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Sample records for a2br knockout mice

  1. Generation of conditional knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kazuhito; Gurumurthy, Channabasavaiah B; Wagner, Kay-Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Conditional knockout mouse models are powerful tools to examine the biological and molecular function(s) of genes in specific tissues. The general procedure to generate such genetically engineered mouse models consists of three main steps. The first step is to find the appropriate genomic clone of the gene of interest and to design the cloning and Southern blot strategies. The second step is the cloning of the gene-targeting vector with all its essential components including positive and negative selection cassettes and the insertion of LoxP sites. Although conventional methods are still being widely used for DNA cloning, we describe in this book chapter the use of λ Red phage-based homologous recombination in Escherichia coli to capture the genomic DNA of the gene of interest and to assemble the gene-targeting vector. This new method provides several advantages as it does not require the presence of restriction sites within the gene of interest to insert LoxP-flanked DNA fragments. In the final step, the gene-targeting vector is transferred into embryonic stem (ES) cells, and successfully targeted ES cell clones are injected into mouse blastocysts to generate conditional knockout mice.

  2. A2BR Adenosine Receptor Modulates Sweet Taste in Circumvallate Taste Buds

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dan; Shultz, Nicole; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Ravid, Katya; Kinnamon, Sue C.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3) on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y) purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR) is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate), but not anterior (fungiform, palate) taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields. PMID:22253866

  3. Increased hepatotoxicity of acetaminophen in Hsp70i knockout mice

    SciTech Connect

    Tolson, J. Keith; Dix, David J.; Voellmy, Richard W.

    2006-01-15

    The effect of the inducible forms of 70 kDa heat shock protein (Hsp70i) on acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity was assessed in an Hsp70i knockout mouse model. Absence of the Hsp70i protein in liver was verified by monitoring Hsp levels in knockout and control mice after heat stress (41.5 {sup o}C water bath immersion for 30 min). Hsp70i knockout mice were more susceptible to APAP-induced hepatotoxicity than controls, as indicated by elevated serum alanine aminotransferase activities 24 and 48 h after the APAP dose. Increased APAP hepatotoxicity in knockout mice was verified by morphological evaluation of liver sections. The difference in toxicmore » response to APAP between knockout and control strain mice could not be attributed to differences in APAP bioactivation, assessed by measurement of CYP2E1 and glutathione S-transferase activities, hepatic nonprotein sulfhydryl content, or covalent binding of reactive APAP metabolites to proteins. Pretreatment with transient hyperthermia to produce a general upregulation of Hsps resulted in decreased APAP hepatotoxicity in both the knockout and control strains. Among thermally-pretreated mice, hepatotoxicity of APAP was greater in the knockouts compared with the control strain. These observations suggest that increased Hsp70i expression in response to APAP acts to limit the extent of tissue injury. Results further suggest that other factors related to heat stress can also contribute to protection against APAP toxicity.« less

  4. Transgenic and gene knockout mice in gastric cancer research

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yannan; Yu, Yingyan

    2017-01-01

    Mouse models are useful tool for carcinogenic study. They will greatly enrich the understanding of pathogenesis and molecular mechanisms for gastric cancer. However, only few of mice could develop gastric cancer spontaneously. With the development and improvement of gene transfer technology, investigators created a variety of transgenic and knockout/knockin mouse models of gastric cancer, such as INS-GAS mice and gastrin knockout mice. Combined with helicobacter infection and carcinogens treatment, these transgenic/knockout/knockin mice developed precancerous or cancerous lesions, which are proper for gene function study or experimental therapy. Here we review the progression of genetically engineered mouse models on gastric cancer research, and emphasize the effects of chemical carcinogens or infectious factors on carcinogenesis of genetically modified mouse. We also emphasize the histological examination on mouse stomach. We expect to provide researchers with some inspirations on this field. PMID:27713138

  5. Impairment of social behaviors in Arhgef10 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dai-Hua; Liao, Hsiao-Mei; Chen, Chia-Hsiang; Tu, Huang-Ju; Liou, Houng-Chi; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Fu, Wen-Mei

    2018-01-01

    Impaired social interaction is one of the essential features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Our previous copy number variation (CNV) study discovered a novel deleted region associated with ASD. One of the genes included in the deleted region is ARHGEF10 . A missense mutation of ARHGEF10 has been reported to be one of the contributing factors in several diseases of the central nervous system. However, the relationship between the loss of ARHGEF10 and the clinical symptoms of ASD is unclear. We generated Arhgef10 knockout mice as a model of ASD and characterized the social behavior and the biochemical changes in the brains of the knockout mice. Compared with their wild-type littermates, the Arhgef10 -depleted mice showed social interaction impairment, hyperactivity, and decreased depression-like and anxiety-like behavior. Behavioral measures of learning in the Morris water maze were not affected by Arhgef10 deficiency. Moreover, neurotransmitters including serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine were significantly increased in different brain regions of the Arhgef10 knockout mice. In addition, monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) decreased in several brain regions. These results suggest that ARHGEF10 is a candidate risk gene for ASD and that the Arhgef10 knockout model could be a tool for studying the mechanisms of neurotransmission in ASD. Animal studies were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of National Taiwan University (IACUC 20150023). Registered 1 August 2015.

  6. Dental and periodontal phenotype in sclerostin knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Kuchler, Ulrike; Schwarze, Uwe Y; Dobsak, Toni; Heimel, Patrick; Bosshardt, Dieter D; Kneissel, Michaela; Gruber, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    Sclerostin is a Wnt signalling antagonist that controls bone metabolism. Sclerostin is expressed by osteocytes and cementocytes; however, its role in the formation of dental structures remains unclear. Here, we analysed the mandibles of sclerostin knockout mice to determine the influence of sclerostin on dental structures and dimensions using histomorphometry and micro-computed tomography (μCT) imaging. μCT and histomorphometric analyses were performed on the first lower molar and its surrounding structures in mice lacking a functional sclerostin gene and in wild-type controls. μCT on six animals in each group revealed that the dimension of the basal bone as well as the coronal and apical part of alveolar part increased in the sclerostin knockout mice. No significant differences were observed for the tooth and pulp chamber volume. Descriptive histomorphometric analyses of four wild-type and three sclerostin knockout mice demonstrated an increased width of the cementum and a concomitant moderate decrease in the periodontal space width. Taken together, these results suggest that the lack of sclerostin mainly alters the bone and cementum phenotypes rather than producing abnormalities in tooth structures such as dentin. PMID:24699186

  7. Norepinephrine Transporter Heterozygous Knockout Mice Exhibit Altered Transport and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Fentress, HM; Klar, R; Krueger, JK; Sabb, T; Redmon, SN; Wallace, NM; Shirey-Rice, JK; Hahn, MK

    2013-01-01

    The norepinephrine (NE) transporter (NET) regulates synaptic NE availability for noradrenergic signaling in the brain and sympathetic nervous system. Although genetic variation leading to a loss of NET expression has been implicated in psychiatric and cardiovascular disorders, complete NET deficiency has not been found in people, limiting the utility of NET knockout mice as a model for genetically-driven NET dysfunction. Here, we investigate NET expression in NET heterozygous knockout male mice (NET+/−), demonstrating that they display an ~50% reduction in NET protein levels. Surprisingly, these mice display no significant deficit in NET activity, assessed in hippocampal and cortical synaptosomes. We found that this compensation in NET activity was due to enhanced activity of surface-resident transporters, as opposed to surface recruitment of NET protein or compensation through other transport mechanisms, including serotonin, dopamine or organic cation transporters. We hypothesize that loss of NET protein in the NET+/− mouse establishes an activated state of existing, surface NET proteins. NET+/− mice exhibit increased anxiety in the open field and light-dark box and display deficits in reversal learning in the Morris Water Maze. These data suggest recovery of near basal activity in NET+/− mice appears to be insufficient to limit anxiety responses or support cognitive performance that might involve noradrenergic neurotransmission. The NET+/− mice represent a unique model to study the loss and resultant compensatory changes in NET that may be relevant to behavior and physiology in human NET deficiency disorders. PMID:24102798

  8. Calcineurin knockout mice show a selective loss of small spines.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Hitoshi; Hayashi-Takagi, Akiko; Nagaoka, Akira; Negishi, Makiko; Ucar, Hasan; Yagishita, Sho; Ishii, Kazuhiko; Toyoizumi, Taro; Fox, Kevin; Kasai, Haruo

    2018-04-03

    Calcineurin is required for long-term depression and activity-dependent spine shrinkage, and calcineurin mutations have been identified in patients with schizophrenia. Moreover, mice with conditional knockout of calcineurin B (CNB-KO) exhibit behavioral abnormalities suggestive of schizophrenia. Changes in the dendritic spines of these mice, however, have not been investigated. We therefore examined the dendritic spines of CNB-KO mice, and observed a significant reduction in small spines and an increase in large spines in the prefrontal and visual cortices. The effect of CNB-KO on the spine sizes was relatively moderate, possibly due to the presence of spontaneous fluctuations (dynamics) in the dendritic spines themselves. Thus, CNB-KO mice showed a spine phenotype similar to those recently reported in patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Bone growth and turnover in progesterone receptor knockout mice.

    SciTech Connect

    Rickard, David J.; Iwaniec, Urszula T.; Evans, Glenda

    2008-05-01

    The role of progesterone receptor (PR) signaling in skeletal metabolism is controversial. To address whether signaling through the PR is necessary for normal bone growth and turnover, we performed histomorphometric and mCT analyses of bone from homozygous female PR knockout (PRKO) mice at 6, 12, and 26 weeks of age. These mice possess a null mutation of the PR locus, which blocks the gene expression of A and B isoforms of PR. Body weight gain, uterine weight gain and tibia longitudinal bone growth was normal in PRKO mice. In contrast, total and cortical bone mass were increased in long bonesmore » of post-pubertal (12 and 26-week-old) PRKO mice, whereas cancellous bone mass was normal in the tibia but increased in the humerus. The striking 57% decrease in cancellous bone from the proximal tibia metaphysis which occurred between 6 and 26 weeks in WT mice was abolished in PRKO mice. The improved bone balance in aging PRKO mice was associated with elevated bone formation and a tendency toward reduced osteoclast perimeter. Taken together, these findings suggest that PR signaling in mice attenuates the accumulation of cortical bone mass during adolescence and is required for early age-related loss of cancellous bone.« less

  10. Neuregulin 3 Knockout Mice Exhibit Behaviors Consistent with Psychotic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Lindsay N.; Shevelkin, Alexey; Zeledon, Mariela; Steel, Gary; Chen, Pei-Lung; Obie, Cassandra; Pulver, Ann; Avramopoulos, Dimitrios; Valle, David; Sawa, Akira; Pletnikov, Mikhail V.

    2016-01-01

    Neuregulin 3 (NRG3) is a paralog of NRG1. Genetic studies in schizophrenia demonstrate that risk variants in NRG3 are associated with cognitive and psychotic symptom severity, and several intronic single nucleotide polymorphisms in NRG3 are associated with delusions in patients with schizophrenia. In order to gain insights into the biological function of the gene, we generated a novel Nrg3 knockout (KO) mouse model and tested for neurobehavioral phenotypes relevant to psychotic disorders. KO mice displayed novelty-induced hyperactivity, impaired prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response, and deficient fear conditioning. No gross cytoarchitectonic or layer abnormalities were noted in the brain of KO mice. Our findings suggest that deletion of the Nrg3 gene leads to alterations consistent with aspects of schizophrenia. We propose that KO mice will provide a valuable animal model to determine the role of the NRG3 in the molecular pathogenesis of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. PMID:27606322

  11. Norepinephrine transporter heterozygous knockout mice exhibit altered transport and behavior.

    PubMed

    Fentress, H M; Klar, R; Krueger, J J; Sabb, T; Redmon, S N; Wallace, N M; Shirey-Rice, J K; Hahn, M K

    2013-11-01

    The norepinephrine (NE) transporter (NET) regulates synaptic NE availability for noradrenergic signaling in the brain and sympathetic nervous system. Although genetic variation leading to a loss of NET expression has been implicated in psychiatric and cardiovascular disorders, complete NET deficiency has not been found in people, limiting the utility of NET knockout mice as a model for genetically driven NET dysfunction. Here, we investigate NET expression in NET heterozygous knockout male mice (NET(+/-) ), demonstrating that they display an approximately 50% reduction in NET protein levels. Surprisingly, these mice display no significant deficit in NET activity assessed in hippocampal and cortical synaptosomes. We found that this compensation in NET activity was due to enhanced activity of surface-resident transporters, as opposed to surface recruitment of NET protein or compensation through other transport mechanisms, including serotonin, dopamine or organic cation transporters. We hypothesize that loss of NET protein in the NET(+/-) mouse establishes an activated state of existing surface NET proteins. The NET(+/-) mice exhibit increased anxiety in the open field and light-dark box and display deficits in reversal learning in the Morris water maze. These data suggest that recovery of near basal activity in NET(+/-) mice appears to be insufficient to limit anxiety responses or support cognitive performance that might involve noradrenergic neurotransmission. The NET(+/-) mice represent a unique model to study the loss and resultant compensatory changes in NET that may be relevant to behavior and physiology in human NET deficiency disorders. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  12. Environmental enrichment induces behavioural disturbances in neuropeptide Y knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Reichmann, Florian; Wegerer, Vanessa; Jain, Piyush; Mayerhofer, Raphaela; Hassan, Ahmed M.; Fröhlich, Esther E.; Bock, Elisabeth; Pritz, Elisabeth; Herzog, Herbert; Holzer, Peter; Leitinger, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) refers to the provision of a complex and stimulating housing condition which improves well-being, behaviour and brain function of laboratory animals. The mechanisms behind these beneficial effects of EE are only partially understood. In the current report, we describe a link between EE and neuropeptide Y (NPY), based on findings from NPY knockout (KO) mice exposed to EE. Relative to EE-housed wildtype (WT) animals, NPY KO mice displayed altered behaviour as well as molecular and morphological changes in amygdala and hippocampus. Exposure of WT mice to EE reduced anxiety and decreased central glucocorticoid receptor expression, effects which were absent in NPY KO mice. In addition, NPY deletion altered the preference of EE items, and EE-housed NPY KO mice responded to stress with exaggerated hyperthermia, displayed impaired spatial memory, had higher hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA levels and altered hippocampal synaptic plasticity, effects which were not seen in WT mice. Accordingly, these findings suggest that NPY contributes to the anxiolytic effect of EE and that NPY deletion reverses the beneficial effects of EE into a negative experience. The NPY system could thus be a target for “enviromimetics”, therapeutics which reproduce the beneficial effects of enhanced environmental stimulation. PMID:27305846

  13. Npp1 promotes atherosclerosis in ApoE knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Nitschke, Yvonne; Weissen-Plenz, Gabriele; Terkeltaub, Robert; Rutsch, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (NPP1) generates inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), a physiologic inhibitor of hydroxyapatite deposition. In a previous study, we found NPP1 expression to be inversely correlated with the degree of atherosclerotic plaque calcification. Moreover, function-impairing mutations of ENPP1, the gene encoding for NPP1, are associated with severe, artery tunica media calcification and myointimal hyperplasia with infantile onset in human beings. NPP1 and PPi have the potential to modulate atherogenesis by regulating arterial smooth muscle cell (SMC) differentiation and function, including increase of pro-atherogenic osteopontin (OPN) expression. Hence, this study tested the hypothesis that NPP1 deficiency modulates both atherogenesis and atherosclerotic intimal plaque calcification. Npp1/ApoE double deficient mice were generated by crossing mice bearing the ttw allele of Enpp1 (that encodes a truncation mutation) with ApoE null mice and fed with high-fat/high-cholesterol atherogenic diet. Atherosclerotic lesion area and calcification were examined at 13, 18, 23 and 28 weeks of age. The aortic SMCs isolated from both ttw/ttw ApoE−/− and ttw/+ ApoE−/− mice demonstrated decreased Opn expression. The 28-week-old ttw/ttw ApoE−/− and ttw/+ ApoE−/− had significantly smaller atherosclerotic lesions compared with wild-type congenic ApoE−/− mice. Only ttw/ttw but not ttw/+ mice developed artery media calcification. Furthermore in ttw/+ mice, there was a tendency towards increased plaque calcification compared to ApoE−/− mice without Npp1 deficiency. We conclude that Npp1 promotes atherosclerosis, potentially mediated by Opn expression in ApoE knockout mice. PMID:21477221

  14. Increased anxiety-related behaviour in Hint1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Varadarajulu, Jeeva; Lebar, Maria; Krishnamoorthy, Gurumoorthy; Habelt, Sonja; Lu, Jia; Bernard Weinstein, I; Li, Haiyang; Holsboer, Florian; Turck, Christoph W; Touma, Chadi

    2011-07-07

    Several reports have implicated a role for the histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein-1 (Hint1) in psychiatric disorders. We have studied the emotional behaviour of male Hint1 knockout (Hint1 KO) mice in a battery of tests and performed biochemical analyses on brain tissue. The behavioural analysis revealed that Hint1 KO mice exhibit an increased emotionality phenotype compared to wildtype (WT) mice, while no significant differences in locomotion or general exploratory activity were noted. In the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test, the Hint1 KO animals entered the open arms of the apparatus less often than WT littermates. Similarly, in the dark-light box test, Hint1 KO mice spent less time in the lit compartment and the number of entries were reduced, which further confirmed an increased anxiety-related behaviour. Moreover, the Hint1 KO animals showed significantly more struggling and less floating behaviour in the forced swim test (FST), indicating an increased emotional arousal in aversive situations. Hint1 is known as a protein kinase C (PKC) interacting protein. Western blot analysis showed that PKCγ expression was elevated in Hint1 KO compared to WT mice. Interestingly, PKCγ mRNA levels of the two groups did not show a significant difference, implying a post-transcriptional PKCγ regulation. In addition, PKC enzymatic activity was increased in Hint1 KO compared to WT mice. In summary, our results indicate a role for Hint1 and PKCγ in modulating anxiety-related and stress-coping behaviour in mice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Orexin knockout mice exhibit impaired spatial working memory.

    PubMed

    Dang, Ruozhi; Chen, Qiuhan; Song, Jie; He, Chao; Zhang, Jun; Xia, Jianxia; Hu, Zhian

    2018-03-06

    Orexins play a crucial role in the maintenance of arousal and are involved in the modulation of diverse physiological process, including cognitive function. Recent data have suggested that orexins are involved in learning and memory processes. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of orexin deficiency on working memory. A delayed non-matching-to-place T-maze task was used to evaluate spatial working memory in mice lacking orexin prepro-peptide (orexin knockout; KO) and wild-type controls. We demonstrated that the number of correct choices in the orexin KO mice became lower than that of the controls over training. In an object exploration task, the controls explored the displaced object more than the mutants did, whereas this difference was not observed for the nondisplaced objects in either group. The orexin KO mice showed locomotor activity comparable to the control mice in terms of total distance traveled across training in both the object exploration task and the open field test. These findings indicate that the orexin system plays an important role in working memory of spatial cues. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Piroxicam treatment augments bone abnormalities in interleukin-10 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Holgersen, Kristine; Dobie, Ross; Farquharson, Colin; vanʼt Hof, Rob; Ahmed, Syed Faisal; Hansen, Axel Kornerup; Holm, Thomas L

    2015-02-01

    Osteoporosis and fractures are common complications of inflammatory bowel disease. The pathogenesis is multifactorial and has been partly attributed to intestinal inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate bone status and assess the association between bone loss and gut inflammation in an experimental colitis model. Colitis was induced in interleukin-10 knockout mice (PAC IL-10 k.o.) by peroral administration of piroxicam for 12 days. The degree of colitis was assessed by clinical, macroscopic, and microscopic evaluation. Trabecular and cortical bone microarchitecture of tibia were determined using micro-computed tomography. Moreover, the serum levels of bone formation and bone resorption biomarkers were measured, and inflammatory protein profiling was performed on colons. PAC IL-10 k.o. mice developed severe colitis, characterized by hyperplasia and focal transmural inflammation, which was consistent with Crohn's disease-like pathology. The gut inflammation was accompanied by a 14% and 12% reduction in trabecular thickness relative to piroxicam-treated wild type and untreated wild type mice, respectively (P < 0.001). The trabecular bone structure was also changed in PAC IL-10 k.o. mice, whereas no differences in cortical bone geometry were observed. The trabecular thickness was inversely correlated with serum levels of CTX (r = -0.93, P = 0.006). Moreover, numerous inflammatory mediators, including RANKL and osteoprotegerin, were significantly increased in the colon of PAC IL-10 k.o. mice. PAC IL-10 k.o. mice develop bone loss and changed trabecular structure, as a result of increased bone resorption. Thus, the PAC IL-10 k.o. model could be a useful experimental model in preclinical research of inflammatory bowel disease-associated bone loss.

  17. Reduced Extinction of Hippocampal-Dependent Memories in CPEB Knockout Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zearfoss, N. Ruth; Richter, Joel D.; Berger-Sweeney, Joanne

    2006-01-01

    CPEB is a sequence-specific RNA binding protein that regulates translation at synapses. In neurons of CPEB knockout mice, synaptic efficacy is reduced. Here, we have performed a battery of behavioral tests and find that relative to wild-type animals, CPEB knockout mice, although similar on many baseline behaviors, have reduced extinction of…

  18. Altered Sleep Homeostasis in Rev-erbα Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mang, Géraldine M.; La Spada, Francesco; Emmenegger, Yann; Chappuis, Sylvie; Ripperger, Jürgen A.; Albrecht, Urs; Franken, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: The nuclear receptor REV-ERBα is a potent, constitutive transcriptional repressor critical for the regulation of key circadian and metabolic genes. Recently, REV-ERBα's involvement in learning, neurogenesis, mood, and dopamine turnover was demonstrated suggesting a specific role in central nervous system functioning. We have previously shown that the brain expression of several core clock genes, including Rev-erbα, is modulated by sleep loss. We here test the consequences of a loss of REV-ERBα on the homeostatic regulation of sleep. Methods: EEG/EMG signals were recorded in Rev-erbα knockout (KO) mice and their wild type (WT) littermates during baseline, sleep deprivation, and recovery. Cortical gene expression measurements after sleep deprivation were contrasted to baseline. Results: Although baseline sleep/wake duration was remarkably similar, KO mice showed an advance of the sleep/wake distribution relative to the light-dark cycle. After sleep onset in baseline and after sleep deprivation, both EEG delta power (1–4 Hz) and sleep consolidation were reduced in KO mice indicating a slower increase of homeostatic sleep need during wakefulness. This slower increase might relate to the smaller increase in theta and gamma power observed in the waking EEG prior to sleep onset under both conditions. Indeed, the increased theta activity during wakefulness predicted delta power in subsequent NREM sleep. Lack of Rev-erbα increased Bmal1, Npas2, Clock, and Fabp7 expression, confirming the direct regulation of these genes by REV-ERBα also in the brain. Conclusions: Our results add further proof to the notion that clock genes are involved in sleep homeostasis. Because accumulating evidence directly links REV-ERBα to dopamine signaling the altered homeostatic regulation of sleep reported here are discussed in that context. Citation: Mang GM, La Spada F, Emmenegger Y, Chappuis S, Ripperger JA, Albrecht U, Franken P. Altered sleep homeostasis in Rev

  19. Renal autoregulation in P2X1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Inscho, E W; Cook, A K; Imig, J D; Vial, C; Evans, R J

    2004-08-01

    Autoregulation of renal blood flow is an established physiological phenomenon, however the signalling mechanisms involved remain elusive. Autoregulatory adjustments in preglomerular resistance involve myogenic and tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) influences. While there is general agreement on the participation of these two regulatory pathways, the signalling molecules and effector mechanisms have not been identified. Currently, there are two major hypotheses being considered to explain the mechanism by which TGF signals are transmitted from the macula densa to the afferent arteriole. The adenosine hypothesis proposes that the released adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is hydrolysed to adenosine and this product stimulates preglomerular vasoconstriction by activation of A(1) receptors on the afferent arteriole. Alternatively, the P2 receptor hypothesis postulates that ATP released from the macula densa directly stimulates afferent arteriolar vasoconstriction by activation of ATP-sensitive P2X(1) receptors. This hypothesis has emerged from the realization that P2X(1) receptors are heavily expressed along the preglomerular vasculature. Inactivation of P2X(1) receptors impairs autoregulatory responses while afferent arteriolar responses to A(1) adenosine receptor activation are retained. Autoregulatory behaviour is markedly attenuated in mice lacking P2X(1) receptors but responses to adenosine A(1) receptor activation remain intact. More recent experiments suggest that P2X(1) receptors play an essential role in TGF-dependent vasoconstriction of the afferent arteriole. Interruption of TGF-dependent influences on afferent arteriolar diameter, by papillectomy or furosemide treatment, significantly attenuated pressure-mediated afferent arteriolar vasoconstriction in wild-type mice but had no effect on the response in P2X(1) knockout mice. Collectively, these observations support an essential role for P2X(1) receptors in TGF-mediated afferent arteriolar vasoconstriction.

  20. Arterial injury promotes medial chondrogenesis in Sm22 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jianbin; Yang, Maozhou; Jiang, Hong; Ju, Donghong; Zheng, Jian-Pu; Xu, Zhonghui; Liao, Tang-Dong; Li, Li

    2011-04-01

    Expression of SM22 (also known as SM22alpha and transgelin), a vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) marker, is down-regulated in arterial diseases involving medial osteochondrogenesis. We investigated the effect of SM22 deficiency in a mouse artery injury model to determine the role of SM22 in arterial chondrogenesis. Sm22 knockout (Sm22(-/-)) mice developed prominent medial chondrogenesis 2 weeks after carotid denudation as evidenced by the enhanced expression of chondrogenic markers including type II collagen, aggrecan, osteopontin, bone morphogenetic protein 2, and SRY-box containing gene 9 (SOX9). This was concomitant with suppression of VSMC key transcription factor myocardin and of VSMC markers such as SM α-actin and myosin heavy chain. The conversion tendency from myogenesis to chondrogenesis was also observed in primary Sm22(-/-) VSMCs and in a VSMC line after Sm22 knockdown: SM22 deficiency altered VSMC morphology with compromised stress fibre formation and increased actin dynamics. Meanwhile, the expression level of Sox9 mRNA was up-regulated while the mRNA levels of myocardin and VSMC markers were down-regulated, indicating a pro-chondrogenic transcriptional switch in SM22-deficient VSMCs. Furthermore, the increased expression of SOX9 was mediated by enhanced reactive oxygen species production and nuclear factor-κB pathway activation. These findings suggest that disruption of SM22 alters the actin cytoskeleton and promotes chondrogenic conversion of VSMCs.

  1. Factor XI Deficiency Protects Against Atherogenesis in Apolipoprotein E/Factor XI Double Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ganor, Reut Shnerb; Harats, Dror; Schiby, Ginette; Gailani, David; Levkovitz, Hanna; Avivi, Camila; Tamarin, Ilia; Shaish, Aviv; Salomon, Ophira

    2016-01-01

    Objective Atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis are still major causes of mortality in the Western world, even after the widespread use of cholesterol-lowering medications. Recently, an association between local thrombin generation and atherosclerotic burden has been reported. Here, we studied the role of factor XI (FXI) deficiency in the process of atherosclerosis in mice. Approach and Results Apolipoprotein E/FXI double knockout mice, created for the first time in our laboratory. There was no difference in cholesterol levels or lipoprotein profiles between apolipoprotein E knockout and double knockout mice. Nevertheless, in 24-week-old double knockout mice, the atherosclerotic lesion area in the aortic sinus was reduced by 32% (P=0.004) in comparison with apolipoprotein E knockout mice. In 42-week-old double knockout mice, FXI deficiency inhibited atherosclerosis progression significantly in the aortic sinus (25% reduction, P=0.024) and in the aortic arch (49% reduction, P=0.028), with a prominent reduction of macrophage infiltration in the atherosclerotic lesions. Conclusions FXI deprivation was shown to slow down atherogenesis in mice. The results suggest that the development of atherosclerosis can be prevented by targeting FXI. PMID:26800563

  2. The Role of Adenosine A2BR in Metastatic Melanoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-07-01

    metastasis when compared to control tumor. Additionally, A2BR knocked out in the endothelium or the whole host did not affect primary tumor growth or...3C). We conclude that A2BR deficiency in the tumor or the host does not affect tumor growth in the SM1WT1 LWT1 model. The results obtained with...vessels or globally in the host does not affect tumor growth in the SM1WT1 model. 10 To obtain a further understanding if melanoma would be

  3. Differential cytokine expression in skin graft healing in inducible nitric oxide synthase knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Most, D; Efron, D T; Shi, H P; Tantry, U S; Barbul, A

    2001-10-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and its product, nitric oxide, have been shown to play important roles in wound biology. The present study was performed to investigate the role of iNOS in modulating the cytokine cascade during the complex process of skin graft wound healing.Fifteen iNOS-knockout mice and 15 wild-type C57BL/6J mice were subjected to autogenous 1-cm2 intrascapular full-thickness skin grafts. Three animals in each group were killed on postoperative days 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14. Specimens were then analyzed using nonisotopic in situ hybridization versus mRNA of tumor growth factor-beta1, vascular endothelial growth factor, iNOS, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and basic fibroblast growth factor, as well as positive and negative control probes. Positive cells in both grafts and wound beds were counted using a Leica microgrid. Scar thickness was measured with a Leica micrometer. Data were analyzed using the unpaired Student's t test. Expression of iNOS was 2- to 4-fold higher in knockout mice than in wild-type mice on postoperative days 5, 7, and 14. Expression of eNOS was 2- to 2.5-fold higher in knockout mice than in wild-type mice on postoperative days 5 and 7. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression was 2- to 7-fold higher in knockout mice than in wild-type mice on all postoperative days. In contrast, expression levels of angiogenic/fibrogenic cytokines (vascular endothelial growth factor, basis fibroblast growth factor, and tumor growth factor-beta1) were 2.5- to 4-fold higher in wild-type mice than in knockout mice. Scars were 1.5- to 2.5-fold thicker in knockout mice than in wild-type mice at all time points. All of the above results represent statistically significant differences (p < 0.05). Significantly different patterns of cytokine expression were seen in knockout and wild-type mice. Although the scar layer was thicker in knockout mice, it showed much greater infiltration with inflammatory cells. These

  4. Effects of blueberries in prevention of atherosclerosis in apoe knockout mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ApoE knockout (ApoE-/-) mice were fed AIN-93G diet (CD) or CD formulated to contain 1% freeze-dried whole wild blueberries (CD1% BB). Mice were sacrificed after 20 weeks on the specified diet. Atherosclerotic lesions in aortic sinus were determined by staining cryosections (10 µm) with Oil Red O. Th...

  5. MR histology of advanced atherosclerotic lesions of ApoE- knockout mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumova, A.; Yarnykh, V.; Ferguson, M.; Rosenfeld, M.; Yuan, C.

    2016-02-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the feasibility of determining the composition of advanced atherosclerotic plaques in fixed ApoE-knockout mice and to develop a time-efficient microimaging protocol for MR histological imaging on mice. Five formalin-fixed transgenic ApoE-knockout mice were imaged at the 9.4T Bruker BioSpec MR scanner using 3D spoiled gradient-echo sequence with an isotropic field of view of 24 mm3; TR 20.8 ms; TE 2.6 ms; flip angle 20°, resulted voxel size 47 × 63 × 94 pm3. MRI examination has shown that advanced atherosclerotic lesions of aorta, innominate and carotid arteries in ApoE-knockout mice are characterized by high calcification and presence of the large fibrofatty nodules. MRI quantification of atherosclerotic lesion components corresponded to histological assessment of plaque composition with a correlation coefficient of 0.98.

  6. Phenotypic assessment of THC discriminative stimulus properties in fatty acid amide hydrolase knockout and wildtype mice

    PubMed Central

    Walentiny, D. Matthew; Vann, Robert E.; Wiley, Jenny L.

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have examined the ability of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide to elicit Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-like subjective effects, as modeled through the THC discrimination paradigm. In the present study, we compared transgenic mice lacking fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme primarily responsible for anandamide catabolism, to wildtype counterparts in a THC discrimination procedure. THC (5.6 mg/kg) served as a discriminative stimulus in both genotypes, with similar THC dose-response curves between groups. Anandamide fully substituted for THC in FAAH knockout, but not wildtype, mice. Conversely, the metabolically stable anandamide analog O-1812 fully substituted in both groups, but was more potent in knockouts. The CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant dose-dependently attenuated THC generalization in both groups and anandamide substitution in FAAH knockouts. Pharmacological inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the primary catabolic enzyme for the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), with JZL184 resulted in full substitution for THC in FAAH knockout mice and nearly full substitution in wildtypes. Quantification of brain endocannabinoid levels revealed expected elevations in anandamide in FAAH knockout mice compared to wildtypes and equipotent dose-dependent elevations in 2-AG following JZL184 administration. Dual inhibition of FAAH and MAGL with JZL195 resulted in roughly equipotent increases in THC-appropriate responding in both groups. While the notable similarity in THC's discriminative stimulus effects across genotype suggests that the increased baseline brain anandamide levels (as seen in FAAH knockout mice) do not alter THC's subjective effects, FAAH knockout mice are more sensitive to the THC-like effects of pharmacologically induced increases in anandamide and MAGL inhibition (e.g., JZL184). PMID:25698527

  7. Phenotypic assessment of THC discriminative stimulus properties in fatty acid amide hydrolase knockout and wildtype mice.

    PubMed

    Walentiny, D Matthew; Vann, Robert E; Wiley, Jenny L

    2015-06-01

    A number of studies have examined the ability of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide to elicit Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-like subjective effects, as modeled through the THC discrimination paradigm. In the present study, we compared transgenic mice lacking fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme primarily responsible for anandamide catabolism, to wildtype counterparts in a THC discrimination procedure. THC (5.6 mg/kg) served as a discriminative stimulus in both genotypes, with similar THC dose-response curves between groups. Anandamide fully substituted for THC in FAAH knockout, but not wildtype, mice. Conversely, the metabolically stable anandamide analog O-1812 fully substituted in both groups, but was more potent in knockouts. The CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant dose-dependently attenuated THC generalization in both groups and anandamide substitution in FAAH knockouts. Pharmacological inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the primary catabolic enzyme for the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), with JZL184 resulted in full substitution for THC in FAAH knockout mice and nearly full substitution in wildtypes. Quantification of brain endocannabinoid levels revealed expected elevations in anandamide in FAAH knockout mice compared to wildtypes and equipotent dose-dependent elevations in 2-AG following JZL184 administration. Dual inhibition of FAAH and MAGL with JZL195 resulted in roughly equipotent increases in THC-appropriate responding in both groups. While the notable similarity in THC's discriminative stimulus effects across genotype suggests that the increased baseline brain anandamide levels (as seen in FAAH knockout mice) do not alter THC's subjective effects, FAAH knockout mice are more sensitive to the THC-like effects of pharmacologically induced increases in anandamide and MAGL inhibition (e.g., JZL184). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Narp knockout mice show normal reactivity to novelty but attenuated recovery from neophobia.

    PubMed

    Blouin, Ashley M; Lee, Jongah J; Tao, Bo; Smith, Dani R; Johnson, Alexander W; Baraban, Jay M; Reti, Irving M

    2013-11-15

    Narp knockout (KO) mice demonstrate cognitive inflexibility and addictive behavior, which are associated with abnormal reactivity to a novel stimulus. To assess reactivity to novelty, we tested Narp KO and wild-type (WT) mice on a neophobia procedure. Both Narp KO and WT mice showed a similar decrease in consumption upon initial exposure to a novel flavor, but Narp KO mice did not increase consumption with subsequent exposures to the novel flavor like the WT mice. Therefore, Narp KO mice do not have abnormal reactivity to novelty but show deficits in adapting behavior to reflect the updated value of a stimulus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Increased neurogenesis and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in neurokinin-1 receptor gene knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Morcuende, Sara; Gadd, Christopher A; Peters, Marco; Moss, Andrew; Harris, Elizabeth A; Sheasby, Anne; Fisher, Amy S; De Felipe, Carmen; Mantyh, Patrick W; Rupniak, Nadia M J; Giese, K Peter; Hunt, Stephen P

    2003-10-01

    It has previously been shown that chronic treatment with antidepressant drugs increases neurogenesis and levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the hippocampus. These changes have been correlated with changes in learning and long-term potentiation and may contribute to the therapeutic efficacy of antidepressant drug treatment. Recently, antagonists at the neurokinin-1 receptor, the preferred receptor for the neuropeptide substance P, have been shown to have antidepressant activity. Mice with disruption of the neurokinin-1 receptor gene are remarkably similar both behaviourally and neurochemically to mice maintained chronically on antidepressant drugs. We demonstrate here that there is a significant elevation of neurogenesis but not cell survival in the hippocampus of neurokinin-1 receptor knockout mice. Neurogenesis can be increased in wild-type but not neurokinin-1 receptor knockout mice by chronic treatment with antidepressant drugs which preferentially target noradrenergic and serotonergic pathways. Hippocampal levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor are also two-fold higher in neurokinin-1 receptor knockout mice, whereas cortical levels are similar. Finally, we examined hippocampus-dependent learning and memory but found no clear enhancement in neurokinin-1 receptor knockout mice. These data argue against a simple correlation between increased levels of neurogenesis or brain-derived neurotrophic factor and mnemonic processes in the absence of increased cell survival. They support the hypothesis that increased neurogenesis, perhaps accompanied by higher levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, may contribute to the efficacy of antidepressant drug therapy.

  10. [Exogenous estrogen improved calcium homeostasis and skeletal mineralization in vitamin D receptor gene knockout female mice].

    PubMed

    Li, Bing-Yan; Tong, Jian; Zhang, Zeng-Li

    2006-12-25

    It is well known that estrogen can inhibit bone absorption, decrease bone turnover and preserve bone mass. Some studies indicated that the effect of estrogen on calcium and bone is relative to vitamin D system, while others also reported that this effect of estrogen is independent of vitamin D. The genomic effect of 1alpha, 25(OH)(2)D(3)is mediated by the nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR) in a ligand-dependent manner. Hypocalcemia, hyperparathyroidism and osteomalacia are developed in VDR gene knockout mice. To determine whether the effect of estrogen on calcium and bone is dependent on VDR, this study examined the effect of exogenous estrogen on calcium and bone homeostasis in VDR gene knockout mice. Male and female wild type (WT) and VDR gene knockout heterozygous mice were mated each other and the genotyping of their offsprings were determined by PCR. At age of 21-day, WT and knockout mice were weaned and treated by one of three different regimens: (1) WT-vehicle group: the WT mice were injected with normal saline; (2) VDR KO-vehicle group: the VDR gene knockout mice were injected with normal saline; (3) VDR KO-E group: the VDR gene knockout mice were subcutaneously injected with estradiol, 0.2 mug per mouse, once daily for 1 month. The bone mineral density (BMD) of mice was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. All mice were sacrificed at age of 50-day. Blood was taken by heart puncture under anesthesia and serum calcium was measured by autoanalyser.Tibiae were removed, fixed and embedded with the methylmethacrylate (MMA), and undecalcified sections were cut. These sections were stained for mineral with the von Kossa staining procedure and counterstained with toluidine blue. Static histomorphometric analyses were performed on those stained sections. The results showed that the serum calcium level was (2.10+/-0.37) mmol/L in the VDR KO-vehicle mice and rose to (2.80+/-0.41) mmol/L in the VDR KO-E mice although it was still lower than WT-vehicle mice

  11. Phytosterol Feeding Causes Toxicity in ABCG5/G8 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Allison L.; Alger, Heather M.; Sawyer, Janet K.; Kelley, Kathryn L.; Kock, Nancy D.; Brown, J. Mark; Temel, Ryan E.; Rudel, Lawrence L.

    2014-01-01

    Plant sterols, or phytosterols, are very similar in structure to cholesterol and are abundant in typical diets. The reason for poor absorption of plant sterols by the body is still unknown. Mutations in the ABC transporters G5 and G8 are known to cause an accumulation of plant sterols in blood and tissues (sitosterolemia). To determine the significance of phytosterol exclusion from the body, we fed wild-type and ABCG5/G8 knockout mice a diet enriched with plant sterols. The high-phytosterol diet was extremely toxic to the ABCG5/G8 knockout mice but had no adverse effects on wild-type mice. ABCG5/G8 knockout mice died prematurely and developed a phenotype that included high levels of plant sterols in many tissues, liver abnormalities, and severe cardiac lesions. This study is the first to report such toxic effects of phytosterol accumulation in ABCG5/G8 knockout mice. We believe these new data support the conclusion that plant sterols are excluded from the body because they are toxic when present at high levels. PMID:23380580

  12. STOP knockout and NMDA NR1 hypomorphic mice exhibit deficits in sensorimotor gating.

    PubMed

    Fradley, Rosa L; O'Meara, Gillian F; Newman, Richard J; Andrieux, Annie; Job, Didier; Reynolds, David S

    2005-09-08

    Schizophrenia is a chronic and debilitating disease which is thought to arise from a neuro-developmental disorder. Both the stable tubule-only polypeptide (STOP) protein and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) NR1 subunit are involved in neuronal development and physiology. It has therefore been postulated that transgenic mice lacking either the STOP or the NMDAR1 gene would show a 'schizophrenic-like' phenotype. Here, STOP knockout and NMDA NR1 hypomorphic mice were assessed in a behavioural measure that can be used to detect schizophrenic-like phenotypes: a change in sensorimotor gating, measured through prepulse inhibition (PPI). STOP knockout mice were further assessed in another measure of 'schizophrenic-like behaviour': hyperlocomotion. The PPI deficit exhibited by both the STOP knockout and NMDA knockdown mice could not be reversed by acute treatment with the atyptical antipsychotic, clozapine (1 mg/kg, i.p.) but the hyperlocomotion shown by the STOP knockout mice was reversed with the same acute dose of clozapine.

  13. Engineering of Conditional Class I Hdac Knockout Mice and Generation of a Time-Spatial Knockout by a Dual Recombination System.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Sieglinde; Wirth, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    The protein sequences of class I HDACs in mice and humans are 96-99 % identical. These highly conserved proteins have crucial roles in biological processes, such as proliferation and development, which is reflected in the lethality that occurs in conventional whole body knockout mice. Therefore, conditional knockouts are inevitable to investigate the functions of class I HDACs in mice. Here, we describe the generation of conditional class I Hdac knockout mice, using Hdac1 as an example. We explain a relatively quick procedure to generate the necessary target vectors by recombination-mediated genetic engineering and gateway techniques. Furthermore, we show how to culture, target, and screen for positively recombined ES cells. Additionally, we present a dual recombination system, which allows the deletion of class I Hdacs at any time by a tamoxifen inducible Cre.

  14. Altered behavioral development in Nrf2 knockout mice following early postnatal exposure to valproic acid.

    PubMed

    Furnari, Melody A; Saw, Constance Lay-Lay; Kong, Ah-Ng; Wagner, George C

    2014-10-01

    Early exposure to valproic acid results in autism-like neural and behavioral deficits in humans and other animals through oxidative stress-induced neural damage. In the present study, valproic acid was administered to genetically altered mice lacking the Nrf2 (nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2) gene on postnatal day 14 (P14). Nrf2 is a transcription factor that induces genes that protect against oxidative stress. It was found that valproic acid-treated Nrf2 knockout mice were less active in open field activity chambers, less successful on the rotorod, and had deficits in learning and memory in the Morris water maze compared to the valproic acid-treated wild type mice. Given these results, it appears that Nrf2 knockout mice were more sensitive to the neural damage caused by valproic acid administered during early development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Altered behavioral development in Nrf2 knockout mice following early postnatal exposure to valproic acid

    PubMed Central

    Furnari, Melody A.; Saw, Constance Lay-Lay; Kong, Ah-Ng; Wagner, George C

    2015-01-01

    Early exposure to valproic acid results in autism-like neural and behavioral deficits in humans and other animals through oxidative stress-induced neural damage. In the present study, valproic acid was administered to genetically altered mice lacking the Nrf2 (nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2) gene on postnatal day 14 (P14). Nrf2 is a transcription factor that induces genes that protect against oxidative stress. It was found that valproic acid-treated Nrf2 knockout mice were less active in open field activity chambers, less successful on the rotorod, and had deficits in learning and memory in the Morris water maze compared to the valproic acid-treated wild type mice. Given these results, it appears that Nrf2 knockout mice were more sensitive to the neural damage caused by valproic acid administered during early development. PMID:25454122

  16. Fasting induces ketoacidosis and hypothermia in PDHK2/PDHK4-double-knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Jeoung, Nam Ho; Rahimi, Yasmeen; Wu, Pengfei; Lee, W. N. Paul; Harris, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of PDHK (pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase) 2 and 4 in regulation of the PDH complex (pyruvate dehydrogenase complex) was assessed in single- and double-knockout mice. PDHK2 deficiency caused higher PDH complex activity and lower blood glucose levels in the fed, but not the fasted, state. PDHK4 deficiency caused similar effects, but only after fasting. Double deficiency intensified these effects in both the fed and fasted states. PDHK2 deficiency had no effect on glucose tolerance, PDHK4 deficiency produced only a modest effect, but double deficiency caused a marked improvement and also induced lower insulin levels and increased insulin sensitivity. In spite of these beneficial effects, the double-knockout mice were more sensitive than wild-type and single-knockout mice to long-term fasting, succumbing to hypoglycaemia, ketoacidosis and hypothermia. Stable isotope flux analysis indicated that hypoglycaemia was due to a reduced rate of gluconeogenesis and that slightly more glucose was converted into ketone bodies in the double-knockout mice. The findings establish that PDHK2 is more important in the fed state, PDHK4 is more important in the fasted state, and survival during long-term fasting depends upon regulation of the PDH complex by both PDHK2 and PDHK4. PMID:22360721

  17. SPERM MOTILITY IN HSF1 KNOCKOUT MICE AFTER HEAT SHOCK IS ASSOCIATED WITH FERTILITY DEFICITS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPERM MOTILITY IN HSF1 KNOCKOUT MICE AFTER HEAT SHOCK IS ASSOCIATED WITH FERTILITY DEFICITS. L.F. Strader*, S.D. Perreault, J.C. Luft*, and D.J. Dix*. US EPA/ORD, Reproductive Toxicology Div., Research Triangle Park, NC
    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) protect cells from environm...

  18. Age-Related Changes in the Behavior of Apolipoprotein E Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Dasha; Fernández, Nidia; García, Teidy; Morales, Ana Ruth; Menéndez, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    The knockout mouse model, B6.129P2-Apoetm1Unc is homozygotic for the Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) deletion; thus, it is capable of developing hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis but ApoE is also a lipid-transport protein abundantly expressed in most neurons in the central nervous system, so these animals could also be models of neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to determine age-related changes in spontaneous behavior and in learning and memory of Apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Spontaneous behavioral measurements included sleeping pattern, motor coordination and balance by rotarod and open field activity, whereas learning and memory tests included forced alternation in Y-maze, novel object recognition and passive avoidance conditioning. Significant behavioral differences between aged knockout mice and age-matched wild type strain, C57Bl/6 were found in all the behavioral tests, except for the rotarod test. Genetically’ modified mice exhibited less huddling contact during sleeping, decreased locomotor activity in novel environments and in learning and memory deficits. These results are consistent with the cognitive impairment and memory loss seen as the earliest clinical symptoms in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease. The ApoE knockout mice might therefore be an appropriate model for studying the underlying mechanisms involved in behavioral changes caused by neurodegenerative diseases as well as for evaluating new therapies for these pathologies. PMID:29510495

  19. Age-Related Changes in the Behavior of Apolipoprotein E Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Dasha; Fernández, Nidia; García, Yenela; García, Teidy; Morales, Ana Ruth; Menéndez, Roberto

    2018-03-03

    The knockout mouse model, B6.129P2-Apoe tm1Unc is homozygotic for the Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) deletion; thus, it is capable of developing hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis but ApoE is also a lipid-transport protein abundantly expressed in most neurons in the central nervous system, so these animals could also be models of neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to determine age-related changes in spontaneous behavior and in learning and memory of Apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Spontaneous behavioral measurements included sleeping pattern, motor coordination and balance by rotarod and open field activity, whereas learning and memory tests included forced alternation in Y-maze, novel object recognition and passive avoidance conditioning. Significant behavioral differences between aged knockout mice and age-matched wild type strain, C57Bl/6 were found in all the behavioral tests, except for the rotarod test. Genetically' modified mice exhibited less huddling contact during sleeping, decreased locomotor activity in novel environments and in learning and memory deficits. These results are consistent with the cognitive impairment and memory loss seen as the earliest clinical symptoms in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. The ApoE knockout mice might therefore be an appropriate model for studying the underlying mechanisms involved in behavioral changes caused by neurodegenerative diseases as well as for evaluating new therapies for these pathologies.

  20. Kv4.2 Knockout Mice Have Hippocampal-Dependent Learning and Memory Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lugo, Joaquin N.; Brewster, Amy L.; Spencer, Corinne M.; Anderson, Anne E.

    2012-01-01

    Kv4.2 channels contribute to the transient, outward K[superscript +] current (A-type current) in hippocampal dendrites, and modulation of this current substantially alters dendritic excitability. Using Kv4.2 knockout (KO) mice, we examined the role of Kv4.2 in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. We found that Kv4.2 KO mice showed a deficit…

  1. Impairments in the initiation of maternal behavior in oxytocin receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Rich, Megan E; deCárdenas, Emily J; Lee, Heon-Jin; Caldwell, Heather K

    2014-01-01

    Oxytocin (Oxt) acting through its single receptor subtype, the Oxtr, is important for the coordination of physiology and behavior associated with parturition and maternal care. Knockout mouse models have been helpful in exploring the contributions of Oxt to maternal behavior, including total body Oxt knockout (Oxt -/-) mice, forebrain conditional Oxtr knockout (Oxtr FB/FB) mice, and total body Oxtr knockout (Oxtr -/-) mice. Since Oxtr -/- mice are unable to lactate, maternal behavior has only been examined in virgin females, or in dams within a few hours of parturition, and there have been no studies that have examined their anxiety-like and depression-like behavior following parturition. To improve our understanding of how the absence of Oxt signaling affects maternal behavior, mood and anxiety, we designed a study using Oxtr -/- mice that separated nursing behavior from other aspects of maternal care, such as licking and grooming by thelectomizing (i.e. removing the nipples) of Oxtr +/+ mice and sham-thelectomizing Oxtr -/- mice, and pairing both genotypes with a wet nurse. We then measured pup abandonment, maternal behavior, and postpartum anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors. We hypothesized that genetic disruption of the Oxtr would impact maternal care, mood and anxiety. Specifically, we predicted that Oxtr -/- dams would have impaired maternal care and increased anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors in the postpartum period. We found that Oxtr -/- dams had significantly higher levels of pup abandonment compared to controls, which is consistent with previous work in Oxtr FB/FB mice. Interestingly, Oxtr -/- dams that initiated maternal care did not differ from wildtype controls in measures of maternal behavior. We also did not find any evidence of altered anxiety-like or depressive-like behavior in the postpartum period of Oxtr -/- dams. Thus, our data suggest that Oxt lowers the threshold for the initiation of maternal behavior.

  2. Hippocampal long-term potentiation is enhanced in urethane-anesthetized RGS2 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, R Matthew; Chidiac, Peter; Leung, L Stan

    2009-08-01

    RGS2 is a member of the regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) family and has been implicated in cellular mechanisms associated with neuronal plasticity. Long-term potentiation (LTP) of RGS2 knockout and wild-type mice was examined at the Schaffer collaterals to CA1 pathway in urethane-anesthetized mice in vivo to examine RGS2's possible role in the regulation of potentiation. As compared to wild-type mice, RGS2 knockouts demonstrated much stronger LTP of the extracellular population spikes at the somatic and dendritic layers in CA1 region and more pronounced LTP of the population excitatory postsynaptic current sink. Under baseline conditions, RGS2 knockouts showed lower paired-pulse facilitation of the excitatory postsynaptic potentials and associated current sinks in vivo as compared with wild-type mice. The data show for the first time that RGS2 deficient mice in vivo differ from wild-type mice in both short-term and long-term synaptic plasticity suggesting that RGS2 serves as a negative regulator of long-term synaptic plasticity. Copyright (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Renal Phenotype of UT-A Urea Transporter Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, Robert A.; Flynn, Anneliese; Shodeinde, Adetola; Smith, Craig P.; Schnermann, Jurgen; Knepper, Mark A.

    2006-01-01

    The urea transporters UT-A1 and UT-A3 mediate rapid transepithelial urea transport across the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD). In a previous study, using a new mouse model in which both UT-A1 and UT-A3 were genetically deleted from the IMCD (UT-A1/3−/− mice), we investigated the role of these transporters in the function of the renal inner medulla. Here we report a series of studies investigating more generally the renal phenotype of UT-A1/3−/− mice. Pathological screening revealed abnormalities in both the testis (increased size) and kidney (decreased size and vascular congestion) of UT-A1/3−/− mice. Total urinary nitrate and nitrite excretion rates in UT-A1/3−/− mice were more than double those in wildtype mice. Total renal blood flow was not different between UT-A1/3−/− and wildtype mice, but underwent a greater percentage decrease in response to NG-Nitro-L-arginine Methyl Ester Hydrochloride (L-NAME) infusion. Whole kidney glomerular filtration rate was not different in UT-A1/3−/− mice compared to controls and underwent a similar increase in response to a greater dietary protein intake. Fractional urea excretion was markedly elevated in UT-A1/3−/− mice on a 40% protein diet, reaching 102.4 ± 8.8% of the filtered load, suggesting that there may be active urea secretion along the renal tubule. Although there was a marked urinary concentrating defect in UT-A1/3−/− mice, there was no decrease in aquaporin-2 or -3 expression. Furthermore, although urea accumulation in the inner medulla was markedly attenuated, there was no decrease in NaCl concentration in tissue from outer medulla or 2 levels of the inner medulla. PMID:15829709

  4. Pelvic Organ Prolapse in Fibulin-5 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Drewes, Peter G.; Yanagisawa, Hiromi; Starcher, Barry; Hornstra, Ian; Csiszar, Katalin; Marinis, Spyridon I.; Keller, Patrick; Word, R. Ann

    2007-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse is strongly associated with a history of vaginal delivery. The mechanisms by which pregnancy and parturition lead to failure of pelvic organ support, however, are not known. Recently, it was reported that mice with null mutations in lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) develop pelvic organ prolapse. Elastin is a substrate for lysyl oxidase (LOX) and LOXL1, and LOXL1 interacts with fibulin-5 (FBLN5). Therefore, to clarify the potential role of elastic fiber assembly in the pathogenesis of pelvic organ prolapse, pelvic organ support was characterized in Fbln5−/− mice, and changes in elastic fiber homeostasis in the mouse vagina during pregnancy and parturition were determined. Pelvic organ prolapse in Fbln5−/− mice was remarkably similar to that in primates. The temporal relationship between LOX mRNA and protein, processing of LOXL1 protein, FBLN5 and tropoelastin protein, and desmosine content in the vagina suggest that a burst of elastic fiber assembly and cross linking occurs in the vaginal wall postpartum. Together with the phenotype of Fbln5−/− mice, the results suggest that synthesis and assembly of elastic fibers are crucial for recovery of pelvic organ support after vaginal delivery and that disordered elastic fiber homeostasis is a primary event in the pathogenesis of pelvic organ prolapse in mice. PMID:17255326

  5. Generation of ER{alpha}-floxed and knockout mice using the Cre/LoxP system

    SciTech Connect

    Antonson, P., E-mail: per.antonson@ki.se; Omoto, Y.; Humire, P.

    2012-08-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ER{alpha} floxed and knockout mice were generated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Disruption of the ER{alpha} gene results in sterility in both male and female mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ER{alpha}{sup -/-} mice have ovaries with hemorrhagic follicles and hypoplastic uterus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Female ER{alpha}{sup -/-} mice develop obesity. -- Abstract: Estrogen receptor alpha (ER{alpha}) is a nuclear receptor that regulates a range of physiological processes in response to estrogens. In order to study its biological role, we generated a floxed ER{alpha} mouse line that can be used to knock out ER{alpha} in selected tissues by using the Cre/LoxP system. In this study, we established amore » new ER{alpha} knockout mouse line by crossing the floxed ER{alpha} mice with Cre deleter mice. Here we show that genetic disruption of the ER{alpha} gene in all tissues results in sterility in both male and female mice. Histological examination of uterus and ovaries revealed a dramatically atrophic uterus and hemorrhagic cysts in the ovary. These results suggest that infertility in female mice is the result of functional defects of the reproductive tract. Moreover, female knockout mice are hyperglycemic, develop obesity and at the age of 4 months the body weight of these mice was more than 20% higher compared to wild type littermates and this difference increased over time. Our results demonstrate that ER{alpha} is necessary for reproductive tract development and has important functions as a regulator of metabolism in females.« less

  6. Histidine decarboxylase knockout mice, a genetic model of Tourette syndrome, show repetitive grooming after induced fear.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meiyu; Li, Lina; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Pittenger, Christopher

    2015-05-19

    Tics, such as are seen in Tourette syndrome (TS), are common and can cause profound morbidity, but they are poorly understood. Tics are potentiated by psychostimulants, stress, and sleep deprivation. Mutations in the gene histidine decarboxylase (Hdc) have been implicated as a rare genetic cause of TS, and Hdc knockout mice have been validated as a genetic model that recapitulates phenomenological and pathophysiological aspects of the disorder. Tic-like stereotypies in this model have not been observed at baseline but emerge after acute challenge with the psychostimulant d-amphetamine. We tested the ability of an acute stressor to stimulate stereotypies in this model, using tone fear conditioning. Hdc knockout mice acquired conditioned fear normally, as manifested by freezing during the presentation of a tone 48h after it had been paired with a shock. During the 30min following tone presentation, knockout mice showed increased grooming. Heterozygotes exhibited normal freezing and intermediate grooming. These data validate a new paradigm for the examination of tic-like stereotypies in animals without pharmacological challenge and enhance the face validity of the Hdc knockout mouse as a pathophysiologically grounded model of tic disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Antidepressant-like effect of venlafaxine is abolished in µ-opioid receptor knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Ide, Soichiro; Fujiwara, Shunsuke; Fujiwara, Masayuki; Sora, Ichiro; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Minami, Masabumi; Uhl, George R.; Ishihara, Kumatoshi

    2011-01-01

    Although the opioid system is known to modulate depression-like behaviors, its role in the effects of antidepressants is not yet clear. We investigated the role of µ-opioid receptors (MOPs) in the effects of venlafaxine, a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, in the forced swim test using MOP-knockout (KO) mice. Venlafaxine reduced immobility time in wildtype mice (C57BL/6J), but not in MOP-KO mice, although no significant effects were observed on locomotor activity. These results suggest that MOPs play an important role in the antidepressant-like effects of venlafaxine. PMID:20703010

  8. Diminished AMPK signaling response to fasting in Thioredoxin-interacting Protein Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Andres, Allen M.; Ratliff, Eric P.; Sachithanantham, Sowbarnika; Hui, Simon T.

    2011-01-01

    Thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip) knockout (TKO) mice exhibit impaired response to fasting. Herein, we showed that activation of AMPK and cellular AMP levels were diminished in the heart and soleus muscle but not in gastrocnemius muscle of fasting TKO mice. Similarly, glycogen content in fasted TKO mice was increased in oxidative muscles but was not different in glycolytic muscles. These data suggest Txnip deficiency has a higher impact on oxidative muscle than glycolytic muscles and provide new insights into the metabolic role of Txnip. PMID:21439280

  9. Txnip ablation reduces vascular smooth muscle cell inflammation and ameliorates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Byon, Chang Hyun; Han, Tieyan; Wu, Judy; Hui, Simon T

    2015-08-01

    Inflammation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is intimately linked to atherosclerosis and other vascular inflammatory disease. Thioredoxin interacting protein (Txnip) is a key regulator of cellular sulfhydryl redox and a mediator of inflammasome activation. The goals of the present study were to examine the impact of Txnip ablation on inflammatory response to oxidative stress in VSMC and to determine the effect of Txnip ablation on atherosclerosis in vivo. Using cultured VSMC, we showed that ablation of Txnip reduced cellular oxidative stress and increased protection from oxidative stress when challenged with oxidized phospholipids and hydrogen peroxide. Correspondingly, expression of inflammatory markers and adhesion molecules were diminished in both VSMC and macrophages from Txnip knockout mice. The blunted inflammatory response was associated with a decrease in NF-ĸB nuclear translocation. Loss of Txnip in VSMC also led to a dramatic reduction in macrophage adhesion to VSMC. In vivo data from Txnip-ApoE double knockout mice showed that Txnip ablation led to 49% reduction in atherosclerotic lesion in the aortic root and 71% reduction in the abdominal aorta, compared to control ApoE knockout mice. Our data show that Txnip plays an important role in oxidative inflammatory response and atherosclerotic lesion development in mice. The atheroprotective effect of Txnip ablation implicates that modulation of Txnip expression may serve as a potential target for intervention of atherosclerosis and inflammatory vascular disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Otoancorin Knockout Mice Reveal Inertia is the Force for Hearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weddell, Thomas; Legan, P. Kevin; Lukashkina, Victoria A.; Goodyear, Richard J.; Welstead, Lindsy; Petit, Chistine; Russell, Ian J.; Lukashkin, Andrei N.; Richardson, Guy P.

    2011-11-01

    We demonstrate that in Otoa-/- mice, in which the inner-ear-specific protein otoancorin is absent, excitation of the outer hair cells and cochlear amplification is normal. This finding is remarkable because the tectorial membrane (TM), although remaining functionally attached to the outer hair cell bundles, is completely detached from the spiral limbus. Therefore, as in ancestral vertebrate auditory organs, where inertia provides the excitatory force to the hair cells, it is the inertia of the TM that must be important for exciting the outer hair cells, setting the sensitivity of their transducer conductance, and determining the precise timing of cochlear amplification.

  11. Lack of phenotype for LTP and fear conditioning learning in calpain 1 knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Grammer, Michael; Kuchay, Shafi; Chishti, Athar; Baudry, Michel

    2005-11-01

    We previously proposed the hypothesis that calpain activation played an important role in long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission in hippocampus. Two forms of calpain are predominant in brain tissues, calpain 1 (mu-calpain), activated by micromolar calcium concentration and calpain 2 (m-calpain), activated by millimolar calcium concentration in vitro. In the present study, we tested the role of calpain 1 in LTP and in learning and memory using calpain 1 knock-out mice. Changes in learning and memory were assessed using both context and tone fear conditioning. No differences in freezing responses were observed between the knock-out and the wild-type animals during the acquisition phase of the training, eliminating the possibility that the knock-out animals could be differentially affected by the foot shock. Likewise, no differences in freezing responses elicited by either the context or the tone were observed during the retention phase. No differences in short-term potentiation (STP) or LTP were observed in hippocampal slices from the knock-out and matched wild-type mice. Several interpretations might explain these negative results. First, it is conceivable that calpain 2 plays a more dominant role in neurons, and that calpain 1 makes a minor contribution as opposed to its suspected predominant role in the hematopoietic system. Alternatively, it is conceivable that some as yet unknown compensatory mechanisms take effect, and that calpain 2 or another calpain isoform substitutes for the missing calpain 1.

  12. Critical period plasticity is disrupted in the barrel cortex of Fmr1 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Harlow, Emily G.; Till, Sally M.; Russell, Theron A.; Wijetunge, Lasani S.; Kind, Peter; Contractor, Anis

    2010-01-01

    Summary Alterations in sensory processing constitute prominent symptoms of Fragile X syndrome; however, little is known about how disrupted synaptic and circuit development in sensory cortex contributes to these deficits. To investigate how the loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) impacts the development of cortical synapses, we examined excitatory thalamocortical synapses in somatosensory cortex during the perinatal critical period in Fmr1 knockout mice. FMRP ablation resulted in dysregulation of glutamatergic signaling maturation. The fraction of silent synapses persisting to later developmental times was increased, there was a temporal delay in the window for synaptic plasticity, while other forms of developmental plasticity were not altered in Fmr1 knockout mice. Our results indicate that FMRP is required for the normal developmental progression of synaptic maturation, and loss of this important RNA binding protein impacts the timing of the critical period for layer IV synaptic plasticity. PMID:20159451

  13. Critical period plasticity is disrupted in the barrel cortex of FMR1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Harlow, Emily G; Till, Sally M; Russell, Theron A; Wijetunge, Lasani S; Kind, Peter; Contractor, Anis

    2010-02-11

    Alterations in sensory processing constitute prominent symptoms of fragile X syndrome; however, little is known about how disrupted synaptic and circuit development in sensory cortex contributes to these deficits. To investigate how the loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) impacts the development of cortical synapses, we examined excitatory thalamocortical synapses in somatosensory cortex during the perinatal critical period in Fmr1 knockout mice. FMRP ablation resulted in dysregulation of glutamatergic signaling maturation. The fraction of silent synapses persisting to later developmental times was increased; there was a temporal delay in the window for synaptic plasticity, while other forms of developmental plasticity were not altered in Fmr1 knockout mice. Our results indicate that FMRP is required for the normal developmental progression of synaptic maturation, and loss of this important RNA binding protein impacts the timing of the critical period for layer IV synaptic plasticity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid phenotyping of knockout mice to identify genetic determinants of bone strength

    PubMed Central

    Freudenthal, Bernard; Logan, John; Croucher, Peter I

    2016-01-01

    The genetic determinants of osteoporosis remain poorly understood, and there is a large unmet need for new treatments in our ageing society. Thus, new approaches for gene discovery in skeletal disease are required to complement the current genome-wide association studies in human populations. The International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) and the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC) provide such an opportunity. The IKMC generates knockout mice representing each of the known protein-coding genes in C57BL/6 mice and, as part of the IMPC initiative, the Origins of Bone and Cartilage Disease project identifies mutants with significant outlier skeletal phenotypes. This initiative will add value to data from large human cohorts and provide a new understanding of bone and cartilage pathophysiology, ultimately leading to the identification of novel drug targets for the treatment of skeletal disease. PMID:27535945

  15. Reduced susceptibility of muscle-specific insulin receptor knockout mice to colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ealey, Kafi N; Lu, Suying; Lau, Dominic; Archer, Michael C

    2008-03-01

    Insulin resistance is a risk factor for colon cancer, but it is not clear which of its metabolic sequelae are involved. The objective of this study was to determine whether increased adiposity and elevated circulating lipids commonly seen in insulin resistance promote colon carcinogenesis independent of changes in insulin. We made use of muscle-specific insulin receptor knockout (MIRKO) mice that exhibit elevated serum triglycerides (TG), free fatty acids (FFA), and fat mass but have similar body weights, circulating glucose, and insulin and insulin sensitivity to their wild-type littermates used as controls. Seven-week-old male MIRKO mice and controls received four weekly intraperitoneal injections of either 5 mg/kg azoxymethane (AOM) to induce aberrant crypt foci (ACF) or 10 mg/kg AOM to induce tumors and were killed at 24 or 40 wk of age, respectively. The MIRKO mice displayed hyperinsulinemia at 7 wk of age and reduced insulin sensitivity at 16 wk of age compared with controls. The previously reported MIRKO phenotype developed between 16 and 24 wk of age. By 40 wk of age, however, MIRKO mice were again insulin resistant. ACF development did not differ between MIRKO mice and controls, but MIRKO mice developed significantly fewer colon tumors. Our results suggest that circulating TG and FFA are not promoters of colon tumor development. Indeed, we show that the cumulative effects of the metabolic changes that occur with knockout of the insulin receptor in muscle are associated with reduced susceptibility to colon tumorigenesis.

  16. Effects of Chronic Mild Stress in Female Bax Inhibitor-1-Gene Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Zhi-Yan; Chae, Han-Jung; Huang, Guang-Biao; Zhao, Tong; Shrestha Muna, Sushma

    2012-01-01

    Objective The anti-apoptotic protein Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1) is a regulator of apoptosis linked to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and BI-1-/- mice exhibit increased sensitivity to tissue damage. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of BI-1 in the pathogenesis of chronic mild stress (CMS)-induced depression-like behaviors in BI-1-/- mice. Methods We delivered CMS for 2 or 6 weeks in BI-1-knockout and wild-type mice. Control groups of BI-1-knockout and wild-type mice were left undisturbed. The measured parameters were sucrose consumption at weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, spontaneous locomotion, and a forced swimming test (FST) at weeks 2 and 6. Results Significant decreases in sucrose consumption and increases in immobility time in the FST were observed in both stress groups compared with the non-stress groups. Interestingly, at week 2, but not at week 6, BI-1-/--stress mice showed less sucrose intake and greater immobility time than did BI-1+/+-stress mice. Conclusion These results suggest that BI-1 may play role in protecting against the depressogenic effects of CMS in the short term, but not in the long term. Further study is required to deepen understanding of the role of BI-1 in protecting against depression. PMID:23430888

  17. Sulindac metabolites decrease cerebrovascular malformations in CCM3-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Bravi, Luca; Rudini, Noemi; Cuttano, Roberto; Giampietro, Costanza; Maddaluno, Luigi; Ferrarini, Luca; Adams, Ralf H; Corada, Monica; Boulday, Gwenola; Tournier-Lasserve, Elizabeth; Dejana, Elisabetta; Lampugnani, Maria Grazia

    2015-07-07

    Cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) is a disease of the central nervous system causing hemorrhage-prone multiple lumen vascular malformations and very severe neurological consequences. At present, the only recommended treatment of CCM is surgical. Because surgery is often not applicable, pharmacological treatment would be highly desirable. We describe here a murine model of the disease that develops after endothelial-cell-selective ablation of the CCM3 gene. We report an early, cell-autonomous, Wnt-receptor-independent stimulation of β-catenin transcription activity in CCM3-deficient endothelial cells both in vitro and in vivo and a triggering of a β-catenin-driven transcription program that leads to endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition. TGF-β/BMP signaling is then required for the progression of the disease. We also found that the anti-inflammatory drugs sulindac sulfide and sulindac sulfone, which attenuate β-catenin transcription activity, reduce vascular malformations in endothelial CCM3-deficient mice. This study opens previously unidentified perspectives for an effective pharmacological therapy of intracranial vascular cavernomas.

  18. Sulindac metabolites decrease cerebrovascular malformations in CCM3-knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Bravi, Luca; Rudini, Noemi; Cuttano, Roberto; Giampietro, Costanza; Maddaluno, Luigi; Ferrarini, Luca; Adams, Ralf H.; Corada, Monica; Boulday, Gwenola; Tournier-Lasserve, Elizabeth; Dejana, Elisabetta; Lampugnani, Maria Grazia

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) is a disease of the central nervous system causing hemorrhage-prone multiple lumen vascular malformations and very severe neurological consequences. At present, the only recommended treatment of CCM is surgical. Because surgery is often not applicable, pharmacological treatment would be highly desirable. We describe here a murine model of the disease that develops after endothelial-cell–selective ablation of the CCM3 gene. We report an early, cell-autonomous, Wnt-receptor–independent stimulation of β-catenin transcription activity in CCM3-deficient endothelial cells both in vitro and in vivo and a triggering of a β-catenin–driven transcription program that leads to endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition. TGF-β/BMP signaling is then required for the progression of the disease. We also found that the anti-inflammatory drugs sulindac sulfide and sulindac sulfone, which attenuate β-catenin transcription activity, reduce vascular malformations in endothelial CCM3-deficient mice. This study opens previously unidentified perspectives for an effective pharmacological therapy of intracranial vascular cavernomas. PMID:26109568

  19. Alkaline Phosphatase Knock-Out Mice Recapitulate the Metabolic and Skeletal Defects of Infantile Hypophosphatasia*

    PubMed Central

    FEDDE, KENTON N.; BLAIR, LIBBY; SILVERSTEIN, JULIE; COBURN, STEPHEN P.; RYAN, LAWRENCE M.; WEINSTEIN, ROBERT S.; WAYMIRE, KATRINA; NARISAWA, SONOKO; MILLÁN, JOSÉ L.; MACGREGOR, GRANT R.; WHYTE, MICHAEL P.

    2011-01-01

    Hypophosphatasia is an inborn error of metabolism characterized by deficient activity of the tissue-nonspecific isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) and skeletal disease due to impaired mineralization of cartilage and bone matrix. We investigated two independently generated TNSALP gene knock-out mouse strains as potential models for hypophosphatasia. Homozygous mice (−/−) had < 1% of wild-type plasma TNSALP activity; heterozygotes had the predicted mean of ~50%. Phosphoethanolamine, inorganic pyrophosphate, and pyridoxal 5′-phosphate are putative natural substrates for TNSALP and all were increased endogenously in the knock-out mice. Skeletal disease first appeared radiographically at ~10 days of age and featured worsening rachitic changes, osteopenia, and fracture. Histologic studies revealed developmental arrest of chondrocyte differentiation in epiphyses and in growth plates with diminished or absent hypertrophic zones. Progressive osteoidosis from defective skeletal matrix mineralization was noted but not associated with features of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Plasma and urine calcium and phosphate levels were unremarkable. Our findings demonstrate that TNSALP knock-out mice are a good model for the infantile form of hypophosphatasia and provide compelling evidence for an important role for TNSALP in postnatal development and mineralization of the murine skeleton. PMID:10620060

  20. Generating double knockout mice to model genetic intervention for diabetic cardiomyopathy in humans.

    PubMed

    Chavali, Vishalakshi; Nandi, Shyam Sundar; Singh, Shree Ram; Mishra, Paras Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a rapidly increasing disease that enhances the chances of heart failure twofold to fourfold (as compared to age and sex matched nondiabetics) and becomes a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. There are two broad classifications of diabetes: type1 diabetes (T1D) and type2 diabetes (T2D). Several mice models mimic both T1D and T2D in humans. However, the genetic intervention to ameliorate diabetic cardiomyopathy in these mice often requires creating double knockout (DKO). In order to assess the therapeutic potential of a gene, that specific gene is either overexpressed (transgenic expression) or abrogated (knockout) in the diabetic mice. If the genetic mice model for diabetes is used, it is necessary to create DKO with transgenic/knockout of the target gene to investigate the specific role of that gene in pathological cardiac remodeling in diabetics. One of the important genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling in diabetes is matrix metalloproteinase-9 (Mmp9). Mmp9 is a collagenase that remains latent in healthy hearts but induced in diabetic hearts. Activated Mmp9 degrades extracellular matrix (ECM) and increases matrix turnover causing cardiac fibrosis that leads to heart failure. Insulin2 mutant (Ins2+/-) Akita is a genetic model for T1D that becomes diabetic spontaneously at the age of 3-4 weeks and show robust hyperglycemia at the age of 10-12 weeks. It is a chronic model of T1D. In Ins2+/- Akita, Mmp9 is induced. To investigate the specific role of Mmp9 in diabetic hearts, it is necessary to create diabetic mice where Mmp9 gene is deleted. Here, we describe the method to generate Ins2+/-/Mmp9-/- (DKO) mice to determine whether the abrogation of Mmp9 ameliorates diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  1. Global Nav1.7 Knockout Mice Recapitulate the Phenotype of Human Congenital Indifference to Pain

    PubMed Central

    Gingras, Jacinthe; Smith, Sarah; Matson, David J.; Johnson, Danielle; Nye, Kim; Couture, Lauren; Feric, Elma; Yin, Ruoyuan; Moyer, Bryan D.; Peterson, Matthew L.; Rottman, James B.; Beiler, Rudolph J.; Malmberg, Annika B.; McDonough, Stefan I.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical genetic studies have shown that loss of Nav1.7 function leads to the complete loss of acute pain perception. The global deletion is reported lethal in mice, however, and studies of mice with promoter-specific deletions of Nav1.7 have suggested that the role of Nav1.7 in pain transduction depends on the precise form of pain. We developed genetic and animal husbandry strategies that overcame the neonatal-lethal phenotype and enabled construction of a global Nav1.7 knockout mouse. Knockouts were anatomically normal, reached adulthood, and had phenotype wholly analogous to human congenital indifference to pain (CIP): compared to littermates, knockouts showed no defects in mechanical sensitivity or overall movement yet were completely insensitive to painful tactile, thermal, and chemical stimuli and were anosmic. Knockouts also showed no painful behaviors resulting from peripheral injection of nonselective sodium channel activators, did not develop complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced thermal hyperalgesia, and were insensitive to intra-dermal histamine injection. Tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium current recorded from cell bodies of isolated sensory neurons and the mechanically-evoked spiking of C-fibers in a skin-nerve preparation each were reduced but not eliminated in tissue from knockouts compared to littermates. Results support a role for Nav1.7 that is conserved between rodents and humans and suggest several possibly translatable biomarkers for the study of Nav1.7-targeted therapeutics. Results further suggest that Nav1.7 may retain its key role in persistent as well as acute forms of pain. PMID:25188265

  2. Ascorbic acid reverses the prolonged anesthetic action of pentobarbital in Akr1a-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Ito, Junitsu; Otsuki, Noriyuki; Zhang, Xuhong; Konno, Tasuku; Kurahashi, Toshihiro; Takahashi, Motoko; Yamato, Mayumi; Matsuoka, Yuta; Yamada, Ken-ichi; Miyata, Satoshi; Fujii, Junichi

    2014-01-24

    Aldehyde reductase (AKR1A), a member of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily, is highly expressed in the liver and is involved in both the detoxification of carbonyl compounds and ascorbic acid biosynthesis. By comparison with wild-type mice, Akr1a-knockout (Akr1a(-/-)) mice and human Akrla-transgenic (Akr1a(tg/+)) mice experience different anesthetic actions from pentobarbital-prolonged in Akr1a-knockout (Akr1a(-/-)) mice and shortened in human Akrla-transgenic (Akr1a(tg/+)) mice. We investigated this alteration in the anesthetic efficacy of pentobarbital in Akr1a genetically modified mice. Neither the cytosolic protein of wild-type mouse liver nor purified rat AKR1A directly reduced pentobarbital. Ascorbic acid administration neutralized the prolonged duration of the loss of the righting reflex (LORR) in Akr1a(-/-) mice, but preincubation of pentobarbital with ascorbic acid prior to administration did not change the anesthetic effect. Those results indicated that ascorbic acid does not directly reduce pentobarbital. Enzymatic activities and levels of the proteins of some cytochrome P450s that make up a potent detoxification system for pentobarbital showed no changes in the genetically modified mice examined. Thus, ascorbic acid also had no effect on the detoxification system in the liver. The prolonged duration of LORR in the Akr1a(-/-) mice caused by pentobarbital and the neutralization of the anesthetic effect by ascorbic acid together with other results imply that ascorbic acid alters the responses of the neuronal system to anesthetics. Pentobarbital action is increased under conditions of ascorbic acid deficiency, and this may have to be taken into account when anesthetizing malnourished patients. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Knockout of the 15 kDa Selenoprotein Protects against Chemically-Induced Aberrant Crypt Formation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Petra A.; Carlson, Bradley A.; Naranjo-Suarez, Salvador; Yoo, Min-Hyuk; Xu, Xue-Ming; Fomenko, Dmitri E.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Davis, Cindy D.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that selenium has cancer preventive properties that are largely mediated through selenoproteins. Our previous observations demonstrated that targeted down-regulation of the 15 kDa selenoprotein (Sep15) in murine colon cancer cells resulted in the reversal of the cancer phenotype. The present study investigated the effect of Sep15 knockout in mice using a chemically-induced colon cancer model. Homozygous Sep15 knockout mice, and wild type littermate controls were given four weekly subcutaneous injections of azoxymethane (10 mg/kg). Sep15 knockout mice developed significantly (p<0.001) fewer aberrant crypt foci than controls demonstrating that loss of Sep15 protects against aberrant crypt foci formation. Dietary selenium above adequate levels did not significantly affect aberrant crypt foci formation in Sep15 knockout mice. To investigate molecular targets affected by loss of Sep15, gene expression patterns in colonic mucosal cells of knockout and wild type mice were examined using microarray analysis. Subsequent analyses verified that guanylate binding protein-1 (GBP-1) mRNA and protein expression were strongly upregulated in Sep15 knockout mice. GBP-1, which is expressed in response to interferon-γ, is considered to be an activation marker during inflammatory diseases, and up-regulation of GBP-1 in humans has been associated with a highly significant, increased five-year survival rate in colorectal cancer patients. In agreement with these studies, we observed a higher level of interferon-γ in plasma of Sep15 knockout mice. Overall, our results demonstrate for the first time, that Sep15 knockout mice are protected against chemically-induced aberrant crypt foci formation and that Sep15 appears to have oncogenic properties in colon carcinogenesis in vivo. PMID:23226526

  4. Romk1 Knockout Mice Do Not Produce Bartter Phenotype but Exhibit Impaired K Excretion*

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Ke; Yan, Qingshang; Lu, Ming; Wan, Laxiang; Hu, Haiyan; Guo, Junhua; Boulpaep, Emile; Wang, WenHui; Giebisch, Gerhard; Hebert, Steven C.; Wang, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Romk knock-out mice show a similar phenotype to Bartter syndrome of salt wasting and dehydration due to reduced Na-K-2Cl-cotransporter activity. At least three ROMK isoforms have been identified in the kidney; however, unique functions of any of the isoforms in nephron segments are still poorly understood. We have generated a mouse deficient only in Romk1 by selective deletion of the Romk1-specific first exon using an ES cell Cre-LoxP strategy and examined the renal phenotypes, ion transporter expression, ROMK channel activity, and localization under normal and high K intake. Unlike Romk−/− mice, there was no Bartter phenotype with reduced NKCC2 activity and increased NCC expression in Romk1−/− mice. The small conductance K channel (SK) activity showed no difference of channel properties or gating in the collecting tubule between Romk1+/+ and Romk1−/− mice. High K intake increased SK channel number per patch and increased the ROMK channel intensity in the apical membrane of the collecting tubule in Romk1+/+, but such regulation by high K intake was diminished with significant hyperkalemia in Romk1−/− mice. We conclude that 1) animal knockouts of ROMK1 do not produce Bartter phenotype. 2) There is no functional linking of ROMK1 and NKCC2 in the TAL. 3) ROMK1 is critical in response to high K intake-stimulated K+ secretion in the collecting tubule. PMID:26728465

  5. Obese Neuronal PPARγ Knockout Mice Are Leptin Sensitive but Show Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Fertility.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Marina O; Sharma, Shweta; Kim, Sun; Rickert, Emily; Hsueh, Katherine; Hwang, Vicky; Olefsky, Jerrold M; Webster, Nicholas J G

    2017-01-01

    The peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is expressed in the hypothalamus in areas involved in energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism. In this study, we created a deletion of PPARγ brain-knockout (BKO) in mature neurons in female mice to investigate its involvement in metabolism and reproduction. We observed that there was no difference in age at puberty onset between female BKOs and littermate controls, but the BKOs gave smaller litters when mated and fewer oocytes when ovulated. The female BKO mice had regular cycles but showed an increase in the number of cycles with prolonged estrus. The mice also had increased luteinizing hormone (LH) levels during the LH surge and histological examination showed hemorrhagic corpora lutea. The mice were challenged with a 60% high-fat diet (HFD). Metabolically, the female BKO mice showed normal body weight, glucose and insulin tolerance, and leptin levels but were protected from obesity-induced leptin resistance. The neuronal knockout also prevented the reduction in estrous cycles due to the HFD. Examination of ovarian histology showed a decrease in the number of primary and secondary follicles in both genotypes due to the HFD, but the BKO ovaries showed an increase in the number of hemorrhagic follicles. In summary, our results show that neuronal PPARγ is required for optimal female fertility but is also involved in the adverse effects of diet-induced obesity by creating leptin resistance potentially through induction of the repressor Socs3. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society.

