely related receptor hTAS2R43. Molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis studies suggest that two residues in helix 7 are important for antagonist activity in hTAS2R31 and hTAS2R43. In human sensory trials, GIV3727 significantly reduced the bitterness associated with the two sulfonamide sweeteners, indicating that hTAS2R antagonists are active in vivo. Our results demonstrate that small molecule bitter receptor antagonists can effectively reduce the bitter taste qualities of foods, beverages, and pharmaceuticals. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evidence for allosteric interactions of antagonist binding to the smoothened receptor.

    PubMed

    Rominger, Cynthia M; Bee, Wei-Lin Tiger; Copeland, Robert A; Davenport, Elizabeth A; Gilmartin, Aidan; Gontarek, Richard; Hornberger, Keith R; Kallal, Lorena A; Lai, Zhihong; Lawrie, Kenneth; Lu, Quinn; McMillan, Lynette; Truong, Maggie; Tummino, Peter J; Turunen, Brandon; Will, Matthew; Zuercher, William J; Rominger, David H

    2009-06-01

    The Smoothened receptor (Smo) mediates hedgehog (Hh) signaling critical for development, cell growth, and migration, as well as stem cell maintenance. Aberrant Hh signaling pathway activation has been implicated in a variety of cancers, and small-molecule antagonists of Smo have entered human clinical trials for the treatment of cancer. Here, we report the biochemical characterization of allosteric interactions of agonists and antagonists for Smo. Binding of two radioligands, [(3)H]3-chloro-N-[trans-4-(methylamino)cyclohexyl]-N-{[3-(4-pyridinyl)-phenyl]methyl}-1-benzothiophene-2-carboxamide (SAG-1.3) (agonist) and [(3)H]cyclopamine (antagonist), was characterized using human Smo expressed in human embryonic kidney 293F membranes. We observed full displacement of [(3)H]cyclopamine by all Smo agonist and antagonist ligands examined. N-[(1E)-(3,5-Dimethyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)methylidene]-4-(phenylmethyl)-1-piperazinamine (SANT-1), an antagonist, did not fully inhibit the binding of [(3)H]SAG-1.3. In a functional cell-based beta-lactamase reporter gene assay, SANT-1 and N-[3-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-4-chlorophenyl]-3,4,5-tris(ethyloxy)-benzamide (SANT-2) fully inhibited 3-chloro-4,7-difluoro-N-[trans-4-(methylamino)cyclohexyl]-N-{[3-(4-pyridinyl)phenyl]methyl}-1-benzothiophene-2-carboxamide (SAG-1.5)-induced Hh pathway activation. Detailed "Schild-type" radioligand binding analysis with [(3)H]SAG-1.3 revealed that two structurally distinct Smoothened receptor antagonists, SANT-1 and SANT-2, bound in a manner consistent with that of allosteric modulation. Our mechanism of action characterization of radioligand binding to Smo combined with functional data provides a better understanding of small-molecule interactions with Smo and their influence on the Hh pathway.

  17. Progress in corticotropin-releasing factor-1 antagonist development

    PubMed Central

    Zorrilla, Eric P.; Koob, George F.

    2010-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor antagonists have been sought since the stress-secreted peptide was isolated in 1981. Although evidence suggests the limited efficacy of CRF1 antagonists as antidepressants, CRF1 antagonists might be novel pharmacotherapies for anxiety and addiction. Progress in understanding the two-domain model of ligand–receptor interactions for CRF family receptors might yield chemically novel CRF1 receptor antagonists, including peptide CRF1 antagonists, antagonists with signal transduction selectivity and nonpeptide CRF1 antagonists that act via the extracellular (rather than transmembrane) domains. Novel ligands that conform to prevalent pharmacophore and exhibit drug-like pharmacokinetic properties have been identified. The therapeutic utility of CRF1 antagonists should soon be clearer: several small molecules are currently in Phase II/III clinical trials for depression, anxiety and irritable bowel syndrome. PMID:20206287

  18. Glucose-independent inhibition of yeast plasma-membrane H+-ATPase by calmodulin antagonists.

    PubMed Central

    Romero, I; Maldonado, A M; Eraso, P

    1997-01-01

    Glucose metabolism causes activation of the yeast plasma-membrane H+-ATPase. The molecular mechanism of this regulation is not known, but it is probably mediated by phosphorylation of the enzyme. The involvement in this process of several kinases has been suggested but their actual role has not been proved. The physiological role of a calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in glucose-induced activation was investigated by studying the effect of specific calmodulin antagonists on the glucose-induced ATPase kinetic changes in wild-type and two mutant strains affected in the glucose regulation of the enzyme. Preincubation of the cells with calmidazolium or compound 48/80 impeded the increase in ATPase activity by reducing the Vmax of the enzyme without modifying the apparent affinity for ATP in the three strains. In one mutant, pma1-T912A, the putative calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-phosphorylatable Thr-912 was eliminated, and in the other, pma1-P536L, H+-ATPase was constitutively activated, suggesting that the antagonistic effect was not mediated by a calmodulin-dependent protein kinase and not related to glucose regulation. This was corroborated when the in vitro effect of the calmodulin antagonists on H+-ATPase activity was tested. Purified plasma membranes from glucose-starved or glucose-fermenting cells from both pma1-P890X, another constitutively activated ATPase mutant, and wild-type strains were preincubated with calmidazolium or melittin. In all cases, ATP hydrolysis was inhibited with an IC50 of approximately 1 microM. This inhibition was reversed by calmodulin. Analysis of the calmodulin-binding protein pattern in the plasma-membrane fraction eliminates ATPase as the calmodulin target protein. We conclude that H+-ATPase inhibition by calmodulin antagonists is mediated by an as yet unidentified calmodulin-dependent membrane protein. PMID:9148755

  19. Novel benzimidazole-based MCH R1 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Andrew J; Al-Barazanji, Kamal A; Barvian, Kevin K; Bishop, Michael J; Britt, Christy S; Cooper, Joel P; Goetz, Aaron S; Grizzle, Mary K; Hertzog, Donald L; Ignar, Diane M; Morgan, Ronda O; Peckham, Gregory E; Speake, Jason D; Swain, Will R

    2006-10-01

    The identification of an MCH R1 antagonist screening hit led to the optimization of a class of benzimidazole-based MCH R1 antagonists. Structure-activity relationships and efforts to optimize pharmacokinetic properties are detailed along with the demonstration of the effectiveness of an MCH R1 antagonist in an animal model of obesity.

  20. Effect of a Hypocretin/Orexin Antagonist on Neurocognitive Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-30

    a novel hypocretiniorexin antagonist, almorexant (ALM), to a standard hypnotic , zolpidem (ZOL), and placebo (PBO) on neurocognitive performance at...Placebo-Controlled, Randomized, Parallel- Group Study Comparing the Effect of a Novel HypocretiniOrexin Antagonist (Almorexant) Versus a Standard Hypnotic ...Group Study Comparing the Effect of a Novel HypocretiniOrexin Antagonist (Almorexant) Versus a Standard Hypnotic (Zolpidem) and Placebo on

  1. The treatment of hyponatraemia using vasopressin antagonists.

    PubMed

    Gross, P; Palm, C

    2000-03-01

    Hyponatraemia is a frequent electrolyte disorder. It is primarily attributable to vasopressin excess plus sustained fluid intake. Hyponatraemia causes CNS symptoms, especially during the first 2-4 days; these symptoms are related to brain swelling. Hyponatraemia occurs in the setting of liver cirrhosis and congestive cardiac failure, in which it is related to stimulation by low arterial blood pressure acting through baroreceptors. Hyponatraemia also occurs in the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, usually from neoplasms releasing vasopressin. The conventional treatment of hyponatraemia used to be fluid restriction and treatment of the underlying disorder. This kind of treatment has been unreliable, cumbersome and difficult to comply with for the patient. In the future, effective vasopressin V2 antagonists will become available for clinical use in the treatment of hyponatraemia, and are expected to improve the management of hyponatraemia. Pharmacological characteristics and observations of biological effects of three antagonists are reported in the present article.

  2. Development of Kappa Opioid Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, F. Ivy; Carlezon, William A.

    2013-01-01

    Kappa opioid receptors (KORs) belong to the G-protein coupled class of receptors (GPCRs). They are activated by the endogenous opioid peptide dynorphin (DYN) and expressed at particularly high levels within brain areas implicated in modulation of motivation, emotion, and cognitive function. Chronic activation of KORs in animal models has maladaptive effects including increases in behaviors that reflect depression, the propensity to engage in drug-seeking behavior, and drug craving. The fact that KOR activation has such a profound influence on behaviors often triggered by stress has led to interest in selective KOR antagonists as potential therapeutic agents. This perspective provides a description of preclinical research conducted in the development of several different classes of selective KOR antagonists, a summary of the clinical studies conducted thus far, and recommendations for the type of work needed in the future to determine if these agents would be useful as pharmacotherapies for neuropsychiatric illness. PMID:23360448

  3. [PAF antagonistic benzofuran neolignans from Piper kadsura].

    PubMed

    Ma, Y; Han, G Q; Wang, Y Y

    1993-01-01

    In a continuing search for PAF antagonists, five benzofuran neolignans have been isolated from the aerial part of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi, a Chinese traditional drug used for the treatment of inflammation and rheumatic conditions. The structure determination was based upon spectroscopic analysis. Two of the neolignans were found to have new structures and were named as (-)-denudatin B (the enantiomer of denudatin B, II) and kadsurenin M (7S,8S-3,4,3'-trimethoxy-7'-oxo-nor-8',9'-7.O. 4',8,5'-neolignan, V). The known compounds kadsurenon (I), (-)-acuminatin(III) and (+)-licarin A(IV) were also obtained from the same source. (-)-Denudatin B (II) showed potent PAF antagonistic activity in 3H-PAF receptor binding assay.

  4. Dynamics of coupled mutualistic and antagonistic interactions, and their implications for ecosystem management.

    PubMed

    Georgelin, E; Loeuille, N

    2014-04-07

    Understanding the interplay of antagonistic and mutualistic interactions is an important challenge for predicting the fate of ecological communities. So far, studies of propagation of disturbances have focused on a single interaction type (antagonistic or mutualistic), leaving out part of the natural diversity. We develop a model that describes the dynamics of a plant species interacting with one antagonistic (e.g. an herbivore) and one mutualistic (e.g. a pollinator) species confronted to a perturbation to assess how each interaction type will affect the other. We analyze the effect of additional mortality as a press perturbation acting on the plant's partners. We study how the intensity of the disturbance and the relative sensitivities of partner species determine community structure, as well as extinction orders. We show that due to indirect effects between the two types of interactions, additional mortality on both pollinators and herbivores can either decrease or increase their densities. The presence of pollinators can stabilize the antagonistic interaction by preventing cyclic dynamics in the plant-herbivore system. We propose explanatory mechanisms based on indirect effects and discuss the implications of our results for the conservation of interactions and communities. Our results suggest that, in agricultural landscapes, direct effects of insecticides on herbivore densities can be fully offset by indirect effects mediated through pollinators. The loss of pollinators, due to insecticide use, can also destabilize the dynamics of insect herbivores.

  5. Monovalent mannose-based DC-SIGN antagonists: targeting the hydrophobic groove of the receptor.

    PubMed

    Tomašić, Tihomir; Hajšek, David; Švajger, Urban; Luzar, Jernej; Obermajer, Nataša; Petit-Haertlein, Isabelle; Fieschi, Franck; Anderluh, Marko

    2014-03-21

    Dendritic cell-specific, intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) is a C-type lectin expressed specifically on dendritic cells. It is a primary site for recognition and binding of various pathogens and thus a promising therapeutic target for inhibition of pathogen entry and subsequent prevention of immune defense cell infection. We report the design and synthesis of d-mannose-based DC-SIGN antagonists bearing diaryl substituted 1,3-diaminopropanol or glycerol moieties incorporated to target the hydrophobic groove of the receptor. The designed glycomimetics were evaluated by in vitro assay of the isolated DC-SIGN extracellular domain for their ability to compete with HIV-1 gp120 for binding to the DC-SIGN carbohydrate recognition domain. Compounds 14d and 14e, that display IC50 values of 40 μM and 50 μM, are among the most potent monovalent DC-SIGN antagonists reported. The antagonistic effect of all the synthesized compounds was further evaluated by a one-point in vitro assay that measures DC adhesion. Compounds 14d, 14e, 18d and 18e were shown to act as functional antagonists of DC-SIGN-mediated DC adhesion. The binding mode of 14d was also studied by molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation, which revealed flexibility of 14d in the binding site and provides a basis for further optimization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Discovery of potent kisspeptin antagonists delineate physiological mechanisms of gonadotropin regulation

    PubMed Central

    Roseweir, Antonia K.; Kauffman, Alexander S.; Smith, Jeremy T.; Guerriero, Kathryn A.; Morgan, Kevin; Pielecka-Fortuna, Justyna; Pineda, Rafael; Gottsch, Michelle L.; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Moenter, Suzanne M.; Terasawa, Ei; Clarke, Iain J.; Steiner, Robert A.; Millar, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    Neurons that produce gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) are the final common pathway by which the brain regulates reproduction. GnRH neurons are regulated by an afferent network of kisspeptin-producing neurons. Kisspeptin binds to its cognate receptor on GnRH neurons and stimulates their activity, which in turn provides an obligatory signal for GnRH secretion—thus gating down-stream events supporting reproduction. We have developed kisspeptin antagonists to facilitate the direct determination of the role of kisspeptin neurons in the neuroendocrine regulation of reproduction. In vitro and in vivo studies of analogues of kisspeptin-10 with amino substitutions have identified several potent and specific antagonists. A selected antagonist was shown to inhibit the firing of GnRH neurons in the brain of the mouse and to reduce pulsatile GnRH secretion in female pubertal monkeys; the later supporting a key role of kisspeptin in puberty onset. This analogue also inhibited the kisspeptin-induced release of luteinizing hormone (LH) in rats and mice and blocked the post-castration rise in LH in sheep, rats and mice, suggesting that kisspeptin neurons mediate the negative feedback effect of sex steroids on gonadotropin secretion in mammals. The development of kisspeptin antagonists provides a valuable tool for investigating the physiological and pathophysiological roles of kisspeptin in the regulation of reproduction and could offer a unique therapeutic agent for treating hormone-dependent disorders of reproduction, including precocious puberty, endometriosis, and metastatic prostate cancer. PMID:19321788

  7. 2-Aminothienopyridazines as Novel Adenosine A1 Receptor Allosteric Modulators and Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Gemma N.; Valant, Celine; Horne, James; Figler, Heidi; Flynn, Bernard L.; Linden, Joel; Chalmers, David K.; Sexton, Patrick M.; Christopoulos, Arthur; Scammells, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    A pharmacophore-based screen identified 32 compounds including ethyl 5-amino-3-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-4-oxo-3,4-dihydrothieno[3,4-d]pyridazine-1-carboxylate (8) as a new allosteric modulator of the adenosine A1 receptor (A1AR). On the basis of this lead, various derivatives were prepared and evaluated for activity at the human A1AR. A number of the test compounds allosterically stabilized agonist-receptor-G protein ternary complexes in dissociation kinetic assays, but were found to be more potent as antagonists in subsequent functional assays of ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Additional experiments on the most potent antagonist, 13b, investigating A1AR-mediated [35S]GTPγS binding and [3H]CCPA equilibrium binding confirmed its antagonistic mode of action and also identified inverse agonism. This study has thus identified a new class of A1AR antagonists that can also recognize the receptor’s allosteric site with lower potency. PMID:18771255

  8. Effect of vibration on antagonist muscle coactivation during progressive fatigue in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Rothmuller, C; Cafarelli, E

    1995-01-01

    1. Biceps femoris antagonist coactivation increases during progressive fatigue. Our purpose was to determine if the mechanism that increases coactivation during fatigue is susceptible to vibration. Vibration drives alpha-motoneurons via the Ia loop, producing force without descending motor drive, and thus uncoupling antagonist and agonist activation. Evidence that vibration increases coactivation disproportionately from its 'common drive' would suggest the possibility that some of the effects of fatigue are mediated through a segmental reflex loop. 2. Ten male subjects performed repeated maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVCs) of the knee extensors of one leg. Paired submaximal test contractions (50% of MVC), without visual feedback, were performed when MVC reached 85, 70 and then 50% of its initial value. Vibration was applied to the patellar tendon during one test contraction in each pair. 3. Vibration reduced test contraction force below control values. However, coactivation increased at the same rate in both conditions. Biceps femoris coactivation was greater during vibration, but did not change during fatigue in either condition. 4. Our observations suggest that agonist-antagonist muscle pairs are controlled as a single motor unit pool by a common central drive. Vibrating the agonist increases antagonist coactivity, but does not alter the rate at which coactivation increases during fatigue. This supports the idea that agonist coactivation is controlled by a central mechanism. PMID:7562623

  9. A mechanistic basis for converting a receptor tyrosine kinase agonist to an antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, W. David; Daugherty, Jennifer; Gao, ChongFeng; Xie, Qian; Miranti, Cindy; Gherardi, Ermanno; Vande Woude, George; Xu, H. Eric

    2010-03-08

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) activates the Met receptor tyrosine kinase by binding and promoting receptor dimerization. Here we describe a mechanistic basis for designing Met antagonists based on NK1, a natural variant of HGF containing the N-terminal and the first kringle domain. Through detailed biochemical and structural analyses, we demonstrate that both mouse and human NK1 induce Met dimerization via a conserved NK1 dimer interface. Mutations designed to alter the NK1 dimer interface abolish its ability to promote Met dimerization but retain full Met-binding activity. Importantly, these NK1 mutants act as Met antagonists by inhibiting HGF-mediated cell scattering, proliferation, branching, and invasion. The ability to separate the Met-binding activity of NK1 from its Met dimerization activity thus provides a rational basis for designing Met antagonists. This strategy of antagonist design may be applicable for other growth factor receptors by selectively abolishing the receptor activation ability but not the receptor binding of the growth factors.

  10. Effect of vibration on antagonist muscle coactivation during progressive fatigue in humans.

    PubMed

    Rothmuller, C; Cafarelli, E

    1995-06-15

    1. Biceps femoris antagonist coactivation increases during progressive fatigue. Our purpose was to determine if the mechanism that increases coactivation during fatigue is susceptible to vibration. Vibration drives alpha-motoneurons via the Ia loop, producing force without descending motor drive, and thus uncoupling antagonist and agonist activation. Evidence that vibration increases coactivation disproportionately from its 'common drive' would suggest the possibility that some of the effects of fatigue are mediated through a segmental reflex loop. 2. Ten male subjects performed repeated maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVCs) of the knee extensors of one leg. Paired submaximal test contractions (50% of MVC), without visual feedback, were performed when MVC reached 85, 70 and then 50% of its initial value. Vibration was applied to the patellar tendon during one test contraction in each pair. 3. Vibration reduced test contraction force below control values. However, coactivation increased at the same rate in both conditions. Biceps femoris coactivation was greater during vibration, but did not change during fatigue in either condition. 4. Our observations suggest that agonist-antagonist muscle pairs are controlled as a single motor unit pool by a common central drive. Vibrating the agonist increases antagonist coactivity, but does not alter the rate at which coactivation increases during fatigue. This supports the idea that agonist coactivation is controlled by a central mechanism.

  11. Agonistic and antagonistic estrogens in licorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra).

    PubMed

    Simons, Rudy; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Mol, Loes A M; The, Susan A M; Bovee, Toine F H; Luijendijk, Teus J C; Verbruggen, Marian A; Gruppen, Harry

    2011-07-01

    The roots of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) are a rich source of flavonoids, in particular, prenylated flavonoids, such as the isoflavan glabridin and the isoflavene glabrene. Fractionation of an ethyl acetate extract from licorice root by centrifugal partitioning chromatography yielded 51 fractions, which were characterized by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and screened for activity in yeast estrogen bioassays. One third of the fractions displayed estrogenic activity towards either one or both estrogen receptors (ERs; ERα and ERβ). Glabrene-rich fractions displayed an estrogenic response, predominantly to the ERα. Surprisingly, glabridin did not exert agonistic activity to both ER subtypes. Several fractions displayed higher responses than the maximum response obtained with the reference compound, the natural hormone 17β-estradiol (E(2)). The estrogenic activities of all fractions, including this so-called superinduction, were clearly ER-mediated, as the estrogenic response was inhibited by 20-60% by known ER antagonists, and no activity was found in yeast cells that did not express the ERα or ERβ subtype. Prolonged exposure of the yeast to the estrogenic fractions that showed superinduction did, contrary to E(2), not result in a decrease of the fluorescent response. Therefore, the superinduction was most likely the result of stabilization of the ER, yeast-enhanced green fluorescent protein, or a combination of both. Most fractions displaying superinduction were rich in flavonoids with single prenylation. Glabridin displayed ERα-selective antagonism, similar to the ERα-selective antagonist RU 58668. Whereas glabridin was able to reduce the estrogenic response of E(2) by approximately 80% at 6 × 10(-6) M, glabrene-rich fractions only exhibited agonistic responses, preferentially on ERα.

  12. SB-334867-A: the first selective orexin-1 receptor antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Smart, D; Sabido-David, C; Brough, S J; Jewitt, F; Johns, A; Porter, R A; Jerman, J C

    2001-01-01

    The pharmacology of various peptide and non-peptide ligands was studied in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably expressing human orexin-1 (OX1) or orexin-2 (OX2) receptors by measuring intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) using Fluo-3AM. Orexin-A and orexin-B increased [Ca2+]i in CHO-OX1 (pEC50=8.38±0.04 and 7.26±0.05 respectively, n=12) and CHO-OX2 (pEC50=8.20±0.03 and 8.26±0.04 respectively, n=8) cells. However, neuropeptide Y and secretin (10 pM – 10 μM) displayed neither agonist nor antagonist properties in either cell-line. SB-334867-A (1-(2-Methyylbenzoxanzol-6-yl)-3-[1,5]naphthyridin-4-yl-urea hydrochloride) inhibited the orexin-A (10 nM) and orexin-B (100 nM)-induced calcium responses (pKB=7.27±0.04 and 7.23±0.03 respectively, n=8), but had no effect on the UTP (3 μM)-induced calcium response in CHO-OX1 cells. SB-334867-A (10 μM) also inhibited OX2 mediated calcium responses (32.7±1.9% versus orexin-A). SB-334867-A was devoid of agonist properties in either cell-line. In conclusion, SB-334867-A is a non-peptide OX1 selective receptor antagonist. PMID:11250867

  13. Antagonistic Regulation of Arabidopsis Growth by Brassinosteroids and Abiotic Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Yuhee; Kwon, Soon Il; Choe, Sunghwa

    2014-01-01

    To withstand ever-changing environmental stresses, plants are equipped with phytohormone-mediated stress resistance mechanisms. Salt stress triggers abscisic acid (ABA) signaling, which enhances stress tolerance at the expense of growth. ABA is thought to inhibit the action of growth-promoting hormones, including brassinosteroids (BRs). However, the regulatory mechanisms that coordinate ABA and BR activity remain to be discovered. We noticed that ABA-treated seedlings exhibited small, round leaves and short roots, a phenotype that is characteristic of the BR signaling mutant, brassinosteroid insensitive1-9 (bri1-9). To identify genes that are antagonistically regulated by ABA and BRs, we examined published Arabidopsis microarray data sets. Of the list of genes identified, those upregulated by ABA but downregulated by BRs were enriched with a BRRE motif in their promoter sequences. After validating the microarray data using quantitative RT-PCR, we focused on RD26, which is induced by salt stress. Histochemical analysis of transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing RD26pro:GUS revealed that the induction of GUS expression after NaCl treatment was suppressed by co-treatment with BRs, but enhanced by co-treatment with propiconazole, a BR biosynthetic inhibitor. Similarly, treatment with bikinin, an inhibitor of BIN2 kinase, not only inhibited RD26 expression, but also reduced the survival rate of the plant following exposure to salt stress. Our results suggest that ABA and BRs act antagonistically on their target genes at or after the BIN2 step in BR signaling pathways, and suggest a mechanism by which plants fine-tune their growth, particularly when stress responses and growth compete for resources. PMID:25377253

  14. Antagonistic regulation of Arabidopsis growth by brassinosteroids and abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yuhee; Kwon, Soon Il; Choe, Sunghwa

    2014-11-01

    To withstand ever-changing environmental stresses, plants are equipped with phytohormone-mediated stress resistance mechanisms. Salt stress triggers abscisic acid (ABA) signaling, which enhances stress tolerance at the expense of growth. ABA is thought to inhibit the action of growth-promoting hormones, including brassinosteroids (BRs). However, the regulatory mechanisms that coordinate ABA and BR activity remain to be discovered. We noticed that ABA-treated seedlings exhibited small, round leaves and short roots, a phenotype that is characteristic of the BR signaling mutant, brassinosteroid insensitive1-9 (bri1-9). To identify genes that are antagonistically regulated by ABA and BRs, we examined published Arabidopsis microarray data sets. Of the list of genes identified, those upregulated by ABA but downregulated by BRs were enriched with a BRRE motif in their promoter sequences. After validating the microarray data using quantitative RT-PCR, we focused on RD26, which is induced by salt stress. Histochemical analysis of transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing RD26pro:GUS revealed that the induction of GUS expression after NaCl treatment was suppressed by co-treatment with BRs, but enhanced by co-treatment with propiconazole, a BR biosynthetic inhibitor. Similarly, treatment with bikinin, an inhibitor of BIN2 kinase, not only inhibited RD26 expression, but also reduced the survival rate of the plant following exposure to salt stress. Our results suggest that ABA and BRs act antagonistically on their target genes at or after the BIN2 step in BR signaling pathways, and suggest a mechanism by which plants fine-tune their growth, particularly when stress responses and growth compete for resources.

