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Sample records for a2br knockout mice

  1. A2BR adenosine receptor modulates sweet taste in circumvallate taste buds.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Shinji; Baquero, Arian; Yang, Dan; Shultz, Nicole; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Ravid, Katya; Kinnamon, Sue C; Finger, Thomas E

    2012-01-01

    In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3) on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y) purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR) is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate), but not anterior (fungiform, palate) taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields.

  2. A2BR Adenosine Receptor Modulates Sweet Taste in Circumvallate Taste Buds

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dan; Shultz, Nicole; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Ravid, Katya; Kinnamon, Sue C.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3) on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y) purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR) is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate), but not anterior (fungiform, palate) taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields. PMID:22253866

  3. A Chimera Analysis of Prestin Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cheatham, Mary Ann; Low-Zeddies, Sharon; Naik, Khurram; Edge, Roxanne; Zheng, Jing; Anderson, Charles T.; Dallos, Peter

    2009-01-01

    A chimera is a genetic composite containing a unique mix of cells derived from more than one zygote. This mouse model allows one to learn how cells of contrasting genotype functionally interact in vivo. Here we investigate the effect that different proportions of prestin-containing outer hair cells (OHC) have on cochlear amplification. In order to address this issue, we developed a prestin chimeric mouse in which both ROSA26 wildtype (WT) and prestin knockout (KO) genotypes are present in a single cochlea. The WT ROSA26 mice express a cell marker, allowing one to identify cells originating from the WT genome. Examination of cochlear tissue indicated that prestin chimeric mice demonstrate a mosaic in which mutant and normal OHCs interleave along the cochlear partition, similar to all other chimeric mouse models. The anatomical distribution of prestin-containing OHCs was compared with physiological data including thresholds and tuning curves for the compound action potential (CAP) recorded in anesthetized mice. Analysis of these measures did not reveal mixed phenotypes in which the distribution of prestin-containing OHCs impacted sensitivity and frequency selectivity to different degrees. However, by reducing the number of prestin-containing OHCs, phenotypes intermediate between WT and KO response patterns were obtained. Accordingly, we demonstrate a proportional reduction in sensitivity and in the tip length of CAP tuning curves as the number of OHCs derived from the KO genome increases, i.e., genotype ratio and phenotype are closely related. PMID:19776286

  4. Transgenic and gene knockout mice in gastric cancer research

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yannan; Yu, Yingyan

    2017-01-01

    Mouse models are useful tool for carcinogenic study. They will greatly enrich the understanding of pathogenesis and molecular mechanisms for gastric cancer. However, only few of mice could develop gastric cancer spontaneously. With the development and improvement of gene transfer technology, investigators created a variety of transgenic and knockout/knockin mouse models of gastric cancer, such as INS-GAS mice and gastrin knockout mice. Combined with helicobacter infection and carcinogens treatment, these transgenic/knockout/knockin mice developed precancerous or cancerous lesions, which are proper for gene function study or experimental therapy. Here we review the progression of genetically engineered mouse models on gastric cancer research, and emphasize the effects of chemical carcinogens or infectious factors on carcinogenesis of genetically modified mouse. We also emphasize the histological examination on mouse stomach. We expect to provide researchers with some inspirations on this field. PMID:27713138

  5. Knockout of Foxp2 disrupts vocal development in mice.

    PubMed

    Castellucci, Gregg A; McGinley, Matthew J; McCormick, David A

    2016-03-16

    The FOXP2 gene is important for the development of proper speech motor control in humans. However, the role of the gene in general vocal behavior in other mammals, including mice, is unclear. Here, we track the vocal development of Foxp2 heterozygous knockout (Foxp2+/-) mice and their wildtype (WT) littermates from juvenile to adult ages, and observe severe abnormalities in the courtship song of Foxp2+/- mice. In comparison to their WT littermates, Foxp2+/- mice vocalized less, produced shorter syllable sequences, and possessed an abnormal syllable inventory. In addition, Foxp2+/- song also exhibited irregular rhythmic structure, and its development did not follow the consistent trajectories observed in WT vocalizations. These results demonstrate that the Foxp2 gene is critical for normal vocal behavior in juvenile and adult mice, and that Foxp2 mutant mice may provide a tractable model system for the study of the gene's role in general vocal motor control.

  6. Urea transporter knockout mice and their renal phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Robert A; Yang, Baoxue

    2014-01-01

    Urea transporter gene knockout mice have been created for the study of the urine-concentrating mechanism. The major findings in studies of the renal phenotype of these mice are as follows: (1) Urea accumulation in the inner medullary interstitium is dependent on intrarenal urea recycling mediated by urea transporters; (2) urea transporters are essential for preventing urea-induced osmotic diuresis and thus for water conservation; (3) NaCl concentration in the inner medullary interstitium is not significantly affected by the absence of IMCD, descending limb of Henle and descending vasa recta urea transporters. Studies in urea transporter knockout mouse models have highlighted the essential role of urea for producing maximally concentrated urine.

  7. TAM receptor knockout mice are susceptible to retinal autoimmune induction.

    PubMed

    Ye, Fei; Li, Qiutang; Ke, Yan; Lu, Qingjun; Han, Lixia; Kaplan, Henry J; Shao, Hui; Lu, Qingxian

    2011-06-16

    TAM receptors are expressed mainly by dendritic cells and macrophages in the immune system, and mice lacking TAM receptors develop systemic autoimmune diseases because of inefficient negative control of the cytokine signaling in those cells. This study aims to test the susceptibility of the TAM triple knockout (tko) mice to the retina-specific autoantigen to develop experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU). TAM tko mice that were or were not immunized with interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) peptides were evaluated for retinal infiltration of the macrophages and CD3(+) T cells by immunohistochemistry, spontaneous activation of CD4(+) T cells, and memory T cells by flow cytometry and proliferation of IRBP-specific CD4(+) T cells by [(3)H]thymidine incorporation assay. Ocular inflammation induced by IRBP peptide immunization and specific T cell transfer were observed clinically by funduscopy and confirmed by histology. Tko mice were found to have less naive, but more activated, memory T cells, among which were exhibited high sensitivity to ocular IRBP autoantigens. Immunization with a low dose of IRBP and adoptive transfer of small numbers of IRBP-specific T cells from immunized tko mice caused the infiltration of lymphocytes, including CD3(+) T cells, into the tko retina. Mice without TAM receptor spontaneously develop IRBP-specific CD4(+) T cells and are more susceptible to retinal autoantigen immunization. This TAM knockout mouse line provides an animal model with which to study the role of antigen-presenting cells in the development of T cell-mediated uveitis.

  8. Norepinephrine Transporter Heterozygous Knockout Mice Exhibit Altered Transport and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Fentress, HM; Klar, R; Krueger, JK; Sabb, T; Redmon, SN; Wallace, NM; Shirey-Rice, JK; Hahn, MK

    2013-01-01

    The norepinephrine (NE) transporter (NET) regulates synaptic NE availability for noradrenergic signaling in the brain and sympathetic nervous system. Although genetic variation leading to a loss of NET expression has been implicated in psychiatric and cardiovascular disorders, complete NET deficiency has not been found in people, limiting the utility of NET knockout mice as a model for genetically-driven NET dysfunction. Here, we investigate NET expression in NET heterozygous knockout male mice (NET+/−), demonstrating that they display an ~50% reduction in NET protein levels. Surprisingly, these mice display no significant deficit in NET activity, assessed in hippocampal and cortical synaptosomes. We found that this compensation in NET activity was due to enhanced activity of surface-resident transporters, as opposed to surface recruitment of NET protein or compensation through other transport mechanisms, including serotonin, dopamine or organic cation transporters. We hypothesize that loss of NET protein in the NET+/− mouse establishes an activated state of existing, surface NET proteins. NET+/− mice exhibit increased anxiety in the open field and light-dark box and display deficits in reversal learning in the Morris Water Maze. These data suggest recovery of near basal activity in NET+/− mice appears to be insufficient to limit anxiety responses or support cognitive performance that might involve noradrenergic neurotransmission. The NET+/− mice represent a unique model to study the loss and resultant compensatory changes in NET that may be relevant to behavior and physiology in human NET deficiency disorders. PMID:24102798

  9. Running Promotes Wakefulness and Increases Cataplexy in Orexin Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    España, Rodrigo A.; McCormack, Sarah L.; Mochizuki, Takatoshi; Scammell, Thomas E.

    2007-01-01

    Study Objective: People with narcolepsy and mice lacking orexin/hypocretin have disrupted sleep/wake behavior and reduced physical activity. Our objective was to identify physiologic mechanisms through which orexin deficiency reduces locomotor activity. Design: We examined spontaneous wheel running activity and its relationship to sleep/wake behavior in wild type (WT) and orexin knockout (KO) mice. Additionally, given that physical activity promotes alertness, we also studied whether orexin deficiency reduces the wake-promoting effects of exercise. Measurements and Results: Orexin KO mice ran 42% less than WT mice. Their ability to run appeared normal as they initiated running as often as WT mice and ran at normal speeds. However, their running bouts were considerably shorter, and they often had cataplexy or quick transitions into sleep after running. Wheel running increased the total amount of wakefulness in WT and orexin KO mice similarly, however, KO mice continued to have moderately fragmented sleep/wake behavior. Wheel running also doubled the amount of cataplexy by increasing the probability of transitioning into cataplexy. Conclusions: Orexin KO mice run significantly less than normal, likely due to sleepiness, imminent cataplexy, or a reduced motivation to run. Orexin is not required for the wake-promoting effects of wheel running given that both WT and KO mice had similar increases in wakefulness with running wheels. In addition, the clear increase in cataplexy with wheel running suggests the possibility that positive emotions or reward can trigger murine cataplexy, similar to that seen in people and dogs with narcolepsy. Citation: España RA; McCormack SL; Mochizuki T; Scammell TE. Running promotes wakefulness and increases cataplexy in orexin knockout mice. SLEEP 2007;30(11):1417-1425. PMID:18041476

  10. Morphological observation of the stria vascularis in midkine and pleiotrophin knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Sone, Michihiko; Muramatsu, Hisako; Muramatsu, Takashi; Nakashima, Tsutomu

    2011-02-01

    Midkine and Pleiotrophin are low molecular weight basic proteins with closely related structures and serve as growth/differentiation factors. They have been reported to be expressed in the cochlea during the embryonic and perinatal periods. In the present study, we focused on the roles of midkine and pleiotrophin in the stria vascularis and investigated morphological changes using mice deficient in these genes. Midkine knockout, pleiotrophin knockout, and double knockout mice were used and compared to wild-type mice. Auditory brain stem responses (ABRs) and cochlear blood flows were measured in each type of mice. Pathological changes in the stria vascularis were examined by light microscopy, including immunohistochemical staining with anti-Kir4.1 antibody, and electron microscopy. Hearing thresholds examined by ABRs were significantly higher in midkine knockout and pleiotrophin knockout mice than in wild-type mice. Double knockout mice showed higher thresholds compared to midkine knockout and pleiotrophin knockout mice. Blood flow in the lateral walls did not significantly differ and light microscopy examination showed an almost normal appearance of the stria vascularis in these knockout mice. However, the expression of Kir4.1 was weak in the knockout mice and severe vacuolar degeneration was observed by electron microscopy in the intermediate cells of the double knockout mice. The present study demonstrates that midkine and pleiotrophin play some roles for the morphological maintenance of intermediate cell in the stria vascularis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Core features of frontotemporal dementia recapitulated in progranulin knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Ghoshal, N.; Dearborn, J.T.; Wozniak, D.F.; Cairns, N.J.

    2011-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is typified by behavioral and cognitive changes manifested as altered social comportment and impaired memory performance. To investigate the neurodegenerative consequences of progranulin gene (GRN) mutations, which cause an inherited form of FTD, we used previously generated progranulin knockout mice (Grn-/-). Specifically, we characterized two cohorts of early and later middle-age wild type and knockout mice using a battery of tests to assess neurological integrity and behavioral phenotypes analogous to FTD. The Grn-/- mice exhibited reduced social engagement and learning and memory deficits. Immunohistochemical approaches were used to demonstrate the presence of lesions characteristic of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with GRN mutation including ubiquitination, microgliosis, and reactive astrocytosis, the pathological substrate of FTD. Importantly, Grn-/- mice also have decreased overall survival compared to Grn+/+ mice. These data suggest that the Grn-/- mouse reproduces some core features of FTD with respect to behavior, pathology, and survival. This murine model may serve as a valuable in vivo model of FTLD with GRN mutation through which molecular mechanisms underlying the disease can be further dissected. PMID:21933710

  12. Running promotes wakefulness and increases cataplexy in orexin knockout mice.

    PubMed

    España, Rodrigo A; McCormack, Sarah L; Mochizuki, Takatoshi; Scammell, Thomas E

    2007-11-01

    People with narcolepsy and mice lacking orexin/hypocretin have disrupted sleep/wake behavior and reduced physical activity. Our objective was to identify physiologic mechanisms through which orexin deficiency reduces locomotor activity. We examined spontaneous wheel running activity and its relationship to sleep/wake behavior in wild type (WT) and orexin knockout (KO) mice. Additionally, given that physical activity promotes alertness, we also studied whether orexin deficiency reduces the wake-promoting effects of exercise. Orexin KO mice ran 42% less than WT mice. Their ability to run appeared normal as they initiated running as often as WT mice and ran at normal speeds. However, their running bouts were considerably shorter, and they often had cataplexy or quick transitions into sleep after running. Wheel running increased the total amount of wakefulness in WT and orexin KO mice similarly, however, KO mice continued to have moderately fragmented sleep/wake behavior. Wheel running also doubled the amount of cataplexy by increasing the probability of transitioning into cataplexy. Orexin KO mice run significantly less than normal, likely due to sleepiness, imminent cataplexy, or a reduced motivation to run. Orexin is not required for the wake-promoting effects of wheel running given that both WT and KO mice had similar increases in wakefulness with running wheels. In addition, the clear increase in cataplexy with wheel running suggests the possibility that positive emotions or reward can trigger murine cataplexy, similar to that seen in people and dogs with narcolepsy.

  13. Hepatic changes in metabolic gene expression in old ghrelin and ghrelin receptor knockout mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ghrelin knockout (GKO) and ghrelin receptor (growth hormone secretagogue receptor) knockout (GHSRKO) mice exhibit enhanced insulin sensitivity, but the mechanism is unclear. Insulin sensitivity declines with age and is inversely associated with accumulation of lipid in liver, a key glucoregulatory ...

  14. Bone growth and turnover in progesterone receptor knockout mice.

    SciTech Connect

    Rickard, David J.; Iwaniec, Urszula T.; Evans, Glenda

    2008-05-01

    The role of progesterone receptor (PR) signaling in skeletal metabolism is controversial. To address whether signaling through the PR is necessary for normal bone growth and turnover, we performed histomorphometric and mCT analyses of bone from homozygous female PR knockout (PRKO) mice at 6, 12, and 26 weeks of age. These mice possess a null mutation of the PR locus, which blocks the gene expression of A and B isoforms of PR. Body weight gain, uterine weight gain and tibia longitudinal bone growth was normal in PRKO mice. In contrast, total and cortical bone mass were increased in long bonesmore » of post-pubertal (12 and 26-week-old) PRKO mice, whereas cancellous bone mass was normal in the tibia but increased in the humerus. The striking 57% decrease in cancellous bone from the proximal tibia metaphysis which occurred between 6 and 26 weeks in WT mice was abolished in PRKO mice. The improved bone balance in aging PRKO mice was associated with elevated bone formation and a tendency toward reduced osteoclast perimeter. Taken together, these findings suggest that PR signaling in mice attenuates the accumulation of cortical bone mass during adolescence and is required for early age-related loss of cancellous bone.« less

  15. Pituitary-adrenal responses to oxotremorine and acute stress in male and female M1 muscarinic receptor knockout mice: comparisons to M2 muscarinic receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, M E; Rubin, R T; McKlveen, J M; Karwoski, T E; Fulton, B A; Czambel, R K

    2008-05-01

    Both within the brain and in the periphery, M(1) muscarinic receptors function primarily as postsynaptic receptors and M(2) muscarinic receptors function primarily as presynaptic autoreceptors. In addition to classical parasympathetic effectors, cholinergic stimulation of central muscarinic receptors influences the release of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone. We previously reported that oxotremorine administration to male and female M(2) receptor knockout and wild-type mice increased ACTH to a significantly greater degree in knockout males compared to all other groups, and that M(2) knockout mice of both sexes were significantly more responsive to the mild stress of saline injection than were wild-type mice. These results accord with the primary function of M(2) receptors as presynaptic autoreceptors. In the present study, we explored the role of the M(1) receptor in pituitary-adrenal responses to oxotremorine and saline in male and female M(1) knockout and wild-type mice. Because these mice responded differently to the mild stress of saline injection than did the M(2) knockout and wild-type mice, we also determined hormone responses to restraint stress in both M(1) and M(2) knockout and wild-type mice. Male and female M(1) knockout and wild-type mice were equally unresponsive to the stress of saline injection. Oxotremorine increased both ACTH and corticosterone in M(1) wild-type mice to a significantly greater degree than in knockout mice. In both M(1) knockout and wild-type animals, ACTH responses were greater in males compared to females, and corticosterone responses were greater in females compared to males. Hormone responses to restraint stress were increased in M(2) knockout mice and decreased in M(1) knockout mice compared to their wild-type counterparts. These findings suggest that M(1) and M(2) muscarinic receptor subtypes differentially influence male and female pituitary-adrenal responses to cholinergic stimulation and stress. The

  16. Vulnerability to mild predator stress in serotonin transporter knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Adamec, Robert; Burton, Paul; Blundell, Jacqueline; Murphy, Dennis L; Holmes, Andrew

    2006-06-03

    Effect of predator stress on rat and mouse anxiety-like behavior may model aspects of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A single cat exposure of wild type (C57, CFW) mice can produce lasting anxiety-like effects in the elevated plus maze, light/dark box tests and startle. In addition, female but not male C57 mice are made more anxious in the plus maze by exposure to predator odors alone, suggesting differential vulnerability to predator stressors of differing intensity. There is a link between genetic variation in the serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) and anxiety in humans. This prompted the generation of SERT knockout mice [see Holmes A, Murphy DL, Crawley, JN. Biol Psychiatry 2003;54(10):953-9]. Present work used these mice to determine if there was a link between vulnerability to the anxiogenic effects of predator odors and abnormalities of 5-HT transmission induced by a life long reduction in 5-HT reuptake. Wild type (WT, C57 background), heterozygous (SERT +/-, HET) mice and homozygous knockout (SERT -/-, KO) were assigned to handled control groups or groups exposed for 10 min to a large testing room rich in cat odor. One week after handling or room exposure, anxiety testing took place in the dark phase of the light/dark cycle, in red light. Predator odor exposure was selectively anxiogenic in the plus maze and light/dark box tests in SERT -/- mice. Exposure to predator odor did not potentiate startle. Findings suggest a role for abnormalities in 5-HT transmission in vulnerability to some of the lasting anxiogenic effects of species relevant stressors and possibly in vulnerability to PTSD.

  17. Norepinephrine transporter heterozygous knockout mice exhibit altered transport and behavior.

    PubMed

    Fentress, H M; Klar, R; Krueger, J J; Sabb, T; Redmon, S N; Wallace, N M; Shirey-Rice, J K; Hahn, M K

    2013-11-01

    The norepinephrine (NE) transporter (NET) regulates synaptic NE availability for noradrenergic signaling in the brain and sympathetic nervous system. Although genetic variation leading to a loss of NET expression has been implicated in psychiatric and cardiovascular disorders, complete NET deficiency has not been found in people, limiting the utility of NET knockout mice as a model for genetically driven NET dysfunction. Here, we investigate NET expression in NET heterozygous knockout male mice (NET(+/-) ), demonstrating that they display an approximately 50% reduction in NET protein levels. Surprisingly, these mice display no significant deficit in NET activity assessed in hippocampal and cortical synaptosomes. We found that this compensation in NET activity was due to enhanced activity of surface-resident transporters, as opposed to surface recruitment of NET protein or compensation through other transport mechanisms, including serotonin, dopamine or organic cation transporters. We hypothesize that loss of NET protein in the NET(+/-) mouse establishes an activated state of existing surface NET proteins. The NET(+/-) mice exhibit increased anxiety in the open field and light-dark box and display deficits in reversal learning in the Morris water maze. These data suggest that recovery of near basal activity in NET(+/-) mice appears to be insufficient to limit anxiety responses or support cognitive performance that might involve noradrenergic neurotransmission. The NET(+/-) mice represent a unique model to study the loss and resultant compensatory changes in NET that may be relevant to behavior and physiology in human NET deficiency disorders. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  18. Fractionating spatial memory with glutamate receptor subunit-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Bannerman, David M

    2009-12-01

    In recent years, the contribution that different glutamate receptor subtypes and subunits make to spatial learning and memory has been studied extensively using genetically modified mice in which key proteins are knocked out. This has revealed dissociations between different aspects of spatial memory that were not previously apparent from lesion studies. For example, studies with GluA1 AMPAR [AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid) receptor] subunit-knockout mice have revealed the presence of a GluA1-dependent, non-associative short-term memory mechanism that is important for performance on spatial working memory tasks, and a GluA1-independent, long-term associative memory mechanism which underlies performance on spatial reference memory tasks. Within this framework we have also studied the contributions of different GluN2-containing NMDARs [NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors] to spatial memory. Studies with GluN2 NMDAR mutants have revealed different contributions from GluN2A- and GluN2B-containing NMDARs to spatial learning. Furthermore, comparison of forebrain- and hippocampus-specific GluN2B-knockout mice has demonstrated that both hippocampal and extra-hippocampal NMDARs make important contributions to spatial memory performance.

  19. Salty taste deficits in CALHM1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Tordoff, Michael G; Ellis, Hillary T; Aleman, Tiffany R; Downing, Arnelle; Marambaud, Philippe; Foskett, J Kevin; Dana, Rachel M; McCaughey, Stuart A

    2014-07-01

    Genetic ablation of calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1), which releases adenosine triphosphate from Type 2 taste cells, severely compromises the behavioral and electrophysiological responses to tastes detected by G protein-coupled receptors, such as sweet and bitter. However, the contribution of CALHM1 to salty taste perception is less clear. Here, we evaluated several salty taste-related phenotypes of CALHM1 knockout (KO) mice and their wild-type (WT) controls: 1) In a conditioned aversion test, CALHM1 WT and KO mice had similar NaCl avoidance thresholds. 2) In two-bottle choice tests, CALHM1 WT mice showed the classic inverted U-shaped NaCl concentration-preference function but CALHM1 KO mice had a blunted peak response. 3) In brief-access tests, CALHM1 KO mice showed less avoidance than did WT mice of high concentrations of NaCl, KCl, NH(4)Cl, and sodium lactate (NaLac). Amiloride further ameliorated the NaCl avoidance of CALHM1 KO mice, so that lick rates to a mixture of 1000 mM NaCl + 10 µM amiloride were statistically indistinguishable from those to water. 4) Relative to WT mice, CALHM1 KO mice had reduced chorda tympani nerve activity elicited by oral application of NaCl, NaLac, and sucrose but normal responses to HCl and NH(4)Cl. Chorda tympani responses to NaCl and NaLac were amiloride sensitive in WT but not KO mice. These results reinforce others demonstrating that multiple transduction pathways make complex, concentration-dependent contributions to salty taste perception. One of these pathways depends on CALHM1 to detect hypertonic NaCl in the mouth and signal the aversive taste of concentrated salt. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Salty Taste Deficits in CALHM1 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Hillary T.; Aleman, Tiffany R.; Downing, Arnelle; Marambaud, Philippe; Foskett, J. Kevin; Dana, Rachel M.; McCaughey, Stuart A.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic ablation of calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1), which releases adenosine triphosphate from Type 2 taste cells, severely compromises the behavioral and electrophysiological responses to tastes detected by G protein–coupled receptors, such as sweet and bitter. However, the contribution of CALHM1 to salty taste perception is less clear. Here, we evaluated several salty taste–related phenotypes of CALHM1 knockout (KO) mice and their wild-type (WT) controls: 1) In a conditioned aversion test, CALHM1 WT and KO mice had similar NaCl avoidance thresholds. 2) In two-bottle choice tests, CALHM1 WT mice showed the classic inverted U-shaped NaCl concentration-preference function but CALHM1 KO mice had a blunted peak response. 3) In brief-access tests, CALHM1 KO mice showed less avoidance than did WT mice of high concentrations of NaCl, KCl, NH4Cl, and sodium lactate (NaLac). Amiloride further ameliorated the NaCl avoidance of CALHM1 KO mice, so that lick rates to a mixture of 1000mM NaCl + 10 µM amiloride were statistically indistinguishable from those to water. 4) Relative to WT mice, CALHM1 KO mice had reduced chorda tympani nerve activity elicited by oral application of NaCl, NaLac, and sucrose but normal responses to HCl and NH4Cl. Chorda tympani responses to NaCl and NaLac were amiloride sensitive in WT but not KO mice. These results reinforce others demonstrating that multiple transduction pathways make complex, concentration-dependent contributions to salty taste perception. One of these pathways depends on CALHM1 to detect hypertonic NaCl in the mouth and signal the aversive taste of concentrated salt. PMID:24846212

  1. Knockout of Foxp2 disrupts vocal development in mice

    PubMed Central

    Castellucci, Gregg A.; McGinley, Matthew J.; McCormick, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The FOXP2 gene is important for the development of proper speech motor control in humans. However, the role of the gene in general vocal behavior in other mammals, including mice, is unclear. Here, we track the vocal development of Foxp2 heterozygous knockout (Foxp2+/−) mice and their wildtype (WT) littermates from juvenile to adult ages, and observe severe abnormalities in the courtship song of Foxp2+/− mice. In comparison to their WT littermates, Foxp2+/− mice vocalized less, produced shorter syllable sequences, and possessed an abnormal syllable inventory. In addition, Foxp2+/− song also exhibited irregular rhythmic structure, and its development did not follow the consistent trajectories observed in WT vocalizations. These results demonstrate that the Foxp2 gene is critical for normal vocal behavior in juvenile and adult mice, and that Foxp2 mutant mice may provide a tractable model system for the study of the gene’s role in general vocal motor control. PMID:26980647

  2. Abnormal Sleep/Wake Dynamics in Orexin Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Diniz Behn, Cecilia G.; Klerman, Elizabeth B.; Mochizuki, Takatoshi; Lin, Shih-Chieh; Scammell, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: Narcolepsy with cataplexy is caused by a loss of orexin (hypocretin) signaling, but the physiologic mechanisms that result in poor maintenance of wakefulness and fragmented sleep remain unknown. Conventional scoring of sleep cannot reveal much about the process of transitioning between states or the variations within states. We developed an EEG spectral analysis technique to determine whether the state instability in a mouse model of narcolepsy reflects abnormal sleep or wake states, faster movements between states, or abnormal transitions between states. Design: We analyzed sleep recordings in orexin knockout (OXKO) mice and wild type (WT) littermates using a state space analysis technique. This non-categorical approach allows quantitative and unbiased examination of sleep/wake states and state transitions. Measurements and Results: OXKO mice spent less time in deep, delta-rich NREM sleep and in active, theta-rich wake and instead spent more time near the transition zones between states. In addition, while in the midst of what should be stable wake, OXKO mice initiated rapid changes into NREM sleep with high velocities normally seen only in transition regions. Consequently, state transitions were much more frequent and rapid even though the EEG progressions during state transitions were normal. Conclusions: State space analysis enables visualization of the boundaries between sleep and wake and shows that narcoleptic mice have less distinct and more labile states of sleep and wakefulness. These observations provide new perspectives on the abnormal state dynamics resulting from disrupted orexin signaling and highlight the usefulness of state space analysis in understanding narcolepsy and other sleep disorders. Citation: Diniz Behn CG; Klerman EB; Mochizuki T; Lin S; Scammell TE. Abnormal sleep/wake dynamics in orexin knockout mice. SLEEP 2010;33(3):297-306. PMID:20337187

  3. Elevated body temperature during sleep in orexin knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Mochizuki, Takatoshi; Klerman, Elizabeth B.; Sakurai, Takeshi; Scammell, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    Core body temperature (Tb) is influenced by many physiological factors, including behavioral state, locomotor activity, and biological rhythms. To determine the relative roles of these factors, we examined Tb in orexin knockout (KO) mice, which have a narcolepsy-like phenotype with severe sleep-wake fragmentation. Because orexin is thought to promote heat production during wakefulness, we hypothesized that orexin KO mice would have lower Tb while awake. Surprisingly, the Tb of orexin KO mice was 0.4°C higher than wild-type (WT) littermates during the dark period. Orexin KO mice had normal diurnal variations in Tb, but the ultradian rhythms of Tb, locomotor activity, and wakefulness were markedly reduced. During sustained wakefulness, Tb was the same in both groups. During the first 15 min of spontaneous sleep, the Tb of WT mice decreased by 1.0°C, but Tb in orexin KO mice decreased only 0.4°C. Even during intense recovery sleep after 8 hr of sleep deprivation, the Tb of orexin KO mice remained 0.7°C higher than in WT mice. This blunted fall in Tb during sleep may be due to inadequate activation of heat loss mechanisms or sustained activity in heat-generating systems. These observations reveal an unexpected role for orexin in thermoregulation. In addition, because heat loss is an essential aspect of sleep, the blunted fall in Tb of orexin KO mice may provide an explanation for the fragmented sleep of narcolepsy. PMID:16556901

  4. Feeding-elicited cataplexy in orexin knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Erika L.; Baumann, Christian R.; Cano, Georgina; Scammell, Thomas E.; Mochizuki, Takatoshi

    2009-01-01

    Mice lacking orexin/hypocretin signaling have sudden episodes of atonia and paralysis during active wakefulness. These events strongly resemble cataplexy, episodes of sudden muscle weakness triggered by strong positive emotions in people with narcolepsy, but it remains unknown whether murine cataplexy is triggered by positive emotions. To determine whether positive emotions elicit murine cataplexy, we placed orexin knockout (KO) mice on a scheduled feeding protocol with regular or highly palatable food. Baseline sleep/wake behavior was recorded with ad lib regular chow. Mice were then placed on a scheduled feeding protocol in which they received 60% of their normal amount of chow 3 hr after dark onset for the next 10 days. Wild-type and KO mice rapidly entrained to scheduled feeding with regular chow, with more wake and locomotor activity prior to the feeding time. On day 10 of scheduled feeding, orexin KO mice had slightly more cataplexy during the food-anticipation period and more cataplexy in the second half of the dark period, when they may have been foraging for residual food. To test whether more palatable food increases cataplexy, mice were then switched to scheduled feeding with an isocaloric amount of Froot Loops, a food often used as a reward in behavioral studies. With this highly palatable food, orexin KO mice had much more cataplexy during the food-anticipation period and throughout the dark period. The increase in cataplexy with scheduled feeding, especially with highly palatable food, suggests that positive emotions may trigger cataplexy in mice, just as in people with narcolepsy. Establishing this connection helps validate orexin KO mice as an excellent model of human narcolepsy and provides an opportunity to better understand the mechanisms that trigger cataplexy. PMID:19362119

  5. Diacylglycerol Lipase α Knockout Mice Demonstrate Metabolic and Behavioral Phenotypes Similar to Those of Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Powell, David R.; Gay, Jason P.; Wilganowski, Nathaniel; Doree, Deon; Savelieva, Katerina V.; Lanthorn, Thomas H.; Read, Robert; Vogel, Peter; Hansen, Gwenn M.; Brommage, Robert; Ding, Zhi-Ming; Desai, Urvi; Zambrowicz, Brian

    2015-01-01

    After creating >4,650 knockouts (KOs) of independent mouse genes, we screened them by high-throughput phenotyping and found that cannabinoid receptor 1 (Cnr1) KO mice had the same lean phenotype published by others. We asked if our KOs of DAG lipase α or β (Dagla or Daglb), which catalyze biosynthesis of the endocannabinoid (EC) 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), or Napepld, which catalyzes biosynthesis of the EC anandamide, shared the lean phenotype of Cnr1 KO mice. We found that Dagla KO mice, but not Daglb or Napepld KO mice, were among the leanest of 3651 chow-fed KO lines screened. In confirmatory studies, chow- or high fat diet-fed Dagla and Cnr1 KO mice were leaner than wild-type (WT) littermates; when data from multiple cohorts of adult mice were combined, body fat was 47 and 45% lower in Dagla and Cnr1 KO mice, respectively, relative to WT values. By contrast, neither Daglb nor Napepld KO mice were lean. Weanling Dagla KO mice ate less than WT mice and had body weight (BW) similar to pair-fed WT mice, and adult Dagla KO mice had normal activity and VO2 levels, similar to Cnr1 KO mice. Our Dagla and Cnr1 KO mice also had low fasting insulin, triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels, and after glucose challenge had normal glucose but very low insulin levels. Dagla and Cnr1 KO mice also showed similar responses to a battery of behavioral tests. These data suggest: (1) the lean phenotype of young Dagla and Cnr1 KO mice is mainly due to hypophagia; (2) in pathways where ECs signal through Cnr1 to regulate food intake and other metabolic and behavioral phenotypes observed in Cnr1 KO mice, Dagla alone provides the 2-AG that serves as the EC signal; and (3) small molecule Dagla inhibitors with a pharmacokinetic profile similar to that of Cnr1 inverse agonists are likely to mirror the ability of these Cnr1 inverse agonists to lower BW and improve glycemic control in obese patients with type 2 diabetes, but may also induce undesirable neuropsychiatric side

  6. Hair-Cell Mechanotransduction Persists in TRP Channel Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Niksch, Paul D.; Webber, Roxanna M.; Garcia-Gonzalez, Miguel; Watnick, Terry; Zhou, Jing; Vollrath, Melissa A.; Corey, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Members of the TRP superfamily of ion channels mediate mechanosensation in some organisms, and have been suggested as candidates for the mechanotransduction channel in vertebrate hair cells. Some TRP channels can be ruled out based on lack of an inner ear phenotype in knockout animals or pore properties not similar to the hair-cell channel. Such studies have excluded Trpv4, Trpa1, Trpml3, Trpm1, Trpm3, Trpc1, Trpc3, Trpc5, and Trpc6. However, others remain reasonable candidates. We used data from an RNA-seq analysis of gene expression in hair cells as well as data on TRP channel conductance to narrow the candidate group. We then characterized mice lacking functional Trpm2, Pkd2, Pkd2l1, Pkd2l2 and Pkd1l3, using scanning electron microscopy, auditory brainstem response, permeant dye accumulation, and single-cell electrophysiology. In all of these TRP-deficient mice, and in double and triple knockouts, mechanotransduction persisted. Together with published studies, these results argue against the participation of any of the 33 mouse TRP channels in hair cell transduction. PMID:27196058

  7. Behavioural characterization of vitamin D receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Burne, Thomas H J; McGrath, John J; Eyles, Darryl W; Mackay-Sim, Alan

    2005-02-28

    Vitamin D (calcitriol) is a nuclear transcription regulator acting via a nuclear hormone receptor (VDR). In addition to its role in the regulation of calcium and phosphate homeostasis and in bone formation, Vitamin D is also thought to be involved in brain function. The aim of this study was to behaviourally phenotype VDR knockout mice. We characterized the behaviour of VDR null mutant mice and wildtype littermate controls by subjecting them to a range of tests including a primary behavioural screen (using the SHIRPA protocol), rotarod, gait analysis, Y-maze, marble burying test, bedding test, holeboard test, elevated plus maze, open field test and prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response. There were no effects of genotype on most of the scores from the SHIRPA protocol except that VDR -/- mice had alopecia, were shorter and weighed less than VDR +/+ mice. VDR -/- mice had a shorter gait as well as impairments on the rotarod, in the bedding test and impaired habituation in both the open field and on the acoustic startle response. The VDR -/- mice had normal acoustic startle responses but had impaired PPI at long (256 ms) but not short (64 ms) prepulse to pulse intervals. The VDR -/- mice were less active in the open field and buried fewer marbles in the marble burying test. However, there were no differences in the time spent on the open arms of the elevated plus maze or in working memory as assessed by repeat arm entries on the Y-maze. Therefore, it appears that VDR -/- mice have muscular and motor impairments that significantly affects locomotor behaviour but seemingly no impairments in cognition as indicated by exploration, working memory or anxiety.

