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Sample records for a2b1 integrin transgenic

  1. Skeletal Phenotype of Transgenic Mice Expressing the Beta1 Integrin Cytoplasmic Tail In Osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, R. K.; vanderMeulen, M. C. H.; Damsky, D.; Kim, J.-B.; Amblard, D.; Amblard, D.; Nishimura, Y.; Almeida, E.; Iwaniec, U. T.; Wronski, T. J.; hide

    2002-01-01

    To define the physiologic role of beta1 integrin in bone formation and mechanical loading, transgenic mice were generated by expressing the cytoplasmic tall and transmembrane domain of Beta1 integrin under the control of the osteocalcin promoter. In cultured cells, this truncated fragment of Beta1 can act as a dominant negative. Previously, the matrix of calvariae was shown to be abnormal in transgenic (TG) compared to wildtype (WT) mice. In this study, we analyzed appendicular bone in TG and WT, male and female mice at 14, 35, 63, 90 and 365 days old (n=8-12/gp). To assess beta1 integrin function in mechanical loading, a pilot study using hindlimb unloading by tail suspension was performed. 35d old TG and WT females were hindlimb unloaded for 4 wks (n=3-5). Body mass, bone mineral content, histomorphometric (distal femur) and biomechanical parameters were analyzed. Statistical significance (P less than.05) was defined by ANOVA using the Tukey-Kramer post-hoc test. We confirmed transgene expression by immunoprecipitating then immunoblotting bone lysates using an antibody against the beta1 tail. Body masses of TG mice at 63, 90 and 365d old were greater (16-25%) than WT. Some TG female mice at 365d appeared obese; mean abdominal fat mass was 415% greater in TG than WT mice. Tibiae were longer (5-7%) in TG than WT mice at 63 and 90d. Tibial mineral mass of 35d males was 7% lower in TG than WT mice, but at 63d was 21% higher. The % osteoblast surface in 35d TG mice was 20% higher than WT, and at 63d was 17% lower, while % osteoclast surface did not differ. In 365d mice, cancellous bone volume (125%) and endocortical mineral apposition rate (40%) were greater in TG than WT males but not females. In WT mice, hindlimb unloading caused a reduction in mineral mass of tibiae (-20%) and lumbar vertebrae (-22%) relative to normally loaded controls. Surprisingly, hindlimb unloading also caused a relative reduction (-13%) in humerus mass. The effects of hindlimb unloading on

  2. Psoriasiform skin disease in transgenic pigs with high-copy ectopic expression of human integrins α2 and β1.

    PubMed

    Staunstrup, Nicklas Heine; Stenderup, Karin; Mortensen, Sidsel; Primo, Maria Nascimento; Rosada, Cecilia; Steiniche, Torben; Liu, Ying; Li, Rong; Schmidt, Mette; Purup, Stig; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik; Schrøder, Lisbeth Dahl; Svensson, Lars; Petersen, Thomas Kongstad; Callesen, Henrik; Bolund, Lars; Mikkelsen, Jacob Giehm

    2017-07-01

    Psoriasis is a complex human-specific disease characterized by perturbed keratinocyte proliferation and a pro-inflammatory environment in the skin. Porcine skin architecture and immunity are very similar to that in humans, rendering the pig a suitable animal model for studying the biology and treatment of psoriasis. Expression of integrins, which is normally confined to the basal layer of the epidermis, is maintained in suprabasal keratinocytes in psoriatic skin, modulating proliferation and differentiation as well as leukocyte infiltration. Here, we generated minipigs co-expressing integrins α2 and β1 in suprabasal epidermal layers. Integrin-transgenic minipigs born into the project displayed skin phenotypes that correlated with the number of inserted transgenes. Molecular analyses were in good concordance with histological observations of psoriatic hallmarks, including hypogranulosis and T-lymphocyte infiltration. These findings mark the first creation of minipigs with a psoriasiform phenotype resembling human psoriasis and demonstrate that integrin signaling plays a key role in psoriasis pathology. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Psoriasiform skin disease in transgenic pigs with high-copy ectopic expression of human integrins α2 and β1

    PubMed Central

    Staunstrup, Nicklas Heine; Stenderup, Karin; Mortensen, Sidsel; Primo, Maria Nascimento; Steiniche, Torben; Liu, Ying; Li, Rong; Schmidt, Mette; Purup, Stig; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik; Schrøder, Lisbeth Dahl; Svensson, Lars; Petersen, Thomas Kongstad; Callesen, Henrik; Bolund, Lars

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Psoriasis is a complex human-specific disease characterized by perturbed keratinocyte proliferation and a pro-inflammatory environment in the skin. Porcine skin architecture and immunity are very similar to that in humans, rendering the pig a suitable animal model for studying the biology and treatment of psoriasis. Expression of integrins, which is normally confined to the basal layer of the epidermis, is maintained in suprabasal keratinocytes in psoriatic skin, modulating proliferation and differentiation as well as leukocyte infiltration. Here, we generated minipigs co-expressing integrins α2 and β1 in suprabasal epidermal layers. Integrin-transgenic minipigs born into the project displayed skin phenotypes that correlated with the number of inserted transgenes. Molecular analyses were in good concordance with histological observations of psoriatic hallmarks, including hypogranulosis and T-lymphocyte infiltration. These findings mark the first creation of minipigs with a psoriasiform phenotype resembling human psoriasis and demonstrate that integrin signaling plays a key role in psoriasis pathology. PMID:28679670

  4. Skeletal phenotype of growing transgenic mice that express a function-perturbing form of beta1 integrin in osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, R. K.; Amblard, D.; Nishimura, Y.; Iwaniec, U. T.; Kim, J-B; Almeida, E. A. C.; Damsky, C. D.; Wronski, T. J.; van der Meulen, M. C. H.

    2005-01-01

    Skeletal modeling entails the deposition of large amounts of extracellular matrix (ECM) to form structures tailored to withstand increasing mechanical loads during rapid growth. Specific ECM molecules bind to integrin receptors on the cell surface, thereby triggering a cascade of signaling events that affect critical cell functions. To evaluate the role of integrins during skeletal growth, transgenic mice were engineered to express a function-perturbing fragment of beta1 integrin consisting of the transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail under the control of the osteocalcin promoter (TG mice). Thus, transgene expression was targeted to mature cells of the osteoblast lineage, and herein we show that cultured cells resembling osteocytes from 90-day-old TG mice display impaired adhesion to collagen I, a ligand for beta1 integrin. To determine the influence of beta1 integrin on bones that are responsible for providing structural support during periods of rapid growth, we examined the phenotype of the appendicular skeleton in TG mice compared to wild type (WT) mice. According to radiographs, bones from mice of both genotypes between 14 and 90 days of age appeared similar in gross structure and density, although proximal tibiae from 35-90 days old TG mice were less curved than those of WT mice (72-92% TG/WT). Although there were only mild and transient differences in absolute bone mass and strength, once normalized to body mass, the tibial dry mass (79.1% TG/WT females), ash mass (78.5% TG/WT females), and femoral strength in torsion (71.6% TG/WT females) were reduced in TG mice compared to WT mice at 90 days of age. Similar effects of genotype on bone mass and curvature were observed in 1-year-old retired breeders, indicating that these phenotypic differences between TG and WT mice were stable well into adulthood. Effects of genotype on histomorphometric indices of cancellous bone turnover were minimal and evident only transiently during growth, but when present they

  5. Development of Transgenic Cloned Pig Models of Skin Inflammation by DNA Transposon-Directed Ectopic Expression of Human β1 and α2 Integrin

    PubMed Central

    Staunstrup, Nicklas Heine; Madsen, Johannes; Primo, Maria Nascimento; Li, Juan; Liu, Ying; Kragh, Peter M.; Li, Rong; Schmidt, Mette; Purup, Stig; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik; Svensson, Lars; Petersen, Thomas K.; Callesen, Henrik; Bolund, Lars; Mikkelsen, Jacob Giehm

    2012-01-01

    Integrins constitute a superfamily of transmembrane signaling receptors that play pivotal roles in cutaneous homeostasis by modulating cell growth and differentiation as well as inflammatory responses in the skin. Subrabasal expression of integrins α2 and/or β1 entails hyperproliferation and aberrant differentiation of keratinocytes and leads to dermal and epidermal influx of activated T-cells. The anatomical and physiological similarities between porcine and human skin make the pig a suitable model for human skin diseases. In efforts to generate a porcine model of cutaneous inflammation, we employed the Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon system for production of transgenic cloned Göttingen minipigs expressing human β1 or α2 integrin under the control of a promoter specific for subrabasal keratinocytes. Using pools of transgenic donor fibroblasts, cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer was utilized to produce reconstructed embryos that were subsequently transferred to surrogate sows. The resulting pigs were all transgenic and harbored from one to six transgene integrants. Molecular analyses on skin biopsies and cultured keratinocytes showed ectopic expression of the human integrins and localization within the keratinocyte plasma membrane. Markers of perturbed skin homeostasis, including activation of the MAPK pathway, increased expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1α, and enhanced expression of the transcription factor c-Fos, were identified in keratinocytes from β1 and α2 integrin-transgenic minipigs, suggesting the induction of a chronic inflammatory phenotype in the skin. Notably, cellular dysregulation obtained by overexpression of either β1 or α2 integrin occurred through different cellular signaling pathways. Our findings mark the creation of the first cloned pig models with molecular markers of skin inflammation. Despite the absence of an overt psoriatic phenotype, these animals may possess increased susceptibility to severe skin damage

  6. Global Profiling of hnRNP A2/B1-RNA Binding on Chromatin Highlights LncRNA Interactions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Eric D; Balas, Maggie M; Griffin, April M; Roberts, Justin T; Johnson, Aaron M

    2018-06-23

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) often carry out their functions through associations with adaptor proteins. We recently identified heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A2/B1 as an adaptor of the human HOTAIR lncRNA. hnRNP A2 and B1 are splice isoforms of the same gene. The spliced version of HOTAIR preferentially associates with the B1 isoform, which we hypothesize contributes to RNA-RNA matching between HOTAIR and transcripts of target genes in breast cancer. Here we used enhanced cross-linking immunoprecipitation (eCLIP) to map the direct interactions between A2/B1 and RNA in breast cancer cells. Despite differing by only twelve amino acids, the A2 and B1 splice isoforms associate preferentially with distinct populations of RNA in vivo. Through cellular fractionation experiments we characterize the pattern of RNA association in chromatin, nucleoplasm, and cytoplasm. We find that a majority of interactions occur on chromatin, even those that do not contribute to co-transcriptional splicing. A2/B1 binding site locations on multiple RNAs hint at a contribution to the regulation and function of lncRNAs. Surprisingly, the strongest A2/B1 binding site occurs in a retained intron of HOTAIR, which interrupts an RNA-RNA interaction hotspot. In vitro eCLIP experiments highlight additional exonic B1 binding sites in HOTAIR which also surround the RNA-RNA interaction hotspot. Interestingly, a version of HOTAIR with the intron retained is still capable of making RNA-RNA interactions in vitro through the hotspot region. Our data further characterize the multiple functions of a repurposed splicing factor with isoform-biased interactions, and highlight that the majority of these functions occur on chromatin-associated RNA.

  7. hnRNP A2/B1 interacts with influenza A viral protein NS1 and inhibits virus replication potentially through suppressing NS1 RNA/protein levels and NS1 mRNA nuclear export

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yimeng; Zhou, Jianhong; Du, Yuchun, E-mail: ydu@uark.edu

    The NS1 protein of influenza viruses is a major virulence factor and exerts its function through interacting with viral/cellular RNAs and proteins. In this study, we identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1 (hnRNP A2/B1) as an interacting partner of NS1 proteins by a proteomic method. Knockdown of hnRNP A2/B1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) resulted in higher levels of NS vRNA, NS1 mRNA, and NS1 protein in the virus-infected cells. In addition, we demonstrated that hnRNP A2/B1 proteins are associated with NS1 and NS2 mRNAs and that knockdown of hnRNP A2/B1 promotes transport of NS1 mRNA from the nucleus to themore » cytoplasm in the infected cells. Lastly, we showed that knockdown of hnRNP A2/B1 leads to enhanced virus replication. Our results suggest that hnRNP A2/B1 plays an inhibitory role in the replication of influenza A virus in host cells potentially through suppressing NS1 RNA/protein levels and NS1 mRNA nucleocytoplasmic translocation. - Highlights: • Cellular protein hnRNP A2/B1 interacts with influenza viral protein NS1. • hnRNP A2/B1 suppresses the levels of NS1 protein, vRNA and mRNA in infected cells. • hnRNP A2/B1 protein is associated with NS1 and NS2 mRNAs. • hnRNP A2/B1 inhibits the nuclear export of NS1 mRNAs. • hnRNP A2/B1 inhibits influenza virus replication.« less

  8. Integrin Targeted Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Millard, Melissa; Odde, Srinivas; Neamati, Nouri

    2011-01-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric, transmembrane receptors that function as mechanosensors, adhesion molecules and signal transduction platforms in a multitude of biological processes. As such, integrins are central to the etiology and pathology of many disease states. Therefore, pharmacological inhibition of integrins is of great interest for the treatment and prevention of disease. In the last two decades several integrin-targeted drugs have made their way into clinical use, many others are in clinical trials and still more are showing promise as they advance through preclinical development. Herein, this review examines and evaluates the various drugs and compounds targeting integrins and the disease states in which they are implicated. PMID:21547158

  9. Integrin traffic - the update.

    PubMed

    De Franceschi, Nicola; Hamidi, Hellyeh; Alanko, Jonna; Sahgal, Pranshu; Ivaska, Johanna

    2015-03-01

    Integrins are a family of transmembrane cell surface molecules that constitute the principal adhesion receptors for the extracellular matrix (ECM) and are indispensable for the existence of multicellular organisms. In vertebrates, 24 different integrin heterodimers exist with differing substrate specificity and tissue expression. Integrin-extracellular-ligand interaction provides a physical anchor for the cell and triggers a vast array of intracellular signalling events that determine cell fate. Dynamic remodelling of adhesions, through rapid endocytic and exocytic trafficking of integrin receptors, is an important mechanism employed by cells to regulate integrin-ECM interactions, and thus cellular signalling, during processes such as cell migration, invasion and cytokinesis. The initial concept of integrin traffic as a means to translocate adhesion receptors within the cell has now been expanded with the growing appreciation that traffic is intimately linked to the cell signalling apparatus. Furthermore, endosomal pathways are emerging as crucial regulators of integrin stability and expression in cells. Thus, integrin traffic is relevant in a number of pathological conditions, especially in cancer. Nearly a decade ago we wrote a Commentary in Journal of Cell Science entitled 'Integrin traffic'. With the advances in the field, we felt it would be appropriate to provide the growing number of researchers interested in integrin traffic with an update. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Abnormal levels of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2B1 (hnRNPA2B1) in tumour tissue and blood samples from patients diagnosed with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Paul; Pollard, Damian; Larkin, AnneMarie; Henry, Michael; Meleady, Paula; Gately, Kathy; O'Byrne, Kenneth; Barr, Martin P; Lynch, Vincent; Ballot, Jo; Crown, John; Moriarty, Michael; O'Brien, Emmet; Morgan, Ross; Clynes, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Lung cancer is the second most common type of cancer in the world and is the most common cause of cancer-related death in both men and women. Research into causes, prevention and treatment of lung cancer is ongoing and much progress has been made recently in these areas, however survival rates have not significantly improved. Therefore, it is essential to develop biomarkers for early diagnosis of lung cancer, prediction of metastasis and evaluation of treatment efficiency, as well as using these molecules to provide some understanding about tumour biology and translate highly promising findings in basic science research to clinical application. In this investigation, two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were initially used to analyse conditioned media from a panel of lung cancer and normal bronchial epithelial cell lines. Significant proteins were identified with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2B1 (hnRNPA2B1), pyruvate kinase M2 isoform (PKM2), Hsc-70 interacting protein and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) selected for analysis in serum from healthy individuals and lung cancer patients. hnRNPA2B1, PKM2 and LDHA were found to be statistically significant in all comparisons. Tissue analysis and knockdown of hnRNPA2B1 using siRNA subsequently demonstrated both the overexpression and potential role for this molecule in lung tumorigenesis. The data presented highlights a number of in vitro derived candidate biomarkers subsequently verified in patient samples and also provides some insight into their roles in the complex intracellular mechanisms associated with tumour progression.

  11. Integrin Targeted MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Mingqian; Lu, Zheng-Rong

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful medical diagnostic imaging modality for integrin targeted imaging, which uses the magnetic resonance of tissue water protons to display tissue anatomic structures with high spatial resolution. Contrast agents are often used in MRI to highlight specific regions of the body and make them easier to visualize. There are four main classes of MRI contrast agents based on their different contrast mechanisms, including T1, T2, chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) agents, and heteronuclear contrast agents. Integrins are an important family of heterodimeric transmembrane glycoproteins that function as mediators of cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. The overexpressed integrins can be used as the molecular targets for designing suitable integrin targeted contrast agents for MR molecular imaging. Integrin targeted contrast agent includes a targeting agent specific to a target integrin, a paramagnetic agent and a linker connecting the targeting agent with the paramagnetic agent. Proper selection of targeting agents is critical for targeted MRI contrast agents to effectively bind to integrins for in vivo imaging. An ideal integrin targeted MR contrast agent should be non-toxic, provide strong contrast enhancement at the target sites and can be completely excreted from the body after MR imaging. An overview of integrin targeted MR contrast agents based on small molecular and macromolecular Gd(III) complexes, lipid nanoparticles and superparamagnetic nanoparticles is provided for MR molecular imaging. By using proper delivery systems for loading sufficient Gd(III) chelates or superparamagnetic nanoparticles, effective molecular imaging of integrins with MRI has been demonstrated in animal models. PMID:21547154

  12. Mechanotransduction through Integrins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingber, Donald

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this project was to characterize the molecular mechanism by which cells recognize and respond to physical forces in their local environment. The project was based on the working hypothesis that cells sense mechanical stresses through cell surface integrin receptors and through their interconnections with the underlying cytoskeleton. Work completed and published in past funding period had provided direct support for this hypothesis. In particular, we demonstrated that application of mechanical stresses to activated integrin receptors (but not inactive integrins or other control transmembrane receptors) resulted in stress-dependent activation of the CAMP signaling pathway leading to gene transcription. We also showed that this form of mechanotransduction requires activation of heterotrimeric G proteins. In this grant, our specific aims included: 1) to characterize the signal processing capabilities of different integrins and other cell surface receptors, 2) to identify heterotrimeric G proteins that mediate CAMP signaling by stresses applied to integrins, 3) to identify molecules that mediate transmembrane mechanochemical coupling between integrins and G proteins, and 4) to use genome-wide gene expression profiling techniques to identify other genes and signaling pathways that are activated by mechanical forces transmitted over specific cell surface receptors. Elucidation of the mechanism by which cells sense mechanical stresses through integrins and translate them into a biochemical response should help us to understand the molecular basis of the cellular response to gravity as well as many other forms of mechanosensation and tissue regulation.

  13. Increasing α7β1-integrin promotes muscle cell proliferation, adhesion, and resistance to apoptosis without changing gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianming; Burkin, Dean J.; Kaufman, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    The dystrophin-glycoprotein complex maintains the integrity of skeletal muscle by associating laminin in the extracellular matrix with the actin cytoskeleton. Several human muscular dystrophies arise from defects in the components of this complex. The α7β1-integrin also binds laminin and links the extracellular matrix with the cytoskeleton. Enhancement of α7-integrin levels alleviates pathology in mdx/utrn−/− mice, a model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and thus the integrin may functionally compensate for the absence of dystrophin. To test whether increasing α7-integrin levels affects transcription and cellular functions, we generated α7-integrin-inducible C2C12 cells and transgenic mice that overexpress the integrin in skeletal muscle. C2C12 myoblasts with elevated levels of integrin exhibited increased adhesion to laminin, faster proliferation when serum was limited, resistance to staurosporine-induced apoptosis, and normal differentiation. Transgenic expression of eightfold more integrin in skeletal muscle did not result in notable toxic effects in vivo. Moreover, high levels of α7-integrin in both myoblasts and in skeletal muscle did not disrupt global gene expression profiles. Thus increasing integrin levels can compensate for defects in the extracellular matrix and cytoskeleton linkage caused by compromises in the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex without triggering apparent overt negative side effects. These results support the use of integrin enhancement as a therapy for muscular dystrophy. PMID:18045857

  14. Integrins and Integrin-Associated Proteins in the Cardiac Myocyte

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric, transmembrane receptors that are expressed in all cells, including those in the heart. They participate in multiple critical cellular processes including adhesion, extracellular matrix organization, signaling, survival, and proliferation. Particularly relevant for a contracting muscle cell, integrins are mechanotransducers, translating mechanical to biochemical information. While it is likely that cardiovascular clinicians and scientists have highest recognition of integrins in the cardiovascular system from drugs used to inhibit platelet aggregation, the focus of this article will be on the role of integrins specifically in the cardiac myocyte. Following a general introduction to integrin biology, the manuscript will discuss important work on integrin signaling, mechanotransduction, and lessons learned about integrin function from a range of model organisms. Then we will detail work on integrin-related proteins in the myocyte, how integrins may interact with ion channels and mediate viral uptake into cells, and also play a role in stem cell biology. Finally, we will discuss directions for future study. PMID:24481847

  15. Suppression of HPV-16 late L1 5′-splice site SD3632 by binding of hnRNP D proteins and hnRNP A2/B1 to upstream AUAGUA RNA motifs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoze; Johansson, Cecilia; Glahder, Jacob; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Schwartz, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) 5′-splice site SD3632 is used exclusively to produce late L1 mRNAs. We identified a 34-nt splicing inhibitory element located immediately upstream of HPV-16 late 5′-splice site SD3632. Two AUAGUA motifs located in these 34 nt inhibited SD3632. Two nucleotide substitutions in each of the HPV-16 specific AUAGUA motifs alleviated splicing inhibition and induced late L1 mRNA production from episomal forms of the HPV-16 genome in primary human keratinocytes. The AUAGUA motifs bind specifically not only to the heterogeneous nuclear RNP (hnRNP) D family of RNA-binding proteins including hnRNP D/AUF, hnRNP DL and hnRNP AB but also to hnRNP A2/B1. Knock-down of these proteins induced HPV-16 late L1 mRNA expression, and overexpression of hnRNP A2/B1, hnRNP AB, hnRNP DL and the two hnRNP D isoforms hnRNP D37 and hnRNP D40 further suppressed L1 mRNA expression. This inhibition may allow HPV-16 to hide from the immune system and establish long-term persistent infections with enhanced risk at progressing to cancer. There is an inverse correlation between expression of hnRNP D proteins and hnRNP A2/B1 and HPV-16 L1 production in the cervical epithelium, as well as in cervical cancer, supporting the conclusion that hnRNP D proteins and A2/B1 inhibit HPV-16 L1 mRNA production. PMID:24013563

  16. Do Integrins Mediate the Skeletal Response to Altered Loading?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanderMeulen, Marjolein C. H.

    2004-01-01

    In vivo experiments were performed to examine the role of B1 integrin in skeletal adaptation to reduced and increased loading. Transgenic mice were generated with a dominant negative form of the B1 integrin cytoplasmic domain with expression driven by the osteocalcin promoter (pOCb1DN). This fragment consists of the transmembrane and intracellular domains and interferes with endogenous integrin signalling in vitro. This promoter targets expression of the transgene to mature bone cells. Expression of the transgene was confirmed by immunoprecipitation and western blotting. Reduced loading was generated by hindlimb suspension and increased loading the resumption of normal loading following hindlimb suspension. Two groups of female 35-day old mice were examined: poCb1DN transgenic mice (TG) and wild-type littermate controls (WT). Animals were hindlimb suspended for 1 week (HU, n = l0/gp) or 4 weeks (HU, n = 4 - 7/gp) or suspended for 4 weeks followed by reloading by normal ambulation for 4 weeks (RL, n = l0/gp). Age-matched controls (CT) were pairfed based on the HU food intake. The protocols were approved by the NASA Ames Research Center IACUC. Upon completion of the experimental protocol, body mass was recorded and tissues of interest removed and analyzed following standard procedures. Femoral whole bone structural behavior was measured in torsion to failure to obtain whole bone strength (failure torque) and torsional rigidity. Ash content (ash) and fraction (% ash) were determined for the tibia. Total ash is indicative of bone size whereas %ash is a material property. Tibial curvature was measured from microradiographs. For each experiment, the effects of genotype (TG, WT) and treatment (CT, HU/RL) were assessed by two-factor ANOVA followed by the Tukey-Kramer posthoc to identify significant differences at an alpha level of 0.05. Our goal was to understand differences resulting from altered integrin function in the adaptation to altered loading.

  17. Exercise promotes alpha7 integrin gene transcription and protection of skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Boppart, Marni D; Volker, Sonja E; Alexander, Nicole; Burkin, Dean J; Kaufman, Stephen J

    2008-11-01

    The alpha7beta1 integrin is increased in skeletal muscle in response to injury-producing exercise, and transgenic overexpression of this integrin in mice protects against exercise-induced muscle damage. The present study investigates whether the increase in the alpha7beta1 integrin observed in wild-type mice in response to exercise is due to transcriptional regulation and examines whether mobilization of the integrin at the myotendinous junction (MTJ) is a key determinant in its protection against damage. A single bout of downhill running exercise selectively increased transcription of the alpha7 integrin gene in 5-wk-old wild-type mice 3 h postexercise, and an increased alpha7 chain was detected in muscle sarcolemma adjacent to tendinous tissue immediately following exercise. The alpha7B, but not alpha7A isoform, was found concentrated and colocalized with tenascin-C in muscle fibers lining the MTJ. To further validate the importance of the integrin in the protection against muscle damage following exercise, muscle injury was quantified in alpha7(-/-) mice. Muscle damage was extensive in alpha7(-/-) mice in response to both a single and repeated bouts of exercise and was largely restricted to areas of high MTJ concentration and high mechanical force near the Achilles tendon. These results suggest that exercise-induced muscle injury selectively increases transcription of the alpha7 integrin gene and promotes a rapid change in the alpha7beta integrin at the MTJ. These combined molecular and cellular alterations are likely responsible for integrin-mediated attenuation of exercise-induced muscle damage.

  18. Integrins in T Cell Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Alabiso, Oscar; Galetto, Alessandra Silvia; Baldanzi, Gianluca

    2018-01-01

    From the thymus to the peripheral lymph nodes, integrin-mediated interactions with neighbor cells and the extracellular matrix tune T cell behavior by organizing cytoskeletal remodeling and modulating receptor signaling. LFA-1 (αLβ2 integrin) and VLA-4 (α4β1 integrin) play a key role throughout the T cell lifecycle from thymocyte differentiation to lymphocyte extravasation and finally play a fundamental role in organizing immune synapse, providing an essential costimulatory signal for the T cell receptor. Apart from tuning T cell signaling, integrins also contribute to homing to specific target organs as exemplified by the importance of α4β7 in maintaining the gut immune system. However, apart from those well-characterized examples, the physiological significance of the other integrin dimers expressed by T cells is far less understood. Thus, integrin-mediated cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix interactions during the T cell lifespan still represent an open field of research. PMID:29415483

  19. β1D chain increases α7β1 integrin and laminin and protects against sarcolemmal damage in mdx mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianming; Milner, Derek J.; Boppart, Marni D.; Ross, Robert S.; Kaufman, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    The dystrophin–glycoprotein complex connects myofibers with extracellular matrix laminin. In Duchenne muscular dystrophy, this linkage system is absent and the integrity of muscle fibers is compromised. One potential therapy for addressing muscular dystrophy is to augment the amount of α7β1 integrin, the major laminin-binding integrin in skeletal muscle. Whereas transgenic over-expression of α7 chain may alleviate development of muscular dystrophy and extend the lifespan of severely dystrophic mdx/utrn−/− mice, further enhancing levels of α7 chain provided little additional membrane integrin and negligible additional improvement in mdx mice. We demonstrate here that normal levels of β1 chain limit formation of integrin heterodimer and that increasing β1D chain in mdx mice results in more functional integrin at the sarcolemma, more matrix laminin and decreased damage of muscle fibers. Moreover, increasing the amount of β1D chain in vitro enhances transcription of α7 integrin and α2 laminin genes and the amounts of these proteins. Thus manipulation of β1D integrin expression offers a novel approach to enhance integrin-mediated therapy for muscular dystrophy. PMID:22180459

  20. Integrins, tensegrity, and mechanotransduction.

    PubMed

    Ingber, D E

    1997-06-01

    Physical forces, such as those due to gravity, play an important role in tissue development and remodeling. Yet, little is known about how individual cells sense mechanical signals or how they transduce them into a chemical response. Rather than listing the numerous signal pathways that have been found to be sensitive to mechanical stimulation, we need to place potential molecular signaling mechanisms within the context of the entire cell. The model presented is based on the concept that cells use tensegrity architecture to organize their cytoskeleton and stabilize their form. Studies with stick and string tensegrity cell models predict that living cells are hard-wired to respond immediately to external mechanical stresses. This hard-wiring exists in the form of discrete cytoskeletal filament networks that mechanically couple specific cell surface receptors, such as integrins, to nuclear matrix scaffolds and to potential transducing molecules that physically associate with the cytoskeleton. If these signaling molecules do function in a "solid-state", then mechanical stresses may be transduced into biochemical responses through force-dependent changes in cytoskeletal geometry or through local alterations in thermodynamic or kinetic parameters. Changes in cytoskeletal tension (prestress) also may play a role in signal amplification and adaptation. Recent experimental results are described which provide direct support for the tensegrity theory.

  1. Integrins, tensegrity, and mechanotransduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingber, D. E.

    1997-01-01

    Physical forces, such as those due to gravity, play an important role in tissue development and remodeling. Yet, little is known about how individual cells sense mechanical signals or how they transduce them into a chemical response. Rather than listing the numerous signal pathways that have been found to be sensitive to mechanical stimulation, we need to place potential molecular signaling mechanisms within the context of the entire cell. The model presented is based on the concept that cells use tensegrity architecture to organize their cytoskeleton and stabilize their form. Studies with stick and string tensegrity cell models predict that living cells are hard-wired to respond immediately to external mechanical stresses. This hard-wiring exists in the form of discrete cytoskeletal filament networks that mechanically couple specific cell surface receptors, such as integrins, to nuclear matrix scaffolds and to potential transducing molecules that physically associate with the cytoskeleton. If these signaling molecules do function in a "solid-state", then mechanical stresses may be transduced into biochemical responses through force-dependent changes in cytoskeletal geometry or through local alterations in thermodynamic or kinetic parameters. Changes in cytoskeletal tension (prestress) also may play a role in signal amplification and adaptation. Recent experimental results are described which provide direct support for the tensegrity theory.

  2. Tensin stabilizes integrin adhesive contacts in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Torgler, Catherine N; Narasimha, Maithreyi; Knox, Andrea L; Zervas, Christos G; Vernon, Matthew C; Brown, Nicholas H

    2004-03-01

    We report the functional characterization of the Drosophila ortholog of tensin, a protein implicated in linking integrins to the cytoskeleton and signaling pathways. A tensin null was generated and is viable with wing blisters, a phenotype characteristic of loss of integrin adhesion. In tensin mutants, mechanical abrasion is required during wing expansion to cause wing blisters, suggesting that tensin strengthens integrin adhesion. The localization of tensin requires integrins, talin, and integrin-linked kinase. The N-terminal domain and C-terminal PTB domain of tensin provide essential recruitment signals. The intervening SH2 domain is not localized on its own. We suggest a model where tensin is recruited to sites of integrin adhesion via its PTB and N-terminal domains, localizing the SH2 domain so that it can interact with phosphotyrosine-containing proteins, which stabilize the integrin link to the cytoskeleton.

  3. Transgenic Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaenisch, Rudolf

    1988-01-01

    Describes three methods and their advantages and disadvantages for introducing genes into animals. Discusses the predictability and tissue-specificity of the injected genes. Outlines the applications of transgenic technology for studying gene expression, the early stages of mammalian development, mutations, and the molecular nature of chromosomes.…

  4. Expression of an Activated Integrin Promotes Long-Distance Sensory Axon Regeneration in the Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Cheah, Menghon; Chew, Daniel J.; Moloney, Elizabeth B.; Verhaagen, Joost; Fässler, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    After CNS injury, axon regeneration is blocked by an inhibitory environment consisting of the highly upregulated tenascin-C and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). Tenascin-C promotes growth of axons if they express a tenascin-binding integrin, particularly α9β1. Additionally, integrins can be inactivated by CSPGs, and this inhibition can be overcome by the presence of a β1-binding integrin activator, kindlin-1. We examined the synergistic effect of α9 integrin and kindlin-1 on sensory axon regeneration in adult rat spinal cord after dorsal root crush and adeno-associated virus transgene expression in dorsal root ganglia. After 12 weeks, axons from C6–C7 dorsal root ganglia regenerated through the tenascin-C-rich dorsal root entry zone into the dorsal column up to C1 level and above (>25 mm axon length) through a normal pathway. Animals also showed anatomical and electrophysiological evidence of reconnection to the dorsal horn and behavioral recovery in mechanical pressure, thermal pain, and ladder-walking tasks. Expression of α9 integrin or kindlin-1 alone promoted much less regeneration and recovery. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The study demonstrates that long-distance sensory axon regeneration over a normal pathway and with sensory and sensory–motor recovery can be achieved. This was achieved by expressing an integrin that recognizes tenascin-C, one of the components of glial scar tissue, and an integrin activator. This enabled extensive long-distance (>25 mm) regeneration of both myelinated and unmyelinated sensory axons with topographically correct connections in the spinal cord. The extent of growth and recovery we have seen would probably be clinically significant. Restoration of sensation to hands, perineum, and genitalia would be a significant improvement for a spinal cord-injured patient. PMID:27383601

  5. Integrins: masters and slaves of endocytic transport.

    PubMed

    Caswell, Patrick T; Vadrevu, Suryakiran; Norman, Jim C

    2009-12-01

    Since it has become clear that adhesion receptors are trafficked through the endosomal pathway and that this can influence their function, much effort has been invested in obtaining detailed descriptions of the molecular machinery responsible for internalizing and recycling integrins. New findings indicate that integrin trafficking dictates the nature of Rho GTPase signalling during cytokinesis and cell migration. Furthermore, integrins can exert control over the trafficking of other receptors in a way that drives cancer cell invasion and tumour angiogenesis.

  6. Reduced chondrocyte proliferation and chondrodysplasia in mice lacking the integrin-linked kinase in chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Terpstra, Leonieke; Prud'homme, Josée; Arabian, Alice; Takeda, Shu; Karsenty, Gérard; Dedhar, Shoukat; St-Arnaud, René

    2003-07-07

    Chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation requires their attachment to the collagen type II-rich matrix of developing bone. This interaction is mediated by integrins and their cytoplasmic effectors, such as the integrin-linked kinase (ILK). To elucidate the molecular mechanisms whereby integrins control these processes, we have specifically inactivated the ILK gene in growth plate chondrocytes using the Cre-lox methodology. Mice carrying an ILK allele flanked by loxP sites (ILK-fl) were crossed to transgenic mice expressing the Cre recombinase under the control of the collagen type II promoter. Inactivation of both copies of the ILK-fl allele lead to a chondrodysplasia characterized by a disorganized growth plate and to dwarfism. Expression of chondrocyte differentiation markers such as collagen type II, collagen type X, Indian hedgehog and the PTH-PTHrP receptor was normal in ILK-deficient growth plates. In contrast, chondrocyte proliferation, assessed by BrdU or proliferating cell nuclear antigen labeling, was markedly reduced in the mutant growth plates. Cell-based assays showed that integrin-mediated adhesion of primary cultures of chondrocytes from mutant animals to collagen type II was impaired. ILK inactivation in chondrocytes resulted in reduced cyclin D1 expression, and this most likely explains the defect in chondrocyte proliferation observed when ILK is inactivated in growth plate cells.

  7. Selective integrin endocytosis is driven by interactions between the integrin α-chain and AP2

    PubMed Central

    De Franceschi, Nicola; Arjonen, Antti; Elkhatib, Nadia; Denessiouk, Konstantin; Wrobel, Antoni G; Wilson, Thomas A; Pouwels, Jeroen; Montagnac, Guillaume; Owen, David J; Ivaska, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric cell-surface adhesion molecules comprising one of possible 18 α-chains and one of possible 8 β-chains. They control a range of cell functions in a matrix- and ligand-specific manner. Integrins can be internalised by clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) through β subunit-based motifs found in all integrin heterodimers. However, whether specific integrin heterodimers can be selectively endocytosed was unknown. Here, we found that a subset of α subunits contain an evolutionarily conserved and functional YxxΦ motif directing integrins to selective internalisation by the most abundant endocytic clathrin adaptor, AP2. We determined the structure of the human integrin α4-tail motif in complex with AP2 C-µ2 subunit and confirmed the interaction by isothermal titration calorimetry. Mutagenesis of the motif impaired selective heterodimer endocytosis and attenuated integrin-mediated cell migration. We propose that integrins evolved to enable selective integrin-receptor turnover in response to changing matrix conditions. PMID:26779610

  8. Selective integrin endocytosis is driven by interactions between the integrin α-chain and AP2.

    PubMed

    De Franceschi, Nicola; Arjonen, Antti; Elkhatib, Nadia; Denessiouk, Konstantin; Wrobel, Antoni G; Wilson, Thomas A; Pouwels, Jeroen; Montagnac, Guillaume; Owen, David J; Ivaska, Johanna

    2016-02-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric cell-surface adhesion molecules comprising one of 18 possible α-chains and one of eight possible β-chains. They control a range of cell functions in a matrix- and ligand-specific manner. Integrins can be internalized by clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) through β subunit-based motifs found in all integrin heterodimers. However, whether specific integrin heterodimers can be selectively endocytosed was unknown. Here, we found that a subset of α subunits contain an evolutionarily conserved and functional YxxΦ motif directing integrins to selective internalization by the most abundant endocytic clathrin adaptor, AP2. We determined the structure of the human integrin α4-tail motif in complex with the AP2 C-μ2 subunit and confirmed the interaction by isothermal titration calorimetry. Mutagenesis of the motif impaired selective heterodimer endocytosis and attenuated integrin-mediated cell migration. We propose that integrins evolved to enable selective integrin-receptor turnover in response to changing matrix conditions.

  9. Tumour exosome integrins determine organotropic metastasis

    DOE PAGES

    Hoshino, Ayuko; Costa-Silva, Bruno; Shen, Tang-Long; ...

    2015-10-28

    Ever since Stephen Paget’s 1889 hypothesis, metastatic organotropism has remained one of cancer’s greatest mysteries. In this paper, we demonstrate that exosomes from mouse and human lung-, liver- and brain-tropic tumour cells fuse preferentially with resident cells at their predicted destination, namely lung fibroblasts and epithelial cells, liver Kupffer cells and brain endothelial cells. We show that tumour-derived exosomes uptaken by organ-specific cells prepare the pre-metastatic niche. Treatment with exosomes from lung-tropic models redirected the metastasis of bone-tropic tumour cells. Exosome proteomics revealed distinct integrin expression patterns, in which the exosomal integrins α 6β 4 and α 6β 1 weremore » associated with lung metastasis, while exosomal integrin α vβ 5 was linked to liver metastasis. Targeting the integrins α 6β 4 and α vβ 5 decreased exosome uptake, as well as lung and liver metastasis, respectively. We demonstrate that exosome integrin uptake by resident cells activates Src phosphorylation and pro-inflammatory S100 gene expression. In conclusion, our clinical data indicate that exosomal integrins could be used to predict organ-specific metastasis.« less

  10. Tumour exosome integrins determine organotropic metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshino, Ayuko; Costa-Silva, Bruno; Shen, Tang-Long

    Ever since Stephen Paget’s 1889 hypothesis, metastatic organotropism has remained one of cancer’s greatest mysteries. In this paper, we demonstrate that exosomes from mouse and human lung-, liver- and brain-tropic tumour cells fuse preferentially with resident cells at their predicted destination, namely lung fibroblasts and epithelial cells, liver Kupffer cells and brain endothelial cells. We show that tumour-derived exosomes uptaken by organ-specific cells prepare the pre-metastatic niche. Treatment with exosomes from lung-tropic models redirected the metastasis of bone-tropic tumour cells. Exosome proteomics revealed distinct integrin expression patterns, in which the exosomal integrins α 6β 4 and α 6β 1 weremore » associated with lung metastasis, while exosomal integrin α vβ 5 was linked to liver metastasis. Targeting the integrins α 6β 4 and α vβ 5 decreased exosome uptake, as well as lung and liver metastasis, respectively. We demonstrate that exosome integrin uptake by resident cells activates Src phosphorylation and pro-inflammatory S100 gene expression. In conclusion, our clinical data indicate that exosomal integrins could be used to predict organ-specific metastasis.« less

  11. Cardiac integrins the ties that bind.

    PubMed

    Simpson, D G; Reaves, T A; Shih, D T; Burgess, W; Borg, T K; Terracio, L

    1998-01-01

    An elaborate series of morphogenetic events must be precisely coordinated during development to promote the formation of the elaborate three-dimensional structure of the normal heart. In this study we focus on discussing how interconnections between the cardiac myocyte and its surrounding environment regulate cardiac form and function. In vitro experiments from our laboratories provide direct evidence that cardiac cell shape is regulated by a dynamic interaction between constituents of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and by specific members of the integrin family of matrix receptors. Our data indicates that phenotypic information is stored in the tertiary structure and chemical identity of the ECM. This information appears to be actively communicated and transduced by the α1β1 integrin molecule into an intracellular signal that regulates cardiac cell shape and myofibrillar organization. In this study we have assessed the phenotypic consequences of suppressing the expression and accumulation of the α1 integrin molecule in aligned cultures of cardiac myocytes. In related experiments we have examined how the overexpression of α2 and α5 integrin, integrins normally not present or present at very low copy number on the cell surface of neonatal cardiac myocytes, affect cardiac protein metabolism. We also consider how biochemical signals and the mechanical signals mediated by the integrins may converge on common intracellular signaling pathways in the heart. Experiments with the whole embryo culture system indicate that angiotensin II, a peptide that carries information concerning cardiac load, plays a role in controling cardiac looping and the proliferation of myofibrils during development.

  12. Tumour exosome integrins determine organotropic metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Hoshino, Ayuko; Costa-Silva, Bruno; Shen, Tang-Long; Rodrigues, Goncalo; Hashimoto, Ayako; Mark, Milica Tesic; Molina, Henrik; Kohsaka, Shinji; Di Giannatale, Angela; Ceder, Sophia; Singh, Swarnima; Williams, Caitlin; Soplop, Nadine; Uryu, Kunihiro; Pharmer, Lindsay; King, Tari; Bojmar, Linda; Davies, Alexander E.; Ararso, Yonathan; Zhang, Tuo; Zhang, Haiying; Hernandez, Jonathan; Weiss, Joshua M.; Dumont-Cole, Vanessa D.; Kramer, Kimberly; Wexler, Leonard H.; Narendran, Aru; Schwartz, Gary K.; Healey, John H.; Sandstrom, Per; Labori, Knut Jørgen; Kure, Elin H.; Grandgenett, Paul M.; Hollingsworth, Michael A.; de Sousa, Maria; Kaur, Sukhwinder; Jain, Maneesh; Mallya, Kavita; Batra, Surinder K.; Jarnagin, William R.; Brady, Mary S.; Fodstad, Oystein; Muller, Volkmar; Pantel, Klaus; Minn, Andy J.; Bissell, Mina J.; Garcia, Benjamin A.; Kang, Yibin; Rajasekhar, Vinagolu K.; Ghajar, Cyrus M.; Matei, Irina; Peinado, Hector; Bromberg, Jacqueline; Lyden, David

    2015-01-01

    Ever since Stephen Paget’s 1889 hypothesis, metastatic organotropism has remained one of cancer’s greatest mysteries. Here we demonstrate that exosomes from mouse and human lung-, liver- and brain-tropic tumour cells fuse preferentially with resident cells at their predicted destination, namely lung fibroblasts and epithelial cells, liver Kupffer cells and brain endothelial cells. We show that tumour-derived exosomes uptaken by organ-specific cells prepare the pre-metastatic niche. Treatment with exosomes from lung-tropic models redirected the metastasis of bone-tropic tumour cells. Exosome proteomics revealed distinct integrin expression patterns, in which the exosomal integrins α6β4 and α6β1 were associated with lung metastasis, while exosomal integrin αvβ5 was linked to liver metastasis. Targeting the integrins α6β4 and αvβ5 decreased exosome uptake, as well as lung and liver metastasis, respectively. We demonstrate that exosome integrin uptake by resident cells activates Src phosphorylation and pro-inflammatory S100 gene expression. Finally, our clinical data indicate that exosomal integrins could be used to predict organ-specific metastasis. PMID:26524530

  13. Tumour exosome integrins determine organotropic metastasis.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Ayuko; Costa-Silva, Bruno; Shen, Tang-Long; Rodrigues, Goncalo; Hashimoto, Ayako; Tesic Mark, Milica; Molina, Henrik; Kohsaka, Shinji; Di Giannatale, Angela; Ceder, Sophia; Singh, Swarnima; Williams, Caitlin; Soplop, Nadine; Uryu, Kunihiro; Pharmer, Lindsay; King, Tari; Bojmar, Linda; Davies, Alexander E; Ararso, Yonathan; Zhang, Tuo; Zhang, Haiying; Hernandez, Jonathan; Weiss, Joshua M; Dumont-Cole, Vanessa D; Kramer, Kimberly; Wexler, Leonard H; Narendran, Aru; Schwartz, Gary K; Healey, John H; Sandstrom, Per; Labori, Knut Jørgen; Kure, Elin H; Grandgenett, Paul M; Hollingsworth, Michael A; de Sousa, Maria; Kaur, Sukhwinder; Jain, Maneesh; Mallya, Kavita; Batra, Surinder K; Jarnagin, William R; Brady, Mary S; Fodstad, Oystein; Muller, Volkmar; Pantel, Klaus; Minn, Andy J; Bissell, Mina J; Garcia, Benjamin A; Kang, Yibin; Rajasekhar, Vinagolu K; Ghajar, Cyrus M; Matei, Irina; Peinado, Hector; Bromberg, Jacqueline; Lyden, David

    2015-11-19

    Ever since Stephen Paget's 1889 hypothesis, metastatic organotropism has remained one of cancer's greatest mysteries. Here we demonstrate that exosomes from mouse and human lung-, liver- and brain-tropic tumour cells fuse preferentially with resident cells at their predicted destination, namely lung fibroblasts and epithelial cells, liver Kupffer cells and brain endothelial cells. We show that tumour-derived exosomes uptaken by organ-specific cells prepare the pre-metastatic niche. Treatment with exosomes from lung-tropic models redirected the metastasis of bone-tropic tumour cells. Exosome proteomics revealed distinct integrin expression patterns, in which the exosomal integrins α6β4 and α6β1 were associated with lung metastasis, while exosomal integrin αvβ5 was linked to liver metastasis. Targeting the integrins α6β4 and αvβ5 decreased exosome uptake, as well as lung and liver metastasis, respectively. We demonstrate that exosome integrin uptake by resident cells activates Src phosphorylation and pro-inflammatory S100 gene expression. Finally, our clinical data indicate that exosomal integrins could be used to predict organ-specific metastasis.

  14. Neuroanatomy and transgenic technologies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This is a short review that introduces recent advances of neuroanatomy and transgenic technologies. The anatomical complexity of the nervous system remains a subject of tremendous fascination among neuroscientists. In order to tackle this extraordinary complexity, powerful transgenic technologies a...

  15. Sarcospan integration into laminin-binding adhesion complexes that ameliorate muscular dystrophy requires utrophin and α7 integrin

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Jamie L.; Oh, Jennifer; Chou, Eric; Lee, Joy A.; Holmberg, Johan; Burkin, Dean J.; Crosbie-Watson, Rachelle H.

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene that result in loss of the dystrophin–glycoprotein complex, a laminin receptor that connects the myofiber to its surrounding extracellular matrix. Utrophin, a dystrophin ortholog that is normally localized to the neuromuscular junction, is naturally upregulated in DMD muscle, which partially compensates for the loss of dystrophin. Transgenic overexpression of utrophin causes broad sarcolemma localization of utrophin, restoration of laminin binding and amelioration of disease in the mdx mouse model of DMD. We previously demonstrated that overexpression of sarcospan, a dystrophin- and utrophin-binding protein, ameliorates mdx muscular dystrophy. Sarcospan boosts levels of utrophin to therapeutic levels at the sarcolemma, where attachment to laminin is restored. However, understanding the compensatory mechanism is complicated by concomitant upregulation of α7β1 integrin, which also binds laminin. Similar to the effects of utrophin, transgenic overexpression of α7 integrin prevents DMD disease in mice and is accompanied by increased abundance of utrophin around the extra-synaptic sarcolemma. In order to investigate the mechanisms underlying sarcospan ‘rescue’ of muscular dystrophy, we created double-knockout mice to test the contributions of utrophin or α7 integrin. We show that sarcospan-mediated amelioration of muscular dystrophy in DMD mice is dependent on the presence of both utrophin and α7β1 integrin, even when they are individually expressed at therapeutic levels. Furthermore, we found that association of sarcospan into laminin-binding complexes is dependent on utrophin and α7β1 integrin. PMID:25504048

  16. Characterization of Laminin Binding Integrin Internalization in Prostate Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Das, Lipsa; Anderson, Todd A; Gard, Jaime M C; Sroka, Isis C; Strautman, Stephanie R; Nagle, Raymond B; Morrissey, Colm; Knudsen, Beatrice S; Cress, Anne E

    2017-05-01

    Laminin binding integrins α6 (CD49f) and α3 (CD49c) are persistently but differentially expressed in prostate cancer (PCa). Integrin internalization is an important determinant of their cell surface expression and function. Using flow cytometry, and first order kinetic modeling, we quantitated the intrinsic internalization rates of integrin subunits in a single cycle of internalization. In PCa cell line DU145, α6 integrin internalized with a rate constant (k actual ) of 3.25 min -1 , threefold faster than α3 integrin (1.0 min -1 ), 1.5-fold faster than the vitronectin binding αv integrin (CD51) (2.2 min -1 ), and significantly slower than the unrelated transferrin receptor (CD71) (15 min -1 ). Silencing of α3 integrin protein expression in DU145, PC3, and PC3B1 cells resulted in up to a 1.71-fold increase in k actual for α6 integrin. The internalized α6 integrin was targeted to early endosomes but not to lamp1 vesicles. Depletion of α3 integrin expression resulted in redistribution of α6β4 integrin to an observed cell-cell staining pattern that is consistent with a suprabasal distribution observed in epidermis and early PIN lesions in PCa. Depletion of α3 integrin increased cell migration by 1.8-fold, which was dependent on α6β1 integrin. Silencing of α6 integrin expression however, had no significant effect on the k actual of α3 integrin or its distribution in early endosomes. These results indicate that α3 and α6 integrins have significantly different internalization kinetics and that coordination exists between them for internalization. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1038-1049, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Characterization of Laminin Binding Integrin Internalization in Prostate Cancer Cells†

    PubMed Central

    Das, Lipsa; Anderson, Todd A.; Gard, Jaime M.C.; Sroka, Isis C.; Strautman, Stephanie R.; Nagle, Raymond B.; Morrissey, Colm; Knudsen, Beatrice S.; Cress, Anne E.

    2017-01-01

    Laminin binding integrins α6 (CD49f) and α3 (CD49c) are persistently but differentially expressed in prostate cancer (PCa). Integrin internalization is an important determinant of their cell surface expression and function. Using flow cytometry, and first order kinetic modelling, we quantitated the intrinsic internalization rates of integrin subunits in a single cycle of internalization. In PCa cell line DU145, α6 integrin internalized with a rate constant (kactual) of 3.25min−1, 3-fold faster than α3 integrin (1.0 min−1), 1.5-fold faster than the vitronectin binding αv integrin (CD51) (2.2 min−1), and significantly slower than the unrelated transferrin receptor (CD71) (15 min−1). Silencing of α3 integrin protein expression in DU145, PC3 and PC3B1 cells resulted in up to a 1.71-fold increase in kactual for α6 integrin. The internalized α6 integrin was targeted to early endosomes but not to lamp1 vesicles. Depletion of α3 integrin expression resulted in redistribution of α6β4 integrin to an observed cell-cell staining pattern that is consistent with a suprabasal distribution observed in epidermis and early PIN lesions in PCa. Depletion of α3 integrin increased cell migration by 1.8 fold, which was dependent on α6β1 integrin. Silencing of α6 integrin expression however, had no significant effect on the kactual of α3 integrin or its distribution in early endosomes. These results indicate that α3 and α6 integrins have significantly different internalization kinetics and that coordination exists between them for internalization. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved PMID:27509031

  18. β1 Integrins Mediate Attachment of Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Cartilage Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Zwolanek, Daniela; Flicker, Magdalena; Kirstätter, Elisabeth; Zaucke, Frank; van Osch, Gerjo J.V.M.; Erben, Reinhold G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) may have great potential for cell-based therapies of osteoarthritis. However, after injection in the joint, only few cells adhere to defective articular cartilage and contribute to cartilage regeneration. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms of MSC attachment to defective articular cartilage. Here, we developed an ex vivo attachment system, using rat osteochondral explants with artificially created full-thickness cartilage defects in combination with genetically labeled MSC isolated from bone marrow of human placental alkaline phosphatase transgenic rats. Binding of MSC to full-thickness cartilage lesions was improved by serum, but not hyaluronic acid, and was dependent on the presence of divalent cations. Additional in vitro tests showed that rat MSC attach, in a divalent cation-dependent manner, to collagen I, collagen II, and fibronectin, but not to collagen XXII or cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP). RGD peptides partially blocked the adhesion of MSC to fibronectin in vitro and to cartilage lesions ex vivo. Furthermore, the attachment of MSC to collagen I and II in vitro and to cartilage lesions ex vivo was almost completely abolished in the presence of a β1 integrin blocking antibody. In conclusion, our data suggest that attachment of MSC to ex vivo full-thickness cartilage lesions is almost entirely β1 integrin-mediated, whereby both RGD- and collagen-binding integrins are involved. These findings suggest a key role of integrins during MSC attachment to defective cartilage and may pave the way for improved MSC-based therapies in the future. PMID:26309781

  19. β1 integrin- and JNK-dependent tumor growth upon hypofractionated radiation.

    PubMed

    Sayeed, Aejaz; Lu, Huimin; Liu, Qin; Deming, David; Duffy, Alexander; McCue, Peter; Dicker, Adam P; Davis, Roger J; Gabrilovich, Dmitry; Rodeck, Ulrich; Altieri, Dario C; Languino, Lucia R

    2016-08-16

    Radiation therapy is an effective cancer treatment modality although tumors invariably become resistant. Using the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) model system, we report that a hypofractionated radiation schedule (10 Gy/day for 5 consecutive days) effectively blocks prostate tumor growth in wild type (β1wt /TRAMP) mice as well as in mice carrying a conditional ablation of β1 integrins in the prostatic epithelium (β1pc-/- /TRAMP). Since JNK is known to be suppressed by β1 integrins and mediates radiation-induced apoptosis, we tested the effect of SP600125, an inhibitor of c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) in the TRAMP model system. Our results show that SP600125 negates the effect of radiation on tumor growth in β1pc-/- /TRAMP mice and leads to invasive adenocarcinoma. These effects are associated with increased focal adhesion kinase (FAK) expression and phosphorylation in prostate tumors in β1pc-/- /TRAMP mice. In marked contrast, radiation-induced tumor growth suppression, FAK expression and phosphorylation are not altered by SP600125 treatment of β1wt /TRAMP mice. Furthermore, we have reported earlier that abrogation of insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) in prostate cancer cells enhances the sensitivity to radiation. Here we further explore the β1/IGF-IR crosstalk and report that β1 integrins promote cell proliferation partly by enhancing the expression of IGF-IR. In conclusion, we demonstrate that β1 integrin-mediated inhibition of JNK signaling modulates tumor growth rate upon hypofractionated radiation.

  20. Blocking neutrophil integrin activation prevents ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Yago, Tadayuki; Petrich, Brian G; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Zhenghui; Shao, Bojing; Ginsberg, Mark H; McEver, Rodger P

    2015-07-27

    Neutrophil recruitment, mediated by β2 integrins, combats pyogenic infections but also plays a key role in ischemia-reperfusion injury and other inflammatory disorders. Talin induces allosteric rearrangements in integrins that increase affinity for ligands (activation). Talin also links integrins to actin and other proteins that enable formation of adhesions. Structural studies have identified a talin1 mutant (L325R) that perturbs activation without impairing talin's capacity to link integrins to actin and other proteins. Here, we found that mice engineered to express only talin1(L325R) in myeloid cells were protected from renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Dissection of neutrophil function in vitro and in vivo revealed that talin1(L325R) neutrophils had markedly impaired chemokine-induced, β2 integrin-mediated arrest, spreading, and migration. Surprisingly, talin1(L325R) neutrophils exhibited normal selectin-induced, β2 integrin-mediated slow rolling, in sharp contrast to the defective slow rolling of neutrophils lacking talin1 or expressing a talin1 mutant (W359A) that blocks talin interaction with integrins. These studies reveal the importance of talin-mediated activation of integrins for renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. They further show that neutrophil arrest requires talin recruitment to and activation of integrins. However, although neutrophil slow rolling requires talin recruitment to integrins, talin-mediated integrin activation is dispensable. © 2015 Yago et al.

  1. Isolation of integrin-based adhesion complexes.

    PubMed

    Jones, Matthew C; Humphries, Jonathan D; Byron, Adam; Millon-Frémillon, Angélique; Robertson, Joseph; Paul, Nikki R; Ng, Daniel H J; Askari, Janet A; Humphries, Martin J

    2015-03-02

    The integration of cells with their extracellular environment is facilitated by cell surface adhesion receptors, such as integrins, which play important roles in both normal development and the onset of pathologies. Engagement of integrins with their ligands in the extracellular matrix, or counter-receptors on other cells, initiates the intracellular assembly of a wide variety of proteins into adhesion complexes such as focal contacts, focal adhesions, and fibrillar adhesions. The proteins recruited to these complexes mediate bidirectional signaling across the plasma membrane, and, as such, help to coordinate and/or modulate the multitude of physical and chemical signals to which the cell is subjected. The protocols in this unit describe two approaches for the isolation or enrichment of proteins contained within integrin-associated adhesion complexes, together with their local plasma membrane/cytosolic environments, from cells in culture. In the first protocol, integrin-associated adhesion structures are affinity isolated using microbeads coated with extracellular ligands or antibodies. The second protocol describes the isolation of ventral membrane preparations that are enriched for adhesion complex structures. The protocols permit the determination of adhesion complex components via subsequent downstream analysis by western blotting or mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  2. Inhibition of the αvβ6 integrin leads to limited alteration of TGF-α-induced pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Madala, Satish K.; Korfhagen, Thomas R.; Schmidt, Stephanie; Davidson, Cynthia; Edukulla, Ramakrishna; Ikegami, Machiko; Violette, Shelia M.; Weinreb, Paul H.; Sheppard, Dean

    2014-01-01

    A number of growth factors and signaling pathways regulate matrix deposition and fibroblast proliferation in the lung. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of receptors and the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family are active in diverse biological processes and are central mediators in the initiation and maintenance of fibrosis in many diseases. Transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) is a ligand for the EGFR, and doxycycline (Dox)-inducible transgenic mice conditionally expressing TGF-α specifically in the lung epithelium develop progressive fibrosis accompanied with cachexia, changes in lung mechanics, and marked pleural thickening. Although recent studies demonstrate that EGFR activation modulates the fibroproliferative effects involved in the pathogenesis of TGF-β induced pulmonary fibrosis, in converse, the direct role of EGFR induction of the TGF-β pathway in the lung is unknown. The αvβ6 integrin is an important in vivo activator of TGF-β activation in the lung. Immunohistochemical analysis of αvβ6 protein expression and bronchoalveolar analysis of TGF-β pathway signaling indicates activation of the αvβ6/TGF-β pathway only at later time points after lung fibrosis was already established in the TGF-α model. To determine the contribution of the αvβ6/TGF-β pathway on the progression of established fibrotic disease, TGF-α transgenic mice were administered Dox for 4 wk, which leads to extensive fibrosis; these mice were then treated with a function-blocking anti-αvβ6 antibody with continued administration of Dox for an additional 4 wk. Compared with TGF-α transgenic mice treated with control antibody, αvβ6 inhibition significantly attenuated pleural thickening and altered the decline in lung mechanics. To test the effects of genetic loss of the β6 integrin, TGF-α transgenic mice were mated with β6-null mice and the degree of fibrosis was compared in adult mice following 8 wk of Dox administration. Genetic ablation of

  3. Clustered Integrin Ligands as a Novel Approach for the Targeting of Non-Viral Vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Quinn Kwan Tai

    ligand clusters compared to the reacted amounts on the surface of the particle was studied. This provided us the ability to control the size of the clusters formed and the spacing between the integrins for gold nanoparticles of various sizes. We then applied the clustered ligand binding system for targeting of DNA/PEI polyplexes and demonstrated that the use of RGD nanoclusters enhances gene transfer up to 35-fold which was dependent on the density of alphavbeta3 integrins on the cell surface. Cell integrin sensitivity was shown in which cells with higher alpha vbeta3 densities resulting in higher luciferase transgene expression. The targeting of RGD nanoclusters for DNA/PEI polyplexes was further shown in vivo using PET/CT technology which displayed improved targeting towards high level alphavbeta3 integrin expression (U87MG) tumors over medium level alphavbeta 3 integrin expression (HeLa). In addition to studying the clustered integrin binding system, the current non-viral vectors used suffer from stability and toxicity issues in vitro and in vivo. We have applied a new chemistry for synthesizing nanogels utilizing a Traut's reagent initiated Michael addition reaction for modification of diamine containing crosslikers which will allow for the development of stable and cell demanded release of oligonucleotides. We have shown bulk gels made were capable of encapsulating and holding DNA within the gel and were able to synthesize them into nanogels. The combined research shown here using clustered integrin ligands and a new type of nanogel synthesis provides an ideal system for gene delivery in the future.

  4. Applications of Transgenics in Studies of Bone Sialoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin; Tu, Qisheng; Chen, Jake

    2010-01-01

    Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a major non-collagenous protein in mineralizing connective tissues such as dentin, cementum and calcified cartilage tissues. As a member of the SIBLING (Small Integrin-Binding Ligand, N-linked Glycoprotein) gene family of glycoproteins, BSP is involved in regulating hydroxyapatite crystal formation in bones and teeth, and has long been used as a marker gene for osteogenic differentiation. In the most recent decade, new discoveries in BSP gene expression and regulation, bone remodeling, bone metastasis, and bone tissue engineering have been achieved with the help of transgenic mice. In this review, we discuss these new discoveries obtained from the literatures and from our own laboratory, which were derived from the use of transgenic mouse mutants related to BSP gene or its promoter activity. PMID:19326395

  5. Applications of transgenics in studies of bone sialoprotein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Tu, Qisheng; Chen, Jake

    2009-07-01

    Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a major non-collagenous protein in mineralizing connective tissues such as dentin, cementum and calcified cartilage tissues. As a member of the Small Integrin-Binding Ligand, N-linked Glycoprotein (SIBLING) gene family of glycoproteins, BSP is involved in regulating hydroxyapatite crystal formation in bones and teeth, and has long been used as a marker gene for osteogenic differentiation. In the most recent decade, new discoveries in BSP gene expression and regulation, bone remodeling, bone metastasis, and bone tissue engineering have been achieved with the help of transgenic mice. In this review, we discuss these new discoveries obtained from the literatures and from our own laboratory, which were derived from the use of transgenic mouse mutants related to BSP gene or its promoter activity.

  6. Integrin Expression Regulates Neuroblastoma Attachment and Migration1

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Amy; van Golen, Cynthia M.; Kim, Bhumsoo; van Golen, Kenneth L.; Feldman, Eva L.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Neuroblastoma (NBL) is the most common malignant disease of infancy, and children with bone metastasis have a mortality rate greater than 90%. Two major classes of proteins, integrins and growth factors, regulate the metastatic process. We have previously shown that tumorigenic NBL cells express higher levels of the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) and that β1 integrin expression is inversely proportional to tumorigenic potential in NBL. In the current study, we analyze the effect of β1 integrin and IGF-IR on NBL cell attachment and migration. Nontumorigenic S-cells express high levels of β1 integrin, whereas tumorigenic N-cells express little β1 integrin. Alterations in β1 integrin are due to regulation at the protein level, as translation is decreased in N-type cells. Moreover, inhibition of protein synthesis shows that β1 integrin is degraded more slowly in S-type cells (SHEP) than in N-type cells (SH-SY5Y and IMR32). Inhibition of α5β1 integrin prevents SHEP (but not SH-SY5Y or IMR32) cell attachment to fibronectin and increases SHEP cell migration. Increases in IGF-IR decrease β1 integrin expression, and enhance SHEP cell migration, potentially through increased expression of αvβ3. These data suggest that specific classes of integrins in concert with IGF-IR regulate NBL attachment and migration. PMID:15256055

  7. αV-class integrins exert dual roles on α5β1 integrins to strengthen adhesion to fibronectin

    PubMed Central

    Bharadwaj, Mitasha; Strohmeyer, Nico; Colo, Georgina P.; Helenius, Jonne; Beerenwinkel, Niko; Schiller, Herbert B.; Fässler, Reinhard; Müller, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    Upon binding to the extracellular matrix protein, fibronectin, αV-class and α5β1 integrins trigger the recruitment of large protein assemblies and strengthen cell adhesion. Both integrin classes have been functionally specified, however their specific roles in immediate phases of cell attachment remain uncharacterized. Here, we quantify the adhesion of αV-class and/or α5β1 integrins expressing fibroblasts initiating attachment to fibronectin (≤120 s) by single-cell force spectroscopy. Our data reveals that αV-class integrins outcompete α5β1 integrins. Once engaged, αV-class integrins signal to α5β1 integrins to establish additional adhesion sites to fibronectin, away from those formed by αV-class integrins. This crosstalk, which strengthens cell adhesion, induces α5β1 integrin clustering by RhoA/ROCK/myosin-II and Arp2/3-mediated signalling, whereas overall cell adhesion depends on formins. The dual role of both fibronectin-binding integrin classes commencing with an initial competition followed by a cooperative crosstalk appears to be a basic cellular mechanism in assembling focal adhesions to the extracellular matrix. PMID:28128308

  8. Integrins in bone metastasis formation and potential therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Clëzardin, P

    2009-11-01

    Integrins constitute a family of cell surface receptors that are heterodimers composed of noncovalently associated alpha and beta subunits. Integrins bind to extracellular matrix proteins and immunogobulin superfamily molecules. They exert a stringent control on cell migration, survival and proliferation. However, their expression and functions are often deregulated in cancer, and many lines of evidence implicate them as key regulators during progression from primary tumor growth to metastasis. Here, we review the role of integrins in bone metastasis formation and present evidence that the use of integrin-targeted therapeutic agents may be an efficient strategy to block tumor metastasis.

  9. Blocking neutrophil integrin activation prevents ischemia–reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Yago, Tadayuki; Petrich, Brian G.; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Zhenghui; Shao, Bojing; Ginsberg, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophil recruitment, mediated by β2 integrins, combats pyogenic infections but also plays a key role in ischemia–reperfusion injury and other inflammatory disorders. Talin induces allosteric rearrangements in integrins that increase affinity for ligands (activation). Talin also links integrins to actin and other proteins that enable formation of adhesions. Structural studies have identified a talin1 mutant (L325R) that perturbs activation without impairing talin’s capacity to link integrins to actin and other proteins. Here, we found that mice engineered to express only talin1(L325R) in myeloid cells were protected from renal ischemia–reperfusion injury. Dissection of neutrophil function in vitro and in vivo revealed that talin1(L325R) neutrophils had markedly impaired chemokine-induced, β2 integrin–mediated arrest, spreading, and migration. Surprisingly, talin1(L325R) neutrophils exhibited normal selectin-induced, β2 integrin–mediated slow rolling, in sharp contrast to the defective slow rolling of neutrophils lacking talin1 or expressing a talin1 mutant (W359A) that blocks talin interaction with integrins. These studies reveal the importance of talin-mediated activation of integrins for renal ischemia–reperfusion injury. They further show that neutrophil arrest requires talin recruitment to and activation of integrins. However, although neutrophil slow rolling requires talin recruitment to integrins, talin-mediated integrin activation is dispensable. PMID:26169939

  10. The regulation of integrin function by divalent cations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kun; Chen, JianFeng

    2012-01-01

    Integrins are a family of α/β heterodimeric adhesion metalloprotein receptors and their functions are highly dependent on and regulated by different divalent cations. Recently advanced studies have revolutionized our perception of integrin metal ion-binding sites and their specific functions. Ligand binding to integrins is bridged by a divalent cation bound at the MIDAS motif on top of either α I domain in I domain-containing integrins or β I domain in α I domain-less integrins. The MIDAS motif in β I domain is flanked by ADMIDAS and SyMBS, the other two crucial metal ion binding sites playing pivotal roles in the regulation of integrin affinity and bidirectional signaling across the plasma membrane. The β-propeller domain of α subunit contains three or four β-hairpin loop-like Ca2+-binding motifs that have essential roles in integrin biogenesis. The function of another Ca2+-binding motif located at the genu of α subunit remains elusive. Here, we provide an overview of the integrin metal ion-binding sites and discuss their roles in the regulation of integrin functions. PMID:22647937

  11. Integrin-directed modulation of macrophage responses to biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Zaveri, Toral D; Lewis, Jamal S; Dolgova, Natalia V; Clare-Salzler, Michael J; Keselowsky, Benjamin G

    2014-04-01

    Macrophages are the primary mediator of chronic inflammatory responses to implanted biomaterials, in cases when the material is either in particulate or bulk form. Chronic inflammation limits the performance and functional life of numerous implanted medical devices, and modulating macrophage interactions with biomaterials to mitigate this response would be beneficial. The integrin family of cell surface receptors mediates cell adhesion through binding to adhesive proteins nonspecifically adsorbed onto biomaterial surfaces. In this work, the roles of integrin Mac-1 (αMβ2) and RGD-binding integrins were investigated using model systems for both particulate and bulk biomaterials. Specifically, the macrophage functions of phagocytosis and inflammatory cytokine secretion in response to a model particulate material, polystyrene microparticles were investigated. Opsonizing proteins modulated microparticle uptake, and integrin Mac-1 and RGD-binding integrins were found to control microparticle uptake in an opsonin-dependent manner. The presence of adsorbed endotoxin did not affect microparticle uptake levels, but was required for the production of inflammatory cytokines in response to microparticles. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that integrin Mac-1 and RGD-binding integrins influence the in vivo foreign body response to a bulk biomaterial, subcutaneously implanted polyethylene terephthalate. A thinner foreign body capsule was formed when integrin Mac-1 was absent (~30% thinner) or when RGD-binding integrins were blocked by controlled release of a blocking peptide (~45% thinner). These findings indicate integrin Mac-1 and RGD-binding integrins are involved and may serve as therapeutic targets to mitigate macrophage inflammatory responses to both particulate and bulk biomaterials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Integrin β1 regulates leiomyoma cytoskeletal integrity and growth

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Minnie; Segars, James; Catherino, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas are characterized by an excessive extracellular matrix, increased mechanical stress, and increased active RhoA. Previously, we observed that mechanical signaling was attenuated in leiomyoma, but the mechanisms responsible remain unclear. Integrins, especially integrin β1, are transmembrane adhesion receptors that couple extracellular matrix stresses to the intracellular cytoskeleton to influence cell proliferation and differentiation. Here we characterized integrin and laminin to signaling in leiomyoma cells. We observed a 2.25 ± 0.32 fold increased expression of integrin β1 in leiomyoma cells, compared to myometrial cells. Antibody-mediated inhibition of integrin β1 led to significant growth inhibition in leiomyoma cells and a loss of cytoskeletal integrity. Specifically, polymerization of actin filaments and formation of focal adhesions were reduced by inhibition of integrin p1. Inhibition of integrin β1 in leiomyoma cells led to 0.81 ± 0.02 fold decrease in active RhoA, and resembled levels found in serum-starved cells. Likewise, inhibition of integrin β1 was accompanied by a decrease in phospho-ERK. Compared to myometrial cells, leiomyoma cells demonstrated increased expression of integrin α6 subunit to laminin receptor (1.91 ± 0.11 fold), and increased expression of laminin 5α (1.52±0.02), laminin 5β (3.06±0.92), and laminin 5γ (1.66 ± 0.06). Of note, leiomyoma cells grown on laminin matrix appear to realign themselves. Taken together, the findings reveal that the attenuated mechanical signaling in leiomyoma cells is accompanied by an increased expression and a dependence on integrin β1 signaling in leiomyoma cells, compared to myometrial cells. PMID:23023061

  13. Integrins protect cardiomyocytes from ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Hideshi; Lai, N. Chin; Kawaraguchi, Yoshitaka; Liao, Peter; Copps, Jeffrey; Sugano, Yasuo; Okada-Maeda, Sunaho; Banerjee, Indroneal; Schilling, Jan M.; Gingras, Alexandre R.; Asfaw, Elizabeth K.; Suarez, Jorge; Kang, Seok-Min; Perkins, Guy A.; Au, Carol G.; Israeli-Rosenberg, Sharon; Manso, Ana Maria; Liu, Zheng; Milner, Derek J.; Kaufman, Stephen J.; Patel, Hemal H.; Roth, David M.; Hammond, H. Kirk; Taylor, Susan S.; Dillmann, Wolfgang H.; Goldhaber, Joshua I.; Ross, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Ischemic damage is recognized to cause cardiomyocyte (CM) death and myocardial dysfunction, but the role of cell-matrix interactions and integrins in this process has not been extensively studied. Expression of α7β1D integrin, the dominant integrin in normal adult CMs, increases during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), while deficiency of β1 integrins increases ischemic damage. We hypothesized that the forced overexpression of integrins on the CM would offer protection from I/R injury. Tg mice with CM-specific overexpression of integrin α7β1D exposed to I/R had a substantial reduction in infarct size compared with that of α5β1D-overexpressing mice and WT littermate controls. Using isolated CMs, we found that α7β1D preserved mitochondrial membrane potential during hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury via inhibition of mitochondrial Ca2+ overload but did not alter H/R effects on oxidative stress. Therefore, we assessed Ca2+ handling proteins in the CM and found that β1D integrin colocalized with ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2) in CM T-tubules, complexed with RyR2 in human and rat heart, and specifically bound to RyR2 amino acids 165–175. Integrins stabilized the RyR2 interdomain interaction, and this stabilization required integrin receptor binding to its ECM ligand. These data suggest that α7β1D integrin modifies Ca2+ regulatory pathways and offers a means to protect the myocardium from ischemic injury. PMID:24091324

  14. Phytoremediation with transgenic trees.

    PubMed

    Peuke, Andreas D; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper actual trends in the use of transgenic trees for phytoremediation of contaminated soils are reviewed. In this context a current field trial in which transgenic poplars with enhanced GSH synthesis and hence elevated capacity for phytochelatin production are compared with wildtype plants for the removal of heavy metals at different levels of contamination and under different climatic conditions. The studies are carried out with grey poplar (Populus tremula x P. alba), wildtype plants and plants overexpressing the gene for gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gshI) from E. coli in the cytosol. The expression of this gene in poplar leads to two- to four-fold enhanced GSH concentrations in the leaves. In greenhouse experiments under controlled conditions these transgenic poplars showed a high potential for uptake and detoxification of heavy metals and pesticides. This capacity is evaluated in field experiments. Further aims of the project are to elucidate (a) the stability of the transgene under field conditions and (b) the possibility of horizontal gene transfer to microorganisms in the rhizosphere. The results will help to assess the biosafety risk of the use of transgenic poplar for phytoremediation of soils.