  15. Guanidinoethyl sulphonate is a glycine receptor antagonist in striatum.

    PubMed

    Sergeeva, Olga A; Chepkova, Aisa N; Haas, Helmut L

    2002-11-01

    1. Guanidinoethyl sulphonate (GES) is an analogue of taurine and an inhibitor of taurine transport. Interactions of GES with GABA(A) and glycine receptors are studied by whole cell recording and fast drug application in isolated striatal neurons of the mouse. 2. We confirm that GES is a weak agonist at GABA(A) receptors, and is able to antagonize GABA-evoked responses. GES did not gate GlyR. 3. GES antagonized glycine responses in a concentration-dependent and surmountable manner. Glycine dose-response curves were shifted to the right by GES (0.5 mM), yielding EC(50)s and Hill coefficients of 62 micro M and 2.5 in control, 154 micro M and 1.3 in the presence of GES. 4. GlyR-mediated taurine responses were competitively antagonized by GES. Taurine dose-response curves, in contrast to the glycine dose-response curves were shifted by GES to the right in a parallel manner. 5. The GlyR-block by GES was not voltage-dependent. 6. In contrast to our findings in the mouse, in rat striatal neurons which lack expression of the alpha3 GlyR subunit, GES shifted the glycine dose-response curve to the right in a parallel way without affecting the maximal response. Subtype-specificity of the GES action at GlyR must await further investigation in artificial expression systems. 7. We conclude that GES is a competitive antagonist at GlyR. The antagonistic action of GES at inhibitory ionotropic receptors can explain its epileptogenic action. Care must be taken with the interpretation of data on GES evoked taurine release.

  16. Histone Deacetylases with Antagonistic Roles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Heterochromatin Formation.

    PubMed

    Thurtle-Schmidt, Deborah M; Dodson, Anne E; Rine, Jasper

    2016-09-01

    As the only catalytic member of the Sir-protein gene-silencing complex, Sir2's catalytic activity is necessary for silencing. The only known role for Sir2's catalytic activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae silencing is to deacetylate N-terminal tails of histones H3 and H4, creating high-affinity binding sites for the Sir-protein complex, resulting in association of Sir proteins across the silenced domain. This histone deacetylation model makes the simple prediction that preemptively removing Sir2's H3 and H4 acetyl substrates, by mutating these lysines to unacetylatable arginines, or removing the acetyl transferase responsible for their acetylation, should restore silencing in the Sir2 catalytic mutant. However, this was not the case. We conducted a genetic screen to explore what aspect of Sir2's catalytic activity has not been accounted for in silencing. Mutation of a nonsirtuin histone deacetylase, Rpd3, restored Sir-protein-based silencing in the absence of Sir2's catalytic activity. Moreover, this antagonism could be mediated by either the large or the small Rpd3-containing complex. Interestingly, this restoration of silencing appeared independent of any known histone H3 or H4 substrates of Rpd3 Investigation of Sir-protein association in the Rpd3 mutant revealed that the restoration of silencing was correlated with an increased association of Sir proteins at the silencers, suggesting that Rpd3 was an antagonist of Sir2's function in nucleation of Sir proteins to the silencer. Additionally, restoration of silencing by Rpd3 was dependent on another sirtuin family member, Hst3, indicating multiple antagonistic roles for deacetylases in S. cerevisiae silencing. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  17. Interactions of Freshwater Cyanobacteria with Bacterial Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Beier, Sara; Grabherr, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cyanobacterial and algal mass development, or blooms, have severe effects on freshwater and marine systems around the world. Many of these phototrophs produce a variety of potent toxins, contribute to oxygen depletion, and affect water quality in several ways. Coexisting antagonists, such as cyanolytic bacteria, hold the potential to suppress, or even terminate, such blooms, yet the nature of this interaction is not well studied. We isolated 31 cyanolytic bacteria affiliated with the genera Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Acinetobacter, and Delftia from three eutrophic freshwater lakes in Sweden and selected four phylogenetically diverse bacterial strains with strong-to-moderate lytic activity. To characterize their functional responses to the presence of cyanobacteria, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) experiments on coculture incubations, with an initial predator-prey ratio of 1:1. Genes involved in central cellular pathways, stress-related heat or cold shock proteins, and antitoxin genes were highly expressed in both heterotrophs and cyanobacteria. Heterotrophs in coculture expressed genes involved in cell motility, signal transduction, and putative lytic activity. l,d-Transpeptidase was the only significantly upregulated lytic gene in Stenotrophomonas rhizophila EK20. Heterotrophs also shifted their central metabolism from the tricarboxylic acid cycle to the glyoxylate shunt. Concurrently, cyanobacteria clearly show contrasting antagonistic interactions with the four tested heterotrophic strains, which is also reflected in the physical attachment to their cells. In conclusion, antagonistic interactions with cyanobacteria were initiated within 24 h, and expression profiles suggest varied responses for the different cyanobacteria and studied cyanolytes. IMPORTANCE Here, we present how gene expression profiles can be used to reveal interactions between bloom-forming freshwater cyanobacteria and antagonistic heterotrophic bacteria. Species

  18. TRPV1 antagonists as potential antitussive agents.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Robbie L; Correll, Craig C; Jia, Yanlin; Anthes, John C

    2008-01-01

    Cough is an important defensive pulmonary reflex that removes irritants, fluids, or foreign materials from the airways. However, when cough is exceptionally intense or when it is chronic and/or nonproductive it may require pharmacologic suppression. For many patients, antitussive therapies consist of OTC products with inconsequential efficacies. On the other hand, the prescription antitussive market is dominated by older opioid drugs such as codeine. Unfortunately, "codeine-like" drugs suppress cough at equivalent doses that also often produce significant ancillary liabilities such as GI constipation, sedation, and respiratory depression. Thus, the discovery of a novel and effective antitussive drug with an improved side effect profile relative to codeine would fulfill an unmet clinical need in the treatment of cough. Afferent pulmonary nerves are endowed with a multitude of potential receptor targets, including TRPV1, that could act to attenuate cough. The evidence linking TRPV1 to cough is convincing. TRPV1 receptors are found on sensory respiratory nerves that are important in the generation of the cough reflex. Isolated pulmonary vagal afferent nerves are responsive to TRPV1 stimulation. In vivo, TRPV1 agonists such as capsaicin elicit cough when aerosolized and delivered to the lungs. Pertinent to the debate on the potential use of TRPV1 antagonist as antitussive agents are the observations that airway afferent nerves become hypersensitive in diseased and inflamed lungs. For example, the sensitivity of capsaicin-induced cough responses following upper respiratory tract infection and in airway inflammatory diseases such as asthma and COPD is increased relative to that of control responses. Indeed, we have demonstrated that TRPV1 antagonism can attenuate antigen-induced cough in the allergic guinea pig. However, it remains to be determined if the emerging pharmacologic profile of TRPV1 antagonists will translate into a novel human antitussive drug. Current

  19. Interactions of Freshwater Cyanobacteria with Bacterial Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Osman, Omneya Ahmed; Beier, Sara; Grabherr, Manfred; Bertilsson, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    Cyanobacterial and algal mass development, or blooms, have severe effects on freshwater and marine systems around the world. Many of these phototrophs produce a variety of potent toxins, contribute to oxygen depletion, and affect water quality in several ways. Coexisting antagonists, such as cyanolytic bacteria, hold the potential to suppress, or even terminate, such blooms, yet the nature of this interaction is not well studied. We isolated 31 cyanolytic bacteria affiliated with the genera Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Acinetobacter, and Delftia from three eutrophic freshwater lakes in Sweden and selected four phylogenetically diverse bacterial strains with strong-to-moderate lytic activity. To characterize their functional responses to the presence of cyanobacteria, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) experiments on coculture incubations, with an initial predator-prey ratio of 1:1. Genes involved in central cellular pathways, stress-related heat or cold shock proteins, and antitoxin genes were highly expressed in both heterotrophs and cyanobacteria. Heterotrophs in coculture expressed genes involved in cell motility, signal transduction, and putative lytic activity. l,d-Transpeptidase was the only significantly upregulated lytic gene in Stenotrophomonas rhizophila EK20. Heterotrophs also shifted their central metabolism from the tricarboxylic acid cycle to the glyoxylate shunt. Concurrently, cyanobacteria clearly show contrasting antagonistic interactions with the four tested heterotrophic strains, which is also reflected in the physical attachment to their cells. In conclusion, antagonistic interactions with cyanobacteria were initiated within 24 h, and expression profiles suggest varied responses for the different cyanobacteria and studied cyanolytes.IMPORTANCE Here, we present how gene expression profiles can be used to reveal interactions between bloom-forming freshwater cyanobacteria and antagonistic heterotrophic bacteria. Species-specific responses in

  20. NMDA Receptor Antagonists for Treatment of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Ates-Alagoz, Zeynep; Adejare, Adeboye

    2013-01-01

    Depression is a psychiatric disorder that affects millions of people worldwide. Individuals battling this disorder commonly experience high rates of relapse, persistent residual symptoms, functional impairment, and diminished well-being. Medications have important utility in stabilizing moods and daily functions of many individuals. However, only one third of patients had considerable improvement with a standard antidepressant after 2 months and all patients had to deal with numerous side effects. The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor family has received special attention because of its critical role in psychiatric disorders. Direct targeting of the NMDA receptor could result in more rapid antidepressant effects. Antidepressant-like effects of NMDA receptor antagonists have been demonstrated in different animal models. MK-801 (a use-dependent channel blocker), and CGP 37849 (an NMDA receptor antagonist) have shown antidepressant properties in preclinical studies, either alone or combined with traditional antidepressants. A recent development is use of ketamine clinically for refractory depression. The purpose of this review is to examine and analyze current literature on the role of NMDA receptor antagonists for treatment of depression and whether this is a feasible route in drug discovery. PMID:24276119

  1. Medicinal Chemistry of Competitive Kainate Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Kainic acid (KA) receptors belong to the group of ionotropic glutamate receptors and are expressed throughout in the central nervous system (CNS). The KA receptors have been shown to be involved in neurophysiological functions such as mossy fiber long-term potentiation (LTP) and synaptic plasticity and are thus potential therapeutic targets in CNS diseases such as schizophrenia, major depression, neuropathic pain and epilepsy. Extensive effort has been made to develop subtype-selective KA receptor antagonists in order to elucidate the physiological function of each of the five subunits known (GluK1−5). However, to date only selective antagonists for the GluK1 subunit have been discovered, which underlines the strong need for continued research in this area. The present review describes the structure−activity relationship and pharmacological profile for 10 chemically distinct classes of KA receptor antagonists comprising, in all, 45 compounds. To the medicinal chemist this information will serve as reference guidance as well as an inspiration for future effort in this field. PMID:22778857

  2. Medicinal chemistry of competitive kainate receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Ann M; Bunch, Lennart

    2011-02-16

    Kainic acid (KA) receptors belong to the group of ionotropic glutamate receptors and are expressed throughout in the central nervous system (CNS). The KA receptors have been shown to be involved in neurophysiological functions such as mossy fiber long-term potentiation (LTP) and synaptic plasticity and are thus potential therapeutic targets in CNS diseases such as schizophrenia, major depression, neuropathic pain and epilepsy. Extensive effort has been made to develop subtype-selective KA receptor antagonists in order to elucidate the physiological function of each of the five subunits known (GluK1-5). However, to date only selective antagonists for the GluK1 subunit have been discovered, which underlines the strong need for continued research in this area. The present review describes the structure-activity relationship and pharmacological profile for 10 chemically distinct classes of KA receptor antagonists comprising, in all, 45 compounds. To the medicinal chemist this information will serve as reference guidance as well as an inspiration for future effort in this field.

  3. Pharmacological analysis of calcium antagonist receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, I.J.

    1987-01-01

    This work focuses on two aspects of the action of calcium antagonist drugs, namely, the interaction of drugs with receptors for verapamil-like calcium antagonists, and the interactions of drugs with voltage-sensitive calcium fluxes in rat brain synaptosomes. From binding studies I have found that the ligand of choice for labeling the verapamil receptor is (-)(/sup 3/H)desmethoxy-verapamil. This drug labels potently, reversibly and stereoselectively two receptors in membranes prepared from rat brain and rabbit skeletal muscle tissues. In equilibrium studies dihydropyridine calcium antagonists interact in a non-competitive fashion, while many non-DHPs are apparently competitive. In-depth kinetic studies in skeletal muscle membranes indicate that the two receptors are linked in a negative heterotropic fashion, and that low-affinity binding of (-) (/sup 3/H)desmethoxy-verapamil may be to the diltiazem receptor. However, these studies were not able to distinguish between the hypothesis that diltiazem binds to spatially separate, allosterically coupled receptors, and the hypothesis that diltiazem binds to a subsite of the verapamil receptor.

  4. Suppression of HPV-16 late L1 5′-splice site SD3632 by binding of hnRNP D proteins and hnRNP A2/B1 to upstream AUAGUA RNA motifs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoze; Johansson, Cecilia; Glahder, Jacob; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Schwartz, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) 5′-splice site SD3632 is used exclusively to produce late L1 mRNAs. We identified a 34-nt splicing inhibitory element located immediately upstream of HPV-16 late 5′-splice site SD3632. Two AUAGUA motifs located in these 34 nt inhibited SD3632. Two nucleotide substitutions in each of the HPV-16 specific AUAGUA motifs alleviated splicing inhibition and induced late L1 mRNA production from episomal forms of the HPV-16 genome in primary human keratinocytes. The AUAGUA motifs bind specifically not only to the heterogeneous nuclear RNP (hnRNP) D family of RNA-binding proteins including hnRNP D/AUF, hnRNP DL and hnRNP AB but also to hnRNP A2/B1. Knock-down of these proteins induced HPV-16 late L1 mRNA expression, and overexpression of hnRNP A2/B1, hnRNP AB, hnRNP DL and the two hnRNP D isoforms hnRNP D37 and hnRNP D40 further suppressed L1 mRNA expression. This inhibition may allow HPV-16 to hide from the immune system and establish long-term persistent infections with enhanced risk at progressing to cancer. There is an inverse correlation between expression of hnRNP D proteins and hnRNP A2/B1 and HPV-16 L1 production in the cervical epithelium, as well as in cervical cancer, supporting the conclusion that hnRNP D proteins and A2/B1 inhibit HPV-16 L1 mRNA production. PMID:24013563

  5. Mediation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    MacKinnon, David P.; Fairchild, Amanda J.; Fritz, Matthew S.

    2010-01-01

    Mediating variables are prominent in psychological theory and research. A mediating variable transmits the effect of an independent variable on a dependent variable. Differences between mediating variables and confounders, moderators, and covariates are outlined. Statistical methods to assess mediation and modern comprehensive approaches are described. Future directions for mediation analysis are discussed. PMID:16968208

  6. Adenosine A2A receptor mediated protective effect of 2‐(6‐cyano‐1‐hexyn‐1‐yl)adenosine on retinal ischaemia/reperfusion damage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Konno, T; Sato, A; Uchibori, T; Nagai, A; Kogi, K; Nakahata, N

    2006-01-01

    Aims To determine the effect of 2‐(6‐cyano‐1‐hexyn‐1‐yl)adenosine (2‐CN‐Ado), an adenosine A2A receptor agonist, on retinal ischaemia/reperfusion damage in rats. Methods Retinal ischaemia/reperfusion damage was induced by elevating the intraocular pressure of one eye to 130 mm Hg for 60 minutes and returning it to normal. 7 days later, retinal ischaemia/reperfusion damage was histologically quantified by measuring the thickness of retinal layers. Intraocular pressure was measured by pressure transducer. Results Retinal ischaemia/reperfusion caused cell loss in the ganglion cell layer and thinning of the inner plexiform and nuclear layer. Both ocular topical and intravenous administration of 2‐CN‐Ado caused a reduction of retinal ischaemia/reperfusion damage. A selective A2A receptor antagonist, 1,3,7‐trimethyl‐8‐(3‐chlorostyryl) xanthine (CSC), but not a selective A1 receptor antagonist, 8‐cyclopentyl‐1,3‐dipropylxanthine (DPCPX), or a selective A2B receptor antagonist, alloxazine, reduced the protective effect of 2‐CN‐Ado. While ocular topical administration of 2‐CN‐Ado caused a sustained reduction of intraocular pressure, intravenous administration of 2‐CN‐Ado showed a transient ocular hypotensive effect. Conclusions These results suggest that 2‐CN‐Ado attenuates retinal ischaemia/reperfusion damage, and at least some of this protective effect of 2‐CN‐Ado might be mediated via activation of the adenosine A2A receptor. PMID:16613921

  7. From the Cover: Glutamate antagonists limit tumor growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rzeski, Wojciech; Turski, Lechoslaw; Ikonomidou, Chrysanthy

    2001-05-01

    Neuronal progenitors and tumor cells possess propensity to proliferate and to migrate. Glutamate regulates proliferation and migration of neurons during development, but it is not known whether it influences proliferation and migration of tumor cells. We demonstrate that glutamate antagonists inhibit proliferation of human tumor cells. Colon adenocarcinoma, astrocytoma, and breast and lung carcinoma cells were most sensitive to the antiproliferative effect of the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist dizocilpine, whereas breast and lung carcinoma, colon adenocarcinoma, and neuroblastoma cells responded most favorably to the -amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate antagonist GYKI52466. The antiproliferative effect of glutamate antagonists was Ca2+ dependent and resulted from decreased cell division and increased cell death. Morphological alterations induced by glutamate antagonists in tumor cells consisted of reduced membrane ruffling and pseudopodial protrusions. Furthermore, glutamate antagonists decreased motility and invasive growth of tumor cells. These findings suggest anticancer potential of glutamate antagonists.

  8. Michelob_x is the missing inhibitor of apoptosis protein antagonist in mosquito genomes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lei; Jiang, Guohua; Chan, Gina; Santos, Carl P; Severson, David W; Xiao, Lei

    2005-08-01

    Apoptosis is implicated in the life cycle of the malaria parasite in mosquitoes. The genome project for the primary malaria vector Anopheles gambiae showed a significant expansion of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) and caspase gene families in comparison with Drosophila. However, because of extensive sequence divergence, no orthologue was identified for the reaper/grim-like IAP antagonist genes that have a pivotal role in cell death regulation in Drosophila. Using a customized searching strategy, we identified michelob_x(mx), a gene not predicted by the genome project, as the missing IAP antagonist in the An. gambiae and other mosquito genomes. Mx has a highly conserved amino-terminal IAP-binding motif. Expression of Mx induces rapid cell death in insect cell lines and is a potent tissue ablator in vivo. Its proapoptotic activity is totally dependent on the IAP-binding motif. Like reaper in Drosophila, mx is transcriptionally induced by ultraviolet irradiation to mediate cell death.

  9. Furoxan analogues of the histamine H3-receptor antagonist imoproxifan and related furazan derivatives.

    PubMed

    Tosco, Paolo; Bertinaria, Massimo; Di Stilo, Antonella; Cena, Clara; Sorba, Giovanni; Fruttero, Roberta; Gasco, Alberto

    2005-08-01

    Synthesis and pharmacological characterisation of a series of compounds in which the oxime substructure present in imoproxifan was constrained in the pentatomic NO-donor furoxan ring, as well as their structurally related furazan analogues devoid of NO-donating properties, are described. The whole series of products displayed reversible histamine H3-antagonistic activity on guinea-pig ileum. 4-(4-(3-(1H-Imidazol-4-yl)propoxy)phenyl)furoxan-3-carbonitrile 16 was also able to induce partial relaxation when added to the bath after electrical contraction of the guinea-pig ileum during the study of its H3-antagonistic properties. This phenomenon seems to be dependent on NO-mediated sGC activation. The lipophilic-hydrophilic balance of all the products was investigated.

  10. Postcountershock myocardial damage after pretreatment with adrenergic and calcium channel antagonists in halothane-anesthetized dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Gaba, D.M.; Metz, S.; Maze, M.

    1985-05-01

    Transthoracic electric countershock can cause necrotic myocardial lesions in humans as well as experimental animals. The authors investigated the effect on postcountershock myocardial damage of pretreatment with prazosin, an alpha-1 antagonist; L-metoprolol, a beta-1 antagonist, and verapamil, a calcium channel-blocking agent. Twenty dogs were anesthetized with halothane and given two transthoracic countershocks of 295 delivered joules each after drug or vehicle treatment. Myocardial injury was quantitated 24 h following countershock by measuring the uptake of technetium-99m pyrophosphate in the myocardium. Elevated technetium-99m pyrophosphate uptake occurred in visible lesions in most dogs regardless of drug treatment. For each of four parameters of myocardial damage there was no statistically significant difference between control animals and those treated with prazosin, metoprolol, or verapamil. These data suggest that adrenergic or calcium channel-mediated mechanisms are not involved in the pathogenesis of postcountershock myocardial damage.

  11. Investigation of orexin-2 selective receptor antagonists: Structural modifications resulting in dual orexin receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Skudlarek, Jason W; DiMarco, Christina N; Babaoglu, Kerim; Roecker, Anthony J; Bruno, Joseph G; Pausch, Mark A; O'Brien, Julie A; Cabalu, Tamara D; Stevens, Joanne; Brunner, Joseph; Tannenbaum, Pamela L; Wuelfing, W Peter; Garson, Susan L; Fox, Steven V; Savitz, Alan T; Harrell, Charles M; Gotter, Anthony L; Winrow, Christopher J; Renger, John J; Kuduk, Scott D; Coleman, Paul J

    2017-03-15

    In an ongoing effort to explore the use of orexin receptor antagonists for the treatment of insomnia, dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs) were structurally modified, resulting in compounds selective for the OX2R subtype and culminating in the discovery of 23, a highly potent, OX2R-selective molecule that exhibited a promising in vivo profile. Further structural modification led to an unexpected restoration of OX1R antagonism. Herein, these changes are discussed and a rationale for selectivity based on computational modeling is proposed.