  8. Increased anxiety-related behaviour in Hint1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Varadarajulu, Jeeva; Lebar, Maria; Krishnamoorthy, Gurumoorthy; Habelt, Sonja; Lu, Jia; Bernard Weinstein, I; Li, Haiyang; Holsboer, Florian; Turck, Christoph W; Touma, Chadi

    2011-07-07

    Several reports have implicated a role for the histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein-1 (Hint1) in psychiatric disorders. We have studied the emotional behaviour of male Hint1 knockout (Hint1 KO) mice in a battery of tests and performed biochemical analyses on brain tissue. The behavioural analysis revealed that Hint1 KO mice exhibit an increased emotionality phenotype compared to wildtype (WT) mice, while no significant differences in locomotion or general exploratory activity were noted. In the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test, the Hint1 KO animals entered the open arms of the apparatus less often than WT littermates. Similarly, in the dark-light box test, Hint1 KO mice spent less time in the lit compartment and the number of entries were reduced, which further confirmed an increased anxiety-related behaviour. Moreover, the Hint1 KO animals showed significantly more struggling and less floating behaviour in the forced swim test (FST), indicating an increased emotional arousal in aversive situations. Hint1 is known as a protein kinase C (PKC) interacting protein. Western blot analysis showed that PKCγ expression was elevated in Hint1 KO compared to WT mice. Interestingly, PKCγ mRNA levels of the two groups did not show a significant difference, implying a post-transcriptional PKCγ regulation. In addition, PKC enzymatic activity was increased in Hint1 KO compared to WT mice. In summary, our results indicate a role for Hint1 and PKCγ in modulating anxiety-related and stress-coping behaviour in mice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Autism-related behavioral abnormalities in synapsin knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Greco, Barbara; Managò, Francesca; Tucci, Valter; Kao, Hung-Teh; Valtorta, Flavia; Benfenati, Fabio

    2013-08-15

    Several synaptic genes predisposing to autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) have been identified. Nonsense and missense mutations in the SYN1 gene encoding for Synapsin I have been identified in families segregating for idiopathic epilepsy and ASD and genetic mapping analyses have identified variations in the SYN2 gene as significantly contributing to epilepsy predisposition. Synapsins (Syn I/II/III) are a multigene family of synaptic vesicle-associated phosphoproteins playing multiple roles in synaptic development, transmission and plasticity. Lack of SynI and/or SynII triggers a strong epileptic phenotype in mice associated with mild cognitive impairments that are also present in the non-epileptic SynIII(-/-) mice. SynII(-/-) and SynIII(-/-) mice also display schizophrenia-like traits, suggesting that Syns could be involved in the regulation of social behavior. Here, we studied social interaction and novelty, social recognition and social dominance, social transmission of food preference and social memory in groups of male SynI(-/-), SynII(-/-) and SynIII(-/-) mice before and after the appearance of the epileptic phenotype and compared their performances with control mice. We found that deletion of Syn isoforms widely impairs social behaviors and repetitive behaviors, resulting in ASD-related phenotypes. SynI or SynIII deletion altered social behavior, whereas SynII deletion extensively impaired various aspects of social behavior and memory, altered exploration of a novel environment and increased self-grooming. Social impairments of SynI(-/-) and SynII(-/-) mice were evident also before the onset of seizures. The results demonstrate an involvement of Syns in generation of the behavioral traits of ASD and identify Syn knockout mice as a useful experimental model of ASD and epilepsy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Biochemistry and physiology of hexose-6-phosphate knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Zielinska, Agnieszka E; Walker, Elizabeth A; Stewart, Paul M; Lavery, Gareth G

    2011-04-10

    Hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) has emerged as an important factor in setting the redox status of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen. An important role of H6PDH is to generate a high NADPH/NADP(+) ratio which permits 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) to act as an oxo-reductase, catalyzing the activation of glucocorticoids (GCs). In H6PDH knockout mice 11β-HSD1 assumes dehydrogenase activity and inactivates GCs, rendering the target cell relatively GC insensitive. Consequently, H6PDHKO mice have a phenotype consistent with defects in the permissive and adaptive actions of GCs upon physiology. H6PDHKO mice have also offered an insight into muscle physiology as they also present with a severe vacuolating myopathy, abnormalities of glucose homeostasis and activation of the unfolded protein response due to ER stress, and a number of mechanisms driving this phenotype are thought to be involved. This article will review what we understand of the redox control of GC hormone metabolism regulated by H6PDH, and how H6PDHKO mice have allowed an in-depth understanding of its potentially novel, GC-independent roles in muscle physiology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Abnormal sleep/wake dynamics in orexin knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Diniz Behn, Cecilia G; Klerman, Elizabeth B; Mochizuki, Takatoshi; Lin, Shih-Chieh; Scammell, Thomas E

    2010-03-01

    Narcolepsy with cataplexy is caused by a loss of orexin (hypocretin) signaling, but the physiologic mechanisms that result in poor maintenance of wakefulness and fragmented sleep remain unknown. Conventional scoring of sleep cannot reveal much about the process of transitioning between states or the variations within states. We developed an EEG spectral analysis technique to determine whether the state instability in a mouse model of narcolepsy reflects abnormal sleep or wake states, faster movements between states, or abnormal transitions between states. We analyzed sleep recordings in orexin knockout (OXKO) mice and wild type (WT) littermates using a state space analysis technique. This non-categorical approach allows quantitative and unbiased examination of sleep/wake states and state transitions. OXKO mice spent less time in deep, delta-rich NREM sleep and in active, theta-rich wake and instead spent more time near the transition zones between states. In addition, while in the midst of what should be stable wake, OXKO mice initiated rapid changes into NREM sleep with high velocities normally seen only in transition regions. Consequently, state transitions were much more frequent and rapid even though the EEG progressions during state transitions were normal. State space analysis enables visualization of the boundaries between sleep and wake and shows that narcoleptic mice have less distinct and more labile states of sleep and wakefulness. These observations provide new perspectives on the abnormal state dynamics resulting from disrupted orexin signaling and highlight the usefulness of state space analysis in understanding narcolepsy and other sleep disorders.

  12. Sensorimotor development in neonatal progesterone receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Willing, Jari; Wagner, Christine K

    2014-01-01

    Early exposure to steroid hormones can permanently and dramatically alter neural development. This is best understood in the organizational effects of hormones during development of brain regions involved in reproductive behaviors or neuroendocrine function. However, recent evidence strongly suggests that steroid hormones play a vital role in shaping brain regions involved in cognitive behavior such as the cerebral cortex. The most abundantly expressed steroid hormone receptor in the developing rodent cortex is the progesterone receptor (PR). In the rat, PR is initially expressed in the developmentally-critical subplate at E18, and subsequently in laminas V and II/III through the first three postnatal weeks (Quadros et al. [2007] J Comp Neurol 504:42-56; Lopez & Wagner [2009]: J Comp Neurol 512:124-139), coinciding with significant periods of dendritic maturation, the arrival of afferents and synaptogenesis. In the present study, we investigated PR expression in the neonatal mouse somatosensory cortex. Additionally, to investigate the potential role of PR in developing cortex, we examined sensorimotor function in the first two postnatal weeks in PR knockout mice and their wildtype (WT) and heterozygous (HZ) counterparts. While the three genotypes were similar in most regards, PRKO and HZ mice lost the rooting reflex 2-3 days earlier than WT mice. These studies represent the first developmental behavioral assessment of PRKO mice and suggest PR expression may play an important role in the maturation of cortical connectivity and sensorimotor integration. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Relative axial myopia in Egr-1 (ZENK) knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Schippert, Ruth; Burkhardt, Eva; Feldkaemper, Marita; Schaeffel, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Experiments in chickens have implicated the transcription factor ZENK (also known as Egr-1, NGFI-A, zif268, tis8, cef5, and Krox24) in the feedback mechanisms for visual control of axial eye growth and myopia development. ZENK is upregulated in retinal glucagon amacrine cells when axial eye growth is inhibited by positive spectacle lens wear and is downregulated when it is enhanced by negative spectacle lens wear, suggesting that ZENK may be linked to an inhibitory signal for axial eye growth. This study was undertaken to determine whether a Egr-1(-/-) knockout mouse mutant, lacking ZENK completely, has longer eyes and more myopic refraction, than do Egr-1(+/)(-) heterozygous and Egr-1(+/+) wild-type mice with near-identical genetic backgrounds. Eye growth and refractive development were tracked from day P28 to P98. Corneal radius of curvature was measured with infrared photokeratometry, refractive state with infrared photoretinoscopy, and ocular dimensions with low-coherence interferometry. As a functional vision test, grating acuity was determined in an automated optomotor task. The abundance of ZENK protein in the retina was quantified by immunohistochemistry. Egr-1 knockout mice had longer eyes and a relative myopic shift in refraction, with additional minor effects on anterior chamber depth and corneal radius of curvature. Paraxial schematic eye modeling suggested changes in the optics of the crystalline lens as well. With increasing age, the differences between mutant and wild-type mice declined, although the differences in refraction persisted over the observation period. Grating acuity was not affected by the lack of the Egr-1 protein during development. Although it has been shown that different mouse strains may have differently large eyes, the present study shows that a specific gene knockout can produce relative myopia, compared with the wild-type with near-identical genetic background. Further experiments are needed to determine whether the observed

  14. Behavioral and Electrophysiological Characterization of Dyt1 Heterozygous Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yokoi, Fumiaki; Chen, Huan-Xin; Dang, Mai Tu; Cheetham, Chad C.; Campbell, Susan L.; Roper, Steven N.; Sweatt, J. David; Li, Yuqing

    2015-01-01

    DYT1 dystonia is an inherited movement disorder caused by mutations in DYT1 (TOR1A), which codes for torsinA. Most of the patients have a trinucleotide deletion (ΔGAG) corresponding to a glutamic acid in the C-terminal region (torsinAΔE). Dyt1 ΔGAG heterozygous knock-in (KI) mice, which mimic ΔGAG mutation in the endogenous gene, exhibit motor deficits and deceased frequency of spontaneous excitatory post-synaptic currents (sEPSCs) and normal theta-burst-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampal CA1 region. Although Dyt1 KI mice show decreased hippocampal torsinA levels, it is not clear whether the decreased torsinA level itself affects the synaptic plasticity or torsinAΔE does it. To analyze the effect of partial torsinA loss on motor behaviors and synaptic transmission, Dyt1 heterozygous knock-out (KO) mice were examined as a model of a frame-shift DYT1 mutation in patients. Consistent with Dyt1 KI mice, Dyt1 heterozygous KO mice showed motor deficits in the beam-walking test. Dyt1 heterozygous KO mice showed decreased hippocampal torsinA levels lower than those in Dyt1 KI mice. Reduced sEPSCs and normal miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents (mEPSCs) were also observed in the acute hippocampal brain slices from Dyt1 heterozygous KO mice, suggesting that the partial loss of torsinA function in Dyt1 KI mice causes action potential-dependent neurotransmitter release deficits. On the other hand, Dyt1 heterozygous KO mice showed enhanced hippocampal LTP, normal input-output relations and paired pulse ratios in the extracellular field recordings. The results suggest that maintaining an appropriate torsinA level is important to sustain normal motor performance, synaptic transmission and plasticity. Developing therapeutics to restore a normal torsinA level may help to prevent and treat the symptoms in DYT1 dystonia. PMID:25799505

  15. Behavioral and electrophysiological characterization of Dyt1 heterozygous knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Fumiaki; Chen, Huan-Xin; Dang, Mai Tu; Cheetham, Chad C; Campbell, Susan L; Roper, Steven N; Sweatt, J David; Li, Yuqing

    2015-01-01

    DYT1 dystonia is an inherited movement disorder caused by mutations in DYT1 (TOR1A), which codes for torsinA. Most of the patients have a trinucleotide deletion (ΔGAG) corresponding to a glutamic acid in the C-terminal region (torsinA(ΔE)). Dyt1 ΔGAG heterozygous knock-in (KI) mice, which mimic ΔGAG mutation in the endogenous gene, exhibit motor deficits and deceased frequency of spontaneous excitatory post-synaptic currents (sEPSCs) and normal theta-burst-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampal CA1 region. Although Dyt1 KI mice show decreased hippocampal torsinA levels, it is not clear whether the decreased torsinA level itself affects the synaptic plasticity or torsinA(ΔE) does it. To analyze the effect of partial torsinA loss on motor behaviors and synaptic transmission, Dyt1 heterozygous knock-out (KO) mice were examined as a model of a frame-shift DYT1 mutation in patients. Consistent with Dyt1 KI mice, Dyt1 heterozygous KO mice showed motor deficits in the beam-walking test. Dyt1 heterozygous KO mice showed decreased hippocampal torsinA levels lower than those in Dyt1 KI mice. Reduced sEPSCs and normal miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents (mEPSCs) were also observed in the acute hippocampal brain slices from Dyt1 heterozygous KO mice, suggesting that the partial loss of torsinA function in Dyt1 KI mice causes action potential-dependent neurotransmitter release deficits. On the other hand, Dyt1 heterozygous KO mice showed enhanced hippocampal LTP, normal input-output relations and paired pulse ratios in the extracellular field recordings. The results suggest that maintaining an appropriate torsinA level is important to sustain normal motor performance, synaptic transmission and plasticity. Developing therapeutics to restore a normal torsinA level may help to prevent and treat the symptoms in DYT1 dystonia.

  16. Reduced Extinction of Hippocampal-Dependent Memories in CPEB Knockout Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zearfoss, N. Ruth; Richter, Joel D.; Berger-Sweeney, Joanne

    2006-01-01

    CPEB is a sequence-specific RNA binding protein that regulates translation at synapses. In neurons of CPEB knockout mice, synaptic efficacy is reduced. Here, we have performed a battery of behavioral tests and find that relative to wild-type animals, CPEB knockout mice, although similar on many baseline behaviors, have reduced extinction of…

  17. Normal Taste Acceptance and Preference of PANX1 Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Tordoff, Michael G; Aleman, Tiffany R; Ellis, Hillary T; Ohmoto, Makoto; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Shestopalov, Val I; Mitchell, Claire H; Foskett, J Kevin; Poole, Rachel L

    2015-09-01

    Taste compounds detected by G protein-coupled receptors on the apical surface of Type 2 taste cells initiate an intracellular molecular cascade culminating in the release of ATP. It has been suggested that this ATP release is accomplished by pannexin 1 (PANX1). However, we report here that PANX1 knockout mice do not differ from wild-type controls in response to representative taste solutions, measured using 5-s brief-access tests or 48-h two-bottle choice tests. This implies that PANX1 is unnecessary for taste detection and consequently that ATP release from Type 2 taste cells does not require PANX1. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Female preproenkephalin-knockout mice display altered emotional responses

    PubMed Central

    Ragnauth, A.; Schuller, A.; Morgan, M.; Chan, J.; Ogawa, S.; Pintar, J.; Bodnar, R. J.; Pfaff, D. W.

    2001-01-01

    The endogenous opioid system has been implicated in sexual behavior, palatable intake, fear, and anxiety. The present study examined whether ovariectomized female transgenic preproenkephalin-knockout (PPEKO) mice and their wild-type and heterozygous controls displayed alterations in fear and anxiety paradigms, sucrose intake, and lordotic behavior. To examine stability of responding, three squads of the genotypes were tested across seasons over a 20-month period. In a fear-conditioning paradigm, PPEKO mice significantly increased freezing to both fear and fear + shock stimuli relative to controls. In the open field, PPEKO mice spent significantly less time and traversed significantly less distance in the center of an open field than wild-type controls. Further, PPEKO mice spent significantly less time and tended to be less active on the light side of a dark–light chamber than controls, indicating that deletion of the enkephalin gene resulted in exaggerated responses to fear or anxiety-provoking environments. These selective deficits were observed consistently across testing squads spanning 20 months and different seasons. In contrast, PPEKO mice failed to differ from corresponding controls in sucrose, chow, or water intake across a range (0.0001–20%) of sucrose concentrations and failed to differ in either lordotic or female approach to male behaviors when primed with estradiol and progesterone, thereby arguing strongly for the selectivity of a fear and anxiety deficit which was not caused by generalized and nonspecific debilitation. These transgenic data strongly suggest that opioids, and particularly enkephalin gene products, are acting naturally to inhibit fear and anxiety. PMID:11172058

  19. Altered Sleep Homeostasis in Rev-erbα Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mang, Géraldine M.; La Spada, Francesco; Emmenegger, Yann; Chappuis, Sylvie; Ripperger, Jürgen A.; Albrecht, Urs; Franken, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: The nuclear receptor REV-ERBα is a potent, constitutive transcriptional repressor critical for the regulation of key circadian and metabolic genes. Recently, REV-ERBα's involvement in learning, neurogenesis, mood, and dopamine turnover was demonstrated suggesting a specific role in central nervous system functioning. We have previously shown that the brain expression of several core clock genes, including Rev-erbα, is modulated by sleep loss. We here test the consequences of a loss of REV-ERBα on the homeostatic regulation of sleep. Methods: EEG/EMG signals were recorded in Rev-erbα knockout (KO) mice and their wild type (WT) littermates during baseline, sleep deprivation, and recovery. Cortical gene expression measurements after sleep deprivation were contrasted to baseline. Results: Although baseline sleep/wake duration was remarkably similar, KO mice showed an advance of the sleep/wake distribution relative to the light-dark cycle. After sleep onset in baseline and after sleep deprivation, both EEG delta power (1–4 Hz) and sleep consolidation were reduced in KO mice indicating a slower increase of homeostatic sleep need during wakefulness. This slower increase might relate to the smaller increase in theta and gamma power observed in the waking EEG prior to sleep onset under both conditions. Indeed, the increased theta activity during wakefulness predicted delta power in subsequent NREM sleep. Lack of Rev-erbα increased Bmal1, Npas2, Clock, and Fabp7 expression, confirming the direct regulation of these genes by REV-ERBα also in the brain. Conclusions: Our results add further proof to the notion that clock genes are involved in sleep homeostasis. Because accumulating evidence directly links REV-ERBα to dopamine signaling the altered homeostatic regulation of sleep reported here are discussed in that context. Citation: Mang GM, La Spada F, Emmenegger Y, Chappuis S, Ripperger JA, Albrecht U, Franken P. Altered sleep homeostasis in Rev

  20. Amygdala lesions reduce cataplexy in orexin knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Christian R; Oishi, Yo; Mochizuki, Takatoshi; Peever, John H; Scammell, Thomas E

    2013-06-05

    Narcolepsy is characterized by excessive sleepiness and cataplexy, sudden episodes of muscle weakness during waking that are thought to be an intrusion of rapid eye movement sleep muscle atonia into wakefulness. One of the most striking aspects of cataplexy is that it is often triggered by strong, generally positive emotions, but little is known about the neural pathways through which positive emotions trigger muscle atonia. We hypothesized that the amygdala is functionally important for cataplexy because the amygdala has a role in processing emotional stimuli and it contains neurons that are active during cataplexy. Using anterograde and retrograde tracing in mice, we found that GABAergic neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala heavily innervate neurons that maintain waking muscle tone such as those in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, lateral pontine tegmentum, locus ceruleus, and dorsal raphe. We then found that bilateral, excitotoxic lesions of the amygdala markedly reduced cataplexy in orexin knock-out mice, a model of narcolepsy. These lesions did not alter basic sleep-wake behavior but substantially reduced the triggering of cataplexy. Lesions also reduced the cataplexy events triggered by conditions associated with high arousal and positive emotions (i.e., wheel running and chocolate). These observations demonstrate that the amygdala is a functionally important part of the circuitry underlying cataplexy and suggest that increased amygdala activity in response to emotional stimuli could directly trigger cataplexy by inhibiting brainstem regions that suppress muscle atonia.

  1. Altered Sleep Homeostasis in Rev-erbα Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Mang, Géraldine M; La Spada, Francesco; Emmenegger, Yann; Chappuis, Sylvie; Ripperger, Jürgen A; Albrecht, Urs; Franken, Paul

    2016-03-01

    The nuclear receptor REV-ERBα is a potent, constitutive transcriptional repressor critical for the regulation of key circadian and metabolic genes. Recently, REV-ERBα's involvement in learning, neurogenesis, mood, and dopamine turnover was demonstrated suggesting a specific role in central nervous system functioning. We have previously shown that the brain expression of several core clock genes, including Rev-erbα, is modulated by sleep loss. We here test the consequences of a loss of REV-ERBα on the homeostatic regulation of sleep. EEG/EMG signals were recorded in Rev-erbα knockout (KO) mice and their wild type (WT) littermates during baseline, sleep deprivation, and recovery. Cortical gene expression measurements after sleep deprivation were contrasted to baseline. Although baseline sleep/wake duration was remarkably similar, KO mice showed an advance of the sleep/wake distribution relative to the light-dark cycle. After sleep onset in baseline and after sleep deprivation, both EEG delta power (1-4 Hz) and sleep consolidation were reduced in KO mice indicating a slower increase of homeostatic sleep need during wakefulness. This slower increase might relate to the smaller increase in theta and gamma power observed in the waking EEG prior to sleep onset under both conditions. Indeed, the increased theta activity during wakefulness predicted delta power in subsequent NREM sleep. Lack of Rev-erbα increased Bmal1, Npas2, Clock, and Fabp7 expression, confirming the direct regulation of these genes by REV-ERBα also in the brain. Our results add further proof to the notion that clock genes are involved in sleep homeostasis. Because accumulating evidence directly links REV-ERBα to dopamine signaling the altered homeostatic regulation of sleep reported here are discussed in that context. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  2. Behavioral and neuroanatomical abnormalities in pleiotrophin knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Krellman, Jason W; Ruiz, Henry H; Marciano, Veronica A; Mondrow, Bracha; Croll, Susan D

    2014-01-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is an extracellular matrix-associated protein with neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects that is involved in a variety of neurodevelopmental processes. Data regarding the cognitive-behavioral and neuroanatomical phenotype of pleiotrophin knockout (KO) mice is limited. The purpose of this study was to more fully characterize this phenotype, with emphasis on the domains of learning and memory, cognitive-behavioral flexibility, exploratory behavior and anxiety, social behavior, and the neuronal and vascular microstructure of the lateral entorhinal cortex (EC). PTN KOs exhibited cognitive rigidity, heightened anxiety, behavioral reticence in novel contexts and novel social interactions suggestive of neophobia, and lamina-specific decreases in neuronal area and increases in neuronal density in the lateral EC. Initial learning of spatial and other associative tasks, as well as vascular density in the lateral EC, was normal in the KOs. These data suggest that the absence of PTN in vivo is associated with disruption of specific cognitive and affective processes, raising the possibility that further study of PTN KOs might have implications for the study of human disorders with similar features.

  3. Dcdc2 knockout mice display exacerbated developmental disruptions following knockdown of Dcx

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Yin, Xiuyin; Rosen, Glenn; Gabel, Lisa; Guadiana, Sarah M.; Sarkisian, Matthew R; Galaburda, Albert M.; LoTurco, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    The dyslexia-associated gene DCDC2 is a member of the DCX family of genes known to play roles in neurogenesis, neuronal migration and differentiation. Here we report the first phenotypic analysis of a Dcdc2 knockout mouse. Comparisons between Dcdc2 knockout mice and wild type littermates revealed no significant differences in neuronal migration, neocortical lamination, neuronal cilliogenesis or dendritic differentiation. Considering previous studies showing genetic interactions and potential functional redundancy among members of the DCX family, we tested whether decreasing Dcx expression by RNAi would differentially impair neurodevelopment in Dcdc2 knockouts and wild type mice. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that deficits in neuronal migration, and dendritic growth caused by RNAi of Dcx were more severe in Dcdc2 knockouts than in wild type mice with the same transfection. These results indicate that Dcdc2 is not required for neurogenesis, neuronal migration or differentiation in mice, but may have partial functional redundancy with Dcx. PMID:21689730

  4. Reduced extinction of hippocampal-dependent memories in CPEB knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Berger-Sweeney, Joanne; Zearfoss, N Ruth; Richter, Joel D

    2006-01-01

    CPEB is a sequence-specific RNA binding protein that regulates translation at synapses. In neurons of CPEB knockout mice, synaptic efficacy is reduced. Here, we have performed a battery of behavioral tests and find that relative to wild-type animals, CPEB knockout mice, although similar on many baseline behaviors, have reduced extinction of memories on two hippocampal-dependent tasks. A corresponding microarray analysis reveals that about 0.14% of hippocampal genes have an altered expression in the CPEB knockout mouse. These data suggest that CPEB-dependent local protein synthesis may be an important cellular mechanism underlying extinction of hippocampal-dependent memories.

  5. Differential cytokine expression in skin graft healing in inducible nitric oxide synthase knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Most, D; Efron, D T; Shi, H P; Tantry, U S; Barbul, A

    2001-10-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and its product, nitric oxide, have been shown to play important roles in wound biology. The present study was performed to investigate the role of iNOS in modulating the cytokine cascade during the complex process of skin graft wound healing.Fifteen iNOS-knockout mice and 15 wild-type C57BL/6J mice were subjected to autogenous 1-cm2 intrascapular full-thickness skin grafts. Three animals in each group were killed on postoperative days 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14. Specimens were then analyzed using nonisotopic in situ hybridization versus mRNA of tumor growth factor-beta1, vascular endothelial growth factor, iNOS, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and basic fibroblast growth factor, as well as positive and negative control probes. Positive cells in both grafts and wound beds were counted using a Leica microgrid. Scar thickness was measured with a Leica micrometer. Data were analyzed using the unpaired Student's t test. Expression of iNOS was 2- to 4-fold higher in knockout mice than in wild-type mice on postoperative days 5, 7, and 14. Expression of eNOS was 2- to 2.5-fold higher in knockout mice than in wild-type mice on postoperative days 5 and 7. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression was 2- to 7-fold higher in knockout mice than in wild-type mice on all postoperative days. In contrast, expression levels of angiogenic/fibrogenic cytokines (vascular endothelial growth factor, basis fibroblast growth factor, and tumor growth factor-beta1) were 2.5- to 4-fold higher in wild-type mice than in knockout mice. Scars were 1.5- to 2.5-fold thicker in knockout mice than in wild-type mice at all time points. All of the above results represent statistically significant differences (p < 0.05). Significantly different patterns of cytokine expression were seen in knockout and wild-type mice. Although the scar layer was thicker in knockout mice, it showed much greater infiltration with inflammatory cells. These

  6. Effects of blueberries in prevention of atherosclerosis in apoe knockout mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ApoE knockout (ApoE-/-) mice were fed AIN-93G diet (CD) or CD formulated to contain 1% freeze-dried whole wild blueberries (CD1% BB). Mice were sacrificed after 20 weeks on the specified diet. Atherosclerotic lesions in aortic sinus were determined by staining cryosections (10 µm) with Oil Red O. Th...

  7. Phenotypic assessment of THC discriminative stimulus properties in fatty acid amide hydrolase knockout and wildtype mice.

    PubMed

    Walentiny, D Matthew; Vann, Robert E; Wiley, Jenny L

    2015-06-01

    A number of studies have examined the ability of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide to elicit Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-like subjective effects, as modeled through the THC discrimination paradigm. In the present study, we compared transgenic mice lacking fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme primarily responsible for anandamide catabolism, to wildtype counterparts in a THC discrimination procedure. THC (5.6 mg/kg) served as a discriminative stimulus in both genotypes, with similar THC dose-response curves between groups. Anandamide fully substituted for THC in FAAH knockout, but not wildtype, mice. Conversely, the metabolically stable anandamide analog O-1812 fully substituted in both groups, but was more potent in knockouts. The CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant dose-dependently attenuated THC generalization in both groups and anandamide substitution in FAAH knockouts. Pharmacological inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the primary catabolic enzyme for the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), with JZL184 resulted in full substitution for THC in FAAH knockout mice and nearly full substitution in wildtypes. Quantification of brain endocannabinoid levels revealed expected elevations in anandamide in FAAH knockout mice compared to wildtypes and equipotent dose-dependent elevations in 2-AG following JZL184 administration. Dual inhibition of FAAH and MAGL with JZL195 resulted in roughly equipotent increases in THC-appropriate responding in both groups. While the notable similarity in THC's discriminative stimulus effects across genotype suggests that the increased baseline brain anandamide levels (as seen in FAAH knockout mice) do not alter THC's subjective effects, FAAH knockout mice are more sensitive to the THC-like effects of pharmacologically induced increases in anandamide and MAGL inhibition (e.g., JZL184). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase A Knockout Mice Show Progressive Hearing Loss and Sensitivity to Acoustic Trauma.

    PubMed

    Alqudah, Safa; Chertoff, Mark; Durham, Dianne; Moskovitz, Jackob; Staecker, Hinrich; Peppi, Marcello

    2018-06-21

    Methionine sulfoxide reductases (MsrA and MsrB) protect the biological activity of proteins from oxidative modifications to methionine residues and are important for protecting against the pathological effects of neurodegenerative diseases. In the current study, we characterized the auditory phenotype of the MsrA knockout mouse. Young MsrA knockout mice showed small high-frequency threshold elevations for auditory brainstem response and distortion product otoacoustic emission compared to those of wild-type mice, which progressively worsened in older MsrA knockout mice. MsrA knockout mice showed an increased sensitivity to noise at young and older ages, suggesting that MsrA is part of a mechanism that protects the cochlea from acoustic damage. MsrA mRNA in the cochlea was increased following acoustic stimulation. Finally, expression of mRNA MsrB1 was compromised at 6 months old, but not in younger MsrA knockout mice (compared to controls). The identification of MsrA in the cochlea as a protective mediator from both early onset hearing loss and acoustic trauma expands our understanding of the pathways that may induce protection from acoustic trauma and foster further studies on how to prevent the damaging effect of noise exposure through Msr-based therapy. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Enhanced serotonin response in the hippocampus of Galphaz protein knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Oleskevich, Sharon; Leck, Kwong-Joo; Matthaei, Klaus; Hendry, Ian A

    2005-06-21

    The serotonin-1A [5-hydroxytryptamine 1A (5HT1A)] receptor is important for emotional and homeostatic processes in the central nervous system. In the hippocampus, the 5HT1A receptor couples to inhibitory Gi/o proteins to decrease pyramidal cell excitability. Here we investigate the 5HT1A receptor in a mouse deficient in the alpha-subunit of Gz protein (Galphaz knock-out). Behavioural tests showed heightened anxiety and depression-like behaviour in the Galphaz knock-out mice. Whole-cell recording in CA1 pyramidal neurons showed a significantly greater 5HT1A receptor-mediated potassium current in Galphaz knock-out mice. The effect was independent of 5HT4 receptors as the slow after-hyperpolarization was unaffected and a slow depolarization was absent in the Galphaz knock-out mice. Other receptors linked to Gi/o proteins [gamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor (GABAB), adenosine A1 and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors] were not affected in Galphaz knock-out mice. These results suggest that the 5HT1A receptor may be linked to Galphaz protein, as reported previously in cell culture but shown here in an intact neural network.

  10. Exacerbated febrile responses to LPS, but not turpentine, in TNF double receptor-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Leon, L R; Kozak, W; Peschon, J; Kluger, M J

    1997-02-01

    We examined the effects of injections of systemic [lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 2.5 mg/kg or 50 pg/kg ip] or local (turpentine, 100 microl sc) inflammatory stimuli on fever, motor activity, body weight, and food intake in tumor necrosis factor (TNF) double receptor (TNFR)-knockout mice. A high dose of LPS resulted in exacerbated fevers in TNFR-knockout mice compared with wild-type mice for the early phase of fever (3-15 h); the late phase of fever (16-24 h) and fevers to a low dose of LPS were similar in both groups. Motor activity, body weight, and food intake were similarly reduced in both groups of mice after LPS administration. In response to turpentine, TNFR-knockout and wild-type mice developed virtually identical responses to all variables monitored. These results suggest that 1) TNF modulates fevers to LPS dose dependently, 2) TNF does not modulate fevers to a subcutaneous injection of turpentine, and 3) knockout mice may develop cytokine redundancy in the regulation of the acute phase response to intraperitoneally injected LPS or subcutaneously injected turpentine.

  11. Olivocochlear neuron central anatomy is normal in alpha 9 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Brown, M Christian; Vetter, Douglas E

    2009-03-01

    Olivocochlear (OC) neurons were studied in a transgenic mouse with deletion of the alpha 9 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit. In this alpha 9 knockout mouse, the peripheral effects of OC stimulation are lacking and the peripheral terminals of OC neurons under outer hair cells have abnormal morphology. To account for this mouse's apparently normal hearing, it has been proposed to have central compensation via collateral branches to the cochlear nucleus. We tested this idea by staining OC neurons for acetylcholinesterase and examining their morphology in knockout mice, wild-type mice of the same background strain, and CBA/CaJ mice. Knockout mice had normal OC systems in terms of numbers of OC neurons, dendritic patterns, and numbers of branches to the cochlear nucleus. The branch terminations were mainly to edge regions and to a lesser extent the core of the cochlear nucleus, and were similar among the strains in terms of the distribution and staining density. These data demonstrate that there are no obvious changes in the central morphology of the OC neurons in alpha 9 knockout mice and make less attractive the idea that there is central compensation for deletion of the peripheral receptor in these mice.