  15. Caveolin 3-mediated integrin β1 signaling is required for the proliferation of folliculostellate cells in rat anterior pituitary gland under the influence of extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Kotaro; Fujiwara, Ken; Ilmiawati, Cimi; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Tsukada, Takehiro; Kouki, Tom; Yashiro, Takashi

    2011-07-01

    Folliculostellate (FS) cells in the anterior pituitary gland are believed to have multifunctional properties. Using transgenic rats that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) specifically in FS cells in the anterior pituitary gland (S100b-GFP rats), we recently revealed that FS cells in primary culture exhibited marked proliferation in the presence of laminin, an extracellular matrix (ECM) component of the basement membrane. In a process referred to as matricrine action, FS cells receive ECM as a signal through their receptors, which results in morphological and functional changes. In this study, we investigated matricrine signaling in FS cells and observed that the proliferation of FS cells is mediated by integrin β1, which is involved in various signaling pathways for cell migration and proliferation in response to ECM. Then, we analyzed downstream events of the integrin β1 signaling pathway in the proliferation of FS cells and identified caveolin 3 as a potential candidate molecule. Caveolin 3 is a membrane protein that binds cholesterol and a number of signaling molecules that interact with integrin β1. Using specific small interfering RNA of caveolin 3, the proliferation of FS cells was inhibited. Furthermore, caveolin 3 drove activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades, which resulted in upregulation of cyclin D1 in FS cells. These findings suggest that matricrine signaling in the proliferation of FS cells was transduced by a caveolin 3-mediated integrin β1 signaling pathway and subsequent activation of the MAPK pathway. © 2011 Society for Endocrinology

  16. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans regulates the expression of integrins and reduces cell adhesion via integrin α5 in human gingival epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kochi, Shinsuke; Yamashiro, Keisuke; Hongo, Shoichi; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Ugawa, Yuki; Shimoe, Masayuki; Kawamura, Mari; Hirata-Yoshihara, Chiaki; Ideguchi, Hidetaka; Maeda, Hiroshi; Takashiba, Shogo

    2017-12-01

    Gingival epithelial cells form a physiological barrier against bacterial invasion. Excessive bacterial invasion destroys the attachment between the tooth surface and the epithelium, resulting in periodontitis. Integrins play a significant role in cell attachment; therefore, we hypothesized that bacterial infection might decrease the expressions of these integrins in gingival epithelial cells, resulting in reduced cell adhesion. Immortalized human gingival epithelial cells were co-cultured with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Y4 (Aa Y4), and the gene expression levels of IL-8, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and integrins (α2, α3, α5, β4, and β6) were measured using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Expression of PCNA and integrins, except integrin α5, was significantly downregulated, while expression of IL-8 and integrin α5 was significantly upregulated in the cells co-cultured with Aa Y4. The number of adherent cells significantly decreased when co-cultured with Aa Y4, as determined using cell adhesion assays. In the cells co-cultured with Aa Y4 and an integrin α5 neutralizing antibody, there was no effect on the expression of IL-8 and PCNA, while the expressions of integrins α2, α3, β4, and β6, and the number of adherent cells did not decrease. The number of invading bacteria in the cells was reduced in the presence of the antibody and increased in the presence of TLR2/4 inhibitor. Therefore, integrin α5 might be involved in Aa Y4 invasion into gingival epithelial cells, and the resulting signal transduction cascade reduces cell adhesion by decreasing the expression of integrins, while the TLR2/4 signaling cascade regulates IL-8 expression.

  17. Epidermal Expression of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 is Not a Primary Inducer of Cutaneous Inflammation in Transgenic Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Ifor R.; Kupper, Thomas S.

    1994-10-01

    Keratinocytes at sites of cutaneous inflammation have increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), a cytokine-inducible adhesion molecule which binds the leukocyte integrins LFA-1 and Mac-1. Transgenic mice were prepared in which the expression of mouse ICAM-1 was targeted to basal keratinocytes by using the human K14 keratin promoter. The level of constitutive expression attained in the transgenic mice exceeded the peak level of ICAM-1 expression induced on nontransgenic mouse keratinocytes in vitro by optimal combinations of interferon γ and tumor necrosis factor α or in vivo by proinflammatory stimuli such as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. In vitro adhesion assays demonstrated that cultured transgenic keratinocytes were superior to normal keratinocytes as a substrate for the LFA-1-dependent binding of mouse T cells, confirming that the transgene-encoded ICAM-1 was expressed in a functional form. However, the high level of constitutive ICAM-1 expression achieved on keratinocytes in vivo in these transgenic mice did not result in additional recruitment of CD45^+ leukocytes into transgenic epidermis, nor did it elicit dermal inflammation. Keratinocyte ICAM-1 expression also did not potentiate contact-hypersensitivity reactions to epicutaneous application of haptens. The absence of a spontaneous phenotype in these transgenic mice was not the result of increased levels of soluble ICAM-1, since serum levels of soluble ICAM-1 were equal in transgenic mice and controls. We conclude that elevated ICAM-1 expression on keratinocytes cannot act independently to influence leukocyte trafficking and elicit cutaneous inflammation.

  18. Immunolocalization of integrin-like proteins in Arabidopsis and Chara

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katembe, W. J.; Swatzell, L. J.; Makaroff, C. A.; Kiss, J. Z.

    1997-01-01

    Integrins are a large family of integral plasma membrane proteins that link the extracellular matrix to the cytoskeleton in animal cells. As a first step in determining if integrin-like proteins are involved in gravitropic signal transduction pathways, we have used a polyclonal antibody against the chicken beta1 integrin subunit in western blot analyses and immunofluorescence microscopy to gain information on the size and location of these proteins in plants. Several different polypeptides are recognized by the anti-integrin antibody in roots and shoots of Arabidopsis and in the internodal cells and rhizoids of Chara. These cross-reactive polypeptides are associated with cellular membranes, a feature which is consistent with the known location of integrins in animal systems. In immunofluorescence studies of Arabidopsis roots, a strong signal was obtained from labeling integrin-like proteins in root cap cells, and there was little or no immunolabel in other regions of the root tip. While the antibody stained throughout Chara rhizoids, the highest density of immunolabel was at the tip. Thus, in both Arabidopsis roots and Chara rhizoids, the sites of gravity perception/transduction appear to be enriched in integrin-like molecules.

  19. Integrin trafficking regulated by Rab21 is necessary for cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Pellinen, Teijo; Tuomi, Saara; Arjonen, Antti; Wolf, Maija; Edgren, Henrik; Meyer, Hannelore; Grosse, Robert; Kitzing, Thomas; Rantala, Juha K; Kallioniemi, Olli; Fässler, Reinhard; Kallio, Marko; Ivaska, Johanna

    2008-09-01

    Adherent cells undergo remarkable changes in shape during cell division. However, the functional interplay between cell adhesion turnover and the mitotic machinery is poorly understood. The endo/exocytic trafficking of integrins is regulated by the small GTPase Rab21, which associates with several integrin alpha subunits. Here, we show that targeted trafficking of integrins to and from the cleavage furrow is required for successful cytokinesis, and that this is regulated by Rab21. Rab21 activity, integrin-Rab21 association, and integrin endocytosis are all necessary for normal cytokinesis, which becomes impaired when integrin-mediated adhesion at the cleavage furrow fails. We also describe a chromosomal deletion and loss of Rab21 gene expression in human cancer, which leads to the accumulation of multinucleate cells. Importantly, reintroduction of Rab21 rescued this phenotype. In conclusion, Rab21-regulated integrin trafficking is essential for normal cell division, and its defects may contribute to multinucleation and genomic instability, which are hallmarks of cancer.

  20. Elucidating the role of select cytoplasmic proteins in altering diffusion of integrin receptors.

    PubMed

    Sander, Suzanne; Arora, Neha; Smith, Emily A

    2012-06-01

    Cytoplasmic proteins that affect integrin diffusion in the cell membrane are identified using a combination of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and RNA interference. Integrin receptors are essential for many cellular events, and alterations in lateral diffusion are one mechanism for modulating their function. In cells expressing native cytoplasmic protein concentrations and spread on a slide containing integrin extracellular ligand, 45 ± 2% of the integrin is mobile with a time-dependent 5.2 ± 0.9 × 10(-9) cm(2)/s diffusion coefficient at 1 s. The time exponent is 0.90 ± 0.07, indicating integrin diffusion moderately slows at longer times. The role of a specific cytoplasmic protein in altering integrin diffusion is revealed through changes in the FRAP curve after reducing the cytoplasmic protein's expression. Decreased expression of cytoplasmic proteins rhea, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), or steamer duck decreases the integrin mobile fraction. For rhea and FAK, there is a concomitant shift to Brownian (i.e., time-independent) diffusion at reduced concentrations of these proteins. In contrast, when the expression of actin 42A, dreadlocks, paxillin, integrin-linked kinase (ILK), or vinculin is reduced, integrin diffusion generally becomes more constrained with an increase in the integrin mobile fraction. This same change in integrin diffusion is measured in the absence of integrin extracellular ligand. The results indicate breaking the extracellular ligand-integrin-cytoskeletal linkage alters integrin diffusion properties, and, in most cases, there is no correlation between integrin and lipid diffusion properties.

  1. Advancement in integrin facilitated drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Arosio, Daniela; Casagrande, Cesare

    2016-02-01

    The research of integrin-targeted anticancer agents has recorded important advancements in ingenious design of delivery systems, based either on the prodrug approach, or on nanoparticle carriers, but for now, none of these has reached a clinical stage of development. Past work in this area has been extensively reviewed by us and others. Thus, the purpose and scope of the present review is to survey the advancement reported in the last 3years, with focus on innovative delivery systems that appear to afford openings for future developments. These systems exploit the labelling with conventional and novel integrin ligands for targeting the interface of cancer cells and of endothelial cells involved in cancer angiogenesis, with the proteins of the extracellular matrix, in the circulation, in tissues, and in tumour stroma, as the site of progression and metastatic evolution of the disease. Furthermore, these systems implement the expertise in the development of nanomedicines to the purpose of achieving preferential biodistribution and uptake in cancer tissues, internalisation in cancer cells, and release of the transported drugs at intracellular sites. The assessment of the value of controlling these factors, and their combination, for future developments requires support of biological testing in appropriate mechanistic models, but also imperatively demand confirmation in therapeutically relevant in vivo models for biodistribution, efficacy, and lack of off-target effects. Thus, among many studies, we have tried to point out the results supported by relevant in vivo studies, and we have emphasised in specific sections those addressing the medical needs of drug delivery to brain tumours, as well as the delivery of oligonucleotides modulating gene-dependent pathological mechanism. The latter could constitute the basis of a promising third branch in the therapeutic armamentarium against cancer, in addition to antibody-based agents and to cytotoxic agents. Copyright © 2015

  2. Expression of Selected Integrins and Selectins in Bullous Pemphigoid

    PubMed Central

    Żebrowska, Agnieszka; Sysa-Jędrzejowska, Anna; Wągrowska-Danilewicz, Małgorzata; Joss-Wichman, Ewa; Erkiert-Polguj, Anna; Waszczykowska, Elżbieta

    2007-01-01

    Blister development in bullous pemphigoid (BP) results from destruction of hemidesmosomes and basement membrane components within the dermoepidermal junction by autoantibodies. Adhesion molecules can take part in pathogenesis of this disease. The aim of the study was to determine the localization and expression of L- and E-selectins and β1, β3, and β4 integrins by immunohistochemistry in skin lesions of 21 patients with BP, compared with 10 healthy subjects. Expression of L and E selectins and β1, β3 integrins was detected mainly in basal keratinocytes and in inflammatory infiltrates in the dermis, expression of β4 integrin was irregular and was detected mainly in dermal part of the blister, while in the control group only weak and single expression of the examined molecules was detected in basal keratinocytes and endothelium cells. The obtained results reveal the important role of selected selectins and integrins in development of skin lesions in BP. PMID:17515951

  3. Rheostat regulation of integrin-mediated leukocyte adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Ivor S.; Dassopoulos, Themistocles

    2007-01-01

    The homing of activated T lymphocytes to the gut in inflammatory bowel diseases is dependent on their coordinated, integrin-mediated adhesion and de-adhesion to substrates and blood vessel walls. In this issue of the JCI, Park and colleagues reveal a key modulatory role of a binding site within β integrins, known as the ADMIDAS domain, in controlling integrin de-adhesion in mice (see the related article beginning on page 2526). These observations add to our growing understanding of how integrin adhesiveness is regulated and raise the notion of the existence of a biological rheostat for lymphocyte homing. Disturbed migratory rheostat tone could account for variations in interindividual immune responses observed in patients with inflammatory bowel disease or other lymphocyte-mediated inflammatory disorders. These findings will inform future strategies to design small molecules for the treatment of a spectrum of chronic inflammatory conditions. PMID:17786236

  4. Direct integrin alphavbeta6-ERK binding: implications for tumour growth.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nuzhat; Niu, Jun; Dorahy, Douglas J; Gu, Xinhua; Andrews, Sarah; Meldrum, Cliff J; Scott, Rodney J; Baker, Mark S; Macreadie, Ian G; Agrez, Michael V

    2002-02-21

    Blockade of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway suppresses growth of colon cancer in vivo. Here we demonstrate a direct link between the extracellular signal-regulated kinase ERK2 and the growth-promoting cell adhesion molecule, integrin alphavbeta6, in colon cancer cells. Down-regulation of beta6 integrin subunit expression inhibits tumour growth in vivo and MAP kinase activity in response to serum stimulation. In alphavbeta6-expressing cells ERK2 is bound only to the beta6 subunit. The increase in cytosolic MAP kinase activity upon epidermal growth factor stimulation is all accounted for by beta6-bound ERK. Deletion of the ERK2 binding site on the beta6 cytoplasmic domain inhibits tumour growth and leads to an association between ERK and the beta5 subunit. The physical interaction between integrin alphavbeta6 and ERK2 defines a novel paradigm of integrin-mediated signalling and provides a therapeutic target for cancer treatment.

  5. Function of the alpha 6 Integrins in Breast Carcinoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    motility on laminin-1. Time-lapse was resistant to solubilization with Triton X-100. Cy- videomicroscopy of clone A cells on laminin-1 revealed...represent SEM. The Integrin a6/34 Participates in the Dynamic Formation of Actin-based Motility Structures: Filopodia lapse videomicroscopy in serum-free...threefold greater time-lapse videomicroscopy to understand how the cu6P34 than on an equivalent concentration of collagen type I, integrin contributes to

  6. Current Anti-Integrin Therapy for Ocular Disease.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Salinas, Roberto; Hernández-Zimbrón, Luis F; Gulias-Cañizo, Rosario; Sánchez-Vela, Mario Alberto; Ochoa-De La Paz, Lenin; Zamora, Ruben; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo

    2017-10-31

    The integrin family of cell adhesion molecules mediates homeostasis, signal transduction, and various other interactions between the cell and the extracellular matrix. Integrins are type-1 transmembrane glycoproteins located on the cell surface, widely expressed in leukocytes, which play an important role in the inflammatory pathway. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current state of anti-integrin therapy and to assess ongoing clinical trials in ocular disease. We performed a search on PubMed, CINAHL, and Embase for the published literature available using the MeSH terms: "integrin therapy" and "αLβ2," "α4β1" and "α4β7," "αvβ3," "αvβ5," and "αvβ1" and/or "ophthalmology," and "clinical trials." We used no language restrictions. We generated searches to account for synonyms of these keywords and MESH headings as follows: (1) "integrin," "therapy," or "treatment"; (2) "clinical trials," "ophthalmology," or "ocular." In addition, the analysis included phase 2 and phase 3 clinical trials with a minimal follow-up of six months. Integrin antagonists have shown their capacity to improve signs and symptoms of patients with dry eye disease, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic macular edema, and vitreomacular traction.

  7. Utilizing Fibronectin Integrin-Binding Specificity to Control Cellular Responses

    PubMed Central

    Bachman, Haylee; Nicosia, John; Dysart, Marilyn; Barker, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Cells communicate with the extracellular matrix (ECM) protein fibronectin (Fn) through integrin receptors on the cell surface. Controlling integrin–Fn interactions offers a promising approach to directing cell behavior, such as adhesion, migration, and differentiation, as well as coordinated tissue behaviors such as morphogenesis and wound healing. Recent Advances: Several different groups have developed recombinant fragments of Fn that can control epithelial to mesenchymal transition, sequester growth factors, and promote bone and wound healing. It is thought that these physiological responses are, in part, due to specific integrin engagement. Furthermore, it has been postulated that the integrin-binding domain of Fn is a mechanically sensitive switch that drives binding of one integrin heterodimer over another. Critical Issues: Although computational simulations have predicted the mechano-switch hypothesis and recent evidence supports the existence of varying strain states of Fn in vivo, experimental evidence of the Fn integrin switch is still lacking. Future Directions: Evidence of the integrin mechano-switch will enable the development of new Fn-based peptides in tissue engineering and wound healing, as well as deepen our understanding of ECM pathologies, such as fibrosis. PMID:26244106

  8. Integrin activation controls metastasis in human breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felding-Habermann, Brunhilde; O'Toole, Timothy E.; Smith, Jeffrey W.; Fransvea, Emilia; Ruggeri, Zaverio M.; Ginsberg, Mark H.; Hughes, Paul E.; Pampori, Nisar; Shattil, Sanford J.; Saven, Alan; Mueller, Barbara M.

    2001-02-01

    Metastasis is the primary cause of death in human breast cancer. Metastasis to bone, lungs, liver, and brain involves dissemination of breast cancer cells via the bloodstream and requires adhesion within the vasculature. Blood cell adhesion within the vasculature depends on integrins, a family of transmembrane adhesion receptors, and is regulated by integrin activation. Here we show that integrin v3 supports breast cancer cell attachment under blood flow conditions in an activation-dependent manner. Integrin v3 was found in two distinct functional states in human breast cancer cells. The activated, but not the nonactivated, state supported tumor cell arrest during blood flow through interaction with platelets. Importantly, activated αvβ3 was expressed by freshly isolated metastatic human breast cancer cells and variants of the MDA-MB 435 human breast cancer cell line, derived from mammary fat pad tumors or distant metastases in severe combined immunodeficient mice. Expression of constitutively activated mutant αvβ3D723R, but not αvβ3WT, in MDA-MB 435 cells strongly promoted metastasis in the mouse model. Thus breast cancer cells can exhibit a platelet-interactive and metastatic phenotype that is controlled by the activation of integrin αvβ3. Consequently, alterations within tumors that lead to the aberrant control of integrin activation are expected to adversely affect the course of human breast cancer.

  9. Transgenes for tea?

    PubMed

    Heritage, John

    2005-01-01

    So far, no compelling scientific evidence has been found to suggest that the consumption of transgenic or genetically modified (GM) plants by animals or humans is more likely to cause harm than is the consumption of their conventional counterparts. Despite this lack of scientific evidence, the economic prospects for GM plants are probably limited in the short term and there is public opposition to the technology. Now is a good time to address several issues concerning GM plants, including the potential for transgenes to migrate from GM plants to gut microbes or to animal or human tissues, the consequences of consuming GM crops, either as fresh plants or as silage, and the problems caused by current legislation on GM labelling and beyond.

  10. The Integrin Receptor in Biologically Relevant Bilayers: Insights from Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Kalli, Antreas C; Rog, Tomasz; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Campbell, Iain D; Sansom, Mark S P

    2017-08-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric (αβ) cell surface receptors that are potential therapeutic targets for a number of diseases. Despite the existence of structural data for all parts of integrins, the structure of the complete integrin receptor is still not available. We have used available structural data to construct a model of the complete integrin receptor in complex with talin F2-F3 domain. It has been shown that the interactions of integrins with their lipid environment are crucial for their function but details of the integrin/lipid interactions remain elusive. In this study an integrin/talin complex was inserted in biologically relevant bilayers that resemble the cell plasma membrane containing zwitterionic and charged phospholipids, cholesterol and sphingolipids to study the dynamics of the integrin receptor and its effect on bilayer structure and dynamics. The results of this study demonstrate the dynamic nature of the integrin receptor and suggest that the presence of the integrin receptor alters the lipid organization between the two leaflets of the bilayer. In particular, our results suggest elevated density of cholesterol and of phosphatidylserine lipids around the integrin/talin complex and a slowing down of lipids in an annulus of ~30 Å around the protein due to interactions between the lipids and the integrin/talin F2-F3 complex. This may in part regulate the interactions of integrins with other related proteins or integrin clustering thus facilitating signal transduction across cell membranes.

  11. Transgenics in crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Y.; Wu, Y. H.; McAvoy, R.; Duan, H.

    2001-01-01

    With rapid world population growth and declining availability of fresh water and arable land, a new technology is urgently needed to enhance agricultural productivity. Recent discoveries in the field of crop transgenics clearly demonstrate the great potential of this technology for increasing food production and improving food quality while preserving the environment for future generations. In this review, we briefly discuss some of the recent achievements in crop improvement that have been made using gene transfer technology.

  12. The Changing Integrin Expression and a Role for Integrin β8 in the Chondrogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    LaPointe, Vanessa L. S.; Verpoorte, Amanda; Stevens, Molly M.

    2013-01-01

    Many cartilage tissue engineering approaches aim to differentiate human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) into chondrocytes and develop cartilage in vitro by targeting cell-matrix interactions. We sought to better inform the design of cartilage tissue engineering scaffolds by understanding how integrin expression changes during chondrogenic differentiation. In three models of in vitro chondrogenesis, we studied the temporal change of cartilage phenotype markers and integrin subunits during the differentiation of hMSCs. We found that transcript expression of most subunits was conserved across the chondrogenesis models, but was significantly affected by the time-course of differentiation. In particular, ITGB8 was up-regulated and its importance in chondrogenesis was further established by a knockdown of integrin β8, which resulted in a non-hyaline cartilage phenotype, with no COL2A1 expression detected. In conclusion, we performed a systematic study of the temporal changes of integrin expression during chondrogenic differentiation in multiple chondrogenesis models, and revealed a role for integrin β8 in chondrogenesis. This work enhances our understanding of the changing adhesion requirements of hMSCs during chondrogenic differentiation and underlines the importance of integrins in establishing a cartilage phenotype. PMID:24312400

  13. Diverse roles of integrin receptors in articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Shakibaei, M; Csaki, C; Mobasheri, A

    2008-01-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins made up of alpha and beta subunits. At least eighteen alpha and eight beta subunit genes have been described in mammals. Integrin family members are plasma membrane receptors involved in cell adhesion and active as intra- and extracellular signalling molecules in a variety of processes including embryogenesis, hemostasis, tissue repair, immune response and metastatic spread of tumour cells. Integrin beta 1 (beta1-integrin), the protein encoded by the ITGB1 gene (also known as CD29 and VLAB), is a multi-functional protein involved in cell-matrix adhesion, cell signalling, cellular defense, cell adhesion, protein binding, protein heterodimerisation and receptor-mediated activity. It is highly expressed in the human body (17.4 times higher than the average gene in the last updated revision of the human genome). The extracellular matrix (ECM) of articular cartilage is a unique environment. Interactions between chondrocytes and the ECM regulate many biological processes important to homeostasis and repair of articular cartilage, including cell attachment, growth, differentiation and survival. The beta1-integrin family of cell surface receptors appears to play a major role in mediating cell-matrix interactions that are important in regulating these fundamental processes. Chondrocyte mechanoreceptors have been proposed to incorporate beta1-integrins and mechanosensitive ion channels which link with key ECM, cytoskeletal and signalling proteins to maintain the chondrocyte phenotype, prevent chondrocyte apoptosis and regulate chondrocyte-specific gene expression. This review focuses on the expression and function of beta1-integrins in articular chondrocytes, its role in the unique biology of these cells and its distribution in cartilage.

  14. Transgenic algae engineered for higher performance

    SciTech Connect

    Unkefer, Pat J; Anderson, Penelope S; Knight, Thomas J

    The present disclosure relates to transgenic algae having increased growth characteristics, and methods of increasing growth characteristics of algae. In particular, the disclosure relates to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and a glutamine synthetase.

  15. Integrin expression and integrin-mediated adhesion in vitro of human multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) to endothelial cells from various blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Semon, Julie A; Nagy, Lauren H; Llamas, Claire B; Tucker, H Alan; Lee, Ryang Hwa; Prockop, Darwin J

    2010-07-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) home to damaged tissue by processes partly regulated by integrins. Integrin subunits expressed by MSCs were identified by flow cytometry (FC), immunocytochemistry (IC), and a panel of integrin-binding antibodies. In subconfluent cultures, over 80% of MSCs expressed integrin subunits beta1, beta2, and alpha3, 20%-55% expressed alpha1, alpha2, alpha4, alpha5, alpha6, and alphaV, and about 10% expressed beta3 when assayed by FC. None of the cells expressed significant levels of 13 other integrins as assayed by FC, but seven of the 13 integrins were detected by IC: beta5, alpha7, alpha8, alpha9, alpha11, alphaX, and alphaD. Expression of some integrins changed with MSC confluency: integrins beta3, alpha1, alpha3, alpha5, and alphaV increased, and alpha6 decreased. Furthermore, alpha4 was the only integrin to vary among preparations of MSCs from different donors. The results resolved some discrepancies in the literature concerning integrin expression by MSCs. We also investigated the role of specific integrins in MSC adhesion to endothelial cells (ECs) from the pulmonary artery (HPAEC), cardiac-derived microvasculature (HMVEC-C), and umbilical veins (HUVEC). In experiments with blocking antibodies to beta integrins, anti-beta5 reduced MSC adhesion to all types of ECs, anti-beta1 to both HUVEC and HPAEC, anti-beta3 to HUVEC, and anti-beta2 to HMVEC-C. With blocking antibodies to alpha integrins, anti-alphaX reduced adhesion to HPAEC and HMVEC-C, anti-alphaV to HPAEC, and both anti-alpha7 and anti-alphaD to HMVEC-C. Thus, MSCs use diverse integrins to adhere to EC from various blood vessels in vitro.

  16. Ethical issues in transgenics.

    PubMed

    Sherlock, R; Morrey, J D

    2000-01-01

    The arguments of critics and concerns of the public on generating transgenic cloned animals are analyzed for the absence or presence of logical structure. Critics' arguments are symbolically compared with "genetic trespassing," "genetic speeding," or "going the wrong way," and responses are provided to these arguments. Scientists will be empowered to participate in the public discussion and to engage the critics on these issues as they consider thoughtful, plausible responses to their concerns. Temporary moratoriums are recognized as a plausible approach to dealing with possible concerns of new scientific advancements.

  17. Peptides derived from central turn motifs within integrin αIIb and αV cytoplasmic tails inhibit integrin activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinlei; Liu, Yongqing; Haas, Thomas A

    2014-12-01

    We previously found that peptides derived from the full length of integrin αIIb and αV cytoplasmic tails inhibited their parent integrin activation, respectively. Here we showed that the cell-permeable peptides corresponding to the conserved central turn motif within αIIb and αV cytoplasmic tails, myr-KRNRPPLEED (αIIb peptide) and myr-KRVRPPQEEQ (αV peptide), similarly inhibited both αIIb and αV integrin activation. Pre-treatment with αIIb or αV peptides inhibited Mn(2+)-activated αIIbβ3 binding to soluble fibrinogen as well as the binding of αIIbβ3-expressing Chinese Hamster Ovary cells to immobilized fibrinogen. Our turn peptides also inhibited adhesion of two breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-435 and MCF7) to αV ligand vitronectin. These results suggest that αIIb and αV peptides share a same mechanism in regulating integrin function. Using αIIb peptide as a model, we found that replacement of RPP with AAA significantly attenuated the inhibitory activity of αIIb peptide. Furthermore, we found that αIIb peptide specifically bound to β-tubulin in cells. Our work suggests that the central motif of α tails is an anchoring point for cytoskeletons during integrin activation and integrin-mediated cell adhesion, and its function depends on the turn structure at RPP. However, post-treatment of peptides derived from the full-length tail or from the turn motif did not reverse αIIb and αV integrin activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nanoparticle Imaging of Integrins on Tumor Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Montet, Xavier; Montet-Abou, Karin; Reynolds, Fred; Weissleder, Ralph; Josephson, Lee

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Nanoparticles 10 to 100 nm in size can deliver large payloads to molecular targets, but undergo slow diffusion and/or slow transport through delivery barriers. To examine the feasibility of nanoparticles targeting a marker expressed in tumor cells, we used the binding of cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) nanoparticle targeting integrins on BT-20 tumor as a model system. The goals of this study were: 1) to use nanoparticles to image αvβ3 integrins expressed in BT-20 tumor cells by fluorescence-based imaging and magnetic resonance imaging, and, 2) to identify factors associated with the ability of nanoparticles to target tumor cell integrins. Three factors were identified: 1) tumor cell integrin expression (the αvβ3 integrin was expressed in BT-20 cells, but not in 9L cells); 2) nanoparticle pharmacokinetics (the cyclic RGD peptide cross-linked iron oxide had a blood half-life of 180 minutes and was able to escape from the vasculature over its long circulation time); and 3) tumor vascularization (the tumor had a dense capillary bed, with distances of <100 µm between capillaries). These results suggest that nanoparticles could be targeted to the cell surface markers expressed in tumor cells, at least in the case wherein the nanoparticles and the tumor model have characteristics similar to those of the BT-20 tumor employed here. PMID:16611415

  19. The opposing roles of laminin-binding integrins in cancer.

    PubMed

    Ramovs, Veronika; Te Molder, Lisa; Sonnenberg, Arnoud

    2017-01-01

    Integrins play an important role in cell adhesion by linking the cytoskeleton of cells to components in the extracellular matrix. In this capacity, integrins cooperate with different cell surface receptors, including growth factor receptors and G-protein coupled receptors, to regulate intracellular signaling pathways that control cell polarization, spreading, migration, survival, and gene expression. A distinct subfamily of molecules in the integrin family of adhesion receptors is formed by receptors that mediate cell adhesion to laminins, major components of the basement membrane that lie under clusters of cells or surround them, separating them from other cells and/or adjacent connective tissue. During the past decades, many studies have provided evidence for a role of laminin-binding integrins in tumorigenesis, and both tumor-promoting and suppressive activities have been identified. In this review we discuss the dual role of the laminin-binding integrins α3β1 and α6β4 in tumor development and progression, and examine the factors and mechanisms involved in these opposing effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Integrin activation by a cold atmospheric plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volotskova, Olga; Stepp, Mary Ann; Keidar, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Current breakthrough research on cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) demonstrates that CAP has great potential in various areas, including medicine and biology, thus providing a new tool for living tissue treatment. In this paper, we explore potential mechanisms by which CAP alters cell migration and influences cell adhesion. We focus on the study of CAP interaction with fibroblasts and corneal epithelial cells. The data show that fibroblasts and corneal epithelial cells have different thresholds (treatment times) required to achieve maximum inhibition of cell migration. Both cell types reduced their migration rates by ˜30-40% after CAP compared to control cells. Also, the impact of CAP treatment on cell migration and persistence of fibroblasts after integrin activation by MnCl2, serum starvation or replating cells onto surfaces coated with integrin ligands is assessed; the results show that activation by MnCl2 or starvation attenuates cells’ responses to plasma. Studies carried out to assess the impact of CAP treatment on the activation state of β1 integrin and focal adhesion size by using immunofluorescence show that fibroblasts have more active β1 integrin on their surface and large focal adhesions after CAP treatment. Based on these data, a thermodynamic model is presented to explain how CAP leads to integrin activation and focal adhesion assembly.

  1. Integrin αIIbβ3 outside-in signaling

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Integrin αIIbβ3 is a highly abundant heterodimeric platelet receptor that can transmit information bidirectionally across the plasma membrane, and plays a critical role in hemostasis and thrombosis. Upon platelet activation, inside-out signaling pathways increase the affinity of αIIbβ3 for fibrinogen and other ligands. Ligand binding and integrin clustering subsequently stimulate outside-in signaling, which initiates and amplifies a range of cellular events driving essential platelet processes such as spreading, thrombus consolidation, and clot retraction. Integrin αIIbβ3 has served as an excellent model for the study of integrin biology, and it has become clear that integrin outside-in signaling is highly complex and involves a vast array of enzymes, signaling adaptors, and cytoskeletal components. In this review, we provide a concise but comprehensive overview of αIIbβ3 outside-in signaling, focusing on the key players involved, and how they cooperate to orchestrate this critical aspect of platelet biology. We also discuss gaps in the current understanding of αIIbβ3 outside-in signaling and highlight avenues for future investigation. PMID:28794070

  2. CLIC4 regulates cell adhesion and β1 integrin trafficking.

    PubMed

    Argenzio, Elisabetta; Margadant, Coert; Leyton-Puig, Daniela; Janssen, Hans; Jalink, Kees; Sonnenberg, Arnoud; Moolenaar, Wouter H

    2014-12-15

    Chloride intracellular channel protein 4 (CLIC4) exists in both soluble and membrane-associated forms, and is implicated in diverse cellular processes, ranging from ion channel formation to intracellular membrane remodeling. CLIC4 is rapidly recruited to the plasma membrane by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and serum, suggesting a possible role for CLIC4 in exocytic-endocytic trafficking. However, the function and subcellular target(s) of CLIC4 remain elusive. Here, we show that in HeLa and MDA-MB-231 cells, CLIC4 knockdown decreases cell-matrix adhesion, cell spreading and integrin signaling, whereas it increases cell motility. LPA stimulates the recruitment of CLIC4 to β1 integrin at the plasma membrane and in Rab35-positive endosomes. CLIC4 is required for both the internalization and the serum- or LPA-induced recycling of β1 integrin, but not for EGF receptor trafficking. Furthermore, we show that CLIC4 suppresses Rab35 activity and antagonizes Rab35-dependent regulation of β1 integrin trafficking. Our results define CLIC4 as a regulator of Rab35 activity and serum- and LPA-dependent integrin trafficking. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Epidermal dysplasia and abnormal hair follicles in transgenic mice overexpressing homeobox gene MSX-2.

    PubMed

    Jiang, T X; Liu, Y H; Widelitz, R B; Kundu, R K; Maxson, R E; Chuong, C M

    1999-08-01

    The homeobox gene Msx-2 is expressed specifically in sites of skin appendage formation. To explore its part in skin morphogenesis, we produced transgenic mice expressing Msx-2 under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter. The skin of these transgenic mice was flaky, exhibiting desquamation and shorter hairs. Histologic analysis showed thickened epidermis with hyperproliferation, which was restricted to the basal layer. Hyperkeratosis was also evident. A wide zone of suprabasal cells were misaligned and coexpressed keratins 14 and 10. There was reduced expression of integrin beta 1 and DCC in the basal layer. Hair follicles were misaligned with a shrunken matrix region. The dermis showed increased cellularity and empty vacuoles. We suggest that Msx-2 is involved in the growth control of skin and skin appendages.

  4. [TSA improve transgenic porcine cloned embryo development and transgene expression].

    PubMed

    Kong, Qing-Ran; Zhu, Jiang; Huang, Bo; Huan, Yan-Jun; Wang, Feng; Shi, Yong-Qian; Liu, Zhong-Feng; Wu, Mei-Ling; Liu, Zhong-Hua

    2011-07-01

    Uncompleted epigenetic reprogramming is attributed to the low efficiency of producing transgenic cloned animals. Histone modification associated with epigenetics can directly influence the embryo development and transgene expression. Trichostatin A (TSA), as an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, can change the status of histone acetylation, improve somatic cell reprogramming, and enhance cloning efficiency. TSA prevents the chromatin structure from being condensed, so that transcription factor could binds to DNA sequence easily and enhance transgene expression. Our study established the optimal TSA treatment on porcine donor cells and cloned embryos, 250 nmol/L, 24 h and 40 nmol/L, 24 h, respectively. Furthermore, we found that both the cloned embryo and the donor cell treated by TSA resulted in the highest development efficiency. Meanwhile, TSA can improve transgene expression in donor cell and cloned embryo. In summary, TSA can significantly improve porcine reconstructed embryo development and transgene expression.

  5. Integrin αIIbβ3

    PubMed Central

    Bledzka, Kamila; Smyth, Susan S.; Plow, Edward F.

    2013-01-01

    From the initial description of platelets in 1882, their propensity to aggregate and to contribute to thrombosis was apparent. Indeed, excessive platelet aggregation is associated with myocardial infarction and other thrombotic diseases whereas Glanzmann thrombasthenia, in which platelet aggregation is reduced, is a bleeding syndrome. Over the last half of the 20th century, many investigators have provided insights into the cellular and molecular basis for platelet aggregation. The major membrane protein on platelets, integrin αIIbβ3, mediates this response by rapidly transiting from its resting to an activated state in which it serves as a receptor for ligands that can bridge platelets together. Monoclonal antibodies, natural products, and small peptides were all shown to inhibit αIIbβ3 dependent platelet aggregation, and these inhibitors became the forerunners of antagonists that proceeded through preclinical testing and into large patient trials to treat acute coronary syndromes, particularly in the context of percutaneous coronary interventions. Three such αIIbβ3 antagonists, abciximab, eptifibatide, and tirofiban, received Food and Drug Administration approval. Over the past 15 years, millions of patients have been treated with these αIIbβ3 antagonists and many lives have been saved by their administration. With the side effect of increased bleeding and the development of new antithrombotic drugs, the use of αIIbβ3 antagonists is waning. Nevertheless, they are still widely used for the prevention of periprocedural thrombosis during percutaneous coronary interventions. This review focuses on the biology of αIIbβ3, the development of its antagonists, and some of the triumphs and shortcomings of αIIbβ3 antagonism. PMID:23580774

  6. Transgenic horticultural crops in Asia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Modern biotechnology applications, including genetic engineering, are a powerful tool to complement the conventional methods of crop improvement. Asia currently has three countries cultivating biotech/transgenic crops – China, India, and the Philippines, but only China commercially grows a transgen...

  7. Integrins and small GTPases as modulators of phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Sayedyahossein, Samar; Dagnino, Lina

    2013-01-01

    Phagocytosis is the mechanism whereby cells engulf large particles. This process has long been recognized as a critical component of the innate immune response, which constitutes the organism's defense against microorganisms. In addition, phagocytic internalization of apoptotic cells or cell fragments plays important roles in tissue homeostasis and remodeling. Phagocytosis requires target interactions with receptors on the plasma membrane of the phagocytic cell. Integrins have been identified as important mediators of particle clearance, in addition to their well-established roles in cell adhesion, migration and mechanotransduction. Indeed, these ubiquitously expressed proteins impart phagocytic capacity to epithelial, endothelial and mesenchymal cell types. The importance of integrins in particle internalization is emphasized by the ability of microbial and viral pathogens to exploit their signaling pathways to invade host cells, and by the wide variety of disorders that arise from abnormalities in integrin-dependent phagocytic uptake. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Role of Integrin in Mechanical Loading of Osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Ruth; Demsky, Caroline

    2000-01-01

    Mechanical forces generated by gravity, weightbearing, and muscle contraction play a key role in the genesis and maintenance of skeletal structure. The molecular mechanisms that mediate changes in osteoblast activity in response to altered patterns of skeletal loading are not known, and a better understanding of these processes may be essential for developing effective treatment strategies to prevent disuse osteoporosis. We have elucidated specific integrin/ECM (extracellular matrix) interactions that are required for osteoblast differentiation and survival and have developed a useful loading system to further explore the molecular basis of mechano-sensitivity of osteoblasts. The long term goal of our collaborative research is to understand how the ECM and cell adhesion proteins and integrins interaction to mediate the response of osteoblasts and their progenitors to mechanical loading. We suggest that integrin/ECM interactions are crucial for basic cellular processes, including differentiation and survival, as well as to participate in detecting and mediating cellular responses to mechanical stimuli.

  9. Active and inactive β1 integrins segregate into distinct nanoclusters in focal adhesions.

    PubMed

    Spiess, Matthias; Hernandez-Varas, Pablo; Oddone, Anna; Olofsson, Helene; Blom, Hans; Waithe, Dominic; Lock, John G; Lakadamyali, Melike; Strömblad, Staffan

    2018-06-04

    Integrins are the core constituents of cell-matrix adhesion complexes such as focal adhesions (FAs) and play key roles in physiology and disease. Integrins fluctuate between active and inactive conformations, yet whether the activity state influences the spatial organization of integrins within FAs has remained unclear. In this study, we address this question and also ask whether integrin activity may be regulated either independently for each integrin molecule or through locally coordinated mechanisms. We used two distinct superresolution microscopy techniques, stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) and stimulated emission depletion microscopy (STED), to visualize active versus inactive β1 integrins. We first reveal a spatial hierarchy of integrin organization with integrin molecules arranged in nanoclusters, which align to form linear substructures that in turn build FAs. Remarkably, within FAs, active and inactive β1 integrins segregate into distinct nanoclusters, with active integrin nanoclusters being more organized. This unexpected segregation indicates synchronization of integrin activities within nanoclusters, implying the existence of a coordinate mechanism of integrin activity regulation. © 2018 Spiess et al.

  10. The Talin Head Domain Reinforces Integrin-Mediated Adhesion by Promoting Adhesion Complex Stability and Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Stephanie J.; Lostchuck, Emily; Goult, Benjamin T.; Bouaouina, Mohamed; Fairchild, Michael J.; López-Ceballos, Pablo; Calderwood, David A.; Tanentzapf, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Talin serves an essential function during integrin-mediated adhesion in linking integrins to actin via the intracellular adhesion complex. In addition, the N-terminal head domain of talin regulates the affinity of integrins for their ECM-ligands, a process known as inside-out activation. We previously showed that in Drosophila, mutating the integrin binding site in the talin head domain resulted in weakened adhesion to the ECM. Intriguingly, subsequent studies showed that canonical inside-out activation of integrin might not take place in flies. Consistent with this, a mutation in talin that specifically blocks its ability to activate mammalian integrins does not significantly impinge on talin function during fly development. Here, we describe results suggesting that the talin head domain reinforces and stabilizes the integrin adhesion complex by promoting integrin clustering distinct from its ability to support inside-out activation. Specifically, we show that an allele of talin containing a mutation that disrupts intramolecular interactions within the talin head attenuates the assembly and reinforcement of the integrin adhesion complex. Importantly, we provide evidence that this mutation blocks integrin clustering in vivo. We propose that the talin head domain is essential for regulating integrin avidity in Drosophila and that this is crucial for integrin-mediated adhesion during animal development. PMID:25393120

  11. An Integrin from Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Mediated Microbial Agglutination and Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Leilei; Wang, Lingling; Wu, Ning; Zhou, Zhi; Song, Linsheng

    2012-01-01

    Background Integrins are a family of adhesion receptors which regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, leukocyte migration, and complement receptor-dependent phagocytosis. In invertebrates, as a cell adhesion receptor, β integrins play an important role for the balanced activation of immune defense responses especially during the encounter of infections. The present study attempts to characterize the immune functions of shrimp integrin (LvIntegrin) to have better understanding on the immune system and its regulation mechanisms in shrimps. Methodology A shrimp integrin was identified from the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (designated as LvIntegrin). Its full-length cDNA was of 2621 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 2439 bp encoding a polypeptide of 812 amino acids. The mRNA expression of LvIntegrin was significantly up-regulated at 3, 6 and 12 h after Listonella anguillarum challenge. The cDNA fragment encoding β integrin domains (βA and hybrid domain) of LvIntegrin was recombined and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)-pLysS. The recombinant protein (rLvIntegrin) could significantly agglutinate the tested microbe including E. coli JM109, L. anguillarum, Micrococcus luteus and Candida dattiladattila in the presence of divalent cations. Moreover, when NIH3T3 cells were cultured with rLvIntegrin, the proliferation rate increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions LvIntegrin, a shrimp β integrin was identified from L. vannamei, shared several highly conserved features. LvIntegrin exhibited broad-spectrum agglutination activity towards both bacteria and fungi and could improve the proliferation of NIH3T3 cells, indicating that LvIntegrin is involved in the immune response against microbe challenge and regulation of cell proliferation as a cell adhesion receptor in shrimp. PMID:22792387

  12. An integrin from shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei mediated microbial agglutination and cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Leilei; Wang, Lingling; Wu, Ning; Zhou, Zhi; Song, Linsheng

    2012-01-01

    Integrins are a family of adhesion receptors which regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, leukocyte migration, and complement receptor-dependent phagocytosis. In invertebrates, as a cell adhesion receptor, β integrins play an important role for the balanced activation of immune defense responses especially during the encounter of infections. The present study attempts to characterize the immune functions of shrimp integrin (LvIntegrin) to have better understanding on the immune system and its regulation mechanisms in shrimps. A shrimp integrin was identified from the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (designated as LvIntegrin). Its full-length cDNA was of 2621 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 2439 bp encoding a polypeptide of 812 amino acids. The mRNA expression of LvIntegrin was significantly up-regulated at 3, 6 and 12 h after Listonella anguillarum challenge. The cDNA fragment encoding β integrin domains (βA and hybrid domain) of LvIntegrin was recombined and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)-pLysS. The recombinant protein (rLvIntegrin) could significantly agglutinate the tested microbe including E. coli JM109, L. anguillarum, Micrococcus luteus and Candida dattiladattila in the presence of divalent cations. Moreover, when NIH3T3 cells were cultured with rLvIntegrin, the proliferation rate increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. LvIntegrin, a shrimp β integrin was identified from L. vannamei, shared several highly conserved features. LvIntegrin exhibited broad-spectrum agglutination activity towards both bacteria and fungi and could improve the proliferation of NIH3T3 cells, indicating that LvIntegrin is involved in the immune response against microbe challenge and regulation of cell proliferation as a cell adhesion receptor in shrimp.

  13. Exosomes derived from human macrophages suppress endothelial cell migration by controlling integrin trafficking.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Doo; Kim, Yeon Hyang; Kim, Doo-Sik

    2014-04-01

    Integrin trafficking, including internalization, recycling, and lysosomal degradation, is crucial for the regulation of cellular functions. Exosomes, nano-sized extracellular vesicles, are believed to play important roles in intercellular communications. This study demonstrates that exosomes released from human macrophages negatively regulate endothelial cell migration through control of integrin trafficking. Macrophage-derived exosomes promote internalization of integrin β1 in primary HUVECs. The internalized integrin β1 persistently accumulates in the perinuclear region and is not recycled back to the plasma membrane. Experimental results indicate that macrophage-derived exosomes stimulate trafficking of internalized integrin β1 to lysosomal compartments with a corresponding decrease in the integrin destined for recycling endosomes, resulting in proteolytic degradation of the integrin. Moreover, ubiquitination of HUVEC integrin β1 is enhanced by the exosomes, and exosome-mediated integrin degradation is blocked by bafilomycin A, a lysosomal degradation inhibitor. Macrophage-derived exosomes were also shown to effectively suppress collagen-induced activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway and HUVEC migration, which are both dependent on integrin β1. These observations provide new insight into the functional significance of exosomes in the regulation of integrin trafficking. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Developmental control of integrin expression regulates Th2 effector homing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Integrin CD18, a component of the LFA-1 complex that also includes CD11a, is essential for Th2, but not Th1, cell homing, but the explanation for this phenomenon remains obscure. In this study, we investigate the mechanism by which Th2 effector responses require the LFA-1 complex. CD11a-deficient T ...

  15. Syndecan-4 Phosphorylation Is a Control Point for Integrin Recycling

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Mark R.; Hamidi, Hellyeh; Bass, Mark D.; Warwood, Stacey; Ballestrem, Christoph; Humphries, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Precise spatiotemporal coordination of integrin adhesion complex dynamics is essential for efficient cell migration. For cells adherent to fibronectin, differential engagement of α5β1 and αVβ3 integrins is used to elicit changes in adhesion complex stability, mechanosensation, matrix assembly, and migration, but the mechanisms responsible for receptor regulation have remained largely obscure. We identify phosphorylation of the membrane-intercalated proteoglycan syndecan-4 as an essential switch controlling integrin recycling. Src phosphorylates syndecan-4 and, by driving syntenin binding, leads to suppression of Arf6 activity and recycling of αVβ3 to the plasma membrane at the expense of α5β1. The resultant elevation in αVβ3 engagement promotes stabilization of focal adhesions. Conversely, abrogation of syndecan-4 phosphorylation drives surface expression of α5β1, destabilizes adhesion complexes, and disrupts cell migration. These data identify the dynamic spatiotemporal regulation of Src-mediated syndecan-4 phosphorylation as an essential switch controlling integrin trafficking and adhesion dynamics to promote efficient cell migration. PMID:23453597

  16. Lymphocyte integrin expression differences between SIRS and sepsis patients.

    PubMed

    Heffernan, D S; Monaghan, S F; Ayala, Alfred

    2017-11-01

    Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis remain leading causes of death. Despite many similarities, the two entities are very distinct clinically and immunologically. T-Lymphocytes play a key pivotal role in the pathogenesis and ultimately outcome following both SIRS and sepsis. Integrins are essential in the trafficking and migration of lymphocytes. They also serve vital roles in efficient wound healing and clearance of infections. Here, we investigate whether integrin expression, specifically β1 (CD29) and β2 (CD18), are disrupted in SIRS and sepsis, and assess differences in integrin expression between these two critically ill clinical categories. T-Lymphocytes were isolated from whole blood collected from ICU patients exhibiting SIRS or sepsis. Samples were analyzed for CD18 (β2) and CD29 (β1) on CD3 + T cells through flow cytometry. Septic patients were stratified into either exclusively abdominal or non-abdominal sources of sepsis. CD18 was almost ubiquitously expressed on CD3 + T cells irrespective of clinical condition. However, CD29 (β1 integrin) was lowest in SIRS patients (20.4% of CD3 + T cells) when compared with either septic patients (35.5%) or healthy volunteers (54.1%). Furthermore, there was evidence of compartmentalization in septic patients, where abdominal sources had a greater percentage of CD3 + CD29 + T cells (41.7%) when compared with those with non-abdominal sources (29.5%). Distinct differences in T-cell integrin expression exists between patients in SIRS versus sepsis, as well as relative to the source of sepsis. Further work is needed to understand cause and effect relative to the progression from SIRS into sepsis.

  17. Transgenic mice in developmental toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Woychik, R.P.

    1992-12-31

    Advances in molecular biology and embryology are being utilized for the generation of transgenic mice, animals that contain specific additions, deletions, or modifications of genes or sequences in their DNA. Mouse embryonic stem cells and homologous recombination procedures have made it possible to target specific DNA structural alterations to highly localized region in the host chromosomes. The majority of the DNA structural rearrangements in transgenic mice can be passed through the germ line and used to establish new genetic traits in the carrier animals. Since the use of transgenic mice is having such an enormous impact on so many areasmore » of mammalian biological research, including developmental toxicology, the objective of this review is to briefly describe the fundamental methodologies for generating transgenic mice and to describe one particular application that has direct relevance to the field of genetic toxicology.« less

  18. Transgenic mice in developmental toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Woychik, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    Advances in molecular biology and embryology are being utilized for the generation of transgenic mice, animals that contain specific additions, deletions, or modifications of genes or sequences in their DNA. Mouse embryonic stem cells and homologous recombination procedures have made it possible to target specific DNA structural alterations to highly localized region in the host chromosomes. The majority of the DNA structural rearrangements in transgenic mice can be passed through the germ line and used to establish new genetic traits in the carrier animals. Since the use of transgenic mice is having such an enormous impact on so many areasmore » of mammalian biological research, including developmental toxicology, the objective of this review is to briefly describe the fundamental methodologies for generating transgenic mice and to describe one particular application that has direct relevance to the field of genetic toxicology.« less

  19. A dual role for integrin-linked kinase in platelets: regulating integrin function and α-granule secretion

    PubMed Central

    Sage, Tanya; Stevens, Joanne M.; Jordan, Peter A.; Jones, Sarah; Barrett, Natasha E.; St-Arnaud, Rene; Frampton, Jonathan; Dedhar, Shoukat; Gibbins, Jonathan M.

    2008-01-01

    Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) has been implicated in the regulation of a range of fundamental biological processes such as cell survival, growth, differentiation, and adhesion. In platelets ILK associates with β1- and β3-containing integrins, which are of paramount importance for the function of platelets. Upon stimulation of platelets this association with the integrins is increased and ILK kinase activity is up-regulated, suggesting that ILK may be important for the coordination of platelet responses. In this study a conditional knockout mouse model was developed to examine the role of ILK in platelets. The ILK-deficient mice showed an increased bleeding time and volume, and despite normal ultrastructure the function of ILK-deficient platelets was decreased significantly. This included reduced aggregation, fibrinogen binding, and thrombus formation under arterial flow conditions. Furthermore, although early collagen stimulated signaling such as PLCγ2 phosphorylation and calcium mobilization were unaffected in ILK-deficient platelets, a selective defect in α-granule, but not dense-granule, secretion was observed. These results indicate that as well as involvement in the control of integrin affinity, ILK is required for α-granule secretion and therefore may play a central role in the regulation of platelet function. PMID:18772455

  20. Beyond the Matrix: The Many Non-ECM Ligands for Integrins

    PubMed Central

    LaFoya, Bryce; Munroe, Jordan A.; Miyamoto, Alison; Detweiler, Michael A.; Crow, Jacob J.; Gazdik, Tana

    2018-01-01

    The traditional view of integrins portrays these highly conserved cell surface receptors as mediators of cellular attachment to the extracellular matrix (ECM), and to a lesser degree, as coordinators of leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium. These canonical activities are indispensable; however, there is also a wide variety of integrin functions mediated by non-ECM ligands that transcend the traditional roles of integrins. Some of these unorthodox roles involve cell-cell interactions and are engaged to support immune functions such as leukocyte transmigration, recognition of opsonization factors, and stimulation of neutrophil extracellular traps. Other cell-cell interactions mediated by integrins include hematopoietic stem cell and tumor cell homing to target tissues. Integrins also serve as cell-surface receptors for various growth factors, hormones, and small molecules. Interestingly, integrins have also been exploited by a wide variety of organisms including viruses and bacteria to support infectious activities such as cellular adhesion and/or cellular internalization. Additionally, the disruption of integrin function through the use of soluble integrin ligands is a common strategy adopted by several parasites in order to inhibit blood clotting during hematophagy, or by venomous snakes to kill prey. In this review, we strive to go beyond the matrix and summarize non-ECM ligands that interact with integrins in order to highlight these non-traditional functions of integrins. PMID:29393909

  1. Mechanisms of integrin-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor cross-activation in angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mahabeleshwar, Ganapati H; Feng, Weiyi; Reddy, Kumar; Plow, Edward F; Byzova, Tatiana V

    2007-09-14

    The functional responses of endothelial cells are dependent on signaling from peptide growth factors and the cellular adhesion receptors, integrins. These include cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation, which, in turn, are essential for more complex processes such as formation of the endothelial tube network during angiogenesis. This study identifies the molecular requirements for the cross-activation between beta3 integrin and tyrosine kinase receptor 2 for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor (VEGFR-2) on endothelium. The relationship between VEGFR-2 and beta3 integrin appears to be synergistic, because VEGFR-2 activation induces beta3 integrin tyrosine phosphorylation, which, in turn, is crucial for VEGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of VEGFR-2. We demonstrate here that adhesion- and growth factor-induced beta3 integrin tyrosine phosphorylation are directly mediated by c-Src. VEGF-stimulated recruitment and activation of c-Src and subsequent beta3 integrin tyrosine phosphorylation are critical for interaction between VEGFR-2 and beta3 integrin. Moreover, c-Src mediates growth factor-induced beta3 integrin activation, ligand binding, beta3 integrin-dependent cell adhesion, directional migration of endothelial cells, and initiation of angiogenic programming in endothelial cells. Thus, the present study determines the molecular mechanisms and consequences of the synergism between 2 cell surface receptor systems, growth factor receptor and integrins, and opens new avenues for the development of pro- and antiangiogenic strategies.

  2. Smurf1 inhibits integrin activation by controlling Kindlin-2 ubiquitination and degradation

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaofan; Wang, Xiang; Zhan, Jun; Chen, Yuhan; Fang, Weigang; Zhang, Lingqiang

    2017-01-01

    Integrin activation is an indispensable step for various integrin-mediated biological functions. Kindlin-2 is known to coactivate integrins with Talin; however, molecules that restrict integrin activation are elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the E3 ubiquitin ligase Smurf1 controls the amount of Kindlin-2 protein in cells and hinders integrin activation. Smurf1 interacts with and promotes Kindlin-2 ubiquitination and degradation. Smurf1 selectively mediates degradation of Kindlin-2 but not Talin, leading to inhibition of αIIbβ3 integrin activation in Chinese hamster ovary cells and β1 integrin activation in fibroblasts. Enhanced activation of β1 integrin was found in Smurf1-knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts, which correlates with an increase in Kindlin-2 protein levels. Similarly, a reciprocal relationship between Smurf1 and Kindlin-2 protein levels is found in tissues from colon cancer patients, suggesting that Smurf1 mediates Kindlin-2 degradation in vivo. Collectively, we demonstrate that Smurf1 acts as a brake for integrin activation by controlling Kindlin-2 protein levels, a new mechanism that permits precise modulation of integrin-mediated cellular functions. PMID:28408404

  3. Pro-metastatic NEDD9 regulates individual cell migration via caveolin-1-dependent trafficking of integrins

    PubMed Central

    Kozyulina, Polina Y.; Loskutov, Yuriy V.; Kozyreva, Varvara K.; Rajulapati, Anuradha; Ice, Ryan J.; Jones, Brandon. C.; Pugacheva, Elena N.

    2014-01-01

    The dissemination of tumor cells relies on efficient cell adhesion and migration, which in turn depends upon endocytic trafficking of integrins. In the current work, it was found that depletion of pro-metastatic protein, NEDD9, in breast cancer (BC) cells results in a significant decrease in individual cell migration due to impaired trafficking of ligand-bound integrins. NEDD9 deficiency does not affect the expression or internalization of integrins but heightens caveolae-dependent trafficking of ligand-bound integrins to early endosomes. Increase in mobility of ligand-bound integrins is concomitant with an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of caveolin-1 (CAV1) and volume of CAV1-vesicles. NEDD9 directly binds to CAV1 and co-localizes within CAV1 vesicles. In the absence of NEDD9, the trafficking of ligand-bound integrins from early to late endosomes is impaired, resulting in a significant decrease in degradation of ligand/integrin complexes and an increase in recycling of ligand-bound integrins from early endosomes back to the plasma membrane without ligand disengagement, thus leading to low adhesion and migration. Re-expression of NEDD9 or decrease in the amount of active, tyrosine 14 phosphorylated (Tyr14) CAV1 in NEDD9 depleted cells rescues the integrin trafficking deficiency and restores cellular adhesion and migration capacity. Collectively, these findings indicate that NEDD9 orchestrates trafficking of ligand-bound integrins through the attenuation of CAV1 activity. PMID:25319010

  4. β3 integrin expression is required for invadopodia-mediated ECM degradation in lung carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Xabier; Salvo, Elizabeth; Garasa, Saray; Ortiz de Solórzano, Carlos; Martínez, Alfredo; Larrayoz, Ignacio M.; Rouzaut, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Cancer related deaths are primarily due to tumor metastasis. To facilitate their dissemination to distant sites, cancer cells develop invadopodia, actin-rich protrusions capable of degrading the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM). We aimed to determine whether β3 integrin participates in invadopodia formed by lung carcinoma cells, based on our previous findings of specific TGF-β induction of β3 integrin dependent metastasis in animal models of lung carcinoma. In this study, we demonstrate that lung carcinoma cells form invadopodia in response to TGF-β exposure. Invadopodia formation and degradation activity is dependent on β3 integrin expression since β3 integrin deficient cells are not able to degrade gelatin-coated surfaces. Even more, transient over-expression of SRC did not restore invadopodia formation in β3 integrin deficient cells. Finally, we observed that blockade of PLC-dependent signaling leads to more intense labeling for β3 integrin in invadopodia. Our results suggest that β3 integrin function, and location, in lung cancer cells are essential for invadopodia formation, and this integrin regulates the activation of different signal pathways necessary for the invasive structure. β3 integrin has been associated with poor prognosis and increased metastasis in several carcinoma types, including lung cancer. Our findings provide new evidence to support the use of targeted therapies against this integrin to combat the onset of metastases. PMID:28767724

  5. The effect of ligand affinity on integrins' lateral diffusion in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Mainali, Dipak; Smith, Emily A

    2013-04-01

    The role of ligand affinity in altering αPS2CβPS integrins' lateral mobility was studied using single particle tracking (SPT) with ligand-functionalized quantum dots (QDs) and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) with fluorescent protein tagged integrins. Integrins are ubiquitous transmembrane proteins that are vital for numerous cellular functions, including bidirectional signaling and cell anchorage. Wild-type and high ligand affinity mutant (αPS2CβPS-V409D) integrins were studied in S2 cells. As measured by SPT, the integrin mobile fraction decreased by 22% and had a 4× slower diffusion coefficient for αPS2CβPS-V409D compared to wild-type integrins. These differences are partially the result of αPS2CβPS-V409D integrins' increased clustering. For the wild-type integrins, the average of all diffusion coefficients measured by SPT was statistically similar to the ensemble FRAP results. A 75% slower average diffusion coefficient was measured by SPT compared to FRAP for αPS2CβPS-V409D integrins, and this may be the result of SPT measuring only ligand-bound integrins, in contrast all ligand-bound and ligand-unbound integrins are averaged in FRAP measurements. Specific binding of the ligand-functionalized QDs was 99% for integrin expressing cells. The results prove that the ligand binding affinity affects the lateral dynamics of a subset of integrins based on the complementary SPT and FRAP data.

  6. Glia Maturation Factor-γ Regulates Monocyte Migration through Modulation of β1-Integrin*

    PubMed Central

    Aerbajinai, Wulin; Liu, Lunhua; Zhu, Jianqiong; Kumkhaek, Chutima; Chin, Kyung; Rodgers, Griffin P.

    2016-01-01

    Monocyte migration requires the dynamic redistribution of integrins through a regulated endo-exocytosis cycle, but the complex molecular mechanisms underlying this process have not been fully elucidated. Glia maturation factor-γ (GMFG), a novel regulator of the Arp2/3 complex, has been shown to regulate directional migration of neutrophils and T-lymphocytes. In this study, we explored the important role of GMFG in monocyte chemotaxis, adhesion, and β1-integrin turnover. We found that knockdown of GMFG in monocytes resulted in impaired chemotactic migration toward formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) and stromal cell-derived factor 1α (SDF-1α) as well as decreased α5β1-integrin-mediated chemoattractant-stimulated adhesion. These GMFG knockdown impaired effects could be reversed by cotransfection of GFP-tagged full-length GMFG. GMFG knockdown cells reduced the cell surface and total protein levels of α5β1-integrin and increased its degradation. Importantly, we demonstrate that GMFG mediates the ubiquitination of β1-integrin through knockdown or overexpression of GMFG. Moreover, GMFG knockdown retarded the efficient recycling of β1-integrin back to the plasma membrane following normal endocytosis of α5β1-integrin, suggesting that the involvement of GMFG in maintaining α5β1-integrin stability may occur in part by preventing ubiquitin-mediated degradation and promoting β1-integrin recycling. Furthermore, we observed that GMFG interacted with syntaxin 4 (STX4) and syntaxin-binding protein 4 (STXBP4); however, only knockdown of STXBP4, but not STX4, reduced monocyte migration and decreased β1-integrin cell surface expression. Knockdown of STXBP4 also substantially inhibited β1-integrin recycling in human monocytes. These results indicate that the effects of GMFG on monocyte migration and adhesion probably occur through preventing ubiquitin-mediated proteasome degradation of α5β1-integrin and facilitating effective β1-integrin recycling back to the plasma membrane

  7. Mechanotransduction: all signals point to cytoskeleton, matrix, and integrins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alenghat, Francis J.; Ingber, Donald E.

    2002-01-01

    Mechanical stresses modulate cell function by either activating or tuning signal transduction pathways. Mechanotransduction, the process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response, occurs both in cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory. However, common among the various responses to mechanical stress is the importance of direct or indirect connections between the internal cytoskeleton, the extracellular matrix (ECM), and traditional signal transducing molecules. In many instances, these elements converge at focal adhesions, sites of structural attachment between the cytoskeleton and ECM that are anchored by cell surface integrin receptors. Alenghat and Ingber discuss the accumulating evidence for the central role of cytoskeleton, ECM, and integrin-anchored focal adhesions in several mechanotransduction pathways.

  8. Physical and functional interaction between integrins and hERG potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Arcangeli, A; Becchetti, A; Cherubini, A; Crociani, O; Defilippi, P; Guasti, L; Hofmann, G; Pillozzi, S; Olivotto, M; Wanke, E

    2004-11-01

    Integrins are adhesion receptors capable of transmitting intracellular signals that regulate many different cellular functions. Among integrin-mediated signals, the activation of ion channels can be included. We demonstrated that a long-lasting activation of hERG (human ether-a-go-go-related gene) potassium channels occurs in both human neuroblastoma and leukaemia cells after the activation of the beta1 integrin subunit. This activation is apparently a determining factor inducing neurite extension and osteoclastic differentiation in both the cell types. More recently, we provided evidences that beta1 integrins and hERG channels co-precipitate in both the cell types. Preliminary results suggest that a macromolecular signalling complex indeed occurs between integrins and the hERG1 protein and that hERG channel activity can modulate integrin downstream signalling.

  9. Extracellular Matrix Induced Integrin Signal Transduction and Breast Cancer Invasion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-10-01

    Metalloproteinase, breast, mammary, integrin, collagen, RGDS, matrilysin 49 breast cancer 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18. SECURITY...Organization Name(s) and Address(es). Self-explanatory. Block 16. Price Code. Enter appropriate price Block 8. Performinc!_rcanization Report code...areas of necrosis in the center of the tumor; a portion of the mammary gland can be seen in the lower right . The matrilysin in situ showed

  10. Relating conformation to function in integrin α5β1.

    PubMed

    Su, Yang; Xia, Wei; Li, Jing; Walz, Thomas; Humphries, Martin J; Vestweber, Dietmar; Cabañas, Carlos; Lu, Chafen; Springer, Timothy A

    2016-07-05

    Whether β1 integrin ectodomains visit conformational states similarly to β2 and β3 integrins has not been characterized. Furthermore, despite a wealth of activating and inhibitory antibodies to β1 integrins, the conformational states that these antibodies stabilize, and the relation of these conformations to function, remain incompletely characterized. Using negative-stain electron microscopy, we show that the integrin α5β1 ectodomain adopts extended-closed and extended-open conformations as well as a bent conformation. Antibodies SNAKA51, 8E3, N29, and 9EG7 bind to different domains in the α5 or β1 legs, activate, and stabilize extended ectodomain conformations. Antibodies 12G10 and HUTS-4 bind to the β1 βI domain and hybrid domains, respectively, activate, and stabilize the open headpiece conformation. Antibody TS2/16 binds a similar epitope as 12G10, activates, and appears to stabilize an open βI domain conformation without requiring extension or hybrid domain swing-out. mAb13 and SG/19 bind to the βI domain and βI-hybrid domain interface, respectively, inhibit, and stabilize the closed conformation of the headpiece. The effects of the antibodies on cell adhesion to fibronectin substrates suggest that the extended-open conformation of α5β1 is adhesive and that the extended-closed and bent-closed conformations are nonadhesive. The functional effects and binding sites of antibodies and fibronectin were consistent with their ability in binding to α5β1 on cell surfaces to cross-enhance or inhibit one another by competitive or noncompetitive (allosteric) mechanisms.

  11. Molecular imaging of alpha v beta3 integrin expression in atherosclerotic plaques with a mimetic of RGD peptide grafted to Gd-DTPA.

    PubMed

    Burtea, Carmen; Laurent, Sophie; Murariu, Oltea; Rattat, Dirk; Toubeau, Gérard; Verbruggen, Alfons; Vansthertem, David; Vander Elst, Luce; Muller, Robert N

    2008-04-01

    The integrin alpha v beta3 is highly expressed in atherosclerotic plaques by medial and intimal smooth muscle cells and by endothelial cells of angiogenic microvessels. In this study, we have assessed non-invasive molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of plaque-associated alpha v beta3 integrin expression on transgenic ApoE-/- mice with a low molecular weight peptidomimetic of Arg-Gly-Asp (mimRGD) grafted to gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (Gd-DTPA-g-mimRGD). The analogous compound Eu-DTPA-g-mimRGD was employed for an in vivo competition experiment and to confirm the molecular targeting. The specific interaction of mimRGD conjugated to Gd-DTPA or to 99mTc-DTPA with alpha v beta3 integrin was furthermore confirmed on Jurkat T lymphocytes. The mimRGD was synthesized and conjugated to DTPA. DTPA-g-mimRGD was complexed with GdCl3.6H2O, EuCl3.6H2O, or with [99mTc(CO)3(H2O)3]+. MRI evaluation was performed on a 4.7 T Bruker imaging system. Blood pharmacokinetics of Gd-DTPA-g-mimRGD were assessed in Wistar rats and in c57bl/6j mice. The presence of angiogenic blood vessels and the expression of alpha v beta3 integrin were confirmed in aorta specimens by immunohistochemistry. Gd-DTPA-g-mimRGD produced a strong enhancement of the external structures of the aortic wall and of the more profound layers (possibly tunica media and intima). The aortic lumen seemed to be restrained and distorted. Pre-injection of Eu-DTPA-g-mimRGD diminished the Gd-DTPA-g-mimRGD binding to atherosclerotic plaque and confirmed the specific molecular targeting. A slower blood clearance was observed for Gd-DTPA-g-mimRGD, as indicated by a prolonged elimination half-life and a diminished total clearance. The new compound is potentially useful for the diagnosis of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques and of other pathologies characterized by alpha v beta3 integrin expression, such as cancer and inflammation. The delayed blood clearance, the significant enhancement of the signal

  12. The role of β2 integrin associated heparin-binding protein release in ARDS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Ma, Shaolin; Wang, Xuebin; Feng, Yajing; Zhang, Shouqin; Wang, Sheng; Zhang, Xiangyu

    2018-06-15

    PMNs (polymorphonuclear neutrophil) play important roles in early stage of inflammation induced ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome). Both HBP (Heparin-Binding Protein) released from active PMNs and β2 integrins on the surface of PMNs are involved in vascular leakage. The role and relationship of HBP and β2 integrins on ARDS still requires study. We established ARDS model using C57BL/6 mice with cecal ligation and puncture and eliminating HBP and β2 integrin with respective antibodies. The mice were also challenged with HBP endotracheal instillation. Histopathology score, lung wet/dry ratio, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid protein, plasma HBP and β2 integrin on PMNs from all groups were measured. β2 integrin and HBP were analyzed after incubated PMNs with streptococcal and pretreat with anti-CD18, anti-HBP, 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor. All lung injury indicatrix accompanied with HBP and β2 integrin elevated in CLP group, and HBP and β2 integrin were in correlation with each other and both were in correlation with the severity of lung injury. Endotracheal instillation HBP induced lung injury in CLP mice. Inhibiting both HBP and integrin ameliorated lung injury. HBP release was suppressed by inhibiting integrin and PI3K pathway, while integrin level did not decrease after eliminating HBP. Both HBP and β2 integrin play important roles in ARDS. HBP released from PMNs is β2 integrin-PI3K signaling pathway dependent process revealing potential novel therapeutic targets for ARDS treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Selective Modulation of Integrin-mediated Cell Migration by Distinct ADAM Family MembersV⃞

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jing; Bridges, Lance C.; White, Judith M.

    2005-01-01

    A disintegrin and a metalloprotease (ADAM) family members have been implicated in many biological processes. Although it is recognized that recombinant ADAM disintegrin domains can interact with integrins, little is known about ADAM-integrin interactions in cellular context. Here, we tested whether ADAMs can selectively regulate integrin-mediated cell migration. ADAMs were expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells that express defined integrins (α4β1, α5β1, or both), and cell migration on full-length fibronectin or on its α4β1 or α5β1 binding fragments was studied. We found that ADAMs inhibit integrin-mediated cell migration in patterns dictated by the integrin binding profiles of their isolated disintegrin domains. ADAM12 inhibited cell migration mediated by the α4β1 but not the α5β1 integrin. ADAM17 had the reciprocal effect; it inhibited α5β1- but not α4β1-mediated cell migration. ADAM19 and ADAM33 inhibited migration mediated by both α4β1 and α5β1 integrins. A point mutation in the ADAM12 disintegrin loop partially reduced the inhibitory effect of ADAM12 on cell migration on the α4β1 binding fragment of fibronectin, whereas mutations that block metalloprotease activity had no effect. Our results indicate that distinct ADAMs can modulate cell migration mediated by specific integrins in a pattern dictated, at least in part, by their disintegrin domains. PMID:16079176

  14. Integrin beta 1 inhibition alleviates the chronic hyperproliferative dermatitis phenotype of SHARPIN-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Peuhu, Emilia; Salomaa, Siiri I; De Franceschi, Nicola; Potter, Christopher S; Sundberg, John P; Pouwels, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    SHARPIN (Shank-Associated RH Domain-Interacting Protein) is a component of the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), which enhances TNF-induced NF-κB activity. SHARPIN-deficient (Sharpincpdm/cpdm) mice display multi-organ inflammation and chronic proliferative dermatitis (cpdm) due to TNF-induced keratinocyte apoptosis. In cells, SHARPIN also inhibits integrins independently of LUBAC, but it has remained enigmatic whether elevated integrin activity levels in the dermis of Sharpincpdm/cpdm mice is due to increased integrin activity or is secondary to inflammation. In addition, the functional contribution of increased integrin activation to the Sharpincpdm/cpdm phenotype has not been investigated. Here, we find increased integrin activity in keratinocytes from Tnfr1-/- Sharpincpdm/cpdm double knockout mice, which do not display chronic inflammation or proliferative dermatitis, thus suggesting that SHARPIN indeed acts as an integrin inhibitor in vivo. In addition, we present evidence for a functional contribution of integrin activity to the Sharpincpdm/cpdm skin phenotype. Treatment with an integrin beta 1 function blocking antibody reduced epidermal hyperproliferation and epidermal thickness in Sharpincpdm/cpdm mice. Our data indicate that, while TNF-induced cell death triggers the chronic inflammation and proliferative dermatitis, absence of SHARPIN-dependent integrin inhibition exacerbates the epidermal hyperproliferation in Sharpincpdm/cpdm mice.

  15. Characterization of a symbol rate timing recovery technique for a 2B1Q digital receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboulnasr, T.; Hage, M.; Sayar, B.; Aly, S.

    1994-02-01

    This paper presents a study of several implementations of the Mueller and Muller symbol rate timing recovery algorithm for ISDN transmission over digital subscriber loops (DSL). Implementations of this algorithm using various estimates of a specified timing function are investigated. It will be shown that despite the fact that all of the estimates considered are derived based on one set of conditions, their performance varies widely in a real system. The intrinsic properties of these estimates are first analyzed, then their performance on real subscriber loops is studied through extensive simulations of a practical digital receiver. The effect of various system parameters such as channel distortion and additive noise are included. Possible sources of convergence problems are also identified and corrective action proposed.