  12. Combination decongestion therapy in hospitalized heart failure: loop diuretics, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and vasopressin antagonists.

    PubMed

    Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Mentz, Robert J; Greene, Stephen J; Senni, Michele; Sato, Naoki; Nodari, Savina; Butler, Javed; Gheorghiade, Mihai

    2015-01-01

    Congestion is the most common reason for admissions and readmissions for heart failure (HF). The vast majority of hospitalized HF patients appear to respond readily to loop diuretics, but available data suggest that a significant proportion are being discharged with persistent evidence of congestion. Although novel therapies targeting congestion should continue to be developed, currently available agents may be utilized more optimally to facilitate complete decongestion. The combination of loop diuretics, natriuretic doses of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and vasopressin antagonists represents a regimen of currently available therapies that affects early and persistent decongestion, while limiting the associated risks of electrolyte disturbances, hemodynamic fluctuations, renal dysfunction and mortality.

  13. Hypoxia-induced retinal ganglion cell death and the neuroprotective effects of beta-adrenergic antagonists.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Ning; Yamada, Hideyuki; Mao, Wei; Matsuyama, Shigemi; Aihara, Makoto; Araie, Makoto

    2007-05-07

    Hypoxia-induced retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death has been implicated in glaucomatous optic neuropathy. However, the precise mechanism of death signaling and how neuroprotective agents affect it are still unclear. The aim of this study is to characterize the mechanisms of hypoxia-induced apoptosis of cultured purified RGCs and to study the neuroprotective effects of beta-adrenergic antagonists. Rat RGCs were purified utilizing a modified two-step immuno-panning procedure. First, the extent of apoptosis in RGCs under hypoxia was quantified. Next, the effects of glutamate-channel antagonists (MK801 or DNQX), Bax inhibiting peptide (BIP), and beta-adrenergic antagonists (betaxolol, nipradilol, timolol or carteolol) on hypoxia-induced RGC death were investigated by the cell viability assay. Third, the effects of beta-adrenergic antagonists on hypoxia-induced increase of intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca(2+)](i)) and the additional effect of NO scavenger to nipradilol were evaluated. Apoptotic RGC percentages under hypoxia were significantly increased compared to the control. The viability of RGCs under hypoxia was not affected by MK801 or DNQX, whereas it was increased in a dose-dependent manner with exposure to BIP, and to betaxolol, nipradilol, timolol, but not to carteolol. These effective beta-adrenergic antagonists showed no significant change in hypoxia-induced [Ca(2+)](i) levels. The NO scavenger alleviated neuroprotective effect by nipradilol. In conclusion, purified RGC damage induced by hypoxia involves Bax-dependent apoptotic pathway, but mostly independent of glutamate receptor-mediated excitotoxicity. Betaxolol, timolol and nipradilol showed a protective effect against hypoxia-induced RGC death, which was thought to be irrelevant either to calcium channel or beta-adrenoceptor blocking effects.

  14. First and second generation H₁ histamine receptor antagonists produce different sleep-inducing profiles in rats.

    PubMed

    Unno, Katsuya; Ozaki, Tomoya; Mohammad, Shahid; Tsuno, Saki; Ikeda-Sagara, Masami; Honda, Kazuki; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2012-05-15

    First generation H₁ histamine receptor antagonists, such as d-chlorpheniramine (d-CPA) and diphenhydramine, produce drowsiness in humans. They are currently used as over-the-counter sleep aids. However, the mechanisms underlying drowsiness induced by these H₁ histamine receptor antagonists remain obscure because they produce heterogeneous receptor-independent actions. Ketotifen is a second generation H₁ histamine receptor antagonist which is more permeable to the brain than newer H₁ histamine receptor antagonists. Therefore, to access sleep-inducing profiles by H₁ histamine receptor blocking actions, the present study compared the dose-dependent effects of diphenhydramine and ketotifen (1-40 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection at dark onset time) on daily sleep-wake patterns in rats. Ketotifen dose-dependently decreased rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep and increased non-REM sleep by amplifying slow-wave electroencephalogram powers. Diphenhydramine at 4 mg/kg transiently increased non-REM sleep and reduced REM sleep similar to the effects of ketotifen. The larger injections of diphenhydramine (10-40 mg/kg), however, reduced non-REM sleep, abolished slow-wave enhancements and facilitated wakefulness. The bi-directional action of diphenhydramine on sleep is similar to our former results using d-CPA. Taken together, the arousal effects caused by over-dose administrations of the first generation H₁ histamine receptor antagonists may be mediated by H₁ histamine receptor-independent actions. To further examine the tolerance of ketotifen-induced sleep, 3 mg/kg ketotifen was injected daily for 5 days 3 h before light onset time. These experiments consistently enhanced non-REM-sleep at the end of the active phase of rats, suggesting that ketotifen may function as a desirable sleep aid although the coincidental REM sleep reduction requires attention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Halogenation of a capsaicin analogue leads to novel vanilloid TRPV1 receptor antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Appendino, Giovanni; Harrison, Selena; De Petrocellis, Luciano; Daddario, Nives; Bianchi, Federica; Schiano Moriello, Aniello; Trevisani, Marcello; Benvenuti, Francesca; Geppetti, Pierangelo; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2003-01-01

    The C-5 halogenation of the vanillyl moiety of resiniferatoxin, an ultrapotent agonist of vanilloid TRPV1 receptors, results in a potent antagonist for these receptors. Here, we have synthesized a series of halogenated derivatives of ‘synthetic capsaicin' (nonanoyl vanillamide=nordihydrocapsaicin) differing for the nature (iodine, bromine–chlorine) and the regiochemistry (C-5, C-6) of the halogenation.The activity of these compounds was investigated on recombinant human TRPV1 receptors overexpressed in HEK-293 cells. None of the six compounds exerted any significant agonist activity, as assessed by measuring their effect on TRPV1-mediated calcium mobilization. Instead, all compounds antagonized, to various extents, the effect of capsaicin in this assay.All 6-halo-nordihydrocapsaicins behaved as competitive antagonists against human TRPV1 according to the corresponding Schild's plots, and were more potent than the corresponding 5-halogenated analogues. The iodo-derivatives were more potent than the bromo- and chloro-derivatives.Using human recombinant TRPV1, 6-iodo-nordihydrocapsaicin (IC50=10 nM against 100 nM capsaicin) was about four times more potent than the prototypical TRPV1 antagonist, capsazepine, and was tested against capsaicin also on native TRPV1 in: (i) rat dorsal root ganglion neurons in culture; (ii) guinea-pig urinary bladder; and (iii) guinea-pig bronchi. In all cases, except for the guinea-pig bronchi, the compound was significantly more potent than capsazepine as a TRPV1 antagonist.In conclusion, 6-iodo-nordihydrocapsaicin, a stable and easily prepared compound, is a potent TRPV1 antagonist and a convenient replacement for capsazepine in most of the in vitro preparations currently used to assess the activity of putative vanilloid receptor agonists. PMID:12922928

  16. Dihydropyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines: Selective Toll-Like Receptor 9 Antagonists from Scaffold Morphing Efforts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play important roles in the innate immune system. In fact, recognition of endogenous immune complexes containing self-nucleic acids as pathogen- or damage-associated molecular patterns contributes to certain autoimmune diseases, and inhibition of these recognition signals is expected to have therapeutic value. We identified dihydropyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines as novel selective TLR9 antagonists with high aqueous solubility. A structure–activity relationship study of a known TLR9 antagonist led to the promising compound 18, which showed potent TLR9 antagonistic activity, sufficient aqueous solubility for parenteral formulation, and druggable properties. Compound 18 suppressed the production of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 in CpG-induced mouse model. It is therefore believed that compound 18 has great potential in the treatment of TLR9-mediated systemic uncontrollable inflammatory response like sepsis. PMID:25408837

  17. Antidepressant-like effects of the novel kappa opioid antagonist MCL-144B in the forced-swim test.

    PubMed

    Reindl, J D; Rowan, K; Carey, A N; Peng, X; Neumeyer, J L; McLaughlin, J P

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that kappa opioid receptor (KOR) antagonists reduce stress- and depression-like behaviors. We hypothesized that administration of a novel opioid mixed agonist/antagonist capable of antagonist activity at the KOR would attenuate forced-swim stress (FSS)-induced immobility, an animal model of depression-like behavior. C57Bl/6J mice were exposed to antinociceptive and repeated FSS testing after pretreatment with a graded dose of a novel bivalent morphinan compound, bis(N-cyclobutylmethylmorphinan-3-yl) sebacoylate dihydrochloride (MCL-144B). MCL-144B demonstrated dose- and time-dependent antinociception and KOR-mediated antagonism. In support of the hypothesis, pretreatment with MCL-144B dose-dependently attenuated stress-induced antinociception and immobility in the forced-swim test.

  18. Antagonistic functional duality of cancer genes.

    PubMed

    Stepanenko, A A; Vassetzky, Y S; Kavsan, V M

    2013-10-25

    Cancer evolution is a stochastic process both at the genome and gene levels. Most of tumors contain multiple genetic subclones, evolving in either succession or in parallel, either in a linear or branching manner, with heterogeneous genome and gene alterations, extensively rewired signaling networks, and addicted to multiple oncogenes easily switching with each other during cancer progression and medical intervention. Hundreds of discovered cancer genes are classified according to whether they function in a dominant (oncogenes) or recessive (tumor suppressor genes) manner in a cancer cell. However, there are many cancer "gene-chameleons", which behave distinctly in opposite way in the different experimental settings showing antagonistic duality. In contrast to the widely accepted view that mutant NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenases 1/2 (IDH1/2) and associated metabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (R)-enantiomer are intrinsically "the drivers" of tumourigenesis, mutant IDH1/2 inhibited, promoted or had no effect on cell proliferation, growth and tumorigenicity in diverse experiments. Similar behavior was evidenced for dozens of cancer genes. Gene function is dependent on genetic network, which is defined by the genome context. The overall changes in karyotype can result in alterations of the role and function of the same genes and pathways. The diverse cell lines and tumor samples have been used in experiments for proving gene tumor promoting/suppressive activity. They all display heterogeneous individual karyotypes and disturbed signaling networks. Consequently, the effect and function of gene under investigation can be opposite and versatile in cells with different genomes that may explain antagonistic duality of cancer genes and the cell type- or the cellular genetic/context-dependent response to the same protein. Antagonistic duality of cancer genes might contribute to failure of chemotherapy. Instructive examples of unexpected activity of cancer genes and

  19. Neuromuscular adaptations following antagonist resisted training.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Sasho J; Rannelli, Luke A; Yurchevich, Jordan J

    2010-01-01

    The purpose was to assess a novel form of strength training, antagonist resisted training (ART), with potential use in microgravity and athletic rehabilitation settings. ART uses the force from antagonist muscles, during cocontractions, as the source of resistance for the agonists. Strength and electromyography (EMG) measurements were recorded before and after a 6-week training program during which participants trained the left arm while the right arm served as a control. Training was designed so that the elbow extensors (antagonists) served as resistance for the elbow flexors (agonists). Elbow flexor and extensor strengths were measured during maximal isometric contractions with the elbow fixed at 90 degrees. EMG was recorded from the biceps brachii and lateral head of the triceps brachii during all strength tests. EMG was also recorded from both muscles during a maximal isometric cocontraction of the elbow flexors and extensors. Elbow flexion strength increased significantly for the trained arm (5.8%) relative to the control (0.5%) (p = 0.003). Elbow extension strength of the trained limb also increased significantly (8.5%) relative to the control (4.5%) (p = 0.029). Biceps and triceps EMG, during maximum strength tests, increased significantly for the trained arm (18.5 and 18.6%) relative to the control (0.5 and -5.2%) (p = 0.035 and p = 0.01). Biceps and triceps EMG, during maximum cocontraction tests, increased significantly for the trained arm (30.1 and 61.1%) relative to the control (9.2 and 1.1%) (p = 0.042 and p = 0.0005). ART was found to increase strength and therefore could be an effective form of resistance training. Because it requires no equipment, ART may be especially applicable in microgravity environments, which have space and weight constraints.

  20. Effects of GABA agonists and antagonists on temperature-sensitive neurones in the rat hypothalamus.

    PubMed Central

    Yakimova, K; Sann, H; Schmid, H A; Pierau, F K

    1996-01-01

    1. Extracellular recordings were obtained from 94 warm-sensitive, 6 cold-sensitive and 117 temperature-insensitive neurones in slices of the hypothalamic medial preoptic area of rats, to determine the effect of the GABAA agonist muscimol, the GABAA antagonist bicuculline, the GABAB agonist baclofen and the GABAB antagonist phaclofen on tonic activity and temperature sensitivity. 2. Muscimol and baclofen dose-dependently inhibited the tonic activity of 69% (36/52) and 97% (36/37) of the hypothalamic neurones, respectively, regardless of their type of thermosensitivity. In contrast, the GABAA antagonist bicuculline increased the tonic activity of the majority of neurones (58/83), while the GABAB antagonist phaclofen increased neuronal activity only in the high dose of 100 microM. 3. The temperature sensitivity of hypothalamic neurones was only changed by ligands of GABAB receptors, and this effect was restricted to warm-sensitive neurones. The temperature coefficient (TC) was significantly increased by the GABAB agonist baclofen (delta TC = 0.69 +/- 0.11 imp s-1 degree C-1, P < 0.01, n = 18). In contrast, the GABAB antagonist phaclofen (10 microM) decreased the temperature sensitivity (delta TC = -0.67 +/- 0.09 imp s-1 degree C-1, P < 0.01, n = 10) in doses which did not affect tonic activity. 4. The increase in temperature sensitivity due to the GABAB agonist baclofen was significantly enhanced by co-perfusion of the GABAA antagonist bicuculline, indicating an interaction of GABAA and GABAB receptor-mediated mechanisms with regard to neuronal thermosensitivity. 5. The results suggest that neurones in the medical preoptic area are subject to GABA-mediated tonic inhibition resulting in modulation of tonic activity and temperature sensitivity of warm-sensitive neurones possibly involved in the control of body temperature. The data support the hypothesis that the hypo- or hyperthermic action of an endogenous substance is related to its effect on the thermosensitivity

  1. Agonists and antagonists for P2 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Costanzi, Stefano; Joshi, Bhalchandra V.; Besada, Pedro; Shin, Dae Hong; Ko, Hyojin; Ivanov, Andrei A.; Mamedova, Liaman

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has identified nucleotide agonists selective for P2Y1, P2Y2 and P2Y6 receptors and nucleotide antagonists selective for P2Y1, P2Y12 and P2X1 receptors. Selective non-nucleotide antagonists have been reported for P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y6, P2Y12, P2Y13, P2X2/3/P2X3 and P2X7 receptors. For example, the dinucleotide INS 37217 (Up4dC) potently activates the P2Y2 receptor, and the non-nucleotide antagonist A-317491 is selective for P2X2/3/P2X3 receptors. Nucleotide analogues in which the ribose moiety is substituted by a variety of novel ring systems, including conformation-ally locked moieties, have been synthesized as ligands for P2Y receptors. The focus on conformational factors of the ribose-like moiety allows the inclusion of general modifications that lead to enhanced potency and selectivity. At P2Y1,2,4,11 receptors, there is a preference for the North conformation as indicated with (N)-methanocarba analogues. The P2Y1 antagonist MRS2500 inhibited ADP-induced human platelet aggregation with an IC50 of 0.95 nM. MRS2365, an (N)-methanocarba analogue of 2-MeSADP, displayed potency (EC50) of 0.4 nM at the P2Y1 receptor, with >10 000-fold selectivity in comparison to P2Y12 and P2Y13 receptors. At P2Y6 receptors there is a dramatic preference for the South conformation. Three-dimensional structures of P2Y receptors have been deduced from structure activity relationships (SAR), mutagenesis and modelling studies. Detailed three-dimensional structures of P2X receptors have not yet been proposed. PMID:16805423

  2. Muscarinic Receptor Antagonists: Effects on Pulmonary Function

    PubMed Central

    Buels, Kalmia S.

    2014-01-01

    In healthy lungs, muscarinic receptors control smooth muscle tone, mucus secretion, vasodilation, and inflammation. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma, cholinergic mechanisms contribute to increased bronchoconstriction and mucus secretion that limit airflow. This chapter reviews neuronal and nonneuronal sources of acetylcholine in the lung and the expression and role of M1, M2, and M3 muscarinic receptor subtypes in lung physiology. It also discusses the evidence for and against the role of parasympathetic nerves in asthma, and the current use and therapeutic potential of muscarinic receptor antagonists in COPD and asthma. PMID:22222705

  3. Azetidinones as Vasopressin V1a Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Guillon, Christophe D.; Koppel, Gary A.; Brownstein, Michael J.; Chaney, Michael O.; Ferris, Craig F.; Lu, Shi-fang; Fabio, Karine M.; Miller, Marvin J.; Heindel, Ned D.; Hunden, David C.; Cooper, Robin D. G.; Kaldor, Stephen W.; Skelton, Jeffrey J.; Dressman, Bruce A.; Clay, Michael P.; Steinberg, Mitchell I.; Bruns, Robert F.; Simon, Neal G.

    2007-01-01

    The azetidinone LY307174 (1) was identified as a screening lead for the vasopressin V1a receptor (IC50 45 nM at the human V1a receptor) based on molecular similarity to ketoconazole (2), a known antagonist of the luteinizing hormone releasing hormone receptor. Structure-activity relationships for the series were explored to optimize receptor affinity and pharmacokinetic properties, resulting in compounds with Ki values < 1 nM and brain levels after oral dosing ~100-fold higher than receptor affinities. PMID:17234419

  4. Endothelin antagonists: new bullets against lung injury?

    PubMed

    Leeman, Marc

    2005-06-01

    Acute lung injury is a syndrome of inflammation and of increased permeability of the blood-gas barrier. Endothelins are thought to exert proinflammatory effects. Kuklin and colleagues show that the endothelin receptor antagonist tezosentan reduces pulmonary edema in endotoxemic sheep, in parallel with a prevention of protein kinase C-alpha activation. In turn, the level of some cytokines increased after tezosentan treatment. Whether these contrasting effects of endothelin blockade on inflammatory mechanisms have clinical relevance and whether these agents might benefit patients with acute lung injury is unknown.

  5. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and endothelial function

    PubMed Central

    Maron, Bradley A.; Leopold, Jane A.

    2010-01-01

    Hyperaldosteronism has been associated with endothelial dysfunction and impaired vascular reactivity in patients with hypertension or congestive heart failure. The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists spironolactone and eplerenone have been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality, in part, by ameliorating the adverse effects of aldosterone on vascular function. Although spironolactone and eplerenone are increasingly utilized in patients with cardiovascular disease, widespread clinical use is limited by the development of gynecomastia with spironolactone and hyperkalemia with both agents. This suggests that the development of newer agents with favorable side effect profiles is warranted. PMID:18729003

  6. Activity of androgen receptor antagonist bicalutamide in prostate cancer cells is independent of NCoR and SMRT corepressors.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Myles C; Astapova, Inna; Hollenberg, Anthony N; Balk, Steven P

    2007-09-01

    The mechanisms by which androgen receptor (AR) antagonists inhibit AR activity, and how their antagonist activity may be abrogated in prostate cancer that progresses after androgen deprivation therapy, are not clear. Recent studies show that AR antagonists (including the clinically used drug bicalutamide) can enhance AR recruitment of corepressor proteins [nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR) and silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid receptors (SMRT)] and that loss of corepressors may enhance agonist activity and be a mechanism of antagonist failure. We first show that the agonist activities of weak androgens and an AR antagonist (cyproterone acetate) are still dependent on the AR NH(2)/COOH-terminal interaction and are enhanced by steroid receptor coactivator (SRC)-1, whereas the bicalutamide-liganded AR did not undergo a detectable NH(2)/COOH-terminal interaction and was not coactivated by SRC-1. However, both the isolated AR NH(2) terminus and the bicalutamide-liganded AR could interact with the SRC-1 glutamine-rich domain that mediates AR NH(2)-terminal binding. To determine whether bicalutamide agonist activity was being suppressed by NCoR recruitment, we used small interfering RNA to deplete NCoR in CV1 cells and both NCoR and SMRT in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Depletion of these corepressors enhanced dihydrotestosterone-stimulated AR activity on a reporter gene and on the endogenous AR-regulated PSA gene in LNCaP cells but did not reveal any detectable bicalutamide agonist activity. Taken together, these results indicate that bicalutamide lacks agonist activity and functions as an AR antagonist due to ineffective recruitment of coactivator proteins and that enhanced coactivator recruitment, rather than loss of corepressors, may be a mechanism contributing to bicalutamide resistance.

  7. PPARα/γ antagonists reverse the ameliorative effects of osthole on hepatic lipid metabolism and inflammatory response in steatohepatitic rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xi; Wang, Feng; Zhou, Ruijun; Zhu, Zengyan; Xie, Meilin

    2017-02-25

    Our previous studies have indicated that osthole may ameliorate the hepatic lipid metabolism and inflammatory response in nonalcoholic steatohepatitic rats, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study aimed to determine whether the effects of osthole were mediated by the activation of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α/γ (PPARα/γ). A rat model with steatohepatitis was induced by orally feeding high-fat and high-sucrose emulsion for 6 weeks. These experimental rats were then treated with osthole (20 mg/kg), PPARα antagonist MK886 (1 mg/kg) plus osthole (20 mg/kg), PPARγ antagonist GW9662 (1 mg/kg) plus osthole (20 mg/kg) and MK886 (1 mg/kg) plus GW9662 (1 mg/kg) plus osthole (20 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. The results showed that after osthole treatment, the hepatic triglycerides, free fatty acids, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8 and liver index decreased by 52.3, 31.0, 32.4, 28.9, 36.3, 29.3 and 29.9%, respectively, and the score of steatohepatitis also decreased by 70.0%, indicating that osthole improved the hepatic steatosis and inflammation. However, these effects of osthole were reduced or abrogated after simultaneous addition of the specific PPARα antagonist MK886 or/and the PPARγ antagonist GW9662, especially in the co-PPARα/γ antagonists-treated group. Importantly, the osthole-induced hepatic expressions of PPARα/γ proteins were decreased, and the osthole-regulated hepatic expressions of lipogenic and inflammatory gene proteins were also reversed by PPARα/γ antagonist treatment. These findings demonstrated that the ameliorative effect of osthole on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis was mediated by PPARα/γ activation, and osthole might be a natural dual PPARα/γ activator.