  12. The Role of Adenosine A2BR in Metastatic Melanoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-07-01

    100% complete. ACURO approval to perform animal studies was obtained July 2016. Specific Aim 1, Subtask 2: 100% complete. Use CRISPR /Cas9 technology...immune cell interactions, the first objective was to use the CRISPR Cas9 system to knock out A2BR expression in melanoma cell lines. Melanoma cell lines...and sgRNA3 to work but sgRNA2 would not be as efficient. We considered commercially available constructs to potentially improve the CRISPR knock

  13. Glutaminyl Cyclase Knock-out Mice Exhibit Slight Hypothyroidism but No Hypogonadism

    PubMed Central

    Schilling, Stephan; Kohlmann, Stephanie; Bäuscher, Christoph; Sedlmeier, Reinhard; Koch, Birgit; Eichentopf, Rico; Becker, Andreas; Cynis, Holger; Hoffmann, Torsten; Berg, Sabine; Freyse, Ernst-Joachim; von Hörsten, Stephan; Rossner, Steffen; Graubner, Sigrid; Demuth, Hans-Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Glutaminyl cyclases (QCs) catalyze the formation of pyroglutamate (pGlu) residues at the N terminus of peptides and proteins. Hypothalamic pGlu hormones, such as thyrotropin-releasing hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone are essential for regulation of metabolism and fertility in the hypothalamic pituitary thyroid and gonadal axes, respectively. Here, we analyzed the consequences of constitutive genetic QC ablation on endocrine functions and on the behavior of adult mice. Adult homozygous QC knock-out mice are fertile and behave indistinguishably from wild type mice in tests of motor function, cognition, general activity, and ingestion behavior. The QC knock-out results in a dramatic drop of enzyme activity in the brain, especially in hypothalamus and in plasma. Other peripheral organs like liver and spleen still contain QC activity, which is most likely caused by its homolog isoQC. The serum gonadotropin-releasing hormone, TSH, and testosterone concentrations were not changed by QC depletion. The serum thyroxine was decreased by 24% in homozygous QC knock-out animals, suggesting a mild hypothyroidism. QC knock-out mice were indistinguishable from wild type with regard to blood glucose and glucose tolerance, thus differing from reports of thyrotropin-releasing hormone knock-out mice significantly. The results suggest a significant formation of the hypothalamic pGlu hormones by alternative mechanisms, like spontaneous cyclization or conversion by isoQC. The different effects of QC depletion on the hypothalamic pituitary thyroid and gonadal axes might indicate slightly different modes of substrate conversion of both enzymes. The absence of significant abnormalities in QC knock-out mice suggests the presence of a therapeutic window for suppression of QC activity in current drug development. PMID:21330373

  14. TRPV2 KNOCKOUT MICE ARE SUSCEPTIBLE TO PERINATAL LETHALITY BUT DISPLAY NORMAL THERMAL AND MECHANICAL NOCICEPTION

    PubMed Central

    Park, Una; Vastani, Nisha; Guan, Yun; Raja, Srinivasa N.; Koltzenburg, Martin; Caterina, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    TRPV2 is a nonselective cation channel expressed prominently in medium- to large-diameter sensory neurons that can be activated by extreme heat (>52°C). These features suggest that TRPV2 might be a transducer of noxious heat in vivo. TRPV2 can also be activated by hypoosmolarity or cell stretch, suggesting potential roles in mechanotransduction. To address the physiological functions of TRPV2 in somatosensation, we generated TRPV2 knockout mice and examined their behavioral and electrophysiological responses to heat and mechanical stimuli. TRPV2 knockout mice showed reduced embryonic weight and perinatal viability. As adults, surviving knockout mice also exhibited a slightly reduced body weight. TRPV2 knockout mice showed normal behavioral responses to noxious heat over a broad range of temperatures and normal responses to punctate mechanical stimuli, both in the basal state and under hyperalgesic conditions such as peripheral inflammation and L5 spinal nerve ligation. Moreover, behavioral assays of TRPV1/TRPV2 double knockout mice or of TRPV2 knockout mice treated with resiniferatoxin to desensitize TRPV1-expressing afferents revealed no thermosensory consequences of TRPV2 absence. In line with behavioral findings, electrophysiological recordings from skin afferents showed that C-fiber responses to heat and C- and Aδ-fiber responses to noxious mechanical stimuli were unimpaired in the absence of TRPV2. The prevalence of thermosensitive Aδ-fibers was too low to permit comparison between genotypes. Thus, TRPV2 is important for perinatal viability but is not essential for heat or mechanical nociception or hypersensitivity in the adult mouse. PMID:21832173

  15. Analysis of Kalirin-7 Knockout Mice Reveals Different Effects in Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mazzone, Christopher M.; Larese, Taylor P.; Kiraly, Drew D.; Eipper, Betty A.

    2012-01-01

    Estradiol treatment of ovariectomized rodents is known to affect the morphology of dendritic spines and produce behavioral and cognitive effects. Kalirin-7 (Kal7), a postsynaptic density (PSD)-localized Rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factor, is important for dendritic spine formation and stability. Male Kal7 knockout [Kal7(KO)] mice exhibit a number of abnormal behavioral and biochemical phenotypes. Given that chronic 17β-estradiol (E2) replacement of ovariectomized rats enhanced Kal7 expression in the hippocampus and primary hippocampal cultures, we assessed the behavioral and biochemical effects of chronic E2 treatment of ovariectomized female wild-type and Kal7(KO) mice. Both intact and ovariectomized Kal7(KO) female mice exhibited decreased anxiety-like behavior compared with the corresponding wild type in the elevated zero maze and were unaffected by E2 treatment. Chronic E2 decreased locomotor activity in the open field and enhanced performance in a passive-avoidance fear conditioning task, which were both unaffected by genotype. Kal7(KO) female mice engaged in significantly more object exploration, both familiar and novel, than did wild-type females. E2 enhanced the acute locomotor response to cocaine, with no significant effect of genotype. Similar to Kal7(KO) males, Kal7(KO) females had decreased levels of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor 2B in hippocampal PSD fractions with no effect of E2 treatment. The differing behavioral effects of Kal7 ablation in female and male mice may offer insight into the molecular underpinnings of these differences. PMID:22989522

  16. [Effects of aquaporin-4 gene knockout on behavior changes and cerebral morphology during aging in mice].

    PubMed

    Su, Shengan; Lu, Yunbi; Zhang, Weiping

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the effects of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) gene knockout on the behavior changes and cerebral morphology during aging in mice,and to compare that of young and aged mice between AQP4 knockout mice (AQP4(-/-)) and wild type mice (AQP4(+/+)). Fifty-eight CD-1 mice were divided into four groups: young (2-3 months old) AQP4(-/-), aged (17-19 months old) AQP4(-/-), young AQP4(+/+) and aged AQP4(+/+). The activity levels and exploring behavior of mice were tested in open field. The neurons were stained with toluidine blue and NeuN, the astrocytes and microglia were stained with GFAP and Iba-1, respectively. The morphological changes of neuron, astrocyte and microglia were then analyzed. Compared with young mice, the total walking distance in open field of aged AQP4(+/+) mice and aged AQP4(-/-) mice decreased 41.2% and 44.1%, respectively (P<0.05); while there was no difference in the ratio of distance and retention time in the central area of open field. The density of neuron in cortex of aged AQP4(+/+) mice and aged AQP4(-/-) mice decreased 19.6% and 15.8%, respectively (P<0.05), while there was no difference in the thickness of neuron cell body in hippocampus CA1 region. The density of astrocyte in hippocampus CA3 region of aged AQP4(+/+) mice and aged AQP4(-/-) mice increased 57.7% and 64.3%, respectively (P<0.001), while there was no difference in the area of astrocyte. The area of microglia in hippocampus CA3 region of aged AQP4(+/+) mice and aged AQP4(-/-) mice increased 46.9% and 52.0%, respectively (P<0.01), while there was no difference in the density of microglia. Compared with AQP4(+/+) mice, the young and aged AQP4(-/-) mice showed smaller area of astrocyte in hippocampus CA3 region, reduced 18.0% in young mice and 23.6% in aged mice. There was no difference between AQP4(+/+) mice and AQP4(-/-) mice for other observed indexes. AQP4 may be involved in change of astrocyte and astrocyte-related behaviors during aging. AQP4 gene knockout may have limited

  17. Blueberries reduce lipid peroxidation and boost antioxidant enzymes in apoe knockout mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ApoE knockout (ApoE-/-) mice fed AIN-93G diet (CD) formulated to contain 1 % freeze-dried whole wild blueberries (CD1 percent BB) were found to have significantly less atherosclerotic lesions in aorta. Biomarkers of lipid peroxidation, including F2-isoprostanes, hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (HODEs) ...

  18. SPERM MOTILITY IN HSF1 KNOCKOUT MICE AFTER HEAT SHOCK IS ASSOCIATED WITH FERTILITY DEFICITS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPERM MOTILITY IN HSF1 KNOCKOUT MICE AFTER HEAT SHOCK IS ASSOCIATED WITH FERTILITY DEFICITS. L.F. Strader*, S.D. Perreault, J.C. Luft*, and D.J. Dix*. US EPA/ORD, Reproductive Toxicology Div., Research Triangle Park, NC
    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) protect cells from environm...

  19. Kv4.2 Knockout Mice Have Hippocampal-Dependent Learning and Memory Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lugo, Joaquin N.; Brewster, Amy L.; Spencer, Corinne M.; Anderson, Anne E.

    2012-01-01

    Kv4.2 channels contribute to the transient, outward K[superscript +] current (A-type current) in hippocampal dendrites, and modulation of this current substantially alters dendritic excitability. Using Kv4.2 knockout (KO) mice, we examined the role of Kv4.2 in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. We found that Kv4.2 KO mice showed a deficit…

  20. SAMHD1 knockout mice: modeling retrovirus restriction in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li

    2013-11-20

    The host dNTP hydrolase SAMHD1 acts as a viral restriction factor to inhibit the replication of several retroviruses and DNA viruses in non-cycling human immune cells. However, understanding the physiological role of mammalian SAMHD1 has been elusive due to the lack of an animal model. Two recent studies reported the generation of samhd1 knockout mouse models for investigating the restriction of HIV-1 vectors and endogenous retroviruses in vivo. Both studies suggest that SAMHD1 is important for regulating the intracellular dNTP pool and the intrinsic immunity against retroviral infection, despite different outcomes of HIV-1 vector transduction in these mouse models. Here I discuss the significance of these new findings and the future directions in studying SAMHD1-mediated retroviral restriction.

  1. Renal Phenotype of UT-A Urea Transporter Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, Robert A.; Flynn, Anneliese; Shodeinde, Adetola; Smith, Craig P.; Schnermann, Jurgen; Knepper, Mark A.

    2006-01-01

    The urea transporters UT-A1 and UT-A3 mediate rapid transepithelial urea transport across the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD). In a previous study, using a new mouse model in which both UT-A1 and UT-A3 were genetically deleted from the IMCD (UT-A1/3−/− mice), we investigated the role of these transporters in the function of the renal inner medulla. Here we report a series of studies investigating more generally the renal phenotype of UT-A1/3−/− mice. Pathological screening revealed abnormalities in both the testis (increased size) and kidney (decreased size and vascular congestion) of UT-A1/3−/− mice. Total urinary nitrate and nitrite excretion rates in UT-A1/3−/− mice were more than double those in wildtype mice. Total renal blood flow was not different between UT-A1/3−/− and wildtype mice, but underwent a greater percentage decrease in response to NG-Nitro-L-arginine Methyl Ester Hydrochloride (L-NAME) infusion. Whole kidney glomerular filtration rate was not different in UT-A1/3−/− mice compared to controls and underwent a similar increase in response to a greater dietary protein intake. Fractional urea excretion was markedly elevated in UT-A1/3−/− mice on a 40% protein diet, reaching 102.4 ± 8.8% of the filtered load, suggesting that there may be active urea secretion along the renal tubule. Although there was a marked urinary concentrating defect in UT-A1/3−/− mice, there was no decrease in aquaporin-2 or -3 expression. Furthermore, although urea accumulation in the inner medulla was markedly attenuated, there was no decrease in NaCl concentration in tissue from outer medulla or 2 levels of the inner medulla. PMID:15829709

  2. Abnormal cerebellar development and Purkinje cell defects in Lgl1-Pax2 conditional knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Hou, Congzhe; Ding, Lingcui; Zhang, Jian; Jin, Yecheng; Sun, Chen; Li, Zhenzu; Sun, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Tingting; Zhang, Aizhen; Li, Huashun; Gao, Jiangang

    2014-11-01

    Lgl1 was initially identified as a tumour suppressor in flies and is characterised as a key regulator of epithelial polarity and asymmetric cell division. A previous study indicated that More-Cre-mediated Lgl1 knockout mice exhibited significant brain dysplasia and died within 24h after birth. To overcome early neonatal lethality, we generated Lgl1 conditional knockout mice mediated by Pax2-Cre, which is expressed in almost all cells in the cerebellum, and we examined the functions of Lgl1 in the cerebellum. Impaired motor coordination was detected in the mutant mice. Consistent with this abnormal behaviour, homozygous mice possessed a smaller cerebellum with fewer lobes, reduced granule precursor cell (GPC) proliferation, decreased Purkinje cell (PC) quantity and dendritic dysplasia. Loss of Lgl1 in the cerebellum led to hyperproliferation and impaired differentiation of neural progenitors in ventricular zone. Based on the TUNEL assay, we observed increased apoptosis in the cerebellum of mutant mice. We proposed that impaired differentiation and increased apoptosis may contribute to decreased PC quantity. To clarify the effect of Lgl1 on cerebellar granule cells, we used Math1-Cre to specifically delete Lgl1 in granule cells. Interestingly, the Lgl1-Math1 conditional knockout mice exhibited normal proliferation of GPCs and cerebellar development. Thus, we speculated that the reduction in the proliferation of GPCs in Lgl1-Pax2 conditional knockout mice may be secondary to the decreased number of PCs, which secrete the mitogenic factor Sonic hedgehog to regulate GPC proliferation. Taken together, these findings suggest that Lgl1 plays a key role in cerebellar development and folia formation by regulating the development of PCs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Generation of ER{alpha}-floxed and knockout mice using the Cre/LoxP system

    SciTech Connect

    Antonson, P., E-mail: per.antonson@ki.se; Omoto, Y.; Humire, P.

    2012-08-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ER{alpha} floxed and knockout mice were generated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Disruption of the ER{alpha} gene results in sterility in both male and female mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ER{alpha}{sup -/-} mice have ovaries with hemorrhagic follicles and hypoplastic uterus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Female ER{alpha}{sup -/-} mice develop obesity. -- Abstract: Estrogen receptor alpha (ER{alpha}) is a nuclear receptor that regulates a range of physiological processes in response to estrogens. In order to study its biological role, we generated a floxed ER{alpha} mouse line that can be used to knock out ER{alpha} in selected tissues by using the Cre/LoxP system. In this study, we established amore » new ER{alpha} knockout mouse line by crossing the floxed ER{alpha} mice with Cre deleter mice. Here we show that genetic disruption of the ER{alpha} gene in all tissues results in sterility in both male and female mice. Histological examination of uterus and ovaries revealed a dramatically atrophic uterus and hemorrhagic cysts in the ovary. These results suggest that infertility in female mice is the result of functional defects of the reproductive tract. Moreover, female knockout mice are hyperglycemic, develop obesity and at the age of 4 months the body weight of these mice was more than 20% higher compared to wild type littermates and this difference increased over time. Our results demonstrate that ER{alpha} is necessary for reproductive tract development and has important functions as a regulator of metabolism in females.« less

  4. Neurolysin Knockout Mice Generation and Initial Phenotype Characterization*

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcanti, Diogo M. L. P.; Castro, Leandro M.; Rosa Neto, José C.; Seelaender, Marilia; Neves, Rodrigo X.; Oliveira, Vitor; Forti, Fábio L.; Iwai, Leo K.; Gozzo, Fabio C.; Todiras, Mihail; Schadock, Ines; Barros, Carlos C.; Bader, Michael; Ferro, Emer S.

    2014-01-01

    The oligopeptidase neurolysin (EC 3.4.24.16; Nln) was first identified in rat brain synaptic membranes and shown to ubiquitously participate in the catabolism of bioactive peptides such as neurotensin and bradykinin. Recently, it was suggested that Nln reduction could improve insulin sensitivity. Here, we have shown that Nln KO mice have increased glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and gluconeogenesis. KO mice have increased liver mRNA for several genes related to gluconeogenesis. Isotopic label semiquantitative peptidomic analysis suggests an increase in specific intracellular peptides in gastrocnemius and epididymal adipose tissue, which likely is involved with the increased glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in the KO mice. These results suggest the exciting new possibility that Nln is a key enzyme for energy metabolism and could be a novel therapeutic target to improve glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity. PMID:24719317

  5. Forskolin Modifies Retinal Vascular Development in Mrp4-Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Matsumiya, Wataru; Kusuhara, Sentaro; Hayashibe, Keiko; Maruyama, Kazuichi; Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Tagami, Mizuki; Schuetz, John D.; Negi, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4) effluxes a wide variety of endogenous compounds, including cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), and is exclusively expressed in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) of the retina. This study aimed to investigate the role of MRP4 in retinal vascular development. Methods. The retinal vascular phenotype of Mrp4−/− mice was examined by whole-mount immunohistochemistry at P3, P6, and P14. The retinas from P6 pups that received an intraperitoneal injection of either solvent control or forskolin, an inducer of intracellular cAMP formation, at P4 and P5 were analyzed in terms of their vascular formation (vascular length, vascular branching, vascular density, and the number of tip cells), cell proliferation and apoptosis, and vessel stability. Results. The Mrp4−/− mice exhibited no overt abnormalities in the development of the retinal vasculature, but retinal vascular development in the Mrp4−/− mice was suppressed in response to forskolin administration. There was a significant decrease in the vascular length, vascular branching, and vascular density, and inhibited tip cell formation at the vascular front. The forskolin-treated Mrp4−/− mice showed an increased number of Ki67-positive and cleaved caspase 3–positive ECs, a significant decrease in the amount of pericyte coverage, and a reduced number of empty sleeves. In pups exposed to hyperoxia (75% oxygen) from P7 to P12, the Mrp4−/− mice showed a significant increase in the unvascularized retinal area. Conclusions. Mrp4−/− mice exhibited suppressed retinal vascular development in response to forskolin treatment. Thus, Mrp4 might have protective roles in retinal vascular development by regulating the intracellular cAMP level. PMID:23154460

  6. Forskolin modifies retinal vascular development in Mrp4-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Matsumiya, Wataru; Kusuhara, Sentaro; Hayashibe, Keiko; Maruyama, Kazuichi; Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Tagami, Mizuki; Schuetz, John D; Negi, Akira

    2012-12-07

    Multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4) effluxes a wide variety of endogenous compounds, including cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), and is exclusively expressed in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) of the retina. This study aimed to investigate the role of MRP4 in retinal vascular development. The retinal vascular phenotype of Mrp4(-/-) mice was examined by whole-mount immunohistochemistry at P3, P6, and P14. The retinas from P6 pups that received an intraperitoneal injection of either solvent control or forskolin, an inducer of intracellular cAMP formation, at P4 and P5 were analyzed in terms of their vascular formation (vascular length, vascular branching, vascular density, and the number of tip cells), cell proliferation and apoptosis, and vessel stability. The Mrp4(-/-) mice exhibited no overt abnormalities in the development of the retinal vasculature, but retinal vascular development in the Mrp4(-/-) mice was suppressed in response to forskolin administration. There was a significant decrease in the vascular length, vascular branching, and vascular density, and inhibited tip cell formation at the vascular front. The forskolin-treated Mrp4(-/-) mice showed an increased number of Ki67-positive and cleaved caspase 3-positive ECs, a significant decrease in the amount of pericyte coverage, and a reduced number of empty sleeves. In pups exposed to hyperoxia (75% oxygen) from P7 to P12, the Mrp4(-/-) mice showed a significant increase in the unvascularized retinal area. Mrp4(-/-) mice exhibited suppressed retinal vascular development in response to forskolin treatment. Thus, Mrp4 might have protective roles in retinal vascular development by regulating the intracellular cAMP level.

  7. Deficits of learning and memory in Hemojuvelin knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinglong; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Hongju; Ren, Wei; Song, Jinjing; Rao, Elizabeth; Takahashi, Eiki; Zhou, Ying; Li, Weidong; Chen, Xiaoping

    2015-10-01

    Iron is involved in various physiological processes of the human body to maintain normal functions. Abnormal iron accumulation in brain has been reported as a pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders and cognitive impairments. Hemojuvelin (HVJ) is a membrane-bound and soluble protein in mammals that is responsible for the iron overload condition known as juvenile hemochromatosis. Although iron accumulation in brain has been related to neurodegenerative diseases, it remains unknown the effect of mutation of HVJ gene on cognitive performance. In our studies, HJV(-/-) mice showed deficits in novel object recognition and Morris water maze tests. Furthermore, the expression ration of apoptotic marker Bax and anti-apoptotic marker Bcl-2 in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex showed higher levels in HJV(-/-) mice. Our results suggested that deletion of HJV gene could increase apoptosis in brain which might contribute to learning and memory deficits in mutant mice. These results indicated that HJV(-/-) mice would be a useful model to study cognitive impairment induced by iron overload in brain.

  8. Acute food deprivation reverses morphine-induced locomotion deficits in M5 muscarinic receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Steidl, Stephan; Lee, Esther; Wasserman, David; Yeomans, John S

    2013-09-01

    Lesions of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT), one of two sources of cholinergic input to the ventral tegmental area (VTA), block conditioned place preference (CPP) for morphine in drug-naïve rats. M5 muscarinic cholinergic receptors, expressed by midbrain dopamine neurons, are critical for the ability of morphine to increase nucleus accumbens dopamine levels and locomotion, and for morphine CPP. This suggests that M5-mediated PPT cholinergic inputs to VTA dopamine neurons critically contribute to morphine-induced dopamine activation, reward and locomotion. In the current study we tested whether food deprivation, which reduces PPT contribution to morphine CPP in rats, could also reduce M5 contributions to morphine-induced locomotion in mice. Acute 18-h food deprivation reversed the phenotypic differences usually seen between non-deprived wild-type and M5 knockout mice. That is, food deprivation increased morphine-induced locomotion in M5 knockout mice but reduced morphine-induced locomotion in wild-type mice. Food deprivation increased saline-induced locomotion equally in wild-type and M5 knockout mice. Based on these findings, we suggest that food deprivation reduces the contribution of M5-mediated PPT cholinergic inputs to the VTA in morphine-induced locomotion and increases the contribution of a PPT-independent pathway. The contributions of cholinergic, dopaminergic and GABAergic neurons to the effects of acute food deprivation are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Impaired Sperm Maturation in Rnase9 Knockout Mice1

    PubMed Central

    Westmuckett, Andrew D.; Nguyen, Edward B.; Herlea-Pana, Oana M.; Alvau, Antonio; Salicioni, Ana M.; Moore, Kevin L.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ribonuclease, RNase A family, 9 (RNASE9) is a ribonuclease A superfamily member that is expressed only in the epididymis. It is a small, secreted polypeptide, it lacks ribonuclease activity, and its function(s) is unknown. However, epididymis-specific expression suggests a role in sperm maturation. We generated Rnase9−/− mice to study RNASE9 function in vivo. We confirm that RNASE9 expression is restricted to the epididymis. Within the epididymis, RNASE9 is first detected in midcaput, persists through the distal caput and corpus, and wanes in the cauda. Rnase9−/− mice are born at the expected Mendelian ratio, have normal postnatal growth and development, and have no outwardly apparent phenotype. Spermatogenesis is normal, and Rnase9-null sperm are morphologically normal. Rnase9−/− males have normal fertility in unrestricted mating trials, and fertilization rates in in vitro fertilization assays are indistinguishable from wild-type mice. Visual observations coupled with analyses of sperm velocities shortly after swim out from the corpus shows that motility of Rnase9-null sperm is significantly impaired. However, no differences between wild-type and Rnase9-null sperm are detected by computer-assisted sperm analysis 10–90 min after sperm isolation from the corpus or cauda. Assessment of capacitation-dependent signaling pathways in Rnase9-null sperm showed that, while levels of tyrosine phosphorylation of sperm proteins were normal, there was decreased phosphorylation of protein kinase A substrates upon capacitation compared to wild-type mice. In conclusion, RNASE9 is dispensable for fertility, but the absence of RNASE9 during epididymal transit results in impaired sperm maturation. PMID:24719258

  10. Characterization of nasal potential difference in cftr knockout and F508del-CFTR mice.

    PubMed

    Saussereau, Emilie Lyne; Roussel, Delphine; Diallo, Siradiou; Debarbieux, Laurent; Edelman, Aleksander; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Treatments designed to correct cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) defects must first be evaluated in preclinical experiments in the mouse model of cystic fibrosis (CF). Mice nasal mucosa mimics the bioelectric defect seen in humans. The use of nasal potential difference (V(TE)) to assess ionic transport is a powerful test evaluating the restoration of CFTR function. Nasal V(TE) in CF mice must be well characterized for correct interpretation. We performed V(TE) measurements in large-scale studies of two mouse models of CF--B6;129 cftr knockout and FVB F508del-CFTR--and their respective wild-type (WT) littermates. We assessed the repeatability of the test for cftr knockout mice and defined cutoff points distinguishing between WT and F508del-CFTR mice. We determined the typical V(TE) values for CF and WT mice and demonstrated the existence of residual CFTR activity in F508del-CFTR mice. We characterized intra-animal variability in B6;129 mice and defined the cutoff points for F508del-CFTR chloride secretion rescue. Hyperpolarization of more than -2.15 mV after perfusion with a low-concentration Cl(-) solution was considered to indicate a normal response. These data will make it possible to interpret changes in nasal V(TE) in mouse models of CF, in future preclinical studies.

  11. 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine self-administration is abolished in serotonin transporter knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Trigo, José Manuel; Renoir, Thibault; Lanfumey, Laurence; Hamon, Michel; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Robledo, Patricia; Maldonado, Rafael

    2007-09-15

    The neurobiological mechanism underlying the reinforcing effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to determine the contribution of the serotonin transporter (SERT) in MDMA self-administration behavior by using knockout (KO) mice deficient in SERT. Knockout mice and wild-type (WT) littermates were trained to acquire intravenous self-administration of MDMA (0, .03, .06, .125, and .25 mg/kg/infusion) on a fixed ratio 1 (FR1) schedule of reinforcement. Additional groups of mice were trained to obtain food and water to rule out operant responding impairments. Microdialysis studies were performed to evaluate dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) extracellular levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC), respectively, after acute MDMA (10 mg/kg). None of the MDMA doses tested maintained intravenous self-administration in KO animals, whereas WT mice acquired responding for MDMA. Acquisition of operant responding for food and water was delayed in KO mice, but no differences between genotypes were observed on the last day of training. MDMA increased DA extracellular levels to a similar extent in the NAC of WT and KO mice. Conversely, extracellular concentrations of 5-HT in the PFC were increased following MDMA only in WT mice. These findings provide evidence for the specific involvement of SERT in MDMA reinforcing properties.

  12. Txnip ablation reduces vascular smooth muscle cell inflammation and ameliorates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Byon, Chang Hyun; Han, Tieyan; Wu, Judy; Hui, Simon T

    2015-08-01

    Inflammation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is intimately linked to atherosclerosis and other vascular inflammatory disease. Thioredoxin interacting protein (Txnip) is a key regulator of cellular sulfhydryl redox and a mediator of inflammasome activation. The goals of the present study were to examine the impact of Txnip ablation on inflammatory response to oxidative stress in VSMC and to determine the effect of Txnip ablation on atherosclerosis in vivo. Using cultured VSMC, we showed that ablation of Txnip reduced cellular oxidative stress and increased protection from oxidative stress when challenged with oxidized phospholipids and hydrogen peroxide. Correspondingly, expression of inflammatory markers and adhesion molecules were diminished in both VSMC and macrophages from Txnip knockout mice. The blunted inflammatory response was associated with a decrease in NF-ĸB nuclear translocation. Loss of Txnip in VSMC also led to a dramatic reduction in macrophage adhesion to VSMC. In vivo data from Txnip-ApoE double knockout mice showed that Txnip ablation led to 49% reduction in atherosclerotic lesion in the aortic root and 71% reduction in the abdominal aorta, compared to control ApoE knockout mice. Our data show that Txnip plays an important role in oxidative inflammatory response and atherosclerotic lesion development in mice. The atheroprotective effect of Txnip ablation implicates that modulation of Txnip expression may serve as a potential target for intervention of atherosclerosis and inflammatory vascular disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Impaired fear extinction learning in adult heterozygous BDNF knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Psotta, Laura; Lessmann, Volkmar; Endres, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a crucial regulator of neuroplasticity, which underlies learning and memory processes in different brain areas. To investigate the role of BDNF in the extinction of amygdala-dependent cued fear memories, we analyzed fear extinction learning in heterozygous BDNF knock-out mice, which possess a reduction of endogenous BDNF protein levels to ~50% of wild-type animals. Since BDNF expression has been shown to decline with aging of animals, we tested the performance in extinction learning of these mice at 2 months (young adults) and 7 months (older adults) of age. The present study shows that older adult heterozygous BDNF knock-out mice, which have a chronic 50% lack of BDNF, also possess a deficit in the acquisition of extinction memory, while extinction learning remains unaffected in young adult heterozygous BDNF knock-out mice. This deficit in extinction learning is accompanied by a reduction of BDNF protein in the hippocampus, amygdala and the prefrontal cortex. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Otoancorin Knockout Mice Reveal Inertia is the Force for Hearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weddell, Thomas; Legan, P. Kevin; Lukashkina, Victoria A.; Goodyear, Richard J.; Welstead, Lindsy; Petit, Chistine; Russell, Ian J.; Lukashkin, Andrei N.; Richardson, Guy P.

    2011-11-01

    We demonstrate that in Otoa-/- mice, in which the inner-ear-specific protein otoancorin is absent, excitation of the outer hair cells and cochlear amplification is normal. This finding is remarkable because the tectorial membrane (TM), although remaining functionally attached to the outer hair cell bundles, is completely detached from the spiral limbus. Therefore, as in ancestral vertebrate auditory organs, where inertia provides the excitatory force to the hair cells, it is the inertia of the TM that must be important for exciting the outer hair cells, setting the sensitivity of their transducer conductance, and determining the precise timing of cochlear amplification.

  15. The importance of immunohistochemical analyses in evaluating the phenotype of Kv channel knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Menegola, Milena; Clark, Eliana; Trimmer, James S

    2012-06-01

    To gain insights into the phenotype of voltage-gated potassium (Kv)1.1 and Kv4.2 knockout mice, we used immunohistochemistry to analyze the expression of component principal or α subunits and auxiliary subunits of neuronal Kv channels in knockout mouse brains. Genetic ablation of the Kv1.1 α subunit did not result in compensatory changes in the expression levels or subcellular distribution of related ion channel subunits in hippocampal medial perforant path and mossy fiber nerve terminals, where high levels of Kv1.1 are normally expressed. Genetic ablation of the Kv4.2 α subunit did not result in altered neuronal cytoarchitecture of the hippocampus. Although Kv4.2 knockout mice did not exhibit compensatory changes in the expression levels or subcellular distribution of the related Kv4.3 α subunit, we found dramatic decreases in the cellular and subcellular expression of specific Kv channel interacting proteins (KChIPs) that reflected their degree of association and colocalization with Kv4.2 in wild-type mouse and rat brains. These studies highlight the insights that can be gained by performing detailed immunohistochemical analyses of Kv channel knockout mouse brains. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2012 International League Against Epilepsy.

  16. Lack of stress responses to long-term effects of corticosterone in Caps2 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Mishima, Yuriko; Shinoda, Yo; Sadakata, Tetsushi; Kojima, Masami; Wakana, Shigeharu; Furuichi, Teiichi

    2015-03-10

    Chronic stress is associated with anxiety and depressive disorders, and can cause weight gain. Ca(2+)-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 (CAPS2) is involved in insulin release. Caps2 knockout (KO) mice exhibit decreased body weight, reduced glucose-induced insulin release, and abnormal psychiatric behaviors. We chronically administered the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT), which induces anxiety/depressive-like behavior and normally increases plasma insulin levels, via the drinking water for 10 weeks, and we examined the stress response in KO mice. Chronic CORT exposure inhibited stress-induced serum CORT elevation in wild-type (WT) mice, but not in KO mice. Poor weight gain in CORT-treated animals was observed until week 6 in WT mice, but persisted for the entire duration of the experiment in KO mice, although there is no difference in drug*genotype interaction. Among KO mice, food consumption was unchanged, while water consumption was higher, over the duration of the experiment in CORT-treated animals, compared with untreated animals. Moreover, serum insulin and leptin levels were increased in CORT-treated WT mice, but not in KO mice. Lastly, both WT and KO mice displayed anxiety/depressive-like behavior after CORT administration. These results suggest that Caps2 KO mice have altered endocrine responses to CORT administration, while maintaining CORT-induced anxiety/depressive-like behavior.

  17. Functionally improved bone in Calbindin-D28k knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, David S.; Kim, Devin; Szivek, John A.; Lai, Li-Wen; Lien, Yeong-Hau H.

    2008-01-01

    In vitro studies indicate that Calbindin-D28k, a calcium binding protein, is important in regulating the life span of osteoblasts as well as the mineralization of bone extracellular matrix. The recent creation of a Calbindin-D28k knockout mouse has provided the opportunity to study the physiological effects of the Calbindin-D28k protein on bone remodeling in vivo. In this experiment, histomorphometry, μCT, and bend testing were used to characterize bones in Calbindin-D28k KO (knockout) mice. The femora of Calbindin-D28k KO mice had significantly increased cortical bone volume (60.4% ± 3.1) compared to wild-type (WT) mice (45.4% ± 4.6). The increased bone volume was due to a decrease in marrow cavity area, and significantly decreased endosteal perimeters (3.397 mm ± 0.278 in Calbindin-D28k KO mice, and 4.046 mm ± 0.450 in WT mice). Similar changes were noted in the analysis of the tibias in both mice. The bone formation rates were similar in the femoral and tibial cortical bones of both mice. μCT analysis of the trabecular bone in the tibial plateau indicated that Calbindin-D28k KO mice had an increased bone volume (35.2% ± 3.1) compared to WT mice (24.7% ± 4.9) which was primarily due to increased trabecular number (8.99 mm−1 ± 0.94 in Calbindin-D28k KO mice compared to 6.75 mm−1 ± 0.85 in WT mice). Bone mineral content analysis of the tibias indicated that there is no difference in the calcium or phosphorus content between the Calbindin-D28k KO and WT mice. Cantilever bend testing of the femora demonstrated significantly lower strains in the bones of Calbindin-D28k KO mice (4135 μstrain/kg ± 1266) compared to WT mice (6973 μstrain/kg ± 998) indicating that the KO mice had stiffer bones. Three-point bending demonstrated increased failure loads in bones of Calbindin-D28k KO mice (31.6 N ± 2.1) compared to WT mice (15.0 N ± 1.7). In conclusion, Calbindin-D28k KO mice had increased bone volume and stiffness indicating that Calbindin-D28k plays an

  18. Hypervitaminosis D mediates compensatory Ca2+ hyperabsorption in TRPV5 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Renkema, Kirsten Y; Nijenhuis, Tom; van der Eerden, Bram C J; van der Kemp, Annemiete W C M; Weinans, Harrie; van Leeuwen, Johannes P T M; Bindels, René J M; Hoenderop, Joost G J

    2005-11-01

    Vitamin D plays an important role in Ca(2+) homeostasis by controlling Ca(2+) (re)absorption in intestine, kidney, and bone. The epithelial Ca(2+) channel TRPV5 mediates the Ca(2+) entry step in active Ca(2+) reabsorption. TRPV5 knockout (TRPV5(-/-)) mice show impaired Ca(2+) reabsorption, hypercalciuria, hypervitaminosis D, and intestinal hyperabsorption of Ca(2+). Moreover, these mice demonstrate upregulation of intestinal TRPV6 and calbindin-D(9K) expression compared with wild-type mice. For addressing the role of the observed hypervitaminosis D in the maintenance of Ca(2+) homeostasis and the regulation of expression levels of the Ca(2+) transport proteins in kidney and intestine, TRPV5/25-hydroxyvitamin-D(3)-1alpha-hydroxylase double knockout (TRPV5(-/-)/1alpha-OHase(-/-)) mice, which show undetectable serum 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) levels, were generated. TRPV5(-/-)/1alpha-OHase(-/-) mice displayed a significant hypocalcemia compared with wild-type mice (1.10 +/- 0.02 and 2.54 +/- 0.01 mM, respectively; P < 0.05). mRNA levels of renal calbindin-D(28K) (7 +/- 2%), calbindin-D(9K) (32 +/- 4%), Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (12 +/- 2%), and intestinal TRPV6 (40 +/- 8%) and calbindin-D(9K) (26 +/- 4%) expression levels were decreased compared with wild-type mice. Hyperparathyroidism and rickets were present in TRPV5(-/-)/1alpha-OHase(-/-) mice, more pronounced than observed in single TRPV5 or 1alpha-OHase knockout mice. It is interesting that a renal Ca(2+) leak, as demonstrated in TRPV5(-/-) mice, persisted in TRPV5(-/-)/1alpha-OHase(-/-) mice, but a compensatory upregulation of intestinal Ca(2+) transporters was abolished. In conclusion, the elevation of serum 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) levels in TRPV5(-/-) mice is responsible for the upregulation of intestinal Ca(2+) transporters and Ca(2+) hyperabsorption. Hypervitaminosis D, therefore, is of crucial importance to maintain normocalcemia in impaired Ca(2+) reabsorption in TRPV5(-/-) mice.