  16. How To Produce and Characterize Transgenic Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savka, Michael A.; Wang, Shu-Yi; Wilson, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Explains the process of establishing transgenic plants which is a very important tool in plant biology and modern agriculture. Produces transgenic plants with the ability to synthesize opines. (Contains 17 references.) (YDS)

  17. Human health and transgenic crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Under the joint auspices of the Agrochemical and the Agricultural and Food Chemistry Divisions of the American Chemical Society, we organized a short symposium on “Human Health and Transgenic Crops” at the 244th ACS national meeting, held August 19-23, 2012 in Philadelphia, PA, to examine an array o...

  18. Integrin expression and glycosylation patterns regulate cell-matrix adhesion and alter with breast cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Singh, Chandrajeet; Shyanti, Ritis K; Singh, Virendra; Kale, Raosaheb K; Mishra, Jai P N; Singh, Rana P

    2018-05-05

    Integrins are the major cell adhesion glycoproteins involved in cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction and metastasis. Further, glycosylation on integrin is necessary for its proper folding and functionality. Herein, differential expression of integrins viz., αvβ3 and αvβ6 was examined in MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468 and MCF-10A cells, which signify three different stages of breast cancer development from highly metastatic to non-tumorigenic stage. The expression of αvβ3 and αvβ6 integrins at mRNA and protein levels was observed in all three cell lines and the results displayed a distinct pattern of expression. Highly metastatic cells showed enhanced expression of αvβ3 than moderate metastatic and non-tumorigenic cells. The scenario was reversed in case of αvβ6 integrin, which was strongly expressed in moderate metastatic and non-tumorigenic cells. N-glycosylation of αvβ3 and αvβ6 integrins is required for the attachment of cells to ECM proteins like fibronectin. The cell adhesion properties were found to be different in these cancer cells with respect to the type of integrins expressed. The results testify that αvβ3 integrin in highly metastatic cells, αvβ6 integrin in both moderate metastatic and non-tumorigenic cells play an important role in cell adhesion. The investigation typify that N-glycosylation on integrins is also necessary for cell-ECM interaction. Further, glycosylation inhibition by Swainsonine is found to be more detrimental to invasive property of moderate metastatic cells. Conclusively, types of integrins expressed as well as their N-glycosylation pattern alter during the course of breast cancer progression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Conservation of the Human Integrin-Type Beta-Propeller Domain in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Chouhan, Bhanupratap; Denesyuk, Alexander; Heino, Jyrki; Johnson, Mark S.; Denessiouk, Konstantin

    2011-01-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric cell-surface receptors with key functions in cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion. Integrin α and β subunits are present throughout the metazoans, but it is unclear whether the subunits predate the origin of multicellular organisms. Several component domains have been detected in bacteria, one of which, a specific 7-bladed β-propeller domain, is a unique feature of the integrin α subunits. Here, we describe a structure-derived motif, which incorporates key features of each blade from the X-ray structures of human αIIbβ3 and αVβ3, includes elements of the FG-GAP/Cage and Ca2+-binding motifs, and is specific only for the metazoan integrin domains. Separately, we searched for the metazoan integrin type β-propeller domains among all available sequences from bacteria and unicellular eukaryotic organisms, which must incorporate seven repeats, corresponding to the seven blades of the β-propeller domain, and so that the newly found structure-derived motif would exist in every repeat. As the result, among 47 available genomes of unicellular eukaryotes we could not find a single instance of seven repeats with the motif. Several sequences contained three repeats, a predicted transmembrane segment, and a short cytoplasmic motif associated with some integrins, but otherwise differ from the metazoan integrin α subunits. Among the available bacterial sequences, we found five examples containing seven sequential metazoan integrin-specific motifs within the seven repeats. The motifs differ in having one Ca2+-binding site per repeat, whereas metazoan integrins have three or four sites. The bacterial sequences are more conserved in terms of motif conservation and loop length, suggesting that the structure is more regular and compact than those example structures from human integrins. Although the bacterial examples are not full-length integrins, the full-length metazoan-type 7-bladed β-propeller domains are present, and sometimes two tandem

  20. Prometastatic NEDD9 Regulates Individual Cell Migration via Caveolin-1-Dependent Trafficking of Integrins.

    PubMed

    Kozyulina, Polina Y; Loskutov, Yuriy V; Kozyreva, Varvara K; Rajulapati, Anuradha; Ice, Ryan J; Jones, Brandon C; Pugacheva, Elena N

    2015-03-01

    The dissemination of tumor cells relies on efficient cell adhesion and migration, which in turn depends upon endocytic trafficking of integrins. In the current work, it was found that depletion of the prometastatic protein, NEDD9, in breast cancer cells results in a significant decrease in individual cell migration due to impaired trafficking of ligand-bound integrins. NEDD9 deficiency does not affect the expression or internalization of integrins but heightens caveolae-dependent trafficking of ligand-bound integrins to early endosomes. Increase in mobility of ligand-bound integrins is concomitant with an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of caveolin-1 (CAV1) and volume of CAV1-vesicles. NEDD9 directly binds to CAV1 and colocalizes within CAV1 vesicles. In the absence of NEDD9, the trafficking of ligand-bound integrins from early to late endosomes is impaired, resulting in a significant decrease in degradation of ligand-integrin complexes and an increase in recycling of ligand-bound integrins from early endosomes back to the plasma membrane without ligand disengagement, thus leading to low adhesion and migration. Reexpression of NEDD9 or decrease in the amount of active, tyrosine 14 phosphorylated (Tyr14) CAV1 in NEDD9-depleted cells rescues the integrin trafficking deficiency and restores cellular adhesion and migration capacity. Collectively, these findings indicate that NEDD9 orchestrates trafficking of ligand-bound integrins through the attenuation of CAV1 activity. This study provides valuable new insight into the potential therapeutic benefit of NEDD9 depletion to reduce dissemination of tumor cells and discovers a new regulatory role of NEDD9 in promoting migration through modulation of CAV1-dependent trafficking of integrins. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. αVβ6 integrin expression is induced in the POET and Ptenpc-/- mouse models of prostatic inflammation and prostatic adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Garlick, David S; Li, Jing; Sansoucy, Brian; Wang, Tao; Griffith, Leeanne; FitzGerald, TJ; Butterfield, Julie; Charbonneau, Bridget; Violette, Shelia M; Weinreb, Paul H; Ratliff, Timothy L; Liao, Chun-Peng; Roy-Burman, Pradip; Vietri, Michele; Lian, Jane B; Stein, Gary S; Altieri, Dario C; Languino, Lucia R

    2012-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is proposed to prime the development of prostate cancer. However, the mechanisms of prostate cancer initiation and development are not completely understood. The αvβ6 integrin has been shown to play a role in epithelial development, wound healing and some epithelial cancers [1, 2]. Here, we investigate the expression of αvβ6 in mouse models of prostatic inflammation and prostate cancer to establish a possible relationship between inflammation of the prostate, αvβ6 expression and the progression of prostate cancer. Using immunohistochemical techniques, we show expression of αvβ6 in two in vivo mouse models; the Ptenpc-/- model containing a prostate- specific Pten tumor suppressor deletion that causes cancer, and the prostate ovalbumin-expressing transgenic (POET) inflammation mouse model. We show that the αvβ6 integrin is induced in prostate cancer and inflammation in vivo in these two mouse models. αvβ6 is expressed in all the mice with cancer in the Ptenpc-/- model but not in age-matched wild-type mice. In the POET inflammation model, αvβ6 is expressed in mice injected with activated T-cells, but in none of the control mice. In the POET model, we also used real time PCR to assess the expression of Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 (TGFβ1), a factor in inflammation that is activated by αvβ6. In conclusion, through in vivo evidence, we conclude that αvβ6 integrin may be a crucial link between prostatic inflammation and prostatic adenocarcinoma. PMID:22611469

  2. α(V)β(6) integrin expression is induced in the POET and Pten(pc-/-) mouse models of prostatic inflammation and prostatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Garlick, David S; Li, Jing; Sansoucy, Brian; Wang, Tao; Griffith, Leeanne; Fitzgerald, Tj; Butterfield, Julie; Charbonneau, Bridget; Violette, Shelia M; Weinreb, Paul H; Ratliff, Timothy L; Liao, Chun-Peng; Roy-Burman, Pradip; Vietri, Michele; Lian, Jane B; Stein, Gary S; Altieri, Dario C; Languino, Lucia R

    2012-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is proposed to prime the development of prostate cancer. However, the mechanisms of prostate cancer initiation and development are not completely understood. The α(v)β(6) integrin has been shown to play a role in epithelial development, wound healing and some epithelial cancers [1, 2]. Here, we investigate the expression of α(v)β(6) in mouse models of prostatic inflammation and prostate cancer to establish a possible relationship between inflammation of the prostate, α(v)β(6) expression and the progression of prostate cancer. Using immunohistochemical techniques, we show expression of α(v)β(6) in two in vivo mouse models; the Pten(pc)-/- model containing a prostate- specific Pten tumor suppressor deletion that causes cancer, and the prostate ovalbumin-expressing transgenic (POET) inflammation mouse model. We show that the α(v)β(6) integrin is induced in prostate cancer and inflammation in vivo in these two mouse models. α(v)β(6) is expressed in all the mice with cancer in the Pten(pc-/-) model but not in age-matched wild-type mice. In the POET inflammation model, α(v)β(6) is expressed in mice injected with activated T-cells, but in none of the control mice. In the POET model, we also used real time PCR to assess the expression of Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 (TGFβ1), a factor in inflammation that is activated by α(v)β(6). In conclusion, through in vivo evidence, we conclude that α(v)β(6) integrin may be a crucial link between prostatic inflammation and prostatic adenocarcinoma.

  3. Clearance of apoptotic photoreceptors: elimination of apoptotic debris into the subretinal space and macrophage-mediated phagocytosis via phosphatidylserine receptor and integrin alphavbeta3.

    PubMed

    Hisatomi, Toshio; Sakamoto, Taiji; Sonoda, Koh-Hei; Tsutsumi, Chikako; Qiao, Hong; Enaida, Hiroshi; Yamanaka, Ichiro; Kubota, Toshiaki; Ishibashi, Tatsuro; Kura, Shinobu; Susin, Santos A; Kroemer, Guido

    2003-06-01

    The effective phagocytotic clearance of apoptotic debris is fundamental to the maintenance of neural tissues during apoptosis. Retinal photoreceptors undergo apoptosis after retinal detachment. Although their induction phase of apoptosis has been well discussed, their phagocytotic process remains quite unclear. We herein demonstrate that apoptotic photoreceptors are selectively eliminated from their physiological localization, the outer nuclear layer, to the subretinal space, and then phagocytosed by monocyte-derived macrophages. This could be shown by an ultrastructural and immunophenotypic analysis. Moreover, in chimera mice expressing transgenic green fluorescent protein in bone marrow-derived cells, the local infiltration of macrophages could be detected after retinal detachment-induced photoreceptor apoptosis. The local injection of an antibody blocking the phosphatidylserine receptor (PSR) or a peptide (GRGDSP)-blocking integrin alphavbeta3 revealed that phagocytotic clearance involves the PSR as well as integrin alphavbeta3 in vivo. Importantly, the level of blockade obtained with these reagents was different. Although anti-PSR increased the frequency of apoptotic cells that fail to bind to macrophages, GRGDSP prevented the engulfment (but not the recognition) of apoptotic photoreceptor cells by macrophages. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the mechanisms through which apoptotic photoreceptors are selectively eliminated via a directional process in the subretinal space.

  4. [Advances of transgenic breeding in livestock].

    PubMed

    Yu, Da-Wei; Zhu, Hua-Bin; DU, Wei-Hua

    2011-05-01

    Transgenic technology represents a revolutionary way to produce elite livestock breeds, allowing introduction of alien gene into livestock genome. Currently, pronuclear microinjection of DNA and somatic cell nuclear transfer are two popular methods used to make transgenic farm animals. Transgenic technology can be used in livestock breeding for improving disease resistance, carcass composition, lactational performance, wool production, growth rate, and reproductive performance, as well as reducing negative environmental impact. In addition to introduction of animal transgenic technologies, this review described the status and the future perspective of transgenic breeding in livestock.

  5. The effect of selective antihypertensive drugs on the vascular remodeling-associated hypertension: insights from a profilin1 transgenic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Hassona, Mohamed D H; Elnakish, Mohammad T; Abouelnaga, Zeinb A; Alhaj, Mazin; Wani, Altaf A; Hassanain, Hamdy

    2011-05-01

    Hypertension represents a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We have developed a novel transgenic mouse model by overexpressing the cDNA of human profilin1 in the blood vessels of transgenic mice, which led to vascular hypertrophy and hypertension. We assessed the effects of losartan, amlodipine, or atenolol on vascular hypertrophy-associated hypertension, by treating the profilin1 transgenic mice for 4 weeks. Our myograph results showed improvement in the contraction response toward phenylephrine and in the relaxation response toward acetylcholine and sodium nitrite in losartan- and amlodipine-treated profilin1 mice. Western blot analyses using mesenteric arteries of losartan- and amlodipine-treated profilin1 mice showed significant decreases in their signaling, respectively, as follows: the expression of α1 integrin (104% and 93%) and β1 integrin (116% and 109%); p-ERK1/2 (149% and 130%) and p-JNK (171% and 137%); the phospho-myosin light chain 20 (117% and 150%); and the ROCKII expression (125% and 180%). Conversely, there were significant increases in the endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression (82% and 80%) and activation (p-endothelial nitric oxide synthase) (78% and 76%). On the other hand, atenolol-treated profilin1 mice showed no significant change in all measured parameters. In conclusion, the profilin1 gene may represent a new therapeutic target in the treatment of vascular hypertrophy-associated hypertension.

  6. The CXC-chemokine CXCL4 interacts with integrins implicated in angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Aidoudi, Sallouha; Bujakowska, Kinga; Kieffer, Nelly; Bikfalvi, Andreas

    2008-07-16

    The human CXC-chemokine CXCL4 is a potent inhibitor of tumor-induced angiogenesis. Considering that CXCL4 is sequestered in platelet alpha-granules and released following platelet activation in the vicinity of vessel wall injury, we tested the hypothesis that CXCL4 might function as a ligand for integrins. Integrins are a family of adhesion receptors that play a crucial role in angiogenesis by regulating early angiogenic processes, such as endothelial cell adhesion and migration. Here, we show that CXCL4 interacts with alphavbeta3 on the surface of alphavbeta3-CHO. More importantly, human umbilical vein endothelial cells adhere to immobilized CXCL4 through alphavbeta3 integrin, and also through other integrins, such as alphavbeta5 and alpha5beta1. We further demonstrate that CXCL4-integrin interaction is of functional significance in vitro, since immobilized CXCL4 supported endothelial cell spreading and migration in an integrin-dependent manner. Soluble CXCL4, in turn, inhibits integrin-dependent endothelial cell adhesion and migration. As a whole, our study identifies integrins as novel receptors for CXCL4 that may contribute to its antiangiogenic effect.

  7. The CXC-Chemokine CXCL4 Interacts with Integrins Implicated in Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Aidoudi, Sallouha; Bujakowska, Kinga; Kieffer, Nelly; Bikfalvi, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    The human CXC-chemokine CXCL4 is a potent inhibitor of tumor-induced angiogenesis. Considering that CXCL4 is sequestered in platelet α-granules and released following platelet activation in the vicinity of vessel wall injury, we tested the hypothesis that CXCL4 might function as a ligand for integrins. Integrins are a family of adhesion receptors that play a crucial role in angiogenesis by regulating early angiogenic processes, such as endothelial cell adhesion and migration. Here, we show that CXCL4 interacts with αvβ3 on the surface of αvβ3-CHO. More importantly, human umbilical vein endothelial cells adhere to immobilized CXCL4 through αvβ3 integrin, and also through other integrins, such as αvβ5 and α5β1. We further demonstrate that CXCL4-integrin interaction is of functional significance in vitro, since immobilized CXCL4 supported endothelial cell spreading and migration in an integrin-dependent manner. Soluble CXCL4, in turn, inhibits integrin-dependent endothelial cell adhesion and migration. As a whole, our study identifies integrins as novel receptors for CXCL4 that may contribute to its antiangiogenic effect. PMID:18648521

  8. Shear-induced integrin signaling in platelet phosphatidylserine exposure, microvesicle release and coagulation.

    PubMed

    Pang, Aiming; Cui, Yujie; Chen, Yunfeng; Cheng, Ni; Delaney, M Keegan; Gu, Minyi; Stojanovic-Terpo, Aleksandra; Zhu, Cheng; Du, Xiaoping

    2018-05-31

    It is currently unclear why agonist-stimulated platelets require shear force to efficiently externalize the procoagulant phospholipid phosphatidylserine (PS) and release PS-exposed microvesicles (MVs). We reveal that integrin outside-in signaling is an important mechanism for this requirement. PS exposure and MV release were inhibited in β 3 -/- platelets or by integrin antagonists. The impaired MV release and PS exposure in β 3 -/- platelets were rescued by expressing wild type β 3 but not a Gα 13 binding-deficient β 3 mutant (E 733 EE to AAA), which blocks outside-in signaling but not ligand binding. Inhibition of Gα 13 or Src also diminished agonist/shear-dependent PS exposure and MV release, further indicating a role for integrin outside-in signaling. PS exposure in activated platelets was induced by application of pulling force via an integrin ligand, which was abolished by inhibiting Gα 13 -integrin interaction, suggesting that GGα 13 -dependent transmission of mechanical signals by integrins induces PS exposure. Inhibition of Gα 13 delayed coagulation in vitro. Furthermore, inhibition or platelet-specific knockout of Gα 13 diminished laser-induced intravascular fibrin formation in arterioles in vivo. Thus, β 3 integrins serve as a shear sensor activating the Gα 13 -dependent outside-in signaling pathway to facilitate platelet procoagulant function. Pharmacological targeting of Gα 13 -integrin interaction prevents occlusive thrombosis in vivo by inhibiting both coagulation and platelet thrombus formation. Copyright © 2018 American Society of Hematology.

  9. The adapter protein SLP-76 mediates "outside-in" integrin signaling and function in T cells.

    PubMed

    Baker, R G; Hsu, C J; Lee, D; Jordan, M S; Maltzman, J S; Hammer, D A; Baumgart, T; Koretzky, G A

    2009-10-01

    The adapter protein SH2 domain-containing leukocyte protein of 76 kDa (SLP-76) is an essential mediator of signaling from the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR). We report here that SLP-76 also mediates signaling downstream of integrins in T cells and that SLP-76-deficient T cells fail to support adhesion to integrin ligands. In response to both TCR and integrin stimulation, SLP-76 relocalizes to surface microclusters that colocalize with phosphorylated signaling proteins. Disruption of SLP-76 recruitment to the protein named LAT (linker for activation of T cells) inhibits SLP-76 clustering downstream of the TCR but not downstream of integrins. Conversely, an SLP-76 mutant unable to bind ADAP (adhesion and degranulation-promoting adapter protein) forms clusters following TCR but not integrin engagement and fails to support T-cell adhesion to integrin ligands. These findings demonstrate that SLP-76 relocalizes to integrin-initiated signaling complexes by a mechanism different from that employed during TCR signaling and that SLP-76 relocalization corresponds to SLP-76-dependent integrin function in T cells.

  10. Phorbol esters alter alpha4 and alphad integrin usage during eosinophil adhesion to VCAM-1.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Matsuo; Tachimoto, Hiroshi; Nutku, Esra; Hudson, Sherry A; Bochner, Bruce S

    2003-01-01

    We examined the effect of the protein kinase C activator phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) on the human eosinophil adhesion molecule phenotype and attachment to VCAM-1 via alpha4 and alphad integrins under static and flow conditions. PMA increased surface expression of alphad integrins and decreased alpha4 integrin expression. Under static conditions, eosinophils bound well to VCAM-1, primarily via alpha4beta1 integrins, with a minor alphadbeta2 integrin component. Unexpectedly, PMA-stimulated eosinophils bound equally well to VCAM-1 and albumin in a temperature- and divalent cation-dependent manner, yet adhesion was independent of beta1 and beta2 integrins. Under flow conditions, eosinophils readily attached to VCAM-1, and adhesion was inhibited by both alpha4 and alphad mAbs (95 and 50% inhibition, respectively). Many fewer PMA-stimulated eosinophils bound to VCAM-1 under flow conditions, but both alpha4 and alphad mAbs inhibited adhesion equally. Thus, PMA alters eosinophil integrin expression and the relative contributions of alpha4 and alphad integrins during attachment to VCAM-1.

  11. Radil controls neutrophil adhesion and motility through β2-integrin activation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lunhua; Aerbajinai, Wulin; Ahmed, Syed M.; Rodgers, Griffin P.; Angers, Stephane; Parent, Carole A.

    2012-01-01

    Integrin activation is required to facilitate multiple adhesion-dependent functions of neutrophils, such as chemotaxis, which is critical for inflammatory responses to injury and pathogens. However, little is known about the mechanisms that mediate integrin activation in neutrophils. We show that Radil, a novel Rap1 effector, regulates β1- and β2-integrin activation and controls neutrophil chemotaxis. On activation and chemotactic migration of neutrophils, Radil quickly translocates from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane in a Rap1a-GTP–dependent manner. Cells overexpressing Radil show a substantial increase in cell adhesion, as well as in integrin/focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activation, and exhibit an elongated morphology, with severe tail retraction defects. This phenotype is effectively rescued by treatment with either β2-integrin inhibitory antibodies or FAK inhibitors. Conversely, knockdown of Radil causes severe inhibition of cell adhesion, β2-integrin activation, and chemotaxis. Furthermore, we found that inhibition of Rap activity by RapGAP coexpression inhibits Radil-mediated integrin and FAK activation, decreases cell adhesion, and abrogates the long-tail phenotype of Radil cells. Overall, these studies establish that Radil regulates neutrophil adhesion and motility by linking Rap1 to β2-integrin activation. PMID:23097489

  12. Radil controls neutrophil adhesion and motility through β2-integrin activation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lunhua; Aerbajinai, Wulin; Ahmed, Syed M; Rodgers, Griffin P; Angers, Stephane; Parent, Carole A

    2012-12-01

    Integrin activation is required to facilitate multiple adhesion-dependent functions of neutrophils, such as chemotaxis, which is critical for inflammatory responses to injury and pathogens. However, little is known about the mechanisms that mediate integrin activation in neutrophils. We show that Radil, a novel Rap1 effector, regulates β1- and β2-integrin activation and controls neutrophil chemotaxis. On activation and chemotactic migration of neutrophils, Radil quickly translocates from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane in a Rap1a-GTP-dependent manner. Cells overexpressing Radil show a substantial increase in cell adhesion, as well as in integrin/focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activation, and exhibit an elongated morphology, with severe tail retraction defects. This phenotype is effectively rescued by treatment with either β2-integrin inhibitory antibodies or FAK inhibitors. Conversely, knockdown of Radil causes severe inhibition of cell adhesion, β2-integrin activation, and chemotaxis. Furthermore, we found that inhibition of Rap activity by RapGAP coexpression inhibits Radil-mediated integrin and FAK activation, decreases cell adhesion, and abrogates the long-tail phenotype of Radil cells. Overall, these studies establish that Radil regulates neutrophil adhesion and motility by linking Rap1 to β2-integrin activation.

  13. Talin-dependent integrin activation is required for fibrin clot retraction by platelets

    PubMed Central

    Haling, Jacob R.; Monkley, Susan J.; Critchley, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Talin functions both as a regulator of integrin affinity and as an important mechanical link between integrins and the cytoskeleton. Using genetic deletion of talin, we show for the first time that the capacity of talin to activate integrins is required for fibrin clot retraction by platelets. To further dissect which talin functions are required for this process, we tested clot retraction in platelets expressing a talin1(L325R) mutant that binds to integrins, but exhibits impaired integrin activation ascribable to disruption of the interaction between talin and the membrane-proximal region (MPR) in the β-integrin cytoplasmic domain. Talin-deficient and talin1(L325R) platelets were defective in retracting fibrin clots. However, the defect in clot retraction in talin1(L325R) platelets, but not talin-deficient platelets, was rescued by extrinsically activating integrins with manganese, thereby proving that integrin activation is required and showing that talin1(L325R) can form functional links to the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:20971947

  14. Single particle tracking with sterol modulation reveals the cholesterol-mediated diffusion properties of integrin receptors.

    PubMed

    Arora, Neha; Syed, Aleem; Sander, Suzanne; Smith, Emily A

    2014-10-07

    A combination of sterol modulation with cyclodextrins plus fluorescence microscopy revealed a biophysical mechanism behind cholesterol's influence on the diffusion of a ubiquitous class of receptors called integrins. The heterogeneous diffusion of integrins bound to ligand-coated quantum dots was measured using single particle tracking (SPT), and the ensemble changes in integrin diffusion were measured by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). A 25 ± 1% reduction of membrane cholesterol resulted in three significant changes to the diffusion of ligand-bound αPS2CβPS integrins as measured by SPT. There was a 23% increase in ligand-bound mobile integrins; there was a statistically significant increase in the average diffusion coefficient inside zones of confined diffusion, and histograms of confined integrin trajectories showed an increased frequency in the range of 0.1-1 μm(2) s(-1) and a decreased frequency in the 0.001-0.1 μm(2) s(-1) range. No statistical change was measured in the duration of confinement nor the size of confined zones. Restoring the cholesterol-depleted cells with exogenous cholesterol or exogenous epicholesterol resulted in similar diffusion properties. Epicholesterol differs from cholesterol in the orientation of a single hydroxyl group. The ability of epicholesterol to substitute for cholesterol suggests a biophysical mechanism for cholesterol's effect on integrin diffusion. Influences of bilayer thickness, viscosity and organization are discussed as possible explanations for the measured changes in integrin diffusion when the membrane cholesterol concentration is reduced.

  15. Physical association and functional interaction between beta1 integrin and CD98 on human T lymphocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyamoto, Yuko J.; Mitchell, Jason S.; McIntyre, Bradley W.

    2003-01-01

    CD98 is a cell surface protein previously characterized as a cell activation marker, an amino acid transporter, and has recently been implicated in integrin-related functions. Integrins are cell surface proteins, important for homotypic cell aggregation, cell adhesion, and coactivation of T lymphocytes. We have previously shown that the anti-CD98 mAb 80A10, when coimmobilized with anti-CD3 mAb OKT3, is able to mediate human T cell coactivation that is inhibited by anti-beta1 integrin specific mAb 18D3. These results indicated a functional association of CD98 and beta1 integrin signaling but left open the question of a physical association. We now show the induction of homotypic aggregation through CD98 among human T cells and this aggregation was inhibited by anti-beta1 integrin mAb. Therefore, CD98-dependent lymphocyte proliferation and adhesion may involve integrins. Competitive binding assays and fluorescence colocalization analysis suggested that CD98 and beta1 integrin were physically associated. Differential extraction techniques and immunoprecipitations provided the first evidence that the alpha4beta1 integrin and CD98 are specifically associated on human T lymphocytes.

  16. Selectins and chemokines use shared and distinct signals to activate β2 integrins in neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Yago, Tadayuki; Zhang, Nan; Zhao, Liang; Abrams, Charles S.

    2018-01-01

    Rolling neutrophils receive signals while engaging P- and E-selectin and chemokines on inflamed endothelium. Selectin signaling activates β2 integrins to slow rolling velocities. Chemokine signaling activates β2 integrins to cause arrest. Despite extensive study, key aspects of these signaling cascades remain unresolved. Using complementary in vitro and in vivo assays, we found that selectin and chemokine signals in neutrophils triggered Rap1a-dependent and phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase γ (PIP5Kγ90)–dependent pathways that induce integrin-dependent slow rolling and arrest. Interruption of both pathways, but not either pathway alone, blocked talin-1 recruitment to and activation of integrins. An isoform of PIP5Kγ90 lacking the talin-binding domain (PIP5Kγ87) could not activate integrins. Chemokines, but not selectins, used phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase γ (PI3Kγ) in cooperation with Rap1a to mediate integrin-dependent slow rolling (at low chemokine concentrations), as well as arrest (at high chemokine concentrations). High levels of chemokines activated β2 integrins without selectin signals. When chemokines were limiting, they synergized with selectins to activate β2 integrins. PMID:29592875

  17. Selectins and chemokines use shared and distinct signals to activate β2 integrins in neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Yago, Tadayuki; Zhang, Nan; Zhao, Liang; Abrams, Charles S; McEver, Rodger P

    2018-04-10

    Rolling neutrophils receive signals while engaging P- and E-selectin and chemokines on inflamed endothelium. Selectin signaling activates β2 integrins to slow rolling velocities. Chemokine signaling activates β2 integrins to cause arrest. Despite extensive study, key aspects of these signaling cascades remain unresolved. Using complementary in vitro and in vivo assays, we found that selectin and chemokine signals in neutrophils triggered Rap1a-dependent and phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase γ (PIP5Kγ90)-dependent pathways that induce integrin-dependent slow rolling and arrest. Interruption of both pathways, but not either pathway alone, blocked talin-1 recruitment to and activation of integrins. An isoform of PIP5Kγ90 lacking the talin-binding domain (PIP5Kγ87) could not activate integrins. Chemokines, but not selectins, used phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase γ (PI3Kγ) in cooperation with Rap1a to mediate integrin-dependent slow rolling (at low chemokine concentrations), as well as arrest (at high chemokine concentrations). High levels of chemokines activated β2 integrins without selectin signals. When chemokines were limiting, they synergized with selectins to activate β2 integrins. © 2018 by The American Society of Hematology.

  18. A screen to identify Drosophila genes required for integrin-mediated adhesion.

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, E P; Brown, N H

    1998-01-01

    Drosophila integrins have essential adhesive roles during development, including adhesion between the two wing surfaces. Most position-specific integrin mutations cause lethality, and clones of homozygous mutant cells in the wing do not adhere to the apposing surface, causing blisters. We have used FLP-FRT induced mitotic recombination to generate clones of randomly induced mutations in the F1 generation and screened for mutations that cause wing blisters. This phenotype is highly selective, since only 14 lethal complementation groups were identified in screens of the five major chromosome arms. Of the loci identified, 3 are PS integrin genes, 2 are blistered and bloated, and the remaining 9 appear to be newly characterized loci. All 11 nonintegrin loci are required on both sides of the wing, in contrast to integrin alpha subunit genes. Mutations in 8 loci only disrupt adhesion in the wing, similar to integrin mutations, while mutations in the 3 other loci cause additional wing defects. Mutations in 4 loci, like the strongest integrin mutations, cause a "tail-up" embryonic lethal phenotype, and mutant alleles of 1 of these loci strongly enhance an integrin mutation. Thus several of these loci are good candidates for genes encoding cytoplasmic proteins required for integrin function. PMID:9755209

  19. EMMPRIN regulates β1 integrin-mediated adhesion through Kindlin-3 in human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Delyon, Julie; Khayati, Farah; Djaafri, Ibtissem; Podgorniak, Marie-Pierre; Sadoux, Aurélie; Setterblad, Niclas; Boutalbi, Zineb; Maouche, Kamel; Maskos, Uwe; Menashi, Suzanne; Lebbé, Céleste; Mourah, Samia

    2015-06-01

    EMMPRIN is known to promote tumor invasion through extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. Here we report that EMMPRIN can regulate melanoma cell adhesion to the ECM through an interaction with β1 integrin involving kindlin-3. In this study, EMMPRIN knockdown in the human melanoma cell line M10 using siRNA decreased cell invasion and significantly increased cell adhesion and spreading. A morphological change from a round to a spread shape was observed associated with enhanced phalloidin-labelled actin staining. In situ proximity ligation assay and co-immunoprecipitation revealed that EMMPRIN silencing increased the interaction of β1 integrin with kindlin-3, a focal adhesion protein. This was associated with an increase in β1 integrin activation and a decrease in the phosphorylation of the downstream integrin kinase FAK. Moreover, the expression at both the transcript and protein level of kindlin-3 and of β1 integrin was inversely regulated by EMMPRIN. EMMPRIN did not regulate either talin expression or its interaction with β1 integrin. These results are consistent with our in vivo demonstration that EMMPRIN inhibition increased β1 integrin activation and its interaction with kindlin-3. To conclude, these findings reveal a new role of EMMPRIN in tumor cell migration through ß1 integrin/kindlin-3-mediated adhesion pathway. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Hypergravity Stimulates Osteoblast Proliferation Via Matrix-Integrin-Signaling Pathways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vercoutere, W.; Parra, M.; Roden, C.; DaCosta, M.; Wing, A.; Damsky, C.; Holton, E.; Searby, N.; Globus, R.; Almeida, E.

    2003-01-01

    Extensive characterizations of the physiologic consequences of microgravity and gravity indicate that lack of weight-bearing may cause tissue atrophy through cellular and subcellular level mechanisms. We hypothesize that gravity is needed for the efficient transduction of cell growth and survival signals from the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) in mechanosensitive tissues. Recent work from our laboratory and from others shows that an increase of gravity increases bone cell growth and survival. We found that 50-g hypergravity stimulation increased osteoblast proliferation for cells grown on Collagen Type I and Fibronectin, but not on Laminin or uncoated plastic. This may be a tissue-specific response, because 50-g hypergravity stimulation caused no increase in proliferation for primary rat fibroblasts. These results combined with RT-PCR for all possible integrins indicate that beta1 integrin subunit may be involved. The osteoblast proliferation response on Collagen Type I was greater at 25-g than at 10-g or 50-g; 24-h duration of hypergravity was necessary to see an increase in proliferation. Survival was enhanced during hypergravity stimulation by the presence of matrix. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that cell cycle may be altered; BrdU incorporation in proliferating cells showed an increase in the number of actively dividing cells from about 60% at 1-g to over 90% at 25-g. To further investigate the molecular components involved, we applied fluorescence labeling of cytoskeletal and signaling molecules to cells after 2 to 30 minutes of hypergravity stimulation. While structural components did not appear to be altered, phosphorylation increased, indicating that signaling pathways may be activated. These data indicate that gravity mechanostimulation of osteoblast proliferation involves specific matrix-integrin signaling pathways which are sensitive to duration and g-level.

  1. Proteolytic processing of endogenous and recombinant beta 4 integrin subunit

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    The alpha 6 beta 4 integrin is a receptor involved in the interaction of epithelial cells with basement membranes. This integrin is unique among the known integrins in that its beta 4 subunit has a large cytoplasmic domain. The function of this cytoplasmic domain is not known. In this paper we show that the beta 4 subunit undergoes proteolytic processing in cultured cells and provide evidence that this also happens in tissues. Immunoprecipitation experiments indicated that the cytoplasmic domain of beta 4 is susceptible to a calcium-dependent protease present in cellular extracts. In vitro assays with purified calpain showed that this enzyme can cleave beta 4 at two distinct sites in the cytoplasmic domain, generating truncated molecules of 165 and 130 kD. Immunoblotting experiments performed on cultured epithelial cells using an antibody to a peptide modeled after the COOH-terminus of the beta 4 subunit showed 70-kD fragments and several fragments of molecular masses between 185 and 115 kD. Similar fragments were detected in CHO cells transfected with the full-length beta 4 cDNA, but not in control transfected cells or in cells transfected with a mutant cDNA lacking the epitope of the cytoplasmic peptide antibody. The sizes of the fragments indicated that both the intracellular and extracellular domains of beta 4 are proteolytically processed. To examine the processing of the beta 4 subunit in epithelial tissues in vivo, human skin frozen sections were stained with antibodies to the ectodomain or the cytoplasmic domain of beta 4. The distinct staining patterns obtained with the two types of antibodies provided evidence that beta 4 is proteolytically processed in vivo in skin. Analogous experiments performed on sections of the cornea suggested that beta 4 is not proteolytically processed at a detectable level in this tissue. Thus, cleavage of the beta 4 subunit occurs in a tissue-specific fashion. These results suggest a potential mechanism of modulating the

  2. Endothelial adhesion molecules and leukocyte integrins in preeclamptic patients.

    PubMed

    Haller, H; Ziegler, E M; Homuth, V; Drab, M; Eichhorn, J; Nagy, Z; Busjahn, A; Vetter, K; Luft, F C

    1997-01-01

    Endothelial cell activation is important in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia; however, the nature of the activation is unknown. We investigated 22 patients with preeclampsia. 29 normotensive pregnancies, and 18 nonpregnant women to test the hypothesis that serum from preeclamptic patients induces expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and stimulates intracellular free calcium concentrations [Ca2+]i in cultured endothelial cells. We then asked whether the corresponding integrin adhesive counter receptors lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (CD11a/CD18), macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b/CD18), p150,95 (CD11c/CD18), and very late activation antigen-4 (CD49/CD29) are increased in patients with preeclampsia. In the pregnant women, the measurements were conducted both before and after delivery. Integrin expression was measured by fluorescent antibody cell sorting analysis using monoclonal antibodies. ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were analyzed on endothelial cells by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. [Ca2+]i was measured with fura 2. Serum from preeclamptic patients increased endothelial cell ICAM-1 expression but not VCAM-1 expression. Preeclamptic patients' serum also increased [Ca2+]i in endothelial cells compared with serum from normal nonpregnant or normal pregnant women. Endothelial cell [Ca2+]i concentrations were correlated with the ICAM-1 expression in preeclamptic patients (r = .80, P < .001) before but not after delivery. Expression of the integrin counter receptors on leukocytes was similarly increased in preclampsia and normal pregnancy compared with the nonpregnant state. The expression decreased significantly after delivery in both groups. Our results demonstrate that serum from preeclamptic women induces increased ICAM-1 surface expression on endothelial cells, while the expression of the integrin counterreceptors was not different. The effect on endothelial cells may be related to an increase in [Ca2+]i

  3. Guiding plant virus particles to integrin-displaying cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovlid, Marisa L.; Steinmetz, Nicole F.; Laufer, Burkhardt; Lau, Jolene L.; Kuzelka, Jane; Wang, Qian; Hyypiä, Timo; Nemerow, Glen R.; Kessler, Horst; Manchester, Marianne; Finn, M. G.

    2012-05-01

    Viral nanoparticles (VNPs) are structurally regular, highly stable, tunable nanomaterials that can be conveniently produced in high yields. Unmodified VNPs from plants and bacteria generally do not show tissue specificity or high selectivity in binding to or entry into mammalian cells. They are, however, malleable by both genetic and chemical means, making them useful scaffolds for the display of large numbers of cell- and tissue-targeting ligands, imaging moieties, and/or therapeutic agents in a well-defined manner. Capitalizing on this attribute, we modified the genetic sequence of the Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) coat protein to display an RGD oligopeptide sequence derived from human adenovirus type 2 (HAdV-2). Concurrently, wild-type CPMV was modified via NHS acylation and Cu(i)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) chemistry to attach an integrin-binding cyclic RGD peptide. Both types of particles showed strong and selective affinity for several different cancer cell lines that express RGD-binding integrin receptors.Viral nanoparticles (VNPs) are structurally regular, highly stable, tunable nanomaterials that can be conveniently produced in high yields. Unmodified VNPs from plants and bacteria generally do not show tissue specificity or high selectivity in binding to or entry into mammalian cells. They are, however, malleable by both genetic and chemical means, making them useful scaffolds for the display of large numbers of cell- and tissue-targeting ligands, imaging moieties, and/or therapeutic agents in a well-defined manner. Capitalizing on this attribute, we modified the genetic sequence of the Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) coat protein to display an RGD oligopeptide sequence derived from human adenovirus type 2 (HAdV-2). Concurrently, wild-type CPMV was modified via NHS acylation and Cu(i)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) chemistry to attach an integrin-binding cyclic RGD peptide. Both types of particles showed strong and selective affinity

  4. The Role of Integrin Signaling in Breast Cancer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-10-01

    specificity. Cell. 80:199-211. 15 Unpublished Data Shaw, L.M. 16. Wary, K.K., F . Mainiero, S.J. Isakoff, E.E. Marcantonio , and F.G. Giancotti. 1996. The...receptors: achieving specificity through cooperation. 1995. Trends in Cell Biol. 5:419-423. 8. Friedrichs, K., P. Ruiz, F . Franke, I. Gille, H.-J.Terpe, and...793. 12. Falcioni, R., V. Turchi, P. Vitullo, G. Navarra, F . Ficari, F . Cavaliere, A. Sacchi, and R. Mariani-Constantini. 1994. Integrin 1P4 expression

  5. Vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 mediates trafficking of {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin to the plasma membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan, Nazarul; Hu, Chuan, E-mail: chuan.hu@louisville.edu

    2010-01-01

    Integrins are major receptors for cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM). As transmembrane proteins, the levels of integrins at the plasma membrane or the cell surface are ultimately determined by the balance between two vesicle trafficking events: endocytosis of integrins at the plasma membrane and exocytosis of the vesicles that transport integrins. Here, we report that vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2), a SNARE protein that mediates vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane, is involved in the trafficking of {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin. VAMP2 was present on vesicles containing endocytosed {beta}1 integrin. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing of VAMP2 markedly reduced cellmore » surface {alpha}5{beta}1 and inhibited cell adhesion and chemotactic migration to fibronectin, the ECM ligand of {alpha}5{beta}1, without altering cell surface expression of {alpha}2{beta}1 integrin or {alpha}3{beta}1 integrin. By contrast, silencing of VAMP8, another SNARE protein, had no effect on cell surface expression of the integrins or cell adhesion to fibronectin. In addition, VAMP2-mediated trafficking is involved in cell adhesion to collagen but not to laminin. Consistent with disruption of integrin functions in cell proliferation and survival, VAMP2 silencing diminished proliferation and triggered apoptosis. Collectively, these data indicate that VAMP2 mediates the trafficking of {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin to the plasma membrane and VAMP2-dependent integrin trafficking is critical in cell adhesion, migration and survival.« less

  6. Neutrophil recruitment limited by high-affinity bent β2 integrin binding ligand in cis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zhichao; McArdle, Sara; Marki, Alex; Mikulski, Zbigniew; Gutierrez, Edgar; Engelhardt, Britta; Deutsch, Urban; Ginsberg, Mark; Groisman, Alex; Ley, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils are essential for innate immunity and inflammation and many neutrophil functions are β2 integrin-dependent. Integrins can extend (E+) and acquire a high-affinity conformation with an ‘open' headpiece (H+). The canonical switchblade model of integrin activation proposes that the E+ conformation precedes H+, and the two are believed to be structurally linked. Here we show, using high-resolution quantitative dynamic footprinting (qDF) microscopy combined with a homogenous conformation-reporter binding assay in a microfluidic device, that a substantial fraction of β2 integrins on human neutrophils acquire an unexpected E−H+ conformation. E−H+ β2 integrins bind intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs) in cis, which inhibits leukocyte adhesion in vitro and in vivo. This endogenous anti-inflammatory mechanism inhibits neutrophil aggregation, accumulation and inflammation. PMID:27578049

  7. Cranial neural crest recycle surface integrins in a substratum-dependent manner to promote rapid motility.

    PubMed

    Strachan, Lauren R; Condic, Maureen L

    2004-11-08

    Cell migration is essential for proper development of numerous structures derived from embryonic neural crest cells (NCCs). Although the migratory pathways of NCCs have been determined, the molecular mechanisms regulating NCC motility remain unclear. NCC migration is integrin dependent, and recent work has shown that surface expression levels of particular integrin alpha subunits are important determinants of NCC motility in vitro. Here, we provide evidence that rapid cranial NCC motility on laminin requires integrin recycling. NCCs showed both ligand- and receptor-specific integrin regulation in vitro. On laminin, NCCs accumulated internalized laminin but not fibronectin receptors over 20 min, whereas on fibronectin neither type of receptor accumulated internally beyond 2 min. Internalized laminin receptors colocalized with receptor recycling vesicles and were subsequently recycled back to the cell surface. Blocking receptor recycling with bafilomycin A inhibited NCC motility on laminin, indicating that substratum-dependent integrin recycling is essential for rapid cranial neural crest migration.

  8. Overexpression of integrin αv correlates with poor prognosis in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ha, Sang Yun; Shin, Juyoun; Kim, Jeong Hoon; Kang, Myung Soo; Yoo, Hae-Yong; Kim, Hyeon-Ho; Um, Sung-Hee; Kim, Seok-Hyung

    2014-07-01

    Integrin αv subunits are involved in tumour angiogenesis and tumour progression in various types of cancers. Clinical trials evaluating agents targeting integrin αv are ongoing. Integrin αv expression has been reported in several cancers in association with tumour progression or poor survival. However, no study has addressed the prognostic influence of integrin αv expression on survival of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Immunohistochemical staining of integrin αv was performed in 198 CRC samples to evaluate its prognostic significance. High expression of integrin αv was observed in 58.1% (115/189) of colorectal adenocarcinoma samples, while only in 11.5% (3/26) of tubular adenoma samples and in none of normal mucosa or hyperplastic polyp samples. It was more frequently found in female patients and less frequently observed in well differentiated tumours. The proportion of cases with high expression of integrin αv showed an increasing trend with increased T stage (p=0.032), N stage (p=0.006) and TNM stage (p=0.001). Patients displaying exuberant expression of integrin αv showed shorter overall survival (p=0.001) and disease-free survival (p=0.004). Elevated integrin αv expression was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (HR: 2.04, 95% CI 1.16 to 3.56; p=0.013) and disease-free survival (HR: 2.19, 95% CI 1.16 to 4.13; p=0.015). Overexpression of integrin αv is associated with advanced T and N stage and as an independent prognostic factor in CRC. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferl, Robert; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) investigation is one in a pair of investigations that use the Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) facility. TAGES uses Arabidopsis thaliana, thale cress, with sensor promoter-reporter gene constructs that render the plants as biomonitors (an organism used to determine the quality of the surrounding environment) of their environment using real-time nondestructive Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) imagery and traditional postflight analyses.

  10. Integrin Based Isolation Enables Purification of Murine Lineage Committed Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tarnawski, Laura; Xian, Xiaojie; Monnerat, Gustavo; Macaulay, Iain C.; Malan, Daniela; Borgman, Andrew; Wu, Sean M.; Fleischmann, Bernd K.; Jovinge, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to mature cardiomyocytes which have limited regenerative capacity, pluripotent stem cells represent a promising source for the generation of new cardiomyocytes. The tendency of pluripotent stem cells to form teratomas and the heterogeneity from various differentiation stages and cardiomyocyte cell sub-types, however, are major obstacles to overcome before this type of therapy could be applied in a clinical setting. Thus, the identification of extracellular markers for specific cardiomyocyte progenitors and mature subpopulations is of particular importance. The delineation of cardiomyocyte surface marker patterns not only serves as a means to derive homogeneous cell populations by FACS, but is also an essential tool to understand cardiac development. By using single-cell expression profiling in early mouse embryonic hearts, we found that a combination of integrin alpha-1, alpha-5, alpha-6 and N-cadherin enables isolation of lineage committed murine cardiomyocytes. Additionally, we were able to separate trabecular cardiomyocytes from solid ventricular myocardium and atrial murine cells. These cells exhibit expected subtype specific phenotype confirmed by electrophysiological analysis. We show that integrin expression can be used for the isolation of living, functional and lineage-specific murine cardiomyocytes. PMID:26323090

  11. Integrin activation and focal complex formation in cardiac hypertrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laser, M.; Willey, C. D.; Jiang, W.; Cooper, G. 4th; Menick, D. R.; Zile, M. R.; Kuppuswamy, D.

    2000-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is characterized by both remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and hypertrophic growth of the cardiocytes. Here we show increased expression and cytoskeletal association of the ECM proteins fibronectin and vitronectin in pressure-overloaded feline myocardium. These changes are accompanied by cytoskeletal binding and phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) at Tyr-397 and Tyr-925, c-Src at Tyr-416, recruitment of the adapter proteins p130(Cas), Shc, and Nck, and activation of the extracellular-regulated kinases ERK1/2. A synthetic peptide containing the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif of fibronectin and vitronectin was used to stimulate adult feline cardiomyocytes cultured on laminin or within a type-I collagen matrix. Whereas cardiocytes under both conditions showed RGD-stimulated ERK1/2 activation, only collagen-embedded cells exhibited cytoskeletal assembly of FAK, c-Src, Nck, and Shc. In RGD-stimulated collagen-embedded cells, FAK was phosphorylated only at Tyr-397 and c-Src association occurred without Tyr-416 phosphorylation and p130(Cas) association. Therefore, c-Src activation is not required for its cytoskeletal binding but may be important for additional phosphorylation of FAK. Overall, our study suggests that multiple signaling pathways originate in pressure-overloaded heart following integrin engagement with ECM proteins, including focal complex formation and ERK1/2 activation, and many of these pathways can be activated in cardiomyocytes via RGD-stimulated integrin activation.

  12. Integrin activation and focal complex formation in cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Laser, M; Willey, C D; Jiang, W; Cooper, G; Menick, D R; Zile, M R; Kuppuswamy, D

    2000-11-10

    Cardiac hypertrophy is characterized by both remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and hypertrophic growth of the cardiocytes. Here we show increased expression and cytoskeletal association of the ECM proteins fibronectin and vitronectin in pressure-overloaded feline myocardium. These changes are accompanied by cytoskeletal binding and phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) at Tyr-397 and Tyr-925, c-Src at Tyr-416, recruitment of the adapter proteins p130(Cas), Shc, and Nck, and activation of the extracellular-regulated kinases ERK1/2. A synthetic peptide containing the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif of fibronectin and vitronectin was used to stimulate adult feline cardiomyocytes cultured on laminin or within a type-I collagen matrix. Whereas cardiocytes under both conditions showed RGD-stimulated ERK1/2 activation, only collagen-embedded cells exhibited cytoskeletal assembly of FAK, c-Src, Nck, and Shc. In RGD-stimulated collagen-embedded cells, FAK was phosphorylated only at Tyr-397 and c-Src association occurred without Tyr-416 phosphorylation and p130(Cas) association. Therefore, c-Src activation is not required for its cytoskeletal binding but may be important for additional phosphorylation of FAK. Overall, our study suggests that multiple signaling pathways originate in pressure-overloaded heart following integrin engagement with ECM proteins, including focal complex formation and ERK1/2 activation, and many of these pathways can be activated in cardiomyocytes via RGD-stimulated integrin activation.

  13. Integrins are Mechanosensors That Modulate Human Eosinophil Activation

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadzai, Mustafa; Small, Mike; Sehmi, Roma; Gauvreau, Gail; Janssen, Luke J.

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophil migration to the lung is primarily regulated by the eosinophil-selective family of eotaxin chemokines, which mobilize intracellular calcium (Ca2+) and orchestrate myriad changes in cell structure and function. Eosinophil function is also known to be flow-dependent, although the molecular cognate of this mechanical response has yet to be adequately characterized. Using confocal fluorescence microscopy, we determined the effects of fluid shear stress on intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in human peripheral blood eosinophils by perfusing cells in a parallel-plate flow chamber. Our results indicate that fluid perfusion evokes a calcium response that leads to cell flattening, increase in cell area, shape change, and non-directional migration. None of these changes are seen in the absence of a flow stimulus, and all are blocked by chelation of intracellular Ca2+ using BAPTA. These changes are enhanced by stimulating the cells with eotaxin-1. The perfusion-induced calcium response (PICR) could be blocked by pre-treating cells with selective (CDP-323) and non-selective (RGD tripeptides) integrin receptor antagonists, suggesting that α4β7/α4β1 integrins mediate this response. Overall, our study provides the first pharmacological description of a molecular mechanosensor that may collaborate with the eotaxin-1 signaling program in order to control human eosinophil activation. PMID:26539194

  14. Differential Expression Levels of Integrin α6 Enable the Selective Identification and Isolation of Atrial and Ventricular Cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Wiencierz, Anne Maria; Kernbach, Manuel; Ecklebe, Josephine; Monnerat, Gustavo; Tomiuk, Stefan; Raulf, Alexandra; Christalla, Peter; Malan, Daniela; Hesse, Michael; Bosio, Andreas; Fleischmann, Bernd K; Eckardt, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Central questions such as cardiomyocyte subtype emergence during cardiogenesis or the availability of cardiomyocyte subtypes for cell replacement therapy require selective identification and purification of atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes. However, current methodologies do not allow for a transgene-free selective isolation of atrial or ventricular cardiomyocytes due to the lack of subtype specific cell surface markers. In order to develop cell surface marker-based isolation procedures for cardiomyocyte subtypes, we performed an antibody-based screening on embryonic mouse hearts. Our data indicate that atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes are characterized by differential expression of integrin α6 (ITGA6) throughout development and in the adult heart. We discovered that the expression level of this surface marker correlates with the intracellular subtype-specific expression of MLC-2a and MLC-2v on the single cell level and thereby enables the discrimination of cardiomyocyte subtypes by flow cytometry. Based on the differential expression of ITGA6 in atria and ventricles during cardiogenesis, we developed purification protocols for atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes from mouse hearts. Atrial and ventricular identities of sorted cells were confirmed by expression profiling and patch clamp analysis. Here, we introduce a non-genetic, antibody-based approach to specifically isolate highly pure and viable atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes from mouse hearts of various developmental stages. This will facilitate in-depth characterization of the individual cellular subsets and support translational research applications.

  15. Differential Expression Levels of Integrin α6 Enable the Selective Identification and Isolation of Atrial and Ventricular Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wiencierz, Anne Maria; Kernbach, Manuel; Ecklebe, Josephine; Monnerat, Gustavo; Tomiuk, Stefan; Raulf, Alexandra; Christalla, Peter; Malan, Daniela; Hesse, Michael; Bosio, Andreas; Fleischmann, Bernd K.; Eckardt, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Central questions such as cardiomyocyte subtype emergence during cardiogenesis or the availability of cardiomyocyte subtypes for cell replacement therapy require selective identification and purification of atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes. However, current methodologies do not allow for a transgene-free selective isolation of atrial or ventricular cardiomyocytes due to the lack of subtype specific cell surface markers. Methods and Results In order to develop cell surface marker-based isolation procedures for cardiomyocyte subtypes, we performed an antibody-based screening on embryonic mouse hearts. Our data indicate that atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes are characterized by differential expression of integrin α6 (ITGA6) throughout development and in the adult heart. We discovered that the expression level of this surface marker correlates with the intracellular subtype-specific expression of MLC-2a and MLC-2v on the single cell level and thereby enables the discrimination of cardiomyocyte subtypes by flow cytometry. Based on the differential expression of ITGA6 in atria and ventricles during cardiogenesis, we developed purification protocols for atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes from mouse hearts. Atrial and ventricular identities of sorted cells were confirmed by expression profiling and patch clamp analysis. Conclusion Here, we introduce a non-genetic, antibody-based approach to specifically isolate highly pure and viable atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes from mouse hearts of various developmental stages. This will facilitate in-depth characterization of the individual cellular subsets and support translational research applications. PMID:26618511

  16. Probing the acidic residue within the integrin binding site of laminin-511 that interacts with the metal ion-dependent adhesion site of α6β1 integrin.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Yukimasa; Li, Shaoliang; Takizawa, Mamoru; Oonishi, Eriko; Toga, Junko; Yagi, Emiko; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi

    2017-06-03

    Laminins are major cell-adhesive proteins of basement membranes that interact with integrins in a divalent cation-dependent manner. Laminin-511 consists of α5, β1, and γ1 chains, of which three laminin globular domains of the α5 chain (α5/LG1-3) and a Glu residue in the C-terminal tail of chain γ1 (γ1-Glu1607) are required for binding to integrins. However, it remains unsettled whether the Glu residue in the γ1 tail is involved in integrin binding by coordinating the metal ion in the metal ion-dependent adhesion site of β1 integrin (β1-MIDAS), or by stabilizing the conformation of α5/LG1-3. To address this issue, we examined whether α5/LG1-3 contain an acidic residue required for integrin binding that is as critical as the Glu residue in the γ1 tail; to achieve this, we undertook exhaustive alanine substitutions of the 54 acidic residues present in α5/LG1-3 of the E8 fragment of laminin-511 (LM511E8). Most of the alanine mutants possessed α6β1 integrin binding activities comparable with wild-type LM511E8. Alanine substitution for α5-Asp3198 and Asp3219 caused mild reduction in integrin binding activity, and that for α5-Asp3218 caused severe reduction, possibly resulting from conformational perturbation of α5/LG1-3. When α5-Asp3218 was substituted with asparagine, the resulting mutant possessed significant binding activity to α6β1 integrin, indicating that α5-Asp3218 is not directly involved in integrin binding through coordination with the metal ion in β1-MIDAS. Given that substitution of γ1-Glu1607 with glutamine nullified the binding activity to α6β1 integrin, these results, taken together, support the possibility that the critical acidic residue coordinating the metal ion in β1-MIDAS is Glu1607 in the γ1 tail, but no such residue is present in α5/LG1-3. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. High αv Integrin Level of Cancer Cells Is Associated with Development of Brain Metastasis in Athymic Rats

    PubMed Central

    WU, YINGJEN JEFFREY; PAGEL, MICHAEL A.; MULDOON, LESLIE L.; FU, RONGWEI; NEUWELT, EDWARD A.

    2018-01-01

    Background/Aim Brain metastases commonly occur in patients with malignant skin, lung and breast cancers resulting in high morbidity and poor prognosis. Integrins containing an αv subunit are cell adhesion proteins that contribute to cancer cell migration and cancer progression. We hypothesized that high expression of αv integrin cell adhesion protein promoted metastatic phenotypes in cancer cells. Materials and Methods Cancer cells from different origins were used and studied regarding their metastatic ability and intetumumab, anti-αv integrin mAb, sensitivity using in vitro cell migration assay and in vivo brain metastases animal models. Results The number of brain metastases and the rate of occurrence were positively correlated with cancer cell αv integrin levels. High αv integrin-expressing cancer cells showed significantly faster cell migration rate in vitro than low αv integrin-expressing cells. Intetumumab significantly inhibited cancer cell migration in vitro regardless of αv integrin expression level. Overexpression of αv integrin in cancer cells with low αv integrin level accelerated cell migration in vitro and increased the occurrence of brain metastases in vivo. Conclusion αv integrin promotes brain metastases in cancer cells and may mediate early steps in the metastatic cascade, such as adhesion to brain vasculature. Targeting αv integrin with intetumumab could provide clinical benefit in treating cancer patients who develop metastases. PMID:28739685

  18. Activation of c-Raf-1 kinase signal transduction pathway in alpha(7) integrin-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Saher, G; Hildt, E

    1999-09-24

    Integrin alpha(7)-deficient mice develop a novel form of muscular dystrophy. Here we report that deficiency of alpha(7) integrin causes an activation of the c-Raf-1/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) 2 kinase signal transduction pathway in muscle cells. The observed activation of c-Raf-1/MAP2 kinases is a specific effect, because the alpha(7) integrin deficiency does not cause unspecific stress as determined by measurement of the Hsp72/73 level and activity of the JNK2 kinase. Because an increased level of activated FAK was found in muscle of alpha(7) integrin-deficient mice, the activation of c-Raf-1 kinase is triggered most likely by an integrin-dependent pathway. In accordance with this, in the integrin alpha(7)-deficient mice, part of the integrin beta(1D) variant in muscle is replaced by the beta(1A) variant, which permits the FAK activation. A recent report describes that integrin activity can be down-modulated by the c-Raf-1/MAP2 kinase pathway. Specific activation of the c-Raf-1/MAP2 kinases by cell-permeable peptides in skeletal muscle of rabbits causes degeneration of muscle fibers. Therefore, we conclude that in alpha(7) integrin-deficient mice, the continuous activation of c-Raf-1 kinase causes a permanent reduction of integrin activity diminishing integrin-dependent cell-matrix interactions and thereby contributing to the development of the dystrophic phenotype.

  19. Role of insulin receptor and insulin signaling on αPS2CβPS integrins' lateral diffusion.

    PubMed

    Mainali, Dipak; Syed, Aleem; Arora, Neha; Smith, Emily A

    2014-12-01

    Integrins are ubiquitous transmembrane receptors with adhesion and signaling properties. The influence of insulin receptor and insulin signaling on αPS2CβPS integrins' lateral diffusion was studied using single particle tracking in S2 cells before and after reducing the insulin receptor expression or insulin stimulation. Insulin signaling was monitored by Western blotting for phospho-Akt expression. The expression of the insulin receptor was reduced using RNA interference (RNAi). After insulin receptor RNAi, four significant changes were measured in integrin diffusion properties: (1) there was a 24% increase in the mobile integrin population, (2) 14% of the increase was represented by integrins with Brownian diffusion, (3) for integrins that reside in confined zones of diffusion, there was a 45% increase in the diameter of the confined zone, and (4) there was a 29% increase in the duration integrins spend in confined zones of diffusion. In contrast to reduced expression of the insulin receptor, which alters integrin diffusion properties, insulin stimulation alone or insulin stimulation under conditions of reduced insulin receptor expression have minimal effects on altering the measured integrin diffusion properties. The differences in integrin diffusion measured after insulin receptor RNAi in the presence or absence of insulin stimulation may be the result of other insulin signaling pathways that are activated at reduced insulin receptor conditions. No change in the average integrin diffusion coefficient was measured for any conditions included in this study.

  20. The Novel α4B Murine α4 Integrin Protein Splicing Variant Inhibits α4 Protein-dependent Cell Adhesion*

    PubMed Central

    Kouro, Hitomi; Kon, Shigeyuki; Matsumoto, Naoki; Miyashita, Tomoe; Kakuchi, Ayaka; Ashitomi, Dai; Saitoh, Kodai; Nakatsuru, Takuya; Togi, Sumihito; Muromoto, Ryuta; Matsuda, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    Integrins affect the motility of multiple cell types to control cell survival, growth, or differentiation, which are mediated by cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. We reported previously that the α9 integrin splicing variant, SFα9, promotes WT α9 integrin-dependent adhesion. In this study, we introduced a new murine α4 integrin splicing variant, α4B, which has a novel short cytoplasmic tail. In inflamed tissues, the expression of α4B, as well as WT α4 integrin, was up-regulated. Cells expressing α4B specifically bound to VCAM-1 but not other α4 integrin ligands, such as fibronectin CS1 or osteopontin. The binding of cells expressing WT α4 integrin to α4 integrin ligands is inhibited by coexpression of α4B. Knockdown of α4B in metastatic melanoma cell lines results in a significant increase in lung metastasis. Expression levels of WT α4 integrin are unaltered by α4B, with α4B acting as a regulatory subunit for WT α4 integrin by a dominant-negative effect or inhibiting α4 integrin activation. PMID:24755217

  1. High αv Integrin Level of Cancer Cells Is Associated with Development of Brain Metastasis in Athymic Rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yingjen Jeffrey; Pagel, Michael A; Muldoon, Leslie L; Fu, Rongwei; Neuwelt, Edward A

    2017-08-01

    Brain metastases commonly occur in patients with malignant skin, lung and breast cancers resulting in high morbidity and poor prognosis. Integrins containing an αv subunit are cell adhesion proteins that contribute to cancer cell migration and cancer progression. We hypothesized that high expression of αv integrin cell adhesion protein promoted metastatic phenotypes in cancer cells. Cancer cells from different origins were used and studied regarding their metastatic ability and intetumumab, anti-αv integrin mAb, sensitivity using in vitro cell migration assay and in vivo brain metastases animal models. The number of brain metastases and the rate of occurrence were positively correlated with cancer cell αv integrin levels. High αv integrin-expressing cancer cells showed significantly faster cell migration rate in vitro than low αv integrin-expressing cells. Intetumumab significantly inhibited cancer cell migration in vitro regardless of αv integrin expression level. Overexpression of αv integrin in cancer cells with low αv integrin level accelerated cell migration in vitro and increased the occurrence of brain metastases in vivo. αv integrin promotes brain metastases in cancer cells and may mediate early steps in the metastatic cascade, such as adhesion to brain vasculature. Targeting αv integrin with intetumumab could provide clinical benefit in treating cancer patients who develop metastases. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  2. Role of Integrin-Beta1 in Polycystic Kidney Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    inheritance of the transgene, as paternal transmission would lead to gene recombination not only in the kidneys, but also in sperm and the resulting...Yanagisawa M, Miller L, Nelson RD, Kohan DE: Collecting duct-specific knockout of endothelin-1 causes hypertension and sodium retention . J Clin Invest

  3. Podocyte changes upon induction of albuminuria in Thy-1.1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Smeets, Bart; Dijkman, Henry B P M; te Loeke, Nathalie A J M; van Son, Jacco P H F; Steenbergen, Eric J; Assmann, Karel J M; Wetzels, Jack F M; Groenen, Patricia J T A

    2003-12-01

    Thy-1.1 transgenic mice, characterized by ectopic expression of the Thy-1.1 protein on podocytes, spontaneously develop proteinuria and focal glomerulosclerosis (FGS). Injection of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) directed against the Thy-1.1 protein in young transgenic mice induces a massive albuminuria that is followed by an accelerated FGS within 3 weeks. This albuminuria is complement and leukocyte independent. The time course of proteinuria, the pathogenesis of the acute proteinuria and the dose dependency of FGS are unknown. Albuminuria was measured in Thy-1.1 transgenic mice after injection of different doses of anti-Thy-1.1 mAb and at different time points within the first 24 h after injection. Podocytic foot processes and slit pore diameter were quantitated by electron microscopy. Changes in expression of slit pore constituents (podocin, CD2AP, nephrin and ZO-1), cytoskeleton-associated proteins (actin, alpha-actinin, ezrin and synaptopodin), the GDH-podocyte adhesion molecules alpha(3)-integrin, and heparan sulfate were studied by immunofluorescence. FGS was scored by light microscopy at 3 weeks after induction of albuminuria. Albuminuria in Thy-1.1 transgenic mice was observed within 10 min after anti-Thy-1.1 mAb injection. This rapid development of albuminuria was accompanied by a reduction in number of podocytic foot processes from 20.0 +/- 0.7/10 microm glomerular basement membrane (GBM) in saline-treated transgenic mice to 8.0 +/- 0.5 and 2.2 +/- 0.2 in anti-Thy-1.1-treated mice, at 10 min and 8 h after treatment, respectively. In addition, we observed a significant decrease in width of remaining slit pores, from 32.7 +/- 1.1 to 26.8 +/- 1.4 nm at 10 min after mAb injection. By immunofluorescence, we did not observe major changes in the expression pattern of any of the proteins studied. There was no correlation between the injected dose of the anti-Thy-1.1 mAb and the acute albuminuria. In contrast, the percentage of FGS at 3 weeks correlated with the

  4. Optimization of Biofuel Production From Transgenic Microalgae

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-27

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2013-0145 OPTIMIZATION OF BIOFUEL PRODUCTION FROM TRANSGENIC MICROALGAE Richard Sayre Donald Danforth...Technical 20080815 to 20120630 OPTIMIZATION OF BIOFUEL PRODUCTION FROM TRANSGENIC MICROALGAE FA9550-08-1-0451 Richard Sayre Donald Danforth Plant...BIOFUEL PRODUCTION FROM TRANSGENIC MICROALGAE Grant/Contract Number: FA9550-08-1-0451 Reporting Period: Final Report Abstract: We have compared the

  5. Galectin-3 alters the lateral mobility and clustering of β1-integrin receptors

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Esther H.; Rode, Julia; Howlader, Md. Amran; Eckermann, Marina; Santos, Jobette T.; Hernandez Armada, Daniel; Zheng, Ruixiang; Zou, Chunxia

    2017-01-01

    Glycoprotein receptors are influenced by myriad intermolecular interactions at the cell surface. Specific glycan structures may interact with endogenous lectins that enforce or disrupt receptor-receptor interactions. Glycoproteins bound by multivalent lectins may form extended oligomers or lattices, altering the lateral mobility of the receptor and influencing its function through endocytosis or changes in activation. In this study, we have examined the interaction of Galectin-3 (Gal-3), a human lectin, with adhesion receptors. We measured the effect of recombinant Gal-3 added exogenously on the lateral mobility of the α5β1 integrin on HeLa cells. Using single-particle tracking (SPT) we detected increased lateral mobility of the integrin in the presence of Gal-3, while its truncated C-terminal domain (Gal-3C) showed only minor reductions in lateral mobility. Treatment of cells with Gal-3 increased β1-integrin mediated migration with no apparent changes in viability. In contrast, Gal-3C decreased both cell migration and viability. Fluorescence microscopy allowed us to confirm that exogenous Gal-3 resulted in reorganization of the integrin into larger clusters. We used a proteomics analysis to confirm that cells expressed endogenous Gal-3, and found that addition of competitive oligosaccharide ligands for the lectin altered the lateral mobility of the integrin. Together, our results are consistent with a Gal-3–integrin lattice model of binding and confirm that the lateral mobility of integrins is natively regulated, in part, by galectins. PMID:29016609

  6. A peptide affinity column for the identification of integrin alpha IIb-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Daxecker, Heide; Raab, Markus; Bernard, Elise; Devocelle, Marc; Treumann, Achim; Moran, Niamh

    2008-03-01

    To understand the regulation of integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3), a critical platelet adhesion molecule, we have developed a peptide affinity chromatography method using the known integrin regulatory motif, LAMWKVGFFKR. Using standard Fmoc chemistry, this peptide was synthesized onto a Toyopearl AF-Amino-650 M resin on a 6-aminohexanoic acid (Ahx) linker. Peptide density was controlled by acetylation of 83% of the Ahx amino groups. Four recombinant human proteins (CIB1, PP1, ICln and RN181), previously identified as binding to this integrin regulatory motif, were specifically retained by the column containing the integrin peptide but not by a column presenting an irrelevant peptide. Hemoglobin, creatine kinase, bovine serum albumin, fibrinogen and alpha-tubulin failed to bind under the chosen conditions. Immunodetection methods confirmed the binding of endogenous platelet proteins, including CIB1, PP1, ICln RN181, AUP-1 and beta3-integrin, from a detergent-free platelet lysate. Thus, we describe a reproducible method that facilitates the reliable extraction of specific integrin-binding proteins from complex biological matrices. This methodology may enable the sensitive and specific identification of proteins that interact with linear, membrane-proximal peptide motifs such as the integrin regulatory motif LAMWKVGFFKR.

  7. Modeled Microgravity Disrupts Collagen I/Integrin Signaling During Osteoblastic Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, Valerie E.; Zayzafoon, Majd; Gonda, Steven R.; Gathings, William E.; McDonald, Jay M.

    2004-01-01

    Spaceflight leads to reduced bone mineral density in weight bearing bones that is primarily attributed to a reduction in bone formation. We have previously demonstrated severely reduced osteoblastogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) following seven days culture in modeled microgravity. One potential mechanism for reduced osteoblastic differentiation is disruption of type I collagen-integrin interactions and reduced integrin signaling. Integrins are heterodimeric transmembrane receptors that bind extracellular matrix proteins and produce signals essential for proper cellular function, survival, and differentiation. Therefore, we investigated the effects of modeled microgravity on integrin expression and function in hMSC. We demonstrate that seven days of culture in modeled microgravity leads to reduced expression of the extracellular matrix protein, type I collagen (Col I). Conversely, modeled microgravity consistently increases Col I-specific alpha2 and beta1 integrin protein expression. Despite this increase in integrin sub-unit expression, autophosphorylation of adhesion-dependent kinases, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (PYK2), is significantly reduced. Activation of Akt is unaffected by the reduction in FAK activation. However, reduced downstream signaling via the Ras-MAPK pathway is evidenced by a reduction in Ras and ERK activation. Taken together, our findings indicate that modeled microgravity decreases integrin/MAPK signaling, which likely contributes to the observed reduction in osteoblastogenesis.

  8. Colorectal Cancer Metastases Settle in the Hepatic Microenvironment Through α5β1 Integrin.

    PubMed

    Pelillo, Chiara; Bergamo, Alberta; Mollica, Hilaria; Bestagno, Marco; Sava, Gianni

    2015-10-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) metastasis dissemination to secondary sites represents the critical point for the patient's survival. The microenvironment is crucial to cancer progression, influencing tumour cell behaviour by modulating the expression and activation of molecules such as integrins, the cell-extracellular matrix interacting proteins participating in different steps of the tumour metastatic process. In this work, we investigated the role of α5β1 integrin and how the microenvironment influences this adhesion molecule, in a model of colon cancer progression to the liver. The culture medium conditioned by the IHH hepatic cell line, and the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, modulate the activation of α5β1 integrin in the colon cancer cell line HCT-116, and drives FAK phosphorylation during the process of cell adhesion to fibronectin, one of the main components of liver ECM. In these conditions, α5β1 modulates the expression/activity of another integrin, α2β1, involved in the cell adhesion to collagen I. These results suggest that α5β1 integrin holds a leading role in HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells adhesion to the ECM through the modulation of the intracellular focal adhesion kinase FAK and the α2β1 integrin activity. The driving role of the tumour microenvironment on CRC dissemination, here detected, and described, strengthens and adds new value to the concept that α5β1 integrin can be an appropriate and relevant therapeutic target for the control of CRC metastases. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Integrin αvβ3 promotes infection by Japanese encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wenchun; Qian, Ping; Wang, Dandan; Zhi, Xianwei; Wei, Yanming; Chen, Huanchun; Li, Xiangmin

    2017-04-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is one of the major causes of viral encephalitis diseases worldwide. The JEV envelope protein facilitates viral entry, and its domain III contains an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif, that may modulate JEV entry through the RGD-binding integrin. In this study, the roles of integrin αv and β3 on the infection of JEV were evaluated. Reduced expression of integrin αv/β3 by special shRNA confers 2 to 4-fold inhibition of JEV replication in BHK-21 cells. Meanwhile, antibodies specific for integrin αv/β3 displayed ~58% and ~33% inhibition of JEV infectivity and RGD-specific peptides produced ~36% of inhibition. Expression of E protein and JEV RNA loads were clearly increased in CHO cells transfected with cDNA encoding human integrin β3. Moreover, integrin αv mediates JEV infection in viral binding stage of life cycle. Therefore, our study suggested that integrin αv and β3 serve as a host factor associated with JEV entry into the target cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. PKD1/PKCmu promotes alphavbeta3 integrin recycling and delivery to nascent focal adhesions.

    PubMed

    Woods, Alison J; White, Dominic P; Caswell, Patrick T; Norman, Jim C

    2004-07-07

    To identify kinases that regulate integrin recycling, we have immunoprecipitated alphavbeta3 integrin from NIH 3T3 fibroblasts in the presence and absence of primaquine (a drug that inhibits receptor recycling and leads to accumulation of integrins in endosomes) and screened for co-precipitating kinases. Primaquine strongly promoted association of alphavbeta3 integrin with PKD1, and fluorescence microscopy indicated that integrin and PKD1 associate at a vesicular compartment that is downstream of a Rab4-dependent transport step. PKD1 association was mediated by the C-terminal region of the beta3 integrin cytodomain, and mutants of beta3 that were unable to recruit PKD1 did not recycle in a PDGF-dependent fashion. Furthermore, suppression of endogenous PKD1 levels by RNAi, or overexpression of catalytically inactive PKD1 inhibited PDGF-dependent recycling of alphavbeta3 from early endosomes to the plasma membrane and blocked recruitment of alphavbeta3 to newly formed focal adhesions during cell spreading. These data indicate that PKD1 influences cell migration by directing vesicular transport of the alphavbeta3 integrin heterodimer.