  8. Non-peptidic CRF1 receptor antagonists for the treatment of anxiety, depression and stress disorders.

    PubMed

    Kehne, J; De Lombaert, S

    2002-10-01

    Anxiety and depression are psychiatric disorders that constitute a major health concern worldwide, and new pharmacological approaches with the potential for improved efficacy and decreased side effect profiles relative to currently marketed drugs are desired. Since the identification of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) by Vale and colleagues in 1981, an extensive research effort has solidified the importance of this 41 amino acid peptide in mediating the body's behavioral, endocrine, and autonomic responses to stress. The further identification of CRF receptor subtypes has provided compelling targets for novel pharmaceutical agents. The present review focuses on the potential of non-peptidic antagonists of the CRF(1) receptor subtype as a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of anxiety and depression. The first section reviews preclinical and clinical evidence implicating CRF, in general, and CRF(1) receptors, in particular, in anxiety and depression. Clinical studies have demonstrated a dysfunctional hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and/or elevated CRF levels in depression and in some anxiety disorders. Preclinical data utlilizing correlational methods, genetic models, and exogenous CRF administration techniques in rodents and non-human primates supports a link between hyperactive CRF pathways and anxiogenic and depressive-like symptoms. Studies employing the use of receptor knockouts and selective, non-peptidic antagonists of the CRF(1) receptor have demonstrated anxiolytic and antidepressant effects under certain types of laboratory conditions. A Phase II, open-label, clinical trial in major depressive disorder has reported that a CRF(1) receptor antagonist was safe and effective in reducing symptoms of anxiety and depression. In the second section, a topological approach is used to describe the design strategies employed to produce potent, non-peptidic CRF(1) receptor antagonists. Two main topologies, featuring a center core, a top side

  9. Inhibition of Ebola and Marburg Virus Entry by G Protein-Coupled Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Han; Lear-Rooney, Calli M.; Johansen, Lisa; Varhegyi, Elizabeth; Chen, Zheng W.; Olinger, Gene G.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Filoviruses, consisting of Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV), are among the most lethal infectious threats to mankind. Infections by these viruses can cause severe hemorrhagic fevers in humans and nonhuman primates with high mortality rates. Since there is currently no vaccine or antiviral therapy approved for humans, there is an urgent need to develop prophylactic and therapeutic options for use during filoviral outbreaks and bioterrorist attacks. One of the ideal targets against filoviral infection and diseases is at the entry step, which is mediated by the filoviral glycoprotein (GP). In this report, we screened a chemical library of small molecules and identified numerous inhibitors, which are known G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) antagonists targeting different GPCRs, including histamine receptors, 5-HT (serotonin) receptors, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, and adrenergic receptor. These inhibitors can effectively block replication of both infectious EBOV and MARV, indicating a broad antiviral activity of the GPCR antagonists. The time-of-addition experiment and microscopic studies suggest that GPCR antagonists block filoviral entry at a step following the initial attachment but prior to viral/cell membrane fusion. These results strongly suggest that GPCRs play a critical role in filoviral entry and GPCR antagonists can be developed as an effective anti-EBOV/MARV therapy. IMPORTANCE Infection of Ebola virus and Marburg virus can cause severe illness in humans with a high mortality rate, and currently there is no FDA-approved vaccine or therapeutic treatment available. The 2013-2015 epidemic in West Africa underscores a lack of our understanding in the infection and pathogenesis of these viruses and the urgency of drug discovery and development. In this study, we have identified numerous inhibitors that are known G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) antagonists targeting different GPCRs. These inhibitors can effectively block replication of

  10. Comparison of the effects of the M1-receptor antagonist telenzepine and the CCK-receptor antagonist loxiglumide on the pancreatic secretory response to intraduodenal tryptophan in dogs.

    PubMed

    Teyssen, S; Niebergall-Roth, E; Rausch, A; Beglinger, C; Riepl, R L; Chari, S; Singer, M V

    1996-11-01

    In six conscious dogs with chronic gastric and pancreatic fistulas we compared the action of different doses (20.25 to 81.0 nmol/kg/h) of the muscarinic M1-receptor antagonist telenzepine, the cholecystokinin (CCK) antagonist loxiglumide (2.5 to 10.0 mg/kg/h) and several combinations of both drugs on the pancreatic secretory response to intraduodenal perfusion of graded loads of tryptophan (0.37-10.0 mmol/h) given against a background of secretin (20.5 pmol/kg/h i.v.). Except for 20.25 nmol/kg/h telenzepine, all tested doses of telenzepine and/or loxiglumide decreased the 180-min integrated bicarbonate response to tryptophan by 55 to 119%. Except of 20.25 nmol/kg/h telenzepine and/or 2.5 mg/kg/h loxiglumide, all tested doses of telezepine and/or loxiglumide inhibited the tryptophan stimulated integrated pancreatic protein responses by 54 to 88%. While telenzepine mainly inhibited the bicarbonate and protein response to the lower loads of tryptophan (0.37-1.1 mmol/h), loxiglumide decreased the response to all loads of tryptophan. The inhibition evoked by the combinations of telenzepine and loxiglumide was not significantly greater than that by single infusion of either drug. The CCK plasma levels basally and in response to tryptophan were not significantly altered by telenzepine and/or loxiglumide. These findings indicate that (1) both enteropancreatic cholinergic reflexes and the hormone CCK are mediators of the protein response to intraduodenal trytophan (2) enteropancreatic cholinergic reflexes are probably the dominant mediators of the response to low amounts of tryptophan, whereas CCK is the major mediator of the response to high loads of tryptophan, (3) the two mediators seem to act independently of each other, and (4) the release of CCK by intestinal trytophan is not influenced by telenzepine or loxiglumide.

  11. Elucidating the `Jekyll and Hyde' Nature of PXR: The Case for Discovering Antagonists or Allosteric Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Arunima; Mani, Sridhar; Redinbo, Matthew R.; Krasowski, Matthew D.; Li, Hao; Ekins, Sean

    2010-01-01

    The pregnane X receptor belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily and is involved in the transcriptional control of numerous genes. It was originally thought that it was a xenobiotic sensor controlling detoxification pathways. Recent studies have shown an increasingly important role in inflammation and cancer, supporting its function in abrogating tissue damage. PXR orthologs and PXR-like pathways have been identified in several non-mammalian species which corroborate a conserved role for PXR in cellular detoxification. In summary, PXR has a multiplicity of roles in vivo and is being revealed as behaving like a “Jekyll and Hyde” nuclear hormone receptor. The importance of this review is to elucidate the need for discovery of antagonists of PXR to further probe its biology and therapeutic applications. Although several PXR agonists are already reported, virtually nothing is known about PXR antagonists. Here, we propose the development of PXR antagonists through chemical, genetic and molecular modeling approaches. Based on this review it will be clear that antagonists of PXR and PXR-like pathways will have widespread utility in PXR biology and therapeutics. PMID:19415465

  12. IAP antagonists induce anti-tumor immunity in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Chesi, Marta; Mirza, Noweeda N.; Garbitt, Victoria M.; Sharik, Meaghen E.; Dueck, Amylou C.; Asmann, Yan W.; Akhmetzyanova, Ilseyar; Kosiorek, Heidi E.; Calcinotto, Arianna; Riggs, Daniel L.; Keane, Niamh; Ahmann, Greg J.; Morrison, Kevin M.; Fonseca, Rafael; Lacy, Martha Q.; Dingli, David; Kumar, Shaji K.; Ailawadhi, Sikander; Dispenzieri, Angela; Buadi, Francis; Gertz, Morie A.; Reeder, Craig B.; Lin, Yi; Chanan-Khan, Asher Alban; Stewart, A. Keith; Fooksman, David; Bergsagel, P. Leif

    2017-01-01

    The cellular inhibitor of apoptosis cIAP1 and −2 are amplified in about 3% of cancers, and were identified in multiple malignancies as potential therapeutic targets due to their role in evasion of apoptosis. Consequently, small molecule IAP antagonists, like LCL161, have entered clinical trials for their ability to induce TNF-mediated apoptosis of cancer cells. However, cIAP1 and −2 are recurrently homozygously deleted in multiple myeloma resulting in constitutive activation of the non-canonical NFkB pathway. It was therefore counterintuitive to observe a robust in vivo anti-myeloma activity of LCL161 in a transgenic myeloma mouse model and patients with relapsed-refractory myeloma, where addition of cyclophosphamide resulted in a median progression free survival of 10 months. This effect is not due to direct induction of tumor cell death, but rather to upregulation of a tumor cell autonomous type I interferon signaling and a strong inflammatory response with activation of macrophages and dendritic cells resulting in phagocytosis of tumor cells. Treatment with LCL161 established long-term anti-tumor protection and cure in a fraction of transgenic Vk*MYC mice. Remarkably, combination of LCL161 with the immune-checkpoint inhibitor anti-PD1 was curative in all treated mice. PMID:27841872

  13. Therapeutic potential of growth factors and their antagonists.

    PubMed Central

    Garner, A.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes studies with four peptides, epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha), gastrin-releasing peptide/bombesin (GRP), and gastrin. The mitogenic and anti-secretory activities of EGF/TGF alpha appear to be mediated by a single class of high-affinity membrane receptors but may involve different signal transducing mechanisms. Biological activity of EGF resides in the N-terminal 42 amino acid fragment with the C-terminal undecapeptide determining binding affinity. A parenteral depot formulation of an EGF-related peptide or a small molecule agonist of the EGF receptor could have utility in treating various ulcerative disorders of the gut. Although antagonism of EGF (and thus TGF alpha) receptors and/or transducing mechanisms is frequently cited as a potential therapeutic approach to hyperproliferative diseases, blocking the action of TGF alpha, GRP, or gastrin with neutralizing antibodies or receptor antagonists did not influence the growth of a wide range of solid tumors in nude mice. These findings suggest that, unless tumor growth displays absolute dependency on one particular mitogen, antagonism of a specific growth factor is unlikely to have great effect in cancer therapy. PMID:1341074

  14. Histamine and histamine receptor antagonists in cancer biology.

    PubMed

    Blaya, Bruno; Nicolau-Galmés, Francesca; Jangi, Shawkat M; Ortega-Martínez, Idoia; Alonso-Tejerina, Erika; Burgos-Bretones, Juan; Pérez-Yarza, Gorka; Asumendi, Aintzane; Boyano, María D

    2010-07-01

    Histamine has been demonstrated to be involved in cell proliferation, embryonic development, and tumour growth. These various biological effects are mediated through the activation of specific histamine receptors (H1, H2, H3, and H4) that differ in their tissue expression patterns and functions. Although many in vitro and in vivo studies of the modulatory roles of histamine in tumour development and metastasis have been reported, the effect of histamine in the progression of some types of tumours remains controversial; however, recent findings on the role of histamine in the immune system have shed new light on this question. This review focuses on the recent advances in understanding the roles of histamine and its receptors in tumour biology. We report our recent observations of the anti-tumoural effect of H1 histamine antagonists on experimental and human melanomas. We have found that in spite of exogenous histamine stimulated human melanoma cell proliferation, clonogenic ability and migration activity in a dose-dependent manner, the melanoma tumour growth was not modulated by in vivo histamine treatment. On the contrary, terfenadine-treatment in vitro induced melanoma cell death by apoptosis and in vivo terfenadine treatment significantly inhibited tumour growth in murine models. These observations increase our understanding of cancer biology and may inspire novel anticancer therapeutic strategies.

  15. Inhibition of radiation-induced polyuria by histamine receptor antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Donlon, M.A.; Melia, J.A.; Helgeson, E.A.; Wolfe, W.W.

    1986-03-01

    In previous studies the authors have demonstrated that gamma radiation results in polyuria, which is preceded by polydypsia. This suggests that the increased thirst elicited by radiation causes increased urinary volume (UV). Histamine, which is released following radiation exposure, also elicits drinking by nonirradiated rats when administered exogenously. In this study the authors have investigated both the role of water deprivation and the effect of histamine receptor antagonists (HRA) on radiation-induced polyuria. Sprague-Dawley rats were housed individually in metabolic cages. Water was allowed ad libitum except in deprivation experiments where water was removed for 24 hr immediately following radiation. Cimetidine (CIM), an H2 HRA, and dexbromopheniramine (DXB), an H1 HRA, were administered i.p. (16 and 1 mg/kg, respectively) 30 min prior to irradiation (950 rads from a cobalt source). UV was determined at 24-hr intervals for 3 days preceding irradiation and 24 hr postirradiation. UV in DXB treated rats was significantly reduced 24 hr postirradiation (CON = 427 +/- 54%; DXB = 247 +/- 39% of preirradiated CON) compared to postirradiation control values. CIM did not affect postirradiation UV. These data suggest that radiation-induced polyuria is caused by polydypsia which is, in part, mediated by histamine induced by an H1 receptor.

  16. A new class of NO-donor H3-antagonists.

    PubMed

    Tosco, Paolo; Bertinaria, Massimo; Di Stilo, Antonella; Marini, Elisabetta; Rolando, Barbara; Sorba, Giovanni; Fruttero, Roberta; Gasco, Alberto

    2004-05-01

    Synthesis and pharmacological characterisation of a series of compounds obtained by joining, through appropriate spacers, NO-donor furoxan and nitrooxy moieties to the imidazole ring, as well as their structurally related analogues devoid of NO-donating properties are described. All the products were studied for their capacity to interact with H3-receptors present on the guinea-pig ileum and with H2-receptors present on guinea-pig right atrium. The whole series of products displayed reversible H3-antagonistic activity. No activity on H2-receptors was observed when the products were tested at 10 microM concentration. Many of the products were also able to induce partial relaxation when added to the bath after electrical contraction of the guinea-pig ileum during the study of their H3-antagonism. This phenomenon seems to be dependent on various factors; for some compounds it proved to be dependent on NO-mediated sGC activation, for other products it could be due to their weak M3-antagonism. The investigation of the lipophilic-hydrophilic balance of all the products indicates, for many of them, an ideal value to cross the blood-brain barrier.

  17. Sexually Antagonistic Selection in Human Male Homosexuality

    PubMed Central

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Cermelli, Paolo; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate the existence of genetic factors influencing male homosexuality and bisexuality. In spite of its relatively low frequency, the stable permanence in all human populations of this apparently detrimental trait constitutes a puzzling ‘Darwinian paradox’. Furthermore, several studies have pointed out relevant asymmetries in the distribution of both male homosexuality and of female fecundity in the parental lines of homosexual vs. heterosexual males. A number of hypotheses have attempted to give an evolutionary explanation for the long-standing persistence of this trait, and for its asymmetric distribution in family lines; however a satisfactory understanding of the population genetics of male homosexuality is lacking at present. We perform a systematic mathematical analysis of the propagation and equilibrium of the putative genetic factors for male homosexuality in the population, based on the selection equation for one or two diallelic loci and Bayesian statistics for pedigree investigation. We show that only the two-locus genetic model with at least one locus on the X chromosome, and in which gene expression is sexually antagonistic (increasing female fitness but decreasing male fitness), accounts for all known empirical data. Our results help clarify the basic evolutionary dynamics of male homosexuality, establishing this as a clearly ascertained sexually antagonistic human trait. PMID:18560521

  18. Sexually antagonistic selection in human male homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Cermelli, Paolo; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2008-06-18

    Several lines of evidence indicate the existence of genetic factors influencing male homosexuality and bisexuality. In spite of its relatively low frequency, the stable permanence in all human populations of this apparently detrimental trait constitutes a puzzling 'Darwinian paradox'. Furthermore, several studies have pointed out relevant asymmetries in the distribution of both male homosexuality and of female fecundity in the parental lines of homosexual vs. heterosexual males. A number of hypotheses have attempted to give an evolutionary explanation for the long-standing persistence of this trait, and for its asymmetric distribution in family lines; however a satisfactory understanding of the population genetics of male homosexuality is lacking at present. We perform a systematic mathematical analysis of the propagation and equilibrium of the putative genetic factors for male homosexuality in the population, based on the selection equation for one or two diallelic loci and Bayesian statistics for pedigree investigation. We show that only the two-locus genetic model with at least one locus on the X chromosome, and in which gene expression is sexually antagonistic (increasing female fitness but decreasing male fitness), accounts for all known empirical data. Our results help clarify the basic evolutionary dynamics of male homosexuality, establishing this as a clearly ascertained sexually antagonistic human trait.

  19. D-Cycloserine: Agonist turned antagonist.

    PubMed

    Lanthorn, T H

    1994-10-01

    D-Cycloserine can enhance activation of the NMDA receptor complex and could enhance the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP). In animals and humans, D-cycloserine can enhance performance in learning and memory tasks. This enhancing effect can disappear during repeated administration. The enhancing effects are also lost when higher doses are used, and replaced by behavioral and biochemical effects like those produced by NMDA antagonists. It has been reported that NMDA agonists, applied before or after tetanic stimulation, can block the induction of LTP. This may be the result of feedback inhibition of second messenger pathways stimulated by receptor activation. This may explain the antagonist-like effects of glycine partial agonists like D-cycloserine. In clinical trials of D-cycloserine in age-associated memory impairment (AAMI) and Alzheimer's disease, chronic treatment provided few positive effects on learning and memory. This may be due to inhibition of second messenger pathways following chronic stimulation of the receptor complex.

  20. Hypocretin antagonists in insomnia treatment and beyond.

    PubMed

    Ruoff, Chad; Cao, Michelle; Guilleminault, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Hypocretin neuropeptides have been shown to regulate transitions between wakefulness and sleep through stabilization of sleep promoting GABAergic and wake promoting cholinergic/monoaminergic neural pathways. Hypocretin also influences other physiologic processes such as metabolism, appetite, learning and memory, reward and addiction, and ventilatory drive. The discovery of hypocretin and its effect upon the sleep-wake cycle has led to the development of a new class of pharmacologic agents that antagonize the physiologic effects of hypocretin (i.e. hypocretin antagonists). Further investigation of these agents may lead to novel therapies for insomnia without the side-effect profile of currently available hypnotics (e.g. impaired cognition, confusional arousals, and motor balance difficulties). However, antagonizing a system that regulates the sleep-wake cycle while also influencing non-sleep physiologic processes may create an entirely different but equally concerning side-effect profile such as transient loss of muscle tone (i.e. cataplexy) and a dampened respiratory drive. In this review, we will discuss the discovery of hypocretin and its receptors, hypocretin and the sleep-wake cycle, hypocretin antagonists in the treatment of insomnia, and other implicated functions of the hypocretin system.

  1. The antiatherogenic potential of calcium antagonists.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, D B

    1988-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is an arterial disease characterized by focal accumulation of collagen, elastin, lipids, and calcium at sites associated with macrophage infiltration and altered smooth muscle metabolic function. Studies in several types of animal models, especially cholesterol-fed rabbits, have shown that calcium competitors, calcium chelators, anticalcifying agents, and calcium channel blockers can reduce the accumulation of atherogenic lesion components and thus apparently decrease the progression of lesions. Although there are some conflicting data in the animal model studies using calcium channel antagonists, as a result of differences in experimental designs, it is now apparent that several classes of calcium channel blockers inhibit the progression of early arterial lesions induced by cholesterol feeding. The dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers appear to be more potent antiatherosclerotic agents than other classes of calcium channel antagonists. Several mechanisms involving regulation of endothelial cell, smooth muscle cell, and macrophage metabolic functions may be responsible for the calcium channel blocker effects on early lesion progression. For example, recent studies in cell culture model systems suggest that calcium channel blockers may significantly alter activities that regulate lipoprotein-derived cholesterol accumulation by cells. Some of these activities are independent of calcium flux across voltage-operated calcium channels. Thus, calcium channel blockers may reduce the progression of atherogenic lesions by a combination of decreasing calcium accumulation within arterial wall cells and by altering calcium-independent metabolic activities.

  2. Zebrafish phenotypic screen identifies novel Notch antagonists.

    PubMed

    Velaithan, Vithya; Okuda, Kazuhide Shaun; Ng, Mei Fong; Samat, Norazwana; Leong, Sze Wei; Faudzi, Siti Munirah Mohd; Abas, Faridah; Shaari, Khozirah; Cheong, Sok Ching; Tan, Pei Jean; Patel, Vyomesh

    2017-04-01

    Zebrafish represents a powerful in vivo model for phenotype-based drug discovery to identify clinically relevant small molecules. By utilizing this model, we evaluated natural product derived compounds that could potentially modulate Notch signaling that is important in both zebrafish embryogenesis and pathogenic in human cancers. A total of 234 compounds were screened using zebrafish embryos and 3 were identified to be conferring phenotypic alterations similar to embryos treated with known Notch inhibitors. Subsequent secondary screens using HEK293T cells overexpressing truncated Notch1 (HEK293TΔE) identified 2 compounds, EDD3 and 3H4MB, to be potential Notch antagonists. Both compounds reduced protein expression of NOTCH1, Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and hairy and enhancer of split-1 (HES1) in HEK293TΔE and downregulated Notch target genes. Importantly, EDD3 treatment of human oral cancer cell lines demonstrated reduction of Notch target proteins and genes. EDD3 also inhibited proliferation and induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest of ORL-150 cells through inducing p27(KIP1). Our data demonstrates the utility of the zebrafish phenotypic screen and identifying EDD3 as a promising Notch antagonist for further development as a novel therapeutic agent.

  3. Gender-dependent associations of CDKN2A/2B, KCNJ11, POLI, SLC30A8, and TCF7L2 variants with type 2 diabetes in (North African) Tunisian Arabs.

    PubMed

    Turki, Amira; Al-Zaben, Ghadeer S; Khirallah, Moncef; Marmouch, Hela; Mahjoub, Touhami; Almawi, Wassim Y

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the impact of gender on T2DM association with confirmed susceptibility loci. CDKN2A/2B rs10811661, KCNJ11 rs5219, and TCF7L2 rs7903146 were associated with T2DM in females, while POLI rs488846 was associated with T2DM among males; the association of SLC30A8 rs13266634 and TCF7L2 rs4506565, rs12243326, and rs12255372 with T2DM was gender-independent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Rational discovery of novel nuclear hormone receptor antagonists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schapira, Matthieu; Raaka, Bruce M.; Samuels, Herbert H.; Abagyan, Ruben

    2000-02-01

    Nuclear hormone receptors (NRs) are potential targets for therapeutic approaches to many clinical conditions, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological diseases. The crystal structure of the ligand binding domain of agonist-bound NRs enables the design of compounds with agonist activity. However, with the exception of the human estrogen receptor-, the lack of antagonist-bound "inactive" receptor structures hinders the rational design of receptor antagonists. In this study, we present a strategy for designing such antagonists. We constructed a model of the inactive conformation of human retinoic acid receptor- by using information derived from antagonist-bound estrogen receptor-α and applied a computer-based virtual screening algorithm to identify retinoic acid receptor antagonists. Thus, the currently available crystal structures of NRs may be used for the rational design of antagonists, which could lead to the development of novel drugs for a variety of diseases.

  5. Antioxidant effects of calcium antagonists in rat brain homogenates.

    PubMed

    Yao, K; Ina, Y; Nagashima, K; Ohmori, K; Ohno, T

    2000-06-01

    We studied the antioxidant activities of calcium antagonists against autoxidation in rat brain homogenates. The homogenates were incubated for 30 min at 37 degrees C with or without a calcium antagonist and subsequently assayed for lipid peroxide content. Percent inhibition of the lipid peroxidation was used as an index of the antioxidant effect. Dihydropyridine calcium antagonists exhibited concentration-dependent (3-300 micromol/l) inhibitory effects against lipid peroxidation. The relative order of antioxidant potency and associated IC50 values (micromol/l) of the calcium antagonists for inhibition of the lipid peroxidation were as follows: nifedipine (51.5)>barnidipine (58.6)>benidipine (71.2)>nicardipine (129.3)>amlodipine (135.5)>nilvadipine (167.3)>nitrendipine (252.1)> diltiazem (>300)=verapamil (>300). These results suggest that some dihydropyridine calcium antagonists show antioxidant properties. The antioxidant effects of the calcium antagonists may contribute to their pharmacological actions.

  6. Molecular Determinants of Species-Specific Agonist and Antagonist Activity of A Substituted Flavone towards the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Henry, E. C.; Gasiewicz, T. A.