  19. Critical period plasticity is disrupted in the barrel cortex of Fmr1 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Harlow, Emily G.; Till, Sally M.; Russell, Theron A.; Wijetunge, Lasani S.; Kind, Peter; Contractor, Anis

    2010-01-01

    Summary Alterations in sensory processing constitute prominent symptoms of Fragile X syndrome; however, little is known about how disrupted synaptic and circuit development in sensory cortex contributes to these deficits. To investigate how the loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) impacts the development of cortical synapses, we examined excitatory thalamocortical synapses in somatosensory cortex during the perinatal critical period in Fmr1 knockout mice. FMRP ablation resulted in dysregulation of glutamatergic signaling maturation. The fraction of silent synapses persisting to later developmental times was increased, there was a temporal delay in the window for synaptic plasticity, while other forms of developmental plasticity were not altered in Fmr1 knockout mice. Our results indicate that FMRP is required for the normal developmental progression of synaptic maturation, and loss of this important RNA binding protein impacts the timing of the critical period for layer IV synaptic plasticity. PMID:20159451

  20. Beta2-adrenergic activity modulates vascular tone regulation in lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Manzini, S; Pinna, C; Busnelli, M; Cinquanta, P; Rigamonti, E; Ganzetti, G S; Dellera, F; Sala, A; Calabresi, L; Franceschini, G; Parolini, C; Chiesa, G

    2015-11-01

    Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency is associated with hypoalphalipoproteinemia, generally a predisposing factor for premature coronary heart disease. The evidence of accelerated atherosclerosis in LCAT-deficient subjects is however controversial. In this study, the effect of LCAT deficiency on vascular tone and endothelial function was investigated in LCAT knockout mice, which reproduce the human lipoprotein phenotype. Aortas from wild-type (Lcat(wt)) and LCAT knockout (Lcat(KO)) mice exposed to noradrenaline showed reduced contractility in Lcat(KO) mice (P<0.005), whereas acetylcholine exposure showed a lower NO-dependent relaxation in Lcat(KO) mice (P<0.05). Quantitative PCR and Western blotting analyses suggested an adequate eNOS expression in Lcat(KO) mouse aortas. Real-time PCR analysis indicated increased expression of β2-adrenergic receptors vs wild-type mice. Aorta stimulation with noradrenaline in the presence of propranolol, to abolish the β-mediated relaxation, showed the same contractile response in the two mouse lines. Furthermore, propranolol pretreatment of mouse aortas exposed to L-NAME prevented the difference in responses between Lcat(wt) and Lcat(KO) mice. The results indicate that LCAT deficiency leads to increased β2-adrenergic relaxation and to a consequently decreased NO-mediated vasodilation that can be reversed to guarantee a correct vascular tone. The present study suggests that LCAT deficiency is not associated with an impaired vascular reactivity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Beta2-adrenergic activity modulates vascular tone regulation in lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Manzini, S.; Pinna, C.; Busnelli, M.; Cinquanta, P.; Rigamonti, E.; Ganzetti, G.S.; Dellera, F.; Sala, A.; Calabresi, L.; Franceschini, G.; Parolini, C.; Chiesa, G.

    2015-01-01

    Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency is associated with hypoalphalipoproteinemia, generally a predisposing factor for premature coronary heart disease. The evidence of accelerated atherosclerosis in LCAT-deficient subjects is however controversial. In this study, the effect of LCAT deficiency on vascular tone and endothelial function was investigated in LCAT knockout mice, which reproduce the human lipoprotein phenotype. Aortas from wild-type (Lcatwt) and LCAT knockout (LcatKO) mice exposed to noradrenaline showed reduced contractility in LcatKO mice (P < 0.005), whereas acetylcholine exposure showed a lower NO-dependent relaxation in LcatKO mice (P < 0.05). Quantitative PCR and Western blotting analyses suggested an adequate eNOS expression in LcatKO mouse aortas. Real-time PCR analysis indicated increased expression of β2-adrenergic receptors vs wild-type mice. Aorta stimulation with noradrenaline in the presence of propranolol, to abolish the β-mediated relaxation, showed the same contractile response in the two mouse lines. Furthermore, propranolol pretreatment of mouse aortas exposed to L-NAME prevented the difference in responses between Lcatwt and LcatKO mice. The results indicate that LCAT deficiency leads to increased β2-adrenergic relaxation and to a consequently decreased NO-mediated vasodilation that can be reversed to guarantee a correct vascular tone. The present study suggests that LCAT deficiency is not associated with an impaired vascular reactivity. PMID:26254103

  2. Lack of Neuropathy-Related Phenotypes in Hint1 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Seburn, Kevin L.; Morelli, Kathryn H.; Jordanova, Albena; Burgess, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in HINT1, the gene encoding histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1), cause a recessively inherited peripheral neuropathy that involves primarily motor dysfunction and is usually associated with neuromyotonia, i.e. prolonged muscle contraction resulting from hyperexcitability of the peripheral nerve. Because these mutations are hypothesized to cause loss of function, we analyzed Hint1 knockout mice for their relevance as a disease model. Mice lacking Hint1 were normal in appearance and in behavioral tests or motor performance, although they moved slower and for a smaller fraction of time than wild-type (WT) mice in an open field arena. Muscles, neuromuscular junctions, and nodes of Ranvier are anatomically normal and did not show evidence of degeneration or regeneration. Axon numbers and myelination in peripheral nerves were normal at 4 and 13 months of age. Axons were slightly smaller than those in WT mice at 4 months of age, but this did not cause a decrease in conduction velocity, and no differences in axon diameters were detected at 13 months. Using electromyography, we were unable to detect neuromyotonia, even using supra-physiological stimuli and stressors such as reduced temperature or 3,4 diaminopyridine to block potassium channels. Therefore, we conclude that Hint1 knockout mice may be useful for studying the biochemical activities of HINT1, but these mice do not provide a disease model or a means for investigating the basis of HINT1-associated neuropathy and neuromyotonia. PMID:24918641

  3. Progressive hearing loss and degeneration of hair cell stereocilia in taperin gene knockout mice

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Mo; Wang, Qin; Zhu, Gang-Hua

    The TPRN gene encodes taperin, which is prominently present at the taper region of hair cell stereocilia. Mutations in TPRN have been reported to cause autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness 79(DFNB 79). To investigate the role of taperin in pathogenesis of hearing loss, we generated TPRN knockout mice using TALEN technique. Sanger sequencing confirmed an 11 bp deletion at nucleotide 177–187 in exon 1 of TPRN, which results in a truncated form of taperin protein. Heterozygous TPRN{sup +/−} mice showed apparently normal auditory phenotypes to their wide-type (WT) littermates. Homozygous TPRN{sup −/−} mice exhibited progressive sensorineural hearing loss as reflected bymore » auditory brainstem response to both click and tone burst stimuli at postnatal days 15 (P15), 30 (P30), and 60 (P60). Alex Fluor-594 phalloidin labeling showed no obvious difference in hair cell numbers in the cochlea between TPRN{sup −/−} mice and WT mice under light microscope. However, scanning electronic microscopy revealed progressive degeneration of inner hair cell stereocilia, from apparently normal at postnatal days 3 (P3) to scattered absence at P15 and further to substantial loss at P30. The outer hair cell stereocilia also showed progressive degeneration, though much less severe, Collectively, we conclude that taperin plays an important role in maintenance of hair cell stereocilia. Establishment of TPRN knockout mice enables further investigation into the function of this gene. - Highlights: • TPRN{sup −/−} mice were generated using TALEN technique. • TPRN{sup −/−} mice presented progressive hearing loss. • WT and TPRN{sup −/−} mice showed no difference in hair cell numbers. • TPRN{sup −/−} mice showed progressive degeneration of hair cell stereocilia.« less

  4. Differential gene expression in Ndph-knockout mice in retinal development.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Nikolaus F; Luhmann, Ulrich F O; Feil, Silke; Berger, Wolfgang

    2009-02-01

    Mutations in the NDP gene impair angiogenesis in the eyes of patients diagnosed with a type of blindness belonging to the group of exudative vitreoretinopathies. This study was conducted to investigate the differential gene expression caused by the absence of Norrin (the NDP protein) in the developing mouse retina and to elucidate early pathogenic events. A comparative gene expression analysis was performed on postnatal day (p)7 retinas from a knockout mouse model for Norrie disease using gene microarrays. Subsequently, results were verified by quantitative real-time PCR analyses. Immunohistochemistry was performed for the vascular permeability marker plasmalemma vesicle associated protein (Plvap). Our study identified expression differences in Ndph(y/-) versus wild-type mice retinas at p7. Gene transcription of the neutral amino acid transporter Slc38a5, apolipoprotein D (ApoD), and angiotensin II receptor-like 1 (Agtrl1) was decreased in the knockout mouse, whereas transcript levels of adrenomedullin (Adm) and of the plasmalemma vesicle associated protein (Plvap) were increased in comparison to the wild-type. In addition, ectopic expression of Plvap was found in the developing retinal vasculature of Norrin-knockout mice on the protein level. These data provide molecular evidence for a role of Norrin in the development of the retinal vasculature. Expression of two genes, Plvap and Slc38a5, is considerably altered in retinal development of Norrin-knockout mice and may reflect or contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. In particular, ectopic expression of Plvap is consistent with hallmark disease symptoms in mice and humans.

  5. Identifying Key Networks Linked to Light-Independent Photoreceptor Degeneration in Visual Arrestin 1 Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hwa Sun; Huang, Shun-Ping; Lee, Eun-Jin; Craft, Cheryl Mae

    2018-01-01

    When visual arrestin 1 (ARR1, S-antigen, 48 KDa protein) was genetically knocked out in mice (original Arr1 -/- , designated Arr1 -/-A ), rod photoreceptors degenerated in a light-dependent manner. Subsequently, a light-independent cone dystrophy was identified with minimal rod death in ARR1 knockout mice (Arr1 -/-A Arr4 +/+ , designated Arr1 -/-B ), which were F2 littermates from breeding the original Arr1 -/-A and cone arrestin knockout 4 (Arr4 -/- ) mice. To resolve the genetic and phenotypic differences between the two ARR1 knockouts, we performed Affymetrix™ exon array analysis to focus on the potential differential gene expression profile and to explore the molecular and cellular pathways leading to this observed susceptibility to cone dystrophy in Arr1 -/-B compared to Arr1 -/-A or control Arr1 +/+ Arr4 +/+ (wild type [WT]). Only in the Arr1 -/-B retina did we observe an up-regulation of retinal transcripts involved in the immune response, inflammatory response and JAK-STAT signaling molecules, OSMRβ and phosphorylation of STAT3. Of these responses, the complement system was significantly higher, and a variety of inflammatory responses by complement regulation and anti-inflammatory cytokine or factors were identified in Arr1 -/-B retinal transcripts. This discovery supports that Arr1 -/-B has a distinct genetic background from Arr1 -/-A that results in alterations in its retinal phenotype leading to susceptibility to cone degeneration induced by inappropriate inflammatory and immune responses.

  6. Gadd45b knockout mice exhibit selective deficits in hippocampus-dependent long-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Leach, Prescott T.; Poplawski, Shane G.; Kenney, Justin W.; Hoffman, Barbara; Liebermann, Dan A.; Abel, Ted; Gould, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible β (Gadd45b) has been shown to be involved in DNA demethylation and may be important for cognitive processes. Gadd45b is abnormally expressed in subjects with autism and psychosis, two disorders associated with cognitive deficits. Furthermore, several high-throughput screens have identified Gadd45b as a candidate plasticity-related gene. However, a direct demonstration of a link between Gadd45b and memory has not been established. The current studies first determined whether expression of the Gadd45 family of genes was affected by contextual fear conditioning. Gadd45b, and to a lesser extent Gadd45g, were up-regulated in the hippocampus following contextual fear conditioning, whereas Gadd45a was not. Next, Gadd45b knockout mice were tested for contextual and cued fear conditioning. Gadd45b knockout mice exhibited a significant deficit in long-term contextual fear conditioning; however, they displayed normal levels of short-term contextual fear conditioning. No differences between Gadd45b knockout and wild-type mice were observed in cued fear conditioning. Because cued fear conditioning is hippocampus independent, while contextual fear conditioning is hippocampus dependent, the current studies suggest that Gadd45b may be important for long-term hippocampus-dependent memory storage. Therefore, Gadd45b may be a novel therapeutic target for the cognitive deficits associated with many neurodevelopmental, neurological, and psychiatric disorders. PMID:22802593

  7. Generating double knockout mice to model genetic intervention for diabetic cardiomyopathy in humans.

    PubMed

    Chavali, Vishalakshi; Nandi, Shyam Sundar; Singh, Shree Ram; Mishra, Paras Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a rapidly increasing disease that enhances the chances of heart failure twofold to fourfold (as compared to age and sex matched nondiabetics) and becomes a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. There are two broad classifications of diabetes: type1 diabetes (T1D) and type2 diabetes (T2D). Several mice models mimic both T1D and T2D in humans. However, the genetic intervention to ameliorate diabetic cardiomyopathy in these mice often requires creating double knockout (DKO). In order to assess the therapeutic potential of a gene, that specific gene is either overexpressed (transgenic expression) or abrogated (knockout) in the diabetic mice. If the genetic mice model for diabetes is used, it is necessary to create DKO with transgenic/knockout of the target gene to investigate the specific role of that gene in pathological cardiac remodeling in diabetics. One of the important genes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling in diabetes is matrix metalloproteinase-9 (Mmp9). Mmp9 is a collagenase that remains latent in healthy hearts but induced in diabetic hearts. Activated Mmp9 degrades extracellular matrix (ECM) and increases matrix turnover causing cardiac fibrosis that leads to heart failure. Insulin2 mutant (Ins2+/-) Akita is a genetic model for T1D that becomes diabetic spontaneously at the age of 3-4 weeks and show robust hyperglycemia at the age of 10-12 weeks. It is a chronic model of T1D. In Ins2+/- Akita, Mmp9 is induced. To investigate the specific role of Mmp9 in diabetic hearts, it is necessary to create diabetic mice where Mmp9 gene is deleted. Here, we describe the method to generate Ins2+/-/Mmp9-/- (DKO) mice to determine whether the abrogation of Mmp9 ameliorates diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  8. Development of Murine Cyp3a Knockout Chimeric Mice with Humanized Liver.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kota; Ohbuchi, Masato; Hamamura, Satoko; Ohshita, Hiroki; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Sato, Koya; Nakada, Naoyuki; Kawamura, Akio; Usui, Takashi; Kamimura, Hidetaka; Tateno, Chise

    2015-08-01

    We developed murine CYP3A knockout ko chimeric mice with humanized liver expressing human P450S similar to those in humans and whose livers and small intestines do not express murine CYP3A this: approach may overcome effects of residual mouse metabolic enzymes like Cyp3a in conventional chimeric mice with humanized liver, such as PXB-mice [urokinase plasminogen activator/severe combined immunodeficiency (uPA/SCID) mice repopulated with over 70% human hepatocytes] to improve the prediction of drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics in humans. After human hepatocytes were transplanted into Cyp3a KO/uPA/SCID host mice, human albumin levels logarithmically increased until approximately 60 days after transplantation, findings similar to those in PXB-mice. Quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction analyses showed that hepatic human P450s, UGTs, SULTs, and transporters mRNA expression levels in Cyp3a KO chimeric mice were also similar to those in PXB-mice and confirmed the absence of Cyp3a11 mRNA expression in mouse liver and intestine. Findings for midazolam and triazolam metabolic activities in liver microsomes were comparable between Cyp3a KO chimeric mice and PXB-mice. In contrast, these activities in the intestine of Cyp3a KO chimeric mice were attenuated compared with PXB-mice. Owing to the knockout of murine Cyp3a, hepatic Cyp2b10 and 2c55 mRNA levels in Cyp3a KO/uPA/SCID mice (without hepatocyte transplants) were 8.4- and 61-fold upregulated compared with PXB-mice, respectively. However, human hepatocyte transplantation successfully restored Cyp2b10 level nearly fully and Cyp2c55 level partly (still 13-fold upregulated) compared with those in PXB-mice. Intestinal Cyp2b10 and 2c55 were also repressed by human hepatocyte transplantation in Cyp3a KO chimeric mice. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  9. Global Nav1.7 Knockout Mice Recapitulate the Phenotype of Human Congenital Indifference to Pain

    PubMed Central

    Gingras, Jacinthe; Smith, Sarah; Matson, David J.; Johnson, Danielle; Nye, Kim; Couture, Lauren; Feric, Elma; Yin, Ruoyuan; Moyer, Bryan D.; Peterson, Matthew L.; Rottman, James B.; Beiler, Rudolph J.; Malmberg, Annika B.; McDonough, Stefan I.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical genetic studies have shown that loss of Nav1.7 function leads to the complete loss of acute pain perception. The global deletion is reported lethal in mice, however, and studies of mice with promoter-specific deletions of Nav1.7 have suggested that the role of Nav1.7 in pain transduction depends on the precise form of pain. We developed genetic and animal husbandry strategies that overcame the neonatal-lethal phenotype and enabled construction of a global Nav1.7 knockout mouse. Knockouts were anatomically normal, reached adulthood, and had phenotype wholly analogous to human congenital indifference to pain (CIP): compared to littermates, knockouts showed no defects in mechanical sensitivity or overall movement yet were completely insensitive to painful tactile, thermal, and chemical stimuli and were anosmic. Knockouts also showed no painful behaviors resulting from peripheral injection of nonselective sodium channel activators, did not develop complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced thermal hyperalgesia, and were insensitive to intra-dermal histamine injection. Tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium current recorded from cell bodies of isolated sensory neurons and the mechanically-evoked spiking of C-fibers in a skin-nerve preparation each were reduced but not eliminated in tissue from knockouts compared to littermates. Results support a role for Nav1.7 that is conserved between rodents and humans and suggest several possibly translatable biomarkers for the study of Nav1.7-targeted therapeutics. Results further suggest that Nav1.7 may retain its key role in persistent as well as acute forms of pain. PMID:25188265

  10. Impairments in the Initiation of Maternal Behavior in Oxytocin Receptor Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Megan E.; deCárdenas, Emily J.; Lee, Heon-Jin; Caldwell, Heather K.

    2014-01-01

    Oxytocin (Oxt) acting through its single receptor subtype, the Oxtr, is important for the coordination of physiology and behavior associated with parturition and maternal care. Knockout mouse models have been helpful in exploring the contributions of Oxt to maternal behavior, including total body Oxt knockout (Oxt −/−) mice, forebrain conditional Oxtr knockout (Oxtr FB/FB) mice, and total body Oxtr knockout (Oxtr −/−) mice. Since Oxtr −/− mice are unable to lactate, maternal behavior has only been examined in virgin females, or in dams within a few hours of parturition, and there have been no studies that have examined their anxiety-like and depression-like behavior following parturition. To improve our understanding of how the absence of Oxt signaling affects maternal behavior, mood and anxiety, we designed a study using Oxtr −/− mice that separated nursing behavior from other aspects of maternal care, such as licking and grooming by thelectomizing (i.e. removing the nipples) of Oxtr +/+ mice and sham-thelectomizing Oxtr −/− mice, and pairing both genotypes with a wet nurse. We then measured pup abandonment, maternal behavior, and postpartum anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors. We hypothesized that genetic disruption of the Oxtr would impact maternal care, mood and anxiety. Specifically, we predicted that Oxtr −/− dams would have impaired maternal care and increased anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors in the postpartum period. We found that Oxtr −/− dams had significantly higher levels of pup abandonment compared to controls, which is consistent with previous work in Oxtr FB/FB mice. Interestingly, Oxtr −/− dams that initiated maternal care did not differ from wildtype controls in measures of maternal behavior. We also did not find any evidence of altered anxiety-like or depressive-like behavior in the postpartum period of Oxtr −/− dams. Thus, our data suggest that Oxt lowers the threshold for the initiation of

  11. Romk1 Knockout Mice Do Not Produce Bartter Phenotype but Exhibit Impaired K Excretion*

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Ke; Yan, Qingshang; Lu, Ming; Wan, Laxiang; Hu, Haiyan; Guo, Junhua; Boulpaep, Emile; Wang, WenHui; Giebisch, Gerhard; Hebert, Steven C.; Wang, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Romk knock-out mice show a similar phenotype to Bartter syndrome of salt wasting and dehydration due to reduced Na-K-2Cl-cotransporter activity. At least three ROMK isoforms have been identified in the kidney; however, unique functions of any of the isoforms in nephron segments are still poorly understood. We have generated a mouse deficient only in Romk1 by selective deletion of the Romk1-specific first exon using an ES cell Cre-LoxP strategy and examined the renal phenotypes, ion transporter expression, ROMK channel activity, and localization under normal and high K intake. Unlike Romk−/− mice, there was no Bartter phenotype with reduced NKCC2 activity and increased NCC expression in Romk1−/− mice. The small conductance K channel (SK) activity showed no difference of channel properties or gating in the collecting tubule between Romk1+/+ and Romk1−/− mice. High K intake increased SK channel number per patch and increased the ROMK channel intensity in the apical membrane of the collecting tubule in Romk1+/+, but such regulation by high K intake was diminished with significant hyperkalemia in Romk1−/− mice. We conclude that 1) animal knockouts of ROMK1 do not produce Bartter phenotype. 2) There is no functional linking of ROMK1 and NKCC2 in the TAL. 3) ROMK1 is critical in response to high K intake-stimulated K+ secretion in the collecting tubule. PMID:26728465

  12. Romk1 Knockout Mice Do Not Produce Bartter Phenotype but Exhibit Impaired K Excretion.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ke; Yan, Qingshang; Lu, Ming; Wan, Laxiang; Hu, Haiyan; Guo, Junhua; Boulpaep, Emile; Wang, WenHui; Giebisch, Gerhard; Hebert, Steven C; Wang, Tong

    2016-03-04

    Romk knock-out mice show a similar phenotype to Bartter syndrome of salt wasting and dehydration due to reduced Na-K-2Cl-cotransporter activity. At least three ROMK isoforms have been identified in the kidney; however, unique functions of any of the isoforms in nephron segments are still poorly understood. We have generated a mouse deficient only in Romk1 by selective deletion of the Romk1-specific first exon using an ES cell Cre-LoxP strategy and examined the renal phenotypes, ion transporter expression, ROMK channel activity, and localization under normal and high K intake. Unlike Romk(-/-) mice, there was no Bartter phenotype with reduced NKCC2 activity and increased NCC expression in Romk1(-/-) mice. The small conductance K channel (SK) activity showed no difference of channel properties or gating in the collecting tubule between Romk1(+/+) and Romk1(-/-) mice. High K intake increased SK channel number per patch and increased the ROMK channel intensity in the apical membrane of the collecting tubule in Romk1(+/+), but such regulation by high K intake was diminished with significant hyperkalemia in Romk1(-/-) mice. We conclude that 1) animal knockouts of ROMK1 do not produce Bartter phenotype. 2) There is no functional linking of ROMK1 and NKCC2 in the TAL. 3) ROMK1 is critical in response to high K intake-stimulated K(+) secretion in the collecting tubule. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Obese Neuronal PPARγ Knockout Mice Are Leptin Sensitive but Show Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Fertility.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Marina O; Sharma, Shweta; Kim, Sun; Rickert, Emily; Hsueh, Katherine; Hwang, Vicky; Olefsky, Jerrold M; Webster, Nicholas J G

    2017-01-01

    The peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is expressed in the hypothalamus in areas involved in energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism. In this study, we created a deletion of PPARγ brain-knockout (BKO) in mature neurons in female mice to investigate its involvement in metabolism and reproduction. We observed that there was no difference in age at puberty onset between female BKOs and littermate controls, but the BKOs gave smaller litters when mated and fewer oocytes when ovulated. The female BKO mice had regular cycles but showed an increase in the number of cycles with prolonged estrus. The mice also had increased luteinizing hormone (LH) levels during the LH surge and histological examination showed hemorrhagic corpora lutea. The mice were challenged with a 60% high-fat diet (HFD). Metabolically, the female BKO mice showed normal body weight, glucose and insulin tolerance, and leptin levels but were protected from obesity-induced leptin resistance. The neuronal knockout also prevented the reduction in estrous cycles due to the HFD. Examination of ovarian histology showed a decrease in the number of primary and secondary follicles in both genotypes due to the HFD, but the BKO ovaries showed an increase in the number of hemorrhagic follicles. In summary, our results show that neuronal PPARγ is required for optimal female fertility but is also involved in the adverse effects of diet-induced obesity by creating leptin resistance potentially through induction of the repressor Socs3. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society.

  14. Morphologic and Histologic Comparison of Hypertrophic Scar in Nude Mice, T-Cell Receptor, and Recombination Activating Gene Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Momtazi, Moein; Ding, Jie; Kwan, Peter; Anderson, Colin C; Honardoust, Dariush; Goekjian, Serge; Tredget, Edward E

    2015-12-01

    Proliferative scars in nude mice have demonstrated morphologic and histologic similarities to human hypertrophic scar. Gene knockout technology provides the opportunity to study the effect of deleting immune cells in various disease processes. The authors' objective was to test whether grafting human skin onto T-cell receptor (TCR) αβ-/-γδ-/-, recombination activating gene (RAG)-1-/-, and RAG-2γ-/-c-/- mice results in proliferative scars consistent with human hypertrophic scar and to characterize the morphologic, histologic, and cellular changes that occur after removing immune cells. Nude TCRαβ-/-γδ-/-, RAG-1-/-, and RAG-2-/-γc-/- mice (n = 20 per strain) were grafted with human skin and euthanized at 30, 60, 120, and 180 days. Controls (n = 5 per strain) were autografted with mouse skin. Scars and normal skin were harvested at each time point. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome, and immunohistochemistry for anti-human leukocyte antigen-ABC, α-smooth muscle actin, decorin, and biglycan. TCRαβ-/-γδ-/-, RAG-1-/-, and RAG-2-/-γc-/- mice grafted with human skin developed firm, elevated scars with histologic and immunohistochemical similarities to human hypertrophic scar. Autografted controls showed no evidence of pathologic scarring. Knockout animals demonstrated a capacity for scar remodeling not observed in nude mice where reductions in α-smooth muscle actin staining pattern and scar thickness occurred over time. Human skin transplanted onto TCRαβ-/-γδ-/-, RAG-1-/-, and RAG-2-/-γc-/- mice results in proliferative scars with morphologic and histologic features of human hypertrophic scar. Remodeling of proliferative scars generated in knockout animals is analogous to changes in human hypertrophic scar. These animal models may better represent the natural history of human hypertrophic scar.

  15. Characteristics of colonic migrating motor complexes in neuronal NOS (nNOS) knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Nick J

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that the intrinsic pacemaker mechanism that generates cyclical colonic migrating motor complexes (CMMCs) does not require endogenous nitric oxide (NO). However, pharmacological blockade of endogenous NO production potently increases the frequency of CMMCs, suggesting that endogenous NO acts normally to inhibit the CMMC pacemaker mechanism. In this study, we investigated whether mice with a life long genetic deletion of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) gene would show similar CMMC characteristics as wild type mice that have endogenous NO production acutely inhibited. Intracellular electrophysiological and mechanical recordings were made from circular muscle cells of isolated whole mouse colon in wild type and nNOS knockout (KO) mice at 35°C. In wild type mice, the NOS inhibitor, L-NA (100 μM) caused a significant increase in CMMC frequency and a significant depolarization of the CM layer. However, unexpectedly, the frequency of CMMCs in nNOS KO mice was not significantly different from control mice. Also, the resting membrane potential of CM cells in nNOS KO mice was not depolarized compared to controls; and the amplitude of the slow depolarization phase underlying MCs was of similar amplitude between KO and wild type offspring. These findings show that in nNOS KO mice, the major characteristics of CMMCs and their electrical correlates are, at least in adult mice, indistinguishable from wild type control offspring. One possibility why the major characteristics of CMMCs were no different between both types of mice is that nNOS KO mice may compensate for their life long deletion of the nNOS gene, and their permanent loss of neuronal NO production. In this regard, we suggest caution should be exercised when assuming that data obtained from adult nNOS KO mice can be directly extrapolated to wild type mice, that have been acutely exposed to an inhibitor of NOS.

  16. Behavioral characterization of CD36 knockout mice with SHIRPA primary screen.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuxiao; Wang, Wei; Li, Juan; Cheng, Ke; Zhou, Jingjing; Zhu, Dan; Yang, Deyu; Liang, Zihong; Fang, Liang; Liao, Li; Xie, Peng

    2016-02-15

    CD36 is a member of the class B scavenger receptor family of cell surface proteins, which plays a major role in fatty acid, glucose and lipid metabolism. Besides, CD36 functions as a microglial surface receptor for amyloid beta peptide. Regarding this, we suggest CD36 might also contribute to neuropsychiatric disease. The aim of this study was to achieve a behavioral phenotype of CD36 knockout (CD36(-/-)) mice. We characterized the behavior of CD36(-/-) mice and C57BL/6J mice by subjecting them to a series of tests, which include SHIRPA primary behavioral screen test, 1% sucrose preference test, elevated plus-maze test, open-field test and forced swimming test. The results showed that CD36(-/-) mice traversed more squares, emitted more defecation, exhibited higher tail elevation and had more aggressive behaviors than C57BL/6J mice. The CD36(-/-) mice spent more time and traveled longer distance in periphery zone in the open-field test. Meanwhile, the numbers that CD36(-/-) mice entered in the open arms of elevated plus-maze were reduced. These findings suggest that CD36(-/-) mice present an anxious phenotype and might be involved in neuropsychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Body water balance and body temperature in vasopressin V1b receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Daikoku, R; Kunitake, T; Kato, K; Tanoue, A; Tsujimoto, G; Kannan, H

    2007-10-30

    In an attempt to determine whether there is a specific vasopressin receptor (V(1b)) subtype involved in the regulation of body water balance and temperature, vasopressin V(1b) receptor knockout mice were used. Daily drinking behavior and renal excretory function were examined in V(1b)-deficient (V(1b)(-/-)) and control (V(1b)(+/+)) mice under the basal and stress-induced condition. In addition, body temperature and locomotor activity were measured with a biotelemetry system. The baseline daily water intake and urine volume were larger in V(1b)(-/-) mice than in V(1b)(+/+) mice. V(1b)(-/-) mice (V(1b)(-/-)) had significantly higher locomotor activity than wild-type, whereas the body temperature and oxygen consumption were lower in V(1b)(-/-) than in the V(1b)(+/+) mice. Next, the V(1b)(-/-) and V(1b)(+/+) mice were subjected to water deprivation for 48 hr. Under this condition, their body temperature decreased with the time course, which was significantly larger for V(1b)(-/-) than for V(1b)(+/+) mice. Central vasopressin has been reported to elicit drinking behavior and antipyretic action, and the V(1b) receptor has been reported to be located in the kidney. Thus, the findings suggest that the V(1b) receptor may be, at least in part, involved in body water balance and body temperature regulation.

  18. Behavioral and pharmacological phenotypes of brain-specific diacylglycerol kinase δ-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Usuki, Takako; Takato, Tamae; Lu, Qiang; Sakai, Hiromichi; Bando, Kana; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Sakane, Fumio

    2016-10-01

    Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) is a lipid-metabolizing enzyme that phosphorylates diacylglycerol to produce phosphatidic acid. Previously, we reported that the δ isozyme of DGK was abundantly expressed in the mouse brain. However, the functions of DGKδ in the brain are still unclear. Because conventional DGKδ-knockout (KO) mice die within 24h after birth, we have generated brain-specific conditional DGKδ-KO mice to circumvent the lethality. In the novel object recognition test, the number of contacts in the DGKδ-KO mice to novel and familiar objects was greatly increased compared to the control mice, indicating that the DGKδ-KO mice showed irrational contacts with objects such as compulsive checking. In the marble burying test, which is used for analyzing obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)-like phenotypes, the DGKδ-KO mice buried more marbles than the control mice. Additionally, these phenotypes were significantly alleviated by the administration of an OCD remedy, fluoxetine. These results indicate that the DGKδ-KO mice showed OCD-like behaviors. Moreover, the number of long axon/neurites increased in both DGKδ-KO primary cortical neurons and DGKδ-knockdown neuroblastoma Neuro-2a cells compared to control cells. Conversely, overexpression of DGKδ decreased the number of long axon/neurites of Neuro-2a cells. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that a deficiency of DGKδ induces OCD-like behavior through enhancing axon/neurite outgrowth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Transcriptional and phenotypic comparisons of Ppara knockout and siRNA knockdown mice

    PubMed Central

    De Souza, Angus T.; Dai, Xudong; Spencer, Andrew G.; Reppen, Tom; Menzie, Ann; Roesch, Paula L.; He, Yudong; Caguyong, Michelle J.; Bloomer, Sherri; Herweijer, Hans; Wolff, Jon A.; Hagstrom, James E.; Lewis, David L.; Linsley, Peter S.; Ulrich, Roger G.

    2006-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has great potential as a tool for studying gene function in mammals. However, the specificity and magnitude of the in vivo response to RNAi remains to be fully characterized. A molecular and phenotypic comparison of a genetic knockout mouse and the corresponding knockdown version would help clarify the utility of the RNAi approach. Here, we used hydrodynamic delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to knockdown peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (Ppara), a gene that is central to the regulation of fatty acid metabolism. We found that Ppara knockdown in the liver results in a transcript profile and metabolic phenotype that is comparable to those of Ppara−/− mice. Combining the profiles from mice treated with the PPARα agonist fenofibrate, we confirmed the specificity of the RNAi response and identified candidate genes proximal to PPARα regulation. Ppara knockdown animals developed hypoglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia, phenotypes observed in Ppara−/− mice. In contrast to Ppara−/− mice, fasting was not required to uncover these phenotypes. Together, these data validate the utility of the RNAi approach and suggest that siRNA can be used as a complement to classical knockout technology in gene function studies. PMID:16945951

  20. Microarray analysis of retinal gene expression in Egr-1 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Schippert, Ruth; Schaeffel, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Purpose We found earlier that 42 day-old Egr-1 knockout mice had longer eyes and a more myopic refractive error compared to their wild-types. To identify genes that could be responsible for the temporarily enhanced axial eye growth, a microarray analysis was performed in knockout and wild-type mice at the postnatal ages of 30 and 42 days. Methods The retinas of homozygous and wild-type Egr-1 knockout mice (Taconic, Ry, Denmark) were prepared for RNA isolation (RNeasy Mini Kit, Qiagen) at the age of 30 or 42 days, respectively (n=12 each). Three retinas were pooled and labeled cRNA was made. The samples were hybridized to Affymetrix GeneChip Mouse Genome 430 2.0 Arrays. Hybridization signals were calculated using GC-RMA normalization. Genes were identified as differentially expressed if they showed a fold-change (FC) of at least 1.5 and a p-value <0.05. A false-discovery rate of 5% was applied. Ten genes with potential biologic relevance were examined further with semiquantitative real-time RT–PCR. Results Comparing mRNA expression levels between wild-type and homozygous Egr-1 knockout mice, we found 73 differentially expressed genes at the age of 30 days and 135 genes at the age of 42 days. Testing for differences in gene expression between the two ages (30 versus 42 days), 54 genes were differently expressed in wild-type mice and 215 genes in homozygous animals. Based on three networks proposed by Ingenuity pathway analysis software, nine differently expressed genes in the homozygous Egr-1 knockout mice were chosen for further validation by real-time RT–PCR, three genes in each network. In addition, the gene that was most prominently regulated in the knockout mice, compared to wild-type, at both 30 days and 42 days of age (protocadherin beta-9 [Pcdhb9]), was tested with real-time RT–PCR. Changes in four of the ten genes could be confirmed by real-time RT–PCR: nuclear prelamin A recognition factor (Narf), oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (Ogdh), selenium binding

  1. Microarray analysis of retinal gene expression in Egr-1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Schippert, Ruth; Schaeffel, Frank; Feldkaemper, Marita Pauline

    2009-12-10

    We found earlier that 42 day-old Egr-1 knockout mice had longer eyes and a more myopic refractive error compared to their wild-types. To identify genes that could be responsible for the temporarily enhanced axial eye growth, a microarray analysis was performed in knockout and wild-type mice at the postnatal ages of 30 and 42 days. The retinas of homozygous and wild-type Egr-1 knockout mice (Taconic, Ry, Denmark) were prepared for RNA isolation (RNeasy Mini Kit, Qiagen) at the age of 30 or 42 days, respectively (n=12 each). Three retinas were pooled and labeled cRNA was made. The samples were hybridized to Affymetrix GeneChip Mouse Genome 430 2.0 Arrays. Hybridization signals were calculated using GC-RMA normalization. Genes were identified as differentially expressed if they showed a fold-change (FC) of at least 1.5 and a p-value <0.05. A false-discovery rate of 5% was applied. Ten genes with potential biologic relevance were examined further with semiquantitative real-time RT-PCR. Comparing mRNA expression levels between wild-type and homozygous Egr-1 knockout mice, we found 73 differentially expressed genes at the age of 30 days and 135 genes at the age of 42 days. Testing for differences in gene expression between the two ages (30 versus 42 days), 54 genes were differently expressed in wild-type mice and 215 genes in homozygous animals. Based on three networks proposed by Ingenuity pathway analysis software, nine differently expressed genes in the homozygous Egr-1 knockout mice were chosen for further validation by real-time RT-PCR, three genes in each network. In addition, the gene that was most prominently regulated in the knockout mice, compared to wild-type, at both 30 days and 42 days of age (protocadherin beta-9 [Pcdhb9]), was tested with real-time RT-PCR. Changes in four of the ten genes could be confirmed by real-time RT-PCR: nuclear prelamin A recognition factor (Narf), oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (Ogdh), selenium binding protein 1 (Selenbp1), and Pcdhb9

  2. Validation of microinjection methods for generating knockout mice by CRISPR/Cas-mediated genome engineering.

    PubMed

    Horii, Takuro; Arai, Yuji; Yamazaki, Miho; Morita, Sumiyo; Kimura, Mika; Itoh, Masahiro; Abe, Yumiko; Hatada, Izuho

    2014-03-28

    The CRISPR/Cas system, in which the Cas9 endonuclease and a guide RNA complementary to the target are sufficient for RNA-guided cleavage of the target DNA, is a powerful new approach recently developed for targeted gene disruption in various animal models. However, there is little verification of microinjection methods for generating knockout mice using this approach. Here, we report the verification of microinjection methods of the CRISPR/Cas system. We compared three methods for injection: (1) injection of DNA into the pronucleus, (2) injection of RNA into the pronucleus, and (3) injection of RNA into the cytoplasm. We found that injection of RNA into the cytoplasm was the most efficient method in terms of the numbers of viable blastocyst stage embryos and full-term pups generated. This method also showed the best overall knockout efficiency.