  11. Galectin-3 modulates the polarized surface delivery of β1-integrin in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hönig, Ellena; Ringer, Karina; Dewes, Jenny; von Mach, Tobias; Kamm, Natalia; Kreitzer, Geri; Jacob, Ralf

    2018-05-10

    Epithelial cells require a precise intracellular transport and sorting machinery in order to establish and maintain their polarized architecture. This machinery includes beta-galactoside binding galectins for glycoprotein targeting to the apical membrane. Galectin-3 sorts cargo destined for the apical plasma membrane into vesicular carriers. After delivery of cargo to the apical milieu, galectin-3 recycles back into sorting organelles. We analyzed the role of galectin-3 in the polarized distribution of β1-integrin in MDCK cells. Integrins are located primarily at the basolateral domain of epithelial cells. We demonstrate that a minor pool of β1-integrin interacts with galectin-3 at the apical plasma membrane. Knockdown of galectin-3 decreases apical delivery of β1-integrin. This loss is restored by supplementation with recombinant galectin-3 and galectin-3 overexpression. Our data suggest that galectin-3 targets newly synthesized β1-integrin to the apical membrane and promotes apical delivery of β1-integrin internalized from the basolateral membrane. In parallel, galectin-3 knockout results in a reduction in cell proliferation and an impairment in proper cyst development. Our results suggest that galectin-3 modulates the surface distribution of β1-integrin and affects the morphogenesis of polarized cells. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Integrin antagonists as potential therapeutic options for the treatment of Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Leon P.; Cross, Raymond K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Anti-integrin therapy for the treatment of patients with Crohn’s disease is rapidly evolving. Two agents, natalizumab and vedolizumab, are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of Crohn’s disease, with vedolizumab the primary anti-integrin used due to a more favorable safety profile. Several other anti-integrins are in various stages of development. Areas Covered This review discusses the current state of anti-integrin therapy as well as suggestions for positioning of these agents in clinical practice. Emerging anti-integrin therapies, their underlying mechanisms of action, and available safety and clinical data are also reviewed. Expert Opinion Anti-integrins are effective for the treatment of Crohn’s disease, even in patients refractory to other therapies. Their use should be considered in patients with Crohn’s disease who do not respond to, develop non-response to, or have contraindications to anti-TNF therapy. Anti-integrin therapies can be offered as a first biologic therapy, in particular for older patients, patients with concurrent multiple sclerosis (natalizumab only), and in patients with contraindications to anti-TNF therapy. In patients with more severe symptoms, providers should consider co-induction with corticosteroids if possible to hasten remission. PMID:26822204

  13. Genetic ablation of the alpha 6-integrin subunit in Tie1Cre mice enhances tumour angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Germain, Mitchel; De Arcangelis, Adèle; Robinson, Stephen D; Baker, Marianne; Tavora, Bernardo; D'Amico, Gabriela; Silva, Rita; Kostourou, Vassiliki; Reynolds, Louise E; Watson, Alan; Jones, J Louise; Georges-Labouesse, Elisabeth; Hodivala-Dilke, Kairbaan

    2010-02-01

    Laminins are expressed highly in blood vessel basement membranes and have been implicated in angiogenesis. alpha6beta1- and alpha6beta4-integrins are major receptors for laminins in endothelial cells, but the precise role of endothelial alpha6-integrin in tumour angiogenesis is not clear. We show that blood vessels in human invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast have decreased expression of the alpha6-integrin-subunit when compared with normal breast tissue. These data suggest that a decrease in alpha6-integrin-subunit expression in endothelial cells is associated with tumour angiogenesis. To test whether the loss of the endothelial alpha6-integrin subunit affects tumour growth and angiogenesis, we generated alpha6fl/fl-Tie1Cre+ mice and showed that endothelial deletion of alpha6-integrin is sufficient to enhance tumour size and tumour angiogenesis in both murine B16F0 melanoma and Lewis cell lung carcinoma. Mechanistically, endothelial alpha6-integrin deficiency elevated significantly VEGF-mediated angiogenesis both in vivo and ex vivo. In particular, alpha6-integrin-deficient endothelial cells displayed increased levels of VEGF-receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and VEGF-mediated downstream ERK1/2 activation. By developing the first endothelial-specific alpha6-knockout mice, we show that the expression of the alpha6-integrin subunit in endothelial cells acts as a negative regulator of angiogenesis both in vivo and ex vivo. Copyright 2009 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Expression Profile of the Integrin Receptor Subunits in the Guinea Pig Sclera.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kevin K; Metlapally, Ravikanth; Wildsoet, Christine F

    2017-06-01

    The ocular dimensional changes in myopia reflect increased scleral remodeling, and in high myopia, loss of scleral integrity leads to biomechanical weakening and continued scleral creep. As integrins, a type of cell surface receptors, have been linked to scleral remodeling, they represent potential targets for myopia therapies. As a first step, this study aimed to characterize the integrin subunits at the messenger RNA level in the sclera of the guinea pig, a more recently added but increasingly used animal model for myopia research. Primers for α and β integrin subunits were designed using NCBI/UCSC Genome Browser and Primer3 software tools. Total RNA was extracted from normal scleral tissue and isolated cultured scleral fibroblasts, as well as liver and lung, as reference tissues, all from guinea pig. cDNA was produced by reverse transcription, PCR was used to amplify products of predetermined sizes, and products were sequenced using standard methods. Guinea pig scleral tissue expressed all known integrin alpha subunits except αD and αE. The latter integrin subunits were also not expressed by cultured guinea pig scleral fibroblasts; however, their expression was confirmed in guinea pig liver. In addition, isolated cultured fibroblasts did not express integrin subunits αL, αM, and αX. This difference between results for cultured cells and intact sclera presumably reflects the presence in the latter of additional cell types. Both guinea pig scleral tissue and isolated scleral fibroblasts expressed all known integrin beta subunits. All results were verified through sequencing. The possible contributions of integrins to scleral remodeling make them plausible targets for myopia prevention. Data from this study will help guide future ex vivo and in vitro studies directed at understanding the relationship between scleral integrins and ocular growth regulation in the guinea pig model for myopia.

  15. Redox-Relevant Aspects of the Extracellular Matrix and Its Cellular Contacts via Integrins

    PubMed Central

    de Rezende, Flávia Figueiredo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The extracellular matrix (ECM) fulfills essential functions in multicellular organisms. It provides the mechanical scaffold and environmental cues to cells. Upon cell attachment, the ECM signals into the cells. In this process, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are physiologically used as signalizing molecules. Recent Advances: ECM attachment influences the ROS-production of cells. In turn, ROS affect the production, assembly and turnover of the ECM during wound healing and matrix remodeling. Pathological changes of ROS levels lead to excess ECM production and increased tissue contraction in fibrotic disorders and desmoplastic tumors. Integrins are cell adhesion molecules which mediate cell adhesion and force transmission between cells and the ECM. They have been identified as a target of redox-regulation by ROS. Cysteine-based redox-modifications, together with structural data, highlighted particular regions within integrin heterodimers that may be subject to redox-dependent conformational changes along with an alteration of integrin binding activity. Critical Issues: In a molecular model, a long-range disulfide-bridge within the integrin β-subunit and disulfide bridges within the genu and calf-2 domains of the integrin α-subunit may control the transition between the bent/inactive and upright/active conformation of the integrin ectodomain. These thiol-based intramolecular cross-linkages occur in the stalk domain of both integrin subunits, whereas the ligand-binding integrin headpiece is apparently unaffected by redox-regulation. Future Directions: Redox-regulation of the integrin activation state may explain the effect of ROS in physiological processes. A deeper understanding of the underlying mechanism may open new prospects for the treatment of fibrotic disorders. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 1977–1993. PMID:24040997

  16. Role of β1-Integrin in Colorectal Cancer: Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Bo-Young; Kim, Kwang Ho; Chung, Soon Sup; Hong, Kyoung Sook

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In the metastatic process, interactions between circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and the extracellular matrix or surrounding cells are required. β1-Integrin may mediate these interactions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether β1-integrin is associated with the detection of CTCs in colorectal cancer. Methods We enrolled 30 patients with colorectal cancer (experimental group) and 30 patients with benign diseases (control group). Blood samples were obtained from each group, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) mRNA for CTCs marker and β1-integrin mRNA levels were estimated by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and the results were compared between the two groups. In the experimental group, preoperative results were compared with postoperative results for each marker. In addition, we analyzed the correlation between the expressions of β1-integrin and CEA. Results CEA mRNA was detected more frequently in colorectal cancer patients than in control patients (P = 0.008). CEA mRNA was significantly reduced after surgery in the colorectal cancer patients (P = 0.032). β1-Integrin mRNA was detected more in colorectal cancer patients than in the patients with benign diseases (P < 0.001). In colorectal cancer patients, expression of β1-integrin mRNA was detected more for advanced-stage cancer than for early-stage cancer (P = 0.033) and was significantly decreased after surgery (P < 0.001). In addition, expression of β1-integrin mRNA was significantly associated with that of CEA mRNA in colorectal cancer patients (P = 0.001). Conclusion In conclusion, β1-integrin is a potential factor for forming a prognosis following surgical resection in colorectal cancer patients. β1-Integrin may be a candidate for use as a marker for early detection of micrometastatic tumor cells and for monitoring the therapeutic response in colorectal cancer patients. PMID:24851215

  17. Exclusion of Integrins from CNS Axons Is Regulated by Arf6 Activation and the AIS

    PubMed Central

    Franssen, Elske H. P.; Zhao, Rong-Rong; Koseki, Hiroaki; Kanamarlapudi, Venkateswarlu; Hoogenraad, Casper C.

    2015-01-01

    Integrins are adhesion and survival molecules involved in axon growth during CNS development, as well as axon regeneration after injury in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Adult CNS axons do not regenerate after injury, partly due to a low intrinsic growth capacity. We have previously studied the role of integrins in axon growth in PNS axons; in the present study, we investigate whether integrin mechanisms involved in PNS regeneration may be altered or lacking from mature CNS axons by studying maturing CNS neurons in vitro. In rat cortical neurons, we find that integrins are present in axons during initial growth but later become restricted to the somato-dendritic domain. We investigated how this occurs and whether it can be altered to enhance axonal growth potential. We find a developmental change in integrin trafficking; transport becomes predominantly retrograde throughout axons, but not dendrites, as neurons mature. The directionality of transport is controlled through the activation state of ARF6, with developmental upregulation of the ARF6 GEF ARNO enhancing retrograde transport. Lowering ARF6 activity in mature neurons restores anterograde integrin flow, allows transport into axons, and increases axon growth. In addition, we found that the axon initial segment is partly responsible for exclusion of integrins and removal of this structure allows integrins into axons. Changing posttranslational modifications of tubulin with taxol also allows integrins into the proximal axon. The experiments suggest that the developmental loss of regenerative ability in CNS axons is due to exclusion of growth-related molecules due to changes in trafficking. PMID:26019348

  18. ARF6 directs axon transport and traffic of integrins and regulates axon growth in adult DRG neurons.

    PubMed

    Eva, Richard; Crisp, Sarah; Marland, Jamie R K; Norman, Jim C; Kanamarlapudi, Venkateswarlu; ffrench-Constant, Charles; Fawcett, James W

    2012-07-25

    Integrins are involved in axon growth and regeneration. Manipulation of integrins is a route to promoting axon regeneration and understanding regeneration failure in the CNS. Expression of α9 integrin promotes axon regeneration, so we have investigated α9β1 trafficking and transport in axons and at the growth cone. We have previously found that α9 and β1 integrins traffic via Rab11-positive recycling endosomes in peripheral axons and growth cones. However, transport via Rab11 is slow, while rapid transport occurs in vesicles lacking Rab11. We have further studied α9 and β1 integrin transport and traffic in adult rat dorsal root ganglion axons and PC12 cells. Integrins are in ARF6 vesicles during rapid axonal transport and during trafficking in the growth cone. We report that rapid axonal transport of these integrins and their trafficking at the cell surface is regulated by ARF6. ARF6 inactivation by expression of ACAP1 leads to increased recycling of β1 integrins to the neuronal surface and to increased anterograde axonal transport. ARF6 activation by expression of the neuronal guanine nucleotide exchange factors, ARNO or EFA6, increases retrograde integrin transport in axons and increases integrin internalization. ARF6 inactivation increases integrin-mediated outgrowth, while activation decreases it. The coordinated changes in integrin transport and recycling resulting from ARF6 activation or inactivation are the probable mechanism behind this regulation of axon growth. Our data suggest a novel mechanism of integrin traffic and transport in peripheral axons, regulated by the activation state of ARF6, and suggest that ARF6 might be targeted to enhance integrin-dependent axon regeneration after injury.

  19. Mechanical control of cyclic AMP signalling and gene transcription through integrins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, C. J.; Alenghat, F. J.; Rim, P.; Fong, J. H.; Fabry, B.; Ingber, D. E.

    2000-01-01

    This study was carried out to discriminate between two alternative hypotheses as to how cells sense mechanical forces and transduce them into changes in gene transcription. Do cells sense mechanical signals through generalized membrane distortion or through specific transmembrane receptors, such as integrins? Here we show that mechanical stresses applied to the cell surface alter the cyclic AMP signalling cascade and downstream gene transcription by modulating local release of signals generated by activated integrin receptors in a G-protein-dependent manner, whereas distortion of integrins in the absence of receptor occupancy has no effect.

  20. Protein expression and purification of integrin I domains and IgSF ligands for crystallography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongmin; Wang, Jia-Huai

    2012-01-01

    Cell adhesion depends on combinational expression and interactions of a large number of adhesion molecules at cell-to-cell or cell-to-matrix contact sites. Integrins and their immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) ligands represent foremost classes of cell adhesion molecules in immune system. Structural study is critical for a better understanding of the interactions between integrins and their IgSF ligands. Here we describe protocols for protein expression of integrin αL I domain and its IgSF ligand ICAM-5 D1D2 fragment for crystallography.

  1. Single molecular force across single integrins dictates cell spreading.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Farhan; Li, Isaac T S; Leslie, Benjamin J; Doğanay, Sultan; Singh, Rishi; Wang, Xuefeng; Seong, Jihye; Lee, Sang-Hak; Park, Seongjin; Wang, Ning; Ha, Taekjip

    2015-10-01

    Cells' ability to sense and interpret mechanical signals from the extracellular milieu modulates the degree of cell spreading. Yet how cells detect such signals and activate downstream signaling at the molecular level remain elusive. Herein, we utilize tension gauge tether (TGT) platform to investigate the underlying molecular mechanism of cell spreading. Our data from both differentiated cells of cancerous and non-cancerous origin show that for the same stiff underlying glass substrates and for same ligand density it is the molecular forces across single integrins that ultimately determine cell spreading responses. Furthermore, by decoupling molecular stiffness and molecular tension we demonstrate that molecular stiffness has little influence on cell spreading. Our data provide strong evidence that links molecular forces at the cell-substrate interface to the degree of cell spreading.

  2. EPA and DHA increased PPARγ expression and deceased integrin-linked kinase and integrin β1 expression in rat glomerular mesangial cells treated with lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Han, Wenchao; Zhao, Hui; Jiao, Bo; Liu, Fange

    2014-04-01

    Fish oil containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is known to prevent the progression of nephropathy and retard the progression of kidney disease. This study sought to investigate the underlying mechanisms of EPA and DHA in terms of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), integrin-linked kinase (ILK), and integrin β1 expression in glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs) because of their critical roles in the development and progression of nephropathy. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) significantly reduced the expression of PPARγand increased the expression of ILK at the mRNA level and at the protein level in GMCs as indicated by real-time PCR and Western blotting. In addition, LPS increased integrin β1 expression in GMCs at the mRNA level. Treatment with EPA and DHA significantly increased the expression of PPARγ and decreased the expression of ILK and integrin β1 in GMCs. These data suggest that the renoprotective effects of EPA and DHA may be related to their potential to increase the expression of PPARγ and decrease the expression of ILK and integrin β1.

  3. Targeting Integrin-Dependent Adhesion and Signaling with 3-Arylquinoline and 3-Aryl-2-Quinolone Derivatives: A new Class of Integrin Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Fiorucci, Sandrine; Lin, Xiaochen; Sadoul, Karin; Fournet, Guy; Bouvard, Daniel; Vinogradova, Olga; Joseph, Benoît; Block, Marc R.

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported the anti-migratory function of 3-aryl-2-quinolone derivatives, chemically close to flavonoids (Joseph et al., 2002). Herein we show that 3-arylquinoline or 3-aryl-2-quinolone derivatives disrupt cell adhesion in a dose dependent and reversible manner yet antagonized by artificial integrin activation such as manganese. Relying on this anti-adhesive activity, a Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) study was established on 20 different compounds to throw the bases of future optimization strategies. Active drugs efficiently inhibit platelet spreading, aggregation, and clot retraction, processes that rely on αllbβ3 integrin activation and clustering. In vitro these derivatives interfere with β3 cytoplasmic tail interaction with kindlin-2 in pulldown assays albeit little effect was observed with pure proteins suggesting that the drugs may block an alternative integrin activation process that may not be directly related to kindlin recruitment. Ex vivo, these drugs blunt integrin signaling assayed using focal adhesion kinase auto-phosphorylation as a read-out. Hence, 3-arylquinoline and 3-aryl-2-quinolone series are a novel class of integrin activation and signaling antagonists. PMID:26509443

  4. Bone-Induced Expression of Tumoral Integrin beta3 Enables Targeted Nanotherapy of Breast Cancer Metastases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Michael H.

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer for women worldwide, representing approximately 25% of all new cancer cases in this population. While early detection and removal of breast cancer still confined to the primary site results in a good prognosis, approximately one- third of patients will develop distant metastases. In these patients, overall survival is markedly reduced. Of the common sites for breast cancer metastasis, the skeletal system is the most frequent. Treating breast cancer bone metastases has proven particularly difficult for several reasons, such as dissemination of metastases throughout the skeleton, poor drug localization to sites of interest, a lack of tumor-specific targets expressed across breast cancer subtypes, and the chemo-protective nature of the bone microenvironment. This dissertation is focused on investigating a potential tumor-target expressed on breast cancer bone metastases, and to improve drug treatment efficacy against tumor cells in the bone microenvironment. Integrins are heterodimeric cell surface receptors, composed of an alpha and beta subunit from a large family of selectively-compatible integrin subunits. As a heterodimeric complex, integrins can bind to components of the extracellular matrix or to other cells. One particular integrin complex, integrin alphavbeta3, is composed of the tightly regulated integrin subunit beta3 and the more widely expressed alphav subunit. I examined the expression of integrin beta3 on primary breast cancer as compared to metastases in murine cancer models, and observed that integrin expression is significantly elevated on bone metastases as compared to the primary tumors or visceral metastases. In addition, I evaluated tumor-associated integrin beta3 expression on a tissue microarray (TMA) composed of primary breast cancer and patient-matched bone metastatic tissue from 42 patients. Across nearly all patients, tumor-associated integrin beta3 expression was significantly elevated on bone

  5. Nematode neuropeptides as transgenic nematicides

    PubMed Central

    Patten, Cheryl; Fleming, Colin C.; Maule, Aaron G.

    2017-01-01

    Plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs) seriously threaten global food security. Conventionally an integrated approach to PPN management has relied heavily on carbamate, organophosphate and fumigant nematicides which are now being withdrawn over environmental health and safety concerns. This progressive withdrawal has left a significant shortcoming in our ability to manage these economically important parasites, and highlights the need for novel and robust control methods. Nematodes can assimilate exogenous peptides through retrograde transport along the chemosensory amphid neurons. Peptides can accumulate within cells of the central nerve ring and can elicit physiological effects when released to interact with receptors on adjoining cells. We have profiled bioactive neuropeptides from the neuropeptide-like protein (NLP) family of PPNs as novel nematicides, and have identified numerous discrete NLPs that negatively impact chemosensation, host invasion and stylet thrusting of the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita and the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida. Transgenic secretion of these peptides from the rhizobacterium, Bacillus subtilis, and the terrestrial microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii reduce tomato infection levels by up to 90% when compared with controls. These data pave the way for the exploitation of nematode neuropeptides as a novel class of plant protective nematicide, using novel non-food transgenic delivery systems which could be deployed on farmer-preferred cultivars. PMID:28241060

  6. Transvection Arising from Transgene Interactions in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Matthew D; Bonkowsky, Joshua L

    2017-02-01

    There has been a rapid expansion in use of transgenic technologies in zebrafish. We report a novel example of transinteractions of genetic elements, or transvection. This interaction led to a novel expression pattern and illustrates a precautionary example regarding use of transgenes in zebrafish.

  7. [Progress in transgenic fish techniques and application].

    PubMed

    Ye, Xing; Tian, Yuan-Yuan; Gao, Feng-Ying

    2011-05-01

    Transgenic technique provides a new way for fish breeding. Stable lines of growth hormone gene transfer carps, salmon and tilapia, as well as fluorescence protein gene transfer zebra fish and white cloud mountain minnow have been produced. The fast growth characteristic of GH gene transgenic fish will be of great importance to promote aquaculture production and economic efficiency. This paper summarized the progress in transgenic fish research and ecological assessments. Microinjection is still the most common used method, but often resulted in multi-site and multi-copies integration. Co-injection of transposon or meganuclease will greatly improve the efficiency of gene transfer and integration. "All fish" gene or "auto gene" should be considered to produce transgenic fish in order to eliminate misgiving on food safety and to benefit expression of the transferred gene. Environmental risk is the biggest obstacle for transgenic fish to be commercially applied. Data indicates that transgenic fish have inferior fitness compared with the traditional domestic fish. However, be-cause of the genotype-by-environment effects, it is difficult to extrapolate simple phenotypes to the complex ecological interactions that occur in nature based on the ecological consequences of the transgenic fish determined in the laboratory. It is critical to establish highly naturalized environments for acquiring reliable data that can be used to evaluate the environ-mental risk. Efficacious physical and biological containment strategies remain to be crucial approaches to ensure the safe application of transgenic fish technology.

  8. [New advances in animal transgenic technology].

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhen-Hong; Miao, Xiang-Yang; Zhu, Rui-Liang

    2010-06-01

    Animal transgenic technology is one of the fastest growing biotechnology in the 21st century. It is used to integrate foreign genes into the animal genome by genetic engineering technology so that foreign genes can be expressed and inherited to the offspring. The transgenic efficiency and precise control of gene expression are the key limiting factors on preparation of transgenic animals. A variety of transgenic techniques are available, each of which has its own advantages and disadvantages and still needs further study because of unresolved technical and safety issues. With the in-depth research, the transgenic technology will have broad application prospects in the fields of exploration of gene function, animal genetic improvement, bioreactor, animal disease models, organ transplantation and so on. This article reviews the recently developed animal gene transfer techniques, including germline stem cell mediated method to improve the efficiency, gene targeting to improve the accuracy, RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing technology, and the induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) transgenic technology. The new transgenic techniques can provide a better platform for the study of trans-genic animals and promote the development of medical sciences, livestock production, and other fields.

  9. Fibronectins containing extradomain A or B enhance osteoblast differentiation via distinct integrins

    PubMed Central

    Sens, Carla; Huck, Katrin; Pettera, Stefan; Uebel, Stephan; Wabnitz, Guido; Moser, Markus; Nakchbandi, Inaam A.

    2017-01-01

    Fibronectin is a multidomain protein secreted by various cell types. It forms a network of fibers within the extracellular matrix and impacts intracellular processes by binding to various molecules, primarily integrin receptors on the cells. Both the presence of several isoforms and the ability of the various domains and isoforms to bind to a variety of integrins result in a wide range of effects. In vivo findings suggest that fibronectin isoforms produced by the osteoblasts enhance their differentiation. Here we report that the isoform characterized by the presence of extradomain A activates α4β1 integrin and augments osteoblast differentiation. In addition, the isoform containing extradomain B enhances the binding of fibronectin through the RGD sequence to β3-containing integrin, resulting in increased mineralization by and differentiation of osteoblasts. Our study thus reveals novel functions for two fibronectin isoforms and the mediating receptors in osteoblast differentiation. PMID:28325836

  10. EFFECT OF METHYL MERCURY CHLORIDE EXPOSURE ON PC12 CELL INTEGRIN EXPRESSION AND FUNCTION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Integrins are heterodimeric transmembrane cell adhesion proteins composed of a and b protein subunits. They are important during brain development in a number of critical functions, including cell migration (Georges-Labouesse, et al., 1998), axonal elongation (Murase and Hayashi...

  11. Method of increasing radiation sensitivity by inhibition of beta one integrin

    DOEpatents

    Park, Catherine [San Francisco, CA; Bissell, Mina J [Berkeley, CA

    2009-11-17

    A method for increasing or monitoring apoptosis in tumor cells by the co-administration of ionizing radiation and an anti-integrin antibody. Increasing apoptosis reduces tumor growth in vivo and in a cell culture model. The antibody is directed against the beta-1 integrin subunit and is inhibitory of beta-1 integrin signaling. Other molecules having an inhibitory effect on beta-1 integrin, either in signaling or in binding to its cognate extracellular receptors may also be used. The present method is particularly of interest in treatment of tumor cells associated with breast cancer, wherein radiation is currently used alone. The present method further contemplates a monoclonal antibody suitable for human administration that may further comprise a radioisotope attached thereto.

  12. Molecular mechanisms of mechanotransduction in integrin-mediated cell-matrix adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhenhai; Lee, Hyunjung; Zhu, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Cell-matrix adhesion complexes are multi-protein structures linking the extracellular matrix (ECM) to the cytoskeleton. They are essential to both cell motility and function by bidirectionally sensing and transmitting mechanical and biochemical stimulations. Several types of cell-matrix adhesions have been identified and they share many key molecular components, such as integrins and actin-integrin linkers. Mechanochemical coupling between ECM molecules and the actin cytoskeleton has been observed from the single cell to the single molecule level and from immune cells to neuronal cells. However, the mechanisms underlying force regulation of integrin-mediated mechanotransduction still need to be elucidated. In this review article, we focus on integrin-mediated adhesions and discuss force regulation of cell-matrix adhesions and key adaptor molecules, three different force-dependent behaviors, and molecular mechanisms for mechanochemical coupling in force regulation. PMID:27720950

  13. Dynamin 2 regulation of integrin endocytosis, but not VEGF signaling, is crucial for developmental angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Monica Y.; Skoura, Athanasia; Park, Eon Joo; Landskroner-Eiger, Shira; Jozsef, Levente; Luciano, Amelia K.; Murata, Takahisa; Pasula, Satish; Dong, Yunzhou; Bouaouina, Mohamed; Calderwood, David A.; Ferguson, Shawn M.; De Camilli, Pietro; Sessa, William C.

    2014-01-01

    Here we show that dynamin 2 (Dnm2) is essential for angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. In cultured endothelial cells lacking Dnm2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling and receptor levels are augmented whereas cell migration and morphogenesis are impaired. Mechanistically, the loss of Dnm2 increases focal adhesion size and the surface levels of multiple integrins and reduces the activation state of β1 integrin. In vivo, the constitutive or inducible loss of Dnm2 in endothelium impairs branching morphogenesis and promotes the accumulation of β1 integrin at sites of failed angiogenic sprouting. Collectively, our data show that Dnm2 uncouples VEGF signaling from function and coordinates the endocytic turnover of integrins in a manner that is crucially important for angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24598168

  14. Integrin α1β1 participates in Chondrocyte Transduction of Osmotic Stress.

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski, Christina L.; Ferguson, Samuel; Pozzi, Ambra; Clark, Andrea L.

    2014-01-01

    Background/purpose: The goal of this study was to determine the role of the collagen binding receptor integrin α1β1 in regulating osmotically induced [Ca2+]i transients in chondrocytes. Methods: The [Ca2+]i transient response of chondrocytes to osmotic stress was measured using real-time confocal microscopy. Chondrocytes from wildtype and integrin α1-null mice were imaged ex vivo (in the cartilage of intact murine femora) and in vitro (isolated from the matrix, attached to glass coverslips). Immunocytochemistry was performed to detect the presence of the osmosensor, transient receptor potential vanilloid-4 (TRPV4), and the agonist GSK1016790A (GSK101) was used to test for its functionality on chondrocytes from wildtype and integrin α1-null mice. Results/interpretation: Deletion of the integrin α1 subunit inhibited the ability of chondrocytes to respond to a hypo-osmotic stress with [Ca2+]i transients ex vivo and in vitro. The percentage of chondrocytes responding ex vivo was smaller than in vitro and of the cells that responded, more single [Ca2+]i transients were observed ex vivo compared to in vitro. Immunocytochemistry confirmed the presence of TRPV4 on wildtype and integrin α1-null chondrocytes, however application of GSK101 revealed that TRPV4 could be activated on wildtype but not integrin α1-null chondrocytes. Integrin α1β1 is a key participant in chondrocyte transduction of a hypo-osmotic stress. Furthermore, the mechanism by which integrin α1β1 influences osmotransduction is independent of matrix binding, but likely dependent on the chondrocyte osmosensor TRPV4. PMID:24495803

  15. Integrin α1β1 participates in chondrocyte transduction of osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Jablonski, Christina L; Ferguson, Samuel; Pozzi, Ambra; Clark, Andrea L

    2014-02-28

    The goal of this study was to determine the role of the collagen binding receptor integrin α1β1 in regulating osmotically induced [Ca(2+)]i transients in chondrocytes. The [Ca(2+)]i transient response of chondrocytes to osmotic stress was measured using real-time confocal microscopy. Chondrocytes from wildtype and integrin α1-null mice were imaged ex vivo (in the cartilage of intact murine femora) and in vitro (isolated from the matrix, attached to glass coverslips). Immunocytochemistry was performed to detect the presence of the osmosensor, transient receptor potential vanilloid-4 (TRPV4), and the agonist GSK1016790A (GSK101) was used to test for its functionality on chondrocytes from wildtype and integrin α1-null mice. Deletion of the integrin α1 subunit inhibited the ability of chondrocytes to respond to a hypo-osmotic stress with [Ca(2+)]i transients ex vivo and in vitro. The percentage of chondrocytes responding ex vivo was smaller than in vitro and of the cells that responded, more single [Ca(2+)]i transients were observed ex vivo compared to in vitro. Immunocytochemistry confirmed the presence of TRPV4 on wildtype and integrin α1-null chondrocytes, however application of GSK101 revealed that TRPV4 could be activated on wildtype but not integrin α1-null chondrocytes. Integrin α1β1 is a key participant in chondrocyte transduction of a hypo-osmotic stress. Furthermore, the mechanism by which integrin α1β1 influences osmotransduction is independent of matrix binding, but likely dependent on the chondrocyte osmosensor TRPV4. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. α4-Integrin Mediates Neutrophil-Induced Free Radical Injury to Cardiac Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Betty Y.; Ward, Christopher A.; Cooper, Conan B.; Giles, Wayne R.; Burns, Alan R.; Kubes, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that circulating neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes [PMNs]) adhere to cardiac myocytes via β2-integrins and cause cellular injury via the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase enzyme system. Since PMNs induced to leave the vasculature (emigrated PMNs) express the α4-integrin, we asked whether (a) these PMNs also induce myocyte injury via NADPH oxidase; (b) β2-integrins (CD18) still signal oxidant production, or if this process is now coupled to the α4-integrin; and (c) dysfunction is superoxide dependent within the myocyte or at the myocyte–PMN interface. Emigrated PMNs exposed to cardiac myocytes quickly induced significant changes in myocyte function. Myocyte shortening was decreased by 30–50% and rates of contraction and relaxation were reduced by 30% within the first 10 min. Both α4-integrin antibody (Ab)-treated PMNs and NADPH oxidase–deficient PMNs were unable to reduce myocyte shortening. An increased level of oxidative stress was detected in myocytes within 5 min of PMN adhesion. Addition of an anti–α4-integrin Ab, but not an anti-CD18 Ab, prevented oxidant production, suggesting that in emigrated PMNs the NADPH oxidase system is uncoupled from CD18 and can be activated via the α4-integrin. Addition of exogenous superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibited all parameters of dysfunction measured, whereas overexpression of intracellular SOD within the myocytes did not inhibit the oxidative stress or the myocyte dysfunction caused by the emigrated PMNs. These findings demonstrate that profound molecular changes occur within PMNs as they emigrate, such that CD18 and associated intracellular signaling pathways leading to oxidant production are uncoupled and newly expressed α4-integrin functions as the ligand that signals oxidant production. The results also provide pathological relevance as the emigrated PMNs have the capacity to injure cardiac myocytes through the α4-integrin–coupled NADPH

  17. Expression of {beta}{sub 1} integrins in human endometrial stromal and decidual cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shiokawa, Shigetatsu; Yoshimura, Yasunori; Nakamura, Yukio

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the expression of {beta}{sub 1} integrins in human endometrium and decidua using flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and immunoprecipitation. Fluorescence-activated flow cytometry demonstrated the greater expression of the {beta}{sub 1}, {alpha}{sub 1}, {alpha}{sub 2}, and {alpha}{sub 5} subunits of the {beta}{sub 1} integrin family in cultured stromal cells from the midsecretory phase, than in those of the early proliferative phase. The addition of estradiol (E{sub 2}) and progesterone (P) to cultured stromal cells in the early proliferative phase increased the expression of {beta}{sub 1} integrins in vitro. Flow cytometry also demonstrated the expression of themore » {beta}{sub 1}, {alpha}{sub 1}, {alpha}{sub 2}, {alpha}{sub 3}, {alpha}{sub 5}, and {alpha}{sub 6} subunits of {beta}{sub 1} integrin family in cultured decidual cells, and the enriched-fraction of prolactin (PRL)-producing decidual cells isolated by Percoll gradients showed high levels of {beta}{sub 1} integrins expression. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the {beta}{sub 1} integrin cell surface phenotypes in cultured decidual cells observed by flow cytometry. In summary, the present study demonstrated that endometrial stromal and decidual cells expressed {beta}{sub 1} integrin subunits at their surfaces. The expression exhibited a variability throughout the menstrual cycles, being predominantly detected in the secretory phase, and was maintained highly in the decidua. Thus, {beta}{sub 1} integrins in human endometrium and decidua may be important in mediating the organization of extracellular matrix proteins derived from embryos during the early stage of implantation. 43 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  18. Identification of integrin heterodimers functioning on the surface of undifferentiated porcine primed embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hwa-Young; Baek, Song; Han, Na Rae; Lee, Eunsong; Park, Choon-Keun; Lee, Seung Tae

    2018-05-29

    In vitro expansion of undifferentiated porcine primed embryonic stem (ES) cells is facilitated by use of non-cellular niches that mimic three-dimensional (3D) microenvironments enclosing an inner cell mass of porcine blastocysts. Therefore, we investigated the integrin heterodimers on the surface of undifferentiated porcine primed ES cells for the purpose of developing a non-cellular niche to support in vitro maintenance of the self-renewal ability of porcine primed ES cells. Immunocytochemistry and a fluorescence immunoassay were performed to assess integrin α and β subunit levels, and attachment and antibody inhibition assays were used to evaluate the function of integrin heterodimers. The integrin α 3 , α 5 , α 6 , α 9 , α V , and β 1 subunits, but not the α 1 , α 2 , α 4 , α 7 , and α 8 subunits, were identified on the surface of undifferentiated porcine primed ES cells. Subsequently, significant increase of their adhesion to fibronectin, tenascin C and vitronectin were observed and functional blocking of integrin heterodimer α 5 β 1 , α 9 β 1 , or α V β 1 showed significantly inhibited adhesion to fibronectin, tenascin C, or vitronectin. No integrin α 6 β 1 heterodimer?mediated adhesion to laminin was detected. These results demonstrate that active α 5 β 1 , α 9 β 1 , and α V β 1 integrin heterodimers are present on the surface of undifferentiated porcine primed ES cells, together with inactive integrin α 3 (presumed) and α 6 subunits. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Disruption of integrin-fibronectin complexes by allosteric but not ligand-mimetic inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mould, A Paul; Craig, Susan E; Byron, Sarah K; Humphries, Martin J; Jowitt, Thomas A

    2014-12-15

    Failure of Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-based inhibitors to reverse integrin-ligand binding has been reported, but the prevalence of this phenomenon among integrin heterodimers is currently unknown. In the present study we have investigated the interaction of four different RGD-binding integrins (α5β1, αVβ1, αVβ3 and αVβ6) with fibronectin (FN) using surface plasmon resonance. The ability of inhibitors to reverse ligand binding was assessed by their capacity to increase the dissociation rate of pre-formed integrin-FN complexes. For all four receptors we showed that RGD-based inhibitors (such as cilengitide) were completely unable to increase the dissociation rate. Formation of the non-reversible state occurred very rapidly and did not rely on the time-dependent formation of a high-affinity state of the integrin, or the integrin leg regions. In contrast with RGD-based inhibitors, Ca2+ (but not Mg2+) was able to greatly increase the dissociation rate of integrin-FN complexes, with a half-maximal response at ~0.4 mM Ca2+ for αVβ3-FN. The effect of Ca2+ was overcome by co-addition of Mn2+, but not Mg2+. A stimulatory anti-β1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) abrogated the effect of Ca2+ on α5β1-FN complexes; conversely, a function-blocking mAb mimicked the effect of Ca2+. These results imply that Ca2+ acts allosterically, probably through binding to the adjacent metal-ion-dependent adhesion site (ADMIDAS), and that the α1 helix in the β subunit I domain is the key element affected by allosteric modulators. The data suggest an explanation for the limited clinical efficacy of RGD-based integrin antagonists, and we propose that allosteric antagonists could prove to be of greater therapeutic benefit.

  20. Dominant Suppression of β1 Integrin by Ectopic CD98-ICD Inhibits Hepatocellular Carcinoma Progression

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bo; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Yu; Yang, Xiang-Min; Liu, Zhen-Yu; Li, Jiang-Hua; Feng, Fei; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Jiang, Jian-Li

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is currently the third most common cause of cancer-related death in the Asia-Pacific region. Our previous work showed that knockdown of CD98 significantly inhibits malignant HCC cell phenotypes in vitro and in vivo. The level of CD98 in the membrane is tightly regulated to mediate complex processes associated with cell–cell communication and intracellular signaling. In addition, the intracellular domain of CD98 (CD98-ICD) seems to be of vital importance for recycling CD98 to the membrane after it is endocytosed. The intracellular and transmembrane domains of CD98 associate with β-integrins (primarily β1 but also β3), and this association is essential for CD98 mediation of integrin-like signaling and complements dominant suppression of β1-integrin. We speculated that isolated CD98-ICD would similarly suppress β1-integrin activation and inhibit the malignant behaviors of cancer cells. In particular, the exact role of CD98-ICD has not been studied independently in HCC. In this study, we found that ectopic expression of CD98-ICD inhibited the malignant phenotypes of HCC cells, and the mechanism possibly involves β1-integrin suppression. Moreover, the expression levels of CD98, β1-integrin-A (the activated form of β1-integrin) and Ki-67 were significantly increased in HCC tissues relative to those of normal liver tissues. Therefore, our preliminary study indicates that ectopic CD98-ICD has an inhibitory role in the malignant development of HCC, and shows that CD98-ICD acts as a dominant negative mutant of CD98 that attenuates β1-integrin activation. CD98-ICD may emerge as a promising candidate for antitumor treatment. PMID:27834933

  1. Epitopes in α8β1 and other RGD-binding integrins delineate classes of integrin-blocking antibodies and major binding loops in α subunits

    PubMed Central

    Nishimichi, Norihisa; Kawashima, Nagako; Yokosaki, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Identification of epitopes for integrin-blocking monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has aided our understanding of structure-function relationship of integrins. We mapped epitopes of chicken anti-integrin-α8-subunit-blocking mAbs by mutational analyses, examining regions that harboured all mapped epitopes recognized by mAbs against other α-subunits in the RGD-binding-integrin subfamily. Six mAbs exhibited blocking function, and these mAbs recognized residues on the same W2:41-loop on the top-face of the β-propeller. Loop-tips sufficiently close to W2:41 (<25 Å) contained within a footprint of the mAbs were mutated, and the loop W3:34 on the bottom face was identified as an additional component of the epitope of one antibody, clone YZ5. Binding sequences on the two loops were conserved in virtually all mammals, and that on W3:34 was also conserved in chickens. These indicate 1) YZ5 binds both top and bottom loops, and the binding to W3:34 is by interactions to conserved residues between immunogen and host species, 2) five other blocking mAbs solely bind to W2:41 and 3) the α8 mAbs would cross-react with most mammals. Comparing with the mAbs against the other α-subunits of RGD-integrins, two classes were delineated; those binding to “W3:34 and an top-loop”, and “solely W2:41”, accounting for 82% of published RGD-integrin-mAbs. PMID:26349930

  2. Epitopes in α8β1 and other RGD-binding integrins delineate classes of integrin-blocking antibodies and major binding loops in α subunits.

    PubMed

    Nishimichi, Norihisa; Kawashima, Nagako; Yokosaki, Yasuyuki

    2015-09-09

    Identification of epitopes for integrin-blocking monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has aided our understanding of structure-function relationship of integrins. We mapped epitopes of chicken anti-integrin-α8-subunit-blocking mAbs by mutational analyses, examining regions that harboured all mapped epitopes recognized by mAbs against other α-subunits in the RGD-binding-integrin subfamily. Six mAbs exhibited blocking function, and these mAbs recognized residues on the same W2:41-loop on the top-face of the β-propeller. Loop-tips sufficiently close to W2:41 (<25 Å) contained within a footprint of the mAbs were mutated, and the loop W3:34 on the bottom face was identified as an additional component of the epitope of one antibody, clone YZ5. Binding sequences on the two loops were conserved in virtually all mammals, and that on W3:34 was also conserved in chickens. These indicate 1) YZ5 binds both top and bottom loops, and the binding to W3:34 is by interactions to conserved residues between immunogen and host species, 2) five other blocking mAbs solely bind to W2:41 and 3) the α8 mAbs would cross-react with most mammals. Comparing with the mAbs against the other α-subunits of RGD-integrins, two classes were delineated; those binding to "W3:34 and an top-loop", and "solely W2:41", accounting for 82% of published RGD-integrin-mAbs.

  3. Binding of integrin α1 to bone morphogenetic protein receptor IA suggests a novel role of integrin α1β1 in bone morphogenetic protein 2 signalling.

    PubMed

    Zu, Yan; Liang, Xudong; Du, Jing; Zhou, Shuai; Yang, Chun

    2015-11-05

    Here, we observed that integrin α1β1 and bone morphogenetic protein receptor (BMPR) IA formed a complex and co-localised in several cell types. However, the molecular interaction between these two molecules was not studied in detail to date and the role of the interaction in BMPR signalling remains unknown; thus, these were investigated here. In a steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulation, the observed development of the rupture force related to the displacement between the A-domain of integrin α1 and the extracellular domain of BMPR IA indicated a strong molecular interaction within the integrin-BMPR complex. Analysis of the intermolecular forces revealed that hydrogen bonds, rather than salt bridges, are the major contributors to these intermolecular interactions. By using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) experiments with site-directed mutants, we found that residues 85-89 in BMPR IA play the most important role for BMPR IA binding to integrin α1β1. These residues are the same as those responsible for bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2)/BMPR IA binding. In our experiments, we also found that the interference of integrin α1β1 up regulated the level of phosphorylated Smad1, 5, 8, which is the downstream of BMP/BMPR signalling. Therefore, our results suggest that integrin α1β1/BMPR IA may block BMP-2/BMPR IA complex information and interfere with the BMP-2 signalling pathway in cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Role of integrin-linked kinase in regulating phosphorylation of Akt and fibroblast survival in type I collagen matrices through a beta1 integrin viability signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Nho, Richard Seonghun; Xia, Hong; Kahm, Judy; Kleidon, Jill; Diebold, Deanna; Henke, Craig A

    2005-07-15

    A beta1 integrin phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway regulates fibroblast survival in collagen matrices. When fibroblasts attach to collagen, Akt becomes phosphorylated, providing a survival signal. In contrast, in response to mechanical forces generated during collagen contraction, Akt is dephosphorylated and fibroblasts undergo apoptosis. The kinase(s) responsible for regulating Akt phosphorylation in response to matrix-derived mechanical signals are unclear. Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is associated with the beta1 integrin in the focal adhesion complex and as such is a candidate kinase that may regulate Akt phosphorylation and fibroblast viability. Nevertheless, there is no direct evidence that matrix-derived mechanical forces regulate cell viability by modulating ILK activity. Here, we show that ILK activity decreased in response to collagen matrix contraction, which correlated with Akt dephosphorylation and induction of fibroblast apoptosis. In contrast, enforced activation of beta1 integrin by activating antibody preserved ILK and Akt activity during collagen matrix contraction, and this is associated with protection from collagen contraction-induced apoptosis. Knock-down of ILK by small, interfering RNA (siRNA) attenuated Akt phosphorylation in response to ligation of beta1 integrin by collagen or activating antibody and enhanced fibroblast apoptosis in response to collagen contraction. Kinase dead ILK attenuated Akt phosphorylation and enhanced fibroblast apoptosis, whereas hyperactive and wild type ILK augmented Akt phosphorylation and protected fibroblasts from apoptosis. Constitutively active Akt preserved Akt activity and rescued ILK siRNA-treated fibroblasts from collagen contraction-induced apoptosis. These data establish that matrix-derived mechanical forces sensed by beta1 integrin are capable of modulating ILK activity which regulates fibroblast viability via an Akt-dependent mechanism.

  5. Direct Interactions with the Integrin β1 Cytoplasmic Tail Activate the Abl2/Arg Kinase*

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Mark A.; Bradley, William D.; Harburger, David; Parsons, Maddy; Calderwood, David A.; Koleske, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric α/β extracellular matrix adhesion receptors that couple physically to the actin cytoskeleton and regulate kinase signaling pathways to control cytoskeletal remodeling and adhesion complex formation and disassembly. β1 integrins signal through the Abl2/Arg (Abl-related gene) nonreceptor tyrosine kinase to control fibroblast cell motility, neuronal dendrite morphogenesis and stability, and cancer cell invasiveness, but the molecular mechanisms by which integrin β1 activates Arg are unknown. We report here that the Arg kinase domain interacts directly with a lysine-rich membrane-proximal segment in the integrin β1 cytoplasmic tail, that Arg phosphorylates the membrane-proximal Tyr-783 in the β1 tail, and that the Arg Src homology domain then engages this phosphorylated region in the tail. We show that these interactions mediate direct binding between integrin β1 and Arg in vitro and in cells and activate Arg kinase activity. These findings provide a model for understanding how β1-containing integrins interact with and activate Abl family kinases. PMID:25694433

  6. Carbon Ion Irradiation Inhibits Glioma Cell Migration Through Downregulation of Integrin Expression

    SciTech Connect

    Rieken, Stefan, E-mail: Stefan.Rieken@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Habermehl, Daniel; Wuerth, Lena

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of carbon ion irradiation on glioma cell migration. Methods and Materials: U87 and Ln229 glioma cells were irradiated with photons and carbon ions. Migration was analyzed 24 h after irradiation. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis was performed in order to quantify surface expression of integrins. Results: Single photon doses of 2 Gy and 10 Gy enhanced {alpha}{sub {nu}}{beta}{sub 3} and {alpha}{sub {nu}}{beta}{sub 5} integrin expression and caused tumor cell hypermigration on both vitronectin (Vn) and fibronectin (Fn). Compared to integrin expression in unirradiated cells, carbon ion irradiation caused decreased integrin expression and inhibited cell migration onmore » both Vn and Fn. Conclusion: Photon radiotherapy (RT) enhances the risk of tumor cell migration and subsequently promotes locoregional spread via photon induction of integrin expression. In contrast to photon RT, carbon ion RT causes decreased integrin expression and suppresses glioma cell migration on both Vn and Fn, thus promising improved local control.« less

  7. Ca2+-dependent localization of integrin-linked kinase to cell junctions in differentiating keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Vespa, Alisa; Darmon, Alison J; Turner, Christopher E; D'Souza, Sudhir J A; Dagnino, Lina

    2003-03-28

    Integrin complexes are necessary for proper proliferation and differentiation of epidermal keratinocytes. Differentiation of these cells is accompanied by down-regulation of integrins and focal adhesions as well as formation of intercellular adherens junctions through E-cadherin homodimerization. A central component of integrin adhesion complexes is integrin-linked kinase (ILK), which can induce loss of E-cadherin expression and epithelial-mesenchymal transformation when ectopically expressed in intestinal and mammary epithelia. In cultured primary mouse keratinocytes, we find that ILK protein levels are independent of integrin expression and signaling, since they remain constant during Ca(2+)-induced differentiation. In contrast, keratinocyte differentiation is accompanied by marked reduction in kinase activity in ILK immunoprecipitates and altered ILK subcellular distribution. Specifically, ILK distributes in close apposition to actin fibers along intercellular junctions in differentiated but not in undifferentiated keratinocytes. ILK localization to cell-cell borders occurs independently of integrin signaling and requires Ca(2+) as well as an intact actin cytoskeleton. Further, and in contrast to what is observed in other epithelial cells, ILK overexpression in differentiated keratinocytes does not promote E-cadherin down-regulation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Thus, novel tissue-specific mechanisms control the formation of ILK complexes associated with cell-cell junctions in differentiating murine epidermal keratinocytes.

  8. Actin retrograde flow actively aligns and orients ligand-engaged integrins in focal adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, Vinay; Kalappurakkal, Joseph Mathew; Moore, Travis I.; Koga, Nobuyasu; Baker, David A.; Oldenbourg, Rudolf; Tani, Tomomi; Springer, Timothy A.; Waterman, Clare M.

    2017-01-01

    Integrins are transmembrane receptors that, upon activation, bind extracellular ligands and link them to the actin filament (F-actin) cytoskeleton to mediate cell adhesion and migration. Cytoskeletal forces in migrating cells generated by polymerization- or contractility-driven “retrograde flow” of F-actin from the cell leading edge have been hypothesized to mediate integrin activation for ligand binding. This predicts that these forces should align and orient activated, ligand-bound integrins at the leading edge. Here, polarization-sensitive fluorescence microscopy of GFP-αVβ3 integrins in fibroblasts shows that integrins are coaligned in a specific orientation within focal adhesions (FAs) in a manner dependent on binding immobilized ligand and a talin-mediated linkage to the F-actin cytoskeleton. These findings, together with Rosetta modeling, suggest that integrins in FA are coaligned and may be highly tilted by cytoskeletal forces. Thus, the F-actin cytoskeleton sculpts an anisotropic molecular scaffold in FAs, and this feature may underlie the ability of migrating cells to sense directional extracellular cues. PMID:29073038

  9. Acidic Extracellular pH Promotes Activation of Integrin αvβ3

    PubMed Central

    Paradise, Ranjani K.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.; Van Vliet, Krystyn J.

    2011-01-01

    Acidic extracellular pH is characteristic of the cell microenvironment in several important physiological and pathological contexts. Although it is well established that acidic extracellular pH can have profound effects on processes such as cell adhesion and migration, the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Integrin receptors physically connect cells to the extracellular matrix, and are thus likely to modulate cell responses to extracellular conditions. Here, we examine the role of acidic extracellular pH in regulating activation of integrin αvβ3. Through computational molecular dynamics simulations, we find that acidic extracellular pH promotes opening of the αvβ3 headpiece, indicating that acidic pH can thereby facilitate integrin activation. This prediction is consistent with our flow cytometry and atomic force microscope-mediated force spectroscopy assays of integrin αvβ3 on live cells, which both demonstrate that acidic pH promotes activation at the intact cell surface. Finally, quantification of cell morphology and migration measurements shows that acidic extracellular pH affects cell behavior in a manner that is consistent with increased integrin activation. Taken together, these computational and experimental results suggest a new and complementary mechanism of integrin activation regulation, with associated implications for cell adhesion and migration in regions of altered pH that are relevant to wound healing and cancer. PMID:21283814

  10. Phosphoinositide Signaling Regulates the Exocyst Complex and Polarized Integrin Trafficking in Directionally Migrating Cells

    PubMed Central

    Thapa, Narendra; Sun, Yue; Schramp, Mark; Choi, Suyoung; Ling, Kun; Anderson, Richard A

    2011-01-01

    Summary Polarized delivery of signaling and adhesion molecules to the leading edge is required for directional migration of cells. Here, we describe a role for the PIP2 synthesizing enzyme, PIPKIγi2, in regulation of exocyst complex control of cell polarity and polarized integrin trafficking during migration. Loss of PIPKIγi2 impaired directional migration, formation of cell polarity, and integrin trafficking to the leading edge. Upon initiation of directional migration PIPKIγi2 via PIP2 generation controls the integration of the exocyst complex into an integrin-containing trafficking compartment(s) that requires the talin-binding ability of PIPKIγi2, and talin for integrin recruitment to the leading edge. A PIP2 requirement is further emphasized by inhibition of PIPKIγi2-regulated directional migration by an Exo70 mutant deficient in PIP2 binding. These results reveal how phosphoinositide generation orchestrates polarized trafficking of integrin in coordination with talin that links integrins to the actin cytoskeleton, processes that are required for directional migration. PMID:22264730

  11. Integrin-extracellular matrix interactions in connective tissue remodeling and osteoblast differentiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, R. K.; Moursi, A.; Zimmerman, D.; Lull, J.; Damsky, C.

    1995-01-01

    The differentiaton of bone cells is a complex multistep process. Bone is somewhat unusual in that it is very actively and continually remodeled in the adult and that maintenance of its mass in the mature organism is exquisitely sensitive to mechanical as well as chemical signals. Bone is also unique because it consists of a very large amount of extracellular matrix (ECM) that is mineralized. The integrin family of ECM receptors has been shown to play an important role in tissue morphogenesis in several systems. Our studies on the regulation of matrix remodeling enzymes by integrins in rabbit synovial fibroblasts show that two b1 integrin fibronectin (FN) receptor complexes (alpha 5 beta 1 and alpha 4 beta 1) cooperate in detecting subtle changes in the composition of the ECM. As a result of signal transduction by these integrins, the levels of mRNA and protein for several members of the metalloproteinase family are regulated in these cells. We have also used antibody and RGD peptide perturbation studies to determine the significance of cell/ECM interactions to normal osteogenesis. We found that interactions between the cell binding domain of FN and integrins are required for both normal morphogenesis and gene expression in cultured osteoblasts that differentiate to form bone-like tissue in culture. These data lead us to propose that beta 1 integrins play an important role in osteoblast differentiation as well as in bone remodeling.

  12. Hydrogels with precisely controlled integrin activation dictate vascular patterning and permeability

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuoran; Nih, Lina R.; Bachman, Haylee; Fei, Peng; Li, Yilei; Nam, Eunwoo; Dimatteo, Robert; Carmichael, S. Thomas; Barker, Thomas H.; Segura, Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    Integrin binding to bioengineered hydrogel scaffolds is essential for tissue regrowth and regeneration, yet not all integrin binding can lead to tissue repair. Here, we show that through engineering hydrogel materials to promote α3/α5β1 integrin binding, we can promote the formation of a space filling and mature vasculature compared to hydrogel materials that promote a αvβ3 integrin binding. In vitro, α3/α5β1 scaffolds promoted endothelial cells to sprout and branch, forming organized extensive networks that eventually reached and anastomosed with neighboring branches. In vivo, α3/α5β1 scaffolds delivering vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) promoted non-tortuous blood vessel formation and non-leaky blood vessels by 10-days post stroke. In contrast, materials that promote αvβ3 integrin binding promoted endothelial sprout clumping in vitro and leaky vessels in vivo. This work shows that precisely controlled integrin activation from a biomaterial can be harnessed to direct therapeutic vessel regeneration and reduce VEGF induced vascular permeability in vivo. PMID:28783156

  13. α6-Integrin alternative splicing: distinct cytoplasmic variants in stem cell fate specification and niche interaction.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zijing; Qu, Jing; He, Li; Peng, Hong; Chen, Ping; Zhou, Yong

    2018-05-02

    α6-Integrin subunit (also known as CD49f) is a stemness signature that has been found on the plasma membrane of more than 30 stem cell populations. A growing body of studies have focused on the critical role of α6-containing integrins (α6β1 and α6β4) in the regulation of stem cell properties, lineage-specific differentiation, and niche interaction. α6-Integrin subunit can be alternatively spliced at the post-transcriptional level, giving rise to divergent isoforms which differ in the cytoplasmic and/or extracellular domains. The cytoplasmic domain of integrins is an important functional part of integrin-mediated signals. Structural changes in the cytoplasmic domain of α6 provide an efficient means for the regulation of stem cell responses to biochemical stimuli and/or biophysical cues in the stem cell niche, thus impacting stem cell fate determination. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the structural variants of the α6-integrin subunit and spatiotemporal expression of α6 cytoplasmic variants in embryonic and adult stem/progenitor cells. We highlight the roles of α6 cytoplasmic variants in stem cell fate decision and niche interaction, and discuss the potential mechanisms involved. Understanding of the distinct functions of α6 splicing variants in stem cell biology may inform the rational design of novel stem cell-based therapies for a range of human diseases.

  14. The influence of surface integrin binding patterns on specific biomaterial-cell interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beranek, Maggi Marie

    As the future of biomaterials progresses toward bioactivity, the biomaterial surface must control non-specific protein adsorption and encourage selective protein and cell adsorption. Integrins alphavbeta3, alpha 1beta1, alpha5beta1 and alpha Mbeta2 are expressed on cells involved in endothelialization, inflammation, and intimal hyperplasia. These cellular events play a vital role in biomaterial biocompatibility, especially in the vascular environment. The overall hypothesis of these studies is that biomaterial surfaces exhibit selective integrin binding, which then specifies differential cell binding. To test this hypothesis, four specific aims were developed. The first aim was designed to determine whether metal and polymeric biomaterials exhibit selective integrin binding. The tested materials included 316L stainless steel, nitinol, gold, Elgiloy RTM, poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolide), polycarbonate urethane and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene. Discrete integrin binding patterns were detected microscopically using integrin specific fluorescent antibodies. Stainless steel exhibited high level integrin alpha1beta 1 and low level integrin alphaMbeta2 binding pattern. This suggests that this metal surface should selectively encourage endothelial cell to inflammatory cell binding. In contrast, gold bound ten times the amount of integrin alphaMbeta2 compared to integrin alpha1beta1, which should encourage inflammatory cell adhesion. The 65/35 poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) was the only polymeric biomaterial tested that had integrin binding levels comparable to metal biomaterials. Based on these observations, a combinational biomaterial with a surface pattern of 65/35 poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) dots on a 316L stainless steel background was created. A pattern of high level integrin alpha1beta1 binding and low level integrin alpha Mbeta2 binding on this combinational surface indicates that this surface should selectively favor endothelial cell binding. In the second

  15. Integrin-like proteins are localized to plasma membrane fractions, not plastids, in Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swatzell, L. J.; Edelmann, R. E.; Makaroff, C. A.; Kiss, J. Z.

    1999-01-01

    Integrins are a large family of integral membrane proteins that function in signal transduction in animal systems. These proteins are conserved in vertebrates, invertebrates, and fungi. Evidence from previous research suggests that integrin-like proteins may be present in plants as well, and that these proteins may function in signal transduction during gravitropism. In past studies, researchers have used monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to localize beta 1 integrin-like proteins in plants. However, there is a disparity between data collected from these studies, especially since molecular weights obtained from these investigations range from 55-120 kDa for integrin-like proteins. To date, a complete investigation which employs all three basic immunolabeling procedures, immunoblotting, immunofluorescence microscopy, and immunogold labeling, in addition to extensive fractionation and exhaustive controls, has been lacking. In this paper, we demonstrate that use of a polyclonal antibody against the cytoplasmic domain of avian beta 1-integrin can produce potential artifacts in immunolocalization studies. However, these problems can be eliminated through use of starchless mutants or proper specimen preparation prior to electrophoresis. We also show that this antibody, when applied within the described parameters and with careful controls, identifies a large (100 kDa) integrin-like protein that is localized to plasma membrane fractions in Arabidopsis.

  16. Hydrogels with precisely controlled integrin activation dictate vascular patterning and permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuoran; Nih, Lina R.; Bachman, Haylee; Fei, Peng; Li, Yilei; Nam, Eunwoo; Dimatteo, Robert; Carmichael, S. Thomas; Barker, Thomas H.; Segura, Tatiana

    2017-09-01

    Integrin binding to bioengineered hydrogel scaffolds is essential for tissue regrowth and regeneration, yet not all integrin binding can lead to tissue repair. Here, we show that through engineering hydrogel materials to promote α3/α5β1 integrin binding, we can promote the formation of a space-filling and mature vasculature compared with hydrogel materials that promote αvβ3 integrin binding. In vitro, α3/α5β1 scaffolds promoted endothelial cells to sprout and branch, forming organized extensive networks that eventually reached and anastomosed with neighbouring branches. In vivo, α3/α5β1 scaffolds delivering vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) promoted non-tortuous blood vessel formation and non-leaky blood vessels by 10 days post-stroke. In contrast, materials that promote αvβ3 integrin binding promoted endothelial sprout clumping in vitro and leaky vessels in vivo. This work shows that precisely controlled integrin activation from a biomaterial can be harnessed to direct therapeutic vessel regeneration and reduce VEGF-induced vascular permeability in vivo.

  17. β1-integrin controls cell fate specification in early lens development

    PubMed Central

    Pathania, Mallika; Wang, Yan; Simirskii, Vladimir N.; Duncan, Melinda K.

    2016-01-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric cell surface molecules that mediate cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion, ECM assembly, and regulation of both ECM and growth factor induced signaling. However, the developmental context of these diverse functions is not clear. Loss of β1-integrin from the lens vesicle (mouse E10.5) results in abnormal exit of anterior lens epithelial cells (LECs) from the cell cycle and their aberrant elongation toward the presumptive cornea by E12.5. These cells lose expression of LEC markers and initiate expression of the Maf (also known as c-Maf) and Prox1 transcription factors as well as other lens fiber cell markers, β1-integrin null LECs also upregulate the ERK, AKT and Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation indicative of BMP and FGF signaling. By E14.5, β1-integrin null lenses have undergone a complete conversion of all lens epithelial cells into fiber cells. These data suggest that shortly after lens vesicle closure, β1-integrin blocks inappropriate differentiation of the lens epithelium into fibers, potentially by inhibiting BMP and/or FGF receptor activation. Thus, β1-integrin has an important role in fine-tuning the response of the early lens to the gradient of growth factors that regulate lens fiber cell differentiation. PMID:27596755

  18. Integrin binding and mechanical tension induce movement of mRNA and ribosomes to focal adhesions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chicurel, M. E.; Singer, R. H.; Meyer, C. J.; Ingber, D. E.

    1998-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) activates signalling pathways that control cell behaviour by binding to cell-surface integrin receptors and inducing the formation of focal adhesion complexes (FACs). In addition to clustered integrins, FACs contain proteins that mechanically couple the integrins to the cytoskeleton and to immobilized signal-transducing molecules. Cell adhesion to the ECM also induces a rapid increase in the translation of preexisting messenger RNAs. Gene expression can be controlled locally by targeting mRNAs to specialized cytoskeletal domains. Here we investigate whether cell binding to the ECM promotes formation of a cytoskeletal microcompartment specialized for translational control at the site of integrin binding. High-resolution in situ hybridization revealed that mRNA and ribosomes rapidly and specifically localized to FACs that form when cells bind to ECM-coated microbeads. Relocation of these protein synthesis components to the FAC depended on the ability of integrins to mechanically couple the ECM to the contractile cytoskeleton and on associated tension-moulding of the actin lattice. Our results suggest a new type of gene regulation by integrins and by mechanical stress which may involve translation of mRNAs into proteins near the sites of signal reception.

  19. The cancer glycocalyx mechanically primes integrin-mediated growth and survival

    PubMed Central

    Paszek, Matthew J.; DuFort, Christopher C.; Rossier, Olivier; Bainer, Russell; Mouw, Janna K.; Godula, Kamil; Hudak, Jason E.; Lakins, Jonathon N.; Wijekoon, Amanda C.; Cassereau, Luke; Rubashkin, Matthew G.; Magbanua, Mark J.; Thorn, Kurt S.; Davidson, Michael W.; Rugo, Hope S.; Park, John W.; Hammer, Daniel A.; Giannone, Grégory; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.; Weaver, Valerie M.

    2015-01-01

    Malignancy is associated with altered expression of glycans and glycoproteins that contribute to the cellular glycocalyx. We constructed a glycoprotein expression signature, which revealed that metastatic tumours upregulate expression of bulky glycoproteins. A computational model predicted that these glycoproteins would influence transmembrane receptor spatial organization and function. We tested this prediction by investigating whether bulky glycoproteins in the glycocalyx promote a tumour phenotype in human cells by increasing integrin adhesion and signalling. Our data revealed that a bulky glycocalyx facilitates integrin clustering by funnelling active integrins into adhesions and altering integrin state by applying tension to matrix-bound integrins, independent of actomyosin contractility. Expression of large tumour-associated glycoproteins in non-transformed mammary cells promoted focal adhesion assembly and facilitated integrin-dependent growth factor signalling to support cell growth and survival. Clinical studies revealed that large glycoproteins are abundantly expressed on circulating tumour cells from patients with advanced disease. Thus, a bulky glycocalyx is a feature of tumour cells that could foster metastasis by mechanically enhancing cell-surface receptor function. PMID:25030168

  20. Rapid characterization of transgenic and non-transgenic soybean oils by chemometric methods using NIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, Aderval S.; da Silva, Arnaldo P.; Pinho, Jéssica S. A.; Ferré, Joan; Boqué, Ricard

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and multivariate classification were applied to discriminate soybean oil samples into non-transgenic and transgenic. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to extract relevant features from the spectral data and to remove the anomalous samples. The best results were obtained when with Support Vectors Machine-Discriminant Analysis (SVM-DA) and Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) after mean centering plus multiplicative scatter correction. For SVM-DA the percentage of successful classification was 100% for the training group and 100% and 90% in validation group for non transgenic and transgenic soybean oil samples respectively. For PLS-DA the percentage of successful classification was 95% and 100% in training group for non transgenic and transgenic soybean oil samples respectively and 100% and 80% in validation group for non transgenic and transgenic respectively. The results demonstrate that NIR spectroscopy can provide a rapid, nondestructive and reliable method to distinguish non-transgenic and transgenic soybean oils.

  1. Generation of transgenic Hydra by embryo microinjection.

    PubMed

    Juliano, Celina E; Lin, Haifan; Steele, Robert E

    2014-09-11

    As a member of the phylum Cnidaria, the sister group to all bilaterians, Hydra can shed light on fundamental biological processes shared among multicellular animals. Hydra is used as a model for the study of regeneration, pattern formation, and stem cells. However, research efforts have been hampered by lack of a reliable method for gene perturbations to study molecular function. The development of transgenic methods has revitalized the study of Hydra biology(1). Transgenic Hydra allow for the tracking of live cells, sorting to yield pure cell populations for biochemical analysis, manipulation of gene function by knockdown and over-expression, and analysis of promoter function. Plasmid DNA injected into early stage embryos randomly integrates into the genome early in development. This results in hatchlings that express transgenes in patches of tissue in one or more of the three lineages (ectodermal epithelial, endodermal epithelial, or interstitial). The success rate of obtaining a hatchling with transgenic tissue is between 10% and 20%. Asexual propagation of the transgenic hatchling is used to establish a uniformly transgenic line in a particular lineage. Generating transgenic Hydra is surprisingly simple and robust, and here we describe a protocol that can be easily implemented at low cost.

  2. Peripheral myelin protein-22 (PMP22) modulates alpha 6 integrin expression in the human endometrium.

    PubMed

    Rao, Rajiv G; Sudhakar, Deepthi; Hogue, Claire P; Amici, Stephanie; Gordon, Lynn K; Braun, Jonathan; Notterpek, Lucia; Goodglick, Lee; Wadehra, Madhuri

    2011-04-25

    PMP22, a member of the GAS3 family of tetraspan proteins, is associated with a variety of neurological diseases. Previous studies have shown that PMP22 is expressed in proliferative endometrium, but its function within this tissue is poorly understood. In this study, we first characterized the expression of PMP22 in the human menstrual cycle and began to characterize its function in the endometrium. Using a combination of immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR, we characterized the expression of PMP22 in both proliferative and secretory endometrium. Differences in PMP22 expression between proliferative and secretory endometrium were determined using a Mann-Whitney U test. In order to investigate the influence of PMP22 on α6 integrin expression, cells were created that ectopically overexpressed PMP22 or expressed a siRNA to inhibit its expression. These cells were analyzed for changes in integrins and binding to extracellular matrices. In this study, we show that PMP22 expression is higher in proliferative phase than secretory phase. Functionally, we have begun to characterize the functional significance of this expression. Previous studies have suggested a link between PMP22 and α6 integrin, and therefore we asked whether PMP22 could associate or potentially modulate the expression of α6 integrin. Expression of both PMP22 and α6 integrin were detectable in endometrial epithelial and stromal cells, and we show that both proteins can associate and colocalize with each other. To understand if PMP22 directly altered the expression of a6 integrin, we examined cell lines with modulated levels of the protein. Overexpression of PMP22 was sufficient to increase α6 integrin surface expression with a concominant increase in binding to the extracellular matrix laminin, while a reduction in PMP22 suppressed α6 integrin surface expression. These findings suggest a physiologic role for PMP22 on the expression of α6 integrin. We predict that this may be important for the

  3. Expression of multiple proteins in transgenic plants

    DOEpatents

    Vierstra, Richard D.; Walker, Joseph M.

    2002-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the production of multiple proteins in transgenic plants. A DNA construct for introduction into plants includes a provision to express a fusion protein of two proteins of interest joined by a linking domain including plant ubiquitin. When the fusion protein is produced in the cells of a transgenic plant transformed with the DNA construction, native enzymes present in plant cells cleave the fusion protein to release both proteins of interest into the cells of the transgenic plant. Since the proteins are produced from the same fusion protein, the initial quantities of the proteins in the cells of the plant are approximately equal.

  4. Glyphostate-drift but not herbivory alters the rate of transgene flow from single and stacked trait transgenic canola (Brassica napus L.) to non-transgenic B. napus and B. rapa

    EPA Science Inventory

    While transgenic plants can offer agricultural benefits, the escape of transgenes out of crop fields is a major environmental concern. Escape of transgenic herbicide resistance has occurred between transgenic Brassica napus (canola) and weedy species in numerous locations. In t...

  5. Glioma cell dispersion is driven by α5 integrin-mediated cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions.

    PubMed

    Blandin, Anne-Florence; Noulet, Fanny; Renner, Guillaume; Mercier, Marie-Cécile; Choulier, Laurence; Vauchelles, Romain; Ronde, Philippe; Carreiras, Franck; Etienne-Selloum, Nelly; Vereb, Gyorgy; Lelong-Rebel, Isabelle; Martin, Sophie; Dontenwill, Monique; Lehmann, Maxime

    2016-07-01

    Glioblastoma multiform (GBM) is the most common and most aggressive primary brain tumor. The fibronectin receptor, α5 integrin is a pertinent novel therapeutic target. Despite numerous data showing that α5 integrin support tumor cell migration and invasion, it has been reported that α5 integrin can also limit cell dispersion by increasing cell-cell interaction. In this study, we showed that α5 integrin was involved in cell-cell interaction and gliomasphere formation. α5-mediated cell-cell cohesion limited cell dispersion from spheroids in fibronectin-poor microenvironment. However, in fibronectin-rich microenvironment, α5 integrin promoted cell dispersion. Ligand-occupied α5 integrin and fibronectin were distributed in fibril-like pattern at cell-cell junction of evading cells, forming cell-cell fibrillar adhesions. Activated focal adhesion kinase was not present in these adhesions but was progressively relocalized with α5 integrin as cell migrates away from the spheroids. α5 integrin function in GBM appears to be more complex than previously suspected. As GBM overexpressed fibronectin, it is most likely that in vivo, α5-mediated dissemination from the tumor mass overrides α5-mediated tumor cell cohesion. In this respect, α5-integrin antagonists may be useful to limit GBM invasion in brain parenchyma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The role of a conserved membrane proximal cysteine in altering αPS2CβPS integrin diffusion.

    PubMed

    Syed, Aleem; Arora, Neha; Bunch, Thomas A; Smith, Emily A

    2016-11-15

    Cysteine residues (Cys) in the membrane proximal region are common post-translational modification (PTM) sites in transmembrane proteins. Herein, the effects of a highly conserved membrane proximal α-subunit Cys 1368 on the diffusion properties of αPS2CβPS integrins are reported. Sequence alignment shows that this cysteine is palmitoylated in human α3 and α6 integrin subunits. Replacing Cys 1368 in wild-type integrins with valine (Val 1368 ) putatively blocks a PTM site and alters integrins' ligand binding and diffusion characteristics. Both fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and single particle tracking (SPT) diffusion measurements show Val 1368 integrins are more mobile compared to wild-type integrins. Approximately 33% and 8% more Val 1368 integrins are mobile as measured by FRAP and SPT, respectively. The mobile Val 1368 integrins also exhibit less time-dependent diffusion, as measured by FRAP. Tandem mass spectrometry data suggest that Cys 1368 contains a redox or palmitoylation PTM in αPS2CβPS integrins. This membrane proximal Cys may play an important role in the diffusion of other alpha subunits that contain this conserved residue.

  7. The role of α9β1 integrin and its ligands in the development of autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Kon, Shigeyuki; Uede, Toshimitsu

    2018-03-01

    Adhesion of cells to extracellular matrix proteins through integrins expressed on the cell surface is important for cell adhesion/motility, survival, and differentiation. Recently, α9β1 integrin was reported to be important for the development of autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and their murine models. In addition, ligands for α9β1 integrin, such as osteopontin and tenascin-C, are well established as key regulators of autoimmune diseases. Therefore, this review focused on the role of interactions between α9β1 integrin and its ligands in the development of autoimmune diseases.

  8. Macrophage Integrins Modulate Response to Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Particles and Direct Particle-Induced Osteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Zaveri, Toral D.; Dolgova, Natalia V.; Lewis, Jamal S.; Hamaker, Kiri; Clare-Salzler, Michael J.; Keselowsky, Benjamin G.

    2016-01-01

    Aseptic loosening due to peri-prosthetic osteolysis is one of the primary causes for failure of artificial joint replacements. Implant-derived wear particles, often ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) microparticles, initiate an inflammatory cascade upon phagocytosis by macrophages, which leads to osteoclast recruitment and activation, ultimately resulting in osteolysis. Investigation into integrin receptors, involved in cellular interactions with biomaterial-adsorbed adhesive proteins, is of interest to understand and modulate inflammatory processes. In this work, we investigate the role of macrophage integrins Mac-1 and RGD-binding integrins in response to UHMWPE wear particles. Using integrin knockout mice as well as integrin blocking techniques, reduction in macrophage phagocytosis and inflammatory cytokine secretion is demonstrated when these receptors are either absent or blocked. Along this line, various opsonizing proteins are shown to differentially modulate microparticle uptake and macrophage secretion of inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, using a calvarial osteolysis model it is demonstrated that both Mac-1 integrin and RGD-binding integrins modulate the particle induced osteolysis response to UHMWPE microparticles, with a 40% decrease in the area of osteolysis by the absence or blocking of these integrins, in vivo. Altogether, these findings indicate Mac-1 and RGD-binding integrins are involved in macrophage-directed inflammatory responses to UHMWPE and may serve as therapeutic targets to mitigate wear particle induced peri-prosthetic osteolysis for improved performance of implanted joints. PMID:27889664

  9. Integrin Clustering Matters: A Review of Biomaterials Functionalized with Multivalent Integrin-Binding Ligands to Improve Cell Adhesion, Migration, Differentiation, Angiogenesis, and Biomedical Device Integration.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Fatemeh; O'Connor, Andrea J; Qiao, Greg G; Heath, Daniel E

    2018-03-25

    Material systems that exhibit tailored interactions with cells are a cornerstone of biomaterial and tissue engineering technologies. One method of achieving these tailored interactions is to biofunctionalize materials with peptide ligands that bind integrin receptors present on the cell surface. However, cell biology research has illustrated that both integrin binding and integrin clustering are required to achieve a full adhesion response. This biophysical knowledge has motivated researchers to develop material systems biofunctionalized with nanoscale clusters of ligands that promote both integrin occupancy and clustering of the receptors. These materials have improved a wide variety of biological interactions in vitro including cell adhesion, proliferation, migration speed, gene expression, and stem cell differentiation; and improved in vivo outcomes including increased angiogenesis, tissue healing, and biomedical device integration. This review first introduces the techniques that enable the fabrication of these nanopatterned materials, describes the improved biological effects that have been achieved, and lastly discusses the current limitations of the technology and where future advances may occur. Although this technology is still in its nascency, it will undoubtedly play an important role in the future development of biomaterials and tissue engineering scaffolds for both in vitro and in vivo applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Two conformations of the integrin A-domain (I-domain): a pathway for activation?