    2008-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediates the toxicity of dioxins and related xenobiotics. Other chemicals also bind the AhR to elicit either agonist or antagonist responses. Here we used site-directed mutagenesis within the ligand binding domain of murine AhR to probe for specific residues that might interact differentially with the antagonist 3’-methoxy-4’-nitroflavone (MNF) compared with the prototypical agonist TCDD. Reduced 3 H-TCDD binding, dioxin-response element (DRE) binding, and transcriptional activity were observed for several point mutants. One mutation, R355I, changed the response to MNF from antagonist to agonist. Notably, Ile is the residue found in the guinea pig AhR, towards which MNF has partial agonist activity in contrast to its strong antagonist activity in mouse. A similar reversal of response to MNF was observed in chimeric AhRs in which the C-terminal region of mAhR was replaced with the guinea pig C-terminal region. These data demonstrate that different amino acids can be important in binding of different AhR ligands and can mediate distinct responses. The ultimate response of the AhR also depends on how other portions of the receptor protein are functionally coupled to the initial ligand binding event. PMID:18294953

  7. Molecular determinants of species-specific agonist and antagonist activity of a substituted flavone towards the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    PubMed

    Henry, E C; Gasiewicz, T A

    2008-04-15

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediates the toxicity of dioxins and related xenobiotics. Other chemicals also bind the AhR to elicit either agonist or antagonist responses. Here we used site-directed mutagenesis within the ligand binding domain of murine AhR to probe for specific residues that might interact differentially with the antagonist 3'-methoxy-4'-nitroflavone (MNF) compared with the prototypical agonist TCDD. Reduced (3)H-TCDD binding, dioxin-response element (DRE) binding, and transcriptional activity were observed for several point mutants. One mutation, R355I, changed the response to MNF from antagonist to agonist. Notably, Ile is the residue found in the guinea pig AhR, towards which MNF has partial agonist activity in contrast to its strong antagonist activity in mouse. A similar reversal of response to MNF was observed in chimeric AhRs in which the C-terminal region of mAhR was replaced with the guinea pig C-terminal region. These data demonstrate that different amino acids can be important in binding of different AhR ligands and can mediate distinct responses. The ultimate response of the AhR also depends on how other portions of the receptor protein are functionally coupled to the initial ligand binding event.

  8. Pharmacology of the inhibitory glycine receptor: agonist and antagonist actions of amino acids and piperidine carboxylic acid compounds.

    PubMed

    Schmieden, V; Betz, H

    1995-11-01

    To define structure-activity relations for ligands binding to the inhibitory glycine receptor (GlyR), the agonistic and antagonistic properties of alpha- and beta-amino acids were analyzed at the recombinant human alpha 1 GlyR expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The agonistic activity of alpha-amino acids exhibited a marked stereoselectivity and was highly susceptible to substitutions at the C alpha-atom. In contrast, alpha-amino acid antagonism was not enantiomer dependent and was influenced little by C alpha-atom substitutions. The beta-amino acids taurine, beta-aminobutyric acid (beta-ABA), and beta-aminoisobutyric acid (beta-AIBA) are partial agonists at the GlyR. Low concentrations of these compounds competitively inhibited glycine responses, whereas higher concentrations elicited a significant membrane current. Nipecotic acid, which contains a trans-beta-amino acid configuration, behaved as purely competitive GlyR antagonist. Our data are consistent with the existence of a common binding site for all amino acid agonists and antagonists, at which the functional consequences of binding depend on the particular conformation a given ligand adopts within the binding pocket. In the case of beta-amino acids, the trans conformation appears to mediate antagonistic receptor binding, and the cis conformation appears to mediate agonistic receptor binding. This led us to propose that the partial agonist activity of a given beta-amino acid is determined by the relative mole fractions of the respective cis/trans conformers.

  9. Phenylacetamides as selective alpha-1A adrenergic receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Patane, M A; DiPardo, R M; Newton, R C; Price, R P; Broten, T P; Chang, R S; Ransom, R W; Di Salvo, J; Nagarathnam, D; Forray, C; Gluchowski, C; Bock, M G

    2000-08-07

    A novel class of potent and selective alpha-1a receptor antagonists has been identified. The structures of these antagonists were derived from truncating the 4-aryl dihydropyridine subunit present in known alpha-1a antagonists. The design principles which led to the discovery of substituted phenylacetamides, the synthesis and SAR of key analogues, and the results of select in vitro and in vivo studies are described.

  10. Synthesis of actively adjustable springs by antagonistic redundant actuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, Byung-Ju; Freeman, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    A methodology for active spring generation is presented based on antagonistic redundant actuation. Antagonistic properties are characterized using an effective system stiffness. 'Antagonistic stiffness' is generated by preloading a closed-chain (parallel) linkage system. Internal load distribution is investigated along with the necessary conditions for spring synthesis. The performance and stability of a proposed active spring are shown by simulation, and applications are discussed.

  11. Cannabinoid receptor antagonists AM251 and AM630 activate TRPA1 in sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Mayur; Patwardhan, Amol; Salas, Margaux M.; Hargreaves, Kenneth M.; Akopian, Armen N.

    2011-01-01

    Cannabinoid receptor antagonists have been utilized extensively in vivo as well as in vitro, but their selectivity has not been fully examined. We investigated activation of sensory neurons by two cannabinoid antagonists – AM251 and AM630. AM251 and AM630 activated trigeminal (TG) sensory neurons in a concentration-dependent fashion (threshold 1 μM). AM251 and AM630 responses are mediated by the TRPA1 channel in a majority (90–95%) of small-to-medium TG sensory neurons. AM630 (1–100 μM), but not AM251, was a significantly more potent agonist in cells co-expressing both TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels. We next evaluated AM630 and AM251 effects on TRPV1- and TRPA1-mediated responses in TG neurons. Capsaicin (CAP) effects were inhibited by pre-treatment with AM630, but not AM251. Mustard oil (MO) and WIN55,212-2 (WIN) TRPA1 mediated responses were also inhibited by pre-treatment with AM630, but not AM251 (25uM each). Co-treatment of neurons with WIN and either AM630 or AM251 had opposite effects: AM630 sensitized WIN responses, whereas AM251 inhibited WIN responses. WIN-induced inhibition of CAP responses in sensory neurons was reversed by AM630 pre-treatment and AM251 co-treatment (25μM each), as these conditions inhibit WIN responses. Hindpaw injections of AM630 and AM251 did not produce nocifensive behaviors. However, both compounds modulated CAP-induced thermal hyperalgesia in wild-type mice and rats, but not TRPA1 null-mutant mice. AMs also partially regulate WIN inhibition of CAP-induced thermal hyperalgesia in a TRPA1-dependent fashion. In summary, these findings demonstrate alternative targets for the cannabinoid antagonists, AM251 and AM630, in peripheral antihyperalgesia which involve certain TRP channels. PMID:21645531

  12. Cannabinoid receptor antagonists AM251 and AM630 activate TRPA1 in sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Patil, Mayur; Patwardhan, Amol; Salas, Margaux M; Hargreaves, Kenneth M; Akopian, Armen N

    2011-09-01

    Cannabinoid receptor antagonists have been utilized extensively in vivo as well as in vitro, but their selectivity has not been fully examined. We investigated activation of sensory neurons by two cannabinoid antagonists - AM251 and AM630. AM251 and AM630 activated trigeminal (TG) sensory neurons in a concentration-dependent fashion (threshold 1 μM). AM251 and AM630 responses are mediated by the TRPA1 channel in a majority (90-95%) of small-to-medium TG sensory neurons. AM630 (1-100 μM), but not AM251, was a significantly more potent agonist in cells co-expressing both TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels. We next evaluated AM630 and AM251 effects on TRPV1- and TRPA1-mediated responses in TG neurons. Capsaicin (CAP) effects were inhibited by pre-treatment with AM630, but not AM251. Mustard oil (MO) and WIN55,212-2 (WIN) TRPA1 mediated responses were also inhibited by pre-treatment with AM630, but not AM251 (25 uM each). Co-treatment of neurons with WIN and either AM630 or AM251 had opposite effects: AM630 sensitized WIN responses, whereas AM251 inhibited WIN responses. WIN-induced inhibition of CAP responses in sensory neurons was reversed by AM630 pre-treatment and AM251 co-treatment (25 μM each), as these conditions inhibit WIN responses. Hindpaw injections of AM630 and AM251 did not produce nocifensive behaviors. However, both compounds modulated CAP-induced thermal hyperalgesia in wild-type mice and rats, but not TRPA1 null-mutant mice. AMs also partially regulate WIN inhibition of CAP-induced thermal hyperalgesia in a TRPA1-dependent fashion. In summary, these findings demonstrate alternative targets for the cannabinoid antagonists, AM251 and AM630, in peripheral antihyperalgesia which involve certain TRP channels.

  13. NF449: a subnanomolar potency antagonist at recombinant rat P2X1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Braun, K; Rettinger, J; Ganso, M; Kassack, M; Hildebrandt, C; Ullmann, H; Nickel, P; Schmalzing, G; Lambrecht, G

    2001-09-01

    Antagonistic effects of the novel suramin analogue 4,4',4",4"'-(carbonylbis(imino-5,1,3-benzenetriylbis(carbonylimino)))tetrakis-benzene-1,3-disulfonic acid (NF449) were studied on contractions of the rat vas deferens elicited by alpha,beta-methylene ATP (alphabetameATP; mediated by P2X1 receptors), contractions of the guinea-pig ileal longitudinal smooth muscle elicited by alphabetameATP (mediated by P2X3 receptors) or adenosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) (ADPbetaS; mediated by P2Y1 receptors), ATP-induced increases of [Ca2+]i in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells (mediated by P2Y2 receptors), inward currents evoked by ATP in follicle cell-free Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing rP2X1 or rP2X3 receptors and degradation of ATP by ecto-nucleotidases in folliculated Xenopus laevis oocytes. In addition, NF449 was examined for its P2 receptor specificity in rat vas deferens (alpha1A-adrenoceptors) and guinea-pig ileum (histamine H1 and muscarinic M3 receptors). At native (pIC50=7.15) and recombinant (pIC50=9.54) P2X1 receptors, NF449 was a highly potent antagonist. The P2X3 receptors present in guinea-pig ileum (pIC50=5.04) or expressed in oocytes (pIC50 approximately 5.6) were much less sensitive for NF449. It also was a very weak antagonist at P2Y1 receptors in guinea-pig ileum (pIC50=4.85) and P2Y2 receptors in HEK 293 cells (pIC50=3.86), and showed very low inhibitory potency on ecto-nucleotidases (pIC50<3.5). NF449 (100 microM) did not interact with alpha1A-adrenoceptors or histamine H1 and muscarinic M3 receptors. Thus, the antagonism by NF449 is highly specific for P2 receptors. In conclusion, the subnanomolar potency at rP2X1 receptors and the rank order of potency, P2X1 > P2X3 > P2Y1 > P2Y2 > ecto-nucleotidases, make NF449 unique among the P2 receptor antagonists reported to date. NF449 may fill the long-standing need for a P2X1-selective radioligand.

  14. Inhibition of Morphine Tolerance and Dependence by the NMDA Receptor Antagonist MK-801

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, Keith A.; Akil, Huda

    1991-01-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of the glutamate receptor is an important mediator of several forms of neural and behavioral plasticity. The present studies examined whether NMDA receptors might be involved in the development of opiate tolerance and dependence, two examples of behavioral plasticity. The noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 attenuated the development of tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine without affecting acute morphine analgesia. In addition, MK-801 attenuated the development of morphine dependence as assessed by naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. These results suggest that NMDA receptors may be important in the development of opiate tolerance and dependence.

  15. Unusual pyrimidine participation: efficient stereoselective synthesis of potent dual orexin receptor antagonist MK-6096.

    PubMed

    Chung, John Y L; Zhong, Yong-Li; Maloney, Kevin M; Reamer, Robert A; Moore, Jeffrey C; Strotman, Hallena; Kalinin, Alexei; Feng, Ronnie; Strotman, Neil A; Xiang, Bangping; Yasuda, Nobuyoshi

    2014-11-21

    An asymmetric synthesis of dual orexin receptor antagonist MK-6096 (1) is described. Key steps for the trans-2,5-disubstituted piperidinyl ether fragment include a biocatalytic transamination, a trans-selective Mukaiyama aldol, and a regioselective pyridyl SNAr process. The pyrimidyl benzoic acid was synthesized via a Negishi coupling and a nitrile hydrolysis. Coupling of the two fragments via a catalytic T3P-mediated amidation completed the synthesis. Unusual behaviors in the hydrolysis of pyrimidyl benzonitrile and the amide coupling of the pyrimidyl benzoic acid are also described.

  16. Design and optimization of quinazoline derivatives as melanin concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCHR1) antagonists.

    PubMed

    Sasmal, Sanjita; Balaji, Gade; Kanna Reddy, Hariprasada R; Balasubrahmanyam, D; Srinivas, Gujjary; Kyasa, Shivakumar; Sasmal, Pradip K; Khanna, Ish; Talwar, Rashmi; Suresh, J; Jadhav, Vikram P; Muzeeb, Syed; Shashikumar, Dhanya; Harinder Reddy, K; Sebastian, V J; Frimurer, Thomas M; Rist, Øystein; Elster, Lisbeth; Högberg, Thomas

    2012-05-01

    Melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) is an important mediator of energy homeostasis and plays a role in metabolic and CNS disorders. The modeling-supported design, synthesis and multi-parameter optimization (biological activity, solubility, metabolic stability, hERG) of novel quinazoline derivatives as MCHR1 antagonists are described. The in vivo proof of principle for weight loss with a lead compound from this series is exemplified. Clusters of refined hMCHR1 homology models derived from the X-ray structure of the β2-adrenergic receptor, including extracellular loops, were developed and used to guide the design.

  17. Synthesis of benzopolycyclic cage amines: NMDA receptor antagonist, trypanocidal and antiviral activities

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Eva; Duque, María D.; López-Querol, Marta; Taylor, Martin C.; Naesens, Lieve; Ma, Chunlong; Pinto, Lawrence H.; Sureda, Francesc X.; Kelly, John M.; Vázquez, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of several 6,7,8,9,10,11-hexahydro-9-methyl-5,7:9,11-dimethano-5H-benzocyclononen-7-amines is reported. Several of them display low micromolar NMDA receptor antagonist and/or trypanocidal activities. Two compounds are endowed with micromolar anti vesicular stomatitis virus activity, while only one compound shows micromolar anti-influenza activity. The anti-influenza activity of this compound does not seem to be mediated by blocking of the M2 protein. PMID:22178660

  18. 20-Aminosteroids as a novel class of selective and complete androgen receptor antagonists and inhibitors of prostate cancer cell growth.

    PubMed

    Fousteris, Manolis A; Schubert, Undine; Roell, Daniela; Roediger, Julia; Bailis, Nikolaos; Nikolaropoulos, Sotiris S; Baniahmad, Aria; Giannis, Athanassios

    2010-10-01

    Here, the synthesis and the evaluation of novel 20-aminosteroids on androgen receptor (AR) activity is reported. Compounds 11 and 18 of the series inhibit both the wild type and the T877A mutant AR-mediated transactivation indicating AR antagonistic function. Interestingly, minor structural changes such as stereoisomers of the amino lactame moiety exhibit preferences for antagonism among wild type and mutant AR. Other tested nuclear receptors are only weakly or not affected. In line with this, the prostate cancer cell growth of androgen-dependent but not of cancer cells lacking expression of the AR is inhibited. Further, the expression of the prostate specific antigen used as a diagnostic marker is also repressed. Finally steroid 18 enhances cellular senescence that might explain in part the growth inhibition mediated by this derivative. Steroids 11 and 18 are the first steroids that act as complete AR antagonists and exhibit AR specificity.

  19. Mutually-antagonistic interactions in baseball networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saavedra, Serguei; Powers, Scott; McCotter, Trent; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.

    2010-03-01

    We formulate the head-to-head matchups between Major League Baseball pitchers and batters from 1954 to 2008 as a bipartite network of mutually-antagonistic interactions. We consider both the full network and single-season networks, which exhibit structural changes over time. We find interesting structure in the networks and examine their sensitivity to baseball’s rule changes. We then study a biased random walk on the matchup networks as a simple and transparent way to (1) compare the performance of players who competed under different conditions and (2) include information about which particular players a given player has faced. We find that a player’s position in the network does not correlate with his placement in the random walker ranking. However, network position does have a substantial effect on the robustness of ranking placement to changes in head-to-head matchups.

  20. Drug effects: agonistic and antagonistic processes.

    PubMed

    Flaten, Magne Arve

    2009-12-01

    The research presented here has shown that tolerance to drugs can be accelerated by conditioning processes. Placebo effects may be considered the opposite of tolerance, and we have shown that placebo effects may be objectively recorded by physiological measures (electromyography, skin conductance responses, and event-related potentials), as well as by behavioral and subjective methods. The placebo response, or more precisely, the expectation of drug effects, can add to the effect of the drug. Drug antagonistic expectations can also reverse the effect of the drug. There is some evidence that placebo effects are strongest when expectations are reinforced by administration of an active drug. Expectations have graded effects and may affect symptoms to a smaller or larger degree. Although drug effects can be considered stimuli, the investigation of the role of classical conditioning in drug use and drug effects involves special issues that must be carefully considered.

  1. Antagonists of IAP proteins as cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Dynek, Jasmin N; Vucic, Domagoj

    2013-05-28

    Inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins play pivotal roles in cellular survival by blocking apoptosis, modulating signal transduction, and affecting cellular proliferation. Through their interactions with inducers and effectors of apoptosis IAP proteins can effectively suppress apoptosis triggered by diverse stimuli including death receptor signaling, irradiation, chemotherapeutic agents, or growth factor withdrawal. Evasion of apoptosis, in part due to the action of IAP proteins, enhances resistance of cancer cells to treatment with chemotherapeutic agents and contributes to tumor progression. Additionally, IAP genes are known to be subject to amplification, mutation, and chromosomal translocation in human malignancies and autoimmune diseases. In this review we will discuss the role of IAP proteins in cancer and the development of antagonists targeting IAP proteins for cancer treatment.

  2. (E)-Alkenes as replacements of amide bonds: development of novel and potent acyclic CGRP receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Kim, June J; Wood, Michael R; Stachel, Shawn J; de Leon, Pablo; Nomland, Ashley; Stump, Craig A; McWherter, Melody A; Schirripa, Kathy M; Moore, Eric L; Salvatore, Christopher A; Selnick, Harold G

    2014-01-01

    A new class of CGRP receptor antagonists was identified by replacing the central amide of a previously identified anilide lead structure with ethylene, ethane, or ethyne linkers. (E)-Alkenes as well as alkynes were found to preserve the proper bioactive conformation of the amides, necessary for efficient receptor binding. Further exploration resulted in several potent compounds against CGRP-R with low susceptibility to P-gp mediated efflux. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pervasive antagonistic interactions among hybrid incompatibility loci.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Rafael F; Muir, Christopher D; Josway, Sarah; Moyle, Leonie C

    2017-06-01

    Species barriers, expressed as hybrid inviability and sterility, are often due to epistatic interactions between divergent loci from two lineages. Theoretical models indicate that the strength, direction, and complexity of these genetic interactions can strongly affect the expression of interspecific reproductive isolation and the rates at which new species evolve. Nonetheless, empirical analyses have not quantified the frequency with which loci are involved in interactions affecting hybrid fitness, and whether these loci predominantly interact synergistically or antagonistically, or preferentially involve loci that have strong individual effects on hybrid fitness. We systematically examined the prevalence of interactions between pairs of short chromosomal regions from one species (Solanum habrochaites) co-introgressed into a heterospecific genetic background (Solanum lycopersicum), using lines containing pairwise combinations of 15 chromosomal segments from S. habrochaites in the background of S. lycopersicum (i.e., 95 double introgression lines). We compared the strength of hybrid incompatibility (either pollen sterility or seed sterility) expressed in each double introgression line to the expected additive effect of its two component single introgressions. We found that epistasis was common among co-introgressed regions. Interactions for hybrid dysfunction were substantially more prevalent in pollen fertility compared to seed fertility phenotypes, and were overwhelmingly antagonistic (i.e., double hybrids were less unfit than expected from additive single introgression effects). This pervasive antagonism is expected to attenuate the rate at which hybrid infertility accumulates among lineages over time (i.e., giving diminishing returns as more reproductive isolation loci accumulate), as well as decouple patterns of accumulation of sterility loci and hybrid incompatibility phenotypes. This decoupling effect might explain observed differences between pollen and

  4. Pharmacological identification of the α₂-adrenoceptor subtypes mediating the vasopressor responses to B-HT 933 in pithed rats.

    PubMed

    Villamil-Hernández, Ma Trinidad; Alcántara-Vázquez, Oscar; Sánchez-López, Araceli; Manrique-Maldonado, Guadalupe; Villalón, Carlos M; Centurión, David

    2012-09-15

    It has been shown that α(2)-adrenoceptors mediate vasopressor responses in pithed rats. However, the corresponding α(2)-adrenoceptor subtypes have not been pharmacologically identified. Thus, this study set out to identify the specific subtypes (α(2A), α(2B) and α(2C)) mediating the vasopressor responses to the α(2)-adrenoceptor agonist, B-HT 933, by using the antagonists prazosin (α(1A/1B/1D)), rauwolscine (α(2A/2B/2C)), BRL44408 (α(2A)), imiloxan (α(2B)) and/or JP-1302 (α(2C)). In pithed rats, consecutive i.v. bolus injections of B-HT 933 produced dose-dependent increases in diastolic blood pressure, without affecting heart rate. The vasopressor responses to B-HT 933: (1) remained unaltered after, i.v., bolus injections of vehicles (1 ml/kg) or prazosin (10, 30, 100 and 300 μg/kg); (2) were dose-dependently blocked by rauwolscine (100 and 300 μg/kg), BRL44408 (100 and 300 μg/kg), imiloxan (1000 and 3000 μg/kg) and/or JP-1302 (10, 30, 100, and 300 μg/kg); and (3) were abolished by the combination BRL44408 (300 μg/kg)+imiloxan (1000 μg/kg)+JP-1302 (300 μg/kg). The above results support our contention that the α(2)-adrenoceptors mediating the vasopressor responses to B-HT 933 in pithed rats pharmacologically correlate with the α(2A), α(2B) and α(2C)-adrenoceptor subtypes.

  5. Low-dose prazosin in combination with 5-HT6 antagonist PRX-07034 has antipsychotic effects.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Renny; Nirogi, Ramakrishna; Shinde, Anil; Irupannanavar, Shantaveer

    2015-01-01

    An extensive amount of research has focused on the development of new pharmacological agents to treat schizophrenia. Varying from person to person, schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disease with symptoms of positive, negative, and cognitive deficits. PRX-07034, a 5-hydroxytryptamine6 (5-HT6) receptor antagonist has been evaluated for its potential in treating obesity and cognitive deficits. This study evaluated PRX-07034 (0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 mg/kg body mass, by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection), in combination with a low dose of prazosin (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.), for its antipsychotic potential. The research utilized a stereotypy assay, an open field test, an object recognition task, and prepulse inhibition. Dizocilpine, a non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist, was also administered in the above-mentioned assays as a psychomimetic. The combination of PRX-07034 and prazosin alleviated stereotypy and hyperlocomotor activity while enhancing memory in an object recognition task, and reversed sensory-gating deficits induced by dizocilpine. Examination of the medial prefrontal cortex revealed that a combination of PRX-07034 and prazosin reduced the dizocilpine-mediated increase of 5-HT. These results suggest that the combination of a 5-HT6 antagonist with low doses of prazosin could have therapeutic potential in the treatment of schizophrenia.

  6. Adenosine Receptor Antagonists and Behavioral Activation in NF-κB p50 Subunit Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xiaobin; Mhaskar, Yashanad; Arbogast, Lydia A.; Trammell, Rita A.; Hughes, Larry F.; Toth, Linda A.