  6. Obesity occurring in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice has mild effects on fertility.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; Dai, Pengyuan; Cheng, Dong; Zhang, Liang; Chen, Zijiang; Meng, Xiaoqian; Zhang, Fumiao; Han, Xiaoying; Liu, Jianwei; Pan, Jie; Yang, Guiwen; Zhang, Cong

    2014-02-01

    The Apolipoprotein (Apo) family is implicated in lipid metabolism. There are five types of Apo: Apoa, Apob, Apoc, Apod, and Apoe. Apoe has been demonstrated to play a central role in lipoprotein metabolism and to be essential for efficient receptor-mediated plasma clearance of chylomicron remnants and VLDL remnant particles by the liver. Apoe-deficient (Apoe(-/-)) mice develop atherosclerotic plaques spontaneously, followed by obesity. In this study, we investigated whether lipid deposition caused by Apoe knockout affects reproduction in female mice. The results demonstrated that Apoe(-/-) mice were severely hypercholesterolemic, with their cholesterol metabolism disordered, and lipid accumulating in the ovaries causing the ovaries to be heavier compared with the WT counterparts. In addition, estrogen and progesterone decreased significantly at D 100. Quantitative PCR analysis demonstrated that at D 100 the expression of cytochromeP450 aromatase (Cyp19a1), 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (Hsd3b), mechanistic target of rapamycin (Mtor), and nuclear factor-κB (Nfkb) decreased significantly, while that of BCL2-associated agonist of cell death (Bad) and tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (Tsc2) increased significantly in the Apoe(-/-) mice. However, there was no difference in the fertility rates of the Apoe(-/-) and WT mice; that is, obesity induced by Apoe knockout has no significant effect on reproduction. However, the deletion of Apoe increased the number of ovarian follicles and the ratio of ovarian follicle atresia and apoptosis. We believe that this work will augment our understanding of the role of Apoe in reproduction.

  7. Obese Neuronal PPARγ Knockout Mice Are Leptin Sensitive but Show Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Marina O.; Sharma, Shweta; Kim, Sun; Rickert, Emily; Hsueh, Katherine; Hwang, Vicky; Olefsky, Jerrold M.

    2017-01-01

    The peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is expressed in the hypothalamus in areas involved in energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism. In this study, we created a deletion of PPARγ brain-knockout (BKO) in mature neurons in female mice to investigate its involvement in metabolism and reproduction. We observed that there was no difference in age at puberty onset between female BKOs and littermate controls, but the BKOs gave smaller litters when mated and fewer oocytes when ovulated. The female BKO mice had regular cycles but showed an increase in the number of cycles with prolonged estrus. The mice also had increased luteinizing hormone (LH) levels during the LH surge and histological examination showed hemorrhagic corpora lutea. The mice were challenged with a 60% high-fat diet (HFD). Metabolically, the female BKO mice showed normal body weight, glucose and insulin tolerance, and leptin levels but were protected from obesity-induced leptin resistance. The neuronal knockout also prevented the reduction in estrous cycles due to the HFD. Examination of ovarian histology showed a decrease in the number of primary and secondary follicles in both genotypes due to the HFD, but the BKO ovaries showed an increase in the number of hemorrhagic follicles. In summary, our results show that neuronal PPARγ is required for optimal female fertility but is also involved in the adverse effects of diet-induced obesity by creating leptin resistance potentially through induction of the repressor Socs3. PMID:27841948

  8. Morphologic and Histologic Comparison of Hypertrophic Scar in Nude Mice, T-Cell Receptor, and Recombination Activating Gene Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Momtazi, Moein; Ding, Jie; Kwan, Peter; Anderson, Colin C; Honardoust, Dariush; Goekjian, Serge; Tredget, Edward E

    2015-12-01

    Proliferative scars in nude mice have demonstrated morphologic and histologic similarities to human hypertrophic scar. Gene knockout technology provides the opportunity to study the effect of deleting immune cells in various disease processes. The authors' objective was to test whether grafting human skin onto T-cell receptor (TCR) αβ-/-γδ-/-, recombination activating gene (RAG)-1-/-, and RAG-2γ-/-c-/- mice results in proliferative scars consistent with human hypertrophic scar and to characterize the morphologic, histologic, and cellular changes that occur after removing immune cells. Nude TCRαβ-/-γδ-/-, RAG-1-/-, and RAG-2-/-γc-/- mice (n = 20 per strain) were grafted with human skin and euthanized at 30, 60, 120, and 180 days. Controls (n = 5 per strain) were autografted with mouse skin. Scars and normal skin were harvested at each time point. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome, and immunohistochemistry for anti-human leukocyte antigen-ABC, α-smooth muscle actin, decorin, and biglycan. TCRαβ-/-γδ-/-, RAG-1-/-, and RAG-2-/-γc-/- mice grafted with human skin developed firm, elevated scars with histologic and immunohistochemical similarities to human hypertrophic scar. Autografted controls showed no evidence of pathologic scarring. Knockout animals demonstrated a capacity for scar remodeling not observed in nude mice where reductions in α-smooth muscle actin staining pattern and scar thickness occurred over time. Human skin transplanted onto TCRαβ-/-γδ-/-, RAG-1-/-, and RAG-2-/-γc-/- mice results in proliferative scars with morphologic and histologic features of human hypertrophic scar. Remodeling of proliferative scars generated in knockout animals is analogous to changes in human hypertrophic scar. These animal models may better represent the natural history of human hypertrophic scar.

  9. Autoradiography in opioid triple knockout mice reveals opioid and opioid receptor like binding of naloxone benzoylhydrazone.

    PubMed

    Cox, Veronica; Clarke, Siân; Czyzyk, Tracy; Ansonoff, Micheal; Nitsche, Joshua; Hsu, Ming-Sing; Borsodi, Anna; Tömböly, Csaba; Tóth, Géza; Hill, Ray; Pintar, John; Kitchen, Ian

    2005-02-01

    Naloxone benzoylhydrazone (NalBzoH) is a ligand used to study opioid receptors. It has been suggested to act at a novel kappa3 receptor but also appears to bind to classical opioid receptors, and possibly the ORL1 receptor. We have used opioid receptor triple knockout mice, deficient in genes coding for the mu, delta and kappa-receptor, to characterise the relative contributions of opioid and ORL1 activity to the binding of this ligand, by carrying out receptor autoradiography with [3H]NalBzoH. As competing ligands we have used diprenorphine and nociceptin at 1 microM, alone or in combination, to determine the contribution of opioid and ORL1 receptor binding. At 4 nM [3H]NalBzoH showed labelling in wild-type brains indicative of broad spectrum classical opioid receptor binding. In the triple knockout brains all labelling was completely absent, suggesting that at this concentration there is no binding to ORL1 sites. However at 50 nM [3H]NalBzoH showed labelling in triple knockout brains with a distribution pattern indicative of ORL1 labelling. Quantitative analysis showed that nociceptin displaced typically 30% of the residual labelling in knockout brains whilst diprenorphine had relatively little effect. The data show that at 50 nM NalBzoH no binding was detected other than to classical opioid receptors or to ORL1 in an approximate ratio of 2:1.

  10. μ-Opioid Receptor Knockout Mice Are Insensitive to Methamphetamine-Induced Behavioral Sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xine; Purser, Chris; Tien, Lu-Tai; Chiu, Chi-Tso; Paul, Ian A.; Baker, Rodney; Loh, Horace H.; Ho, Ing K.; Ma, Tangeng

    2011-01-01

    Repeated administration of psychostimulants to rodents can lead to behavioral sensitization. Previous studies, using nonspecific opioid receptor (OR) antagonists, revealed that ORs were involved in modulation of behavioral sensitization to methamphetamine (METH). However, the contribution of OR subtypes remains unclear. In the present study, using μ-OR knockout mice, we examined the role of μ-OR in the development of METH sensitization. Mice received daily intraperitoneal injection of drug or saline for 7 consecutive days to initiate sensitization. To express sensitization, animals received one injection of drug (the same as for initiation) or saline on day 11. Animal locomotor activity and stereotypy were monitored during the periods of initiation and expression of sensitization. Also, the concentrations of METH and its active metabolite amphetamine in the blood were measured after single and repeated administrations of METH. METH promoted significant locomotor hyperactivity at low doses and stereotyped behaviors at relative high doses (2.5 mg/kg and above). Repeated administration of METH led to the initiation and expression of behavioral sensitization in wild-type mice. METH-induced behavioral responses were attenuated in the μ-OR knockout mice. Haloperidol (a dopamine receptor antagonist) showed a more potent effect in counteracting METH-induced stereotypy in the μ-OR knockout mice. Saline did not induce behavioral sensitization in either genotype. No significant difference was observed in disposition of METH and amphetamine between the two genotypes. Our study indicated that the μ-opioid system is involved in modulating the development of behavioral sensitization to METH. PMID:20209629

  11. COMPARISON OF CITRUS COUMARINS ON CARCINOGEN-DETOXIFYING ENZYMES IN NRF2 KNOCKOUT MICE

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Misty; Li, Yan; Childers, Asper; Itoh, Ken; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Kleiner, Heather E.

    2009-01-01

    Naturally occurring coumarins possess anti-carcinogenic activities in part by inducing carcinogen-detoxifying enzymes glutathione S-transferase (GST) and/or NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1). Our goal was to determine whether citrus coumarins induce hepatic GST and/or NQO1 via activation of Nrf2 and the antioxidant response element. First, HepG2 cells stably transfected with the ARE and a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter were treated with increasing concentrations of coumarins and compared to positive controls. tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) and oltipraz increased GFP fluorescence, as did coumarin, limettin, auraptene, imperatorin, and 7,8-benzoflavone, suggesting that they activate the ARE, whereas isopimpinellin did not increase GFP fluorescence. Next, the effects of orally-administered coumarins and oltipraz on hepatic GST and NQO1 activities were compared in Nrf2 knockout mice or Nrf2 heterozygous mice exhibiting the wild-type phenotype. Oltipraz, auraptene, imperatorin, isopimpinellin, and auraptene all significantly increased liver cytosolic GST activities in Nrf2 heterozygous mice. This effect was abrogated in Nrf2(−/−) mice dosed with oltipraz, attenuated in mice Nrf2(−/−) mice treated with auraptene and imperatorin, and still significant in Nrf2(−/−) mice treated with isopimpinellin. Of these compounds, only isopimpinellin significantly increased liver cytosolic NQO1 activities, and this effect was not attenuated in Nrf2(−/−) mice. These results strongly suggest that imperatorin and auraptene induce murine liver cytosolic GST activities via the Nrf2/ARE mechanism. Although structurally similar, isopimpinellin did not appear to activate HepG2-ARE-GFP and the Nrf2 knockout mouse study suggests that isopimpinellin may induce GST and NQO1 via additional mechanisms. PMID:19150646

  12. Unique nuclear vacuoles in the motor neurons of conditional ADAR2-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Shoichi; Takenari Yamashita; Hideyama, Takuto; Kwak, Shin

    2014-03-06

    A reduction in adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2 (ADAR2) activity causes the death of spinal motor neurons specifically via the GluA2 Q/R site-RNA editing failure in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We studied, over time, the spinal cords of ADAR2-knockout mice, which are the mechanistic model mice for sporadic ALS, using homozygous ADAR2(flox/flox)/VAChT-Cre.Fast (AR2), homozygous ADAR2(flox/flox)/VAChT-Cre.Slow (AR2Slow), and heterozygous ADAR2(flox/+)/VAChT-Cre.Fast (AR2H) mice. The conditional ADAR2-knockout mice were divided into 3 groups by stage: presymptomatic (AR2H mice), early symptomatic (AR2 mice, AR2H mice) and late symptomatic (AR2Slow mice). Light-microscopically, some motor neurons in AR2 and AR2H mice (presymptomatic) showed simple neuronal atrophy and astrogliosis, and AR2H (early symptomatic) and AR2Slow mice often showed vacuoles predominantly in motor neurons. The number of vacuole-bearing anterior horn neurons decreased with the loss of anterior horn neurons in AR2H mice after 40 weeks of age. Electron-microscopically, in AR2 mice, while the cytoplasm of normal-looking motor neurons was almost always normal-appearing, the interior of dendrites was frequently loose and disorganized. In AR2H and AR2Slow mice, large vacuoles without a limiting membrane were observed in the anterior horns, preferentially in the nuclei of motor neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Nuclear vacuoles were not observed in AR2res (ADAR2(flox/flox)/VAChT-Cre.Fast/GluR-B(R/R)) mice, in which motor neurons express edited GluA2 in the absence of ADAR2. These findings suggest that ADAR2-reduction is associated with progressive deterioration of nuclear architecture, resulting in vacuolated nuclei due to a Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptor-mediated mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Myo5b knockout mice as a model of microvillus inclusion disease

    PubMed Central

    Cartón-García, Fernando; Overeem, Arend W.; Nieto, Rocio; Bazzocco, Sarah; Dopeso, Higinio; Macaya, Irati; Bilic, Josipa; Landolfi, Stefania; Hernandez-Losa, Javier; Schwartz, Simo; Ramon y Cajal, Santiago; van Ijzendoorn, Sven C. D.; Arango, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Inherited MYO5B mutations have recently been associated with microvillus inclusion disease (MVID), an autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by intractable, life-threatening, watery diarrhea appearing shortly after birth. Characterization of the molecular mechanisms underlying this disease and development of novel therapeutic approaches is hampered by the lack of animal models. In this study we describe the phenotype of a novel mouse model with targeted inactivation of Myo5b. Myo5b knockout mice show perinatal mortality, diarrhea and the characteristic mislocalization of apical and basolateral plasma membrane markers in enterocytes. Moreover, in transmission electron preparations, we observed microvillus atrophy and the presence of microvillus inclusion bodies. Importantly, Myo5b knockout embryos at day 20 of gestation already display all these structural defects, indicating that they are tissue autonomous rather than secondary to environmental cues, such as the long-term absence of nutrients in the intestine. Myo5b knockout mice closely resemble the phenotype of MVID patients and constitute a useful model to further investigate the underlying molecular mechanism of this disease and to preclinically assess the efficacy of novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:26201991

  14. Acute secondhand smoke-induced pulmonary inflammation is diminished in RAGE knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Wood, Tyler T; Winden, Duane R; Marlor, Derek R; Wright, Alex J; Jones, Cameron M; Chavarria, Michael; Rogers, Geraldine D; Reynolds, Paul R

    2014-11-15

    The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) has increasingly been demonstrated to be an important modulator of inflammation in cases of pulmonary disease. Published reports involving tobacco smoke exposure have demonstrated increased expression of RAGE, its participation in proinflammatory signaling, and its role in irreversible pulmonary remodeling. The current research evaluated the in vivo effects of short-term secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in RAGE knockout and control mice compared with identical animals exposed to room air only. Quantitative PCR, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry revealed elevated RAGE expression in controls after 4 wk of SHS exposure and an anticipated absence of RAGE expression in RAGE knockout mice regardless of smoke exposure. Ras activation, NF-κB activity, and cytokine elaboration were assessed to characterize the molecular basis of SHS-induced inflammation in the mouse lung. Furthermore, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was procured from RAGE knockout and control animals for the assessment of inflammatory cells and molecules. As a general theme, inflammation coincident with leukocyte recruitment was induced by SHS exposure and significantly influenced by the availability of RAGE. These data reveal captivating information suggesting a role for RAGE signaling in lungs exposed to SHS. However, ongoing research is still warranted to fully explain roles for RAGE and other receptors in cells coping with involuntary smoke exposure for prolonged periods of time. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Systemic inflammation and insulin sensitivity in obese IFN-γ knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    O’Rourke, Robert W.; White, Ashley E.; Metcalf, Monja D.; Winters, Brian R.; Diggs, Brian S.; Zhu, Xinxia; Marks, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Adipose tissue macrophages are important mediators of inflammation and insulin resistance in obesity. IFN-γ is a central regulator of macrophage function. The role of IFN-γ in regulating systemic inflammation and insulin resistance in obesity is unknown. We studied obese IFN-γ knockout mice to identify the role of IFN-γ in regulating inflammation and insulin sensitivity in obesity. IFN-γ-knockout C57Bl/6 mice and wild-type control litter mates were maintained on normal chow or a high fat diet for 13 weeks and then underwent insulin sensitivity testing then sacrifice and tissue collection. Flow cytometry, intracellular cytokine staining, and QRTPCR were used to define tissue lymphocyte phenotype and cytokine expression profiles. Adipocyte size was determined from whole adipose tissue explants examined under immunofluorescence microscopy. Diet-induced obesity induced systemic inflammation and insulin resistance, along with a pan-leukocyte adipose tissue infiltrate that includes macrophages, T-cells, and NK cells. Obese IFN-γ-knockout animals, compared with obese wild-type control animals, demonstrate modest improvements in insulin sensitivity, decreased adipocyte size, and an M2-shift in ATM phenotype and cytokine expression. These data suggest a role for IFN-γ in the regulation of inflammation and glucose homeostasis in obesity though multiple potential mechanisms, including effects on adipogenesis, cytokine expression, and macrophage phenotype. PMID:22386937

  16. Less is More: unveiling the functional core of hematopoietic stem cells through knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Lara; Lin, Kuanyin K.; Boles, Nathan C.; Yang, Liubin; King, Katherine Y.; Jeong, Mira; Mayle, Allison; Goodell, Margaret A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) represent one of the first recognized somatic stem cells. As such, nearly 200 genes have been examined for roles in HSC function in knockout mice. In this review, we compile the majority of these reports to provide a broad overview of the functional modules revealed by these genetic analyses and highlight some key regulatory pathways involved, including cell cycle control, TGF-β signaling, Pten/AKT signaling, Wnt signaling, and cytokine signaling. Finally, we propose recommendations for characterization of HSC function in knockout mice to facilitate cross-study comparisons that would generate a more cohesive picture of HSC biology. In the field of design, the minimalist movement stripped down buildings and objects to their most basic features, a sentiment that architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe summarized in his motto “less is more”. By depleting HSCs of specific genes, knockout studies transpose the minimalist approach into research biology, providing insights into the essential core of genetic features that is indispensable for a well-functioning hematopoietic system. PMID:22958929

  17. ARGINASE ENZYMES IN ISOLATED AIRWAYS FROM NORMAL AND NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE 2-KNOCKOUT MICE EXPOSED TO OVALBUMIN

    PubMed Central

    Bratt, Jennifer M.; Franzi, Lisa M.; Linderholm, Angela L.; Last, Michael S.; Kenyon, Nicholas J.; Last, Jerold A.

    2009-01-01

    Arginase has been suggested to compete with nitric oxide synthase (NOS) for their common substrate, L-arginine. To study the mechanisms underlying this interaction, we compared arginase expression in isolated airways and the consequences of inhibiting arginase activity in vivo with NO production, lung inflammation, and lung function in both C57BL/6 and NOS2 knockout mice undergoing ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation, a mouse model of asthma. Arginases I and II were measured by western blot in isolated airways from sensitized C57BL/6 mice exposed to ovalbumin aerosol. Physiological and biochemical responses---inflammation, lung compliance, airway hyperreactivity, exhaled NO concentration, arginine concentration--were compared with the responses of NOS2 knockout mice. NOS2 knockout mice had increased total cells in lung lavage, decreased lung compliance, and increased airway hyperreactivity. Both arginase I and arginase II were constitutively expressed in the airways of normal C57BL/6 mice. Arginase I was up-regulated approximately 8-fold in the airways of C57BL/6 mice exposed to ovalbumin. Expression of both arginase isoforms were significantly upregulated in NOS2 knockout mice exposed to ovalbumin, with about 40- and 4-fold increases in arginases I and II, respectively. Arginine concentration in isolated airways was not significantly different in any of the groups studied. Inhibition of arginase by systemic treatment of C57BL/6 mice with a competitive inhibitor, Nω-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine (nor-NOHA), significantly decreased the lung inflammatory response to ovalbumin in these animals. We conclude that NOS2 knockout mice are more sensitive to ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation and its sequelae than are C57BL/6 mice, as determined by increased total cells in lung lavage, decreased lung compliance, and increased airway hyperreactivity, and that these findings are strongly correlated with increased expression of both arginase isoforms in the airways of the NOS2

  18. Arginase enzymes in isolated airways from normal and nitric oxide synthase 2-knockout mice exposed to ovalbumin

    SciTech Connect

    Bratt, Jennifer M.; Franzi, Lisa M.; Linderholm, Angela L.

    2009-02-01

    Arginase has been suggested to compete with nitric oxide synthase (NOS) for their common substrate, L-arginine. To study the mechanisms underlying this interaction, we compared arginase expression in isolated airways and the consequences of inhibiting arginase activity in vivo with NO production, lung inflammation, and lung function in both C57BL/6 and NOS2 knockout mice undergoing ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation, a mouse model of asthma. Arginases I and II were measured by western blot in isolated airways from sensitized C57BL/6 mice exposed to ovalbumin aerosol. Physiological and biochemical responses - inflammation, lung compliance, airway hyperreactivity, exhaled NO concentration, arginine concentration - weremore » compared with the responses of NOS2 knockout mice. NOS2 knockout mice had increased total cells in lung lavage, decreased lung compliance, and increased airway hyperreactivity. Both arginase I and arginase II were constitutively expressed in the airways of normal C57BL/6 mice. Arginase I was up-regulated approximately 8-fold in the airways of C57BL/6 mice exposed to ovalbumin. Expression of both arginase isoforms were significantly upregulated in NOS2 knockout mice exposed to ovalbumin, with about 40- and 4-fold increases in arginases I and II, respectively. Arginine concentration in isolated airways was not significantly different in any of the groups studied. Inhibition of arginase by systemic treatment of C57BL/6 mice with a competitive inhibitor, N{omega}-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine (nor-NOHA), significantly decreased the lung inflammatory response to ovalbumin in these animals. We conclude that NOS2 knockout mice are more sensitive to ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation and its sequelae than are C57BL/6 mice, as determined by increased total cells in lung lavage, decreased lung compliance, and increased airway hyperreactivity, and that these findings are strongly correlated with increased expression of both arginase isoforms in the airways

  19. Body water balance and body temperature in vasopressin V1b receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Daikoku, R; Kunitake, T; Kato, K; Tanoue, A; Tsujimoto, G; Kannan, H

    2007-10-30

    In an attempt to determine whether there is a specific vasopressin receptor (V(1b)) subtype involved in the regulation of body water balance and temperature, vasopressin V(1b) receptor knockout mice were used. Daily drinking behavior and renal excretory function were examined in V(1b)-deficient (V(1b)(-/-)) and control (V(1b)(+/+)) mice under the basal and stress-induced condition. In addition, body temperature and locomotor activity were measured with a biotelemetry system. The baseline daily water intake and urine volume were larger in V(1b)(-/-) mice than in V(1b)(+/+) mice. V(1b)(-/-) mice (V(1b)(-/-)) had significantly higher locomotor activity than wild-type, whereas the body temperature and oxygen consumption were lower in V(1b)(-/-) than in the V(1b)(+/+) mice. Next, the V(1b)(-/-) and V(1b)(+/+) mice were subjected to water deprivation for 48 hr. Under this condition, their body temperature decreased with the time course, which was significantly larger for V(1b)(-/-) than for V(1b)(+/+) mice. Central vasopressin has been reported to elicit drinking behavior and antipyretic action, and the V(1b) receptor has been reported to be located in the kidney. Thus, the findings suggest that the V(1b) receptor may be, at least in part, involved in body water balance and body temperature regulation.

  20. Dopamine D3 receptor knockout mice exhibit abnormal nociception in a sex-different manner.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Xing, Bo; Chu, Zheng; Liu, Fei; Lei, Gang; Zhu, Li; Gao, Ya; Chen, Teng; Dang, Yong-Hui

    2017-07-01

    Pain is a complex and subjective experience. Previous studies have shown that mice lacking the dopamine D3 receptor (D3RKO) exhibit hypoalgesia, indicating a role of the D3 receptor in modulation of nociception. Given that there are sex differences in pain perception, there may be differences in responses to nociceptive stimuli between male and female D3RKO mice. In the current study, we examined the role of the D3 receptor in modulating nociception in male and female D3RKO mice. Acute thermal pain was modeled by hot-plate test. This test was performed at different temperatures including 52°C, 55°C, and 58°C. The von Frey hair test was applied to evaluate mechanical pain. And persistent pain produced by peripheral tissue injury and inflammation was modeled by formalin test. In the hot-plate test, compared with wild-type (WT) mice, D3RKO mice generally exhibited longer latencies at each of the three temperatures. Specially, male D3RKO mice showed hypoalgesia compared with male WT mice when the temperature was 55°C, while for the female mice, there was a statistical difference between genotypes when the test condition was 52°C. In the von Frey hair test, both male and female D3RKO mice exhibited hypoalgesia. In the formalin test, the male D3RKO mice displayed a similar nociceptive behavior as their sex-matched WT littermates, whereas significantly depressed late-phase formalin-induced nociceptive behaviors were observed in the female mutants. These findings indicated that the D3 receptor affects nociceptive behaviors in a sex-specific manner and that its absence induces more analgesic behavior in the female knockout mice. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Host resistance of CD18 knockout mice against systemic infection with Listeria monocytogenes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Huaizhu; Prince, Joseph E.; Brayton, Cory F.; Shah, Chirayu; Zeve, Daniel; Gregory, Stephen H.; Smith, C. Wayne; Ballantyne, Christie M.

    2003-01-01

    Mice with targeted mutations of CD18, the common beta2 subunit of CD11/CD18 integrins, have leukocytosis, impaired transendothelial neutrophil emigration, and reduced host defense to Streptococcus pneumoniae, a gram-positive extracellular bacterium. Previous studies using blocking monoclonal antibodies suggested roles for CD18 and CD11b in hepatic neutrophil recruitment and host innate response to Listeria monocytogenes, a gram-positive intracellular bacterium. We induced systemic listeriosis in CD18 knockout (CD18-ko) and wild-type (WT) mice by tail vein injection with Listeria. By 14 days postinjection (dpi), 8 of 10 WT mice died, compared with 2 of 10 CD18-ko mice (P < 0.01). Quantitative organ culture showed that numbers of Listeria organisms in livers and spleens were similar in both groups at 20 min postinfection. By 3, 5, and 7 dpi, however, numbers of Listeria organisms were significantly lower in livers and spleens of CD18-ko mice than in WT mice. Histopathology showed that following Listeria infection, CD18-ko mice had milder inflammatory and necrotizing lesions in both spleens and livers than did WT mice. Cytokine assays indicated that baseline interleukin-1beta and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) levels were higher in CD18-ko mice than in WT mice and that CD18-ko splenocytes produced higher levels of interleukin-1beta and G-CSF than WT splenocytes under the same amount of Listeria stimulation. These findings show that CD18 is not an absolute requirement for antilisterial innate immunity or hepatic neutrophil recruitment. We propose that the absence of CD18 in the mice results in the priming of innate immunity, as evidenced by elevated cytokine expression, and neutrophilic leukocytosis, which augments antilisterial defense.

  2. Sucrose and monosodium glutamate taste thresholds and discrimination ability of T1R3 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Delay, E R; Hernandez, N P; Bromley, K; Margolskee, R F

    2006-05-01

    Molecular and behavioral studies have identified heterodimers of the T1R family as receptors for detecting the tastes of sweet (T1R2 + T1R3) and umami (T1R1 + T1R3). However, behavioral studies have reported conflicting findings with T1R3 knockout (KO) mice. One study showed a complete or nearly complete loss of preference for sweet and umami substances by KO mice, whereas KO mice in another study showed only a partial reduction in preferences for sucrose and monosodium glutamate (MSG), the prototypical umami substance. The present experiments used psychophysical methods to assess how sensitive T1R1-KO mice are to sucrose and MSG and discrimination methods to determine if these mice could distinguish between the tastes of sucrose and MSG. Detection thresholds of T1R3-KO mice and wild-type (WT) C57Bl mice were nearly identical for sucrose and MSG. Mice of both genotypes were easily able to discriminate between the tastes of sucrose and MSG. When amiloride (a sodium channel blocker) was added to all solutions to reduce the taste of Na+, discrimination accuracy of both genotypes of mice decreased but more so for the T1R3-KO mice than the WT mice. However, even when the sodium taste of MSG was neutralized, both genotypes could still discriminate between the two substances well above chance performance. These results suggest that sucrose and MSG can be detected by taste receptors other than T1R2 + T1R3 and T1R1 + T1R3 and that the conflicts between the previous studies may have been due to the methodological limitations.

  3. Effect of high-fat diet on glucose homeostasis and gene expression in glucokinase knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Gorman, T; Hope, D C D; Brownlie, R; Yu, A; Gill, D; Löfvenmark, J; Wedin, M; Mayers, R M; Snaith, M R; Smith, D M

    2008-09-01

    We have generated a heterozygous glucokinase knockout mouse (gk(del/wt)), upon which we investigated the effect of high-fat diet (HFD) with respect to metabolic control and both hepatic and beta-cell gene expression. We also investigated the in vitro efficacy of a glucokinase activator (GKA) on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in gk(del/wt)mouse islets. Male gk(del/wt)and gk(wt/wt)mice were grouped (n = 8-10) at 10 weeks of age and fed HFD or chow diet (CD) for 10 weeks. Multiple parameters including blood glucose, plasma insulin and glucose tolerance were assessed. Further animal groups were used for in vitro GSIS and islet and liver gene expression analysis. gk(del/wt)mice showed early-onset persistent hyperglycaemia, raised glycated haemoglobin levels, impaired GSIS and glucose tolerance but no change in plasma cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acids or triglyceride levels. After HFD feeding, insulin levels of gk(del/wt)mice were less than half that of gk(wt/wt)mice, although they were equivalent to gk(wt/wt)mice on CD. While gk(wt/wt)mice maintained moderate hyperglycaemia, gk(del/wt)mice became overtly diabetic, with worsened glucose tolerance. A GKA (GKA50) increased GSIS, at 10 mM glucose, in gk(del/wt)mice to an extent at least as great as that seen in gk(wt/wt)mice on both CD and HFD. gk(del/wt)mice showed only a small number of changes in gene expression compared with gk(wt/wt)mice. We propose the high fat-fed gk(del/wt)mouse as a model of type 2 diabetes and report retained efficacy of a GKA on in vitro GSIS.

  4. Impaired ventilation and metabolism response to hypoxia in histamine H1 receptor-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Takashi; Iwase, Michiko; Kanamaru, Mitsuko; Izumizaki, Masahiko; Ohshima, Yasuyoshi; Homma, Ikuo

    2006-12-01

    The role of central histamine in the hypoxic ventilatory response was examined in conscious wild-type (WT) and histamine type1 receptor-knockout (H1RKO) mice. Hypoxic gas (7% O(2) and 3% CO(2) in N(2)) exposure initially increased and then decreased ventilation, referred to as hypoxic ventilatory decline (HVD). The initial increase in ventilation did not differ between genotypes. However, H1RKO mice showed a blunted HVD, in which mean inspiratory flow was greater than that in WT mice. O(2) consumption (V(O2)) and CO(2) excretion were reduced 10min after hypoxic gas exposure in both genotypes, but (V(O2)) was greater in H1RKO mice than in WT mice. The ratio of minute ventilation to (V(O2)) during HVD did not differ between genotypes, indicating that ventilation is adequately controlled according to metabolic demand in both mice. Peripheral chemoreceptor sensitivity did not differ between genotypes. We conclude that central histamine contributes via the H1 receptor to changes in metabolic rate during hypoxia to increase HVD in conscious mice.

  5. Ddx1 knockout results in transgenerational wild-type lethality in mice.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Matthew R; Germain, Devon R; Monckton, Elizabeth A; Brun, Miranda; Godbout, Roseline

    2015-04-24

    DEAD box 1 (DDX1) is a member of the DEAD box family of RNA helicases which are involved in all aspects of RNA metabolism. DDX1 has been implicated in a variety of biological processes, including 3'-end processing of mRNA, DNA repair, microRNA processing, tRNA maturation and mRNA transport. To study the role of DDX1 during development, we have generated mice carrying a constitutive Ddx1 knock-out allele. Ddx1(+/-) mice have no obvious phenotype and express similar levels of DDX1 as wild-type mice indicating compensation from the intact Ddx1 allele. Heterozygote matings produce no viable Ddx1(-/-) progeny, with Ddx1(-/-) embryos dying prior to embryonic day (E) 3.5. Intriguingly, the number of wild-type progeny is significantly decreased in heterozygote crosses, with two different heterozygote populations identified based on parental genotype: (i) normal Ddx1(+/-) mice which generate the expected number of wild-type progeny and (ii) Ddx1*(/-) mice (with * signifying a non-genetically altered allele) which generate a significantly reduced number of wild-type mice. The transgenerational inheritance of wild-type lethality observed upon crossing Ddx1*(/-) mice is independent of parental sex and occurs in cis through a mechanism that is different from other types of previously reported transgenerational epigenetic inheritance.

  6. Lung dysfunction causes systemic hypoxia in estrogen receptor beta knockout (ERbeta-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Morani, Andrea; Barros, Rodrigo P A; Imamov, Otabek; Hultenby, Kjell; Arner, Anders; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake

    2006-05-02

    Estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) is highly expressed in both type I and II pneumocytes as well as bronchiolar epithelial cells. ERalpha is not detectable in the adult lung. Lungs of adult female ERbeta knockout (ERbeta-/-) mice have already been reported to have fewer alveoli and reduced elastic recoil. In this article, we report that, by 5 months of age, there are large areas of unexpanded alveoli in lungs of both male and female ERbeta-/- mice. There is increased staining for collagen and, by EM, abnormal clusters of collagen fibers are seen in the alveolar septa of ERbeta-/- mice. Immunohistochemical analysis and Western blotting with lung membrane fractions of ERbeta-/- mice revealed down-regulation of caveolin-1, increased expression of membrane type-1 metalloproteinase, matrix metalloproteinase 2 (active form), and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases 2. Hypoxia, measured by immunohistochemical analysis for hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha and chemical adducts (with Hypoxyprobe), was evident in the heart, ventral prostate, periovarian sac, kidney, liver, and brain of ERbeta-/- mice under resting conditions. Furthermore, both male and female adult ERbeta-/- mice were reluctant to run on a treadmill and tissue hypoxia became very pronounced after exercise. We conclude that ERbeta is necessary for the maintenance of the extracellular matrix composition in the lung and loss of ERbeta leads to abnormal lung structure and systemic hypoxia. Systemic hypoxia may be responsible for the reported left and right heart ventricular hypertrophy and systemic hypertension in ERbeta-/- mice.

  7. Attenuation of the cardiovascular and metabolic complications of obesity in CD14 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Roncon-Albuquerque, Roberto; Moreira-Rodrigues, Mónica; Faria, Bernardo; Ferreira, Andrea P; Cerqueira, Cátia; Lourenço, André P; Pestana, Manuel; von Hafe, Pedro; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F

    2008-09-26

    Although toll-like receptors (TLR) are known to mediate the metabolic complications of obesity, the mechanisms underlying its activation remain largely unknown. The present study analyzed a model of diet-induced obesity in mice lacking the TLR4/TLR2 co-receptor CD14. Six-week-old male mice lacking CD14 (n = 16) were allocated to either a control diet or a high-fat high-simple carbohydrate diet (5.4 kcal/g; 35% fat; 35% sucrose), and compared with C57BL/6 (WT; n = 15) controls. After 12 weeks, body composition, basal sympathetic activity, non-invasive blood pressure and glucose tolerance were evaluated. Hepatic and adipose tissues were collected for mRNA quantification, histology and LPS incubation. In both WT and CD14 knockout mice, obesity was accompanied by TLR2 and TLR4 upregulation. However, obese mice lacking CD14 presented decreased lipid and macrophage content in hepatic and adipose tissues, lower urinary levels of noradrenaline, decreased systolic blood pressure, reduced fasting plasma glucose and blunted glucose intolerance, compared with obese WT group. In the presence of exogenous sCD14, adipose tissue incubation with LPS-induced TLR2 and TNF-alpha upregulation in both WT and CD14 knockout obese mice. In our model of diet-induced obesity, mice lacking CD14 showed lower adiposity and hepatic steatosis, improved glucose homeostasis, blunted sympathetic overactivity and reduced blood pressure elevation. This was observed in the presence of preserved TLR4 and TLR2 gene expression, and intact TLR4 signaling pathways. These results suggest that CD14-mediated TLR activation might contribute to the cardiovascular and metabolic complications of obesity.

  8. Disturbed tooth development in parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP)-gene knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Kitahara, Y; Suda, N; Kuroda, T; Beck, F; Hammond, V E; Takano, Y

    2002-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is involved in epithelial-mesenchymal cell interactions during development of various tissues and organs. Tooth germ development is a classical model for this interaction. In tooth germs, PTHrP is expressed in the enamel organ (epithelial component), whereas its major receptor, the type I PTH/PTHrP receptor is expressed in cells of the alveolar bone and dental follicle (mesenchymal components). To clarify the role of PTHrP during fetal tooth germ development, PTHrP gene-knockout mice were used for histochemical and ultrastructural analysis. In wild-type mice, osteoclastic cells were aligned predominantly in the inner aspects of the alveolar bone surrounding the developing tooth germs throughout the late embryonic (after embryonic, 17.5 days) and neonatal animals examined. In contrast, osteoblasts were predominant in corresponding areas of fetal homozygous PTHrP-gene knockout mice with only occasional osteoclasts. In such areas, cell-free surfaces showing cement line-like tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) reactions were frequently observed. In neonatal homozygous mice, bone spicules were often shown to penetrate and/or compress the enamel organ and caused partial destruction of the tooth germs. Osteoclasts were few in number in the inner aspects of the alveolar bone, and had poorly developed ruffled border. No morphological abnormality was noted in cells of the tooth germs proper. On bone surfaces away from developing tooth germs, functional osteoclasts with structural features similar to those in wild-type mice were observed in homozygous mice. These observations suggest that PTHrP is required to maintain an appropriate spatiotemporal arrangement of bone cells and osteoclast function, which are necessary for the normal development of tooth germ and alveolar bone encasing the tooth germ. The observation also demonstrates that PTHrP deficiency affects the structure and function of osteoclasts exclusively those

  9. Phenotypic screening of hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 4-gamma receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Gerdin, Anna Karin; Surve, Vikas V; Jönsson, Marie; Bjursell, Mikael; Björkman, Maria; Edenro, Anne; Schuelke, Meint; Saad, Alaa; Bjurström, Sivert; Lundgren, Elisabeth Jensen; Snaith, Michael; Fransson-Steen, Ronny; Törnell, Jan; Berg, Anna-Lena; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad

    2006-10-20

    Using the mouse as a model organism in pharmaceutical research presents unique advantages as its physiology in many ways resembles the human physiology, it also has a relatively short generation time, low breeding and maintenance costs, and is available in a wide variety of inbred strains. The ability to genetically modify mouse embryonic stem cells to generate mouse models that better mimic human disease is another advantage. In the present study, a comprehensive phenotypic screening protocol is applied to elucidate the phenotype of a novel mouse knockout model of hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 4-gamma. HNF4-gamma is expressed in the kidneys, gut, pancreas, and testis. The first level of the screen is aimed at general health, morphologic appearance, normal cage behaviour, and gross neurological functions. The second level of the screen looks at metabolic characteristics and lung function. The third level of the screen investigates behaviour more in-depth and the fourth level consists of a thorough pathological characterisation, blood chemistry, haematology, and bone marrow analysis. When compared with littermate wild-type mice (HNF4-gamma(+/+)), the HNF4-gamma knockout (HNF4-gamma(-/-)) mice had lowered energy expenditure and locomotor activity during night time that resulted in a higher body weight despite having reduced intake of food and water. HNF4-gamma(-/-) mice were less inclined to build nest and were found to spend more time in a passive state during the forced swim test.

  10. Haloperidol inhibits the development of atherosclerotic lesions in LDL receptor knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    van der Sluis, Ronald J; Nahon, Joya E; Reuwer, Anne Q; Van Eck, Miranda; Hoekstra, Menno

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Antipsychotic drugs have been shown to modulate the expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), a key factor in the anti-atherogenic reverse cholesterol transport process, in vitro. Here we evaluated the potential of the typical antipsychotic drug haloperidol to modulate the cholesterol efflux function of macrophages in vitro and their susceptibility to atherosclerosis in vivo. Experimental Approach Thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages were used for in vitro studies. Hyperlipidaemic low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor knockout mice were implanted with a haloperidol-containing pellet and subsequently fed a Western-type diet for 5 weeks to induce the development of atherosclerotic lesions in vivo. Key Results Haloperidol induced a 54% decrease in the mRNA expression of ABCA1 in peritoneal macrophages. This coincided with a 30% decrease in the capacity of macrophages to efflux cholesterol to apolipoprotein A1. Haloperidol treatment stimulated the expression of ABCA1 (+51%) and other genes involved in reverse cholesterol transport, that is, CYP7A1 (+98%) in livers of LDL receptor knockout mice. No change in splenic ABCA1 expression was noted. However, the average size of the atherosclerotic size was significantly smaller (−31%) in the context of a mildly more atherogenic metabolic phenotype upon haloperidol treatment. More importantly, haloperidol markedly lowered MCP-1 expression (−70%) and secretion (−28%) by peritoneal macrophages. Conclusions and Implications Haloperidol treatment lowered the susceptibility of hyperlipidaemic LDL receptor knockout mice to develop atherosclerotic lesions. Our findings suggest that the beneficial effect of haloperidol on atherosclerosis susceptibility can be attributed to its ability to inhibit macrophage chemotaxis. PMID:25572138

  11. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor knockout mice show distinct synaptic plasticity impairments in the visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Origlia, Nicola; Kuczewski, Nicola; Aztiria, Eugenio; Gautam, Dinesh; Wess, Jürgen; Domenici, Luciano

    2006-01-01

    In the present report, we focused our attention on the role played by the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) in different forms of long-term synaptic plasticity. Specifically, we investigated long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) expression elicited by theta-burst stimulation (TBS) and low-frequency stimulation (LFS), respectively, in visual cortical slices obtained from different mAChR knockout (KO) mice. A normal LTP was evoked in M1/M3 double KO mice, while LTP was impaired in the M2/M4 double KO animals. On the other hand, LFS induced LTD in M2/M4 double KO mice, but failed to do so in M1/M3 KO mice. Interestingly, LFS produced LTP instead of LTD in M1/M3 KO mice. Analysis of mAChR single KO mice revealed that LTP was affected only by the simultaneous absence of both M2 and M4 receptors. A LFS-dependent shift from LTD to LTP was also observed in slices from M1 KO mice, while LTD was simply abolished in slices from M3 KO mice. Using pharmacological tools, we showed that LTP in control mice was blocked by pertussis toxin, an inhibitor of Gi/o proteins, but not by raising intracellular cAMP levels. In addition, the inhibition of phospholipase C by U73122 induced the same shift from LTD to LTP after LFS observed in M1 single KO and M1/M3 double KO mice. Our results indicate that different mAChR subtypes regulate different forms of long-term synaptic plasticity in the mouse visual cortex, activating specific G proteins and downstream intracellular mechanisms. PMID:17023506

  12. A Conditioned Aversion Study of Sucrose and SC45647 Taste in TRPM5 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Eddy, Meghan C.; Eschle, Benjamin K.; Peterson, Darlene; Lauras, Nathan; Margolskee, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Previously, published studies have reported mixed results regarding the role of the TRPM5 cation channel in signaling sweet taste by taste sensory cells. Some studies have reported a complete loss of sweet taste preference in TRPM5 knockout (KO) mice, whereas others have reported only a partial loss of sweet taste preference. This study reports the results of conditioned aversion studies designed to motivate wild-type (WT) and KO mice to respond to sweet substances. In conditioned taste aversion experiments, WT mice showed nearly complete LiCl-induced response suppression to sucrose and SC45647. In contrast, TRPM5 KO mice showed a much smaller conditioned aversion to either sweet substance, suggesting a compromised, but not absent, ability to detect sweet taste. A subsequent conditioned flavor aversion experiment was conducted to determine if TRPM5 KO mice were impaired in their ability to learn a conditioned aversion. In this experiment, KO and WT mice were conditioned to a mixture of SC45647 and amyl acetate (an odor cue). Although WT mice avoided both components of the stimulus mixture, they avoided SC45647 more than the odor cue. The KO mice also avoided both stimuli, but they avoided the odor component more than SC45647, suggesting that while the KO mice are capable of learning an aversion, to them the odor cue was more salient than the taste cue. Collectively, these findings suggest the TRPM5 KO mice have some residual ability to detect SC45647 and sucrose, and, like bitter, there may be a TRPM5-independent transduction pathway for detecting these substances. PMID:21987728

  13. Impact of Food Restriction and Cocaine on Locomotion in Ghrelin- and Ghrelin-Receptor Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Clifford, P. Shane; Zeckler, Rosie Albarran; Buckman, Sam; Thompson, Jeff; Hart, Nigel; Wellman, Paul J.; Smith, Roy G.

    2012-01-01

    Food restriction (FR) augments the behavioral and reinforcing effects of psychomotor stimulants such as cocaine or amphetamine; effects that may be related to the capacity of FR to increase plasma levels of ghrelin (GHR), a 28-amino acid orexigenenic peptide linked to activation of brain dopamine systems. The present study used wild-type (WT) mice or mutant mice sustaining knockout of either GHR (GHR(-/-)) or of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R(-/-)) and subjected to FR or not to evaluate the role of GHR and GHS-R in cocaine-stimulated locomotion. WT, GHR(-/-), and GHS-R(-/-) mice were either restricted to 60% of baseline caloric intake or allowed to free-feed (FF). Mice were treated with 0, 1.25, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg cocaine on separate test days (in random dose order) and forward locomotion was recorded on each drug day for 45 min after drug dosing. Food (and water) was available immediately after (but not during) each activity test. For FF mice, there was no interaction between cocaine and GHR status on locomotion. FR-WT mice treated with saline exhibited significant increases in anticipatory locomotion (relative to FF-WT mice), whereas FR-GHS-R(-/-) mice did not. Cocaine significantly increased locomotion in FR-GHR(-/-) and FR-GHS-R(-/-) mice to the levels noted in FR-WT mice. These results suggest that GHS-R activity, but not GHR activity, is required for FR to augment food-associated anticipatory locomotion, but do not support the contention that GHR pathways are required for the capacity of FR to augment the acute effect of cocaine on locomotion. PMID:21054685

  14. A conditioned aversion study of sucrose and SC45647 taste in TRPM5 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Meghan C; Eschle, Benjamin K; Peterson, Darlene; Lauras, Nathan; Margolskee, Robert F; Delay, Eugene R

    2012-06-01

    Previously, published studies have reported mixed results regarding the role of the TRPM5 cation channel in signaling sweet taste by taste sensory cells. Some studies have reported a complete loss of sweet taste preference in TRPM5 knockout (KO) mice, whereas others have reported only a partial loss of sweet taste preference. This study reports the results of conditioned aversion studies designed to motivate wild-type (WT) and KO mice to respond to sweet substances. In conditioned taste aversion experiments, WT mice showed nearly complete LiCl-induced response suppression to sucrose and SC45647. In contrast, TRPM5 KO mice showed a much smaller conditioned aversion to either sweet substance, suggesting a compromised, but not absent, ability to detect sweet taste. A subsequent conditioned flavor aversion experiment was conducted to determine if TRPM5 KO mice were impaired in their ability to learn a conditioned aversion. In this experiment, KO and WT mice were conditioned to a mixture of SC45647 and amyl acetate (an odor cue). Although WT mice avoided both components of the stimulus mixture, they avoided SC45647 more than the odor cue. The KO mice also avoided both stimuli, but they avoided the odor component more than SC45647, suggesting that while the KO mice are capable of learning an aversion, to them the odor cue was more salient than the taste cue. Collectively, these findings suggest the TRPM5 KO mice have some residual ability to detect SC45647 and sucrose, and, like bitter, there may be a TRPM5-independent transduction pathway for detecting these substances.

  15. Pressor responses to ephedrine are not impaired in dopamine β-hydroxylase knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Liles, J T; Baber, S R; Deng, W; Porter, J R; Corll, C; Murthy, S N; Thomas, S A; Kadowitz, P J

    2006-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Ephedrine and amphetamine can cause substantial increases in systemic arterial pressure. However, the role of endogenous noradrenaline release in mediating the pressor response to ephedrine is controversial. Studies using pharmacologic agents to decrease the synthesis, storage, and release of catecholamines have supported both a direct and an indirect mechanism of action for ephedrine. The purpose of the present study was to determine if endogenous noradrenaline release is required for cardiovascular responses to ephedrine and amphetamine using a genetic mouse model. Experimental Approach: Increases in systemic arterial pressure and heart rate in response to ephedrine and amphetamine were investigated and compared in dopamine β-hydroxylase knockout (Dbh -/-) mice that cannot synthesize noradrenaline. Dbh +/- littermates have normal noradrenaline and adrenaline tissue levels, and served as controls in all experiments. Key Results: In Dbh -/- mice the increases in systemic arterial pressure and heart rate in response to i.v. injections of ephedrine were not impaired whereas responses to amphetamine were markedly reduced, when compared with responses in Dbh +/- mice. The pressor response to tyramine was abolished whereas pressor responses to noradrenaline, phenylephrine, dopamine, and angiotensin II were similar in Dbh -/- and Dbh +/- mice. Conclusions and Implications: The present results in Dbh -/- mice provide support for the hypothesis that pressor responses to ephedrine are directly mediated whereas responses to amphetamine are dependent on the release of noradrenaline and suggest that Dbh +/- and Dbh -/- mice are useful for the study of direct and indirect mechanisms. PMID:17099719

  16. Pressor responses to ephedrine are not impaired in dopamine beta-hydroxylase knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Liles, J T; Baber, S R; Deng, W; Porter, J R; Corll, C; Murthy, S N; Thomas, S A; Kadowitz, P J

    2007-01-01

    Ephedrine and amphetamine can cause substantial increases in systemic arterial pressure. However, the role of endogenous noradrenaline release in mediating the pressor response to ephedrine is controversial. Studies using pharmacologic agents to decrease the synthesis, storage, and release of catecholamines have supported both a direct and an indirect mechanism of action for ephedrine. The purpose of the present study was to determine if endogenous noradrenaline release is required for cardiovascular responses to ephedrine and amphetamine using a genetic mouse model. Increases in systemic arterial pressure and heart rate in response to ephedrine and amphetamine were investigated and compared in dopamine beta-hydroxylase knockout (Dbh -/-) mice that cannot synthesize noradrenaline. Dbh +/- littermates have normal noradrenaline and adrenaline tissue levels, and served as controls in all experiments. In Dbh -/- mice the increases in systemic arterial pressure and heart rate in response to i.v. injections of ephedrine were not impaired whereas responses to amphetamine were markedly reduced, when compared with responses in Dbh +/- mice. The pressor response to tyramine was abolished whereas pressor responses to noradrenaline, phenylephrine, dopamine, and angiotensin II were similar in Dbh -/- and Dbh +/- mice. The present results in Dbh -/- mice provide support for the hypothesis that pressor responses to ephedrine are directly mediated whereas responses to amphetamine are dependent on the release of noradrenaline and suggest that Dbh +/- and Dbh -/- mice are useful for the study of direct and indirect mechanisms.

  17. Exercise modulates postreceptor insulin signaling and glucose transport in muscle-specific insulin receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Wojtaszewski, J F; Higaki, Y; Hirshman, M F; Michael, M D; Dufresne, S D; Kahn, C R; Goodyear, L J

    1999-11-01

    Physical exercise promotes glucose uptake into skeletal muscle and makes the working muscles more sensitive to insulin. To understand the role of insulin receptor (IR) signaling in these responses, we studied the effects of exercise and insulin on skeletal muscle glucose metabolism and insulin signaling in mice lacking insulin receptors specifically in muscle. Muscle-specific insulin receptor knockout (MIRKO) mice had normal resting 2-deoxy-glucose (2DG) uptake in soleus muscles but had no significant response to insulin. Despite this, MIRKO mice displayed normal exercise-stimulated 2DG uptake and a normal synergistic activation of muscle 2DG uptake with the combination of exercise plus insulin. Glycogen content and glycogen synthase activity in resting muscle were normal in MIRKO mice, and exercise, but not insulin, increased glycogen synthase activity. Insulin, exercise, and the combination of exercise plus insulin did not increase IR tyrosine phosphorylation or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity in MIRKO muscle. In contrast, insulin alone produced a small activation of Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3 in MIRKO mice, and prior exercise markedly enhanced this insulin effect. In conclusion, normal expression of muscle insulin receptors is not needed for the exercise-mediated increase in glucose uptake and glycogen synthase activity in vivo. The synergistic activation of glucose transport with exercise plus insulin is retained in MIRKO mice, suggesting a phenomenon mediated by nonmuscle cells or by downstream signaling events.

  18. Increased Cocaine Self-Administration in M4 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Lene S.; Thomsen, Morgane; Weikop, Pia; Dencker, Ditte; Wess, Jürgen; Woldbye, David P.D.; Wortwein, Gitta; Fink-Jensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Rationale The reinforcing effects of cocaine are mediated by the mesolimbic dopamine system. Behavioral and neurochemical studies have shown that the cholinergic muscarinic M4 receptor subtype plays an important role in regulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission. Objectives Here we investigated for the first time the involvement of M4 receptors in the reinforcing effects of cocaine using chronic intravenous cocaine self-administration in extensively backcrossed M4 receptor knockout (M4−/−) mice. Methods We evaluated acquisition of cocaine self-administration in experimentally naïve mice. Both cocaine self-administration and food-maintained operant behavior were evaluated under fixed ratio 1 (FR 1) and progressive ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement. In addition, cocaine-induced dopamine release and cocaine-induced hyperactivity was evaluated. Results M4−/− mice earned significantly more cocaine reinforcers and reached higher breaking points than their wildtype littermates (M4+/+) at intermediate doses of cocaine under both FR 1 and PR schedules of reinforcement. Under the PR schedule, M4−/− mice exhibited significantly higher response rates at the lowest liquid food concentration. In accordance with these results, cocaine-induced dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens and hyperlocomotion were increased in M4−/− mice compared to M4+/+ mice. Conclusions Our data suggest that M4 receptors play an important role in regulation of the reward circuitry and may serve as a new target in the medical treatment of drug addiction. PMID:21373792

  19. Large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel β1-subunit knockout mice are not hypertensive

    PubMed Central

    Garver, Hannah; Galligan, James J.; Fink, Gregory D.

    2011-01-01

    Large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channels are composed of pore-forming α-subunits and accessory β1-subunits that modulate Ca2+ sensitivity. BK channels regulate arterial myogenic tone and renal Na+ clearance/K+ reabsorption. Previous studies using indirect or short-term blood pressure measurements found that BK channel β1-subunit knockout (BK β1-KO) mice were hypertensive. We evaluated 24-h mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate in BK β1-KO mice using radiotelemetry. BK β1-KO mice did not have a higher 24-h average MAP when compared with wild-type (WT) mice, although MAP was ∼10 mmHg higher at night. The dose-dependent peak declines in MAP by nifedipine were only slightly larger in BK β1-KO mice. In BK β1-KO mice, giving 1% NaCl to mice to drink for 7 days caused a transient (5 days) elevation of MAP (∼5 mmHg); MAP returned to pre-saline levels by day 6. BK β1-KO mesenteric arteries in vitro demonstrated diminished contractile responses to paxilline, increased reactivity to Bay K 8644 and norepinephrine (NE), and maintained relaxation to isoproterenol. Paxilline and Bay K 8644 did not constrict WT or BK β1-KO mesenteric veins (MV). BK β1-subunits are not expressed in MV. The results indicate that BK β1-KO mice are not hypertensive on normal or high-salt intake. BK channel deficiency increases arterial reactivity to NE and L-type Ca2+ channel function in vitro, but the L-type Ca2+ channel modulation of MAP is not altered in BK β1-KO mice. BK and L-type Ca2+ channels do not modulate murine venous tone. It appears that selective loss of BK channel function in arteries only is not sufficient to cause sustained hypertension. PMID:21131476

  20. Running exercise alleviates trabecular bone loss and osteopenia in hemizygous β-globin knockout thalassemic mice.

    PubMed

    Thongchote, Kanogwun; Svasti, Saovaros; Teerapornpuntakit, Jarinthorn; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol

    2014-06-15

    A marked decrease in β-globin production led to β-thalassemia, a hereditary anemic disease associated with bone marrow expansion, bone erosion, and osteoporosis. Herein, we aimed to investigate changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular microstructure in hemizygous β-globin knockout thalassemic (BKO) mice and to determine whether endurance running (60 min/day, 5 days/wk for 12 wk in running wheels) could effectively alleviate bone loss in BKO mice. Both male and female BKO mice (1-2 mo old) showed growth retardation as indicated by smaller body weight and femoral length than their wild-type littermates. A decrease in BMD was more severe in female than in male BKO mice. Bone histomorphometry revealed that BKO mice had decreases in trabecular bone volume, trabecular number, and trabecular thickness, presumably due to suppression of osteoblast-mediated bone formation and activation of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, the latter of which was consistent with elevated serum levels of osteoclastogenic cytokines IL-1α and -1β. As determined by peripheral quantitative computed tomography, running increased cortical density and thickness in the femoral and tibial diaphyses of BKO mice compared with those of sedentary BKO mice. Several histomorphometric parameters suggested an enhancement of bone formation (e.g., increased mineral apposition rate) and suppression of bone resorption (e.g., decreased osteoclast surface), which led to increases in trabecular bone volume and trabecular thickness in running BKO mice. In conclusion, BKO mice exhibited pervasive osteopenia and impaired bone microstructure, whereas running exercise appeared to be an effective intervention in alleviating bone microstructural defect in β-thalassemia. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Satoko; Takao, Keizo; Tanda, Koichi; Toyama, Keiko; Shintani, Norihito; Baba, Akemichi; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide acting as a neurotransmitter, neuromodulator, or neurotrophic factor. PACAP is widely expressed throughout the brain and exerts its functions through the PACAP-specific receptor (PAC1). Recent studies reveal that genetic variants of the PACAP and PAC1 genes are associated with mental disorders, and several behavioral abnormalities of PACAP knockout (KO) mice are reported. However, an insufficient number of backcrosses was made using PACAP KO mice on the C57BL/6J background due to their postnatal mortality. To elucidate the effects of PACAP on neuropsychiatric function, the PACAP gene was knocked out in F1 hybrid mice (C57BL/6J × 129SvEv) for appropriate control of the genetic background. The PACAP KO mice were then subjected to a behavioral test battery. PACAP deficiency had no significant effects on neurological screen. As shown previously, the mice exhibited significantly increased locomotor activity in a novel environment and abnormal anxiety-like behavior, while no obvious differences between genotypes were shown in home cage (HC) activity. In contrast to previous reports, the PACAP KO mice showed normal prepulse inhibition (PPI) and slightly decreased depression-like behavior. Previous study demonstrates that the social interaction (SI) in a resident-intruder test was decreased in PACAP KO mice. On the other hand, we showed that PACAP KO mice exhibited increased SI in Crawley's three-chamber social approach test, although PACAP KO had no significant impact on SI in a HC. PACAP KO mice also exhibited mild performance deficit in working memory in an eight-arm radial maze (RM) and the T-maze (TM), while they did not show any significant abnormalities in the left-right discrimination task in the TM. These results suggest that PACAP has an important role in the regulation of locomotor activity, social behavior, anxiety-like behavior and, potentially, working memory. PMID:23060763

  2. Intragastric fat self-administration is impaired in GPR40/120 double knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Sclafani, Anthony; Touzani, Khalid; Ackroff, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Mice acquire strong preferences for flavors paired with intragastric (IG) fat infusions. This IG fat conditioning is attenuated in double knockout (DoKO) mice missing GPR40 and GPR120 fatty acid receptors. Here we determined if GPR40/120 DoKO mice are also impaired in IG fat self-administration in an operant lick task. In daily 1-h sessions the mice were trained with a sipper spout that contained dry food pellets; licks on the spout triggered infusions of IG fat (Intralipid). The training sessions were followed by test sessions with an empty spout. GPR40/120 DoKO mice self-infused more 20% fat than wild type (WT) C57BL/6 mice in training with a food-baited spout (2.4 vs. 2.0 kcal/h) but self-infused less 20% fat than WT mice in empty spout tests (1.2 vs. 1.7 kcal/h). The DoKO mice also self-infused less 5% fat than WT mice (0.6 vs. 1.3 kcal/h) although both groups emitted more licks for 5% fat than 20% fat. The DoKO and WT mice did not differ, however, in their self-infusion of 12.5% glucose (1.5 vs. 1.6 kcal/h), which is isocaloric to 5% fat. A second 5% IL test showed that the DoKO mice reverted to a reduced self-infusion compared to WT mice. When the infusion was shifted to water, WT mice reduced licking in the first extinction session, whereas DoKO mice were less sensitive to the absence of infused fat. Our results indicate that post-oral GPR40/120 signaling is not required to process IG fat infusions in food-baited spout training sessions but contributes to post-oral fat reinforcement in empty spout tests and flavor conditioning tests. PMID:25911263

  3. Investigations into the physiological role of muscarinic M2 and M4 muscarinic and M4 receptor subtypes using receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Bymaster, F P; Carter, P A; Zhang, L; Falcone, J F; Stengel, P W; Cohen, M L; Shannon, H E; Gomeza, J; Wess, J; Felder, C C

    2001-04-27

    Determination of muscarinic agonist-induced parasympathomimetic effects in wild type and M2 and M4 muscarinic receptor knockout mice revealed that M2 receptors mediated tremor and hypothermia, but not salivation. The M4 receptors seem to play a modest role in salivation, but did not alter hypothermia and tremor. In the M2 knockout mice, agonist-induced bradycardia in isolated spontaneously beating atria was completely absent compared to their wild type litter mates, whereas agonist-induced bradycardia was similar in the M4 knockout and wild type mice. The potency of carbachol to stimulate contraction of isolated stomach fundus, urinary bladder and trachea was reduced by a factor of about 2 in the M2 knockout mice, but was unaltered in the M4 knockout mice. The binding of the muscarinic agonist, [3H]-oxotremorine-M, was reduced in cortical tissue from the M2 knockout mice and to a lesser extent from the M4 knockout mice, and was reduced over 90% in the brain stem of M2 knockout mice. The data demonstrate the usefulness of knockout mice in determining the physiological function of peripheral and central muscarinic receptors.

  4. Comparative effects of chlorpyrifos in wild type and cannabinoid Cb1 receptor knockout mice

    SciTech Connect

    Baireddy, Praveena; Liu, Jing; Hinsdale, Myron

    2011-11-15

    Endocannabinoids (eCBs) modulate neurotransmission by inhibiting the release of a variety of neurotransmitters. The cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55.212-2 (WIN) can modulate organophosphorus (OP) anticholinesterase toxicity in rats, presumably by inhibiting acetylcholine (ACh) release. Some OP anticholinesterases also inhibit eCB-degrading enzymes. We studied the effects of the OP insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) on cholinergic signs of toxicity, cholinesterase activity and ACh release in tissues from wild type (+/+) and cannabinoid CB1 receptor knockout (-/-) mice. Mice of both genotypes (n = 5-6/treatment group) were challenged with CPF (300 mg/kg, 2 ml/kg in peanut oil, sc) and evaluated for functional and neurochemicalmore » changes. Both genotypes exhibited similar cholinergic signs and cholinesterase inhibition (82-95% at 48 h after dosing) in cortex, cerebellum and heart. WIN reduced depolarization-induced ACh release in vitro in hippocampal slices from wild type mice, but had no effect in hippocampal slices from knockouts or in striatal slices from either genotype. Chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO, 100 {mu}M) reduced release in hippocampal slices from both genotypes in vitro, but with a greater reduction in tissues from wild types (21% vs 12%). CPO had no significant in vitro effect on ACh release in striatum. CPF reduced ACh release in hippocampus from both genotypes ex vivo, but reduction was again significantly greater in tissues from wild types (52% vs 36%). In striatum, CPF led to a similar reduction (20-23%) in tissues from both genotypes. Thus, while CB1 deletion in mice had little influence on the expression of acute toxicity following CPF, CPF- or CPO-induced changes in ACh release appeared sensitive to modulation by CB1-mediated eCB signaling in a brain-regional manner. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C57Bl/6 mice showed dose-related cholinergic toxicity following subcutaneous chlorpyrifos exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wild type and

  5. AVE 0991-angiotensin-(1-7) receptor agonist, inhibits atherogenesis in apoE-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Toton-Zuranska, J; Gajda, M; Pyka-Fosciak, G; Kus, K; Pawlowska, M; Niepsuj, A; Wolkow, P; Olszanecki, R; Jawien, J; Korbut, R

    2010-04-01

    Recent evidence shows that the renin-angiotensin system is a crucial player in atherosclerotic processes. It was also proved that Ang II promotes atherogenesis. Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] opposites Ang II action. Therefore, we would like to find out whether Ang-(1-7) receptor agonist: AVE 0991, could ameliorate atherosclerosis progression in an experimental model of atherosclerosis: apolipoprotein E (apoE) - knockout mice. AVE 0991 inhibited atherogenesis, measured both by "en face" method (7.63+/-1.6% vs. 14.6+/-2.1%) and "cross-section" method (47 235+/-7 546 microm(2) vs. 91 416+/-8 357 microm(2)). This is the first report showing the effect of AVE 0991 on atherogenesis in gene-targeted mice.

  6. Lack of susceptibility of heterozygous p53-knockout CBA and CIEA mice to phenolphthalein in a 6-month carcinogenicity study.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Miwa; Kashida, Yoko; Watanabe, Takao; Yasuhara, Kazuo; Onodera, Hiroshi; Hirose, Masao; Usui, Toshimi; Tamaoki, Norikazu; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi

    2003-03-14

    Phenolphthalein has carcinogenic activity, causing malignant lymphomas in B6C3F1 mice at a dietary dose of 3000 ppm in a 2-year carcinogenicity study and in female heterozygous p53-knockout TSG mice (C57BL/6 background) at the same dose in a 6-month study. To examine whether carcinogenic potential of phenolphthalein can be detected in other p53-knockout mouse [p53 (+/-)] strains such as p53 (+/-) CBA mice or p53 (+/-) CIEA mice (C57BL/6 background) and their littermates, they were given a diet containing 0, 6000 or 12000 ppm for 6 months. Unequivocal induction of neoplastic lesions was not apparent, suggesting that p53 (+/-) CBA mice and p53 (+/-) CIEA mice are resistant to the induction of malignant lymphomas by the treatment of phenolphthalein.

  7. MicroRNA-155 knockout mice are susceptible to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Hiroki; Funatogawa, Keiji; Matsumura, Kazunori; Kato-Miyazawa, Masako; Kirikae, Fumiko; Kiga, Kotaro; Sasakawa, Chihiro; Miyoshi-Akiyama, Tohru; Kirikae, Teruo

    2015-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, conserved, non-coding RNA molecules that repress translation, followed by the decay of miRNA-targeted mRNAs that encode molecules involved in cell differentiation, development, immunity and apoptosis. At least six miRNAs, including microRNA-155 (miR-155), were up-regulated when born marrow-derived macrophages from C57BL/6 mice were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Erdman. C57BL/6 mice intravenously infected with Erdman showed up-regulation of miR-155 in livers and lungs. Following infection, miR-155-deficient C57BL/6 mice died significantly earlier and had significantly higher numbers of CFU in lungs than wild-type mice. Moreover, fewer CD4(+) T cells, but higher numbers of monocytes and neutrophils, were present in the lungs of Erdman-infected miR-155 knockout (miR-155(-/-)) than of wild-type mice. These findings indicated that miR-155 plays a critical role in immune responses to M. tuberculosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Reduced inflammatory threshold indicates skin barrier defect in transglutaminase 3 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Bognar, Peter; Nemeth, Ilona; Mayer, Balazs; Haluszka, Dora; Wikonkal, Norbert; Ostorhazi, Eszter; John, Susan; Paulsson, Mats; Smyth, Neil; Pasztoi, Maria; Buzas, Edit I; Szipocs, Robert; Kolonics, Attila; Temesvari, Erzsebet; Karpati, Sarolta

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a transglutaminase 3 knockout (TGM3/KO) mouse was generated that showed impaired hair development, but no gross defects in the epidermal barrier, although increased fragility of isolated corneocytes was demonstrated. Here we investigated the functionality of skin barrier in vivo by percutaneous sensitization to FITC in TGM3/KO (n=64) and C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice (n=36). Cutaneous inflammation was evaluated by mouse ear swelling test (MEST), histology, serum IgE levels, and by flow cytometry from draining lymph nodes. Inflammation-induced significant MEST difference (P<0.0001) was detected between KO and WT mice and was supported also by histopathology. A significant increase of CD4+ CD25+-activated T cells (P<0.01) and elevated serum IgE levels (P<0.05) in KO mice indicated more the development of FITC sensitization than an irritative reaction. Propionibacter acnes-induced intracutaneous inflammation showed no difference (P=0.2254) between the reactivity of WT and KO immune system. As in vivo tracer, FITC penetration from skin surface followed by two-photon microscopy demonstrated a more invasive percutaneous penetration in KO mice. The clinically uninvolved skin in TGM3/KO mice showed impaired barrier function and higher susceptibility to FITC sensitization indicating that TGM3 has a significant contribution to the functionally intact cutaneous barrier.

  9. Extramedullary hematopoiesis is dysregulated in histamine-free histidine decarboxylase knockout (HDC-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Zsuzsanna; Pállinger, Eva; Horváth, Gyozo; Jelinek, Ivett; Veszely, Gizella; Furész, József; Falus, András; Buzás, Edit I

    2010-06-01

    In this study we investigated the role of histamine on the extramedullary hematopoiesis. Male histidine decarboxylase knockout (HDC(-/-)) mice and wild-type mice were used (n = 5/group). Groups of mice received sublethal total-body gamma irradiation at a single dose of 4 Gy. Spleen cells were studied at different time points post-irradiation by flow cytometry, colony forming unit (CFU) assay, and real-time PCR. For statistical analysis Student's t test, ANOVA, and Holm-Sidak post-hoc test were used. By day 14 after irradiation, spleen cell counts increased almost eightfold in wild-type and not even fourfold in HDC(-/-) mice (P < 0.01). The proliferative capacity and interleukin-3 signaling of stem cells were impaired in HDC(-/-) mice. STAT5 mRNA expression was decreased in granulocyte-myeloid colonies by 72.9 +/- 8.6% (P < 0.001), compared to the wild-type. The absence of histamine adversely affects splenic hematopoiesis via direct and indirect mechanisms.

  10. Memantine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, improves working memory deficits in DGKβ knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Kakefuda, Kenichi; Ishisaka, Mitsue; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Hara, Hideaki

    2016-09-06

    Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) β is a type 1 isozyme of the DGK family. We previously reported that DGKβ was deeply involved in neurite spine formation, and DGKβ knockout (KO) mice exhibited behavioral abnormalities concerning spine formation, such as cognitive, emotional, and attentional impairment. Moreover, some of these abnormalities were ameliorated by the administration of a mood stabilizer. However, there is no data about how memory-improving drugs used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease affect DGKβ KO mice. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of an anti-Alzheimer's drug, memantine on the working memory deficit observed in DGKβ KO mice. In the Y-maze test, the administration of memantine significantly improved working memory of DGKβ KO mice. We also found that the expression levels of the NR2A and NR2B N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits were increased in the prefrontal cortex, but decreased in the hippocampus of DGKβ KO mice. These altered expression levels of NR2 subunits might be related to the effect of an NMDA receptor antagonist, memantine. Taken together, these findings may support the hypothesis that DGKβ has a pivotal role in cognitive function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Impaired functional organization in the visual cortex of muscarinic receptor knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Groleau, Marianne; Nguyen, Hoang Nam; Vanni, Matthieu P; Huppé-Gourgues, Frédéric; Casanova, Christian; Vaucher, Elvire

    2014-09-01

    Acetylcholine modulates maturation and neuronal activity through muscarinic and nicotinic receptors in the primary visual cortex. However, the specific contribution of different muscarinic receptor subtypes in these neuromodulatory mechanisms is not fully understood. The present study evaluates in vivo the functional organization and the properties of the visual cortex of different groups of muscarinic receptor knock-out (KO) mice. Optical imaging of intrinsic signals coupled to continuous and episodic visual stimulation paradigms was used. Retinotopic maps along elevation and azimuth were preserved among the different groups of mice. However, compared to their wild-type counterparts, the apparent visual field along elevation was larger in M2/M4-KO mice but smaller in M1-KO. There was a reduction in the estimated relative receptive field size of V1 neurons in M1/M3-KO and M1-KO mice. Spatial frequency and contrast selectivity of V1 neuronal populations were affected only in M1/M3-KO and M1-KO mice. Finally, the neuronal connectivity was altered by the absence of M2/M4 muscarinic receptors. All these effects suggest the distinct roles of different subtypes of muscarinic receptors in the intrinsic organization of V1 and a strong involvement of the muscarinic transmission in the detectability of visual stimuli. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Adenomatous polyposis coli heterozygous knockout mice display hypoactivity and age-dependent working memory deficits

    PubMed Central

    Koshimizu, Hisatsugu; Fukui, Yasuyuki; Takao, Keizo; Ohira, Koji; Tanda, Koichi; Nakanishi, Kazuo; Toyama, Keiko; Oshima, Masanobu; Taketo, Makoto Mark; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    A tumor suppressor gene, Adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc), is expressed in the nervous system from embryonic to adulthood stages, and transmits the Wnt signaling pathway in which schizophrenia susceptibility genes, including T-cell factor 4 (TCF4) and calcineurin (CN), are involved. However, the functions of Apc in the nervous system are largely unknown. In this study, as the first evaluation of Apc function in the nervous system, we have investigated the behavioral significance of the Apc gene, applying a battery of behavioral tests to Apc heterozygous knockout (Apc+/−) mice. Apc+/− mice showed no significant impairment in neurological reflexes or sensory and motor abilities. In various tests, including light/dark transition, open-field, social interaction, eight-arm radial maze, and fear conditioning tests, Apc+/− mice exhibited hypoactivity. In the eight-arm radial maze, Apc+/− mice 6–7 weeks of age displayed almost normal performance, whereas those 11–12 weeks of age showed a severe performance deficit in working memory, suggesting that Apc is involved in working memory performance in an age-dependent manner. The possibility that anemia, which Apc+/− mice develop by 17 weeks of age, impairs working memory performance, however, cannot be excluded. Our results suggest that Apc plays a role in the regulation of locomotor activity and presumably working memory performance. PMID:22347851

  13. Impact of chocolate liquor on vascular lesions in apoE-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Yazdekhasti, Narges; Brandsch, Corinna; Hirche, Frank; Kühn, Julia; Schloesser, Anke; Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Huebbe, Patricia; Wolffram, Siegfried; Rimbach, Gerald; Stangl, Gabriele I

    2017-10-15

    Cocoa polyphenols are thought to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Thus, cocoa-containing foods may have significant health benefits. Here, we studied the impact of chocolate liquor on vascular lesion development and plaque composition in a mouse model of atherosclerosis. Apolipoprotein E (apoE)-knockout mice were assigned to two groups and fed a Western diet that contained 250 g/kg of either chocolate liquor or a polyphenol-free isoenergetic control paste for 16 weeks. In addition to fat, protein, and fibers, the chocolate liquor contained 2 g/kg of polyphenols. Compared with the control group, mice fed the chocolate liquor had larger plaque areas in the descending aorta and aortic root, which were attributed to a higher mass of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and collagen. Vascular lipid deposits and calcification areas did not differ between the two groups. The aortic tissue level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA was 5-fold higher in the mice fed chocolate liquor than in the control mice. Chocolate-fed mice exhibited an increased hepatic saturated to polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio than the controls. Although the chocolate liquor contained 14 µg/kg of vitamin D 2 , the chocolate liquor-fed mice did not have measurable 25-hydroxyvitamin D 2 in the serum. These mice even showed a 25% reduction in the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 compared with the control mice. Overall, present data may contribute to our understanding how chocolate constituents can impact vascular lesion development. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  14. Serotonergic involvement in the amelioration of behavioral abnormalities in dopamine transporter knockout mice by nicotine.