    PubMed

    Lee, J O; Bankston, L A; Arnaout, M A; Liddington, R C

    1995-12-15

    Integrins are plasma membrane proteins that mediate adhesion to other cells and to components of the extracellular matrix. Most integrins are constitutively inactive in resting cells, but are rapidly and reversibly activated in response to agonists, leading to highly regulated cell adhesion. This activation is associated with conformational changes in their extracellular portions, but the nature of the structural changes that lead to a change in adhesiveness is not understood. The interactions of several integrins with their extracellular ligands are mediated by an A-type domain (generally called the I-domain in integrins). Binding of the I-domain to protein ligands is dependent on divalent cations. We have described previously the structure of the I-domain from complement receptor 3 with bound Mg2+, in which the glutamate side chain from a second I-domain completes the octahedral coordination sphere of the metal, acting as a ligand mimetic. We now describe a new crystal form of the I-domain with bound Mn2+, in which water completes the metal coordination sphere and there is no equivalent of the glutamate ligand. Comparison of the two crystal forms reveals a change in metal coordination which is linked to a large (10 A) shift of the C-terminal helix and the burial of two phenylalanine residues into the hydrophobic core of the Mn2+ form. These structural changes, analogous to those seen in the signal-transducing G-proteins, alter the electrophilicity of the metal, reducing its ability to bind ligand-associated acidic residues, and dramatically alter the surface of the protein implicated in binding ligand. Our observations provide the first atomic resolution view of conformational changes in an integrin domain, and suggest how these changes are linked to a change in integrin adhesiveness. We propose that the Mg2+ form represents the conformation of the domain in the active state and the Mn2+ form the conformation in the inactive state of the integrin.

  11. Oxidative stress reduces trophoblast FOXO1 and integrin β3 expression that inhibits cell motility.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chie-Pein; Chen, Cheng-Yi; Wu, Yi-Hsin; Chen, Chia-Yu

    2018-06-08

    Preeclampsia is a serious pregnancy complication associated with placental oxidative stress and impaired trophoblast migration. The mechanism of defective trophoblast migration remains unknown. Forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) is a transcription factor. Integrin β3 is involved in cell motility. We hypothesized that FOXO1 mediates expression of trophoblast integrin β3, which could be impaired by oxidative stress and have implications in preeclampsia. The expressions of FOXO1 and integrin β3 were significantly reduced in preeclamptic placentas (n = 15) compared to that of controls (n = 15; p < 0.01). HTR-8/SVneo and JEG-3 trophoblasts were transfected to express wild-type FOXO1-WT or constitutively-expressed nuclear mutant form, FOXO1-AAA. The FOXO1 in HTR-8/SVneo and 3A-Sub-E trophoblasts was silenced by small interfering RNA. AKT-mediated phosphorylation inactivated FOXO1, but FOXO1-AAA was not phosphorylated. The expression of trophoblast integrin β3 was significantly elevated by FOXO1 overexpression and inhibited by FOXO1 knockdown. FOXO1 regulates integrin β3 at the transcriptional level via binding to the putative FOXO1 response element site between position -1154 to -1139 (TGAGATGTTTTGAAAG) in HTR-8/SVneo trophoblasts. The level of phosphorylated FOXO1 was decreased, and the FOXO1 level was increased in trophoblasts treated with AKT inhibitor MK2206, leading to upregulation of integrin β3. The capabilities of trophoblast adhesion and migration were enhanced by FOXO1-overexpression or MK2206, and inhibited by silencing FOXO1 or oxidative stress with H 2 O 2 . These results suggest that FOXO1 enhances trophoblast integrin β3 expression, and mediates cell adhesion and migration. By affecting the expression of FOXO1 and cell motility in trophoblasts, oxidative stress plays a role in the development of preeclampsia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Expression and in vitro regulation of integrins by normal human urothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Southgate, J; Kennedy, W; Hutton, K A; Trejdosiewicz, L K

    1995-08-01

    Integrins are thought to be essential adhesion receptors for the maintenance of tissue histioarchitecture. The purpose of this study was to determine integrin expression patterns in the human stratified transitional epithelium of the urinary tract (urothelium). In situ expression patterns were compared with in vitro expression, using a normal cell culture model system in which the effects of cell stratification can be studied independently of differentiation. By immunohistological criteria, the urothelia of bladder, ureter and renal pelvis expressed alpha 2 beta 1 and alpha 3 beta 1 integrins in all layers at intercellular junctions, and cytoplasmically in the lower strata. By contrast, alpha 6 beta 4 and occasionally alpha v beta 4 were expressed only by basal cells and localised to the basal lamina. These expression patterns were unaltered in specimens where an inflammatory cell infiltrate was present. In long-term cultures of normal urothelial cells maintained in a low-Ca++ serum-free medium, the monolayer cultures expressed alpha 2 beta 1, alpha 3 beta 1 and alpha 5 beta 1 integrins at intercellular junctions and in cytoplasmic inclusions, whereas alpha 6 beta 4 was distributed in a random pattern over the substratum. Increasing exogenous Ca++ concentrations induced cell stratification and desmosome formation, but not cytodifferentiation. Under these conditions, alpha 6 beta 4 became cell-, rather than substratum-associated, localising particularly to filopodia and lamellipodia. Quantitation of integrin expression by flow cytometry confirmed increased surface expression of alpha 6 beta 4 in high Ca++ media, and also of alpha 3 and alpha 5, but not alpha 2, subunits. These results suggest that alpha 2 beta 1 and alpha 3 beta 1 integrins, although differentially regulated, are mainly involved in homotypic cell-cell interactions and the maintenance of a stratified morphology, whereas alpha 6 beta 4 is the principal integrin involved in substratum adhesion.

  13. Constant Applied Force Stimulates Osteoblast Proliferation Via Matrix-Integrin-Signaling Pathways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vercoutere, W.; Parra, M.; Roden, C.; DaCosta, M.; Wing, A.; Damsky, C.; Holton, E.; Searby, N.; Globus, R.; Almeida, E. A. C.

    2003-01-01

    Reduced weight-bearing caused by immobilization, bed-rest or microgravity leads to atrophy in mechanosensitive tissue such as muscle and bone. We hypothesize that bone tissue requires earth s gravity (1-g) for the maintenance of extracellular matrix, integrin, and kinase-mediated cell growth and survival pathways. We investigate the role of matrix-integrin signaling in bone cells using cell culture centrifugation to provide different levels of hypergravity mechanostimulation. The 10-50-g range we use also mimics physiological intermedullary pressure (1.2 - 5 kPa). 24 hours at 50-g increased primary rat osteoblast proliferation on collagen Type I and fibronectin, but not laminin or uncoated plastic. BrdU incorporation in primary osteoblasts over 24 h showed hypergravity increased the number of cells actively synthesizing DNA from about 60% at 1-g to over 90% at 25-g. Primary rat fibroblasts grown at 50-g (24 h) showed no proliferation increase, suggesting this is a tissue-specific phenomenon. These results suggest that the betal and alpha4 integrins may be involved. To further test this, we used osteocytic-like MLO-Y4 cells that showed increased proliferation at 1-g with stable expression of a betal integrin cytoplasmic tail and transmembrane domain construct. At 50-g, MLO-Y4/betal cells showed greater MAPK activation than MLO-Y4 vector controls, suggesting that betal integrin is involved in transducing mitogenic signals in response to hypergravity. Preliminary results also show that interfering with the alpha4 integrin in primary osteoblasts grown on fibronectin blocked the proliferation response. These results indicate that cells from mechanosensitive bone tissue can respond to gravity-generated forces, and this response involves specific matrix and integrin-dependent signaling pathways.

  14. Integrin signalling regulates YAP and TAZ to control skin homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Elbediwy, Ahmed; Vincent-Mistiaen, Zoé I.; Spencer-Dene, Bradley; Stone, Richard K.; Boeing, Stefan; Wculek, Stefanie K.; Cordero, Julia; Tan, Ee H.; Ridgway, Rachel; Brunton, Val G.; Sahai, Erik; Gerhardt, Holger; Behrens, Axel; Malanchi, Ilaria; Sansom, Owen J.; Thompson, Barry J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The skin is a squamous epithelium that is continuously renewed by a population of basal layer stem/progenitor cells and can heal wounds. Here, we show that the transcription regulators YAP and TAZ localise to the nucleus in the basal layer of skin and are elevated upon wound healing. Skin-specific deletion of both YAP and TAZ in adult mice slows proliferation of basal layer cells, leads to hair loss and impairs regeneration after wounding. Contact with the basal extracellular matrix and consequent integrin-Src signalling is a key determinant of the nuclear localisation of YAP/TAZ in basal layer cells and in skin tumours. Contact with the basement membrane is lost in differentiating daughter cells, where YAP and TAZ become mostly cytoplasmic. In other types of squamous epithelia and squamous cell carcinomas, a similar control mechanism is present. By contrast, columnar epithelia differentiate an apical domain that recruits CRB3, Merlin (also known as NF2), KIBRA (also known as WWC1) and SAV1 to induce Hippo signalling and retain YAP/TAZ in the cytoplasm despite contact with the basal layer extracellular matrix. When columnar epithelial tumours lose their apical domain and become invasive, YAP/TAZ becomes nuclear and tumour growth becomes sensitive to the Src inhibitor Dasatinib. PMID:26989177

  15. Crossroads of integrins and cadherins in epithelia and stroma remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Epifano, Carolina; Perez-Moreno, Mirna

    2012-01-01

    Adhesion events mediated by cadherin and integrin adhesion receptors have fundamental roles in the maintenance of the physiological balance of epithelial tissues, and it is well established that perturbations in their normal functional activity and/or changes in their expression are associated with tumorigenesis. Over the last decades, increasing evidence of a dynamic collaborative interaction between these complexes through their shared interactions with cytoskeletal proteins and common signaling pathways has emerged not only as an important regulator of several aspects of epithelial cell behavior, but also as a coordinated adhesion module that senses and transmits signals from and to the epithelia surrounding microenvironment. The tight regulation of their crosstalk is particularly important during epithelial remodeling events that normally take place during morphogenesis and tissue repair, and when defective it leads to cell transformation and aggravated responses of the tumor microenvironment that contribute to tumorigenesis. In this review we highlight some of the interactions that regulate their crosstalk and how this could be implicated in regulating signals across epithelial tissues to sustain homeostasis. PMID:22568988

  16. The Neutrophil Btk Signalosome Regulates Integrin Activation during Sterile Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Volmering, Stephanie; Block, Helena; Boras, Mark; Lowell, Clifford A.; Zarbock, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Neutrophils are recruited from the blood to sites of sterile inflammation, where they are involved in wound healing but can also cause tissue damage. During sterile inflammation, necrotic cells release pro-inflammatory molecules including formylated peptides. However, the signaling pathway triggered by formylated peptides to integrin activation and leukocyte recruitment is unknown. By using spinning-disk confocal intravital microscopy, we examined the molecular mechanisms of leukocyte recruitment to sites of focal hepatic necrosis in vivo. We demonstrated that the Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (Btk) was required for multiple Mac-1 activation events involved in neutrophil recruitment and functions during sterile inflammation triggered by fMLF. The Src family kinase Hck, Wiskott-Aldrich-syndrome protein, and phospholipase Cγ2 were also involved in this pathway required for fMLF-triggered Mac-1 activation and neutrophil recruitment. Thus, we have identified a neutrophil Btk signalosome that is involved in a signaling pathway triggered by formylated peptides leading to the selective activation of Mac-1 and neutrophil recruitment during sterile inflammation. PMID:26777396

  17. Affinity-tuning leukocyte integrin for development of safe therapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Spencer

    Much attention has been given to the molecular and cellular pathways linking inflammation with cancer and the local tumor environment to identify new target molecules that could lead to improved diagnosis and treatment. Among the many molecular players involved in the complex response, central to the induction of inflammation is intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, which is of particular interest for its highly sensitive and localized expression in response to inflammatory signals. ICAM-1, which has been implicated to play a critical role in tumor progression in various types of cancer, has also been linked to cancer metastases, where ICAM-1 facilitates the spread of metastatic cancer cells to secondary sites. This unique expression profile of ICAM-1 throughout solid tumor microenvironment makes ICAM-1 an intriguing molecular target, which holds great potential as an important diagnostic and therapeutic tool. Herein, we have engineered the ligand binding domain, or the inserted (I) domain of a leukocyte integrin, to exhibit a wide range of monovalent affinities to the natural ligand, ICAM-1. Using the resulting I domain variants, we have created drug and gene delivery nanoparticles, as well as targeted immunotherapeutics that have the ability to bind and migrate to inflammatory sites prevalent in tumors and the associated microenvironment. Through the delivery of diagnostic agents, chemotherapeutics, and immunotherapeutics, the following chapters demonstrate that the affinity enhancements achieved by directed evolution bring the affinity of I domains into the range optimal for numerous applications.

  18. Integrin signalling regulates YAP and TAZ to control skin homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Elbediwy, Ahmed; Vincent-Mistiaen, Zoé I; Spencer-Dene, Bradley; Stone, Richard K; Boeing, Stefan; Wculek, Stefanie K; Cordero, Julia; Tan, Ee H; Ridgway, Rachel; Brunton, Val G; Sahai, Erik; Gerhardt, Holger; Behrens, Axel; Malanchi, Ilaria; Sansom, Owen J; Thompson, Barry J

    2016-05-15

    The skin is a squamous epithelium that is continuously renewed by a population of basal layer stem/progenitor cells and can heal wounds. Here, we show that the transcription regulators YAP and TAZ localise to the nucleus in the basal layer of skin and are elevated upon wound healing. Skin-specific deletion of both YAP and TAZ in adult mice slows proliferation of basal layer cells, leads to hair loss and impairs regeneration after wounding. Contact with the basal extracellular matrix and consequent integrin-Src signalling is a key determinant of the nuclear localisation of YAP/TAZ in basal layer cells and in skin tumours. Contact with the basement membrane is lost in differentiating daughter cells, where YAP and TAZ become mostly cytoplasmic. In other types of squamous epithelia and squamous cell carcinomas, a similar control mechanism is present. By contrast, columnar epithelia differentiate an apical domain that recruits CRB3, Merlin (also known as NF2), KIBRA (also known as WWC1) and SAV1 to induce Hippo signalling and retain YAP/TAZ in the cytoplasm despite contact with the basal layer extracellular matrix. When columnar epithelial tumours lose their apical domain and become invasive, YAP/TAZ becomes nuclear and tumour growth becomes sensitive to the Src inhibitor Dasatinib. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Structural basis of substrate discrimination and integrin binding by autotaxin

    SciTech Connect

    Hausmann, Jens; Kamtekar, Satwik; Christodoulou, Evangelos

    2013-09-25

    Autotaxin (ATX, also known as ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase-2, ENPP2) is a secreted lysophospholipase D that generates the lipid mediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a mitogen and chemoattractant for many cell types. ATX-LPA signaling is involved in various pathologies including tumor progression and inflammation. However, the molecular basis of substrate recognition and catalysis by ATX and the mechanism by which it interacts with target cells are unclear. Here, we present the crystal structure of ATX, alone and in complex with a small-molecule inhibitor. We have identified a hydrophobic lipid-binding pocket and mapped key residues for catalysis and selection between nucleotide and phospholipid substrates.more » We have shown that ATX interacts with cell-surface integrins through its N-terminal somatomedin B-like domains, using an atypical mechanism. Our results define determinants of substrate discrimination by the ENPP family, suggest how ATX promotes localized LPA signaling and suggest new approaches for targeting ATX with small-molecule therapeutic agents.« less

  20. Integrin Beta 1 Suppresses Multilayering of a Simple Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jichao; Krasnow, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Epithelia are classified as either simple, a single cell layer thick, or stratified (multilayered). Stratified epithelia arise from simple epithelia during development, and transcription factor p63 functions as a key positive regulator of epidermal stratification. Here we show that deletion of integrin beta 1 (Itgb1) in the developing mouse airway epithelium abrogates airway branching and converts this monolayer epithelium into a multilayer epithelium with more than 10 extra layers. Mutant lung epithelial cells change mitotic spindle orientation to seed outer layers, and cells in different layers become molecularly and functionally distinct, hallmarks of normal stratification. However, mutant lung epithelial cells do not activate p63 and do not switch to the stratified keratin profile of epidermal cells. These data, together with previous data implicating Itgb1 in regulation of epidermal stratification, suggest that the simple-versus-stratified developmental decision may involve not only stratification inducers like p63 but suppressors like Itgb1 that prevent simple epithelia from inappropriately activating key steps in the stratification program. PMID:23285215

  1. Transgenic plants with enhanced growth characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Anderson, Penelope S.; Knight, Thomas J.

    2016-09-06

    The invention relates to transgenic plants exhibiting dramatically enhanced growth rates, greater seed and fruit/pod yields, earlier and more productive flowering, more efficient nitrogen utilization, increased tolerance to high salt conditions, and increased biomass yields. In one embodiment, transgenic plants engineered to over-express both glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase (GPT) and glutamine synthetase (GS) are provided. The GPT+GS double-transgenic plants of the invention consistently exhibit enhanced growth characteristics, with T0 generation lines showing an increase in biomass over wild type counterparts of between 50% and 300%. Generations that result from sexual crosses and/or selfing typically perform even better, with some of the double-transgenic plants achieving an astounding four-fold biomass increase over wild type plants.

  2. AN APPROACH TO TRANSGENIC CROP MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remote sensing by aerial or satellite images may provide a method of identifying transgenic pesticidal crop distribution in the landscape. Genetically engineered crops containing bacterial gene(s) that express an insecticidal protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are regulated...

  3. Transgenic plants with enhanced growth characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Anderson, Penelope S.; Knight, Thomas J.

    The invention relates to transgenic plants exhibiting dramatically enhanced growth rates, greater seed and fruit/pod yields, earlier and more productive flowering, more efficient nitrogen utilization, increased tolerance to high salt conditions, and increased biomass yields. In one embodiment, transgenic plants engineered to over-express both glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase (GPT) and glutamine synthetase (GS) are provided. The GPT+GS double-transgenic plants of the invention consistently exhibit enhanced growth characteristics, with T0 generation lines showing an increase in biomass over wild type counterparts of between 50% and 300%. Generations that result from sexual crosses and/or selfing typically perform even better, with some of themore » double-transgenic plants achieving an astounding four-fold biomass increase over wild type plants.« less

  4. [Review of transgenic crop breeding in China].

    PubMed

    Huang, Dafang

    2015-06-01

    The development history and fundamental experience of transgenic crops (Genetically modified crops) breeding in China for near 30 years were reviewed. It was illustrated that a scientific research, development and industrialization system of transgenic crops including gene discovery, transformation, variety breeding, commercialization, application and biosafety assessment has been initially established which was few in number in the world. The research innovative capacity of transgenic cotton, rice and corn has been lifted. The research features as well as relative advantages have been initially formed. The problems and challenges of transgenic crop development were discussed. In addition, three suggestions of promoting commercialization, speeding up implementation of the Major National Project of GM Crops, and enhancing science communication were made.

  5. Transgenic Wheat, Barley and Oats: Future Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunwell, Jim M.

    Following the success of transgenic maize and rice, methods have now been developed for the efficient introduction of genes into wheat, barley and oats. This review summarizes the present position in relation to these three species, and also uses information from field trial databases and the patent literature to assess the future trends in the exploitation of transgenic material. This analysis includes agronomic traits and also discusses opportunities in expanding areas such as biofuels and biopharming.

  6. [Detection of transgenic crop with gene chip].

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying-Chun; Sun, Chun-Yun; Feng, Hong; Hu, Xiao-Dong; Yin, Hai-Bin

    2003-05-01

    Some selected available sequences of reporter genes,resistant genes, promoters and terminators are amplified by PCR for the probes of transgenic crop detection gene chip. These probes are arrayed at definite density and printed on the surface of amino-slides by bioRobot MicroGrid II. Results showed that gene chip worked quickly and correctly, when transgenic rice, pawpaw,maize and soybean were applied.

  7. Transgene flow: Facts, speculations and possible countermeasures

    PubMed Central

    Ryffel, Gerhart U

    2014-01-01

    Convincing evidence has accumulated that unintended transgene escape occurs in oilseed rape, maize, cotton and creeping bentgrass. The escaped transgenes are found in variant cultivars, in wild type plants as well as in hybrids of sexually compatible species. The fact that in some cases stacked events are present that have not been planted commercially, implies unintended recombination of transgenic traits. As the consequences of this continuous transgene escape for the ecosystem cannot be reliably predicted, I propose to use more sophisticated approaches of gene technology in future. If possible GM plants should be constructed using either site-directed mutagenesis or cisgenic strategies to avoid the problem of transgene escape. In cases where a transgenic trait is needed, efficient containment should be the standard approach. Various strategies available or in development are discussed. Such a cautious approach in developing novel types of GM crops will enhance the sustainable potential of GM crops and thus increase the public trust in green gene technology. PMID:25523171

  8. Galectin-3 Induces Clustering of CD147 and Integrin-β1 Transmembrane Glycoprotein Receptors on the RPE Cell Surface

    PubMed Central

    Priglinger, Claudia S.; Szober, Christoph M.; Priglinger, Siegfried G.; Merl, Juliane; Euler, Kerstin N.; Kernt, Marcus; Gondi, Gabor; Behler, Jennifer; Geerlof, Arie; Kampik, Anselm; Ueffing, Marius; Hauck, Stefanie M.

    2013-01-01

    Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a blinding disease frequently occurring after retinal detachment surgery. Adhesion, migration and matrix remodeling of dedifferentiated retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells characterize the onset of the disease. Treatment options are still restrained and identification of factors responsible for the abnormal behavior of the RPE cells will facilitate the development of novel therapeutics. Galectin-3, a carbohydrate-binding protein, was previously found to inhibit attachment and spreading of retinal pigment epithelial cells, and thus bares the potential to counteract PVR-associated cellular events. However, the identities of the corresponding cell surface glycoprotein receptor proteins on RPE cells are not known. Here we characterize RPE-specific Gal-3 containing glycoprotein complexes using a proteomic approach. Integrin-β1, integrin-α3 and CD147/EMMPRIN, a transmembrane glycoprotein implicated in regulating matrix metalloproteinase induction, were identified as potential Gal-3 interactors on RPE cell surfaces. In reciprocal immunoprecipitation experiments we confirmed that Gal-3 associated with CD147 and integrin-β1, but not with integrin-α3. Additionally, association of Gal-3 with CD147 and integrin-β1 was observed in co-localization analyses, while integrin-α3 only partially co-localized with Gal-3. Blocking of CD147 and integrin-β1 on RPE cell surfaces inhibited binding of Gal-3, whereas blocking of integrin-α3 failed to do so, suggesting that integrin-α3 is rather an indirect interactor. Importantly, Gal-3 binding promoted pronounced clustering and co-localization of CD147 and integrin-β1, with only partial association of integrin-α3. Finally, we show that RPE derived CD147 and integrin-β1, but not integrin-α3, carry predominantly β-1,6-N-actyl-D-glucosamine-branched glycans, which are high-affinity ligands for Gal-3. We conclude from these data that extracellular Gal-3 triggers clustering of CD147 and

  9. β4-Integrin/PI3K Signaling Promotes Tumor Progression through the Galectin-3-N-Glycan Complex.

    PubMed

    Kariya, Yukiko; Oyama, Midori; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Gu, Jianguo; Kariya, Yoshinobu

    2018-06-01

    Malignant transformation is associated with aberrant N -glycosylation, but the role of protein N -glycosylation in cancer progression remains poorly defined. β4-integrin is a major carrier of N -glycans and is associated with poor prognosis, tumorigenesis, and metastasis. Here, N -glycosylation of β4-integrin contributes to the activation of signaling pathways that promote β4-dependent tumor development and progression. Increased expression of β1,6GlcNAc-branched N -glycans was found to be colocalized with β4-integrin in human cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma tissues, and that the β1,6GlcNAc residue was abundant on β4-integrin in transformed keratinocytes. Interruption of β1,6GlcNAc-branching formation on β4-integrin with the introduction of bisecting GlcNAc by N -acetylglucosaminyltransferase III overexpression was correlated with suppression of cancer cell migration and tumorigenesis. N -Glycan deletion on β4-integrin impaired β4-dependent cancer cell migration, invasion, and growth in vitro and diminished tumorigenesis and proliferation in vivo The reduced abilities of β4-integrin were accompanied with decreased phosphoinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signals and were restored by the overexpression of the constitutively active p110 PI3K subunit. Binding of galectin-3 to β4-integrin via β1,6GlcNAc-branched N -glycans promoted β4-integrin-mediated cancer cell adhesion and migration. In contrast, a neutralizing antibody against galectin-3 attenuated β4-integrin N -glycan-mediated PI3K activation and inhibited the ability of β4-integrin to promote cell motility. Furthermore, galectin-3 knockdown by shRNA suppressed β4-integrin N -glycan-mediated tumorigenesis. These findings provide a novel role for N -glycosylation of β4-integrin in tumor development and progression, and the regulatory mechanism for β4-integrin/PI3K signaling via the galectin-3- N -glycan complex. Implications: N -Glycosylation of β4-integrin plays a functional role in promoting

  10. Inhibition of Focal Adhesion Kinase Signaling by Integrin α6β1 Supports Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Self-Renewal.

    PubMed

    Villa-Diaz, Luis G; Kim, Jin Koo; Laperle, Alex; Palecek, Sean P; Krebsbach, Paul H

    2016-07-01

    Self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs)-known as pluripotent stem cells (PSC)-is influenced by culture conditions, including the substrate on which they are grown. However, details of the molecular mechanisms interconnecting the substrate and self-renewal of these cells remain unclear. We describe a signaling pathway in hPSCs linking self-renewal and expression of pluripotency transcription factors to integrin α6β1 and inactivation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Disruption of this pathway results in hPSC differentiation. In hPSCs, α6β1 is the dominant integrin and FAK is not phosphorylated at Y397, and thus, it is inactive. During differentiation, integrin α6 levels diminish and Y397 FAK is phosphorylated and activated. During reprogramming of fibroblasts into iPSCs, integrin α6 is upregulated and FAK is inactivated. Knockdown of integrin α6 and activation of β1 integrin lead to FAK phosphorylation and reduction of Nanog, Oct4, and Sox2, suggesting that integrin α6 functions in inactivation of integrin β1 and FAK signaling and prevention of hPSC differentiation. The N-terminal domain of FAK, where Y397 is localized, is in the nuclei of hPSCs interacting with Oct4 and Sox2, and this immunolocalization is regulated by Oct4. hPSCs remodel the extracellular microenvironment and deposit laminin α5, the primary ligand of integrin α6β1. Knockdown of laminin α5 resulted in reduction of integrin α6 expression, phosphorylation of FAK and decreased Oct4. In conclusion, hPSCs promote the expression of integrin α6β1, and nuclear localization and inactivation of FAK to supports stem cell self-renewal. Stem Cells 2016;34:1753-1764. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.

  11. The role of integrin α8β1 in fetal lung morphogenesis and injury

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, John T.; Gaston, David C.; Halloran, Brian A.; Schnapp, Lynn M.; Zent, Roy; Prince, Lawrence S.

    2009-01-01

    Prenatal inflammation prevents normal lung morphogenesis and leads to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a common complication of preterm birth. We previously demonstrated in a bacterial endotoxin mouse model of BPD that disrupting fibronectin localization in the fetal lung mesenchyme causes arrested saccular airway branching. In this study we show that expression of the fibronectin receptor, integrin α8β1, is decreased in the lung mesenchyme in the same inflammation model suggesting it is required for normal lung development. We verified a role for integrin α8β1 in lung development using integrin α8-null mice, which develop fusion of the medial and caudal lobes as well as abnormalities in airway division. We further show in vivo and vitro that α8-null fetal lung mesenchymal cells fail to form stable adhesions and have increased migration. Thus we propose that integrin α8β1 plays a critical role in lung morphogenesis by regulating mesenchymal cell adhesion and migration. Furthermore, our data suggests that disruption of the interactions between extracellular matrix and integrin α8β1 may contribute to the pathogenesis of BPD. PMID:19769957

  12. β1 Integrin is an Adhesion Protein for Sperm Binding to Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Baessler, Keith A.; Lee, Younjoo; Sampson, Nicole S.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the role of β1 integrin in mammalian fertilization and the mode of inhibition of fertilinβ-derived polymers. We determined that polymers displaying the Glu-Cys-Asp peptide from the fertilinβ disintegrin domain mediate inhibition of mammalian fertilization through a β1 integrin receptor on the egg surface. Inhibition of fertilization is a consequence of competition with sperm binding to the cell surface, not activation of an egg-signaling pathway. The presence of the β1 integrin on the egg surface increases the rate of sperm attachment, but does not alter the total number of sperm that can attach or fuse to the egg. We conclude that the presence of β1 integrin enhances the initial adhesion of sperm to the egg plasma membrane and that subsequent attachment and fusion are mediated by additional egg and sperm proteins present in the β1 integrin complex. Therefore, the mechanisms by which sperm fertilize wild-type and β1 knockout eggs are different. PMID:19338281

  13. Epithelial cell integrin β1 is required for developmental angiogenesis in the pituitary gland

    PubMed Central

    Scully, Kathleen M.; Skowronska-Krawczyk, Dorota; Krawczyk, Michal; Merkurjev, Daria; Taylor, Havilah; Livolsi, Antonia; Tollkuhn, Jessica; Stan, Radu V.; Rosenfeld, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    As a key component of the vertebrate neuroendocrine system, the pituitary gland relies on the progressive and coordinated development of distinct hormone-producing cell types and an invading vascular network. The molecular mechanisms that drive formation of the pituitary vasculature, which is necessary for regulated synthesis and secretion of hormones that maintain homeostasis, metabolism, and endocrine function, remain poorly understood. Here, we report that expression of integrin β1 in embryonic pituitary epithelial cells is required for angiogenesis in the developing mouse pituitary gland. Deletion of pituitary epithelial integrin β1 before the onset of angiogenesis resulted in failure of invading endothelial cells to recruit pericytes efficiently, whereas deletion later in embryogenesis led to decreased vascular density and lumen formation. In both cases, lack of epithelial integrin β1 was associated with a complete absence of vasculature in the pituitary gland at birth. Within pituitary epithelial cells, integrin β1 directs a large transcriptional program that includes components of the extracellular matrix and associated signaling factors that are linked to the observed non–cell-autonomous effects on angiogenesis. We conclude that epithelial integrin β1 functions as a critical and canonical regulator of developmental angiogenesis in the pituitary gland, thus providing insight into the long-standing systems biology conundrum of how vascular invasion is coordinated with tissue development. PMID:27810956

  14. Gfi1b controls integrin signaling-dependent cytoskeleton dynamics and organization in megakaryocytes.

    PubMed

    Beauchemin, Hugues; Shooshtarizadeh, Peiman; Vadnais, Charles; Vassen, Lothar; Pastore, Yves D; Möröy, Tarik

    2017-03-01

    Mutations in GFI1B are associated with inherited bleeding disorders called GFI1B -related thrombocytopenias. We show here that mice with a megakaryocyte-specific Gfi1b deletion exhibit a macrothrombocytopenic phenotype along a megakaryocytic dysplasia reminiscent of GFI1B -related thrombocytopenia. GFI1B deficiency increases megakaryocyte proliferation and affects their ploidy, but also abrogates their responsiveness towards integrin signaling and their ability to spread and reorganize their cytoskeleton. Gfi1b -null megakaryocytes are also unable to form proplatelets, a process independent of integrin signaling. GFI1B-deficient megakaryocytes exhibit aberrant expression of several components of both the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton, with a dramatic reduction of α-tubulin. Inhibition of FAK or ROCK, both important for actin cytoskeleton organization and integrin signaling, only partially restored their response to integrin ligands, but the inhibition of PAK, a regulator of the actin cytoskeleton, completely rescued the responsiveness of Gfi1b -null megakaryocytes to ligands, but not their ability to form proplatelets. We conclude that Gfi1b controls major functions of megakaryocytes such as integrin-dependent cytoskeleton organization, spreading and migration through the regulation of PAK activity whereas the proplatelet formation defect in GFI1B-deficient megakaryocytes is due, at least partially, to an insufficient α-tubulin content. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  15. Simultaneous Targeting of RGD-Integrins and Dual Murine Double Minute Proteins in Glioblastoma Multiforme.

    PubMed

    Merlino, Francesco; Daniele, Simona; La Pietra, Valeria; Di Maro, Salvatore; Di Leva, Francesco Saverio; Brancaccio, Diego; Tomassi, Stefano; Giuntini, Stefano; Cerofolini, Linda; Fragai, Marco; Luchinat, Claudio; Reichart, Florian; Cavallini, Chiara; Costa, Barbara; Piccarducci, Rebecca; Taliani, Sabrina; Da Settimo, Federico; Martini, Claudia; Kessler, Horst; Novellino, Ettore; Marinelli, Luciana

    2018-05-18

    In the fight against Glioblastoma Multiforme, recent literature data have highlighted that integrin α5β1 and p53 are part of convergent pathways in the control of glioma apoptosis. This observation prompted us to seek a molecule able to simultaneously modulate both target families. Analyzing the results of a previous virtual screening against murine double minute 2 protein (MDM2), we envisaged that Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-mimetic molecules could be inhibitors of MDM2/4. Herein we present the discovery of compound 7, which inhibits both MDM2/4 and α5β1/αvβ3 integrins. A lead optimization campaign was carried out on 7 with aim to preserve the activities on integrins while improving those on MDM proteins. Compound 9 turned out to be a potent MDM2/4, and α5β1/αvβ3 blocker. In p53-wild type glioma cells, 9 arrested cell cycle and proliferation and strongly reduced cell invasiveness, emerging as the first molecule of a novel class of integrin/MDM inhibitors, which might be especially useful in subpopulations of patients with glioblastoma expressing a functional p53 concomitantly with a high level of α5β1 integrin.

  16. Dynamin2 controls Rap1 activation and integrin clustering in human T lymphocyte adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Eppler, Felix J.

    2017-01-01

    Leukocyte trafficking is crucial to facilitate efficient immune responses. Here, we report that the large GTPase dynamin2, which is generally considered to have a key role in endocytosis and membrane remodeling, is an essential regulator of integrin-dependent human T lymphocyte adhesion and migration. Chemical inhibition or knockdown of dynamin2 expression significantly reduced integrin-dependent T cell adhesion in vitro. This phenotype was not observed when T cells were treated with various chemical inhibitors which abrogate endocytosis or actin polymerization. We furthermore detected dynamin2 in signaling complexes and propose that it controls T cell adhesion via FAK/Pyk2- and RapGEF1-mediated Rap1 activation. In addition, the dynamin2 inhibitor-induced reduction of lymphocyte adhesion can be rescued by Rap1a overexpression. We demonstrate that the dynamin2 effect on T cell adhesion does not involve integrin affinity regulation but instead relies on its ability to modulate integrin valency. Taken together, we suggest a previously unidentified role of dynamin2 in the regulation of integrin-mediated lymphocyte adhesion via a Rap1 signaling pathway. PMID:28273099

  17. Mesodermal expression of integrin α5β1 regulates neural crest development and cardiovascular morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Dong; Wang, Xia; Mittal, Ashok; Dhiman, Sonam; Hou, Shuan-Yu; Degenhardt, Karl; Astrof, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Integrin α5-null embryos die in mid-gestation from severe defects in cardiovascular morphogenesis, which stem from defective development of the neural crest, heart and vasculature. To investigate the role of integrin α5β1 in cardiovascular development, we used the Mesp1Cre knock-in strain of mice to ablate integrin α5 in the anterior mesoderm, which gives rise to all of the cardiac and many of the vascular and muscle lineages in the anterior portion of the embryo. Surprisingly, we found that mutant embryos displayed numerous defects related to the abnormal development of the neural crest such as cleft palate, ventricular septal defect, abnormal development of hypoglossal nerves, and defective remodeling of the aortic arch arteries. We found that defects in arch artery remodeling stem from the role of mesodermal integrin α5β1 in neural crest proliferation and differentiation into vascular smooth muscle cells, while proliferation of pharyngeal mesoderm and differentiation of mesodermal derivatives into vascular smooth muscle cells was not defective. Taken together our studies demonstrate a requisite role for mesodermal integrin α5β1 in signaling between the mesoderm and the neural crest, thereby regulating neural crest-dependent morphogenesis of essential embryonic structures. PMID:25242040

  18. Crystal Structure of the Heterotrimeric Integrin-Binding Region of Laminin-111.

    PubMed

    Pulido, David; Hussain, Sadaf-Ahmahni; Hohenester, Erhard

    2017-03-07

    Laminins are cell-adhesive glycoproteins that are essential for basement membrane assembly and function. Integrins are important laminin receptors, but their binding site on the heterotrimeric laminins is poorly defined structurally. We report the crystal structure at 2.13 Å resolution of a minimal integrin-binding fragment of mouse laminin-111, consisting of ∼50 residues of α1β1γ1 coiled coil and the first three laminin G-like (LG) domains of the α1 chain. The LG domains adopt a triangular arrangement, with the C terminus of the coiled coil situated between LG1 and LG2. The critical integrin-binding glutamic acid residue in the γ1 chain tail is surface exposed and predicted to bind to the metal ion-dependent adhesion site in the integrin β1 subunit. Additional contacts to the integrin are likely to be made by the LG1 and LG2 surfaces adjacent to the γ1 chain tail, which are notably conserved and free of obstructing glycans. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. β1 integrin is a crucial regulator of pancreatic β-cell expansion

    PubMed Central

    Diaferia, Giuseppe R.; Jimenez-Caliani, Antonio J.; Ranjitkar, Prerana; Yang, Wendy; Hardiman, Gary; Rhodes, Christopher J.; Crisa, Laura; Cirulli, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Development of the endocrine compartment of the pancreas, as represented by the islets of Langerhans, occurs through a series of highly regulated events encompassing branching of the pancreatic epithelium, delamination and differentiation of islet progenitors from ductal domains, followed by expansion and three-dimensional organization into islet clusters. Cellular interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM) mediated by receptors of the integrin family are postulated to regulate key functions in these processes. Yet, specific events regulated by these receptors in the developing pancreas remain unknown. Here, we show that ablation of the β1 integrin gene in developing pancreatic β-cells reduces their ability to expand during embryonic life, during the first week of postnatal life, and thereafter. Mice lacking β1 integrin in insulin-producing cells exhibit a dramatic reduction of the number of β-cells to only ∼18% of wild-type levels. Despite the significant reduction in β-cell mass, these mutant mice are not diabetic. A thorough phenotypic analysis of β-cells lacking β1 integrin revealed a normal expression repertoire of β-cell markers, normal architectural organization within islet clusters, and a normal ultrastructure. Global gene expression analysis revealed that ablation of this ECM receptor in β-cells inhibits the expression of genes regulating cell cycle progression. Collectively, our results demonstrate that β1 integrin receptors function as crucial positive regulators of β-cell expansion. PMID:23863477

  20. Clinical Response to Vedolizumab in Ulcerative Colitis Patients Is Associated with Changes in Integrin Expression Profiles.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Friederike; Schillinger, Daniela; Atreya, Raja; Hirschmann, Simon; Fischer, Sarah; Neufert, Clemens; Atreya, Imke; Neurath, Markus F; Zundler, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Despite large clinical success, deeper insights into the immunological effects of vedolizumab therapy for inflammatory bowel diseases are scarce. In particular, the reasons for differential clinical response in individual patients, the precise impact on the equilibrium of integrin-expressing T cell subsets, and possible associations between these issues are not clear. Blood samples from patients receiving clinical vedolizumab therapy were sequentially collected and analyzed for expression of integrins and chemokine receptors on T cells. Moreover, clinical and laboratory data from the patients were collected, and changes between homing marker expression and clinical parameters were analyzed for possible correlations. While no significant correlation of changes in integrin expression and changes in outcome parameters were identified in Crohn's disease (CD), increasing α4β7 levels in ulcerative colitis (UC) seemed to be associated with favorable clinical development, whereas increasing α4β1 and αEβ7 correlated with negative changes in outcome parameters. Changes in α4β1 integrin expression after 6 weeks were significantly different in responders and non-responders to vedolizumab therapy as assessed after 16 weeks with a cutoff of +4.2% yielding 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity in receiver-operator-characteristic analysis. Our data show that clinical response to vedolizumab therapy in UC but not in CD is associated with specific changes in integrin expression profiles opening novel avenues for mechanistic research and possibly prediction of response to therapy.

  1. Integrin suppresses neurogenesis and regulates brain tissue assembly in planarian regeneration.

    PubMed

    Bonar, Nicolle A; Petersen, Christian P

    2017-03-01

    Animals capable of adult regeneration require specific signaling to control injury-induced cell proliferation, specification and patterning, but comparatively little is known about how the regeneration blastema assembles differentiating cells into well-structured functional tissues. Using the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea as a model, we identify β1-integrin as a crucial regulator of blastema architecture. β1-integrin(RNAi) animals formed small head blastemas with severe tissue disorganization, including ectopic neural spheroids containing differentiated neurons normally found in distinct organs. By mimicking aspects of normal brain architecture but without normal cell-type regionalization, these spheroids bore a resemblance to mammalian tissue organoids synthesized in vitro We identified one of four planarian integrin-alpha subunits inhibition of which phenocopied these effects, suggesting that a specific receptor controls brain organization through regeneration. Neoblast stem cells and progenitor cells were mislocalized in β1-integrin(RNAi) animals without significantly altered body-wide patterning. Furthermore, tissue disorganization phenotypes were most pronounced in animals undergoing brain regeneration and not homeostatic maintenance or regeneration-induced remodeling of the brain. These results suggest that integrin signaling ensures proper progenitor recruitment after injury, enabling the generation of large-scale tissue organization within the regeneration blastema. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Cigarette smoke induces β2-integrin-dependent neutrophil migration across human endothelium

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking induces peripheral inflammatory responses in all smokers and is the major risk factor for neutrophilic lung disease such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cigarette smoke on neutrophil migration and on β2-integrin activation and function in neutrophilic transmigration through endothelium. Methods and results Utilizing freshly isolated human PMNs, the effect of cigarette smoke on migration and β2-integrin activation and function in neutrophilic transmigration was studied. In this report, we demonstrated that cigarette smoke extract (CSE) dose dependently induced migration of neutrophils in vitro. Moreover, CSE promoted neutrophil adherence to fibrinogen. Using functional blocking antibodies against CD11b and CD18, it was demonstrated that Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) is responsible for the cigarette smoke-induced firm adhesion of neutrophils to fibrinogen. Furthermore, neutrophils transmigrated through endothelium by cigarette smoke due to the activation of β2-integrins, since pre-incubation of neutrophils with functional blocking antibodies against CD11b and CD18 attenuated this transmigration. Conclusion This is the first study to describe that cigarette smoke extract induces a direct migratory effect on neutrophils and that CSE is an activator of β2-integrins on the cell surface. Blocking this activation of β2-integrins might be an important target in cigarette smoke induced neutrophilic diseases. PMID:21651795

  3. Dramatic and concerted conformational changes enable rhodocetin to block α2β1 integrin selectively

    PubMed Central

    Orriss, George L.; Niland, Stephan; Johanningmeier, Benjamin; Pohlentz, Gottfried; Meier, Markus; Karrasch, Simone; Estevão-Costa, Maria Inacia; Martins Lima, Augusto; Stetefeld, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    The collagen binding integrin α2β1 plays a crucial role in hemostasis, fibrosis, and cancer progression amongst others. It is specifically inhibited by rhodocetin (RC), a C-type lectin-related protein (CLRP) found in Malayan pit viper (Calloselasma rhodostoma) venom. The structure of RC alone reveals a heterotetramer arranged as an αβ and γδ subunit in a cruciform shape. RC specifically binds to the collagen binding A-domain of the integrin α2 subunit, thereby blocking collagen-induced platelet aggregation. However, until now, the molecular basis for this interaction has remained unclear. Here, we present the molecular structure of the RCγδ-α2A complex solved to 3.0 Å resolution. Our findings show that RC undergoes a dramatic structural reorganization upon binding to α2β1 integrin. Besides the release of the nonbinding RCαβ tandem, the RCγ subunit interacts with loop 2 of the α2A domain as result of a dramatic conformational change. The RCδ subunit contacts the integrin α2A domain in the “closed” conformation through its helix C. Combined with epitope-mapped antibodies, conformationally locked α2A domain mutants, point mutations within the α2A loop 2, and chemical modifications of the purified toxin protein, this molecular structure of RCγδ-α2A complex explains the inhibitory mechanism and specificity of RC for α2β1 integrin. PMID:28704364

  4. Expression, purification and renaturation of truncated human integrin β1 from inclusion bodies of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Shi, Tonglin; Zhang, Lichao; Li, Zhuoyu; Newton, Ian P; Zhang, Quanbin

    2015-03-01

    Integrins are a family of transmembrane receptors and among their members, integrin β1 is one of the best known. It plays a very important role in cell adhesion/migration and in cancer metastasis. Preparation of integrin β1 has a great potential value especially in studies focused on its function. To this end, recombinant plasmids were constructed containing DNA segments representing 454 amino acids of the N-terminal of integrin β1. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into Escherichiacoli BL21 (DE3) cells and after induction by isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG), the recombinant protein (molecular weight: 53 kD) was expressed, mainly in the form of inclusion bodies. The inclusion bodies were solubilized by 8M urea solution then purified by nickel affinity chromatography. The recombinant protein was renatured by a stepwise dialysis and finally dissolved in phosphate buffered saline. The final yield was approximately 5.4 mg/L of culture and the purity of the renatured recombinant protein was greater than 98% as assessed by SDS-PAGE. The integrity of the protein was shown by Western blot using monoclonal antibodies against his-tag and integrin β1. Its secondary structure was verified as native by circular dichroism spectra and the bioactivity of the recombinant protein was displayed through the conformation switch under Mn(2+) stimulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The integrin expression profile modulates orientation and dynamics of force transmission at cell-matrix adhesions.

    PubMed

    Balcioglu, Hayri E; van Hoorn, Hedde; Donato, Dominique M; Schmidt, Thomas; Danen, Erik H J

    2015-04-01

    Integrin adhesion receptors connect the extracellular matrix (ECM) to the cytoskeleton and serve as bidirectional mechanotransducers. During development, angiogenesis, wound healing and cancer progression, the relative abundance of fibronectin receptors, including integrins α5β1 and αvβ3, changes, thus altering the integrin composition of cell-matrix adhesions. Here, we show that enhanced αvβ3 expression can fully compensate for loss of α5β1 and other β1 integrins to support outside-in and inside-out force transmission. α5β1 and αvβ3 each mediate actin cytoskeletal remodeling in response to stiffening or cyclic stretching of the ECM. Likewise, α5β1 and αvβ3 support cellular traction forces of comparable magnitudes and similarly increase these forces in response to ECM stiffening. However, cells using αvβ3 respond to lower stiffness ranges, reorganize their actin cytoskeleton more substantially in response to stretch, and show more randomly oriented traction forces. Centripetal traction force orientation requires long stress fibers that are formed through the action of Rho kinase (ROCK) and myosin II, and that are supported by α5β1. Thus, altering the relative abundance of fibronectin-binding integrins in cell-matrix adhesions affects the spatiotemporal organization of force transmission. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Collagen Gly missense mutations: Effect of residue identity on collagen structure and integrin binding.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yimin; Mekkat, Arya; Yu, Hongtao; Yigit, Sezin; Hamaia, Samir; Farndale, Richard W; Kaplan, David L; Lin, Yu-Shan; Brodsky, Barbara

    2018-05-11

    Gly missense mutations in type I collagen, which replace a conserved Gly in the repeating (Gly-Xaa-Yaa) n sequence with a larger residue, are known to cause Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI). The clinical consequences of such mutations range from mild to lethal, with more serious clinical severity associated with larger Gly replacement residues. Here, we investigate the influence of the identity of the residue replacing Gly within and adjacent to the integrin binding 502 GFPGER 507 sequence on triple-helix structure, stability and integrin binding using a recombinant bacterial collagen system. Recombinant collagens were constructed with Gly substituted by Ala, Ser or Val at four positions within the integrin binding region. All constructs formed a stable triple-helix structure with a small decrease in melting temperature. Trypsin was used to probe local disruption of the triple helix, and Gly to Val replacements made the triple helix trypsin sensitive at three of the four sites. Any mutation at Gly505, eliminated integrin binding, while decreased integrin binding affinity was observed in the replacement of Gly residues at Gly502 following the order Val > Ser > Ala. Molecular dynamics simulations indicated that all Gly replacements led to transient disruption of triple-helix interchain hydrogen bonds in the region of the Gly replacement. These computational and experimental results lend insight into the complex molecular basis of the varying clinical severity of OI. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Transgenic Expression of Dspp Partially Rescued the Long Bone Defects of Dmp1-null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jani, Priyam H.; Gibson, Monica P.; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Xiaofang; Lu, Yongbo; Qin, Chunlin

    2016-01-01

    Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) belong to the Small Integrin-Binding Ligand N-linked Glycoprotein (SIBLING) family. In addition to the features common to all SIBLING members, DMP1 and DSPP share several unique similarities in chemical structure, proteolytic activation and tissue localization. Mutations in, or deletion of DMP1, cause autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets along with dental defects; DSPP mutations or its ablation are associated with dentinogenesis imperfecta. While the roles and functional mechanisms of DMP1 in osteogenesis have been extensively studied, those of DSPP in long bones have been studied only to a limited extent. Previous studies by our group revealed that transgenic expression of Dspp completely rescued the dentin defects of Dmp1-null (Dmp1−/−) mice. In this investigation, we assessed the effects of transgenic Dspp on osteogenesis by analyzing the formation and mineralization of the long bones in Dmp1−/− mice that expresses a transgene encoding full-length DSPP driven by a 3.6-kb rat Col1a1 promoter (referred as “Dmp1−/−;Dspp-Tg mice”). We characterized the long bones of the Dmp1−/−;Dspp-Tg mice at different ages and compared them with those from Dmp1−/− and Dmp1+/− (normal control) mice. Our analyses showed that the long bones of Dmp1−/−;Dspp-Tg mice had a significant increase in cortical bone thickness, bone volume and mineral density along with a remarkable restoration of trabecular thickness compared to those of the Dmp1−/− mice. The long bones of Dmp1−/−;Dspp-Tg mice underwent a dramatic reduction in the amount of osteoid, significant improvement of the collagen fibrillar network, and better organization of the lacunocanalicular system, compared to the Dmp1−/− mice. The elevated levels of biglycan, bone sialoprotein and osteopontin in Dmp1−/− mice were also noticeably corrected by the transgenic expression of Dspp. These findings suggest that

  8. Integrin β6 serves as an immunohistochemical marker for lymph node metastasis and promotes cell invasiveness in cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zequn; Biswas, Siddhartha; Liang, Benjia; Zou, Xueqing; Shan, Liqun; Li, Yang; Fang, Ruliang; Niu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is a devastating malignancy that is notoriously difficult to diagnose and is associated with a high mortality. Despite extensive efforts to improve the diagnosis and treatment of this neoplasm, limited progress has been made. Integrin β6 is a subtype of integrin that is expressed exclusively on the surfaces of epithelial cells and is associated with a variety of tumors. In the present study, we investigated the expression and roles of integrin β6 in cholangiocarcinoma. β6 upregulation in cholangiocarcinoma was correlated with lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis. Moreover, integrin β6 was identified as a biomarker for the diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma and an indicator of lymph node metastasis. Integrin β6 significantly promoted the proliferation, migration and invasion of cholangiocarcinoma cells. Furthermore, integrin β6 increased Rac1-GTPase, resulting in the upregulation of metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) and F-actin polymerization. Taken together, our results indicate that integrin β6 promotes tumor invasiveness in a Rac1-dependent manner and is a potential biomarker for tumor metastasis. Integrin β6 may help to improve the diagnostic accuracy, and targeting β6 may be a novel strategy for the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:27440504

  9. Integrin β6 serves as an immunohistochemical marker for lymph node metastasis and promotes cell invasiveness in cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Zequn; Biswas, Siddhartha; Liang, Benjia; Zou, Xueqing; Shan, Liqun; Li, Yang; Fang, Ruliang; Niu, Jun

    2016-07-21

    Cholangiocarcinoma is a devastating malignancy that is notoriously difficult to diagnose and is associated with a high mortality. Despite extensive efforts to improve the diagnosis and treatment of this neoplasm, limited progress has been made. Integrin β6 is a subtype of integrin that is expressed exclusively on the surfaces of epithelial cells and is associated with a variety of tumors. In the present study, we investigated the expression and roles of integrin β6 in cholangiocarcinoma. β6 upregulation in cholangiocarcinoma was correlated with lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis. Moreover, integrin β6 was identified as a biomarker for the diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma and an indicator of lymph node metastasis. Integrin β6 significantly promoted the proliferation, migration and invasion of cholangiocarcinoma cells. Furthermore, integrin β6 increased Rac1-GTPase, resulting in the upregulation of metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) and F-actin polymerization. Taken together, our results indicate that integrin β6 promotes tumor invasiveness in a Rac1-dependent manner and is a potential biomarker for tumor metastasis. Integrin β6 may help to improve the diagnostic accuracy, and targeting β6 may be a novel strategy for the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma.

  10. Absence of αvβ6 Integrin Is Linked to Initiation and Progression of Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ghannad, Farzin; Nica, Daniela; Garcia Fulle, Maria I.; Grenier, Daniel; Putnins, Edward E.; Johnston, Sarah; Eslami, Ameneh; Koivisto, Leeni; Jiang, Guoqiao; McKee, Marc D.; Häkkinen, Lari; Larjava, Hannu

    2008-01-01

    Integrin αvβ6 is generally not expressed in adult epithelia but is induced in wound healing, cancer, and certain fibrotic disorders. Despite this generalized absence, we observed that αvβ6 integrin is constitutively expressed in the healthy junctional epithelium linking the gingiva to tooth enamel. Moreover, expression of αvβ6 integrin was down-regulated in human periodontal disease, a common medical condition causing tooth loss and also contributing to the development of cardiovascular diseases by increasing the total systemic inflammatory burden. Remarkably, integrin β6 knockout mice developed classic signs of spontaneous, chronic periodontal disease with characteristic inflammation, epithelial down-growth, pocket formation, and bone loss around the teeth. Integrin αvβ6 acts as a major activator of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), a key anti-inflammatory regulator in the immune system. Co-expression of TGF-β1 and αvβ6 integrin was observed in the healthy junctional epithelium. Moreover, an antibody that blocks αvβ6 integrin-mediated activation of TGF-β1 initiated inflammatory periodontal disease in a rat model of gingival inflammation. Thus, αvβ6 integrin is constitutively expressed in the epithelium sealing the gingiva to the tooth and plays a central role in protection against inflammatory periodontal disease through activation of TGF-β1. PMID:18385522

  11. Differential Influence of Components Resulting from Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma on Integrin Expression of Human HaCaT Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Haertel, Beate; Straßenburg, Susanne; Wende, Kristian; von Woedtke, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Adequate chronic wound healing is a major problem in medicine. A new solution might be non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma effectively inactivating microorganisms and influencing cells in wound healing. Plasma components as, for example, radicals can affect cells differently. HaCaT keratinocytes were treated with Dielectric Barrier Discharge plasma (DBD/air, DBD/argon), ozone or hydrogen peroxide to find the components responsible for changes in integrin expression, intracellular ROS formation or apoptosis induction. Dependent on plasma treatment time reduction of recovered cells was observed with no increase of apoptotic cells, but breakdown of mitochondrial membrane potential. DBD/air plasma increased integrins and intracellular ROS. DBD/argon caused minor changes. About 100 ppm ozone did not influence integrins. Hydrogen peroxide caused similar effects compared to DBD/air plasma. In conclusion, effects depended on working gas and exposure time to plasma. Short treatment cycles did neither change integrins nor induce apoptosis or ROS. Longer treatments changed integrins as important for influencing wound healing. Plasma effects on integrins are rather attributed to induction of other ROS than to generation of ozone. Changes of integrins by plasma may provide new solutions of improving wound healing, however, conditions are needed which allow initiating the relevant influence on integrins without being cytotoxic to cells. PMID:23936843

  12. Lipid raft regulates the initial spreading of melanoma A375 cells by modulating β1 integrin clustering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruifei; Bi, Jiajia; Ampah, Khamal Kwesi; Zhang, Chunmei; Li, Ziyi; Jiao, Yang; Wang, Xiaoru; Ba, Xueqing; Zeng, Xianlu

    2013-08-01

    Cell adhesion and spreading require integrins-mediated cell-extracellular matrix interaction. Integrins function through binding to extracellular matrix and subsequent clustering to initiate focal adhesion formation and actin cytoskeleton rearrangement. Lipid raft, a liquid ordered plasma membrane microdomain, has been reported to play major roles in membrane motility by regulating cell surface receptor function. Here, we identified that lipid raft integrity was required for β1 integrin-mediated initial spreading of melanoma A375 cells on fibronectin. We found that lipid raft disruption with methyl-β-cyclodextrin led to the inability of focal adhesion formation and actin cytoskeleton rearrangement by preventing β1 integrin clustering. Furthermore, we explored the possible mechanism by which lipid raft regulates β1 integrin clustering and demonstrated that intact lipid raft could recruit and modify some adaptor proteins, such as talin, α-actinin, vinculin, paxillin and FAK. Lipid raft could regulate the location of these proteins in lipid raft fractions and facilitate their binding to β1 integrin, which may be crucial for β1 integrin clustering. We also showed that lipid raft disruption impaired A375 cell migration in both transwell and wound healing models. Together, these findings provide a new insight for the relationship between lipid raft and the regulation of integrins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The role of a conserved membrane proximal cysteine in altering αPS2CβPS integrin diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syed, Aleem; Arora, Neha; Bunch, Thomas A.; Smith, Emily A.

    2016-12-01

    Cysteine residues (Cys) in the membrane proximal region are common post-translational modification (PTM) sites in transmembrane proteins. Herein, the effects of a highly conserved membrane proximal α-subunit Cys1368 on the diffusion properties of αPS2CβPS integrins are reported. Sequence alignment shows that this cysteine is palmitoylated in human α3 and α6 integrin subunits. Replacing Cys1368 in wild-type integrins with valine (Val1368) putatively blocks a PTM site and alters integrins’ ligand binding and diffusion characteristics. Both fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and single particle tracking (SPT) diffusion measurements show Val1368 integrins are more mobile compared to wild-type integrins. Approximately 33% and 8% more Val1368 integrins are mobile as measured by FRAP and SPT, respectively. The mobile Val1368 integrins also exhibit less time-dependent diffusion, as measured by FRAP. Tandem mass spectrometry data suggest that Cys1368 contains a redox or palmitoylation PTM in αPS2CβPS integrins. This membrane proximal Cys may play an important role in the diffusion of other alpha subunits that contain this conserved residue.

  14. Electric Signals Regulate the Directional Migration of Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells (OPCs) via β1 Integrin.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bangfu; Nicholls, Matthew; Gu, Yu; Zhang, Gaofeng; Zhao, Chao; Franklin, Robin J M; Song, Bing

    2016-11-22

    The guided migration of neural cells is essential for repair in the central nervous system (CNS). Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) will normally migrate towards an injury site to re-sheath demyelinated axons; however the mechanisms underlying this process are not well understood. Endogenous electric fields (EFs) are known to influence cell migration in vivo, and have been utilised in this study to direct the migration of OPCs isolated from neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats. The OPCs were exposed to physiological levels of electrical stimulation, and displayed a marked electrotactic response that was dependent on β1 integrin, one of the key subunits of integrin receptors. We also observed that F-actin, an important component of the cytoskeleton, was re-distributed towards the leading edge of the migrating cells, and that this asymmetric rearrangement was associated with β1 integrin function.

  15. Definition of Two Angiogenic Pathways by Distinct α_v Integrins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedlander, Martin; Brooks, Peter C.; Shaffer, Robert W.; Kincaid, Christine M.; Varner, Judith A.; Cheresh, David A.

    1995-12-01

    Angiogenesis depends on cytokines and vascular cell adhesion events. Two cytokine-dependent pathways of angiogenesis were shown to exist and were defined by their dependency on distinct vascular cell integrins. In vivo angiogenesis in corneal or chorioallantoic membrane models induced by basic fibroblast growth factor or by tumor necrosis factor-α depended on α_vβ_3, whereas angiogenesis initiated by vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor-α, or phorbol ester depended on α_vβ_5. Antibody to each integrin selectively blocked one of these pathways, and a cyclic peptide antagonist of both integrins blocked angiogenesis stimulated by each cytokine tested. These pathways are further distinguished by their sensitivity to calphostin C, an inhibitor of protein kinase C that blocked angiogenesis potentiated by α_vβ_5 but not by α_vβ_3.

  16. Integrin and GPCR Crosstalk in the Regulation of ASM Contraction Signaling in Asthma.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Chun Ming; Tam, John Kit Chung; Tran, Thai

    2012-01-01

    Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is one of the cardinal features of asthma. Contraction of airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells that line the airway wall is thought to influence aspects of AHR, resulting in excessive narrowing or occlusion of the airway. ASM contraction is primarily controlled by agonists that bind G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), which are expressed on ASM. Integrins also play a role in regulating ASM contraction signaling. As therapies for asthma are based on symptom relief, better understanding of the crosstalk between GPCRs and integrins holds good promise for the design of more effective therapies that target the underlying cellular and molecular mechanism that governs AHR. In this paper, we will review current knowledge about integrins and GPCRs in their regulation of ASM contraction signaling and discuss the emerging concept of crosstalk between the two and the implication of this crosstalk on the development of agents that target AHR.

  17. Integrins are required for tissue organization and restriction of neurogenesis in regenerating planarians

    PubMed Central

    Seebeck, Florian; März, Martin; Meyer, Anna-Wiebke; Reuter, Hanna; Vogg, Matthias C.; Stehling, Martin; Mildner, Karina; Zeuschner, Dagmar; Rabert, Franziska

    2017-01-01

    Tissue regeneration depends on proliferative cells and on cues that regulate cell division, differentiation, patterning and the restriction of these processes once regeneration is complete. In planarians, flatworms with high regenerative potential, muscle cells express some of these instructive cues. Here, we show that members of the integrin family of adhesion molecules are required for the integrity of regenerating tissues, including the musculature. Remarkably, in regenerating β1-integrin RNAi planarians, we detected increased numbers of mitotic cells and progenitor cell types, as well as a reduced ability of stem cells and lineage-restricted progenitor cells to accumulate at wound sites. These animals also formed ectopic spheroid structures of neural identity in regenerating heads. Interestingly, those polarized assemblies comprised a variety of neural cells and underwent continuous growth. Our study indicates that integrin-mediated cell adhesion is required for the regenerative formation of organized tissues and for restricting neurogenesis during planarian regeneration. PMID:28137894

  18. A Primer for Using Transgenic Insecticidal Cotton in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Showalter, Ann M.; Heuberger, Shannon; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Carrière, Yves

    2009-01-01

    Many developing countries face the decision of whether to approve the testing and commercial use of insecticidal transgenic cotton and the task of developing adequate regulations for its use. In this review, we outline concepts and provide information to assist farmers, regulators and scientists in making decisions concerning this technology. We address seven critical topics: 1) molecular and breeding techniques used for the development of transgenic cotton cultivars, 2) properties of transgenic cotton cultivars and their efficacy against major insect pests, 3) agronomic performance of transgenic cotton in developing countries, 4) factors affecting transgene expression, 5) impact of gene flow between transgenic and non-transgenic cotton, 6) non-target effects of transgenic cotton, and 7) management of pest resistance to transgenic cotton. PMID:19613464

  19. Transgenic cotton: from biotransformation methods to agricultural application.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Baohong

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic cotton is among the first transgenic plants commercially adopted around the world. Since it was first introduced into the field in the middle of 1990s, transgenic cotton has been quickly adopted by cotton farmers in many developed and developing countries. Transgenic cotton has offered many important environmental, social, and economic benefits, including reduced usage of pesticides, indirect increase of yield, minimizing environmental pollution, and reducing labor and cost. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method is the major method for obtaining transgenic cotton. However, pollen tube pathway-mediated method is also used, particularly by scientists in China, to breed commercial transgenic cotton. Although transgenic cotton plants with disease-resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, and improved fiber quality have been developed in the past decades, insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant cotton are the two dominant transgenic cottons in the transgenic cotton market.

  20. Upregulated Expression of Integrin α1 in Mesangial Cells and Integrin α3 and Vimentin in Podocytes of Col4a3-Null (Alport) Mice

    PubMed Central

    Steenhard, Brooke M.; Vanacore, Roberto; Friedman, David; Zelenchuk, Adrian; Stroganova, Larysa; Isom, Kathryn; St. John, Patricia L.; Hudson, Billy G.; Abrahamson, Dale R.

    2012-01-01

    Alport disease in humans, which usually results in proteinuria and kidney failure, is caused by mutations to the COL4A3, COL4A4, or COL4A5 genes, and absence of collagen α3α4α5(IV) networks found in mature kidney glomerular basement membrane (GBM). The Alport mouse harbors a deletion of the Col4a3 gene, which also results in the lack of GBM collagen α3α4α5(IV). This animal model shares many features with human Alport patients, including the retention of collagen α1α2α1(IV) in GBMs, effacement of podocyte foot processes, gradual loss of glomerular barrier properties, and progression to renal failure. To learn more about the pathogenesis of Alport disease, we undertook a discovery proteomics approach to identify proteins that were differentially expressed in glomeruli purified from Alport and wild-type mouse kidneys. Pairs of cy3- and cy5-labeled extracts from 5-week old Alport and wild-type glomeruli, respectively, underwent 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis. Differentially expressed proteins were digested with trypsin and prepared for mass spectrometry, peptide ion mapping/fingerprinting, and protein identification through database searching. The intermediate filament protein, vimentin, was upregulated ∼2.5 fold in Alport glomeruli compared to wild-type. Upregulation was confirmed by quantitative real time RT-PCR of isolated Alport glomeruli (5.4 fold over wild-type), and quantitative confocal immunofluorescence microscopy localized over-expressed vimentin specifically to Alport podocytes. We next hypothesized that increases in vimentin abundance might affect the basement membrane protein receptors, integrins, and screened Alport and wild-type glomeruli for expression of integrins likely to be the main receptors for GBM type IV collagen and laminin. Quantitative immunofluorescence showed an increase in integrin α1 expression in Alport mesangial cells and an increase in integrin α3 in Alport podocytes. We conclude that overexpression of

  1. Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Cleavage of the β1 Integrin Ectodomain Facilitates Colon Cancer Cell Motility*

    PubMed Central

    Kryczka, Jakub; Stasiak, Marta; Dziki, Lukasz; Mik, Michał; Dziki, Adam; Cierniewski, Czesław S.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cell invasion is a key element in metastasis that requires integrins for adhesion/de-adhesion, as well as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) for focalized proteolysis. Herein we show that MMP-2 is up-regulated in resected colorectal tumors and degrades β1 integrins with the release of fragments containing the β1 I-domain. The β1 cleavage pattern is similar to that produced by digestion of α5β1 and α2β1 with MMP-2. Two such fragments, at 25 and 75 kDa, were identified after immunoprecipitation, with monoclonal antibody BD610468 reacting with the NH2-terminal I-like ectodomain followed by SDS-PAGE and microsequencing using electrospray (ISI-Q-TOF-Micromass) spectrometry. Cleavage of the β1 integrin can be abolished by inhibition of MMP-2 activity; it can be induced by up-regulation of MMP-2 expression, as exemplified by HT29 colon cancer cells transfected with pCMV6-XL5-MMP-2. Co-immunoprecipitation studies of colon cancer cells showed that the β1 integrin subunit is associated with MMP-2. The MMP-2-mediated shedding of the I-like domain from β1 integrins resulted in decreased adhesion of colon cancer cells to collagen and fibronectin, thus abolishing their receptivity. Furthermore, such cells showed enhanced motility as evaluated by a “wound healing-like” assay and time-lapse microscopy, indicating their increased invasiveness. Altogether, our data demonstrate that MMP-2 amplifies the motility of colon cancer cells, not only by digesting the extracellular matrix components in the vicinity of cancer cells but also by inactivating their major β1 integrin receptors. PMID:22898815

  2. Selectin catch-bonds mechanotransduce integrin activation and neutrophil arrest on inflamed endothelium under shear flow.

    PubMed

    Morikis, Vasilios A; Chase, Shannon; Wun, Ted; Chaikof, Elliot L; Magnani, John L; Simon, Scott I

    2017-11-09

    E-selectin extends from the plasma membrane of inflamed endothelium and serves to capture leukocytes from flowing blood via long-lived catch-bonds that support slow leukocyte rolling under shear stress. Its ligands are glycosylated with the tetrasaccharide sialyl Lewis x (sLe x ), which contributes to bond affinity and specificity. E-selectin-mediated rolling transmits signals into neutrophils that trigger activation of high-affinity β 2 -integrins necessary for transition to shear-resistant adhesion and transendothelial migration. Rivipansel is a glycomimetic drug that inhibits E-selectin-mediated vaso-occlusion induced by integrin-dependent sickle-red blood cell-leukocyte adhesion. How Rivipansel antagonizes ligand recognition by E-selectin and blocks outside-in signaling of integrin-mediated neutrophil arrest while maintaining rolling immune-surveillance is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that sLe x expressed on human L-selectin is preferentially bound by E-selectin and, on ligation, initiates secretion of MRP8/14 that binds TLR4 to elicit the extension of β 2 -integrin to an intermediate affinity state. Neutrophil rolling over E-selectin at precise shear stress transmits tension and catch-bond formation with L-selectin via sLe x , resulting in focal clusters that deliver a distinct signal to upshift β 2 -integrins to a high-affinity state. Rivipansel effectively blocked formation of selectin catch-bonds, revealing a novel mechanotransduction circuit that rapidly converts extended β 2 -integrins to high-affinity shear-resistant bond clusters with intracellular adhesion molecule 1 on inflamed endothelium.

  3. Epigenetic Regulation of Galectin-3 Expression by β1 Integrins Promotes Cell Adhesion and Migration*

    PubMed Central

    Margadant, Coert; van den Bout, Iman; van Boxtel, Antonius L.; Thijssen, Victor L.; Sonnenberg, Arnoud

    2012-01-01

    Introduction of the integrin β1- but not the β3-subunit in GE11 cells induces an epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition (EMT)-like phenomenon that is characterized by the loss of cell-cell contacts, cell scattering, increased cell migration and RhoA activity, and fibronectin fibrillogenesis. Because galactose-binding lectins (galectins) have been implicated in these phenomena, we investigated whether galectins are involved in the β1-induced phenotype. We examined 9 galectins and, intriguingly, found that the expression of galectin-3 (Gal-3) is specifically induced by β1 but not by β3. Using β1-β3 chimeric integrins, we show that the induction of Gal-3 expression requires the hypervariable region in the extracellular domain of β1, but not its cytoplasmic tail. Furthermore, Gal-3 expression does not depend on RhoA signaling, serum factors, or any of the major signal transduction pathways involving protein kinase C (PKC), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/-2 (ERK-1/2), phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3-K), or Src kinases. Instead, Gal-3 expression is controlled in an epigenetic manner. Whereas DNA methylation of the Lgals3 promoter maintains Gal-3 silencing in GE11 cells, expression of β1 causes its demethylation, leading to transcriptional activation of the Lgals3 gene. In turn, Gal-3 expression enhances β1 integrin-mediated cell adhesion to fibronectin (FN) and laminin (LN), as well as cell migration. Gal-3 also promotes β1-mediated cell adhesion to LN and Collagen-1 (Col)-1 in cells that endogenously express Gal-3 and β1 integrins. In conclusion, we identify a functional feedback-loop between β1 integrins and Gal-3 that involves the epigenetic induction of Gal-3 expression during integrin-induced EMT and cell scattering. PMID:23118221

  4. Dual mechanism of integrin αIIbβ3 closure in procoagulant platelets.

    PubMed

    Mattheij, Nadine J A; Gilio, Karen; van Kruchten, Roger; Jobe, Shawn M; Wieschhaus, Adam J; Chishti, Athar H; Collins, Peter; Heemskerk, Johan W M; Cosemans, Judith M E M

    2013-05-10

    Inactivation of integrin αIIbβ3 reverses platelet aggregate formation upon coagulation. Platelets from patient (Scott) and mouse (Capn1(-/-) and Ppif(-/-)) blood reveal a dual mechanism of αIIbβ3 inactivation: by calpain-2 cleavage of integrin-associated proteins and by cyclophilin D/TMEM16F-dependent phospholipid scrambling. These data provide novel insight into the switch mechanisms from aggregating to procoagulant platelets. Aggregation of platelets via activated integrin αIIbβ3 is a prerequisite for thrombus formation. Phosphatidylserine-exposing platelets with a key role in the coagulation process disconnect from a thrombus by integrin inactivation via an unknown mechanism. Here we show that αIIbβ3 inactivation in procoagulant platelets relies on a sustained high intracellular Ca(2+), stimulating intracellular cleavage of the β3 chain, talin, and Src kinase. Inhibition of calpain activity abolished protein cleavage, but only partly suppressed αIIbβ3 inactivation. Integrin αIIbβ3 inactivation was unchanged in platelets from Capn1(-/-) mice, suggesting a role of the calpain-2 isoform. Scott syndrome platelets, lacking the transmembrane protein TMEM16F and having low phosphatidylserine exposure, displayed reduced αIIbβ3 inactivation with the remaining activity fully dependent on calpain. In platelets from Ppif(-/-) mice, lacking mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) formation, agonist-induced phosphatidylserine exposure and αIIbβ3 inactivation were reduced. Treatment of human platelets with cyclosporin A gave a similar phenotype. Together, these data point to a dual mechanism of αIIbβ3 inactivation via calpain(-2) cleavage of integrin-associated proteins and via TMEM16F-dependent phospholipid scrambling with an assistant role of mPTP formation.