  3. [Upregulation of P2X3 receptors in dorsal root ganglion of TRPV1 knockout female mice].

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiao; Shi, Xiao-Han; Huang, Li-Bin; Rong, Wei-Fang; Ma, Bei

    2014-08-25

    The study was aimed to investigate the changes in mechanical pain threshold in the condition of chronic inflammatory pain after transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) gene was knockout. Hind-paw intraplantar injection of complete freund's adjuvant (CFA, 20 μL) produced peripheral inflammation in wild-type and TRPV1 knockout female mice. The mechanical pain thresholds were measured during the 8 days after injection and pre-injection by using Von-Frey hair. Nine days after injection, mice were killed and the differences of expression of c-Fos and P2X3 receptor in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal cord dorsal horn were examined by Western blotting between the two groups. Compared with that in wild-type mice, the mechanical pain threshold was increased significantly in TRPV1 knockout mice (P < 0.05); 3 days after CFA injection, the baseline mechanical pain threshold in the TRPV1 knockout mice group was significantly higher than that in the wild-type mice group (P < 0.05); The result of Western blotting showed that the expression of c-Fos protein both in DRG and spinal cord dorsal horn of TRPV1 knockout mice group was decreased significantly compared with that in wild-type mice group (P < 0.01, P < 0.05), while the expression of P2X3 receptor in DRG of TRPV1 knockout mice group was increased significantly compared with that in wild-type mice group (P < 0.05). Our findings indicate that TRPV1 may influence the peripheral mechanical pain threshold by mediating the expression of c-Fos protein both in DRG and spinal cord dorsal horn and changing the expression of P2X3 receptor in DRG.

  4. Host resistance of CD18 knockout mice against systemic infection with Listeria monocytogenes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Huaizhu; Prince, Joseph E.; Brayton, Cory F.; Shah, Chirayu; Zeve, Daniel; Gregory, Stephen H.; Smith, C. Wayne; Ballantyne, Christie M.

    2003-01-01

    Mice with targeted mutations of CD18, the common beta2 subunit of CD11/CD18 integrins, have leukocytosis, impaired transendothelial neutrophil emigration, and reduced host defense to Streptococcus pneumoniae, a gram-positive extracellular bacterium. Previous studies using blocking monoclonal antibodies suggested roles for CD18 and CD11b in hepatic neutrophil recruitment and host innate response to Listeria monocytogenes, a gram-positive intracellular bacterium. We induced systemic listeriosis in CD18 knockout (CD18-ko) and wild-type (WT) mice by tail vein injection with Listeria. By 14 days postinjection (dpi), 8 of 10 WT mice died, compared with 2 of 10 CD18-ko mice (P < 0.01). Quantitative organ culture showed that numbers of Listeria organisms in livers and spleens were similar in both groups at 20 min postinfection. By 3, 5, and 7 dpi, however, numbers of Listeria organisms were significantly lower in livers and spleens of CD18-ko mice than in WT mice. Histopathology showed that following Listeria infection, CD18-ko mice had milder inflammatory and necrotizing lesions in both spleens and livers than did WT mice. Cytokine assays indicated that baseline interleukin-1beta and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) levels were higher in CD18-ko mice than in WT mice and that CD18-ko splenocytes produced higher levels of interleukin-1beta and G-CSF than WT splenocytes under the same amount of Listeria stimulation. These findings show that CD18 is not an absolute requirement for antilisterial innate immunity or hepatic neutrophil recruitment. We propose that the absence of CD18 in the mice results in the priming of innate immunity, as evidenced by elevated cytokine expression, and neutrophilic leukocytosis, which augments antilisterial defense.

  5. Dopamine D3 receptor knockout mice exhibit abnormal nociception in a sex-different manner.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Xing, Bo; Chu, Zheng; Liu, Fei; Lei, Gang; Zhu, Li; Gao, Ya; Chen, Teng; Dang, Yong-Hui

    2017-07-01

    Pain is a complex and subjective experience. Previous studies have shown that mice lacking the dopamine D3 receptor (D3RKO) exhibit hypoalgesia, indicating a role of the D3 receptor in modulation of nociception. Given that there are sex differences in pain perception, there may be differences in responses to nociceptive stimuli between male and female D3RKO mice. In the current study, we examined the role of the D3 receptor in modulating nociception in male and female D3RKO mice. Acute thermal pain was modeled by hot-plate test. This test was performed at different temperatures including 52°C, 55°C, and 58°C. The von Frey hair test was applied to evaluate mechanical pain. And persistent pain produced by peripheral tissue injury and inflammation was modeled by formalin test. In the hot-plate test, compared with wild-type (WT) mice, D3RKO mice generally exhibited longer latencies at each of the three temperatures. Specially, male D3RKO mice showed hypoalgesia compared with male WT mice when the temperature was 55°C, while for the female mice, there was a statistical difference between genotypes when the test condition was 52°C. In the von Frey hair test, both male and female D3RKO mice exhibited hypoalgesia. In the formalin test, the male D3RKO mice displayed a similar nociceptive behavior as their sex-matched WT littermates, whereas significantly depressed late-phase formalin-induced nociceptive behaviors were observed in the female mutants. These findings indicated that the D3 receptor affects nociceptive behaviors in a sex-specific manner and that its absence induces more analgesic behavior in the female knockout mice. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Brain GLUT4 Knockout Mice Have Impaired Glucose Tolerance, Decreased Insulin Sensitivity, and Impaired Hypoglycemic Counterregulation

    PubMed Central

    Reno, Candace M.; Puente, Erwin C.; Sheng, Zhenyu; Daphna-Iken, Dorit; Bree, Adam J.; Routh, Vanessa H.; Kahn, Barbara B.

    2017-01-01

    GLUT4 in muscle and adipose tissue is important in maintaining glucose homeostasis. However, the role of insulin-responsive GLUT4 in the central nervous system has not been well characterized. To assess its importance, a selective knockout of brain GLUT4 (BG4KO) was generated by crossing Nestin-Cre mice with GLUT4-floxed mice. BG4KO mice had a 99% reduction in GLUT4 protein expression throughout the brain. Despite normal feeding and fasting glycemia, BG4KO mice were glucose intolerant, demonstrated hepatic insulin resistance, and had reduced glucose uptake in the brain. In response to hypoglycemia, BG4KO mice had impaired glucose sensing, noted by impaired epinephrine and glucagon responses and impaired c-fos activation in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Moreover, in vitro glucose sensing of glucose-inhibitory neurons from the ventromedial hypothalamus was impaired in BG4KO mice. In summary, BG4KO mice are glucose intolerant, insulin resistant, and have impaired glucose sensing, indicating a critical role for brain GLUT4 in sensing and responding to changes in blood glucose. PMID:27797912

  7. Brain GLUT4 Knockout Mice Have Impaired Glucose Tolerance, Decreased Insulin Sensitivity, and Impaired Hypoglycemic Counterregulation.

    PubMed

    Reno, Candace M; Puente, Erwin C; Sheng, Zhenyu; Daphna-Iken, Dorit; Bree, Adam J; Routh, Vanessa H; Kahn, Barbara B; Fisher, Simon J

    2017-03-01

    GLUT4 in muscle and adipose tissue is important in maintaining glucose homeostasis. However, the role of insulin-responsive GLUT4 in the central nervous system has not been well characterized. To assess its importance, a selective knockout of brain GLUT4 (BG4KO) was generated by crossing Nestin-Cre mice with GLUT4-floxed mice. BG4KO mice had a 99% reduction in GLUT4 protein expression throughout the brain. Despite normal feeding and fasting glycemia, BG4KO mice were glucose intolerant, demonstrated hepatic insulin resistance, and had reduced glucose uptake in the brain. In response to hypoglycemia, BG4KO mice had impaired glucose sensing, noted by impaired epinephrine and glucagon responses and impaired c-fos activation in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Moreover, in vitro glucose sensing of glucose-inhibitory neurons from the ventromedial hypothalamus was impaired in BG4KO mice. In summary, BG4KO mice are glucose intolerant, insulin resistant, and have impaired glucose sensing, indicating a critical role for brain GLUT4 in sensing and responding to changes in blood glucose. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  8. A comparative study of the characterization of miR-155 in knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dong; Cui, Yongchun; Li, Bin; Luo, Xiaokang; Li, Bo; Tang, Yue

    2017-01-01

    miR-155 is one of the most important miRNAs and plays a very important role in numerous biological processes. However, few studies have characterized this miRNA in mice under normal physiological conditions. We aimed to characterize miR-155 in vivo by using a comparative analysis. In our study, we compared miR-155 knockout (KO) mice with C57BL/6 wild type (WT) mice in order to characterize miR-155 in mice under normal physiological conditions using many evaluation methods, including a reproductive performance analysis, growth curve, ultrasonic estimation, haematological examination, and histopathological analysis. These analyses showed no significant differences between groups in the main evaluation indices. The growth and development were nearly normal for all mice and did not differ between the control and model groups. Using a comparative analysis and a summary of related studies published in recent years, we found that miR-155 was not essential for normal physiological processes in 8-week-old mice. miR-155 deficiency did not affect the development and growth of naturally ageing mice during the 42 days after birth. Thus, studying the complex biological functions of miR-155 requires the further use of KO mouse models. PMID:28278287

  9. Ethanol self-administration in serotonin transporter knockout mice: unconstrained demand and elasticity.

    PubMed

    Lamb, R J; Daws, L C

    2013-10-01

    Low serotonin function is associated with alcoholism, leading to speculation that increasing serotonin function could decrease ethanol consumption. Mice with one or two deletions of the serotonin transporter (SERT) gene have increased extracellular serotonin. To examine the relationship between SERT genotype and motivation for alcohol, we compared ethanol self-administration in mice with zero (knockout, KO), one (HET) or two copies (WT) of the SERT gene. All three genotypes learned to self-administer ethanol. The SSRI, fluvoxamine, decreased responding for ethanol in the HET and WT, but not the KO mice. When tested under a progressive ratio schedule, KO mice had lower breakpoints than HET or WT. As work requirements were increased across sessions, behavioral economic analysis of ethanol self-administration indicated that the decreased breakpoint in KO as compared to HET or WT mice was a result of lower levels of unconstrained demand, rather than differences in elasticity, i.e. the proportional decreases in ethanol earned with increasing work requirements were similar across genotypes. The difference in unconstrained demand was unlikely to result from motor or general motivational factors, as both WT and KO mice responded at high levels for a 50% condensed milk solution. As elasticity is hypothesized to measure essential value, these results indicate that KO value ethanol similarly to WT or HET mice despite having lower break points for ethanol. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  10. Aggravated brain damage after hypoxic ischemia in immature adenosine A2A knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Adén, Ulrika; Halldner, Linda; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Dalmau, Ishar; Ledent, Catherine; Fredholm, Bertil B

    2003-03-01

    Cerebral hypoxic ischemia (HI) is an important cause of brain injury in the newborn infant. Adenosine is believed to protect against HI brain damage. However, the roles of the different adenosine receptors are unclear, particularly in young animals. We examined the role of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) using 7-day-old A2A knockout (A2AR(-/-)) mice in a model of HI. HI was induced in 7-day-old CD1 mice by exposure to 8% oxygen for 30 minutes after occlusion of the left common carotid artery. The resulting unilateral focal lesion was evaluated with the use of histopathological scoring and measurements of residual brain areas at 5 days, 3 weeks, and 3 months after HI. Behavioral evaluation of brain injury by locomotor activity, rotarod, and beam-walking test was made 3 weeks and 3 months after HI. Cortical cerebral blood flow, assessed by laser-Doppler flowmetry, and rectal temperature were measured during HI. Reduction in cortical cerebral blood flow during HI and rectal temperature did not differ between wild-type (A2AR(+/+)) and knockout mice. In the A2AR(-/-) animals, brain injury was aggravated compared with wild-type mice. The A2AR(-/-) mice subjected to HI displayed increased forward locomotion and impaired rotarod performance in adulthood compared with A2AR(+/+) mice subjected to HI, whereas beam-walking performance was similarly defective in both groups. These results suggest that, in contrast to the situation in adult animals, A2AR play an important protective role in neonatal HI brain injury.

  11. Object recognition impairment in Fmr1 knockout mice is reversed by amphetamine: involvement of dopamine in the medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Ventura, R; Pascucci, T; Catania, M V; Musumeci, S A; Puglisi-Allegra, S

    2004-09-01

    Fragile X syndrome is an X-linked form of mental retardation including, among others, symptoms such as stereotypic behaviour, hyperactivity, hyperarousal, and cognitive deficits. We hypothesized that hyperactivity and/or compromised attentional, cognitive functions may lead to impaired performance in cognitive tasks in Fmr1 knockout mice, the most widely used animal model of fragile X syndrome, and suggested that psychostimulant treatment may improve performance by acting on one or both components. Since hyperactivity and cognitive functions have been suggested to depend on striatal and prefrontal cortex dopaminergic dysfunction, we assessed whether amphetamine produced beneficial, positive effects by acting on dopaminergic corticostriatal systems. Our results show that Fmr1 knockout mice are not able to discriminate between a familiar object and a novel one in the object recognition test, thus showing a clear-cut cognitive impairment that, to date, has been difficult to demonstrate in other cognitive tasks. Amphetamine improved performance of Fmr1 knockout mice, leading to enhanced ability to discriminate novel versus familiar objects, without significantly affecting locomotor activity. In agreement with behavioural data, amphetamine produced a greater increase in dopamine release in the prefrontal cortex of Fmr1 knockout compared with the wild-type mice, while a weak striatal dopaminergic response was observed in Fmr1 knockout mice. Our data support the view that the psychostimulant ameliorates performance in Fmr1 knockout mice by improving merely cognitive functions through its action on prefrontal cortical dopamine, irrespective of its action on motor hyperactivity. These results indicate that prefrontal cortical dopamine plays a major role in cognitive impairments characterizing Fmr1 knockout mice, thus pointing to an important aetiological factor in the fragile X syndrome.

  12. Phenotypic screening of hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 4-{gamma} receptor knockout mice

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdin, Anna Karin; Surve, Vikas V.; Joensson, Marie

    2006-10-20

    Using the mouse as a model organism in pharmaceutical research presents unique advantages as its physiology in many ways resembles the human physiology, it also has a relatively short generation time, low breeding and maintenance costs, and is available in a wide variety of inbred strains. The ability to genetically modify mouse embryonic stem cells to generate mouse models that better mimic human disease is another advantage. In the present study, a comprehensive phenotypic screening protocol is applied to elucidate the phenotype of a novel mouse knockout model of hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 4-{gamma}. HNF4-{gamma} is expressed in the kidneys,more » gut, pancreas, and testis. First level of the screen is aimed at general health, morphologic appearance, normal cage behaviour, and gross neurological functions. The second level of the screen looks at metabolic characteristics and lung function. The third level of the screen investigates behaviour more in-depth and the fourth level consists of a thorough pathological characterisation, blood chemistry, haematology, and bone marrow analysis. When compared with littermate wild-type mice (HNF4-{gamma}{sup +/+}), the HNF4-{gamma} knockout (HNF4-{gamma}{sup -/-}) mice had lowered energy expenditure and locomotor activity during night time that resulted in a higher body weight despite having reduced intake of food and water. HNF4-{gamma}{sup -/-} mice were less inclined to build nest and were found to spend more time in a passive state during the forced swim test.« less

  13. Comprehensive phenotypic analysis of knockout mice deficient in cyclin G1 and cyclin G2

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Shouichi; Ikeda, Jun-ichiro; Naito, Yoko; Okuzaki, Daisuke; Sasakura, Towa; Fukushima, Kohshiro; Nishikawa, Yukihiro; Ota, Kaori; Kato, Yorika; Wang, Mian; Torigata, Kosuke; Kasama, Takashi; Uchihashi, Toshihiro; Miura, Daisaku; Yabuta, Norikazu; Morii, Eiichi; Nojima, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin G1 (CycG1) and Cyclin G2 (CycG2) play similar roles during the DNA damage response (DDR), but their detailed roles remain elusive. To investigate their distinct roles, we generated knockout mice deficient in CycG1 (G1KO) or CycG2 (G2KO), as well as double knockout mice (DKO) deficient in both proteins. All knockouts developed normally and were fertile. Generation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from these mice revealed that G2KO MEFs, but not G1KO or DKO MEFs, were resistant to DNA damage insults caused by camptothecin and ionizing radiation (IR) and underwent cell cycle arrest. CycG2, but not CycG1, co-localized with γH2AX foci in the nucleus after γ-IR, and γH2AX-mediated DNA repair and dephosphorylation of CHK2 were delayed in G2KO MEFs. H2AX associated with CycG1, CycG2, and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), suggesting that γH2AX affects the function of PP2A via direct interaction with its B’γ subunit. Furthermore, expression of CycG2, but not CycG1, was abnormal in various cancer cell lines. Kaplan–Meier curves based on TCGA data disclosed that head and neck cancer patients with reduced CycG2 expression have poorer clinical prognoses. Taken together, our data suggest that reduced CycG2 expression could be useful as a novel prognostic marker of cancer. PMID:27982046

  14. Haloperidol inhibits the development of atherosclerotic lesions in LDL receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    van der Sluis, Ronald J; Nahon, Joya E; Reuwer, Anne Q; Van Eck, Miranda; Hoekstra, Menno

    2015-05-01

    Antipsychotic drugs have been shown to modulate the expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), a key factor in the anti-atherogenic reverse cholesterol transport process, in vitro. Here we evaluated the potential of the typical antipsychotic drug haloperidol to modulate the cholesterol efflux function of macrophages in vitro and their susceptibility to atherosclerosis in vivo. Thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages were used for in vitro studies. Hyperlipidaemic low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor knockout mice were implanted with a haloperidol-containing pellet and subsequently fed a Western-type diet for 5 weeks to induce the development of atherosclerotic lesions in vivo. Haloperidol induced a 54% decrease in the mRNA expression of ABCA1 in peritoneal macrophages. This coincided with a 30% decrease in the capacity of macrophages to efflux cholesterol to apolipoprotein A1. Haloperidol treatment stimulated the expression of ABCA1 (+51%) and other genes involved in reverse cholesterol transport, that is, CYP7A1 (+98%) in livers of LDL receptor knockout mice. No change in splenic ABCA1 expression was noted. However, the average size of the atherosclerotic size was significantly smaller (-31%) in the context of a mildly more atherogenic metabolic phenotype upon haloperidol treatment. More importantly, haloperidol markedly lowered MCP-1 expression (-70%) and secretion (-28%) by peritoneal macrophages. Haloperidol treatment lowered the susceptibility of hyperlipidaemic LDL receptor knockout mice to develop atherosclerotic lesions. Our findings suggest that the beneficial effect of haloperidol on atherosclerosis susceptibility can be attributed to its ability to inhibit macrophage chemotaxis. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  15. Haloperidol inhibits the development of atherosclerotic lesions in LDL receptor knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    van der Sluis, Ronald J; Nahon, Joya E; Reuwer, Anne Q; Van Eck, Miranda; Hoekstra, Menno

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Antipsychotic drugs have been shown to modulate the expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), a key factor in the anti-atherogenic reverse cholesterol transport process, in vitro. Here we evaluated the potential of the typical antipsychotic drug haloperidol to modulate the cholesterol efflux function of macrophages in vitro and their susceptibility to atherosclerosis in vivo. Experimental Approach Thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages were used for in vitro studies. Hyperlipidaemic low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor knockout mice were implanted with a haloperidol-containing pellet and subsequently fed a Western-type diet for 5 weeks to induce the development of atherosclerotic lesions in vivo. Key Results Haloperidol induced a 54% decrease in the mRNA expression of ABCA1 in peritoneal macrophages. This coincided with a 30% decrease in the capacity of macrophages to efflux cholesterol to apolipoprotein A1. Haloperidol treatment stimulated the expression of ABCA1 (+51%) and other genes involved in reverse cholesterol transport, that is, CYP7A1 (+98%) in livers of LDL receptor knockout mice. No change in splenic ABCA1 expression was noted. However, the average size of the atherosclerotic size was significantly smaller (−31%) in the context of a mildly more atherogenic metabolic phenotype upon haloperidol treatment. More importantly, haloperidol markedly lowered MCP-1 expression (−70%) and secretion (−28%) by peritoneal macrophages. Conclusions and Implications Haloperidol treatment lowered the susceptibility of hyperlipidaemic LDL receptor knockout mice to develop atherosclerotic lesions. Our findings suggest that the beneficial effect of haloperidol on atherosclerosis susceptibility can be attributed to its ability to inhibit macrophage chemotaxis. PMID:25572138

  16. Altered Morphology and Function of the Lacrimal Functional Unit in Protein Kinase Cα Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhuo; Li, Zhijie; Basti, Surendra; Farley, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Protein kinase C (PKC) α plays a major role in the parasympathetic neural stimulation of lacrimal gland (LG) secretion. It also has been reported to have antiapoptotic properties and to promote cell survival. Therefore, the hypothesis for the present study was that PKCα knockout (−/−) mice have impaired ocular surface–lacrimal gland signaling, rendering them susceptible to desiccating stress and impaired corneal epithelial wound healing. In this study, the lacrimal function unit (LFU) and the stressed wound-healing response were examined in PKCα−/− mice. Methods. In PKCα+/+ control mice and PKCα−/− mice, tear production, osmolarity, and clearance rate were evaluated before and after experimental desiccating stress. Histology and immunofluorescent staining of PKC and epidermal growth factor were performed in tissues of the LFU. Cornified envelope (CE) precursor protein expression and cell proliferation were evaluated. The time course of healing and degree of neutrophil infiltration was evaluated after corneal epithelial wounding. Results. Compared with the PKCα+/+ mice, the PKCα−/− mice were noted to have significantly increased lacrimal gland weight, with enlarged, carbohydrate-rich, PAS-positive acinar cells; increased corneal epithelia permeability, with reduced CE expression; and larger conjunctival epithelial goblet cells. The PKCα−/− mice showed more rapid corneal epithelial healing, with less neutrophil infiltration and fewer proliferating cells than did the PKCα+/+ mice. Conclusions. The PKCα−/− mice showed lower tear production, which appeared to be caused by impaired secretion by the LG and conjunctival goblet cells. Despite their altered tear dynamics, the PKCα−/− mice demonstrated more rapid corneal epithelial wound healing, perhaps due to decreased neutrophil infiltration. PMID:20505191

  17. A conditioned aversion study of sucrose and SC45647 taste in TRPM5 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Meghan C; Eschle, Benjamin K; Peterson, Darlene; Lauras, Nathan; Margolskee, Robert F; Delay, Eugene R

    2012-06-01

    Previously, published studies have reported mixed results regarding the role of the TRPM5 cation channel in signaling sweet taste by taste sensory cells. Some studies have reported a complete loss of sweet taste preference in TRPM5 knockout (KO) mice, whereas others have reported only a partial loss of sweet taste preference. This study reports the results of conditioned aversion studies designed to motivate wild-type (WT) and KO mice to respond to sweet substances. In conditioned taste aversion experiments, WT mice showed nearly complete LiCl-induced response suppression to sucrose and SC45647. In contrast, TRPM5 KO mice showed a much smaller conditioned aversion to either sweet substance, suggesting a compromised, but not absent, ability to detect sweet taste. A subsequent conditioned flavor aversion experiment was conducted to determine if TRPM5 KO mice were impaired in their ability to learn a conditioned aversion. In this experiment, KO and WT mice were conditioned to a mixture of SC45647 and amyl acetate (an odor cue). Although WT mice avoided both components of the stimulus mixture, they avoided SC45647 more than the odor cue. The KO mice also avoided both stimuli, but they avoided the odor component more than SC45647, suggesting that while the KO mice are capable of learning an aversion, to them the odor cue was more salient than the taste cue. Collectively, these findings suggest the TRPM5 KO mice have some residual ability to detect SC45647 and sucrose, and, like bitter, there may be a TRPM5-independent transduction pathway for detecting these substances.

  18. Reduced emotional and corticosterone responses to stress in μ-opioid receptor knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Ide, Soichiro; Sora, Ichiro; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Minami, Masabumi; Uhl, George R.; Ishihara, Kumatoshi

    2014-01-01

    The detailed mechanisms of emotional modulation in the nervous system by opioids remain to be elucidated, although the opioid system is well known to play important roles in the mechanisms of analgesia and drug dependence. In the present study, we conducted behavioral tests of anxiety and depression and measured corticosterone concentrations in both male and female μ-opioid receptor knockout (MOP-KO) mice to reveal the involvement of μ-opioid receptors in stress-induced emotional responses. MOP-KO mice entered more and spent more time in the open arms of the elevated plus maze compared with wild-type mice. MOP-KO mice also displayed significantly decreased immobility in a 15 min tail-suspension test compared with wild-type mice. Similarly, MOP-KO mice exhibited significantly decreased immobility on days 2, 3, and 4 in a 6 min forced swim test conducted for 5 consecutive days. The increase in plasma corticosterone concentration induced by tail-suspension, repeated forced swim, or restraint stress was reduced in MOP-KO mice compared with wild-type mice. Corticosterone levels were not different between wild-type and MOP-KO mice before stress exposure. In contrast, although female mice tended to exhibit fewer anxiety-like responses in the tail-suspension test in both genotypes, no significant gender differences were observed in stress-induced emotional responses. These results suggest that MOPs play an important facilitatory role in emotional responses to stress, including anxiety- and depression-like behavior and corticosterone levels. PMID:19596019

  19. Impact of food restriction and cocaine on locomotion in ghrelin- and ghrelin-receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Shane; Zeckler, Rosie Albarran; Buckman, Sam; Thompson, Jeff; Hart, Nigel; Wellman, Paul J; Smith, Roy G

    2011-07-01

    Food restriction (FR) augments the behavioral and reinforcing effects of psychomotor stimulants such as cocaine or amphetamine; effects that may be related to the capacity of FR to increase plasma levels of ghrelin (GHR), a 28-amino acid orexigenenic peptide linked to activation of brain dopamine systems. The present study used wild-type (WT) mice or mutant mice sustaining knockout of either GHR [GHR((-/-)) ] or of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor [GHS-R((-/-)) ] and subjected to FR or not to evaluate the role of GHR and GHS-R in cocaine-stimulated locomotion. WT, GHR((-/-)) , and GHS-R((-/-)) mice were either restricted to 60% of baseline caloric intake or allowed to free-feed (FF). Mice were treated with 0, 1.25, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg cocaine on separate test days (in random dose order) and forward locomotion was recorded on each drug day for 45 minutes after drug dosing. Food (and water) was available immediately after (but not during) each activity test. For FF mice, there was no interaction between cocaine and GHR status on locomotion. FR-WT mice treated with saline exhibited significant increases in anticipatory locomotion (relative to FF-WT mice), whereas FR-GHS-R((-/-)) mice did not. Cocaine significantly increased locomotion in FR-GHR((-/-)) and FR-GHS-R((-/-)) mice to the levels noted in FR-WT mice. These results suggest that GHS-R activity, but not GHR activity, is required for FR to augment food-associated anticipatory locomotion, but do not support the contention that GHR pathways are required for the capacity of FR to augment the acute effect of cocaine on locomotion. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Ibuprofen partially attenuates neurodegenerative symptoms in presenilin conditional double-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Dong, Z; Yan, L; Huang, G; Zhang, L; Mei, B; Meng, B

    2014-06-13

    Ibuprofen is a widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that reportedly reduces the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) development. The anti-inflammatory effect of ibuprofen occurred via inhibition of cyclooxygenases and anti-amyloidogenesis through modulation of γ-secretase. Presenilin 1 and 2 conditional double-knockout (cDKO) mice exhibited age-dependent memory impairment and forebrain degeneration without elevation of amyloid β deposition. Therefore, cDKO mice can be an ideal animal model on which to independently test the effects of ibuprofen anti-inflammatory properties on the prevention of AD. Three- and six-month-old cDKO mice were fed diet containing 375 ppm ibuprofen for six months. After multiple, well-validated behavioral tests, treatment with ibuprofen improved cognition-related behavioral performance, and drug efficacy was correlated with the timing of administration. Ibuprofen was more effective on six-month-old than on three-month-old cDKO mice. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that the effects of ibuprofen on glial fibrillary acidic protein and CD68 expression levels were uneven in different brain regions of cDKO mice and that age also influenced such effects. Tau hyperphosphorylation and the cleavage of caspase-3 decreased after ibuprofen treatment, and this effect was more significant in the older than the younger group of mice, which was consistent with the results of behavioral tests. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Alterations in bladder function associated with urothelial defects in uroplakin II and IIIa knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Aboushwareb, Tamer; Zhou, Ge; Deng, Fang-Ming; Turner, Chanda; Andersson, Karl-Erik; Tar, Moses; Zhao, Weixin; Melman, Arnold; D'Agostino, Ralph; Sun, Tung-Tien; Christ, George J

    2009-01-01

    The effects of deleting genes encoding uroplakins II (UPII) and III (UPIIIa) on mouse bladder physiology/dysfunction were studied in male and female wild type and knockout (KO) mice. UPII, UPIIIa, and WT mice were catheterized using previously described techniques. Continuous cystometry was conducted in conscious, freely moving animals. Bladder strips were harvested after animal sacrifice and pharmacological studies and EFS were conducted in an organ chamber. Histological studies were also carried on with H&E staining to identify differences among the three mouse types. These studies have revealed numerous alterations, some of which were apparently gender-specific. Nonvoiding contractions were common in both UPII and UPIIIa KO mice, although more severe in the former. In particular, the increased bladder capacity, micturition pressure and demonstrable nonvoiding contractions observed in the male UPII KO's, were reminiscent of an obstruction-like syndrome accompanied by evidence of emerging bladder decompensation, as reflected by an increased residual volume. Pharmacological studies revealed a modest, gender-specific reduction in sensitivity of isolated detrusor strips from UPII KO female mice to carbachol-induced contractions. A similar reduction was observed in UPIIIa KO female mice. Histological investigation showed urothelial hyperplasia in both UPII KO and UPIIIa KO mice, although again, apparently more severe in the former. These results confirm and extend previous work to indicate that urothelial defects due to uroplakin deficiency are associated with significant alterations in bladder function and further highlight the importance of the urothelium to bladder physiology/dysfunction.

  2. Resistance of R-Ras knockout mice to skin tumour induction

    PubMed Central

    May, Ulrike; Prince, Stuart; Vähätupa, Maria; Laitinen, Anni M.; Nieminen, Katriina; Uusitalo-Järvinen, Hannele; Järvinen, Tero A. H.