    PubMed

    Uchiumi, Osamu; Kasahara, Yoshiyuki; Fukui, Asami; Hall, F Scott; Uhl, George R; Sora, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine transporter knockout (DAT KO) mice exhibit elevated extracellular dopamine levels in brain regions that include the striatum and the nucleus accumbens, but not the prefrontal cortex. DAT KO mice model some aspects of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Smoking is more common in patients with schizophrenia, suggesting that nicotine might ameliorate aspects of the behavioral abnormalities and/or treatment side effects seen in these individuals. We report nicotine-induced normalization of effects on locomotion and prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (PPI) in DAT KO mice that require intact serotonin 5-HT1A systems. First, we observed that the marked hyperactivity displayed by DAT KO mice was reduced by administration of nicotine. This nicotine effect was blocked by pretreatment with the non-specific nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptor antagonist mecamylamine, or the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY100635. Secondly, we examined the effects of nicotine on PPI in DAT KO mice. Treatment with nicotine significantly ameliorated the PPI deficits observed in DAT KO mice. The ameliorating action of nicotine on PPI deficits in DAT KO mice was blocked by mecamylamine, the α₇ nACh receptor antagonist methyllycaconitine or WAY100635, while the α₄β₂ nACh receptor antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidinehydrobromide (DHβE) produced only a non-significant trend toward attenuation of nicotine effects. Finally, we observed that administration of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT also ameliorated the deficit in PPI observed in DAT KO mice. This amelioration was antagonized by pretreatment with WAY100635. These data support the idea that nicotine might ameliorate some of the cognitive dysfunctions found in schizophrenia in a 5-HT1A-dependent fashion. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Elevated Anxiety and Impaired Attention in Super-Smeller, Kv1.3 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhenbo; Hoffman, Carlie A.; Chelette, Brandon M.; Thiebaud, Nicolas; Fadool, Debra A.

    2018-01-01

    It has long been recognized that olfaction and emotion are linked. While chemosensory research using both human and rodent models have indicated a change in emotion can contribute to olfactory dysfunction, there are few studies addressing the contribution of olfaction to a modulation in emotion. In mice, olfactory deficits have been linked with heightened anxiety levels, suggesting that there could be an inverse relationship between olfaction and anxiety. Furthermore, increased anxiety is often co-morbid with psychiatric conditions such as attention disorders. Our study aimed to investigate the roles of olfaction in modulating anxiety. Voltage-gated potassium ion channel Kv1.3 knockout mice (Kv1.3−/−), which have heightened olfaction, and wild-type (WT) mice were examined for anxiety-like behaviors using marble burying (MB), light-dark box (LDB) and elevated-plus maze (EPM) tests. Because Kv1.3−/− mice have increased locomotor activity, inattentive and hyperactive behaviors were quantified for both genotypes. Kv1.3−/− mice showed increased anxiety levels compared to their WT counterparts and administration of methylphenidate (MPH) via oral gavage alleviated their increased anxiety. Object-based attention testing indicated young and older Kv1.3−/− mice had attention deficits and treatment with MPH also ameliorated this condition. Locomotor testing through use of a metabolic chamber indicated that Kv1.3−/− mice were not significantly hyperactive and MPH treatment failed to modify this activity. Our data suggest that heightened olfaction does not necessarily lead to decreased anxiety levels, and that Kv1.3−/− mice may have behaviors associated with inattentiveness. PMID:29615878

  16. “Skittish” Abca2 Knockout Mice Display Tremor, Hyperactivity, and Abnormal Myelin Ultrastructure in the Central Nervous System▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Jody T.; Beljanski, Vladimir; Soulika, Athena M.; Townsend, Danyelle M.; Brown, Carol B.; Davis, Warren; Tew, Kenneth D.

    2007-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette transporter 2 (ABCA2) is an endolysosomal protein most highly expressed in the central and peripheral nervous system tissues and macrophages. Previous studies indicated its role in cholesterol/steroid (estramustine, estradiol, and progesterone) trafficking/sequestration, oxidative stress response, and Alzheimer's disease. Developmental studies have shown its expression during macrophage and oligodendrocyte differentiation, processes requiring membrane growth. To determine the in vivo function(s) of this transporter, we generated a knockout mouse from a gene-targeted disruption of the murine ABCA2 gene. Knockout males and females are viable and fertile. However, a non-Mendelian inheritance pattern was shown among male progeny of heterozygous crosses. Compared to wild-type and heterozygous littermates, knockout mice displayed a tremor without ataxia, hyperactivity, and reduced body weight; the latter two phenotypes were more marked in females than in males. This sexual disparity suggests a role for ABCA2 in hormone-dependent neurological and/or developmental pathways. Myelin sheath thickness in the spinal cords of knockout mice was greatly increased compared to that in wild-type mice, while a significant reduction in myelin membrane periodicity (compaction) was observed in both spinal cords and cerebra of knockout mice. Loss of ABCA2 function in vivo resulted in abnormal myelin compaction in spinal cord and cerebrum, an ultrastructural defect that we propose to be the cause of the phenotypic tremor. PMID:17060448

  17. ENaC activity and expression is decreased in the lungs of protein kinase C-α knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Amity F.; Yue, Qiang; Bao, Hui-Fang

    2014-01-01

    We used a PKC-α knockout model to investigate the regulation of alveolar epithelial Na+ channels (ENaC) by PKC. Primary alveolar type II (ATII) cells were subjected to cell-attached patch clamp. In the absence of PKC-α, the open probability (Po) of ENaC was decreased by half compared with wild-type mice. The channel density (N) was also reduced in the knockout mice. Using in vivo biotinylation, membrane localization of all three ENaC subunits (α, β, and γ) was decreased in the PKC-α knockout lung, compared with the wild-type. Confocal microscopy of lung slices showed elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the lungs of the PKC-α knockout mice vs. the wild-type. High levels of ROS in the knockout lung can be explained by a decrease in both cytosolic and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase activity. Elevated levels of ROS in the knockout lung activates PKC-δ and leads to reduced dephosphorylation of ERK1/2 by MAP kinase phosphatase, which in turn causes increased internalization of ENaC via ubiquitination by the ubiquitin-ligase Nedd4–2. In addition, in the knockout lung, PKC-δ activates ERK, causing a decrease in ENaC density at the apical alveolar membrane. PKC-δ also phosphorylates MARCKS, leading to a decrease in ENaC Po. The effects of ROS and PKC-δ were confirmed with patch-clamp experiments on isolated ATII cells in which the ROS scavenger, Tempol, or a PKC-δ-specific inhibitor added to patches reversed the observed decrease in ENaC apical channel density and Po. These results explain the decrease in ENaC activity in PKC-α knockout lung. PMID:25015976

  18. High Dietary Vitamin D Prevents Hypocalcemia and Osteomalacia in CYP27B1 Knockout Mice12

    PubMed Central

    Rowling, Matthew J.; Gliniak, Christy; Welsh, JoEllen; Fleet, James C.

    2008-01-01

    Mice lacking 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D]-1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) are growth retarded, hypocalcemic, and have poor bone mineralization. We tested whether high dietary cholecalciferol (VD3) could exert effects in the absence of CYP27B1 in vivo. Weanling male wild-type (WT) and CYP27B1 knockout (KO) mice were fed either a 2% calcium (Ca), 20% lactose rescue diet or an AIN93G diet (0.5% Ca, 0.4% phosphorus) containing 1000 (1K, the rodent requirement, 25 μg), 10,000 (10K, 250 μg), or 20,000 (20K, 500 μg) IU VD3/kg diet until 12 wk when blood and tissues were taken. Serum 25(OH)D was >90 nmol/L in the 1K diet group and increased >4-fold in mice fed 10K and 20K diets. The 1K diet impaired growth and caused hypocalcemia in KO mice; the 10K and 20K diets were as effective as the high Ca rescue diet in preventing these outcomes. High VD3 restored expression of vitamin D-regulated genes in intestine (calbindin D9K) and kidney (CYP27B1, 24-hydroxylase, calbindin D9K) of KO mice. Micro-computed tomography of femora revealed complete recovery of cortical bone in KO mice fed either the rescue or 10K diets but only partial recovery of trabecular bone measures (e.g. 40% lower bone volume, 20% lower trabecular thickness, and 23% increase in trabecular separation). These data show that very high serum 25(OH)D can influence Ca and bone metabolism independent of its conversion to 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol. However, neither high dietary Ca nor high dietary VD3 is sufficient to fully recover the phenotype of CYP27B1 KO mice. PMID:18029472

  19. Knockout Mice Reveal Key Roles for Claudin 18 in Alveolar Barrier Properties and Fluid Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guanglei; Flodby, Per; Luo, Jiao; Kage, Hidenori; Sipos, Arnold; Gao, Danping; Ji, Yanbin; Beard, LaMonta L.; Marconett, Crystal N.; DeMaio, Lucas; Kim, Yong Ho; Kim, Kwang-Jin; Laird-Offringa, Ite A.; Minoo, Parviz; Liebler, Janice M.; Zhou, Beiyun; Crandall, Edward D.

    2014-01-01

    Claudin proteins are major constituents of epithelial and endothelial tight junctions (TJs) that regulate paracellular permeability to ions and solutes. Claudin 18, a member of the large claudin family, is highly expressed in lung alveolar epithelium. To elucidate the role of claudin 18 in alveolar epithelial barrier function, we generated claudin 18 knockout (C18 KO) mice. C18 KO mice exhibited increased solute permeability and alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) compared with wild-type control mice. Increased AFC in C18 KO mice was associated with increased β-adrenergic receptor signaling together with activation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, higher epithelial sodium channel, and Na-K-ATPase (Na pump) activity and increased Na-K-ATPase β1 subunit expression. Consistent with in vivo findings, C18 KO alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) monolayers exhibited lower transepithelial electrical resistance and increased solute and ion permeability with unchanged ion selectivity. Claudin 3 and claudin 4 expression was markedly increased in C18 KO mice, whereas claudin 5 expression was unchanged and occludin significantly decreased. Microarray analysis revealed changes in cytoskeleton-associated gene expression in C18 KO mice, consistent with observed F-actin cytoskeletal rearrangement in AEC monolayers. These findings demonstrate a crucial nonredundant role for claudin 18 in the regulation of alveolar epithelial TJ composition and permeability properties. Increased AFC in C18 KO mice identifies a role for claudin 18 in alveolar fluid homeostasis beyond its direct contributions to barrier properties that may, at least in part, compensate for increased permeability. PMID:24588076

  20. Metabolomic profiles of arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase knockout mice: Effect of sex and arsenic exposure

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Madelyn C.; Douillet, Christelle; Su, Mingming; Zhou, Kejun; Wu, Tao; Chen, Wenlian; Galanko, Joseph A.; Drobná, Zuzana; Saunders, R. Jesse; Martin, Elizabeth; Fry, Rebecca C.; Jia, Wei; Stýblo, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) is the key enzyme in the pathway for methylation of inorganic arsenic (iAs). Altered As3mt expression and AS3MT polymorphism have been linked to changes in iAs metabolism and in susceptibility to iAs toxicity in laboratory models and in humans. As3mt-knockout mice have been used to study the association between iAs metabolism and adverse effects of iAs exposure. However, little is known about systemic changes in metabolism of these mice and how these changes lead to their increased susceptibility to iAs toxicity. Here, we compared plasma and urinary metabolomes of male and female wild-type (WT) and As3mt-KO (KO) C57BL6 mice and examined metabolomic shifts associated with iAs exposure in drinking water. Surprisingly, exposure to 1 ppm As elicited only small changes in the metabolite profiles of either WT or KO mice. In contrast, comparisons of KO mice with WT mice revealed significant differences in plasma and urinary metabolites associated with lipid (phosphatidylcholines, cytidine, acyl-carnitine), amino acid (hippuric acid, acetylglycine, urea), and carbohydrate (L-sorbose, galactonic acid, gluconic acid) metabolism. Notably, most of these differences were sex-specific. Sex-specific differences were also found between WT and KO mice in plasma triglyceride and lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Some of the differentially changed metabolites (phosphatidylcholines, carnosine, and sarcosine) are substrates or products of reactions catalyzed by other methyltransferases. These results suggest that As3mt KO alters major metabolic pathways in a sex-specific manner, independent of iAs treatment, and that As3mt may be involved in other cellular processes beyond iAs methylation. PMID:26883664

  1. Hepatic caveolin-1 is enhanced in Cyp27a1/ApoE double knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Zurkinden, Line; Mansour, Yosef T; Rohrbach, Beatrice; Vogt, Bruno; Mistry, Hiten D; Escher, Geneviève

    2016-10-01

    Sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) is involved in bile acid synthesis and cholesterol homoeostasis. Cyp27a1 (-/-) / Apolipoprotein E (-/-) double knockout mice (DKO) fed a western diet failed to develop atherosclerosis. Caveolin-1 (CAV-1), the main component of caveolae, is associated with lipid homoeostasis and has regulatory roles in vascular diseases. We hypothesized that liver CAV-1 would contribute to the athero-protective mechanism in DKO mice. Cyp27a1 (+/+) / ApoE (-/-) (ApoE KO), Cyp27a1 (+/-) / ApoE (-/-) (het), and DKO mice were fed a western diet for 2 months. Atherosclerotic plaque and CAV-1 protein were quantified in aortas. Hepatic Cav-1 mRNA was assessed using qPCR, CAV-1 protein by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Total hepatic and plasma cholesterol was measured using chemiluminescence. Cholesterol efflux was performed in RAW264.7 cells, using mice plasma as acceptor. CAV-1 protein expression in aortas was increased in endothelial cells of DKO mice and negatively correlated with plaque surface ( P < 0.05). In the liver, both CAV-1 protein and mRNA expression doubled in DKO, compared to ApoE KO and het mice ( P < 0.001 for both) and was negatively correlated with total hepatic cholesterol ( P < 0.05). Plasma from DKO, ApoE KO and het mice had the same efflux capacity. In the absence of CYP27A1, CAV-1 overexpression might have an additional athero-protective role by partly overcoming the defect in CYP27A1-mediated cholesterol efflux.

  2. Metabolomic profiles of arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase knockout mice: effect of sex and arsenic exposure.

    PubMed

    Huang, Madelyn C; Douillet, Christelle; Su, Mingming; Zhou, Kejun; Wu, Tao; Chen, Wenlian; Galanko, Joseph A; Drobná, Zuzana; Saunders, R Jesse; Martin, Elizabeth; Fry, Rebecca C; Jia, Wei; Stýblo, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) is the key enzyme in the pathway for methylation of inorganic arsenic (iAs). Altered As3mt expression and AS3MT polymorphism have been linked to changes in iAs metabolism and in susceptibility to iAs toxicity in laboratory models and in humans. As3mt-knockout mice have been used to study the association between iAs metabolism and adverse effects of iAs exposure. However, little is known about systemic changes in metabolism of these mice and how these changes lead to their increased susceptibility to iAs toxicity. Here, we compared plasma and urinary metabolomes of male and female wild-type (WT) and As3mt-KO (KO) C57BL/6 mice and examined metabolomic shifts associated with iAs exposure in drinking water. Surprisingly, exposure to 1 ppm As elicited only small changes in the metabolite profiles of either WT or KO mice. In contrast, comparisons of KO mice with WT mice revealed significant differences in plasma and urinary metabolites associated with lipid (phosphatidylcholines, cytidine, acyl-carnitine), amino acid (hippuric acid, acetylglycine, urea), and carbohydrate (L-sorbose, galactonic acid, gluconic acid) metabolism. Notably, most of these differences were sex specific. Sex-specific differences were also found between WT and KO mice in plasma triglyceride and lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Some of the differentially changed metabolites (phosphatidylcholines, carnosine, and sarcosine) are substrates or products of reactions catalyzed by other methyltransferases. These results suggest that As3mt KO alters major metabolic pathways in a sex-specific manner, independent of iAs treatment, and that As3mt may be involved in other cellular processes beyond iAs methylation.

  3. Enhanced urinary odor discrimination in female aromatase knockout (ArKO) mice

    PubMed Central

    Wesson, Daniel W.; Keller, Matthieu; Douhard, Quentin; Baum, Michael J.; Bakker, Julie

    2008-01-01

    We asked whether odor discrimination abilities are sexually dimorphic in mice and, if so, whether the perinatal actions of estradiol contribute to these sex differences. The ability to discriminate different types of urinary odors was compared in male and female wild-type (WT) subjects and in mice with a homozygous-null mutation of the estrogen synthetic enzyme, aromatase (aromatase knockout; ArKO). Olfactory discrimination was assessed in WT and ArKO male and female mice after they were gonadectomized in adulthood and subsequently treated with estradiol benzoate. A liquid olfactometer was used to assess food-motivated olfactory discrimination capacity. All animals eventually learned to distinguish between urinary odors collected from gonadally intact males and estrous females; however, WT males as well as ArKO mice of both sexes learned this discrimination significantly more rapidly than WT females. Similar group differences were obtained when mice discriminated between urinary odors collected from gonadally intact vs. castrated males or between two non-social odorants, amyl and butyl acetate. When subjects had to discriminate volatile urinary odors from ovariectomized female mice treated with estradiol sequenced with progesterone versus estradiol alone, ArKO females quickly acquired the task whereas WT males and females as well as ArKO males failed to do so. These results demonstrated a strong sex dimorphism in olfactory discrimination ability, with WT males performing better than females. Furthermore, female ArKO mice showed an enhanced ability to discriminate very similar urinary odorants, perhaps due to an increased sensitivity of the main olfactory nervous system to adult estradiol treatment as a result of perinatal estrogen deprivation. PMID:16448653

  4. Oxytocin receptor knockout mice display deficits in the expression of autism-related behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Pobbe, Roger L.H.; Pearson, Brandon L.; Defensor, Erwin B.; Bolivar, Valerie J.; Young, W. Scott; Lee, Heon-Jin; Blanchard, D. Caroline; Blanchard, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    A wealth of studies has implicated oxytocin (Oxt) and its receptors (Oxtr) in the mediation of social behaviors and social memory in rodents. It has been suggested that failures in this system contribute to deficits in social interaction that characterize autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the current analyses, we investigated the expression of autism-related behaviors in mice that lack the ability to synthesize the oxytocin receptor itself, Oxtr knockout (KO) mice, as compared to their wild-type (WT) littermates. In the visible burrow system, Oxtr KO mice showed robust reductions in frontal approach, huddling, allo-grooming, and flight, with more time spent alone, and in self-grooming, as compared to WT. These results were corroborated in the three-chambered test: unlike WT, Oxtr KO mice failed to spend more time in the side of the test box containing an unfamiliar CD-1 mouse. In the social proximity test, Oxtr KO mice showed clear reductions in nose to nose and anogenital sniff behaviors oriented to an unfamiliar C57BL/6J (B6) mouse. In addition, our study revealed no differences between Oxtr WT and KO genotypes in the occurrence of motor and cognitive stereotyped behaviors. A significant genotype effect was found in the scent marking analysis, with Oxtr KO mice showing a decreased number of scent marks, as compared to WT. Overall, the present data indicate that the profile for Oxtr KO mice, including consistent social deficits, and reduced levels of communication, models multiple components of the ASD phenotype. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and Social Behavior. PMID:22100185

  5. Beijing ambient particle exposure accelerates atherosclerosis in ApoE knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tian; Jia, Guang; Wei, Yongjie; Li, Jiucun

    2013-11-25

    Air pollution is associated with significant adverse health effects including increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However research on the cardiovascular effect of "real-world" exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) in susceptible animal model is very limited. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between Beijing ambient particle exposure and the atherosclerosis development in the apolipoprotein E knockout mice (ApoE(-/-) mice). Two parallel exposure chambers were used for whole body exposure among ApoE knockout mice. One of the chambers was supplied with untreated ambient air (PM group) and the other chamber was treated with ambient air filtered by high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter (FA group). Twenty mice were divided into two groups and exposed to ambient PM (n=10 for PM group) or filtered air (n=10 for FA group) for two months from January 18th to March 18th, 2010. During the exposure, the mass concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 in the two chambers were continuously monitored. Additionally, a receptor source apportionment model of chemical mass balance using 19 organic tracers was applied to determine the contributions of sources on the PM2.5 in terms of natural gas, diesel vehicle, gasoline vehicle, coal burning, vegetable debris, biomass burning and cooking. At the end of the two-month exposure, biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation and lipid metabolism in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and blood samples were determined and the plaque area on the aortic endothelium was quantified. In the experiment, the concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 in PM chamber were 99.45μg/m(3) and 61.0μg/m(3) respectively, while PM2.5 in FA chamber was 17.6μg/m(3). Source apportionment analysis by organic tracers showed that gasoline vehicle (39.9%) and coal burning (24.3%) emission were the two major sources contributing to the mass concentration of PM2.5 in Beijing. Among the ApoE knockout mice, the PM group were significantly

  6. Soy milk versus simvastatin for preventing atherosclerosis and left ventricle remodeling in LDL receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Santos, L; Davel, A P; Almeida, T I R; Almeida, M R; Soares, E A; Fernandes, G J M; Magalhães, S F; Barauna, V G; Garcia, J A D

    2017-02-20

    Functional food intake has been highlighted as a strategy for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases by reducing risk factors. In this study, we compared the effects of oral treatment with soy milk and simvastatin on dyslipidemia, left ventricle remodeling and atherosclerotic lesion of LDL receptor knockout mice (LDLr-/-) fed a hyperlipidic diet. Forty 3-month old male LDLr-/- mice were distributed into four groups: control group (C), in which animals received standard diet; HL group, in which animals were fed a hyperlipidic diet; HL+SM or HL+S groups, in which animals were submitted to a hyperlipidic diet plus soy milk or simvastatin, respectively. After 60 days, both soy milk and simvastatin treatment prevented dyslipidemia, atherosclerotic lesion progression and left ventricle hypertrophy in LDLr-/- mice. These beneficial effects of soy milk and simvastatin were associated with reduced oxidative stress and inflammatory state in the heart and aorta caused by the hyperlipidic diet. Treatment with soy milk was more effective in preventing HDLc reduction and triacylglycerol and VLDLc increase. On the other hand, simvastatin was more effective in preventing an increase in total cholesterol, LDLc and superoxide production in aorta, as well as CD40L both in aorta and left ventricle of LDLr-/-. In conclusion, our results suggest a cardioprotective effect of soy milk in LDLr-/- mice comparable to the well-known effects of simvastatin.

  7. Cognitive abnormalities and hippocampal alterations in monoamine oxidase A and B knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Chanpreet; Bortolato, Marco; Bali, Namrata; Godar, Sean C.; Scott, Anna L.; Chen, Kevin; Thompson, Richard F.; Shih, Jean C.

    2013-01-01

    The monoamine oxidase isoenzymes (MAOs) A and B play important roles in the homeostasis of monoaminergic neurotransmitters. The combined deficiency of MAO A and B results in significantly elevated levels of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine), norepinephrine, dopamine, and β-phenylethylamine; in humans and mice, these neurochemical changes are accompanied by neurodevelopmental perturbations as well as autistic-like responses. Ample evidence indicates that normal levels of monoamines in the hippocampus, amygdala, frontal cortex, and cerebellum are required for the integrity of learning and memory. Thus, in the present study, the cognitive status of MAO A/B knockout (KO) mice was examined with a wide array of behavioral tests. In comparison with male wild-type littermates, MAO A/B KO mice exhibited abnormally high and overgeneralized fear conditioning and enhanced eye-blink conditioning. These alterations were accompanied by significant increases in hippocampal long-term potentiation and alterations in the relative expression of NMDA glutamate receptor subunits. Our data suggest that chronic elevations of monoamines, because of the absence of MAO A and MAO B, cause functional alterations that are accompanied with changes in the cellular mechanisms underlying learning and memory. The characteristics exhibited by MAO A/B KO mice highlight the potential of these animals as a useful tool to provide further insight into the molecular bases of disorders associated with abnormal monoaminergic profiles. PMID:23858446

  8. Soy milk versus simvastatin for preventing atherosclerosis and left ventricle remodeling in LDL receptor knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Santos, L.; Davel, A.P.; Almeida, T.I.R.; Almeida, M.R.; Soares, E.A.; Fernandes, G.J.M.; Magalhães, S.F.; Barauna, V.G.; Garcia, J.A.D.

    2017-01-01

    Functional food intake has been highlighted as a strategy for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases by reducing risk factors. In this study, we compared the effects of oral treatment with soy milk and simvastatin on dyslipidemia, left ventricle remodeling and atherosclerotic lesion of LDL receptor knockout mice (LDLr-/-) fed a hyperlipidic diet. Forty 3-month old male LDLr-/- mice were distributed into four groups: control group (C), in which animals received standard diet; HL group, in which animals were fed a hyperlipidic diet; HL+SM or HL+S groups, in which animals were submitted to a hyperlipidic diet plus soy milk or simvastatin, respectively. After 60 days, both soy milk and simvastatin treatment prevented dyslipidemia, atherosclerotic lesion progression and left ventricle hypertrophy in LDLr-/- mice. These beneficial effects of soy milk and simvastatin were associated with reduced oxidative stress and inflammatory state in the heart and aorta caused by the hyperlipidic diet. Treatment with soy milk was more effective in preventing HDLc reduction and triacylglycerol and VLDLc increase. On the other hand, simvastatin was more effective in preventing an increase in total cholesterol, LDLc and superoxide production in aorta, as well as CD40L both in aorta and left ventricle of LDLr-/-. In conclusion, our results suggest a cardioprotective effect of soy milk in LDLr-/- mice comparable to the well-known effects of simvastatin. PMID:28225891

  9. Acetylcholine-induced relaxation in blood vessels from endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Chataigneau, Thierry; Félétou, Michel; Huang, Paul L; Fishman, Mark C; Duhault, Jacques; Vanhoutte, Paul M

    1999-01-01

    Isometric tension was recorded in isolated rings of aorta, carotid, coronary and mesenteric arteries taken from endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockout mice (eNOS(−/−) mice) and the corresponding wild-type strain (eNOS(+/+) mice). The membrane potential of smooth muscle cells was measured in coronary arteries with intracellular microelectrodes.In the isolated aorta, carotid and coronary arteries from the eNOS(+/+) mice, acetylcholine induced an endothelium-dependent relaxation which was inhibited by Nω-L-nitro-arginine. In contrast, in the mesenteric arteries, the inhibition of the cholinergic relaxation required the combination of Nω-L-nitro-arginine and indomethacin.The isolated aorta, carotid and coronary arteries from the eNOS(−/−) mice did not relax in response to acetylcholine. However, acetylcholine produced an indomethacin-sensitive relaxation in the mesenteric artery from eNOS(−/−) mice.The resting membrane potential of smooth muscle cells from isolated coronary arteries was significantly less negative in the eNOS(−/−) mice (−64.8±1.8 mV, n=20 and −58.4±1.9 mV, n=17, for eNOS(+/+) and eNOS(−/−) mice, respectively). In both strains, acetylcholine, bradykinin and substance P did not induce endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizations whereas cromakalim consistently produced hyperpolarizations (−7.9±1.1 mV, n=8 and −13.8±2.6 mV, n=4, for eNOS(+/+) and eNOS(−/−) mice, respectively).These findings demonstrate that in the blood vessels studied: (1) in the eNOS(+/+) mice, the endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine involve either NO or the combination of NO plus a product of cyclo-oxygenase but not EDHF; (2) in the eNOS(−/−) mice, NO-dependent responses and EDHF-like responses were not observed. In the mesenteric arteries acetylcholine releases a cyclo-oxygenase derivative. PMID:10051139

  10. HDL is redundant for adrenal steroidogenesis in LDLR knockout mice with a human-like lipoprotein profile.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, Menno; Van Eck, Miranda

    2016-04-01

    The contribution of HDL to adrenal steroidogenesis appears to be different between mice and humans. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that a difference in lipoprotein profile may be the underlying cause. Hereto, we determined the impact of HDL deficiency on the adrenal glucocorticoid output in genetically modified mice with a human-like lipoprotein profile. Genetic deletion of APOA1 in LDL receptor (LDLR) knockout mice was associated with HDL deficiency and a parallel increase in the level of cholesterol associated with nonHDL fractions. Despite a compensatory increase in the adrenal relative mRNA expression levels of the cholesterol synthesis gene, HMG-CoA reductase, adrenals from APOA1/LDLR double knockout mice were severely depleted of neutral lipids, as compared with those of control LDLR knockout mice. However, basal corticosterone levels and the adrenal glucocorticoid response to stress were not different between the two types of mice. In conclusion, we have shown that HDL is not critical for proper adrenal glucocorticoid function when mice are provided with a human-like lipoprotein profile. Our findings provide the first experimental evidence that APOB-containing lipoproteins may facilitate adrenal steroidogenesis, in an LDLR-independent manner, in vivo in mice. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Altered gene expression in early postnatal monoamine oxidase A knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kevin; Kardys, Abbey; Chen, Yibu; Flink, Stephen; Tabakoff, Boris; Shih, Jean C

    2017-08-15

    We reported previously that monoamine oxidase (MAO) A knockout (KO) mice show increased serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) levels and autistic-like behaviors characterized by repetitive behaviors, and anti-social behaviors. We showed that administration of the serotonin synthesis inhibitor para-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA) from post-natal day 1 (P1) through 7 (P7) in MAO A KO mice reduced the serotonin level to normal and reverses the repetitive behavior. These results suggested that the altered gene expression at P1 and P7 may be important for the autistic-like behaviors seen in MAO A KO mice and was studied here. In this study, Affymetrix mRNA array data for P1 and P7 MAO A KO mice were analyzed using Partek Genomics Suite and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis to identify genes differentially expressed versus wild-type and assess their functions and relationships. The number of significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) varied with age: P1 (664) and P7 (3307) [false discovery rate (FDR) <0.05, fold-change (FC) >1.5 for autism-linked genes and >2.0 for functionally categorized genes]. Eight autism-linked genes were differentially expressed in P1 (upregulated: NLGN3, SLC6A2; down-regulated: HTR2C, MET, ADSL, MECP2, ALDH5A1, GRIN3B) while four autism-linked genes were differentially expressed at P7 (upregulated: HTR2B; downregulated: GRIN2D, GRIN2B, CHRNA4). Many other genes involved in neurodevelopment, apoptosis, neurotransmission, and cognitive function were differentially expressed at P7 in MAO A KO mice. This result suggests that modulation of these genes by the increased serotonin may lead to neurodevelopmental alteration in MAO A KO mice and results in autistic-like behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Ghrelin knockout mice show decreased voluntary alcohol consumption and reduced ethanol-induced conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Bahi, Amine; Tolle, Virginie; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Brunel, Luc; Martinez, Jean; Tomasetto, Catherine-Laure; Karam, Sherif M

    2013-05-01

    Recent work suggests that stomach-derived hormone ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) antagonism may reduce motivational aspects of ethanol intake. In the current study we hypothesized that the endogenous GHS-R1A agonist ghrelin modulates alcohol reward mechanisms. For this purpose ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation and voluntary ethanol consumption in a two-bottle choice drinking paradigm were examined under conditions where ghrelin and its receptor were blocked, either using ghrelin knockout (KO) mice or the specific ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) antagonist "JMV2959". We showed that ghrelin KO mice displayed lower ethanol-induced CPP than their wild-type (WT) littermates. Consistently, when injected during CPP-acquisition, JMV2959 reduced CPP-expression in C57BL/6 mice. In addition, ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation was lower in ghrelin KO mice. Moreover, GHS-R1A blockade, using JMV2959, reduced alcohol-stimulated locomotion only in WT but not in ghrelin KO mice. When alcohol consumption and preference were assessed using the two-bottle choice test, both genetic deletion of ghrelin and pharmacological antagonism of the GHS-R1A (JMV2959) reduced voluntary alcohol consumption and preference. Finally, JMV2959-induced reduction of alcohol intake was only observed in WT but not in ghrelin KO mice. Taken together, these results suggest that ghrelin neurotransmission is necessary for the stimulatory effect of ethanol to occur, whereas lack of ghrelin leads to changes that reduce the voluntary intake as well as conditioned reward by ethanol. Our findings reveal a major, novel role for ghrelin in mediating ethanol behavior, and add to growing evidence that ghrelin is a key mediator of the effects of multiple abused drugs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Increased hippocampal CREB phosphorylation in dopamine D3 receptor knockout mice following passive avoidance conditioning.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Agata Grazia; Scuderi, Soraya; Leggio, Gian Marco; Castorina, Alessandro; Drago, Filippo; D'Agata, Velia

    2013-12-01

    Dopamine D3 receptors (D3Rs) are implicated in synaptic plasticity and memory processes. Previously we have shown that D3Rs mediate inhibitory effects on learning, since D3R knockout (D 3 (-/-) ) mice display enhanced performance in the passive avoidance task (PA). Formation of new memories is known to require de novo synthesis of proteins related to synaptic function through the activation of signaling pathways including the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and activation of the nuclear transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). However, there are no clear indications regarding the specific involvement of D3Rs in the activation of these signaling cascades after acquisition of PA. Therefore, in this study we assessed whether phosphorylation levels of several MAPKs, Akt and CREB were differentially affected by PA in both wild-type (WT) and D 3 (-/-) mice hippocampi. Animals were divided in Naïve, unconditioned stimulus trained, conditioned stimulus trained and conditioned animals. Phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2), c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38, as well as of Akt and CREB were determined. Acquisition of PA significantly increased pCREB levels both in WT and D 3 (-/-) mice. The extent of PA-driven increase in pCREB levels was significantly higher in mice lacking D3Rs. Similarly, pERK 1/2 was further augmented in trained D 3 (-/-) mice as compared to trained WTs, whereas JNK and p38 phosphorylation was not affected neither by PA nor by genetic background. Finally, Akt activation was observed in D 3 (-/-) mice, but not in response to PA. In conclusion, these data supports the notion that D3Rs might modulate CREB phosphorylation after acquisition of PA, probably via activation of ERK signaling.

  14. Altered Social Behaviours in Neurexin 1α Knockout Mice Resemble Core Symptoms in Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Grayton, Hannah Mary; Missler, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Background Copy number variants have emerged as an important genomic cause of common, complex neurodevelopmental disorders. These usually change copy number of multiple genes, but deletions at 2p16.3, which have been associated with autism, schizophrenia and mental retardation, affect only the neurexin 1 gene, usually the alpha isoform. Previous analyses of neurexin 1α (Nrxn1α) knockout (KO) mouse as a model of these disorders have revealed impairments in synaptic transmission but failed to reveal defects in social behaviour, one of the core symptoms of autism. Methods We performed a detailed investigation of the behavioural effects of Nrxn1α deletion in mice bred onto a pure genetic background (C57BL/6J) to gain a better understanding of its role in neurodevelopmental disorders. Wildtype, heterozygote and homozygote Nrxn1α KO male and female mice were tested in a battery of behavioural tests (n = 9–16 per genotype, per sex). Results In homozygous Nrxn1α KO mice, we observed altered social approach, reduced social investigation, and reduced locomotor activity in novel environments. In addition, male Nrxn1α KO mice demonstrated an increase in aggressive behaviours. Conclusions These are the first experimental data that associate a deletion of Nrxn1α with alterations of social behaviour in mice. Since this represents one of the core symptom domains affected in autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia in humans, our findings suggest that deletions within NRXN1 found in patients may be responsible for the impairments seen in social behaviours, and that the Nrxn1α KO mice are a useful model of human neurodevelopmental disorder. PMID:23840597

  15. What have we learned about GPER function in physiology and disease from knockout mice?

    PubMed Central

    Prossnitz, Eric R.; Hathaway, Helen J.

    2015-01-01

    Estrogens, predominantly 17β-estradiol, exert diverse effects throughout the body in both normal and patho-physiology, during development and in reproductive, metabolic, endocrine, cardiovascular, nervous, musculoskeletal and immune systems. Estrogen and its receptors also play important roles in carcinogenesis and therapy, particularly for breast cancer. In addition to the classical nuclear estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) that traditionally mediate predominantly genomic signaling, the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor GPER has become recognized as a critical mediator of rapid signaling in response to estrogen. Mouse models, and in particular knockout (KO) mice, represent an important approach to understand the functions of receptors in normal physiology and disease. Whereas ERα KO mice display multiple significant defects in reproduction and mammary gland development, ERβ KO phenotypes are more limited, and GPER KO exhibit no reproductive deficits. However, the study of GPER KO mice over the last six years has revealed that GPER deficiency results in multiple physiological alterations including obesity, cardiovascular dysfunction, insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. In addition, the lack of estrogen-mediated effects in numerous tissues of GPER KO mice, studied in vivo or ex vivo, including those of the cardiovascular, endocrine, nervous and immune systems, reveals GPER as a genuine mediator of estrogen action. Importantly, GPER KO mice have also revealed roles for GPER in breast carcinogenesis and metastasis. In combination with the supporting effects of GPER-selective ligands and GPER knockdown approaches, GPER KO mice demonstrate the therapeutic potential of targeting GPER activity in diseases as diverse as obesity, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, hypertension, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, stroke and cancer. PMID:26189910

  16. Behavioral Characterization of β-Arrestin 1 Knockout Mice in Anxiety-Like and Alcohol Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Robins, Meridith T; Chiang, Terrance; Berry, Jennifer N; Ko, Mee Jung; Ha, Jiwon E; van Rijn, Richard M

    2018-01-01

    β-Arrestin 1 and 2 are highly expressed proteins involved in the desensitization of G protein-coupled receptor signaling which also regulate a variety of intracellular signaling pathways. Gene knockout (KO) studies suggest that the two isoforms are not homologous in their effects on baseline and drug-induced behavior; yet, the role of β-arrestin 1 in the central nervous system has been less investigated compared to β-arrestin 2. Here, we investigate how global β-arrestin 1 KO affects anxiety-like and alcohol-related behaviors in male and female C57BL/6 mice. We observed increased baseline locomotor activity in β-arrestin 1 KO animals compared with wild-type (WT) or heterozygous (HET) mice with a sex effect. KO male mice were less anxious in a light/dark transition test, although this effect may have been confounded by increased locomotor activity. No differences in sucrose intake were observed between genotypes or sexes. Female β-arrestin 1 KO mice consumed more 10% alcohol than HET females in a limited 4-h access, two-bottle choice, drinking-in-the-dark model. In a 20% alcohol binge-like access model, female KO animals consumed significantly more alcohol than HET and WT females. A significant sex effect was observed in both alcohol consumption models, with female mice consuming greater amounts of alcohol than males relative to body weight. Increased sensitivity to latency to loss of righting reflex (LORR) was observed in β-arrestin 1 KO mice although no differences were observed in duration of LORR. Overall, our efforts suggest that β-arrestin 1 may be protective against increased alcohol consumption in females and hyperactivity in both sexes.

  17. Prohormone convertase 2 activity is increased in the hippocampus of Wfs1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Tein, Karin; Kasvandik, Sergo; Kõks, Sulev; Vasar, Eero; Terasmaa, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in WFS1 gene cause Wolfram syndrome, which is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic nerve atrophy, and deafness. The WFS1 gene product wolframin is located in the endoplasmic reticulum. Mice lacking this gene exhibit disturbances in the processing and secretion of peptides, such as vasopressin and insulin. In the brain, high levels of the wolframin protein have been observed in the hippocampus, amygdala, and limbic structures. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Wfs1 knockout (KO) on peptide processing in mouse hippocampus. A peptidomic approach was used to characterize individual peptides in the hippocampus of wild-type and Wfs1 KO mice. We identified 126 peptides in hippocampal extracts and the levels of 10 peptides differed between Wfs1 KO and wild-type mice at P < 0.05. The peptide with the largest alteration was little-LEN, which level was 25 times higher in the hippocampus of Wfs1 KO mice compared to wild-type mice. Processing (cleavage) of little-LEN from the Pcsk1n gene product proSAAS involves prohormone convertase 2 (PC2). Thus, PC2 activity was measured in extracts prepared from the hippocampus of Wfs1 KO mice. The activity of PC2 in Wfs1 mutant mice was significantly higher (149.9 ± 2.3%, p < 0.0001, n = 8) than in wild-type mice (100.0 ± 7.0%, n = 8). However, Western blot analysis showed that protein levels of 7B2, proPC2 and PC2 were same in both groups, and so were gene expression levels. Processing of proSAAS is altered in the hippocampus of Wfs1-KO mice, which is caused by increased activity of PC2. Increased activity of PC2 in Wfs1 KO mice is not caused by alteration in the levels of PC2 protein. Our results suggest a functional link between Wfs1 and PC2. Thus, the detailed molecular mechanism of the role of Wfs1 in the regulation of PC2 activity needs further investigation.

  18. Prohormone convertase 2 activity is increased in the hippocampus of Wfs1 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Tein, Karin; Kasvandik, Sergo; Kõks, Sulev; Vasar, Eero; Terasmaa, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mutations in WFS1 gene cause Wolfram syndrome, which is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic nerve atrophy, and deafness. The WFS1 gene product wolframin is located in the endoplasmic reticulum. Mice lacking this gene exhibit disturbances in the processing and secretion of peptides, such as vasopressin and insulin. In the brain, high levels of the wolframin protein have been observed in the hippocampus, amygdala, and limbic structures. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Wfs1 knockout (KO) on peptide processing in mouse hippocampus. A peptidomic approach was used to characterize individual peptides in the hippocampus of wild-type and Wfs1 KO mice. Results: We identified 126 peptides in hippocampal extracts and the levels of 10 peptides differed between Wfs1 KO and wild-type mice at P < 0.05. The peptide with the largest alteration was little-LEN, which level was 25 times higher in the hippocampus of Wfs1 KO mice compared to wild-type mice. Processing (cleavage) of little-LEN from the Pcsk1n gene product proSAAS involves prohormone convertase 2 (PC2). Thus, PC2 activity was measured in extracts prepared from the hippocampus of Wfs1 KO mice. The activity of PC2 in Wfs1 mutant mice was significantly higher (149.9 ± 2.3%, p < 0.0001, n = 8) than in wild-type mice (100.0 ± 7.0%, n = 8). However, Western blot analysis showed that protein levels of 7B2, proPC2 and PC2 were same in both groups, and so were gene expression levels. Conclusion: Processing of proSAAS is altered in the hippocampus of Wfs1-KO mice, which is caused by increased activity of PC2. Increased activity of PC2 in Wfs1 KO mice is not caused by alteration in the levels of PC2 protein. Our results suggest a functional link between Wfs1 and PC2. Thus, the detailed molecular mechanism of the role of Wfs1 in the regulation of PC2 activity needs further investigation. PMID:26379490

  19. Phenotype of capillaries in skeletal muscle of nNOS-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Baum, Oliver; Vieregge, Max; Koch, Pascale; Gül, Safak; Hahn, Sabine; Huber-Abel, Felicitas A M; Pries, Axel R; Hoppeler, Hans

    2013-06-15

    Because neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) has a well-known impact on arteriolar blood flow in skeletal muscle, we compared the ultrastructure and the hemodynamics of/in the ensuing capillaries in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle of male nNOS-knockout (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) littermates. The capillary-to-fiber (C/F) ratio (-9.1%) was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in the nNOS-KO mice than in the WT mice, whereas the mean cross-sectional fiber area (-7.8%) and the capillary density (-3.1%) varied only nonsignificantly (P > 0.05). Morphometrical estimation of the area occupied by the capillaries as well as the volume and surface densities of the subcellular compartments differed nonsignificantly (P > 0.05) between the two strains. Intravital microscopy revealed neither the capillary diameter (+3% in nNOS-KO mice vs. WT mice) nor the mean velocity of red blood cells in EDL muscle (+25% in nNOS-KO mice vs. WT mice) to significantly vary (P > 0.05) between the two strains. The calculated shear stress in the capillaries was likewise nonsignificantly different (3.8 ± 2.2 dyn/cm² in nNOS-KO mice and 2.1 ± 2.2 dyn/cm² in WT mice; P > 0.05). The mRNA levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A were lower in the EDL muscle of nNOS-KO mice than in the WT littermates (-37%; P ≤ 0.05), whereas mRNA levels of VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) (-11%), hypoxia inducible factor-1α (+9%), fibroblast growth factor-2 (-14%), and thrombospondin-1 (-10%) differed nonsignificantly (P > 0.05). Our findings support the contention that VEGF-A mRNA expression and C/F-ratio but not the ultrastructure or the hemodynamics of/in capillaries in skeletal muscle at basal conditions depend on the expression of nNOS.

  20. Flavor preference conditioning by different sugars in sweet ageusic Trpm5 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Sclafani, Anthony; Ackroff, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Knockout (KO) mice missing the taste signaling protein Trpm5 have greatly attenuated sweetener preferences but develop strong preferences for glucose in 24-h tests, which is attributed to post-oral sugar conditioning. Trpm5 KO mice express mild preferences for galactose but no preferences for fructose in 24-h tests, which suggests that these sugars differ in their post-oral reinforcing effects. Here we investigated sugar-conditioned flavor preferences in Trpm5 KO and C57BL/6J wildtype (B6) mice. The mice were trained to consume a flavored (CS+, e.g. grape) 8% sugar solution and flavored (CS-, e.g., cherry) water on alternating days followed by two-bottle choice tests with CS+ vs. CS- flavors in water and with unflavored sugar vs. water. The KO mice displayed strong preferences (>80%) for the CS+glucose and CS+galactose but not for the CS+fructose flavor. They also preferred glucose and galactose, but not fructose to water. In contrast, the B6 mice preferred all three CS+ flavors to the CS- flavor, and all three sugars to water. In tests with the non-metabolizable sugar α-methyl-D-glucopyranoside (MDG), the KO and B6 mice preferred 8% MDG to water but did not prefer the CS+8%MDG to CS-. However, they preferred a CS+ flavor mixed with 4% MDG over the CS- flavor. Trpm5 KO mice also preferred galactose and MDG to fructose in direct choice tests. The Trpm5 KO data indicate that glucose and, to a lesser extent, galactose and MDG have post-oral reinforcing actions that stimulate intake and preference while fructose has a much weaker effect. The CS+ flavor and sugar preferences of B6 mice may be mediated by the sweet taste and/or post-oral actions of the various sugars. Glucose, galactose, and MDG, but not fructose are ligands for the sodium-glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) which is implicated in post-oral sugar conditioning in B6 mice. PMID:25497884

  1. Decreased consumption of sweet fluids in mu opioid receptor knockout mice: a microstructural analysis of licking behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ostlund, Sean B.; Kosheleff, Alisa; Maidment, Nigel T.; Murphy, Niall P.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Rationale Evidence suggests that the palatability of food (i.e., the hedonic impact produced by its sensory features) can promote feeding and may underlie compulsive eating, leading to obesity. Pharmacological studies implicate opioid transmission in the hedonic control of feeding, though these studies often rely on agents lacking specificity for particular opioid receptors. Objectives Here, we investigated the role of mu opioid receptors (MORs) specifically in determining hedonic responses to palatable sweet stimuli. Methods In Experiment 1, licking microstructure when consuming sucrose solution (2 to 20 %) was compared in MOR knockout and wildtype mice as a function of sucrose concentration and level of food deprivation. In Experiment 2, a similar examination was conducted using the palatable but calorie-free stimulus sucralose (0.001 to 1%), allowing study of licking behavior independent of homeostatic variables. Results In Experiment 1, MOR knockout mice exhibited several alterations in sucrose licking. Although wildtype mice exhibited a two-fold increase in the burst length when food deprived, relative to the nondeprived test, this aspect of sucrose licking was generally insensitive to manipulations of food deprivation for MOR knockout mice. Furthermore, during concentration testing, their rate of sucrose licking was less than half that of wildtype mice. During sucralose testing (Experiment 2), MOR knockout mice licked at approximately half the wildtype rate, providing more direct evidence that MOR knockout mice were impaired in processing stimulus palatability. Conclusions These results suggest that transmission through MORs mediates hedonic responses to palatable stimuli, and therefore likely contributes to normal and pathological eating. PMID:23568577

  2. Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout mice exhibit placental P4 overproduction and delayed parturition

    PubMed Central

    Naruse, Mie; Ono, Ryuichi; Irie, Masahito; Nakamura, Kenji; Furuse, Tamio; Hino, Toshiaki; Oda, Kanako; Kashimura, Misho; Yamada, Ikuko; Wakana, Shigeharu; Yokoyama, Minesuke; Ishino, Fumitoshi; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    Sirh7/Ldoc1 [sushi-ichi retrotransposon homolog 7/leucine zipper, downregulated in cancer 1, also called mammalian retrotransposon-derived 7 (Mart7)] is one of the newly acquired genes from LTR retrotransposons in eutherian mammals. Interestingly, Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout (KO) mice exhibited abnormal placental cell differentiation/maturation, leading to an overproduction of placental progesterone (P4) and placental lactogen 1 (PL1) from trophoblast giant cells (TGCs). The placenta is an organ that is essential for mammalian viviparity and plays a major endocrinological role during pregnancy in addition to providing nutrients and oxygen to the fetus. P4 is an essential hormone in the preparation and maintenance of pregnancy and the determination of the timing of parturition in mammals; however, the biological significance of placental P4 in rodents is not properly recognized. Here, we demonstrate that mouse placentas do produce P4 in mid-gestation, coincident with a temporal reduction in ovarian P4, suggesting that it plays a role in the protection of the conceptuses specifically in this period. Pregnant Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout females also displayed delayed parturition associated with a low pup weaning rate. All these results suggest that Sirh7/Ldoc1 has undergone positive selection during eutherian evolution as a eutherian-specific acquired gene because it impacts reproductive fitness via the regulation of placental endocrine function. PMID:25468940

  3. Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout mice exhibit placental P4 overproduction and delayed parturition.

    PubMed

    Naruse, Mie; Ono, Ryuichi; Irie, Masahito; Nakamura, Kenji; Furuse, Tamio; Hino, Toshiaki; Oda, Kanako; Kashimura, Misho; Yamada, Ikuko; Wakana, Shigeharu; Yokoyama, Minesuke; Ishino, Fumitoshi; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko

    2014-12-01

    Sirh7/Ldoc1 [sushi-ichi retrotransposon homolog 7/leucine zipper, downregulated in cancer 1, also called mammalian retrotransposon-derived 7 (Mart7)] is one of the newly acquired genes from LTR retrotransposons in eutherian mammals. Interestingly, Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout (KO) mice exhibited abnormal placental cell differentiation/maturation, leading to an overproduction of placental progesterone (P4) and placental lactogen 1 (PL1) from trophoblast giant cells (TGCs). The placenta is an organ that is essential for mammalian viviparity and plays a major endocrinological role during pregnancy in addition to providing nutrients and oxygen to the fetus. P4 is an essential hormone in the preparation and maintenance of pregnancy and the determination of the timing of parturition in mammals; however, the biological significance of placental P4 in rodents is not properly recognized. Here, we demonstrate that mouse placentas do produce P4 in mid-gestation, coincident with a temporal reduction in ovarian P4, suggesting that it plays a role in the protection of the conceptuses specifically in this period. Pregnant Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout females also displayed delayed parturition associated with a low pup weaning rate. All these results suggest that Sirh7/Ldoc1 has undergone positive selection during eutherian evolution as a eutherian-specific acquired gene because it impacts reproductive fitness via the regulation of placental endocrine function. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Immune malfunction in the GPR39 zinc receptor of knockout mice: Its relationship to depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Młyniec, Katarzyna; Trojan, Ewa; Ślusarczyk, Joanna; Głombik, Katarzyna; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Budziszewska, Bogusława; Skrzeszewski, Jakub; Siwek, Agata; Holst, Birgitte; Nowak, Gabriel

    2016-02-15

    Depression is a serious psychiatric disorder affecting not only the monaminergic, glutamatergic, and GABAergic neurosystems, but also the immune system. Patients suffering from depression show disturbance in the immune parameters as well as increased susceptibility to infections. Zinc is well known as an anti-inflammatory agent, and its link with depression has been proved, zinc deficiency causing depression- and anxiety-like behavior with immune malfunction. It has been discovered that trace-element zinc acts as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system via zinc receptor GPR39. In this study we investigated whether GPR39 knockout would cause depressive-like behavior as measured by the forced swim test, and whether these changes would coexist with immune malfunction. In GPR39 knockout mice versus a wild-type control we found: i) depressive-like behavior; ii) significantly reduced thymus weight; (iii) reduced cell viability of splenocytes; iv) reduced proliferative response of splenocytes; and v) increased IL-6 production of splenocytes after ConA stimulation and decreased IL-1b and IL-6 release after LPS stimulation. The results indicate depressive-like behavior in GPR39 KO animals with an immune response similar to that observed in depressive disorder. Here for the first time we show immunological changes under GPR39-deficient conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Trilostane exerts antidepressive effects among wild-type, but not estrogen receptor β knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Koonce, Carolyn J.; Walf, Alicia A.; Frye, Cheryl A.

    2013-01-01

    Women with estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer, who are treated with the ER blocker, tamoxifen, have an increased risk of depression. Trilostane, a 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibitor, is now being used to treat tamoxifen-insensitive breast cancer. In-vitro assays show that trilostane may have actions through ERβ. Results of in-vivo research shows that actions at ERβ may underline some antidepressant effects of estrogen. We hypothesized that trilostane may exert antidepressive effects in the forced swim in part due to actions through ERβ. Trilostane (25 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), compared with vehicle, had significant antidepressant-like effects but only when administered to wild-type, not ERβ knockout, mice. Thus, actions of trilostane through ERβ may underlie some of its antidepressant-like effects. PMID:19593916

  6. Monoamine oxidase A and A/B knockout mice display autistic-like features

    PubMed Central

    Bortolato, Marco; Godar, Sean C.; Alzghoul, Loai; Zhang, Junlin; Darling, Ryan D.; Simpson, Kimberly L.; Bini, Valentina; Chen, Kevin; Wellman, Cara L.; Lin, Rick C. S.; Shih, Jean C.

    2012-01-01

    Converging lines of evidence show that a sizable subset of autism-spectrum disorders (ASDs) is characterized by increased blood levels of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), yet the mechanistic link between these two phenomena remains unclear. The enzymatic degradation of brain 5-HT is mainly mediated by monoamine oxidase (MAO)A and, in the absence of this enzyme, by its cognate isoenzyme MAOB. MAOA and A/B knockout (KO) mice display high 5-HT levels, particularly during early developmental stages. Here we show that both mutant lines exhibit numerous behavioural hallmarks of ASDs, such as social and communication impairments, perseverative and stereotypical responses, behavioural inflexibility, as well as subtle tactile and motor deficits. Furthermore, both MAOA and A/B KO mice displayed neuropathological alterations reminiscent of typical ASD features, including reduced thickness of the corpus callosum, increased dendritic arborization of pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex and disrupted microarchitecture of the cerebellum. The severity of repetitive responses and neuropathological aberrances was generally greater in MAOA/B KO animals. These findings suggest that the neurochemical imbalances induced by MAOAdeficiency (either by itself or in conjunction with lack of MAOB) may result in an array of abnormalities similar to those observed in ASDs. Thus, MAOA and A/B KO mice may afford valuable models to help elucidate the neurobiological bases of these disorders and related neurodevelopmental problems. PMID:22850464

  7. ChREBP-Knockout Mice Show Sucrose Intolerance and Fructose Malabsorption.

    PubMed

    Kato, Takehiro; Iizuka, Katsumi; Takao, Ken; Horikawa, Yukio; Kitamura, Tadahiro; Takeda, Jun

    2018-03-12

    We have previously reported that 60% sucrose diet-fed ChREBP knockout mice (KO) showed body weight loss resulting in lethality. We aimed to elucidate whether sucrose and fructose metabolism are impaired in KO. Wild-type mice (WT) and KO were fed a diet containing 30% sucrose with/without 0.08% miglitol, an α-glucosidase inhibitor, and these effects on phenotypes were tested. Furthermore, we compared metabolic changes of oral and peritoneal fructose injection. A thirty percent sucrose diet feeding did not affect phenotypes in KO. However, miglitol induced lethality in 30% sucrose-fed KO. Thirty percent sucrose plus miglitol diet-fed KO showed increased cecal contents, increased fecal lactate contents, increased growth of lactobacillales and Bifidobacterium and decreased growth of clostridium cluster XIVa. ChREBP gene deletion suppressed the mRNA levels of sucrose and fructose related genes. Next, oral fructose injection did not affect plasma glucose levels and liver fructose contents; however, intestinal sucrose and fructose related mRNA levels were increased only in WT. In contrast, peritoneal fructose injection increased plasma glucose levels in both mice; however, the hepatic fructose content in KO was much higher owing to decreased hepatic Khk mRNA expression. Taken together, KO showed sucrose intolerance and fructose malabsorption owing to decreased gene expression.

  8. Olive oils modulate fatty acid content and signaling protein expression in apolipoprotein E knockout mice brain.

    PubMed

    Alemany, Regina; Navarro, María A; Vögler, Oliver; Perona, Javier S; Osada, Jesús; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina

    2010-01-01

    Atherosclerosis contributes to disruption of neuronal signaling pathways by producing lipid-dependent modifications of brain plasma membranes, neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. We investigated whether long-term (11 weeks) consumption of refined- (ROO) and pomace- (POO) olive oil modulated the fatty acid composition and the levels of membrane signaling proteins in the brain of apolipoprotein E (apoE) knockout (KO) mice, an animal model of atherosclerosis. Both of these oils are rich in bioactive molecules with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. ROO and POO long-term consumption increased the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), particularly of oleic acid, while reducing the level of the saturated fatty acids (SFAs) palmitic and stearic acid. As a result, the MUFA:SFA ratio was higher in apoE KO mice brain fed with ROO and POO. Furthermore, both oils reduced the level of arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acid, suggesting a decrease in the generation of pro- and anti-inflammatory eicosanoids. Finally, ROO and POO induced an increase in the density of membrane proteins implicated in both the Galphas/PKA and Galphaq/PLCbeta1/PKCalpha signaling pathways. The combined effects of long-term ROO and POO consumption on fatty acid composition and the level of signaling proteins involved in PKA and PKC activation, suggest positive effects on neuroinflammation and brain function in apoE KO mice brain, and convert these oils into promising functional foods in diseases involving apoE deficiency.

  9. Impairment in extinction of cued fear memory in syntenin-1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Talukdar, Gourango; Inoue, Ran; Yoshida, Tomoyuki; Mori, Hisashi

    2018-03-01

    Syntenin-1 is a PDZ domain-containing intracellular scaffold protein involved in exosome production, synapse formation, and synaptic plasticity. We tested whether syntenin-1 can regulate learning and memory through its effects on synaptic plasticity. Specifically, we investigated the role of syntenin-1 in contextual and cued fear conditioning and extinction of conditioned fear using syntenin-1 knockout (KO) mice. Genetic disruption of syntenin-1 had little effect on contextual and cued fear memory. However, syntenin-1 KO mice exhibited selective impairment in cued fear extinction retention. This extinction retention deficit in syntenin-1 KO mice was associated with reduced c-Fos-positive neurons in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and infralimbic cortex (IL) after extinction training and increased c-Fos-positive neurons in the BLA after an extinction retention test. Our results suggest that syntenin-1 plays an important role in extinction of cued fear memory by modulating neuronal activity in the BLA and IL. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Behavior of Adult 5-HT1A Receptor Knockout Mice Exposed to Stress During Prenatal Development.

    PubMed

    Kiryanova, Veronika; Smith, Victoria M; Antle, Michael C; Dyck, Richard H

    2018-02-10

    Chronic maternal stress during pregnancy can have long-term, detrimental consequences for the offspring. An understanding of the mechanisms responsible for mediating these effects is essential for devising therapeutic interventions. Here, we examined whether serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT 1A R) mediates the effects of maternal stress on the behavioral outcomes of the offspring as adults. Heterozygous (HET) mouse dams were bred with HET males and were randomly assigned to stress or control groups. Pregnant dams in the stress group were exposed to a regime of chronic unpredictable stress from embryonic day 7 to 18. At two months of age, groups of male and female wildtype (WT), HET, and knockout (KO) offspring underwent a comprehensive behavioral test battery that included tests of social behavior, memory, aggression, anxiety, sensorimotor information processing, and exploratory and risk assessment behaviors. Independent of genotype, prenatal stress resulted in a change in locomotor activity and fear memory in male mice and a change in prepulse inhibition in female animals. 5-HT 1A R KO affected anxiety in male mice, and fear memory and prepulse inhibition in female mice. 5-HT 1A R genotype moderated the effects of maternal prenatal stress exposure on social behavior of male offspring and on activity levels of female offspring. Our findings indicate that 5-HT1A receptor availability can affect outcomes of the offspring resulting from maternal prenatal stress exposure, and that these effects are sex-specific. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Accelerated experience-dependent pruning of cortical synapses in ephrin-A2 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xinzhu; Wang, Gordon; Gilmore, Anthony; Yee, Ada Xin; Li, Xiang; Xu, Tonghui; Smith, Stephen J; Chen, Lu; Zuo, Yi

    2013-10-02

    Refinement of mammalian neural circuits involves substantial experience-dependent synapse elimination. Using in vivo two-photon imaging, we found that experience-dependent elimination of postsynaptic dendritic spines in the cortex was accelerated in ephrin-A2 knockout (KO) mice, resulting in fewer adolescent spines integrated into adult circuits. Such increased spine removal in ephrin-A2 KOs depended on activation of glutamate receptors, as blockade of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors eliminated the difference in spine loss between wild-type and KO mice. We also showed that ephrin-A2 in the cortex colocalized with glial glutamate transporters, which were significantly downregulated in ephrin-A2 KOs. Consistently, glial glutamate transport was reduced in ephrin-A2 KOs, resulting in an accumulation of synaptic glutamate. Finally, inhibition of glial glutamate uptake promoted spine elimination in wild-type mice, resembling the phenotype of ephrin-A2 KOs. Together, our results suggest that ephrin-A2 regulates experience-dependent, NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic pruning through glial glutamate transport during maturation of the mouse cortex. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Altered cerebral protein synthesis in fragile X syndrome: studies in human subjects and knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Mei; Schmidt, Kathleen C; Zametkin, Alan J; Bishu, Shrinivas; Horowitz, Lisa M; Burlin, Thomas V; Xia, Zengyan; Huang, Tianjiang; Quezado, Zenaide M; Smith, Carolyn Beebe

    2013-01-01

    Dysregulated protein synthesis is thought to be a core phenotype of fragile X syndrome (FXS). In a mouse model (Fmr1 knockout (KO)) of FXS, rates of cerebral protein synthesis (rCPS) are increased in selective brain regions. We hypothesized that rCPS are also increased in FXS subjects. We measured rCPS with the ℒ-[1-11C]leucine positron emission tomography (PET) method in whole brain and 10 regions in 15 FXS subjects who, because of their impairments, were studied under deep sedation with propofol. We compared results with those of 12 age-matched controls studied both awake and sedated. In controls, we found no differences in rCPS between awake and propofol sedation. Contrary to our hypothesis, FXS subjects under propofol sedation had reduced rCPS in whole brain, cerebellum, and cortex compared with sedated controls. To investigate whether propofol could have a disparate effect in FXS subjects masking usually elevated rCPS, we measured rCPS in C57Bl/6 wild-type (WT) and KO mice awake or under propofol sedation. Propofol decreased rCPS substantially in most regions examined in KO mice, but in WT mice caused few discrete changes. Propofol acts by decreasing neuronal activity either directly or by increasing inhibitory synaptic activity. Our results suggest that changes in synaptic signaling can correct increased rCPS in FXS. PMID:23299245

  13. Impaired IL-1β-induced neutrophil accumulation in tachykinin NK1 receptor knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Ahluwalia, Amrita; De Felipe, Carmen; O'Brien, John; Hunt, Stephen P; Perretti, Mauro

    1998-01-01

    Tachykinin NK1 receptors play an important role in the development of neurogenic inflammatory responses. We have used the murine air-pouch model to investigate whether the neurogenic component of the cellular inflammatory response to interleukin-1β (IL-1β, 10 ng into the air-pouch) is altered in NK1 receptor knockout mice compared to wild type controls. Air-pouches were washed following a 4 h IL-1β treatment, the wash collected and neutrophil number estimated using a Neubauer haemocytometer. The response to IL-1β was significantly attenuated in NK1 receptor +/− (40% reduction) and −/− mice (62% reduction) compared to wild type controls (+/+), whilst the response to cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC, 0.3 μg) was unaffected. The response to substance P (7.5 nmol) was attenuated by approximately 50% in both NK1 receptor +/− and −/− mice compared to wild type controls. In conclusion NK1 receptors play a significant role in the cellular response to IL-1β in a model of inflammation. PMID:9720767

  14. Cntnap2 Knockout Rats and Mice Exhibit Epileptiform Activity and Abnormal Sleep-Wake Physiology.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Alexia M; Schwartz, Michael D; Saxe, Michael D; Kilduff, Thomas S

    2017-01-01

    Although recent innovations have enabled modification of the rat genome, it is unclear whether enhanced utility of rodents as human disease models will result. We compared electroencephalogram (EEG) and behavioral phenotypes of rats and mice with homozygous deletion of Cntnap2, a gene associated with cortical dysplasia-focal epilepsy (CDFE) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Male contactin-associated protein-like 2 (Cntnap2) knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) rats and male Cntnap2 KO and WT mice were implanted with telemeters to record EEG, electromyogram, body temperature, and locomotor activity. Animals were subjected to a test battery for ASD-related behaviors, followed by 24-hr EEG recordings that were analyzed for sleep-wake parameters and subjected to spectral analysis. Cntnap2 KO rats exhibited severe motor seizures, hyperactivity, and increased consolidation of wakefulness and REM sleep. By contrast, Cntnap2 KO mice demonstrated absence seizure-like events, hypoactivity, and wake fragmentation. Although seizures observed in Cntnap2 KO rats were more similar to those in CDFE patients than in KO mice, neither model fully recapitulated the full spectrum of disease symptoms. However, KOs in both species had reduced spectral power in the alpha (9-12 Hz) range during wake, suggesting a conserved EEG biomarker. Deletion of Cntnap2 impacts similar behaviors and EEG measures in rats and mice, but with profound differences in nature and phenotypic severity. These observations highlight the importance of cross-species comparisons to understand conserved gene functions and the limitations of single- species models to provide translational insights relevant to human diseases. © Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Blue-Green Algae Inhibit the Development of Atherosclerotic Lesions in Apolipoprotein E Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Chai Siah; Kim, Bohkyung; Pham, Tho X.; Yang, Yue; Wegner, Casey J.; Park, Young-Ki; Balunas, Marcy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Hyperlipidemia and inflammation contribute to the development of atherosclerotic lesions. Our objective was to determine antiatherogenic effect of edible blue-green algae (BGA) species, that is, Nostoc commune var. sphaeroides Kützing (NO) and Spirulina platensis (SP), in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE−/−) mice, a well-established mouse model of atherosclerosis. Male ApoE−/− mice were fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol (HF/HC, 15% fat and 0.2% cholesterol by wt) control diet or a HF/HC diet supplemented with 5% (w/w) of NO or SP powder for 12 weeks. Plasma total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) were measured, and livers were analyzed for histology and gene expression. Morphometric analysis for lesions and immunohistochemical analysis for CD68 were conducted in the aorta and the aortic root. NO supplementation significantly decreased plasma TC and TG, and liver TC, compared to control and SP groups. In the livers of NO-fed mice, less lipid droplets were present with a concomitant decrease in fatty acid synthase protein levels than the other groups. There was a significant increase in hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor protein levels in SP-supplemented mice than in control and NO groups. Quantification of aortic lesions by en face analysis demonstrated that both NO and SP decreased aortic lesion development to a similar degree compared with control. While lesions in the aortic root were not significantly different between groups, the CD68-stained area in the aortic root was significantly lowered in BGA-fed mice than controls. In conclusion, both NO and SP supplementation decreased the development of atherosclerotic lesions, suggesting that they may be used as a natural product for atheroprotection. PMID:26566121

  16. Reduced cortical BDNF expression and aberrant memory in Carf knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, Kelli A.; Hutchinson, Ashley N.; Wong-Goodrich, Sarah J.E.; Presby, Matthew M.; Su, Dan; Rodriguiz, Ramona M.; Law, Krystal C.; Williams, Christina L.; Wetsel, William C.; West, Anne E.

    2010-01-01

    Transcription factors are a key point of convergence between the cell-intrinsic and extracellular signals that guide synaptic development and brain plasticity. Calcium-Response Factor (CaRF) is a unique transcription factor first identified as a binding protein for a calcium-response element in the gene encoding Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (Bdnf). We have now generated Carf knockout (KO) mice to characterize the function of this factor in vivo. Intriguingly, Carf KO mice have selectively reduced expression of Bdnf exon IV-containing mRNA transcripts and BDNF protein in the cerebral cortex while BDNF levels in the hippocampus and striatum remain unchanged, implicating CaRF as a brain region-selective regulator of BDNF expression. At the cellular level, Carf KO mice show altered expression of GABAergic proteins at striatal synapses, raising the possibility that CaRF may contribute to aspects of inhibitory synapse development. Carf KO mice show normal spatial learning in the Morris water maze and normal context-dependent fear conditioning. However they have an enhanced ability to find a new platform location on the first day of reversal training in the water maze and they extinguish conditioned fear more slowly than their wildtype (WT) littermates. Finally, Carf KO mice show normal short-term and long-term memory in a novel object recognition task, but exhibit impairments during the remote memory phase of testing. Taken together these data reveal novel roles for CaRF in the organization and/or function of neural circuits that underlie essential aspects of learning and memory. PMID:20519520

  17. Atherosclerotic plaque disruption induced by stress and lipopolysaccharide in apolipoprotein E knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Ni, Mei; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Mei; Zhang, Peng Fei; Ding, Shi Fang; Liu, Chun Xi; Liu, Xiao Ling; Zhao, Yu Xia; Zhang, Yun

    2009-05-01

    To establish an animal model with disruptions of atherosclerotic plaques, 96 male apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE(-/-)) mice were randomly divided into stress, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), stress+LPS, and control groups (n = 24 each). All mice were fed a high-fat diet throughout the experiment, and carotid atherosclerotic lesions were induced by placement of a constrictive perivascular collar. Four weeks after surgery, mice in the LPS and stress+LPS groups were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (1 mg/kg twice per week for 8 wk). Eight weeks after surgery, mice in the stress and stress+LPS groups were treated with intermittent physical stress (electric foot shock and noise stimulation) for 4 wk. Morphological analysis revealed a plaque disruption rate of 16.7% in control, 34.8% in LPS, 54.2% in stress, and 60.9% in stress+LPS groups. The disruption rates in stress and stress+LPS groups were both significantly higher than those of controls (P = 0.007 and P = 0.002, respectively). Luminal thrombosis secondary to plaque disruption was observed only in the stress+LPS group. Both stress and LPS stimulation significantly decreased fibrous cap thickness and increased macrophage and lipid contents in plaques. Moreover, the combination of stress and LPS stimulation further lowered cap thickness and enhanced accumulation of macrophages and expression of inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases. Stress activated the sympathetic nervous system, as manifested by increased blood pressure and flow velocity. Plasma fibrinogen levels were remarkably elevated in the stress and stress+LPS groups. In conclusion, stress- and LPS-costimulated apoE(-/-) mice provide a useful model for studies of plaque vulnerability and interventions.

  18. Decreased Neointimal Extracellular Matrix Formation in RAGE-Knockout Mice After Microvascular Denudation

    SciTech Connect

    Groezinger, Gerd, E-mail: gerd.groezinger@med.uni-tuebingen.de; Schmehl, Joerg, E-mail: joerg.schmehl@med.uni-tuebingen.de; Bantleon, Ruediger, E-mail: ruediger.bantleon@med.uni-tuebingen.de

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate in vivo the role of RAGE (receptor for advanced glycated end products) in the development of restenosis and neointimal proliferation in RAGE-deficient knockout (KO) mice compared with wild-type (WT) mice in an animal model. Materials and Methods: Sixteen WT and 15 RAGE-deficient mice underwent microvascular denudation of the common femoral artery under general anaesthesia. Contralateral arteries underwent a sham operation and served as controls. Four weeks after the intervention, all animals were killed, and paraformaldehyde-fixed specimens of the femoral artery were analysed with different stains (hematoxylin and eosin and Elastica van Gieson) and several different types ofmore » immunostaining (proliferating cell nuclear antigen, {alpha}-actin, collagen, von Willebrand factor, RAGE). Luminal area, area of the neointima, and area of the media were measured in all specimens. In addition, colony-formation assays were performed, and collagen production by WT smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and RAGE-KO SMCs was determined. For statistical analysis, P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Four weeks after denudation, WT mice showed a 49.6% loss of luminal area compared with 14.9% loss of luminal area in RAGE-deficient mice (sham = 0% loss) (P < 0.001). The neointima was 18.2 (*1000 {mu}m{sup 2} [n = 15) in the WT group compared with only 8.4 (*1000 {mu}m{sup 2} [n = 16]) in the RAGE-KO group. RAGE-KO SMCs showed significantly decreased proliferation activity and production of extracellular matrix protein. Conclusion: RAGE may be shown to play a considerable role in the formation of neointima leading to restenosis after vascular injury.« less

  19. Features of emotional and social behavioral phenotypes of calsyntenin2 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Ranneva, S V; Pavlov, K S; Gromova, A V; Amstislavskaya, T G; Lipina, T V

    2017-08-14

    Calsyntenin-2 (Clstn2) is the synaptic protein that belongs to the super family of cadherins, playing an important role in learning and memory. We recently reported that Clstn2 knockout mice (Clstn2-KO) have a deficit of GABAergic interneurons coupled with hyperactivity and deficient spatial memory. Given, that impaired functioning of GABA receptors is linked to several psychopathologies, including anxiety and autism, we sought to further characterize Clstn2-KO mice with respect to emotional and social behavior. Clstn2-KO males and females were tested in the elevated plus-maze (EPM), open field (OF), forced swim test, social affiliation and recognition test, social transmission of food preference (STFP), dyadic social interactions and marble burying test. Clstn2-KO mice demonstrated high exploration and hyperactivity in the dimly lit EPM that affect anxiety parameters. In contrast, in a more adverse situation in the OF have increased emotionality in Clstn2-KO males, not females. Assessment of hyperactivity for prolong period in the OF showed that Clstn2-KO animals were able to decline their hyperactivity, but their ambulation still remained higher than in WT littermates. Additionally, Clstn2-KO mice expressed stereotyped behavior. Strikingly, analysis of social behavior identified deficient social motivation and social recognition only in Clstn2-KO males, but not in females. Further analysis of social communication in the STFP and direct observation of agonistic interactions confirmed the reduced social behavior in Clstn2-KO males. Altogether, current results showed Clstn2 gene and sex interactions on socio-emotional performance in mice, suggesting a possible role of calsyntenin2 in psychopathological mechanisms of autism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Nrf2-Knockout Protects from Intestinal Injuries in C57BL/6J Mice Following Abdominal Irradiation with γ Rays.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenyan; Sun, Zhijuan; Yang, Bing; Wang, Qin

    2017-07-31

    Radiation-induced intestinal injuries (RIII) commonly occur in patients who suffer from pelvic or abdominal cancer. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key transcriptional regulator of antioxidant, and the radioprotective role of Nrf2 is found in bone marrow, lung, and intestine, etc. Here, we investigated the effect of Nrf2 knockout on radiation-induced intestinal injuries using Nrf2 knockout ( Nrf2 -/- ) mice and wild-type ( Nrf2 +/+ ) C57BL/6J mice following 13 Gy abdominal irradiation (ABI). It was found that Nrf2 knockout promoted the survival of irradiated mice, protected the crypt-villus structure of the small intestine, and elevated peripheral blood lymphocyte count and thymus coefficients. The DNA damage of peripheral blood lymphocytes and the apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) of irradiated Nrf2 -/- mice were decreased. Furthermore, compared with that of Nrf2 +/+ mice, Nrf2 knockout increased the number of Lgr5⁺ intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and their daughter cells including Ki67⁺ transient amplifying cells, Villin⁺ enterocytes, and lysozyme⁺ Paneth cells. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was accumulated in the crypt base nuclei of the small intestine, and the mRNA expression of NF-κB target genes Bcl-2 , uPA , and Xiap of the small intestine from irradiated Nrf2 -/- mice were increased. Collectively, Nrf2 knockout has the protective effect on small intestine damage following abdominal irradiation by prompting the proliferation and differentiation of Lgr5⁺ intestinal stem cells and activation of NF-κB.