  5. Importance of Interaction between Integrin and Actin Cytoskeleton in Suspension Adaptation of CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Walther, Christa G; Whitfield, Robert; James, David C

    2016-04-01

    The biopharmaceutical production process relies upon mammalian cell technology where single cells proliferate in suspension in a chemically defined synthetic environment. This environment lacks exogenous growth factors, usually contributing to proliferation of fibroblastic cell types such as Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Use of CHO cells for production hence requires a lengthy 'adaptation' process to select clones capable of proliferation as single cells in suspension. The underlying molecular changes permitting proliferation in suspension are not known. Comparison of the non-suspension-adapted clone CHO-AD and a suspension-adapted propriety cell line CHO-SA by flow cytometric analysis revealed a highly variable bi-modal expression pattern for cell-to-cell contact proteins in contrast to the expression pattern seen for integrins. Those have a uni-modal expression on suspension and adherent cells. Integrins showed a conformation distinguished by regularly distributed clusters forming a sphere on the cell membrane of suspension-adapted cells. Actin cytoskeleton analysis revealed reorganisation from the typical fibrillar morphology found in adherent cells to an enforced spherical subcortical actin sheath in suspension cells. The uni-modal expression and specific clustering of integrins could be confirmed for CHO-S, another suspension cell line. Cytochalasin D treatment resulted in breakdown of the actin sheath and the sphere-like integrin conformation demonstrating the link between integrins and actin in suspension-adapted CHO cells. The data demonstrates the importance of signalling changes, leading to an integrin rearrangement on the cell surface, and the necessity of the reinforcement of the actin cytoskeleton for proliferation in suspension conditions.

  6. Insulin resistance in striated muscle-specific integrin receptor beta1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Zong, Haihong; Bastie, Claire C; Xu, Jun; Fassler, Reinhard; Campbell, Kevin P; Kurland, Irwin J; Pessin, Jeffrey E

    2009-02-13

    Integrin receptor plays key roles in mediating both inside-out and outside-in signaling between cells and the extracellular matrix. We have observed that the tissue-specific loss of the integrin beta1 subunit in striated muscle results in a near complete loss of integrin beta1 subunit protein expression concomitant with a loss of talin and to a lesser extent, a reduction in F-actin content. Muscle-specific integrin beta1-deficient mice had no significant difference in food intake, weight gain, fasting glucose, and insulin levels with their littermate controls. However, dynamic analysis of glucose homeostasis using euglycemichyperinsulinemic clamps demonstrated a 44 and 48% reduction of insulin-stimulated glucose infusion rate and glucose clearance, respectively. The whole body insulin resistance resulted from a specific inhibition of skeletal muscle glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis without any significant effect on the insulin suppression of hepatic glucose output or insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipose tissue. The reduction in skeletal muscle insulin responsiveness occurred without any change in GLUT4 protein expression levels but was associated with an impairment of the insulin-stimulated protein kinase B/Akt serine 473 phosphorylation but not threonine 308. The inhibition of insulin-stimulated serine 473 phosphorylation occurred concomitantly with a decrease in integrin-linked kinase expression but with no change in the mTOR.Rictor.LST8 complex (mTORC2). These data demonstrate an in vivo crucial role of integrin beta1 signaling events in mediating cross-talk to that of insulin action.

  7. [Expression of integrin alpha5 and actin in the cells of intervertebral disc under cyclic hydrostatic pressure in vitro].

    PubMed

    Yu, Sheng-ji; Qiu, Gui-xing; Burton, Yang; Sandra, Roth; Cari, Whyne; Albert, Yee

    2005-12-15

    To investigate the expression of integrin alpha5 and actin in the cells of intervertebral disc under cyclic hydrostatic pressure in vitro. The porcine lumbar intervertebral disc cells were isolated and cultured in vitro, and the cells underwent cyclic hydrostatic loading. After that, the expression of integrin alpha5 and actin in intervertebral disc cells were studied by means of morphology observing, Western blot and immunohistochemistry staining. The morphology of intervertebral disc cells were changed into smaller and flatten shape, and the expression of integrin alpha5 and actin were decreased after loading. The expression of integrin alpha5 decreases under cyclic hydrostatic pressure, and the actin is affected at the same time when signals are transferred into the cells by integrin alpha5. That may be one of the important mechanisms of the mechanotransduction in the cells of intervertebral disc.

  8. Serosal Cavities Contain Two Populations of Innate-like integrin α4highCD4+ T Cells, Integrin α4β1+α6β1+α4β7- and α4β1+α6β1-α4β7+ Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jeong In; Park, Chanho; Kho, Inseong; Lee, Sujin; Suh, Kyung-Suk; Kim, Tae Jin

    2017-12-01

    We previously reported peritoneal innate-like integrin α4 (CD49d) high CD4 + T cells that provided help for B-1a cells. Here we analyzed the expression of various integrin chains on the peritoneal and pleural integrin α4 high CD4 + T cells and investigated the functional heterogeneity of the subpopulations based on the integrin expression. Pleural cavity contained a lower ratio of integrin α4 high CD4 + T cells to integrin α4 low CD4 + T cells than peritoneal cavity, but the pleural integrin α4 high CD4 + T cells have the same characteristics of the peritoneal integrin α4 high CD4 + T cells. Most of integrin α4 high CD4 + T cells were integrin β1 high β7 - , but a minor population of integrin α4 high CD4 + T cells was integrin β1 + β7 + . Interestingly, the integrin α4 high β1 high β7 - CD4 + T cells expressed high levels of integrin α4β1 and α6β1, whereas integrin α4 high β1 + β7 + CD4 + T cells expressed high levels of integrin α4β1 and α4β7, suggesting an alternative expression of integrin α6β1 or α4β7 in combination with α4β1 in respective major and minor populations of integrin α4 high CD4 + T cells. The minor population, integrin α4 high β1 + β7 + CD4 + T cells, were different from the integrin α4 high β1 high β7 - CD4 + T cells in that they secreted a smaller amount of Th1 cytokines upon stimulation and expressed lower levels of Th1-related chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR3 than the integrin α4 high β 1 high β 7 - CD4 + T cells. In summary, the innate-like integrin α4 high CD4 + T cells could be divided into 2 populations, integrin α4β1 + α6β1 + α4β7 - and α4β1 + α6β1 - α4β7 + cells. The functional significance of serosal integrin α4β7 + CD4 + T cells needed to be investigated especially in view of mucosal immunity.

  9. Effects of transgenic rootstocks on growth and development of non-transgenic scion cultivars in apple.

    PubMed

    Smolka, Anders; Li, Xue-Yuan; Heikelt, Catrin; Welander, Margareta; Zhu, Li-Hua

    2010-12-01

    Although cultivation of genetic modified (GM) annual crops has been steadily increasing in the recent 10 years, the commercial cultivation of GM fruit tree is still very limited and reports of field trials on GM fruit trees are rare. This is probably because development and evaluation of GM fruit trees require a long period of time due to long life cycles of trees. In this study, we report results from a field trial on three rolB transgenic dwarfing apple rootstocks of M26 and M9 together with non-transgenic controls grafted with five non-transgenic scion cultivars. We intended to investigate the effects of transgenic rootstock on non-transgenic scion cultivars under natural conditions as well as to evaluate the potential value of using the rolB gene to modify difficult-to-root rootstocks of fruit trees. The results showed that all rolB transgenic rootstocks significantly reduced vegetative growth including tree height regardless of scion cultivar, compared with the non-transgenic rootstocks. Flowering and fruiting were also decreased for cultivars grown on the transgenic rootstocks in most cases, but the fruit quality was not clearly affected by the transgenic rootstocks. Cutting experiment and RT-PCR analysis showed that the rolB gene was stably expressed under field conditions. PCR and RT-PCR analyses displayed that the rolB gene or its mRNA were not detectable in the scion cultivars, indicating no translocation of the transgene or its mRNA from rootstock to scion. Our results suggest that rolB modified rootstocks should be used in combination with vigorous scion cultivars in order to obtain sufficient vegetative growth and good yield. Alternatively, the rolB gene could be used to dwarf vigorous rootstocks of fruit trees or produce bonzai plants as it can significantly reduce the vegetative growth of plants.

  10. Integrins β1 and β3 are biomarkers of uterine condition for embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guowu; Xin, Aijie; Liu, Yulin; Shi, Changgen; Chen, Junling; Tang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Ying; Yu, Min; Peng, Xiandong; Li, Lu; Sun, Xiaoxi

    2016-10-26

    Clinical ovulation induction induces blood estrogen (E 2 ) in excess of physiological levels, which can hinder uterine receptivity. In contrast, progesterone produces the opposite clinical effect, suggesting that it might be capable of recovering the lost receptivity resulting from exposure to high estrogen levels. Integrins are the most widely used biological markers for monitoring uterine conditions. We studied progesterone-induced changes in integrin β expression patterns as biomarkers for changes in uterine receptivity in response to increased estrogen levels. Endometrial biopsy samples from patients were screened for their estrogen (E 2 ) and progesterone (P4) content and expressing levels of integrin β1 and β3. Uterine receptivity was evaluated using human endometrial adenocarcinoma cells in an embryo attachment model. The respective and concatenated effects of embryo attachment and changes in the integrin β1 and β3 expression patterns on the adenocarcinoma cell plasma membranes in response to 100 nM concentrations of E 2 and P4 were evaluated. Increased blood E 2 concentrations were associated with significantly decreased the levels of integrin β3 expression in uterine biopsy samples. In vitro experiments revealed that a 100 nM E 2 concentration inhibited the distribution of integrin β3 on the plasma membranes of human endometrial adenocarcinoma cells used in the embryo attachment model, and resulted in decreased rates of embryo attachment. In contrast, P4 enhanced the expression of integrin β1 and promoted its distribution on the plasma membranes. Furthermore, P4 recovered the embryo attachment efficiency that was lost by exposure to 100 nM E 2 . Blood E2 and P4 levels and integrin β3 and β1 expression levels in uterine biopsy samples should be considered as biomarkers for evaluating uterine receptivity and determining the optimal time for embryo transfer. Trial registration Trial number: ChiCTR-TRC-13003777; Name of registry: Chinese Clinical

  11. Deficiency of bone marrow beta3-integrin enhances non-functional neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Watson, Alan R; Pitchford, Simon C; Reynolds, Louise E; Direkze, Natalie; Brittan, Mairi; Alison, Malcolm R; Rankin, Sara; Wright, Nicholas A; Hodivala-Dilke, Kairbaan M

    2010-03-01

    beta3-Integrin is a cell surface adhesion and signalling molecule important in the regulation of tumour angiogenesis. Mice with a global deficiency in beta3-integrin show increased pathological angiogenesis, most likely due to increased vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 expression on beta3-null endothelial cells. Here we transplanted beta3-null bone marrow (BM) into wild-type (WT) mice to dissect the role of BM beta3-integrin deficiency in pathological angiogenesis. Mice transplanted with beta3-null bone marrow show significantly enhanced angiogenesis in subcutaneous B16F0 melanoma and Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cell models and in B16F0 melanoma lung metastasis when compared with tumours grown in mice transplanted with WT bone marrow. The effect of bone marrow beta3-integrin deficiency was also assessed in the RIPTAg mouse model of pancreatic tumour growth. Again, angiogenesis in mice lacking BM beta3-integrin was enhanced. However, tumour weight between the groups was not significantly altered, suggesting that the enhanced blood vessel density in the mice transplanted with beta3-null bone marrow was not functional. Indeed, we demonstrate that in mice transplanted with beta3-null bone marrow a significant proportion of tumour blood vessels are non-functional when compared with tumour blood vessels in WT-transplanted controls. Furthermore, beta3-null-transplanted mice showed an increased angiogenic response to VEGF in vivo when compared with WT-transplanted animals. BM beta3-integrin deficiency affects the mobilization of progenitor cells to the peripheral circulation. We show that VEGF-induced mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells is enhanced in mice transplanted with beta3-null bone marrow when compared with WT-transplanted controls, suggesting a possible mechanism underlying the increased blood vessel density seen in beta3-null-transplanted mice. In conclusion, although BM beta3-integrin is not required for pathological angiogenesis, our

  12. Growth factor transgenes interactively regulate articular chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shuiliang; Mercer, Scott; Eckert, George J; Trippel, Stephen B

    2013-04-01

    Adult articular chondrocytes lack an effective repair response to correct damage from injury or osteoarthritis. Polypeptide growth factors that stimulate articular chondrocyte proliferation and cartilage matrix synthesis may augment this response. Gene transfer is a promising approach to delivering such factors. Multiple growth factor genes regulate these cell functions, but multiple growth factor gene transfer remains unexplored. We tested the hypothesis that multiple growth factor gene transfer selectively modulates articular chondrocyte proliferation and matrix synthesis. We tested the hypothesis by delivering combinations of the transgenes encoding insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-β1), bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), and bone morphogenetic protien-7 (BMP-7) to articular chondrocytes and measured changes in the production of DNA, glycosaminoglycan, and collagen. The transgenes differentially regulated all these chondrocyte activities. In concert, the transgenes interacted to generate widely divergent responses from the cells. These interactions ranged from inhibitory to synergistic. The transgene pair encoding IGF-I and FGF-2 maximized cell proliferation. The three-transgene group encoding IGF-I, BMP-2, and BMP-7 maximized matrix production and also optimized the balance between cell proliferation and matrix production. These data demonstrate an approach to articular chondrocyte regulation that may be tailored to stimulate specific cell functions, and suggest that certain growth factor gene combinations have potential value for cell-based articular cartilage repair. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The ecological risks of transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Giovannetti, Manuela

    2003-01-01

    Biotechnologies have been utilized "ante litteram" for thousands of years to produce food and drink and genetic engineering techniques have been widely applied to produce many compounds for human use, from insulin to other medicines. The debate on genetically modified (GM) organisms broke out all over the world only when GM crops were released into the field. Plant ecologists, microbiologists and population geneticists carried out experiments aimed at evaluating the environmental impact of GM crops. The most significant findings concern: the spread of transgenes through GM pollen diffusion and its environmental impact after hybridisation with closely related wild species or subspecies; horizontal gene transfer from transgenic plants to soil microbes; the impact of insecticide proteins released into the soil by transformed plants on non-target microbial soil communities. Recent developments in genetic engineering produced a technology, dubbed "Terminator", which protects patented genes introduced in transgenic plants by killing the seeds in the second generation. This genetic construct, which interferes so heavily with fundamental life processes, is considered dangerous and should be ex-ante evaluated taking into account the data on "unexpected events", as here discussed, instead of relying on the "safe until proven otherwise" claim. Awareness that scientists, biotechnologists and genetic engineers cannot answer the fundamental question "how likely is that transgenes will be transferred from cultivated plants into the natural environment?" should foster long-term studies on the ecological risks and benefits of transgenic crops.

  14. Transgenic bovine as bioreactors: Challenges and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Monzani, Paulo S.; Adona, Paulo R.; Ohashi, Otávio M.; Meirelles, Flávio V.; Wheeler, Matthew B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The use of recombinant proteins has increased in diverse commercial sectors. Various systems for protein production have been used for the optimization of production and functional protein expression. The mammary gland is considered to be a very interesting system for the production of recombinant proteins due to its high level of expression and its ability to perform post-translational modifications. Cows produce large quantities of milk over a long period of lactation, and therefore this species is an important candidate for recombinant protein expression in milk. However, transgenic cows are more difficult to generate due to the inefficiency of transgenic methodologies, the long periods for transgene detection, recombinant protein expression and the fact that only a single calf is obtained at the end of each pregnancy. An increase in efficiency for transgenic methodologies for cattle is a big challenge to overcome. Promising methodologies have been proposed that can help to overcome this obstacle, enabling the use of transgenic cattle as bioreactors for protein production in milk for industry. PMID:27166649

  15. ß3 integrin modulates transforming growth factor beta induced (TGFBI) function and paclitaxel response in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tumbarello, David A; Temple, Jillian; Brenton, James D

    2012-05-28

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) has a key role in facilitating the progression of ovarian cancer and we have shown recently that the secreted ECM protein TGFBI modulates the response of ovarian cancer to paclitaxel-induced cell death. We have determined TGFBI signaling from the extracellular environment is preferential for the cell surface αvß3 integrin heterodimer, in contrast to periostin, a TGFBI paralogue, which signals primarily via a ß1 integrin-mediated pathway. We demonstrate that suppression of ß1 integrin expression, in ß3 integrin-expressing ovarian cancer cells, increases adhesion to rTGFBI. In addition, Syndecan-1 and -4 expression is dispensable for adhesion to rTGFBI and loss of Syndecan-1 cooperates with the loss of ß1 integrin to further enhance adhesion to rTGFBI. The RGD motif present in the carboxy-terminus of TGFBI is necessary, but not sufficient, for SKOV3 cell adhesion and is dispensable for adhesion of ovarian cancer cells lacking ß3 integrin expression. In contrast to TGFBI, the carboxy-terminus of periostin, lacking a RGD motif, is unable to support adhesion of ovarian cancer cells. Suppression of ß3 integrin in SKOV3 cells increases resistance to paclitaxel-induced cell death while suppression of ß1 integrin has no effect. Furthermore, suppression of TGFBI expression stimulates a paclitaxel resistant phenotype while suppression of fibronectin expression, which primarily signals through a ß1 integrin-mediated pathway, increases paclitaxel sensitivity. Therefore, different ECM components use distinct signaling mechanisms in ovarian cancer cells and in particular, TGFBI preferentially interacts through a ß3 integrin receptor mediated mechanism to regulate the response of cells to paclitaxel-induced cell death.

  16. αMβ₂ integrin activation prevents alternative activation of human and murine macrophages and impedes foam cell formation.

    PubMed

    Yakubenko, Valentin P; Bhattacharjee, Ashish; Pluskota, Elzbieta; Cathcart, Martha K

    2011-03-04

    The alternative activation of monocytes by interleukin (IL)-13 and IL-4 is a significant component of the inflammatory response. The consequences of alternative activation in inflammatory diseases remain to be determined. In this report, we explored how integrins, receptors important for monocyte migration to inflammatory sites, regulate IL-13-mediated monocyte activation. We focused on the analysis of 2 proteins, which are upregulated during the alternative activation and are important for the development of atherosclerosis, an oxidative enzyme 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO) and a scavenger receptor CD36. We found that adhesion of resting monocytes through β(2) integrins and inside-out activation of β(2) integrins by monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 did not change IL-13-stimulated 15-LO upregulation; however, preincubation of monocytes with the antibody MEM48, which generates full activation of β(2) integrins, significantly inhibited 15-LO mRNA and protein expression. In contrast, activation of β(1) integrins had no effect on 15-LO expression. Analysis of integrin clustering through α(M), α(L), α(X), and α(D) subunits demonstrated the pivotal role for integrin α(M)β(2) in inhibiting 15-LO expression. IL-13 treatment upregulates 15-LO-dependent CD36 expression on human monocytes; our studies showed that β(2) integrin activation and α(M) integrin clustering significantly inhibited IL-13-dependent CD36 mRNA and protein expression, as well as CD36-related foam cell formation. Moreover, IL-13 stimulation of α(M)-deficient peritoneal macrophages demonstrated an upregulated level of 15-LO induction, CD36 expression, and lipid accumulation as compared with wild-type controls. The adhesion of monocytes/macrophages through activated integrin α(M)β(2) has a regulatory and potential atheroprotective function during the alternative activation of macrophages.

  17. αMβ2 Integrin Activation Prevents Alternative Activation of Human and Murine Macrophages and Impedes Foam Cell Formation

    PubMed Central

    Yakubenko, Valentin P.; Bhattacharjee, Ashish; Pluskota, Elzbieta; Cathcart, Martha K.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale The alternative activation of monocytes by IL-13 and IL-4 is a significant component of the inflammatory response. The consequences of alternative activation in inflammatory diseases remain to be determined. Objective In this paper we explored how integrins, receptors important for monocyte migration to inflammatory sites, regulate IL-13-mediated monocyte activation. We focused on the analysis of two proteins, which are upregulated during the alternative activation and are important for the development of atherosclerosis - an oxidative enzyme 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO) and a scavenger receptor CD36. Methods and Results We found that adhesion of resting monocytes through β2 integrins and inside-out activation of β2 integrins by MCP-1 did not change IL-13-stimulated 15-LO upregulation; however, preincubation of monocytes with the antibody MEM48, which generates full activation of β2 integrins, significantly inhibited 15-LO mRNA and protein expression. In contrast, activation of β1 integrins had no effect on 15-LO expression. Analysis of integrin clustering through αM, αL, αX and αD subunits demonstrated the pivotal role for integrin αMβ2 in inhibiting 15-LO expression. IL-13 treatment upregulates 15-LO-dependent CD36 expression on human monocytes, our studies showed that β2 integrin activation and αM integrin clustering significantly inhibited IL-13-dependent CD36 mRNA and protein expression as well as CD36-related foam cell formation. Moreover, IL-13 stimulation of αM-deficient peritoneal macrophages demonstrated an upregulated level of 15-LO induction, CD36 expression and lipid accumulation as compared to wild type controls. Conclusions The adhesion of monocytes/macrophages through activated integrin αMβ2 has a regulatory and potential athero-protective function during the alternative activation of macrophages. PMID:21252155

  18. PET-radioimmunodetection of integrins: imaging acute colitis using a ⁶⁴Cu-labeled anti-β₇ integrin antibody.

    PubMed

    Dearling, Jason L J; Packard, Alan B

    2012-01-01

    Integrins are involved in a wide range of cell interactions. Imaging their distribution using high-resolution noninvasive techniques that are directly translatable to the clinic can provide new insights into disease processes and presents the opportunity to directly monitor new therapies. In this chapter, we describe a protocol to image, the in vivo distribution of the integrin β(7), expressed by lymphocytes recruited to and retained by the inflamed gut, using a radiolabeled whole antibody. The antibody is purified, conjugated with a bifunctional chelator for labeling with a radiometal, labeled with the positron-emitting radionuclide (64)Cu, and injected into mice for microPET studies. Mice with DSS-induced colitis were found to have higher uptake of the (64)Cu-labeled antibody in the gut than control groups.

  19. Purification of adult hepatic progenitor cells using green fluorescent protein (GFP)-transgenic mice and fluorescence-activated cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Fujikawa, Takahisa; Hirose, Tetsuro; Fujii, Hideaki; Oe, Shoshiro; Yasuchika, Kentaro; Azuma, Hisaya; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2003-08-01

    Recent advances in stem cell research have revealed that hepatic stem/progenitor cells may play an important role in liver development and regeneration. However, a lack of detectable definitive markers in viable cells has hindered their primary culture from adult livers. Enzymatically dissociated liver cells from green fluorescent protein (GFP)-transgenic mice, which express GFP highly in liver endodermal cells, were sorted by GFP expression using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter. Sorted cells were characterized, and also low-density cultured for extended periods to determine their proliferation and clonal differentiation capacities. When CD45(-)TER119(-) side-scatter(low) GFP(high) cells were sorted, alpha-fetoprotein-positive immature endoderm-characterized cells, having high growth potential, were present in this population. Clonal analysis and electron microscopic evaluation revealed that each single cell of this population could differentiate not only into hepatocytes, but also into biliary epithelial cells, showing their bilineage differentiation activity. When surface markers were analyzed, they were positive for Integrin-alpha6 and -beta1, but negative for c-Kit and Thy1.1. Combination of GFP-transgenic mice and fluorescence-activated cell sorting enabled purification of hepatic progenitor cells from adult mouse liver. Further analysis of this population may lead to purification of their human correspondence that would be an ideal cell-source candidate for regenerative medicine.

  20. N-Glycosylation of integrin α5 acts as a switch for EGFR-mediated complex formation of integrin α5β1 to α6β4

    PubMed Central

    Hang, Qinglei; Isaji, Tomoya; Hou, Sicong; Zhou, Ying; Fukuda, Tomohiko; Gu, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    N-Glycosylation of integrin α5β1 is involved in multiple cell behaviors. We previously reported that the N-glycosylations of the calf domain on integrin α5 (S3–5,10–14) are essential for its inhibitory effect on EGFR signaling in regulating cell proliferation. However, the importance of the individual N-glycosylation and the underlying mechanisms of inhibition remain unclear. Here, we characterize the S3–5,10–14 mutants in detail and found that the N-glycosylation of site-11 (Asn712) is key for cell growth. The restoration of site-11, unlike the other individual sites, significantly suppressed cell growth and EGFR signaling in a manner that was similar to that of wild-type (WT). Mechanistically, this N-glycosylation inhibited the response abilities upon EGF stimulation and EGFR dimerization. Interestingly, we found this N-glycosylation controlled the EGFR complex formation with integrin α5β1 or α6β4; i.e., the loss of site-11 switched EGFR-α5β1 to EGFR-α6β4, which is well known to promote cellular signaling for cell growth. Moreover, the site-11 N-glycan exhibited a more branching structure compared with other sites, which may be required for EGFR-α5β1 formation. Taken together, these data clearly demonstrate that the site-11 N-glycosylation on α5 is most important for its inhibitory effect on EGFR signaling, which may provide a novel regulatory mechanism for crosstalks between integrins and EGFR. PMID:27641064

  1. Toxins for Transgenic Resistance to Hemipteran Pests

    PubMed Central

    Chougule, Nanasaheb P.; Bonning, Bryony C.

    2012-01-01

    The sap sucking insects (Hemiptera), which include aphids, whiteflies, plant bugs and stink bugs, have emerged as major agricultural pests. The Hemiptera cause direct damage by feeding on crops, and in some cases indirect damage by transmission of plant viruses. Current management relies almost exclusively on application of classical chemical insecticides. While the development of transgenic crops expressing toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has provided effective plant protection against some insect pests, Bt toxins exhibit little toxicity against sap sucking insects. Indeed, the pest status of some Hemiptera on Bt-transgenic plants has increased in the absence of pesticide application. The increased pest status of numerous hemipteran species, combined with increased prevalence of resistance to chemical insecticides, provides impetus for the development of biologically based, alternative management strategies. Here, we provide an overview of approaches toward transgenic resistance to hemipteran pests. PMID:22822455

  2. Integrin-α5 Coordinates Assembly of Posterior Cranial Placodes in Zebrafish and Enhances Fgf-Dependent Regulation of Otic/Epibranchial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Neha; Riley, Bruce B.

    2011-01-01

    Vertebrate sensory organs develop in part from cranial placodes, a series of ectodermal thickenings that coalesce from a common domain of preplacodal ectoderm. Mechanisms coordinating morphogenesis and differentiation of discrete placodes are still poorly understood. We have investigated whether placodal assembly in zebrafish requires Integrin- α5 (itga5), an extracellular matrix receptor initially expressed throughout the preplacodal ectoderm. Morpholino knockdown of itga5 had no detectable effect on anterior placodes (pituitary, nasal and lens), but posterior placodes developed abnormally, resulting in disorganization of trigeminal and epibranchial ganglia and reduction of the otic vesicle. Cell motion analysis in GFP-transgenic embryos showed that cell migration in itga5 morphants was highly erratic and unfocused, impairing convergence and blocking successive recruitment of new cells into these placodes. Further studies revealed genetic interactions between itga5 and Fgf signaling. First, itga5 morphants showed changes in gene expression mimicking modest reduction in Fgf signaling. Second, itga5 morphants showed elevated apoptosis in the otic/epibranchial domain, which was rescued by misexpression of Fgf8. Third, knockdown of the Fgf effector erm had no effect by itself but strongly enhanced defects in itga5 morphants. Finally, proper regulation of itga5 requires dlx3b/4b and pax8, which are themselves regulated by Fgf. These findings support a model in which itga5 coordinates cell migration into posterior placodes and augments Fgf signaling required for patterning of these tissues and cell survival in otic/epibranchial placodes. PMID:22164214

  3. Role of Altered Sialylation of the I-Like Domain of β1 Integrin in the Binding of Fibronectin to β1 Integrin: Thermodynamics and Conformational Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Di; Song, Yuhua

    2010-01-01

    Abstract N-glycosylation of the I-like domain of β1 integrin plays an essential role in integrin structure and function, and the altered sialylation of β1 integrin regulates β1 integrin binding to fibronectin. However, the structural basis underlying the effect of altered sialylation of the β1 I-like domain on β1 integrin binding to fibronectin remains largely unknown. In this study, we used a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and binding free energy analyses to investigate changes in binding thermodynamics and in conformation of the glycosylated β1 I-like domain-FN-III9-10 complex caused by altered sialylation of the β1 I-like domain. Binding free energy analyses showed that desialylation of β1 I-like domain increased β1 integrin binding to fibronectin, consistent with experimental results. Interaction analyses showed that altered sialylation of the β1 I-like domain resulted in significant changes in the interaction of the N-glycans of the I-like domain with both the I-like domain and fibronectin, and these changes could directly affect the allosteric regulation of the interaction between the I-like domain and fibronectin. Altered sialylation of the β1 I-like domain caused significant conformational changes in key functional sites of both the β1 I-like domain and fibronectin. In addition, altered sialylation of the β1 I-like domain resulted in changes in the degree of correlated motions between residues in the I-like domain and residues in fibronectin, and in the degree of motion changes in fibronectin, which could affect β1 integrin binding to fibronectin. We believe results from this study provide thermodynamic and structural evidence for a role of altered sialylation of β1 integrin in regulating β1 integrin binding to fibronectin and it's induced cellular activities. PMID:20655849

  4. Integrin-Using Rotaviruses Bind α2β1 Integrin α2 I Domain via VP4 DGE Sequence and Recognize αXβ2 and αVβ3 by Using VP7 during Cell Entry

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Kate L.; Halasz, Peter; Tan, Yan; Hewish, Marilyn J.; Takada, Yoshikazu; Mackow, Erich R.; Robinson, Martyn K.; Coulson, Barbara S.

    2003-01-01

    Integrins α2β1, αXβ2, and αVβ3 have been implicated in rotavirus cell attachment and entry. The virus spike protein VP4 contains the α2β1 ligand sequence DGE at amino acid positions 308 to 310, and the outer capsid protein VP7 contains the αXβ2 ligand sequence GPR. To determine the viral proteins and sequences involved and to define the roles of α2β1, αXβ2, and αVβ3, we analyzed the ability of rotaviruses and their reassortants to use these integrins for cell binding and infection and the effect of peptides DGEA and GPRP on these events. Many laboratory-adapted human, monkey, and bovine viruses used integrins, whereas all porcine viruses were integrin independent. The integrin-using rotavirus strains each interacted with all three integrins. Integrin usage related to VP4 serotype independently of sialic acid usage. Analysis of rotavirus reassortants and assays of virus binding and infectivity in integrin-transfected cells showed that VP4 bound α2β1, and VP7 interacted with αXβ2 and αVβ3 at a postbinding stage. DGEA inhibited rotavirus binding to α2β1 and infectivity, whereas GPRP binding to αXβ2 inhibited infectivity but not binding. The truncated VP5* subunit of VP4, expressed as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein, bound the expressed α2 I domain. Alanine mutagenesis of D308 and G309 in VP5* eliminated VP5* binding to the α2 I domain. In a novel process, integrin-using viruses bind the α2 I domain of α2β1 via DGE in VP4 and interact with αXβ2 (via GPR) and αVβ3 by using VP7 to facilitate cell entry and infection. PMID:12941907

  5. Lectin cDNA and transgenic plants derived therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, Natasha V.

    2000-10-03

    Transgenic plants containing cDNA encoding Gramineae lectin are described. The plants preferably contain cDNA coding for barley lectin and store the lectin in the leaves. The transgenic plants, particularly the leaves exhibit insecticidal and fungicidal properties.

  6. Insect resistance to Nilaparvata lugens and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis in transgenic indica rice and the inheritance of gna+sbti transgenes.

    PubMed

    Li, Guiying; Xu, Xinping; Xing, Hengtai; Zhu, Huachen; Fan, Qin

    2005-04-01

    Molecular genetic analysis and insect bioassay of transgenic indica rice 'Zhuxian B' plants carrying snowdrop lectin gene (gna) and soybean trypsin inhibitor gene (sbti) were investigated in detail. PCR, 'dot' blot and PCR-Southern blot analysis showed that both transgenes had been incorporated into the rice genome and transmitted up to R3 progeny in most lines tested. Some transgenic lines exhibited Mendelian segregation, but the other showed either 1:1 (positive: negative for the transgenes) or other aberrant segregation patterns. The segregation patterns of gna gene crossed between R2 and R3 progeny. In half of transgenic R3 lines, gna and sbti transgenes co-segregated. Two independent homozygous lines expressing double transgenes were identified in R3 progeny. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that the copy numbers of integrated gna and sbti transgenes varied from one to ten in different lines. Insect bioassay data showed that most transgenic plants had better resistance to both Nilaparvata lugens (Stahl) and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenee) than wild-type plants. The insect resistance of transgenic lines increased with the increase in transgene positive ratio in most of the transgenic lines. In all, we obtained nine lines of R3 transgenic plants, including one pure line, which had better resistance to both N lugens and C medinalis than wild-type plants. Copyright 2005 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Low-affinity binding in cis to P2Y2R mediates force-dependent integrin activation during hantavirus infection

    PubMed Central

    Bondu, Virginie; Wu, Chenyu; Cao, Wenpeng; Simons, Peter C.; Gillette, Jennifer; Zhu, Jieqing; Erb, Laurie; Zhang, X. Frank; Buranda, Tione

    2017-01-01

    Pathogenic hantaviruses bind to the plexin-semaphorin-integrin (PSI) domain of inactive, β3 integrins. Previous studies have implicated a cognate cis interaction between the bent conformation β5/β3 integrins and an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence in the first extracellular loop of P2Y2R. With single-molecule atomic force microscopy, we show a specific interaction between an atomic force microscopy tip decorated with recombinant αIIbβ3 integrins and (RGD)P2Y2R expressed on cell membranes. Mutation of the RGD sequence to RGE in the P2Y2R removes this interaction. Binding of inactivated and fluorescently labeled Sin Nombre virus (SNV) to the integrin PSI domain stimulates higher affinity for (RGD)P2Y2R on cells, as measured by an increase in the unbinding force. In CHO cells, stably expressing αIIbβ3 integrins, virus engagement at the integrin PSI domain, recapitulates physiologic activation of the integrin as indicated by staining with the activation-specific mAB PAC1. The data also show that blocking of the Gα13 protein from binding to the cytoplasmic domain of the β3 integrin prevents outside-in signaling and infection. We propose that the cis interaction with P2Y2R provides allosteric resistance to the membrane-normal motion associated with the switchblade model of integrin activation, where the development of tensile force yields physiological integrin activation. PMID:28835374

  8. Bit-1 Mediates Integrin-dependent Cell Survival through Activation of the NFκB Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Genevieve S.; Grundl, Melanie; Leychenko, Anna; Reiter, Silke; Young-Robbins, Shirley S.; Sulzmaier, Florian J.; Caliva, Maisel J.; Ramos, Joe W.; Matter, Michelle L.

    2011-01-01

    Loss of properly regulated cell death and cell survival pathways can contribute to the development of cancer and cancer metastasis. Cell survival signals are modulated by many different receptors, including integrins. Bit-1 is an effector of anoikis (cell death due to loss of attachment) in suspended cells. The anoikis function of Bit-1 can be counteracted by integrin-mediated cell attachment. Here, we explored integrin regulation of Bit-1 in adherent cells. We show that knockdown of endogenous Bit-1 in adherent cells decreased cell survival and re-expression of Bit-1 abrogated this effect. Furthermore, reduction of Bit-1 promoted both staurosporine and serum-deprivation induced apoptosis. Indeed knockdown of Bit-1 in these cells led to increased apoptosis as determined by caspase-3 activation and positive TUNEL staining. Bit-1 expression protected cells from apoptosis by increasing phospho-IκB levels and subsequently bcl-2 gene transcription. Protection from apoptosis under serum-free conditions correlated with bcl-2 transcription and Bcl-2 protein expression. Finally, Bit-1-mediated regulation of bcl-2 was dependent on focal adhesion kinase, PI3K, and AKT. Thus, we have elucidated an integrin-controlled pathway in which Bit-1 is, in part, responsible for the survival effects of cell-ECM interactions. PMID:21383007

  9. Role of Integrin Alpha 5 in ErbB2-Mediated Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    AD__ ( Leave blank) _______________ Award Number: W81XWH-08-1...specific for RTKs since we also found that reducing integrin α5 had no effect on anchorage independent growth of RasG12V overexpressing cells...initially effective in breast cancer patients, lose activity during prolonged treatment (Nahta et al., 2006) indicating the need for identification

  10. The fibronectin synergy site re-enforces cell adhesion and mediates a crosstalk between integrin classes

    PubMed Central

    Benito-Jardón, Maria; Klapproth, Sarah; Gimeno-LLuch, Irene; Petzold, Tobias; Bharadwaj, Mitasha; Müller, Daniel J; Zuchtriegel, Gabriele; Reichel, Christoph A; Costell, Mercedes

    2017-01-01

    Fibronectin (FN), a major extracellular matrix component, enables integrin-mediated cell adhesion via binding of α5β1, αIIbβ3 and αv-class integrins to an RGD-motif. An additional linkage for α5 and αIIb is the synergy site located in close proximity to the RGD motif. We report that mice with a dysfunctional FN-synergy motif (Fn1syn/syn) suffer from surprisingly mild platelet adhesion and bleeding defects due to delayed thrombus formation after vessel injury. Additional loss of β3 integrins dramatically aggravates the bleedings and severely compromises smooth muscle cell coverage of the vasculature leading to embryonic lethality. Cell-based studies revealed that the synergy site is dispensable for the initial contact of α5β1 with the RGD, but essential to re-enforce the binding of α5β1/αIIbβ3 to FN. Our findings demonstrate a critical role for the FN synergy site when external forces exceed a certain threshold or when αvβ3 integrin levels decrease below a critical level. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22264.001 PMID:28092265

  11. Cellular Interaction of Integrin α3β1 with Laminin 5 Promotes Gap Junctional Communication

    PubMed Central

    Lampe, Paul D.; Nguyen, Beth P.; Gil, Susana; Usui, Marcia; Olerud, John; Takada, Yoshikazu; Carter, William G.

    1998-01-01

    Wounding of skin activates epidermal cell migration over exposed dermal collagen and fibronectin and over laminin 5 secreted into the provisional basement membrane. Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) has been proposed to integrate the individual motile cells into a synchronized colony. We found that outgrowths of human keratinocytes in wounds or epibole cultures display parallel changes in the expression of laminin 5, integrin α3β1, E-cadherin, and the gap junctional protein connexin 43. Adhesion of keratinocytes on laminin 5, collagen, and fibronectin was found to differentially regulate GJIC. When keratinocytes were adhered on laminin 5, both structural (assembly of connexin 43 in gap junctions) and functional (dye transfer) assays showed a two- to threefold increase compared with collagen and five- to eightfold over fibronectin. Based on studies with immobilized integrin antibody and integrin-transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells, the interaction of integrin α3β1 with laminin 5 was sufficient to promote GJIC. Mapping of intermediate steps in the pathway linking α3β1–laminin 5 interactions to GJIC indicated that protein trafficking and Rho signaling were both required. We suggest that adhesion of epithelial cells to laminin 5 in the basement membrane via α3β1 promotes GJIC that integrates individual cells into synchronized epiboles. PMID:9852164

  12. Hypoxia-inducible factor regulates alphavbeta3 integrin cell surface expression.

    PubMed

    Cowden Dahl, Karen D; Robertson, Sarah E; Weaver, Valerie M; Simon, M Celeste

    2005-04-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-deficient placentas exhibit a number of defects, including changes in cell fate adoption, lack of fetal angiogenesis, hypocellularity, and poor invasion into maternal tissue. HIF is a heterodimeric transcription factor consisting of alpha and beta aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator or ARNT) subunits. We used undifferentiated trophoblast stem (TS) cells to characterize HIF-dependent adhesion, migration, and invasion. Arnt(-/-) and Hifalpha(-/-) TS cells exhibit reduced adhesion and migration toward vitronectin compared with wild-type cells. Furthermore, this defect is associated with decreased cell surface expression of integrin alphavbeta3 and significantly decreased expression of this integrin in focal adhesions. Because of the importance of adhesion and migration in tumor progression (in addition to placental development), we examined the affect of culturing B16F0 melanoma cells in 1.5% oxygen (O(2)). Culturing B16F0 melanoma cells at 1.5% O(2) resulted in increased alphavbeta3 integrin surface expression and increased adhesion to and migration toward vitronectin. Together, these data suggest that HIF and O(2) tension influence placental invasion and tumor migration by increasing cell surface expression of alphavbeta3 integrin.

  13. Hypoxia-inducible Factor Regulates αvβ3 Integrin Cell Surface Expression

    PubMed Central

    Cowden Dahl, Karen D.; Robertson, Sarah E.; Weaver, Valerie M.; Simon, M. Celeste

    2005-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-deficient placentas exhibit a number of defects, including changes in cell fate adoption, lack of fetal angiogenesis, hypocellularity, and poor invasion into maternal tissue. HIF is a heterodimeric transcription factor consisting of α and β aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator or ARNT) subunits. We used undifferentiated trophoblast stem (TS) cells to characterize HIF-dependent adhesion, migration, and invasion. Arnt-/- and Hifα-/- TS cells exhibit reduced adhesion and migration toward vitronectin compared with wild-type cells. Furthermore, this defect is associated with decreased cell surface expression of integrin αvβ3 and significantly decreased expression of this integrin in focal adhesions. Because of the importance of adhesion and migration in tumor progression (in addition to placental development), we examined the affect of culturing B16F0 melanoma cells in 1.5% oxygen (O2). Culturing B16F0 melanoma cells at 1.5% O2 resulted in increased αvβ3 integrin surface expression and increased adhesion to and migration toward vitronectin. Together, these data suggest that HIF and O2 tension influence placental invasion and tumor migration by increasing cell surface expression of αvβ3 integrin. PMID:15689487

  14. Defining the Role of Integrin Alpha 11 in Wound Healing and Fibrosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    Introduction Scleroderma is characterized by fibrosis, the replacement of healthy tissue with collagenous matrix. The collagen-binding integrins are...Itga11 and determine its role in the etiology of fibrosis and scleroderma . Body The heterozygous (Het) phenotype of one intact Itga11 allele and one

  15. Integrins engage mitochondrial function for signal transduction by a mechanism dependent on Rho GTPases

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Erica; Werb, Zena

    2002-01-01

    We show here the transient activation of the small GTPase Rac, followed by a rise in reactive oxygen species (ROS), as necessary early steps in a signal transduction cascade that lead to NFκB activation and collagenase-1 (CL-1)/matrix metalloproteinase-1 production after integrin-mediated cell shape changes. We show evidence indicating that this constitutes a new mechanism for ROS production mediated by small GTPases. Activated RhoA also induced ROS production and up-regulated CL-1 expression. A Rac mutant (L37) that prevents reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton prevented integrin-induced CL-1 expression, whereas mutations that abrogate Rac binding to the neutrophil NADPH membrane oxidase in vitro (H26 and N130) did not. Instead, ROS were produced by integrin-induced changes in mitochondrial function, which were inhibited by Bcl-2 and involved transient membrane potential loss. The cells showing this transient decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential were already committed to CL-1 expression. These results unveil a new molecular mechanism of signal transduction triggered by integrin engagement where a global mitochondrial metabolic response leads to gene expression rather than apoptosis. PMID:12119354

  16. Integrins engage mitochondrial function for signal transduction by a mechanism dependent on Rho GTPases.

    PubMed

    Werner, Erica; Werb, Zena

    2002-07-22

    We show here the transient activation of the small GTPase Rac, followed by a rise in reactive oxygen species (ROS), as necessary early steps in a signal transduction cascade that lead to NFkappaB activation and collagenase-1 (CL-1)/matrix metalloproteinase-1 production after integrin-mediated cell shape changes. We show evidence indicating that this constitutes a new mechanism for ROS production mediated by small GTPases. Activated RhoA also induced ROS production and up-regulated CL-1 expression. A Rac mutant (L37) that prevents reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton prevented integrin-induced CL-1 expression, whereas mutations that abrogate Rac binding to the neutrophil NADPH membrane oxidase in vitro (H26 and N130) did not. Instead, ROS were produced by integrin-induced changes in mitochondrial function, which were inhibited by Bcl-2 and involved transient membrane potential loss. The cells showing this transient decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential were already committed to CL-1 expression. These results unveil a new molecular mechanism of signal transduction triggered by integrin engagement where a global mitochondrial metabolic response leads to gene expression rather than apoptosis.

  17. Prostate Cancer Progression and Serum SIBLING (Small Integrin Binding N-Linked Glycoprotein)Levels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    termed SIBLINGs (for small integrin binding ligand N-linked glycoproteins) whose members include bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteopontin (OPN), dentin...enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for quantitatively determining the levels of bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteopontin (OPN), dentin...synthesized as a chimeric protein, composed of three parts: dentin sialoprotein (DSP), dentin glycoprotein (DGP) and dentin phosphoprotein (DPP, also

  18. Novel Regulation of Integrin Trafficking by Rab11-FIP5 in Aggressive Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Das, Lipsa; Gard, Jaime M C; Prekeris, Rytis; Nagle, Raymond B; Morrissey, Colm; Knudsen, Beatrice S; Miranti, Cindy K; Cress, Anne E

    2018-05-14

    The laminin-binding integrins, α3β1 and α6β1, are needed for tumor metastasis and their surface expression is regulated by endocytic recycling. β1 integrins share the Rab11 recycling machinery but the trafficking of α3β1 and α6β1 are distinct by an unknown mechanism. Using a mouse PDX tumor model containing human metastatic prostate cancer, Rab11 family interacting protein 5 (Rab11-FIP5) was identified as a lead candidate for α6β1 trafficking. Rab11-FIP5 and its membrane binding domain were required for α6β1 recycling, without affecting the other laminin-binding integrin (i.e., α3β1) or unrelated membrane receptors like CD44, transferrin receptor, or E-cadherin. Depletion of Rab11-FIP5 resulted in the intracellular accumulation of α6β1 in the Rab11 recycling compartment, loss of cell migration on laminin, and an unexpected loss of α6β1 recycling in cell-cell locations. Taken together, these data demonstrate that α6β1 is distinct from α3β1 via Rab11-FIP5 recycling and recycles in an unexpected cell-cell location. Rab11-FIP5 dependent a6b1 integrin recycling may be selectively targeted to limit migration of prostate cancer cells into laminin-rich tissues. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Integrin αv in the mechanical response of osteoblast lineage cells.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Keiko; Ito, Masako; Naoe, Yoshinori; Lacy-Hulbert, Adam; Ikeda, Kyoji

    2014-05-02

    Although osteoblast lineage cells, especially osteocytes, are thought to be a primary mechanosensory cell in bone, the identity of the mechano-receptor and downstream mechano-signaling pathways remain largely unknown. Here we show using osteoblastic cell model of mechanical stimulation with fluid shear stress that in the absence of integrin αv, phosphorylation of the Src substrate p130Cas and JNK was impaired, culminating in an inhibition of nuclear translocation of YAP/TAZ and subsequent transcriptional activation of target genes. Targeted deletion of the integrin αv in osteoblast lineage cells results in an attenuated response to mechanical loading in terms of Sost gene expression, indicative of a role for integrin αv in mechanoreception in vivo. Thus, integrin αv may be integral to a mechanosensing machinery in osteoblastic cells and involved in activation of a Src-JNK-YAP/TAZ pathway in response to mechanical stimulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Integrin Alpha-v and HER2 in Breast Cancer Brain Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    ZOOM live cell imaging machine (ESSEN Bioscience; Figure 2). c. Interactions of αv integrin and HER2 in breast cancer brain metastases. We found...HCC1954 breast cancer cells. C) Real time live cell imaging of MM2BH cells treated with cilengitide (0, .3, 1, 3, and 10 µg/mL) using IncuCyte ZOOM

  1. The Calcium-Sensing Receptor and Integrins in Cellular Differentiation and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Tharmalingam, Sujeenthar; Hampson, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a widely expressed homodimeric G-protein coupled receptor structurally related to the metabotropic glutamate receptors and GPRC6A. In addition to its well characterized role in maintaining calcium homeostasis and regulating parathyroid hormone release, evidence has accumulated linking the CaSR with cellular differentiation and migration, brain development, stem cell engraftment, wound healing, and tumor growth and metastasis. Elevated expression of the CaSR in aggressive metastatic tumors has been suggested as a potential novel prognostic marker for predicting metastasis, especially to bone tissue where extracellular calcium concentrations may be sufficiently high to activate the receptor. Recent evidence supports a model whereby CaSR-mediated activation of integrins promotes cellular migration. Integrins are single transmembrane spanning heterodimeric adhesion receptors that mediate cell migration by binding to extracellular matrix proteins. The CaSR has been shown to form signaling complexes with the integrins to facilitate both the movement and differentiation of cells, such as neurons during normal brain development and tumor cells under pathological circumstances. Thus, CaSR/integrin complexes may function as a universal cell migration or homing complex. Manipulation of this complex may be of potential interest for treating metastatic cancers, and for developmental disorders pertaining to aberrant neuronal migration. PMID:27303307

  2. The integrin effector PINCH regulates JNK activity and epithelial migration in concert with Ras suppressor 1

    PubMed Central

    Kadrmas, Julie L.; Smith, Mark A.; Clark, Kathleen A.; Pronovost, Stephen M.; Muster, Nemone; Yates, John R.; Beckerle, Mary C.

    2004-01-01

    Cell adhesion and migration are dynamic processes requiring the coordinated action of multiple signaling pathways, but the mechanisms underlying signal integration have remained elusive. Drosophila embryonic dorsal closure (DC) requires both integrin function and c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling for opposed epithelial sheets to migrate, meet, and suture. Here, we show that PINCH, a protein required for integrin-dependent cell adhesion and actin–membrane anchorage, is present at the leading edge of these migrating epithelia and is required for DC. By analysis of native protein complexes, we identify RSU-1, a regulator of Ras signaling in mammalian cells, as a novel PINCH binding partner that contributes to PINCH stability. Mutation of the gene encoding RSU-1 results in wing blistering in Drosophila, demonstrating its role in integrin-dependent cell adhesion. Genetic interaction analyses reveal that both PINCH and RSU-1 antagonize JNK signaling during DC. Our results suggest that PINCH and RSU-1 contribute to the integration of JNK and integrin functions during Drosophila development. PMID:15596544

  3. Vedolizumab: A novel anti-integrin drug for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Harmanjit; Grewal, Nipunjot; Arora, Ekta; Kumar, Harish; Kakkar, Ashish Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is the chronic inflammatory disorder of gastrointestinal tract consisting of two subtypes: Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. IBD occurs due to infiltration of leukocytes in intestinal mucosa and derangements in intestinal barrier function. One of the most important steps in pathogenesis of IBD is the interactions between integrins on the surface of leukocyte. The α4β7 integrin expressing T-cell is an important leukocyte involved in pathogenesis and represents a new drug target for the treatment of IBD. Vedolizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody, which acts against α4β7 integrin heterodimer and blocks the interaction of α4β7 integrin with MAdCAM-1. It prevents leukocyte binding to endothelial surface and its extravasation into affected tissue. The efficacy and safety of the vedolizumab have been established in many clinical studies. It has shown promising results in various clinical studies where a greater percentage of patients as compared to a placebo achieved and maintained clinical response, clinical remission, and corticosteroid-free clinical remission. Vedolizumab has been shown to be well tolerated with slightly higher risk of infections, headache, naspharyngitis as compared to placebo. This review focuses on the potential role of vedolizumab for the treatment of IBD. PMID:27003961

  4. A Signaling Network Induced by β2 Integrin Controls the Polarization of Lytic Granulesin Cytotoxic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Minggang; March, Michael E.; Lane, William S.; Long, Eric O.

    2014-01-01

    Cytotoxic lymphocyte skill target cells by polarized release of the content of perforin-containing granules. In natural killer cells, the binding of β2 integrin to its ligand ICAM-1 is sufficient to promote not only adhesion but also lytic granule polarization. This provided a unique opportunity to study polarization in the absence of degranulation, and β2 integrin signaling independently of inside-out signals from other receptors. Using an unbiased proteomics approach we identified a signaling network centered on an integrin-linked kinase (ILK)–Pyk2–Paxillin core that was required for granule polarization. Downstream of ILK, the highly conserved Cdc42–Par6 signaling pathway that controls cell polarity was activated and required for granule polarization. These results delineate two connected signaling networks induced upon β2 integrin engagement alone, which are integrated to control polarization of the microtubule organizing center and associated lytic granules toward the site of contact with target cells during cellular cytotoxicity. PMID:25292215

  5. Leukocyte integrin activation mediates transient neutropenia after G-CSF administration

    PubMed Central

    Tuschong, Laura; Bauer, Thomas R.; Yau, Yu Ying; Leitman, Susan F.; Hickstein, Dennis D.

    2011-01-01

    After administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), there is a marked, albeit transient, drop in circulating neutrophils. To determine the role of leukocyte integrins in this disappearance, a dog having canine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (CLAD) or CLAD dogs who had undergone gene correction either by matched littermate allogeneic transplant or autologous gene therapy were evaluated. Shortly after G-CSF administration, a dramatic, yet transient, neutropenia was observed in the control littermates. This neutropenia was not as marked in the CLAD dogs. In all instances, it was CD18+ neutrophils that preferentially egressed from the circulation. The association of CD18 with this rapid loss suggested leukocyte integrin activation after G-CSF administration. To determine the activation status of the integrin, a monoclonal antibody recognizing the activated α-subunit cation binding domain (mAb24) was used to evaluate human leukocytes after G-CSF administration. Mirroring the dramatic decrease in circulating neutrophil numbers, there was a dramatic and specific increase in the activation of the α-subunit after G-CSF expression on polymorphonuclear leukocytes. This activation, like the drop in neutrophil count, was transient. These results demonstrate that the leukocyte integrin on circulating neutrophils is transiently activated after G-CSF administration and mediates the transient neutropenia observed after G-CSF administration. PMID:21844566

  6. Pathogenetic role of Arg-Gly-Asp-recognizing integrins in acute renal failure. off.

    PubMed Central

    Goligorsky, M S; DiBona, G F

    1993-01-01

    Reorientation of the alpha 3 subunit of integrins from predominantly basal to the apical cell surface of cultured renal tubular epithelial cells subjected to oxidant stress has previously been demonstrated. The present study was designed to assess functional competence of ectopically expressed apical integrins. Cell-cell adhesion assay revealed enhanced cytoatractant properties of stressed cells. Stressed epithelial cells exhibited specific recognition and binding of laminin-coated latex beads. These processes were inhibited with the peptide Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Asn-Pro (GRGDNP) suggesting a role of RGD-recognizing integrins in augmented adhesion to stressed cells. Given that such enhanced adhesion in in vivo acute renal failure may govern tubular obstruction by desquamated epithelium, a physiological marker of patency of tubular lumen, proximal tubular pressure, was monitored in rats subjected to 60 min of renal ischemia followed by reperfusion. Proximal tubular pressure increased 2-fold after 2 hr of reperfusion in animals that had undergone 60 min of ischemia. Infusion of GRGDNP into the renal artery during reperfusion period virtually abolished an increase in proximal tubular pressure observed in ischemic acute renal failure. These in vitro and in vivo findings are consistent with the hypothesis that RGD-recognizing integrins play an important role in the pathogenesis of tubular obstruction in ischemic acute renal failure. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8516318

  7. INTEGRIN-MEDIATED CELL ATTACHMENT SHOWS TIME-DEPENDENT UPREGULATION OF GAP JUNCTION COMMUNICATION.

    EPA Science Inventory


    Integrin-mediated Cell Attachment Shows Time-Dependent Upregulation of Gap Junction
    Communication

    Rachel Grindstaff and Carl Blackman, National Health & Environmental Effects Research
    Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US EPA, Research Triang...

  8. Neutrophil interactions with keratocytes during corneal epithelial wound healing: a role for CD18 integrins.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this study was to determine the role of keratocytes and leukocyte beta(2) (CD18) integrins in neutrophil (PMN) migration through the corneal stroma after epithelial scrape injury. Using C57BL/6 wild-type and CD18(-/-) mice, corneas were excised at 6 hours (wild-type) or 24 hours (CD18...

  9. 9-cis-Retinoic Acid Promotes Cell Adhesion Through Integrin Dependent and Independent Mechanisms Across Immune Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Whelan, Jarrett T.; Chen, Jianming; Miller, Jabin; Morrow, Rebekah L.; Lingo, Joshuah D.; Merrell, Kaitlin; Shaikh, Saame Raza; Bridges, Lance C.

    2012-01-01

    Retinoids are essential in the proper establishment and maintenance of immunity. Although retinoids are implicated in immune related processes, their role in immune cell adhesion has not been well established. In this study, the effect of 9-cis-retinoic acid (9-cis-RA) on human hematopoietic cell adhesion was investigated. 9-cis-RA treatment specifically induced cell adhesion of the human immune cell lines HuT-78, NB4, RPMI 8866, and U937. Due to the prominent role of integrin receptors in mediating immune cell adhesion, we sought to evaluate if cell adhesion was integrin-dependent. By employing a variety of integrin antagonist including function-blocking antibodies and EDTA, we establish that 9-cis-RA prompts immune cell adhesion through established integrin receptors in addition to a novel integrin-independent process. The novel integrin-independent adhesion required the presence of retinoid and was attenuated by treatment with synthetic corticosteroids. Finally, we demonstrate that 9-cis-RA treatment of primary murine B-cells induces ex vivo adhesion that persists in the absence of integrin function. Our study is the first to demonstrate that 9-cis-retinoic acid influences immune cell adhesion through at least two functionally distinct mechanisms. PMID:22925918

  10. Evidence for the requirement of ITAM domains but not SLP-76/Gads interaction for integrin signaling in hematopoietic cells.

    PubMed

    Abtahian, Farhad; Bezman, Natalie; Clemens, Regina; Sebzda, Eric; Cheng, Lan; Shattil, Sanford J; Kahn, Mark L; Koretzky, Gary A

    2006-09-01

    Syk tyrosine kinase and Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing leukocyte-specific phosphoprotein of 76 kDa (SLP-76) are signaling mediators activated downstream of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-containing immunoreceptors and integrins. While the signaling cascades descending from integrins are similar to immunoreceptors, the mechanism of Syk activation and SLP-76 recruitment remains unclear. We used an in vivo structure-function approach to study the requirements for the domains of Syk and SLP-76 in immunoreceptor and integrin signaling. We found that both SH2 domains and the kinase domain of Syk are required for immunoreceptor-dependent signaling and cellular response via integrins. While the Gads-binding domain of SLP-76 is needed for immunoreceptor signaling, it appears dispensable for integrin signaling. Syk and SLP-76 also are required for initiating and/or maintaining separation between the blood and lymphatic vasculature. Therefore, we correlated the signaling requirement of the various domains of Syk and SLP-76 to their requirement in regulating vascular separation. Our data suggest ITAMs are required in Syk-dependent integrin signaling, demonstrate the separation of the structural features of SLP-76 to selectively support immunoreceptor versus integrin signaling, and provide evidence that the essential domains of SLP-76 for ITAM signals are those which most efficiently support separation between lymphatic and blood vessels.

  11. Multiple alpha subunits of integrin are involved in cell-mediated responses of the Manduca immune system.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Shufei; Kelo, Lisha; Nardi, James B; Kanost, Michael R

    2008-01-01

    The cell-mediated responses of the insect innate immune system-phagocytosis, nodulation, encapsulation-involve multiple cell adhesion molecules of hemocyte surfaces. A hemocyte-specific (HS) integrin and a member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily (neuroglian) are involved in the encapsulation response of hemocytes in Manduca sexta. In addition, two new integrin alpha (alpha) subunits have been found on these hemocytes. The alpha2 subunit is mainly expressed in epidermis and Malphigian tubules, whereas the alpha3 subunit is primarily expressed on hemocytes and fat body cells. Of the three known alpha subunits, the alpha1 subunit found in HS integrin is the predominant subunit of hemocytes. Cell adhesion assays indicate that alpha2 belongs to the integrin family with RGD-binding motifs, confirming the phylogenetic analysis of alpha subunits based on the amino-acid sequence alignment of different alpha subunits. Double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) targeting each of these three integrin alpha subunits not only specifically decreased transcript expression of each alpha subunit in hemocytes, but also abolished the cell-mediated encapsulation response of hemocytes to foreign surfaces. The individual alpha subunits of M. sexta integrins, like their integrin counterparts in mammalian immune systems, have critical, individual roles in cell-substrate and cell-cell interactions during immune responses.

  12. Signal Regulatory Protein α Negatively Regulates β2 Integrin-Mediated Monocyte Adhesion, Transendothelial Migration and Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dan-Qing; Li, Li-Min; Guo, Ya-Lan; Bai, Rui; Wang, Chen; Bian, Zhen; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Zen, Ke

    2008-01-01

    Background Signal regulate protein α (SIRPα) is involved in many functional aspects of monocytes. Here we investigate the role of SIRPα in regulating β2 integrin-mediated monocyte adhesion, transendothelial migration (TEM) and phagocytosis. Methodology/Principal Findings THP-1 monocytes/macropahges treated with advanced glycation end products (AGEs) resulted in a decrease of SIRPα expression but an increase of β2 integrin cell surface expression and β2 integrin-mediated adhesion to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα)–stimulated human microvascular endothelial cell (HMEC-1) monolayers. In contrast, SIRPα overexpression in THP-1 cells showed a significant less monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1)–triggered cell surface expression of β2 integrins, in particular CD11b/CD18. SIRPα overexpression reduced β2 integrin-mediated firm adhesion of THP-1 cells to either TNFα–stimulated HMEC-1 monolayers or to immobilized intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). SIRPα overexpression also reduced MCP-1–initiated migration of THP-1 cells across TNFα–stimulated HMEC-1 monolayers. Furthermore, β2 integrin-mediated THP-1 cell spreading and actin polymerization in response to MCP-1, and phagocytosis of bacteria were both inhibited by SIRPα overexpression. Conclusions/Significance SIRPα negatively regulates β2 integrin-mediated monocyte adhesion, transendothelial migration and phagocytosis, thus may serve as a critical molecule in preventing excessive activation and accumulation of monocytes in the arterial wall during early stage of atherosclerosis. PMID:18820737

  13. A ligand-specific blockade of the integrin Mac-1 selectively targets pathologic inflammation while maintaining protective host-defense.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Dennis; Anto-Michel, Nathaly; Blankenbach, Hermann; Wiedemann, Ansgar; Buscher, Konrad; Hohmann, Jan David; Lim, Bock; Bäuml, Marina; Marki, Alex; Mauler, Maximilian; Duerschmied, Daniel; Fan, Zhichao; Winkels, Holger; Sidler, Daniel; Diehl, Philipp; Zajonc, Dirk M; Hilgendorf, Ingo; Stachon, Peter; Marchini, Timoteo; Willecke, Florian; Schell, Maximilian; Sommer, Björn; von Zur Muhlen, Constantin; Reinöhl, Jochen; Gerhardt, Teresa; Plow, Edward F; Yakubenko, Valentin; Libby, Peter; Bode, Christoph; Ley, Klaus; Peter, Karlheinz; Zirlik, Andreas

    2018-02-06

    Integrin-based therapeutics have garnered considerable interest in the medical treatment of inflammation. Integrins mediate the fast recruitment of monocytes and neutrophils to the site of inflammation, but are also required for host defense, limiting their therapeutic use. Here, we report a novel monoclonal antibody, anti-M7, that specifically blocks the interaction of the integrin Mac-1 with its pro-inflammatory ligand CD40L, while not interfering with alternative ligands. Anti-M7 selectively reduces leukocyte recruitment in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, conventional anti-Mac-1 therapy is not specific and blocks a broad repertoire of integrin functionality, inhibits phagocytosis, promotes apoptosis, and fuels a cytokine storm in vivo. Whereas conventional anti-integrin therapy potentiates bacterial sepsis, bacteremia, and mortality, a ligand-specific intervention with anti-M7 is protective. These findings deepen our understanding of ligand-specific integrin functions and open a path for a new field of ligand-targeted anti-integrin therapy to prevent inflammatory conditions.

  14. Adhesive F-actin Waves: A Novel Integrin-Mediated Adhesion Complex Coupled to Ventral Actin Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Case, Lindsay B.; Waterman, Clare M.

    2011-01-01

    At the leading lamellipodium of migrating cells, protrusion of an Arp2/3-nucleated actin network is coupled to formation of integrin-based adhesions, suggesting that Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization and integrin-dependent adhesion may be mechanistically linked. Arp2/3 also mediates actin polymerization in structures distinct from the lamellipodium, in “ventral F-actin waves” that propagate as spots and wavefronts along the ventral plasma membrane. Here we show that integrins engage the extracellular matrix downstream of ventral F-actin waves in several mammalian cell lines as well as in primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts. These “adhesive F-actin waves” require a cycle of integrin engagement and disengagement to the extracellular matrix for their formation and propagation, and exhibit morphometry and a hierarchical assembly and disassembly mechanism distinct from other integrin-containing structures. After Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization, zyxin and VASP are co-recruited to adhesive F-actin waves, followed by paxillin and vinculin, and finally talin and integrin. Adhesive F-actin waves thus represent a previously uncharacterized integrin-based adhesion complex associated with Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization. PMID:22069459

  15. [Retrospect and prospect of transgenic fish breeding in China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaping; He, Libo

    2016-07-25

    The first transgenic fish was generated in China about 30 years ago. Since then, considerable progress has been achieved for farmed fishes breeding with improvement of target traits of growth, disease resistance, stress tolerance, and nutrition qualities. Up to now, the technology of transgenic fish breeding is almost mature and the biosafety assessment is established. In this review, a successful example of the fast-growing transgenic common carp was presented and the foreground of transgenic fish breeding was also discussed and prospected.

  16. Interactions between integrin receptors and fibronectin are required for calvarial osteoblast differentiation in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moursi, A. M.; Globus, R. K.; Damsky, C. H.

    1997-01-01

    We previously showed that anti-fibronectin antibodies or soluble fibronectin fragments containing the central cell-binding domain inhibit formation of mineralized nodules by fetal calvarial osteoblasts in vitro. These findings suggest a critical role for fibronectin in osteoblast differentiation and morphogenesis. In this study we tested the hypothesis that fibronectin's effects on osteogenesis are mediated via direct interactions with integrin receptors for fibronectin on osteoblasts. Immunocytochemical analysis identified the integrin fibronectin receptor alpha5ss1 in fetal rat calvarial tissue and in cultured osteoblasts at all stages of differentiation. Three other integrins, alpha3ss1, alpha8ss1 and alphavss3, which can bind fibronectin, as well as other matrix components, were also identified in tissue and at all stages of cell culture. Immunoprecipitation data showed that alpha5ss1 levels are constant throughout osteoblast differentiation whereas levels of alpha3ss1 and alpha8ss1 decline in mature mineralized cultures. To determine whether integrin fibronectin receptors are required for osteoblast formation of mineralized nodules, we examined the extent of nodule formation in the presence and absence of function-perturbing anti-integrin antibodies. The antibodies were present continuously in cultures beginning at confluence (day 3), and nodule formation was measured at days 10 and 20. An anti-alpha5 integrin subunit antibody reduced nodule formation to less than 5% of control values at both time points. Inhibition of nodule formation was reversible and did not affect cell attachment and viability. Function-perturbing antibodies against alpha3ss1 and alpha8ss1 also reduced nodule formation, to less than 20% of control values. In contrast, function-perturbing antibodies to alphavss3 and alphavss5 did not affect nodule formation, indicating that the inhibitions noted were indeed specific. To determine the effect of antibody treatment on gene expression, steady

  17. Suppression of Eosinophil Integrins Prevents Remodeling of Airway Smooth Muscle in Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Januskevicius, Andrius; Gosens, Reinoud; Sakalauskas, Raimundas; Vaitkiene, Simona; Janulaityte, Ieva; Halayko, Andrew J.; Hoppenot, Deimante; Malakauskas, Kestutis

    2017-01-01

    Background: Airway smooth muscle (ASM) remodeling is an important component of the structural changes to airways seen in asthma. Eosinophils are the prominent inflammatory cells in asthma, and there is some evidence that they contribute to ASM remodeling via released mediators and direct contact through integrin–ligand interactions. Eosinophils express several types of outer membrane integrin, which are responsible for cell–cell and cell–extracellular matrix interactions. In our previous study we demonstrated that asthmatic eosinophils show increased adhesion to ASM cells and it may be important factor contributing to ASM remodeling in asthma. According to these findings, in the present study we investigated the effects of suppression of eosinophil integrin on eosinophil-induced ASM remodeling in asthma. Materials and Methods: Individual combined cell cultures of immortalized human ASM cells and eosinophils from peripheral blood of 22 asthmatic patients and 17 healthy controls were prepared. Eosinophil adhesion was evaluated using eosinophil peroxidase activity assay. Genes expression levels in ASM cells and eosinophils were measured using quantitative real-time PCR. ASM cell proliferation was measured using alamarBlue® solution. Eosinophil integrins were blocked by incubating with Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser peptide. Results: Eosinophils from the asthma group showed increased outer membrane α4β1 and αMβ2 integrin expression, increased adhesion to ASM cells, and overexpression of TGF-β1 compared with eosinophils from the healthy control group. Blockade of eosinophil RGD-binding integrins by Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser peptide significantly reduced adhesion of eosinophils to ASM cells in both groups. Integrin-blocking decreased the effects of eosinophils on TGF-β1, WNT-5a, and extracellular matrix protein gene expression in ASM cells and ASM cell proliferation in both groups. These effects were more pronounced in the asthma group compared with the control group. Conclusion

  18. Combating resistance to anti-IGFR antibody by targeting the integrin β3-Src pathway.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Hoon; Lee, Hyo-Jong; Min, Hye-Young; Choi, Sun Phil; Lee, Mi-Sook; Lee, Jung Weon; Johnson, Faye M; Mehta, Kapil; Lippman, Scott M; Glisson, Bonnie S; Lee, Ho-Young

    2013-10-16

    Several phase II/III trials of anti-insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have shown limited efficacy. The mechanisms of resistance to IGF-1R mAb-based therapies and clinically applicable strategies for overcoming drug resistance are still undefined. IGF-1R mAb cixutumumab efficacy, alone or in combination with Src inhibitors, was evaluated in 10 human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and six non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines in vitro in two- or three-dimensional culture systems and in vivo in cell line- or patient-derived xenograft tumors in athymic nude mice (n = 6-9 per group). Cixutumumab-induced changes in cell signaling and IGF-1 binding to integrin β3 were determined by Western or ligand blotting, immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence, and cell adhesion analyses and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data were analyzed by the two-sided Student t test or one-way analysis of variance. Integrin β3-Src signaling cascade was activated by IGF-1 in HNSCC and NSCLC cells, when IGF-1 binding to IGF-1R was hampered by cixutumumab, resulting in Akt activation and cixutumumab resistance. Targeting integrin β3 or Src enhanced antitumor activity of cixutumumab in multiple cixutumumab-resistant cell lines and patient-derived tumors in vitro and in vivo. Mean tumor volume of mice cotreated with cixutumumab and integrin β3 siRNA was 133.7 mm(3) (95% confidence interval [CI] = 57.6 to 209.8 mm(3)) compared with those treated with cixutumumab (1472.5 mm(3); 95% CI = 1150.7 to 1794.3 mm(3); P < .001) or integrin β3 siRNA (903.2 mm(3); 95% CI = 636.1 to 1170.3 mm(3); P < .001) alone. Increased Src activation through integrin ανβ3 confers considerable resistance against anti-IGF-1R mAb-based therapies in HNSCC and NSCLC cells. Dual targeting of the IGF-1R pathway and collateral integrin β3-Src signaling module may override this resistance.

  19. Combating Resistance to Anti-IGFR Antibody by Targeting the Integrin β3-Src Pathway

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Several phase II/III trials of anti–insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have shown limited efficacy. The mechanisms of resistance to IGF-1R mAb-based therapies and clinically applicable strategies for overcoming drug resistance are still undefined. Methods IGF-1R mAb cixutumumab efficacy, alone or in combination with Src inhibitors, was evaluated in 10 human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and six non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines in vitro in two- or three-dimensional culture systems and in vivo in cell line– or patient-derived xenograft tumors in athymic nude mice (n = 6–9 per group). Cixutumumab-induced changes in cell signaling and IGF-1 binding to integrin β3 were determined by Western or ligand blotting, immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence, and cell adhesion analyses and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data were analyzed by the two-sided Student t test or one-way analysis of variance. Results Integrin β3–Src signaling cascade was activated by IGF-1 in HNSCC and NSCLC cells, when IGF-1 binding to IGF-1R was hampered by cixutumumab, resulting in Akt activation and cixutumumab resistance. Targeting integrin β3 or Src enhanced antitumor activity of cixutumumab in multiple cixutumumab-resistant cell lines and patient-derived tumors in vitro and in vivo. Mean tumor volume of mice cotreated with cixutumumab and integrin β3 siRNA was 133.7mm3 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 57.6 to 209.8mm3) compared with those treated with cixutumumab (1472.5mm3; 95% CI = 1150.7 to 1794.3mm3; P < .001) or integrin β3 siRNA (903.2mm3; 95% CI = 636.1 to 1170.3mm3; P < .001) alone. Conclusions Increased Src activation through integrin ανβ3 confers considerable resistance against anti–IGF-1R mAb-based therapies in HNSCC and NSCLC cells. Dual targeting of the IGF-1R pathway and collateral integrin β3–Src signaling module may override this resistance. PMID:24092920

  20. The synthesis and biological evaluation of integrin receptor targeting molecules as potential radiopharmaceuticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, Paul

    This thesis reports on the synthesis, characterisation and biological evaluation of a number of metal complexes designed to interact with the alphavbeta3 integrin receptor, an important biological target that is heavily involved in angiogenesis, and thus cancer related processes. Two approaches were used to synthesise the integrin-avid targets. The first was to attach a variety of bifunctional chelators (BFC's) for the incorporation of different metal centres to a known integrin antagonist, L-748,415, developed by Merck. The BFC's used were the hydrazinonicotinamide (HYNIC) and monoamine monoamide dithiol (MAMA) systems for coordination to Tc-99m and rhenium of which was used as a characterization surrogate for the unstable Tc core. The 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclotridecanetetraacetic acid (TRITA) BFC was attached for the inclusion of copper and lutetium. This 'conjugate' approach was designed to yield information on how the BFC and the linker length would affect the affinity for the integrin receptor. The second approach was an 'integrated' method where the chelation moiety was integral to the biologically relevant part of the molecule, which in the case of the alphavbeta3 integrin receptor, is the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) mimicking sequence. Two complexes were created with a modified MAMA derivative placed between a benzimidazole moiety (arginine mimick) and the aspartic acid mimicking terminal carboxylic acid to see how it would affect binding while keeping the molecular weight relatively low. The molecules were tested in vitro against purified human alphavbeta3 integrin receptor protein in a solid phase receptor binding assay to evaluate their inhibition constants against a molecule of known high affinity and selectivity in [I125]L-775,219, the I125 labelled alphavbeta3 integrin antagonist. The radiolabelled analogues were also tested in vivo against the A375 human melanoma cell line transplanted into balb/c nude mice as well as Fischer rats implanted

  1. Role of Integrin Subunits in Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation and Osteoblast Maturation on Graphitic Carbon-coated Microstructured Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Olivares-Navarrete, Rene; Rodil, Sandra E.; Hyzy, Sharon L.; Dunn, Ginger R.; Almaguer-Flores, Argelia; Schwartz, Zvi; Boyan, Barbara D.