    2009-01-01

    Aims Our previous work revealed that mice lacking the p50 subunit of transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) (p50 KO mice) and genetically intact F2 mice have similar locomotion under basal conditions, yet p50 KO mice show greater locomotor activation after caffeine ingestion. In this report, we test whether KO mice display altered caffeine pharmacokinetics or increased caffeine-induced DA turnover relative to F2 mice, and evaluate the impact of intraperitoneal administration of specific adenosine and DA receptor antagonists on locomotor activity. Main methods Concentrations of DA and caffeine were measured using high performance liquid chromatography. DA turnover was measured after treatment of mice with an inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase. Locomotor activity was measured using telemetry. Key findings The data reveal that 1) caffeine concentrations in blood and brain are similar in KO and F2 mice after oral or intraperitoneal administration; 2) KO mice show greater DA turnover under basal conditions, but turnover is similar in both strains after caffeine administration; 3) the specific A2AAR antagonist SCH 58261 induces greater locomotion in KO versus F2 mice; and 4) the activating effect of SCH 58261 in KO mice is prevented by prior treatment with the D2R antagonist raclopride. Significance These findings support the conclusions that 1) A2AAR has a major impact on behavioral activation of p50 KO mice, and 2) D2R mediated neurotransmission is critical to this effect. PMID:19508875

  7. Adenosine receptor antagonists and behavioral activation in NF-kappaB p50 subunit knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaobin; Mhaskar, Yashanad; Arbogast, Lydia A; Trammell, Rita A; Hughes, Larry F; Toth, Linda A

    2009-07-31

    Our previous work revealed that mice lacking the p50 subunit of transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) (p50 KO mice) and genetically intact F2 mice have similar locomotion under basal conditions, yet p50 KO mice show greater locomotor activation after caffeine ingestion. In this report, we test whether KO mice display altered caffeine pharmacokinetics or increased caffeine-induced DA turnover relative to F2 mice, and evaluate the impact of intraperitoneal administration of specific adenosine and DA receptor antagonists on locomotor activity. Concentrations of DA and caffeine were measured using high performance liquid chromatography. DA turnover was measured after treatment of mice with an inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase. Locomotor activity was measured using telemetry. The data reveal that 1) caffeine concentrations in blood and brain are similar in KO and F2 mice after oral or intraperitoneal administration; 2) KO mice show greater DA turnover under basal conditions, but turnover is similar in both strains after caffeine administration; 3) the specific A2AAR antagonist SCH 58261 induces greater locomotion in KO versus F2 mice; and 4) the activating effect of SCH 58261 in KO mice is prevented by prior treatment with the D2R antagonist raclopride. These findings support the conclusions that 1) A2AAR has a major impact on behavioral activation of p50 KO mice, and 2) D2R mediated neurotransmission is important to this effect.

  8. Dibutyl phthalate contributes to the thyroid receptor antagonistic activity in drinking water processes.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Wang, Donghong; Zhou, Yiqi; Ma, Mei; Li, Jian; Wang, Zijian

    2010-09-01

    It has long been recognized that thyroid hormone (TH) is essential for normal brain development in both humans and animals, and there is growing evidence that environmental chemicals can disrupt the thyroid system. In the present work, we used a two-hybrid yeast assay to screen for agonistic or antagonistic thyroid receptor (TR) mediated effects in drinking waters. We found no TR agonistic, but TR antagonistic activities in all samples from the drinking water processes. The TR antagonistic activities in organic extracts of water samples were then calibrated regarding to a known TR-inhibitor, NH3, and were expressed as the NH3 equivalents (TEQbio). The observed TEQbio in waters ranged from 180.8+/-24.8 to 280.2+/-48.2 microg/L NH3. To identify the specific compounds responsible for TR disrupting activities, the concentrations of potentially thyroid-disrupting chemicals including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), phenols, and phthalates in organic extracts were quantitatively determined and their toxic equivalents with respect to NH3 (TEQcal) were estimated from their concentration-dependent relationships, respectively, using the same set of bioassays. Based on the TEQ approach, it was revealed that dibutyl phthalate (DBP) accounted for 53.7+/-8.2% to 105.5+/-16.7% of TEQbio. There was no effective removal of these potential thyroid disrupting substances throughout drinking water treatment processes.

  9. Modulation of a 40-kDa catecholamine regulated protein by dopamine receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Sharan, N; Nair, V D; Mishra, R K

    2001-02-09

    Previous reports have shown that catecholamine regulated proteins (CRP) are central nervous system specific and covalently bind to catecholamines. In the present study, we report the subcellular localization and differential modulation of a 40-kDa catecholamine regulated protein (CRP40) by dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists. CRP40 was found to be localized with nuclear and synaptosomal/mitochondrial and fractions. Chronic treatment with dopamine D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol in rats significantly increased the levels of CRP40 in the striatum, whereas, chronic R(+)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine (SCH 23390) dopamine D1 receptor antagonist administration significantly decreased striatal CRP40 levels. Moreover, acute haloperidol treatment did not alter the levels of CRP40 in any of the brain regions. Despite a sequence homology with the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), levels of HSP70 remained unchanged after either drug treatment, suggesting a distinct function of CRP40 than HSP70. These results further suggest that CRP40 play an important role in dopaminergic neuronal function and the dopamine D1 receptor-mediated signaling pathway may be involved in the regulation of CRP40.

  10. Pharmacological and clinical importance of narcotic antagonists and mixed antagonists — use in cardiology

    PubMed Central

    Coltart, D. John; Malcolm, Alasdair D.

    1979-01-01

    1 The treatment of pain of cardiac origin requires a knowledge of the haemodynamic action of the analgesic agents used. 2 The haemodynamic effects of morphine, diamorphine, pavaveretum, pethidine and pentazocine are reviewed. 3 Clinical experience with the new antagonist analgesic buprenorphine is reported. 4 These studies indicate that buprenorphine may be the agent of choice for the relief of severe pain in patients with unstable circulation. PMID:465292

  11. MIBE acts as antagonist ligand of both estrogen receptor α and GPER in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The multiple biological responses to estrogens are mainly mediated by the classical estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ, which act as ligand-activated transcription factors. ERα exerts a main role in the development of breast cancer; therefore, the ER antagonist tamoxifen has been widely used although its effectiveness is limited by de novo and acquired resistance. Recently, GPR30/GPER, a member of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family, has been implicated in mediating the effects of estrogens in various normal and cancer cells. In particular, GPER triggered gene expression and proliferative responses induced by estrogens and even ER antagonists in hormone-sensitive tumor cells. Likewise, additional ER ligands showed the ability to bind to GPER eliciting promiscuous and, in some cases, opposite actions through the two receptors. We synthesized a novel compound (ethyl 3-[5-(2-ethoxycarbonyl-1-methylvinyloxy)-1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl]but-2-enoate), referred to as MIBE, and investigated its properties elicited through ERα and GPER in breast cancer cells. Methods Molecular modeling, binding experiments and functional assays were performed in order to evaluate the biological action exerted by MIBE through ERα and GPER in MCF7 and SkBr3 breast cancer cells. Results MIBE displayed the ability to act as an antagonist ligand for ERα and GPER as it elicited inhibitory effects on gene transcription and growth effects by binding to both receptors in breast cancer cells. Moreover, GPER was required for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ERK activation by EGF as ascertained by using MIBE and performing gene silencing experiments. Conclusions Our findings provide novel insights on the functional cross-talk between GPER and EGFR signaling. Furthermore, the exclusive antagonistic activity exerted by MIBE on ERα and GPER could represent an innovative pharmacological approach targeting breast carcinomas which express one or both receptors at

  12. Antagonistic and Bargaining Games in Optimal Marketing Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipovetsky, S.

    2007-01-01

    Game theory approaches to find optimal marketing decisions are considered. Antagonistic games with and without complete information, and non-antagonistic games techniques are applied to paired comparison, ranking, or rating data for a firm and its competitors in the market. Mix strategy, equilibrium in bi-matrix games, bargaining models with…

  13. Antagonistic and Bargaining Games in Optimal Marketing Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipovetsky, S.

    2007-01-01

    Game theory approaches to find optimal marketing decisions are considered. Antagonistic games with and without complete information, and non-antagonistic games techniques are applied to paired comparison, ranking, or rating data for a firm and its competitors in the market. Mix strategy, equilibrium in bi-matrix games, bargaining models with…

  14. [Effects of PAF antagonists in experimental models. Therapeutical perspectives].

    PubMed

    Desquand, S

    1993-01-01

    The discovery, during the last ten years, of Platelet Activating Factor (PAF) antagonists with different frameworks, but efficient on platelets tests, led the authors to study their activity in vivo against PAF-induced effects. These antagonists inhibit, with various potencies, the effects of PAF administration such as hypotension and bronchoconstriction in different animal species. Since PAF is assumed to play a central role in many diseases, effects of its antagonists have been studied in experimentally induced pathologies and in few clinical studies. We have been particularly interested in their effects on the first manifestation of asthma which is hypersensitivity. This manifestation is experimentally reproduced by anaphylactic bronchoconstriction, usually in the guinea-pig. Our results showed that different sensitization procedures may determine the relative efficiency of a PAF antagonist on subsequent antigen challenge. Indeed, the booster injection of antigen to a pre-sensitized animal could account for the refractoriness of anaphylactic bronchoconstriction to PAF antagonists. This booster injection mimics the clinical situation of atopic patients repeatedly exposed to allergen. Thus, it seems that immediate hypersensitivity could not be treated by the unique administration of a PAF antagonist. However, those antagonists may have more benefit in the clinical management of the late phase of asthma and of hyperreactivity and could thus provide anti-asthmatic drugs. PAF antagonists may have also therapeutical effects in septic shock, in myocardial ischemia and cardiac rhythm disturbances, in brain damage following cerebral ischemia and neurological trauma, in gastric and intestinal damages or in some inflammatory reactions.

  15. Microbial antagonists of Verticillium dahliae colonize cotton root system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Verticillium wilt remains one of the most severe diseases affecting cotton production in Uzbekistan. We are investigating microbial antagonist to control this pathogen. To this end, we have identified several antagonists of Verticillium dahliae (Bacillus sp. 234, Bacillus sp. 3, Streptomyces roseofl...

  16. Identification of a sulfonamide series of CCR2 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Peace, Simon; Philp, Joanne; Brooks, Carl; Piercy, Val; Moores, Kitty; Smethurst, Chris; Watson, Steve; Gaines, Simon; Zippoli, Mara; Mookherjee, Claudette; Ife, Robert

    2010-07-01

    A series of sulfonamide CCR2 antagonists was identified by high-throughput screening. Management of molecular weight and physical properties, in particular moderation of lipophilicity and study of pK(a), yielded highly potent CCR2 antagonists exhibiting good pharmacokinetic properties and improved potency in the presence of human plasma.

  17. Third Generation Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists; Why We Need a Fourth

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Sanchez, Elise

    2015-01-01

    The first mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist, spironolactone, was developed almost 60 years ago to treat primary aldosteronism and pathological edema. Its use waned in part due to its lack of selectivity. Subsequently knowledge of the scope of MR function was expanded along with clinical evidence of the therapeutic importance of MR antagonists to prevent the ravages of inappropriate MR activation. Forty-two years elapsed between the first and MR-selective second generation of MR antagonists. Fifteen years later, despite serious shortcomings of the existing antagonists, a third generation antagonist has yet to be marketed. Progress has been slowed by the lack of appreciation of the large variety of cell types that express the MR and its diverse cell-type-specific actions, as well as its uniquely complex interactions actions at the molecular level. New MR antagonists should preferentially target the inflammatory and fibrotic effects of MR and perhaps its excitatory effects on sympathetic nervous system, but not the renal tubular epithelium or neurons of the cortex and hippocampus. This review briefly describes efforts to develop a third generation MR antagonist and why fourth generation antagonists and selective agonists based on structural determinants of tissue and ligand-specific MR activation should be contemplated. PMID:26466326

  18. Early gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist start improves follicular synchronization and pregnancy outcome as compared to the conventional antagonist protocol.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan Woo; Hwang, Yu Im; Koo, Hwa Seon; Kang, Inn Soo; Yang, Kwang Moon; Song, In Ok

    2014-12-01

    To assess whether an early GnRH antagonist start leads to better follicular synchronization and an improved clinical pregnancy rate (CPR). A retrospective cohort study. A total of 218 infertile women who underwent IVF between January 2011 and February 2013. The initial cohort (Cohort I) that underwent IVF between January 2011 and March 2012 included a total of 68 attempted IVF cycles. Thirty-four cycles were treated with the conventional GnRH antagonist protocol, and 34 cycles with an early GnRH antagonist start protocol. The second cohort (Cohort II) that underwent IVF between June 2012 and February 2013 included a total of 150 embryo-transfer (ET) cycles. Forty-three cycles were treated with the conventional GnRH antagonist protocol, 34 cycles with the modified early GnRH antagonist start protocol using highly purified human menopause gonadotropin and an addition of GnRH agonist to the luteal phase support, and 73 cycles with the GnRH agonist long protocol. The analysis of Cohort I showed that the number of mature oocytes retrieved was significantly higher in the early GnRH antagonist start cycles than in the conventional antagonist cycles (11.9 vs. 8.2, p=0.04). The analysis of Cohort II revealed higher but non-significant CPR/ET in the modified early GnRH antagonist start cycles (41.2%) than in the conventional antagonist cycles (30.2%), which was comparable to that of the GnRH agonist long protocol cycles (39.7%). The modified early antagonist start protocol may improve the mature oocyte yield, possibly via enhanced follicular synchronization, while resulting in superior CPR as compared to the conventional antagonist protocol, which needs to be studied further in prospective randomized controlled trials.

  19. Characterization of protoberberine analogs employed as novel human P2X{sub 7} receptor antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ga Eun; Lee, Won-Gil; Lee, Song-Yi; Lee, Cho-Rong; Park, Chul-Seung; Chang, Sunghoe; Park, Sung-Gyoo; Song, Mi-Ryoung; Kim, Yong-Chul

    2011-04-15

    The P2X{sub 7} receptor (P2X{sub 7}R), a member of the ATP-gated ion channel family, is regarded as a promising target for therapy of immune-related diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and chronic pain. A group of novel protoberberine analogs (compounds 3-5), discovered by screening of chemical libraries, was here investigated with respect to their function as P2X{sub 7}R antagonists. Compounds 3-5 non-competitively inhibited BzATP-induced ethidium ion influx into hP2X{sub 7}-expressing HEK293 cells, with IC{sub 50} values of 100-300 nM. This antagonistic action on the channel further confirmed that both BzATP-induced inward currents and Ca{sup 2+} influx were strongly inhibited by compounds 3-5 in patch-clamp and Ca{sup 2+} influx assays. The antagonists also effectively suppressed downstream signaling of P2X{sub 7} receptors including IL-1{beta} release and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 proteins in hP2X{sub 7}-expressing HEK293 cells or in differentiated human monocytes (THP-1 cells). Moreover, IL-2 secretion from CD3/CD28-stimulated Jurkat T cell was also dramatically inhibited by the antagonist. These results imply that novel protoberberine analogs may modulate P2X{sub 7} receptor-mediated immune responses by allosteric inhibition of the receptor. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted

  20. SRA880, in vitro characterization of the first non-peptide somatostatin sst(1) receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, D; Nunn, C; Hannon, J; Schoeffter, P; Feuerbach, D; Schuepbach, E; Langenegger, D; Bouhelal, R; Hurth, K; Neumann, P; Troxler, T; Pfaeffli, P

    2004-05-06

    This report describes the in vitro features of the first somatostatin sst(1) receptor selective non-peptide antagonist, SRA880 ([3R,4aR,10aR]-1,2,3,4,4a,5,10,10a-Octahydro-6-methoxy-1-methyl-benz[g] quinoline-3-carboxylic-acid-4-(4-nitro-phenyl)-piperazine-amide, hydrogen malonate). SRA was evaluated in a number of in vitro systems of various species, both at native and recombinant receptors, using radioligand binding and second messenger/transduction studies. SRA880 has high affinity for native rat, mouse, monkey and human cerebral cortex somatostatin sst(1) receptors (pK(d) = 7.8-8.6) and for human recombinant sst(1) receptors (pK(d) = 8.0-8.1). SRA880 displayed significantly lower affinity for the other human recombinant somatostatin receptors ( pK(d) < or = 6.0) or a wide range of neurotransmitter receptors, except for the human dopamine D4 receptors. SRA880 was characterized in various transduction assays: somatotropin release inhibiting factor (SRIF) induced inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation, SRIF stimulated-GTPgammaS binding, and SRIF stimulated luciferase gene expression; in all tests, SRA880 was devoid of intrinsic activity and acted as an apparently surmountable antagonist with pK(B) values of 7.5-7.7. Combined with the data from binding studies, these results suggest that SRA880 acts as a competitive antagonist. Thus, SRA880 is the first non-peptide somatostatin sst(1) receptor antagonist to be reported; SRA880 will be a useful tool for the characterization of somatostatin sst(1) receptor-mediated effects both in vitro and in vivo.

  1. Arginine Vasopressin V1a Receptor Antagonist Impairs Maternal Memory in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nephew, Benjamin C.; Bridges, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    Primiparous female rats rapidly respond to foster pups following an extended separation from pups after an initial maternal experience. This consolidation of maternal behavior has been referred to as maternal memory. The neurochemical regulation of maternal memory is not clearly understood. One neuropeptide that may mediate maternal memory is arginine vasopressin (AVP), a neuropeptide which is modulated around the time of parturition and has an established role in learning and memory processes. Thus, the present studies examine the possible involvement of AVP in the establishment of maternal memory in female rats. Pregnant rats were implanted with chronic cannulae connected to subcutaneous osmotic minipumps filled with a V1a receptor antagonist [d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)AVP, 0.1–12.5 ng/hr] or saline vehicle which were chronically infused either into the lateral ventricles or bilaterally into the medial amygdala beginning on day 18 of gestation. Both the osmotic pumps and the newborn pups were removed 24 hours following parturition. The effects of the V1a antagonist treatments on social recognition and maternal behavior were measured following parturition and maternal memory was assessed following a ten day separation from pups. Whereas none of the AVP treatments affected the initial establishment of maternal behavior postpartum, maternal memory was impaired in rats infused into the amygdala with the AVP antagonist (1.25 and 12.5 ng/hr). Social recognition was not impaired by intracerebroventricular infusion of either the 0.1 or 1.0 ng/hr dose of the V1a antagonist. The present results suggest a role for medial amygdaloid V1a receptors in the establishment of maternal memory. PMID:18620713

  2. Structure-based discovery of antagonists of nuclear receptor LRH-1.

    PubMed

    Benod, Cindy; Carlsson, Jens; Uthayaruban, Rubatharshini; Hwang, Peter; Irwin, John J; Doak, Allison K; Shoichet, Brian K; Sablin, Elena P; Fletterick, Robert J

    2013-07-05

    Liver receptor homolog 1 (nuclear receptor LRH-1, NR5A2) is an essential regulator of gene transcription, critical for maintenance of cell pluripotency in early development and imperative for the proper functions of the liver, pancreas, and intestines during the adult life. Although physiological hormones of LRH-1 have not yet been identified, crystallographic and biochemical studies demonstrated that LRH-1 could bind regulatory ligands and suggested phosphatidylinositols as potential hormone candidates for this receptor. No synthetic antagonists of LRH-1 are known to date. Here, we identify the first small molecule antagonists of LRH-1 activity. Our search for LRH-1 modulators was empowered by screening of 5.2 million commercially available compounds via molecular docking followed by verification of the top-ranked molecules using in vitro direct binding and transcriptional assays. Experimental evaluation of the predicted ligands identified two compounds that inhibit the transcriptional activity of LRH-1 and diminish the expression of the receptor's target genes. Among the affected transcriptional targets are co-repressor SHP (small heterodimer partner) as well as cyclin E1 (CCNE1) and G0S2 genes that are known to regulate cell growth and proliferation. Treatments of human pancreatic (AsPC-1), colon (HT29), and breast adenocarcinoma cells T47D and MDA-MB-468 with the LRH-1 antagonists resulted in the receptor-mediated inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Our data suggest that specific antagonists of LRH-1 could be used as specific molecular probes for elucidating the roles of the receptor in different types of malignancies.

  3. Using caffeine and other adenosine receptor antagonists and agonists as therapeutic tools against neurodegenerative diseases: A review

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Oliver, Marla; Díaz-Ríos, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine is the most consumed pychostimulant in the world, and it is known to affect basic and fundamental human processes such as sleep, arousal, cognition and learning and memory. It works as a nonselective blocker of adenosine receptors (A1, A2a, A2b and A3) and has been related to the regulation of heart rate, the contraction/relaxation of cardiac and smooth muscles, and the neural signaling in the central nervous system (CNS). Since the late 1990s, studies using adenosine receptor antagonists, such as Caffeine, to block the A1 and A2a adenosine receptor subtypes have shown to reduce the physical, cellular and molecular damages caused by a spinal cord injury (SCI) or a stroke (cerebral infarction) and by other neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Interestingly, other studies using adenosine receptor agonists have also shown to provide a neuroprotective effect on various models of neurodegenerative diseases through the reduction of excitatory neurotransmitter release, apoptosis and inflammatory responses, among others. The seemingly paradoxical use of both adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists as neuroprotective agents has been attributed to differences in dosage levels, drug delivery method, extracellular concentration of excitatory neurotransmitters and stage of disease progression. We discuss and compare recent findings using both antagonists and agonists of adenosine receptors in animal models and patients that have suffered spinal cord injuries, brain strokes, and Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Additionally, we propose alternative interpretations on the seemingly paradoxical use of these drugs as potential pharmacological tools to treat these various types of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24530739

  4. Using caffeine and other adenosine receptor antagonists and agonists as therapeutic tools against neurodegenerative diseases: a review.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Oliver, Marla; Díaz-Ríos, Manuel

    2014-04-17

    Caffeine is the most consumed pychostimulant in the world, and it is known to affect basic and fundamental human processes such as sleep, arousal, cognition and learning and memory. It works as a nonselective blocker of adenosine receptors (A1, A2a, A2b and A3) and has been related to the regulation of heart rate, the contraction/relaxation of cardiac and smooth muscles, and the neural signaling in the central nervous system (CNS). Since the late 1990s, studies using adenosine receptor antagonists, such as Caffeine, to block the A1 and A2a adenosine receptor subtypes have shown to reduce the physical, cellular and molecular damages caused by a spinal cord injury (SCI) or a stroke (cerebral infarction) and by other neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Interestingly, other studies using adenosine receptor agonists have also shown to provide a neuroprotective effect on various models of neurodegenerative diseases through the reduction of excitatory neurotransmitter release, apoptosis and inflammatory responses, among others. The seemingly paradoxical use of both adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists as neuroprotective agents has been attributed to differences in dosage levels, drug delivery method, extracellular concentration of excitatory neurotransmitters and stage of disease progression. We discuss and compare recent findings using both antagonists and agonists of adenosine receptors in animal models and patients that have suffered spinal cord injuries, brain strokes, and Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Additionally, we propose alternative interpretations on the seemingly paradoxical use of these drugs as potential pharmacological tools to treat these various types of neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prostanoid receptor antagonists: development strategies and therapeutic applications

    PubMed Central

    Jones, RL; Giembycz, MA; Woodward, DF

    2009-01-01

    Identification of the primary products of cyclo-oxygenase (COX)/prostaglandin synthase(s), which occurred between 1958 and 1976, was followed by a classification system for prostanoid receptors (DP, EP1, EP2 …) based mainly on the pharmacological actions of natural and synthetic agonists and a few antagonists. The design of potent selective antagonists was rapid for certain prostanoid receptors (EP1, TP), slow for others (FP, IP) and has yet to be achieved in certain cases (EP2). While some antagonists are structurally related to the natural agonist, most recent compounds are ‘non-prostanoid’ (often acyl-sulphonamides) and have emerged from high-throughput screening of compound libraries, made possible by the development of (functional) assays involving single recombinant prostanoid receptors. Selective antagonists have been crucial to defining the roles of PGD2 (acting on DP1 and DP2 receptors) and PGE2 (on EP1 and EP4 receptors) in various inflammatory conditions; there are clear opportunities for therapeutic intervention. The vast endeavour on TP (thromboxane) antagonists is considered in relation to their limited pharmaceutical success in the cardiovascular area. Correspondingly, the clinical utility of IP (prostacyclin) antagonists is assessed in relation to the cloud hanging over the long-term safety of selective COX-2 inhibitors. Aspirin apart, COX inhibitors broadly suppress all prostanoid pathways, while high selectivity has been a major goal in receptor antagonist development; more targeted therapy may require an intermediate position with defined antagonist selectivity profiles. This review is intended to provide overviews of each antagonist class (including prostamide antagonists), covering major development strategies and current and potential clinical usage. PMID:19624532

  6. Structurally diverse MDM2–p53 antagonists act as modulators of MDR-1 function in neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, L; Zhao, Y; Halliday, G C; Berry, P; Rousseau, R F; Middleton, S A; Nichols, G L; Del Bello, F; Piergentili, A; Newell, D R; Lunec, J; Tweddle, D A

    2014-01-01

    Background: A frequent mechanism of acquired multidrug resistance in human cancers is overexpression of ATP-binding cassette transporters such as the Multi-Drug Resistance Protein 1 (MDR-1). Nutlin-3, an MDM2–p53 antagonist, has previously been reported to be a competitive MDR-1 inhibitor. Methods: This study assessed whether the structurally diverse MDM2–p53 antagonists, MI-63, NDD0005, and RG7388 are also able to modulate MDR-1 function, particularly in p53 mutant neuroblastoma cells, using XTT-based cell viability assays, western blotting, and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis. Results: Verapamil and the MDM2–p53 antagonists potentiated vincristine-mediated growth inhibition in a concentration-dependent manner when used in combination with high MDR-1-expressing p53 mutant neuroblastoma cell lines at concentrations that did not affect the viability of cells when given alone. Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry analyses showed that verapamil, Nutlin-3, MI-63 and NDD0005, but not RG7388, led to increased intracellular levels of vincristine in high MDR-1-expressing cell lines. Conclusions: These results show that in addition to Nutlin-3, other structurally unrelated MDM2–p53 antagonists can also act as MDR-1 inhibitors and reverse MDR-1-mediated multidrug resistance in neuroblastoma cell lines in a p53-independent manner. These findings are important for future clinical trial design with MDM2–p53 antagonists when used in combination with agents that are MDR-1 substrates. PMID:24921920

  7. Mass spectroscopy identifies the splicing-associated proteins, PSF, hnRNP H3, hnRNP A2/B1, and TLS/FUS as interacting partners of the ZNF198 protein associated with rearrangement in myeloproliferative disease

    SciTech Connect

    Kasyapa, Chitta S.; Kunapuli, Padmaja; Cowell, John K. . E-mail: John.Cowell@RoswellPark.org

    2005-09-10

    ZNF198 is fused with FGFR1 in an atypical myeloproliferative disease that results in constitutive activation of the kinase domain and mislocalization to the cytoplasm. We have used immunoprecipitation of a GFP-tagged ZNF198 combined with MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy to identify interacting proteins. P splicing factor (PSF) was identified as one of the proteins and this interaction was confirmed by Western blotting. Other proteins identified were the spliceosomal components hnRNP A2/B1, hnRNP H3, and TLS/FUS. PSF is also known to interact with PTB, another member of the hnRNP family of proteins, and we further demonstrated that PTB interacts with ZNF198. The interaction between TLS/FUS and ZNF198 was confirmed using Western blot analysis. In 293 cells expressing the ZNF198/FGFR1 fusion protein, neither PSF nor PTB binds to the fusion protein, possibly because of their differential localization in the cell.