  1. Creatine Transporter (CrT; Slc6a8) Knockout Mice as a Model of Human CrT Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Tori L.; Graham, Devon L.; deGrauw, Ton J.

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the creatine (Cr) transporter (CrT; Slc6a8) gene lead to absence of brain Cr and intellectual disabilities, loss of speech, and behavioral abnormalities. To date, no mouse model of CrT deficiency exists in which to understand and develop treatments for this condition. The purpose of this study was to generate a mouse model of human CrT deficiency. We created mice with exons 2–4 of Slc6a8 flanked by loxP sites and crossed these to Cre:CMV mice to create a line of ubiquitous CrT knockout expressing mice. Mice were tested for learning and memory deficits and assayed for Cr and neurotransmitter levels. Male CrT−/y (affected) mice lack Cr in the brain and muscle with significant reductions of Cr in other tissues including heart and testes. CrT−/y mice showed increased path length during acquisition and reversal learning in the Morris water maze. During probe trials, CrT−/y mice showed increased average distance from the platform site. CrT−/y mice showed reduced novel object recognition and conditioned fear memory compared to CrT+/y. CrT−/y mice had increased serotonin and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Ubiquitous CrT knockout mice have learning and memory deficits resembling human CrT deficiency and this model should be useful in understanding this disorder. PMID:21249153

  2. Enhanced Brain Disposition and Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in P-Glycoprotein and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Spiro, Adena S.; Wong, Alexander; Boucher, Aurélie A.; Arnold, Jonathon C.

    2012-01-01

    The ABC transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp, Abcb1) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp, Abcg2) regulate the CNS disposition of many drugs. The main psychoactive constituent of cannabis Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has affinity for P-gp and Bcrp, however it is unknown whether these transporters modulate the brain accumulation of THC and its functional effects on the CNS. Here we aim to show that mice devoid of Abcb1 and Abcg2 retain higher brain THC levels and are more sensitive to cannabinoid-induced hypothermia than wild-type (WT) mice. Abcb1a/b (−/−), Abcg2 (−/−) and wild-type (WT) mice were injected with THC before brain and blood were collected and THC concentrations determined. Another cohort of mice was examined for THC-induced hypothermia by measuring rectal body temperature. Brain THC concentrations were higher in both Abcb1a/b (−/−) and Abcg2 (−/−) mice than WT mice. ABC transporter knockout mice exhibited delayed elimination of THC from the brain with the effect being more prominent in Abcg2 (−/−) mice. ABC transporter knockout mice were more sensitive to THC-induced hypothermia compared to WT mice. These results show P-gp and Bcrp prolong the brain disposition and hypothermic effects of THC and offer a novel mechanism for both genetic vulnerability to the psychoactive effects of cannabis and drug interactions between CNS therapies and cannabis. PMID:22536451

  3. EFFECTS OF HEAT AND BROMOCHLOROACETIC ACID ON MALE REPRODUCTION IN HEAT SHOCK FACTOR-1 GENE KNOCKOUT MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of heat and bromochloroacetic acid on male reproduction in heat shock factor-1 gene knockout mice.
    Luft JC1, IJ Benjamin2, JB Garges1 and DJ Dix1. 1Reproductive Toxicology Division, USEPA, RTP, NC, 27711 and 2Dept of Internal Medicine, Univ.of Texas Southwestern Med C...

  4. p21{sup WAF1/Cip1/Sdi1} knockout mice respond to doxorubicin with reduced cardiotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Terrand, Jerome; Xu, Beibei; Morrissy, Steve

    2011-11-15

    Doxorubicin (Dox) is an antineoplastic agent that can cause cardiomyopathy in humans and experimental animals. As an inducer of reactive oxygen species and a DNA damaging agent, Dox causes elevated expression of p21{sup WAF1/Cip1/Sdi1} (p21) gene. Elevated levels of p21 mRNA and p21 protein have been detected in the myocardium of mice following Dox treatment. With chronic treatment of Dox, wild type (WT) animals develop cardiomyopathy evidenced by elongated nuclei, mitochondrial swelling, myofilamental disarray, reduced cardiac output, reduced ejection fraction, reduced left ventricular contractility, and elevated expression of ANF gene. In contrast, p21 knockout (p21KO) mice did not show significantmore » changes in the same parameters in response to Dox treatment. In an effort to understand the mechanism of the resistance against Dox induced cardiomyopathy, we measured levels of antioxidant enzymes and found that p21KO mice did not contain elevated basal or inducible levels of glutathione peroxidase and catalase. Measurements of 6 circulating cytokines indicated elevation of IL-6, IL-12, IFN{gamma} and TNF{alpha} in Dox treated WT mice but not p21KO mice. Dox induced elevation of IL-6 mRNA was detected in the myocardium of WT mice but not p21KO mice. While the mechanism of the resistance against Dox induced cardiomyopathy remains unclear, lack of inflammatory response may contribute to the observed cardiac protection in p21KO mice. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doxorubicin induces p21 elevation in the myocardium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doxorubicin causes dilated cardiomyopathy in wild type mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p21 Knockout mice are resistant against doxorubicin induced cardiomyopathy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lack of inflammatory response correlates with the resistance in p21 knockout mice.« less

  5. Effects of dopamine D1-like and D2-like antagonists on cocaine discrimination in muscarinic receptor knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Morgane; Caine, Simon Barak

    2016-01-01

    Muscarinic and dopamine brain systems interact intimately, and muscarinic receptor ligands, like dopamine ligands, can modulate the reinforcing and discriminative stimulus (SD) effects of cocaine. To enlighten the dopamine/muscarinic interactions as they pertain to the SD effects of cocaine, we evaluated whether muscarinic M1, M2 or M4 receptors are necessary for dopamine D1 and/or D2 antagonist mediated modulation of the SD effects of cocaine. Knockout mice lacking M1, M2, or M4 receptors, as well as control wild-type mice and outbred Swiss-Webster mice, were trained to discriminate 10 mg/kg cocaine from saline in a food-reinforced drug discrimination procedure. Effects of pretreatments with the dopamine D1 antagonist SCH 23390 and the dopamine D2 antagonist eticlopride were evaluated. In intact mice, both SCH 23390 and eticlopride attenuated the cocaine discriminative stimulus effect, as expected. SCH 23390 similarly attenuated the cocaine discriminative stimulus effect in M1 knockout mice, but not in mice lacking M2 or M4 receptors. The effects of eticlopride were comparable in each knockout strain. These findings demonstrate differences in the way that D1 and D2 antagonists modulate the SD effects of cocaine, D1 modulation being at least partially dependent upon activity at the inhibitory M2/M4 muscarinic subtypes, while D2 modulation appeared independent of these systems. PMID:26874213

  6. Anesthetic- and heat-induced sudden death in calsequestrin-1-knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Dainese, Marco; Quarta, Marco; Lyfenko, Alla D.; Paolini, Cecilia; Canato, Marta; Reggiani, Carlo; Dirksen, Robert T.; Protasi, Feliciano

    2009-01-01

    Calsequestrin-1 (CASQ1) is a moderate-affinity, high-capacity Ca2+-binding protein in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) terminal cisternae of skeletal muscle. CASQ1 functions as both a Ca2+-binding protein and a luminal regulator of ryanodine receptor (RYR1)-mediated Ca2+ release. Mice lacking skeletal CASQ1 are viable but exhibit reduced levels of releasable Ca2+ and altered contractile properties. Here we report that CASQ1-null mice exhibit increased spontaneous mortality and susceptibility to heat- and anesthetic-induced sudden death. Exposure of CASQ1-null mice to either 2% halothane or heat stress triggers lethal episodes characterized by whole-body contractures, elevated core temperature, and severe rhabdomyolysis, which are prevented by prior dantrolene administration. The characteristics of these events are remarkably similar to analogous episodes observed in humans with malignant hyperthermia (MH) and animal models of MH and environmental heat stroke (EHS). In vitro studies indicate that CASQ1-null muscle exhibits increased contractile sensitivity to temperature and caffeine, temperature-dependent increases in resting Ca2+, and an increase in the magnitude of depolarization-induced Ca2+ release. These results demonstrate that CASQ1 deficiency alters proper control of RYR1 function and suggest CASQ1 as a potential candidate gene for linkage analysis in families with MH/EHS where mutations in the RYR1 gene are excluded.—Dainese, M., Quarta, M., Lyfenko, A. D., Paolini, C., Canato, M., Reggiani, C., Dirksen, R. T., Protasi, F. Anesthetic- and heat-induced sudden death in calsequestrin-1-knockout mice. PMID:19237502

  7. Mechanism of hyperphagia contributing to obesity in brain-derived neurotrophic factor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Fox, E A; Biddinger, J E; Jones, K R; McAdams, J; Worman, A

    2013-01-15

    Global-heterozygous and brain-specific homozygous knockouts (KOs) of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) cause late- and early-onset obesity, respectively, both involving hyperphagia. Little is known about the mechanism underlying this hyperphagia or whether BDNF loss from peripheral tissues could contribute to overeating. Since global-homozygous BDNF-KO is perinatal lethal, a BDNF-KO that spared sufficient brainstem BDNF to support normal health was utilized to begin to address these issues. Meal pattern and microstructure analyses suggested overeating of BDNF-KO mice was mediated by deficits in both satiation and satiety that resulted in increased meal size and frequency and implicated a reduction of vagal signaling from the gut to the brain. Meal-induced c-Fos activation in the nucleus of the solitary tract, a more direct measure of vagal afferent signaling, however, was not decreased in BDNF-KO mice, and thus was not consistent with a vagal afferent role. Interestingly though, meal-induced c-Fos activation was increased in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMV) of BDNF-KO mice. This could imply that augmentation of vago-vagal digestive reflexes occurred (e.g., accommodation), which would support increased meal size and possibly increased meal number by reducing the increase in intragastric pressure produced by a given amount of ingesta. Additionally, vagal sensory neuron number in BDNF-KO mice was altered in a manner consistent with the increased meal-induced activation of the DMV. These results suggest reduced BDNF causes satiety and satiation deficits that support hyperphagia, possibly involving augmentation of vago-vagal reflexes mediated by central pathways or vagal afferents regulated by BDNF levels. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Experimental evidence for the involvement of PDLIM5 in mood disorders in hetero knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Yasue; Ishikawa, Maya; Kaito, Nobuko; Iijima, Yoshimi; Tanabe, Yoshiko; Ishiguro, Hiroki; Arinami, Tadao

    2013-01-01

    Reports indicate that PDLIM5 is involved in mood disorders. The PDLIM5 (PDZ and LIM domain 5) gene has been genetically associated with mood disorders; it's expression is upregulated in the postmortem brains of patients with bipolar disorder and downregulated in the peripheral lymphocytes of patients with major depression. Acute and chronic methamphetamine (METH) administration may model mania and the evolution of mania into psychotic mania or schizophrenia-like behavioral changes, respectively. To address whether the downregulation of PDLIM5 protects against manic symptoms and cause susceptibility to depressive symptoms, we evaluated the effects of reduced Pdlim5 levels on acute and chronic METH-induced locomotor hyperactivity, prepulse inhibition, and forced swimming by using Pdlim5 hetero knockout (KO) mice. The homozygous KO of Pdlim5 is embryonic lethal. The effects of METH administration on locomotor hyperactivity and the impairment of prepulse inhibition were lower in Pdlim5 hetero KO mice than in wild-type mice. The transient inhibition of PDLIM5 (achieved by blocking the translocation of protein kinase C epsilon before the METH challenge) had a similar effect on behavior. Pdlim5 hetero KO mice showed increased immobility time in the forced swimming test, which was diminished after the chronic administration of imipramine. Chronic METH treatment increased, whereas chronic haloperidol treatment decreased, Pdlim5 mRNA levels in the prefrontal cortex. Imipramine increased Pdlim5 mRNA levels in the hippocampus. These findings are partially compatible with reported observations in humans, indicating that PDLIM5 is involved in psychiatric disorders, including mood disorders.

  9. Excitability is increased in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells of Fmr1 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Luque, M. Angeles; Beltran-Matas, Pablo; Marin, M. Carmen; Torres, Blas

    2017-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by a failure of neuronal cells to express the gene encoding the fragile mental retardation protein (FMRP). Clinical features of the syndrome include intellectual disability, learning impairment, hyperactivity, seizures and anxiety. Fmr1 knockout (KO) mice do not express FMRP and, as a result, reproduce some FXS behavioral abnormalities. While intrinsic and synaptic properties of excitatory cells in various part of the brain have been studied in Fmr1 KO mice, a thorough analysis of action potential characteristics and input-output function of CA1 pyramidal cells in this model is lacking. With a view to determining the effects of the absence of FMRP on cell excitability, we studied rheobase, action potential duration, firing frequency–current intensity relationship and action potential after-hyperpolarization (AHP) in CA1 pyramidal cells of the hippocampus of wild type (WT) and Fmr1 KO male mice. Brain slices were prepared from 8- to 12-week-old mice and the electrophysiological properties of cells recorded. Cells from both groups had similar resting membrane potentials. In the absence of FMRP expression, cells had a significantly higher input resistance, while voltage threshold and depolarization voltage were similar in WT and Fmr1 KO cell groups. No changes were observed in rheobase. The action potential duration was longer in the Fmr1 KO cell group, and the action potential firing frequency evoked by current steps of the same intensity was higher. Moreover, the gain (slope) of the relationship between firing frequency and injected current was 1.25-fold higher in the Fmr1 KO cell group. Finally, AHP amplitude was significantly reduced in the Fmr1 KO cell group. According to these data, FMRP absence increases excitability in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells. PMID:28931075

  10. Behavioural and functional characterization of Kv10.1 (Eag1) knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Ufartes, Roser; Schneider, Tomasz; Mortensen, Lena Sünke; de Juan Romero, Camino; Hentrich, Klaus; Knoetgen, Hendrik; Beilinson, Vadim; Moebius, Wiebke; Tarabykin, Victor; Alves, Frauke; Pardo, Luis A.; Rawlins, J. Nicholas P.; Stuehmer, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Kv10.1 (Eag1), member of the Kv10 family of voltage-gated potassium channels, is preferentially expressed in adult brain. The aim of the present study was to unravel the functional role of Kv10.1 in the brain by generating knockout mice, where the voltage sensor and pore region of Kv10.1 were removed to render non-functional proteins through deletion of exon 7 of the KCNH1 gene using the ‘3 Lox P strategy’. Kv10.1-deficient mice show no obvious alterations during embryogenesis and develop normally to adulthood; cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum appear anatomically normal. Other tests, including general health screen, sensorimotor functioning and gating, anxiety, social behaviour, learning and memory did not show any functional aberrations in Kv10.1 null mice. Kv10.1 null mice display mild hyperactivity and longer-lasting haloperidol-induced catalepsy, but there was no difference between genotypes in amphetamine sensitization and withdrawal, reactivity to apomorphine and haloperidol in the prepulse inhibition tests or to antidepressants in the haloperidol-induced catalepsy. Furthermore, electrical properties of Kv10.1 in cerebellar Purkinje cells did not show any difference between genotypes. Bearing in mind that Kv10.1 is overexpressed in over 70% of all human tumours and that its inhibition leads to a reduced tumour cell proliferation, the fact that deletion of Kv10.1 does not show a marked phenotype is a prerequisite for utilizing Kv10.1 blocking and/or reduction techniques, such as siRNA, to treat cancer. PMID:23424202

  11. FKBP5 Moderates Alcohol Withdrawal Severity: Human Genetic Association and Functional Validation in Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ming-Chyi; Schwandt, Melanie L; Chester, Julia A; Kirchhoff, Aaron M; Kao, Chung-Feng; Liang, Tiebing; Tapocik, Jenica D; Ramchandani, Vijay A; George, David T; Hodgkinson, Colin A; Goldman, David; Heilig, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol withdrawal is associated with hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction. The FKBP5 gene codes for a co-chaperone, FK506-binding protein 5, that exerts negative feedback on HPA axis function. This study aimed to examine the effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the FKBP5 gene in humans and the effect of Fkbp5 gene deletion in mice on alcohol withdrawal severity. We genotyped six FKBP5 SNPs (rs3800373, rs9296158, rs3777747, rs9380524, rs1360780, and rs9470080) in 399 alcohol-dependent inpatients with alcohol consumption 48 h before admission and recorded scores from the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment-Alcohol revised (CIWA-Ar). Fkbp5 gene knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were assessed for alcohol withdrawal using handling-induced convulsions (HICs) following both acute and chronic alcohol exposure. We found the minor alleles of rs3800373 (G), rs9296158 (A), rs1360780 (T), and rs9470080 (T) were significantly associated with lower CIWA-Ar scores whereas the minor alleles of rs3777747 (G) and rs9380524 (A) were associated with higher scores. The haplotype-based analyses also showed an association with alcohol withdrawal severity. Fkbp5 KO mice showed significantly greater HICs during withdrawal from chronic alcohol exposure compared with WT controls. This study is the first to show a genetic effect of FKBP5 on the severity of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. In mice, the absence of the Fkbp5 gene enhances sensitivity to alcohol withdrawal. We suggest that FKBP5 variants may trigger different adaptive changes in HPA axis regulation during alcohol withdrawal with concomitant effects on withdrawal severity. PMID:24603855

  12. Safrole-2',3'-oxide induces atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Su, Le; Zhang, Haiyan; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Shangli; Zhang, Yun; Zhao, Baoxiang; Miao, Junying

    2013-02-27

    Safrole-2',3'-oxide (SFO) is the major electrophilic metabolite of safrole (4-allyl-1, 2-methylenedioxybenzene), a natural plant constituent found in essential oils of numerous edible herbs and spices and in food containing these herbs, such as pesto sauce, cola beverages and bologna sausages. The effects of SFO in mammalian systems, especially the cardiovascular system, are little known. Disruption of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques in atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease, is the main cause of cardiovascular events. In this study, we investigated SFO-induced atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability (possibility of rupture) in apolipoprotein E-knockout (apoE(-/-)) mice. Lipid area in vessel wall reached 59.8% in high dose SFO (SFO-HD) treated group, which is only 31.2% in control group. SFO treatment changed the lesion composition to an unstable phenotype, increased the number of apoptotic cells in plaque and the endothelium in plaques was damaged after SFO treatment. Furthermore, compared with control groups, the plaque endothelium level of p75(NTR) was 3-fold increased and the liver level of p75(NTR) was 17.4-fold increased by SFO-HD. Meanwhile, the serum level of KC (a functional homolog of IL-8 and the main proinflammatory alpha chemokine in mice) in apoE(-/-) mice was up to 357pg/ml in SFO-HD treated group. Thus, SFO contributes to the instability of atherosclerotic plaque in apoE(-/-) mice through activating p75(NTR) and IL-8 and cell apoptosis in plaque. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Skeletal muscle dysfunction in muscle-specific LKB1 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, Chad R.; Evanson, Bradley G.; Kenney, Steven G.; Malan, Brandon B.; Mongillo, Anthony D.; Brown, Jacob D.; Hepworth, Squire; Fillmore, Natasha; Parcell, Allen C.; Kooyman, David L.; Winder, William W.

    2010-01-01

    Liver kinase B1 (LKB1) is a tumor-suppressing protein that is involved in the regulation of muscle metabolism and growth by phosphorylating and activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) family members. Here we report the development of a myopathic phenotype in skeletal and cardiac muscle-specific LKB1 knockout (mLKB1-KO) mice. The myopathic phenotype becomes overtly apparent at 30–50 wk of age and is characterized by decreased body weight and a proportional reduction in fast-twitch skeletal muscle weight. The ability to ambulate is compromised with an often complete loss of hindlimb function. Skeletal muscle atrophy is associated with a 50–75% reduction in mammalian target of rapamycin pathway phosphorylation, as well as lower peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α coactivator-1 content and cAMP response element binding protein phosphorylation (43 and 40% lower in mLKB1-KO mice, respectively). Maximum in situ specific force production is not affected, but fatigue is exaggerated, and relaxation kinetics are slowed in the myopathic mice. The increased fatigue is associated with a 30–78% decrease in mitochondrial protein content, a shift away from type IIA/D toward type IIB muscle fibers, and a tendency (P = 0.07) for decreased capillarity in mLKB1-KO muscles. Hearts from myopathic mLKB1-KO mice exhibit grossly dilated atria, suggesting cardiac insufficiency and heart failure, which likely contributes to the phenotype. These findings indicate that LKB1 plays a critical role in the maintenance of both skeletal and cardiac function. PMID:20360428

  14. Mechanism of Hyperphagia Contributing to Obesity in Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Edward A.; Biddinger, Jessica E.; Jones, Kevin R.; McAdams, Jennifer; Worman, Amber

    2012-01-01

    Global-heterozygous and brain-specific homozygous knockouts (KO's) of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) cause late- and early-onset obesity, respectively, both involving hyperphagia. Little is known about the mechanism underlying this hyperphagia or whether BDNF loss from peripheral tissues could contribute to overeating. Since global-homozygous BDNF-KO is perinatal lethal, a BDNF-KO that spared sufficient brainstem BDNF to support normal health was utilized to begin to address these issues. Meal pattern and microstructure analyses suggested overeating of BDNF-KO mice was mediated by deficits in both satiation and satiety that resulted in increased meal size and frequency and implicated a reduction of vagal signaling from gut-to-brain. Meal-induced c-Fos activation in the nucleus of the solitary tract, a more direct measure of vagal afferent signaling, however, was not decreased in BDNF-KO mice, and thus was not consistent with a vagal afferent role. Interestingly though, meal-induced c-Fos activation was increased in the dorsal vagal motor nucleus (DMV) of BDNF-KO mice. This could imply that augmentation of vago-vagal digestive reflexes occurred (e.g., accommodation), which would support increased meal size and possibly increased meal number by reducing the increase in intragastric pressure produced by a given amount of ingesta. Additionally, vagal sensory neuron number in BDNF-KO mice was altered in a manner consistent with the increased meal-induced activation of the DMV. These results suggest reduced BDNF causes satiety and satiation deficits that support hyperphagia, possibly involving augmentation of vago-vagal reflexes mediated by central pathways or vagal afferents regulated by BDNF levels. PMID:23069761

  15. Dietary selenium protects adiponectin knockout mice against chronic inflammation induced colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Arpit; Fayad, Raja; Kaur, Kamaljeet; Truman, Samantha; Greer, Julian; Carson, James A; Chanda, Anindya

    2017-04-03

    Selenium (Se) is an essential dietary micronutrient that has been examined for protection against different types of cancers including colon cancer. Despite an established inverse association between Se and chronic inflammation induced colon cancer (CICC), the mechanistic understanding of Se's protective effects requires additional in-vivo studies using preclinical animal models of CICC. Adiponectin (APN) is an adipocytokine that is protective against CICC as well. However, its role in the anti-mutagenic effects of the Se-diet remains unknown. To address this knowledge gap, here we examine the ability of dietary Se in reducing CICC in APN knockout mice (KO) and its wild-type C57BL/6. CICC was induced with the colon cancer agent 1,2 dimethyl hydrazine (DMH) along with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Se-enhanced diet increased selenoproteins, Gpx-1 and Gpx-2, in the colon tissues, thereby reducing oxidative stress. Se-mediated reduction of CICC was evident from the histopathological studies in both mouse models. In both mice, reduction in inflammation and tumorigenesis associated well with reduced p65 phosphorylation and elevated 53 phosphorylation. Finally, we show that in both models Se-administration promotes goblet cell differentiation with a concomitant increase in the levels of associated proteins, Muc-2 and Math-1. Our findings suggest that Se's protection against CICC involves both colonic epithelial protection and anti-tumor effects that are independent of APN.

  16. Dietary selenium protects adiponectin knockout mice against chronic inflammation induced colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Arpit; Fayad, Raja; Kaur, Kamaljeet; Truman, Samantha; Greer, Julian; Carson, James A.; Chanda, Anindya

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Selenium (Se) is an essential dietary micronutrient that has been examined for protection against different types of cancers including colon cancer. Despite an established inverse association between Se and chronic inflammation induced colon cancer (CICC), the mechanistic understanding of Se's protective effects requires additional in-vivo studies using preclinical animal models of CICC. Adiponectin (APN) is an adipocytokine that is protective against CICC as well. However, its role in the anti-mutagenic effects of the Se-diet remains unknown. To address this knowledge gap, here we examine the ability of dietary Se in reducing CICC in APN knockout mice (KO) and its wild-type C57BL/6. CICC was induced with the colon cancer agent 1,2 dimethyl hydrazine (DMH) along with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Se-enhanced diet increased selenoproteins, Gpx-1 and Gpx-2, in the colon tissues, thereby reducing oxidative stress. Se-mediated reduction of CICC was evident from the histopathological studies in both mouse models. In both mice, reduction in inflammation and tumorigenesis associated well with reduced p65 phosphorylation and elevated 53 phosphorylation. Finally, we show that in both models Se-administration promotes goblet cell differentiation with a concomitant increase in the levels of associated proteins, Muc-2 and Math-1. Our findings suggest that Se's protection against CICC involves both colonic epithelial protection and anti-tumor effects that are independent of APN. PMID:28045589

  17. Organelle and Cellular Abnormalities Associated with Hippocampal Heterotopia in Neonatal Doublecortin Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Khalaf-Nazzal, Reham; Bruel-Jungerman, Elodie; Rio, Jean-Paul; Bureau, Jocelyne; Irinopoulou, Theano; Sumia, Iffat; Roumegous, Audrey; Martin, Elodie; Olaso, Robert; Parras, Carlos; Cifuentes-Diaz, Carmen; Francis, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    Heterotopic or aberrantly positioned cortical neurons are associated with epilepsy and intellectual disability. Various mouse models exist with forms of heterotopia, but the composition and state of cells developing in heterotopic bands has been little studied. Dcx knockout (KO) mice show hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cell lamination abnormalities, appearing from the age of E17.5, and mice suffer from spontaneous epilepsy. The Dcx KO CA3 region is organized in two distinct pyramidal cell layers, resembling a heterotopic situation, and exhibits hyperexcitability. Here, we characterized the abnormally organized cells in postnatal mouse brains. Electron microscopy confirmed that the Dcx KO CA3 layers at postnatal day (P) 0 are distinct and separated by an intermediate layer devoid of neuronal somata. We found that organization and cytoplasm content of pyramidal neurons in each layer were altered compared to wild type (WT) cells. Less regular nuclei and differences in mitochondria and Golgi apparatuses were identified. Each Dcx KO CA3 layer at P0 contained pyramidal neurons but also other closely apposed cells, displaying different morphologies. Quantitative PCR and immunodetections revealed increased numbers of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) and interneurons in close proximity to Dcx KO pyramidal cells. Immunohistochemistry experiments also showed that caspase-3 dependent cell death was increased in the CA1 and CA3 regions of Dcx KO hippocampi at P2. Thus, unsuspected ultrastructural abnormalities and cellular heterogeneity may lead to abnormal neuronal function and survival in this model, which together may contribute to the development of hyperexcitability. PMID:24023755

  18. Serum CTX levels and histomorphometric analysis in Src versus RANKL knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Sunao; Fumoto, Toshio; Ito, Masako; Ikeda, Kyoji

    2017-06-06

    Src knockout (KO) and RANKL KO mice both exhibit near complete osteopetrosis in terms of 3D-bone volume (BV) fraction by micro-CT, whereas the serum CTX concentration of Src KO is apparently normal and that of RANKL KO is 30% of wild-type (WT) despite the fact that they lack osteoclasts. By histomorphometry we found that, whereas eroded surface (ES) and osteoid surface (OS) are zero values in RANKL KO, they are indistinguishable from WT in Src KO; because of marked increase in bone surface (BS), ES/BS and OS/BS of Src KO are 30-40% of WT. While RANKL KO lack both osteoclasts and osteoblasts, Src KO reveal increased numbers of osteoclasts and indistinguishable numbers of osteoblasts compared with WT; again, on the basis of BS, N.Oc/BS is comparable to WT and N.Ob/BS is markedly decreased in Src KO. The apparently increased number of total osteoclasts may be due to increased expression of RANKL found in Src KO bone in vivo. Src has a gene dosage-dependent effect on osteoclast function in vitro, with Src -/- osteoclasts completely lacking bone-resorbing function as determined by CTX release on dentin. Thus, Src KO osteoclasts retain some bone-resorbing function in vivo. The number of osteocytes is proportionally increased in RANKL KO, while Src KO mice have relative osteocyte deficiency, raising the possibility that RANKL and Src has an unrecognized role in osteocyte survival.

  19. Effects of Three Lipidated Oxytocin Analogs on Behavioral Deficits in CD38 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cherepanov, Stanislav M.; Akther, Shirin; Nishimura, Tomoko; Shabalova, Anna A.; Mizuno, Akira; Ichinose, Wataru; Shuto, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2017-01-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is a nonapeptide that plays an important role in social behavior. Nasal administration of OT has been shown to improve trust in healthy humans and social interaction in autistic subjects. As is consistent with the nature of a peptide, OT has some unfavorable characteristics: it has a short half-life in plasma and shows poor permeability across the blood-brain barrier. Analogs with long-lasting effects may overcome these drawbacks. To this end, we have synthesized three analogs: lipo-oxytocin-1 (LOT-1), in which two palmitoyl groups are conjugated to the cysteine and tyrosine residues, lipo-oxytocin-2 (LOT-2) and lipo-oxytocin-3 (LOT-3), which include one palmitoyl group conjugated at the cysteine or tyrosine residue, respectively. The following behavioral deficits were observed in CD38 knockout (CD38−/−) mice: a lack of paternal nurturing in CD38−/− sires, decreased ability for social recognition, and decreased sucrose consumption. OT demonstrated the ability to recover these disturbances to the level of wild-type mice for 30 min after injection. LOT-2 and LOT-3 partially recovered the behaviors for a short period. Conversely, LOT-1 restored the behavioral parameters, not for 30 min, but for 24 h. These data suggest that the lipidation of OT has some therapeutic benefits, and LOT-1 would be most useful because of its long-last activity. PMID:29035307

  20. MRI analysis of cerebellar and vestibular developmental phenotypes in Gbx2 conditional knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Szulc, Kamila U.; Nieman, Brian J.; Houston, Edward J.; Bartelle, Benjamin B.; Lerch, Jason P.; Joyner, Alexandra L.; Turnbull, Daniel H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Our aim in this study was to apply three-dimensional (3D) MRI methods to analyze early postnatal morphological phenotypes in a Gbx2 conditional knockout (Gbx2-CKO) mouse that has variable midline deletions in the central cerebellum, reminiscent of many human cerebellar hypoplasia syndromes. Methods In vivo 3D manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) at 100-µm isotropic resolution was used to visualize mouse brains between postnatal days 3 to 11, when cerebellum morphology undergoes dramatic changes. Deformation based morphometry (DBM) and volumetric analysis of MEMRI images were used to respectively detect and quantify morphological phenotypes in Gbx2-CKO mice. Ex vivo micro-MRI was performed after perfusion-fixation with supplemented gadolinium for higher resolution (50-µm) analysis. Results In vivo MEMRI and DBM correctly identified known cerebellar defects in Gbx2-CKO mice, and novel phenotypes were discovered in the deep cerebellar nuclei and the vestibulo-cerebellum, both validated using histology. Ex vivo micro-MRI revealed subtle phenotypes in both the vestibulo-cerebellum and the vestibulo-cochlear organ, providing an interesting example of complementary phenotypes in a sensory organ and its associated brain region. Conclusion These results show the potential of 3D MRI for detecting and analyzing developmental defects in mouse models of neurodevelopmental diseases. PMID:23400959

  1. Abolition of lemniscal barrellette patterning in Prrxl1 knockout mice: Effects upon ingestive behavior.

    PubMed

    Bakalar, Dana; Tamaiev, Jonathan; Zeigler, H Philip; Feinstein, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Ingestive behaviors in mice are dependent on orosensory cues transmitted via the trigeminal nerve, as confirmed by transection studies. However, these studies cannot differentiate between deficits caused by the loss of the lemniscal pathway vs. the parallel paralemniscal pathway. The paired-like homeodomain protein Prrxl1 is expressed widely in the brain and spinal cord, including the trigeminal system. A knockout of Prrxl1 abolishes somatotopic barrellette patterning in the lemniscal brainstem nucleus, but not in the parallel paralemniscal nucleus. Null animals are significantly smaller than littermates by postnatal day 5, but reach developmental landmarks at appropriate times, and survive to adulthood on liquid diet. A careful analysis of infant and adult ingestive behavior reveals subtle impairments in suckling, increases in time spent feeding and the duration of feeding bouts, feeding during inappropriate times of the day, and difficulties in the mechanics of feeding. During liquid diet feeding, null mice display abnormal behaviors including extensive use of the paws to move food into the mouth, submerging the snout in the diet, changes in licking, and also have difficulty consuming solid chow pellets. We suggest that our Prrxl1(-/-) animal is a valuable model system for examining the genetic assembly and functional role of trigeminal lemniscal circuits in the normal control of eating in mammals and for understanding feeding abnormalities in humans resulting from the abnormal development of these circuits.

  2. Morphological analysis of germ cell apoptosis during postnatal testis development in normal and Hsp 70-2 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Mori, C; Nakamura, N; Dix, D J; Fujioka, M; Nakagawa, S; Shiota, K; Eddy, E M

    1997-01-01

    The present study examined the occurrence of apoptotic cell death in the testis of wild-type mice from postnatal days 3 to 26 and in juvenile Hsp 70-2 knockout mice. Adult Hsp 70-2 knockout males are infertile and lack spermatids and spermatozoa (Dix et al. [1996a] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93:3264-3268). To identify the cell types undergoing apoptosis, we also examined the relationship between the occurrence of apoptotic cell death and the expression pattern of the Hsp 70-2 gene product (heat-shock protein 70-2 [HSP70-2]; marker for spermatocytes and spermatids), germ cell nuclear antigen 1 (GCNA1;marker for spermatogonia and spermatocytes), and vimentin (marker for Sertoli cells). This study shows that during postnatal development of the wildtype mouse testis (1) the percentage of apoptotic cell death detected by the TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) method is higher in mice from days 8 to 22 than in younger or older mice, (2) the majority of apoptotic cells are spermatogonia and less frequently are spermatocytes, and (3) the degenerative cell death of spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes involves apoptosis with fragmentation of DNA. The analysis of apoptotic cell death in the testes of juvenile Hsp 70-2 knockout mice showed an additional increased level of apoptosis at day 17, during the first wave of spermatogenesis, in pachytene spermatocytes.

  3. A proposed test battery and constellations of specific behavioral paradigms to investigate the behavioral phenotypes of transgenic and knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Crawley, J N; Paylor, R

    1997-06-01

    Behavioral phenotyping of transgenic and knockout mice requires rigorous, formal analyses. Well-characterized paradigms can be chosen from the established behavioral neuroscience literature. This review describes (1) a series of neurological and neuropsychological tests which are effectively used as a first screen for behavioral abnormalities in mutant mice, and (2) a series of specific behavioral paradigms, clustered by category. Included are multiple paradigms for each category, including learning and memory, feeding, analgesia, aggression, anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, and drug abuse models. Examples are given from the experiences of the authors, in applying these experimental designs to transgenic and knockout mice. Extensive references for each behavioral paradigm are provided, to allow new investigators to access the relevant literature on behavioral methodology.

  4. Lithium effects on circadian rhythms in fibroblasts and suprachiasmatic nucleus slices from Cry knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Takako; Lo, Kevin; Diemer, Tanja; Welsh, David K

    2016-04-21

    Lithium is widely used as a treatment of bipolar disorder, a neuropsychiatric disorder associated with disrupted circadian rhythms. Lithium is known to lengthen period and increase amplitude of circadian rhythms. One possible pathway for these effects involves inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), which regulates degradation of CRY2, a canonical clock protein determining circadian period. CRY1 is also known to play important roles in regulating circadian period and phase, although there is no evidence that it is similarly phosphorylated by GSK-3β. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that lithium affects circadian rhythms through CRYs. We cultured fibroblasts and slices of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master circadian pacemaker of the brain, from Cry1-/-, Cry2-/-, or wild-type (WT) mice bearing the PER2:LUC circadian reporter. Lithium was applied in the culture medium, and circadian rhythms of PER2 expression were measured. In WT and Cry2-/- fibroblasts, 10mM lithium increased PER2 expression and rhythm amplitude but not period, and 1mM lithium did not affect either period or amplitude. In non-rhythmic Cry1-/- fibroblasts, 10mM lithium increased PER2 expression. In SCN slices, 1mM lithium lengthened period ∼1h in all genotypes, but did not affect amplitude except in Cry2-/- SCN. Thus, the amplitude-enhancing effect of lithium in WT fibroblasts was unaffected by Cry2 knockout and occurred in the absence of period-lengthening, whereas the period-lengthening effect of lithium in WT SCN was unaffected by Cry1 or Cry2 knockout and occurred in the absence of rhythm amplification, suggesting that these two effects of lithium on circadian rhythms are independent of CRYs and of each other. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Impaired neuronal migration and endochondral ossification in Pex7 knockout mice: a model for rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata.

    PubMed

    Brites, Pedro; Motley, Alison M; Gressens, Pierre; Mooyer, Petra A W; Ploegaert, Ingrid; Everts, Vincent; Evrard, Philippe; Carmeliet, Peter; Dewerchin, Mieke; Schoonjans, Luc; Duran, Marinus; Waterham, Hans R; Wanders, Ronald J A; Baes, Myriam

    2003-09-15

    Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata is a human autosomal recessive disorder characterized by skeletal, eye and brain abnormalities. The disorder is caused by mutations in the PEX7 gene, which encodes the receptor for a class of peroxisomal matrix enzymes. We describe the generation and characterization of a Pex7 mouse knockout (Pex7(-/-)). Pex7(-/-) mice are born severely hypotonic and have a growth impairment. Mortality in Pex7(-/-) mice is highest in the perinatal period although some Pex7(-/-) mice survived beyond 18 months. Biochemically Pex7(-/-) mice display the abnormalities related to a Pex7 deficiency, i.e. a severe depletion of plasmalogens, impaired alpha-oxidation of phytanic acid and impaired beta-oxidation of very-long-chain fatty acids. In the intermediate zone of the developing cerebral cortex Pex7(-/-) mice have an increase in neuronal density. In vivo neuronal birthdating revealed that Pex7(-/-) mice have a delay in neuronal migration. Analysis of bone ossification in newborn Pex7(-/-) mice revealed a defect in ossification of distal bone elements of the limbs as well as parts of the skull and vertebrae. These findings demonstrate that Pex7 knockout mice provide an important model to study the role of peroxisomal functioning in the pathogenesis of the human disorder.

  6. Chronic allergic pulmonary inflammation is aggravated in angiotensin-(1-7) Mas receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Giselle S; Rodrigues-Machado, Maria Glória; Motta-Santos, Daisy; Alenina, Natalia; Bader, Michael; Santos, Robson A; Barcelos, Lucíola S; Campagnole-Santos, Maria José

    2016-12-01

    The angiotensin-(1-7) [ANG-(1-7)]/Mas receptor pathway is currently recognized as a counterbalancing mechanism of the renin-angiotensin system in different pathophysiological conditions. We have previously described that treatment with ANG-(1-7) attenuates lung inflammation and remodeling in an experimental model of asthma. In the present study, we investigated whether lack of the Mas receptor could alter the inflammatory response in a model of chronic allergic lung inflammation induced by ovalbumin (OVA). Mas receptor wild-type (MasWT) and knockout (MasKO) mice were subjected to four doses of OVA (20 μg/mice ip) with a 14-day interval. At the 21st day, nebulization with OVA (1%) was started, three times per week until the 46th day. Control groups received saline (0.9% ip) and were nebulized with saline (0.9%). MasWT-OVA developed a modest inflammatory response and minor pulmonary remodeling to OVA challenge. Strikingly, MasKO-OVA presented a significant increase in inflammatory cell infiltrate, increase in extracellular matrix deposition, increase in thickening of the alveolar parenchyma, increase in thickening of the smooth muscle layer of the pulmonary arterioles, increase in proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels in the lungs, characteristic of chronic asthma. Additionally, MasKO-OVA presented an increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation compared with MasWT-OVA. Furthermore, MasKO-OVA showed a worse performance in a test of maximum physical exercise compared with MasWT-OVA. Our study shows that effects triggered by the Mas receptor are important to attenuate the inflammatory and remodeling processes in a model of allergic lung inflammation in mice. Our data indicate that impairment of the ANG-(1-7)/Mas receptor pathway may lead to worsening of the pathophysiological changes of asthma. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Prenatal nicotine exposure increases hyperventilation in α4-knock-out mice during mild asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Avraam, Joanne; Cohen, Gary; Drago, John; Frappell, Peter B

    2015-03-01

    Prenatal nicotine exposure alters breathing and ventilatory responses to stress through stimulation of nicotine acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We tested the hypothesis that α4-containing nAChRs are involved in mediating the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on ventilatory and metabolic responses to intermittent mild asphyxia (MA). Using open-flow plethysmography, we measured ventilation (V̇(E)) and rate of O2 consumption ( V̇(O2)) of wild-type (WT) and α4-knock-out (KO) mice, at postnatal (P) days 1-2 and 7-8, with and without prenatal nicotine exposure (6 mg kg(-1) day(-1) beginning on embryonic day 14). Mice were exposed to seven 2 min cycles of mild asphyxia (10% O2 and 5% CO2), each interspersed with 2 min of air. Compared to WT, α4 KO mice had increased air V̇(E) and V̇(O2) at P7-8, but not P1-2. Irrespective of age, genotype had no effect on the hyperventilatory response (increase in V̇(E)/V̇(O2)) to MA. At P1-2, nicotine suppressed air V̇(E) and V̇(O2) in both genotypes but did not affect the hyperventilatory response to MA. At P7-8 nicotine suppressed air V̇(E) and V̇(O2) of only α4 KO's but also significantly enhanced V̇(E) during MA (nearly double that of WT; p<0.001). This study has revealed complex effects of α4 nAChR deficiency and prenatal nicotine exposure on ventilatory and metabolic interactions and responses to stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Impaired structural and functional regeneration of skeletal muscles from β2-adrenoceptor knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Silva, M T; Wensing, L A; Brum, P C; Câmara, N O; Miyabara, E H

    2014-01-01

    Aims β2-adrenergic stimulation causes beneficial effects on structure and function of regenerating muscles; thus, the β2-adrenoceptor may play an important role in the muscle regenerative process. Here, we investigated the role of the β2-adrenoceptor in skeletal muscle regeneration. Methods Tibialis anterior (TA) muscles from β2-adrenoceptor knockout (β2KO) mice were cryolesioned and analysed after 1, 3, 10 and 21 days. The role of β2-adrenoceptor on regenerating muscles was assessed through the analysis of morphological and contractile aspects, M1 and M2 macrophage profile, cAMP content, and activation of TGF-β signalling elements. Results Regenerating muscles from β2KO mice showed decreased calibre of regenerating myofibres and reduced muscle contractile function at 10 days when compared with those from wild type. The increase in cAMP content in muscles at 10 days post-cryolesion was attenuated in the absence of the β2-adrenoceptor. Furthermore, there was an increase in inflammation and in the number of macrophages in regenerating muscles lacking the β2-adrenoceptor at 3 and 10 days, a predominance of M1 macrophage phenotype, a decrease in TβR-I/Smad2/3 activation, and in the Smad4 expression at 3 days, while akirin1 expression increased at 10 days in muscles from β2KO mice when compared to those from wild type. Conclusions Our results suggest that the β2-adrenoceptor contributes to the regulation of the initial phases of muscle regeneration, especially in the control of macrophage recruitment in regenerating muscle through activation of TβR-I/Smad2/3 and reduction in akirin1 expression. These findings have implications for the future development of better therapeutic approaches to prevent or treat muscle injuries. PMID:24938737

  9. Molecular characterization and development of Sarcocystis speeri sarcocysts in gamma interferon gene knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Verma, S K; Dunams, D; Calero-Bernal, R; Rosenthal, B M

    2015-11-01

    The North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is the definitive host for at least three named species of Sarcocystis: Sarcocystis falcatula, Sarcocystis neurona and Sarcocystis speeri. The South American opossums (Didelphis albiventris, Didelphis marsupialis and Didelphis aurita) are definitive hosts for S. falcatula and S. lindsayi. The sporocysts of these Sarcocystis species are similar morphologically. They are also not easily distinguished genetically because of the difficulties of DNA extraction from sporocysts and availability of distinguishing genetic markers. Some of these species can be distinguished by bioassay; S. neurona and S. speeri are infective to gamma interferon gene knockout (KO) mice, but not to budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus); whereas S. falcatula and S. lindsayi are infective to budgerigars but not to KO mice. The natural intermediate host of S. speeri is unknown. In the present study, development of sarcocysts of S. speeri in the KO mice is described. Sarcocysts were first seen at 12 days post-inoculation (p.i.), and they became macroscopic (up to 4 mm long) by 25 days p.i. The structure of the sarcocyst wall did not change from the time bradyzoites had formed at 50-220 days p.i. Sarcocysts contained unique villar protrusions, 'type 38'. The polymerase chain reaction amplifications and sequences analysis of three nuclear loci (18S rRNA, 28S rRNA and ITS1) and two mitochondrial loci (cox1 and cytb) of S. speeri isolate from an Argentinean opossum (D. albiventris) confirmed its membership among species of Sarcocystis and indicated an especially close relationship to another parasite in this genus that employs opossums as its definitive host, S. neurona. These results should be useful in finding natural intermediate host of S. speeri.

  10. Impaired structural and functional regeneration of skeletal muscles from β2-adrenoceptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Silva, M T; Wensing, L A; Brum, P C; Câmara, N O; Miyabara, E H

    2014-08-01

    β2-adrenergic stimulation causes beneficial effects on structure and function of regenerating muscles; thus, the β2-adrenoceptor may play an important role in the muscle regenerative process. Here, we investigated the role of the β2 -adrenoceptor in skeletal muscle regeneration. Tibialis anterior (TA) muscles from β2-adrenoceptor knockout (β2 KO) mice were cryolesioned and analysed after 1, 3, 10 and 21 days. The role of β2-adrenoceptor on regenerating muscles was assessed through the analysis of morphological and contractile aspects, M1 and M2 macrophage profile, cAMP content, and activation of TGF-β signalling elements. Regenerating muscles from β2 KO mice showed decreased calibre of regenerating myofibres and reduced muscle contractile function at 10 days when compared with those from wild type. The increase in cAMP content in muscles at 10 days post-cryolesion was attenuated in the absence of the β2 -adrenoceptor. Furthermore, there was an increase in inflammation and in the number of macrophages in regenerating muscles lacking the β2-adrenoceptor at 3 and 10 days, a predominance of M1 macrophage phenotype, a decrease in TβR-I/Smad2/3 activation, and in the Smad4 expression at 3 days, while akirin1 expression increased at 10 days in muscles from β2 KO mice when compared to those from wild type. Our results suggest that the β2-adrenoceptor contributes to the regulation of the initial phases of muscle regeneration, especially in the control of macrophage recruitment in regenerating muscle through activation of TβR-I/Smad2/3 and reduction in akirin1 expression. These findings have implications for the future development of better therapeutic approaches to prevent or treat muscle injuries. © 2014 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Impaired cognitive discrimination and discoordination of coupled theta-gamma oscillations in Fmr1 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Radwan, Basma; Dvorak, Dino; Fenton, André

    2016-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) patients do not make the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Absence of FMRP causes dysregulated translation, abnormal synaptic plasticity and the most common form of inherited intellectual disability. But FMRP loss has minimal effects on memory itself, making it difficult to understand why absence of FMRP impairs memory discrimination and increases risk of autistic symptoms in patients, such as exaggerated responses to environmental changes. While Fmr1 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice perform cognitive discrimination tasks, we find abnormal patterns of coupling between theta and gamma oscillations in perisomatic and dendritic hippocampal CA1 local field potentials of the KO. Perisomatic CA1 theta-gamma phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) decreases with familiarity in both the WT and KO, but activating an invisible shock zone, subsequently changing its location, or turning it off, changes the pattern of oscillatory events in the LFPs recorded along the somato-dendritic axis of CA1. The cognition-dependent changes of this pattern of neural activity are relatively constrained in WT mice compared to KO mice, which exhibit abnormally weak changes during the cognitive challenge caused by changing the location of the shock zone and exaggerated patterns of change when the shock zone is turned off. Such pathophysiology might explain how dysregulated translation leads to intellectual disability in FXS. These findings demonstrate major functional abnormalities after the loss of FMRP in the dynamics of neural oscillations and that these impairments would be difficult to detect by steady-state measurements with the subject at rest or in steady conditions. PMID:26792400

  12. Opsin activation of transduction in the rods of dark-reared Rpe65 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jie; Woodruff, Michael L; Cilluffo, Marianne C; Crouch, Rosalie K; Fain, Gordon L

    2005-01-01

    Rpe65 knockout mice (Rpe65−/−) are unable to synthesize the visual pigment chromophore 11-cis retinal; however, if these animals are reared in complete darkness, the rod photoreceptors accumulate a small amount of 9-cis retinal and its corresponding visual pigment isorhodopsin. Suction-electrode recording of single rods from dark-reared Rpe65−/− mice showed that the rods were about 400 times less sensitive than wild-type control rods and that the maximum responses were much smaller in amplitude. Spectral sensitivity measurements indicated that Rpe65−/− rod responses were generated by isorhodopsin rather than rhodopsin. Sensitivity and pigment concentration were compared in the same mice by measuring light responses from rods of one eye and pigment concentration from the retina of the other eye. Retinas had 11–35% of the normal pigment level, but the rods were of the order of 20–30 times less sensitive than could be accounted for by the loss in quantum catch. This extra desensitization must be caused by opsin-dependent activation of the visual cascade, which leads to a state equivalent to light adaptation in the dark-adapted rod. By comparing the sensitivity of dark-reared Rpe65−/− rods to that produced in normal rods by background light, we estimate that Rpe65−/− opsin is of the order of 2.5 × 10−5 as efficient in activating transduction as photoactivated rhodopsin (Rh*) in WT mice. Dark-reared Rpe65−/− rods are less desensitized than rods from cyclic light-reared Rpe65−/− mice, have about 50% more photocurrent and degenerate at a slower rate. Retinas sectioned after 9 months in darkness show a larger number of photoreceptor nuclei in dark-reared animals than in cyclic light-reared animals, though both have fewer nuclei than in cyclic light-reared wild-type retinas. Both also have shorter outer segments and a lower free-Ca2+ concentration. These experiments provide the first quantitative measurement of opsin activation in

  13. Effect of Cyp27A1 gene dosage on atherosclerosis development in ApoE-knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Zurkinden, Line; Solcà, Curzio; Vögeli, Isabelle A.; Vogt, Bruno; Ackermann, Daniel; Erickson, Sandra K.; Frey, Felix J.; Sviridov, Dmitri; Escher, Geneviève

    2014-01-01

    In humans, sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) deficiency leads to cholesterol deposition in tendons and vasculature. Thus, in addition to its role in bile acid synthesis, where it converts cholesterol to 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC), CYP27A1 may also be atheroprotective. Cyp27A1-deficient (Cyp27A1−/−) mice were crossed with apolipoprotein E (apoE)-deficient mice. Cyp27A1+/+/apoE−/− [ApoE-knockout (KO)], Cyp27A1+/−/apoE−/− heterozygous (het), and Cyp27A1−/−/apoE−/− [double-knockout (DKO)] mice were challenged with a Western diet (WD) for 3 and 6 mo. ApoE-KO mice fed a chow diet or a WD were used as the control. The severity of atherosclerosis in DKO mice was reduced 10-fold. Compared with the control, the DKO mice had no 27-OHC, total plasma cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein (LDL/VLDL) concentrations were reduced 2-fold, and HDL was elevated 2-fold. Expression of hepatic CYP7A1, CYP3A, and CYP8B1 were 5- to 10-fold higher. 3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) activity increased 4-fold. Fecal cholesterol was increased. In contrast, het mice fed a WD developed accelerated atherosclerosis and severe skin lesions, possibly because of reduced reverse cholesterol transport due to diminished 27-OHC production. CYP27A1 activity is involved in the control of cholesterol homeostasis and development of atherosclerosis with a distinct gene dose-dependent effect.—Zurkinden, L., Solcà, C., Vögeli, I. A., Vogt, B., Ackermann, D., Erickson, S. K., Frey, F. J., Sviridov, D., Escher, G. Effect of Cyp27A1 gene dosage on atherosclerosis development in ApoE-knockout mice. PMID:24327605

  14. Raphe serotonin neuron-specific oxytocin receptor knockout reduces aggression without affecting anxiety-like behavior in male mice only

    PubMed Central

    Pagani, Jerome H.; Williams Avram, Sarah K.; Cui, Zhenzhong; Song, June; Mezey, Éva; Senerth, Julia M.; Baumann, Michael H.; Young, W. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin and oxytocin influence aggressive and anxiety-like behaviors, though it is unclear how the two may interact. That the oxytocin receptor is expressed in the serotonergic raphe nuclei suggests a mechanism by which the two neurotransmitters may cooperatively influence behavior. We hypothesized that oxytocin acts on raphe neurons to influence serotonergically-mediated anxiety-like, aggressive and parental care behaviors. We eliminated expression of the oxytocin receptor in raphe neurons by crossing mice expressing Cre recombinase under control of the serotonin transporter promoter (Slc6a4) with our conditional oxytocin receptor knockout line. The knockout mice generated by this cross are normal across a range of behavioral measures: there are no effects for either sex on locomotion in an open-field, olfactory habituation/dishabituation or, surprisingly, anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated O and plus mazes. There was a profound deficit in male aggression: only one of 11 raphe oxytocin receptor knockouts showed any aggressive behavior, compared to eight of 11 wildtypes. In contrast, female knockouts displayed no deficits in maternal behavior or aggression. Our results show that oxytocin, via its effects on raphe neurons, is a key regulator of resident-intruder aggression in males but not maternal aggression. Furthermore, this reduction in male aggression is quite different from the effects reported previously after forebrain or total elimination of oxytocin receptors. Finally, we conclude that when constitutively eliminated, oxytocin receptors expressed by serotonin cells do not contribute to baseline anxiety-like behaviors or maternal care. PMID:25677455

  15. GPER/GPR30 Knockout Mice: Effects of GPER on Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Geetanjali; Prossnitz, Eric R

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous estrogens, predominantly 17β-estradiol (E2), mediate various diverse effects throughout the body in both normal physiology and disease. Actions include development (including puberty) and reproduction as well as additional effects throughout life in the metabolic, endocrine, musculoskeletal, nervous, cardiovascular, and immune systems. The actions of E2 have traditionally been attributed to the classical nuclear estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) that largely mediate transcriptional/genomic activities. However, more recently the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor GPER/GPR30 has become recognized as an essential mediator of certain, and particularly rapid, signaling events in response to E2. Murine genetic knockout (KO) models represent an important approach to understand the mechanisms of E2 action in physiology and disease. Studies of GPER KO mice over the last years have revealed functions for GPER in the regulation of obesity, insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, among other areas of (patho)physiology. This chapter focuses on methods for the evaluation of metabolic parameters in vivo and ex vivo with an emphasis on glucose homeostasis and metabolism through the use of glucose and insulin tolerance tests, pancreatic islet and adipocyte isolation and characterization.

  16. Narcoleptic orexin receptor knockout mice express enhanced cholinergic properties in laterodorsal tegmental neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kalogiannis, M.; Grupke, S.L.; Potter, P.E.; Edwards, J.G.; Chemelli, R.M.; Kisanuki, Y.Y.; Yanagisawa, M.; Leonard, C.S.

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacological studies of narcoleptic canines indicate that exaggerated pontine cholinergic transmission promotes cataplexy. Since disruption of orexin (hypocretin) signaling is a primary defect in narcolepsy with cataplexy, we investigated whether markers of cholinergic synaptic transmission might be altered in mice constitutively lacking orexin receptors (double receptor knockout; DKO). We found that choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) and the high-affinity choline transporter (CHT1) but not acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were significantly higher in samples from DKO compared to wild-type (WT) mice. This was region-specific since levels were elevated in samples from the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT) and the fifth motor nucleus (Mo5) but not in whole brainstem samples. Consistent with region-specific changes, we were unable to detect significant differences in Western blots for ChAT and CHT1 in isolates from brainstem, thalamus and cortex or in ChAT enzymatic activity in the pons. However, using ChAT immunocytochemistry, we found that while the number of cholinergic neurons in the LDT and Mo5 were not different, the intensity of somatic ChAT immunostaining was significantly greater in the LDT, but not Mo5, from DKOs compared to WTs. We also found that ChAT activity was significantly reduced in cortical samples from DKOs compared to WTs. Collectively, these findings suggest that the orexins can regulate neurotransmitter expression and that the constitutive absence of orexin signaling results in an up-regulation of the machinery necessary for cholinergic neurotransmission in a mesopontine population of neurons that have been associated with both normal REM sleep and cataplexy. PMID:20576035

  17. Progesterone attenuates depressive behavior of younger and older adult C57/BL6, wildtype, and progesterone receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Frye, Cheryl A

    2011-10-01

    Progesterone may have actions independent of intracellular progestin receptors (PRs) to influence depressive behavior. To investigate this, we examined effects of progesterone (P; 10mg/kg, SC) on the depressive behavior of mice in the forced swim test (FST). In Experiment 1, subjects were 4 to 6 months old, intact or ovariectomized (OVX) female and intact or gonadectomized (GDX) male, C57/BL6 mice. Progesterone reduced depressive behavior of young diestrous and OVX mice but male mice were impervious to effects of P. In Experiment 2, subjects were intact aged (20-28 months old) C57/BL6 female and male mice. Progesterone reduced depressive behavior of aged female and male C57/BL6 mice, albeit effects were greater among males. In Experiment 3, effects of P were examined in 4 to 6 months old, gonadally-intact, female and male mice that were wildtype or PR knockouts (PRKOs). Progesterone decreased depressive behavior of young adult, wildtype and PRKO mice, which showed greater immobility than did their wildtype counterparts. In Experiment 4, subjects were 18-24 months old wildtype or PRKO mice (Exp 4). Progesterone decreased immobility among wildtype and PRKO mice (which were not different in terms of their baseline depressive behavior). Together these data demonstrate that P decreases depressive behavior of young and older adult C57/BL6, wildtype and PRKO mice, which suggest that acute anti-depressant effects of P may occur independent of actions at "classic" PRs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cholesterol-induced hepatic inflammation does not underlie the predisposition to insulin resistance in dyslipidemic female LDL receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Gruben, Nanda; Funke, Anouk; Kloosterhuis, Niels J; Schreurs, Marijke; Sheedfar, Fareeba; Havinga, Rick; Houten, Sander M; Shiri-Sverdlov, Ronit; van de Sluis, Bart; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Koonen, Debby P Y; Hofker, Marten H

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is considered a causal risk factor predisposing to insulin resistance. However, evidence is accumulating that inflammation confined to the liver may not be causal to metabolic dysfunction. To investigate this, we assessed if hepatic inflammation explains the predisposition towards insulin resistance in low-density lipoprotein receptor knock-out (Ldlr (-/-)) mice. For this, wild type (WT) and Ldlr (-/-) mice were fed a chow diet, a high fat (HF) diet, or a high fat, high cholesterol (HFC) diet for 2 weeks. Plasma lipid levels were elevated in chow-fed Ldlr (-/-) mice compared to WT mice. Although short-term HF or HFC feeding did not result in body weight gain and adipose tissue inflammation, dyslipidemia was worsened in Ldlr (-/-) mice compared to WT mice. In addition, dyslipidemic HF-fed Ldlr (-/-) mice had a higher hepatic glucose production rate than HF-fed WT mice, while peripheral insulin resistance was unaffected. This suggests that HF-fed Ldlr (-/-) mice suffered from hepatic insulin resistance. While HFC-fed Ldlr (-/-) mice displayed the anticipated increased hepatic inflammation, this did neither exacerbate systemic nor hepatic insulin resistance. Therefore, our results show that hepatic insulin resistance is unrelated to cholesterol-induced hepatic inflammation in Ldlr (-/-) mice, indicating that hepatic inflammation may not contribute to metabolic dysfunction per se.

  19. Cholesterol-Induced Hepatic Inflammation Does Not Underlie the Predisposition to Insulin Resistance in Dyslipidemic Female LDL Receptor Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gruben, Nanda; Funke, Anouk; Kloosterhuis, Niels J.; Schreurs, Marijke; Sheedfar, Fareeba; Havinga, Rick; Houten, Sander M.; van de Sluis, Bart; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Koonen, Debby P. Y.; Hofker, Marten H.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is considered a causal risk factor predisposing to insulin resistance. However, evidence is accumulating that inflammation confined to the liver may not be causal to metabolic dysfunction. To investigate this, we assessed if hepatic inflammation explains the predisposition towards insulin resistance in low-density lipoprotein receptor knock-out (Ldlr −/−) mice. For this, wild type (WT) and Ldlr −/− mice were fed a chow diet, a high fat (HF) diet, or a high fat, high cholesterol (HFC) diet for 2 weeks. Plasma lipid levels were elevated in chow-fed Ldlr −/− mice compared to WT mice. Although short-term HF or HFC feeding did not result in body weight gain and adipose tissue inflammation, dyslipidemia was worsened in Ldlr −/− mice compared to WT mice. In addition, dyslipidemic HF-fed Ldlr −/− mice had a higher hepatic glucose production rate than HF-fed WT mice, while peripheral insulin resistance was unaffected. This suggests that HF-fed Ldlr −/− mice suffered from hepatic insulin resistance. While HFC-fed Ldlr −/− mice displayed the anticipated increased hepatic inflammation, this did neither exacerbate systemic nor hepatic insulin resistance. Therefore, our results show that hepatic insulin resistance is unrelated to cholesterol-induced hepatic inflammation in Ldlr −/− mice, indicating that hepatic inflammation may not contribute to metabolic dysfunction per se. PMID:25815343

  20. Sucrose-conditioned flavor preferences in sweet ageusic T1r3 and Calhm1 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Sclafani, Anthony; Marambaud, Philippe; Ackroff, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The present study compared the ability of sweet ageusic T1r3 knockout (KO) and Calhm1 KO mice to acquire preferences for a sucrose-paired flavor as well as for unflavored sucrose. The KO and wildtype (WT) mice were given 24-h one-bottle access to 8% sucrose containing one flavor (CS+, e.g., grape) and to water containing a different flavor (CS-, e.g., cherry) over 4 training days. In subsequent two-bottle tests with the flavors in water only, the T1r3 KO and Calhm1 KO mice, like WT mice, preferred the CS+ to the CS-. After training with flavored solutions, both KO groups also preferred unflavored 8% sucrose to water although Calhm1 KO mice required more sugar experience to match the preference of the T1r3 KO mice. These findings demonstrate that Calhm1 KO mice, like T1r3 KO mice and WT mice, are sensitive to the post-oral preference conditioning actions of sucrose and can discriminate sugar from water. Yet, despite their acquired sucrose preferences, the Calhm1 KO and T1r3 KO mice consumed only half as much sugar per day as did WT mice. Thus, sweet taste signaling elements are not needed in the gut for sugar conditioning, but sweet taste signaling in the mouth is essential for the full expression of sugar appetite. PMID:24384370

  1. Progesterone attenuates depressive behavior of younger and older adult C57/BL6, wildtype, and progesterone receptor knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Cheryl A.

    2012-01-01

    Progesterone may have actions independent of intracellular progestin receptors (PRs) to influence depressive behavior. To investigate this, we examined effects of progesterone (P; 10 mg/kg, SC) on the depressive behavior of mice in the forced swim test (FST). In Experiment 1, subjects were 4 to 6 months old, intact or ovariectomized (OVX) female and intact or gonadectomized (GDX) male, C57/BL6 mice. Progesterone reduced depressive behavior of young diestrous and OVX mice but male mice were impervious to effects of P. In Experiment 2, subjects were intact aged (20–28 months old) C57/BL6 female and male mice. Progesterone reduced depressive behavior of aged female and male C57/BL6 mice, albeit effects were greater among males. In Experiment 3, effects of P were examined in 4 to 6 months old, gonadally-intact, female and male mice that were wildtype or PR knockouts (PRKOs). Progesterone decreased depressive behavior of young adult, wildtype and PRKO mice, which showed greater immobility than did their wildtype counterparts. In Experiment 4, subjects were 18–24 months old wildtype or PRKO mice (Exp 4). Progesterone decreased immobility among wildtype and PRKO mice (which were not different in terms of their baseline depressive behavior). Together these data demonstrate that P decreases depressive behavior of young and older adult C57/BL6, wildtype and PRKO mice, which suggest that acute anti-depressant effects of P may occur independent of actions at “classic” PRs. PMID:21669220

  2. Role of Olfaction in the Conditioned Sucrose Preference of Sweet-Ageusic T1R3 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zukerman, Steven; Touzani, Khalid; Margolskee, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    Prior work has shown that sweet taste–deficient T1R3 knockout (KO) mice developed significant sucrose preferences when given long-term sugar versus water tests. The current study investigated the role of olfaction in this experience-conditioned sucrose preference. T1R3 KO and C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice were given 24-h sugar versus water tests with ascending concentrations of sucrose (0.5–32%), after which the mice received olfactory bulbectomy (OBx) or sham surgery. When retested with sucrose, the Sham-KO mice preferred all sugar solutions to water, although their intake and preference were less than those of the Sham-WT mice. The OBx-KO mice, in contrast, showed no or weak preferences for dilute sucrose solutions (0.5–8%) although they strongly preferred concentrated sugar solutions (16–32%). OBx-WT mice displayed only a partial reduction in their sucrose preference. Although the OBx mice of both genotypes underconsumed dilute sucrose solutions relative to Sham mice, they overconsumed concentrated sucrose. These results indicate that olfaction plays a critical role in the conditioned preference of T1R3 KO mice for dilute sugar solutions. Further, the fact that OBx-KO mice preferred concentrated sucrose solutions in the absence of normal sweet taste and olfactory sensations underscores the potency of postoral nutritive signals in promoting ingestion. PMID:19736224

  3. Sucrose-conditioned flavor preferences in sweet ageusic T1r3 and Calhm1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Anthony; Marambaud, Philippe; Ackroff, Karen

    2014-03-14

    The present study compared the ability of sweet ageusic T1r3 knockout (KO) and Calhm1 KO mice to acquire preferences for a sucrose-paired flavor as well as for unflavored sucrose. The KO and wildtype (WT) mice were given 24-h one-bottle access to 8% sucrose containing one flavor CS+, e.g., grape) and to water containing a different flavor (CS-, e.g., cherry) over 4 training days. In subsequent two-bottle tests with the flavors in water only, the T1r3 KO and Calhm1 KO mice, like WT mice, preferred the CS+ to the CS-. After training with flavored solutions, both KO groups also preferred unflavored 8% sucrose to water although Calhm1 KO mice required more sugar experience to match the preference of the T1r3 KO mice. These findings demonstrate that Calhm1 KO mice, like T1r3 KO mice and WT mice, are sensitive to the post-oral preference conditioning actions of sucrose and can discriminate sugar from water. Yet, despite their acquired sucrose preferences, the Calhm1 KO and T1r3 KO mice consumed only half as much sugar per day as did WT mice. Thus, sweet taste signaling elements are not needed in the gut for sugar conditioning, but sweet taste signaling in the mouth is essential for the full expression of sugar appetite. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Differential lumbar spinal cord responses among wild type, CD4 knockout, and CD40 knockout mice in spinal nerve L5 transection-induced neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ling; Beaulac, Holly; Eurich, Adriana

    2012-12-18

    Our previous studies have indicated that both lumbar spinal cord-infiltrating CD4+ T cells and microglial CD40 contribute to the maintenance of mechanical hypersensitivity in a murine model of neuropathic pain spinal nerve L5 transection (L5Tx). To further delineate the CD4 and CD40-mediated mechanisms involved in the development of L5Tx-induced neuropathic pain behaviors, we examined the lumbar spinal cord mononuclear cells of wild type (WT) BALB/c, BALB/c-CD4 knockout (KO), and BALB/c-CD40 KO mice via flow cytometry. In WT mice, L5Tx induced significant but transient (at day 3 and/or day 7) increases of the total numbers of mononuclear cells, microglial cells (CD45loCD11b+), and infiltrating leukocytes (CD45hi) in the ipsilateral side of the spinal cord. In CD4 KO mice, significant elevation of microglia was detected only on day 7 post-L5Tx, while no significant increase in infiltrating leukocytes post-L5Tx was observed. CD40 KO mice did not exhibit any of the changes observed in WT mice. Furthermore, neutralizing CD40 antibody treatment indicated an early involvement of CD40 signaling in the development of L5Tx-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. Altogether, data indicate that both CD4 and CD40 play a role in L5Tx-induced leukocyte infiltration into the lumbar spinal cord but have differential contributions to spinal cord microglial activation following peripheral nerve injury.

  5. Rapid multislice T1 mapping of mouse myocardium: Application to quantification of manganese uptake in α-Dystrobrevin knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Kai; Li, Wen; Li, Wei; Jiao, Sen; Castel, Laurie; Van Wagoner, David R; Yu, Xin

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a rapid, multislice cardiac T1 mapping method in mice and to apply the method to quantify manganese (Mn(2+)) uptake in a mouse model with altered Ca(2+) channel activity. An electrocardiography-triggered multislice saturation-recovery Look-Locker method was developed and validated both in vitro and in vivo. A two-dose study was performed to investigate the kinetics of T1 shortening, Mn(2+) relaxivity in myocardium, and the impact of Mn(2+) on cardiac function. The sensitivity of Mn(2+)-enhanced MRI in detecting subtle changes in altered Ca(2+) channel activity was evaluated in a mouse model with α-dystrobrevin knockout. Validation studies showed strong agreement between the current method and an established method. High Mn(2+) dose led to significantly accelerated T1 shortening. Heart rate decreased during Mn(2+) infusion, while ejection ratio increased slightly at the end of imaging protocol. No statistical difference in cardiac function was detected between the two dose groups. Mice with α-dystrobrevin knockout showed enhanced Mn(2+) uptake in vivo. In vitro patch-clamp study showed increased Ca(2+) channel activity. The saturation recovery method provides rapid T1 mapping in mouse hearts, which allowed sensitive detection of subtle changes in Mn(2+) uptake in α-dystrobrevin knockout mice. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Behavioral and gene expression analyses of Wfs1 knockout mice as a possible animal model of mood disorder.

    PubMed

    Kato, Tadafumi; Ishiwata, Mizuho; Yamada, Kazuyuki; Kasahara, Takaoki; Kakiuchi, Chihiro; Iwamoto, Kazuya; Kawamura, Koki; Ishihara, Hisamitsu; Oka, Yoshitomo

    2008-06-01

    Wolfram disease is a rare genetic disorder frequently accompanying depression and psychosis. Non-symptomatic mutation carriers also have higher rates of depression and suicide. Because WfS1, the causative gene of Wolfram disease, is located at 4p16, a linkage locus for bipolar disorder, mutations of WfS1 were suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. In this study, we performed behavioral and gene expression analyses of Wfs1 knockout mice to assess the validity as an animal model of mood disorder. In addition, the distribution of Wfs1 protein was examined in mouse brain. Wfs1 knockout mice did not show abnormalities in circadian rhythm and periodic fluctuation of wheel-running activity. Behavioral analysis showed that Wfs1 knockout mice had retardation in emotionally triggered behavior, decreased social interaction, and altered behavioral despair depending on experimental conditions. Wfs1-like immunoreactivity in mouse brain showed a similar distribution pattern to that in rats, including several nuclei potentially relevant to the symptoms of mood disorders. Gene expression analysis showed down-regulation of Cdc42ep5 and Rnd1, both of which are related to Rho GTPase, which plays a role in dendrite development. These findings may be relevant to the mood disorder observed in patients with Wolfram disease.

  7. Roles of hepatic glucokinase in intertissue metabolic communication: Examination of novel liver-specific glucokinase knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Hirofumi; Sato, Yoshifumi; Li, Zhenghua; Yamamura, Ken-ichi; Yoshizawa, Tatsuya; Yamagata, Kazuya

    2015-05-08

    Glucokinase is expressed principally in pancreatic β-cells and hepatocytes, and catalyzes the phosphorylation of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate, a rate-limiting step of glycolysis. To better understand the roles of hepatic glucokinase, we generated Gck knockout mice by ablating liver-specific exon 1b. The knockout mice exhibited impaired glucose tolerance, decreased hepatic glycogen content, and reduced Pklr and Fas gene expression in the liver, indicating that hepatic glucokinase plays important roles in glucose metabolism. It has also been reported that hepatic glucokinase regulates the expression of thermogenesis-related genes in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and insulin secretion in response to glucose. However, the liver-specific Gck knockout mice displayed neither altered expression of thermogenesis-related genes in BAT nor impaired insulin secretion by β-cells under a normal chow diet. These results suggest that chronic suppression of hepatic glucokinase has a small influence on intertissue (liver-to-BAT as well as liver-to-β-cell) metabolic communication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Targeted Disruption of the Meprin β Gene in Mice Leads to Underrepresentation of Knockout Mice and Changes in Renal Gene Expression Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Lourdes P.; Jiang, Weiping; Han, Xiaoli; Saunders, Thomas L.; Bond, Judith S.

    2003-01-01

    Meprins are multidomain zinc metalloproteases that are highly expressed in mammalian kidney and intestinal brush border membranes and in leukocytes and certain cancer cells. Mature meprins are oligomers of evolutionarily related, separately encoded α and/or β subunits. Homooligomers of meprin α are secreted; oligomers containing meprin β are plasma membrane associated. Meprin substrates include bioactive peptides and extracellular matrix proteins. Meprins have been implicated in cancer and intestinal inflammation. Additionally, meprin β is a candidate gene for diabetic nephropathy. To elucidate in vivo functions of these metalloproteases, meprin β null mice were generated by targeted disruption of the meprin β gene on mouse chromosome 18q12. Analyses of meprin β knockout mice indicated that (i) 50% fewer null mice are born than the Mendelian distribution predicts, (ii) null mice that survive develop normally and are viable and fertile, (iii) meprin β knockout mice lack membrane-associated meprin α in kidney and intestine, and (iv) null mice have changes in renal gene expression profiles compared to wild-type mice as assessed by microarray analyses. Thus, disruption of the meprin β allele in mice affects embryonic viability, birth weight, renal gene expression profiles, and the distribution of meprin α in kidney and intestine. PMID:12556482

  9. Rapid and highly efficient inducible cardiac gene knockout in adult mice using AAV-mediated expression of Cre recombinase.

    PubMed

    Werfel, Stanislas; Jungmann, Andreas; Lehmann, Lorenz; Ksienzyk, Jan; Bekeredjian, Raffi; Kaya, Ziya; Leuchs, Barbara; Nordheim, Alfred; Backs, Johannes; Engelhardt, Stefan; Katus, Hugo A; Müller, Oliver J

    2014-10-01

    Inducible gene targeting in mice using the Cre/LoxP system has become a valuable tool to analyse the roles of specific genes in the adult heart. However, the commonly used Myh6-MerCreMer system requires time-consuming breeding schedules and is potentially associated with cardiac side effects, which may result in transient cardiac dysfunction. The aim of our study was to establish a rapid and simple system for cardiac gene inactivation in conditional knockout mice by gene transfer of a Cre recombinase gene using adeno-associated viral vectors of serotype 9 (AAV9). AAV9 vectors expressing Cre under the control of a human cardiac troponin T promoter (AAV-TnT-Cre) enabled a highly efficient Cre/LoxP switching in cardiomyocytes 2 weeks after injection into 5- to 6-week-old ROSA26-LacZ reporter mice. Recombination efficiency was at least as high as observed with the Myh6-MerCreMer system. No adverse side effects were detected upon application of AAV-TnT-Cre. As proof of principle, we studied AAV-TnT-Cre in a conditional knockout model (Srf-flex1 mice) to deplete the myocardium of the transcription factor serum response factor (SRF). Four weeks after AAV-TnT-Cre injection, a strong decrease in the cardiac expression of SRF mRNA and protein was observed. Furthermore, mice developed a severe cardiac dysfunction with increased interstitial fibrosis in accordance with the central role of SRF for the expression of contractile and calcium trafficking proteins in the heart. AAV9-mediated expression of Cre is a promising approach for rapid and efficient conditional cardiac gene knockout in adult mice. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Chronic administration of methamphetamine promotes atherosclerosis formation in ApoE-/- knockout mice fed normal diet.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bo; Li, Lun; Zhu, Pengfei; Zhang, Mingjing; Hou, Lingbo; Sun, Yufei; Liu, Xiaoyan; Peng, Xiaohong; Gu, Ye

    2015-11-01

    Chronic methamphetamine (METH) abuse could induce neurotoxicity due to reactive oxygen species generation and sympathetic activation. Both factors are associated with atherosclerosis, so we tested the hypothesis that chronic METH administration might also promote atherosclerosis formation in Apo E-/- knockout mice fed normal diet. Male ApoE-/- mice (6 weeks-old) were treated with saline (NS) or METH [4 mg/kg/day (M4) or 8 mg/kg/day (M8) through intraperitoneal injection] for 24 weeks. Atherosclerotic lesion area on oil red O stained en face aorta was dose-dependently increased in M4 and M8 groups compared to NS group. Percentage of atherosclerotic lesion area was significantly higher in M8 group compared to NS and M4 groups. Plasma CRP was increased and inflammatory cytokine (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, TNF-α, and INF-γ) expression on aortic root was upregulated in METH groups compared to NS group. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) protein and mRNA expressions in aortic root and myocardial tissue were determined by Western blot and real time PCR, which were significantly upregulated in M4 and M8 groups. Moreover, mRNA expressions of NPY1R, NPY2R and NPY5R in aortic and myocardial tissue were also significantly upregulated in M4 and M8 groups. Raw264.7 cells were treated with NPY, NPY receptor antagonists, METH (10 μM or 100 μM) with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the expressions of TNF-α, CRP, MCP-1 and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were significantly increased in METH and LPS + METH groups compared to control and LPS groups. Co-treatment with NPY1R antagonist decreased the expressions of TNF-α, CRP and MCP-1 in NPY and METH treated cells. Chronic METH administration can promote inflammation and atherosclerotic plague formation in ApoE-/- mice fed normal chow. NPY might be involved in the pathogenesis of METH-induced atherogenic effects through NPY Y1 receptor pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Organic anion transporter 3 (Oat3/Slc22a8) knockout mice exhibit altered clearance and distribution of penicillin G

    PubMed Central

    VanWert, Adam L.; Bailey, Rachel M.; Sweet, Douglas H.