    2015-01-01

    Surface roughness, topography, chemistry, and energy promote osteoblast differentiation and increase osteogenic local factor production in vitro and bone-to-implant contact in vivo, but the mechanisms involved are not well understood. Knockdown of integrin heterodimer alpha2beta1 (α2β1) blocks the osteogenic effects of the surface, suggesting signaling by this integrin homodimer is required. The purpose of the present study was to separate effects of surface chemistry and surface structure on integrin expression by coating smooth or rough titanium (Ti) substrates with graphitic carbon, retaining surface morphology but altering surface chemistry. Ti surfaces (smooth [Ra<0.4μm], rough [Ra≥3.4μm]) were sputter-coated using a magnetron sputtering system with an ultrapure graphite target, producing a graphitic carbon thin film. Human mesenchymal stem cells and MG63 osteoblast-like cells had higher mRNA for integrin subunits α1, α2, αv, and β1 on rough surfaces in comparison to smooth, and integrin αv on graphitic-carbon-coated rough surfaces in comparison to Ti. Osteogenic differentiation was greater on rough surfaces in comparison to smooth, regardless of chemistry. Silencing integrins β1, α1, or α2 decreased osteoblast maturation on rough surfaces independent of surface chemistry. Silencing integrin αv decreased maturation only on graphitic carbon-coated surfaces, not on Ti. These results suggest a major role of the integrin β1 subunit in roughness recognition, and that integrin alpha subunits play a major role in surface chemistry recognition. PMID:25770999

  2. The integrin-binding motif RGDS induces protein tyrosine phosphorylation without activation in Bufo arenarum (Amphibia) oocytes.

    PubMed

    Mouguelar, Valeria S; Cabada, Marcelo O; Coux, Gabriela

    2011-05-01

    Integrins are cell adhesion molecules that are thought to be involved in sperm-oocyte interaction. Nevertheless, their function in mammalian fertilization is still controversial, as different species behave differently. In amphibians, their role is mainly supported by Xenopus laevis studies, where RGDS peptide induces oocyte activation. We recently provided evidence suggesting the presence and involvement of integrins in the interaction of the oocyte plasma membrane (PM) with sperm in the amphibian Bufo arenarum. In order to understand the role of integrin homologs in oocytes and their possible contribution to egg activation mechanisms, we examined the presence of integrin subunits and the effect of RGDS peptide on oocytes and during fertilization. Western blot studies detected integrin subunits α5, αV and β1 in oocytes. In sperm, we could detect only the αV integrin subunit. We found that RGDS peptide was unable to elicit egg activation or MAPK dephosphorylation, but can induce reversible inhibition of fertilization. A similar partial inhibition was produced by an anti-β1 integrin antibody. Using an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody we found major changes in phosphotyrosine-containing proteins in egg extracts minutes after fertilization. Cytosol and PMs isolated from oocytes and fertilized eggs showed additional fertilization-induced phosphorylated proteins. Some of these were also present in cytosol and PMs from RGDS-treated oocytes (partially mimicking fertilization). These findings suggest that B. arenarum fertilization involves integrins (e.g. β1 subunit) as adhesion proteins. Our data support the view that RGDS-binding receptors may function as signaling receptors in B. arenarum oocytes, but integrin engagement by RGDS is not sufficient for oocyte activation.

  3. Identification, Characterization, and Epitope Mapping of Human Monoclonal Antibody J19 That Specifically Recognizes Activated Integrin α4β7*

    PubMed Central

    Qi, JunPeng; Zhang, Kun; Zhang, Qiao; Sun, Yi; Fu, Ting; Li, GuoHui; Chen, JianFeng

    2012-01-01

    Integrin α4β7 is a lymphocyte homing receptor that mediates both rolling and firm adhesion of lymphocytes on vascular endothelium, two of the critical steps in lymphocyte migration and tissue-specific homing. The rolling and firm adhesions of lymphocytes rely on the dynamic shift between the inactive and active states of integrin α4β7, which is associated with the conformational rearrangement of integrin molecules. Activation-specific antibodies, which specifically recognize the activated integrins, have been used as powerful tools in integrin studies, whereas there is no well characterized activation-specific antibody to integrin α4β7. Here, we report the identification, characterization, and epitope mapping of an activation-specific human mAb J19 against integrin α4β7. J19 was discovered by screening a human single-chain variable fragment phage library using an activated α4β7 mutant as target. J19 IgG specifically bound to the high affinity α4β7 induced by Mn2+, DTT, ADP, or CXCL12, but not to the low affinity integrin. Moreover, J19 IgG did not interfere with α4β7-MAdCAM-1 interaction. The epitope of J19 IgG was mapped to Ser-331, Ala-332, and Ala-333 of β7 I domain and a seven-residue segment from 184 to 190 of α4 β-propeller domain, which are buried in low affinity integrin with bent conformation and only exposed in the high affinity extended conformation. Taken together, J19 is a potentially powerful tool for both studies on α4β7 activation mechanism and development of novel therapeutics targeting the activated lymphocyte expressing high affinity α4β7. PMID:22418441

  4. Maize transgenes containing zein promoters are regulated by opaque2

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Transgenes have great potential in crop improvement, but relatively little is known about the epistatic interaction of transgenes with the native genes in the genome. Understanding these interactions is critical for predicting the response of transgenes to different genetic backgrounds and environm...

  5. [Methods of hygromycin B phosphotransferase activity assay in transgenic plant].

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Qin; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2004-07-01

    Hygromycin B phosphotransferase (HPT) is a widely used selectable marker protein of transgenic plant. Detection of its activity is critical to studies on the development of various transgenic plants, silence of inserted gene, marker-free system development and safety assessment of transgenic food. In this paper, several methods for detecting the activity of this enzyme were reviewed.

  6. IDENTIFICATION OF ESCAPED TRANSGENIC CREEPING BENTGRASS IN OREGON

    EPA Science Inventory

    When transgenic plants are cultivated near wild species that are sexually compatible with the crop, gene flow between the crop and wild plants is possible. A resultant concern is that transgene flow and transgene introgression within wild populations could have unintended ecologi...

  7. Integrin β1 activation induces an anti-melanoma host response

    PubMed Central

    Sole, Xavier; Salony; Chowdhury, Joeeta; Ross, Kenneth N.; Ramaswamy, Sridhar

    2017-01-01

    TGF-β is a cytokine thought to function as a tumor promoter in advanced malignancies. In this setting, TGF-β increases cancer cell proliferation, survival, and migration, and orchestrates complex, pro-tumorigenic changes in the tumor microenvironment. Here, we find that in melanoma, integrin β1-mediated TGF-β activation may also produce tumor suppression via an altered host response. In the A375 human melanoma cell nu/nu xenograft model, we demonstrate that cell surface integrin β1-activation increases TGF-β activity, resulting in stromal activation, neo-angiogenesis and, unexpectedly for this nude mouse model, increase in the number of intra-tumoral CD8+ T lymphocytes within the tumor microenvironment. This is associated with attenuation of tumor growth and long-term survival benefit. Correspondingly, in human melanomas, TGF-β1 correlates with integrin β1/TGF-β1 activation and the expression of markers for vasculature and stromal activation. Surprisingly, this integrin β1/TGF-β1 transcriptional footprint also correlates with the expression of markers for tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, multiple immune checkpoints and regulatory pathways, and, importantly, better long-term survival of patients. These correlations are unique to melanoma, in that we do not observe similar associations between β1 integrin/TGF-β1 activation and better long-term survival in other human tumor types. These results suggest that activation of TGF-β1 in melanoma may be associated with the generation of an anti-tumor host response that warrants further study. PMID:28448494

  8. β1-Integrin Deletion From the Lens Activates Cellular Stress Responses Leading to Apoptosis and Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yichen; Terrell, Anne M.; Riggio, Brittany A.; Anand, Deepti; Lachke, Salil A.; Duncan, Melinda K.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Previous research showed that the absence of β1-integrin from the mouse lens after embryonic day (E) 13.5 (β1MLR10) leads to the perinatal apoptosis of lens epithelial cells (LECs) resulting in severe microphthalmia. This study focuses on elucidating the molecular connections between β1-integrin deletion and this phenotype. Methods RNA sequencing was performed to identify differentially regulated genes (DRGs) in β1MLR10 lenses at E15.5. By using bioinformatics analysis and literature searching, Egr1 (early growth response 1) was selected for further study. The activation status of certain signaling pathways (focal adhesion kinase [FAK]/Erk, TGF-β, and Akt signaling) was studied via Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Mice lacking both β1-integrin and Egr1 genes from the lenses were created (β1MLR10/Egr1−/−) to study their relationship. Results RNA sequencing identified 120 DRGs that include candidates involved in the cellular stress response, fibrosis, and/or apoptosis. Egr1 was investigated in detail, as it mediates cellular stress responses in various cell types, and is recognized as an upstream regulator of numerous other β1MLR10 lens DRGs. In β1MLR10 mice, Egr1 levels are elevated shortly after β1-integrin loss from the lens. Further, pErk1/2 and pAkt are elevated in β1MLR10 LECs, thus providing the potential signaling mechanism that causes Egr1 upregulation in the mutant. Indeed, deletion of Egr1 from β1MLR10 lenses partially rescues the microphthalmia phenotype. Conclusions β1-integrin regulates the appropriate levels of Erk1/2 and Akt phosphorylation in LECs, whereas its deficiency results in the overexpression of Egr1, culminating in reduced cell survival. These findings provide insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the microphthalmia observed in β1MLR10 mice. PMID:28763805

  9. The CD157-integrin partnership controls transendothelial migration and adhesion of human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Lo Buono, Nicola; Parrotta, Rossella; Morone, Simona; Bovino, Paola; Nacci, Giulia; Ortolan, Erika; Horenstein, Alberto L; Inzhutova, Alona; Ferrero, Enza; Funaro, Ada

    2011-05-27

    CD157, a member of the CD38 gene family, is an NAD-metabolizing ectoenzyme and a signaling molecule whose role in polarization, migration, and diapedesis of human granulocytes has been documented; however, the molecular events underpinning this role remain to be elucidated. This study focused on the role exerted by CD157 in monocyte migration across the endothelial lining and adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins. The results demonstrated that anti-CD157 antibodies block monocyte transmigration and adhesion to fibronectin and fibrinogen but that CD157 cross-linking is sufficient to overcome the block, suggesting an active signaling role for the molecule. Consistent with this is the observation that CD157 is prevalently located within the detergent-resistant membrane microdomains to which, upon clustering, it promotes the recruitment of β(1) and β(2) integrin, which, in turn, leads to the formation of a multimolecular complex favoring signal transduction. This functional cross-talk with integrins allows CD157 to act as a receptor despite its intrinsic structural inability to do so on its own. Intracellular signals mediated by CD157 rely on the integrin/Src/FAK (focal adhesion kinase) pathway, resulting in increased activity of the MAPK/ERK1/2 and the PI3K/Akt downstream signaling pathways, which are crucial in the control of monocyte transendothelial migration. Collectively, these findings indicate that CD157 acts as a molecular organizer of signaling-competent membrane microdomains and that it forms part of a larger molecular machine ruled by integrins. The CD157-integrin partnership provides optimal adhesion and transmigration of human monocytes.

  10. The CD157-Integrin Partnership Controls Transendothelial Migration and Adhesion of Human Monocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Lo Buono, Nicola; Parrotta, Rossella; Morone, Simona; Bovino, Paola; Nacci, Giulia; Ortolan, Erika; Horenstein, Alberto L.; Inzhutova, Alona; Ferrero, Enza; Funaro, Ada

    2011-01-01

    CD157, a member of the CD38 gene family, is an NAD-metabolizing ectoenzyme and a signaling molecule whose role in polarization, migration, and diapedesis of human granulocytes has been documented; however, the molecular events underpinning this role remain to be elucidated. This study focused on the role exerted by CD157 in monocyte migration across the endothelial lining and adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins. The results demonstrated that anti-CD157 antibodies block monocyte transmigration and adhesion to fibronectin and fibrinogen but that CD157 cross-linking is sufficient to overcome the block, suggesting an active signaling role for the molecule. Consistent with this is the observation that CD157 is prevalently located within the detergent-resistant membrane microdomains to which, upon clustering, it promotes the recruitment of β1 and β2 integrin, which, in turn, leads to the formation of a multimolecular complex favoring signal transduction. This functional cross-talk with integrins allows CD157 to act as a receptor despite its intrinsic structural inability to do so on its own. Intracellular signals mediated by CD157 rely on the integrin/Src/FAK (focal adhesion kinase) pathway, resulting in increased activity of the MAPK/ERK1/2 and the PI3K/Akt downstream signaling pathways, which are crucial in the control of monocyte transendothelial migration. Collectively, these findings indicate that CD157 acts as a molecular organizer of signaling-competent membrane microdomains and that it forms part of a larger molecular machine ruled by integrins. The CD157-integrin partnership provides optimal adhesion and transmigration of human monocytes. PMID:21478153

  11. Interaction between Fibronectin and β1 Integrin Is Essential for Tooth Development

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Aya; Yuasa, Kenji; Yoshizaki, Keigo; Iwamoto, Tsutomu; Saito, Masahiro; Nakamura, Takashi; Fukumoto, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The dental epithelium and extracellular matrix interact to ensure that cell growth and differentiation lead to the formation of teeth of appropriate size and quality. To determine the role of fibronectin in differentiation of the dental epithelium and tooth formation, we analyzed its expression in developing incisors. Fibronectin mRNA was expressed during the presecretory stage in developing dental epithelium, decreased in the secretory and early maturation stages, and then reappeared during the late maturation stage. The binding of dental epithelial cells derived from postnatal day-1 molars to a fibronectin-coated dish was inhibited by the RGD but not RAD peptide, and by a β1 integrin-neutralizing antibody, suggesting that fibronectin-β1 integrin interactions contribute to dental epithelial-cell binding. Because fibronectin and β1 integrin are highly expressed in the dental mesenchyme, it is difficult to determine precisely how their interactions influence dental epithelial differentiation in vivo. Therefore, we analyzed β1 integrin conditional knockout mice (Intβ1lox-/lox-/K14-Cre) and found that they exhibited partial enamel hypoplasia, and delayed eruption of molars and differentiation of ameloblasts, but not of odontoblasts. Furthermore, a cyst-like structure was observed during late ameloblast maturation. Dental epithelial cells from knockout mice did not bind to fibronectin, and induction of ameloblastin expression in these cells by neurotrophic factor-4 was inhibited by treatment with RGD peptide or a fibronectin siRNA, suggesting that the epithelial interaction between fibronectin and β1 integrin is important for ameloblast differentiation and enamel formation. PMID:25830530

  12. Chondrocyte heterogeneity: immunohistologically defined variation of integrin expression at different sites in human fetal knees.

    PubMed

    Salter, D M; Godolphin, J L; Gourlay, M S

    1995-04-01

    During development and at maturity different forms of cartilage vary in morphology and macromolecular content. This reflects heterogeneity of chondrocyte activity, in part involving differential interactions with the adjacent extracellular matrix via specialized cell surface receptors such as integrins. We undertook an immunohistological study on a series of human fetal knee joints to assess variation in the expression of integrins by chondrocytes and potential matrix ligands in articular, epiphyseal, growth plate, and meniscal cartilage. The results show that articular chondrocytes (beta 1+, beta 5 alpha V+, alpha 1+, alpha 2+/-, alpha 5+, weakly alpha 6+, alpha V+) differed from epiphyseal (beta 1+, beta 5 alpha V+, alpha 1+/-, alpha 2+/-, alpha 5+, alpha 6+, alpha V+) growth plate (beta 1+, beta 5 alpha V+, alpha 1-, alpha 2-, alpha 5+, alpha 6+, alpha V+), and meniscal cells (beta 1+, beta 5 alpha V+, alpha 1+, strongly alpha 2+, alpha 5+, alpha 6+, alpha V+ in expression of integrin subunits. There was no expression of beta 3, beta 4, beta 6, or alpha 3 by chondrocytes. These results differ from previous reports on the expression of integrins by adult articular cartilage, where alpha 2 and alpha 6 are not seen. Variation in distribution of matrix ligands was also seen. Fibronectin, laminin and Type VI collagen were expressed in all cartilages but there was restricted expression of tenascin, ED-A and ED-B fibronectin isoforms (articular cartilage and meniscus), and vitronectin (absent from growth plate cartilage). Regulated expression of integrins by chondrocytes, associated with changes in the pericellular matrix composition, is of potential importance in control of cartilage differentiation and function in health and disease.

  13. Integrin expression by human osteoblasts cultured on degradable polymeric materials applicable for tissue engineered bone.

    PubMed

    El-Amin, Saadiq F; Attawia, Mohamed; Lu, Helen H; Shah, Asist K; Chang, Richard; Hickok, Noreen J; Tuan, Rocky S; Laurencin, Cato T

    2002-01-01

    The use of biodegradable polymers in the field of orthopaedic surgery has gained increased popularity, as surgical pins and screws, and as potential biological scaffolds for repairing cartilage and bone defects. One such group of polymers that has gained considerable attention are the polyesters, poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLAGA) and polylactic acid (PLA), because of their minimal tissue inflammatory response, favorable biocompatibility and degradation characteristics. The objective of this study was to evaluate human osteoblastic cell adherence and growth on PLAGA and PLA scaffolds by examining integrin receptor (alpha2, alpha3, alpha4, alpha5, alpha6 and beta1) expression. Primary human osteoblastic cells isolated from trabecular bone adhered efficiently to both PLAGA and PLA, with the rate of adherence on PLAGA comparable to that of control tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS), and significantly higher than on PLA polymers at 3, 6 and 12 h. Human osteoblastic phenotypic expression, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was positive on both degradable matrices, whereas osteocalcin levels were significantly higher on cells grown on PLAGA than on PLA composites. Interestingly, the integrin subunits, alpha2, alpha3, alpha4, alpha5, alpha6 and beta1 were all expressed at higher levels by osteoblasts cultured on PLAGA than those on PLA as analyzed by westerns blots and by flow cytometry. Among the integrins, alpha2, beta5 and beta1 showed the greatest difference in levels between the two surfaces. Thus, both PLA and PLAGA support osteoblastic adhesion and its accompanying engagement of integrin receptor and expression of osteocalcin and ALP. However PLAGA consistently appeared to be a better substrate for osteoblastic cells based on these parameters. This study is one of the first to investigate the ability of primary human osteoblastic cells isolated from trabecular bone to adhere to the biodegradable polymers PLAGA and PLA, and to examine the expression of their key

  14. Assessing the value of transgenic crops.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Hugh

    2002-10-01

    In the current controversy about the value of transgenic crops, matters open to empirical inquiry are centrally at issue. One such matter is a key premise in a common argument (that I summarize) that transgenic crops should be considered to have universal value. The premise is that there are no alternative forms of agriculture available to enable the production of sufficient food to feed the world. The proponents of agroecology challenge it, claiming that agroecology provides an alternative, and they deny the claim that it is well founded on empirical evidence. It is, therefore, a matter of both social and scientific importance that this premise and the criticisms of it be investigated rigorously and empirically, so that the benefits and disadvantages of transgenic-intensive agriculture and agroecology can be compared in a reliable way. Conducting adequate investigation about the potential contribution of agroecology requires that the cultural conditions of its practice (and, thus, of the practices and movements of small-scale farmers in the "third world") be strengthened--and this puts the interests of investigation into tension with the socio-economic interests driving the development of transgenics. General issues about relationship between ethical argument and empirical (scientific) investigation are raised throughout the article.

  15. Monitoring transgenic plants using in vivo markers

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, C.N. Jr.

    The gene coding for green fluorecent protein (GFP), isolated and cloned from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria, is an ideal transgene for the monitoring of any plant species. It has the ability to fluoresce without added substrate, enzyme, or cofactor; it does not introduce morphological or sexual aberrations when expressed. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  16. TRANSGENIC MOUSE MODELS AND PARTICULATE MATTER (PM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hypothesis to be tested is that metal catalyzed oxidative stress can contribute to the biological effects of particulate matter. We acquired several transgenic mouse strains to test this hypothesis. Breeding of the mice was accomplished by Duke University. Particles employed ...

  17. Transgenic plants with increased calcium stores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Dominique (Inventor); Wyatt, Sarah (Inventor); Tsou, Pei-Lan (Inventor); Boss, Wendy (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The present invention provides transgenic plants over-expressing a transgene encoding a calcium-binding protein or peptide (CaBP). Preferably, the CaBP is a calcium storage protein and over-expression thereof does not have undue adverse effects on calcium homeostasis or biochemical pathways that are regulated by calcium. In preferred embodiments, the CaBP is calreticulin (CRT) or calsequestrin. In more preferred embodiments, the CaBP is the C-domain of CRT, a fragment of the C-domain, or multimers of the foregoing. In other preferred embodiments, the CaBP is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum by operatively associating the transgene encoding the CaBP with an endoplasmic reticulum localization peptide. Alternatively, the CaBP is targeted to any other sub-cellular compartment that permits the calcium to be stored in a form that is biologically available to the plant. Also provided are methods of producing plants with desirable phenotypic traits by transformation of the plant with a transgene encoding a CaBP. Such phenotypic traits include increased calcium storage, enhanced resistance to calcium-limiting conditions, enhanced growth and viability, increased disease and stress resistance, enhanced flower and fruit production, reduced senescence, and a decreased need for fertilizer production. Further provided are plants with enhanced nutritional value as human food or animal feed.

  18. Metal resistance sequences and transgenic plants

    DOEpatents

    Meagher, Richard Brian; Summers, Anne O.; Rugh, Clayton L.

    1999-10-12

    The present invention provides nucleic acid sequences encoding a metal ion resistance protein, which are expressible in plant cells. The metal resistance protein provides for the enzymatic reduction of metal ions including but not limited to divalent Cu, divalent mercury, trivalent gold, divalent cadmium, lead ions and monovalent silver ions. Transgenic plants which express these coding sequences exhibit increased resistance to metal ions in the environment as compared with plants which have not been so genetically modified. Transgenic plants with improved resistance to organometals including alkylmercury compounds, among others, are provided by the further inclusion of plant-expressible organometal lyase coding sequences, as specifically exemplified by the plant-expressible merB coding sequence. Furthermore, these transgenic plants which have been genetically modified to express the metal resistance coding sequences of the present invention can participate in the bioremediation of metal contamination via the enzymatic reduction of metal ions. Transgenic plants resistant to organometals can further mediate remediation of organic metal compounds, for example, alkylmetal compounds including but not limited to methyl mercury, methyl lead compounds, methyl cadmium and methyl arsenic compounds, in the environment by causing the freeing of mercuric or other metal ions and the reduction of the ionic mercury or other metal ions to the less toxic elemental mercury or other metals.

  19. Germline transmission in transgenic Huntington's disease monkeys.

    PubMed

    Moran, Sean; Chi, Tim; Prucha, Melinda S; Ahn, Kwang Sung; Connor-Stroud, Fawn; Jean, Sherrie; Gould, Kenneth; Chan, Anthony W S

    2015-07-15

    Transgenic nonhuman primate models are an increasingly popular model for neurologic and neurodegenerative disease because their brain functions and neural anatomies closely resemble those of humans. Transgenic Huntington's disease monkeys (HD monkeys) developed clinical features similar to those seen in HD patients, making the monkeys suitable for a preclinical study of HD. However, until HD monkey colonies can be readily expanded, their use in preclinical studies will be limited. In the present study, we confirmed germline transmission of the mutant huntingtin (mHTT) transgene in both embryonic stem cells generated from three male HD monkey founders (F0) and in second-generation offspring (F1) produced via artificial insemination by using intrauterine insemination technique. A total of five offspring were produced from 15 females that were inseminated by intrauterine insemination using semen collected from the three HD founders (5 of 15, 33%). Thus far, sperm collected from the HD founder (rHD8) has led to two F1 transgenic HD monkeys with germline transmission rate at 100% (2 of 2). mHTT expression was confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction using skin fibroblasts from the F1 HD monkeys and induced pluripotent stem cells established from one of the F1 HD monkeys (rHD8-2). Here, we report the stable germline transmission and expression of the mHTT transgene in HD monkeys, which suggest possible expansion of HD monkey colonies for preclinical and biomedical research studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular Characterization of Transgene Integration by Next-Generation Sequencing in Transgenic Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ran; Yin, Yinliang; Zhang, Yujun; Li, Kexin; Zhu, Hongxia; Gong, Qin; Wang, Jianwu; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Li, Ning

    2012-01-01

    As the number of transgenic livestock increases, reliable detection and molecular characterization of transgene integration sites and copy number are crucial not only for interpreting the relationship between the integration site and the specific phenotype but also for commercial and economic demands. However, the ability of conventional PCR techniques to detect incomplete and multiple integration events is limited, making it technically challenging to characterize transgenes. Next-generation sequencing has enabled cost-effective, routine and widespread high-throughput genomic analysis. Here, we demonstrate the use of next-generation sequencing to extensively characterize cattle harboring a 150-kb human lactoferrin transgene that was initially analyzed by chromosome walking without success. Using this approach, the sites upstream and downstream of the target gene integration site in the host genome were identified at the single nucleotide level. The sequencing result was verified by event-specific PCR for the integration sites and FISH for the chromosomal location. Sequencing depth analysis revealed that multiple copies of the incomplete target gene and the vector backbone were present in the host genome. Upon integration, complex recombination was also observed between the target gene and the vector backbone. These findings indicate that next-generation sequencing is a reliable and accurate approach for the molecular characterization of the transgene sequence, integration sites and copy number in transgenic species. PMID:23185606

  1. Improved production of genetically modified fetuses with homogeneous transgene expression after transgene integration site analysis and recloning in cattle.

    PubMed

    Bressan, Fabiana Fernandes; Dos Santos Miranda, Moyses; Perecin, Felipe; De Bem, Tiago Henrique; Pereira, Flavia Thomaz Verechia; Russo-Carbolante, Elisa Maria; Alves, Daiani; Strauss, Bryan; Bajgelman, Marcio; Krieger, José Eduardo; Binelli, Mario; Meirelles, Flavio Vieira

    2011-02-01

    Animal cloning by nuclear transfer (NT) has made the production of transgenic animals using genetically modified donor cells possible and ensures the presence of the gene construct in the offspring. The identification of transgene insertion sites in donor cells before cloning may avoid the production of animals that carry undesirable characteristics due to positional effects. This article compares blastocyst development and competence to establish pregnancies of bovine cloned embryos reconstructed with lentivirus-mediated transgenic fibroblasts containing either random integration of a transgene (random integration group) or nuclear transfer derived transgenic fibroblasts with known transgene insertion sites submitted to recloning (recloned group). In the random integration group, eGFP-expressing bovine fetal fibroblasts were selected by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) and used as nuclei donor cells for NT. In the recloned group, a fibroblast cell line derived from a transgenic cloned fetus was characterized regarding transgene insertion and submitted to recloning. The recloned group had higher blastocyst production (25.38 vs. 14.42%) and higher percentage of 30-day pregnancies (14.29 vs. 2.56%) when compared to the random integration group. Relative eGFP expression analysis in fibroblasts derived from each cloned embryo revealed more homogeneous expression in the recloned group. In conclusion, the use of cell lines recovered from transgenic fetuses after identification of the transgene integration site allowed for the production of cells and fetuses with stable transgene expression, and recloning may improve transgenic animal yields.

  2. Diversity of arthropod community in transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, D J; Lu, Z Y; Liu, J X; Li, C L; Yang, M S

    2015-12-02

    Poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems are the main agricultural planting modes of plain cotton fields in China. Here, we performed a systematic survey of the diversity and population of arthropod communities in four different combination of poplar-cotton eco-systems, including I) non-transgenic poplar and non-transgenic cotton fields; II) non-transgenic poplar and transgenic cotton fields [Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton]; III) Bt transgenic poplar (high insect resistant strain Pb29) and non-transgenic cotton; and IV) transgenic poplar and transgenic cotton fields, over a period of 3 years. Based on the statistical methods used to investigate community ecology, the effects of transgenic ecosystems on the whole structure of the arthropod community, on the structure of arthropods in the nutritive layer, and on the similarity of arthropod communities were evaluated. The main results were as follows: the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem has a stronger inhibitory effect on insect pests and has no impact on the structure of the arthropod community, and therefore, maintains the diversity of the arthropod community. The character index of the community indicated that the structure of the arthropod community of the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem was better than that of the poplar-cotton ecosystem, and that system IV had the best structure. As for the abundance of nutritional classes, the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem was also better than that of the non-transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem. The cluster analysis and similarity of arthropod communities between the four different transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystems illustrated that the structure of the arthropod community excelled in the small sample of the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystems.

  3. Stable coordination of the inhibitory Ca2+ ion at MIDAS in integrin CD11b/CD18 by an antibody-derived ligand aspartate: Implications for integrin regulation and structure-based drug design

    PubMed Central

    Mahalingam, Bhuvaneshwari; Ajroud, Kaouther; Alonso, Jose Luis; Anand, Saurabh; Adair, Brian; Horenstein, Alberto L; Malavasi, Fabio; Xiong, Jian-Ping; Arnaout, M. Amin

    2011-01-01

    A central feature of integrin interaction with physiologic ligands is the monodentate binding of a ligand carboxylate to a Mg2+ ion hexacoordinated at the metal-ion-dependent-adhesion site (MIDAS) in the integrin A-domain. This interaction stabilizes the A-domain in the high-affinity state, which is distinguished from the default low-affinity state by tertiary changes in the domain that culminate in cell adhesion. Small molecule ligand-mimetic integrin antagonists act as partial agonists, eliciting similar activating conformational changes in the A-domain, which has contributed to paradoxical adhesion and increased patient mortality in large clinical trials. As with other ligand-mimetic integrin antagonists, the function-blocking monoclonal antibody (mAb) 107 binds MIDAS of integrin CD11b/CD18 A-domain (CD11bA), but in contrast, it favors the inhibitory Ca2+ ion over Mg2+ at MIDAS. We determined the crystal structures of the Fab fragment of mAb 107 complexed to the low- and high-affinity states of CD11bA. Favored binding of Ca2+ at MIDAS is caused by the unusual symmetric bidentate ligation of a Fab-derived ligand Asp to a heptacoordinated MIDAS Ca2+. Binding of Fab 107 to CD11bA did not trigger the activating tertiary changes in the domain or in the full-length integrin. These data show that denticity of the ligand Asp/Glu can modify divalent cation selectivity at MIDAS and hence integrin function. Stabilizing the Ca2+ ion at MIDAS by bidentate ligation to a ligand Asp/Glu may provide one approach for designing pure integrin antagonists. PMID:22095715

  4. Isogenic transgenic homozygous fish induced by artificial parthenogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nam, Y K; Cho, Y S; Kim, D S

    2000-12-01

    As a model system for vertebrate transgenesis, fish have many attractive advantages, especially with respect to the characteristics of eggs, allowing us to produce isogenic, transgenic, homozygous vertebrates by combining with chromosome-set manipulation. Here, we describe the large-scale production of isogenic transgenic homozygous animals using our experimental organism, the mud loach Misgurnus mizolepis, by the simple process of artificial parthenogenesis in a single generation. These isogenic fish have retained transgenic homozygous status in a stable manner during the subsequent 5 years, and exhibited increased levels of transgene expression. Furthermore, their isogenic nature was confirmed by cloned transgenic homozygous offspring produced via another step of parthenogenic reproduction of the isogenic homozygous transgenic fish. These results demonstrate that a combination of transgenesis and artificial parthenogenesis will make the rapid utilization of genetically pure homozygous transgenic system in vertebrate transgenesis possible.

  5. Transgene manipulation in zebrafish by using recombinases.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jie; Stuart, Gary W

    2004-01-01

    Although much remains to be done, our results to date suggest that efficient and precise genome engineering in zebrafish will be possible in the future by using Cre recombinase and SB transposase in combination with their respective target sites. In this study, we provide the first evidence that Cre recombinase can mediate effective site-specific deletion of transgenes in zebrafish. We found that the efficiency of target site utilization could approach 100%, independent of whether the target site was provided transiently by injection or stably within an integrated transgene. Microinjection of Cre mRNA appeared to be slightly more effective for this purpose than microinjection of Cre-expressing plasmid DNA. Our work has not yet progressed to the point where SB-mediated mobilization of our transgene constructs would be observed. However, a recent report has demonstrated that SB can enhance transgenesis rates sixfold over conventional methods by efficiently mediating multiple single-copy insertion of transgenes into the zebrafish genome (Davidson et al., 2003). Therefore, it seems likely that a combined system should eventually allow both SB-mediated transgene mobilization and Cre-mediated transgene modification. Our goal is to validate methods for the precise reengineering of the zebrafish genome by using a combination of Cre-loxP and SB transposon systems. These methods can be used to delete, replace, or mobilize large pieces of DNA or to modify the genome only when and where required by the investigator. For example, it should be possible to deliver particular RNAi genes to well-expressed chromosomal loci and then exchange them easily with alternative RNAi genes for the specific suppression of alternative targets. As a nonviral vector for gene therapy, the transposon component allows for the possibility of highly efficient integration, whereas the Cre-loxP component can target the integration and/or exchange of foreign DNA into specific sites within the genome. The

  6. A CD2-green fluorescence protein-transgenic mouse reveals very late antigen-4-dependent CD8+ lymphocyte rolling in inflamed venules.

    PubMed

    Singbartl, K; Thatte, J; Smith, M L; Wethmar, K; Day, K; Ley, K

    2001-06-15

    Intravital microscopy allows detailed analysis of leukocyte trafficking in vivo, but fails to identify the nature of leukocytes investigated. Here, we describe the development of a CD2-enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP)-transgenic mouse to characterize lymphocyte trafficking during inflammation in vivo. A CD2-EGFP plasmid construct including the CD2 promoter, the EGFP transgene, and the CD2 locus control region was injected into B6CBA/F1 pronuclei. EGFP+ offspring were backcrossed into C57BL/6 mice for six generations. Flow cytometry demonstrated that all peripheral blood EGFP+ cells were positive for CD2 and negative for the granulocyte Ag Ly 6-G (GR-1). EGFP(high) cells stained positive for CD2, CD3, CD8, TCR beta-chain, and NK1.1 but did not express the B cell and monocyte markers CD45RA, CD19, and CD11b. In vitro stimulation assays revealed no difference in lymphocyte proliferation and IL-2 secretion between EGFP+ and EGFP- mice. Intravital microscopy of untreated or TNF-alpha-treated cremaster muscle venules showed EGFP+ cells in vivo, but these cells did not roll or adhere to the vessel wall. In cremaster muscle venules treated with both TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma, EGFP(high) cells rolled, adhered, and transmigrated at a rolling velocity slightly higher (11 microm/s) than that of neutrophils (10 microm/s). Blocking alpha4 integrin with a mAb increased rolling velocity to 24 microm/s. These findings show that CD8+ T cells roll in TNF-alpha/IFN-gamma-pretreated vessels in vivo via an alpha4 integrin-dependent pathway.

  7. Integrin-mediated interactions between B cells and follicular dendritic cells influence germinal center B cell fitness1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoming; Rodda, Lauren; Bannard, Oliver; Cyster, Jason G.

    2014-01-01

    Integrin-ligand interactions between germinal center (GC) B cells and antigen-presenting follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) have been suggested to play central roles during GC responses but their in vivo requirement has not been directly tested. Here we show that while integrins αLβ2 and α4β1 are highly expressed and functional on mouse GC B cells, removal of single integrins or their ligands had little effect on B cell participation in the GC response. Combined β2-integrin deficiency and α4-integrin blockade also did not affect the GC response against a particulate antigen. However, the combined integrin deficiency did cause B cells to be outcompeted in splenic GC responses against a soluble protein antigen and in mesenteric lymph node GC responses against gut-derived antigens. Similar findings were made for β2-deficient B cells in mice lacking VCAM1 on FDCs. The reduced fitness of the GC B cells did not appear to be due to decreased antigen acquisition, proliferation rates or pAKT levels. In summary, our findings provide evidence that αLβ2 and α4β1 play overlapping and context-dependent roles in supporting interactions with FDCs that can augment the fitness of responding GC B cells. We also find that mouse GC B cells upregulate αvβ3 and adhere to vitronectin and milk fat globule EGF-factor-8 protein. Integrin β3-deficient B cells contributed in a slightly exaggerated manner to GC responses suggesting this integrin has a regulatory function in GC B cells. PMID:24740506

  8. Focal complex formation in adult cardiomyocytes is accompanied by the activation of beta3 integrin and c-Src.

    PubMed

    Willey, Christopher D; Balasubramanian, Sundaravadivel; Rodríguez Rosas, María C; Ross, Robert S; Kuppuswamy, Dhandapani

    2003-06-01

    In pressure-overloaded myocardium, our recent study demonstrated cytoskeletal assembly of c-Src and other signaling proteins which was partially mimicked in vitro using adult feline cardiomyocytes embedded in three-dimensional (3D) collagen matrix and stimulated with an integrin-binding Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide. In the present study, we improved this model further to activate c-Src and obtain a full assembly of the focal adhesion complex (FAC), and characterized c-Src localization and integrin subtype(s) involved. RGD dose response experiments revealed that c-Src activation occurs subsequent to its cytoskeletal recruitment and is accompanied by p130Cas cytoskeletal binding and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) Tyr925 phosphorylation. When cardiomyocytes expressing hexahistidine-tagged c-Src via adenoviral gene delivery were used for RGD stimulation, the expressed c-Src exhibited relocation: (i) biochemical analysis revealed c-Src movement from the detergent-soluble to the -insoluble cytoskeletal fraction and (ii) confocal microscopic analysis showed c-Src movement from a nuclear/perinuclear to a sarcolemmal region. RGD treatment also caused sarcolemmal co-localization of FAK and vinculin. Characterization of integrin subtypes revealed that beta3, but not beta1, integrin plays a predominant role: (i) expression of cytoplasmic domain of beta1A integrin did not affect the RGD-stimulated FAC formation and (ii) both pressure-overloaded myocardium and RGD-stimulated cardiomyocytes exhibited phosphorylation of beta3 integrin at Tyr773/785 sites but not beta1 integrin at Thr788/789 sites. Together these data indicate that RGD treatment in cardiomyocytes causes beta3 integrin activation and c-Src sarcolemmal localization, that subsequent c-Src activation is accompanied by p130Cas binding and FAK Tyr925 phosphorylation, and that these events might be crucial for growth and remodeling of hypertrophying adult cardiomyocytes.

  9. Transgenes expressing the Wnt-1 and int-2 proto-oncogenes cooperate during mammary carcinogenesis in doubly transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, H; Pecenka, V; Tsukamoto, A; Parslow, T G; Guzman, R; Lin, T P; Muller, W J; Lee, F S; Leder, P; Varmus, H E

    1992-01-01

    The Wnt-1 and int-2 proto-oncogenes are transcriptionally activated by mouse mammary tumor virus insertion mutations in virus-induced tumors and encode secretory glycoproteins. To determine whether these two genes can cooperate during carcinogenesis, we have crossed two previously characterized lines of transgenic mice to obtain bitransgenic animals carrying both Wnt-1 and int-2 transgenes under the control of the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat. Mammary carcinomas appear earlier and with higher frequency in the bitransgenic animals, especially the males, than in either parental line. Nearly all bitransgenic males develop mammary neoplasms within 8 months of birth, whereas only 15% of Wnt-1 transgenic males and none of the int-2 transgenic males have tumors. In virgin bitransgenic females, tumors occur approximately 2 months earlier than in their Wnt-1 transgenic siblings; int-2 transgenic females rarely exhibit tumors. Preneoplastic glands from the bitransgenic animals of either sex demonstrate pronounced epithelial hyperplasia similar to that seen in Wnt-1 transgenic virgin females and males, and both transgenes are expressed in the hyperplastic glands and mammary tumors. RNA from the int-2 transgene is more abundant in mammary glands from bitransgenic animals than from int-2 transgenic animals; the increase is associated with high levels of RNA specific for keratin genes 14 and 18, suggesting that Wnt-1-induced epithelial hyperplasia is responsible for the observed increase in expression of the int-2 transgene. Images PMID:1530875

  10. [Transgenic plants as medicine production systems].

    PubMed

    Okada, Y

    1997-10-01

    Transgenic plants are emerging as an important system for the expression of many recombinant proteins, especially those intended for therapeutic purpose. The production of foreign proteins in plants has several advantages. In terms of required equipment and cost, mass production in plants is far easier to achieve than techniques involving animal cells. Successful production of several proteins in plants, including human serum albumin, haemoglobin, monoclonal antibodies, viral antigens (vaccines), enkephalin, and trichosanthin, has been reported. Particularly, the demonstration that vaccine antigens can be produced in plants in their native, immunogenic forms opens exciting possibilities for the "bio-farming" of vaccines. If the antigens are orally active, food-based "edible vaccines" could allow economical production. In this review, I will discuss the progress that has been made by several groups in what is now an expanding area of medicine research that utilizes transgenic plants.

  11. Caudal dysgenesis in islet-1 transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Yunhua Li; Yueh, Yir Gloria; Yaworsky, Paul J.; Salbaum, J. Michael; Kappen, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Maternal diabetes during pregnancy is responsible for the occurrence of diabetic embryopathy, a spectrum of birth defects that includes heart abnormalities, neural tube defects, and caudal dysgenesis syndromes. Here, we report that mice transgenic for the homeodomain transcription factor Isl-1 develop profound caudal growth defects that resemble human sacral/caudal agenesis. Isl-1 is normally expressed in the pancreas and is required for pancreas development and endocrine cell differentiation. Aberrant regulation of this pancreatic transcription factor causes increased mesodermal cell death, and the severity of defects is dependent on transgene dosage. Together with the finding that mutation of the pancreatic transcription factor HLXB9 causes sacral agenesis, our results implicate pancreatic transcription factors in the pathogenesis of birth defects associated with diabetes. PMID:12738808

  12. Cytokinesis failure due to derailed integrin traffic induces aneuploidy and oncogenic transformation in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Högnäs, G; Tuomi, S; Veltel, S; Mattila, E; Murumägi, A; Edgren, H; Kallioniemi, O; Ivaska, J

    2012-01-01

    Aneuploidy is frequently detected in solid tumors but the mechanisms regulating the generation of aneuploidy and their relevance in cancer initiation remain under debate and are incompletely characterized. Spatial and temporal regulation of integrin traffic is critical for cell migration and cytokinesis. Impaired integrin endocytosis, because of the loss of Rab21 small GTPase or mutations in the integrin β-subunit cytoplasmic tail, induces failure of cytokinesis in vitro. Here, we describe that repeatedly failed cytokinesis, because of impaired traffic, is sufficient to trigger the generation of aneuploid cells, which display characteristics of oncogenic transformation in vitro and are tumorigenic in vivo. Furthermore, in an in vivo mouse xenograft model, non-transformed cells with impaired integrin traffic formed tumors with a long latency. More detailed investigation of these tumors revealed that the tumor cells were aneuploid. Therefore, abnormal integrin traffic was linked with generation of aneuploidy and cell transformation also in vivo. In human prostate and ovarian cancer samples, downregulation of Rab21 correlates with increased malignancy. Loss-of-function experiments demonstrate that long-term depletion of Rab21 is sufficient to induce chromosome number aberrations in normal human epithelial cells. These data are the first to demonstrate that impaired integrin traffic is sufficient to induce conversion of non-transformed cells to tumorigenic cells in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22120710

  13. The N terminus of SKAP55 enables T cell adhesion to TCR and integrin ligands via distinct mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Ophir, Michael J.; Liu, Beiyun C.

    2013-01-01

    The T cell receptor (TCR) triggers the assembly of “SLP-76 microclusters,” which mediate signals required for T cell activation. In addition to regulating integrin activation, we show that Src kinase–associated phosphoprotein of 55 kD (SKAP55) is required for microcluster persistence and movement, junctional stabilization, and integrin-independent adhesion via the TCR. These functions require the dimerization of SKAP55 and its interaction with the adaptor adhesion and degranulation-promoting adaptor protein (ADAP). A “tandem dimer” containing two ADAP-binding SKAP55 Src homology 3 (SH3) domains stabilized SLP-76 microclusters and promoted T cell adhesion via the TCR, but could not support adhesion to integrin ligands. Finally, the SKAP55 dimerization motif (DM) enabled the coimmunoprecipitation of the Rap1-dependent integrin regulator Rap1-GTP–interacting adaptor molecule (RIAM), the recruitment of talin into TCR-induced adhesive junctions, and “inside-out” signaling to β1 integrins. Our data indicate that SKAP55 dimers stabilize SLP-76 microclusters, couple SLP-76 to the force-generating systems responsible for microcluster movement, and enable adhesion via the TCR by mechanisms independent of RIAM, talin, and β1 integrins. PMID:24368808

  14. A dual role for Integrin α6β4 in modulating hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies.

    PubMed

    Poitelon, Yannick; Matafora, Vittoria; Silvestri, Nicholas; Zambroni, Desirée; McGarry, Claire; Serghany, Nora; Rush, Thomas; Vizzuso, Domenica; Court, Felipe A; Bachi, Angela; Wrabetz, Lawrence; Feltri, Maria Laura

    2018-05-01

    Peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) is a component of compact myelin in the peripheral nervous system. The amount of PMP22 in myelin is tightly regulated, and PMP22 over or under-expression cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A (CMT1A) and Hereditary Neuropathy with Pressure Palsies (HNPP). Despite the importance of PMP22, its function remains largely unknown. It was reported that PMP22 interacts with the β4 subunit of the laminin receptor α6β4 integrin, suggesting that α6β4 integrin and laminins may contribute to the pathogenesis of CMT1A or HNPP. Here we asked if the lack of α6β4 integrin in Schwann cells influences myelin stability in the HNPP mouse model. Our data indicate that PMP22 and β4 integrin may not interact directly in myelinating Schwann cells, however, ablating β4 integrin delays the formation of tomacula, a characteristic feature of HNPP. In contrast, ablation of integrin β4 worsens nerve conduction velocities and non-compact myelin organization in HNPP animals. This study demonstrates that indirect interactions between an extracellular matrix receptor and a myelin protein influence the stability and function of myelinated fibers. © 2018 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  15. Integrin beta1-mediated matrix assembly and signaling are critical for the normal development and function of the kidney glomerulus.

    PubMed

    Kanasaki, Keizo; Kanda, Yoshiko; Palmsten, Kristin; Tanjore, Harikrishna; Lee, Soo Bong; Lebleu, Valerie S; Gattone, Vincent H; Kalluri, Raghu

    2008-01-15

    The human kidneys filter 180 l of blood every day via about 2.5 million glomeruli. The three layers of the glomerular filtration apparatus consist of fenestrated endothelium, specialized extracellular matrix known as the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and the podocyte foot processes with their modified adherens junctions known as the slit diaphragm (SD). In this study we explored the contribution of podocyte beta1 integrin signaling for normal glomerular function. Mice with podocyte specific deletion of integrin beta1 (podocin-Cre beta1-fl/fl mice) are born normal but cannot complete postnatal renal development. They exhibit detectable proteinuria on day 1 and die within a week. The kidneys of podocin-Cre beta1-fl/fl mice exhibit normal glomerular endothelium but show severe GBM defects with multilaminations and splitting including podocyte foot process effacement. The integrin linked kinase (ILK) is a downstream mediator of integrin beta1 activity in epithelial cells. To further explore whether integrin beta1-mediated signaling facilitates proper glomerular filtration, we generated mice deficient of ILK in the podocytes (podocin-Cre ILK-fl/fl mice). These mice develop normally but exhibit postnatal proteinuria at birth and die within 15 weeks of age due to renal failure. Collectively, our studies demonstrate that podocyte beta1 integrin and ILK signaling is critical for postnatal development and function of the glomerular filtration apparatus.

  16. Synchronized cell attachment triggered by photo-activatable adhesive ligands allows QCM-based detection of early integrin binding

    PubMed Central

    Iturri, Jagoba; García-Fernández, Luis; Reuning, Ute; García, Andrés J.; Campo, Aránzazu del; Salierno, Marcelo J.

    2015-01-01

    The Quartz Crystal Microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) technique was applied to monitor and quantify integrin-RGD recognition during the early stages of cell adhesion. Using QCM-D crystals modified with a photo-activatable RGD peptide, the time point of presentation of adhesive ligand at the surface of the QCM-D crystal could be accurately controlled. This allowed temporal resolution of early integrin-RGD binding and the subsequent cell spreading process, and their separate detection by QCM-D. The specificity of the integrin-RGD binding event was corroborated by performing the experiments in the presence of soluble cyclicRGD as a competitor, and cytochalasin D as inhibitor of cell spreading. Larger frequency change in the QCM-D signal was observed for cells with larger spread area, and for cells overexpressing integrin αvβ3 upon stable transfection. This strategy enables quantification of integrin activity which, in turn, may allow discrimination among different cell types displaying distinct integrin subtypes and expression levels thereof. On the basis of these findings, we believe the strategy can be extended to other photoactivatable ligands to characterize cell membrane receptors activity, a relevant issue for cancer diagnosis (and prognosis) as other several pathologies. PMID:25825012

  17. Physical and functional interactions between a glioma cation channel and integrin-β1 require α-actinin

    PubMed Central

    Rooj, Arun K.; Liu, Zhiyong; McNicholas, Carmel M.

    2015-01-01

    Major plasma membrane components of the tumor cell, ion channels, and integrins play crucial roles in metastasis. Glioma cells express an amiloride-sensitive nonselective cation channel composed of acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC)-1 and epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) α- and γ-subunits. Inhibition of this channel is associated with reduced cell migration and proliferation. Using the ASIC-1 subunit as a reporter for the channel complex, we found a physical and functional interaction between this channel and integrin-β1. Short hairpin RNA knockdown of integrin-β1 attenuated the amiloride-sensitive current, which was due to loss of surface expression of ASIC-1. In contrast, upregulation of membrane expression of integrin-β1 increased the surface expression of ASIC-1. The link between the amiloride-sensitive channel and integrin-β1 was mediated by α-actinin. Downregulation of α-actinin-1 or -4 attenuated the amiloride-sensitive current. Mutation of the putative binding site for α-actinin on the COOH terminus of ASIC-1 reduced the membrane localization of ASIC-1 and also resulted in attenuation of the amiloride-sensitive current. Our data suggest a novel interaction between the amiloride-sensitive glioma cation channel and integrin-β1, mediated by α-actinin. This interaction may form a mechanism by which channel activity can regulate glioma cell proliferation and migration. PMID:26108662

  18. Platelets lacking PIP5KIγ have normal integrin activation but impaired cytoskeletal-membrane integrity and adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanfeng; Zhao, Liang; Suzuki, Aae; Lian, Lurong; Min, Sang H.; Wang, Ziqian; Litvinov, Rustem I.; Stalker, Timothy J.; Yago, Tadayuki; Klopocki, Arkadiusz G.; Schmidtke, David W.; Yin, Helen; Choi, John K.; McEver, Rodger P.; Weisel, John W.; Hartwig, John H.; Abrams, Charles S.

    2013-01-01

    Three isoforms of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5KIα, PIP5KIβ, and PIP5KIγ) can each catalyze the final step in the synthesis of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), which in turn can be either converted to second messengers or bind directly to and thereby regulate proteins such as talin. A widely quoted model speculates that only p90, a longer splice form of platelet-specific PIP5KIγ, but not the shorter p87 PIP5KIγ, regulates the ligand-binding activity of integrins via talin. However, when we used mice genetically engineered to lack only p90 PIP5KIγ, we found that p90 PIP5KIγ is not critical for integrin activation or platelet adhesion on collagen. However, p90 PIP5KIγ-null platelets do have impaired anchoring of their integrins to the underlying cytoskeleton. Platelets lacking both the p90 and p87 PIP5KIγ isoforms had normal integrin activation and actin dynamics, but impaired anchoring of their integrins to the cytoskeleton. Most importantly, they formed weak shear-resistant adhesions ex vivo and unstable vascular occlusions in vivo. Together, our studies demonstrate that, although PIP5KIγ is essential for normal platelet function, individual isoforms of PIP5KIγ fulfill unique roles for the integrin-dependent integrity of the membrane cytoskeleton and for the stabilization of platelet adhesion. PMID:23372168

  19. Structure of a double ubiquitin-like domain in the talin head: a role in integrin activation

    PubMed Central

    Goult, Benjamin T; Bouaouina, Mohamed; Elliott, Paul R; Bate, Neil; Patel, Bipin; Gingras, Alexandre R; Grossmann, J Günter; Roberts, Gordon C K; Calderwood, David A; Critchley, David R; Barsukov, Igor L

    2010-01-01

    Talin is a 270-kDa protein that activates integrins and couples them to cytoskeletal actin. Talin contains an N-terminal FERM domain comprised of F1, F2 and F3 domains, but it is atypical in that F1 contains a large insert and is preceded by an extra domain F0. Although F3 contains the binding site for β-integrin tails, F0 and F1 are also required for activation of β1-integrins. Here, we report the solution structures of F0, F1 and of the F0F1 double domain. Both F0 and F1 have ubiquitin-like folds joined in a novel fixed orientation by an extensive charged interface. The F1 insert forms a loop with helical propensity, and basic residues predicted to reside on one surface of the helix are required for binding to acidic phospholipids and for talin-mediated activation of β1-integrins. This and the fact that basic residues on F2 and F3 are also essential for integrin activation suggest that extensive interactions between the talin FERM domain and acidic membrane phospholipids are required to orientate the FERM domain such that it can activate integrins. PMID:20150896

  20. Transgenic Silk Moths to Produce Spider Silk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-24

    concentrated protein solutions, have failed or are inefficient. Currently, silk is produced from the cocoon of the silk moth Bombyx mori ; however, this silk...repetitive domains of spider dragline silk with the N- and C- terminal domains of the Bombyx mori silk gene, Fibroin-H (Fib-H). Various SpF genes have been...transgenic insects and the biosynthetic capacity of the domesticated silkmoth, Bombyx mori . The elasticity and strength of spider silk make it ideal for

  1. The Effect of Conditional Inactivation of Beta 1 Integrins using Twist 2 Cre, Osterix Cre and Osteocalcin Cre Lines on Skeletal Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Shekaran, Asha; Shoemaker, James T.; Kavanaugh, Taylor E.; Lin, Angela S.; LaPlaca, Michelle C.; Fan, Yuhong; Guldberg, Robert E.; García, Andrés J.

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal development and growth are complex processes regulated by multiple microenvironmental cues, including integrin-ECM interactions. The β1 sub-family of integrins is the largest integrin sub-family and constitutes the main integrin binding partners of collagen I, the major ECM component of bone. As complete β1 integrin integrin knockout results in embryonic lethality, studies of β1 integrin function in vivo rely on tissue-specific gene deletions. While multiple in vitro studies indicate that β1 integrins are crucial regulators of osteogenesis and mineralization, in vivo osteoblast-specific perturbations of β1 integrins have resulted in mild and sometimes contradictory skeletal phenotypes. To further investigate the role of β1 integrins on skeletal phenotype, we used the Twist2-Cre, Osterix-Cre and Osteocalcin-Cre lines to generate conditional β1 integrin deletions, where cre is expressed primarily in mesenchymal condensation, pre-osteoblast, and mature osteoblast lineage cells respectively within these lines. Mice with Twist2-specific β1 integrin disruption were smaller, had impaired skeletal development, especially in the craniofacial and vertebral tissues at E19.5, and did not survive beyond birth. Osterix-specific β1 integrin deficiency resulted in viable mice which were normal at birth but displayed early defects in calvarial ossification, incisor eruption and growth as well as femoral bone mineral density, structure, and mechanical properties. Although these defects persisted into adulthood, they became milder with age. Finally, a lack of β1 integrins in mature osteoblasts and osteocytes resulted in minor alterations to femur structure but had no effect on mineral density, biomechanics or fracture healing. Taken together, our data indicate that β1 integrin expression in early mesenchymal condensations play an important role in skeletal ossification, while β1 integrin-ECM interactions in pre-osteoblast, odontoblast- and hypertrophic

  2. Transgene mobilization and regulatory uncertainty for non-GE fruit products of transgenic rootstocks.

    PubMed

    Haroldsen, Victor M; Chi-Ham, Cecilia L; Bennett, Alan B

    2012-10-31

    Genetically engineered (GE) rootstocks may offer some advantages for biotechnology applications especially in woody perennial crops such as grape or walnut. Transgrafting combines horticultural grafting practices with modern GE methods for crop improvement. Here, a non-GE conventional scion (upper stem portion) is grafted onto a transgenic GE rootstock. Thus, the scion does not contain the genetic modification present in the rootstock genome. We examined transgene presence in walnut and tomato GE rootstocks and non-GE fruit-bearing scions. Mobilization of transgene DNA, protein, and mRNA across the graft was not detected. Though transgenic siRNA mobilization was not observed in grafted tomatoes or walnut scions, transgenic siRNA signal was detected in walnut kernels. Prospective benefits from transgrafted plants include minimized risk of GE pollen flow (Lev-Yadun and Sederoff, 2001), possible use of more than one scion per approved GE rootstock which could help curb the estimated US$136 million (CropLife International, 2011) cost to bring a GE crop to international markets, as well as potential for improved consumer and market acceptance since the consumable product is not itself GE. Thus, transgrafting provides an alternative option for agricultural industries wishing to expand their biotechnology portfolio. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Transgenic oil palm: production and projection.

    PubMed

    Parveez, G K; Masri, M M; Zainal, A; Majid, N A; Yunus, A M; Fadilah, H H; Rasid, O; Cheah, S C

    2000-12-01

    Oil palm is an important economic crop for Malaysia. Genetic engineering could be applied to produce transgenic oil palms with high value-added fatty acids and novel products to ensure the sustainability of the palm oil industry. Establishment of a reliable transformation and regeneration system is essential for genetic engineering. Biolistic was initially chosen as the method for oil palm transformation as it has been the most successful method for monocotyledons to date. Optimization of physical and biological parameters, including testing of promoters and selective agents, was carried out as a prerequisite for stable transformation. This has resulted in the successful transfer of reporter genes into oil palm and the regeneration of transgenic oil palm, thus making it possible to improve the oil palm through genetic engineering. Besides application of the Biolistics method, studies on transformation mediated by Agrobacterium and utilization of the green fluorescent protein gene as a selectable marker gene have been initiated. Upon the development of a reliable transformation system, a number of useful targets are being projected for oil palm improvement. Among these targets are high-oleate and high-stearate oils, and the production of industrial feedstock such as biodegradable plastics. The efforts in oil palm genetic engineering are thus not targeted as commodity palm oil. Due to the long life cycle of the palm and the time taken to regenerate plants in tissue culture, it is envisaged that commercial planting of transgenic palms will not occur any earlier than the year 2020.

  4. Arsenic biotransformation and volatilization in transgenic rice

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xiang-Yan; Qin, Jie; Wang, Li-Hong; Duan, Gui-Lan; Sun, Guo-Xin; Wu, Hui-Lan; Chu, Cheng-Cai; Ling, Hong-Qing; Rosen, Barry P.; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2011-01-01

    Summary Biotransformation of arsenic includes oxidation, reduction, methylation and conversion to more complex organic arsenicals. Members of the class of arsenite [As(III)] S-adenosylmethyltransferase enzymes catalyze As(III) methylation to a variety of mono-, di- and trimethylated species, some of which are less toxic than As(III) itself. However, no methyltransferase gene has been identified in plants. Here, an arsM gene from the soil bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris was expressed in Japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar Nipponbare, and the transgenic rice produced methylated arsenic species, which were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). Both monomethylarsenate [MAs(V)] and dimethylarsenate [DMAs(V)] were detected in the root and shoot of transgenic rice. After 12-d exposure to As(III), the transgenic rice gave off 10-fold more volatile arsenicals. The present study demonstrates that expression of an arsM gene in rice induces arsenic methylation and volatilization, providing a potential stratagem for phytoremediation theoretically. PMID:21517874

  5. Usage of heparan sulfate, integrins, and FAK in HPV16 infection

    PubMed Central

    Abban, Cynthia Y.; Meneses, Patricio I.

    2010-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus Type 16 (HPV16) is the major causative agent of cervical cancer. Studies regarding the early binding and signaling molecules that play a significant role in infection are still lacking. The current study analyses the role of heparan sulfate, integrins, and the signaling molecule FAK in HPV16 infection of human adult keratinocytes cell line (HaCaTs). Our data demonstrate that infection requires the binding of viral particles to heparan sulfate followed by activation of focal adhesion kinase through an integrin. Infections were reduced in the presence of the FAK inhibitor, TAE226. TAE226 was observed to inhibit viral entry to the early endosome a known infectious route. These findings suggest that FAK can serve as a novel target for antiviral therapy. PMID:20441998

  6. Requirement of Vascular Integrin α_vβ_3 for Angiogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Peter C.; Clark, Richard A. F.; Cheresh, David A.

    1994-04-01

    Angiogenesis depends on the adhesive interactions of vascular cells. The adhesion receptor integrin α_vβ_3 was identified as a marker of angiogenic vascular tissue. Integrin α_vβ_3 was expressed on blood vessels in human wound granulation tissue but not in normal skin, and it showed a fourfold increase in expression during angiogenesis on the chick chorioallantoic membrane. In the latter assay, a monoclonal antibody to α_vβ_3 blocked angiogenesis induced by basic fibroblast growth factor, tumor necrosis factor-α, and human melanoma fragments but had no effect on preexisting vessels. These findings suggest that α_vβ_3 may be a useful therapeutic target for diseases characterized by neovascularization.

  7. Evidence for a prolonged role of alpha 4 integrin throughout active experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Keszthelyi, E; Karlik, S; Hyduk, S; Rice, G P; Gordon, G; Yednock, T; Horner, H

    1996-10-01

    The leukocyte integrin receptor, alpha 4 beta 1, and its endothelial cell ligand, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, appear to be of critical importance in the leukocyte trafficking that accompanies CNS damage in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). In this study, the persistence of the role for alpha 4 beta 1/VCAM-1 in EAE was established by observing antibody-mediated disease reversal up to 1 month following disease onset. Limited treatment with a monoclonal antibody against alpha 4 integrin, GG5/3, resulted in a significant decrease in both clinical and histopathologic signs. This was not observed in isotype control experiments. In the latter phase of progressive disease, widespread demyelination occurred in the animals that did not respond to 6 days of anti-alpha 4 treatment. These results demonstrate an essential role for alpha 4 beta 1 interactions throughout active EAE and illustrate the difference between reversible clinical deficits caused by edema and irreversible deficits associated with demyelination.

  8. Tetraspanin CD151 regulates alpha6beta1 integrin adhesion strengthening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lammerding, Jan; Kazarov, Alexander R.; Huang, Hayden; Lee, Richard T.; Hemler, Martin E.

    2003-01-01

    The tetraspanin CD151 molecule associates specifically with laminin-binding integrins, including alpha6beta1. To probe strength of alpha6beta1-dependent adhesion to laminin-1, defined forces (0-1.5 nN) were applied to magnetic laminin-coated microbeads bound to NIH 3T3 cells. For NIH 3T3 cells bearing wild-type CD151, adhesion strengthening was observed, as bead detachment became more difficult over time. In contrast, mutant CD151 (with the C-terminal region replaced) showed impaired adhesion strengthening. Static cell adhesion to laminin-1, and detachment of beads coated with fibronectin or anti-alpha6 antibody were all unaffected by CD151 mutation. Hence, CD151 plays a key role in selectively strengthening alpha6beta1 integrin-mediated adhesion to laminin-1.

  9. Canine chondrodysplasia caused by a truncating mutation in collagen-binding integrin alpha subunit 10.

    PubMed

    Kyöstilä, Kaisa; Lappalainen, Anu K; Lohi, Hannes

    2013-01-01

    The skeletal dysplasias are disorders of the bone and cartilage tissues. Similarly to humans, several dog breeds have been reported to suffer from different types of genetic skeletal disorders. We have studied the molecular genetic background of an autosomal recessive chondrodysplasia that affects the Norwegian Elkhound and Karelian Bear Dog breeds. The affected dogs suffer from disproportionate short stature dwarfism of varying severity. Through a genome-wide approach, we mapped the chondrodysplasia locus to a 2-Mb region on canine chromosome 17 in nine affected and nine healthy Elkhounds (praw = 7.42×10(-6), pgenome-wide = 0.013). The associated locus contained a promising candidate gene, cartilage specific integrin alpha 10 (ITGA10), and mutation screening of its 30 exons revealed a nonsense mutation in exon 16 (c.2083C>T; p.Arg695*) that segregated fully with the disease in both breeds (p = 2.5×10(-23)). A 24% mutation carrier frequency was indicated in NEs and an 8% frequency in KBDs. The ITGA10 gene product, integrin receptor α10-subunit combines into a collagen-binding α10β1 integrin receptor, which is expressed in cartilage chondrocytes and mediates chondrocyte-matrix interactions during endochondral ossification. As a consequence of the nonsense mutation, the α10-protein was not detected in the affected cartilage tissue. The canine phenotype highlights the importance of the α10β1 integrin in bone growth, and the large animal model could be utilized to further delineate its specific functions. Finally, this study revealed a candidate gene for human chondrodysplasias and enabled the development of a genetic test for breeding purposes to eradicate the disease from the two dog breeds.

  10. β1 integrin signaling promotes neuronal migration along vascular scaffolds in the post-stroke brain.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Teppei; Kaneko, Naoko; Ajioka, Itsuki; Nakaguchi, Kanako; Omata, Taichi; Ohba, Honoka; Fässler, Reinhard; García-Verdugo, José Manuel; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi; Matsukawa, Noriyuki; Sawamoto, Kazunobu

    2017-02-01

    Cerebral ischemic stroke is a main cause of chronic disability. However, there is currently no effective treatment to promote recovery from stroke-induced neurological symptoms. Recent studies suggest that after stroke, immature neurons, referred to as neuroblasts, generated in a neurogenic niche, the ventricular-subventricular zone, migrate toward the injured area, where they differentiate into mature neurons. Interventions that increase the number of neuroblasts distributed at and around the lesion facilitate neuronal repair in rodent models for ischemic stroke, suggesting that promoting neuroblast migration in the post-stroke brain could improve efficient neuronal regeneration. To move toward the lesion, neuroblasts form chain-like aggregates and migrate along blood vessels, which are thought to increase their migration efficiency. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating these migration processes are largely unknown. Here we studied the role of β1-class integrins, transmembrane receptors for extracellular matrix proteins, in these migrating neuroblasts. We found that the neuroblast chain formation and blood vessel-guided migration critically depend on β1 integrin signaling. β1 integrin facilitated the adhesion of neuroblasts to laminin and the efficient translocation of their soma during migration. Moreover, artificial laminin-containing scaffolds promoted neuroblast chain formation and migration toward the injured area. These data suggest that laminin signaling via β1 integrin supports vasculature-guided neuronal migration to efficiently supply neuroblasts to injured areas. This study also highlights the importance of vascular scaffolds for cell migration in development and regeneration. Copyright © 2017 3-V Biosciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Engineered Knottin Peptides: A New Class of Agents for Imaging Integrin Expression in Living Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Richard H; Cheng, Zhen; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Cochran, Jennifer R

    2009-01-01

    There is a critical need for molecular imaging agents to detect cell surface integrin receptors that are present in human cancers. Previously, we used directed evolution to engineer knottin peptides that bind with low nM affinity to integrin receptors that are overexpressed on the surface of tumor cells and the tumor neovasculature. To evaluate these peptides as molecular imaging agents, we site-specifically conjugated Cy5.5 or 64Cu-DOTA to their N-termini, and used optical and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to measure their uptake and biodistribution in U87MG glioblastoma murine xenograft models. Near-infrared fluorescence and microPET imaging both demonstrated that integrin binding affinity plays a strong role in the tumor uptake of knottin peptides. Tumor uptake at 1 h post injection for two high affinity (IC50 ∼20 nM) 64Cu-DOTA-conjugated knottin peptides was 4.47 ± 1.21 and 4.56 ± 0.64 % injected dose/gram (%ID/g), compared to a low affinity knottin peptide (IC50 ∼0.4 μM; 1.48 ± 0.53 %ID/g) and c(RGDyK) (IC50 ∼1 μM; 2.32 ± 0.55 %ID/g), a low affinity cyclic pentapeptide under clinical development. Furthermore, 64Cu-DOTA-conjugated knottin peptides generated lower levels of non-specific liver uptake (∼2 %ID/g) compared to c(RGDyK) (∼4 %ID/g) 1 h post injection. MicroPET imaging results were confirmed by in vivo biodistribution studies. 64Cu-DOTA-conjugated knottin peptides were stable in mouse serum, and in vivo metabolite analysis showed minimal degradation in the blood or tumor upon injection. Thus, engineered integrin-binding knottin peptides show great potential as clinical diagnostics for a variety of cancers. PMID:19276378

  12. Absence of integrin alpha 7 causes a novel form of muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Mayer, U; Saher, G; Fässler, R; Bornemann, A; Echtermeyer, F; von der Mark, H; Miosge, N; Pöschl, E; von der Mark, K

    1997-11-01

    Integrin alpha 7 beta 1 is a specific cellular receptor for the basement membrane protein laminin-1 (refs 1,2), as well as for the laminin isoforms -2 and -4 (ref. 3). The alpha 7 subunit is expressed mainly in skeletal and cardiac muscle and has been suggested to be involved in differentiation and migration processes during myogenesis. Three cytoplasmic and two extracellular splice variants that have been described are developmentally regulated and expressed in different sites in the muscle. In adult muscle, the alpha 7A and alpha 7B subunits are concentrated in myotendinous junctions but can also be detected in neuromuscular junctions and along the sarcolemmal membrane. To study the potential involvement of alpha 7 integrin, during myogenesis and its role in muscle integrity and function, we generated a null allele of the alpha 7 gene (Itga7) in the germline of mice by homologous recombination in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Surprisingly, mice homozygous for the mutation are viable and fertile, indicating that the alpha 7 beta 1 integrin is not essential for myogenesis. However, histological analysis of skeletal muscle revealed typical symptoms of a progressive muscular dystrophy starting soon after birth, but with a distinct variability in different muscle types. The observed histopathological changes strongly indicate an impairment of function of the myotendinous junctions. These findings demonstrate that alpha 7 beta 1 integrin represents an indispensable linkage between the muscle fibre and the extracellular matrix that is independent of the dystrophin-dystroglycan complex-mediated interaction of the cytoskeleton with the muscle basement membrane.

  13. Complementary roles of KCa3.1 channels and β1-integrin during alveolar epithelial repair.

    PubMed

    Girault, Alban; Chebli, Jasmine; Privé, Anik; Trinh, Nguyen Thu Ngan; Maillé, Emilie; Grygorczyk, Ryszard; Brochiero, Emmanuelle

    2015-09-04

    Extensive alveolar epithelial injury and remodelling is a common feature of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and it has been established that epithelial regeneration, and secondary lung oedema resorption, is crucial for ARDS resolution. Much evidence indicates that K(+) channels are regulating epithelial repair processes; however, involvement of the KCa3.1 channels in alveolar repair has never been investigated before. Wound-healing assays demonstrated that the repair rates were increased in primary rat alveolar cell monolayers grown on a fibronectin matrix compared to non-coated supports, whereas an anti-β1-integrin antibody reduced it. KCa3.1 inhibition/silencing impaired the fibronectin-stimulated wound-healing rates, as well as cell migration and proliferation, but had no effect in the absence of coating. We then evaluated a putative relationship between KCa3.1 channel and the migratory machinery protein β1-integrin, which is activated by fibronectin. Co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence experiments indicated a link between the two proteins and revealed their cellular co-distribution. In addition, we demonstrated that KCa3.1 channel and β1-integrin membrane expressions were increased on a fibronectin matrix. We also showed increased intracellular calcium concentrations as well as enhanced expression of TRPC4, a voltage-independent calcium channel belonging to the large TRP channel family, on a fibronectin matrix. Finally, wound-healing assays showed additive effects of KCa3.1 and TRPC4 inhibitors on alveolar epithelial repair. Taken together, our data demonstrate for the first time complementary roles of KCa3.1 and TRPC4 channels with extracellular matrix and β1-integrin in the regulation of alveolar repair processes.

  14. α5β1-Integrin inhibitor (CLT-28643) effective in rabbit trabeculectomy model.

    PubMed

    Schultheiss, Maximilian; Schnichels, Sven; Konrad, Eva-Maria; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl U; Zahn, Grit; Caldirola, Patrizia; Fsadni, Mario G; Caram-Lelham, Ninus; Spitzer, Martin S

    2017-02-01

    Glaucoma filtration surgery (GFS) fails due to fibrosis. The α5β1-integrin plays a pivotal role in fibrosis, angiogenesis and inflammation. This is the first experiment evaluating the prevention of fibrosis after GFS by a specific small molecule α5β1-integrin inhibitor (CLT-28643). Twenty-four rabbits received trabeculectomy on their right eyes. The rabbits were randomized into three groups of eight eyes each. CLT-28643 was given as a single subconjunctival injection intraoperatively to two of the right eye groups followed by postoperative vehicle eye drops (CLT+ group) or CLT-28643 eye drops 4 times daily (CLT++ group). A third group received mitomycin-C (MMC) intraoperatively (sponge application, 0.04%, 2 min) followed by vehicle eye drops postoperatively. The control-surgery group consisted of 12 left eyes having trabeculectomy with no adjunctive therapy. The remaining 12 left eyes formed the untreated group. Clinical assessment included intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement, slit-lamp examination (including bleb survival and morphology) and bleb photography. The rabbits were killed after four weeks for histology. Both CLT-28643-treated groups showed significantly prolonged bleb survival, and better bleb score compared to the control-surgery group. At end of the study, most functioning blebs were found in the MMC group (MMC group 75%; CLT+ group 12.5%, CLT++ group 25%; CLT+ group 12.5%, control-surgery group 0%). CLT-28643 was non-toxic and well tolerated. This rabbit GFS study indicates that inhibition of α5β1-integrin by the novel α5β1-integrin antagonist CLT-28643 significantly improved the outcome. The effect of a single intro-operative application of CLT-28643 seems to be inferior to 0.04% MMC. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. β2 integrin mediates hantavirus-induced release of neutrophil extracellular traps

    PubMed Central

    Raftery, Martin J.; Lalwani, Pritesh; Krautkrӓmer, Ellen; Peters, Thorsten; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Krüger, Renate; Hofmann, Jörg; Seeger, Karl; Krüger, Detlev H.

    2014-01-01

    Rodent-borne hantaviruses are emerging human pathogens that cause severe human disease. The underlying mechanisms are not well understood, as hantaviruses replicate in endothelial and epithelial cells without causing any cytopathic effect. We demonstrate that hantaviruses strongly stimulated neutrophils to release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Hantavirus infection induced high systemic levels of circulating NETs in patients and this systemic NET overflow was accompanied by production of autoantibodies to nuclear antigens. Analysis of the responsible mechanism using neutrophils from β2 null mice identified β2 integrin receptors as a master switch for NET induction. Further experiments suggested that β2 integrin receptors such as complement receptor 3 (CR3) and 4 (CR4) may act as novel hantavirus entry receptors. Using adenoviruses, we confirmed that viral interaction with β2 integrin induced strong NET formation. Collectively, β2 integrin–mediated systemic NET overflow is a novel viral mechanism of immunopathology that may be responsible for characteristic aspects of hantavirus-associated disease such as kidney and lung damage. PMID:24889201

  16. Compression force sensing regulates integrin αIIbβ3 adhesive function on diabetic platelets.

    PubMed

    Ju, Lining; McFadyen, James D; Al-Daher, Saheb; Alwis, Imala; Chen, Yunfeng; Tønnesen, Lotte L; Maiocchi, Sophie; Coulter, Brianna; Calkin, Anna C; Felner, Eric I; Cohen, Neale; Yuan, Yuping; Schoenwaelder, Simone M; Cooper, Mark E; Zhu, Cheng; Jackson, Shaun P

    2018-03-14

    Diabetes is associated with an exaggerated platelet thrombotic response at sites of vascular injury. Biomechanical forces regulate platelet activation, although the impact of diabetes on this process remains ill-defined. Using a biomembrane force probe (BFP), we demonstrate that compressive force activates integrin α IIb β 3 on discoid diabetic platelets, increasing its association rate with immobilized fibrinogen. This compressive force-induced integrin activation is calcium and PI 3-kinase dependent, resulting in enhanced integrin affinity maturation and exaggerated shear-dependent platelet adhesion. Analysis of discoid platelet aggregation in the mesenteric circulation of mice confirmed that diabetes leads to a marked enhancement in the formation and stability of discoid platelet aggregates, via a mechanism that is not inhibited by therapeutic doses of aspirin and clopidogrel, but is eliminated by PI 3-kinase inhibition. These studies demonstrate the existence of a compression force sensing mechanism linked to α IIb β 3 adhesive function that leads to a distinct prothrombotic phenotype in diabetes.