    2015-01-01

    The R-ras gene encodes a small GTPase that is a member of the Ras family. Despite close sequence similarities, R-Ras is functionally distinct from the prototypic Ras proteins; no transformative activity and no activating mutations of R-Ras in human malignancies have been reported for it. R-Ras activity appears inhibitory towards tumour proliferation and invasion, and to promote cellular quiescence. Contrary to this, using mice with a deletion of the R-ras gene, we found that R-Ras facilitates DMBA/TPA-induced skin tumour induction. The tumours appeared in wild-type (WT) mice on average 6 weeks earlier than in R-Ras knockout (R-Ras KO) mice. WT mice developed almost 6 times more tumours than R-Ras KO mice. Despite strong R-Ras protein expression in the dermal blood vessels, no R-Ras could be detected in the epidermis from where the tumours arose. The DMBA/TPA skin tumourigenesis-model is highly dependent upon inflammation, and we found a greatly attenuated skin inflammatory response to DMBA/TPA-treatment in the R-Ras KO mice in the context of leukocyte infiltration and proinflammatory cytokine expression. Thus, these data suggest that despite its characterised role in promoting cellular quiescence, R-Ras is pro-tumourigenic in the DMBA/TPA tumour model and important for the inflammatory response to DMBA/TPA treatment. PMID:26133397

  3. Retinoid-related orphan receptor γ (RORγ) adult induced knockout mice develop lymphoblastic lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Liljevald, Maria; Rehnberg, Maria; Söderberg, Magnus; Ramnegård, Marie; Börjesson, Jenny; Luciani, Donatella; Krutrök, Nina; Brändén, Lena; Johansson, Camilla; Xu, Xiufeng; Bjursell, Mikael; Sjögren, Anna-Karin; Hornberg, Jorrit; Andersson, Ulf; Keeling, David; Jirholt, Johan

    2016-11-01

    RORγ is a nuclear hormone receptor which controls polarization of naive CD4 + T-cells into proinflammatory Th17 cells. Pharmacological antagonism of RORγ has therapeutic potential for autoimmune diseases; however, this mechanism may potentially carry target-related safety risks, as mice deficient in Rorc, the gene encoding RORγ, develop T-cell lymphoma with 50% frequency. Due to the requirement of RORγ during development, the Rorc knockout (KO) animals lack secondary lymphoid organs and have a dysregulation in the generation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. We wanted to extend the evaluation of RORγ deficiency to address the question whether lymphomas, similar to those observed in the Rorc KO, would develop in an animal with an otherwise intact adult immune system. Accordingly, we designed a conditional RORγ knockout mouse (Rorc CKO) where the Rorc locus could be deleted in adult animals. Based on these studies we can confirm that these animals also develop lymphoma in a similar time frame as embryonic Rorc knockouts. This study also suggests that in animals where the gene deletion is incomplete, the thymus undergoes a rapid selection process replacing Rorc deficient cells with remnant thymocytes carrying a functional Rorc locus and that subsequently, these animals do not develop lymphoblastic lymphoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Satoko; Takao, Keizo; Tanda, Koichi; Toyama, Keiko; Shintani, Norihito; Baba, Akemichi; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide acting as a neurotransmitter, neuromodulator, or neurotrophic factor. PACAP is widely expressed throughout the brain and exerts its functions through the PACAP-specific receptor (PAC1). Recent studies reveal that genetic variants of the PACAP and PAC1 genes are associated with mental disorders, and several behavioral abnormalities of PACAP knockout (KO) mice are reported. However, an insufficient number of backcrosses was made using PACAP KO mice on the C57BL/6J background due to their postnatal mortality. To elucidate the effects of PACAP on neuropsychiatric function, the PACAP gene was knocked out in F1 hybrid mice (C57BL/6J × 129SvEv) for appropriate control of the genetic background. The PACAP KO mice were then subjected to a behavioral test battery. PACAP deficiency had no significant effects on neurological screen. As shown previously, the mice exhibited significantly increased locomotor activity in a novel environment and abnormal anxiety-like behavior, while no obvious differences between genotypes were shown in home cage (HC) activity. In contrast to previous reports, the PACAP KO mice showed normal prepulse inhibition (PPI) and slightly decreased depression-like behavior. Previous study demonstrates that the social interaction (SI) in a resident-intruder test was decreased in PACAP KO mice. On the other hand, we showed that PACAP KO mice exhibited increased SI in Crawley's three-chamber social approach test, although PACAP KO had no significant impact on SI in a HC. PACAP KO mice also exhibited mild performance deficit in working memory in an eight-arm radial maze (RM) and the T-maze (TM), while they did not show any significant abnormalities in the left-right discrimination task in the TM. These results suggest that PACAP has an important role in the regulation of locomotor activity, social behavior, anxiety-like behavior and, potentially, working memory. PMID:23060763

  5. Running exercise alleviates trabecular bone loss and osteopenia in hemizygous β-globin knockout thalassemic mice.

    PubMed

    Thongchote, Kanogwun; Svasti, Saovaros; Teerapornpuntakit, Jarinthorn; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol

    2014-06-15

    A marked decrease in β-globin production led to β-thalassemia, a hereditary anemic disease associated with bone marrow expansion, bone erosion, and osteoporosis. Herein, we aimed to investigate changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular microstructure in hemizygous β-globin knockout thalassemic (BKO) mice and to determine whether endurance running (60 min/day, 5 days/wk for 12 wk in running wheels) could effectively alleviate bone loss in BKO mice. Both male and female BKO mice (1-2 mo old) showed growth retardation as indicated by smaller body weight and femoral length than their wild-type littermates. A decrease in BMD was more severe in female than in male BKO mice. Bone histomorphometry revealed that BKO mice had decreases in trabecular bone volume, trabecular number, and trabecular thickness, presumably due to suppression of osteoblast-mediated bone formation and activation of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, the latter of which was consistent with elevated serum levels of osteoclastogenic cytokines IL-1α and -1β. As determined by peripheral quantitative computed tomography, running increased cortical density and thickness in the femoral and tibial diaphyses of BKO mice compared with those of sedentary BKO mice. Several histomorphometric parameters suggested an enhancement of bone formation (e.g., increased mineral apposition rate) and suppression of bone resorption (e.g., decreased osteoclast surface), which led to increases in trabecular bone volume and trabecular thickness in running BKO mice. In conclusion, BKO mice exhibited pervasive osteopenia and impaired bone microstructure, whereas running exercise appeared to be an effective intervention in alleviating bone microstructural defect in β-thalassemia. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Comparative effects of chlorpyrifos in wild type and cannabinoid Cb1 receptor knockout mice

    SciTech Connect

    Baireddy, Praveena; Liu, Jing; Hinsdale, Myron

    2011-11-15

    Endocannabinoids (eCBs) modulate neurotransmission by inhibiting the release of a variety of neurotransmitters. The cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55.212-2 (WIN) can modulate organophosphorus (OP) anticholinesterase toxicity in rats, presumably by inhibiting acetylcholine (ACh) release. Some OP anticholinesterases also inhibit eCB-degrading enzymes. We studied the effects of the OP insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) on cholinergic signs of toxicity, cholinesterase activity and ACh release in tissues from wild type (+/+) and cannabinoid CB1 receptor knockout (-/-) mice. Mice of both genotypes (n = 5-6/treatment group) were challenged with CPF (300 mg/kg, 2 ml/kg in peanut oil, sc) and evaluated for functional and neurochemicalmore » changes. Both genotypes exhibited similar cholinergic signs and cholinesterase inhibition (82-95% at 48 h after dosing) in cortex, cerebellum and heart. WIN reduced depolarization-induced ACh release in vitro in hippocampal slices from wild type mice, but had no effect in hippocampal slices from knockouts or in striatal slices from either genotype. Chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO, 100 {mu}M) reduced release in hippocampal slices from both genotypes in vitro, but with a greater reduction in tissues from wild types (21% vs 12%). CPO had no significant in vitro effect on ACh release in striatum. CPF reduced ACh release in hippocampus from both genotypes ex vivo, but reduction was again significantly greater in tissues from wild types (52% vs 36%). In striatum, CPF led to a similar reduction (20-23%) in tissues from both genotypes. Thus, while CB1 deletion in mice had little influence on the expression of acute toxicity following CPF, CPF- or CPO-induced changes in ACh release appeared sensitive to modulation by CB1-mediated eCB signaling in a brain-regional manner. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C57Bl/6 mice showed dose-related cholinergic toxicity following subcutaneous chlorpyrifos exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wild type and

  7. Sortilin 1 knockout alters basal adipose glucose metabolism but not diet-induced obesity in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Jibiao; Matye, David J; Wang, Yifeng; Li, Tiangang

    2017-04-01

    Sortilin 1 (Sort1) is a trafficking receptor that has been implicated in the regulation of plasma cholesterol in humans and mice. Here, we use metabolomics and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp approaches to obtain further understanding of the in vivo effects of Sort1 deletion on diet-induced obesity as well as on adipose lipid and glucose metabolism. Results show that Sort1 knockout (KO) does not affect Western diet-induced obesity nor adipose fatty acid and ceramide concentrations. Under the basal fasting state, chow-fed Sort1 KO mice have decreased adipose glycolytic metabolites, but Sort1 deletion does not affect insulin-stimulated tissue glucose uptake during the insulin clamp. These results suggest that Sort1 loss-of-function in vivo does not affect obesity development, but differentially modulates adipose glucose metabolism under fasting and insulin-stimulated states. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  8. Taste responses to sweet stimuli in alpha-gustducin knockout and wild-type mice.

    PubMed

    Danilova, Vicktoria; Damak, Sami; Margolskee, Robert F; Hellekant, Göran

    2006-07-01

    The importance of alpha-gustducin in sweet taste transduction is based on data obtained with sucrose and the artificial sweetener SC45647. Here we studied the role of alpha-gustducin in sweet taste. We compared the behavioral and electrophysiological responses of alpha-gustducin knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice to 11 different sweeteners, representing carbohydrates, artificial sweeteners, and sweet amino acids. In behavioral experiments, over 48-h preference ratios were measured in two-bottle preference tests. In electrophysiological experiments, integrated responses of chorda tympani (CT) and glossopharyngeal (NG) nerves were recorded. We found that preference ratios of the KO mice were significantly lower than those of WT for acesulfame-K, dulcin, fructose, NC00174, D-phenylalanine, L-proline, D-tryptophan, saccharin, SC45647, sucrose, but not neotame. The nerve responses to all sweeteners, except neotame, were smaller in the KO mice than in the WT mice. The differences between the responses in WT and KO mice were more pronounced in the CT than in the NG. These data indicate that alpha-gustducin participates in the transduction of the sweet taste in general.

  9. Dietary corn fractions reduce atherogenesis in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Masisi, Kabo; Le, Khuong; Ghazzawi, Nora; Moghadasian, Mohammed H; Beta, Trust

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has suggested that intake of whole grains is a protective factor against pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. The exact mechanisms, however, are still not clearly understood. In this study, we hypothesized that adequate intake of corn fractions (aleurone, endosperm and germ) can modify lipid profiles in relation to atherosclerotic lesion development in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLr-KO) mice. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential cardiovascular benefits of corn fractions in LDLr-KO mice through a number of biomarkers including lipid profile, and morphologic and morphometrical analysis of atherosclerotic lesions in aortic root. Four groups of male LDLr-KO mice were fed with the experimental diets supplemented with (3 treated) or without (control) 5% (wt/wt) of each of corn fractions for 10 weeks. All diets were supplemented with 0.06% (wt/wt) cholesterol. Compared with mice in the control group, atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic roots were significantly reduced (P=.003) in the mice that were fed diet supplemented with aleurone and germ fractions. This effect was associated with significant reductions in plasma total (P=.02) and LDL (P=.03) cholesterol levels, and an increase in fecal cholesterol excretion (P=.04). Furthermore, abdominal fat mass was significantly reduced by consumption of aleurone (P=.03). In summary, the consumption of aleurone and germ may help attenuate atherosclerosis by reducing plasma total and LDL cholesterol levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of metformin on mitochondrial subproteome in the brain of apoE knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Suski, Maciej; Olszanecki, Rafał; Chmura, Łukasz; Stachowicz, Aneta; Madej, Józef; Okoń, Krzysztof; Adamek, Dariusz; Korbut, Ryszard

    2016-02-05

    Neurodegenerative diseases are the set of progressive, age-related brain disorders, characterized by an excessive accumulation of mutant proteins in the certain regions of the brain. Such changes, collectively identified as causal factors of neurodegeneration, all impact mitochondria, imminently leading to their dysfunction. These observations predestine mitochondria as an attractive drug target for counteracting degenerative brain damage. The aim of this study was to use a differential proteomic approach to comprehensively assess the changes in mitochondrial protein expression in the brain of apoE-knockout mice (apoE(-/-)) and to investigate the influence of prolonged treatment with metformin - an indirect activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) on the brain mitoproteome in apoE(-/-) mice. The quantitative assessment of the brain mitoproteome in apoE(-/-) revealed the changes in 10 proteins expression as compared to healthy C57BL/6J mice and 25 proteins expression in metformin-treated apoE(-/-) mice. Identified proteins mainly included apoptosis regulators, metabolic enzymes and structural proteins. In summary, our study provided proteomic characteristics suggesting the decrease of antioxidant defense and structural disturbances in the brain mitochondria of apoE(-/-) mice as compared to healthy controls. In this setting, the use of metformin changed the expression of several proteins primarily involved in metabolic processes, the regulation of apoptosis and the structural maintenance of mitochondria, what could potentially restore their native functionalities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Regulator of calmodulin signaling (RCS) knockout mice display anxiety-like behavior and motivational deficits

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Maya M.; Olausson, Peter; Greengard, Paul; Taylor, Jane R.; Nairn, Angus C.

    2013-01-01

    Regulator of calmodulin (CaM) signaling (RCS), when phosphorylated by protein kinase A (PKA) on Ser55, binds to CaM and inhibits CaM-dependent signaling. RCS expression is high in the dorsal striatum, nucleus accumbens and amygdala, suggesting that the protein is involved in limbic-striatal function. To test this hypothesis, we examined RCS knockout (KO) mice in behavioral models dependent on these brain areas. Mice were tested for food-reinforced instrumental conditioning and responding under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement and in models of anxiety (elevated plus maze and open field). While RCS KO mice showed normal acquisition of a food-motivated instrumental response, they exhibited a lower breakpoint value when tested on responding under a PR schedule of reinforcement. RCS KO mice also displayed decreased exploration in both the open arms of an elevated plus maze and in the center region of an open field, suggesting an enhanced anxiety response. Biochemical studies revealed a reduction in the levels of dopamine and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein (DARPP-32) in the striatum of RCS KO mice. DARPP-32 is important in reward-mediated behavior, suggestive of a possible role for DARPP-32 in mediating some of the effects of RCS. Together these results implicate a novel PKA-regulated phosphoprotein, RCS, in the etiology of motivational deficits and anxiety. PMID:22250817

  12. β2-Adrenergic Receptor Knockout Mice Exhibit A Diabetic Retinopathy Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Youde; Zhang, Qiuhua; Liu, Li; Tang, Jie; Kern, Timothy S.; Steinle, Jena J.

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable evidence from our lab and others for a functional link between β-adrenergic receptor and insulin receptor signaling pathways in retina. Furthermore, we hypothesize that this link may contribute to lesions similar to diabetic retinopathy in that the loss of adrenergic input observed in diabetic retinopathy may disrupt normal anti-apoptotic insulin signaling, leading to retinal cell death. Our studies included assessment of neural retina function (ERG), vascular degeneration, and Müller glial cells (which express only β1 and β2-adrenergic receptor subtypes). In the current study, we produced β2-adrenergic receptor knockout mice to examine this deletion on retinal neurons and vasculature, and to identify specific pathways through which β2-adrenergic receptor modulates insulin signaling. As predicted from our hypothesis, β2-adrenergic receptor knockout mice display certain features similar to diabetic retinopathy. In addition, loss of β2-adrenergic input resulted in an increase in TNFα, a key inhibitor of insulin receptor signaling. Increased TNFα may be associated with insulin-dependent production of the anti-apoptotic factor, Akt. Since the effects occurred in vivo under normal glucose conditions, we postulate that aspects of the diabetic retinopathy phenotype might be triggered by loss of β2-adrenergic receptor signaling. PMID:23894672

  13. Dlgap1 knockout mice exhibit alterations of the postsynaptic density and selective reductions in sociability.

    PubMed

    Coba, M P; Ramaker, M J; Ho, E V; Thompson, S L; Komiyama, N H; Grant, S G N; Knowles, J A; Dulawa, S C

    2018-02-02

    The scaffold protein DLGAP1 is localized at the post-synaptic density (PSD) of glutamatergic neurons and is a component of supramolecular protein complexes organized by PSD95. Gain-of-function variants of DLGAP1 have been associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), while haploinsufficient variants have been linked to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia in human genetic studies. We tested male and female Dlgap1 wild type (WT), heterozygous (HT), and knockout (KO) mice in a battery of behavioral tests: open field, dig, splash, prepulse inhibition, forced swim, nest building, social approach, and sucrose preference. We also used biochemical approaches to examine the role of DLGAP1 in the organization of PSD protein complexes. Dlgap1 KO mice were most notable for disruption of protein interactions in the PSD, and deficits in sociability. Other behavioral measures were largely unaffected. Our data suggest that Dlgap1 knockout leads to PSD disruption and reduced sociability, consistent with reports of DLGAP1 haploinsufficient variants in schizophrenia and ASD.

  14. Moderate Continuous Aerobic Exercise Training Improves Cardiomyocyte Contractility in Β1 Adrenergic Receptor Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Aurora Corrêa; Natali, Antônio José; Cunha, Daise Nunes Queiroz da; Costa, Alexandre Jayme Lopes Dantas; Moura, Anselmo Gomes de; Araújo Carneiro-Júnior, Miguel; Félix, Leonardo Bonato; Brum, Patrícia Chakur; Prímola-Gomes, Thales Nicolau

    2018-03-01

    The lack of cardiac β1-adrenergic receptors (β1-AR) negatively affects the regulation of both cardiac inotropy and lusitropy, leading, in the long term, to heart failure (HF). Moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (MCAE) is recommended as an adjunctive therapy for patients with HF. We tested the effects of MCAE on the contractile properties of left ventricular (LV) myocytes from β1 adrenergic receptor knockout (β1ARKO) mice. Four- to five-month-old male wild type (WT) and β1ARKO mice were divided into groups: WT control (WTc) and trained (WTt); and β1ARKO control (β1ARKOc) and trained (β1ARKOt). Animals from trained groups were submitted to a MCAE regimen (60 min/day; 60% of maximal speed, 5 days/week) on a treadmill, for 8 weeks. P ≤ 0.05 was considered significant in all comparisons. The β1ARKO and exercised mice exhibited a higher (p < 0.05) running capacity than WT and sedentary ones, respectively. The β1ARKO mice showed higher body (BW), heart (HW) and left ventricle (LVW) weights, as well as the HW/BW and LVW/BW than WT mice. However, the MCAE did not affect these parameters. Left ventricular myocytes from β1ARKO mice showed increased (p < 0.05) amplitude and velocities of contraction and relaxation than those from WT. In addition, MCAE increased (p < 0.05) amplitude and velocities of contraction and relaxation in β1ARKO mice. MCAE improves myocyte contractility in the left ventricle of β1ARKO mice. This is evidence to support the therapeutic value of this type of exercise training in the treatment of heart diseases involving β1-AR desensitization or reduction.

  15. Impact of chocolate liquor on vascular lesions in apoE-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Yazdekhasti, Narges; Brandsch, Corinna; Hirche, Frank; Kühn, Julia; Schloesser, Anke; Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Huebbe, Patricia; Wolffram, Siegfried; Rimbach, Gerald; Stangl, Gabriele I

    2017-10-15

    Cocoa polyphenols are thought to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Thus, cocoa-containing foods may have significant health benefits. Here, we studied the impact of chocolate liquor on vascular lesion development and plaque composition in a mouse model of atherosclerosis. Apolipoprotein E (apoE)-knockout mice were assigned to two groups and fed a Western diet that contained 250 g/kg of either chocolate liquor or a polyphenol-free isoenergetic control paste for 16 weeks. In addition to fat, protein, and fibers, the chocolate liquor contained 2 g/kg of polyphenols. Compared with the control group, mice fed the chocolate liquor had larger plaque areas in the descending aorta and aortic root, which were attributed to a higher mass of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and collagen. Vascular lipid deposits and calcification areas did not differ between the two groups. The aortic tissue level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA was 5-fold higher in the mice fed chocolate liquor than in the control mice. Chocolate-fed mice exhibited an increased hepatic saturated to polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio than the controls. Although the chocolate liquor contained 14 µg/kg of vitamin D 2 , the chocolate liquor-fed mice did not have measurable 25-hydroxyvitamin D 2 in the serum. These mice even showed a 25% reduction in the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 compared with the control mice. Overall, present data may contribute to our understanding how chocolate constituents can impact vascular lesion development. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  16. PKCδ knockout mice are protected from para-methoxymethamphetamine-induced mitochondrial stress and associated neurotoxicity in the striatum of mice.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eun-Joo; Dang, Duy-Khanh; Tran, Hai-Quyen; Nam, Yunsung; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Lee, Young Hun; Park, Kyung Tae; Lee, Yong Sup; Jang, Choon-Gon; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2016-11-01

    Para-methoxymethamphetamine (PMMA) is a para-ring-substituted amphetamine derivative sold worldwide as an illegal psychotropic drug. Although PMMA use has been reported to lead to severe intoxication and even death, little is known about the mechanism(s) by which PMMA exerts its neurotoxic effects. Here we found that PMMA treatment resulted in phosphorylation of protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) and subsequent mitochondrial translocation of cleaved PKCδ. PMMA-induced oxidative stress was more pronounced in mitochondria than in the cytosol. Moreover, treatment with PMMA consistently resulted in significant reductions in mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial complex I activity, and mitochondrial Mn superoxide dismutase-immunoreactivity. In contrast, PMMA treatment led to a significant increase in intramitochondrial Ca 2+ level. Treatment with PMMA also significantly increased ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1)-labeled microglial activation and upregulated tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) gene expression. PKCδ knockout attenuated these mitochondrial effects and dampened the neurotoxic effects of PMMA. Importantly, TNF-α knockout mice were significantly protected from PMMA-induced increases in phospho-PKCδ expression, mitochondrial translocation of cleaved PKCδ, and Iba-1-labeled microgliosis. Both rottlerin, a pharmacological inhibitor of PKCδ, and etanercept, a pharmacological inhibitor of TNF-α, significantly protected against PMMA-mediated induction of apoptosis, as assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUDP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays. In addition, PKCδ knockout and TNF-α knockout both resulted in decreased PMMA-mediated induction of dopaminergic loss. Therefore, our results suggest that PKCδ mediates PMMA-induced neurotoxicity by facilitating oxidative stress (mitochondria > cytosol), mitochondrial dysfunction, microglial activation, and pro-apoptotic signaling. Our results also indicate that PMMA-induced PKC

  17. Skeletal muscle-specific HMG-CoA reductase knockout mice exhibit rhabdomyolysis: A model for statin-induced myopathy.

    PubMed

    Osaki, Yoshinori; Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Miyahara, Shoko; Iwasaki, Hitoshi; Ishii, Akiko; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Yatoh, Shigeru; Takahashi, Akimitsu; Yahagi, Naoya; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Sone, Hirohito; Ohashi, Ken; Ishibashi, Shun; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Shimano, Hitoshi

    2015-10-23

    HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) catalyzes the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonic acid (MVA); this is the rate-limiting enzyme of the mevalonate pathway that synthesizes cholesterol. Statins, HMGCR inhibitors, are widely used as cholesterol-reducing drugs. However, statin-induced myopathy is the most adverse side effect of statins. To eludicate the mechanisms underlying statin the myotoxicity and HMGCR function in the skeletal muscle, we developed the skeletal muscle-specific HMGCR knockout mice. Knockout mice exhibited postnatal myopathy with elevated serum creatine kinase levels and necrosis. Myopathy in knockout mice was completely rescued by the oral administration of MVA. These results suggest that skeletal muscle toxicity caused by statins is dependent on the deficiencies of HMGCR enzyme activity and downstream metabolites of the mevalonate pathway in skeletal muscles rather than the liver or other organs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Acid Sphingomyelinase Gene Knockout Ameliorates Hyperhomocysteinemic Glomerular Injury in Mice Lacking Cystathionine-β-Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Boini, Krishna M.; Xia, Min; Abais, Justine M.; Xu, Ming; Li, Cai-xia; Li, Pin-Lan

    2012-01-01

    Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) has been implicated in the development of hyperhomocysteinemia (hHcys)-induced glomerular oxidative stress and injury. However, it remains unknown whether genetically engineering of ASM gene produces beneficial or detrimental action on hHcys-induced glomerular injury. The present study generated and characterized the mice lacking cystathionine β-synthase (Cbs) and Asm mouse gene by cross breeding Cbs+/− and Asm+/− mice. Given that the homozygotes of Cbs−/−/Asm−/− mice could not survive for 3 weeks. Cbs+/−/Asm+/+, Cbs+/−/Asm+/− and Cbs+/−/Asm−/− as well as their Cbs wild type littermates were used to study the role of Asm−/− under a background of Cbs+/− with hHcys. HPLC analysis revealed that plasma Hcys level was significantly elevated in Cbs heterozygous (Cbs+/−) mice with different copies of Asm gene compared to Cbs+/+ mice with different Asm gene copies. Cbs+/−/Asm+/+ mice had significantly increased renal Asm activity, ceramide production and O2.− level compared to Cbs+/+/Asm+/+, while Cbs+/−/Asm−/− mice showed significantly reduced renal Asm activity, ceramide production and O2.− level due to increased plasma Hcys levels. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that colocalization of podocin with ceramide was much lower in Cbs+/−/Asm−/− mice compared to Cbs+/−/Asm+/+ mice, which was accompanied by a reduced glomerular damage index, albuminuria and proteinuria in Cbs+/−/Asm−/− mice. Immunofluorescent analyses of the podocin, nephrin and desmin expression also illustrated less podocyte damages in the glomeruli from Cbs+/−/Asm−/− mice compared to Cbs+/−/Asm+/+ mice. In in vitro studies of podocytes, hHcys-enhanced O2.− production, desmin expression, and ceramide production as well as decreases in VEGF level and podocin expression in podocytes were substantially attenuated by prior treatment with amitriptyline, an Asm inhibitor. In conclusion, Asm gene knockout or

  19. Decreased severity of experimental autoimmune arthritis in peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Akari; Kochi, Yuta; Shoda, Hirofumi; Seri, Yu; Fujio, Keishi; Sawada, Tetsuji; Yamada, Ryo; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko

    2016-05-05

    Peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 (PADI4) has been identified as a susceptibility gene for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by genome-wide association studies. PADI4 is highly expressed in the bone marrow, macrophages, neutrophils, and monocytes. Peptidyl citrulline is an interesting molecule in RA because it is a target antigen for anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies, and only PADs (translated proteins from PADI genes) can provide peptidyl citrulline via the modification of protein substrates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the importance of the PADI4 gene in the progression of RA. We generated Padi4 knockout (Padi4(-/-)) DBA1J mice. The Padi4(-/-) DBA1J and wild-type mice were immunized with bovine type II collagen (CII) to develop collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). The expression of various inflammatory cytokines and Padi genes in immune cells was detected by the real-time TaqMan assay. Cytokine concentrations in sera were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Localization of the PAD4 and PAD2 proteins was indicated by immunohistochemistry. We demonstrated that the clinical disease score was significantly decreased in the Padi4(-/-) mice and Padi4 expression was induced by CII immunization. In the Padi4(-/-) mice, serum anti-type II collagen (CII) immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, and inflammatory cytokine levels were significantly decreased compared with those in the wild-type mice. Padi2 expression was induced in the immune cells of the Padi4(-/-) mice as a compensation for the defect in Padi4. Padi4 affected disease severity in the CIA mice and was involved in the enhancement of the collagen-initiated inflammatory responses.

  20. Oxytocin receptor knockout mice display deficits in the expression of autism-related behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Pobbe, Roger L.H.; Pearson, Brandon L.; Defensor, Erwin B.; Bolivar, Valerie J.; Young, W. Scott; Lee, Heon-Jin; Blanchard, D. Caroline; Blanchard, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    A wealth of studies has implicated oxytocin (Oxt) and its receptors (Oxtr) in the mediation of social behaviors and social memory in rodents. It has been suggested that failures in this system contribute to deficits in social interaction that characterize autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the current analyses, we investigated the expression of autism-related behaviors in mice that lack the ability to synthesize the oxytocin receptor itself, Oxtr knockout (KO) mice, as compared to their wild-type (WT) littermates. In the visible burrow system, Oxtr KO mice showed robust reductions in frontal approach, huddling, allo-grooming, and flight, with more time spent alone, and in self-grooming, as compared to WT. These results were corroborated in the three-chambered test: unlike WT, Oxtr KO mice failed to spend more time in the side of the test box containing an unfamiliar CD-1 mouse. In the social proximity test, Oxtr KO mice showed clear reductions in nose to nose and anogenital sniff behaviors oriented to an unfamiliar C57BL/6J (B6) mouse. In addition, our study revealed no differences between Oxtr WT and KO genotypes in the occurrence of motor and cognitive stereotyped behaviors. A significant genotype effect was found in the scent marking analysis, with Oxtr KO mice showing a decreased number of scent marks, as compared to WT. Overall, the present data indicate that the profile for Oxtr KO mice, including consistent social deficits, and reduced levels of communication, models multiple components of the ASD phenotype. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and Social Behavior. PMID:22100185

  1. Metabolomic profiles of arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase knockout mice: Effect of sex and arsenic exposure

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Madelyn C.; Douillet, Christelle; Su, Mingming; Zhou, Kejun; Wu, Tao; Chen, Wenlian; Galanko, Joseph A.; Drobná, Zuzana; Saunders, R. Jesse; Martin, Elizabeth; Fry, Rebecca C.; Jia, Wei; Stýblo, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) is the key enzyme in the pathway for methylation of inorganic arsenic (iAs). Altered As3mt expression and AS3MT polymorphism have been linked to changes in iAs metabolism and in susceptibility to iAs toxicity in laboratory models and in humans. As3mt-knockout mice have been used to study the association between iAs metabolism and adverse effects of iAs exposure. However, little is known about systemic changes in metabolism of these mice and how these changes lead to their increased susceptibility to iAs toxicity. Here, we compared plasma and urinary metabolomes of male and female wild-type (WT) and As3mt-KO (KO) C57BL6 mice and examined metabolomic shifts associated with iAs exposure in drinking water. Surprisingly, exposure to 1 ppm As elicited only small changes in the metabolite profiles of either WT or KO mice. In contrast, comparisons of KO mice with WT mice revealed significant differences in plasma and urinary metabolites associated with lipid (phosphatidylcholines, cytidine, acyl-carnitine), amino acid (hippuric acid, acetylglycine, urea), and carbohydrate (L-sorbose, galactonic acid, gluconic acid) metabolism. Notably, most of these differences were sex-specific. Sex-specific differences were also found between WT and KO mice in plasma triglyceride and lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Some of the differentially changed metabolites (phosphatidylcholines, carnosine, and sarcosine) are substrates or products of reactions catalyzed by other methyltransferases. These results suggest that As3mt KO alters major metabolic pathways in a sex-specific manner, independent of iAs treatment, and that As3mt may be involved in other cellular processes beyond iAs methylation. PMID:26883664

  2. Beijing ambient particle exposure accelerates atherosclerosis in ApoE knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tian; Jia, Guang; Wei, Yongjie; Li, Jiucun

    2013-11-25

    Air pollution is associated with significant adverse health effects including increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However research on the cardiovascular effect of "real-world" exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) in susceptible animal model is very limited. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between Beijing ambient particle exposure and the atherosclerosis development in the apolipoprotein E knockout mice (ApoE(-/-) mice). Two parallel exposure chambers were used for whole body exposure among ApoE knockout mice. One of the chambers was supplied with untreated ambient air (PM group) and the other chamber was treated with ambient air filtered by high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter (FA group). Twenty mice were divided into two groups and exposed to ambient PM (n=10 for PM group) or filtered air (n=10 for FA group) for two months from January 18th to March 18th, 2010. During the exposure, the mass concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 in the two chambers were continuously monitored. Additionally, a receptor source apportionment model of chemical mass balance using 19 organic tracers was applied to determine the contributions of sources on the PM2.5 in terms of natural gas, diesel vehicle, gasoline vehicle, coal burning, vegetable debris, biomass burning and cooking. At the end of the two-month exposure, biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation and lipid metabolism in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and blood samples were determined and the plaque area on the aortic endothelium was quantified. In the experiment, the concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 in PM chamber were 99.45μg/m(3) and 61.0μg/m(3) respectively, while PM2.5 in FA chamber was 17.6μg/m(3). Source apportionment analysis by organic tracers showed that gasoline vehicle (39.9%) and coal burning (24.3%) emission were the two major sources contributing to the mass concentration of PM2.5 in Beijing. Among the ApoE knockout mice, the PM group were significantly

  3. Increased sensitivity of apolipoprotein E knockout mice to copper-induced oxidative injury to the liver.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan; Li, Bin; Zhao, Ran-ran; Zhang, Hui-feng; Zhen, Chao; Guo, Li

    2015-04-10

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotypes are related to clinical presentations in patients with Wilson's disease, indicating that ApoE may play an important role in the disease. However, our understanding of the role of ApoE in Wilson's disease is limited. High copper concentration in Wilson's disease induces excessive generation of free oxygen radicals. Meanwhile, ApoE proteins possess antioxidant effects. We therefore determined whether copper-induced oxidative damage differ in the liver of wild-type and ApoE knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice. Both wild-type and ApoE(-/-) mice were intragastrically administered with 0.2 mL of copper sulfate pentahydrate (200 mg/kg; a total dose of 4 mg/d) or the same volume of saline daily for 12 weeks, respectively. Copper and oxidative stress markers in the liver tissue and in the serum were assessed. Our results showed that, compared with the wild-type mice administered with copper, TBARS as a marker of lipid peroxidation, the expression of oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, and quinone 1 (NQO1) significantly increased in the ApoE(-/-) mice administered with copper, meanwhile superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity significantly decreased. Thus, it is concluded that ApoE may protect the liver from copper-induced oxidative damage in Wilson's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhanced insulin signaling in density-enhanced phosphatase-1 (DEP-1) knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Janine; Brachs, Sebastian; Trappiel, Manuela; Kintscher, Ulrich; Meyborg, Heike; Wellnhofer, Ernst; Thöne-Reineke, Christa; Stawowy, Philipp; Östman, Arne; Birkenfeld, Andreas L; Böhmer, Frank D; Kappert, Kai

    2015-04-01

    Insulin resistance can be triggered by enhanced dephosphorylation of the insulin receptor or downstream components in the insulin signaling cascade through protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). Downregulating density-enhanced phosphatase-1 (DEP-1) resulted in an improved metabolic status in previous analyses. This phenotype was primarily caused by hepatic DEP-1 reduction. Here we further elucidated the role of DEP-1 in glucose homeostasis by employing a conventional knockout model to explore the specific contribution of DEP-1 in metabolic tissues. Ptprj (-/-) (DEP-1 deficient) and wild-type C57BL/6 mice were fed a low-fat or high-fat diet. Metabolic phenotyping was combined with analyses of phosphorylation patterns of insulin signaling components. Additionally, experiments with skeletal muscle cells and muscle tissue were performed to assess the role of DEP-1 for glucose uptake. High-fat diet fed-Ptprj (-/-) mice displayed enhanced insulin sensitivity and improved glucose tolerance. Furthermore, leptin levels and blood pressure were reduced in Ptprj (-/-) mice. DEP-1 deficiency resulted in increased phosphorylation of components of the insulin signaling cascade in liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue after insulin challenge. The beneficial effect on glucose homeostasis in vivo was corroborated by increased glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells in which DEP-1 was downregulated, and in skeletal muscle of Ptprj (-/-) mice. Together, these data establish DEP-1 as novel negative regulator of insulin signaling.

  5. Cognitive abnormalities and hippocampal alterations in monoamine oxidase A and B knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Chanpreet; Bortolato, Marco; Bali, Namrata; Godar, Sean C.; Scott, Anna L.; Chen, Kevin; Thompson, Richard F.; Shih, Jean C.

    2013-01-01

    The monoamine oxidase isoenzymes (MAOs) A and B play important roles in the homeostasis of monoaminergic neurotransmitters. The combined deficiency of MAO A and B results in significantly elevated levels of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine), norepinephrine, dopamine, and β-phenylethylamine; in humans and mice, these neurochemical changes are accompanied by neurodevelopmental perturbations as well as autistic-like responses. Ample evidence indicates that normal levels of monoamines in the hippocampus, amygdala, frontal cortex, and cerebellum are required for the integrity of learning and memory. Thus, in the present study, the cognitive status of MAO A/B knockout (KO) mice was examined with a wide array of behavioral tests. In comparison with male wild-type littermates, MAO A/B KO mice exhibited abnormally high and overgeneralized fear conditioning and enhanced eye-blink conditioning. These alterations were accompanied by significant increases in hippocampal long-term potentiation and alterations in the relative expression of NMDA glutamate receptor subunits. Our data suggest that chronic elevations of monoamines, because of the absence of MAO A and MAO B, cause functional alterations that are accompanied with changes in the cellular mechanisms underlying learning and memory. The characteristics exhibited by MAO A/B KO mice highlight the potential of these animals as a useful tool to provide further insight into the molecular bases of disorders associated with abnormal monoaminergic profiles. PMID:23858446

  6. Cognitive abnormalities and hippocampal alterations in monoamine oxidase A and B knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Singh, Chanpreet; Bortolato, Marco; Bali, Namrata; Godar, Sean C; Scott, Anna L; Chen, Kevin; Thompson, Richard F; Shih, Jean C

    2013-07-30

    The monoamine oxidase isoenzymes (MAOs) A and B play important roles in the homeostasis of monoaminergic neurotransmitters. The combined deficiency of MAO A and B results in significantly elevated levels of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine), norepinephrine, dopamine, and β-phenylethylamine; in humans and mice, these neurochemical changes are accompanied by neurodevelopmental perturbations as well as autistic-like responses. Ample evidence indicates that normal levels of monoamines in the hippocampus, amygdala, frontal cortex, and cerebellum are required for the integrity of learning and memory. Thus, in the present study, the cognitive status of MAO A/B knockout (KO) mice was examined with a wide array of behavioral tests. In comparison with male wild-type littermates, MAO A/B KO mice exhibited abnormally high and overgeneralized fear conditioning and enhanced eye-blink conditioning. These alterations were accompanied by significant increases in hippocampal long-term potentiation and alterations in the relative expression of NMDA glutamate receptor subunits. Our data suggest that chronic elevations of monoamines, because of the absence of MAO A and MAO B, cause functional alterations that are accompanied with changes in the cellular mechanisms underlying learning and memory. The characteristics exhibited by MAO A/B KO mice highlight the potential of these animals as a useful tool to provide further insight into the molecular bases of disorders associated with abnormal monoaminergic profiles.