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of renal basolateral organic anion transporter 3 (Oat3) with commonly used pharmacotherapeutics (e.g., NSAIDs, β-lactams, and methotrexate) has been studied extensively in vitro. However, the in vivo role of Oat3 in drug disposition, in the context of other transporters, glomerular filtration, and metabolism, has not been established. Moreover, recent investigations have identified inactive human OAT3 polymorphisms. Therefore, this investigation was designed to elucidate the in vivo role of Oat3 in the disposition of penicillin G and prototypical substrates using an Oat3 knockout mouse model. Oat3 deletion resulted in a doubling of penicillin’s half-life (P < 0.05) and a reduced volume of distribution (P < 0.01), together yielding a plasma clearance that was one-half (P < 0.05, males) to one-third (P < 0.001, females) of that in wild-type mice. Inhibition of Oat3 abolished the differences in penicillin G elimination between genotypes. Hepatic accumulation of penicillin was 2.3 times higher in male knockouts (P < 0.05) and 3.7 times higher in female knockouts (P < 0.001). Female knockouts also exhibited impaired estrone-3-sulfate clearance. Oat3 deletion did not impact p-aminohippurate elimination, providing correlative evidence to studies in Oat1 knockout mice that suggest Oat1 governs tubular uptake of p-aminohippurate. Collectively, these findings are the first to indicate that functional Oat3 is necessary for proper elimination of xenobiotic and endogenous compounds in vivo. Thus Oat3 plays a distinct role in determining the efficacy and toxicity of drugs. Dysfunctional human OAT3 polymorphisms or instances of polypharmacy involving OAT3 substrates may result in altered systemic accumulation of β-lactams and other clinically relevant compounds. PMID:17686950

  12. Progesterone reduces depressive behavior of young ovariectomized, aged progestin receptor knockout, and aged wild type mice in the tail suspension test.

    PubMed

    Frye, Cheryl A

    2011-03-01

    Progestins may have effects to reduce depressive behavior, in part through actions of its metabolite, 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one (3α,5α-THP) at GABA(A) receptors, rather than through intracellular progestin receptors. In this study, we examined the effects of progesterone (10 mg/kg, subcutaneous injection) versus vehicle control (propylene glycol) on the depressive behavior of young and aged mice in the tail suspension test. In Experiment 1, we first characterized progesterone's anti-depressant effects by utilizing young (4-6-month-old) intact or ovariectomized female, and intact or gonadectomized male, C57BL/6 mice. Young female mice showed more depressive behavior than the young male mice. Compared with vehicle administration, progesterone reduced depressive behavior of ovariectomized female, but not male or intact female mice. In Experiment 2, mice were aged (20-24-month-old) intact wild type or progestin receptor knockout mice. Progestin receptor knockout mice showed less depressive behavior than wild type mice. Administration of progesterone to wild type and progestin receptor knockout mice reduced depressive behavior. Together, these data suggest that progesterone can decrease depressive behavior of young adult ovariectomized female, aged wild type and progestin receptor knockout mice. Thus, progesterone's effect to reduce depressive behavior of aged mice may not require actions at the intracellular progestin receptors.

  13. Male Infertility and DNA Damage in Doppel Knockout and Prion Protein/Doppel Double-Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Paisley, Derek; Banks, Stephen; Selfridge, Jim; McLennan, Neil F.; Ritchie, Ann-Marie; McEwan, Carolanne; Irvine, D. Stewart; Saunders, Philippa T. K.; Manson, Jean C.; Melton, David W.

    2004-01-01

    The prion protein (PrP) and Doppel (Dpl) have many structural and biochemical properties in common, leading to the suggestion that the lack of an obvious phenotype in PrP-deficient mice maybe because of compensation by Dpl. To test this hypothesis and also investigate the function of Dpl we have generated Prnd−/− and Prnp−/−/Prnd−/− mouse lines. Both develop normally and display an identical male sterility phenotype that differs from that reported for another Prnd−/− mouse line. Sperm from both our mutant lines were present at normal concentrations, had normal motility, and no morphological abnormalities. Despite only rarely fertilizing oocytes in vivo, because of an inability to perform the acrosome reaction, mutant sperm were capable of fertilization in vitro, albeit at reduced rates compared to wild type. Elevated levels of oxidative DNA damage were found in both types of mutant sperm and resulting embryos failed at an early stage. Therefore we found no evidence that Dpl compensates for the loss of PrP function in mutant mouse lines, but it does have an important anti-oxidant function necessary for sperm integrity and male fertility. PMID:15161660

  14. Behavioral analyses of visually impaired Crx knockout mice revealed sensory compensation in exploratory activities on elevated platforms.

    PubMed

    Iura, Yoichiro; Udo, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Visual perception is important for acquiring spatial information in many animals, and loss of vision often causes devastating effects on their survival. However, it may be compensated to some extent by utilizing other intact sensory modalities. The cone-rod homeobox (Crx) gene plays a key role in development of photoreceptor cells, but behavioral consequences of the gene deletion have not been well characterized. In this study, we analyzed homozygous knockout (Crx(-/-)) mice by comparing with heterozygous knockout (Crx(+/-)) mice as controls. We first checked their vision with three different behavioral paradigms of the glass table visual recognition test, the light-dark transition test, and the Barnes maze test with a visual cue, all of which indicated that Crx(-/-) mice were blind while Crx(+/-) mice were sighted. In the fear conditioning test, Crx(-/-) mice were able to acquire both contextual and cued memory using non-visual information. Crx(-/-) mice showed normal thigmotaxis, but the exploratory activities were significantly increased. In the elevated plus maze test, it was unexpected that Crx(-/-) mice rarely fell down from the narrow platform. There was no reduction in their moving speeds and the moving distance was rather increased in Crx(-/-) mice. Such behaviors were not affected by trimming their whiskers. However, attachment of earplugs significantly reduced their exploratory activities. In summary, these data suggest that Crx(-/-) mice were behaviorally blind but were able to learn and recognize external environment utilizing non-visual information, as exemplified by sensory compensation in exploratory activities on elevated platforms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Behavioral phenotyping of calcium channel (CACN) subunit α2δ3 knockout mice: Consequences of sensory cross-modal activation.

    PubMed

    Landmann, Julia; Richter, Franziska; Classen, Joseph; Richter, Angelika; Penninger, Josef M; Bechmann, Ingo

    2018-01-02

    Sensory cross-activation is still ill-defined and research concerning the consequences of sensory mergence on normal brain function is very limited. Human studies describe behavioral benefits of people with synesthesia- a peculiar form of perception possibly due to cross-modal activation- regarding sensory and memory abilities. Here, we studied behavioral alterations in calcium channel (CACN) subunit α2δ3 knockout (KO) mice exhibiting pain-induced cortical cross-modal activation. Knockout mice exhibited an increased response upon touch of a pinna and impaired audition, while elementary olfaction, vision, somatosensation and motor function were not altered. In contrast to synesthetic humans for whom enhanced memory function had been described, α2δ3 KO mice might have developed defects for object-based memory. However, in a task requiring use of multiple modalities, mutant mice revealed an enhanced performance compared to wild-type controls. Furthermore, several tests revealed evidence for increased anxiety-like behavior of α2δ3 KO animals. In summary, deficits in single sensory abilities and a potential gain in processing simultaneous sensory information in α2δ3 KO mice might represent behavioral correlates of sensory cross-activation. Further, our data suggest a role of CACNα2δ3 within the functionality of the sensory system, but not the motor system and general health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4 isoform 2-knockout mice show reduced enzyme activity, airway hyporeactivity, and lung pathology

    PubMed Central

    Hüttemann, Maik; Lee, Icksoo; Gao, Xiufeng; Pecina, Petr; Pecinova, Alena; Liu, Jenney; Aras, Siddhesh; Sommer, Natascha; Sanderson, Thomas H.; Tost, Monica; Neff, Frauke; Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan Antonio; Becker, Lore; Naton, Beatrix; Rathkolb, Birgit; Rozman, Jan; Favor, Jack; Hans, Wolfgang; Prehn, Cornelia; Puk, Oliver; Schrewe, Anja; Sun, Minxuan; Höfler, Heinz; Adamski, Jerzy; Bekeredjian, Raffi; Graw, Jochen; Adler, Thure; Busch, Dirk H.; Klingenspor, Martin; Klopstock, Thomas; Ollert, Markus; Wolf, Eckhard; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Weissmann, Norbert; Doan, Jeffrey W.; Bassett, David J. P.; Grossman, Lawrence I.

    2012-01-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The purpose of this study was to analyze the function of lung-specific cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4 isoform 2 (COX4i2) in vitro and in COX4i2-knockout mice in vivo. COX was isolated from cow lung and liver as control and functionally analyzed. COX4i2-knockout mice were generated and the effect of the gene knockout was determined, including COX activity, tissue energy levels, noninvasive and invasive lung function, and lung pathology. These studies were complemented by a comprehensive functional screen performed at the German Mouse Clinic (Neuherberg, Germany). We show that isolated cow lung COX containing COX4i2 is about twice as active (88 and 102% increased activity in the presence of allosteric activator ADP and inhibitor ATP, respectively) as liver COX, which lacks COX4i2. In COX4i2-knockout mice, lung COX activity and cellular ATP levels were significantly reduced (−50 and −29%, respectively). Knockout mice showed decreased airway responsiveness (60% reduced Penh and 58% reduced airway resistance upon challenge with 25 and 100 mg methacholine, respectively), and they developed a lung pathology deteriorating with age that included the appearance of Charcot-Leyden crystals. In addition, there was an interesting sex-specific phenotype, in which the knockout females showed reduced lean mass (−12%), reduced total oxygen consumption rate (−8%), improved glucose tolerance, and reduced grip force (−14%) compared to wild-type females. Our data suggest that high activity lung COX is a central determinant of airway function and is required for maximal airway responsiveness and healthy lung function. Since airway constriction requires energy, we propose a model in which reduced tissue ATP levels explain protection from airway hyperresponsiveness, i.e., absence of COX4i2 leads to reduced lung COX activity and ATP levels, which results in impaired airway constriction

  17. Apolipoprotein E-knockout mice on high-fat diet show autoimmune injury on kidney and aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yuehai; Cardiovascular Department, The Second Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000; Lu, Huixia

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Titers of ANA and anti-dsDNA antibodies were similar in ApoE{sup −/−} and Fas{sup −/−} mice. • The spleen weights and glomerular areas were similar in ApoE{sup −/−} and Fas{sup −/−} mice. • Expressions of IgG and C3 in glomeruli were similar in ApoE{sup −/−} and Fas{sup −/−} mice. • IgG, C3 and macrophage infiltration in aortic plaques were found in ApoE{sup −/−} mice. - Abstract: Background: Apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE{sup −/−}) mice is a classic model of atherosclerosis. We have found that ApoE{sup −/−} mice showed splenomegaly, higher titers of serum anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) and anti-dsDNA antibody compared withmore » C57B6/L (B6) mice. However, whether ApoE{sup −/−} mice show autoimmune injury remains unclear. Methods and results: Six females and six males in each group, ApoE{sup −/−}, Fas{sup −/−} and B6 mice, were used in this study. The titers of serum ANA, anti-dsDNA antibody and creatinine and urine protein were measured by ELISA after 4 months of high-fat diet. The spleen weight and the glomerular area were determined. The expressions of IgG, C3 and macrophage in kidney and atherosclerotic plaque were detected by immunostaining followed by morphometric analysis. Similar to the characteristics of Fas{sup −/−} mice, a model of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), ApoE{sup −/−} mice, especially female, displayed significant increases of spleen weight and glomerular area when compared to B6 mice. Also, elevated titers of serum ANA, anti-dsDNA antibody and creatinine and urine protein. Moreover, the expressions of IgG, C3 and macrophage in glomeruli and aortic plaques were found in ApoE{sup −/−} mice. In addition, the IgG and C3 expressions in glomeruli and plaques significantly increased (or a trend of increase) in female ApoE{sup −/−} mice compared with males. Conclusions: Apolipoprotein E-knockout mice on high-fat diet show autoimmune injury on kidney and aorta.« less

  18. Rescue of heart lipoprotein lipase-knockout mice confirms a role for triglyceride in optimal heart metabolism and function.

    PubMed

    Khan, Raffay S; Lin, Yan; Hu, Yunying; Son, Ni-Huiping; Bharadwaj, Kalyani G; Palacios, Carla; Chokshi, Aalap; Ji, Ruiping; Yu, Shuiqing; Homma, Sunichi; Schulze, P Christian; Tian, Rong; Goldberg, Ira J

    2013-12-01

    Hearts utilize fatty acids as a primary source of energy. The sources of those lipids include free fatty acids and lipoprotein triglycerides. Deletion of the primary triglyceride-hydrolyzing enzyme lipoprotein lipase (LPL) leads to cardiac dysfunction. Whether heart LPL-knockout (hLPL0) mice are compromised due a deficiency in energetic substrates is unknown. To test whether alternative sources of energy will prevent cardiac dysfunction in hLPL0 mice, two different models were used to supply nonlipid energy. 1) hLPL0 mice were crossed with mice transgenically expressing GLUT1 in cardiomyocytes to increase glucose uptake into the heart; this cross-corrected cardiac dysfunction, reduced cardiac hypertrophy, and increased myocardial ATP. 2) Mice were randomly assigned to a sedentary or training group (swimming) at 3 mo of age, which leads to increased skeletal muscle production of lactate. hLPL0 mice had greater expression of the lactate transporter monocarboxylate transporter-1 (MCT-1) and increased cardiac lactate uptake. Compared with hearts from sedentary hLPL0 mice, hearts from trained hLPL0 mice had adaptive hypertrophy and improved cardiac function. We conclude that defective energy intake and not the reduced uptake of fat-soluble vitamins or cholesterol is responsible for cardiac dysfunction in hLPL0 mice. In addition, our studies suggest that adaptations in cardiac metabolism contribute to the beneficial effects of exercise on the myocardium of patients with heart failure.

  19. The influence of angiotensin-(1-7) peptidomimetic (AVE 0991) and nebivolol on angiotensin I metabolism in aorta of apoE-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Olszanecki, R; Suski, M; Gebska, A; Toton-Zuranska, J; Kus, K; Madej, J; Bujak-Gizycka, B; Jawien, J; Korbut, R

    2013-06-01

    The detrimental role of over activation of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in atherogenesis is widely recognized. Recently, we have demonstrated that Ang-(1-7) peptidomimetic - AVE0991, as well as known beta-adrenolytic agent nebivolol, exert anti-atherogenic actions in mouse model of atherosclerosis - apoE-knockout mice. Here, using LC-ESI-MS ex vivo system, we tested whether prolonged treatment of apoE-knockout mice by these drugs can influence RAS in aorta of apoE-knockout mice in regard to generation of most active metabolites of Ang I-Ang II and Ang-(1-7). As compared to wild type animals there was increased generation of Ang II in aorta of apoE-knockout mice, while the formation of Ang-(1-7) did not differ between both groups. Either treatment with AVE0991 or nebivolol resulted in significant attenuation of Ang II production in aorta of apoE-knockout mice. In conclusion, for the first time we directly demonstrated that there is increase in ability of aortic tissue to generate Ang II in mouse model of atherosclerosis of apoE knockout mice, and that such effect could be efficiently attenuated either by treatment of nebivolol or Ang-(1-7) peptidomimetic - AVE0991. The exact mechanism(s) responsible for interference of both drugs with RAS require further investigation.

  20. Altered emotional behaviors and the expression of 5-HT1A and M1 muscarinic receptors in micro-opioid receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Ji-Hoon; Lee, Seok-Yong; Loh, Horace H; Ho, Ing K; Jang, Choon-Gon

    2004-11-01

    Anxiety and depression alterations have been reported in micro-opioid receptor knockout mice after exon 2 disruption. However, emotional behaviors, such as novelty and emergence responses have not been reported in micro-opioid receptor knockout mice due to the disruptions of exon 2 and 3. Here, we report that mu-opioid receptor knockout mice, with deletion of exon 2 and 3, display significant emotional behavior changes; they showed less anxiety in the elevated plus maze and emergence tests, reduced response to novel stimuli in the novelty test, and less depressive-like behavior in the forced-swim test. Analysis of the compensatory mechanism in mu-opioid receptor knockout mice revealed that the M1 mRNA levels were reduced in the cortex, caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, and hippocampus, and that M1 receptor levels were reduced in the nucleus accumbens, CA1, and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, versus the wild-type. However, 5-HT1A receptor levels were significantly elevated in the cerebral cortex and in the hypothalamus of mu-opioid receptor knockout mice versus the wild-type. These aberrant emotional behavioral phenotypes are possibly related to M1 and 5-HT1A receptor alterations in the micro-opioid receptor knockout mice. Overall, our study suggests that micro-opioid receptor may play a role in the modification of emotional responses to novelty, anxiety, and depression. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Cannabinoid 1 receptor knockout mice display cold allodynia, but enhanced recovery from spared-nerve injury-induced mechanical hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Sideris, Alexandra; Piskoun, Boris; Russo, Lori; Norcini, Monica; Blanck, Thomas; Recio-Pinto, Esperanza

    2016-01-01

    The function of the Cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) in the development of neuropathic pain is not clear. Mounting evidence suggest that CB1R expression and activation may contribute to pain. Cannabinoid 1 receptor knockout mice (CB1R-/-) generated on a C57Bl/6 background exhibit hypoalgesia in the hotplate assay and formalin test. These findings suggest that Cannabinoid 1 receptor expression mediates the responses to at least some types of painful stimuli. By using this mouse line, we sought to determine if the lack of Cannabinoid 1 receptor unveils a general hypoalgesic phenotype, including protection against the development of neuropathic pain. The acetone test was used to measure cold sensitivity, the electronic von Frey was used to measure mechanical thresholds before and after spared-nerve injury, and analysis of footprint patterns was conducted to determine if motor function is differentially affected after nerve-injury in mice with varying levels of Cannabinoid 1 receptor. At baseline, CB1R-/- mice were hypersensitive in the acetone test, and this phenotype was maintained after spared-nerve injury. Using calcium imaging of lumbar dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cultures, a higher percentage of neurons isolated from CB1R-/- mice were menthol sensitive relative to DRG isolated from wild-type (CB1R+/+) mice. Baseline mechanical thresholds did not differ among genotypes, and mechanical hypersensitivity developed similarly in the first two weeks following spared-nerve injury (SNI). At two weeks post-SNI, CB1R-/- mice recovered significantly from mechanical hypersensitivity, while the CB1R+/+ mice did not. Heterozygous knockouts (CB1R+/-) transiently developed cold allodynia only after injury, but recovered mechanical thresholds to a similar extent as the CB1R-/- mice. Sciatic functional indices, which reflect overall nerve health, and alternation coefficients, which indicate uniformity of strides, were not significantly different among genotypes. Cold allodynia and

  2. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of adipose tissue plasticity in muscle insulin receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Cariou, Bertrand; Postic, Catherine; Boudou, Philippe; Burcelin, Rémy; Kahn, C Ronald; Girard, Jean; Burnol, Anne-Françoise; Mauvais-Jarvis, Franck

    2004-04-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) plays a critical role in the development of insulin resistance via secretion of free fatty acids (FFA) and adipocytokines. Muscle-specific insulin receptor knockout (MIRKO) mice do not develop insulin resistance or diabetes under physiological conditions despite a marked increase in adiposity and plasma FFA. On the contrary, WAT of MIRKO is sensitized to insulin action during a euglycemic clamp, and WAT glucose utilization is dramatically increased. To get insight into the potential antidiabetic role of MIRKO adiposity, we have studied insulin action in WAT during a euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic clamp, and we have characterized the morphology and biology of WAT. During the clamp, there is no alteration in the expression or activation in the insulin signaling molecules involved in glucose transport through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt and CAP/Cbl pathways in WAT from MIRKO. The 53% increase in WAT mass results from a 48% increase in adipocyte number (P < 0.05) without alteration in cell size and contemporary to a 300% increase in mRNA levels of the adipogenic transcription factor CCAAT enhancer binding protein-alpha (C/EBP-alpha) (P < 0.05). There is a 39.5% increase in serum adiponectin (P < 0.01) without modification in serum leptin, resistin, and TNF-alpha. In conclusion, the MIRKO mouse displays muscle insulin resistance, visceral obesity, and dyslipidemia but does not develop hyperinsulinemia or diabetes. There is an accelerated differentiation of small insulin sensitive adipocytes, an increased secretion of the insulin sensitizer adiponectin, and maintenance of leptin sensitivity. The MIRKO mouse confirms the importance of WAT plasticity in the maintenance of whole body insulin sensitivity and represents an interesting model to search for new secreted molecules that positively alter adipose tissue biology.

  3. Phosphocreatine kinetics at the onset of contractions in skeletal muscle of MM creatine kinase knockout mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Brian B.; Meyer, Ronald A.; Wiseman, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    Phosphocreatine (PCr) depletion during isometric twitch stimulation at 5 Hz was measured by (31)P-NMR spectroscopy in gastrocnemius muscles of pentobarbital-anesthetized MM creatine kinase knockout (MMKO) vs. wild-type C57B (WT) mice. PCr depletion after 2 s of stimulation, estimated from the difference between spectra gated to times 200 ms and 140 s after 2-s bursts of contractions, was 2.2 +/- 0.6% of initial PCr in MMKO muscle vs. 9.7 +/- 1.6% in WT muscles (mean +/- SE, n = 7, P < 0.001). Initial PCr/ATP ratio and intracellular pH were not significantly different between groups, and there was no detectable change in intracellular pH or ATP in either group after 2 s. The initial difference in net PCr depletion was maintained during the first minute of continuous 5-Hz stimulation. However, there was no significant difference in the quasi-steady-state PCr level approached after 80 s (MMKO 36.1 +/- 3.5 vs. WT 35.5 +/- 4.4% of initial PCr; n = 5-6). A kinetic model of ATPase, creatine kinase, and adenylate kinase fluxes during stimulation was consistent with the observed PCr depletion in MMKO muscle after 2 s only if ADP-stimulated oxidative phosphorylation was included in the model. Taken together, the results suggest that cytoplasmic ADP more rapidly increases and oxidative phosphorylation is more rapidly activated at the onset of contractions in MMKO compared with WT muscles.

  4. Contribution of PPARγ in modulation of acrolein-induced inflammatory signaling in gp91phox knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Yousefipour, Zivar; Chug, Neha; Marek, Katarzyna; Nesbary, Alicia; Mathew, Joseph; Ranganna, Kasturi; Newaz, Mohammad A

    2017-08-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are major contributors to acrolein toxicity. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated the contribution of PPARγ ligand GW1929 to the attenuation of oxidative stress in acrolein-induced insult. Male gp91 phox knock-out (KO) mice were treated with acrolein (0.5 mg·(kg body mass) -1 by intraperitoneal injection for 7 days) with or without GW1929 (GW; 0.5 mg·(kg body mass) -1 ·day -1 , orally, for 10 days). The livers were processed for further analyses. Acrolein significantly increased 8-isoprostane and reduced PPARγ activity (P < 0.05) in the wild type (WT) and KO mice. GW1929 reduced 8-isoprostane (by 32% and 40% in WT and KO mice, respectively) and increased PPARγ activity (by 81% and 92% in WT and KO, respectively). Chemokine activity was increased (by 63%) in acrolein-treated WT mice, and was reduced by GW1929 (by 65%). KO mice exhibited higher xanthine oxidase (XO). Acrolein increased XO and COX in WT mice and XO in KO mice. GW1929 significantly reduced COX in WT and KO mice and reduced XO in KO mice. Acrolein significantly reduced the total antioxidant status in WT and KO mice (P < 0.05), which was improved by GW1929 (by 75% and 74%). The levels of NF-κB were higher in acrolein-treated WT mice. GW1929 reduced NF-κB levels (by 51%) in KO mice. Acrolein increased CD36 in KO mice (by 43%), which was blunted with GW1929. Data confirms that the generation of free radicals by acrolein is mainly through NAD(P)H, but other oxygenates play a role too. GW1929 may alleviate the toxicity of acrolein by attenuating NF-κB, COX, and CD36.

  5. Augmented hepatic injury followed by impaired regeneration in metallothionein-I/II knockout mice after treatment with thioacetamide

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, Jordan R.; Jiang, Sean; Cherian, M. George

    2006-02-01

    A previous study (Oliver, J.R., Mara, T.W., Cherian, M.G. 2005. Impaired hepatic regeneration in metallothionein-I/II knockout mice after partial hepatectomy. Exp. Biol. Med. 230, 61-67) has shown an impairment of liver regeneration following partial hepatectomy (PH) in metallothionein (MT)-I and MT-II gene knockout (MT-null) mice, thus suggesting a requirement for MT in cellular growth. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether MT may play a similar role in hepatic injury and regeneration after acute treatment with thioacetamide (TAA). Hepatotoxicity of TAA is caused by the generation of oxidative stress. TAA was injected ip to both wild-type (WT) and MT-nullmore » mice. Mice were killed at 6, 12, 24, 48, 60, and 72 h after injection of TAA (125 mg/kg) or 48 h after injection of saline (vehicle control), and different parameters of hepatic injury were measured. The levels of hepatic lipid peroxidation were increased at 12 h in both types of mice; however, lipid peroxidation was significantly less in WT mice than MT-null mice at 48 h after injection of TAA. Analysis of hepatic glutathione (GSH) levels after TAA injection showed depletion of GSH at 12 h in WT mice and at 6 h in MT-null mice; however, significantly more GSH was depleted early (6-24 h) in MT-null mice than WT mice. An increase in hepatic iron (Fe) levels was observed in both types of mice after injection of TAA, but Fe levels were significantly higher in MT-null mice than WT mice at 6-60 h. The levels of hepatic copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) were significantly higher in WT mice than MT-null mice at 6-60 h for Cu, and at 24 h and 60 h for Zn, respectively. Histopathological examination showed hemorrhagic necrosis in the liver of both types of mice at 12-72 h, with hepatic injury being more prominent in MT-null mice than WT mice. The hepatic MT levels were increased in WT mice after injection of TAA, and were highest at 24-72 h. Immunohistochemical staining for MT in WT mice indicated the

  6. Microarray analysis of gene expression in the cyclooxygenase knockout mice - a connection to autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Rai-Bhogal, Ravneet; Ahmad, Eizaaz; Li, Hongyan; Crawford, Dorota A

    2017-11-21

    The cellular and molecular events that take place during brain development play an important role in governing function of the mature brain. Lipid-signalling molecules such as prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) play an important role in healthy brain development. Abnormalities along the COX-PGE 2 signalling pathway due to genetic or environmental causes have been linked to autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study aims to evaluate the effect of altered COX-PGE 2 signalling on development and function of the prenatal brain using male mice lacking cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-1 -/- and COX-2 -/- ) as potential model systems of ASD. Microarray analysis was used to determine global changes in gene expression during embryonic days 16 (E16) and 19 (E19). Gene Ontology: Biological Process (GO:BP) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) were implemented to identify affected developmental genes and cellular processes. We found that in both knockouts the brain at E16 had nearly twice as many differentially expressed genes, and affected biological pathways containing various ASD-associated genes important in neuronal function. Interestingly, using GeneMANIA and Cytoscape we also show that the ASD-risk genes identified in both COX-1 -/- and COX-2 -/- models belong to protein-interaction networks important for brain development despite of different cellular localization of these enzymes. Lastly, we identified eight genes that belong to the Wnt signalling pathways exclusively in the COX-2 -/- mice at E16. The level of PKA-phosphorylated β-catenin (S552), a major activator of the Wnt pathway, was increased in this model, suggesting crosstalk between the COX-2-PGE 2 and Wnt pathways during early brain development. Overall, these results provide further molecular insight into the contribution of the COX-PGE 2 pathways to ASD and demonstrate that COX-1 -/- and COX-2 -/- animals might be suitable new model systems for studying the disorders. © 2017 Federation of

  7. Imaging colon cancer development in mice: IL-6 deficiency prevents adenoma in azoxymethane-treated Smad3 knockouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harpel, Kaitlin; Leung, Sarah; Faith Rice, Photini; Jones, Mykella; Barton, Jennifer K.; Bommireddy, Ramireddy

    2016-02-01

    The development of colorectal cancer in the azoxymethane-induced mouse model can be observed by using a miniaturized optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging system. This system is uniquely capable of tracking disease development over time, allowing for the monitoring of morphological changes in the distal colon due to tumor development and the presence of lymphoid aggregates. By using genetically engineered mouse models deficient in Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and Smad family member 3 (Smad3), the role of inflammation on tumor development and the immune system can be elucidated. Smad3 knockout mice develop inflammatory response, wasting, and colitis associated cancer while deficiency of proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 confers resistance to tumorigenesis. We present pilot data showing that the Smad3 knockout group had the highest tumor burden, highest spleen weight, and lowest thymus weight. The IL-6 deficiency in Smad3 knockout mice prevented tumor development, splenomegaly, and thymic atrophy. This finding suggests that agents that inhibit IL-6 (e.g. anti-IL-6 antibody, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs], etc.) could be used as novel therapeutic agents to prevent disease progression and increase the efficacy of anti-cancer agents. OCT can also be useful for initiating early therapy and assessing the benefit of combination therapy targeting inflammation.

  8. Advanced age-related denervation and fiber-type grouping in skeletal muscle of SOD1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Kostrominova, Tatiana Y

    2010-11-30

    In this study skeletal muscles from 1.5- and 10-month-old Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) homozygous knockout (JLSod1(-/-)) mice obtained from The Jackson Laboratory (C57Bl6/129SvEv background) were compared with muscles from age- and sex-matched heterozygous (JLSod1(+/-)) littermates. The results of this study were compared with previously published data on two different strains of Sod1(-/-) mice: one from Dr. Epstein's laboratory (ELSod1(-/-); C57Bl6 background) and the other from Cephalon, Inc. (CSod1(-/-); 129/CD-1 background). Grouping of succinate dehydrogenase-positive fibers characterized muscles of Sod1(-/-) mice from all three strains. The 10-month-old Sod1(-/-)C and JL mice displayed pronounced denervation of the gastrocnemius muscle, whereas the ELSod1(-/-) mice displayed a small degree of denervation at this age, but developed accelerated age-related denervation later on. Denervation markers were up-regulated in skeletal muscle of 10-month-old JLSod1(-/-) mice. This study is the first to show that metallothionein mRNA and protein expression was up-regulated in the skeletal muscle of 10-month-old JLSod1(-/-) mice and was mostly localized to the small atrophic muscle fibers. In conclusion, all three strains of Sod1(-/-) mice develop accelerated age-related muscle denervation, but the genetic background has significant influence on the progress of denervation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Behavioral responses of dopamine β-hydroxylase knockout mice to modafinil suggest a dual noradrenergic-dopaminergic mechanism of action

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Heather A.; Bogenpohl, James W.; Liles, L. Cameron; Epstein, Michael P.; Bozyczko-Coyne, Donna; Williams, Michael; Weinshenker, David

    2008-01-01

    Modafinil is approved for use in the treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness. The precise mechanism of modafinil action has not been elucidated, although both dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) systems have been implicated. To explore the roles of DA and NE in the mechanism of modafinil-induced arousal, dopamine β-hydroxylase knockout (Dbh −/−) mice were examined in behavioral paradigms of arousal (photobeam breaks and behavioral scoring of sleep latency). Dbh −/− mice completely lack NE but have hypersensitive DA signaling. It was hypothesized that Dbh −/− mice would be unresponsive to modafinil if the compound acts primarily via NE, but would be hypersensitive to modafinil if it acts primarily via DA. Dbh −/− mice had increased sensitivity to the locomotor-activating and wake-promoting effects of modafinil. Paradoxically, the α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, prazosin, attenuated the effects of modafinil in control mice, but not in Dbh −/− mice. Blockade of DA receptors with flupenthixol decreased modafinil-induced locomotion and wake in both control and Dbh −/− mice. These results suggest that both NE and DA are involved in the behavioral effects of modafinil in control mice, but the requirement for NE can be bypassed by hypersensitive DA signaling. PMID:18703079

  10. INDUCTION OF MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN ESTROGEN RECEPTOR-ALPHA KNOCKOUT MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mammary glands from the estrogen receptor knockout ( ERKO) mouse do not undergo ductal morphogenesis or alveolar development. Disrupted Er signaling may result in reduced estrogen-responsive gene products in the mammary gland or reduced mammotropic hormones that contribute t...

  11. Normal Biogenesis and Cycling of Empty Synaptic Vesicles in Dopamine Neurons of Vesicular Monoamine Transporter 2 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Croft, Benjamin G.; Fortin, Gabriel D.; Corera, Amadou T.; Edwards, Robert H.; Beaudet, Alain; Trudeau, Louis-Eric; Fon, Edward A.

    2005-01-01

    The neuronal isoform of vesicular monoamine transporter, VMAT2, is responsible for packaging dopamine and other monoamines into synaptic vesicles and thereby plays an essential role in dopamine neurotransmission. Dopamine neurons in mice lacking VMAT2 are unable to store or release dopamine from their synaptic vesicles. To determine how VMAT2-mediated filling influences synaptic vesicle morphology and function, we examined dopamine terminals from VMAT2 knockout mice. In contrast to the abnormalities reported in glutamatergic terminals of mice lacking VGLUT1, the corresponding vesicular transporter for glutamate, we found that the ultrastructure of dopamine terminals and synaptic vesicles in VMAT2 knockout mice were indistinguishable from wild type. Using the activity-dependent dyes FM1-43 and FM2-10, we also found that synaptic vesicles in dopamine neurons lacking VMAT2 undergo endocytosis and exocytosis with kinetics identical to those seen in wild-type neurons. Together, these results demonstrate that dopamine synaptic vesicle biogenesis and cycling are independent of vesicle filling with transmitter. By demonstrating that such empty synaptic vesicles can cycle at the nerve terminal, our study suggests that physiological changes in VMAT2 levels or trafficking at the synapse may regulate dopamine release by altering the ratio of fillable-to-empty synaptic vesicles, as both continue to cycle in response to neural activity. PMID:15496457

  12. Circadian rhythms of clock gene expression in the cerebellum of serotonin-deficient Pet-1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Erin V; Mintz, Eric M

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin plays an important role in the central regulation of circadian clock function. Serotonin levels are generally higher in the brain during periods of high activity, and these periods are in turn heavily regulated by the circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. However, the role of serotonin as a regulator of circadian rhythms elsewhere in the brain has not been extensively examined. In this study, we examined circadian rhythms of clock gene expression in the cerebellum in mice lacking the Pet-1 transcription factor, which results in a developed brain that is deficient in serotonin neurons. If serotonin helps to synchronize rhythms in brain regions other than the suprachiasmatic nucleus, we would expect to see differences in clock gene expression in these serotonin deficient mice. We found minor differences in the expression of Per1 and Per2 in the knockout mice as compared to wild type, but these differences were small and of questionable functional importance. We also measured the response of cerebellar clocks to injections of the serotonin agonist 8-OH-DPAT during the early part of the night. No effect on clock genes was observed, though the immediate-early gene Fos showed increased expression in wild type mice but not the knockouts. These results suggest that serotonin is not an important mediator of circadian rhythms in the cerebellum in a way that parallels its regulation of the circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Perforin and granzyme B have separate and distinct roles during atherosclerotic plaque development in apolipoprotein E knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Hiebert, Paul R; Boivin, Wendy A; Zhao, Hongyan; McManus, Bruce M; Granville, David J

    2013-01-01

    The granzyme B/perforincytotoxic pathway is a well established mechanism of initiating target cell apoptosis. Previous studies have suggested a role for the granzyme B/perforin cytotoxic pathway in vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque formation. In the present study, granzyme B deficiency resulted in reduced atherosclerotic plaque development in the descending aortas of apolipoprotein E knockout mice fed a high fat diet for 30 weeks while perforindeficiency resulted in greater reduction in plaque development with significantly less plaque area than granzyme Bdeficient mice. In contrast to the descending aorta, no significant change in plaque size was observed in aortic roots from either granzyme Bdeficient or perforindeficient apolipoprotein E knockout mice. However, atherosclerotic plaques in the aortic roots did exhibit significantly more collagen in granzyme B, but not perforin deficient mice. Together these results suggest significant, yet separate roles for granzyme B and perforin in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis that go beyond the traditional apoptotic pathway with additional implications in plaque development, stability and remodelling of extracellular matrix.

  14. Perforin and Granzyme B Have Separate and Distinct Roles during Atherosclerotic Plaque Development in Apolipoprotein E Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hiebert, Paul R.; Boivin, Wendy A.; Zhao, Hongyan; McManus, Bruce M.; Granville, David J.

    2013-01-01

    The granzyme B/perforincytotoxic pathway is a well established mechanism of initiating target cell apoptosis. Previous studies have suggested a role for the granzyme B/perforin cytotoxic pathway in vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque formation. In the present study, granzyme B deficiency resulted in reduced atherosclerotic plaque development in the descending aortas of apolipoprotein E knockout mice fed a high fat diet for 30 weeks while perforindeficiency resulted in greater reduction in plaque development with significantly less plaque area than granzyme Bdeficient mice. In contrast to the descending aorta, no significant change in plaque size was observed in aortic roots from either granzyme Bdeficient or perforindeficient apolipoprotein E knockout mice. However, atherosclerotic plaques in the aortic roots did exhibit significantly more collagen in granzyme B, but not perforin deficient mice. Together these results suggest significant, yet separate roles for granzyme B and perforin in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis that go beyond the traditional apoptotic pathway with additional implications in plaque development, stability and remodelling of extracellular matrix. PMID:24205352

  15. Effect of Cyp27A1 gene dosage on atherosclerosis development in ApoE-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Zurkinden, Line; Solcà, Curzio; Vögeli, Isabelle A; Vogt, Bruno; Ackermann, Daniel; Erickson, Sandra K; Frey, Felix J; Sviridov, Dmitri; Escher, Geneviève

    2014-03-01

    In humans, sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) deficiency leads to cholesterol deposition in tendons and vasculature. Thus, in addition to its role in bile acid synthesis, where it converts cholesterol to 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC), CYP27A1 may also be atheroprotective. Cyp27A1-deficient (Cyp27A1(-/-)) mice were crossed with apolipoprotein E (apoE)-deficient mice. Cyp27A1(+/+)/apoE(-/-) [ApoE-knockout (KO)], Cyp27A1(+/-)/apoE(-/-) heterozygous (het), and Cyp27A1(-/-)/apoE(-/-) [double-knockout (DKO)] mice were challenged with a Western diet (WD) for 3 and 6 mo. ApoE-KO mice fed a chow diet or a WD were used as the control. The severity of atherosclerosis in DKO mice was reduced 10-fold. Compared with the control, the DKO mice had no 27-OHC, total plasma cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein (LDL/VLDL) concentrations were reduced 2-fold, and HDL was elevated 2-fold. Expression of hepatic CYP7A1, CYP3A, and CYP8B1 were 5- to 10-fold higher. 3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) activity increased 4-fold. Fecal cholesterol was increased. In contrast, het mice fed a WD developed accelerated atherosclerosis and severe skin lesions, possibly because of reduced reverse cholesterol transport due to diminished 27-OHC production. CYP27A1 activity is involved in the control of cholesterol homeostasis and development of atherosclerosis with a distinct gene dose-dependent effect.

  16. Raphe serotonin neuron-specific oxytocin receptor knockout reduces aggression without affecting anxiety-like behavior in male mice only.

    PubMed

    Pagani, J H; Williams Avram, S K; Cui, Z; Song, J; Mezey, É; Senerth, J M; Baumann, M H; Young, W S

    2015-02-01

    Serotonin and oxytocin influence aggressive and anxiety-like behaviors, though it is unclear how the two may interact. That the oxytocin receptor is expressed in the serotonergic raphe nuclei suggests a mechanism by which the two neurotransmitters may cooperatively influence behavior. We hypothesized that oxytocin acts on raphe neurons to influence serotonergically mediated anxiety-like, aggressive and parental care behaviors. We eliminated expression of the oxytocin receptor in raphe neurons by crossing mice expressing Cre recombinase under control of the serotonin transporter promoter (Slc6a4) with our conditional oxytocin receptor knockout line. The knockout mice generated by this cross are normal across a range of behavioral measures: there are no effects for either sex on locomotion in an open-field, olfactory habituation/dishabituation or, surprisingly, anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated O and plus mazes. There was a profound deficit in male aggression: only one of 11 raphe oxytocin receptor knockouts showed any aggressive behavior, compared to 8 of 11 wildtypes. In contrast, female knockouts displayed no deficits in maternal behavior or aggression. Our results show that oxytocin, via its effects on raphe neurons, is a key regulator of resident-intruder aggression in males but not maternal aggression. Furthermore, this reduction in male aggression is quite different from the effects reported previously after forebrain or total elimination of oxytocin receptors. Finally, we conclude that when constitutively eliminated, oxytocin receptors expressed by serotonin cells do not contribute to baseline anxiety-like behaviors or maternal care. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  17. Oxidative Stress Induced Age Dependent Meibomian Gland Dysfunction in Cu, Zn-Superoxide Dismutase-1 (Sod1) Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Osama M. A.; Dogru, Murat; Matsumoto, Yukihiro; Igarashi, Ayako; Kojima, Takashi; Wakamatsu, Tais Hitomi; Inaba, Takaaki; Shimizu, Takahiko; Shimazaki, Jun; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of our study was to investigate alterations in the meibomian gland (MG) in Cu, Zn-Superoxide Dismutase-1 knockout (Sod1 −/−) mouse. Methods Tear function tests [Break up time (BUT) and cotton thread] and ocular vital staining test were performed on Sod1 −/− male mice (n = 24) aged 10 and 50 weeks, and age and sex matched wild–type (+/+) mice (n = 25). Tear and serum samples were collected at sacrifice for inflammatory cytokine assays. MG specimens underwent Hematoxylin and Eosin staining, Mallory staining for fibrosis, Oil Red O lipid staining, TUNEL staining, immunohistochemistry stainings for 4HNE, 8-OHdG and CD45. Transmission electron microscopic examination (TEM) was also performed. Results Corneal vital staining scores in the Sod1 −/− mice were significantly higher compared with the wild type mice throughout the follow-up. Tear and serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels also showed significant elevations in the 10 to 50 week Sod1 −/− mice. Oil Red O staining showed an accumulation of large lipid droplets in the Sod1 −/− mice at 50 weeks. Immunohistochemistry revealed both increased TUNEL and oxidative stress marker stainings of the MG acinar epithelium in the Sod1 −/− mice compared to the wild type mice. Immunohistochemistry staining for CD45 showed increasing inflammatory cell infiltrates from 10 to 50 weeks in the Sod1 −/− mice compared to the wild type mice. TEM revealed prominent mitochondrial changes in 50 week Sod1 −/− mice. Conclusions Our results suggest that reactive oxygen species might play a vital role in the pathogensis of meibomian gland dysfunction. The Sod1 −/− mouse appears to be a promising model for the study of reactive oxygen species associated MG alterations. PMID:25036096

  18. Orp8 deficiency in bone marrow-derived cells reduces atherosclerotic lesion progression in LDL receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    van Kampen, Erik; Beaslas, Olivier; Hildebrand, Reeni B; Lammers, Bart; Van Berkel, Theo J C; Olkkonen, Vesa M; Van Eck, Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Oxysterol binding protein Related Proteins (ORPs) mediate intracellular lipid transport and homeostatic regulation. ORP8 downregulates ABCA1 expression in macrophages and cellular cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein A-I. In line, ORP8 knockout mice display increased amounts of HDL cholesterol in blood. However, the role of macrophage ORP8 in atherosclerotic lesion development is unknown. LDL receptor knockout (KO) mice were transplanted with bone marrow (BM) from ORP8 KO mice and C57Bl/6 wild type mice. Subsequently, the animals were challenged with a high fat/high cholesterol Western-type diet to induce atherosclerosis. After 9 weeks of Western-Type diet feeding, serum levels of VLDL cholesterol were increased by 50% in ORP8 KO BM recipients compared to the wild-type recipients. However, no differences were observed in HDL cholesterol. Despite the increase in VLDL cholesterol, lesions in mice transplanted with ORP8 KO bone marrow were 20% smaller compared to WT transplanted controls. In addition, ORP8 KO transplanted mice displayed a modest increase in the percentage of macrophages in the lesion as compared to the wild-type transplanted group. ORP8 deficient macrophages displayed decreased production of pro-inflammatory factors IL-6 and TNFα, decreased expression of differentiation markers and showed a reduced capacity to form foam cells in the peritoneal cavity. Deletion of ORP8 in bone marrow-derived cells, including macrophages, reduces lesion progression after 9 weeks of WTD challenge, despite increased amounts of circulating pro-atherogenic VLDL. Reduced macrophage foam cell formation and lower macrophage inflammatory potential are plausible mechanisms contributing to the observed reduction in atherosclerosis.

  19. Shorter duration of non-rapid eye movement sleep slow waves in EphA4 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Freyburger, Marlène; Poirier, Gaétan; Carrier, Julie; Mongrain, Valérie

    2017-10-01

    Slow waves occurring during non-rapid eye movement sleep have been associated with neurobehavioural performance and memory. In addition, the duration of previous wakefulness and sleep impacts characteristics of these slow waves. However, molecular mechanisms regulating the dynamics of slow-wave characteristics remain poorly understood. The EphA4 receptor regulates glutamatergic transmission and synaptic plasticity, which have both been linked to sleep slow waves. To investigate if EphA4 regulates slow-wave characteristics during non-rapid eye movement sleep, we compared individual parameters of slow waves between EphA4 knockout mice and wild-type littermates under baseline conditions and after a 6-h sleep deprivation. We observed that, compared with wild-type mice, knockout mice display a shorter duration of positive and negative phases of slow waves under baseline conditions and after sleep deprivation. However, the mutation did not change slow-wave density, amplitude and slope, and did not affect the sleep deprivation-dependent changes in slow-wave characteristics, suggesting that EphA4 is not involved in the response to elevated sleep pressure. Our present findings suggest a role for EphA4 in shaping cortical oscillations during sleep that is independent from sleep need. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  20. Optical Mapping Approaches on Muscleblind-Like Compound Knockout Mice for Understanding Mechanistic Insights Into Ventricular Arrhythmias in Myotonic Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chung-Chuan; Chang, Po-Cheng; Wei, Yi-Chia; Lee, Kuang-Yung

    2017-04-17

    Cardiac arrhythmias are common causes of death in patients with myotonic dystrophy (dystrophia myotonica [DM]). Evidence shows that atrial tachyarrhythmia is an independent risk factor for sudden death; however, the relationship is unclear. Control wild-type ( Mbnl1 +/+ ; Mbnl2 +/+ ) and DM mutant ( Mbnl1 -/- ; Mbnl2 +/- ) mice were generated by crossing double heterozygous knockout ( Mbnl1 +/- ; Mbnl2 +/- ) mice. In vivo electrophysiological study and optical mapping technique were performed to investigate mechanisms of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Transmission electron microscopy scanning was performed for myocardium ultrastructural analysis. DM mutant mice were more vulnerable to anesthesia medications and program electrical pacing: 2 of 12 mice had sudden apnea and cardiac arrest during premedication of general anesthesia; 9 of the remaining 10 had atrial tachycardia and/or atrioventricular block, but none of the wild-type mice had spontaneous arrhythmias; and 9 of 10 mice had pacing-induced ventricular tachyarrhythmias, but only 1 of 14 of the wild-type mice. Optical mapping studies revealed prolonged action potential duration, slower conduction velocity, and steeper conduction velocity restitution curves in the DM mutant mice than in the wild-type group. Spatially discordant alternans was more easily inducible in DM mutant than wild-type mice. Transmission electron microscopy showed disarranged myofibrils with enlarged vacuole-occupying mitochondria in the DM mutant group. This DM mutant mouse model presented with clinical myofibril ultrastructural abnormality and cardiac arrhythmias, including atrial tachyarrhythmias, atrioventricular block, and ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Optical mapping studies revealed prolonged action potential duration and slow conduction velocity in the DM mice, leading to vulnerability of spatially discordant alternans and ventricular arrhythmia induction to pacing. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart

  1. Type I interferon receptor knockout mice as models for infection of highly pathogenic viruses with outbreak potential

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Gary; Qiu, Xiang-Guo

    2018-01-01

    Due to their inability to generate a complete immune response, mice knockout for type I interferon (IFN) receptors (Ifnar–/–) are more susceptible to viral infections, and are thus commonly used for pathogenesis studies. This mouse model has been used to study many diseases caused by highly pathogenic viruses from many families, including the Flaviviridae, Filoviridae, Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Henipaviridae, and Togaviridae. In this review, we summarize the findings from these animal studies, and discuss the pros and cons of using this model versus other known methods for studying pathogenesis in animals. PMID:29511140

  2. Metallothionein-I/II Knockout Mice Aggravate Mitochondrial Superoxide Production and Peroxiredoxin 3 Expression in Thyroid after Excessive Iodide Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Na; Wang, Lingyan; Duan, Qi; Lin, Laixiang; Ahmed, Mohamed; Wang, Tingting; Yao, Xiaomei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. We aim to figure out the effect of metallothioneins on iodide excess induced oxidative stress in the thyroid. Methods. Eight-week-old MT-I/II knockout (MT-I/II KO) mice and background-matched wild-type (WT) mice were used. Mitochondrial superoxide production and peroxiredoxin (Prx) 3 expression were measured. Results. In in vitro study, more significant increases in mitochondrial superoxide production and Prx 3 expression were detected in the MT-I/II KO groups. In in vivo study, significantly higher concentrations of urinary iodine level were detected in MT-I/II KO mice in 100 HI group. Compared to the NI group, there was no significant difference existing in serum thyroid hormones level in either groups (P > 0.05), while the mitochondrial superoxide production was significantly increased in 100 HI groups with significantly increased LDH activity and decreased relative cell viability. Compared to WT mice, more significant changes were detected in MT-I/II KO mice in 100 HI groups. No significant differences were detected between the NI group and 10 HI group in both the MT-I/II KO and WT mice groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions. Iodide excess in a thyroid without MT I/II protection may result in strong mitochondrial oxidative stress, which further leads to the damage of thyrocytes. PMID:26101557

  3. Abolished thermal and mechanical antinociception but retained visceral chemical antinociception induced by butorphanol in μ-opioid receptor knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Ide, Soichiro; Minami, Masabumi; Ishihara, Kumatoshi; Uhl, George R.; Satoh, Masamichi; Sora, Ichiro; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2012-01-01

    Butorphanol is hypothesized to induce analgesia via opioid pathways, although the precise mechanisms for its effects remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of the μ-opioid receptor (MOP) in thermal, mechanical, and visceral chemical antinociception induced by butorphanol using MOP knockout (KO) mice. Butorphanol-induced thermal antinociception, assessed by the hot-plate and tail-flick tests, was significantly reduced in heterozygous and abolished in homozygous MOP-KO mice compared with wildtype mice. The results obtained from our butorphanol-induced mechanical antinociception experiments, assessed by the Randall-Selitto test, were similar to the results obtained from the thermal antinociception experiments in these mice. Interestingly, however, butorphanol retained its ability to induce significant visceral chemical antinociception, assessed by the writhing test, in homozygous MOP-KO mice. The butorphanol-induced visceral chemical antinociception that was retained in homozygous MOP-KO mice was completely blocked by pretreatment with nor-binaltorphimine, a κ-opioid receptor (KOP) antagonist. In vitro binding and cyclic adenosine monophosphate assays also showed that butorphanol possessed higher affinity for KOPs and MOPs than for δ-opioid receptors. These results molecular pharmacologically confirmed previous studies implicating MOPs, and partially KOPs, in mediating butorphanol-induced analgesia. PMID:18417173

  4. Macrophage Adipose Triglyceride Lipase Deficiency Attenuates Atherosclerotic Lesion Development in Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lammers, Bart; Chandak, Prakash G.; Aflaki, Elma; Van Puijvelde, Gijs H.M.; Radovic, Branislav; Hildebrand, Reeni B.; Meurs, Illiana; Out, Ruud; Kuiper, Johan; Van Berkel, Theo J.C.; Kolb, Dagmar; Haemmerle, Guenter; Zechner, Rudolf; Levak-Frank, Sanja; Van Eck, Miranda; Kratky, Dagmar

    2011-01-01

    Objective The consequences of macrophage triglyceride (TG) accumulation on atherosclerosis have not been studied in detail so far. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is the rate-limiting enzyme for the initial step in TG hydrolysis. Because ATGL knockout (KO) mice exhibit massive TG accumulation in macrophages, we used ATGL KO mice to study the effects of macrophage TG accumulation on atherogenesis. Methods and Results Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) KO mice were transplanted with bone marrow from ATGL KO (ATGL KO→LDLr KO) or wild-type (wild-type→LDLr KO) mice and challenged with a Western-type diet for 9 weeks. Despite TG accumulation in ATGL KO macrophages, atherosclerosis in ATGL KO→LDLr KO mice was 43% reduced associated with decreased plasma MCP-1 and macrophage interleukin-6 concentrations. This coincided with a reduced amount of macrophages, possibly because of a 39% increase in intraplaque apoptosis and a decreased migratory capacity of ATGL KO macrophages. The reduced number of white blood cells might be due to a 36% decreased Lin−Sca-1+cKit+ hematopoietic stem cell population. Conclusion We conclude that the attenuation of atherogenesis in ATGL KO→LDLr KO mice is due to decreased infiltration of less inflammatory macrophages into the arterial wall and increased macrophage apoptosis. PMID:21030715

  5. Global gene expression profiles of MT knockout and wild-type mice in the condition of doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Yi; Guo, Jun; Dong, Yansheng; Zhong, Weijian; Xiao, Ping; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Lishi; Peng, Shuangqing

    2011-01-15

    Increasing evidence from in vivo and in vitro studies has indicated that MT exerts protective effects against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity; however the underlying precise mechanisms still remain an enigma. Therefore, the present study was designed using MT knockout mice in concert with genomic approaches to explore the possible molecular and cellular mechanisms in terms of the genetic network changes. MT-I/II null (MT⁻/⁻) mice and corresponding wild-type mice (MT+/+) were administrated with a single dose of DOX (15 mg/kg, i.p.) or equal volume of saline. Animals were sacrificed on the 4th day after DOX administration and samples were collected for further analyses. Global gene expression profiles of cardiac mRNA from two genotype mice revealed that 381 characteristically MT-responsive genes were identified between MT+/+ mice and MT⁻/⁻ mice in response to DOX, including fos, ucp3, car3, atf3, map3k6, etc. Functional analysis implied MAPK signaling pathway, p53 signaling pathway, Jak-STAT signaling pathway, PPAR signaling pathway, Wnt signaling pathway, etc. might be involved to mediate the protection of DOX cardiomyopathy by MT. Results from the present study not only validated the previously reported possible mechanisms of MT protection against DOX toxicity, but also provided new clues into the molecular mechanisms involved in this process. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ameliorating effect of histamine on impairment of cued fear extinction induced by morphine withdrawal in histidine decarboxylase gene knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ying-xia; Shou, Wen-ting; Feng, Bo; Zhang, Wei-ping; Wang, Hui-juan; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Chen, Zhong

    2010-11-01

    Histamine plays an important role in morphine addiction and memory-dependent behavior. However, little is known about the effect of histamine on the impairment of memory after morphine withdrawal. This study was designed to investigate the effect of histamine on memory impairment induced by morphine withdrawal in histidine decarboxylase knockout (HDC-KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. WT and HDC-KO mice were given subcutaneous morphine or saline twice daily for 5 consecutive days. The mice received a cued or contextual fear conditioning session 7 days after the last injection. During subsequent days, mice received 4 cued or contextual extinction sessions (one session per day). Western blot was used to assess extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation in the amygdala and hippocampus. Morphine withdrawal did not affect the acquisition of cued or contextual fear responses. It impaired cued but not contextual fear extinction. The acquisition of cued and contextual fear responses was accelerated in HDC-KO mice. Histamine deficiency aggravated the impairment of cued fear extinction induced by morphine withdrawal, whereas histamine (icv, 5 μg/mouse) reversed this effect. Morphine withdrawal decreased ERK phosphorylation in the amygdala after cued fear extinction, especially in HDC-KO mice. These results suggest that morphine withdrawal specifically impairs cued fear extinction and histamine ameliorates this impairment. Its action might be mediated by the modulation of ERK phosphorylation in the amygdala. Histamine should be explored for possible roles in the prevention or treatment of morphine abuse and relapse.

  7. Facial Nerve Recovery in KbDb and C1q Knockout Mice: A Role for Histocompatibility Complex 1.

    PubMed

    Akdagli, Seden; Williams, Ryan A; Kim, Hyun J; Yan, Yuling; Mustapha, Mirna; Most, Sam P

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the mechanisms in nerve damage can lead to better outcomes for neuronal rehabilitation. The purpose of our study was to assess the effect of major histocompatibility complex I deficiency and inhibition of the classical complement pathway (C1q) on functional recovery and cell survival in the facial motor nucleus (FMN) after crush injury in adult and juvenile mice. A prospective blinded analysis of functional recovery and cell survival in the FMN after a unilateral facial nerve crush injury in juvenile and adult mice was undertaken between wild-type, C1q knockout (C1q-/-), and KbDb knockout (KbDb-/-) groups. Whisker function was quantified to assess functional recovery. Neuron counts were performed to determine neuron survival in the FMN after recovery. After facial nerve injury, all adult wild-type mice fully recovered. Juvenile mice recovered incompletely corresponding to a greater neuron loss in the FMN of juveniles compared with adults. The C1q-/- juvenile and adult groups did not differ from wild type. The KbDb-/- adults demonstrated 50% recovery of whisker movement and decreased cell survival in FMN. The KbDb-/- juvenile group did not demonstrate any difference from control group. Histocompatibility complex I plays a role for neuroprotection and enhanced facial nerve recovery in adult mice. Inhibition of the classical complement pathway alone does not affect functional recovery or neuronal survival. The alternative and mannose binding pathways pose alternative means for activating the final components of the pathway that may lead to acute nerve damage.

  8. Facial Nerve Recovery in KbDb and C1q Knockout Mice: A Role for Histocompatibility Complex 1

    PubMed Central

    Akdagli, Seden; Williams, Ryan A.; Kim, Hyun J.; Yan, Yuling; Mustapha, Mirna

    2016-01-01

    Background: Understanding the mechanisms in nerve damage can lead to better outcomes for neuronal rehabilitation. The purpose of our study was to assess the effect of major histocompatibility complex I deficiency and inhibition of the classical complement pathway (C1q) on functional recovery and cell survival in the facial motor nucleus (FMN) after crush injury in adult and juvenile mice. Methods: A prospective blinded analysis of functional recovery and cell survival in the FMN after a unilateral facial nerve crush injury in juvenile and adult mice was undertaken between wild-type, C1q knockout (C1q−/−), and KbDb knockout (KbDb−/−) groups. Whisker function was quantified to assess functional recovery. Neuron counts were performed to determine neuron survival in the FMN after recovery. Results: After facial nerve injury, all adult wild-type mice fully recovered. Juvenile mice recovered incompletely corresponding to a greater neuron loss in the FMN of juveniles compared with adults. The C1q−/− juvenile and adult groups did not differ from wild type. The KbDb−/− adults demonstrated 50% recovery of whisker movement and decreased cell survival in FMN. The KbDb−/− juvenile group did not demonstrate any difference from control group. Conclusion: Histocompatibility complex I plays a role for neuroprotection and enhanced facial nerve recovery in adult mice. Inhibition of the classical complement pathway alone does not affect functional recovery or neuronal survival. The alternative and mannose binding pathways pose alternative means for activating the final components of the pathway that may lead to acute nerve damage. PMID:28293529

  9. Aggressive mammary carcinoma progression in Nrf2 knockout mice treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2), which belongs to the basic leucine zipper transcription factor family, is a strategy for cancer chemopreventive phytochemicals. It is an important regulator of genes induced by oxidative stress, such as glutathione S-transferases, heme oxygenase-1 and peroxiredoxin 1, by activating the antioxidant response element (ARE). We hypothesized that (1) the citrus coumarin auraptene may suppress premalignant mammary lesions via activation of Nrf2/ARE, and (2) that Nrf2 knockout (KO) mice would be more susceptible to mammary carcinogenesis. Methods Premalignant lesions and mammary carcinomas were induced by medroxyprogesterone acetate and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene treatment. The 10-week pre-malignant study was performed in which 8 groups of 10 each female wild-type (WT) and KO mice were fed either control diet or diets containing auraptene (500 ppm). A carcinogenesis study was also conducted in KO vs. WT mice (n = 30-34). Comparisons between groups were evaluated using ANOVA and Kaplan-Meier Survival statistics, and the Mann-Whitney U-test. Results All mice treated with carcinogen exhibited premalignant lesions but there were no differences by genotype or diet. In the KO mice, there was a dramatic increase in mammary carcinoma growth rate, size, and weight. Although there was no difference in overall survival, the KO mice had significantly lower mammary tumor-free survival. Also, in the KO mammary carcinomas, the active forms of NF-κB and β-catenin were increased ~2-fold whereas no differences in oxidized proteins were observed. Many other tumors were observed, including lymphomas. Interestingly, the incidences of lung adenomas in the KO mice were significantly higher than in the WT mice. Conclusions We report, for the first time, that there was no apparent difference in the formation of premalignant lesions, but rather, the KO mice exhibited rapid, aggressive mammary carcinoma progression

  10. Co-ordinate regulation of the cystic fibrosis and multidrug resistance genes in cystic fibrosis knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Trezise, A E; Ratcliff, R; Hawkins, T E; Evans, M J; Freeman, T C; Romano, P R; Higgins, C F; Colledge, W H

    1997-04-01

    The cystic fibrosis (Cftr and multidrug resistance (Mdr1) genes encode structurally similar proteins which are members of the ABC transporter superfamily. These genes exhibit complementary patterns of expression in vivo, suggesting that the regulation of their expression may be co-ordinated. We have tested this hypothesis in vivo by examining Cftr and Mdr1 expression in cystic fibrosis knockout transgenic mice (Cftr(tm1CAM)). Cftr mRNA expression in Cftr(tm1CAM)/Cftr(tm1CAM) mice was 4-fold reduced in the intestine, as compared with littermate wild-type mice. All other Cftr(tm1CAM)/Cftr(tm1CAM) mouse tissues examined showed similar reductions in Cftr expression. In contrast, we observed a 4-fold increase in Mdr1 mRNA expression in the intestines of neonatal and 3- to 4-week-old Cftr(tm1CAM)/Cftr(tm1CAM) mice, as compared with age-matched +/+ mice, and an intermediate level of Mdr1 mRNA in heterozygous Cftr(tm1CAM) mice. In 10-week-old, Cftr(tm1CAM)/Cftr(tm1CAM) mice and in contrast to the younger mice, Mdr1 mRNA expression was reduced, by 3-fold. The expression of two control genes, Pgk-1 and Mdr2, was similar in all genotypes, suggesting that the changes in Mdr1 mRNA levels observed in the Cftr(tm1CAM)/Cftr(tm1CAM) mice are specific to the loss of Cftr expression and/or function. These data provide further evidence supporting the hypothesis that the regulation Cftr and Mdr1 expression is co-ordinated in vivo, and that this co-ordinate regulation is influenced by temporal factors.

  11. Brief Report: Altered Social Behavior in Isolation-Reared "Fmr1" Knockout Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzer, Andrew M.; Roth, Alexandra K.; Nawrocki, Lauren; Wrenn, Craige C.; Valdovinos, Maria G.

    2013-01-01

    Social behavior abnormalities in Fragile X syndrome (FXS) are characterized by social withdrawal, anxiety, and deficits in social cognition. To assess these deficits, a model of FXS, the "Fmr1" knockout mouse ("Fmr1" KO), has been utilized. This mouse model has a null mutation in the fragile X mental retardation 1 gene ("Fmr1") and displays…

  12. Toward a molecular understanding of psychostimulant actions using genetically engineered dopamine receptor knockout mice as model systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Xu, M

    2001-01-01

    A major focus in studying the progression and prevention of addictive diseases has been to understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying drug addiction. The brain dopaminergic system plays a central role in reward and motivation and is thought to be the main neural substrate for the actions of abusive drugs. We have used the gene targeting technology to generate dopamine D1 and D3 receptor knockout mice and used these mice as model systems to gain a molecular understanding of acute effects of psychostimulants cocaine and amphetamine. The use of a combined approach involving behavioral, electrophysiological as well as molecular studies has allowed us to define initially the roles of dopamine D1 and D3 receptors in the acute effects of psychostimulants and will enable us to understand mechanisms underlying their chronic actions in the future.

  13. Characterization of [3H] oxymorphone binding sites in mouse brain: Quantitative autoradiography in opioid receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Ji Hoon; Borsodi, Anna; Tóth, Géza; Benyhe, Sándor; Gaspar, Robert; Matifas, Audrey; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Metaxas, Athanasios; Kitchen, Ian; Bailey, Alexis

    2017-03-16

    Oxymorphone, one of oxycodone's metabolic products, is a potent opioid receptor agonist which is thought to contribute to the analgesic effect of its parent compound and may have high potential abuse liability. Nonetheless, the in vivo pharmacological binding profile of this drug is still unclear. This study uses mice lacking mu (MOP), kappa (KOP) or delta (DOP) opioid receptors as well as mice lacking all three opioid receptors to provide full characterisation of oxymorphone binding sites in the brain. Saturation binding studies using [ 3 H]oxymorphone revealed high affinity binding sites in mouse brain displaying Kd of 1.7nM and Bmax of 147fmol/mg. Furthermore, we performed quantitative autoradiography binding studies using [ 3 H]oxymorphone in mouse brain. The distribution of [ 3 H]oxymorphone binding sites was found to be similar to the selective MOP agonist [ 3 H]DAMGO in the mouse brain. [ 3 H]Oxymorphone binding was completely abolished across the majority of the brain regions in mice lacking MOP as well as in mice lacking all three opioid receptors. DOP and KOP knockout mice retained [ 3 H]oxymorphone binding sites suggesting oxymorphone may not target DOP or KOP. These results confirm that the MOP, and not the DOP or the KOP is the main high affinity binding target for oxymorphone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Motor and memory testing of long-lived pregnancy-associated plasma protein--a knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Mason, Emily J; Grell, Jacquelyn A; West, Sally A; Conover, Cheryl A

    2014-12-01

    Mice deficient in pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), an IGF binding protein protease, have been shown to be resistant to experimentally induced atherosclerosis and diabetic nephropathy, and, in the laboratory environment, live 30-40% longer than wild-type littermates in association with delayed incidence and occurrence of age-related neoplasms and degenerative diseases. PAPP-A is highly expressed in the cerebellum and hippocampus of the mouse brain. Therefore, the studies presented here were aimed at determining motor behavior, learning and retention in PAPP-A knock-out (KO) mice compared to wild-type (WT) littermates with age. Balance and coordination were assessed using an accelerating rotarod; learning and memory were assessed in a Stone T-maze. Time on the rotarod decreased with age but there was no significant difference between PAPP-A KO and WT mice at any of the testing ages. Latency to reach the goal box and number of errors committed in the Stone T-maze did not change with age and there were no significant differences between PAPP-A KO and WT mice. Lack of PAPP-A in mice did not impact central regulation of coordination, learning or memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Participation of calbindin-D28K in nociception: results from calbindin-D28K knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Egea, Javier; Malmierca, Eduardo; Rosa, Angelo O; del Barrio, Laura; Negredo, Pilar; Nuñez, Angel; López, Manuela G

    2012-03-01

    Since calbindin-D(28K) (CB-D(28K))-positive neurons have been related to nociceptive sensory processing, we have hypothesized that altered CB-D(28K) expression could alter nociceptive transmission. We have used +/+ and -/- knockout (KO) mice for CB-D(28k) in different behavioral models of pain and sensory responses at the caudalis subdivision of the trigeminal spinal nucleus in order to understand how this protein may participate in nociception. Behavioral responses to formalin injection in the hind paw or at the whisker pad or in the hind paw glutamate or i.p. acetic acid tests showed an increase of the pain threshold in CB-D(28k) -/- mice. KO mice showed a diminution of the inhibitory activity at Sp5C nucleus and a marked reduction of GABA content. Sp5C neurons from CB-D(28k) -/- mice did not change their spontaneous activity or tactile response after formalin injection in the whisker pad. In contrast, Sp5C neurons increased their spontaneous firing rate and tactile response after formalin injection in their receptive field in CB-D(28k) +/+ mice. The results of this study demonstrate the active role played by CB-D(28k) in nociceptive sensory transmission. The lack of this calcium binding protein, associated to deficient GABAergic neurotransmission, translates into dysfunction of sensory processing of nociceptive stimuli.

  16. Brain response to traumatic brain injury in wild-type and interleukin-6 knockout mice: a microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Christian Bjørn; Penkowa, Milena; Borup, Rehannah; Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Cáceres, Mario; Quintana, Albert; Molinero, Amalia; Carrasco, Javier; Giralt, Mercedes; Hidalgo, Juan

    2005-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the brain is one of the leading causes of injury-related death or disability. Brain response to injury is orchestrated by cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-6, but the full repertoire of responses involved is not well known. We here report the results obtained with microarrays in wild-type and IL-6 knockout mice subjected to a cryolesion of the somatosensorial cortex and killed at 0, 1, 4, 8 and 16 days post-lesion. Overall gene expression was analyzed by using Affymetrix genechips/oligonucleotide arrays with approximately 12,400 probe sets corresponding to approximately 10,000 different murine genes (MG_U74Av2). A robust, conventional statistical method (two-way anova) was employed to select the genes significantly affected. An orderly pattern of gene responses was clearly detected, with genes being up- or down-regulated at specific timings consistent with the processes involved in the initial tissue injury and later regeneration of the parenchyma. IL-6 deficiency showed a dramatic effect in the expression of many genes, especially in the 1 day post-lesion timing, which presumably underlies the poor capacity of IL-6 knockout mice to cope with brain damage. The results highlight the importance of IL-6 controlling the response of the brain to injury as well as the suitability of microarrays for identifying specific targets worthy of further study.

  17. K+ channel TASK-1 knockout mice show enhanced sensitivities to ataxic and hypnotic effects of GABA(A) receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Linden, Anni-Maija; Aller, M Isabel; Leppä, Elli; Rosenberg, Per H; Wisden, William; Korpi, Esa R

    2008-10-01

    TASK two-pore-domain leak K(+) channels occur throughout the brain. However, TASK-1 and TASK-3 knockout (KO) mice have few neurological impairments and only mildly reduced sensitivities to inhalational anesthetics, contrasting with the anticipated functions and importance of these channels. TASK-1/-3 channel expression can compensate for the absence of GABA(A) receptors in GABA(A) alpha6 KO mice. To investigate the converse, we analyzed the behavior of TASK-1 and -3 KO mice after administering drugs with preferential efficacies at GABA(A) receptor subtypes: benzodiazepines (diazepam and flurazepam, active at alpha1betagamma2, alpha2betagamma2, alpha3betagamma2, and alpha5betagamma2 subtypes), zolpidem (alpha1betagamma2 subtype), propofol (beta2-3-containing receptors), gaboxadol (alpha4betadelta and alpha6betadelta subtypes), pregnanolone, and pentobarbital (many subtypes). TASK-1 KO mice showed increased motor impairment in rotarod and beam-walking tests after diazepam and flurazepam administration but not after zolpidem. They also showed prolonged loss of righting reflex induced by propofol and pentobarbital. Autoradiography indicated no change in GABA(A) receptor ligand binding levels. These altered behavioral responses to GABAergic drugs suggest functional up-regulation of alpha2beta2/3gamma2 and alpha3beta2/3gamma2 receptor subtypes in TASK-1 KO mice. In addition, female, but not male, TASK-1 KO mice were more sensitive to gaboxadol, suggesting an increased influence of alpha4betadelta or alpha6betadelta subtypes. The benzodiazepine sensitivity of TASK-3 KO mice was marginally increased. Our results underline that TASK-1 channels perform such key functions in the brain that compensation is needed for their absence. Furthermore, because inhalation anesthetics act partially through GABA(A) receptors, the up-regulation of GABA(A) receptor function in TASK-1 KO mice might mask TASK-1 channel's significance as a target for inhalation anesthetics.

  18. Mas receptor deficiency is associated with worsening of lipid profile and severe hepatic steatosis in ApoE-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Silva, Analina R; Aguilar, Edenil C; Alvarez-Leite, Jacqueline I; da Silva, Rafaela F; Arantes, Rosa M E; Bader, Michael; Alenina, Natalia; Pelli, Graziano; Lenglet, Sébastien; Galan, Katia; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Mach, François; Santos, Sérgio H S; Santos, Robson A S

    2013-12-01

    The classical renin-angiotensin system pathway has been recently updated with the identification of additional molecules [such as angiotensin converting enzyme 2, ANG-(1-7), and Mas receptor] that might improve some pathophysiological processes in chronic inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we focused on the potential protective role of Mas receptor activation on mouse lipid profile, liver steatosis, and atherogenesis. Mas/apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-double-knockout (DKO) mice (based on C57BL/6 strain of 20 wk of age) were fed under normal diet and compared with aged-matched Mas and ApoE-single-knockout (KO), as well as wild-type mice. Mas/ApoE double deficiency was associated with increased serum levels of atherogenic fractions of cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting glucose compared with wild-type or single KO. Serum levels of HDL or leptin in DKO were lower than in other groups. Hepatic lipid content as well as alanine aminotransferase serum levels were increased in DKO compared with wild-type or single-KO animals. Accordingly, the hepatic protein content of mediators related to atherosclerotic inflammation, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and liver X receptor, was altered in an adverse way in DKO compared with ApoE-KO. On the other hand, DKO mice did not display increased atherogenesis and intraplaque inflammation compared with ApoE-KO group. In conclusion, Mas deletion in ApoE-KO mice was associated with development of severe liver steatosis and dyslipidemia without affecting concomitant atherosclerosis. Mas receptor activation might represent promising strategies for future treatments targeting both hepatic and metabolic alterations in chronic conditions clustering these disorders.

  19. Effect of Diet High in Coconut Oil on Cardiovascular Disease Risk in ApoE Knockout and Wild Type Mice (Mus musculus)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-07

    Objective: We evaluated the risk of cardiovascular disease in both control and proatherosclerotic mice consuming diets high in coconut oil. Methods...The mice were weighed and randomly assigned to receive a custom diet with either coconut oil or milk fat. Both diets were formulated to have the...significant differences were seen between knockout and wildtype mice in aorta score regardless of diet, and in liver score with coconut oil diet

  20. Blood-brain barrier penetration and pharmacokinetics of amitriptyline and its metabolites in p-glycoprotein (abcb1ab) knock-out mice and controls.

    PubMed

    Uhr, Manfred; Grauer, Markus T; Yassouridis, Alexander; Ebinger, Martin

    2007-01-01

    In earlier studies with P-gp (abcb1) knock-out mice, we showed that P-gp exports the antidepressants citalopram, paroxetine, venlafaxine and amitriptyline and its metabolites across the blood-brain barrier, thereby reducing cerebral bioavailability of some substances up to 9 times. The present study investigated the pharmacokinetics of amitriptyline and whether abcb1ab double knock-out mice metabolize amitriptyline and its metabolites differently. P-gp knock-out mice and controls received a s.c. injection of 10mug amitriptyline/g of body weight. The animals were sacrificed after 30, 60, 120 and 240min and concentrations of amitriptyline and its metabolites were measured with HPLC in brain, plasma, liver, kidney, spleen, lung, muscle, fat and ovaries. Cerebral concentrations of amitriptyline and its metabolites were higher in P-gp-deficient mice compared to controls. No significant group effect was found for spleen, liver, lung, kidney and fat tissue. The results of our study indicate that amitriptyline and its metabolites are substrates of P-gp. Overall pharmacokinetics between knock-outs and controls were very similar. This confirms the validity of the P-gp knock-out model and allows for a continued research of the interactions between P-gp, the blood-brain barrier and CNS substances such as antidepressants, neuroleptics and others.