  17. A Novel Role for Integrin-linked Kinase in Epithelial Sheet Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Vespa, Alisa; D'Souza, Sudhir J.A.; Dagnino, Lina

    2005-01-01

    Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a multidomain protein involved in cell motility and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. ILK is found in integrin-containing focal adhesions in undifferentiated primary epidermal keratinocytes. Induction of keratinocyte differentiation by treatment with Ca2+ triggers formation of cell–cell junctions, loss of focal adhesions, and ILK distribution to cell borders. We now show that Ca2+ treatment of keratinocytes induces rapid (≤1 h) translocation to the cell membrane of the adherens junction (AJ) proteins E-cadherin and β-catenin. This is followed by slower (>6 h) localization of tight junction (TJ) proteins. The kinetics of ILK movement toward the cell periphery mimics that of AJ components, suggesting that ILK plays a role in the early formation of cell–cell contacts. Whereas the N terminus in ILK mediates localization to cell borders, expression of an ILK deletion mutant incapable of localizing to the cell membrane (ILK 191-452) interferes with translocation of E-cadherin/β-catenin to cell borders, precluding Ca2+-induced AJ formation. Cells expressing ILK 191-452 also fail to form TJ and sealed cell–cell borders and do not form epithelial sheets. Thus, we have uncovered a novel role for ILK in epithelial cell–cell adhesion, independent of its well-established role in integrin-mediated adhesion and migration. PMID:15975904

  18. Essential role of integrin-linked kinase in regulation of phagocytosis in keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Sayedyahossein, Samar; Nini, Lylia; Irvine, Timothy S; Dagnino, Lina

    2012-10-01

    Phagocytic melanosome uptake by epidermal keratinocytes is a central protective mechanism against damage induced by ultraviolet radiation. Phagocytosis requires formation of pseudopodia via actin cytoskeleton rearrangements. Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is an important modulator of actin cytoskeletal dynamics. We have examined the role of ILK in regulation of phagocytosis, using epidermal keratinocytes isolated from mice with epidermis-restricted Ilk gene inactivation. ILK-deficient cells exhibited severely impaired capacity to engulf fluorescent microspheres in response to stimulation of the keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) receptor or the protease-activated receptor-2. KGF induced ERK phosphorylation in ILK-expressing and ILK-deficient cells, suggesting that ILK is not essential for KGF receptor signaling. In contrast, KGF promoted activation of Rac1 and formation of pseudopodia in ILK-expressing, but not in ILK-deficient cells. Rac1-deficient keratinocytes also showed substantially impaired phagocytic ability, underlining the importance of ILK-dependent Rac1 function for particle engulfment. Finally, cross-modulation of KGF receptors by integrins may be another important element, as integrin β1-deficient keratinocytes also fail to show significant phagocytosis in response to KGF. Thus, we have identified a novel signaling pathway essential for phagocytosis in keratinocytes, which involves ILK-dependent activation of Rac1 in response to KGF, resulting in the formation of pseudopodia and particle uptake.

  19. A novel role for integrin-linked kinase in epithelial sheet morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Vespa, Alisa; D'Souza, Sudhir J A; Dagnino, Lina

    2005-09-01

    Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a multidomain protein involved in cell motility and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. ILK is found in integrin-containing focal adhesions in undifferentiated primary epidermal keratinocytes. Induction of keratinocyte differentiation by treatment with Ca(2+) triggers formation of cell-cell junctions, loss of focal adhesions, and ILK distribution to cell borders. We now show that Ca(2+) treatment of keratinocytes induces rapid (6 h) localization of tight junction (TJ) proteins. The kinetics of ILK movement toward the cell periphery mimics that of AJ components, suggesting that ILK plays a role in the early formation of cell-cell contacts. Whereas the N terminus in ILK mediates localization to cell borders, expression of an ILK deletion mutant incapable of localizing to the cell membrane (ILK 191-452) interferes with translocation of E-cadherin/beta-catenin to cell borders, precluding Ca(2+)-induced AJ formation. Cells expressing ILK 191-452 also fail to form TJ and sealed cell-cell borders and do not form epithelial sheets. Thus, we have uncovered a novel role for ILK in epithelial cell-cell adhesion, independent of its well-established role in integrin-mediated adhesion and migration.

  20. Identification of Equine Lactadherin-derived Peptides That Inhibit Rotavirus Infection via Integrin Receptor Competition.

    PubMed

    Civra, Andrea; Giuffrida, Maria Gabriella; Donalisio, Manuela; Napolitano, Lorenzo; Takada, Yoshikazu; Coulson, Barbara S; Conti, Amedeo; Lembo, David

    2015-05-08

    Human rotavirus is the leading cause of severe gastroenteritis in infants and children under the age of 5 years in both developed and developing countries. Human lactadherin, a milk fat globule membrane glycoprotein, inhibits human rotavirus infection in vitro, whereas bovine lactadherin is not active. Moreover, it protects breastfed infants against symptomatic rotavirus infections. To explore the potential antiviral activity of lactadherin sourced by equines, we undertook a proteomic analysis of milk fat globule membrane proteins from donkey milk and elucidated its amino acid sequence. Alignment of the human, bovine, and donkey lactadherin sequences revealed the presence of an Asp-Gly-Glu (DGE) α2β1 integrin-binding motif in the N-terminal domain of donkey sequence only. Because integrin α2β1 plays a critical role during early steps of rotavirus host cell adhesion, we tested a minilibrary of donkey lactadherin-derived peptides containing DGE sequence for anti-rotavirus activity. A 20-amino acid peptide containing both DGE and RGD motifs (named pDGE-RGD) showed the greatest activity, and its mechanism of antiviral action was characterized; pDGE-RGD binds to integrin α2β1 by means of the DGE motif and inhibits rotavirus attachment to the cell surface. These findings suggest the potential anti-rotavirus activity of equine lactadherin and support the feasibility of developing an anti-rotavirus peptide that acts by hindering virus-receptor binding. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Integrins beta 5, beta 3 and alpha v are apically distributed in endometrial epithelium.

    PubMed

    Aplin, J D; Spanswick, C; Behzad, F; Kimber, S J; Vićovac, L

    1996-07-01

    Several adhesion molecules have been shown to occur at the surface of endometrial cells. One of these is the integrin alpha v subunit which associates with various beta chains including beta 5. We demonstrate the presence of integrin beta 5 polypeptide in human endometrial epithelial cells throughout the menstrual cycle using immunocytochemistry with monospecific antibodies, and at the mRNA level by thermal amplification from endometrial cDNA. Integrin beta 5 is also found in a population of bone marrow-derived cells. A notable feature of the distribution of the beta 5 subunit in the glandular and luminal epithelium is its apical localization, which may suggest an involvement in implantation. However, no evidence was found for regulated expression of epithelial beta 5. In mouse, the beta 5 subunit is found at both the apical and basal surface of epithelial cells and expression is essentially oestrous cycle-independent. Comparisons are made in both species with the distribution of the alpha v and beta 3 subunits which also localize to the apical epithelium.

  2. DR-nm23 expression affects neuroblastoma cell differentiation, integrin expression, and adhesion characteristics.

    PubMed

    Amendola, R; Martinez, R; Negroni, A; Venturelli, D; Tanno, B; Calabretta, B; Raschellà, G

    2001-01-01

    Nm23 gene family has been associated with metastasis suppression and differentiation. We studied DR-nm23 during neuroblastoma cells differentiation. DR-nm23 expression increased after retinoic acid induction of differentiation in human cell lines SK-N-SH and LAN-5. In several cell lines, overexpression of DR-nm23 was associated with more differentiated phenotypes. SK-N-SH cells increased vimentin expression, increased deposition of collagen type IV, modulated integrin expression, and underwent growth arrest; the murine neuroblastoma cell line N1E-115 showed neurite outgrowth and a striking enhancement of beta1 integrin expression. Up-regulation of beta1 integrin was specifically responsible for the increase in the adhesion to collagen type I-coated plates. Finally, cells overexpressing DR-nm23 were unable to growth in soft agar. In conclusion, DR-nm23 expression is directly involved in differentiation of neuroblastoma cells, and its ability to affects the adhesion to extracellular substrates and to inhibit growth in soft agar suggests an involvement in the metastatic potential of neuroblastoma.

  3. HGF/scatter factor selectively promotes cell invasion by increasing integrin avidity.

    PubMed

    Trusolino, L; Cavassa, S; Angelini, P; Andó, M; Bertotti, A; Comoglio, P M; Boccaccio, C

    2000-08-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) controls a genetic program known as 'invasive growth', which involves as critical steps cell adhesion, migration, and trespassing of basement membranes. We show here that in MDA-MB-231 carcinoma cells, these steps are elicited by HGF/SF but not by epidermal growth factor (EGF). Neither factor substantially alters the production or activity of extracellular matrix proteases. HGF/SF, but not EGF, selectively promotes cell adhesion on laminins 1 and 5, fibronectin, and vitronectin through a PI3-K-dependent mechanism. Increased adhesion is followed by enhanced invasiveness through isolated matrix proteins as well as through reconstituted basement membranes. Inhibition assays using function-blocking antibodies show that this phenomenon is mediated by multiple integrins including beta1, beta3, beta4, and beta5. HGF/SF triggers clustering of all these integrins at actin-rich adhesive sites and lamellipodia but does not quantitatively modify their membrane expression. These data suggest that HGF/SF promotes cell adhesion and invasiveness by increasing the avidity of integrins for their specific ligands.

  4. Demonstration of mechanical connections between integrins, cytoskeletal filaments, and nucleoplasm that stabilize nuclear structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maniotis, A. J.; Chen, C. S.; Ingber, D. E.

    1997-01-01

    We report here that living cells and nuclei are hard-wired such that a mechanical tug on cell surface receptors can immediately change the organization of molecular assemblies in the cytoplasm and nucleus. When integrins were pulled by micromanipulating bound microbeads or micropipettes, cytoskeletal filaments reoriented, nuclei distorted, and nucleoli redistributed along the axis of the applied tension field. These effects were specific for integrins, independent of cortical membrane distortion, and were mediated by direct linkages between the cytoskeleton and nucleus. Actin microfilaments mediated force transfer to the nucleus at low strain; however, tearing of the actin gel resulted with greater distortion. In contrast, intermediate filaments effectively mediated force transfer to the nucleus under both conditions. These filament systems also acted as molecular guy wires to mechanically stiffen the nucleus and anchor it in place, whereas microtubules acted to hold open the intermediate filament lattice and to stabilize the nucleus against lateral compression. Molecular connections between integrins, cytoskeletal filaments, and nuclear scaffolds may therefore provide a discrete path for mechanical signal transfer through cells as well as a mechanism for producing integrated changes in cell and nuclear structure in response to changes in extracellular matrix adhesivity or mechanics.

  5. Prevention of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by antibodies against α4βl integrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yednock, Ted A.; Cannon, Catherine; Fritz, Lawrence C.; Sanchez-Madrid, Francisco; Steinman, Lawrence; Karin, Nathan

    1992-03-01

    EXPERIMENTAL autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an inflammatory condition of the central nervous system with similarities to multiple sclerosis1,2. In both diseases, circulating leukocytes penetrate the blood-brain barrier and damage myelin, resulting in impaired nerve conduction and paralysis3-5. We sought to identify the adhesion receptors that mediate the attachment of circulating leukocytes to inflamed brain endothelium in EAE, because this interaction is the first step in leukocyte entry into the central nervous system. Using an in vitro adhesion assay on tissue sections, we found that lymphocytes and monocytes bound selectively to inflamed EAE brain vessels. Binding was inhibited by antibodies against the integrin molecule α4βl, but not by antibodies against numerous other adhesion receptors. When tested in vivo, anti-α4 integrin effectively prevented the accumulation of leukocytes in the central nervous system and the development of EAE. Thus, therapies designed to interfere with α4βl integrin may be useful in treating inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system, such as multiple sclerosis.

  6. Integrin distributions in renal cell carcinomas of various grades of malignancy.

    PubMed Central

    Korhonen, M.; Laitinen, L.; Ylänne, J.; Koukoulis, G. K.; Quaranta, V.; Juusela, H.; Gould, V. E.; Virtanen, I.

    1992-01-01

    We studied 41 renal cell carcinomas, classified according to histologic grades G1 through G3, by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy using a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against various integrin subunits, and the basement membrane (BM) components laminin and collagen type IV. Selected cases also were immunostained using the avidin-biotin-complex method. The alpha 3 and beta 1 integrin subunits were detected in tumor cells of all the carcinomas. All G1 carcinomas, like normal tubular epithelial cells, expressed the alpha 6 subunit, whereas it was lacking in 20% and 40% of G2 and G3 carcinomas, respectively. Furthermore, when alpha 6 was expressed, a lack of basally polarized organization of the subunit, coupled with disorganization of the BM components, correlated with histologic grade. Another feature that appeared to characterize the more anaplastic tumors was their high level (80%) of the alpha v subunit expression as compared with its absence in the G1 carcinomas. Stromal myofibroblasts, identified by double-labeling with anti-myosin, were often characterized by the expression of the alpha 1, alpha 3, alpha 5 and beta 1 subunits. These results indicate that changes in integrin expression in renal cell carcinomas may be correlated with their degree of histologic malignancy. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:1443050

  7. Amplification and oscillations in the FAK/Src kinase system during integrin signaling.

    PubMed

    Caron-Lormier, G; Berry, H

    2005-01-21

    Integrin signaling is a major pathway of cell adhesion to extracellular matrices that regulates many physiological cell behaviors such as cell proliferation, migration or differentiation and is implied in pathologies such as tumor invasion. In this paper, we focused on the molecular system formed by the two kinases FAK (focal adhesion kinase) and Src, which undergo auto- and co-activation during early steps of integrin signaling. The system is modelled using classical kinetic equations and yields a set of three nonlinear ordinary differential equations describing the dynamics of the different phosphorylation forms of FAK. Analytical and numerical analysis of these equations show that this system may in certain cases amplify incoming signals from the integrins. A quantitative condition is obtained, which indicates that the total FAK charge in the system acts as a critical mass that must be exceeded for amplification to be effective. Furthermore, we show that when FAK activity is lower than Src activity, spontaneous oscillations of FAK phosphorylation forms may appear. The oscillatory behavior is studied using bifurcation and stability diagrams. We finally discuss the significance of this behavior with respect to recent experimental results evidencing FAK dynamics.

  8. PTP1B triggers integrin-mediated repression of myosin activity and modulates cell contractility

    PubMed Central

    González Wusener, Ana E.; González, Ángela; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Arregui, Carlos O.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cell contractility and migration by integrins depends on precise regulation of protein tyrosine kinase and Rho-family GTPase activities in specific spatiotemporal patterns. Here we show that protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B cooperates with β3 integrin to activate the Src/FAK signalling pathway which represses RhoA-myosin-dependent contractility. Using PTP1B null (KO) cells and PTP1B reconstituted (WT) cells, we determined that some early steps following cell adhesion to fibronectin and vitronectin occurred robustly in WT cells, including aggregation of β3 integrins and adaptor proteins, and activation of Src/FAK-dependent signalling at small puncta in a lamellipodium. However, these events were significantly impaired in KO cells. We established that cytoskeletal strain and cell contractility was highly enhanced at the periphery of KO cells compared to WT cells. Inhibition of the Src/FAK signalling pathway or expression of constitutive active RhoA in WT cells induced a KO cell phenotype. Conversely, expression of constitutive active Src or myosin inhibition in KO cells restored the WT phenotype. We propose that this novel function of PTP1B stimulates permissive conditions for adhesion and lamellipodium assembly at the protruding edge during cell spreading and migration. PMID:26700725

  9. Epithelial Membrane Protein 2 and β1 integrin signaling regulate APC-mediated processes.

    PubMed

    Lesko, Alyssa C; Prosperi, Jenifer R

    2017-01-01

    Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) plays a critical role in cell motility, maintenance of apical-basal polarity, and epithelial morphogenesis. We previously demonstrated that APC loss in Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells increases cyst size and inverts polarity independent of Wnt signaling, and upregulates the tetraspan protein, Epithelial Membrane Protein 2 (EMP2). Herein, we show that APC loss increases β1 integrin expression and migration of MDCK cells. Through 3D in vitro model systems and 2D migration analysis, we have depicted the molecular mechanism(s) by which APC influences polarity and cell motility. EMP2 knockdown in APC shRNA cells revealed that APC regulates apical-basal polarity and cyst size through EMP2. Chemical inhibition of β1 integrin and its signaling components, FAK and Src, indicated that APC controls cyst size and migration, but not polarity, through β1 integrin and its downstream targets. Combined, the current studies have identified two distinct and novel mechanisms required for APC to regulate polarity, cyst size, and cell migration independent of Wnt signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Osteoblast mineralization requires β1 integrin/ICAP-1–dependent fibronectin deposition

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, Molly; Millon-Frémillon, Angélique; Chevalier, Genevieve; Nakchbandi, Inaam A.; Mosher, Deane; Block, Marc R.

    2011-01-01

    The morphogenetic and differentiation events required for bone formation are orchestrated by diffusible and insoluble factors that are localized within the extracellular matrix. In mice, the deletion of ICAP-1, a modulator of β1 integrin activation, leads to severe defects in osteoblast proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization and to a delay in bone formation. Deposition of fibronectin and maturation of fibrillar adhesions, adhesive structures that accompany fibronectin deposition, are impaired upon ICAP-1 loss, as are type I collagen deposition and mineralization. Expression of β1 integrin with a mutated binding site for ICAP-1 recapitulates the ICAP-1–null phenotype. Follow-up experiments demonstrated that ICAP-1 negatively regulates kindlin-2 recruitment onto the β1 integrin cytoplasmic domain, whereas an excess of kindlin-2 binding has a deleterious effect on fibrillar adhesion formation. These results suggest that ICAP-1 works in concert with kindlin-2 to control the dynamics of β1 integrin–containing fibrillar adhesions and, thereby, regulates fibronectin deposition and osteoblast mineralization. PMID:21768292

  11. Interaction between integrin α5 and PDE4D regulates endothelial inflammatory signalling

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Sanguk; Budatha, Madhusudhan; Dahlman, James E.; Coon, Brian G.; Cameron, Ryan T.; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G.; Baillie, George; Schwartz, Martin A.

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is primarily a disease of lipid metabolism and inflammation; however, it is also closely associated with endothelial extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling, with fibronectin accumulating in the laminin–collagen basement membrane. To investigate how fibronectin modulates inflammation in arteries, we replaced the cytoplasmic tail of the fibronectin receptor integrin α5 with that of the collagen/laminin receptor integrin α2. This chimaera suppressed inflammatory signalling in endothelial cells on fibronectin and in knock-in mice. Fibronectin promoted inflammation by suppressing anti-inflammatory cAMP. cAMP was activated through endothelial prostacyclin secretion; however, this was ECM-independent. Instead, cells on fibronectin suppressed cAMP via enhanced phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity, through direct binding of integrin α5 to phosphodiesterase-4D5 (PDE4D5), which induced PP2A-dependent dephosphorylation of PDE4D5 on the inhibitory site Ser651. In vivo knockdown of PDE4D5 inhibited inflammation at athero-prone sites. These data elucidate a molecular mechanism linking ECM remodelling and inflammation, thereby identifying a new class of therapeutic targets. PMID:27595237

  12. An Epithelial Integrin Regulates the Amplitude of Protective Lung Interferon Responses against Multiple Respiratory Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Meliopoulos, Victoria A; Van de Velde, Lee-Ann; Van de Velde, Nicholas C; Karlsson, Erik A; Neale, Geoff; Vogel, Peter; Guy, Cliff; Sharma, Shalini; Duan, Susu; Surman, Sherri L; Jones, Bart G; Johnson, Michael D L; Bosio, Catharine; Jolly, Lisa; Jenkins, R Gisli; Hurwitz, Julia L; Rosch, Jason W; Sheppard, Dean; Thomas, Paul G; Murray, Peter J; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2016-08-01

    The healthy lung maintains a steady state of immune readiness to rapidly respond to injury from invaders. Integrins are important for setting the parameters of this resting state, particularly the epithelial-restricted αVβ6 integrin, which is upregulated during injury. Once expressed, αVβ6 moderates acute lung injury (ALI) through as yet undefined molecular mechanisms. We show that the upregulation of β6 during influenza infection is involved in disease pathogenesis. β6-deficient mice (β6 KO) have increased survival during influenza infection likely due to the limited viral spread into the alveolar spaces leading to reduced ALI. Although the β6 KO have morphologically normal lungs, they harbor constitutively activated lung CD11b+ alveolar macrophages (AM) and elevated type I IFN signaling activity, which we traced to the loss of β6-activated transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). Administration of exogenous TGF-β to β6 KO mice leads to reduced numbers of CD11b+ AMs, decreased type I IFN signaling activity and loss of the protective phenotype during influenza infection. Protection extended to other respiratory pathogens such as Sendai virus and bacterial pneumonia. Our studies demonstrate that the loss of one epithelial protein, αVβ6 integrin, can alter the lung microenvironment during both homeostasis and respiratory infection leading to reduced lung injury and improved survival.

  13. Anti-IL-5 attenuates activation and surface density of β(2) -integrins on circulating eosinophils after segmental antigen challenge.

    PubMed

    Johansson, M W; Gunderson, K A; Kelly, E A B; Denlinger, L C; Jarjour, N N; Mosher, D F

    2013-03-01

    IL-5 activates α(M) β(2) integrin on blood eosinophils in vitro. Eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) following segmental antigen challenge have activated β(2) -integrins. To identify roles for IL-5 in regulating human eosinophil integrins in vivo. Blood and BAL eosinophils were analysed by flow cytometry in ten subjects with allergic asthma who underwent a segmental antigen challenge protocol before and after anti-IL-5 administration. Blood eosinophil reactivity with monoclonal antibody (mAb) KIM-127, which recognizes partially activated β(2) -integrins, was decreased after anti-IL-5. Before anti-IL-5, surface densities of blood eosinophil β(2) , α(M) and α(L) integrin subunits increased modestly post challenge. After anti-IL-5, such increases did not occur. Before or after anti-IL-5, surface densities of β(2) , α(M) , α(L) and α(D) and reactivity with KIM-127 and mAb CBRM1/5, which recognizes high-activity α(M) β(2) , were similarly high on BAL eosinophils 48 h post-challenge. Density and activation state of β(1) -integrins on blood and BAL eosinophils were not impacted by anti-IL-5, even though anti-IL-5 ablated a modest post-challenge increase on blood or BAL eosinophils of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), a receptor for P-selectin that causes activation of β(1) -integrins. Forward scatter of blood eosinophils post-challenge was less heterogeneous and on the average decreased after anti-IL-5; however, anti-IL-5 had no effect on the decreased forward scatter of eosinophils in post-challenge BAL compared with eosinophils in blood. Blood eosinophil KIM-127 reactivity at the time of challenge correlated with the percentage of eosinophils in BAL post-challenge. IL-5 supports a heterogeneous population of circulating eosinophils with partially activated β(2) -integrins and is responsible for up-regulation of β(2) -integrins and PSGL-1 on circulating eosinophils following segmental antigen challenge but has minimal effects on

  14. The Gain-of-Function Integrin β3 Pro33 Variant Alters the Serotonin System in the Mouse Brain.

    PubMed

    Dohn, Michael R; Kooker, Christopher G; Bastarache, Lisa; Jessen, Tammy; Rinaldi, Capria; Varney, Seth; Mazalouskas, Matthew D; Pan, Hope; Oliver, Kendra H; Velez Edwards, Digna R; Sutcliffe, James S; Denny, Joshua C; Carneiro, Ana M D

    2017-11-15

    Engagement of integrins by the extracellular matrix initiates signaling cascades that drive a variety of cellular functions, including neuronal migration and axonal pathfinding in the brain. Multiple lines of evidence link the ITGB3 gene encoding the integrin β3 subunit with the serotonin (5-HT) system, likely via its modulation of the 5-HT transporter (SERT). The ITGB3 coding polymorphism Leu33Pro (rs5918, Pl A2 ) produces hyperactive αvβ3 receptors that influence whole-blood 5-HT levels and may influence the risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Using a phenome-wide scan of psychiatric diagnoses, we found significant, male-specific associations between the Pro33 allele and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and ASDs. Here, we used knock-in (KI) mice expressing an Itgb3 variant that phenocopies the human Pro33 variant to elucidate the consequences of constitutively enhanced αvβ3 signaling to the 5-HT system in the brain. KI mice displayed deficits in multiple behaviors, including anxiety, repetitive, and social behaviors. Anatomical studies revealed a significant decrease in 5-HT synapses in the midbrain, accompanied by decreases in SERT activity and reduced localization of SERTs to integrin adhesion complexes in synapses of KI mice. Inhibition of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) rescued SERT function in synapses of KI mice, demonstrating that constitutive active FAK signaling downstream of the Pro32Pro33 integrin αvβ3 suppresses SERT activity. Our studies identify a complex regulation of 5-HT homeostasis and behaviors by integrin αvβ3, revealing an important role for integrins in modulating risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The integrin β3 Leu33Pro coding polymorphism has been associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) within a subgroup of patients with elevated blood 5-HT levels, linking integrin β3, 5-HT, and ASD risk. We capitalized on these interactions to demonstrate that the Pro33 coding variation in the murine

  15. Anti-IL-5 attenuates activation and surface density of β2-integrins on circulating eosinophils after segmental antigen challenge

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Mats W.; Gunderson, Kristin A.; Kelly, Elizabeth A. B.; Denlinger, Loren C.; Jarjour, Nizar N.; Mosher, Deane F.

    2013-01-01

    Background IL-5 activates αMβ2 integrin on blood eosinophils in vitro. Eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) following segmental antigen challenge have activated β2-integrins. Objective To identify roles for IL-5 in regulating human eosinophil integrins in vivo. Methods Blood and BAL eosinophils were analyzed by flow cytometry in ten subjects with allergic asthma who underwent a segmental antigen challenge protocol before and after anti-IL-5 administration. Results Blood eosinophil reactivity with monoclonal antibody (mAb) KIM-127, which recognizes partially activated β2-integrins, was decreased after anti-IL-5. Before anti-IL-5, surface densities of blood eosinophil β2, αM, and αL integrin subunits increased modestly post-challenge. After anti-IL-5, such increases did not occur. Before or after anti-IL-5, surface densities of β2,αM, αL, and αD and reactivity with KIM-127 and mAb CBRM1/5, which recognizes high-activity αMβ2, were similarly high on BAL eosinophils 48 h post-challenge. Density and activation state of β1-integrins on blood and BAL eosinophils were not impacted by anti-IL-5, even though anti-IL-5 ablated a modest post-challenge increase on blood or BAL eosinophils of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), a receptor for P-selectin that causes activation of β1-integrins. Forward scatter of blood eosinophils post-challenge was less heterogeneous and on the average decreased after anti-IL-5; however, anti-IL-5 had no effect on the decreased forward scatter of eosinophils in post-challenge BAL compared to eosinophils in blood. Blood eosinophil KIM-127 reactivity at the time of challenge correlated with the percentage of eosinophils in BAL post-challenge. Conclusion and Clinical Relevance IL-5 supports a heterogeneous population of circulating eosinophils with partially activated β2-integrins and is responsible for upregulation of β2-integrins and PSGL-1 on circulating eosinophils following segmental antigen challenge but has

  16. β3 integrin promotes chemoresistance to epirubicin in MDA-MB-231 through repression of the pro-apoptotic protein, BAD

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, Madhumathy G.; Desai, Krisha; Prabhu, Jyothi S.

    Resistance to anthracycline based chemotherapy is a major limitation in the treatment of breast cancer, particularly of the triple negative sub-type that lacks targeted therapies. Resistance that arises from tumor-stromal interaction facilitated by integrins provides the possibility of targeted disruption. In the present study, we demonstrate that integrin β3 signaling inhibits apoptosis induced by a DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic agent, epirubicin, in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Drug efflux based mechanisms do not contribute to this effect. We show that integrin β3 employs the PI3K-Akt and the MAPK pathway for enabling cell survival and proliferation. Further, our results indicate that integrin β3 helpsmore » inhibit epirubicin induced cytotoxicity by repression of the pro-apoptotic protein BAD, thus promoting an anti-apoptotic response. Myristoylated RGT peptide and a monoclonal antibody against integrin β3 brought about a reversal of this effect and chemosensitized the cells. These results identify β3 integrin signaling via repression of BAD as an important survival pathway used by breast cancer cells to evade chemotherapy induced stress. - Highlights: • Integrin β3 signaling promotes chemoresistance to epirubicin in breast cancer cells. • Integrin β3 promotes cell survival and proliferation in drug treated cells through the PI3K and MAPK pathways. • Integrin signaling helps evade drug induced cytotoxicity by repression of pro-apoptotic molecule; BAD.« less

  17. Long residence time of ultrasound microbubbles targeted to integrin in murine tumor model.

    PubMed

    Jun, Hong Young; Park, Seong Hoon; Kim, Hun Soo; Yoon, Kwon-Ha

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the intratumoral residence time of microbubbles (MBs) targeted to alpha(v)beta(3) integrin expressed in the endothelial cells of mice during the process of tumor angiogenesis. For the preparation of MBs, decafluorobutane gas was sonically dispersed in phosphate buffer saline containing L-A-phosphatidylcholine-distearoyl, polyethylene glycol 40 stearate, and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[biotinyl(polyethylene glycol)2000] in a 77:15:8 molar ratio. Avidin-fluorescein isothiocyanate and biotin-cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartate-D-tyrosine-lysine (cRGD) or biotin-alanine-glycine-aspartate (AGD) conjugates were added to the reaction mixture. Adhesion testing of the targeting MBs was performed for the MS-1 cell line expressing alpha(v)beta(3) integrin in vitro. The in vivo acoustic properties of the MBs were assessed by clinical ultrasound on the HT1080 fibrosarcoma model (n = 8) for 1 hour. Cryosections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and by immunohistochemical staining to identify expression of alpha(v)beta(3) integrin in the HT1080 tumor. The adherence of the MBs conjugated to cRGD was significantly greater than the adherence of the MBs conjugated to biotin-AGD (P < .01) for the MS-1 endothelial cell line. The acoustic enhancement on ultrasound was observed as a stable imaging window until 1 hour after injection of the MB conjugates in the mice. The MBs targeted via cRGD preferentially adhered to the vascular endothelium of the HT-1080 tumors. The findings of ultrasound imaging were correlated with immunohistochemical findings for the expression of alpha(v)beta(3) integrin on the vascular endothelium of the tumors. The prepared MBs conjugated with cRGD demonstrated a sufficient residence time to attach to the target integrin of tumor tissues. This finding suggests that the MBs are a potential molecular contrast agent that enables characterization of tumor angiogenesis and the monitoring of antitumor and

  18. Oncofetal Chondroitin Sulfate Glycosaminoglycans Are Key Players in Integrin Signaling and Tumor Cell Motility.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Thomas Mandel; Pereira, Marina Ayres; Al Nakouzi, Nader; Oo, Htoo Zarni; Agerbæk, Mette Ø; Lee, Sherry; Ørum-Madsen, Maj Sofie; Kristensen, Anders Riis; El-Naggar, Amal; Grandgenett, Paul M; Grem, Jean L; Hollingsworth, Michael A; Holst, Peter J; Theander, Thor; Sorensen, Poul H; Daugaard, Mads; Salanti, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Many tumors express proteoglycans modified with oncofetal chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan chains (ofCS), which are normally restricted to the placenta. However, the role of ofCS in cancer is largely unknown. The function of ofCS in cancer was analyzed using the recombinant ofCS-binding VAR2CSA protein (rVAR2) derived from the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum We demonstrate that ofCS plays a key role in tumor cell motility by affecting canonical integrin signaling pathways. Binding of rVAR2 to tumor cells inhibited the interaction of cells with extracellular matrix (ECM) components, which correlated with decreased phosphorylation of Src kinase. Moreover, rVAR2 binding decreased migration, invasion, and anchorage-independent growth of tumor cells in vitro Mass spectrometry of ofCS-modified proteoglycan complexes affinity purified from tumor cell lines on rVAR2 columns revealed an overrepresentation of proteins involved in cell motility and integrin signaling, such as integrin-β1 (ITGB1) and integrin-α4 (ITGA4). Saturating concentrations of rVAR2 inhibited downstream integrin signaling, which was mimicked by knockdown of the core chondroitin sulfate synthesis enzymes β-1,3-glucuronyltransferase 1 (B3GAT1) and chondroitin sulfate N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 1 (CSGALNACT1). The ofCS modification was highly expressed in both human and murine metastatic lesions in situ and preincubation or early intravenous treatment of tumor cells with rVAR2 inhibited seeding and spreading of tumor cells in mice. This was associated with a significant increase in survival of the animals. These data functionally link ofCS modifications with cancer cell motility and further highlights ofCS as a novel therapeutic cancer target. The cancer-specific expression of ofCS aids in metastatic phenotypes and is a candidate target for therapy. Mol Cancer Res; 14(12); 1288-99. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Piceid (resveratrol glucoside) synthesis in stilbene synthase transgenic apple fruit.

    PubMed

    Rühmann, Susanne; Treutter, Dieter; Fritsche, Steffi; Briviba, Karlis; Szankowski, Iris

    2006-06-28

    A stilbene synthase gene along with the selectable marker gene bar for herbicide resistance was transferred via Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation into apple (Malus domesticaBorkh.) cvs. 'Elstar' and 'Holsteiner Cox'. The stilbene synthase catalyzes the conversion of 1 molecule of p-coumaroyl-CoA and 3 molecules of malonyl-CoA into 3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene, commonly known as resveratrol. This phytoalexin has implications in both phytopathology and human health. Greenhouse-grown transgenic and nontransformed control plants were grafted onto dwarfing rootstock M27. Flowering and fruiting occurred within the following years, offering the opportunity to analyze transgenic apple fruit and fertility of transgenic plants as well as inheritance of the transgenes into the seedling progeny. Molecular analysis revealed that the stilbene synthase is expressed in transgenic plants and in the skin and flesh of transgenic apple fruit. After formation, resveratrol is modified by the addition of a hexose sugar. The resulting component was characterized as piceid. With the aim of characterizing the influence of the novel biosynthetic pathway on the accumulation of other phenolic compounds naturally present in apple fruit, the amounts of flavanols, flavonols, phloretin derivatives and hydroxycinnamic acids in wild type and transgenic fruit were determined by HPLC. In all investigated transformed lines that accumulated piceid, no negative correlation between levels of piceid and the above-mentioned compounds was observed, except for the flavonol contents, which slightly decreased. Inheritance of the transgenes was confirmed in the seedling progeny, which were obtained after pollination of transgenic plants with nontransgenic pollen and vice versa after pollination of nontransgenic plants with pollen obtained from transgenic plants. The fertility of stilbene synthase transgenic plants was demonstrated. To the authors' knowledge this is the first time that data are

  20. ADAM disintegrin-like domain recognition by the lymphocyte integrins α4β1 and α4β7

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, Lance C.; Sheppard, Dean; Bowditch, Ron D.

    2004-01-01

    The ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) family of proteins possess both proteolytic and adhesive domains. We have established previously that the disintegrin domain of ADAM28, an ADAM expressed by human lymphocytes, is recognized by the integrin α4β1. The present study characterizes the integrin binding properties of the disintegrin-like domains of human ADAM7, ADAM28 and ADAM33 with the integrins α4β1, α4β7 and α9β1. Cell-adhesion assays demonstrated that, similar to ADAM28, the ADAM7 disintegrin domain supported α4β1-dependent Jurkat cell adhesion, whereas the ADAM33 disintegrin domain did not. The lymphocyte integrin α4β7 was also found to recognize both disintegrin domains of ADAM7 and ADAM28, but not of ADAM33. This is the first demonstration that mammalian disintegrins are capable of interacting with α4β7. All three disintegrin domains supported α9β1-dependent cell adhesion. Recognition by both α4β1 and α4β7 of ADAM7 and ADAM28 was activation-dependent, requiring either the presence of Mn2+ or an activating monoclonal antibody for cell attachment. Charge-to-alanine mutagenesis experiments revealed that the same residues within an individual ADAM disintegrin domain function in recognizing multiple integrins. However, the residues within a specific region of each ADAM disintegrin-like domain required for integrin binding were distinct. These results establish that ADAM7 and ADAM28 are recognized by the leucocyte integrins α4β1, α4β7 and α9β1. ADAM33 exclusively supported only α9β1-dependent adhesion. PMID:15504110

  1. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells enhance angiogenesis via their α6β1 integrin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Carrion, Bita; Kong, Yen P.; Kaigler, Darnell

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) facilitate the angiogenic response of endothelial cells (ECs) within three-dimensional (3D) matrices in vivo and in engineered tissues in vitro in part through paracrine mediators and by acting as stabilizing pericytes. However, the molecular interactions between BMSCs and nascent tubules during the process of angiogenesis are not fully understood. In this study, we have used a tractable 3D co-culture model to explore the functional role of the α6β1 integrin adhesion receptor on BMSCs in sprouting angiogenesis. We report that knockdown of the α6 integrin subunit in BMSCs significantly reduces capillary sprouting, and causes theirmore » failure to associate with the nascent vessels. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the BMSCs with attenuated α6 integrin proliferate at a significantly lower rate relative to either control cells expressing non-targeting shRNA or wild type BMSCs; however, despite adding more cells to compensate for this deficit in proliferation, deficient sprouting persists. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that the α6 integrin subunit in BMSCs is important for their ability to stimulate vessel morphogenesis. This conclusion may have important implications in the optimization of cell-based strategies to promote angiogenesis. Highlights: • BMSCs stimulate angiogenesis, but the mechanisms remain unclear. • We silenced the expression of the α6 integrin subunit in BMSCs. • Silencing this receptor subunit significantly inhibited angiogenic sprouting. • Knocking down α6 integrin affected laminin and αSMA expression. • Silencing α6 integrin expression also reduced BMSC proliferation.« less

  2. Covisualization by computational optical-sectioning microscopy of integrin and associated proteins at the cell membrane of living onion protoplasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gens, J. S.; Reuzeau, C.; Doolittle, K. W.; McNally, J. G.; Pickard, B. G.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Using higher-resolution wide-field computational optical-sectioning fluorescence microscopy, the distribution of antigens recognized by antibodies against animal beta 1 integrin, fibronectin, and vitronectin has been visualized at the outer surface of enzymatically protoplasted onion epidermis cells and in depectinated cell wall fragments. On the protoplast all three antigens are colocalized in an array of small spots, as seen in raw images, in Gaussian filtered images, and in images restored by two different algorithms. Fibronectin and vitronectin but not beta 1 integrin antigenicities colocalize as puncta in comparably prepared and processed images of the wall fragments. Several control visualizations suggest considerable specifity of antibody recognition. Affinity purification of onion cell extract with the same anti-integrin used for visualization has yielded protein that separates in SDS-PAGE into two bands of about 105-110 and 115-125 kDa. These bands are again recognized by the visualization antibody, which was raised against the extracellular domain of chicken beta 1 integrin, and are also recognized by an antibody against the intracellular domain of chicken beta 1 integrin. Because beta 1 integrin is a key protein in numerous animal adhesion sites, it appears that the punctate distribution of this protein in the cell membranes of onion epidermis represents the adhesion sites long known to occur in cells of this tissue. Because vitronectin and fibronection are matrix proteins that bind to integrin in animals, the punctate occurrence of antigenically similar proteins both in the wall (matrix) and on enzymatically prepared protoplasts reinforces the concept that onion cells have adhesion sites with some similarity to certain kinds of adhesion sites in animals.

  3. Characterisation of a novel, high affinity and selective αvβ6 integrin RGD-mimetic radioligand.

    PubMed

    Hall, Eleanor R; Bibby, Lloyd I; Slack, Robert J

    2016-10-01

    The alpha-v beta-6 (αvβ6) integrin has been identified as playing a key role in the activation of transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) that is hypothesised to be pivotal in the development of cancer and fibrotic diseases. Therefore, the αvβ6 integrin is an attractive therapeutic target for these debilitating diseases and a drug discovery programme to identify small molecule αvβ6 selective arginyl-glycinyl-aspartic acid (RGD)-mimetics was initiated within GlaxoSmithKline. The primary aim of this study was to pharmacologically characterise the binding to αvβ6 of a novel clinical candidate, compound 1, using a radiolabelled form. Radioligand binding studies were completed with [(3)H]compound 1 against the human and mouse soluble protein forms of αvβ6 to determine accurate affinity estimates and binding kinetics. The selectivity of compound 1 for the RGD integrin family was also determined using saturation binding studies (αvβ1, αvβ3, αvβ5, αvβ8, α5β1 and α8β1 integrins) and fibrinogen-induced platelet aggregation (αIIbβ3 integrin). In addition, the relationship between divalent metal cation type and concentration and αvβ6 RGD site binding was also investigated. Compound 1 has been demonstrated to bind with extremely high affinity and selectivity for the αvβ6 integrin and has the potential as a clinical tool and therapeutic for investigating the role of αvβ6 in a range of disease states both pre-clinically and clinically. In addition, this is the first study that has successfully applied radioligand binding to the RGD integrin field to accurately determine the affinity and selectivity profile of a small molecule RGD-mimetic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Establishment and characterization of CAG/EGFP transgenic rabbit line.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ri-ichi; Kuramochi, Takashi; Aoyagi, Kazuki; Hashimoto, Shu; Miyoshi, Ichiro; Kasai, Noriyuki; Hakamata, Yoji; Kobayashi, Eiji; Ueda, Masatsugu

    2007-02-01

    Cell marking is a very important procedure for identifying donor cells after cell and/or organ transplantation in vivo. Transgenic animals expressing marker proteins such as enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in their tissues are a powerful tool for research in fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The purpose of this study was to establish transgenic rabbit lines that ubiquitously express EGFP under the control of the cytomegalovirus immediate early enhancer/beta-actin promoter (CAG) to provide a fluorescent transgenic animal as a bioresource. We microinjected the EGFP expression vector into 945 rabbit eggs and 4 independent transgenic candidate pups were obtained. Two of them died before sexual maturation and one was infertile. One transgenic male candidate founder rabbit was obtained and could be bred by artificial insemination. The rabbit transmitted the transgene in a Mendelian manner. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis, we detected the transgene at 7q11 on chromosome 7 as a large centromeric region in two F1 offspring (one female and one male). Eventually, one transgenic line was established. Ubiquitous EGFP fluorescence was confirmed in all examined organs. There were no gender-related differences in fluorescence. The established CAG/EGFP transgenic rabbit will be an important bioresource and a useful tool for various studies in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  5. Sulfur mustard disrupts human α3β1-integrin receptors in concert with α6β4-integrin receptors and collapse of the keratin K5/K14 cytoskeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werrlein, Robert J.; Braue, Catherine R.

    2004-06-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM; bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide) is a chemical warfare agent that produces persistent, incapacitating blisters of the skin. The lesions inducing vesication remain elusive, and there is no completely effective treatment. Using mulitphoton microscopy and immunofluorescent staining, we found that exposing human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK) and intact epidermis to SM (400 μm for 5 min) caused progressive collapse of the keratin (K5/K14) cytoskeleton and depletion of α6β integrins. We now report that SM causes concomitant disruption nad collapse of the basal cell's α3β1-integrin receptors. At 1 h postexposure, images of Alexa488-conjugated HEK/α3β1 integrins showed almost complete withdrawal and disappearance of retraction fibers and a progressive loss of polarized mobility. With stero imaging, in vitro expression of this SM effect was characterized by collapse and abutment of adjacent cell membranes. At 2 h postexposure, there was an average 13% dorso-ventral collapse of HEK membranes that paralleled progressive collapse of the K5/K14 cytoskeleton. α3β1 integrin, like α6β4 integrin, is a regulator of cytoskeletal assembly, a receptor for laminin 5 and a mediator of HEK attachment to the basement membrane. Our images indicate that SM disrupts these receptors. We suggest that the progressive disruption destabilizes and potentiates blistering of the epidermal-dermal junction.

  6. Osteogenic capacity of transgenic flax scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Gredes, Tomasz; Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Dominiak, Marzena; Gedrange, Tomasz; Kunert-Keil, Christiane

    2012-01-19

    The modification of flax fibers to create biologically active dressings is of undoubted scientific and practical interest. Flax fibers, derived from transgenic flax expressing three bacterial genes for the synthesis of poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB), have better mechanical properties than unmodified flax fibers; do not show any inflammation response after subcutaneous insertion; and have a good in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility. The aim of this study was to examine the applicability of composites containing flax fibers of genetically modified (M50) or non-modified (wt-Nike) flax within a polylactide (PLA) matrix for bone regeneration. For this, the mRNA expression of genes coding for growth factors (insulin-like growth factor IGF1, IGF2, vascular endothelial growth factor), for osteogenic differentiation (alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, Runx2, Phex, type 1 and type 2 collagen), and for bone resorption markers [matrix metalloproteinase 8 (MMP8), acid phosphatase type 5] were analyzed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. We found a significant elevated mRNA expression of IGF1 with PLA and PLA-wt-Nike composites. The mRNA amount of MMP8 and osteocalcin was significantly decreased in all biocomposite-treated cranial tissue samples compared to controls, whereas the expression of all other tested transcripts did not show any differences. It is assumed that both flax composites are able to stimulate bone regeneration, but composites from transgenic flax plants producing PHB showed faster bone regeneration than composites of non-transgenic flax plants. The application of these linen membranes for bone tissue engineering should be proved in further studies.

  7. An Empirical Assessment of Transgene Flow from a Bt Transgenic Poplar Plantation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianjun; Zhang, Jin; Chen, Xingling; Lv, Jinhui; Jia, Huixia; Zhao, Shutang; Lu, Mengzhu

    2017-01-01

    To assess the possible impact of transgenic poplar plantations on the ecosystem, we analyzed the frequency and distance of gene flow from a mature male transgenic Populus nigra plantation carrying the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin gene (Bt poplar) and the survival of Bt poplar seeds. The resultant Bt poplar seeds occurred at a frequency of ~0.15% at 0 m to ~0.02% at 500 m from the Bt poplar plantation. The germination of Bt poplar seeds diminished within three weeks in the field (germination rate from 68% to 0%) compared to 48% after three weeks of storage at 4°C. The survival rate of seedlings in the field was 0% without any treatment but increased to 1.7% under the addition of four treatments (cleaning and trimming, watering, weeding, and covering with plastic film to maintain moisture) after being seeded in the field for eight weeks. The results of this study indicate that gene flow originating from the Bt poplar plantation occurred at an extremely low level through pollen or seeds under natural conditions. This study provides first-hand field data on the extent of transgene flow in poplar plantations and offers guidance for the risk assessment of transgenic poplar plantations.

  8. An Empirical Assessment of Transgene Flow from a Bt Transgenic Poplar Plantation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xingling; Lv, Jinhui; Jia, Huixia; Zhao, Shutang; Lu, Mengzhu

    2017-01-01

    To assess the possible impact of transgenic poplar plantations on the ecosystem, we analyzed the frequency and distance of gene flow from a mature male transgenic Populus nigra plantation carrying the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin gene (Bt poplar) and the survival of Bt poplar seeds. The resultant Bt poplar seeds occurred at a frequency of ~0.15% at 0 m to ~0.02% at 500 m from the Bt poplar plantation. The germination of Bt poplar seeds diminished within three weeks in the field (germination rate from 68% to 0%) compared to 48% after three weeks of storage at 4°C. The survival rate of seedlings in the field was 0% without any treatment but increased to 1.7% under the addition of four treatments (cleaning and trimming, watering, weeding, and covering with plastic film to maintain moisture) after being seeded in the field for eight weeks. The results of this study indicate that gene flow originating from the Bt poplar plantation occurred at an extremely low level through pollen or seeds under natural conditions. This study provides first-hand field data on the extent of transgene flow in poplar plantations and offers guidance for the risk assessment of transgenic poplar plantations. PMID:28085955

  9. Cloned transgenic heart-healthy pork?

    PubMed

    Prather, Randall S

    2006-08-01

    Here I comment on the production and uses of swine that express a humanized fat-1 gene. The gene product is a fatty acid desaturase that converts omega-6 fatty acids to omega-3 fatty acids. Omega-3 fatty acids have been implicated as being important for reproductive success, maintaining a healthy cardiovascular system, sustaining a functional immune system, and even preventing depression and cancer. The descendants of these hfat-1 transgenic swine will be very useful as models of the human condition, and if they are permitted to enter the food chain, they may improve human health.

  10. Epigenetic variants of a transgenic petunia line show hypermethylation in transgene DNA: an indication for specific recognition of foreign DNA in transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Meyer, P; Heidmann, I

    1994-05-25

    We analysed de novo DNA methylation occurring in plants obtained from the transgenic petunia line R101-17. This line contains one copy of the maize A1 gene that leads to the production of brick-red pelargonidin pigment in the flowers. Due to its integration into an unmethylated genomic region the A1 transgene is hypomethylated and transcriptionally active. Several epigenetic variants of line 17 were selected that exhibit characteristic and somatically stable pigmentation patterns, displaying fully coloured, marbled or colourless flowers. Analysis of the DNA methylation patterns revealed that the decrease in pigmentation among the epigenetic variants was correlated with an increase in methylation, specifically of the transgene DNA. No change in methylation of the hypomethylated integration region could be detected. A similar increase in methylation, specifically in the transgene region, was also observed among progeny of R101-17del, a deletion derivative of R101-17 that no longer produces pelargonidin pigments due to a deletion in the A1 coding region. Again de novo methylation is specifically directed to the transgene, while the hypomethylated character of neighbouring regions is not affected. Possible mechanisms for transgene-specific methylation and its consequences for long-term use of transgenic material are discussed.

  11. An analytical model assessing the potential threat to natural habitats from insect resistance transgenes: continuous transgene input

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Colleen K; Bowler, Michael; Breden, Felix

    2006-01-01

    The potential effects of ‘escape’ of genetically modified material (transgenes) into natural communities is a major concern in their use. These effects may be limited in the first instance by limiting the proportion of transgene-carrying plants in the natural community. We previously presented an analytical model of the ecological processes governing the relative abundance and persistence of insect resistance (IR) transgenes in a natural community. In that paper, we illustrated the case in which the transgene is input into the community in a single season using data from oilseed rape (OSR) and its known herbivore, Plutella macropennis. We found that the transgene is unlikely to have a great impact on the natural community. Here, we extend the model for repeated input of crop pollen carrying the transgene. We show the model output, again using OSR, for continuous input of the transgene over 10 years, the projected commercial lifetime of a transgene without associated undesirable agronomic effects. Our results do not change our original conclusion that the IR transgene need not have a large impact on the natural community and our suggestions for assessing and mitigating any threat still stand. PMID:17148386

  12. The impact of quercetin on wound healing relates to changes in αV and β1 integrin expression.

    PubMed

    Doersch, Karen M; Newell-Rogers, M Karen

    2017-08-01

    Overly fibrotic wound healing can lead to excess scar formation, causing functional impairment and undesirable cosmetic results. However, there are few successful treatments available to prevent or remediate scars. This study sought to explore the molecular mechanisms by which quercetin, a naturally-occurring antifibrotic agent, diminishes scar formation. Using both mice and fibroblast cells, we examined quercetin's impact on fibrosis and the wound healing rate, and potential molecular mechanisms underlying the quercetin-mediated reduction of fibrosis. While cultured fibroblasts demonstrated normal growth in response to quercetin, quercetin increased surface αV integrin and decreased β1 integrin. These changes in surface integrin expression may impact factors that contribute to fibrosis including cell migration, proliferation, and extracellular matrix production. In both quercetin-treated and control mice, wounds healed in about 14 days. Masson's trichrome stain revealed diminished fibrosis at the wound site in quercetin-treated animals despite the normal healing rate, indicating the potential for better cosmetic results without delaying healing. An in vitro scratch wound model using cells plated on an artificial extracellular matrix demonstrated delayed closure following quercetin treatment. The extracellular matrix also ameliorated quercetin's effect on αV integrin. Thus, αV integrin recruitment in response to quercetin treatment may promote the quercetin-mediated decrease extracellular matrix because cells require less extracellular matrix to migrate into a wound. With added extracellular matrix, β1 integrin remained diminished in response to quercetin, indicating that quercetin's effect on β1 integrin expression is independent of extracellular matrix -mediated signaling and is likely driven by inhibition of the intracellular mechanisms driving β1 expression. These findings suggest that quercetin could alter the cells' interactions with the extracellular

  13. Prognostic role of integrin β1, E-cadherin, and rac1 expression in small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Chang, Myung Hee; Lee, Kyungji; Lee, Kyo-Young; Kim, Yeon Sil; Kim, Young Kyoon; Kang, Jin-Hyoung

    2012-01-01

    Integrin β(1) mediates cellular adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) and is correlated with highly invasive and metastatic behavior in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). E-cadherin (ECAD) is a calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion receptor that restricts invasion of cells and reduces metastasis. Rac1 is involved in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, adhesion, migration, invasion, and tumor metastasis. The aim of this study was to examine integrin β(1) , ECAD and rac1 expression in SCLC and to analyze the prognostic value of these markers in patients with SCLC. We analyzed integrin β(1) , ECAD, and rac1 expression in 112 SCLC tissues by immunohistochemical staining. Correlative analyses between integrin β(1) , ECAD, and rac1 expression and cliniopathological factors were performed. A total of 65 patients had extensive disease (ED) (58%), and 47 had limited disease (LD) (42%). The median follow-up duration was 61 months (range: 14-117 months), and the median progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 6.1 months (range: 4.8-7.4 months) and 9.7 months (range: 8.1-11.3 months), respectively. The expression of integrin β(1) , ECAD, and rac1 protein was observed in 64, 73, and 99 of SCLC tissues, respectively. The correlative analyses between integrin β(1) , ECAD, or rac1 expression and various clinical parameters did not show any statistical significance. However, the ECAD expression was associated with OS in the entire cohort. In contrast, the expression of integrin β(1) and rac1 was not associated with PFS or OS. In a subgroup analysis, patients with less than two metastasis had significantly longer OS (p = 0.047) if their tumors expressed integrin β(1) compared to those without integrin β(1) expression. In addition, OS was longer for patients with ECAD positive tumors compared to those whose tumors did not express ECAD in males (p = 0.032) and patients who never smoked (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that LD (p = 0

  14. Integrin alpha 3 beta 1 participates in the phagocytosis of extracellular matrix molecules by human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Coopman, P J; Thomas, D M; Gehlsen, K R; Mueller, S C

    1996-11-01

    The mechanisms and receptors involved in phagocytosis by nonhematopoietic cells are not well understood. The involvement of the alpha 3 beta 1 integrin in phagocytosis of the extracellular matrix by human breast cancer cells was studied. The possible role of this integrin was suggested since alpha 3 and beta 1 but not alpha 2 subunits are concentrated at membrane sites where local degradation of fluorescently labeled gelatin occurs. Strikingly, anti-alpha 3 integrin monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) stimulate the phagocytosis of fluorescently labeled gelatin films, gelatin beads, and Matrigel films in a quantitative phagocytosis assay. Stimulation of the gelatin uptake by the anti-alpha 3 mAb is dose responsive, saturable, and time dependent. Antibodies against other integrin subunits have a lower stimulatory effect (anti-beta 1) or no significant effect (anti-alpha 2, -alpha 5, -alpha 6, and -alpha v) on gelatin phagocytosis. The synthetic HGD-6 human laminin peptide that binds specifically the alpha 3 beta 1 integrin, but not the scrambled HSGD-6 control peptide, also markedly stimulates gelatin uptake in a dose-responsive way. Furthermore, the stimulatory effects of the HGD-6 peptide and the anti-alpha 3 mAb are additive, suggesting that they might promote phagocytosis in different ways. Other laminin (YIGSR, IKVAV) and fibronectin (GRGDS) peptides have no effect on gelatin phagocytosis. Immunofluorescence shows that the alpha 3 and the beta 1, but not the alpha 2 integrin subunit, concentrate into patches on the cell surface after treatment with their respective mAbs. And, both gelatin and the alpha 3 beta 1 but not the alpha 2 beta 1 integrin are cointernalized and routed to acidic vesicles such as lysosomes. In conclusion, we demonstrate that human breast cancer cells locally degrade and phagocytose the extracellular matrix and show for the first time that the alpha 3 beta 1 integrin participates in this phagocytosis. We hypothesize that the anti-alpha 3

  15. Multifaced Roles of the αvβ3 Integrin in Ehlers–Danlos and Arterial Tortuosity Syndromes’ Dermal Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Zoppi, Nicoletta; Chiarelli, Nicola; Ritelli, Marco; Colombi, Marina

    2018-01-01

    The αvβ3 integrin, an endothelial cells’ receptor-binding fibronectin (FN) in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of blood vessels, regulates ECM remodeling during migration, invasion, angiogenesis, wound healing and inflammation, and is also involved in the epithelial mesenchymal transition. In vitro-grown human control fibroblasts organize a fibrillar network of FN, which is preferentially bound on the entire cell surface to its canonical α5β1 integrin receptor, whereas the αvβ3 integrin is present only in rare patches in focal contacts. We report on the preferential recruitment of the αvβ3 integrin, due to the lack of FN–ECM and its canonical integrin receptor, in dermal fibroblasts from Ehlers–Danlos syndromes (EDS) and arterial tortuosity syndrome (ATS), which are rare multisystem connective tissue disorders. We review our previous findings that unraveled different biological mechanisms elicited by the αvβ3 integrin in fibroblasts derived from patients affected with classical (cEDS), vascular (vEDS), hypermobile EDS (hEDS), hypermobility spectrum disorders (HSD), and ATS. In cEDS and vEDS, respectively, due to defective type V and type III collagens, αvβ3 rescues patients’ fibroblasts from anoikis through a paxillin-p60Src-mediated cross-talk with the EGF receptor. In hEDS and HSD, without a defined molecular basis, the αvβ3 integrin transduces to the ILK-Snail1-axis inducing a fibroblast-to-myofibroblast-transition. In ATS cells, the deficiency of the dehydroascorbic acid transporter GLUT10 leads to redox imbalance, ECM disarray together with the activation of a non-canonical αvβ3 integrin-TGFBRII signaling, involving p125FAK/p60Src/p38MAPK. The characterization of these different biological functions triggered by αvβ3 provides insights into the multifaced nature of this integrin, at least in cultured dermal fibroblasts, offering future perspectives for research in this field. PMID:29587413

  16. α2 Integrin, extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, and matrix metalloproteinase-3 act sequentially to induce differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into odontoblast-like cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ozeki, Nobuaki; Kawai, Rie; Hase, Naoko

    We previously reported that interleukin 1β acts via matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 to regulate cell proliferation and suppress apoptosis in α2 integrin-positive odontoblast-like cells differentiated from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Here we characterize the signal cascade underpinning odontoblastic differentiation in mouse ES cells. The expression of α2 integrin, extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (Emmprin), and MMP-3 mRNA and protein were all potently increased during odontoblastic differentiation. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) disruption of the expression of these effectors potently suppressed the expression of the odontoblastic biomarkers dentin sialophosphoprotein, dentin matrix protein-1 and alkaline phosphatase, and blocked odontoblast calcification. Our siRNA, western blotmore » and blocking antibody analyses revealed a unique sequential cascade involving α2 integrin, Emmprin and MMP-3 that drives ES cell differentiation into odontoblasts. This cascade requires the interaction between α2 integrin and Emmprin and is potentiated by exogenous MMP-3. Finally, although odontoblast-like cells potently express α2, α6, αV, β1, and β3, integrins, we confirmed that β1 integrin acts as the trigger for ES cell differentiation, apparently in complex with α2 integrin. These results demonstrate a unique and unanticipated role for an α2 integrin-, Emmprin-, and MMP-3-mediated signaling cascade in driving mouse ES cell differentiation into odontoblast-like cells. - Highlights: • Odontoblast differentiation requires activation of α2 integrin, Emmprin and MMP-3. • α2 integrin, Emmprin and MMP-3 form a sequential signaling cascade. • β1 integrin acts a specific trigger for odontoblast differentiation. • The role of these effectors is highly novel and unanticipated.« less

  17. PET imaging of tumor neovascularization in a transgenic mouse model with a novel 64Cu-DOTA-knottin peptide.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Carsten H; Kimura, Richard H; Withofs, Nadia; Tran, Phuoc T; Miao, Zheng; Cochran, Jennifer R; Cheng, Zhen; Felsher, Dean; Kjær, Andreas; Willmann, Juergen K; Gambhir, Sanjiv S

    2010-11-15

    Due to the high mortality of lung cancer, there is a critical need to develop diagnostic procedures enabling early detection of the disease while at a curable stage. Targeted molecular imaging builds on the positive attributes of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) to allow for a noninvasive detection and characterization of smaller lung nodules, thus increasing the chances of positive treatment outcome. In this study, we investigate the ability to characterize lung tumors that spontaneously arise in a transgenic mouse model. The tumors are first identified with small animal CT followed by characterization with the use of small animal PET with a novel 64Cu-1,4,7,10-tetra-azacylododecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-knottin peptide that targets integrins upregulated during angiogenesis on the tumor associated neovasculature. The imaging results obtained with the knottin peptide are compared with standard 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET small animal imaging. Lung nodules as small as 3 mm in diameter were successfully identified in the transgenic mice by small animal CT, and both 64Cu-DOTA-knottin 2.5F and FDG were able to differentiate lung nodules from the surrounding tissues. Uptake and retention of the 64Cu-DOTA-knottin 2.5F tracer in the lung tumors combined with a low background in the thorax resulted in a statistically higher tumor to background (normal lung) ratio compared with FDG (6.01±0.61 versus 4.36±0.68; P<0.05). Ex vivo biodistribution showed 64Cu-DOTA-knottin 2.5F to have a fast renal clearance combined with low nonspecific accumulation in the thorax. Collectively, these results show 64Cu-DOTA-knottin 2.5F to be a promising candidate for clinical translation for earlier detection and improved characterization of lung cancer. Copyright © 2010 AACR.

  18. Characterization of a Maize Wip1 Promoter in Transgenic Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shengxue; Lian, Yun; Liu, Yan; Wang, Xiaoqing; Liu, Yunjun; Wang, Guoying

    2013-01-01

    The Maize Wip1 gene encodes a wound-induced Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) protein which is a type of serine protease inhibitor, and its expression is induced by wounding or infection, conferring resistance against pathogens and pests. In this study, the maize Wip1 promoter was isolated and its function was analyzed. Different truncated Wip1 promoters were fused upstream of the GUS reporter gene and transformed into Arabidopsis, tobacco and rice plants. We found that (1) several truncated maize Wip1 promoters led to strong GUS activities in both transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco leaves, whereas low GUS activity was detected in transgenic rice leaves; (2) the Wip1 promoter was not wound-induced in transgenic tobacco leaves, but was induced by wounding in transgenic rice leaves; (3) the truncated Wip1 promoter had different activity in different organs of transgenic tobacco plants; (4) the transgenic plant leaves containing different truncated Wip1 promoters had low GUS transcripts, even though high GUS protein level and GUS activities were observed; (5) there was one transcription start site of Wip1 gene in maize and two transcription start sites of GUS in Wip1::GUS transgenic lines; (6) the adjacent 35S promoter which is present in the transformation vectors enhanced the activity of the truncated Wip1 promoters in transgenic tobacco leaves, but did not influence the disability of truncated Wip1231 promoter to respond to wounding signals. We speculate that an ACAAAA hexamer, several CAA trimers and several elements similar to ACAATTAC octamer in the 5′-untranslated region might contribute to the strong GUS activity in Wip1231 transgenic lines, meanwhile, compared to the 5′-untranslated region from Wip1231 transgenic lines, the additional upstream open reading frames (uORFs) in the 5′-untranslated region from Wip1737 transgenic lines might contribute to the lower level of GUS transcript and GUS activity. PMID:24322445

  19. Integrin-mediated signal transduction linked to Ras pathway by GRB2 binding to focal adhesion kinase.

    PubMed

    Schlaepfer, D D; Hanks, S K; Hunter, T; van der Geer, P

    The cytoplasmic focal adhesion protein-tyrosine kinase (FAK) localizes with surface integrin receptors at sites where cells attach to the extracellular matrix. Increased FAK tyrosine phosphorylation occurs upon integrin engagement with fibronectin. Here we show that adhesion of murine NIH3T3 fibroblasts to fibronectin promotes SH2-domain-mediated association of the GRB2 adaptor protein and the c-Src protein-tyrosine kinase (PTK) with FAK in vivo, and also results in activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). In v-Src-transformed NIH3T3, the association of v-Src, GRB2 and Sos with FAK is independent of cell adhesion to fibronectin. The GRB2 SH2 domain binds directly to tyrosine-phosphorylated FAK. Mutation of tyrosine residue 925 of FAK (YENV motif) to phenylalanine blocks GRB2 SH2-domain binding to FAK in vitro. Our results show that fibronectin binding to integrins on NIH3T3 fibroblasts promotes c-Src and FAK association and formation of an integrin-activated signalling complex. Phosphorylation of FAK at Tyr 925 upon fibronectin stimulation creates an SH2-binding site for GRB2 which may link integrin engagement to the activation of the Ras/MAPK signal transduction pathway.

  20. NFκB-Induced Periostin Activates Integrin-β3 Signaling to Promote Renal Injury in GN

    PubMed Central

    Prakoura, Niki; Kavvadas, Panagiotis; Kormann, Raphaёl; Dussaule, Jean-Claude; Chadjichristos, Christos E.

    2017-01-01

    De novo expression in the kidney of periostin, a protein involved in odontogenesis and osteogenesis, has been suggested as a biomarker of renal disease. In this study, we investigated the mechanism(s) of induction and the role of periostin in renal disease. Using a combination of bioinformatics, reporter assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses, we found that NFκB and other proinflammatory transcription factors induce periostin expression in vitro and that binding of these factors on the periostin promoter is enriched in glomeruli during experimental GN. Mice lacking expression of periostin displayed preserved renal function and structure during GN. Furthermore, delayed administration of periostin antisense oligonucleotides in wild-type animals with GN reversed already established proteinuria, diminished tissue inflammation, and improved renal structure. Lack of periostin expression also blunted the de novo renal expression of integrin-β3 and phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase and AKT, known mediators of integrin-β3 signaling that affect cell motility and survival, observed during GN in wild-type animals. In vitro, recombinant periostin increased the expression of integrin-β3 and the concomitant phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase and AKT in podocytes. Notably, periostin and integrin-β3 were highly colocalized in biopsy specimens from patients with inflammatory GN. These results demonstrate that interplay between periostin and renal inflammation orchestrates inflammatory and fibrotic responses, driving podocyte damage through downstream activation of integrin-β3 signaling. Targeting periostin may be a novel therapeutic strategy for treating CKD. PMID:27920156

  1. A novel leukocyte adhesion deficiency caused by expressed but nonfunctional β2 integrins Mac-1 and LFA-1

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, Nancy; Stewart, Mairi P.; Scarth, Sarah L.; Newton, Rebecca; Shaw, Jacqueline M.; Law, S.K. Alex; Klein, Nigel

    1999-01-01

    In the leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD)-1 syndrome, there is diminished expression of β2(CD18) integrins. This is caused by lesions in the β2-subunit gene and gives rise to recurrent bacterial infections, impaired pus formation, and poor wound healing. We describe a patient with clinical features compatible with a moderately severe phenotype of LAD-1 but who expresses the β2 integrins lymphocyte function– associated molecule (LFA)-1 and Mac-1 at 40%–60% of normal levels. This level of expression should be adequate for normal integrin function, but both the patient's Mac-1 on neutrophils and LFA-1 on T cells failed to bind ligands such as fibrinogen and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, respectively, or to display a β2-integrin activation epitope after adhesion-inducing stimuli. Unexpectedly, divalent cation treatment induced the patient's T cells to bind to ICAM-2 and ICAM-3. Sequencing of the patient's two CD18 alleles revealed the mutations S138P and G273R. Both mutations are in the β2-subunit conserved domain, with S138P a putative divalent cation coordinating residue in the metal ion–dependent adhesion site (MIDAS) motif. After K562 cell transfection with α subunits, the mutated S138P β subunit was coexpressed but did not support function, whereas the G273R mutant was not expressed. In summary, the patient described here exhibits failure of the β2 integrins to function despite adequate levels of cell-surface expression. PMID:9884339

  2. Prostaglandin E2 suppresses beta1-integrin expression via E-prostanoid receptor in human monocytes/macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Shunji; Ichiyama, Takashi; Kohno, Fumitaka; Korenaga, Yuno; Ohsaki, Ayami; Hirano, Reiji; Haneda, Yasuhiro; Fukano, Reiji; Furukawa, Susumu

    2010-01-01

    Beta1-integrins mediate cell attachment to different extracellular matrix proteins, intracellular proteins, and intercellular adhesions. Recently, it has been reported that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has anti-inflammatory properties such as inhibition of the expression of adhesion molecules or production of chemokines. However, the effect of PGE2 on the expression of beta1-integrin remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of PGE2 on the expression of beta1-integrin in the human monocytic cell line THP-1 and in CD14+ monocytes/macrophages in human peripheral blood. For this, we examined the role of four subtypes of PGE2 receptors and E-prostanoid (EP) receptors on PGE2-mediated inhibition. We found that PGE2 significantly inhibited the expression of beta1-integrin, mainly through EP4 receptors in THP-1 cells and CD14+ monocytes/macrophages in human peripheral blood. We suggest that PGE2 has anti-inflammatory effects, leading to the inhibited expression of beta1-integrin in human monocytes/macrophages, and that the EP4 receptor may play an important role in PGE2-mediated inhibition. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Amygdalin blocks the in vitro adhesion and invasion of renal cell carcinoma cells by an integrin-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Juengel, Eva; Afschar, Masud; Makarević, Jasmina; Rutz, Jochen; Tsaur, Igor; Mani, Jens; Nelson, Karen; Haferkamp, Axel; Blaheta, Roman A

    2016-03-01

    Information about the natural compound amygdalin, which is employed as an antitumor agent, is sparse and thus its efficacy remains controversial. In this study, to determine whether amygdalin exerts antitumor effects on renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells, its impact on RCC metastatic activity was investigated. The RCC cell lines, Caki-1, KTC-26 and A498, were exposed to amygdalin from apricot kernels, and adhesion to human vascular endothelium, immobilized collagen or fibronectin was investigated. The influence of amygdalin on chemotactic and invasive activity was also determined, as was the influence of amygdalin on surface and total cellular α and β integrin expression, which are involved in metastasis. We noted that amygdalin caused significant reductions in chemotactic activity, invasion and adhesion to endothelium, collagen and fibronectin. Using FACScan analysis, we noted that amygdalin also induced reductions, particularly in integrins α5 and α6, in all three cell lines. Functional blocking of α5 resulted in significantly diminished adhesion of KTC-26 and A498 to collagen and also in decreased chemotactic behavior in all three cell lines. Blocking α6 integrin significantly reduced chemotactic activity in all three cell lines. Thus, we suggest that exposing RCC cells to amygdalin inhibits metastatic spread and is associated with downregulation of α5 and α6 integrins. Therefore, we posit that amygdalin exerts antitumor activity in vitro, and this may be linked to integrin regulation.

  4. High-Throughput Screening based Identification of Small Molecule Antagonists of Integrin CD11b/CD18 Ligand Binding

    PubMed Central

    Faridi, Mohd Hafeez; Maiguel, Dony; Brown, Brock T.; Suyama, Eigo; Barth, Constantinos J.; Hedrick, Michael; Vasile, Stefan; Sergienko, Eduard; Schürer, Stephan; Gupta, Vineet

    2010-01-01

    Binding of leukocyte specific integrin CD11b/CD18 to its physiologic ligands is important for the development of normal immune response in vivo. Integrin CD11b/CD18 is also a key cellular effector of various inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. However, small molecules selectively inhibiting the function of integrin CD11b/CD18 are currently lacking. We used a newly described cell-based high throughput screening assay to identify a number of highly potent antagonists of integrin CD11b/CD18 from chemical libraries containing >100,000 unique compounds. Computational analyses suggest that the identified compounds cluster into several different chemical classes. A number of the newly identified compounds blocked adhesion of wild-type mouse neutrophils to CD11b/CD18 ligand fibrinogen. Mapping the most active compounds against chemical fingerprints of known antagonists of related integrin CD11a/CD18 shows little structural similarity, suggesting that the newly identified compounds are novel and unique. PMID:20188705

  5. Oxidation-induced Structural Changes of Ceruloplasmin Foster NGR Motif Deamidation That Promotes Integrin Binding and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Barbariga, Marco; Curnis, Flavio; Spitaleri, Andrea; Andolfo, Annapaola; Zucchelli, Chiara; Lazzaro, Massimo; Magnani, Giuseppe; Musco, Giovanna; Corti, Angelo; Alessio, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Asparagine deamidation occurs spontaneously in proteins during aging; deamidation of Asn-Gly-Arg (NGR) sites can lead to the formation of isoAsp-Gly-Arg (isoDGR), a motif that can recognize the RGD-binding site of integrins. Ceruloplasmin (Cp), a ferroxidase present in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), contains two NGR sites in its sequence: one exposed on the protein surface (568NGR) and the other buried in the tertiary structure (962NGR). Considering that Cp can undergo oxidative modifications in the CSF of neurodegenerative diseases, we investigated the effect of oxidation on the deamidation of both NGR motifs and, consequently, on the acquisition of integrin binding properties. We observed that the exposed 568NGR site can deamidate under conditions mimicking accelerated Asn aging. In contrast, the hidden 962NGR site can deamidate exclusively when aging occurs under oxidative conditions, suggesting that oxidation-induced structural changes foster deamidation at this site. NGR deamidation in Cp was associated with gain of integrin-binding function, intracellular signaling, and cell pro-adhesive activity. Finally, Cp aging in the CSF from Alzheimer disease patients, but not in control CSF, causes Cp deamidation with gain of integrin-binding function, suggesting that this transition might also occur in pathological conditions. In conclusion, both Cp NGR sites can deamidate during aging under oxidative conditions, likely as a consequence of oxidative-induced structural changes, thereby promoting a gain of function in integrin binding, signaling, and cell adhesion. PMID:24366863

  6. The adaptor molecule RIAM integrates signaling events critical for integrin-mediated control of immune function and cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Patsoukis, Nikolaos; Bardhan, Kankana; Weaver, Jessica D; Sari, Duygu; Torres-Gomez, Alvaro; Li, Lequn; Strauss, Laura; Lafuente, Esther M; Boussiotis, Vassiliki A

    2017-08-22

    Lymphocyte activation requires adhesion to antigen-presenting cells. This is a critical event linking innate and adaptive