  8. Antiarthritic activity of an orally active C5a receptor antagonist against antigen-induced monarticular arthritis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, Trent M; Strachan, Anna J; Dryburgh, Nathan; Shiels, Ian A; Reid, Robert C; Fairlie, David P; Taylor, Stephen M

    2002-09-01

    To determine if the new, orally active C5a receptor antagonist, the cyclic peptide AcF-[OPdChaWR], reduces the severity of pathology in a rat model of immune-mediated monarticular arthritis. Arthritis was induced in the right knee of previously sensitized rats by the intraarticular injection of methylated bovine serum albumin. Rats were examined for either 14 days or 28 days, or for 49 days following a second antigen challenge at 28 days. The C5a antagonist (1 or 3 mg/kg/day) and/or ibuprofen (30 mg/kg/day) were administered orally on a daily basis either before or after arthritis induction. Rats receiving AcF-[OPdChaWR] had significant reductions in right knee swelling, gait disturbance, lavaged joint cell numbers, and right knee histopathology, as well as in serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and intraarticular levels of interleukin-6 and TNFalpha on day 14. In the 14- and 28-day studies, ibuprofen resulted in a similar reduction in gait abnormalities and intraarticular inflammatory cells compared with the C5a antagonist, but was less effective in reducing knee swelling over the course of the study and had no effect on knee histopathology. Combination therapy with AcF-[OPdChaWR] and ibuprofen resulted in no greater efficacy than with the C5a antagonist alone. Rats injected twice with the antigen in the 49-day study displayed the most severe histopathology and this, as well as knee swelling and gait abnormalities, was significantly reduced by repeated treatment with the C5a antagonist. An agent that inhibits the action of C5a in this model significantly reduced joint pathology, while ibuprofen was not effective. C5a antagonists could therefore have broader therapeutic benefits than nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs as antiarthritic agents for rheumatoid arthritis.

  9. Immune complex induced pancreatitis: effect of BN 52021, a selective antagonist of platelet-activating factor.

    PubMed

    Jancar, S; De Giaccobi, G; Mariano, M; Mencia-Huerta, J M; Sirois, P; Braquet, P

    1988-05-01

    A model of acute pancreatitis was developed by induction of an immune complex mediated hypersensitivity reaction in rats. This acute inflammatory reaction was characterized by intense interstitial edema, neutrophil infiltration and margination, and congestion of small vessels whereas serum amylase levels remained unchanged. Microscopic examination of the pancreatic tissue revealed the presence of immune complex deposition around blood vessels and ducts. Vascular permeability, as measured by Evan's blue extravasation increased by 6 fold. In addition, circulating platelets dropped to 50% of normal levels. Injection of platelet-activating factor (PAF) in the peritoneal cavity of rats also produced an increase in vascular permeability in the pancreas. A selective PAF-antagonist, BN 52021 reduced by approximately 50% the increase in vascular permeability produced by immune complex in the pancreas as well as that elicited by intraperitoneal injection of PAF. These results suggest that PAF plays a role in the pathological manifestations of immune complex-mediated pancreatitis.

  10. Theoretical and experimental investigation of defect formation / migration in Gd2Ti2O7: General rule of oxide-ion migration in A2B2O7 pyrochlore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Kaoru; Mori, Masashi; Itoh, Takanori.; Ohnuma, Toshiharu

    2016-11-01

    We investigated the intrinsic defect formation energy and oxide-ion migration mechanism in Gd2Ti2O7 pyrochlore. It was found that the vacancy formation energy of Gd is lower than that of Ti. For the oxygen vacancy, O(48f) was found to show lower vacancy formation energy than O(8b). The formation energy of the vacancy complex showed that the Gd vacancy is accompanied with the O(48f) vacancy, which is consistent with our experiment. The migration energy of O(48f) along the <100> direction, which is dominant migration path for ionic conduction, was calculated to be 0.43 eV. On the other hand, we found that Gd vacancy increases O(48f) migration energy. For example, the migration energy of O(48f) along the <100> direction was increased to be 1.36 eV by the local compressive strain around Gd vacancy. This finding could explain our previous experimental result of decreasing conductivity with increasing Gd deficiency. Along with the oxide-ion migration mechanism in Gd2Ti2O7, O(48f) migration energies along both <100> and <110> directions for various A2B2O7 pyrochlore structures were investigated. As a general trend of oxide-ion migration in the pyrochlore structure, we propose that O(48f) migration along the <100> direction is governed by the strength of B-O bonding. On the other hand, the ratio of ionic radius B/A is proposed to determine O(48f) migration along the <110> direction in A2B2O7 pyrochlore.

  11. Peripheral mGluR5 antagonist attenuated craniofacial muscle pain and inflammation but not mGluR1 antagonist in lightly anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho Jeong; Choi, Hyo Soon; Ju, Jin Sook; Bae, Yong Chul; Kim, Sung Kyo; Yoon, Young Wook; Ahn, Dong Kuk

    2006-10-16

    The present study investigated the role of peripheral group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in MO-induced nociceptive behaviour and inflammation in the masseter muscles of lightly anesthetized rats. Experiments were carried out on male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 300-400 g. After initial anesthesia with sodium pentobarbital (40 mg/kg, i.p.), one femoral vein was cannulated and connected to an infusion pump for intravenous infusion of sodium pentobarbital. The rate of infusion was adjusted to provide a constant level of anesthesia. Mustard oil (MO, 30 microl) was injected into the mid-region of the left masseter muscle via a 30-gauge needle over 10s. After 30 microl injection of 5, 10, 15, or 20% MO into the masseter muscle, the total number of hindpaw shaking behaviour and extravasated Evans' blue dye concentration in the masseter muscle were significantly higher in the MO-treated group in a dose-dependent manner compared with the vehicle (mineral oil)-treated group. Intramuscular pretreatment with 3 or 5% lidocaine reduced MO-induced hindpaw shaking behaviour and increases in extravasated Evans' blue dye concentration. Intramuscular pretreatment with 5 mM MCPG, non-selective group I/II mGluR antagonist, or MPEP, a selective group I mGluR5 antagonist, produced a significant attenuation of MO-induced hindpaw shaking behaviour and increases in extravasated Evans' blue dye concentration in the masseter muscle while LY367385, a selective group I mGluR1 antagonist, did not affect MO-induced nociceptive behaviour and inflammation in the masseter muscle. These results indicate that peripheral mGluR5 plays important role in mediating MO-induced nociceptive behaviour and inflammation in the craniofacial muscle.

  12. Effect of dopamine and serotonin receptor antagonists on fencamfamine-induced abolition of latent inhibition.

    PubMed

    de Aguiar, Cilene Rejane Ramos Alves; de Aguiar, Marlison José Lima; DeLucia, Roberto; Silva, Maria Teresa Araujo

    2013-01-05

    The purpose of this investigation was to verify the role of dopamine and serotonin receptors in the effect of fencamfamine (FCF) on latent inhibition. FCF is a psychomotor stimulant with an indirect dopaminergic action. Latent inhibition is a model of attention. Latent inhibition is blocked by dopaminergic agents and facilitated by dopamine receptor agonists. FCF has been shown to abolish latent inhibition. The serotonergic system may also participate in the neurochemical mediation of latent inhibition. The selective dopamine D(1) receptor antagonist SCH 23390 (7-chloro-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1,2,4,5-tetrahydro-3-benzazepin-8-ol), D(2) receptor antagonists pimozide (PIM) and methoclopramide (METH), and serotonin 5-HT(2A/C) receptor antagonist ritanserin (RIT) were used in the present study. Latent inhibition was evaluated using a conditioned emotional response procedure. Male Wistar rats that were water-restricted were subjected to a three-phase procedure: preexposure to a tone, tone-shock conditioning, and a test of the effect of the tone on licking frequency. All of the drugs were administered before the preexposure and conditioning phases. The results showed that FCF abolished latent inhibition, and this effect was clearly antagonized by PIM and METH and moderately attenuated by SCH 23390. At the doses used in the present study, RIT pretreatment did not affect latent inhibition and did not eliminate the effect of FCF, suggesting that the FCF-induced abolition of latent inhibition is not mediated by serotonin 5-HT(2A/C) receptors. These results suggest that the effect of FCF on latent inhibition is predominantly related to dopamine D(2) receptors and that dopamine D(2) receptors participate in attention processes.

  13. The indirect NMDAR antagonist acamprosate induces postischemic neurologic recovery associated with sustained neuroprotection and neuroregeneration.

    PubMed

    Doeppner, Thorsten R; Pehlke, Jens R; Kaltwasser, Britta; Schlechter, Jana; Kilic, Ertugrul; Bähr, Mathias; Hermann, Dirk M

    2015-12-01

    Cerebral ischemia stimulates N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) resulting in increased calcium concentration and excitotoxicity. Yet, deactivation of NMDAR failed in clinical studies due to poor preclinical study designs or toxicity of NMDAR antagonists. Acamprosate is an indirect NMDAR antagonist used for patients with chronic alcohol dependence. We herein analyzed the therapeutic potential of acamprosate on brain injury, neurologic recovery and their underlying mechanisms. Mice were exposed to cerebral ischemia, treated with intraperitoneal injections of acamprosate or saline (controls), and allowed to survive until 3 months. Acamprosate yielded sustained neuroprotection and increased neurologic recovery when given no later than 12 hours after stroke. The latter was associated with increased postischemic angioneurogenesis, albeit acamprosate did not stimulate angioneurogenesis itself. Rather, increased angioneurogenesis was due to inhibition of calpain-mediated pro-injurious signaling cascades. As such, acamprosate-mediated reduction of calpain activity resulted in decreased degradation of p35, increased abundance of the pro-survival factor STAT6, and reduced N-terminal-Jun-kinase activation. Inhibition of calpain was associated with enhanced stability of the blood-brain barrier, reduction of oxidative stress and cerebral leukocyte infiltration. Taken into account its excellent tolerability, its sustained effects on neurologic recovery, brain tissue survival, and neural remodeling, acamprosate is an intriguing candidate for adjuvant future stroke treatment.

  14. Nonpeptide Small Molecule Agonist and Antagonist Original Leads for Neuropeptide FF1 and FF2 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptide FF1 and FF2 receptors (NPFF1-R and NPFF2-R), and their endogenous ligand NPFF, are one of only several systems responsible for mediating opioid-induced hyperalgesia, tolerance, and dependence. Currently, no small molecules displaying good affinity or selectivity for either subtype have been reported, to decipher the role of NPFF2-R as it relates to opioid-mediated analgesia, for further exploration of NPFF1-R, or for medication development for either subtype. We report the first nonpeptide small molecule scaffold for NPFF1,2-R, the guanidino-piperidines, and SAR studies resulting in the discovery of a NPFF1 agonist (7b, Ki = 487 ± 117 nM), a NPFF1 antagonist (46, Ki = 81 ± 17 nM), and a NPFF2 partial antagonist (53a, Ki = 30 ± 5 nM), which serve as leads for the development of pharmacological probes and potential therapeutic agents. Testing of 46 alone was without effect in the mouse 48 °C warm-water tail-withdrawal test, but pretreatment with 46 prevented NPFF-induced hyperalgesia. PMID:25268943

  15. Calcium channel antagonists inhibit the acrosome reaction and bind to plasma membranes of sea urchin sperm.

    PubMed Central

    Kazazoglou, T; Schackmann, R W; Fosset, M; Shapiro, B M

    1985-01-01

    As a prerequisite to fertilization, sea urchin sperm undergo an acrosome reaction that is mediated in part by increased permeability to Ca2+, with an attendant rapid, massive intracellular Ca2+ accumulation. The acrosome reaction is inhibited by Ca2+ channel antagonists, including verapamil, D600, and dihydropyridines such as nitrendipine, nimodipine, and nisoldipine. To examine the interaction of Ca2+ antagonists with sperm, a plasma membrane preparation enriched for Na+,K+-ATPase was isolated from sea urchin sperm. These plasma membranes specifically bound [3H]nitrendipine and [3H]verapamil at concentrations similar to those that inhibit the acrosome reaction. The binding of verapamil was sigmoidal and half-maximal at 1 microM. There was a high specificity in the binding interaction, since by competition binding verapamil, (-)-D600, and (+)-D600 had different relative Kd values, 11, 2.5, and 0.5 microM, respectively. These data suggest that sperm mediate the Ca2+ influx required for induction of the acrosome reaction via Ca2+ channels with properties similar, but not identical, to those of other excitable tissues. Images PMID:3856274

  16. Update on leukotriene receptor antagonists in preschool children wheezing disorders

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease in young children. About 40% of all preschool children regularly wheeze during common cold infections. The heterogeneity of wheezing phenotypes early in life and various anatomical and emotional factors unique to young children present significant challenges in the clinical management of this problem. Anti-inflammatory therapy, mainly consisting of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), is the cornerstone of asthma management. Since Leukotrienes (LTs) are chemical mediators of airway inflammation in asthma, the leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) are traditionally used as potent anti-inflammatory drugs in the long-term treatment of asthma in adults, adolescents, and school-age children. In particular, montelukast decreases airway inflammation, and has also a bronchoprotective effect. The main guidelines on asthma management have confirmed the clinical utility of LTRAs in children older than five years. In the present review we describe the most recent advances on the use of LTRAs in the treatment of preschool wheezing disorders. LTRAs are effective in young children with virus-induced wheeze and with multiple-trigger disease. Conflicting data do not allow to reach definitive conclusions on LTRAs efficacy in bronchiolitis or post-bronchiolitis wheeze, and in acute asthma. The excellent safety profile of montelukast and the possibility of oral administration, that entails better compliance from young children, represent the main strengths of its use in preschool children. Montelukast is a valid alternative to ICS especially in poorly compliant preschool children, or in subjects who show adverse effects related to long-term steroid therapy. PMID:22734451

  17. Comparison of relaxation responses of cavernous and trigonal smooth muscles from rabbits by alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists; prazosin, terazosin, doxazosin, and tamsulosin.

    PubMed Central

    Seo, K. K.; Lee, M. Y.; Lim, S. W.; Kim, S. C.

    1999-01-01

    Alpha1a-adrenergic receptor (AR) primarily mediates the contraction of the prostatic and cavernous smooth muscles. Among clinically available alpha1-AR antagonists for the medical management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), tamsulosin has a modest selectivity for alpha1A- and alpha1D- over alpha1B-ARs. To compare the effects of various alpha1-AR antagonists on relaxation responses of cavernous and trigonal smooth muscles, isometric tension studies with relatively selective (tamsulosin) and non-selective (prazosin, doxazosin, and terazosin) alpha1A-AR antagonists, were conducted in the cavernous and trigonal muscle strips of rabbits (n=10 each). Tamsulosin had the strongest inhibitory effect on contraction of trigonal smooth muscle among the various alpha1-AR antagonists, and the inhibitory activities of prazosin, doxazosin, and terazosin were not statistically different. All alpha1-AR antagonists caused concentration-dependent relaxation of the cavernous muscle strips. Tamsulosin was shown to have greater potency than prazosin (more than 100-fold), doxazosin (more than 1000-fold), and terazosin (more than 1000-fold), in relaxation of cavernous smooth muscle. In conclusion, tamsulosin might be the most effective drug among the four commonly used alpha1-AR antagonists for the medical management of BPH. Tamsulosin might be a potential substitute for phentolamine in combination with vasoactive agents as an intracavernous injection therapy for patients with erectile dysfunction. PMID:10102527

  18. Transcriptional changes of secreted Wnt antagonists in hindlimb skeletal muscle during the lifetime of the C57BL/6J mouse.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Soo Hee; Yoo, Taekyung; Kang, Keunsoo; Park, Seung-Yeol; Joe, Cheol O; Chung, Jae Hoon

    2011-10-01

    The canonical Wnt pathway plays a critical role in myogenesis and age-related inefficient muscle regeneration. To gain insights into changes in Wnt signaling in muscle during the lifetime of a mouse, mRNA levels of secreted Wnt antagonists were investigated. Among 13 analyzed antagonists, seven genes were found to be down-regulated in skeletal muscles of adult and old mice. Epigenetic modifications at the promoter regions of these seven Wnt antagonists were then examined to understand how these correlate with this transcriptional repression. DNA methylation was stably maintained, while chromatin modifications changed to transcriptionally inactive states over the course of a lifetime. Similar patterns of changes in chromatin modifications were observed at the promoters of all of the studied genes. The observations indicated that an upstream factor might regulate the chromatin states and the transcriptional repression of Wnt antagonists. Several bioinformatic analyses revealed that a FOXD3 binding motif is present within promoter regions of the seven antagonists. Furthermore, age-dependent differential FOXD3 binding is observed at the motifs of the seven gene promoters. Our results suggest that FOXD3 as a potential epigenetic regulator may mediate the transcriptional repression of the seven antagonists, possibly through regulation of histone modifications.

  19. The selectivity of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists on isoprenaline-induced changes in heart rate, blood pressure, soleus muscle contractility and airways function in anaesthetized cats.

    PubMed Central

    Letts, L. G.; Richardson, D. P.; Temple, D. M.; Williams, L. R.

    1983-01-01

    The beta-adrenoceptor antagonist of propranolol, metoprolol, atenolol and butoxamine in anaesthetized cats has been measured and compared with the activity of four synthetic phenylethanolamine derivatives. The effects of isoprenaline on four parameters in the anaesthetized cat: heart rate, blood pressure, soleus muscle contractility and airway reactance, were measured and the modification of the isoprenaline dose-response relation by each of the antagonist drugs assessed. Parallel shifts in log dose-response curves for isoprenaline were caused by propranolol for all parameters, by metoprolol and atenolol for each parameter except blood pressure, and butoxamine for each except soleus muscle and heart rate. Selectivity of action of the antagonists between different organs was measured by comparing DR10 values, computed from isoprenaline dose-ratios. Propranolol was the most potent antagonist and showed slight selectivity of action on soleus muscle compared with heart. Atenolol and metoprolol were approximately equipotent and were cardioselective at low doses only. Butoxamine was the least potent antagonist and possessed non-beta-adrenoceptor effects on the parameters measured. Each of the new compounds, 4'-bromo-2'-methoxy-N-isopropyl phenylethanolamine, the 4'-chloro- and 4'-methyl analogues, and 4'-methoxy-N-t-butyl phenylethanolamine, was a potent antagonist but did not exhibit any selectivity of action. The results suggest no clear separation of beta-adrenoceptors into beta 1- and beta 2-subclasses in organs of the cat. There is no apparent separation of beta-adrenoceptor-mediated effects on skeletal muscle and airways. PMID:6140058

  20. Non-equivalence of Key Positively Charged Residues of the Free Fatty Acid 2 Receptor in the Recognition and Function of Agonist Versus Antagonist Ligands*

    PubMed Central

    Sergeev, Eugenia; Hansen, Anders Højgaard; Pandey, Sunil K.; MacKenzie, Amanda E.; Hudson, Brian D.; Ulven, Trond; Milligan, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are produced in the gut by bacterial fermentation of poorly digested carbohydrates. A key mediator of their actions is the G protein-coupled free fatty acid 2 (FFA2) receptor, and this has been suggested as a therapeutic target for the treatment of both metabolic and inflammatory diseases. However, a lack of understanding of the molecular determinants dictating how ligands bind to this receptor has hindered development. We have developed a novel radiolabeled FFA2 antagonist to probe ligand binding to FFA2, and in combination with mutagenesis and molecular modeling studies, we define how agonist and antagonist ligands interact with the receptor. Although both agonist and antagonist ligands contain negatively charged carboxylates that interact with two key positively charged arginine residues in transmembrane domains V and VII of FFA2, there are clear differences in how these interactions occur. Specifically, although agonists require interaction with both arginine residues to bind the receptor, antagonists require an interaction with only one of the two. Moreover, different chemical series of antagonist interact preferentially with different arginine residues. A homology model capable of rationalizing these observations was developed and provides a tool that will be invaluable for identifying improved FFA2 agonists and antagonists to further define function and therapeutic opportunities of this receptor. PMID:26518871

  1. Antagonistic neural networks underlying differentiated leadership roles

    PubMed Central

    Boyatzis, Richard E.; Rochford, Kylie; Jack, Anthony I.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of two distinct leadership roles, the task leader and the socio-emotional leader, has been documented in the leadership literature since the 1950s. Recent research in neuroscience suggests that the division between task-oriented and socio-emotional-oriented roles derives from a fundamental feature of our neurobiology: an antagonistic relationship between two large-scale cortical networks – the task-positive network (TPN) and the default mode network (DMN). Neural activity in TPN tends to inhibit activity in the DMN, and vice versa. The TPN is important for problem solving, focusing of attention, making decisions, and control of action. The DMN plays a central role in emotional self-awareness, social cognition, and ethical decision making. It is also strongly linked to creativity and openness to new ideas. Because activation of the TPN tends to suppress activity in the DMN, an over-emphasis on task-oriented leadership may prove deleterious to social and emotional aspects of leadership. Similarly, an overemphasis on the DMN would result in difficulty focusing attention, making decisions, and solving known problems. In this paper, we will review major streams of theory and research on leadership roles in the context of recent findings from neuroscience and psychology. We conclude by suggesting that emerging research challenges the assumption that role differentiation is both natural and necessary, in particular when openness to new ideas, people, emotions, and ethical concerns are important to success. PMID:24624074