  7. Magel2 knockout mice manifest altered social phenotypes and a deficit in preference for social novelty.

    PubMed

    Fountain, M D; Tao, H; Chen, C-A; Yin, J; Schaaf, C P

    2017-07-01

    MAGEL2 is one of five protein-coding, maternally imprinted, paternally expressed genes in the Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS)-critical domain on chromosome 15q11-q13. Truncating pathogenic variants of MAGEL2 cause Schaaf-Yang syndrome (SHFYNG) (OMIM #615547), a neurodevelopmental disorder related to PWS. Affected individuals manifest a spectrum of neurocognitive and behavioral phenotypes, including intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Magel2 knockout mice carrying a maternally inherited, imprinted wild-type (WT) allele and a paternally inherited Magel2-lacZ knock-in allele, which abolishes endogenous Magel2 gene function, exhibit several features reminiscent of the human Prader-Willi phenotypes, including neonatal growth retardation, excessive weight gain after weaning and increased adiposity in adulthood. They were shown to have altered circadian rhythm, reduced motor activity and reduced fertility. An extensive assessment for autism-like behaviors in this mouse model was warranted, because of the high prevalence of ASD in human patients. The behavior of Magel2 knockout mice and their WT littermates were assayed via open field, elevated plus maze, tube, three-chamber and partition tests. Our studies confirm decreased horizontal activity of male and female mice and increased vertical activity of females, in the open field. Both sexes spent more time in the open arm of the elevated plus maze, suggestive of reductions in anxiety. Both sexes displayed a lack of preference for social novelty, via a lack of discrimination between known and novel partners in the partition test. The in-depth investigation of behavioral profiles caused by Magel2 loss-of-function helps to elucidate the etiology of behavioral phenotypes both for SHFYNG and PWS in general. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  8. Behavioral Characterization of β-Arrestin 1 Knockout Mice in Anxiety-Like and Alcohol Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Robins, Meridith T; Chiang, Terrance; Berry, Jennifer N; Ko, Mee Jung; Ha, Jiwon E; van Rijn, Richard M

    2018-01-01

    β-Arrestin 1 and 2 are highly expressed proteins involved in the desensitization of G protein-coupled receptor signaling which also regulate a variety of intracellular signaling pathways. Gene knockout (KO) studies suggest that the two isoforms are not homologous in their effects on baseline and drug-induced behavior; yet, the role of β-arrestin 1 in the central nervous system has been less investigated compared to β-arrestin 2. Here, we investigate how global β-arrestin 1 KO affects anxiety-like and alcohol-related behaviors in male and female C57BL/6 mice. We observed increased baseline locomotor activity in β-arrestin 1 KO animals compared with wild-type (WT) or heterozygous (HET) mice with a sex effect. KO male mice were less anxious in a light/dark transition test, although this effect may have been confounded by increased locomotor activity. No differences in sucrose intake were observed between genotypes or sexes. Female β-arrestin 1 KO mice consumed more 10% alcohol than HET females in a limited 4-h access, two-bottle choice, drinking-in-the-dark model. In a 20% alcohol binge-like access model, female KO animals consumed significantly more alcohol than HET and WT females. A significant sex effect was observed in both alcohol consumption models, with female mice consuming greater amounts of alcohol than males relative to body weight. Increased sensitivity to latency to loss of righting reflex (LORR) was observed in β-arrestin 1 KO mice although no differences were observed in duration of LORR. Overall, our efforts suggest that β-arrestin 1 may be protective against increased alcohol consumption in females and hyperactivity in both sexes.

  9. Deficits in cognitive function and hippocampal plasticity in GM2/GD2 synthase knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Sha, Sha; Zhou, Libin; Yin, Jun; Takamiya, Koga; Furukawa, Keiko; Furukawa, Koichi; Sokabe, Masahiro; Chen, Ling

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we used GM2/GD2 synthase knockout (GM2/GD2−/−) mice to examine the influence of deficiency in ganglioside “a-pathway” and “b-pathway” on cognitive performances and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Eight-week-old GM2/GD2−/− male mice showed a longer escape-latency in Morris water maze test and a shorter latency in step-down inhibitory avoidance task than wild-type (WT) mice. Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in the hippocampal slices from GM2/GD2−/− mice showed an increase in the slope of EPSPs with reduced paired-pulse facilitation, indicating an enhancement of their presynaptic glutamate release. In GM2/GD2−/− mice, NMDA receptor (NMDAr)-dependent LTP could not be induced by high-frequency (100–200 Hz) tetanus or θ-burst conditioning stimulation (CS), whereas NMDAr-independent LTP was induced by medium-frequency CS (20–50 Hz). The application of mono-sialoganglioside GM1 in the slice from GM2/GD2−/− mice, to specifically recover the a-pathway, prevented the increased presynaptic glutamate release and 20 Hz-LTP induction, whereas it could not rescue the impaired NMDAr-dependent LTP. These findings suggest that b-pathway deficiency impairs cognitive function probably through suppression of NMDAr-dependent LTP, while a-pathway deficiency may facilitate NMDAr-independent LTP through enhancing presynaptic glutamate release. As both of the NMDAr-independent LTP and increased presynaptic glutamate release were sensitive to the blockade of L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (L-VGCC), a-pathway deficiency may affect presynaptic L-VGCC.

  10. What have we learned about GPER function in physiology and disease from knockout mice?

    PubMed Central

    Prossnitz, Eric R.; Hathaway, Helen J.

    2015-01-01

    Estrogens, predominantly 17β-estradiol, exert diverse effects throughout the body in both normal and patho-physiology, during development and in reproductive, metabolic, endocrine, cardiovascular, nervous, musculoskeletal and immune systems. Estrogen and its receptors also play important roles in carcinogenesis and therapy, particularly for breast cancer. In addition to the classical nuclear estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) that traditionally mediate predominantly genomic signaling, the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor GPER has become recognized as a critical mediator of rapid signaling in response to estrogen. Mouse models, and in particular knockout (KO) mice, represent an important approach to understand the functions of receptors in normal physiology and disease. Whereas ERα KO mice display multiple significant defects in reproduction and mammary gland development, ERβ KO phenotypes are more limited, and GPER KO exhibit no reproductive deficits. However, the study of GPER KO mice over the last six years has revealed that GPER deficiency results in multiple physiological alterations including obesity, cardiovascular dysfunction, insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. In addition, the lack of estrogen-mediated effects in numerous tissues of GPER KO mice, studied in vivo or ex vivo, including those of the cardiovascular, endocrine, nervous and immune systems, reveals GPER as a genuine mediator of estrogen action. Importantly, GPER KO mice have also revealed roles for GPER in breast carcinogenesis and metastasis. In combination with the supporting effects of GPER-selective ligands and GPER knockdown approaches, GPER KO mice demonstrate the therapeutic potential of targeting GPER activity in diseases as diverse as obesity, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, hypertension, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, stroke and cancer. PMID:26189910

  11. What have we learned about GPER function in physiology and disease from knockout mice?

    PubMed

    Prossnitz, Eric R; Hathaway, Helen J

    2015-09-01

    Estrogens, predominantly 17β-estradiol, exert diverse effects throughout the body in both normal and pathophysiology, during development and in reproductive, metabolic, endocrine, cardiovascular, nervous, musculoskeletal and immune systems. Estrogen and its receptors also play important roles in carcinogenesis and therapy, particularly for breast cancer. In addition to the classical nuclear estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) that traditionally mediate predominantly genomic signaling, the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor GPER has become recognized as a critical mediator of rapid signaling in response to estrogen. Mouse models, and in particular knockout (KO) mice, represent an important approach to understand the functions of receptors in normal physiology and disease. Whereas ERα KO mice display multiple significant defects in reproduction and mammary gland development, ERβ KO phenotypes are more limited, and GPER KO exhibit no reproductive deficits. However, the study of GPER KO mice over the last six years has revealed that GPER deficiency results in multiple physiological alterations including obesity, cardiovascular dysfunction, insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. In addition, the lack of estrogen-mediated effects in numerous tissues of GPER KO mice, studied in vivo or ex vivo, including those of the cardiovascular, endocrine, nervous and immune systems, reveals GPER as a genuine mediator of estrogen action. Importantly, GPER KO mice have also demonstrated roles for GPER in breast carcinogenesis and metastasis. In combination with the supporting effects of GPER-selective ligands and GPER knockdown approaches, GPER KO mice demonstrate the therapeutic potential of targeting GPER activity in diseases as diverse as obesity, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, hypertension, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, stroke and cancer. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Altered gene expression in early postnatal monoamine oxidase A knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kevin; Kardys, Abbey; Chen, Yibu; Flink, Stephen; Tabakoff, Boris; Shih, Jean C

    2017-08-15

    We reported previously that monoamine oxidase (MAO) A knockout (KO) mice show increased serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) levels and autistic-like behaviors characterized by repetitive behaviors, and anti-social behaviors. We showed that administration of the serotonin synthesis inhibitor para-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA) from post-natal day 1 (P1) through 7 (P7) in MAO A KO mice reduced the serotonin level to normal and reverses the repetitive behavior. These results suggested that the altered gene expression at P1 and P7 may be important for the autistic-like behaviors seen in MAO A KO mice and was studied here. In this study, Affymetrix mRNA array data for P1 and P7 MAO A KO mice were analyzed using Partek Genomics Suite and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis to identify genes differentially expressed versus wild-type and assess their functions and relationships. The number of significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) varied with age: P1 (664) and P7 (3307) [false discovery rate (FDR) <0.05, fold-change (FC) >1.5 for autism-linked genes and >2.0 for functionally categorized genes]. Eight autism-linked genes were differentially expressed in P1 (upregulated: NLGN3, SLC6A2; down-regulated: HTR2C, MET, ADSL, MECP2, ALDH5A1, GRIN3B) while four autism-linked genes were differentially expressed at P7 (upregulated: HTR2B; downregulated: GRIN2D, GRIN2B, CHRNA4). Many other genes involved in neurodevelopment, apoptosis, neurotransmission, and cognitive function were differentially expressed at P7 in MAO A KO mice. This result suggests that modulation of these genes by the increased serotonin may lead to neurodevelopmental alteration in MAO A KO mice and results in autistic-like behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Attenuation of acute lung inflammation induced by cigarette smoke in CXCR3 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Nie, Li; Xiang, Ruolan; Zhou, Weixun; Lu, Bao; Cheng, Deyun; Gao, Jinming

    2008-12-16

    CD8+ T cells may participate in cigarette smoke (CS) induced-lung inflammation in mice. CXCL10/IP-10 (IFNgamma-inducible protein 10) and CXCL9/Mig (monokine induced by IFN-gamma) are up-regulated in CS-induced lung injury and may attract T-cell recruitment to the lung. These chemokines together with CXCL11/ITAC (IFN-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant) are ligands for the chemokine receptor CXCR3 which is preferentially expressed chiefly in activated CD8+ T cells. The purpose of this investigation was to study the contribution of CXCR3 to acute lung inflammation induced by CS using CXCR3 knockout (KO) mice. Mice (n = 8 per group) were placed in a closed plastic box connected to a smoke generator and were exposed whole body to the tobacco smoke of five cigarettes four times a day for three days. Lung pathological changes, expression of inflammatory mediators in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lungs at mRNA and protein levels, and lung infiltration of CD8+ T cells were compared between CXCR3-/- mice and wild type (WT) mice. Compared with the WT littermates, CXCR3 KO mice showed less CS-induced lung inflammation as evidenced by less infiltration of inflammatory cells in airways and lung tissue, particularly fewer CD8+ T cells, lower levels of IFNgamma and CXCR3 ligands (particularly CXCL10). Our findings show that CXCR3 is important in promoting CD8+ T cell recruitment and in initiating IFNgamma and CXCL10 release following CS exposure. CXCR3 may represent a promising therapeutic target for acute lung inflammation induced by CS.

  14. Establishment of mitochondrial pyruvate carrier 1 (MPC1) gene knockout mice with preliminary gene function analyses

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoli; Li, Yaqing; Han, Gaoyang; Li, Xiaoran; Ji, Yasai; Fan, Zhirui; Zhong, Yali; Cao, Jing; Zhao, Jing; Mariusz, Goscinski; Zhang, Mingzhi; Wen, Jianguo; Nesland, Jahn M.; Suo, Zhenhe

    2016-01-01

    Pyruvate plays a critical role in the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and it is the center product for the synthesis of amino acids, carbohydrates and fatty acids. Pyruvate transported across the inner mitochondrial membrane appears to be essential in anabolic and catabolic intermediary metabolism. The mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) mounted in the inner membrane of mitochondria serves as the channel to facilitate pyruvate permeating. In mammals, the MPC is formed by two paralogous subunits, MPC1 and MPC2. It is known that complete ablation of MPC2 in mice causes death on the 11th or 12th day of the embryonic period. However, MPC1 deletion and the knowledge of gene function in vivo are lacking. Using the new technology of gene manipulation known as Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR-associated 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) systems, we gained stable MPC1 gene heterozygous mutation mice models, and the heterozygous mutations could be stably maintained in their offsprings. Only one line with homozygous 27 bases deletion in the first exon was established, but no offsprings could be obtained after four months of mating experiments, indicating infertility of the mice with such homozygous deletion. The other line of MPC1 knockout (KO) mice was only heterozygous, which mutated in the first exon with a terminator shortly afterwards. These two lines of MPC1 KO mice showed lower fertility and significantly higher bodyweight in the females. We concluded that heterozygous MPC1 KO weakens fertility and influences the metabolism of glucose and fatty acid and bodyweight in mice. PMID:27835892

  15. Structural and functional cardiac cholinergic deficits in adult neurturin knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Mabe, Abigail M; Hoover, Donald B

    2009-04-01

    Previous work provided indirect evidence that the neurotrophic factor neurturin (NRTN) is required for normal cholinergic innervation of the heart. This study used nrtn knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice to determine the effect of nrtn deletion on cardiac cholinergic innervation and function in the adult heart. Immunohistochemistry, confocal microscopy, and quantitative image analysis were used to directly evaluate intrinsic cardiac neuronal development. Atrial acetylcholine (ACh) levels were determined as an indirect index of cholinergic innervation. Cholinergic function was evaluated by measuring negative chronotropic responses to right vagal nerve stimulation in anaesthetized mice and responses of isolated atria to muscarinic agonists. KO hearts contained only 35% the normal number of cholinergic neurons, and the residual cholinergic neurons were 15% smaller than in WT. Cholinergic nerve density at the sinoatrial node was reduced by 87% in KOs, but noradrenergic nerve density was unaffected. Atrial ACh levels were substantially lower in KO mice (0.013 +/- 0.004 vs. 0.050 +/- 0.011 pmol/microg protein; P < 0.02) as expected from cholinergic neuron and nerve fibre deficits. Maximum bradycardia evoked by vagal stimulation was reduced in KO mice (38 +/- 6% vs. 69 +/- 3% decrease at 20 Hz; P < 0.001), and chronotropic responses took longer to develop and fade. In contrast to these deficits, isolated atria from KO mice had normal post-junctional sensitivity to carbachol and bethanechol. These findings demonstrate that NRTN is essential for normal cardiac cholinergic innervation and cholinergic control of heart rate. The presence of residual cardiac cholinergic neurons and vagal bradycardia in KO mice suggests that additional neurotrophic factors may influence this system.

  16. Male aromatase-knockout mice exhibit normal levels of activity, anxiety and "depressive-like" symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Dalla, C; Antoniou, K; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Z; Balthazart, J; Bakker, J

    2005-09-08

    It is well known that estradiol derived from neural aromatization of testosterone plays a crucial role in the development of the male brain and the display of sexual behaviors in adulthood. It was recently found that male aromatase knockout mice (ArKO) deficient in estradiol due to a mutation in the aromatase gene have general deficits in coital behavior and are sexually less motivated. We wondered whether these behavioral deficits of ArKO males could be related to changes in activity, exploration, anxiety and "depressive-like" symptomatology. ArKO and wild type (WT) males were subjected to open field (OF), elevated plus maze (EPM), and forced swim tests (FST), after being exposed or not to chronic mild stress (CMS). CMS was used to evaluate the impact of chronic stressful procedures and to unveil possible differences between genotypes. There was no effect of genotype on OF, EPM and FST behavioral parameters. WT and ArKO mice exposed to CMS or not exhibited the same behavioral profile during these three types of tests. However, all CMS-exposed mice (ArKO and WT) spent less time in the center of the EPM. Additionally, floating duration measured in the FST increased between two tests in both WT and ArKO mice, though that increase was less prominent in mice previously subjected to CMS than in controls. Therefore, both ArKO and WT males displayed the same behavior and had the same response to CMS however CMS exposure slightly modified the behavior displayed by mice of both genotypes in the FST and EPM paradigms. These results show that ArKO males display normal levels of activity, exploration, anxiety and "depressive-like" symptomatology and thus their deficits in sexual behavior are specific in nature and do not result indirectly from other behavioral changes.

  17. L-arginine prevents xanthoma development and inhibits atherosclerosis in LDL receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Aji, W; Ravalli, S; Szabolcs, M; Jiang, X C; Sciacca, R R; Michler, R E; Cannon, P J

    1997-01-21

    The potential antiatherosclerotic actions of NO were investigated in four groups of mice (n = 10 per group) lacking functional LDL receptor genes, an animal model of familial hypercholesterolemia. Group 1 was fed a regular chow diet. Groups 2 through 4 were fed a 1.25% high-cholesterol diet. In addition, group 3 received supplemental L-arginine and group 4 received L-arginine and N omega-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA), an inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS). Animals were killed at 6 months; aortas were stained with oil red O for planimetry and with antibodies against constitutive and inducible NOSs. Plasma cholesterol was markedly increased in the animals receiving the high-cholesterol diet. Xanthomas appeared in all mice fed the high-cholesterol diet alone but not in those receiving L-arginine. Aortic atherosclerosis was present in all mice on the high-cholesterol diet. The mean atherosclerotic lesion area was reduced significantly (P < .01) in the cholesterol-fed mice given L-arginine compared with those receiving the high-cholesterol diet alone. The mean atherosclerotic lesion area was significantly larger (P < .01) in cholesterol-fed mice receiving L-arginine + L-NA than in those on the high-cholesterol diet alone. Within the atherosclerotic plaques, endothelial cells immunoreacted for endothelial cell NOS; macrophages, foam cells, and smooth muscle cells immunostained strongly for inducible NOS and nitrotyrosine residues. The data indicate that L-arginine prevents xanthoma formation and reduces atherosclerosis in LDL receptor knockout mice fed a high-cholesterol diet. The abrogation of the beneficial effects of L-arginine by L-NA suggests that the antiatherosclerotic actions of L-arginine are mediated by NOS. The data suggest that L-arginine may be beneficial in familial hypercholesterolemia.

  18. Nicotine withdrawal-induced inattention is absent in alpha7 nAChR knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Higa, K. K.; Grim, A.; Kamenski, M. E.; van Enkhuizen, J.; Zhou, X.; Li, K.; Naviaux, J. C.; Wang, L.; Naviaux, R. K.; Geyer, M. A.; Markou, A.; Young, J. W.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale Smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the U.S., but quit attempts result in withdrawal-induced cognitive dysfunction and predicts relapse. Greater understanding of the neural mechanism(s) underlying these cognitive deficits is required to develop targeted treatments to aid quit attempts. Objectives We examined nicotine withdrawal-induced inattention in mice lacking the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) using the 5-choice continuous performance test (5C-CPT). Methods Mice were trained in the 5C-CPT prior to osmotic minipump implantation containing saline or nicotine. Experiment 1 used 40 mg/kg/day nicotine treatment and tested C57BL/6 mice 4, 28, and 52 h after pump removal. Experiment 2 used 14 and 40 mg/kg/day nicotine treatment in α7 nAChR knockout (KO) and wildtype (WT) littermates tested 4 h after pump removal. Subsets of WT mice were sacrificed before and after pump removal to assess changes in receptor expression associated with nicotine administration and withdrawal. Results Nicotine withdrawal impaired attention in the 5C-CPT, driven by response inhibition and target detection deficits. The overall attentional deficit was absent in α7 nAChR KO mice despite response disinhibition in these mice. Synaptosomal glutamate mGluR5 and dopamine D4 receptor expression were reduced during chronic nicotine but increased during withdrawal, potentially contributing to cognitive deficits. Conclusions The α7 nAChR may underlie nicotine withdrawal-induced deficits in target detection but is not required for response disinhibition deficits. Alterations to the glutamatergic and dopaminergic pathways may also contribute to withdrawal-induced attentional deficits, providing novel targets to alleviate the cognitive symptoms of withdrawal during quit attempts. PMID:28243714

  19. Alterations in Bladder Function Associated With Urothelial Defects in Uroplakin II and IIIa Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Aboushwareb, Tamer; Zhou, Ge; Deng, Fang-Ming; Turner, Chanda; Andersson, Karl-Erik; Tar, Moses; Zhao, Weixin; Melman, Arnold; D’Agostino, Ralph; Sun, Tung-Tien; Christ, George J.

    2014-01-01

    Aims The effects of deleting genes encoding uroplakins II (UPII) and III (UPIIIa) on mouse bladder physiology/ dysfunction were studied in male and female wild type and knockout (KO) mice. Methods UPII, UPIIIa, and WT mice were catheterized using previously described techniques. Continuous cystometry was conducted in conscious, freely moving animals. Bladder strips were harvested after animal sacrifice and pharmacological studies and EFS were conducted in an organ chamber. Histological studies were also carried on with H&E staining to identify differences among the three mouse types. Results These studies have revealed numerous alterations, some of which were apparently gender-specific. Nonvoiding contractions were common in both UPII and UPIIIa KO mice, although more severe in the former. In particular, the increased bladder capacity, micturition pressure and demonstrable nonvoiding contractions observed in the male UPII KO’s, were reminiscent of an obstruction-like syndrome accompanied by evidence of emerging bladder decompensation, as reflected by an increased residual volume. Pharmacological studies revealed a modest, gender-specific reduction in sensitivity of isolated detrusor strips from UPII KO female mice to carbachol-induced contractions. A similar reduction was observed in UPIIIa KO female mice. Histological investigation showed urothelial hyperplasia in both UPII KO and UPIIIa KO mice, although again, apparently more severe in the former. Conclusions These results confirm and extend previous work to indicate that urothelial defects due to uroplakin deficiency are associated with significant alterations in bladder function and further highlight the importance of the urothelium to bladder physiology/dysfunction. PMID:19267388

  20. Attenuation of acute lung inflammation induced by cigarette smoke in CXCR3 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Li; Xiang, Ruolan; Zhou, Weixun; Lu, Bao; Cheng, Deyun; Gao, Jinming

    2008-01-01

    Background CD8+ T cells may participate in cigarette smoke (CS) induced-lung inflammation in mice. CXCL10/IP-10 (IFNγ-inducible protein 10) and CXCL9/Mig (monokine induced by IFN-γ) are up-regulated in CS-induced lung injury and may attract T-cell recruitment to the lung. These chemokines together with CXCL11/ITAC (IFN-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant) are ligands for the chemokine receptor CXCR3 which is preferentially expressed chiefly in activated CD8+ T cells. The purpose of this investigation was to study the contribution of CXCR3 to acute lung inflammation induced by CS using CXCR3 knockout (KO) mice. Methods Mice (n = 8 per group) were placed in a closed plastic box connected to a smoke generator and were exposed whole body to the tobacco smoke of five cigarettes four times a day for three days. Lung pathological changes, expression of inflammatory mediators in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lungs at mRNA and protein levels, and lung infiltration of CD8+ T cells were compared between CXCR3-/- mice and wild type (WT) mice. Results Compared with the WT littermates, CXCR3 KO mice showed less CS-induced lung inflammation as evidenced by less infiltration of inflammatory cells in airways and lung tissue, particularly fewer CD8+ T cells, lower levels of IFNγ and CXCR3 ligands (particularly CXCL10). Conclusion Our findings show that CXCR3 is important in promoting CD8+ T cell recruitment and in initiating IFNγ and CXCL10 release following CS exposure. CXCR3 may represent a promising therapeutic target for acute lung inflammation induced by CS. PMID:19087279

  1. Comprehensive behavioral study of mGluR3 knockout mice: implication in schizophrenia related endophenotypes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We previously performed systematic association studies of glutamate receptor gene family members with schizophrenia, and found positive associations of polymorphisms in the GRM3 (a gene of metabotropic glutamate receptor 3: mGluR3) with the disorder. Physiological roles of GRM3 in brain functions and its functional roles in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia remain to be resolved. Results We generated mGluR3 knockout (KO) mice and conducted comprehensive behavioral analyses. KO mice showed hyperactivity in the open field, light/dark transition, and 24-hour home cage monitoring tests, impaired reference memory for stressful events in the Porsolt forced swim test, impaired contextual memory in cued and contextual fear conditioning test, and impaired working memory in the T-Maze forced alternation task test. Hyperactivity and impaired working memory are known as endophenotypes of schizophrenia. We examined long-term synaptic plasticity by assessing long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region in the hippocampi of KO and wild-type (WT) mice. We observed no differences in the amplitude of LTP between the two genotypes, suggesting that mGluR3 is not essential for LTP in the CA1 region of the mouse hippocampus. As hyperactivity is typically associated with increased dopaminergic transmission, we performed in vivo microdialysis measurements of extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens of KO and WT mice. We observed enhancements in the methamphetamine (MAP)-induced release of dopamine in KO mice. Conclusions These results demonstrate that a disturbance in the glutamate-dopamine interaction may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia-like behavior, such as hyperactivity in mGluR3 KO mice. PMID:24758191

  2. Changes in the expression of neurotransmitter receptors in Parkin and DJ-1 knockout mice--A quantitative multireceptor study.

    PubMed

    Cremer, J N; Amunts, K; Schleicher, A; Palomero-Gallagher, N; Piel, M; Rösch, F; Zilles, K

    2015-12-17

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a well-characterized neurological disorder with regard to its neuropathological and symptomatic appearance. At the genetic level, mutations of particular genes, e.g. Parkin and DJ-1, were found in human hereditary PD with early onset. Neurotransmitter receptors constitute decisive elements in neural signal transduction. Furthermore, since they are often altered in neurological and psychiatric diseases, receptors have been successful targets for pharmacological agents. However, the consequences of PD-associated gene mutations on the expression of transmitter receptors are largely unknown. Therefore, we studied the expression of 16 different receptor binding sites of the neurotransmitters glutamate, GABA, acetylcholine, adrenaline, serotonin, dopamine and adenosine by means of quantitative receptor autoradiography in Parkin and DJ-1 knockout mice. These knockout mice exhibit electrophysiological and behavioral deficits, but do not show the typical dopaminergic cell loss. We demonstrated differential changes of binding site densities in eleven brain regions. Most prominently, we found an up-regulation of GABA(B) and kainate receptor densities in numerous cortical areas of Parkin and DJ-1 knockout mice, as well as increased NMDA but decreased AMPA receptor densities in different brain regions of the Parkin knockout mice. The alterations of three different glutamate receptor types may indicate the potential relevance of the glutamatergic system in the pathogenesis of PD. Furthermore, the cholinergic M1, M2 and nicotinic receptors as well as the adrenergic α2 and the adenosine A(2A) receptors showed differentially increased densities in Parkin and DJ-1 knockout mice. Taken together, knockout of the PD-associated genes Parkin or DJ-1 results in differential changes of neurotransmitter receptor densities, highlighting a possible role of altered non-dopaminergic, and in particular of glutamatergic neurotransmission in PD pathogenesis. Copyright

  3. Ontogeny of brain and blood serotonin levels in 5-HT receptor knockout mice: potential relevance to the neurobiology of autism.

    PubMed

    Janusonis, Skirmantas; Anderson, George M; Shifrovich, Ilya; Rakic, Pasko

    2006-11-01

    The most consistent neurochemical finding in autism has been elevated group mean levels of blood platelet 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin). The origin and significance of this platelet hyperserotonemia remain poorly understood. The 5-HT(1A) receptor plays important roles in the developing brain and is also expressed in the gut, the main source of platelet 5-HT. Post-natal tissue levels of 5-HT, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and tryptophan were examined in the brain, duodenum and blood of 5-HT(1A) receptor-knockout and wild-type mice. At 3 days after birth, the knockout mice had lower mean brain 5-HT levels and normal mean platelet 5-HT levels. Also, at 3 days after birth, the mean tryptophan levels in the brain, duodenum and blood of the knockout mice were around 30% lower than those of the wild-type mice. By 2 weeks after birth, the mean brain 5-HT levels of the knockout mice normalized, but their mean platelet 5-HT levels became 24% higher than normal. The possible causes of these dynamic shifts were explored by examining correlations between central and peripheral levels of 5-HT, 5-HIAA and tryptophan. The results are discussed in relation to the possible role of 5-HT in the ontogeny of autism.

  4. CB2 Cannabinoid Receptor Knockout in Mice Impairs Contextual Long-Term Memory and Enhances Spatial Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong; Kim, Jimok

    2016-01-01

    Neurocognitive effects of cannabinoids have been extensively studied with a focus on CB1 cannabinoid receptors because CB1 receptors have been considered the major cannabinoid receptor in the nervous system. However, recent discoveries of CB2 cannabinoid receptors in the brain demand accurate determination of whether and how CB2 receptors are involved in the cognitive effects of cannabinoids. CB2 cannabinoid receptors are primarily involved in immune functions, but also implicated in psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression. Here, we examined the effects of CB2 receptor knockout in mice on memory to determine the roles of CB2 receptors in modulating cognitive function. Behavioral assays revealed that hippocampus-dependent, long-term contextual fear memory was impaired whereas hippocampus-independent, cued fear memory was normal in CB2 receptor knockout mice. These mice also displayed enhanced spatial working memory when tested in a Y-maze. Motor activity and anxiety of CB2 receptor knockout mice were intact when assessed in an open field arena and an elevated zero maze. In contrast to the knockout of CB2 receptors, acute blockade of CB2 receptors by AM603 in C57BL/6J mice had no effect on memory, motor activity, or anxiety. Our results suggest that CB2 cannabinoid receptors play diverse roles in regulating memory depending on memory types and/or brain areas. PMID:26819779

  5. Flavor preference conditioning by different sugars in sweet ageusic Trpm5 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Anthony; Ackroff, Karen

    2015-03-01

    Knockout (KO) mice missing the taste signaling protein Trpm5 have greatly attenuated sweetener preferences but develop strong preferences for glucose in 24-h tests, which is attributed to post-oral sugar conditioning. Trpm5 KO mice express mild preferences for galactose but no preferences for fructose in 24-h tests, which suggests that these sugars differ in their post-oral reinforcing effects. Here we investigated sugar-conditioned flavor preferences in Trpm5 KO and C57BL/6J wildtype (B6) mice. The mice were trained to consume a flavored (CS+, e.g. grape) 8% sugar solution and flavored (CS-, e.g., cherry) water on alternating days followed by two-bottle choice tests with CS+ vs. CS- flavors in water and with unflavored sugar vs. water. The KO mice displayed strong preferences (>80%) for the CS+ glucose and CS+ galactose but not for the CS+ fructose flavor. They also preferred glucose and galactose, but not fructose to water. In contrast, the B6 mice preferred all three CS+ flavors to the CS- flavor, and all three sugars to water. In tests with the non-metabolizable sugar α-methyl-d-glucopyranoside (MDG), the KO and B6 mice preferred 8% MDG to water but did not prefer the CS+ 8% MDG to CS-. However, they preferred a CS+ flavor mixed with 4% MDG over the CS- flavor. Trpm5 KO mice also preferred galactose and MDG to fructose in direct choice tests. The Trpm5 KO data indicate that glucose and, to a lesser extent, galactose and MDG have post-oral reinforcing actions that stimulate intake and preference while fructose has a much weaker effect. The CS+ flavor and sugar preferences of B6 mice may be mediated by the sweet taste and/or post-oral actions of the various sugars. Glucose, galactose, and MDG, but not fructose, are ligands for the sodium-glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) which is implicated in post-oral sugar conditioning in B6 mice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Interleukin 10 knockout frail mice develop cardiac and vascular dysfunction with increased age☆

    PubMed Central

    Sikka, Gautam; Miller, Karen L.; Steppan, Jochen; Pandey, Deepesh; Jung, Sung M.; Fraser, Charles D.; Ellis, Carla; Ross, Daniel; Vandegaer, Koenraad; Bedja, Djahida; Gabrielson, Kathleen; Walston, Jeremy D.; Berkowitz, Dan E.; Barouch, Lili A.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular dysfunction is a primary independent predictor of age-related morbidity and mortality. Frailty is associated with activation of inflammatory pathways and fatigue that commonly presents and progresses with age. Interleukin 10 (IL-10), the cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor, is an anti-inflammatory cytokine produced by immune and non-immune cells. Homozygous deletion of IL-10 in mice yields a phenotype that is consistent with human frailty, including age-related increases in serum inflammatory mediators, muscular weakness, higher levels of IGF-1 at midlife, and early mortality. While emerging evidence suggests a role for IL-10 in vascular protection, a clear mechanism has not yet been elucidated. Methods In order to evaluate the role of IL-10 in maintenance of vascular function, force tension myography was utilized to access ex-vivo endothelium dependent vasorelaxation in vessels isolated from IL-10 knockout IL-10(tm/tm) and control mice. Pulse wave velocity ((PWV), index of stiffness) of vasculature was measured using ultrasound and blood pressure was measured using the tail cuff method. Echocardiography was used to elucidated structure and functional changes in the heart. Results Mean arterial pressures were significantly higher in IL-10(tm/tm) mice as compared to C57BL6/wild type (WT) controls. PWV was increased in IL-10(tm/tm) indicating stiffer vasculature. Endothelial intact aortic rings isolated from IL-10(tm/tm) mice demonstrated impaired vasodilation at low acetylcholine doses and vasoconstriction at higher doses whereas vasorelaxation responses were preserved in rings from WT mice. Cyclo-oxygenase (COX-2)/thromboxane A2 inhibitors improved endothelial dependent vasorelaxation and reversed vasoconstriction. Left ventricular end systolic diameter, left ventricular mass, isovolumic relaxation time, fractional shortening and ejection fraction were all significantly different in the aged IL-10(tm/tm) mice compared to WT mice. Conclusion Aged IL

  7. Decreased consumption of sweet fluids in mu opioid receptor knockout mice: a microstructural analysis of licking behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ostlund, Sean B.; Kosheleff, Alisa; Maidment, Nigel T.; Murphy, Niall P.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Rationale Evidence suggests that the palatability of food (i.e., the hedonic impact produced by its sensory features) can promote feeding and may underlie compulsive eating, leading to obesity. Pharmacological studies implicate opioid transmission in the hedonic control of feeding, though these studies often rely on agents lacking specificity for particular opioid receptors. Objectives Here, we investigated the role of mu opioid receptors (MORs) specifically in determining hedonic responses to palatable sweet stimuli. Methods In Experiment 1, licking microstructure when consuming sucrose solution (2 to 20 %) was compared in MOR knockout and wildtype mice as a function of sucrose concentration and level of food deprivation. In Experiment 2, a similar examination was conducted using the palatable but calorie-free stimulus sucralose (0.001 to 1%), allowing study of licking behavior independent of homeostatic variables. Results In Experiment 1, MOR knockout mice exhibited several alterations in sucrose licking. Although wildtype mice exhibited a two-fold increase in the burst length when food deprived, relative to the nondeprived test, this aspect of sucrose licking was generally insensitive to manipulations of food deprivation for MOR knockout mice. Furthermore, during concentration testing, their rate of sucrose licking was less than half that of wildtype mice. During sucralose testing (Experiment 2), MOR knockout mice licked at approximately half the wildtype rate, providing more direct evidence that MOR knockout mice were impaired in processing stimulus palatability. Conclusions These results suggest that transmission through MORs mediates hedonic responses to palatable stimuli, and therefore likely contributes to normal and pathological eating. PMID:23568577

  8. Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout mice exhibit placental P4 overproduction and delayed parturition

    PubMed Central

    Naruse, Mie; Ono, Ryuichi; Irie, Masahito; Nakamura, Kenji; Furuse, Tamio; Hino, Toshiaki; Oda, Kanako; Kashimura, Misho; Yamada, Ikuko; Wakana, Shigeharu; Yokoyama, Minesuke; Ishino, Fumitoshi; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    Sirh7/Ldoc1 [sushi-ichi retrotransposon homolog 7/leucine zipper, downregulated in cancer 1, also called mammalian retrotransposon-derived 7 (Mart7)] is one of the newly acquired genes from LTR retrotransposons in eutherian mammals. Interestingly, Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout (KO) mice exhibited abnormal placental cell differentiation/maturation, leading to an overproduction of placental progesterone (P4) and placental lactogen 1 (PL1) from trophoblast giant cells (TGCs). The placenta is an organ that is essential for mammalian viviparity and plays a major endocrinological role during pregnancy in addition to providing nutrients and oxygen to the fetus. P4 is an essential hormone in the preparation and maintenance of pregnancy and the determination of the timing of parturition in mammals; however, the biological significance of placental P4 in rodents is not properly recognized. Here, we demonstrate that mouse placentas do produce P4 in mid-gestation, coincident with a temporal reduction in ovarian P4, suggesting that it plays a role in the protection of the conceptuses specifically in this period. Pregnant Sirh7/Ldoc1 knockout females also displayed delayed parturition associated with a low pup weaning rate. All these results suggest that Sirh7/Ldoc1 has undergone positive selection during eutherian evolution as a eutherian-specific acquired gene because it impacts reproductive fitness via the regulation of placental endocrine function. PMID:25468940

  9. Immune malfunction in the GPR39 zinc receptor of knockout mice: Its relationship to depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Młyniec, Katarzyna; Trojan, Ewa; Ślusarczyk, Joanna; Głombik, Katarzyna; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Budziszewska, Bogusława; Skrzeszewski, Jakub; Siwek, Agata; Holst, Birgitte; Nowak, Gabriel

    2016-02-15

    Depression is a serious psychiatric disorder affecting not only the monaminergic, glutamatergic, and GABAergic neurosystems, but also the immune system. Patients suffering from depression show disturbance in the immune parameters as well as increased susceptibility to infections. Zinc is well known as an anti-inflammatory agent, and its link with depression has been proved, zinc deficiency causing depression- and anxiety-like behavior with immune malfunction. It has been discovered that trace-element zinc acts as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system via zinc receptor GPR39. In this study we investigated whether GPR39 knockout would cause depressive-like behavior as measured by the forced swim test, and whether these changes would coexist with immune malfunction. In GPR39 knockout mice versus a wild-type control we found: i) depressive-like behavior; ii) significantly reduced thymus weight; (iii) reduced cell viability of splenocytes; iv) reduced proliferative response of splenocytes; and v) increased IL-6 production of splenocytes after ConA stimulation and decreased IL-1b and IL-6 release after LPS stimulation. The results indicate depressive-like behavior in GPR39 KO animals with an immune response similar to that observed in depressive disorder. Here for the first time we show immunological changes under GPR39-deficient conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Arginase inhibition in airways from normal and nitric oxide synthase 2-knockout mice exposed to ovalbumin

    SciTech Connect

    Bratt, Jennifer M.; Franzi, Lisa M.; Linderholm, Angela L.