  1. Apolipoprotein E-knockout mice show increased titers of serum anti-nuclear and anti-dsDNA antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yuehai; Huang, Ziyang, E-mail: huangziyang666@126.com; Lu, Huixia

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Titers of ANA and anti-dsDNA antibodies were higher in ApoE{sup -/-} than C57B6/L mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spleen was greater and splenocyte apoptosis lower in ApoE{sup -/-} than B6 mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Level of TLR4 was lower in spleen tissue of ApoE{sup -/-} than B6 mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TLR4 pathway may participate in maintaining the balance of splenocyte apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TLR4 pathway may participate in antibody production in spleen tissue. -- Abstract: Apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE{sup -/-}) mice, atherosclerosis-prone mice, show an autoimmune response, but the pathogenesis is not fully understood. We investigated the pathogenesis in female and male ApoE{sup -/-}more » mice. The spleens of all ApoE{sup -/-} and C57BL/6 (B6) mice were weighed. The serum IgG level and titers of anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) and anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibody were assayed by ELISA. Apoptosis of spleen tissue was evaluated by TUNEL. TLR4 level in spleen tissue was tested by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Levels of MyD88, p38, phosphorylated p38 (pp38), interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) in spleen tissue were detected by Western blot analysis. We also survey the changes of serum autoantibodies, spleen weight, splenocyte apoptosis and the expressions of TLR4, MyD88, pp38, IRF3 and Bax in spleen tissue in male ApoE{sup -/-} mice after 4 weeks of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Toll-like receptor 4 ligand, administration. ApoE{sup -/-} mice showed splenomegaly and significantly increased serum level of IgG and titers of ANA and anti-dsDNA antibody as compared with B6 mice. Splenocyte apoptosis and the expression of TLR4, MyD88, pp38, IRF3 and Bax in spleen tissue were significantly lower in ApoE{sup -/-} than B6 mice. The expression of TLR4, MyD88, IRF3, pp38, and Bax differed by sex in ApoE{sup -/-} spleen

  2. Lentivirus-ABCG1 instillation reduces lipid accumulation and improves lung compliance in GM-CSF knock-out mice

    SciTech Connect

    Malur, Anagha; Huizar, Isham; Wells, Greg

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lentivirus-ABCG1 reduces lipid accumulation in lungs of GM-CSF knock-out mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Up-regulation of ABCG1 improves lung function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upregulation of ABCG1 improves surfactant metabolism. -- Abstract: We have shown decreased expression of the nuclear transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR{gamma}) and the PPAR{gamma}-regulated ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) in alveolar macrophages from patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). PAP patients also exhibit neutralizing antibodies to granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), an upregulator of PPAR{gamma}. In association with functional GM-CSF deficiency, PAP lung is characterized by surfactant-filled alveolar spaces and lipid-filled alveolar macrophages. Similar pathology characterizes GM-CSF knock-out (KO)more » mice. We reported previously that intratracheal instillation of a lentivirus (lenti)-PPAR{gamma} plasmid into GM-CSF KO animals elevated ABCG1 and reduced alveolar macrophage lipid accumulation. Here, we hypothesized that instillation of lenti-ABCG1 might be sufficient to decrease lipid accumulation and improve pulmonary function in GM-CSF KO mice. Animals received intratracheal instillation of lenti-ABCG1 or control lenti-enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (eGFP) plasmids and alveolar macrophages were harvested 10 days later. Alveolar macrophage transduction efficiency was 79% as shown by lenti-eGFP fluorescence. Quantitative PCR analyses indicated a threefold (p = 0.0005) increase in ABCG1 expression with no change of PPAR{gamma} or ABCA1 in alveolar macrophages of lenti-ABCG1 treated mice. ABCG1 was unchanged in control lenti-eGFP and PBS-instilled groups. Oil Red O staining detected reduced intracellular neutral lipid in alveolar macrophages from lenti-ABCG1 treated mice. Extracellular cholesterol and phospholipids were also decreased as

  3. Intestinal Resistance to 1,25 Dihydroxyvitamin D in Mice Heterozygous for the Vitamin D Receptor Knockout Allele

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yurong

    2008-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that low vitamin D receptor (VDR) level causes intestinal vitamin D resistance and intestinal calcium (Ca) malabsorption. To do so, we examined vitamin D regulated duodenal Ca absorption and gene expression [transient receptor potential channel, vallinoid subfamily member 6 (TRPV6), 24-hydroxylase, calbindin D9k (CaBP) mRNA, and CaBP protein] in wild-type mice and mice with reduced tissue VDR levels [i.e. heterozygotes for the VDR gene knockout (HT)]. Induction of 24-hydroxylase mRNA levels by 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2 D3] injection was significantly reduced in the duodenum and kidney of HT mice in both time-course and dose-response experiments. TRPV6 and CaBP mRNA levels in duodenum were significantly induced after 1,25(OH)2 D3 injection, but there was no difference in response between wild-type and HT mice. Feeding a low-calcium diet for 1 wk increased plasma PTH, renal 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) mRNA level, and plasma 1,25(OH)2 D3, and this response was greater in HT mice (by 88, 55, and 37% higher, respectively). In contrast, duodenal TRPV6 and CaBP mRNA were not higher in HT mice fed the low-calcium diet. However, the response of duodenal Ca absorption and CaBP protein to increasing 1,25(OH)2 D3 levels was blunted by 40% in HT mice. Our data show that low VDR levels lead to resistance of intestinal Ca absorption to 1,25(OH)2 D3, and this resistance may be due to a role for the VDR (and VDR level) in the translation of CaBP. PMID:17110426

  4. Unaltered Hypothalamic Metabolic Gene Expression in Kiss1r Knockout Mice Despite Obesity and Reduced Energy Expenditure.

    PubMed

    De Bond, Julie-Ann P; Tolson, Kristen P; Nasamran, Chanond; Kauffman, Alexander S; Smith, Jeremy T

    2016-10-01

    Kisspeptin controls reproduction by stimulating gonadotrophin-releasing hormone neurones via its receptor Kiss1r. Kiss1r is also expressed other brain areas and in peripheral tissues, suggesting additional nonreproductive roles. We recently determined that Kiss1r knockout (KO) mice develop an obese and diabetic phenotype. In the present study, we investigated whether Kiss1r KOs develop this metabolic phenotype as a result of alterations in the expression of metabolic genes involved in the appetite regulating system of the hypothalamus, including neuropeptide Y (Npy) and pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc), as well as leptin receptor (Lepr), ghrelin receptor (Ghsr), and melanocortin receptors 3 and 4 (Mc3r, Mc4r). Body weights, leptin levels and hypothalamic gene expression were measured in both gonad-intact and gonadectomised (GNX) mice at 8 and 20 weeks of age that had received either normal chow or a high-fat diet. We detected significant increases in Pomc expression in gonad-intact Kiss1r KO mice at 8 and 20 weeks, although there were no alterations in the other metabolic-related genes. However, the Pomc increases appeared to reflect genotype differences in circulating sex steroids, because GNX wild-type and Kiss1r KO mice exhibited similar Pomc levels, along with similar Npy levels. The altered Pomc gene expression in gonad-intact Kiss1r KO mice is consistent with previous reports of reduced food intake in these mice and may serve to increase the anorexigenic drive, perhaps compensating for the obese state. However, the surprising overall lack of changes in any of the hypothalamic metabolic genes in GNX KO mice suggests that the aetiology of obesity in the absence of kisspeptin signalling may reflect peripheral rather than central metabolic impairments. © 2016 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  5. Progesterone enhances learning and memory of aged wildtype and progestin receptor knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Cheryl A.; Walf, Alicia A.

    2013-01-01

    Progesterone can enhance cognitive performance among young and aged mice; however, the mechanisms underlying these effects of progesterone are not well-understood. Aged, mice which lack functional progestin receptors (PRKO), or wildtype mice were administered progesterone (10 mg/kg, SC), or vehicle, and learning/memory was evaluated. Progesterone, compared to vehicle, produced a conditioned place preference in PRKO and wildtype mice. Progesterone improved performance of PRKO and wildtype mice in the object placement, water maze, contextual and cued fear conditioning tasks. PRKO, compared to wildtype, mice performed better in the inhibitory avoidance task, irrespective of progesterone. Thus, progesterone to aged mice enhances performance across a variety of tasks and this may not require actions at PRs. PMID:20117174

  6. Properties of extensor digitorum longus muscle and skinned fibers from adult and aged male and female Actn3 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Chan, Stephen; Seto, Jane T; Houweling, Peter J; Yang, Nan; North, Kathryn N; Head, Stewart I

    2011-01-01

    Absence of α-actinin-3, encoded by the ACTN3 "speed gene," is associated with poorer sprinting performance in athletes and a slowing of relaxation in fast-twitch muscles of Actn3 knockout (KO) mice. Our first aim was to investigate, at the individual-fiber level, possible mechanisms for this slowed relaxation. Our second aim was to characterize the contractile properties of whole extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from KO mice by age and gender. We examined caffeine-induced Ca(2+) release in mechanically skinned EDL fibers from KO mice, and measured isolated whole EDL contractile properties. The sarcoplasmic reticulum of KO muscle fibers loaded Ca(2+) more slowly than that of wild-types (WTs). Whole KO EDL muscles had longer twitch and tetanus relaxation times than WTs, and reduced mass and cross-sectional area. These effects occurred in both male and female mice, but they diminished with age. These changes in KO muscles and fibers help to explain the effects of α-actinin-3 deficiency observed in athletes. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Prolonged Starvation Causes Up-Regulation of AQP1 in Adipose Tissue Capillaries of AQP7 Knock-Out Mice.

    PubMed

    Skowronski, Mariusz T; Skowronska, Agnieszka; Rojek, Aleksandra; Oklinski, Michal K; Nielsen, Søren

    2016-07-22

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane proteins involved in the regulation of cellular transport and the balance of water and glycerol and cell volume in the white adipose tissue (WAT). In our previous study, we found the co-expression of the AQP1 water channel and AQP7 in the mouse WAT. In our present study, we aimed to find out whether prolonged starvation influences the AQP1 expression of AQP7 knock-out mice (AQP7 KO) in the WAT. To resolve this hypothesis, immunoperoxidase, immunoblot and immunogold microscopy were used. AQP1 expression was found with the use of immunohistochemistry and was confirmed by immunogold microscopy in the vessels of mouse WAT of all studied groups. Semi-quantitative immunoblot and quantitative immunogold microscopy showed a significant increase (by 2.5- to 3-fold) in the abundance of AQP1 protein expression in WAT in the 72 h starved AQP7 KO mice as compared to AQP7+/+ (p < 0.05) and AQP7-/- (p < 0.01) controls, respectively. In conclusion, the AQP1 water channel located in the vessels of WAT is up-regulated in response to prolonged starvation in the WAT of AQP7 KO mice. The present data suggest that an interaction of different AQP isoforms is required for maintaining proper water homeostasis within the mice WAT.

  8. Macrophage ABCA5 deficiency influences cellular cholesterol efflux and increases susceptibility to atherosclerosis in female LDLr knockout mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Dan, E-mail: y.dan@lacdr.leidenuniv.nl; Meurs, Illiana; Ohigashi, Megumi

    2010-05-07

    Objectives: To determine the role of macrophage ATP-binding cassette transporter A5 (ABCA5) in cellular cholesterol homeostasis and atherosclerotic lesion development. Methods and results: Chimeras with dysfunctional macrophage ABCA5 (ABCA5{sup -M/-M}) were generated by transplantation of bone marrow from ABCA5 knockout (ABCA5{sup -/-}) mice into irradiated LDLr{sup -/-} mice. In vitro, bone marrow-derived macrophages from ABCA5{sup -M/-M} chimeras exhibited a 29% (P < 0.001) decrease in cholesterol efflux to HDL, whereas a 21% (P = 0.07) increase in cholesterol efflux to apoA-I was observed. Interestingly, expression of ABCA1, but not ABCG1, was up-regulated in absence of functional ABCA5 in macrophages. Tomore » induce atherosclerosis, the transplanted LDLr{sup -/-} mice were fed a high-cholesterol Western-type diet (WTD) for 6, 10, or 18 weeks, allowing analysis of effects on initial as well as advanced lesion development. Atherosclerosis development was not affected in male ABCA5{sup -M/-M} chimeras after 6, 10, and 18 weeks WTD feeding. However, female ABCA5{sup -M/-M} chimeras did develop significantly (P < 0.05) larger aortic root lesions as compared with female controls after 6 and 10 weeks WTD feeding. Conclusions: ABCA5 influences macrophage cholesterol efflux, and selective disruption of ABCA5 in macrophages leads to increased atherosclerotic lesion development in female LDLr{sup -/-} mice.« less

  9. Uterine artery dysfunction in pregnant ACE2 knockout mice is associated with placental hypoxia and reduced umbilical blood flow velocity.

    PubMed

    Yamaleyeva, Liliya M; Pulgar, Victor M; Lindsey, Sarah H; Yamane, Larissa; Varagic, Jasmina; McGee, Carolynne; daSilva, Mauro; Lopes Bonfa, Paula; Gurley, Susan B; Brosnihan, K Bridget

    2015-07-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) knockout is associated with reduced fetal weight at late gestation; however, whether uteroplacental vascular and/or hemodynamic disturbances underlie this growth-restricted phenotype is unknown. Uterine artery reactivity and flow velocities, umbilical flow velocities, trophoblast invasion, and placental hypoxia were determined in ACE2 knockout (KO) and C57Bl/6 wild-type (WT) mice at day 14 of gestation. Although systolic blood pressure was higher in pregnant ACE2 KO vs. WT mice (102.3 ± 5.1 vs. 85.1 ± 1.9 mmHg, n = 5-6), the magnitude of difference was similar to that observed in nonpregnant ACE2 KO vs. WT mice. Maternal urinary protein excretion, serum creatinine, and kidney or heart weights were not different in ACE2 KO vs. WT. Fetal weight and pup-to-placental weight ratio were lower in ACE2 KO vs. WT mice. A higher sensitivity to Ang II [pD2 8.64 ± 0.04 vs. 8.5 ± 0.03 (-log EC50)] and greater maximal contraction to phenylephrine (169.0 ± 9.0 vs. 139.0 ± 7.0% KMAX), were associated with lower immunostaining for Ang II receptor 2 and fibrinoid content of the uterine artery in ACE2 KO mice. Uterine artery flow velocities and trophoblast invasion were similar between study groups. In contrast, umbilical artery peak systolic velocities (60.2 ± 4.5 vs. 75.1 ± 4.5 mm/s) and the resistance index measured using VEVO 2100 ultrasound were lower in the ACE2 KO vs. WT mice. Immunostaining for pimonidazole, a marker of hypoxia, and hypoxia-inducible factor-2α were higher in the trophospongium and placental labyrinth of the ACE2 KO vs. WT. In summary, placental hypoxia and uterine artery dysfunction develop before major growth of the fetus occurs and may explain the fetal growth restricted phenotype. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Increased lethality and defective pulmonary clearance of Streptococcus pneumoniae in microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Jennifer M; Weinberg, Jason B; O'Brien, Edmund; Abashian, Anya; Procario, Megan C; Aronoff, David M; Crofford, Leslie J; Peters-Golden, Marc; Ward, Lindsay; Mancuso, Peter

    2016-06-01

    The production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) increases dramatically during pneumococcal pneumonia, and this lipid mediator impairs alveolar macrophage (AM)-mediated innate immune responses. Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) is a key enzyme involved in the synthesis of PGE2, and its expression is enhanced during bacterial infections. Genetic deletion of mPGES-1 in mice results in diminished PGE2 production and elevated levels of other prostaglandins after infection. Since PGE2 plays an important immunoregulatory role during bacterial pneumonia we assessed the impact of mPGES-1 deletion in the host defense against pneumococcal pneumonia in vivo and in AMs in vitro. Wild-type (WT) and mPGES-1 knockout (KO) mice were challenged with Streptococcus pneumoniae via the intratracheal route. Compared with WT animals, we observed reduced survival and increased lung and spleen bacterial burdens in mPGES-1 KO mice 24 and 48 h after S. pneumoniae infection. While we found modest differences between WT and mPGES-1 KO mice in pulmonary cytokines, AMs from mPGES-1 KO mice exhibited defective killing of ingested bacteria in vitro that was associated with diminished inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and reduced nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. Treatment of AMs from mPGES-1 KO mice with an NO donor restored bacterial killing in vitro. These results suggest that mPGES-1 plays a critical role in bacterial pneumonia and that genetic ablation of this enzyme results in diminished pulmonary host defense in vivo and in vitro. These results suggest that specific inhibition of PGE2 synthesis by targeting mPGES-1 may weaken host defense against bacterial infections. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Increased lethality and defective pulmonary clearance of Streptococcus pneumoniae in microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1-knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Jennifer M.; Weinberg, Jason B.; O'Brien, Edmund; Abashian, Anya; Procario, Megan C.; Aronoff, David M.; Crofford, Leslie J.; Peters-Golden, Marc; Ward, Lindsay

    2016-01-01

    The production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) increases dramatically during pneumococcal pneumonia, and this lipid mediator impairs alveolar macrophage (AM)-mediated innate immune responses. Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) is a key enzyme involved in the synthesis of PGE2, and its expression is enhanced during bacterial infections. Genetic deletion of mPGES-1 in mice results in diminished PGE2 production and elevated levels of other prostaglandins after infection. Since PGE2 plays an important immunoregulatory role during bacterial pneumonia we assessed the impact of mPGES-1 deletion in the host defense against pneumococcal pneumonia in vivo and in AMs in vitro. Wild-type (WT) and mPGES-1 knockout (KO) mice were challenged with Streptococcus pneumoniae via the intratracheal route. Compared with WT animals, we observed reduced survival and increased lung and spleen bacterial burdens in mPGES-1 KO mice 24 and 48 h after S. pneumoniae infection. While we found modest differences between WT and mPGES-1 KO mice in pulmonary cytokines, AMs from mPGES-1 KO mice exhibited defective killing of ingested bacteria in vitro that was associated with diminished inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and reduced nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. Treatment of AMs from mPGES-1 KO mice with an NO donor restored bacterial killing in vitro. These results suggest that mPGES-1 plays a critical role in bacterial pneumonia and that genetic ablation of this enzyme results in diminished pulmonary host defense in vivo and in vitro. These results suggest that specific inhibition of PGE2 synthesis by targeting mPGES-1 may weaken host defense against bacterial infections. PMID:27059285

  12. The FKBP5 Gene Affects Alcohol Drinking in Knockout Mice and Is Implicated in Alcohol Drinking in Humans.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Bin; Luczak, Susan E; Wall, Tamara L; Kirchhoff, Aaron M; Xu, Yuxue; Eng, Mimy Y; Stewart, Robert B; Shou, Weinian; Boehm, Stephen L; Chester, Julia A; Yong, Weidong; Liang, Tiebing

    2016-08-05

    FKBP5 encodes FK506-binding protein 5, a glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-binding protein implicated in various psychiatric disorders and alcohol withdrawal severity. The purpose of this study is to characterize alcohol preference and related phenotypes in Fkbp5 knockout (KO) mice and to examine the role of FKBP5 in human alcohol consumption. The following experiments were performed to characterize Fkpb5 KO mice. (1) Fkbp5 KO and wild-type (WT) EtOH consumption was tested using a two-bottle choice paradigm; (2) The EtOH elimination rate was measured after intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 2.0 g/kg EtOH; (3) Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was measured after 3 h limited access of alcohol; (4) Brain region expression of Fkbp5 was identified using LacZ staining; (5) Baseline corticosterone (CORT) was assessed. Additionally, two SNPs, rs1360780 (C/T) and rs3800373 (T/G), were selected to study the association of FKBP5 with alcohol consumption in humans. Participants were college students (n = 1162) from 21-26 years of age with Chinese, Korean or Caucasian ethnicity. The results, compared to WT mice, for KO mice exhibited an increase in alcohol consumption that was not due to differences in taste sensitivity or alcohol metabolism. Higher BAC was found in KO mice after 3 h of EtOH access. Fkbp5 was highly expressed in brain regions involved in the regulation of the stress response, such as the hippocampus, amygdala, dorsal raphe and locus coeruleus. Both genotypes exhibited similar basal levels of plasma corticosterone (CORT). Finally, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FKBP5 were found to be associated with alcohol drinking in humans. These results suggest that the association between FKBP5 and alcohol consumption is conserved in both mice and humans.

  13. Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors Attenuate the Asthma Phenotype Produced by β2-Adrenoceptor Agonists in Phenylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase–Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Forkuo, Gloria S.; Kim, Hosu; Thanawala, Vaidehi J.; Al-Sawalha, Nour; Valdez, Daniel; Joshi, Radhika; Parra, Sergio; Pera, Tonio; Gonnella, Patricia A.; Knoll, Brian J.; Walker, Julia K. L.; Penn, Raymond B.

    2016-01-01

    Mice lacking the endogenous β2-adrenoceptor (β2AR) agonist epinephrine (phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase [PNMT]-knockout mice) are resistant to developing an “asthma-like” phenotype in an ovalbumin sensitization and challenge (Ova S/C) model, and chronic administration of β2AR agonists to PNMT-KO mice restores the phenotype. Based on these and other studies showing differential effects of various β2AR ligands on the asthma phenotype, we have speculated that the permissive effect of endogenous epinephrine and exogenous β2AR agonists on allergic lung inflammation can be explained by qualitative β2AR signaling. The β2AR can signal through at least two pathways: the canonical Gαs–cAMP pathway and a β-arrestin–dependent pathway. Previous studies suggest that β-arrestin-2 is required for allergic lung inflammation. On the other hand, cell-based assays suggest antiinflammatory effects of Gαs–cAMP signaling. This study was designed to test whether the in vitro antiinflammatory effects of phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors, known to increase intracellular cAMP in multiple airway cell types, attenuate the asthma-like phenotype produced by the β2AR agonists formoterol and salmeterol in vivo in PNMT-KO mice, based on the hypothesis that skewing β2AR signaling toward Gαs–cAMP pathway is beneficial. Airway inflammatory cells, epithelial mucus production, and airway hyperresponsiveness were quantified. In Ova S/C PNMT-KO mice, formoterol and salmeterol restored the asthma-like phenotype comparable to Ova S/C wild-type mice. However, coadministration of either roflumilast or rolipram attenuated this formoterol- or salmeterol-driven phenotype in Ova S/C PNMT-KO. These findings suggest that amplification of β2AR-mediated cAMP by phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors attenuates the asthma-like phenotype promoted by β-agonists. PMID:26909542

  14. Sex differences in the effects of adolescent social deprivation on alcohol consumption in μ-opioid receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Yuki; Kasahara, Yoshiyuki; Hall, F Scott; Sakakibara, Yasufumi; Uhl, George R; Tomita, Hiroaki; Sora, Ichiro

    2015-04-01

    Evidence based on clinical and experimental animal studies indicates that adolescent social deprivation influences alcohol consumption in a sex-dependent manner, perhaps by influencing stress responses. However, the mechanisms underlying the interaction between these phenomena remain to be elucidated. Since the μ-opioid receptor (MOP) has been reported to have key roles in social stress responses as well as the reinforcing/addictive effects of ethanol, MOP is a candidate molecule that may link adolescent social deprivation and subsequent alterations in alcohol consumption. To evaluate the involvement of MOP and social isolation-induced changes in alcohol consumption, as well as the effect of sex differences on responses to social isolation, alcohol consumption was assessed using a two-bottle home-cage consumption procedure (8 % ethanol vs. water) in MOP knockout (MOP-KO) and wild type (WT) mice of both sexes exposed to adolescent social deprivation or reared socially. Isolation rearing had no effects upon alcohol consumption of WT mice, whereas it significantly altered alcohol consumption in both male and female MOP-KO mice. Interestingly, social isolation affected ethanol consumption differently in male and female mice. Ethanol consumption was increased in male MOP-KO mice, but decreased in female MOP-KO mice, by isolation rearing. These results indicate that disturbances of MOP function influence the effects of isolation rearing on ethanol consumption in a sex-dependent manner. Consequently, this suggests the possibility that genetic variation that influences MOP function may have differential roles in alcoholism in men and women, and alcoholism treatments that target MOP function may be differentially effective in males and females.

  15. The FKBP5 Gene Affects Alcohol Drinking in Knockout Mice and Is Implicated in Alcohol Drinking in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Bin; Luczak, Susan E.; Wall, Tamara L.; Kirchhoff, Aaron M.; Xu, Yuxue; Eng, Mimy Y.; Stewart, Robert B.; Shou, Weinian; Boehm, Stephen L.; Chester, Julia A.; Yong, Weidong; Liang, Tiebing

    2016-01-01

    FKBP5 encodes FK506-binding protein 5, a glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-binding protein implicated in various psychiatric disorders and alcohol withdrawal severity. The purpose of this study is to characterize alcohol preference and related phenotypes in Fkbp5 knockout (KO) mice and to examine the role of FKBP5 in human alcohol consumption. The following experiments were performed to characterize Fkpb5 KO mice. (1) Fkbp5 KO and wild-type (WT) EtOH consumption was tested using a two-bottle choice paradigm; (2) The EtOH elimination rate was measured after intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 2.0 g/kg EtOH; (3) Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was measured after 3 h limited access of alcohol; (4) Brain region expression of Fkbp5 was identified using LacZ staining; (5) Baseline corticosterone (CORT) was assessed. Additionally, two SNPs, rs1360780 (C/T) and rs3800373 (T/G), were selected to study the association of FKBP5 with alcohol consumption in humans. Participants were college students (n = 1162) from 21–26 years of age with Chinese, Korean or Caucasian ethnicity. The results, compared to WT mice, for KO mice exhibited an increase in alcohol consumption that was not due to differences in taste sensitivity or alcohol metabolism. Higher BAC was found in KO mice after 3 h of EtOH access. Fkbp5 was highly expressed in brain regions involved in the regulation of the stress response, such as the hippocampus, amygdala, dorsal raphe and locus coeruleus. Both genotypes exhibited similar basal levels of plasma corticosterone (CORT). Finally, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FKBP5 were found to be associated with alcohol drinking in humans. These results suggest that the association between FKBP5 and alcohol consumption is conserved in both mice and humans. PMID:27527158

  16. Normal radial migration and lamination are maintained in dyslexia-susceptibility candidate gene homolog Kiaa0319 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Garay, Isabel; Guidi, Luiz G; Holloway, Zoe G; Bailey, Melissa A G; Lyngholm, Daniel; Schneider, Tomasz; Donnison, Timothy; Butt, Simon J B; Monaco, Anthony P; Molnár, Zoltán; Velayos-Baeza, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Developmental dyslexia is a common disorder with a strong genetic component, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unknown. Several candidate dyslexia-susceptibility genes, including KIAA0319, DYX1C1, and DCDC2, have been identified in humans. RNA interference experiments targeting these genes in rat embryos have shown impairments in neuronal migration, suggesting that defects in radial cortical migration could be involved in the disease mechanism of dyslexia. Here we present the first characterisation of a Kiaa0319 knockout mouse line. Animals lacking KIAA0319 protein do not show anatomical abnormalities in any of the layered structures of the brain. Neurogenesis and radial migration of cortical projection neurons are not altered, and the intrinsic electrophysiological properties of Kiaa0319-deficient neurons do not differ from those of wild-type neurons. Kiaa0319 overexpression in cortex delays radial migration, but does not affect final neuronal position. However, knockout animals show subtle differences suggesting possible alterations in anxiety-related behaviour and in sensorimotor gating. Our results do not reveal a migration disorder in the mouse model, adding to the body of evidence available for Dcdc2 and Dyx1c1 that, unlike in the rat in utero knockdown models, the dyslexia-susceptibility candidate mouse homolog genes do not play an evident role in neuronal migration. However, KIAA0319 protein expression seems to be restricted to the brain, not only in early developmental stages but also in adult mice, indicative of a role of this protein in brain function. The constitutive and conditional knockout lines reported here will be useful tools for further functional analyses of Kiaa0319.

  17. Attraction thresholds and sex discrimination of urinary odorants in male and female aromatase knockout (ArKO) mice.

    PubMed

    Pierman, Sylvie; Douhard, Quentin; Balthazart, Jacques; Baum, Michael J; Bakker, Julie

    2006-01-01

    We previously found that both male and female aromatase knockout (ArKO) mice, which cannot synthesize estrogens due to a targeted mutation of the aromatase gene, showed less investigation of volatile body odors from anesthetized conspecifics of both sexes in Y-maze tests. We now ask whether ArKO mice are in fact capable of discriminating between and/or responding to volatile odors. Using habituation/dishabituation tests, we found that gonadectomized ArKO and wild-type (WT) mice of both sexes, which were tested without any sex hormone replacement, reliably distinguished between undiluted volatile urinary odors of either adult males or estrous females versus deionized water as well as between these two urinary odors themselves. However, ArKO mice of both sexes were less motivated than WT controls to investigate same-sex odors when they were presented last in the sequence of stimuli. In a second experiment, we compared the ability of ArKO and WT mice to respond to decreasing concentrations of either male or female urinary odors. We found a clear-cut sex difference in urinary odor attraction thresholds among WT mice: WT males failed to respond to urine dilutions higher than 1:20 by volume, whereas WT females continued to respond to urine dilutions up to 1:80. Male ArKO mice resembled WT females in their ability to respond to lower concentrations of urinary odors, raising the possibility that the observed sex difference among WT mice in urine attraction thresholds results from the perinatal actions of estrogen in the male nervous system. Female ArKO mice failed to show significant dishabituation responses to two (1:20 and 1:80) dilutions of female urine, perhaps, again, because of a reduced motivation to investigate less salient, same-sex urinary odors. Previously observed deficits in the preference of ArKO male and female mice to approach volatile body odors from conspecifics of either sex cannot be attributed to an inability of ArKO subjects to discriminate these

  18. Regional brain uptake of the muscarinic ligand, [18F]FP-TZTP, is greatly decreased in M2 receptor knockout mice but not in M1, M3 and M4 receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Jagoda, E M; Kiesewetter, D O; Shimoji, K; Ravasi, L; Yamada, M; Gomeza, J; Wess, J; Eckelman, W C

    2003-04-01

    A muscarinic receptor radioligand, 3-(3-(3-fluoropropyl)thio) -1,2,5,thiadiazol-4-yl)-1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-1-methylpyridine (fP-TZTP) radiolabeled with the positron emitting radionuclide (18)F ([(18)F]FP-TZTP) displayed regional brain distribution consistent with M2 receptor densities in rat brain. The purpose of the present study is to further elucidate the subtype selectivity of [(18)F]FP-TZTP using genetically engineered mice which lacked functional M1, M2, M3, or M4 muscarinic receptors. Using ex vivo autoradiography, the regional brain localization of [(18)F]FP-TZTP in M2 knockout (M2 KO) was significantly decreased (51.3 to 61.4%; P<0.01) when compared to the wild-type (WT) mice in amygdala, brain stem, caudate putamen, cerebellum, cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, superior colliculus, and thalamus. In similar studies with M1KO, M3KO and M4KO compared to their WT mice, [(18)F]FP-TZTP uptakes in the same brain regions were not significantly decreased at P<0.01. However, in amygdala and hippocampus small decreases of 19.5% and 22.7%, respectively, were observed for M1KO vs WT mice at P<0.05. Given the fact that large decreases in [(18)F]FP-TZTP brain uptakes were seen only in M2 KO vs. WT mice, we conclude that [(18)F]FP-TZTP preferentially labels M2 receptors in vivo.

  19. Polyhydramnios in Lrp4 knockout mice with bilateral kidney agenesis: Defects in the pathways of amniotic fluid clearance

    PubMed Central

    Tanahashi, Hiroshi; Tian, Qing-Bao; Hara, Yoshinobu; Sakagami, Hiroyuki; Endo, Shogo; Suzuki, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic fluid volume during mid-to-late gestation depends mainly on the urine excretion from the foetal kidneys and partly on the fluid secretion from the foetal lungs during foetal breathing-like movements. Urine is necessary for foetal breathing-like movements, which is critical for foetal lung development. Bilateral renal agenesis and/or obstruction of the urinary tract lead to oligohydramnios, which causes infant death within a short period after birth due to pulmonary hypoplasia. Lrp4, which functions as an agrin receptor, is essential for the formation of neuromuscular junctions. Herein, we report novel phenotypes of Lrp4 knockout (Lrp4−/−) mice. Most Lrp4−/− foetuses showed unilateral or bilateral kidney agenesis, and Lrp4 knockout resulted in polyhydramnios. The loss of Lrp4 compromised foetal swallowing and breathing-like movements and downregulated the expression of aquaporin-9 in the foetal membrane and aquaporin-1 in the placenta, which possibly affected the amniotic fluid clearance. These results suggest that amniotic fluid removal was compromised in Lrp4−/− foetuses, resulting in polyhydramnios despite the impairment of urine production. Our findings indicate that amniotic fluid removal plays an essential role in regulating the amniotic fluid volume. PMID:26847765

  20. Salivary gland hypofunction in tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase-2 knockout mice is due to primary hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Westmuckett, Andrew D; Siefert, Joseph C; Tesiram, Yasvir A; Pinson, David M; Moore, Kevin L

    2013-01-01

    Protein-tyrosine sulfation is a post-translational modification of an unknown number of secreted and membrane proteins mediated by two known Golgi tyrosylprotein sulfotransferases (TPST-1 and TPST-2). We reported that Tpst2-/- mice have mild-moderate primary hypothyroidism, whereas Tpst1-/- mice are euthyroid. While using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to look at the thyroid gland we noticed that the salivary glands in Tpst2-/- mice appeared smaller than in wild type mice. This prompted a detailed analysis to compare salivary gland structure and function in wild type, Tpst1-/-, and Tpst2 -/- mice. Quantitative MRI imaging documented that salivary glands in Tpst2-/- females were (≈) 30% smaller than wild type or Tpst1-/- mice and that the granular convoluted tubules in Tpst2-/- submandibular glands were less prominent and were almost completely devoid of exocrine secretory granules compared to glands from wild type or Tpst1-/- mice. In addition, pilocarpine-induced salivary flow and salivary α-amylase activity in Tpst2-/- mice of both sexes was substantially lower than in wild type and Tpst1-/- mice. Anti-sulfotyrosine Western blots of salivary gland extracts and saliva showed no differences between wild type, Tpst1-/-, and Tpst2-/- mice, suggesting that the salivary gland hypofunction is due to factor(s) extrinsic to the salivary glands. Finally, we found that all indicators of hypothyroidism (serum T4, body weight) and salivary gland hypofunction (salivary flow, salivary α-amylase activity, histological changes) were restored to normal or near normal by thyroid hormone supplementation. Our findings conclusively demonstrate that low body weight and salivary gland hypofunction in Tpst2-/- mice is due solely to primary hypothyroidism.

  1. Salivary Gland Hypofunction in tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase-2 Knockout Mice Is Due to Primary Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Westmuckett, Andrew D.; Siefert, Joseph C.; Tesiram, Yasvir A.; Pinson, David M.; Moore, Kevin L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Protein-tyrosine sulfation is a post-translational modification of an unknown number of secreted and membrane proteins mediated by two known Golgi tyrosylprotein sulfotransferases (TPST-1 and TPST-2). We reported that Tpst2-/- mice have mild-moderate primary hypothyroidism, whereas Tpst1-/- mice are euthyroid. While using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to look at the thyroid gland we noticed that the salivary glands in Tpst2-/- mice appeared smaller than in wild type mice. This prompted a detailed analysis to compare salivary gland structure and function in wild type, Tpst1-/-, and Tpst2 -/- mice. Methodology/Principal Findings Quantitative MRI imaging documented that salivary glands in Tpst2-/- females were ≈ 30% smaller than wild type or Tpst1-/- mice and that the granular convoluted tubules in Tpst2-/- submandibular glands were less prominent and were almost completely devoid of exocrine secretory granules compared to glands from wild type or Tpst1-/- mice. In addition, pilocarpine–induced salivary flow and salivary α-amylase activity in Tpst2-/- mice of both sexes was substantially lower than in wild type and Tpst1-/- mice. Anti-sulfotyrosine Western blots of salivary gland extracts and saliva showed no differences between wild type, Tpst1-/-, and Tpst2-/- mice, suggesting that the salivary gland hypofunction is due to factor(s) extrinsic to the salivary glands. Finally, we found that all indicators of hypothyroidism (serum T4, body weight) and salivary gland hypofunction (salivary flow, salivary α-amylase activity, histological changes) were restored to normal or near normal by thyroid hormone supplementation. Conclusions/Significance Our findings conclusively demonstrate that low body weight and salivary gland hypofunction in Tpst2-/- mice is due solely to primary hypothyroidism. PMID:23951251

  2. Dissociation of Structural and Functional Phenotypes in Cardiac Myosin Binding Protein-C Conditional Knock-Out Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peter P.; Patel, Jitandrakumar R.; Powers, Patricia A.; Fitzsimons, Daniel P.; Moss, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) is a sarcomeric protein that dynamically regulates thick filament structure and function. In constitutive cMyBP-C knock-out (cMyBP-C−/−) mice, loss of cMyBP-C has been linked to left ventricular (LV) dilation, cardiac hypertrophy, and systolic and diastolic dysfunction, although the pathogenesis of these phenotypes remains unclear. Methods and Results We generated cMyBP-C conditional knock-out (cMyBP-C-cKO) mice expressing floxed cMyBP-C alleles and a tamoxifen-inducible Cre-recombinase fused to two mutated estrogen receptors to study the onset and progression of structural and functional phenotypes due to the loss of cMyBP-C. In adult cMyBP-C-cKO mice, knock-down of cMyBP-C over a 2 month period resulted in a corresponding impairment of diastolic function and a concomitant abbreviation of systolic ejection, although contractile function was largely preserved. No significant changes in cardiac structure or morphology were immediately evident; however, mild hypertrophy developed after near-complete knock-down of cMyBP-C. In response to pressure overload induced by transaortic constriction, cMyBP-C-cKO mice treated with tamoxifen also developed greater cardiac hypertrophy, LV dilation, and reduced contractile function. Conclusions These results indicate that myocardial dysfunction is largely due to the removal of cMyBP-C and occurs prior to the onset of cytoarchitectural remodeling in tamoxifen-treated cMyBP-C-cKO myocardium. Moreover, near ablation of cMyBP-C in adult myocardium primarily leads to the development of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in contrast to the dilated phenotype evident in cMyBP-C−/− mice, highlighting the importance of additional factors such as loading stress in determining the expression and progression of cMyBP-C-associated cardiomyopathy. PMID:22829020

  3. HDLs in apoA-I transgenic Abca1 knockout mice are remodelednormally in plasma but are hypercatabolized by the kidney.

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ji-Young; Timmins, Jenelle M.; Mulya, Anny

    2005-07-05

    Patients homozygous for Tangier disease have a near absence of plasma HDL as a result of mutations in ABCA1 and hypercatabolize normal HDL particles. To determine the relationship between ABCA1 expression and HDL catabolism, we investigated intravascular remodeling, plasma clearance, and organ-specific uptake of HDL in mice expressing the human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) transgene in the Abca1 knockout background. Small HDL particles (7.5 nm), radiolabeled with 125I-tyramine cellobiose, were injected into recipient mice to quantify plasma turnover and the organ uptake of tracer. Small HDL tracer was remodeled to 8.2 nm diameter particles within 5 min in human apolipoprotein A-Imore » transgenic (hA-ITg) mice (control) and knockout mice. Decay of tracer from plasma was 1.6-fold more rapid in knockout mice (P<0.05) and kidney uptake was twice that of controls, with no difference in liver uptake. We also observed 2-fold greater hepatic expression of ABCA1 protein in hA-ITg mice compared with nontransgenic mice, suggesting that overexpression of human apoA-I stabilized hepatic ABCA1 protein in vivo.« less

  4. Prostaglandin E2 inhibits the potassium current in sensory neurons from hyperalgesic Kv1.1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, X; Zhang, Y H; Clark, J D; Tempel, B L; Nicol, G D

    2003-01-01

    Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) enhances the sensitivity of sensory neurons to various forms of noxious stimulation. This occurs, in part, by the suppression of a delayed rectifier-like potassium current in these neurons. However, the molecular identity of this current remains unclear. Recent studies demonstrated that a mutant mouse lacking a delayed rectifier potassium channel gene, Kv1.1, displayed lowered thresholds to thermal stimulation in behavioral assays of pain perception, i.e. the Kcna1-null mice were hyperalgesic. Here we examined whether PGE(2) can alter the sensitivity of Kcna1-null mice to noxious stimulation and examine the capability of PGE(2) to inhibit the potassium current in these knockout mice. Behavioral assays were used to assess the effect of PGE(2) on either thermal hyperalgesia or mechanical sensitivities. In addition, the whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to study the effects of PGE(2) on the total potassium current recorded from isolated mouse sensory neurons. Even with a reduced threshold to thermal stimulation, PGE(2) could still sensitize the response of Kcna1-null mice to thermal and mechanical stimulation by amounts that were similar to that in wild type mice. The activation properties of the potassium current were similar for both the wild type and the Kcna1-null mice, whereas the inactivation properties were different in cells exhibiting large amounts of steady-state inactivation (>50%) measured at +20 mV. PGE(2) suppressed the total potassium current in both groups of mice by 40-50% without altering the voltage dependence of activation. In addition, PGE(2) produced similar amounts of suppression in both groups of mice when currents were examined with the steady-state inactivation protocol. Based on these results, it is unlikely that Kv1.1 is the molecular identity of the potassium channel(s) modulated by PGE(2) to sensitize nociceptive sensory neurons. Also, the enhanced thermal sensitivity as observed in the Kcna1-null mice

  5. Glutathione-S-transferase A3 knockout mice are sensitive to acute cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aflatoxin B1

    SciTech Connect

    Ilic, Zoran, E-mail: zxi01@health.state.ny.u; Crawford, Dana, E-mail: crawfod@mail.amc.ed; Egner, Patricia A., E-mail: pegner@jhsph.ed

    2010-02-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in humans. However, mice, a major animal model for the study of AFB1 carcinogenesis, are resistant, due to high constitutive expression, in the mouse liver, of glutathione S-transferase A3 subunit (mGSTA3) that is lacking in humans. Our objective was to establish that a mouse model for AFB1 toxicity could be used to study mechanisms of toxicity that are relevant for human disease, i.e., an mGSTA3 knockout (KO) mouse that responds to toxicants such as AFB1 in a manner similar to humans. Exons 3-6 of the mGSTA3 were replacedmore » with a neomycin cassette by homologous recombination. Southern blotting, RT-PCR, Western blotting, and measurement of AFB1-N{sup 7}-DNA adduct formation were used to evaluate the mGSTA3 KO mice. The KO mice have deletion of exons 3-6 of the mGSTA3 gene, as expected, as well as a lack of mGSTA3 expression at the mRNA and protein levels. Three hours after injection of 5 mg/kg AFB1, mGSTA3 KO mice have more than 100-fold more AFB1-N{sup 7}-DNA adducts in their livers than do similarly treated wild-type (WT) mice. In addition, the mGSTA3 KO mice die of massive hepatic necrosis, at AFB1 doses that have minimal toxic effects in WT mice. We conclude that mGSTA3 KO mice are sensitive to the acute cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of AFB1, confirming the crucial role of GSTA3 subunit in protection of normal mice against AFB1 toxicity. We propose the mGSTA3 KO mouse as a useful model with which to study the interplay of risk factors leading to HCC development in humans, as well as for testing of additional possible functions of mGSTA3.« less

  6. Progesterone receptor knockout mice have an improved glucose homeostasis secondary to -cell proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, Frédéric; Wanatabe, Mitsuhiro; Schoonjans, Kristina; Lydon, John; O'Malley, Bert W.; Auwerx, Johan

    2002-11-01

    Gestational diabetes coincides with elevated circulating progesterone levels. We show that progesterone accelerates the progression of diabetes in female db/db mice. In contrast, RU486, an antagonist of the progesterone receptor (PR), reduces blood glucose levels in both female WT and db/db mice. Furthermore, female, but not male, PR-/- mice had lower fasting glycemia than PR+/+ mice and showed higher insulin levels on glucose injection. Pancreatic islets from female PR-/- mice were larger and secreted more insulin consequent to an increase in -cell mass due to an increase in -cell proliferation. These findings demonstrate an important role of progesterone signaling in insulin release and pancreatic function and suggest that it affects the susceptibility to diabetes.

  7. Interleukin-18 knockout mice display maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy in response to pressure overload.

    PubMed

    Colston, James T; Boylston, William H; Feldman, Marc D; Jenkinson, Chris P; de la Rosa, Sam D; Barton, Amanda; Trevino, Rodolfo J; Freeman, Gregory L; Chandrasekar, Bysani

    2007-03-09

    Interleukin (IL)-18 is a cardiotropic proinflammatory cytokine chronically elevated in the serum of patients with cardiac hypertrophy (LVH). The purpose of this study was to examine the role of IL-18 in pressure-overload hypertrophy using wild type (WT) and IL-18 -/- (null) mice. Adult male C57Bl/6 mice underwent transaortic constriction (TAC) for 7days or sham surgery. Heart weight/body weight ratios showed blunted hypertrophy in IL-18 null TAC mice compared to WT TAC animals. Microarray analyses indicated differential expression of hypertrophy-related genes in WT versus IL-18 nulls. Northern, Western, and EMSA analyses showed Akt and GATA4 were increased in WT but unchanged in IL-18 null mice. Our results demonstrate blunted hypertrophy with reduced expression of contractile-, hypertrophy-, and remodeling-associated genes following pressure overload in IL-18 null mice, and suggest that IL-18 plays a critical role in the hypertrophic response.

  8. The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium Web Portal, a unified point of access for knockout mice and related phenotyping data.

    PubMed

    Koscielny, Gautier; Yaikhom, Gagarine; Iyer, Vivek; Meehan, Terrence F; Morgan, Hugh; Atienza-Herrero, Julian; Blake, Andrew; Chen, Chao-Kung; Easty, Richard; Di Fenza, Armida; Fiegel, Tanja; Grifiths, Mark; Horne, Alan; Karp, Natasha A; Kurbatova, Natalja; Mason, Jeremy C; Matthews, Peter; Oakley, Darren J; Qazi, Asfand; Regnart, Jack; Retha, Ahmad; Santos, Luis A; Sneddon, Duncan J; Warren, Jonathan; Westerberg, Henrik; Wilson, Robert J; Melvin, David G; Smedley, Damian; Brown, Steve D M; Flicek, Paul; Skarnes, William C; Mallon, Ann-Marie; Parkinson, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC) web portal (http://www.mousephenotype.org) provides the biomedical community with a unified point of access to mutant mice and rich collection of related emerging and existing mouse phenotype data. IMPC mouse clinics worldwide follow rigorous highly structured and standardized protocols for the experimentation, collection and dissemination of data. Dedicated 'data wranglers' work with each phenotyping center to collate data and perform quality control of data. An automated statistical analysis pipeline has been developed to identify knockout strains with a significant change in the phenotype parameters. Annotation with biomedical ontologies allows biologists and clinicians to easily find mouse strains with phenotypic traits relevant to their research. Data integration with other resources will provide insights into mammalian gene function and human disease. As phenotype data become available for every gene in the mouse, the IMPC web portal will become an invaluable tool for researchers studying the genetic contributions of genes to human diseases.

  9. Lessons from Hepatocyte-Specific Cyp51 Knockout Mice: Impaired Cholesterol Synthesis Leads to Oval Cell-Driven Liver Injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorbek, Gregor; Perše, Martina; Jeruc, Jera; Juvan, Peter; Gutierrez-Mariscal, Francisco M.; Lewinska, Monika; Gebhardt, Rolf; Keber, Rok; Horvat, Simon; Björkhem, Ingemar; Rozman, Damjana

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate unequivocally that defective cholesterol synthesis is an independent determinant of liver inflammation and fibrosis. We prepared a mouse hepatocyte-specific knockout (LKO) of lanosterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) from the part of cholesterol synthesis that is already committed to cholesterol. LKO mice developed hepatomegaly with oval cell proliferation, fibrosis and inflammation, but without steatosis. The key trigger was reduced cholesterol esters that provoked cell cycle arrest, senescence-associated secretory phenotype and ultimately the oval cell response, while elevated CYP51 substrates promoted the integrated stress response. In spite of the oval cell-driven fibrosis being histologically similar in both sexes, data indicates a female-biased down-regulation of primary metabolism pathways and a stronger immune response in males. Liver injury was ameliorated by dietary fats predominantly in females, whereas dietary cholesterol rectified fibrosis in both sexes. Our data place defective cholesterol synthesis as a focus of sex-dependent liver pathologies.

  10. One-step generation of complete gene knockout mice and monkeys by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing with multiple sgRNAs.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Erwei; Cai, Yi-Jun; Li, Kui; Wei, Yu; Wang, Bang-An; Sun, Yidi; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Jiwei; Hu, Xinde; Wei, Wei; Huo, Xiaona; Shi, Linyu; Tang, Cheng; Liang, Dan; Wang, Yan; Nie, Yan-Hong; Zhang, Chen-Chen; Yao, Xuan; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Changyang; Ying, Wenqin; Wang, Qifang; Chen, Ren-Chao; Shen, Qi; Xu, Guo-Liang; Li, Jinsong; Sun, Qiang; Xiong, Zhi-Qi; Yang, Hui

    2017-07-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is an efficient gene-editing method, but the majority of gene-edited animals showed mosaicism, with editing occurring only in a portion of cells. Here we show that single gene or multiple genes can be completely knocked out in mouse and monkey embryos by zygotic injection of Cas9 mRNA and multiple adjacent single-guide RNAs (spaced 10-200 bp apart) that target only a single key exon of each gene. Phenotypic analysis of F0 mice following targeted deletion of eight genes on the Y chromosome individually demonstrated the robustness of this approach in generating knockout mice. Importantly, this approach delivers complete gene knockout at high efficiencies (100% on Arntl and 91% on Prrt2) in monkey embryos. Finally, we could generate a complete Prrt2 knockout monkey in a single step, demonstrating the usefulness of this approach in rapidly establishing gene-edited monkey models.

  11. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 Prevents Atherosclerosis via Inhibition of Intestinal Cholesterol Absorption in Apolipoprotein E-Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinfeng; Quan, Guihua; Wang, Xiaojun; Yang, Longfei; Zhong, Lili

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 on the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE−/−) mice. Eight-week-old ApoE−/− mice were fed a Western diet with or without L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 daily for 16 weeks. L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 protected ApoE−/− mice from atherosclerosis by reducing their plasma cholesterol levels from 923 ± 44 to 581 ± 18 mg/dl, likely via a marked decrease in cholesterol absorption caused by modulation of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1). In addition, suppression of cholesterol absorption induced reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) in macrophages through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor/liver X receptor (PPAR/LXR) pathway. Fecal lactobacillus and bifidobacterium counts were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 treatment groups than in the control groups. Furthermore, L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 was detected in the rat small intestine, colon, and feces during the feeding trial. The bacterial levels remained high even after the administration of lactic acid bacteria had been stopped for 2 weeks. These results suggest that administration of L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 can protect against atherosclerosis through the inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption. Therefore, L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 may be a potential therapeutic material for preventing the progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:25261526

  12. Inhalation exposure of gas-metal arc stainless steel welding fume increased atherosclerotic lesions in apolipoprotein E knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Erdely, Aaron; Hulderman, Tracy; Salmen-Muniz, Rebecca; Liston, Angie; Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C; Chen, Bean T; Stone, Samuel; Frazer, David G; Antonini, James M; Simeonova, Petia P

    2011-07-04

    Epidemiological studies suggest that welding, a process which generates an aerosol of inhalable gases and metal rich particulates, increases the risk for cardiovascular disease. In this study we analyzed systemic inflammation and atherosclerotic lesions following gas metal arc-stainless steel (GMA-SS) welding fume exposure. Apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE(-/-)) mice, fed a Western diet, were exposed to GMA-SS at 40mg/m(3) for 3h/day for ten days (∼8.26μg daily alveolar deposition). Mice were sacrificed two weeks after exposure and serum chemistry, serum protein profiling and aortic lesion area were determined. There were no significant changes in serum total cholesterol, triglycerides or alanine aminotransferase. Serum levels of uric acid, a potent antioxidant, were decreased perhaps suggesting a reduced capacity to combat systemic oxidative stress. Inflammatory serum proteins interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 3 (MCP-3) were increased two weeks after GMA-SS exposure. Analysis of atherosclerotic plaques showed an increase in lesion area as the result of GMA-SS exposure. In conclusion, GMA-SS exposure showed evidence of systemic inflammation and increased plaque progression in apoE(-/-) mice. These results complement epidemiological and functional human studies that suggest welding may result in adverse cardiovascular effects. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Increased mortality and aggravation of heart failure in liver X receptor-α knockout mice after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoqiang; Gao, Jianshu; Xia, Qiang; Lu, Tianfei; Wang, Fang

    2016-08-01

    Liver X receptors, LXRα (NR1H3) and LXRβ (NR1H2), are best known as nuclear oxysterol receptors and physiological master regulators of lipid and cholesterol metabolism. LXRα play a protective role in acute myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury, but its role in myocardial infarction (MI) is unknown. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of LXRα knockout on survival and development of chronic heart failure after MI. Wild-type (WT) and LXRα(-/-) mice were subjected to MI followed by serial echocardiographic and histological assessments. Greater myocyte apoptosis and inflammation within the infarcted zones were found in LXRα(-/-) group at 3 days after MI. At 4 weeks post-MI, LXRα(-/-) MI murine hearts demonstrated significantly increased infarct size, reduced ejection fraction (LXRα(-/-) 29.4 % versus WT 34.4 %), aggravated left ventricular (LV) chamber dilation, enhanced fibrosis and reduced angiogenesis. In addition, LXRα(-/-) mice had increased mortality compared with WT mice. LXRα deficiency increases mortality, aggravates pathological injury and LV remodeling induced by MI. Drugs specifically targeting LXRα may be promising in the treatment of MI.

  14. Human Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) Transgenesis Fully Rescues Noradrenergic Function in Dopamine β-Hydroxylase Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Cubells, Joseph F; Schroeder, Jason P; Barrie, Elizabeth S; Manvich, Daniel F; Sadee, Wolfgang; Berg, Tiina; Mercer, Kristina; Stowe, Taylor A; Liles, L Cameron; Squires, Katherine E; Mezher, Andrew; Curtin, Patrick; Perdomo, Dannie L; Szot, Patricia; Weinshenker, David

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) converts dopamine (DA) to norepinephrine (NE) in noradrenergic/adrenergic cells. DBH deficiency prevents NE production and causes sympathetic failure, hypotension and ptosis in humans and mice; DBH knockout (Dbh -/-) mice reveal other NE deficiency phenotypes including embryonic lethality, delayed growth, and behavioral defects. Furthermore, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the human DBH gene promoter (-970C>T; rs1611115) is associated with variation in serum DBH activity and with several neurological- and neuropsychiatric-related disorders, although its impact on DBH expression is controversial. Phenotypes associated with DBH deficiency are typically treated with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine (DOPS), which can be converted to NE by aromatic acid decarboxylase (AADC) in the absence of DBH. In this study, we generated transgenic mice carrying a human bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) encompassing the DBH coding locus as well as ~45 kb of upstream and ~107 kb of downstream sequence to address two issues. First, we characterized the neuroanatomical, neurochemical, physiological, and behavioral transgenic rescue of DBH deficiency by crossing the BAC onto a Dbh -/- background. Second, we compared human DBH mRNA abundance between transgenic lines carrying either a "C" or a "T" at position -970. The BAC transgene drove human DBH mRNA expression in a pattern indistinguishable from the endogenous gene, restored normal catecholamine levels to the peripheral organs and brain of Dbh -/- mice, and fully rescued embryonic lethality, delayed growth, ptosis, reduced exploratory activity, and seizure susceptibility. In some cases, transgenic rescue was superior to DOPS. However, allelic variation at the rs1611115 SNP had no impact on mRNA levels in any tissue. These results indicate that the human BAC contains all of the genetic information required for tissue-specific, functional expression of DBH and can rescue all measured Dbh deficiency

  15. Characterization of central inhibitory muscarinic autoreceptors by the use of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weilie; Basile, Anthony S; Gomeza, Jesus; Volpicelli, Laura A; Levey, Allan I; Wess, Jürgen

    2002-03-01

    Forebrain muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (mAChRs; M1-M5) are predicted to play important roles in many fundamental central functions, including higher cognitive processes and modulation of extrapyramidal motor activity. Synaptic ACh levels are known to be regulated by the activity of presynaptic muscarinic autoreceptors mediating inhibition of ACh release. Primarily because of the use of ligands with limited receptor subtype selectivity, classical pharmacological studies have led to conflicting results regarding the identity of the mAChR subtypes mediating this activity in different areas of the brain. To investigate the molecular identity of hippocampal, cortical, and striatal inhibitory muscarinic autoreceptors in a more direct manner, we used genetically altered mice lacking functional M2 and/or M4 mAChRs [knock-out (KO) mice]. After labeling of cellular ACh pools with [3H]choline, potassium-stimulated [3H]ACh release was measured in superfused brain slices, either in the absence or the presence of muscarinic drugs. The nonsubtype-selective muscarinic agonist, oxotremorine (0.1-10 microm), inhibited potassium-stimulated [3H]ACh release in hippocampal, cortical, and striatal slices prepared from wild-type mice by up to 80%. This activity was totally abolished in tissues prepared from M2-M4 receptor double KO mice. Strikingly, release studies with brain slices from M2 and M4 receptor single KO mice indicated that autoinhibition of ACh release is mediated primarily by the M2 receptor in hippocampus and cerebral cortex, but predominantly by the M4 receptor in the striatum. These results, together with additional receptor localization studies, support the novel concept that autoinhibition of ACh release involves different mAChRs in different regions of the brain.

  16. Muscle glycogen remodeling and glycogen phosphate metabolism following exhaustive exercise of wild type and laforin knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Irimia, Jose M; Tagliabracci, Vincent S; Meyer, Catalina M; Segvich, Dyann M; DePaoli-Roach, Anna A; Roach, Peter J

    2015-09-11

    Glycogen, the repository of glucose in many cell types, contains small amounts of covalent phosphate, of uncertain function and poorly understood metabolism. Loss-of-function mutations in the laforin gene cause the fatal neurodegenerative disorder, Lafora disease, characterized by increased glycogen phosphorylation and the formation of abnormal deposits of glycogen-like material called Lafora bodies. It is generally accepted that the phosphate is removed by the laforin phosphatase. To study the dynamics of skeletal muscle glycogen phosphorylation in vivo under physiological conditions, mice were subjected to glycogen-depleting exercise and then monitored while they resynthesized glycogen. Depletion of glycogen by exercise was associated with a substantial reduction in total glycogen phosphate and the newly resynthesized glycogen was less branched and less phosphorylated. Branching returned to normal on a time frame of days, whereas phosphorylation remained suppressed over a longer period of time. We observed no change in markers of autophagy. Exercise of 3-month-old laforin knock-out mice caused a similar depletion of glycogen but no loss of glycogen phosphate. Furthermore, remodeling of glycogen to restore the basal branching pattern was delayed in the knock-out animals. From these results, we infer that 1) laforin is responsible for glycogen dephosphorylation during exercise and acts during the cytosolic degradation of glycogen, 2) excess glycogen phosphorylation in the absence of laforin delays the normal remodeling of the branching structure, and 3) the accumulation of glycogen phosphate is a relatively slow process involving multiple cycles of glycogen synthesis-degradation, consistent with the slow onset of the symptoms of Lafora disease. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Muscle Glycogen Remodeling and Glycogen Phosphate Metabolism following Exhaustive Exercise of Wild Type and Laforin Knockout Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Irimia, Jose M.; Tagliabracci, Vincent S.; Meyer, Catalina M.; Segvich, Dyann M.; DePaoli-Roach, Anna A.; Roach, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Glycogen, the repository of glucose in many cell types, contains small amounts of covalent phosphate, of uncertain function and poorly understood metabolism. Loss-of-function mutations in the laforin gene cause the fatal neurodegenerative disorder, Lafora disease, characterized by increased glycogen phosphorylation and the formation of abnormal deposits of glycogen-like material called Lafora bodies. It is generally accepted that the phosphate is removed by the laforin phosphatase. To study the dynamics of skeletal muscle glycogen phosphorylation in vivo under physiological conditions, mice were subjected to glycogen-depleting exercise and then monitored while they resynthesized glycogen. Depletion of glycogen by exercise was associated with a substantial reduction in total glycogen phosphate and the newly resynthesized glycogen was less branched and less phosphorylated. Branching returned to normal on a time frame of days, whereas phosphorylation remained suppressed over a longer period of time. We observed no change in markers of autophagy. Exercise of 3-month-old laforin knock-out mice caused a similar depletion of glycogen but no loss of glycogen phosphate. Furthermore, remodeling of glycogen to restore the basal branching pattern was delayed in the knock-out animals. From these results, we infer that 1) laforin is responsible for glycogen dephosphorylation during exercise and acts during the cytosolic degradation of glycogen, 2) excess glycogen phosphorylation in the absence of laforin delays the normal remodeling of the branching structure, and 3) the accumulation of glycogen phosphate is a relatively slow process involving multiple cycles of glycogen synthesis-degradation, consistent with the slow onset of the symptoms of Lafora disease. PMID:26216881

  18. Assessment of the Disposition of Chiral Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Female mdr 1a/b Knockout versus Wild-type Mice Using Multivariate Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Milanowski, Bartłomiej; Lulek, Janina; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Kania-Korwel, Izabela

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are present in the environment as complex mixtures, which make it challenging to identify PCB congeners that may be subject to active transport processes. Here we employ a transgenic mouse model in combination with multivariate analyses to investigate if chiral PCBs 91, 95, 132, 136, 149, 174, 176 and 183 are subject to active (enantioselective) transport by multidrug resistance (MDR) transporters. A synthetic PCB mixture containing these congeners was administered orally to female FVB or mdr1a/1b knockout mice. Due to the short half-life of chiral PCB congeners, mice were euthanized after 24 hours and PCB concentrations and enantiomeric fractions were determined in selected tissues and excreta. Principal component analysis did not reveal differences between wild-type and mdr1a/1b knockout mice. However, Hotelling T2-test revealed significantly lower PCB concentrations and a more pronounced enantiomeric enrichment in the adipose tissue of mdr1a/1b knockout mice. These differences are due to higher body weights and higher fecal fat contents of mdr1a/1b knockout mice. Analysis of the enantiomeric fractions of PCBs 91, 95, 136, 149 and 174 showed a significant enantiomeric enrichment for all five congeners in wild-type and mdr1a/1b knockout mice. Overall, by studying a PCB mixture in a transgenic mouse model in combination with a multivariate data reduction approach, PCBs 91, 95, 136, 149 and 174 could be excluded as substrates of multidrug resistance transporters 1a/b. PMID:19923000

  19. CCR5 knockout suppresses experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Hyung Mun; Han, Sang Bae; Oh, Ki Wan; Son, Dong Ju; Yun, Jae Suk; Hong, Jin Tae

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease in which myelin in the spinal cord is damaged. C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) is implicated in immune cell migration and cytokine release in central nervous system (CNS). We investigated whether CCR5 plays a role in MS progression using a murine model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), in CCR5 deficient (CCR5−/−) mice. CCR5−/− and CCR5+/+ (wild-type) mice were immunized with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55 (MOG35-55) followed by pertussis toxin, after which EAE paralysis was scored for 28 days. We found that clinical scoring and EAE neuropathology were lower in CCR5−/− mice than CCR5+/+ mice. Immune cells (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, B cell, NK cell and macrophages) infiltration and astrocytes/microglial activation were attenuated in CCR5−/− mice. Moreover, levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ and MCP-1 cytokine levels were decreased in CCR5−/− mice spinal cord. Myelin basic protein (MBP) and CNPase were increased while NG2 and O4 were decreased in CCR5−/− mice, indicating that demyelination was suppressed by CCR5 gene deletion. These findings suggest that CCR5 is likely participating in demyelination in the spinal cord the MS development, and that it could serve as an effective therapeutic target for the treatment of MS. PMID:26985768

  20. Motor and cognitive deficits in aged tau knockout mice in two background strains

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We recently reported that Parkinsonian and dementia phenotypes emerge between 7-12 months of age in tau-/- mice on a Bl6/129sv mixed background. These observations were partially replicated by another group using pure Bl6 background tau-/- mice, but notably they did not observe a cognitive phenotype. A third group using Bl6 background tau-/- mice found cognitive impairment at 20-months of age. Results To reconcile the observations, here we considered the genetic, dietary and environmental variables in both studies, and performed an extended set of behavioral studies on 12-month old tau+/+, tau+/-, and tau-/- mice comparing Bl6/129sv to Bl6 backgrounds. We found that tau-/- in both backgrounds exhibited reduced tyrosine hydroxylase-positive nigral neuron and impaired motor function in all assays used, which was ameliorated by oral treatment with L-DOPA, and not confounded by changes in body weight. Tau-/- in the C57BL6/SV129 background exhibited deficits in the Y-maze cognition task, but the mice on the Bl6 background did not. Conclusions These results validate our previous report on the neurodegenerative phenotypes of aged tau-/- mice, and show that genetic background may impact the extent of cognitive impairment in these mice. Therefore excessive lowering of tau should be avoided in therapeutic strategies for AD. PMID:25124182

  1. Glucagon receptor knockout mice are protected against acute olanzapine-induced hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Castellani, Laura N; Peppler, Willem T; Sutton, Charles D; Whitfield, Jamie; Charron, Maureen J; Wright, David C

    2017-08-01

    To determine if glucagon is involved in mediating the increase in blood glucose levels caused by the second-generation antipsychotic drug olanzapine. Whole body glucagon receptor deficient mice (Gcgr -/- ) or WT littermate controls were injected with olanzapine (5mg/kg BW IP) and changes in blood glucose measured over the following 120min. Separate cohorts of mice were treated with olanzapine and changes in pyruvate tolerance, insulin tolerance and whole body substrate oxidation were determined. Olanzapine treatment increased serum glucagon and lead to rapid increases in blood glucose concentrations in WT mice. Gcgr -/- mice were protected against olanzapine-induced increases in blood glucose but this was not explained by differences in terminal serum insulin concentrations, enhanced AKT phosphorylation in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue or liver or differences in RER. In both genotypes olanzapine induced an equivalent degree of insulin resistance as measured using an insulin tolerance test. Olanzapine treatment led to an exaggerated glucose response to a pyruvate challenge in WT but not Gcgr -/- mice and this was paralleled by reductions in the protein content of PEPCK and G6Pase in livers from Gcgr -/- mice. Gcgr -/- mice are protected against olanzapine-induced increases in blood glucose. This is likely a result of reductions in liver glucose output, perhaps secondary to decreases in PEPCK and G6Pase protein content. Our findings highlight the central role of the liver in mediating olanzapine-induced disturbances in glucose homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Serotonin₂A/C receptors mediate the aggressive phenotype of TLX gene knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Juárez, Pablo; Valdovinos, Maria G; May, Michael E; Lloyd, Blair P; Couppis, Maria H; Kennedy, Craig H

    2013-11-01

    Deleting the tailless (TLX) gene in mice produces a highly aggressive phenotype yet to be characterized in terms of heterozygous animals or neurotransmitter mechanisms. We sought to establish pharmacological control over aggression and study the role of serotonin (5-HT)(2A/C) receptors in mediating changes in aggression. We analyzed aggression in mice heterozygous (+/-) or homozygous (-/-) for the TLX gene and wild-types (+/+) using a resident-intruder paradigm. No +/+ mice were aggressive, 36% of +/- TLX and 100% of -/- TLX mice showed aggression. Dose-effect functions were established for clozapine (0.1-1.5mg/kg, ip), ketanserin (0.3-1.25 mg/kg, ip), and (±)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane [(±)DOI] (0.5-2.0 mg/kg, ip). Injecting clozapine decreased the frequency and duration of attacks for +/- TLX and -/- TLX mice. Clozapine did not decrease grooming in either +/- TLX or -/- TLX mice but may have increased locomotion for -/- TLX mice. Injecting ketanserin, a 5-HT(2A/C) receptor antagonist, produced differential decreases in frequency and latency to aggression between genotypes and corresponding increases in locomotor behavior. Injecting (±)DOI, a 5-HT(2A/C) receptor agonist, increased the frequency and duration of attacks, decreased the latency to attacks, and decreased locomotion in +/- and -/- TLX mice. Results of the current study suggest aggression displayed by TLX null and heterozygous mice involves 5-HT(2A/C) receptors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Small heterodimer partner overexpression partially protects against liver tumor development in farnesoid X receptor knockout mice

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Guodong; Kong, Bo; Zhu, Yan

    2013-10-15

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR, Nr1h4) and small heterodimer partner (SHP, Nr0b2) are nuclear receptors that are critical to liver homeostasis. Induction of SHP serves as a major mechanism of FXR in suppressing gene expression. Both FXR{sup −/−} and SHP{sup −/−} mice develop spontaneous hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). SHP is one of the most strongly induced genes by FXR in the liver and is a tumor suppressor, therefore, we hypothesized that deficiency of SHP contributes to HCC development in the livers of FXR{sup −/−} mice and therefore, increased SHP expression in FXR{sup −/−} mice reduces liver tumorigenesis. To test this hypothesis, wemore » generated FXR{sup −/−} mice with overexpression of SHP in hepatocytes (FXR{sup −/−}/SHP{sup Tg}) and determined the contribution of SHP in HCC development in FXR{sup −/−} mice. Hepatocyte-specific SHP overexpression did not affect liver tumor incidence or size in FXR{sup −/−} mice. However, SHP overexpression led to a lower grade of dysplasia, reduced indicator cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. All tumor-bearing mice had increased serum bile acid levels and IL-6 levels, which was associated with activation of hepatic STAT3. In conclusion, SHP partially protects FXR{sup −/−} mice from HCC formation by reducing tumor malignancy. However, disrupted bile acid homeostasis by FXR deficiency leads to inflammation and injury, which ultimately results in uncontrolled cell proliferation and tumorigenesis in the liver. - Highlights: • SHP does not prevent HCC incidence nor size in FXR KO mice but reduces malignancy. • Increased SHP promotes apoptosis. • Bile acids and inflammation maybe critical for HCC formation with FXR deficiency.« less

  4. RETINOIC ACID INDUCTION OF CLEFT PALATE IN EGF AND TGF-ALPHA KNOCKOUT MICE: STAGE SPECIFIC INFLUENCES OF GROWTH FACTOR EXPRESSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABBOTT, B. D., LEFFLER, K.E. AND BUCKALEW, A.R, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Retinoic acid induction of cleft palate (CP) in EGF and TGF knockout mice: Stage specific influences of growth factor expression.
    <...

  5. 2,3,7, 8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN (TCDD)-MEDIATED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN FEMALE CYP1A-2 KNOCKOUT (CYP1A2-/-) MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlordibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-Mediated Oxidative Stress in Female CYP1A2 Knockout (CYP1A2-/-) Mice

    Deborah Burgin1, Janet Diliberto2, Linda Birnbaum2
    1UNC Toxicology; 2USEPA/ORD/NHEERL, RTP, NC

    Most of the effects due to TCDD exposure are mediated via...

  6. Selective Attention to Visual Stimuli Using Auditory Distractors Is Altered in Alpha-9 Nicotinic Receptor Subunit Knock-Out Mice.

    PubMed

    Terreros, Gonzalo; Jorratt, Pascal; Aedo, Cristian; Elgoyhen, Ana Belén; Delano, Paul H

    2016-07-06

    During selective attention, subjects voluntarily focus their cognitive resources on a specific stimulus while ignoring others. Top-down filtering of peripheral sensory responses by higher structures of the brain has been proposed as one of the mechanisms responsible for selective attention. A prerequisite to accomplish top-down modulation of the activity of peripheral structures is the presence of corticofugal pathways. The mammalian auditory efferent system is a unique neural network that originates in the auditory cortex and projects to the cochlear receptor through the olivocochlear bundle, and it has been proposed to function as a top-down filter of peripheral auditory responses during attention to cross-modal stimuli. However, to date, there is no conclusive evidence of the involvement of olivocochlear neurons in selective attention paradigms. Here, we trained wild-type and α-9 nicotinic receptor subunit knock-out (KO) mice, which lack cholinergic transmission between medial olivocochlear neurons and outer hair cells, in a two-choice visual discrimination task and studied the behavioral consequences of adding different types of auditory distractors. In addition, we evaluated the effects of contralateral noise on auditory nerve responses as a measure of the individual strength of the olivocochlear reflex. We demonstrate that KO mice have a reduced olivocochlear reflex strength and perform poorly in a visual selective attention paradigm. These results confirm that an intact medial olivocochlear transmission aids in ignoring auditory distraction during selective attention to visual stimuli. The auditory efferent system is a neural network that originates in the auditory cortex and projects to the cochlear receptor through the olivocochlear system. It has been proposed to function as a top-down filter of peripheral auditory responses during attention to cross-modal stimuli. However, to date, there is no conclusive evidence of the involvement of olivocochlear

  7. Cardiac dysfunction in Pkd1-deficient mice with phenotype rescue by galectin-3 knockout

    PubMed Central

    Balbo, Bruno E.; Amaral, Andressa G.; Fonseca, Jonathan M.; de Castro, Isac; Salemi, Vera M.; Souza, Leandro E.; dos Santos, Fernando; Irigoyen, Maria C.; Qian, Feng; Chammas, Roger; Onuchic, Luiz F.

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in myocardial wall texture stand out among ADPKD cardiovascular manifestations, in hypertensive and normotensive patients. To elucidate their pathogenesis, we analyzed the cardiac phenotype in Pkd1cond/cond:Nestincre (CYG+) cystic mice exposed to increased blood pressure, at 5–6 and 20–24 weeks of age, and Pkd1+/− (HTG+) noncystic mice at 5–6 and 10–13 weeks. Echocardiographic analyses revealed decreased myocardial deformation and systolic function in CYG+ and HTG+ mice, as well as diastolic dysfunction in older CYG+ mice, compared to their Pkd1cond/cond and Pkd1+/+ controls. Hearts from CYG+ and HTG+ mice presented reduced polycystin-1 expression, increased apoptosis and mild fibrosis. Since galectin-3 has been associated with heart dysfunction, we studied it as a potential modifier of the ADPKD cardiac phenotype. Double-mutant Pkd1cond/cond:Nestincre;Lgals3−/− (CYG−) and Pkd1+/−;Lgals3−/− (HTG−) mice displayed improved cardiac deformability and systolic parameters compared to single-mutants, not differing from their controls. CYG− and HTG− showed decreased apoptosis and fibrosis. Analysis of a severe cystic model (Pkd1V/V; VVG+) showed that Pkd1V/V;Lgals3−/− (VVG−) mice have longer survival, decreased cardiac apoptosis and improved heart function compared to VVG+. CYG− and VVG− animals showed no difference in renal cystic burden compared to CYG+ and VVG+ mice. Thus, myocardial dysfunction occurs in different Pkd1-deficient models and suppression of galectin-3 expression rescues this phenotype. PMID:27475230

  8. Sodium-dependent organic anion transporter (Slc10a6-/-) knockout mice show normal spermatogenesis and reproduction, but elevated serum levels for cholesterol sulfate.

    PubMed

    Bakhaus, Katharina; Bennien, Josefine; Fietz, Daniela; Sánchez-Guijo, Alberto; Hartmann, Michaela; Serafini, Rosanna; Love, Charles C; Golovko, Andrei; Wudy, Stefan A; Bergmann, Martin; Geyer, Joachim

    2018-05-01

    The sodium-dependent organic anion transporter SOAT (gene name SLC10A6 in man and Slc10a6 in mice) is a plasma membrane transporter for sulfated steroids, which is highly expressed in germ cells of the testis. SOAT can transport biologically inactive sulfated steroids into specific target cells, where they can be reactivated by the steroid sulfatase (STS) to biologically active, unconjugated steroids known to regulate spermatogenesis. Significantly reduced SOAT mRNA expression was previously found in different forms of impaired spermatogenesis in man. It was supposed that SOAT plays a role for the local supply of steroids in the testis and consequently for spermatogenesis and fertility. Thus, an Slc10a6 -/- Soat knockout mouse model was established by recombination-based target deletion of the Slc10a6 gene to elucidate the role of Soat in reproduction. However, the Slc10a6 -/- knockout mice were fertile, produced normal litter sizes, and had normal spermatogenesis and sperm vitality. This phenotype suggests that the loss of Soat can be compensated in the knockout mice or that Soat function is not essential for reproduction. In addition to reproductive phenotyping, a comprehensive targeted steroid analysis including a set of 9 un-conjugated and 12 sulfo-conjugated steroids was performed in serum of Slc10a6 -/- knockout and Slc10a6 +/+ wildtype mice. Only cholesterol sulfate, corticosterone, and testosterone (only in the males) could be detected in considerable amounts. Interestingly, male Slc10a6 -/- knockout mice showed significantly higher serum levels for cholesterol sulfate compared to their wildtype controls. As cholesterol sulfate has a broader impact apart from the testis, further analysis of this phenotype will include other organs such as skin and lung, which also show high Soat expression in the mouse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Involvement of multiple taste receptors in umami taste: analysis of gustatory nerve responses in metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Yasumatsu, Keiko; Manabe, Tomohiro; Yoshida, Ryusuke; Iwatsuki, Ken; Uneyama, Hisayuki; Takahashi, Ichiro; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2015-02-15

    The taste receptor T1R1 + T1R3 heterodimer and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) may function as umami taste receptors. Here, we used mGluR4 knockout (mGluR4-KO) mice and examined the function of mGluR4 in peripheral taste responses of mice. The mGluR4-KO mice showed reduced responses to glutamate and L-AP4 (mGluR4 agonist) in the chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerves without affecting responses to other taste stimuli. Residual glutamate responses in mGluR4-KO mice were suppressed by gurmarin (T1R3 blocker) and AIDA (group I mGluR antagonist). The present study not only provided functional evidence for the involvement of mGluR4 in umami taste responses, but also suggested contributions of T1R1 + T1R3 and mGluR1 receptors in glutamate responses. Umami taste is elicited by L-glutamate and some other amino acids and is thought to be initiated by G-protein-coupled receptors. Proposed umami receptors include heterodimers of taste receptor type 1, members 1 and 3 (T1R1 + T1R3), and metabotropic glutamate receptors 1 and 4 (mGluR1 and mGluR4). Accumulated evidences support the involvement of T1R1 + T1R3 in umami responses in mice. However, little is known about the in vivo function of mGluR in umami taste. Here, we examined taste responses of the chorda tympani (CT) and the glossopharyngeal (GL) nerves in wild-type mice and mice genetically lacking mGluR4 (mGluR4-KO). Our results indicated that compared to wild-type mice, mGluR4-KO mice showed significantly smaller gustatory nerve responses to glutamate and L-(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (an agonist for group III mGluR) in both the CT and GL nerves without affecting responses to other taste stimuli. Residual glutamate responses in mGluR4-KO mice were not affected by (RS)-alpha-cyclopropyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine (an antagonist for group III mGluR), but were suppressed by gurmarin (a T1R3 blocker) in the CT and (RS)-1-aminoindan-1,5-dicarboxylic acid (an antagonist for group I mGluR) in the CT and GL nerve

  10. Effects of High-Fat Diet on Stress Response in Male and Female Wildtype and Prolactin Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Kalyani, Manu; Hasselfeld, Kathryn; Janik, James M; Callahan, Phyllis; Shi, Haifei

    2016-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is well characterized for its roles in initiation and maintenance of lactation, and it also suppresses stress-induced responses. Feeding a high-fat diet (HFD) disrupts activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Whether PRL regulates HPA axis activation under HFD feeding is not clear. Male and female wildtype (WT) and PRL knockout (KO) mice were fed either a standard low-fat diet (LFD) or HFD for 12 weeks. Circulating corticosterone (CORT) levels were measured before, during, and after mice were subjected to an acute restraint stress or remained in their home cages as no stress controls. HFD feeding increased leptin levels, but the increase was lower in KO than in WT mice. All stressed female groups and only LFD-fed stressed males had elevated CORT levels compared to their no stress same-sex counterparts regardless of genotype. These results indicated that HFD consumption blunted the HPA axis response to acute stress in males but not females. Additionally, basal hypothalamic CRH content was lower in HFD than LFD males, but was similar among female groups. Furthermore, although basal CORT levels were similar among KO and WT groups, CORT levels were higher in KO mice than their WT counterparts during stress, suggesting that loss of PRL led to greater HPA axis activation. Basal PRL receptor mRNA levels in the choroid plexus were higher in HFD than LFD same-sex counterparts, suggesting activation of central PRL's action by HFD feeding in both males and females. Current results confirmed PRL's roles in suppression of the stress-induced HPA axis activation. Although HFD feeding activated central PRL's action in both sexes, only the male HPA axis was dampened by HFD feeding.