  2. Noradrenergic antagonists mitigate amphetamine-induced recovery.

    PubMed

    Hylin, M J; Brenneman, M M; Corwin, J V

    2017-09-15

    Brain injury, including that due to stroke, leaves individuals with cognitive deficits that can disrupt daily aspect of living. As of now there are few treatments that shown limited amounts of success in improving functional outcome. The use of stimulants such as amphetamine have shown some success in improving outcome following brain injury. While the pharmacological mechanisms for amphetamine are known; the specific processes responsible for improving behavioral outcome following injury remain unknown. Understanding these mechanisms can help to refine the use of amphetamine as a potential treatment or lead to the use of other methods that share the same pharmacological properties. One proposed mechanism is amphetamine's impact upon noradrenaline (NA). In the current, study noradrenergic antagonists were administered prior to amphetamine to pharmacologically block α- and β-adrenergic receptors. The results demonstrated that the blockade of these receptors disrupted amphetamines ability to induce recovery from hemispatial neglect using an established aspiration lesion model. This suggests that amphetamine's ability to ameliorate neglect deficits may be due in part to noradrenaline. These results further support the role of noradrenaline in functional recovery. Finally, the development of polytherapies and combined therapeutics, while promising, may need to consider the possibility that drug interactions can negate the effectiveness of treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. HIGH AFFINITY ACYLATING ANTAGONISTS FOR MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS

    PubMed Central

    Baumgold, Jesse; Karton, Yishai; Malka, Naftali; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The muscarinic antagonists pirenzepine and telenzepine were derivitized as alkylamino derivatives at a site on the molecules corresponding to a region of bulk tolerance in receptor binding. The distal primary amino groups were coupled to the cross-linking reagent meta-phenylene diisothiocyanate, resulting in two isothiocyanate derivatives that were found to inhibit muscarinic receptors irreversibly and in a dose-dependent fashion. Preincubation of rat forebrain membranes with an isothiocyanate derivative followed by radioligand binding using [3H]N-methylscopolamine diminished the Bmax value, but did not affect the Kd value. The receptor binding site was not restored upon repeated washing, indicating that irreversible inhibition had occurred. IC50 values for the irreversible inhibition at rat forebrain muscarinic receptors were 0.15 nM and 0.19 nM, for derivatives of pirenzepine and telenzepine, respectively. The isothiocyanate derivative of pirenzepine was non-selective as an irreversible muscarinic inhibitor, and the corresponding derivative prepared from telenzepine was 5-fold selective for forebrain (mainly m1) vs. heart (m2) muscarinic receptors. PMID:1625525

  4. Antagonistic interactions among coral-associated bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rypien, Krystal L; Ward, Jessica R; Azam, Farooq

    2010-01-01

    Reef-building corals are comprised of close associations between the coral animal, symbiotic zooxanthellae, and a diversity of associated microbes (including Bacteria, Archaea and Fungi). Together, these comprise the coral holobiont - a paradigm that emphasizes the potential contributions of each component to the overall function and health of the coral. Little is known about the ecology of the coral-associated microbial community and its hypothesized role in coral health. We explored bacteria-bacteria antagonism among 67 bacterial isolates from the scleractinian coral Montastrea annularis at two temperatures using Burkholder agar diffusion assays. A majority of isolates exhibited inhibitory activity (69.6% of isolates at 25 degrees C, 52.2% at 31 degrees C), with members of the gamma-proteobacteria (Vibrionales and Alteromonadales) being especially antagonistic. Elevated temperatures generally reduced levels of antagonism, although the effects were complex. Several potential pathogens were observed in the microbial community of apparently healthy corals, and 11.6% of isolates were able to inhibit the growth of the coral pathogen Vibrio shiloi at 25 degrees C. Overall, this study demonstrates that antagonism could be a structuring force in coral-associated microbial communities and may contribute to pathogenesis as well as disease resistance.

  5. Antagonists for acute oral cadmium chloride intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Basinger, M.A.; Jones, M.M.; Holscher, M.A.; Vaughn, W.K.

    1988-01-01

    An examination has been carried out on the relative efficacy of a number of chelating agents when acting as antagonists for oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice. The compounds were administered orally after the oral administration of cadmium chloride at 1 mmol/kg. Of the compounds examined, several were useful in terms of enhancing survival, but by far the most effective in both enhancing survival and leaving minimal residual levels of cadmium in the liver and the kidney, was meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Several polyaminocarboxylic acids also enhanced survival. The most effective of these in reducing liver and kidney levels of cadmium were diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N'N'-tetraacetic acid (CDTA), and triethylenetetraminehexaacetic acid (TTHA). D-Penicillamine (DPA) was found to promote survival but also led to kidney cadmium levels higher than those found in the controls. Sodium 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate (DMPS) was as effective in promoting survival as DMSA but left levels of cadmium in the kidney and liver that were approximately four times greater than those found with DMSA.

  6. Antagonistic neural networks underlying differentiated leadership roles.

    PubMed

    Boyatzis, Richard E; Rochford, Kylie; Jack, Anthony I

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of two distinct leadership roles, the task leader and the socio-emotional leader, has been documented in the leadership literature since the 1950s. Recent research in neuroscience suggests that the division between task-oriented and socio-emotional-oriented roles derives from a fundamental feature of our neurobiology: an antagonistic relationship between two large-scale cortical networks - the task-positive network (TPN) and the default mode network (DMN). Neural activity in TPN tends to inhibit activity in the DMN, and vice versa. The TPN is important for problem solving, focusing of attention, making decisions, and control of action. The DMN plays a central role in emotional self-awareness, social cognition, and ethical decision making. It is also strongly linked to creativity and openness to new ideas. Because activation of the TPN tends to suppress activity in the DMN, an over-emphasis on task-oriented leadership may prove deleterious to social and emotional aspects of leadership. Similarly, an overemphasis on the DMN would result in difficulty focusing attention, making decisions, and solving known problems. In this paper, we will review major streams of theory and research on leadership roles in the context of recent findings from neuroscience and psychology. We conclude by suggesting that emerging research challenges the assumption that role differentiation is both natural and necessary, in particular when openness to new ideas, people, emotions, and ethical concerns are important to success.

  7. TRPV1 Antagonist Suppresses Allergic Conjunctivitis in a Murine Model.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ji Young; Lee, Hyun Soo; Joo, Choun-Ki

    2016-10-11

    To determine the immunologic functions of TRPA1 or TRPV1 in allergic conjunctivitis (AC). Mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA), after which TRPA1 antagonist or TRPV1 antagonist was administered before topical OVA challenge. Expression of TRPV1 or TRPA1 in AC was examined by western blotting and multicolor immunofluorescence. Clinical signs, OVA-specific IgE, infiltration of inflammatory cells into conjunctivae (CJs), and Th2 cytokine in draining lymph nodes (LNs) were evaluated by microscopy, flow cytometry, and ELISA. TRPV1 expression was increased in CJs and LNs from AC mice, but TRPA1 expression was only increased in LNs. TRPV1 antagonist but not TRPA1 antagonist attenuated the clinical signs of AC and OVA-specific IgE in sera. TRPV1 antagonist furthermore inhibited the infiltration of inflammatory cells into CJ and the production of Th2 cytokines in LNs. TRPV1 antagonist but not TRPA1 antagonist may ameliorate AC by suppressing the Th2 response in LNs.

  8. Cannabinoid receptor antagonists: pharmacological opportunities, clinical experience, and translational prognosis.

    PubMed

    Janero, David R; Makriyannis, Alexandros

    2009-03-01

    The endogenous cannabinoid (CB) (endocannabinoid) signaling system is involved in a variety of (patho)physiological processes, primarily by virtue of natural, arachidonic acid-derived lipids (endocannabinoids) that activate G protein-coupled CB1 and CB2 receptors. A hyperactive endocannabinoid system appears to contribute to the etiology of several disease states that constitute significant global threats to human health. Consequently, mounting interest surrounds the design and profiling of receptor-targeted CB antagonists as pharmacotherapeutics that attenuate endocannabinoid transmission for salutary gain. Experimental and clinical evidence supports the therapeutic potential of CB1 receptor antagonists to treat overweight/obesity, obesity-related cardiometabolic disorders, and substance abuse. Laboratory data suggest that CB2 receptor antagonists might be effective immunomodulatory and, perhaps, anti-inflammatory drugs. One CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist, rimonabant, has emerged as the first-in-class drug approved outside the United States for weight control. Select follow-on agents (taranabant, otenabant, surinabant, rosonabant, SLV-319, AVE1625, V24343) have also been studied in the clinic. However, rimonabant's market withdrawal in the European Union and suspension of rimonabant's, taranabant's, and otenabant's ongoing development programs have highlighted some adverse clinical side effects (especially nausea and psychiatric disturbances) of CB1 receptor antagonists/inverse agonists. Novel CB1 receptor ligands that are peripherally directed and/or exhibit neutral antagonism (the latter not affecting constitutive CB1 receptor signaling) may optimize the benefits of CB1 receptor antagonists while minimizing any risk. Indeed, CB1 receptor-neutral antagonists appear from preclinical data to offer efficacy comparable to or better than that of prototype CB1 receptor antagonists/inverse agonists, with less propensity to induce nausea. Continued

  9. Single exposure of dopamine D1 antagonist prevents and D2 antagonist attenuates methylphenidate effect

    PubMed Central

    Claussen, Catherine M; Witte, Lindsey J; Dafny, Nachum

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPD) is a readily prescribed drug for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and moreover is used illicitly by youths for its cognitive-enhancing effects and recreation. MPD exposure in rodents elicits increased locomotor activity. Repetitive MPD exposure leads to further augmentation of their locomotor activity. This behavioral response is referred to as behavioral sensitization. Behavioral sensitization is used as an experimental marker for a drug’s ability to elicit dependence. There is evidence that dopamine (DA) is a key player in the acute and chronic MPD effect; however, the role of DA in the effects elicited by MPD is still debated. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of D1 and/or D2 DA receptors in the acute and chronic effect of MPD on locomotor activity. The study lasted for 12 consecutive days. Seven groups of male Sprague Dawley® rats were used. A single D1 or D2 antagonist was given before and after acute and chronic MPD administration. Single injection of D1 DA antagonist was able to significantly attenuate the locomotor activity when given prior to the initial MPD exposure and after repetitive MPD exposure, while the D2 DA antagonist partially attenuated the locomotor activity only when given before the second MPD exposure. The results show the role, at least in part, of the D1 DA receptor in the mechanism of behavioral sensitization, whereas the D2 DA receptor only partially modulates the response to acute and chronic MPD. PMID:27186140

  10. The muscarinic antagonists scopolamine and atropine are competitive antagonists at 5-HT3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Lochner, Martin; Thompson, Andrew J

    2016-09-01

    Scopolamine is a high affinity muscarinic antagonist that is used for the prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists are used for the same purpose and are structurally related to scopolamine. To examine whether 5-HT3 receptors are affected by scopolamine we examined the effects of this drug on the electrophysiological and ligand binding properties of 5-HT3A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and HEK293 cells, respectively. 5-HT3 receptor-responses were reversibly inhibited by scopolamine with an IC50 of 2.09 μM. Competitive antagonism was shown by Schild plot (pA2 = 5.02) and by competition with the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists [(3)H]granisetron (Ki = 6.76 μM) and G-FL (Ki = 4.90 μM). The related molecule, atropine, similarly inhibited 5-HT evoked responses in oocytes with an IC50 of 1.74 μM, and competed with G-FL with a Ki of 7.94 μM. The reverse experiment revealed that granisetron also competitively bound to muscarinic receptors (Ki = 6.5 μM). In behavioural studies scopolamine is used to block muscarinic receptors and induce a cognitive deficit, and centrally administered concentrations can exceed the IC50 values found here. It is therefore possible that 5-HT3 receptors are also inhibited. Studies that utilise higher concentrations of scopolamine should be mindful of these potential off-target effects.

  11. Multiple Targeting Approaches on Histamine H3 Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Khanfar, Mohammad A.; Affini, Anna; Lutsenko, Kiril; Nikolic, Katarina; Butini, Stefania; Stark, Holger

    2016-01-01

    With the very recent market approval of pitolisant (Wakix®), the interest in clinical applications of novel multifunctional histamine H3 receptor antagonists has clearly increased. Since histamine H3 receptor antagonists in clinical development have been tested for a variety of different indications, the combination of pharmacological properties in one molecule for improved pharmacological effects and reduced unwanted side-effects is rationally based on the increasing knowledge on the complex neurotransmitter regulations. The polypharmacological approaches on histamine H3 receptor antagonists on different G-protein coupled receptors, transporters, enzymes as well as on NO-signaling mechanism are described, supported with some lead structures. PMID:27303254

  12. Intractable pneumococcal meningoencephalitis associated with a TNF-α antagonist.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seok-Jae; Kim, Hyun Young; Kim, Young Seo; Lee, Ha Neul; Kim, Hee Tae; Kim, Seung H

    2014-09-15

    A 34-year-old man was treated with a TNF-α antagonist for ankylosing spondylitis, and this subsequently developed a CNS infection. Magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse subcortical white matter lesions. Streptococcus pneumoniae was cultured from the cerebrospinal fluid and blood. The patient died of multifocal widespread brain damage and subarachnoid hemorrhage, despite intensive antibacterial medication. Pneumococcal meningoencephalitis can occur in association with TNF-α antagonists. Clinicians should be aware of both the risk of fatal bacterial meningoencephalitis associated with TNF-α antagonists and the possibility of an unusual presentation of bacterial meningitis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Multiple Targeting Approaches on Histamine H3 Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Khanfar, Mohammad A; Affini, Anna; Lutsenko, Kiril; Nikolic, Katarina; Butini, Stefania; Stark, Holger

    2016-01-01

    With the very recent market approval of pitolisant (Wakix®), the interest in clinical applications of novel multifunctional histamine H3 receptor antagonists has clearly increased. Since histamine H3 receptor antagonists in clinical development have been tested for a variety of different indications, the combination of pharmacological properties in one molecule for improved pharmacological effects and reduced unwanted side-effects is rationally based on the increasing knowledge on the complex neurotransmitter regulations. The polypharmacological approaches on histamine H3 receptor antagonists on different G-protein coupled receptors, transporters, enzymes as well as on NO-signaling mechanism are described, supported with some lead structures.

  14. New potential uroselective NO-donor alpha1-antagonists.

    PubMed

    Boschi, Donatella; Tron, Gian Cesare; Di Stilo, Antonella; Fruttero, Roberta; Gasco, Alberto; Poggesi, Elena; Motta, Gianni; Leonardi, Amedeo

    2003-08-14

    A recent uroselective alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist, REC15/2739, has been joined with nitrooxy and furoxan NO-donor moieties to give new NO-donor alpha(1)-antagonists. All the compounds studied proved to be potent and selective ligands of human cloned alpha(1a)-receptor subtype. Derivatives 6 and 7 were able to relax the prostatic portion of rat vas deferens contracted by (-)-noradrenaline because of both their alpha(1A)-antagonist and their NO-donor properties.

  15. [Research progress of selective mGluR1 antagonists].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi-lei; Sun, Wei; Peng, Cheng; Zhang, Xiao-ye; Yang, Xiao-hong

    2011-10-01

    As an important member of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR), metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) plays an important role in the signal transduction of central nervous system. Selective mGluR1 antagonists can block the signaling pathway activated by mGluR1 and exert a series of physiological actions including analgesia, antianxiety, antidepression, etc. Currently, the discovery and modification of selective mGluR1 antagonists have become a hot research focus. This paper reviews the structural catalogs of selective mGluR1 antagonists and their structure-activity relationships in the last decade.

  16. Effects of dopamine D1-like and D2-like antagonists on cocaine discrimination in muscarinic receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Morgane; Caine, Simon Barak

    2016-04-05

    Muscarinic and dopamine brain systems interact intimately, and muscarinic receptor ligands, like dopamine ligands, can modulate the reinforcing and discriminative stimulus (S(D)) effects of cocaine. To enlighten the dopamine/muscarinic interactions as they pertain to the S(D) effects of cocaine, we evaluated whether muscarinic M1, M2 or M4 receptors are necessary for dopamine D1 and/or D2 antagonist mediated modulation of the S(D) effects of cocaine. Knockout mice lacking M1, M2, or M4 receptors, as well as control wild-type mice and outbred Swiss-Webster mice, were trained to discriminate 10mg/kg cocaine from saline in a food-reinforced drug discrimination procedure. Effects of pretreatments with the dopamine D1 antagonist SCH 23390 and the dopamine D2 antagonist eticlopride were evaluated. In intact mice, both SCH 23390 and eticlopride attenuated the cocaine discriminative stimulus effect, as expected. SCH 23390 similarly attenuated the cocaine discriminative stimulus effect in M1 knockout mice, but not in mice lacking M2 or M4 receptors. The effects of eticlopride were comparable in each knockout strain. These findings demonstrate differences in the way that D1 and D2 antagonists modulate the S(D) effects of cocaine, D1 modulation being at least partially dependent upon activity at the inhibitory M2/M4 muscarinic subtypes, while D2 modulation appeared independent of these systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of Receptor Ligands and Receptor Subtypes Using Antagonists in a Capillary Electrophoresis Single-Cell Biosensor Separation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishman, Harvey A.; Orwar, Owe; Scheller, Richard H.; Zare, Richard N.

    1995-08-01

    A capillary electrophoresis system with single-cell biosensors as a detector has been used to separate and identify ligands in complex biological samples. The power of this procedure was significantly increased by introducing antagonists that inhibited the cellular response from selected ligand-receptor interactions. The single-cell biosensor was based on the ligand-receptor binding and G-protein-mediated signal transduction pathways in PC12 and NG108-15 cell lines. Receptor activation was measured as increases in cytosolic free calcium ion concentration by using fluorescence microscopy with the intracellular calcium ion indicator fluo-3 acetoxymethyl ester. Specifically, a mixture of bradykinin (BK) and acetylcholine (ACh) was fractionated and the components were identified by inhibiting the cellular response with icatibant (HOE 140), a selective antagonist to the BK B_2 receptor subtype (B_2BK), and atropine, an antagonist to muscarinic ACh receptor subtypes. Structurally related forms of BK were also identified based on inhibiting B_2BK receptors. Applications of this technique include identification of endogenous BK in a lysate of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (Hep G2) and screening for bioactivity of BK degradation products in human blood plasma. The data demonstrate that the use of antagonists with a single-cell biosensor separation system aids identification of separated components and receptor subtypes.

  18. Accelerated habit formation following amphetamine exposure is reversed by D1, but enhanced by D2, receptor antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Andrew J. D.; Killcross, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Repeated exposure to the psychostimulant amphetamine has been shown to disrupt goal-directed instrumental actions and promote the early and abnormal development of goal-insensitive habitual responding (Nelson and Killcross, 2006). To investigate the neuropharmacological specificity of this effect as well as restore goal-directed responding in animals with pre-training amphetamine exposure, animals were treated with the non-selective dopamine antagonist α-flupenthixol, the selective D1 antagonist SCH 23390 or the selective D2 antagonist eticlopride, prior to instrumental training (three sessions). Subsequently, the reinforcer was paired with LiCL-induced gastric-malaise and animals were given a test of goal-sensitivity both in extinction and reacquisition. The effect of these dopaminergic antagonists on the sensitivity of lever press performance to outcome devaluation was assessed in animals with pre-training exposure to amphetamine (Experiments 1A–C) or in non-sensitized animals (Experiment 2). Both α-flupenthixol and SCH23390 reversed accelerated habit formation following amphetamine sensitization. However, eticlopride appeared to enhance this effect and render instrumental performance compulsive as these animals were unable to inhibit responding both in extinction and reacquisition, even though a consumption test confirmed they had acquired an aversion to the reinforcer. These findings demonstrate that amphetamine induced-disruption of goal-directed behavior is mediated by activity at distinct dopamine receptor subtypes and may represent a putative model of the neurochemical processes involved in the loss of voluntary control over behavior. PMID:23720609

  19. Novel pyrrolidine heterocycles as CCR1 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Merritt, J Robert; James, Ray; Paradkar, Vidyadhar M; Zhang, Chongwu; Liu, Ruiyan; Liu, Jinqi; Jacob, Biji; Chiriac, Camelia; Ohlmeyer, Michael J; Quadros, Elizabeth; Wines, Pamela; Postelnek, Jennifer; Hicks, Catherine M; Chen, Weiqing; Kimble, Earl F; O'Brien, Linda; White, Nicole; Desai, Hema; Appell, Kenneth C; Webb, Maria L

    2010-09-15

    A novel series of pyrrolidine heterocycles was prepared and found to show potent inhibitory activity of CCR1 binding and CCL3 mediated chemotaxis of a CCR1-expressing cell line. A potent, optimized triazole lead from this series was found to have acceptable pharmacokinetics and microsomal stability in rat and is suitable for further optimization and development. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Muscarinic Antagonists Free of Hallucinogenic Properties.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    response curve with maximum . .~nterference of pilocarpine-induced catatonia at 5mg/Kg. The inhibition decreased in a dose- ependent manner to control levels...of catatonia at 0.01 mg/Kg. QNX and QNA gave responses S arkedly different from QNB. QNB, QNX and QNA were all potent stimulators of the limb flick...behavioral measures were selected: 1) The pilocarpine test, a measure of interference with pilocarpine induced catatonia thought to be centrally mediated by

  1. Macrophage and myofibroblast involvement in ischemic acute renal failure is attenuated by endothelin receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Forbes, J M; Leaker, B; Hewitson, T D; Becker, G J; Jones, C L

    1999-01-01

    Endothelin (ET) may be a mediator of injury following ischemia-induced acute renal failure (ARF). ET receptor (ETR) antagonists have been reported to increase survival rates and lower serum creatinines when administered postrenal ischemia-reperfusion injury in the rat. Renal cellular and extracellular matrix responses to this therapy have not been addressed. We investigated the use of ETR antagonists, PD 156707 (ETA) and SB 209670 (ETA and ETB) in the treatment of sublethal postischemic ARF. The right kidney of female Sprague-Dawley rats weighing approximately 200 g was removed. After five days, the left renal pedicle was occluded for 45 minutes. Twenty-four hours after renal ischemia, one of two ETR antagonists, PD 156707 (N = 7) or SB 209670 (N = 8), was administered. Experimental animals were compared with an ischemic group receiving only saline (N = 9). Three nephrectomized groups that did not undergo ischemia but that received infusions of saline (N = 6), PD 156707 (N = 6), and SB 209670 (N = 6), respectively, were also studied. Animals were sacrificed one week postischemia. Quantitation of monocytes and macrophages (Mo/Mphi), alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive myofibroblasts, and collagens type III and IV was performed by immunohistochemical staining. Cell kinetics were examined by staining for apoptosis with terminal deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) nick end labeling and for proliferation with proliferating cell nuclear antigen. All ischemic groups of rats initially developed raised serum creatinine levels; however, no significant difference was observed between the groups (Kruskal-Wallis). Creatinines returned to preischemic values in all groups by the time of sacrifice. No significant difference in kidney weights or body weights was found between groups. Histologically, infiltration of Mo/Mphi was significantly reduced in groups treated with ETR antagonists (P < 0.001). The presence of myofibroblasts was also significan