  11. Repressive Epigenetic Changes at the mGlu2 Promoter in Frontal Cortex of 5-HT2A Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kurita, Mitsumasa; Moreno, José L.; Holloway, Terrell; Kozlenkov, Alexey; Mocci, Giuseppe; García-Bea, Aintzane; Hanks, James B.; Neve, Rachael; Nestler, Eric J.; Russo, Scott J.

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin 5-HT2A and metabotropic glutamate 2 (mGlu2) are G protein–coupled receptors suspected in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, depression, and suicide. Previous findings demonstrate that mGlu2 mRNA expression is down-regulated in brain cortical regions of 5-HT2A knockout (KO) mice. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for this alteration remains unknown. We show here repressive epigenetic changes at the promoter region of the mGlu2 gene in frontal cortex of 5-HT2A-KO mice. Disruption of 5-HT2A receptor-dependent signaling in mice was associated with decreased acetylation of histone H3 (H3ac) and H4 (H4ac) and increased tri-methylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3) at the mGlu2 promoter, epigenetic changes that correlate with transcriptional repression. Neither methylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4me1/2/3) nor tri-methylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9me3) was affected. We found that Egr1, a transcription factor in which promoter activity was positively regulated by the 5-HT2A receptor agonist 4-bromo-3,6-dimethoxybenzocyclobuten-1-yl)methylamine hydrobromide, binds less to the mGlu2 promoter in frontal cortex of 5-HT2A-KO, compared with wild-type mice. Furthermore, expression of mGlu2 was increased by viral-mediated gene transfer of FLAG-tagged Egr1 in mouse frontal cortex. Together, these observations suggest that 5-HT2A receptor–dependent signaling epigenetically affects mGlu2 transcription in mouse frontal cortex. PMID:23508685

  12. Delayed tooth eruption and suppressed osteoclast number in the eruption pathway of heterozygous Runx2/Cbfa1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Yoda, Shuichi; Suda, Naoto; Kitahara, Yutaka; Komori, Toshihisa; Ohyama, Kimie

    2004-06-01

    Genetic studies have recently identified a mutation of one allele of runt-related gene 2 (RUNX2/CBFA1) as the cause for an autosomal-dominant skeletal disorder, cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD), which is characterised by hypoplasia of the clavicles and calvariae and widened sutures and fontanelles. In addition, CCD is frequently affected with multiple supernumerary teeth and the impaction and delayed eruption of teeth, the causes of all these dental abnormalities are still unknown. To clarify the cellular mechanism of the delayed tooth eruption in CCD, the process of tooth eruption was examined in heterozygous Runx2/Cbfa1 (mouse homolog of RUNX2/CBFA1) knockout mice, known to mimic most of the bone abnormalities of CCD. The timing of the appearance of maxillary and mandibular teeth into the oral cavity was significantly delayed in heterozygous mutant mice compared with wild-type mice. From postnatal days 8 to 10, an active alveolar bone resorption and a marked increase of the osteoclast surfaces was observed in the eruption pathway of both genotypes, but this increase was significantly suppressed in the mutant mice. In contrast, the osteoclast surfaces did not show a significant difference between the two genotypes in the future cortical area of femora. These results suggest that haploinsufficiency of Runx2/Cbfa1 does not effect the femoral bone remodelling but is insufficient for the active alveolar bone resorption essential for the prompt timing of tooth eruption. These results also suggest the possibility that impaired recruitment of osteoclasts is one of the cellular mechanisms of delayed tooth eruption in CCD patients.

  13. Aberrant fatty acid metabolism in skeletal muscle contributes to insulin resistance in zinc transporter 7 (Znt7)-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liping; Tepaamorndech, Surapun; Kirschke, Catherine P; Newman, John W; Keyes, William R; Pedersen, Theresa L; Dumnil, Jureeporn

    2018-03-19

    ZnT7 (Slc30a7) is a widely expressed zinc transporter involved in sequestration of zinc into the Golgi apparatus and vesicular compartments. Znt7-knockout (KO) mice are mildly zinc deficient and lean. Despite their lean phenotype, adult male Znt7-KO mice are prone to insulin resistance. We hypothesized that fat partitioning from adipose to non-adipose tissues causes insulin resistance in Znt7-KO mice. Here, we used biological and biochemical methods including fatty acid and oxylipin profiling, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, quantitative RT-PCR, and Western blot analysis to identify the underlying mechanism of insulin resistance in Znt7-KO mice. We found that insulin resistance in this model was primarily associated with increased intracellular fatty acid levels in the skeletal muscle, which promoted intracellular lipid accumulation and production of bioactive lipid mediators, such as 12,13-dihydroxyoctadecanoic acid (12,13-DiHOME) and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE). The expression of fatty acid-binding protein 3 (Fabp3) was dramatically up-regulated in the Znt7-KO muscle cells accompanied by increased expression of Cd36, Slc27a1, and Slc27a4, the three major fatty acid transporters in the skeletal muscle. We also demonstrated that Znt7-KO muscle cells had increased fatty acid oxidative capacity, indicated by enlarged mitochondria and increased mRNA or protein expression of key enzymes involved in the fatty acid mitochondrial shuttle and β-oxidation. We conclude that increased fatty acid uptake in the Znt7-KO skeletal muscle is a key factor that contributes to the excessive intracellular lipid deposit and elevated production of bioactive lipid mediators. These mediators may play pivotal roles in oxidative stress and inflammation, leading to insulin resistance. Copyright © 2018, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  14. Mechanisms associated to impaired activity of cardiac P-type ATPases in endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Daniele C; Pôças, Elisa S C; Muzi-Filho, Humberto; Cunha, Valéria M N; Caricati-Neto, Afonso; Jurkiewicz, Aron; Noël, François; Quintas, Luis E M

    2013-06-01

    The effect of long-lasting in vivo restriction of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability on cardiac and renal P-type ATPases critical for intracellular ion homeostasis is controversial. Previous work has shown in eNOS knockout (eNOS(-/-)) mice hearts that Na(+)/K(+)- and Ca(2+)-ATPase activities were depressed but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. The goal of this study was to characterize potential alterations responsible for impaired enzyme activity in eNOS(-/-) mice. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity from crude preparations of adult male eNOS(-/-) mice hearts and kidneys was reduced compared with wild-type animals (32 %, p < 0.05 and 16 %, p < 0.0001, respectively). Immunoblot analysis showed that although the expression of the predominant (or exclusive, for the kidney) Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α1 isoform was not significantly changed, there was an important downregulation of the less abundant α2 isoform in the heart (57 %, p < 0.0001). In addition, although cardiac Ca(2+)-ATPase activity was unaltered, the expression of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase 2 protein in eNOS(-/-) mice was very high (290 % compared with wild-type animals, p < 0.0001) without any significant change in phospholamban expression. Consistent with these findings, the content of cardiac and renal free sulfhydryl groups, essential for the catalytic function of such ATPases, was decreased (23 %, p < 0.01 and 35 %, p < 0.05, respectively). Altogether, the present results suggest that the absence of eNOS promotes a compartmentalized altered redox balance that affects the activity and expression of ion transport ATPases.

  15. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of voltage-gated calcium channel beta-anchoring and -regulatory protein knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Nakao, Akito; Miki, Takafumi; Shoji, Hirotaka; Nishi, Miyuki; Takeshima, Hiroshi; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs) induces numerous intracellular events such as neuronal excitability, neurotransmitter release, synaptic plasticity, and gene regulation. It has been shown that genes related to Ca2+ signaling, such as the CACNA1C, CACNB2, and CACNA1I genes that encode VGCC subunits, are associated with schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. Recently, VGCC beta-anchoring and -regulatory protein (BARP) was identified as a novel regulator of VGCC activity via the interaction of VGCC β subunits. To examine the role of the BARP in higher brain functions, we generated BARP knockout (KO) mice and conducted a comprehensive battery of behavioral tests. BARP KO mice exhibited greatly reduced locomotor activity, as evidenced by decreased vertical activity, stereotypic counts in the open field test, and activity level in the home cage, and longer latency to complete a session in spontaneous T-maze alteration test, which reached “study-wide significance.” Acoustic startle response was also reduced in the mutants. Interestingly, they showed multiple behavioral phenotypes that are seemingly opposite to those seen in the mouse models of schizophrenia and its related disorders, including increased working memory, flexibility, prepulse inhibition, and social interaction, and decreased locomotor activity, though many of these phenotypes are statistically weak and require further replications. These results demonstrate that BARP is involved in the regulation of locomotor activity and, possibly, emotionality. The possibility was also suggested that BARP KO mice may serve as a unique tool for investigating the pathogenesis/pathophysiology of schizophrenia and related disorders. Further evaluation of the molecular and physiological phenotypes of the mutant mice would provide new insights into the role of BARP in higher brain functions. PMID:26136667

  16. Excitation/inhibition imbalance and impaired synaptic inhibition in hippocampal area CA3 of Mecp2 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Calfa, Gaston; Li, Wei; Rutherford, John M; Pozzo-Miller, Lucas

    2015-02-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopment disorder associated with intellectual disabilities and caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the transcriptional regulator Methyl-CpG-binding Protein-2 (MeCP2). Neuronal dysfunction and changes in cortical excitability occur in RTT individuals and Mecp2-deficient mice, including hippocampal network hyperactivity and higher frequency of spontaneous multiunit spikes in the CA3 cell body layer. Here, we describe impaired synaptic inhibition and an excitation/inhibition (E/I) imbalance in area CA3 of acute slices from symptomatic Mecp2 knockout male mice (referred to as Mecp2(-/y) ). The amplitude of TTX-resistant miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSC) was smaller in CA3 pyramidal neurons of Mecp2(-/y) slices than in wildtype controls, while the amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSC) was significantly larger in Mecp2(-/y) neurons. Consistently, quantitative confocal immunohistochemistry revealed significantly lower intensity of the alpha-1 subunit of GABAA Rs in the CA3 cell body layer of Mecp2(-/y) mice, while GluA1 puncta intensities were significantly higher in the CA3 dendritic layers of Mecp2(-/y) mice. In addition, the input/output (I/O) relationship of evoked IPSCs had a shallower slope in CA3 pyramidal neurons Mecp2(-/y) neurons. Consistent with the absence of neuronal degeneration in RTT and MeCP2-based mouse models, the density of parvalbumin- and somatostatin-expressing interneurons in area CA3 was not affected in Mecp2(-/y) mice. Furthermore, the intrinsic membrane properties of several interneuron subtypes in area CA3 were not affected by Mecp2 loss. However, mEPSCs are smaller and less frequent in CA3 fast-spiking basket cells of Mecp2(-/y) mice, suggesting an impaired glutamatergic drive in this interneuron population. These results demonstrate that a loss-of-function mutation in Mecp2 causes impaired E/I balance onto CA3 pyramidal neurons, leading to a

  17. Phosphoproteomic analysis of the striatum from pleiotrophin knockout and midkine knockout mice treated with cocaine reveals regulation of oxidative stress-related proteins potentially underlying cocaine-induced neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Vicente-Rodríguez, Marta; Gramage, Esther; Herradón, Gonzalo; Pérez-García, Carmen

    2013-12-06

    The neurotrophic factors pleiotrophin (PTN) and midkine (MK) are highly upregulated in different brain areas relevant to drug addiction after administrations of different drugs of abuse, including psychostimulants. We have previously demonstrated that PTN and MK modulate amphetamine-induced neurotoxicity and that PTN prevents cocaine-induced cytotoxicity in NG108-15 and PC12 cells. In an effort to dissect the different mechanisms of action triggered by PTN and MK to exert their protective roles against psychostimulant neurotoxicity, we have now used a proteomic approach to study protein phosphorylation, in which we combined phosphoprotein enrichment, by immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC), with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, in order to identify the phosphoproteins regulated in the striatum of PTN knockout, MK knockout and wild type mice treated with a single dose of cocaine (15mg/kg, i.p.). We identified 7 differentially expressed phosphoproteins: 5'(3')-deoxyribonucleotidase, endoplasmic reticulum resident protein 60 (ERP60), peroxiredoxin-6 (PRDX6), glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (GLUD1), aconitase and two subunits of hemoglobin. Most of these proteins are related to neurodegeneration processes and oxidative stress and their variations specially affect the PTN knockout mice, suggesting a protective role of endogenous PTN against cocaine-induced neural alterations. Further studies are needed to validate these proteins as possible targets against neural alterations induced by cocaine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Conditional Knockout in Mice Reveals the Critical Roles of Ppp2ca in Epidermis Development.

    PubMed

    Fang, Chao; Li, Lei; Li, Jianmin

    2016-05-18

    The epidermis is an important tissue in Homo sapines and other animals, and an abnormal epidermis will cause many diseases. Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is an important serine and threonine phosphatase. The α isoform of the PP2A catalytic subunit (Ppp2ca gene encoding PP2Acα) is critical for cell proliferation, growth, metabolism and tumorigenesis. However, to date, no study has revealed its roles in epidermis development. To specifically investigate the roles of PP2Acα in epidermis development, we first generated Ppp2ca(flox/flox) transgenic mice, and conditionally knocked out Ppp2ca in the epidermis driven by Krt14-Cre. Our study showed that Ppp2ca(flox/flox); Krt14-Cre mice had significant hair loss. In addition, histological analyses showed that the morphogenesis and hair regeneration cycle of hair follicles were disrupted in these mice. Moreover, Ppp2ca(flox/flox); Krt14-Cre mice had smaller size, melanin deposition and hyperproliferation at the base of the claws. Accordingly, our study demonstrates that PP2Acα plays important roles in both hair follicle and epidermis development. Additionally, the Ppp2ca(flox/flox) mice generated in this study can serve as a useful transgene model to study the roles of PP2Acα in other developmental processes and diseases.

  19. Age-dependent measures of anxiety and cognition in male histidine decarboxylase knockout (Hdc-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Summer F; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Benice, Theodore S; Rizk-Jackson, Angela; Raber, Jacob

    2006-02-03

    Histidine decarboxylase deficient (Hdc(-/-)) and wild-type male mice on the C57Bl6/J background were used to determine the role of histamine in brain function. 3-5 (Y) and 12-14 (MA) month-old Hdc(-/-) mice showed hypoactivity and increased measures of anxiety in the open field, light-dark, elevated plus-maze, and elevated zero maze tests. Y Hdc(-/-) mice showed superior performance in the hidden sessions of the water maze and passive avoidance memory retention. In contrast, Y Hdc(-/-) mice were impaired in novel location recognition, spent less time searching in the target quadrant and more time searching in the outer zone of the water maze during the probe trials. These behaviors are likely due to increased measures of anxiety and are not found in MA Hdc(-/-) mice. These data support a role for histamine in anxiety and cognition and underline the importance of considering age and potential effects on measures of anxiety in the interpretation of the role of histaminergic neurotransmission in cognitive function.

  20. Biological effects of pyrroloquinoline quinone on liver damage in Bmi-1 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, YUANQING; CHEN, NING; MIAO, DENGSHUN

    2015-01-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) has been demonstrated to function as an antioxidant by scavenging free radicals and subsequently protecting the mitochondria from oxidative stress-induced damage. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether PQQ is able to rescue premature senescence in the liver, induced by the deletion of B cell-specific Moloney MLV insertion site-1 (Bmi-1), by inhibiting oxidative stress. In vivo, the mice were allocated into three groups that underwent the following treatment protocols. WT mice received a normal diet, while BKO mice also received a normal diet. An additional group of BKO mice were fed a PQQ-supplemented diet (BKO + PQQ; 4 mg PQQ/kg in the normal diet). The results indicated that PQQ partially rescued the liver damage induced by the deletion of Bmi-1. PQQ was demonstrated to exhibit these therapeutic effects on liver damage through multiple aspects, including the promotion of proliferation, antiapoptotic effects, the inhibition of senescence, the upregulation of antioxidant ability, the downregulation of cell cycle protein expression, the scavenging of reactive oxygen species and the reduction of DNA damage. The results of these experiments indicated that treatment of BKO mice with a moderate dose of PQQ significantly protected the liver from deleterious effects by inhibiting oxidative stress and participating in DNA damage repair. Therefore, PQQ has great potential as a therapeutic agent against oxidative stress during liver damage. PMID:26622336

  1. Effects of long- and short-term darbepoetin-α treatment on oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial injury in ApoE knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Özdemir, Evrim Dursun; Hanikoglu, Aysegul; Cort, Aysegul; Ozben, Beste; Suleymanlar, Gultekin; Ozben, Tomris

    2017-07-01

    Atherosclerosis and atherosclerosis-related complications are the main cause of death in the world. Vascular injury in response to inflammation and enhanced oxidant stress promotes endothelial dysfunction and leads to atherosclerotic lesions. Low-dose treatment with darbepoetin-α may be a potential therapeutic tool for endothelial injury and atherosclerosis. In order to study the effect of darbepoetin-α on endothelial injury and atherosclerosis, we used ApoE-/- mice as the atherosclerotic mice model. We monitored atherosclerosis and plaque formation histochemically in ApoE knockout mice at early and late stages of atherosclerosis. Darbepoetin-α was injected intraperitoneally at a dose of 0.1 μg/kg to ApoE-/- mice. The results of 2 ApoE-/- mice groups injected with darbepoetin-α (early and late stages of atherosclerosis) were compared to the results of the corresponding saline injected ApoE-/- mice groups and the control (C57BL/6) mice. Lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglyceride), inflammation (CRP, IL-6, histamine), endothelial injury (ICAM-1, selectin) and oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation) were significantly increased in 4 atherosclerotic groups compared to the control group. Short-term darbepoetin-α had no marked effects on indicators of inflammation and endothelial injury in the ApoE knockout mice groups compared to the ApoE knockout mice not treated with darbepoetin-α, however, darbepoetin-α significantly decreased 8-isoprostane and protein carbonyl content. Long term darbepoetin-α treatment reduced oxidative stress in ApoE-/- mice. This study contributes to understanding and elucidating the biochemical changes occurring during early and late stages of atherosclerosis development regarding lipid profile, inflammation, endothelial injury and oxidative stress markers.

  2. Knockout mice reveal a role for protein tyrosine phosphatase H1 in cognition.

    PubMed

    Patrignani, Claudia; Magnone, Maria Chiara; Tavano, Patrizia; Ardizzone, Michele; Muzio, Valeria; Gréco, Béatrice; Zaratin, Paola F

    2008-08-12

    The present study has investigated the protein tyrosine phosphatase H1 (PTPH1) expression pattern in mouse brain and its impact on CNS functions. We have previously described a PTPH1-KO mouse, generated by replacing the PTP catalytic and the PDZ domain with a LacZ neomycin cassette. PTPH1 expression pattern was evaluated by LacZ staining in the brain and PTPH1-KO and WT mice (n = 10 per gender per genotype) were also behaviorally tested for CNS functions. In CNS, PTPH1 is expressed during development and in adulthood and mainly localized in hippocampus, thalamus, cortex and cerebellum neurons. The behavioral tests performed on the PTPH1-KO mice showed an impact on working memory in male mice and an impaired learning performance at rotarod in females. These results demonstrate for the first time a neuronal expression of PTPH1 and its functionality at the level of cognition.

  3. Effects of muscarinic receptor antagonists on cocaine discrimination in wild-type mice and in muscarinic receptor M1, M2, and M4 receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Lauren; Thomsen, Morgane

    2017-06-30

    Muscarinic M 1 /M 4 receptor stimulation can reduce abuse-related effects of cocaine and may represent avenues for treating cocaine addiction. Muscarinic antagonists can mimic and enhance effects of cocaine, including discriminative stimulus (S D ) effects, but the receptor subtypes mediating those effects are not known. A better understanding of the complex cocaine/muscarinic interactions is needed to evaluate and develop potential muscarinic-based medications. Here, knockout mice lacking M 1 , M 2 , or M 4 receptors (M 1 -/- , M 2 -/- , M 4 -/- ), as well as control wild-type mice and outbred Swiss-Webster mice, were trained to discriminate 10mg/kg cocaine from saline. Muscarinic receptor antagonists with no subtype selectivity (scopolamine), or preferential affinity at the M 1 , M 2 , or M 4 subtype (telenzepine, trihexyphenidyl; methoctramine, AQ-RA 741; tropicamide) were tested alone and in combination with cocaine. In intact animals, antagonists with high affinity at M 1 /M 4 receptors partially substituted for cocaine and increased the S D effect of cocaine, while M 2 -preferring antagonists did not substitute, and reduced the S D effect of cocaine. The cocaine-like effects of scopolamine were absent in M 1 -/- mice. The cocaine S D attenuating effects of methoctramine were absent in M 2 -/- mice and almost absent in M 1 -/- mice. The findings indicate that the cocaine-like S D effects of muscarinic antagonists are primarily mediated through M 1 receptors, with a minor contribution of M 4 receptors. The data also support our previous findings that stimulation of M 1 receptors and M 4 receptors can each attenuate the S D effect of cocaine, and show that this can also be achieved by blocking M 2 autoreceptors, likely via increased acetylcholine release. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cognitive dysfunction, elevated anxiety, and reduced cocaine response in circadian clock-deficient cryptochrome knockout mice.

    PubMed

    De Bundel, Dimitri; Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Biever, Anne; Bonnefont, Xavier; Valjent, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The circadian clock comprises a set of genes involved in cell-autonomous transcriptional feedback loops that orchestrate the expression of a range of downstream genes, driving circadian patterns of behavior. Cognitive dysfunction, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse disorders have been associated with disruptions in circadian rhythm and circadian clock genes, but the causal relationship of these associations is still poorly understood. In the present study, we investigate the effect of genetic disruption of the circadian clock, through deletion of both paralogs of the core gene cryptochrome (Cry1 and Cry2). Mice lacking Cry1 and Cry2 (Cry1(-/-)Cry2(-/-) ) displayed attenuated dark phase and novelty-induced locomotor activity. Moreover, they showed impaired recognition memory but intact fear memory. Depression-related behaviors in the forced swim test or sucrose preference tests were unaffected but Cry1(-/-)Cry2(-/-) mice displayed increased anxiety in the open field and elevated plus maze tests. Finally, hyperlocomotion and striatal phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) induced by a single cocaine administration are strongly reduced in Cry1(-/-)Cry2(-/-) mice. Interestingly, only some behavioral measures were affected in mice lacking either Cry1 or Cry2. Notably, recognition memory was impaired in both Cry1(-/-)Cry2(+/+) and Cry1(+/+)Cry2(-/-) mice. Moreover, we further observed elevated anxiety in Cry1(-/-)Cry2(+/+) and Cry1(+/+)Cry2(-/-) mice. Our data indicate that beyond their role in the control of circadian rhythm, cryptochrome genes have a direct influence in cognitive function, anxiety-related behaviors and sensitivity to psychostimulant drugs.

  5. Knockout of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor results in distinct hepatic and renal phenotypes in rats and mice

    SciTech Connect

    Harrill, Joshua A.; Hukkanen, Renee R.; Lawson, Marie

    2013-10-15

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor which plays a role in the development of multiple tissues and is activated by a large number of ligands, including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). In order to examine the roles of the AHR in both normal biological development and response to environmental chemicals, an AHR knockout (AHR-KO) rat model was created and compared with an existing AHR-KO mouse. AHR-KO rats harboring either 2-bp or 29-bp deletion mutation in exon 2 of the AHR were created on the Sprague–Dawley genetic background using zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) technology. Rats harboring either mutation type lacked expressionmore » of AHR protein in the liver. AHR-KO rats were also insensitive to thymic involution, increased hepatic weight and the induction of AHR-responsive genes (Cyp1a1, Cyp1a2, Cyp1b1, Ahrr) following acute exposure to 25 μg/kg TCDD. AHR-KO rats had lower basal expression of transcripts for these genes and also accumulated ∼ 30–45-fold less TCDD in the liver at 7 days post-exposure. In untreated animals, AHR-KO mice, but not AHR-KO rats, had alterations in serum analytes indicative of compromised hepatic function, patent ductus venosus of the liver and persistent hyaloid arteries in the eye. AHR-KO rats, but not AHR-KO mice, displayed pathological alterations to the urinary tract: bilateral renal dilation (hydronephrosis), secondary medullary tubular and uroepithelial degenerative changes and bilateral ureter dilation (hydroureter). The present data indicate that the AHR may play significantly different roles in tissue development and homeostasis and toxicity across rodent species. - Highlights: • An AHR knockout rat was generated on a Sprague–Dawley outbred background. • AHR-KO rats lack expression of AHR protein. • AHR-KO rats are insensitive to TCDD-mediated effects. • Data suggests difference in the role of AHR in tissue development of rats and mice. • Abnormalities in

  6. Effects of insulin sensitizers on plaque vulnerability associated with elevated lipid content in atheroma in ApoE-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Cefalu, W T; Wang, Z Q; Schneider, D J; Absher, P M; Baldor, L C; Taatjes, D J; Sobel, B E

    2004-03-01

    Acute coronary syndromes are generally precipitated by rupture of lipid-laden, relatively acellular, vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques with thin fibrous caps. We investigated whether a high-fat diet alters insulin sensitivity and whether insulin sensitizers (troglitazone and rosiglitazone) alter the composition of otherwise lipidladen atherosclerotic plaques in mice deficient in apolipoprotein E (ApoE). ApoE-knockout mice were fed a high-fat (n=30) or standard chow (n=10) diet for two weeks. Thereafter, those fed the high-fat diet were treated with troglitazone (n=10), rosiglitazone (n=10) or no drug (n=10) for 16 weeks beginning at 8 weeks of age. Carbohydrate metabolism was assessed with intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests and insulin tolerance tests. Plaque composition was characterised with confocal laser scanning microscopy. The high-fat diet induced insulin resistance in the absence of weight gain. Compared with control animals on the high-fat diet, animals given troglitazone (400 mg/kg/day) or rosiglitazone (4 mg/kg/day) had significantly less area under the curve (AUC) for insulin ( p<0.05) and glucose disposal ( p<0.05). Despite significant increases in insulin sensitivity with drug treatment, no change in HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels, nor reduction in atheroma size or lipid content was noted. Thus, improvement in insulin resistance induced by a high-fat diet in this animal model of vasculopathy did not alter plaque composition.

  7. Metabolomic profiling in liver of adiponectin-knockout mice uncovers lysophospholipid metabolism as an important target of adiponectin action

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Sen, Sanjana; Wannaiampikul, Sivaporn; Palanivel, Rengasamy; Hoo, Ruby L. C.; Isserlin, Ruth; Bader, Gary D.; Tungtrongchitr, Rungsunn; Deshaies, Yves; Xu, Aimin; Sweeney, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Adiponectin mediates anti-diabetic effects via increasing hepatic insulin sensitivity and direct metabolic effects. In the present study, we conducted a comprehensive and unbiased metabolomic profiling of liver tissue from AdKO (adiponectin-knockout) mice, with and without adiponectin supplementation, fed on an HFD (high-fat diet) to derive insight into the mechanisms and consequences of insulin resistance. Hepatic lipid accumulation and insulin resistance induced by the HFD were reduced by adiponectin. The HFD significantly altered levels of 147 metabolites, and bioinformatic analysis indicated that one of the most striking changes was the profile of increased lysophospholipids. These changes were largely corrected by adiponectin, at least in part via direct regulation of PLA2 (phospholipase A2) as palmitate-induced PLA2 activation was attenuated by adiponectin in primary hepatocytes. Notable decreases in several glycerolipids after the HFD were reversed by adiponectin, which also corrected elevations in several diacyglycerol and ceramide species. Our data also indicate that stimulation of ω-oxidation of fatty acids by the HFD is enhanced by adiponectin. In conclusion, this metabolomic profiling approach in AdKO mice identified important targets of adiponectin action, including PLA2, to regulate lysophospholipid metabolism and ω-oxidation of fatty acids. PMID:25915851

  8. Characterization of the gene expression profile of heterozygous liver-specific glucokinase knockout mice at a young age

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Tingting; Mao, Yiqing; Li, Hui; Wang, Xi; Xu, Wei; Song, Rongjing; Jia, Jianwei; Lei, Zhen; Irwin, David M.; Niu, Gang; Tan, Huanran

    2013-01-01

    In the liver, glucokinase (GCK) facilitates hepatic glucose uptake during hyperglycemia and is essential for the regulation of a network of glucose-responsive genes involved in glycolysis, glycogen synthesis, and lipogenesis. To better understand the consequences of changes in response to a liver-specific deficiency of GCK function we examined the expression profiles of genes involved in glucose metabolism in the liver, pancreas, muscle and adipose tissue in heterozygous liver-specific Gck knockout (Gckw/−) mice. Our results showed that with the development of a liver GCK deficiency, significant decreases in the mRNA levels for insulin receptor and Glut2 were observed in the liver, and HkII in muscle, while glucagon mRNA increased markedly in the pancreas. The levels of circulating glucagon hormone levels increased with increased mRNA levels. Depite a decrease in muscle HkII levels, the hexokinase activity level did not change. Our findings suggest that in liver-specific Gckw/− mice, peripheral tissues use different strategies to tackle with hyperglycemia even at a young age. By identifying the specific changes that occur in different tissues at an early stage of glucokinase deficiency, potentially we can develop interventions to prevent further progression to diabetes. PMID:23085254

  9. Ectopic pancreas formation in Hes1 -knockout mice reveals plasticity of endodermal progenitors of the gut, bile duct, and pancreas.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Akihisa; Kawaguchi, Yoshiya; Furuyama, Kenichiro; Kodama, Sota; Horiguchi, Masashi; Kuhara, Takeshi; Koizumi, Masayuki; Boyer, Daniel F; Fujimoto, Koji; Doi, Ryuichiro; Kageyama, Ryoichiro; Wright, Christopher V E; Chiba, Tsutomu

    2006-06-01

    Ectopic pancreas is a developmental anomaly occasionally found in humans. Hes1, a main effector of Notch signaling, regulates the fate and differentiation of many cell types during development. To gain insights into the role of the Notch pathway in pancreatic fate determination, we combined the use of Hes1-knockout mice and lineage tracing employing the Cre/loxP system to specifically mark pancreatic precursor cells and their progeny in Ptf1a-cre and Rosa26 reporter mice. We show that inactivation of Hes1 induces misexpression of Ptf1a in discrete regions of the primitive stomach and duodenum and throughout the common bile duct. All ectopic Ptf1a-expressing cells were reprogrammed, or transcommitted, to multipotent pancreatic progenitor status and subsequently differentiated into mature pancreatic exocrine, endocrine, and duct cells. This process recapitulated normal pancreatogenesis in terms of morphological and genetic features. Furthermore, analysis of Hes1/Ptf1a double mutants revealed that ectopic Ptf1a-cre lineage-labeled cells adopted the fate of region-appropriate gut epithelium or endocrine cells similarly to Ptf1a-inactivated cells in the native pancreatic buds. Our data demonstrate that the Hes1-mediated Notch pathway is required for region-appropriate specification of pancreas in the developing foregut endoderm through regulation of Ptf1a expression, providing novel insight into the pathogenesis of ectopic pancreas development in a mouse model.

  10. Zika virus-induced acute myelitis and motor deficits in adult interferon αβ/γ receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Zukor, Katherine; Wang, Hong; Siddharthan, Venkatraman; Julander, Justin G; Morrey, John D

    2018-02-23

    Zika virus (ZIKV) has received widespread attention because of its effect on the developing fetus. It is becoming apparent, however, that severe neurological sequelae, such as Guillian-Barrë syndrome (GBS), myelitis, encephalitis, and seizures can occur after infection of adults. This study demonstrates that a contemporary strain of ZIKV can widely infect astrocytes and neurons in the brain and spinal cord of adult, interferon α/β receptor knockout mice (AG129 strain) and cause progressive hindlimb paralysis, as well as severe seizure-like activity during the acute phase of disease. The severity of hindlimb motor deficits correlated with increased numbers of ZIKV-infected lumbosacral spinal motor neurons and decreased numbers of spinal motor neurons. Electrophysiological compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitudes in response to stimulation of the lumbosacral spinal cord were reduced when obvious motor deficits were present. ZIKV immunoreactivity was high, intense, and obvious in tissue sections of the brain and spinal cord. Infection in the brain and spinal cord was also associated with astrogliosis as well as T cell and neutrophil infiltration. CMAP and histological analysis indicated that peripheral nerve and muscle functions were intact. Consequently, motor deficits in these circumstances appear to be primarily due to myelitis and possibly encephalitis as opposed to a peripheral neuropathy or a GBS-like syndrome. Thus, acute ZIKV infection of adult AG129 mice may be a useful model for ZIKV-induced myelitis, encephalitis, and seizure activity.

  11. Curcumin Protects against Atherosclerosis in Apolipoprotein E-Knockout Mice by Inhibiting Toll-like Receptor 4 Expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shanshan; Zou, Jun; Li, Peiyang; Zheng, Xiumei; Feng, Dan

    2018-01-17

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been reported to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, the current study aimed to investigate whether curcumin suppresses atherosclerosis development in ApoE-knockout (ApoE -/- ) mice by inhibiting TLR4 expression. ApoE -/- mice were fed a high-fat diet supplemented with or without curcumin (0.1% w/w) for 16 weeks. Curcumin supplementation significantly reduced TLR4 expression and macrophage infiltration in atherosclerotic plaques. Curcumin also reduced aortic interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity, and plasma IL-1β, TNF-α, soluble VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 levels. In addition, aortic sinus sections revealed that curcumin treatment reduced the extent of atherosclerotic lesions and inhibited atherosclerosis development. In vitro, curcumin inhibited NF-κB activation in macrophages and reduced TLR4 expression induced by lipopolysaccharide. Our results indicate that curcumin protects against atherosclerosis at least partially by inhibiting TLR4 expression and its related inflammatory reaction.

  12. Comparison of the Tastes of L-Alanine and Monosodium Glutamate in C57BL/6J Wild Type and T1r3 Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Meghan C; Eschle, Benjamin K; Delay, Eugene R

    2017-09-01

    Previous research showed that L-alanine and monosodium L-glutamate elicit similar taste sensations in rats. This study reports the results of behavioral experiments designed to compare the taste capacity of C57BL/6J wild type and T1r3- mice for these 2 amino acids. In conditioned taste aversion (CTA) experiments, wild-type mice exhibited greater sensitivity than knockout mice for both L-amino acids, although knockout mice were clearly able to detect both amino acids at 50 mM and higher concentrations. Generalization of CTA between L-alanine and L-glutamate was bidirectionally equivalent for both mouse genotypes, indicating that both substances elicited similar tastes in both genotypes. This was verified by the discrimination experiments in which both mouse genotypes performed at or near chance levels at 75 and 150 mM. Above 150 mM, discrimination performance improved, suggesting the taste qualities of the 2 L-amino acids are not identical. No differences between knockout and wild-type mice in discrimination ability were detected. These results indicate that while the T1r3 receptor is important for tasting L-alanine and L-glutamate, other receptors are also important for tasting these amino acids. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Increased bone loss and amount of osteoclasts in kinin B1 receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves-Zillo, Thais Oliveira; Pugliese, Lívia Souza; Sales, Vicência Micheline Toledo; Mori, Marcelo Alves da Silva; Squaiella-Baptistão, Carla Cristina; Longo-Maugéri, Ieda Maria; Lopes, José Daniel; de Oliveira, Suzana Macedo; Monteiro, Ana Carolina; Pesquero, João Bosco

    2013-07-01

    The pathophysiology of periodontal diseases involves aspects of immunity and bone remodelling. Considering the role of the kinin B1 receptor (Bdkrb1) in inflammation and healing, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the contribution of Bdkrb1 to the pathogenesis of periodontitis. We used a model of ligature-induced experimental periodontitis (LIEP) in mice lacking Bdkrb1 (Bdkrb1(-/-) ) to test the role of this receptor in bone loss and cytokine secretion by lymph nodes cells. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) was used as a pharmacological strategy to support the genetic model. Also, autonomous effect of Bdkrb1 deletion was evaluated in osteoclasts precursors from bone marrow. Bdkrb1(-/-) mice exhibit increased bone loss and IL-17 secretion in response to LIEP when compared to wild type. LIEP does not modify TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-10 levels in Bdkrb1(-/-) mice after 21 days. Bone marrow cells from Bdkrb1(-/-) displayed increased differentiation into functional osteoclasts with consistent artificial calcium phosphate degradation. Furthermore, treatment of mice with ACEi prevented bone destruction. Bdkrb1 participates in the pathogenesis of LIEP bone loss possibly through mechanisms that involve modulation of the TH 17 response, thereby demonstrating its role in the development of periodontitis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Global analysis of gene expression profiles in the submandibular salivary gland of klotho knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Sung‐Min; Kim, Soo‐A; Yoon, Jung‐Hoon; Yook, Jong‐In

    2017-01-01

    Salivary dysfunction commonly occurs in many older adults and is considered a physiological phenomenon. However, the genetic changes in salivary glands during aging have not been characterized. The present study analyzed the gene expression profile in salivary glands from accelerated aging klotho deficient mice (klotho−/−, 4 weeks old). Microarray analysis showed that 195 genes were differentially expressed (z‐score > 2 in two independent arrays) in klotho null mice compared to wild‐type mice. Importantly, alpha2‐Na+/K+‐ATPase (Atp1a2), Ca2+‐ATPase (Atp2a1), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and nerve growth factor (NGF), which have been suggested to be regulators of submandibular salivary gland function, were significantly decreased. When a network was constructed from the differentially expressed genes, proliferator‐activated receptor‐γ (PPAR γ), which regulates energy homeostasis and insulin sensitivity, was located at the core of the network. In addition, the expression of genes proposed to regulate various PPAR γ‐related cellular pathways, such as Klk1b26, Egfbp2, Cox8b, Gpx3, Fabp3, EGF, and NGFβ, was altered in the submandibular salivary glands of klotho−/− mice. Our results may provide clues for the identification of novel genes involved in salivary gland dysfunction. Further characterization of these differentially expressed genes will be useful in elucidating the genetic basis of aging‐related changes in the submandibular salivary gland. PMID:28885690

  15. Ocular Dominance Plasticity after Stroke Was Preserved in PSD-95 Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Greifzu, Franziska; Parthier, Daniel; Goetze, Bianka; Schlüter, Oliver M; Löwel, Siegrid

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal plasticity is essential to enable rehabilitation when the brain suffers from injury, such as following a stroke. One of the most established models to study cortical plasticity is ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in the primary visual cortex (V1) of the mammalian brain induced by monocular deprivation (MD). We have previously shown that OD-plasticity in adult mouse V1 is absent after a photothrombotic (PT) stroke lesion in the adjacent primary somatosensory cortex (S1). Exposing lesioned mice to conditions which reduce the inhibitory tone in V1, such as raising animals in an enriched environment or short-term dark exposure, preserved OD-plasticity after an S1-lesion. Here we tested whether modification of excitatory circuits can also be beneficial for preserving V1-plasticity after stroke. Mice lacking postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95), a signaling scaffold present at mature excitatory synapses, have lifelong juvenile-like OD-plasticity caused by an increased number of AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) -silent synapses in V1 but unaltered inhibitory tone. In fact, using intrinsic signal optical imaging, we show here that OD-plasticity was preserved in V1 of adult PSD-95 KO mice after an S1-lesion but not in PSD-95 wildtype (WT)-mice. In addition, experience-enabled enhancement of the optomotor reflex of the open eye after MD was compromised in both lesioned PSD-95 KO and PSD-95 WT mice. Basic V1-activation and retinotopic map quality were, however, not different between lesioned PSD-95 KO mice and their WT littermates. The preserved OD-plasticity in the PSD-95 KO mice indicates that V1-plasticity after a distant stroke can be promoted by either changes in excitatory circuitry or by lowering the inhibitory tone in V1 as previously shown. Furthermore, the present data indicate that an increased number of AMPA-silent synapses preserves OD-plasticity not only in the healthy brain, but also in another experimental paradigm of

  16. Ocular Dominance Plasticity after Stroke Was Preserved in PSD-95 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Greifzu, Franziska; Parthier, Daniel; Goetze, Bianka; Schlüter, Oliver M.; Löwel, Siegrid

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal plasticity is essential to enable rehabilitation when the brain suffers from injury, such as following a stroke. One of the most established models to study cortical plasticity is ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in the primary visual cortex (V1) of the mammalian brain induced by monocular deprivation (MD). We have previously shown that OD-plasticity in adult mouse V1 is absent after a photothrombotic (PT) stroke lesion in the adjacent primary somatosensory cortex (S1). Exposing lesioned mice to conditions which reduce the inhibitory tone in V1, such as raising animals in an enriched environment or short-term dark exposure, preserved OD-plasticity after an S1-lesion. Here we tested whether modification of excitatory circuits can also be beneficial for preserving V1-plasticity after stroke. Mice lacking postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95), a signaling scaffold present at mature excitatory synapses, have lifelong juvenile-like OD-plasticity caused by an increased number of AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) -silent synapses in V1 but unaltered inhibitory tone. In fact, using intrinsic signal optical imaging, we show here that OD-plasticity was preserved in V1 of adult PSD-95 KO mice after an S1-lesion but not in PSD-95 wildtype (WT)-mice. In addition, experience-enabled enhancement of the optomotor reflex of the open eye after MD was compromised in both lesioned PSD-95 KO and PSD-95 WT mice. Basic V1-activation and retinotopic map quality were, however, not different between lesioned PSD-95 KO mice and their WT littermates. The preserved OD-plasticity in the PSD-95 KO mice indicates that V1-plasticity after a distant stroke can be promoted by either changes in excitatory circuitry or by lowering the inhibitory tone in V1 as previously shown. Furthermore, the present data indicate that an increased number of AMPA-silent synapses preserves OD-plasticity not only in the healthy brain, but also in another experimental paradigm of

  17. Hydrogen-rich pure water prevents cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary emphysema in SMP30 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yohei; Sato, Tadashi; Sugimoto, Masataka; Baskoro, Hario; Karasutani, Keiko; Mitsui, Aki; Nurwidya, Fariz; Arano, Naoko; Kodama, Yuzo; Hirano, Shin-Ichi; Ishigami, Akihito; Seyama, Kuniaki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2017-10-07

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is predominantly a cigarette smoke (CS)-triggered disease with features of chronic systemic inflammation. Oxidants derived from CS can induce DNA damage and stress-induced premature cellular senescence in the respiratory system, which play significant roles in COPD. Therefore, antioxidants should provide benefits for the treatment of COPD; however, their therapeutic potential remains limited owing to the complexity of this disease. Recently, molecular hydrogen (H 2 ) has been reported as a preventive and therapeutic antioxidant. Molecular H 2 can selectively reduce hydroxyl radical accumulation with no known side effects, showing potential applications in managing oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and lipid metabolism. However, there have been no reports on the efficacy of molecular H 2 in COPD patients. In the present study, we used a mouse model of COPD to investigate whether CS-induced histological damage in the lungs could be attenuated by administration of molecular H 2 . We administered H 2 -rich pure water to senescence marker protein 30 knockout (SMP30-KO) mice exposed to CS for 8 weeks. Administration of H 2 -rich water attenuated the CS-induced lung damage in the SMP30-KO mice and reduced the mean linear intercept and destructive index of the lungs. Moreover, H 2 -rich water significantly restored the static lung compliance in the CS-exposed mice compared with that in the CS-exposed H 2 -untreated mice. Moreover, treatment with H 2 -rich water decreased the levels of oxidative DNA damage markers such as phosphorylated histone H2AX and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, and senescence markers such as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1, and β-galactosidase in the CS-exposed mice. These results demonstrated that H 2 -rich pure water attenuated CS-induced emphysema in SMP30-KO mice by reducing CS-induced oxidative DNA damage and premature cell senescence in the lungs. Our

  18. Screening Gene Knockout Mice for Variation in Bone Mass: Analysis by μCT and Histomorphometry.

    PubMed

    Rowe, David W; Adams, Douglas J; Hong, Seung-Hyun; Zhang, Caibin; Shin, Dong-Guk; Renata Rydzik, C; Chen, Li; Wu, Zhihua; Garland, Gaven; Godfrey, Dana A; Sundberg, John P; Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl

    2018-04-01

    The international mouse phenotyping consortium (IMPC) is producing defined gene knockout mouse lines. Here, a phenotyping program is presented that is based on micro-computed tomography (μCT) assessment of distal femur and vertebra. Lines with significant variation undergo a computer-based bone histomorphometric analysis. Of the 220 lines examined to date, approximately 15% have a significant variation (high or low) by μCT, most of which are not identified by the IMPC screen. Significant dimorphism between the sexes and bone compartments adds to the complexity of the skeletal findings. The μCT information that is posted at www.bonebase.org can group KOMP lines with similar morphological features. The histological data is presented in a graphic form that associates the cellular features with a specific anatomic group. The web portal presents a bone-centric view appropriate for the skeletal biologist/clinician to organize and understand the large number of genes that can influence skeletal health. Cataloging the relative severity of each variant is the first step towards compiling the dataset necessary to appreciate the full polygenic basis of degenerative bone disease.

  19. Lack of anticipatory behavior in Gpr88 knockout mice showed by automatized home cage phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Maroteaux, G; Arefin, T M; Harsan, L-A; Darcq, E; Ben Hamida, S; Kieffer, B L

    2018-03-25

    Mouse models are widely used to understand genetic bases of behavior. Traditional testing typically requires multiple experimental settings, captures only snapshots of behavior and involves human intervention. The recent development of automated home cage monitoring offers an alternative method to study mouse behavior in their familiar and social environment, and over weeks. Here, we used the IntelliCage system to test this approach for mouse phenotyping, and studied mice lacking Gpr88 that have been extensively studied using standard testing. We monitored mouse behavior over 22 days in 4 different phases. In the free adaptation phase, Gpr88 -/- mice showed delayed habituation to the home cage, and increased frequency of same corner returns behavior in their alternation pattern. In the following nose-poke adaptation phase, non-habituation continued, however, mutant mice acquired nose-poke conditioning similar to controls. In the place learning and reversal phase, Gpr88 -/- mice developed preference for the water/sucrose corner with some delay, but did not differ from controls for reversal. Finally, in a fixed schedule-drinking phase, control animals showed higher activity during the hour preceding water accessibility, and reduced activity after access to water was terminated. Mutant mice did not show this behavior, showing lack of anticipatory behavior. Our data therefore confirm hyperactivity, non-habituation and altered exploratory behaviors that were reported previously. Learning deficits described in other settings were barely detectable, and a novel phenotype was discovered. Home cage monitoring therefore extends previous findings and shows yet another facet of GPR88 function that deserves further investigation. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  20. Wild rice (Zizania palustris L.) prevents atherogenesis in LDL receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Surendiran, Gangadaran; Goh, Chunyan; Le, Khuong; Zhao, Zhaohui; Askarian, Fatemeh; Othman, Rgia; Nicholson, Tiffany; Moghadasian, Paymahn; Wang, Ya-Jane; Aliani, Michel; Shen, Garry; Beta, Trust; Moghadasian, Mohammed H

    2013-10-01

    Dietary modifications including healthy eating constitute one of the first line strategies for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors including high cholesterol and atherosclerosis. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential cardiovascular benefits of wild rice in male and female LDL-receptor-deficient (LDLr-KO) mice. Wild rice was used to create a semi-synthetic diet containing approximately 60% of total energy from carbohydrate. Two other experimental diets were similar in macronutrient composition, but containing either white rice or commercial carbohydrate sources. All diets were supplemented with 0.06% (w/w) dietary cholesterol. The mice were divided into six experimental groups and fed with these diets over 24 weeks. Consumption of wild rice significantly reduced the size and severity of atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic roots of male and female mice by 71 and 61% respectively, compared to the control group of the same gender. This effect was associated with significant reductions of plasma cholesterol levels by 15 and 40%, low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels by 12 and 42%, and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) levels by 35 and 75% respectively, in male and female mice compared to the control group of the same gender. Increased fecal cholesterol excretion of up to 34% was also noted, compared to the control group of the same gender. However, the antiatherogenic effect of wild rice was not associated with increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. Current data suggest that cholesterol-lowering effects of wild rice may be the main factor for the prevention of atherogenesis in LDLr-KO mice. Additional studies are needed to understand the mechanism of action. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Green tea polyphenol treatment attenuates atherosclerosis in high-fat diet-fed apolipoprotein E-knockout mice via alleviating dyslipidemia and up-regulating autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jinjin; Yu, Pengxin; Zhang, Guofu; Zhang, Guanghui; Liu, Xiaoting

    2017-01-01

    Background: Green tea polyphenol (GTP) is a polyphenol source from green tea that has drawn wide attention owing to epidemiological evidence of its beneficial effects in the prevention of cardiovascular disease; the underlying molecular mechanisms of these effects are not well understood. This study aimed to investigate the effects of GTP treatment on autophagy regulation in the vessel wall and lipid metabolism of HFD-fed male ApoE-knockout mice. Methods: Adult male ApoE-knockout mice (n = 30) fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) were treated with either vehicle or GTP (3.2 or 6.4 g/L) administered via drinking water for 15 weeks, and C57BL/6J mice fed with standard chow diet (STD) were used as the control group. Metabolic parameters, expression of key mRNAs and proteins of hepatic lipid metabolism and autophagy in the vessel wall of mice were determined after the 15-week treatment. Results: A HFD induced atherosclerosis formation and lipid metabolism disorders as well as reduced autophagy expression in the vessel wall of ApoE-knockout mice, but GTP treatment alleviated the lipid metabolism disorders, decreased the oxLDL levels in serum, and increased the mRNA and protein expressions of hepatic PPARα and autophagy markers (LC3, Beclin1 and p62) in the vessel wall of ApoE-knockout mice. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that GTP supplementation showed marked suppression of atherogenesis through improved lipid metabolism as well as through a direct impact on oxLDL and autophagy flux in the vessel wall. PMID:28777810

  2. Quantification of Pelvic Organ Prolapse in Mice: Vaginal Protease Activity Precedes Increased MOPQ Scores in Fibulin 5 Knockout Mice1

    PubMed Central

    Wieslander, Cecilia K.; Rahn, David D.; McIntire, Donald D.; Acevedo, Jesús F.; Drewes, Peter G.; Yanagisawa, Hiromi; Word, R. Ann

    2008-01-01

    Two mouse models of pelvic organ prolapse have been generated recently, both of which have null mutations in genes involved in elastic fiber synthesis and assembly (fibulin 5 and lysyl oxidase-like 1). Interestingly, although these mice exhibit elastinopathies early in life, pelvic organ prolapse does not develop until later in life. In this investigation we developed and validated a tool to quantify the severity of pelvic organ prolapse in mice, and we used this tool prospectively to study the role of fibulin 5, aging, and vaginal proteases in the development of pelvic organ prolapse. The results indicate that >90% of Fbln5−/− mice develop prolapse by 6 mo of age, even in the absence of vaginal delivery, and that increased vaginal protease activity precedes the development of prolapse. PMID:18987327

  3. Cyclophilin D Knock-Out Mice Show Enhanced Resistance to Osteoporosis and to Metabolic Changes Observed in Aging Bone.

    PubMed

    Shum, Laura C; White, Noelle S; Nadtochiy, Sergiy M; Bentley, Karen L de Mesy; Brookes, Paul S; Jonason, Jennifer H; Eliseev, Roman A

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic factors associated with aging, such as oxidative stress and hormone depletion converge on mitochondria and impair their function via opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP). The MPTP is a large non-selective pore regulated by cyclophilin D (CypD) that disrupts mitochondrial membrane integrity. MPTP involvement has been firmly established in degenerative processes in heart, brain, and muscle. Bone has high energy demands and is therefore expected to be highly sensitive to mitochondrial dysfunction. Despite this, the role of mitochondria and the MPTP in bone maintenance and bone pathology has not been elucidated. Our goal was to determine whether mitochondria are impaired in aging bone and to see if protecting mitochondria from MPTP opening via CypD deletion protects against bone loss. We found that bone mass, strength, and formation progressively decline over the course of 18 months in C57BL/6J mice. Using metabolomics and electron microscopy, we determined that oxidative metabolism is impaired in aging bone leading to a glycolytic shift, imbalance in nucleotides, and decreased NAD+/NADH ratio. Mitochondria in osteocytes appear swollen which is a major marker of MPTP opening. CypD deletion by CypD knockout mouse model (CypD KO) protects against bone loss in 13- and 18-month-old mice and prevents decline in bone formation and mitochondrial changes observed in wild type C57BL/6J mice. Together, these data demonstrate that mitochondria are impaired in aging bone and that CypD deletion protects against this impairment to prevent bone loss. This implicates CypD-regulated MPTP and mitochondrial dysfunction in the impairment of bone cells and in aging-related bone loss. Our findings suggest mitochondrial metabolism as a new target for bone therapeutics and inhibition of CypD as a novel strategy against bone loss.

  4. Predictive validity and immune cell involvement in the pathogenesis of piroxicam-accelerated colitis in interleukin-10 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Holgersen, Kristine; Kvist, Peter Helding; Hansen, Axel Kornerup; Holm, Thomas Lindebo

    2014-07-01

    Piroxicam administration is a method for induction of enterocolitis in interleukin-10 knockout (IL-10 k.o.) mice. The piroxicam-accelerated colitis (PAC) IL-10 k.o. model combines a dysregulated immune response against the gut microbiota with a decreased mucosal integrity. The predictive validity and pathogenic mechanisms of the model have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, IL-10 k.o. mice received piroxicam in the chow, and model qualification was performed by examining the efficacy of prophylactic anti-IL-12/23p40 monoclonal antibody (mAb), anti-TNFα mAb, cyclosporine A (CsA) and oral prednisolone treatment. To evaluate cell involvement in the disease pathogenesis, specific cell subsets were depleted by treatment with anti-CD4 mAb, anti-CD8 mAb or clodronate-encapsulated liposomes. T cell receptor co-stimulation was blocked by CTLA4-Ig. Cytokine profiling ELISAs and calprotectin immunohistochemistry were performed on colon tissue. Treatments with anti-IL-12/23p40 mAb and CsA prevented disease in PAC IL-10 k.o. mice and reduced IFNγ, IL-17A, MPO and calprotectin levels in colon. Anti-TNFα mAb treatment caused amelioration of selected clinical parameters. No effect of prednisolone was detected. Depletion of CD8(+) cells tended to increase mortality, whereas treatment with anti-CD4 mAb or CTLA4-Ig had no significant effect on disease development. Clodronate liposome treatment induced a loss of body weight; nevertheless macrophage depletion was associated with a significant reduction in colonic pathology. In conclusion, reference drugs with known efficacy in severe inflammatory bowel disease were efficacious in the PAC IL-10 k.o. model. Our data indicate that in this model macrophages are a main driver of colitis, whereas CD4(+) cells are not. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase splice variants in atherosclerotic plaques of apoE knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Schödel, Johannes; Padmapriya, P.; Marx, Alexander; Huang, Paul L.; Ertl, Georg; Kuhlencordt, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We previously reported that deletion of brain type neuronal nitric oxide synthase-α (nNOS-α) accelerates atherosclerosis in apolipoproteinE (apoE) knockout (ko) mice. The regulation of nNOS expression is complex, involving the generation of mRNA splice variants. The current study investigates occurrence and distribution of nNOS variants in atherosclerotic lesions of apoE ko and apoE/nNOS-α double ko (dko) animals. Methods Mice were fed a high fat diet for 20 weeks. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis were performed using antibodies detecting the carboxy terminal-, or amino terminal-residue of the nNOS protein. Confocal microscopy and in situ hybridization were used to identify the compartment of cellular expression. Results In situ hybridization revealed the presence of nNOS-α and -γ mRNA variants in apoE ko plaques, while only nNOS-γ was detectable in apoE/nNOS dko plaques. Consistent with mRNA expression nNOS-α protein can be detected in the neointima of apoE ko, but not apoE/nNOS dko animals. In contrast, the carboxy terminal antibody stained the neointima and media in apoE ko vessels and showed residual nNOS immunoreactivity in apoE/nNOS dko lesions. Confocal microscopy showed predominant nNOS expression in vascular smooth muscle cells, while colocalization with macrophages was less pronounced. Conclusions Our study shows that nNOS-α and -γ splice variants are expressed in atherosclerotic plaques of apoE ko mice. nNOS variants colocalized with markers for vascular smooth muscle cells and macrophages but not for endothelial cells. Since nNOS-α is atheroprotective, other nNOS splice variants which differ in enzyme kinetic and subcellular localization may also influence plaque formation. PMID:19358992

  6. Expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase splice variants in atherosclerotic plaques of apoE knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Schödel, Johannes; Padmapriya, P; Marx, Alexander; Huang, Paul L; Ertl, Georg; Kuhlencordt, Peter J

    2009-10-01

    We previously reported that deletion of brain type neuronal nitric oxide synthase-alpha (nNOS-alpha) accelerates atherosclerosis in apolipoproteinE (apoE) knockout (ko) mice. The regulation of nNOS expression is complex, involving the generation of mRNA splice variants. The current study investigates occurrence and distribution of nNOS variants in atherosclerotic lesions of apoE ko and apoE/nNOS-alpha double ko (dko) animals. Mice were fed a high fat diet for 20 weeks. Immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis were performed using antibodies detecting the carboxy terminal-, or amino terminal-residue of the nNOS protein. Confocal microscopy and in situ hybridization were used to identify the compartment of cellular expression. In situ hybridization revealed the presence of nNOS-alpha and -gamma mRNA variants in apoE ko plaques, while only nNOS-gamma was detectable in apoE/nNOS dko plaques. Consistent with mRNA expression nNOS-alpha protein can be detected in the neointima of apoE ko, but not apoE/nNOS dko animals. In contrast, the carboxy terminal antibody stained the neointima and media in apoE ko vessels and showed residual nNOS immunoreactivity in apoE/nNOS dko lesions. Confocal microscopy showed predominant nNOS expression in vascular smooth muscle cells, while colocalization with macrophages was less pronounced. Our study shows that nNOS-alpha and -gamma splice variants are expressed in atherosclerotic plaques of apoE ko mice. nNOS variants colocalized with markers for vascular smooth muscle cells and macrophages but not for endothelial cells. Since nNOS-alpha is atheroprotective, other nNOS splice variants which differ in enzyme kinetic and subcellular localization may also influence plaque formation.

  7. Nox2 knockout delays infarct progression and increases vascular recovery through angiogenesis in mice following ischaemic stroke with reperfusion.

    PubMed

    McCann, Sarah K; Dusting, Gregory J; Roulston, Carli L

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests the NADPH oxidases contribute to ischaemic stroke injury and Nox2 is the most widely studied subtype in the context of stroke. There is still conjecture however regarding the benefits of inhibiting Nox2 to improve stroke outcome. The current study aimed to examine the temporal effects of genetic Nox2 deletion on neuronal loss after ischaemic stroke using knockout (KO) mice with 6, 24 and 72 hour recovery. Transient cerebral ischaemia was induced via intraluminal filament occlusion and resulted in reduced infarct volumes in Nox2 KO mice at 24 h post-stroke compared to wild-type controls. No protection was evident at either 6 h or 72 h post-stroke, with both genotypes exhibiting similar volumes of damage. Reactive oxygen species were detected using dihydroethidium and were co-localised with neurons and microglia in both genotypes using immunofluorescent double-labelling. The effect of Nox2 deletion on vascular damage and recovery was also examined 24 h and 72 h post-stroke using an antibody against laminin. Blood vessel density was decreased in the ischaemic core of both genotypes 24 h post-stroke and returned to pre-stroke levels only in Nox2 KO mice by 72 h. Overall, these results are the first to show that genetic Nox2 deletion merely delays the progression of neuronal loss after stroke but does not prevent it. Additionally, we show for the first time that Nox2 deletion increases re-vascularisation of the damaged brain by 72 h, which may be important in promoting endogenous brain repair mechanisms that rely on re-vascularisation.

  8. Nox2 Knockout Delays Infarct Progression and Increases Vascular Recovery through Angiogenesis in Mice following Ischaemic Stroke with Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Sarah K.; Dusting, Gregory J.; Roulston, Carli L.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests the NADPH oxidases contribute to ischaemic stroke injury and Nox2 is the most widely studied subtype in the context of stroke. There is still conjecture however regarding the benefits of inhibiting Nox2 to improve stroke outcome. The current study aimed to examine the temporal effects of genetic Nox2 deletion on neuronal loss after ischaemic stroke using knockout (KO) mice with 6, 24 and 72 hour recovery. Transient cerebral ischaemia was induced via intraluminal filament occlusion and resulted in reduced infarct volumes in Nox2 KO mice at 24 h post-stroke compared to wild-type controls. No protection was evident at either 6 h or 72 h post-stroke, with both genotypes exhibiting similar volumes of damage. Reactive oxygen species were detected using dihydroethidium and were co-localised with neurons and microglia in both genotypes using immunofluorescent double-labelling. The effect of Nox2 deletion on vascular damage and recovery was also examined 24 h and 72 h post-stroke using an antibody against laminin. Blood vessel density was decreased in the ischaemic core of both genotypes 24 h post-stroke and returned to pre-stroke levels only in Nox2 KO mice by 72 h. Overall, these results are the first to show that genetic Nox2 deletion merely delays the progression of neuronal loss after stroke but does not prevent it. Additionally, we show for the first time that Nox2 deletion increases re-vascularisation of the damaged brain by 72 h, which may be important in promoting endogenous brain repair mechanisms that rely on re-vascularisation. PMID:25375101

  9. Increased plasma cholesterol esterification by LCAT reduces diet-induced atherosclerosis in SR-BI knockout mice[S

    PubMed Central

    Thacker, Seth G.; Rousset, Xavier; Esmail, Safiya; Zarzour, Abdalrahman; Jin, Xueting; Collins, Heidi L.; Sampson, Maureen; Stonik, John; Demosky, Stephen; Malide, Daniela A.; Freeman, Lita; Vaisman, Boris L.; Kruth, Howard S.; Adelman, Steven J.; Remaley, Alan T.

    2015-01-01

    LCAT, a plasma enzyme that esterifies cholesterol, has been proposed to play an antiatherogenic role, but animal and epidemiologic studies have yielded conflicting results. To gain insight into LCAT and the role of free cholesterol (FC) in atherosclerosis, we examined the effect of LCAT over- and underexpression in diet-induced atherosclerosis in scavenger receptor class B member I-deficient [Scarab(−/−)] mice, which have a secondary defect in cholesterol esterification. Scarab(−/−)×LCAT-null [Lcat(−/−)] mice had a decrease in HDL-cholesterol and a high plasma ratio of FC/total cholesterol (TC) (0.88 ± 0.033) and a marked increase in VLDL-cholesterol (VLDL-C) on a high-fat diet. Scarab(−/−)×LCAT-transgenic (Tg) mice had lower levels of VLDL-C and a normal plasma FC/TC ratio (0.28 ± 0.005). Plasma from Scarab(−/−)×LCAT-Tg mice also showed an increase in cholesterol esterification during in vitro cholesterol efflux, but increased esterification did not appear to affect the overall rate of cholesterol efflux or hepatic uptake of cholesterol. Scarab(−/−)×LCAT-Tg mice also displayed a 51% decrease in aortic sinus atherosclerosis compared with Scarab(−/−) mice (P < 0.05). In summary, we demonstrate that increased cholesterol esterification by LCAT is atheroprotective, most likely through its ability to increase HDL levels and decrease pro-atherogenic apoB-containing lipoprotein particles. PMID:25964513

  10. A novel form of ciliopathy underlies hyperphagia and obesity in Ankrd26 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Acs, Peter; Bauer, Peter O.; Mayer, Balazs; Bera, Tapan; Macallister, Rhonda; Pastan, Ira

    2015-01-01

    Human ciliopathies are genetic disorders caused by mutations in genes responsible for the formation and function of primary cilia. Some are associated with hyperphagia and obesity (e.g., Bardet–Biedl Syndrome, Alström Syndrome), but the mechanisms underlying these problems are not fully understood. The human gene ANKRD26 is located on 10p12, a locus that is associated with some forms of hereditary obesity. Previously, we reported that disruption of this gene causes hyperphagia, obesity and gigantism in mice. In the present study, we looked for the mechanisms that induce hyperphagia in the Ankrd26−/− mice and found defects in primary cilia in regions of the central nervous system that control appetite and energy homeostasis. PMID:24633808

  11. A novel form of ciliopathy underlies hyperphagia and obesity in Ankrd26 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Acs, Peter; Bauer, Peter O; Mayer, Balazs; Bera, Tapan; Macallister, Rhonda; Mezey, Eva; Pastan, Ira

    2015-01-01

    Human ciliopathies are genetic disorders caused by mutations in genes responsible for the formation and function of primary cilia. Some are associated with hyperphagia and obesity (e.g., Bardet-Biedl Syndrome, Alström Syndrome), but the mechanisms underlying these problems are not fully understood. The human gene ANKRD26 is located on 10p12, a locus that is associated with some forms of hereditary obesity. Previously, we reported that disruption of this gene causes hyperphagia, obesity and gigantism in mice. In the present study, we looked for the mechanisms that induce hyperphagia in the Ankrd26-/- mice and found defects in primary cilia in regions of the central nervous system that control appetite and energy homeostasis.

  12. Attenuated sensitivity to neuroactive steroids in γ-aminobutyrate type A receptor delta subunit knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Mihalek, Robert M.; Banerjee, Pradeep K.; Korpi, Esa R.; Quinlan, Joseph J.; Firestone, Leonard L.; Mi, Zhi-Ping; Lagenaur, Carl; Tretter, Verena; Sieghart, Werner; Anagnostaras, Stephan G.; Sage, Jennifer R.; Fanselow, Michael S.; Guidotti, Alessandro; Spigelman, Igor; Li, Zhiwei; DeLorey, Timothy M.; Olsen, Richard W.; Homanics, Gregg E.

    1999-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptors mediate fast inhibitory synaptic transmission and have been implicated in responses to sedative/hypnotic agents (including neuroactive steroids), anxiety, and learning and memory. Using gene targeting technology, we generated a strain of mice deficient in the δ subunit of the GABA type A receptors. In vivo testing of various behavioral responses revealed a strikingly selective attenuation of responses to neuroactive steroids, but not to other modulatory drugs. Electrophysiological recordings from hippocampal slices revealed a significantly faster miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current decay time in null mice, with no change in miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current amplitude or frequency. Learning and memory assessed with fear conditioning were normal. These results begin to illuminate the novel contributions of the δ subunit to GABA pharmacology and sedative/hypnotic responses and behavior and provide insights into the physiology of neurosteroids. PMID:10536021

  13. Knockout of nuclear high molecular weight FGF2 isoforms in mice modulates bone and phosphate homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Homer-Bouthiette, Collin; Doetschman, Thomas; Xiao, Liping; Hurley, Marja M

    2014-12-26

    We previously reported that targeted overexpression of the fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) high molecular weight (HMW) isoforms in osteoblastic lineage cells in mice resulted in phenotypic changes, including dwarfism, rickets, osteomalacia, hypophosphatemia, increased serum parathyroid hormone, and increased levels of the phosphatonin FGF23 in serum and bone. This study examined the effects of genetically knocking out the FGF2HMW isoforms (HMWKO) on bone and phosphate homeostasis. HMWKO mice were not dwarfed and had significantly increased bone mineral density and bone mineral content in femurs and lumbar vertebrae when compared with the wild-type (WT) littermates. Micro-computed tomography analysis of femurs revealed increased trabecular bone volume, thickness, number, and connective tissue density with decreased trabecular spacing compared with WT. In addition, there was significantly decreased cortical porosity and increased cortical thickness and sub-periosteal area in femurs of HMWKO. Histomorphometric analysis demonstrated increased osteoblast activity and diminished osteoclast activity in the HMWKO. In vitro bone marrow stromal cell cultures showed there was a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase-positive colony number at 1 week in HMWKO. At 3 weeks of culture, the mineralized area was also significantly increased. There was increased expression of osteoblast differentiation marker genes and reduced expression of genes associated with impaired mineralization, including a significant reduction in Fgf23 and Sost mRNA. Normal serum phosphate and parathyroid hormone were observed in HMWKO mice. This study demonstrates a significant negative impact of HMWFGF2 on biological functions in bone and phosphate homeostasis in mice. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Knockout of Nuclear High Molecular Weight FGF2 Isoforms in Mice Modulates Bone and Phosphate Homeostasis*

    PubMed Central

    Homer-Bouthiette, Collin; Doetschman, Thomas; Xiao, Liping; Hurley, Marja M.

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that targeted overexpression of the fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) high molecular weight (HMW) isoforms in osteoblastic lineage cells in mice resulted in phenotypic changes, including dwarfism, rickets, osteomalacia, hypophosphatemia, increased serum parathyroid hormone, and increased levels of the phosphatonin FGF23 in serum and bone. This study examined the effects of genetically knocking out the FGF2HMW isoforms (HMWKO) on bone and phosphate homeostasis. HMWKO mice were not dwarfed and had significantly increased bone mineral density and bone mineral content in femurs and lumbar vertebrae when compared with the wild-type (WT) littermates. Micro-computed tomography analysis of femurs revealed increased trabecular bone volume, thickness, number, and connective tissue density with decreased trabecular spacing compared with WT. In addition, there was significantly decreased cortical porosity and increased cortical thickness and sub-periosteal area in femurs of HMWKO. Histomorphometric analysis demonstrated increased osteoblast activity and diminished osteoclast activity in the HMWKO. In vitro bone marrow stromal cell cultures showed there was a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase-positive colony number at 1 week in HMWKO. At 3 weeks of culture, the mineralized area was also significantly increased. There was increased expression of osteoblast differentiation marker genes and reduced expression of genes associated with impaired mineralization, including a significant reduction in Fgf23 and Sost mRNA. Normal serum phosphate and parathyroid hormone were observed in HMWKO mice. This study demonstrates a significant negative impact of HMWFGF2 on biological functions in bone and phosphate homeostasis in mice. PMID:25389287

  15. Increased insulin demand promotes while pioglitazone prevents pancreatic beta cell apoptosis in Wfs1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, M; Hatanaka, M; Ohta, Y; Ueda, K; Yanai, A; Uehara, Y; Tanabe, K; Tsuru, M; Miyazaki, M; Saeki, S; Saito, T; Shinoda, K; Oka, Y; Tanizawa, Y

    2009-04-01

    The WFS1 gene encodes an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane-embedded protein called Wolfram syndrome 1 protein, homozygous mutations of which cause selective beta cell loss in humans. The function(s) of this protein and the mechanism by which the mutations of this gene cause beta cell death are still not fully understood. We hypothesised that increased insulin demand as a result of obesity/insulin resistance causes ER stress in pancreatic beta cells, thereby promoting beta cell death. We studied the effect of breeding Wfs1 ( -/- ) mice on a C57BL/6J background with mild obesity and insulin resistance, by introducing the agouti lethal yellow mutation (A ( y ) /a). We also treated the mice with pioglitazone. Wfs1 ( -/- ) mice bred on a C57BL/6J background rarely develop overt diabetes by 24 weeks of age, showing only mild beta cell loss. However, Wfs1 ( -/- ) A ( y ) /a mice developed selective beta cell loss and severe insulin-deficient diabetes as early as 8 weeks. This beta cell loss was due to apoptosis. In Wfs1 ( +/+ ) A ( y ) /a islets, levels of ER chaperone immunoglobulin-binding protein (BiP)/78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) and phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit alpha (eIF2alpha) apparently increased. Levels of both were further increased in Wfs1 ( -/- ) A ( y ) /a murine islets. Electron micrography revealed markedly dilated ERs in Wfs1 (-/-) A ( y ) /a murine beta cells. Interestingly, pioglitazone treatment protected beta cells from apoptosis and almost completely prevented diabetes development. Wfs1-deficient beta cells are susceptible to ER stress. Increased insulin demand prompts apoptosis in such cells in vivo. Pioglitazone, remarkably, suppresses this process and prevents diabetes. As common WFS1 gene variants have recently been shown to confer a risk of type 2 diabetes, our findings may be relevant to the gradual but progressive loss of beta cells in type 2 diabetes.

  16. p66Shc deletion confers vascular protection in advanced atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic apolipoprotein E knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Martin-Padura, Ines; de Nigris, Filomena; Migliaccio, Enrica; Mansueto, Gelsomina; Minardi, Simone; Rienzo, Monica; Lerman, Lilach O; Stendardo, Massimo; Giorgio, Marco; De Rosa, Gaetano; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe; Napoli, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies showed that p66(Shc-/-) mice on a very-high-fat diet (HFD) had reduced oxidative stress, foam cell, and early atherosclerotic lesion formation. Here, the authors have used hypercholesterolemic apolipoprotein E (ApoE(-/-)) mice to investigate the role of p66Shc deletion in advanced atheroma. The authors generated mice deficient of both ApoE and p66Shc genes (ApoE(-/-) /p66(Shc-/-)). They used microsatellite polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis to analyze the genetic background and considered only animals with a constant percentages of C57B6L and 129SV background strands (it was obtained the 50.3% +/- 6.4% of C57B6L background). Computer-assisted analysis revealed that advanced atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE(-/-)/p66(Shc+/+) were significantly larger than those observed in ApoE(-/-)/p66(Shc-/-). Accordingly, the lipid-laden macrophage foam cells and oxidation-specific epitopes in ApoE(-/-)/p66(shc+/+) HFD-treated groups were higher than those observed in normal diet (ND)-treated groups. Thus, p66(Shc-/-) plays an important protective role also against advanced atherosclerotic lesion formation. Finally, the authors have used microarray to investigate major changes in gene expression in aortas of mice with ApoE(-/-)/p66(Shc-/-) background treated with a very HFD in comparison to ApoE(-/-)/p66(Shc+/+) (these data have been confirmed by by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry). DAVID (Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery) analysis revealed that CD36 antigen (CD36), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP2), apolipoprotein E (ApoE), acetyl-coenzyme A acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1), and thrombospondin 1 (THBS1) can be involved in p66 deletion-dependent vascular protection through the adipocytokine/lipid signaling pathway.

  17. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in skeletal muscle of knockout mice suffering Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Flavia; Flavia, De Oliveira; Quintana, Hananiah Tardivo; Bortolin, Jeferson André; Gomes, Odair Alfredo; Liberti, Edson Aparecido; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in fibrotic lesion in mdx mice. A total of six male C57BL/10 mice and six C57BL/10-DMD/mdx were distributed into two groups: control and animals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The medial part of gastrocnemius muscle was evaluated being the specimens stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Sirius Red under normal and polarized light to differentiate type I (red and yellow) and III (green) collagen. COX-2 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The results revealed histopathological changes in C57BL/10-DMD/mdx as depicted by regenerating fibers. Sirius Red stain showed a substantial increase in the amount of type I collagen of mdx mice. DMD induced a strong COX-2 immunoexpression in intercellular space. Taken together, our results are consistent with the notion that necrotic and fibrotic lesions are able to increase COX-2 expression in DMD.

  18. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator knockout mice exhibit aberrant gastrointestinal microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Susan V.; Goldfarb, Katherine C.; Wild, Yvette K.; Kong, Weidong; De Lisle, Robert C.; Brodie, Eoin L.

    2013-01-01

    The composition of the gastrointestinal microbiome is increasingly recognized as a crucial contributor to immune and metabolic homeostasis—deficiencies in which are characteristic of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The murine model (CFTR−/−, CF), has, in previous studies, demonstrated characteristic CF gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations including slowed transit and significant upregulation of genes associated with inflammation. To determine if characteristics of the microbiome are associated with these phenotypes we used a phylogenetic microarray to compare small intestine bacterial communities of wild type and congenic CF mice. Loss of functional CFTR is associated with significant decreases in GI bacterial community richness, evenness and diversity and reduced relative abundance of putative protective species such as Acinetobacter lwoffii and a multitude of Lactobacilliales members. CF mice exhibited significant enrichment of Mycobacteria species and Bacteroides fragilis, previously associated with GI infection and immunomodulation. Antibiotic administration to WT and CF animals resulted in convergence of their microbiome composition and significant increases in community diversity in CF mice. These communities were characterized by enrichment of members of the Lactobacillaceae and Bifidobacteriaceae and reduced abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridiaceae. These data suggest that Enterobacteria and Clostridia species, long associated with small intestinal overgrowth and inflammatory bowel disease, may suppress both ileal bacterial diversity and the particular species which maintain motility and immune homeostasis in this niche. Thus, these data provide the first indications that GI bacterial colonization is strongly impacted by the loss of functional CFTR and opens up avenues for alternative therapeutic approaches to improve CF disease management. PMID:23060053

  19. Sleep architecture of the melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Adamantidis, Antoine; Salvert, Denise; Goutagny, Romain; Lakaye, Bernard; Gervasoni, Damien; Grisar, Thierry; Luppi, Pierre-Hervé; Fort, Patrice

    2008-04-01

    Growing amounts of data indicate involvement of the posterior hypothalamus in the regulation of sleep, especially paradoxical sleep (PS). Accordingly, we previously showed that the melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH)-producing neurons of the rat hypothalamus are selectively activated during a PS rebound. In addition, intracerebroventricular infusion of MCH increases total sleep duration, suggesting a new role for MCH in sleep regulation. To determine whether activation of the MCH system promotes sleep, we studied spontaneous sleep and its homeostatic regulation in mice with deletion of the MCH-receptor 1 gene (MCH-R1-/- vs. MCH-R1+/+) and their behavioural response to modafinil, a powerful antinarcoleptic drug. Here, we show that the lack of functional MCH-R1 results in a hypersomniac-like phenotype, both in basal conditions and after total sleep deprivation, compared to wild-type mice. Further, we found that modafinil was less potent at inducing wakefulness in MCH-R1-/- than in MCH-R1+/+ mice. We report for the first time that animals with genetically inactivated MCH signaling exhibit altered vigilance state architecture and sleep homeostasis. This study also suggests that the MCH system may modulate central pathways involved in the wake-promoting effect of modafinil.

  20. Differential sensitivity of Pak5, Pak6, and Pak5/Pak6 double-knockout mice to the stimulant effects of amphetamine and exercise-induced alterations in body weight.

    PubMed

    Furnari, Melody A; Jobes, Michelle L; Nekrasova, Tanya; Minden, Audrey; Wagner, George C

    2014-04-01

    PAK5 and PAK6 are protein kinases highly expressed in the brain. Previously, we observed that Pak6 knockout mice gained significantly more weight during development than Pak5 knockout mice as well as wild-type controls and double-knockout mice lacking both Pak5 and Pak6. In this study, we assessed the effects of exercise on food intake and weight gain of these mice as well as their sensitivity to the stimulant effects of amphetamine. Mice of each genotype were placed in cages with free access to run wheel exercise or in cages without run wheels for a total of 74 days. Food and fluid intake as well as body weight of each mouse were measured on a weekly basis. Finally, mice were given a high dose of amphetamine and activity levels were observed immediately thereafter for 90 minutes. Brains and testes of mice were assayed for protein levels of the estrogen alpha and progesterone receptors. While run wheel mice consumed significantly more food, they weighed less than non-run wheel mice. In addition, although Pak6 knockout mice consumed the same amount of food as wild-type mice, they were significantly heavier regardless of run wheel condition. Pak5 knockout mice were found to be more active than other genotypes after amphetamine treatment. Finally, protein levels of the progesterone and estrogen alpha receptors were altered in brain and testes of the Pak6 knockout mice. Collectively, these data suggest that PAK6 play a role in weight gain unrelated to exercise and caloric intake and that Pak5 knockout mice are more sensitive to the stimulant effects of amphetamine.

  1. BSN723T Prevents Atherosclerosis and Weight Gain in ApoE Knockout Mice Fed a Western Diet

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jarrod; Ensor, Charles; Gardner, Scott; Smith, Rebecca; Lodder, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study tests the hypothesis that BSN723T can prevent the development of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- knockout mice fed a Western (high fat, high cholesterol, and high sucrose) diet. BSN723T is a combination drug therapy consisting of D-tagatose and dihydromyricetin (BSN723). Background D-tagatose has an antihyperglycemic effect in animal and human studies and shows promise as a treatment for type 2 diabetes and obesity. Many claims regarding BSN723's pharmacological activities have been made including anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherosclerotic effects. To our knowledge this is the first study that combines D-tagatose and BSN723 for the treatment of hyperlipidemia and the prevention of atherosclerosis. Methods ApoE-deficient mice were randomized into five groups with equivalent mean body weights. The mice were given the following diets for 8 weeks: Group 1 - Standard diet; Group 2 - Western diet; Group 3 - Western diet formulated with D-tagatose; Group 4 - Western diet formulated with BSN723; Group 5 - Western diet formulated with BSN723T. Mice were measured for weight gain, tissue and organ weights, total serum cholesterol and triglycerides and formation of atherosclerosis. Results The addition of D-tagatose, either alone or in combination with BSN723, prevented the increase in adipose tissue and weight gain brought on by the Western diet. Both D-tagatose and BSN723 alone reduced total cholesterol and the formation of atherosclerosis in the aorta compared to mice on the Western diet. Addition of BSN723 to D-tagatose (BSN723T) did not increase efficacy in prevention of increases in cholesterol or atherosclerosis compared to D-tagatose alone. Conclusion Addition of either D-tagatose or BSN723 alone to a Western diet prevented weight gain, increases in total serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and the formation of atherosclerosis. However, there was no additive or synergistic effect on the

  2. BSN723T Prevents Atherosclerosis and Weight Gain in ApoE Knockout Mice Fed a Western Diet.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jarrod; Ensor, Charles; Gardner, Scott; Smith, Rebecca; Lodder, Robert

    This study tests the hypothesis that BSN723T can prevent the development of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in ApoE -/- knockout mice fed a Western (high fat, high cholesterol, and high sucrose) diet. BSN723T is a combination drug therapy consisting of D-tagatose and dihydromyricetin (BSN723). D-tagatose has an antihyperglycemic effect in animal and human studies and shows promise as a treatment for type 2 diabetes and obesity. Many claims regarding BSN723's pharmacological activities have been made including anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherosclerotic effects. To our knowledge this is the first study that combines D-tagatose and BSN723 for the treatment of hyperlipidemia and the prevention of atherosclerosis. ApoE-deficient mice were randomized into five groups with equivalent mean body weights. The mice were given the following diets for 8 weeks: Group 1 - Standard diet; Group 2 - Western diet; Group 3 - Western diet formulated with D-tagatose; Group 4 - Western diet formulated with BSN723; Group 5 - Western diet formulated with BSN723T. Mice were measured for weight gain, tissue and organ weights, total serum cholesterol and triglycerides and formation of atherosclerosis. The addition of D-tagatose, either alone or in combination with BSN723, prevented the increase in adipose tissue and weight gain brought on by the Western diet. Both D-tagatose and BSN723 alone reduced total cholesterol and the formation of atherosclerosis in the aorta compared to mice on the Western diet. Addition of BSN723 to D-tagatose (BSN723T) did not increase efficacy in prevention of increases in cholesterol or atherosclerosis compared to D-tagatose alone. Addition of either D-tagatose or BSN723 alone to a Western diet prevented weight gain, increases in total serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and the formation of atherosclerosis. However, there was no additive or synergistic effect on the measured parameters with the combination BSN

  3. Exposure to diesel exhaust up-regulates iNOS expression in ApoE knockout mice

    SciTech Connect

    Bai Ni; James Hogg Research Centre, Providence Heart and Lung Institute, St. Paul's Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC; Kido, Takashi

    2011-09-01

    Traffic related particulate matter air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular events; however, the biological mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesize that diesel exhaust (DE) inhalation induces up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which is known to contribute to vascular dysfunction, progression of atherosclerosis and ultimately cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Methods: ApoE knockout mice (30-week) were exposed to DE (at 200 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of particulate matter) or filtered-air (control) for 7 weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week). iNOS expression in the blood vessels and heart was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blotting analysis. To examine iNOS activity, thoracic aortae weremore » mounted in a wire myograph, and vasoconstriction stimulated by phenylephrine (PE) was measured with and without the presence of the specific inhibitor for iNOS (1400 W). NF-{kappa}B (p65) activity was examined by ELISA. The mRNA expression of iNOS and NF-{kappa}B (p65) was determined by real-time PCR. Results: DE exposure significantly enhanced iNOS expression in the thoracic aorta (4-fold) and heart (1.5 fold). DE exposure significantly attenuated PE-stimulated vasoconstriction by {approx} 20%, which was partly reversed by 1400 W. The mRNA expression of iNOS and NF-{kappa}B was significantly augmented after DE exposure. NF-{kappa}B activity was enhanced 2-fold after DE inhalation, and the augmented NF-{kappa}B activity was positively correlated with iNOS expression (R{sup 2} = 0.5998). Conclusions: We show that exposure to DE increases iNOS expression and activity possibly via NF-{kappa}B-mediated pathway. We suspect that DE exposure-caused up-regulation of iNOS contributes to vascular dysfunction and atherogenesis, which could ultimately lead to urban air pollution-associated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. - Highlights: > Exposed ApoE knockout mice (30-week) to diesel exhaust (DE) for 7 weeks. > Examine iNOS expression and activity in

  4. RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenic differentiation of macrophages in the abdominal aorta of angiotensin II-infused apolipoprotein E knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Teruyoshi; Kelly, Matthew; Takei, Yuichiro; Yamanouchi, Dai

    2018-04-20

    Osteoclastogenic activation of macrophages (OCG) occurs in human abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) and in calcium chloride-induced degenerative AAAs in mice, which have increased matrix metalloproteinase activity. As the activity of OCG in dissecting aneurysms is not clear, we tested the hypothesis that OCG contributes to angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced dissecting aneurysm (Ang II-induced AAA) in apolipoprotein E knockout mice. AAAs were produced in apolipoprotein E knockout mice via the administration of Ang II. Additionally, receptor activator of nuclear factor kB ligand (RANKL)-neutralizing antibody (5 mg/kg) was administered to one group of mice 7 days prior to Ang II infusion. Aneurysmal sections were probed for presence of RANKL and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase via immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining. Mouse aortas were also examined for RANKL and matrix metalloproteinase 9 expression via Western blot. In vitro murine vascular smooth muscle cells (MOVAS) and murine macrophages (RAW 264.7) were analyzed for the expression of osteogenic factors via Western blot, qPCR, and flow cytometry in response to Ang II or RANKL stimulation. The signaling pathway that mediates Ang II-induced RANKL expression in MOVAS cells was also investigated via application of TG101348, a Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) inhibitor, and Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical staining of Ang II-induced AAA sections revealed OCG as evidenced by increased RANKL and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase expression compared with control mice. Immunofluorescence staining of AAA sections revealed co-localization of vascular smooth muscle cells and RANKL, revealing vascular smooth muscle cells as one potential source of RANKL. Systemic administration of RANKL-neutralizing antibody suppressed Ang II-induced AAA, with significant reduction of the maximum diameter of the abdominal aorta compared with vehicle controls (1.5 ± 0.4 mm vs 2.2 ± 0.2 mm). Ang II (1 μM) treatment

  5. Multiscale imaging characterization of dopamine transporter knockout mice reveals regional alterations in spine density of medium spiny neurons.

    PubMed

    Berlanga, M L; Price, D L; Phung, B S; Giuly, R; Terada, M; Yamada, N; Cyr, M; Caron, M G; Laakso, A; Martone, M E; Ellisman, M H

    2011-05-16

    The dopamine transporter knockout (DAT KO) mouse is a model of chronic hyperdopaminergia used to study a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), drug abuse, depression, and Parkinson's disease (PD). Early studies characterizing this mouse model revealed a subtle, but significant, decrease in the anterior striatal volume of DAT KO mice accompanied by a decrease in neuronal cell body numbers (Cyr et al., 2005). The present studies were conducted to examine medium spiny neuron (MSN) morphology by extending these earlier reports to include multiscale imaging studies using correlated light microscopy (LM) and electron microscopy (EM) techniques. Specifically, we set out to determine if chronic hyperdopaminergia results in quantifiable or qualitative changes in DAT KO mouse MSNs relative to wild-type (WT) littermates. Using Neurolucida Explorer's morphometric analysis, we measured spine density, dendritic length and synapse number at ages that correspond with the previously reported changes in striatal volume and progressive cell loss. Light microscopic analysis using Neurolucida tracings of photoconverted striatal MSNs revealed a highly localized loss of dendritic spines on the proximal portion of the dendrite (30 μm from the soma) in the DAT KO group. Next, thick sections containing MSN dendritic segments located at a distance of 20-60 μm from the cell soma, a region of the dendrite where spine density is reported to be the highest, were analyzed using electron microscope tomography (EMT). Because of the resolution limits of LM, the EM analysis was an extra measure taken to assure that our analysis included nearly all spines. Spine density measurements collected from the EMT data revealed only a modest decrease in the DAT KO group (n=3 mice) compared to age-matched WT controls (n=3 mice), a trend that supports the LM findings. Finally, a synaptic quantification using unbiased stereology did not

  6. Ursolic acid prevents angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Maocai; Guo, Junyi; Ma, Haiyan; Shi, Wei; Jou, David; Yan, Dan; Liu, Tianshu; Tao, Jingwen; Duan, Jialin; Wang, Yina; Li, Sheng; Lv, Jiagao; Li, Chenglong; Lin, Jiayuh; Zhang, Cuntai; Lin, Li

    2018-04-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is a chronic inflammatory disease in which signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) play important roles. However, it remains unclear whether ursolic acid (UA), a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid carboxylic acid, can have an impact on STAT3 and ADAM17 and hence influence the formation of AAA. The objective of this study was to characterize the potential effect of UA on the pathogenesis of AAA and on STAT3 and ADAM17. Male ApoE -/- mice were infused with angiotensin II (AngII) (1000 ng/kg/min) for 4 weeks to induce AAAs. Daily intragastric gavage with 100 mg/kg UA or tap water containing Tween 80 as controls was provided. Immunohistochemistry, cell viability assay, colony formation, wound healing assay, and Western blot were used to explore the potential effect of UA on AAA. UA decreased the incidence of AngII-induced AAA in mice. UA alleviated the degradation of elastin fibers and inflammation and decreased the expression of MMP2, MMP9, ADAM17 and phospho-STAT3 (pSTAT3) in aorta of mice induced with AngII. UA inhibited the constitutive and stimuli-induced (AngII and tumor necrosis factor-α) expression of MMP2, MMP9, ADAM17 and pSTAT3 in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Furthermore, UA decreased cell viability, and suppressed colony formation and wound healing in vitro. We demonstrated that UA ameliorated the severity of AAA and exhibited an inhibitory effect on the expression of pSTAT3 and ADAM17. UA might emerge as a promising agent contributing to the prevention or treatment of AAA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Glucose uptake during contraction in isolated skeletal muscles from neuronal nitric oxide synthase μ knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yet Hoi; Frugier, Tony; Zhang, Xinmei; Murphy, Robyn M; Lynch, Gordon S; Betik, Andrew C; Rattigan, Stephen; McConell, Glenn K

    2015-05-01

    Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) significantly attenuates the increase in skeletal muscle glucose uptake during contraction/exercise, and a greater attenuation is observed in individuals with Type 2 diabetes compared with healthy individuals. Therefore, NO appears to play an important role in mediating muscle glucose uptake during contraction. In this study, we investigated the involvement of neuronal NOSμ (nNOSμ), the main NOS isoform activated during contraction, on skeletal muscle glucose uptake during ex vivo contraction. Extensor digitorum longus muscles were isolated from nNOSμ(-/-) and nNOSμ(+/+) mice. Muscles were contracted ex vivo in a temperature-controlled (30°C) organ bath with or without the presence of the NOS inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine (L-NMMA) and the NOS substrate L-arginine. Glucose uptake was determined by radioactive tracers. Skeletal muscle glucose uptake increased approximately fourfold during contraction in muscles from both nNOSμ(-/-) and nNOSμ(+/+) mice. L-NMMA significantly attenuated the increase in muscle glucose uptake during contraction in both genotypes. This attenuation was reversed by L-arginine, suggesting that L-NMMA attenuated the increase in muscle glucose uptake during contraction by inhibiting NOS and not via a nonspecific effect of the inhibitor. Low levels of NOS activity (~4%) were detected in muscles from nNOSμ(-/-) mice, and there was no evidence of compensation from other NOS isoform or AMP-activated protein kinase which is also involved in mediating muscle glucose uptake during contraction. These results indicate that NO regulates skeletal muscle glucose uptake during ex vivo contraction independently of nNOSμ. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Development of Single Retinofugal Axon Arbors in Normal and β2 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dhande, Onkar S.; Hua, Ethan W.; Guh, Emily; Yeh, Jonathan; Bhatt, Shivani; Zhang, Yueyi; Ruthazer, Edward S.; Feller, Marla B.; Crair, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    The maturation of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axon projections in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and the superior colliculus (SC) relies on both molecular and activity-dependent mechanisms. Despite the increasing popularity of the mouse as a mammalian visual system model, little is known in this species about the normal development of individual RGC axon arbors or the role of activity in this process. We used a novel in vivo single RGC labeling technique to quantitatively characterize the elaboration and refinement of RGC axon arbors in the dLGN and SC in wild type (WT) and β2-nAChR mutant (β2−/−) mice, which have perturbed retinal waves, during the developmental period when eye-specific lamination and retinotopic refinement occurs. Our results suggest that eye-specific segregation and retinotopic refinement in WT mice are not the result of refinement of richly exuberant arbors, but rather the elaboration of arbors pre-positioned in the proper location combined with the elimination of inappropriately targeted sparse branches. We found that retinocollicular arbors mature about one week earlier than retinogeniculate arbors, even though RGC axons reach the dLGN and SC at roughly the same age. We also observed striking differences between contralateral and ipsilateral RGC axon arbors in the SC but not in the LGN. These data suggest a strong influence of target specific cues during arbor maturation. In β2−/− mice, we found that retinofugal single axon arbors are well ramified but enlarged, particularly in the SC, indicating that activity-dependent visual map development occurs through the refinement of individual RGC arbors. PMID:21368050

  9. Deficit in motor training-induced clustering, but not stabilization, of new dendritic spines in FMR1 knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Benjamin C; Dunaevsky, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome is the most common inherited intellectual disability, and Fragile X Syndrome patients often exhibit motor and learning deficits. It was previously shown that the fmr1 knock-out mice, a common mouse model of Fragile X Syndrome, recapitulates this motor learning deficit and that the deficit is associated with altered plasticity of dendritic spines. Here, we investigated the motor learning-induced turnover, stabilization and clustering of dendritic spines in the fmr1 knock-out mouse using a single forelimb reaching task and in vivo multiphoton imaging. We report that fmr1 knock-out mice have deficits in motor learning-induced changes in dendritic spine turnover and new dendritic spine clustering, but not the motor learning-induced long-term stabilization of new dendritic spines. These results suggest that a failure to establish the proper synaptic connections in both number and location, but not the stabilization of the connections that are formed, contributes to the motor learning deficit seen in the fmr1 knock-out mouse.

  10. Cushing's Syndrome and Fetal Features Resurgence in Adrenal Cortex–Specific Prkar1a Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sahut-Barnola, Isabelle; de Joussineau, Cyrille; Val, Pierre; Lambert-Langlais, Sarah; Damon, Christelle; Lefrançois-Martinez, Anne-Marie; Pointud, Jean-Christophe; Marceau, Geoffroy; Sapin, Vincent; Tissier, Frédérique; Ragazzon, Bruno; Bertherat, Jérôme; Kirschner, Lawrence S.; Stratakis, Constantine A.; Martinez, Antoine

    2010-01-01

    Carney complex (CNC) is an inherited neoplasia syndrome with endocrine overactivity. Its most frequent endocrine manifestation is primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD), a bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasia causing pituitary-independent Cushing's syndrome. Inactivating mutations in PRKAR1A, a gene encoding the type 1 α-regulatory subunit (R1α) of the cAMP–dependent protein kinase (PKA) have been found in 80% of CNC patients with Cushing's syndrome. To demonstrate the implication of R1α loss in the initiation and development of PPNAD, we generated mice lacking Prkar1a specifically in the adrenal cortex (AdKO). AdKO mice develop pituitary-independent Cushing's syndrome with increased PKA activity. This leads to autonomous steroidogenic genes expression and deregulated adreno-cortical cells differentiation, increased proliferation and resistance to apoptosis. Unexpectedly, R1α loss results in improper maintenance and centrifugal expansion of cortisol-producing fetal adrenocortical cells with concomitant regression of adult cortex. Our data provide the first in vivo evidence that loss of R1α is sufficient to induce autonomous adrenal hyper-activity and bilateral hyperplasia, both observed in human PPNAD. Furthermore, this model demonstrates that deregulated PKA activity favors the emergence of a new cell population potentially arising from the fetal adrenal, giving new insight into the mechanisms leading to PPNAD. PMID:20548949

  11. Litter Environment Affects Behavior and Brain Metabolic Activity of Adult Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Crews, David; Rushworth, David; Gonzalez-Lima, Francisco; Ogawa, Sonoko

    2009-01-01

    In mammals, the formative environment for social and anxiety-related behaviors is the family unit; in the case of rodents, this is the litter and the mother-young bond. A deciding factor in this environment is the sex ratio of the litter and, in the case of mice lacking functional copies of gene(s), the ratio of the various genotypes in the litter. Both Sex and Genotype ratios of the litter affect the nature and quality of the individual's behavior later in adulthood, as well as metabolic activity in brain nuclei that underlie these behaviors. Mice were raised in litters reconstituted shortly after to birth to control for sex ratio and genotype ratio (wild type pups versus pups lacking a functional estrogen receptor α). In both males and females, the Sex and Genotype of siblings in the litter affected aggressive behaviors as well as patterns of metabolic activity in limbic nuclei in the social behavior network later in adulthood. Further, this pattern in males varied depending upon the Genotype of their brothers and sisters. Principal Components Analysis revealed two components comprised of several amygdalar and hypothalamic nuclei; the VMH showed strong correlations in both clusters, suggesting its pivotal nature in the organization of two neural networks. PMID:19707539

  12. Hypogonadism Associated with Cyp19a1 (Aromatase) Posttranscriptional Upregulation in Celf1 Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Boulanger, Gaella; Cibois, Marie; Viet, Justine; Fostier, Alexis; Deschamps, Stéphane; Pastezeur, Sylvain; Massart, Catherine; Gschloessl, Bernhard; Gautier-Courteille, Carole; Paillard, Luc

    2015-09-01

    CELF1 is a multifunctional RNA-binding protein that controls several aspects of RNA fate. The targeted disruption of the Celf1 gene in mice causes male infertility due to impaired spermiogenesis, the postmeiotic differentiation of male gametes. Here, we investigated the molecular reasons that underlie this testicular phenotype. By measuring sex hormone levels, we detected low concentrations of testosterone in Celf1-null mice. We investigated the effect of Celf1 disruption on the expression levels of steroidogenic enzyme genes, and we observed that Cyp19a1 was upregulated. Cyp19a1 encodes aromatase, which transforms testosterone into estradiol. Administration of testosterone or the aromatase inhibitor letrozole partly rescued the spermiogenesis defects, indicating that a lack of testosterone associated with excessive aromatase contributes to the testicular phenotype. In vivo and in vitro interaction assays demonstrated that CELF1 binds to Cyp19a1 mRNA, and reporter assays supported the conclusion that CELF1 directly represses Cyp19a1 translation. We conclude that CELF1 downregulates Cyp19a1 (Aromatase) posttranscriptionally to achieve high concentrations of testosterone compatible with spermiogenesis completion. We discuss the implications of these findings with respect to reproductive defects in men, including patients suffering from isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and myotonic dystrophy type I. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Catecholamines and serotonin are differently regulated by tetrahydrobiopterin. A study from 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Sumi-Ichinose, C; Urano, F; Kuroda, R; Ohye, T; Kojima, M; Tazawa, M; Shiraishi, H; Hagino, Y; Nagatsu, T; Nomura, T; Ichinose, H

    2001-11-02

    (6R)-L-erythro-5,6,7,8-Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), tryptophan hydroxylase, phenylalanine hydroxylase, and nitric-oxide synthase. These enzymes synthesize neurotransmitters, e.g. catecholamines, serotonin, and nitric oxide (NO). We established mice unable to synthesize BH4 by disruption of the 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase gene, the encoded protein of which catalyzes the second step of BH4 biosynthesis. Homozygous mice were born at the almost expected Mendelian ratio, but died within 48 h after birth. In the brain of homozygous mutant neonates, levels of biopterin, catecholamines, and serotonin were extremely low. The number of TH molecules was highly dependent on the intracellular concentration of BH4 at nerve terminals. Alteration of the TH protein level by modulation of the BH4 content is a novel regulatory mechanism. Our data showing that catecholaminergic, serotonergic, and NO systems were differently affected by BH4 starvation suggest the possible involvement of BH4 synthesis in the etiology of monoamine-based neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders.

  14. Adenosine A2A receptor antagonists are potential antidepressants: evidence based on pharmacology and A2A receptor knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Yacoubi, Malika El; Ledent, Catherine; Parmentier, Marc; Bertorelli, Rosalia; Ongini, Ennio; Costentin, Jean; Vaugeois, Jean-Marie

    2001-01-01

    Adenosine, an ubiquitous neuromodulator, and its analogues have been shown to produce ‘depressant' effects in animal models believed to be relevant to depressive disorders, while adenosine receptor antagonists have been found to reverse adenosine-mediated ‘depressant' effect. We have designed studies to assess whether adenosine A2A receptor antagonists, or genetic inactivation of the receptor would be effective in established screening procedures, such as tail suspension and forced swim tests, which are predictive of clinical antidepressant activity. Adenosine A2A receptor knockout mice were found to be less sensitive to ‘depressant' challenges than their wildtype littermates. Consistently, the adenosine A2A receptor blockers SCH 58261 (1 – 10 mg kg−1, i.p.) and KW 6002 (0.1 – 10 mg kg−1, p.o.) reduced the total immobility time in the tail suspension test. The efficacy of adenosine A2A receptor antagonists in reducing immobility time in the tail suspension test was confirmed and extended in two groups of mice. Specifically, SCH 58261 (1 – 10 mg kg−1) and ZM 241385 (15 – 60 mg kg−1) were effective in mice previously screened for having high immobility time, while SCH 58261 at 10 mg kg−1 reduced immobility of mice that were selectively bred for their spontaneous ‘helplessness' in this assay. Additional experiments were carried out using the forced swim test. SCH 58261 at 10 mg kg−1 reduced the immobility time by 61%, while KW 6002 decreased the total immobility time at the doses of 1 and 10 mg kg−1 by 75 and 79%, respectively. Administration of the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol (50 – 200 μg kg−1 i.p.) prevented the antidepressant-like effects elicited by SCH 58261 (10 mg kg−1 i.p.) in forced swim test whereas it left unaltered its stimulant motor effects. In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that A2A receptor antagonists prolong escape

  15. Protective activity ethanol extract of the fruits of Illicium verum against atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun Haeng; Sung, Yoon-Young; Nho, Kyoung Jin; Kim, Ho Kyoung

    2015-07-15

    Illicium verum Hook. fil. Illiciaceae (Illicium v.) has been traditionally used in herbal medicine for treating many inflammatory diseases, including skin inflammation and rheumatism. We investigated its use as a preventive agent against inflammatory and vascular diseases in a murine model of atherosclerosis using apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice fed on a high-fat diet (HFD). We investigated the effect of Illicium v. on cytotoxicity, NF-κB activity, and adhesion molecule expression in TNF-α--stimulated HASMCs (Human Aortic smooth muscle cells). ApoE(-/-)mice, fed a HFD and treated daily for 12 weeks by oral administration of either Illicium v. (100 or 200 mg/kg) or atorvastatin (10 mg/kg), were evaluated for atherosclerotic lesions and inflammatory responses by performing Oil red O and iNOS staining, respectively. Expression of inflammatory cytokines (i.e., NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-1β, COX, IκB-α, Iκκ-α/β) and adhesion molecules in the aorta were measured by western blot analysis. In TNF-α-stimulated HASMCs, Illicium v. treatment decreased NF-κB transcriptional activity, and NF-κB protein levels were reduced in a dose-dependent manner over a range of 10-100 μg/mL Illicium v. Also, Illicium v. attenuated the expression of adhesion molecules that are responsible for inflammation in these cells. In animal experiments, treatment with Illicium v. or atorvastatin counteracted the characteristic changes in body weight, blood pressure, and lipid levels seen in HFD-fed ApoE(-/-) mice. In addition, Illicium v. treatment reduced aortic atherosclerotic plaque lesions and the immunoreactivity of iNOS activation. The aortic expression of inflammatory adhesion molecules and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, NF-κB, COX, IκB-α, Iκκ-α/β), which is characteristic of HFD-fed ApoE(-/-) mice, was attenuated by 12-week treatment with daily oral administration of Illicium v. or atorvastatin, and the most potent effect was seen with the herbal tincture. The beneficial

  16. Characteristics of Allergic Pulmonary Inflammation in CXCR3Knockout Mice Sensitized and Challenged with House Dust Mite Protein.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhongjuan; Chen, Huaxia; Chen, Xiaolan; Gao, Jinming; Guo, Zijian

    2016-01-01

    Chemokine C-X-C motif receptor 3 (CXCR3) is a chemokine receptor that is mainly expressed by activated T lymphocytes. T cells play important roles in allergic pulmonary inflammation, which is a hallmark of asthma and elicits the localized accumulation of activated T cells in the lung. In China, a marked increase in the incidence rate of chronic allergic pulmonary inflammation has made it a major public health threat. In the present study, we investigated the role of CXCR3 and its ligands in airway inflammation induced by house dust mite protein (HDMP) in a CXCR3 knockout (CXCR3KO) asthma mouse model. Pathological manifestations in the lung, cell counts and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) classifications were studied using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. The levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ in the BALF and splenocyte supernatants were measured using ELISA. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the lung and spleen were analyzed by flow cytometry. RT-PCR was applied to measure the mRNA transcript levels of monokines induced by IFN-γ(CXCL9) and IFN-γ inducible protein 10(CXCL10). The total cell counts, eosinophil counts, and IL-4 levels in the BALF and cultured splenocyte supernatants were significantly increased, while the levels of IFN-γ were reduced in the HDMP groups(P<0.01). Changes in the total cell counts, eosinophil counts, and lymphocyte counts, as well as the total protein levels in the BALF, the levels of IL-4 in splenocyte supernatants, and the pathological manifestations in the lung, were all greater in CXCR3KO mice than in C57BL/6 wild-type mice. Furthermore, the expression levels of CXCL9 and CXCL10 mRNA transcripts in the lungs of CXCR3KO mice were lower than those in C57BL/6 wild-type mice (P<0.05). CXCR3 and its ligands (i.e., CXCL9 and CXCL10) may play anti-inflammatory roles in this animal model. Promoting the expression of CXCR3 and its ligands may represent a novel therapeutic approach for preventing and curing asthma.

  17. LTP induction translocates cortactin at distant synapses in wild-type but not Fmr1 knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Seese, Ronald R; Babayan, Alex H; Katz, Adam M; Cox, Conor D; Lauterborn, Julie C; Lynch, Gary; Gall, Christine M

    2012-05-23

    Stabilization of long-term potentiation (LTP) depends on reorganization of the dendritic spine actin cytoskeleton. The present study tested whether this involves activity-driven effects on the actin-regulatory protein cortactin, and whether such effects are disturbed in the Fmr1 knock-out (KO) model of fragile X syndrome, in which stabilization of both actin filaments and LTP is impaired. LTP induced by theta burst stimulation (TBS) in hippocampal slices from wild-type mice was associated with rapid, broadly distributed, and NMDA receptor-dependent decreases in synapse-associated cortactin. The reduction in cortactin content was blocked by blebbistatin, while basal levels were reduced by nocodazole, indicating that cortactin's movements into and away from synapses are regulated by microtubule and actomyosin motors, respectively. These results further suggest that synapse-specific LTP influences cytoskeletal elements at distant connections. The rapid effects of TBS on synaptic cortactin content were absent in Fmr1 KOs as was evidence for activity-driven phosphorylation of the protein or its upstream kinase, ERK1/2. Phosphorylation regulates cortactin's interactions with actin, and coprecipitation of the two proteins was reduced in the KOs. We propose that, in the KOs, excessive basal phosphorylation of ERK1/2 disrupts its interactions with cortactin, thereby blocking the latter protein's use of actomyosin transport systems. These impairments are predicted to compromise the response of the subsynaptic cytoskeleton to learning-related afferent activity, both locally and at distant sites.

  18. Adenoviral gene therapy of the Tay-Sachs disease in hexosaminidase A-deficient knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, J E; Mignon, A; Haase, G; Caillaud, C; McDonell, N; Kahn, A; Poenaru, L

    1999-05-01

    The severe neurodegenerative disorder, Tays-Sachs disease, is caused by a beta-hexosaminidase alpha-subunit deficiency which prevents the formation of lysosomal heterodimeric alpha-beta enzyme, hexosaminidase A (HexA). No treatment is available for this fatal disease; however, gene therapy could represent a therapeutic approach. We previously have constructed and characterized, in vitro, adenoviral and retroviral vectors coding for alpha- and beta-subunits of the human beta-hexosaminidases. Here, we have determined the in vivo strategy which leads to the highest HexA activity in the maximum number of tissues in hexA -deficient knock-out mice. We demonstrated that intravenous co-administration of adenoviral vectors coding for both alpha- and beta-subunits, resulting in preferential liver transduction, was essential to obtain the most successful results. Only the supply of both subunits allowed for HexA overexpression leading to massive secretion of the enzyme in serum, and full or partial enzymatic activity restoration in all peripheral tissues tested. The enzymatic correction was likely to be due to direct cellular transduction by adenoviral vectors and/or uptake of secreted HexA by different organs. These results confirmed that the liver was the preferential target organ to deliver a large amount of secreted proteins. In addition, the need to overexpress both subunits of heterodimeric proteins in order to obtain a high level of secretion in animals defective in only one subunit is emphasized. The endogenous non-defective subunit is otherwise limiting.

  19. Rapid-Throughput Skeletal Phenotyping of 100 Knockout Mice Identifies 9 New Genes That Determine Bone Strength

    PubMed Central

    Gogakos, Apostolos; White, Jacqueline K.; Evans, Holly; Jacques, Richard M.; van der Spek, Anne H.; Ramirez-Solis, Ramiro; Ryder, Edward; Sunter, David; Boyde, Alan; Campbell, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a common polygenic disease and global healthcare priority but its genetic basis remains largely unknown. We report a high-throughput multi-parameter phenotype screen to identify functionally significant skeletal phenotypes in mice generated by the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute Mouse Genetics Project and discover novel genes that may be involved in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. The integrated use of primary phenotype data with quantitative x-ray microradiography, micro-computed tomography, statistical approaches and biomechanical testing in 100 unselected knockout mouse strains identified nine new genetic determinants of bone mass and strength. These nine new genes include five whose deletion results in low bone mass and four whose deletion results in high bone mass. None of the nine genes have been implicated previously in skeletal disorders and detailed analysis of the biomechanical consequences of their deletion revealed a novel functional classification of bone structure and strength. The organ-specific and disease-focused strategy described in this study can be applied to any biological system or tractable polygenic disease, thus providing a general basis to define gene function in a system-specific manner. Application of the approach to diseases affecting other physiological systems will help to realize the full potential of the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium. PMID:22876197

  20. Transient infiltration of neutrophils into the thymus following whole-body X-ray irradiation in IL-10 knockout mice

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, Hiroya; Yamazaki, Takahiro; Uzawa, Akiko

    2008-05-02

    IL-10 is known to suppress the inflammatory responses in a variety of experimental models. Because we previously found that whole-body X-irradiation causes massive apoptosis in the thymus and transient infiltration of neutrophils, in this study, we examined whether or not IL-10 is involved in the regulation of neutrophil infiltration upon whole-body X-ray irradiation using IL-10 knockout mice. Although IL-10 was induced in the thymus on whole-body X-ray irradiation, apoptosis of thymocytes, neutrophil infiltration, and MIP-2 and KC production in the thymus were not affected by an IL-10 deficiency. Coculturing of bone marrow-derived macrophages with late apoptotic cells caused MIP-2 production,more » which was also not affected by an IL-10 deficiency. These results suggest the uniqueness of the inflammatory response induced by whole-body X-ray irradiation, which does not seem to be regulated by IL-10.« less

  1. Macrophage ABCA2 deletion modulates intracellular cholesterol deposition, affects macrophage apoptosis, and decreases early atherosclerosis in LDL receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Calpe-Berdiel, Laura; Zhao, Ying; de Graauw, Marjo; Ye, Dan; van Santbrink, Peter J; Mommaas, A Mieke; Foks, Amanda; Bot, Martine; Meurs, Illiana; Kuiper, Johan; Mack, Jody T; Van Eck, Miranda; Tew, Kenneth D; van Berkel, Theo J C

    2012-08-01

    The ABCA2 transporter shares high structural homology to ABCA1, which is crucial for the removal of excess cholesterol from macrophages and, by extension, in atherosclerosis. It has been suggested that ABCA2 sequesters cholesterol inside the lysosomes, however, little is known of the macrophage-specific role of ABCA2 in regulating lipid homeostasis in vivo and in modulating susceptibility to atherosclerosis. Chimeras with dysfunctional macrophage ABCA2 were generated by transplantation of bone marrow from ABCA2 knockout (KO) mice into irradiated LDL receptor (LDLr) KO mice. Interestingly, lack of ABCA2 in macrophages resulted in a diminished lesion size in the aortic root (-24.5%) and descending thoracic aorta (-36.6%) associated with a 3-fold increase in apoptotic cells, as measured by both caspase 3 and TUNEL. Upon oxidized LDL exposure, macrophages from wildtype (WT) transplanted animals developed filipin-positive droplets in lysosomal-like compartments, corresponding to free cholesterol (FC) accumulation. In contrast, ABCA2-deficient macrophages displayed an abnormal diffuse distribution of FC over peripheral regions. The accumulation of neutral sterols in lipid droplets was increased in ABCA2-deficient macrophages, but primarily in cytoplasmic clusters and not in lysosomes. Importantly, apoptosis of oxLDL loaded macrophages lacking ABCA2 was increased 2.7-fold, probably as a consequence of the broad cellular distribution of FC. Lack of functional ABCA2 generates abnormalities in intracellular lipid distribution/trafficking in macrophages consistent with its lysosomal sequestering role, leading to an increased susceptibility to apoptosis in response to oxidized lipids and reduced atherosclerotic lesion development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Three-dimensional reconstruction of efferent ducts in wild-type and Lgr4 knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Lambot, Marie-Alexandra H; Mendive, Fernando; Laurent, Patrick; Van Schoore, Gregory; Noël, Jean-Christophe; Vanderhaeghen, Pierre; Vassart, Gilbert

    2009-04-01

    We have recently shown that Lgr4 knock-out (LGR4KO) male mice are infertile due to a developmental defect of the reproductive tract. Spermatozoa do not reach the epididymis and accumulate at the rete testis and efferent ducts (ED). We have proposed that in LGR4KO, ED might fail to connect resulting in blind-ended tubes that preclude the normal transit of sperm cells. To explore this possibility, we reconstructed the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the organ from serial microphotographs. The resulting model allowed to individualize and follow each ED from the testis up to the epididymis, and to display the spatial distribution of their content. The transit of spermatozoa is indeed blocked in LGR4KO mice but, contrary to the expectation, the ducts connect normally to each other, forming a single tube that flows into the epididymis, as in the wild-type animals. In the KO however, transit of the sperm is abruptly blocked at the same level syncytial-like aggregates appear in the luminal space. The model also allowed calculating, for the first time, morphometric parameters of the mouse ED, such as total volume, surface, radius, and length. These data unambiguously showed that ED in the mutant mouse are dramatically shortened and less convoluted than in the wild-type animal, providing an explanation to the phenotype observed in LGR4KO. Combined with in situ immunodetection or RNA in situ hybridization, 3D reconstruction of serial histological sections will provide an efficient mean to study expression profiles in organs which do not lend themselves to whole-mount studies.

  3. Mice with conditional NeuroD1 knockout display reduced aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis but no change in epileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Brulet, Rebecca; Zhu, Jingfei; Aktar, Mahafuza; Hsieh, Jenny; Cho, Kyung-Ok

    2017-07-01

    Adult neurogenesis is significantly increased in the hippocampus of rodent models of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). These adult-generated neurons have recently been shown to play a contributing role in the development of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS). In order to eventually target pro-epileptic adult neurogenesis in the clinical setting, it will be important to identify molecular players involved in the control of aberrant neurogenesis after seizures. Here, we focused on NeuroD1 (ND1), a member of the bHLH family of transcription factors previously shown to play an essential role in the differentiation and maturation of adult-generated neurons in the hippocampus. Wild-type mice treated with pilocarpine to induce status epilepticus (SE) showed a significant up-regulation of NeuroD1+ immature neuroblasts located in both the granule cell layer (GCL), and ectopically localized to the hilar region of the hippocampus. As expected, conditional knockout (cKO) of NeuroD1 in Nestin-expressing stem/progenitors and their progeny led to a reduction in the number of NeuroD1+ adult-generated neurons after pilocarpine treatment compared to WT littermates. Surprisingly, there was no change in SRS in NeuroD1 cKO mice, suggesting that NeuroD1 cKO fails to reduce aberrant neurogenesis below the threshold needed to impact SRS. Consistent with this conclusion, the total number of adult-generated neurons in the pilocarpine model, especially the total number of Prox1+ hilar ectopic granule cells were unchanged after NeuroD1 cKO, suggesting strategies to reduce SRS will need to achieve a greater removal of aberrant adult-generated neurons. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Hypomaturation Enamel Defects in Klk4 Knockout/LacZ Knockin Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Simmer, James P.; Hu, Yuanyuan; Lertlam, Rangsiyakorn; Yamakoshi, Yasuo; Hu, Jan C.-C.

    2009-01-01

    Kallikrein 4 (Klk4) is believed to play an essential role in enamel biomineralization, because defects in KLK4 cause hypomaturation amelogenesis imperfecta. We used gene targeting to generate a knockin mouse that replaces the Klk4 gene sequence, starting at the translation initiation site, with a lacZ reporter gene. Correct targeting of the transgene was confirmed by Southern blot and PCR analyses. Histochemical X-gal (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-d-galactopyranoside) staining demonstrated expression of β-galactosidase in maturation stage ameloblasts. No X-gal staining was observed in secretory stage ameloblasts or in odontoblasts. Retained enamel proteins were observed in the maturation stage enamel of the Klk4 null mouse, but not in the Klk4 heterozygous or wild-type mice. The enamel layer in the Klk4 null mouse was normal in thickness and contained decussating enamel rods but was rapidly abraded following weaning, despite the mice being maintained on soft chow. In function the enamel readily fractured within the initial rod and interrod enamel above the parallel enamel covering the dentino-enamel junction. Despite the lack of Klk4 and the retention of enamel proteins, significant levels of crystal maturation occurred (although delayed), and the enamel achieved a mineral density in some places greater than that detected in bone and dentin. An important finding was that individual enamel crystallites of erupted teeth failed to grow together, interlock, and function as a unit. Instead, individual crystallites seemed to spill out of the enamel when fractured. These results demonstrate that Klk4 is essential for the removal of enamel proteins and the proper maturation of enamel crystals. PMID:19578120

  5. Glutamate transport by retinal Muller cells in glutamate/aspartate transporter-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Sarthy, Vijay P; Pignataro, Leonardo; Pannicke, Thomas; Weick, Michael; Reichenbach, Andreas; Harada, Takayuki; Tanaka, Kohichi; Marc, Robert

    2005-01-15

    Glutamate transporters are involved in maintaining extracellular glutamate at a low level to ensure a high signal-to-noise ratio for glutamatergic neurotransmission and to protect neurons from excitotoxic damage. The mammalian retina is known to express the excitatory amino acid transporters, EAAT1-5; however, their specific role in glutamate homeostasis is poorly understood. To examine the role of the glial glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST) in the retina, we have studied glutamate transport by Muller cells in GLAST-/- mice, using biochemical, electrophysiological, and immunocytochemical techniques. Glutamate uptake assays indicated that the Km value for glutamate uptake was similar in wild-type and GLAST-/- mouse retinas, but the Vmax was approximately 50% lower in the mutant. In Na+-free medium, the Vmax was further reduced by 40%. In patch-clamp recordings of dissociated Muller cells from GLAST-/- mice, application of 0.1 mM glutamate evoked no current showing that the cells lacked functional electrogenic glutamate transporters. The result also indicated that there was no compensatory upregulation of EAATs in Muller cells. [3H]D-Aspartate uptake autoradiography, however, showed that Na+-dependent, high-affinity transporters account for most of the glutamate uptake by Muller cells, and that Na+-independent glutamate transport is negligible. Additional experiments showed that the residual glutamate uptake in Muller cells in the GLAST-/- mouse retina is not due to known glutamate transporters-cystine-glutamate exchanger, ASCT-1, AGT-1, or other heteroexchangers. The present study shows that while several known glutamate transporters are expressed by mammalian Muller cells, new Na+-dependent, high-affinity glutamate transporters remain to be identified.

  6. Discrimination of computer-graphic stimuli by mice: a method for the behavioral characterization of transgenic and gene-knockout models.

    PubMed

    Bussey, T J; Saksida, L M; Rothblat, L A

    2001-08-01

    An automated method is described for the behavioral testing of mice in an apparatus that allows computer-graphic stimulus material to be presented. Mice responded to these stimuli by making a nose-poke toward a computer monitor that was equipped with a touchscreen attachment for detecting responses. It was found that C57BL/6 mice were able to solve single-pair visual discriminations as well as 3-pair concurrent visual discriminations. The finding that mice are capable of complex visual discriminations introduces the possibility of testing mice on nonspatial tasks that are similar to those used with rats, monkeys, and humans. Furthermore, the method seems particularly well suited to the comprehensive behavioral assessment of transgenic and gene-knockout models.

  7. Exacerbation of spontaneous autoimmune nephritis following regulatory T cell depletion in B cell lymphoma 2-interacting mediator knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y M; Zhang, G Y; Wang, Y; Hu, M; Zhou, J J; Sawyer, A; Cao, Q; Wang, Y; Zheng, G; Lee, V W S; Harris, D C H; Alexander, S I

    2017-05-01

    Regulatory T cells (T regs ) have been recognized as central mediators for maintaining peripheral tolerance and limiting autoimmune diseases. The loss of T regs or their function has been associated with exacerbation of autoimmune disease. However, the temporary loss of T regs in the chronic spontaneous disease model has not been investigated. In this study, we evaluated the role of T regs in a novel chronic spontaneous glomerulonephritis model of B cell lymphoma 2-interacting mediator (Bim) knock-out mice by transient depleting T regs . Bim is a pro-apoptotic member of the B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family. Bim knock-out (Bim -/- ) mice fail to delete autoreactive T cells in thymus, leading to chronic spontaneous autoimmune kidney disease. We found that T reg depletion in Bim -/- mice exacerbated the kidney injury with increased proteinuria, impaired kidney function, weight loss and greater histological injury compared with wild-type mice. There was a significant increase in interstitial infiltrate of inflammatory cells, antibody deposition and tubular damage. Furthermore, the serum levels of cytokines interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17α, interferon (IFN)-γ and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α were increased significantly after T reg depletion in Bim -/- mice. This study demonstrates that transient depletion of T regs leads to enhanced self-reactive T effector cell function followed by exacerbation of kidney disease in the chronic spontaneous kidney disease model of Bim-deficient mice. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  8. Inhibition of Nitric Oxide Synthase 1 Induces Salt-Sensitive Hypertension in Nitric Oxide Synthase 1α Knockout and Wild-Type Mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ximing; Chandrashekar, Kiran; Wang, Lei; Lai, En Yin; Wei, Jin; Zhang, Gensheng; Wang, Shaohui; Zhang, Jie; Juncos, Luis A; Liu, Ruisheng

    2016-04-01

    We recently showed that α, β, and γ splice variants of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS1) expressed in the macula densa and NOS1β accounts for most of the NO generation. We have also demonstrated that the mice with deletion of NOS1 specifically from the macula densa developed salt-sensitive hypertension. However, the global NOS1 knockout (NOS1KO) strain is neither hypertensive nor salt sensitive. This global NOS1KO strain is actually an NOS1αKO model. Consequently, we hypothesized that inhibition of NOS1β in NOS1αKO mice induces salt-sensitive hypertension. NOS1αKO and C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice were implanted with telemetry transmitters and divided into 7-nitroindazole (10 mg/kg/d)-treated and nontreated groups. All of the mice were fed a normal salt (0.4% NaCl) diet for 5 days, followed by a high-salt diet (4% NaCl). NO generation by the macula densa was inhibited by >90% in WT and NOS1αKO mice treated with 7-nitroindazole. Glomerular filtration rate in conscious mice was increased by ≈ 40% after a high-salt diet in both NOS1αKO and WT mice. In response to acute volume expansion, glomerular filtration rate, diuretic and natriuretic response were significantly blunted in the WT and knockout mice treated with 7-nitroindazole. Mean arterial pressure had no significant changes in mice fed a high-salt diet, but increased ≈ 15 mm Hg similarly in NOS1αKO and WT mice treated with 7-nitroindazole. We conclude that NOS1β, but not NOS1α, plays an important role in control of sodium excretion and hemodynamics in response to either an acute or a chronic salt loading. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. COMPARISON OF OVERALL METABOLISM OF 1, 2, 7, 8-PECDD IN CYP1A2(-L-) KNOCKOUT AND C57BL/6N PARENTAL STRAINS OF MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    COMPARISON OF OVERALL METABOLISM OF 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD
    IN CYP1A2 (-/-) KNOCKOUT AND C57BL/6N PARENTAL
    STRAINS OF MICE

    Heldur Hakk1 and Janet J. Diliberto2

    1 USDA-ARS, Biosciences Research Laboratory, P.O. Box 5674, Fargo, ND, USA
    2 US EPA, ORD, National Heal...

  10. Senescence marker protein 30 functions as gluconolactonase in l-ascorbic acid biosynthesis, and its knockout mice are prone to scurvy

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Yoshitaka; Inai, Yoko; Sato, Yasunori; Handa, Setsuko; Kubo, Sachiho; Shimokado, Kentaro; Goto, Sataro; Nishikimi, Morimitsu; Maruyama, Naoki; Ishigami, Akihito

    2006-01-01

    We originally identified senescence marker protein 30 (SMP30) as a distinctive protein whose expression decreases in an androgen-independent manner with aging. Here, we report its sequence homology found in two kinds of bacterial gluconolactonases (GNLs) by using the blast search. Then, through a biochemical study, we identify SMP30 as the lactone-hydrolyzing enzyme GNL of animal species. SMP30 purified from the rat liver had lactonase activity toward various aldonolactones, such as d- and l-glucono-δ-lactone, d- and l-gulono-γ-lactone, and d- and l-galactono-γ-lactone, with a requirement for Zn2+ or Mn2+ as a cofactor. Furthermore, in SMP30 knockout mice, no GNL activity was detectable in the liver. Thus, we conclude that SMP30 is a unique GNL in the liver. The lactonase reaction with l-gulono-γ-lactone is the penultimate step in l-ascorbic acid (AA) biosynthesis, and the essential role of SMP30 in this synthetic process was verified here by a nutritional study using SMP30 knockout mice. These knockout mice (n = 6), fed a vitamin C-deficient diet, did not thrive; i.e., they displayed symptoms of scurvy such as bone fracture and rachitic rosary and then died by 135 days after the start of receiving the deficient diet. The AA levels in their livers and kidneys at the time of death were <1.6% of those in WT control mice. In addition, by using the SMP30 knockout mouse, we demonstrate that the alternative pathway of AA synthesis involving d-glucurono-γ-lactone operates in vivo, although its flux is fairly small. PMID:16585534

  11. Correlating the nanoscale mechanical and chemical properties of knockout mice bones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavukcuoglu, Nadire Beril

    Bone is a mineral-organic composite where the organic matrix is mainly type I collagen plus small amounts of non-collagenous proteins including osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OC) and fibrillin 2 (Fbn2). Mature bone undergoes remodeling continually so new bone is formed and old bone resorbed. Uncoupling between the bone resorption and bone formation causes an overall loss of bone mass and leads to diseases like osteoporosis and osteopenia. These are characterized by structural deterioration of the bone tissue and an increased risk of fracture. The non-collagenous bone proteins are known to have a role in regulating bone turnover and to affect the structural integrity of bone. OPN and OC play a key role in bone resorption and formation, while absence of Fbn-2 causes a connective tissue disorder (congenital contractural arachnodactyly) and has been associated with decreased bone mass. In this thesis nanoindentation and Raman-microspectroscopy techniques were used to investigate and correlate the mechanical and chemical properties of cortical femoral bones from OPN deficient (OPN-/-), OC deficient (OC-/-) and Fbn-2 deficient (Fbn2-/-) mice and their age, sex and background matched wild-type controls (OPN+/+, OC+/+ and Fbn2+/+). For OPN the hardness (H) and elastic modulus (E) of under 12 week OPN-/- bones were significantly lower than for OPN+/+ bones, but Raman showed no significant difference. Mechanical properties of bones from mice older than 12 weeks were not significantly different with genotype. However, mineralization and crystallinity from >50 week OPN-/- bones were significantly higher than for OPN+/+ bones. Mechanical properties of OPN-/- bones showed no variation with age, but mineralization, crystallinity and type-B carbonate substitution increased for both genotypes. For OC-/- intra-bone analyses showed that the hardness and crystallinity of the bones were significantly higher, especially in the mid-cortical sections, compared to OC+/+ bones. Fbn2

  12. Impaired Dendritic Development and Memory in Sorbs2 Knock-Out Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiangge; Gao, Xian; Li, Chenchen; Feliciano, Catia; Wang, Dongqing; Zhou, Dingxi; Mei, Yuan; Monteiro, Patricia; Anand, Michelle; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Dong, Xiaowei; Fu, Zhanyan

    2016-01-01

    Intellectual disability is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning. Both environmental insults and genetic defects contribute to the etiology of intellectual disability. Copy number variations of SORBS2 have been linked to intellectual disability. However, the neurobiological function of SORBS2 in the brain is unknown. The SORBS2 gene encodes ArgBP2 (Arg/c-Abl kinase binding protein 2) protein in non-neuronal tissues and is alternatively spliced in the brain to encode nArgBP2 protein. We found nArgBP2 colocalized with F-actin at dendritic spines and growth cones in cultured hippocampal neurons. In the mouse brain, nArgBP2 was highly expressed in the cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus, and enriched in the outer one-third of the molecular layer in dentate gyrus. Genetic deletion of Sorbs2 in mice led to reduced dendritic complexity and decreased frequency of AMPAR-miniature spontaneous EPSCs in dentate gyrus granule cells. Behavioral characterization revealed that Sorbs2 deletion led to a reduced acoustic startle response, and defective long-term object recognition memory and contextual fear memory. Together, our findings demonstrate, for the first time, an important role for nArgBP2 in neuronal dendritic development and excitatory synaptic transmission, which may thus inform exploration of neurobiological basis of SORBS2 deficiency in intellectual disability. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Copy number variations of the SORBS2 gene are linked to intellectual disability, but the neurobiological mechanisms are unknown. We found that nArgBP2, the only neuronal isoform encoded by SORBS2, colocalizes with F-actin at neuronal dendritic growth cones and spines. nArgBP2 is highly expressed in the cortex, amygdala, and dentate gyrus in the mouse brain. Genetic deletion of Sorbs2 in mice leads to impaired dendritic complexity and reduced excitatory synaptic transmission in dentate gyrus granule cells, accompanied by

  13. Impaired Dendritic Development and Memory in Sorbs2 Knock-Out Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangge; Gao, Xian; Li, Chenchen; Feliciano, Catia; Wang, Dongqing; Zhou, Dingxi; Mei, Yuan; Monteiro, Patricia; Anand, Michelle; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Dong, Xiaowei; Fu, Zhanyan; Feng, Guoping

    2016-02-17

    Intellectual disability is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning. Both environmental insults and genetic defects contribute to the etiology of intellectual disability. Copy number variations of SORBS2 have been linked to intellectual disability. However, the neurobiological function of SORBS2 in the brain is unknown. The SORBS2 gene encodes ArgBP2 (Arg/c-Abl kinase binding protein 2) protein in non-neuronal tissues and is alternatively spliced in the brain to encode nArgBP2 protein. We found nArgBP2 colocalized with F-actin at dendritic spines and growth cones in cultured hippocampal neurons. In the mouse brain, nArgBP2 was highly expressed in the cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus, and enriched in the outer one-third of the molecular layer in dentate gyrus. Genetic deletion of Sorbs2 in mice led to reduced dendritic complexity and decreased frequency of AMPAR-miniature spontaneous EPSCs in dentate gyrus granule cells. Behavioral characterization revealed that Sorbs2 deletion led to a reduced acoustic startle response, and defective long-term object recognition memory and contextual fear memory. Together, our findings demonstrate, for the first time, an important role for nArgBP2 in neuronal dendritic development and excitatory synaptic transmission, which may thus inform exploration of neurobiological basis of SORBS2 deficiency in intellectual disability. Copy number variations of the SORBS2 gene are linked to intellectual disability, but the neurobiological mechanisms are unknown. We found that nArgBP2, the only neuronal isoform encoded by SORBS2, colocalizes with F-actin at neuronal dendritic growth cones and spines. nArgBP2 is highly expressed in the cortex, amygdala, and dentate gyrus in the mouse brain. Genetic deletion of Sorbs2 in mice leads to impaired dendritic complexity and reduced excitatory synaptic transmission in dentate gyrus granule cells, accompanied by behavioral deficits in acoustic

  14. Somatostatin-IRES-Cre Mice: Between Knockout and Wild-Type?

    PubMed

    Viollet, Cécile; Simon, Axelle; Tolle, Virginie; Labarthe, Alexandra; Grouselle, Dominique; Loe-Mie, Yann; Simonneau, Michel; Martel, Guillaume; Epelbaum, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    The neuropeptide somatostatin (SOM) is widely expressed in rodent brain and somatostatin-IRES-Cre (SOM-cre) mouse strains are increasingly used to unravel the physiology of SOM-containing neurons. However, while knock-in targeting strategy greatly improves Cre-Lox system accuracy, recent reports have shown that genomic insertion of Cre construct per se can markedly affect physiological function. We show that Cre transgene insertion into the 3'UTR of the somatostatin gene leads to the selective and massive depletion of endogenous SOM in all tested brain regions. It also strongly impacts SOM-related neuroendocrine responses in a similar manner to what has been reported for SST KO mice: increased corticosterone levels after 30-min restraint stress, decreased amplitude and regularity of ultradian growth hormone secretory patterns accompanied by changes in sexually dimorphic liver gene expression ( serpina1, Cyp2b9, Cyp2a4, Cyp2d9, and Cyp7b1 ). In addition to demonstrating the need for examination of the consequences of Cre transgenesis, these results also reveal how this SOM-cre strain may be a useful tool in studying the functional consequences of moderate to low SOM levels as reported in neurological and psychiatric disorders.

  15. Abnormal renal phenotype in L1 knockout mice: a novel cause of CAKUT.

    PubMed

    Debiec, Hanna; Kutsche, Michael; Schachner, Melitta; Ronco, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    L1, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is a cell adhesion and signal transducing molecule. In the kidney, L1 is expressed in the mesonephric duct and the metanephros throughout collecting duct development. We show that mice with a targeted deletion of the L1 gene display diverse renal malformations including (i) a duplex kidney with two ureters partially or totally separated, accompanied by hydronephrosis; and (ii) an enlarged elongated kidney with a malformed or incorrectly positioned inner medulla. The type, penetrance and severity of these phenotypes are influenced by the genetic background. The development of a duplex kidney is initiated by double ureteral budding from the Wolffian duct or by an accessory budding from the main ureter, whereas medullary malformation is due to an improper growth and branching pattern of ureteral branches. Multiple developmental defects in formation of the collecting system promote subsequent renal damage and progression to renal insufficiency. Various features of mouse ureteral duplication resemble the human congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) although disturbances of medulla development have not yet been reported in men.

  16. Phosphodiesterase-1b (Pde1b) knockout mice are resistant to forced swim and tail suspension induced immobility and show upregulation of Pde10a.

    PubMed

    Hufgard, Jillian R; Williams, Michael T; Skelton, Matthew R; Grubisha, Olivera; Ferreira, Filipa M; Sanger, Helen; Wright, Mary E; Reed-Kessler, Tracy M; Rasmussen, Kurt; Duman, Ronald S; Vorhees, Charles V

    2017-06-01

    Major depressive disorder is a leading cause of suicide and disability. Despite this, current antidepressants provide insufficient efficacy in more than 60% of patients. Most current antidepressants are presynaptic reuptake inhibitors; postsynaptic signal regulation has not received as much attention as potential treatment targets. We examined the effects of disruption of the postsynaptic cyclic nucleotide hydrolyzing enzyme, phosphodiesterase (PDE) 1b, on depressive-like behavior and the effects on PDE1B protein in wild-type (WT) mice following stress. Littermate knockout (KO) and WT mice were tested in locomotor activity, tail suspension (TST), and forced swim tests (FST). FST was also used to compare the effects of two antidepressants, fluoxetine and bupropion, in KO versus WT mice. Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression changes were also determined. WT mice underwent acute or chronic stress and markers of stress and PDE1B expression were examined. Pde1b KO mice exhibited decreased TST and FST immobility. When treated with antidepressants, both WT and KO mice showed decreased FST immobility and the effect was additive in KO mice. Mice lacking Pde1b had increased striatal Pde10a mRNA expression. In WT mice, acute and chronic stress upregulated PDE1B expression while PDE10A expression was downregulated after chronic but not acute stress. PDE1B is a potential therapeutic target for depression treatment because of the antidepressant-like phenotype seen in Pde1b KO mice.

  17. Inhibition of oxytocin receptor and estrogen receptor-alpha expression, but not relaxin receptors (LGR7), in the myometrium of late pregnant relaxin gene knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Siebel, Andrew L; Gehring, Helen M; Reytomas, Irna Grace T; Parry, Laura J

    2003-10-01

    This study used relaxin (RLX) gene knockout mice (Rlx-/-) to investigate the effects of RLX on myometrial oxytocin receptor (OTR) and estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha gene expression in late gestation. We also characterized the temporal expression of the RLX receptor (LGR7) and demonstrated gene transcripts in the myometrium of Rlx+/+ and Rlx-/- mice. There was a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in myometrial LGR7 gene expression on d 17.5 and 18.5 post coitum (pc) compared with earlier stages of gestation, but no differences between Rlx+/+ and Rlx-/- mice. Myometrial OTR mRNA levels increased at the end of gestation in Rlx+/+ but not Rlx-/- mice. ERalpha gene expression was up-regulated on d 14.5 pc in Rlx+/+ mice, with mRNA levels remaining high throughout late gestation. In contrast, ERalpha mRNA levels were significantly lower in Rlx-/- mice on d 14.5 and 18.5 pc. These data show that the increases in myometrial OTR and ERalpha expression in late pregnant Rlx+/+ mice were attenuated in Rlx-/- mice. The effects of RLX on OTRs are probably mediated via activation of ERalpha. Finally, RLX receptor expression in the myometrium of Rlx-/- mice did not differ from wild-type mice, implying that RLX does not influence expression of its receptor.

  18. Angiotensin-(1-7) receptor Mas agonist ameliorates progress of atherosclerosis in apoE-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Jawien, J; Toton-Zuranska, J; Gajda, M; Niepsuj, A; Gebska, A; Kus, K; Suski, M; Pyka-Fosciak, G; Nowak, B; Guzik, T J; Marcinkiewicz, J; Olszanecki, R; Korbut, R

    2012-02-01

    Our interest focused on an open question whether AT-(1-7), nonpeptide receptor agonist: AVE 0991, is able to ameliorate atherosclerosis. We used an apolipoprotein E (apoE) - knockout mice model of atherosclerosis. Experimental groups received the same diet as control, mixed with: AVE 0991 at a dose of 0.58 μmol/kg b.w./day, perindopril at a dose of 0.4 mg/kg b.w./day or with tiorphan at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg b.w./day. A-779 [(D-alanine)-angiotensin (1-7)] was given at a dose of 3.3 mg/kg b.w., 3 times a week i.p. Measured by "en face" method, the percentage of occupied by Sudan IV-stained surfaces were as follows: 14.2±1.9 % in control group, whereas in AVE 0991-treated as well as in perindopril-treated groups percentages were statistically significantly lower. In tiorphan group there was no change comparing to control group, whereas in A-779 group percentage was statistically significantly higher. "Cross-section" of aortic roots revealed also the difference in atherosclerotic lesions. The mean surfaces, occupied by oil red O-stained changes were: 91.213±8.123 μm(2) in control group, while in AVE 0991-treated as well as in perindopril-treated groups lesions were statistically significantly lower. In tiorphan group there was no change; however, in A-779 group lesions were statistically significantly higher. Measured by real time RT-PCR relative p22phox (submit of NADPH oxidase) expression was significantly decreased in AVE 0991-treated mice. As revealed by flow cytometry, the expression of co-stimulatory molecules: CD86, CD80 and CD40 on both dendritic cells (CD11c+) and macrophages (F4/80+) was reduced in AVE 0991-treated group, which correlated with decreased expression of CD69 activation marker on CD4+T cells. In our report we showed the beneficial effect of AVE 0991 on atherogenesis in gene-targeted mice.

  19. Autophagy in spinal motor neurons of conditional ADAR2-knockout mice: An implication for a role of calcium in increased autophagy flux in ALS.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Shoichi; Sasaki, Soichi; Yamashita, Takenari; Kwak, Shin; Shin, Kwak

    2015-06-26

    In the motor neurons of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients, an RNA editing enzyme called adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2 (ADAR2) is down-regulated and consequently GluA2 mRNAs unedited at the Q/R site is expressed in contrast to normal motor neurons that express only GluA2 edited at this site. Motor neurons of the mice lacking ADAR2 undergo Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptor-mediated slow death. We investigated the spinal cords of conditional ADAR2-knockout mice modeling ALS for the involvement of autophagy. In the motor neurons of the early- and late-symptomatic-stage mice, LC3-immunopositivity or immunoreactivity for both LC3- and p62 was observed, whereas the presymptomatic-stage mice showed no LC3- or p62-immunoreactivity. Western blot analyses showed increased expression of autophagy associated proteins in the anterior horn of the early symptomatic-stage mice. Electron-microscopically, autophagy was observed in the motor neurons most frequently in the early-symptomatic-stage mice which showed the severest motor neuron degeneration. Increased autophagy flux was not recognized in the wild-type mice or AR2res (ADAR2(flox/flox)/VAChT-Cre. Fast/GluR-B(R)(/)(R)) mice having motor neurons genetically engineered to express normally edited GluA2 in the absence of ADAR2, which show normal Ca(2+)-permeability of the AMPA receptors in motor neurons. Significantly increased autophagy flux in the degenerating motor neurons of ADAR2-knockout mice likely resulted from Ca(2+) overload. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nulliparous CCAAT/enhancer binding proteindelta (C/EBPdelta) knockout mice exhibit mammary gland ductal hyperlasia.

    PubMed

    Gigliotti, Andrew P; Johnson, Peter F; Sterneck, Esta; DeWille, James W

    2003-03-01

    CCAAT/Enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs) are a family of nuclear proteins that function in the control of cell growth, death, and differentiation. We previously reported that C/EBPdelta plays a key role in mammary epithelial cell G(0) growth arrest. In this report, we investigated the role of C/EBPdelta in mammary gland development and function using female mice homozygous for a targeted deletion of C/EBPdelta (C/EBPdelta -/-). C/EBPdelta -/- females develop normally and exhibit normal reproductive and lactational performance. Adult nulliparous C/EBPdelta -/- females, however, exhibit mammary epithelial cell growth control defects. The mean number of mammary ductal branches is significantly higher in adult nulliparous C/EBPdelta -/- females compared with C/EBPdelta +/+ (wild-type control) females (66.8 +/- 5.2 vs 42.9 +/- 6.3 branch points/field, P < 0.01). In addition, the mean total mammary gland cellular volume occupied by epithelium is significantly higher in adult nulliparous C/EBPdelta -/- females compared with C/EBPdelta +/+ controls (29.0 +/- 1.4 vs 20.4 +/- 1.3, P < 0.001). Our results showed that the BrdU labeling index was significantly higher in mammary epithelial cells from nulliparous C/EBPdelta -/- females compared with C/EBPdelta +/+ controls during the proestrus/estrus (4.55 +/- 0.70 vs 2.14 +/- 0.43, P < 0.01) and metestrus/diestrus (6.92 +/- 0.75 vs 3.98 +/- 0.43 P < 0.01) phases of the estrus cycle. In contrast, the percentage of mammary epithelial cells undergoing apoptosis during both phases of the estrus cycle did not differ between C/EBPdelta -/- and C/EBPdelta +/+ females. The increased epithelial cell content and proliferative capacity was restricted to the nulliparous C/EBPdelta -/- females as no differences in mammary gland morphology, ductal branching or total epithelial content were observed between multiparous C/EBPdelta -/- and C/EBPdelta +/+ females. These results demonstrate that C/EBPdelta plays a novel role in mammary epithelial

  1. Novel Endothelial Cell-Specific AQP1 Knockout Mice Confirm the Crucial Role of Endothelial AQP1 in Ultrafiltration during Peritoneal Dialysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Freichel, Marc; van der Hoeven, Frank; Nawroth, Peter Paul; Katus, Hugo; Kälble, Florian; Zitron, Edgar; Schwenger, Vedat

    2016-01-01

    The water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1) mediates about 50% ultrafiltration during a 2-hour hypertonic dwell in global AQP1 knockout (AQP1-/-) mice. Although AQP1 is widely expressed in various cell types including mesothelial cells, the ultrafiltration has been assumed to be mediated via endothelial AQP1 of the peritoneum. The partial embryonic lethality and reduced body weight in AQP1-/- mice may reflect potential confounding phenotypic effects evoked by ubiquitous AQP1 deletion, which may interfere with functional analysis of endothelial AQP1. Using a Cre/loxP approach, we generated and characterised endothelial cell- and time-specific AQP1 knockout (AQP1fl/fl; Cdh5-Cre+) mice. Compared to controls, AQP1fl/fl; Cdh5-Cre+ mice showed no difference in an initial clinical and biological analysis at baseline, including body weight and survival. During a 1-hour 3.86% mini-peritoneal equilibration test (mini-PET), AQP1fl/fl; Cdh5-Cre+ mice exhibited strongly decreased indices for AQP1-related transcellular water transport (43.0% in net ultrafiltration, 93.0% in sodium sieving and 57.9% in free water transport) compared to controls. The transport rates for small solutes of urea and glucose were not significantly altered. Our data provide the first direct experimental evidence for the functional relevance of endothelial AQP1 to the fluid transport in peritoneal dialysis and thereby further validate essential predictions of the three-pore model of peritoneal transport.

  2. The testosterone-dependent and independent transcriptional networks in the hypothalamus of Gpr54 and Kiss1 knockout male mice are not fully equivalent.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Leah M; d'Anglemont de Tassigny, Xavier; McKinney, Steven; Ruiz de Algara, Teresa; Yap, Damian; Turashvili, Gulisa; Poon, Steven; Sutcliffe, Margaret; Allard, Pat; Burleigh, Angela; Fee, John; Huntsman, David G; Colledge, William H; Aparicio, Samuel A J

    2011-04-28

    Humans and mice with loss of function mutations in GPR54 (KISS1R) or kisspeptin do not progress through puberty, caused by a failure to release GnRH. The transcriptional networks regulated by these proteins in the hypothalamus have yet to be explored by genome-wide methods. We show here, using 1 million exon mouse arrays (Exon 1.0 Affymetrix) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) validation to analyse microdissected hypothalamic tissue from Gpr54 and Kiss1 knockout mice, the extent of transcriptional regulation in the hypothalamus. The sensitivity to detect important transcript differences in microdissected RNA was confirmed by the observation of counter-regulation of Kiss1 expression in Gpr54 knockouts and confirmed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Since Gpr54 and Kiss1 knockout animals are effectively pre-pubertal with low testosterone (T) levels, we also determined which of the validated transcripts were T-responsive and which varied according to genotype alone. We observed four types of transcriptional regulation (i) genotype only dependent regulation, (ii) T only dependent regulation, (iii) genotype and T-dependent regulation with interaction between these variables, (iv) genotype and T-dependent regulation with no interaction between these variables. The results implicate for the first time several transcription factors (e.g. Npas4, Esr2), proteases (Klk1b22), and the orphan 10-transmembrane transporter TMEM144 in the biology of GPR54/kisspeptin function in the hypothalamus. We show for the neuronal activity regulated transcription factor NPAS4, that distinct protein over-expression is seen in the hypothalamus and hippocampus in Gpr54 knockout mice. This links for the first time the hypothalamic-gonadal axis with this important regulator of inhibitory synapse formation. Similarly we confirm TMEM144 up-regulation in the hypothalamus by RNA in situ hybridization and western blot. Taken together, global transcriptional profiling shows that loss of GPR

  3. Fine structure of interleukin 18 (IL-18) receptor-immunoreactive neurons in the retrosplenial cortex and its changes in IL18 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Tetsu; Hata, Masaki; Kuwahara-Otani, Sachi; Yamanishi, Kyosuke; Yagi, Hideshi; Okamura, Haruki

    2016-12-01

    Interleukin 18 (IL-18) participates in the inflammatory immune response of lymphocytes. Delay in learning or memory are common in the IL-18 knockout mouse. Many IL-18-immunoreactive neurons are found in the retrosplenial cortex (RSC) and the subiculum. These neurons also contain the IL-18 receptor. We determined the location and the ultrastructure of the IL-18 receptor-immunoreactive neurons in the RSC and observed changes in the IL-18 receptor-immunoreactive neurons of the IL-18 knockout mouse. The IL-18 receptor-immunoreactive neurons were found specifically in layer V of the granular RSC. They were medium-sized neurons with a light oval nucleus and had little cytoplasm with many free ribosomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum and many mitochondria, but no Nissl bodies. The number of axosomatic terminals was about six per section. The IL-18 receptor-immunoreactive neurons were not found in the RSC in the IL-18 knockout mouse at 5 or 9 weeks of age. However, many small electron-dense neurons were found in layer V. Both the nucleus and cytoplasm were electron-dense, but not necrotic. The mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum were swollen. The IL-18 receptor-immunoreactive neurons were presumed to be degenerating. The degeneration of the IL18-receptor-immunoreactive neurons in the RSC may cause the abnormal behaviors of the IL-18 knockout mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Yellow wine polyphenolic compounds inhibit matrix metalloproteinase-2, -9 expression and improve atherosclerotic plaque in LDL-receptor-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Xiaoya; Chi, Jufang; Tang, Weiliang; Ji, Zheng; Zhao, Fei; Jiang, Chengjian; Lv, Haitao; Guo, Hangyuan

    2014-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies have strongly suggested an inverse correlation between dietary polyphenol consumption and reduced risks of cardiovascular diseases. Yellow rice wine is a Chinese specialty and one of the three most ancient wines in the world (Shaoxing rice wine, beer, and grape wine). There is a large amount of polyphenol substances in yellow rice wine. This experiment was designed to study the potential beneficial effects of yellow wine polyphenolic compounds (YWPC) from yellow rice wine on progression of atherosclerosis in vivo and to further explore its underlying mechanisms. Six-week-old male LDL-receptor-knockout mice were treated with high-fat diet to establish the mouse model with atherosclerosis. Animals received 10, 30, or 50 mg/kg per day of YWPC or 10 mg/kg per day rosuvastatin or water (vehicle) for 14 weeks. The results indicated that YWPC and rosuvastatin significantly decreased circulating total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Compared to the control group, the atherosclerosis lesion area in the rosuvastatin-intervention group and YWPC at doses of 10, 30, and 50 mg/kg per day intervention groups decreased by 74.14%, 18.51%, 40.09%, and 38.42%, respectively. YWPC and rosuvastatin decreased the expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2, 9, whereas the expression of the endogenous inhibitors of these proteins, namely, tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1, 2, increased when compared to the control group. It can be concluded that the YWPC is similar to the benefic effects of rosuvastatin on cardiovascular system. These effects may be attributed to their anti-atherosclerotic actions by lowering lipid and modulating the activity and expression of MMP-2, 9 and TIMP-1, 2.

  5. Chinese yellow wine and red wine inhibit matrix metalloproteinase-2 and improve atherosclerotic plaque in LDL receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hangyuan; Liu, Longbin; Shi, Yafei; Sun, Aijing; Xu, Fukang; Chi, Jufang; Huang, Dilai

    2010-06-01

    Our previous study found that Chinese yellow wine could inhibit the production of homocysteine (HCY) induced extracellular matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in the cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells. Little is known about the relationship between Chinese yellow wine and atherosclerosis or MMP-2 in vivo. Thirty-two LDL Receptor knockout mice on a high-fat and L-methionine diet developed plasma hyperhomocysteinemia and atherosclerosis. They were randomly divided into yellow wine group (n = 8), red wine group (n = 8), ethanol group (n = 8), and control group (n = 8), they were sacrificed after 14 weeks. There were no significant differences with plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in the four groups. Plasma HCY was significantly decreased in the yellow wine group compared to the other three groups (P < 0.01). Yellow wine and red wine groups significantly reduced the atherosclerosis lesion area compared to ethanol and control groups (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant discrepancy between the yellow wine group and red wine group. Compared to the control group and ethanol group, the production of MMP-2 reduced 26.8% and 23.6% in the aortic sinus and the activation of MMP-2 reduced 32.6% and 27.3% in the aortic arch in the yellow wine group; the production of MMP-2 reduced 25.7% and 22.4% in the aortic sinus and the activation of MMP-2 reduced 30.2% and 26.6% in the aortic arch in the red wine group. These results suggest that Chinese yellow wine and red wine can inhibit MMP-2 and improve atherosclerosis, and maybe both Chinese yellow wine and red wine have beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease by inhibiting MMP-2.

  6. Knockout of SRC-1 and SRC-3 in Mice Decreases Cardiomyocyte Proliferation and Causes a Noncompaction Cardiomyopathy Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xian; Qin, Li; Liu, Zhaoliang; Liao, Lan; Martin, James F.; Xu, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    Noncompaction cardiomyopathy (NCC) is a congenital heart disease that causes ventricular dysfunction and high mortality rate in children. The mechanisms responsible for NCC are still unknown. The steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) and SRC-3 are transcriptional coactivators for nuclear hormone receptors and certain other transcription factors that regulate many genes in development and organ function. However, the roles of SRC-1/3 in heart morphogenesis, function and NCC occurrence are unknown. This study aims to examine the spatial and temporal expression patterns of SRC-1/3 in the heart and investigate the specific roles of SRC-1/3 in heart development, function and NCC occurrence. Immunochemical analysis detected SRC-1/3 expressions in the proliferating cardiomyocytes of mouse heart at prenatal and neonatal stages, while these expressions disappeared within two weeks after birth. Through generating and characterizing mouse lines with global or cardiomyocyte-specific knockouts of SRC-1/3, we found ablation of SRC-1/3 in the myocardial lineage resulted in prominent trabeculae, deep intertrabecular recesses and thin ventricular wall and septum. These developmental defects caused a failure of trabecular compaction, decreased internal ventricular dimension, reduced cardiac ejection fraction and output and led to a high rate of postnatal mortality. Collectively, these structural and functional abnormalities closely simulate the phenotype of NCC patients. Further molecular analysis of cardiomyocytes in vivo and in vitro revealed that SRC-1/3 directly up-regulate cyclin E2, cyclin B1 and myocardin to promote cardiomyocyte proliferation and differentiation. In conclusion, SRC-1/3 are required for cardiomyocyte proliferation and differentiation at earlier developmental stages, and their dysfunction causes NCC-like abnormalities in the hearts of newborn and adult mice. PMID:26221073

  7. Choline supplementation protects against liver damage by normalizing cholesterol metabolism in Pemt/Ldlr knockout mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Al Rajabi, Ala; Castro, Gabriela S F; da Silva, Robin P; Nelson, Randy C; Thiesen, Aducio; Vannucchi, Helio; Vine, Donna F; Proctor, Spencer D; Field, Catherine J; Curtis, Jonathan M; Jacobs, René L

    2014-03-01

    Dietary choline is required for proper structure and dynamics of cell membranes, lipoprotein synthesis, and methyl-group metabolism. In mammals, choline is synthesized via phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (Pemt), which converts phosphatidylethanolamine to phosphatidylcholine. Pemt(-/-) mice have impaired VLDL secretion and developed fatty liver when fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Because of the reduction in plasma lipids, Pemt(-/-)/low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (Ldlr(-/-)) mice are protected from atherosclerosis. The goal of this study was to investigate the importance of dietary choline in the metabolic phenotype of Pemt(-/-)/Ldlr(-/-) male