    Arginase1 and nitric oxide synthase2 (NOS2) utilize L-arginine as a substrate, with both enzymes expressed at high levels in the asthmatic lung. Inhibition of arginase in ovalbumin-exposed C57BL/6 mice with the transition state inhibitor N{sup o}mega-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine (nor-NOHA) significantly increased total L-arginine content in the airway compartment. We hypothesized that such an increase in L-arginine content would increase the amount of nitric oxide (NO) being produced in the airways and thereby decrease airway hyperreactivity and eosinophilic influx. We further hypothesized that despite arginase inhibition, NOS2 knockout (NOS2-/-) mice would be unable to up-regulate NO production in response to allergen exposure andmore » would demonstrate higher amounts of airway hyperreactivity and eosinophilia under conditions of arginase inhibition than C57BL/6 animals. We found that administration of nor-NOHA significantly decreased airway hyperreactivity and eosinophilic airway inflammation in ovalbumin-exposed C57BL/6 mice, but these parameters were unchanged in ovalbumin-exposed NOS2-/- mice. Arginase1 protein content was increased in mice exposed to ovalbumin, an effect that was reversed upon nor-NOHA treatment in C57BL/6 mice. Arginase1 protein content in the airway compartment directly correlated with the degree of airway hyperreactivity in all treatment groups. NOS2-/- mice had significantly greater arginase1 and arginase2 concentrations compared to their respective C57BL/6 groups, indicating that inhibition of arginase may be dependent upon NOS2 expression. Arginase1 and 2 content were not affected by nor-NOHA administration in the NOS2-/- mice. We conclude that L-arginine metabolism plays an important role in the development of airway hyperreactivity and eosinophilic airway inflammation. Inhibition of arginase early in the allergic inflammatory response decreases the severity of the chronic inflammatory phenotype. These effects appear to be attributable to

  11. Enhanced voluntary wheel running in GPRC6A receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Clemmensen, Christoffer; Pehmøller, Christian; Klein, Anders B; Ratner, Cecilia; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2013-06-13

    GPRC6A is an amino acid-sensing receptor highly expressed in the brain and in skeletal muscle. Although recent evidence suggests that genetically engineered GPRC6A receptor knockout (KO) mice are susceptible to develop subtle endocrine and metabolic disturbances, the underlying disruptions in energy metabolism are largely unexplored. Based on GPRC6A's expression pattern and ligand preferences, we hypothesize that the receptor may impact energy metabolism via regulating physical activity levels. Thus, in the present study, we exposed GPRC6A receptor KO mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates to voluntary wheel running and forced treadmill exercise. Moreover, we assessed energy expenditure in the basal state, and evaluated the effects of wheel running on food intake, body composition, and a range of exercise-induced central and peripheral biomarkers. We found that adaptation to voluntary wheel running is affected by GPRC6A, as ablation of the receptor significantly enhances wheel running in KO relative to WT mice. Both genotypes responded to voluntary exercise by increasing food intake and improving body composition to a similar degree. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that the GPRC6A receptor is involved in regulating exercise behaviour. Future studies are highly warranted to delineate the underlying molecular details and to assess if these findings hold any translational value. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Olfactory behavior and physiology are disrupted in prion protein knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Le Pichon, Claire E; Valley, Matthew T; Polymenidou, Magdalini; Chesler, Alexander T; Sagdullaev, Botir T; Aguzzi, Adriano; Firestein, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    The prion protein PrP(C) is infamous for its role in disease, but its normal physiological function remains unknown. Here we found a previously unknown behavioral phenotype of Prnp(-/-) mice in an odor-guided task. This phenotype was manifest in three Prnp knockout lines on different genetic backgrounds, which provides strong evidence that the phenotype is caused by a lack of PrP(C) rather than by other genetic factors. Prnp(-/-) mice also showed altered behavior in a second olfactory task, suggesting that the phenotype is olfactory specific. Furthermore, PrP(C) deficiency affected oscillatory activity in the deep layers of the main olfactory bulb, as well as dendrodendritic synaptic transmission between olfactory bulb granule and mitral cells. Notably, both the behavioral and electrophysiological alterations found in Prnp(-/-) mice were rescued by transgenic neuronal-specific expression of PrP(C). These data suggest that PrP(C) is important in the normal processing of sensory information by the olfactory system.

  13. Anti-Atherosclerotic Action of Agmatine in ApoE-Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Olszanecki, Rafał; Totoń-Żurańska, Justyna; Stachowicz, Aneta; Suski, Maciej; Gębska, Anna; Gajda, Mariusz; Jawień, Jacek; Korbut, Ryszard

    2017-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease in which dysfunction of mitochondria play an important role, and disorders of lipid management intensify this process. Agmatine, an endogenous polyamine formed by decarboxylation of arginine, exerts a protective effect on mitochondria and modulates fatty acid metabolism. We investigated the effect of exogenous agmatine on the development of atherosclerosis and changes in lipid profile in apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE-/-) mice. Agmatine caused an approximate 40% decrease of atherosclerotic lesions, as estimated by en face and cross-section methods with an influence on macrophage but not on smooth muscle content in the plaques. Agmatine treatment did not changed gelatinase activity within the plaque area. What is more, the action of agmatine was associated with an increase in the number of high density lipoproteins (HDL) in blood. Real-Time PCR analysis showed that agmatine modulates liver mRNA levels of many factors involved in oxidation of fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis. Two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry identified 27 differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins upon agmatine treatment in the liver of apoE-/- mice, mostly proteins related to metabolism and apoptosis. In conclusion, prolonged administration of agmatine inhibits atherosclerosis in apoE-/- mice; however, the exact mechanisms linking observed changes and elevations of HDL plasma require further investigation. PMID:28777310

  14. Anti-Atherosclerotic Action of Agmatine in ApoE-Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Wiśniewska, Anna; Olszanecki, Rafał; Totoń-Żurańska, Justyna; Kuś, Katarzyna; Stachowicz, Aneta; Suski, Maciej; Gębska, Anna; Gajda, Mariusz; Jawień, Jacek; Korbut, Ryszard

    2017-08-04

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease in which dysfunction of mitochondria play an important role, and disorders of lipid management intensify this process. Agmatine, an endogenous polyamine formed by decarboxylation of arginine, exerts a protective effect on mitochondria and modulates fatty acid metabolism. We investigated the effect of exogenous agmatine on the development of atherosclerosis and changes in lipid profile in apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE-/-) mice. Agmatine caused an approximate 40% decrease of atherosclerotic lesions, as estimated by en face and cross-section methods with an influence on macrophage but not on smooth muscle content in the plaques. Agmatine treatment did not changed gelatinase activity within the plaque area. What is more, the action of agmatine was associated with an increase in the number of high density lipoproteins (HDL) in blood. Real-Time PCR analysis showed that agmatine modulates liver mRNA levels of many factors involved in oxidation of fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis. Two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry identified 27 differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins upon agmatine treatment in the liver of apoE-/- mice, mostly proteins related to metabolism and apoptosis. In conclusion, prolonged administration of agmatine inhibits atherosclerosis in apoE-/- mice; however, the exact mechanisms linking observed changes and elevations of HDL plasma require further investigation.

  15. Inhibition of Angiotensin II-Induced Cardiac Fibrosis by Atorvastatin in Adiponectin Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sun Young; Park, Jong Sung; Roh, Mee Sook; Kim, Chong-Rak; Kim, Moo Hyun; Serebruany, Victor

    2017-05-01

    Adiponectin is a polypeptide known to inhibit cardiac fibrosis via the activation of ‎adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Statins can also activate AMPK, resulting in the secretion of adiponectin. We determined whether atorvastatin inhibits angiotensin II-induced cardiac fibrosis (AICF) in the presence or absence of adiponectin. Adiponectin knockout (APN-KO, n = 44) and wild type (WT, n = 44) mice were received subcutaneous angiotensin II (1.5 mg/kg/day), and atorvastatin (10 mg/kg/day) was administered orally for 15 days. The mRNA expression levels of collagen type I and III, as well as AMPK phosphorylation levels in cardiac tissue were then measured. In the APN-KO mice, collagen type I (p < 0.001) and type III (p = 0.001) expression was significantly greater when treated with angiotensin II, while their expression was significantly reduced in the presence of angiotensin II and atorvastatin. Relative AMPK phosphorylation levels in APN-KO mice were also significantly higher in the angiotensin II + atorvastatin group when compared with angiotensin II group alone. We conclude that atorvastatin attenuates AICF independently from adiponectin by activating AMPK. These data suggest potential cardioprotection beyond lipid modulation potentially supporting statin pleiotropic hypothesis.

  16. Shadoo/PrP (Sprn0/0/Prnp0/0) double knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Daude, Nathalie; Westaway, David

    2012-01-01

    Shadoo (Sho) is a brain glycoprotein with similarities to the unstructured region of PrPC. Frameshift alleles of the Sho gene, Sprn, are reported in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) patients while Sprn mRNA knockdown in PrP-null (Prnp0/0) embryos produces lethality, advancing Sho as the hypothetical PrP-like “pi” protein. Also, Sho levels are reduced as misfolded PrP accumulates during prion infections. To penetrate these issues we created Sprn null alleles (Daude et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci USA 2012; 109(23): 9035–40). Results from the challenge of Sprn null and TgSprn transgenic mice with rodent-adapted prions coalesce to define downregulation of Sho as a “tracer” for the formation of misfolded PrP. However, classical BSE and rodent-adapted BSE isolates may behave differently, as they do for other facets of the pathogenic process, and this intriguing variation warrants closer scrutiny. With regards to physiological function, double knockout mice (Sprn0/0/Prnp0/0) mice survived to over 600 d of age. This suggests that Sho is not pi, or, given the accumulating data for many activities for PrPC, that the pi hypothesis invoking a discrete signaling pathway to maintain neuronal viability is no longer tenable. PMID:22929230

  17. Developmental Emergence of Phenotypes in the Auditory Brainstem Nuclei of Fmr1 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rotschafer, Sarah E.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common monogenic cause of autism, is often associated with hypersensitivity to sound. Several studies have shown abnormalities in the auditory brainstem in FXS; however, the emergence of these auditory phenotypes during development has not been described. Here, we investigated the development of phenotypes in FXS model [Fmr1 knockout (KO)] mice in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN), medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB), and lateral superior olive (LSO). We studied features of the brainstem known to be altered in FXS or Fmr1 KO mice, including cell size and expression of markers for excitatory (VGLUT) and inhibitory (VGAT) synapses. We found that cell size was reduced in the nuclei with different time courses. VCN cell size is normal until after hearing onset, while MNTB and LSO show decreases earlier. VGAT expression was elevated relative to VGLUT in the Fmr1 KO mouse MNTB by P6, before hearing onset. Because glial cells influence development and are altered in FXS, we investigated their emergence in the developing Fmr1 KO brainstem. The number of microglia developed normally in all three nuclei in Fmr1 KO mice, but we found elevated numbers of astrocytes in Fmr1 KO in VCN and LSO at P14. The results indicate that some phenotypes are evident before spontaneous or auditory activity, while others emerge later, and suggest that Fmr1 acts at multiple sites and time points in auditory system development. PMID:29291238

  18. Monoamine oxidase A and A/B knockout mice display autistic-like features

    PubMed Central

    Bortolato, Marco; Godar, Sean C.; Alzghoul, Loai; Zhang, Junlin; Darling, Ryan D.; Simpson, Kimberly L.; Bini, Valentina; Chen, Kevin; Wellman, Cara L.; Lin, Rick C. S.; Shih, Jean C.

    2012-01-01

    Converging lines of evidence show that a sizable subset of autism-spectrum disorders (ASDs) is characterized by increased blood levels of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), yet the mechanistic link between these two phenomena remains unclear. The enzymatic degradation of brain 5-HT is mainly mediated by monoamine oxidase (MAO)A and, in the absence of this enzyme, by its cognate isoenzyme MAOB. MAOA and A/B knockout (KO) mice display high 5-HT levels, particularly during early developmental stages. Here we show that both mutant lines exhibit numerous behavioural hallmarks of ASDs, such as social and communication impairments, perseverative and stereotypical responses, behavioural inflexibility, as well as subtle tactile and motor deficits. Furthermore, both MAOA and A/B KO mice displayed neuropathological alterations reminiscent of typical ASD features, including reduced thickness of the corpus callosum, increased dendritic arborization of pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex and disrupted microarchitecture of the cerebellum. The severity of repetitive responses and neuropathological aberrances was generally greater in MAOA/B KO animals. These findings suggest that the neurochemical imbalances induced by MAOAdeficiency (either by itself or in conjunction with lack of MAOB) may result in an array of abnormalities similar to those observed in ASDs. Thus, MAOA and A/B KO mice may afford valuable models to help elucidate the neurobiological bases of these disorders and related neurodevelopmental problems. PMID:22850464

  19. Olive oils modulate fatty acid content and signaling protein expression in apolipoprotein E knockout mice brain.

    PubMed

    Alemany, Regina; Navarro, María A; Vögler, Oliver; Perona, Javier S; Osada, Jesús; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina

    2010-01-01

    Atherosclerosis contributes to disruption of neuronal signaling pathways by producing lipid-dependent modifications of brain plasma membranes, neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. We investigated whether long-term (11 weeks) consumption of refined- (ROO) and pomace- (POO) olive oil modulated the fatty acid composition and the levels of membrane signaling proteins in the brain of apolipoprotein E (apoE) knockout (KO) mice, an animal model of atherosclerosis. Both of these oils are rich in bioactive molecules with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. ROO and POO long-term consumption increased the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), particularly of oleic acid, while reducing the level of the saturated fatty acids (SFAs) palmitic and stearic acid. As a result, the MUFA:SFA ratio was higher in apoE KO mice brain fed with ROO and POO. Furthermore, both oils reduced the level of arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acid, suggesting a decrease in the generation of pro- and anti-inflammatory eicosanoids. Finally, ROO and POO induced an increase in the density of membrane proteins implicated in both the Galphas/PKA and Galphaq/PLCbeta1/PKCalpha signaling pathways. The combined effects of long-term ROO and POO consumption on fatty acid composition and the level of signaling proteins involved in PKA and PKC activation, suggest positive effects on neuroinflammation and brain function in apoE KO mice brain, and convert these oils into promising functional foods in diseases involving apoE deficiency.

  20. Altered cerebral protein synthesis in fragile X syndrome: studies in human subjects and knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Mei; Schmidt, Kathleen C; Zametkin, Alan J; Bishu, Shrinivas; Horowitz, Lisa M; Burlin, Thomas V; Xia, Zengyan; Huang, Tianjiang; Quezado, Zenaide M; Smith, Carolyn Beebe

    2013-01-01

    Dysregulated protein synthesis is thought to be a core phenotype of fragile X syndrome (FXS). In a mouse model (Fmr1 knockout (KO)) of FXS, rates of cerebral protein synthesis (rCPS) are increased in selective brain regions. We hypothesized that rCPS are also increased in FXS subjects. We measured rCPS with the ℒ-[1-11C]leucine positron emission tomography (PET) method in whole brain and 10 regions in 15 FXS subjects who, because of their impairments, were studied under deep sedation with propofol. We compared results with those of 12 age-matched controls studied both awake and sedated. In controls, we found no differences in rCPS between awake and propofol sedation. Contrary to our hypothesis, FXS subjects under propofol sedation had reduced rCPS in whole brain, cerebellum, and cortex compared with sedated controls. To investigate whether propofol could have a disparate effect in FXS subjects masking usually elevated rCPS, we measured rCPS in C57Bl/6 wild-type (WT) and KO mice awake or under propofol sedation. Propofol decreased rCPS substantially in most regions examined in KO mice, but in WT mice caused few discrete changes. Propofol acts by decreasing neuronal activity either directly or by increasing inhibitory synaptic activity. Our results suggest that changes in synaptic signaling can correct increased rCPS in FXS. PMID:23299245

  1. Decreased Neointimal Extracellular Matrix Formation in RAGE-Knockout Mice After Microvascular Denudation

    SciTech Connect

    Groezinger, Gerd, E-mail: gerd.groezinger@med.uni-tuebingen.de; Schmehl, Joerg, E-mail: joerg.schmehl@med.uni-tuebingen.de; Bantleon, Ruediger, E-mail: ruediger.bantleon@med.uni-tuebingen.de

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate in vivo the role of RAGE (receptor for advanced glycated end products) in the development of restenosis and neointimal proliferation in RAGE-deficient knockout (KO) mice compared with wild-type (WT) mice in an animal model. Materials and Methods: Sixteen WT and 15 RAGE-deficient mice underwent microvascular denudation of the common femoral artery under general anaesthesia. Contralateral arteries underwent a sham operation and served as controls. Four weeks after the intervention, all animals were killed, and paraformaldehyde-fixed specimens of the femoral artery were analysed with different stains (hematoxylin and eosin and Elastica van Gieson) and several different types ofmore » immunostaining (proliferating cell nuclear antigen, {alpha}-actin, collagen, von Willebrand factor, RAGE). Luminal area, area of the neointima, and area of the media were measured in all specimens. In addition, colony-formation assays were performed, and collagen production by WT smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and RAGE-KO SMCs was determined. For statistical analysis, P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Four weeks after denudation, WT mice showed a 49.6% loss of luminal area compared with 14.9% loss of luminal area in RAGE-deficient mice (sham = 0% loss) (P < 0.001). The neointima was 18.2 (*1000 {mu}m{sup 2} [n = 15) in the WT group compared with only 8.4 (*1000 {mu}m{sup 2} [n = 16]) in the RAGE-KO group. RAGE-KO SMCs showed significantly decreased proliferation activity and production of extracellular matrix protein. Conclusion: RAGE may be shown to play a considerable role in the formation of neointima leading to restenosis after vascular injury.« less

  2. Reduced cortical BDNF expression and aberrant memory in Carf knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, Kelli A.; Hutchinson, Ashley N.; Wong-Goodrich, Sarah J.E.; Presby, Matthew M.; Su, Dan; Rodriguiz, Ramona M.; Law, Krystal C.; Williams, Christina L.; Wetsel, William C.; West, Anne E.

    2010-01-01

    Transcription factors are a key point of convergence between the cell-intrinsic and extracellular signals that guide synaptic development and brain plasticity. Calcium-Response Factor (CaRF) is a unique transcription factor first identified as a binding protein for a calcium-response element in the gene encoding Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (Bdnf). We have now generated Carf knockout (KO) mice to characterize the function of this factor in vivo. Intriguingly, Carf KO mice have selectively reduced expression of Bdnf exon IV-containing mRNA transcripts and BDNF protein in the cerebral cortex while BDNF levels in the hippocampus and striatum remain unchanged, implicating CaRF as a brain region-selective regulator of BDNF expression. At the cellular level, Carf KO mice show altered expression of GABAergic proteins at striatal synapses, raising the possibility that CaRF may contribute to aspects of inhibitory synapse development. Carf KO mice show normal spatial learning in the Morris water maze and normal context-dependent fear conditioning. However they have an enhanced ability to find a new platform location on the first day of reversal training in the water maze and they extinguish conditioned fear more slowly than their wildtype (WT) littermates. Finally, Carf KO mice show normal short-term and long-term memory in a novel object recognition task, but exhibit impairments during the remote memory phase of testing. Taken together these data reveal novel roles for CaRF in the organization and/or function of neural circuits that underlie essential aspects of learning and memory. PMID:20519520

  3. Desoxycorticosterone pivalate-salt treatment leads to non-dipping hypertension in Per1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Solocinski, K; Holzworth, M; Wen, X; Cheng, K-Y; Lynch, I J; Cain, B D; Wingo, C S; Gumz, M L

    2017-05-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates that circadian clock proteins are important regulators of physiological functions including blood pressure. An established risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease is the absence of a blood pressure dip during the inactive period. The goal of the present study was to determine the effects of a high salt diet plus mineralocorticoid on PER1-mediated blood pressure regulation in a salt-resistant, normotensive mouse model, C57BL/6J. Blood pressure was measured using radiotelemetry. After control diet, wild-type (WT) and Per1 (KO) knockout mice were given a high salt diet (4% NaCl) and the long-acting mineralocorticoid deoxycorticosterone pivalate. Blood pressure and activity rhythms were analysed to evaluate changes over time. Blood pressure in WT mice was not affected by a high salt diet plus mineralocorticoid. In contrast, Per1 KO mice exhibited significantly increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) in response to a high salt diet plus mineralocorticoid. The inactive/active phase ratio of MAP in WT mice was unchanged by high salt plus mineralocorticoid treatment. Importantly, this treatment caused Per1 KO mice to lose the expected decrease or 'dip' in blood pressure during the inactive compared to the active phase. Loss of PER1 increased sensitivity to the high salt plus mineralocorticoid treatment. It also resulted in a non-dipper phenotype in this model of salt-sensitive hypertension and provides a unique model of non-dipping. Together, these data support an important role for the circadian clock protein PER1 in the modulation of blood pressure in a high salt/mineralocorticoid model of hypertension. © 2016 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Rosuvastatin reduces atherosclerotic lesions and promotes progenitor cell mobilisation and recruitment in apolipoprotein E knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Schroeter, Marco R; Humboldt, Tim; Schäfer, Katrin; Konstantinides, Stavros

    2009-07-01

    Statins enhance incorporation of bone marrow-derived cells into experimental neointimal lesions. However, the contribution of progenitor cells to progression of spontaneous atherosclerotic plaques, and the possible modulatory role of statins in this process, remain poorly understood. We compared the effects of rosuvastatin (1 and 10mg/kg BW) and pravastatin (10mg/kg) on progenitor cell mobilisation, recruitment into atherosclerotic plaques, and lesion growth. Statins were administered over 8 weeks to apolipoprotein E knockout mice on atherogenic diet. In addition, mice were lethally irradiated, followed by transplantation of bone marrow from LacZ transgenic mice. Rosuvastatin reduced lesion area and intima-to-media ratio at the brachiocephalic artery compared to vehicle, while both parameters were not significantly altered by pravastatin. Rosuvastatin also augmented endothelialisation (P<0.05) and reduced the smooth muscle cells (SMC) content (P=0.042) of lesions. Numbers of c-kit, sca-1 and flk-1, sca-1 double-positive progenitor cells were significantly increased in rosuvastatin compared to control-treated mice, both in the bone marrow and the peripheral blood. Similarly, the number of spleen-derived acLDL, lectin double-positive progenitor cells (P=0.001) and colony-forming units (P=0.0104) was significantly increased in mice treated with rosuvastatin compared to vehicle alone. In the bone marrow, increased Akt and p42/44 MAP kinase phosphorylation and upregulated SDF1alpha mRNA expression were observed. Importantly, rosuvastatin treatment also increased the plasma levels of c-kit ligand (P=0.003), and the number of c-kit-positive cells within atherosclerotic lesions (P=0.041). Our findings suggest that rosuvastatin reduces the size of atherosclerotic plaques, and this effect appears to involve progenitor cell mobilisation and recruitment into vascular lesions.

  5. Cntnap2 Knockout Rats and Mice Exhibit Epileptiform Activity and Abnormal Sleep-Wake Physiology.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Alexia M; Schwartz, Michael D; Saxe, Michael D; Kilduff, Thomas S

    2017-01-01

    Although recent innovations have enabled modification of the rat genome, it is unclear whether enhanced utility of rodents as human disease models will result. We compared electroencephalogram (EEG) and behavioral phenotypes of rats and mice with homozygous deletion of Cntnap2, a gene associated with cortical dysplasia-focal epilepsy (CDFE) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Male contactin-associated protein-like 2 (Cntnap2) knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) rats and male Cntnap2 KO and WT mice were implanted with telemeters to record EEG, electromyogram, body temperature, and locomotor activity. Animals were subjected to a test battery for ASD-related behaviors, followed by 24-hr EEG recordings that were analyzed for sleep-wake parameters and subjected to spectral analysis. Cntnap2 KO rats exhibited severe motor seizures, hyperactivity, and increased consolidation of wakefulness and REM sleep. By contrast, Cntnap2 KO mice demonstrated absence seizure-like events, hypoactivity, and wake fragmentation. Although seizures observed in Cntnap2 KO rats were more similar to those in CDFE patients than in KO mice, neither model fully recapitulated the full spectrum of disease symptoms. However, KOs in both species had reduced spectral power in the alpha (9-12 Hz) range during wake, suggesting a conserved EEG biomarker. Deletion of Cntnap2 impacts similar behaviors and EEG measures in rats and mice, but with profound differences in nature and phenotypic severity. These observations highlight the importance of cross-species comparisons to understand conserved gene functions and the limitations of single- species models to provide translational insights relevant to human diseases. © Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Hypnotic hypersensitivity to volatile anesthetics and dexmedetomidine in dopamine β-hydroxylase knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Frances Y; Hanna, George M; Han, Wei; Mardini, Feras; Thomas, Steven A; Wyner, Abraham J; Kelz, Max B

    2012-11-01

    Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the adrenergic system can modulate sensitivity to anesthetic-induced immobility and anesthetic-induced hypnosis as well. However, several considerations prevent the conclusion that the endogenous adrenergic ligands norepinephrine and epinephrine alter anesthetic sensitivity. Using dopamine β-hydroxylase knockout (Dbh) mice genetically engineered to lack the adrenergic ligands and their siblings with normal adrenergic levels, we test the contribution of the adrenergic ligands upon volatile anesthetic induction and emergence. Moreover, we investigate the effects of intravenous dexmedetomidine in adrenergic-deficient mice and their siblings using both righting reflex and processed electroencephalographic measures of anesthetic hypnosis. We demonstrate that the loss of norepinephrine and epinephrine and not other neuromodulators co-packaged in adrenergic neurons is sufficient to cause hypersensitivity to induction of volatile anesthesia. However, the most profound effect of adrenergic deficiency is retarding emergence from anesthesia, which takes two to three times as long in Dbh mice for sevoflurane, isoflurane, and halothane. Having shown that Dbh mice are hypersensitive to volatile anesthetics, we further demonstrate that their hypnotic hypersensitivity persists at multiple doses of dexmedetomidine. Dbh mice exhibit up to 67% shorter latencies to loss of righting reflex and up to 545% longer durations of dexmedetomidine-induced general anesthesia. Central rescue of adrenergic signaling restores control-like dexmedetomidine sensitivity. A novel continuous electroencephalographic analysis illustrates that the longer duration of dexmedetomidine-induced hypnosis is not due to a motor confound, but occurs because of impaired anesthetic emergence. Adrenergic signaling is essential for normal emergence from general anesthesia. Dexmedetomidine-induced general anesthesia does not depend on inhibition of adrenergic neurotransmission.

  7. Construction of conditional acid ceramidase knockout mice and in vivo effects on oocyte development and fertility.

    PubMed

    Eliyahu, Efrat; Shtraizent, Nataly; Shalgi, Ruth; Schuchman, Edward H

    2012-01-01

    The number of resting follicles in the ovary and their successful maturation during development define the fertile female lifespan. Oocytes, enclosed within follicles, are subject to natural selection, and the majority will undergo apoptosis during prenatal life through adulthood. Our previous studies revealed high levels of the lipid hydrolase, acid ceramidase (AC), in human and mouse oocytes, follicular fluid and cumulus cells. In addition, supplementation of in vitro fertilization media with recombinant AC enhanced the survival of oocytes and preimplantation embryos. Herein we constructed and used a conditional knockout mouse model of AC deficiency (cACKO) to further investigate the role of this enzyme in oocyte survival in vivo. Immunohistochemical staining, activity assays, and western blot analysis revealed that AC expression was high in the ovaries of normal mice, particularly in the theca cells. After induction of the AC gene knockout with tamoxifen (TM), AC levels decreased in ovaries, and ceramide was correspondingly elevated. A novel immunostaining method was developed to visualize follicles at various stages, and together with light microscopic examination, the transition of the follicle from the secondary to antral stage was found to be defective in the absence of AC. Western blot analysis showed elevated BAX and PARP expression in TM-treated cACKO mouse ovaries compared to control animals. In parallel, the levels of BCL-2 and anti-Mullerian hormone, a marker of ovarian reserve, were decreased. In addition to the above, there was a significant decrease in fertility observed in the TM-treated cACKO mice. Together, these data suggest that AC plays an important role in the preservation of fertility by maintaining low ceramide levels and preventing apoptosis of theca cells, thereby promoting survival of the follicle during the transition from the secondary to antral stage. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. EFFECTS OF HEAT AND BROMOCHLOROACETIC ACID ON MALE REPRODUCTION IN HEAT SHOCK FACTOR-1 GENE KNOCKOUT MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of heat and bromochloroacetic acid on male reproduction in heat shock factor-1 gene knockout mice.
    Luft JC1, IJ Benjamin2, JB Garges1 and DJ Dix1. 1Reproductive Toxicology Division, USEPA, RTP, NC, 27711 and 2Dept of Internal Medicine, Univ.of Texas Southwestern Med C...

  9. Linking cellular zinc status to body weight and fat mass: mapping quantitative trait loci in Znt7 knockout mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Zinc transporter 7 (Znt7, Slc30a7) knockout (KO) mice display abnormalities in body weight gain and body adiposity. Regulation of body weight and fatness is complex, involving multiple genetic and environmental factors. To understand how zinc homeostasis influences body weight gain and fat deposit a...

  10. p21{sup WAF1/Cip1/Sdi1} knockout mice respond to doxorubicin with reduced cardiotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Terrand, Jerome; Xu, Beibei; Morrissy, Steve

    2011-11-15

    Doxorubicin (Dox) is an antineoplastic agent that can cause cardiomyopathy in humans and experimental animals. As an inducer of reactive oxygen species and a DNA damaging agent, Dox causes elevated expression of p21{sup WAF1/Cip1/Sdi1} (p21) gene. Elevated levels of p21 mRNA and p21 protein have been detected in the myocardium of mice following Dox treatment. With chronic treatment of Dox, wild type (WT) animals develop cardiomyopathy evidenced by elongated nuclei, mitochondrial swelling, myofilamental disarray, reduced cardiac output, reduced ejection fraction, reduced left ventricular contractility, and elevated expression of ANF gene. In contrast, p21 knockout (p21KO) mice did not show significantmore » changes in the same parameters in response to Dox treatment. In an effort to understand the mechanism of the resistance against Dox induced cardiomyopathy, we measured levels of antioxidant enzymes and found that p21KO mice did not contain elevated basal or inducible levels of glutathione peroxidase and catalase. Measurements of 6 circulating cytokines indicated elevation of IL-6, IL-12, IFN{gamma} and TNF{alpha} in Dox treated WT mice but not p21KO mice. Dox induced elevation of IL-6 mRNA was detected in the myocardium of WT mice but not p21KO mice. While the mechanism of the resistance against Dox induced cardiomyopathy remains unclear, lack of inflammatory response may contribute to the observed cardiac protection in p21KO mice. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doxorubicin induces p21 elevation in the myocardium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doxorubicin causes dilated cardiomyopathy in wild type mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p21 Knockout mice are resistant against doxorubicin induced cardiomyopathy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lack of inflammatory response correlates with the resistance in p21 knockout mice.« less

  11. Effects of dopamine D1-like and D2-like antagonists on cocaine discrimination in muscarinic receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Morgane; Caine, Simon Barak

    2016-04-05

    Muscarinic and dopamine brain systems interact intimately, and muscarinic receptor ligands, like dopamine ligands, can modulate the reinforcing and discriminative stimulus (S(D)) effects of cocaine. To enlighten the dopamine/muscarinic interactions as they pertain to the S(D) effects of cocaine, we evaluated whether muscarinic M1, M2 or M4 receptors are necessary for dopamine D1 and/or D2 antagonist mediated modulation of the S(D) effects of cocaine. Knockout mice lacking M1, M2, or M4 receptors, as well as control wild-type mice and outbred Swiss-Webster mice, were trained to discriminate 10mg/kg cocaine from saline in a food-reinforced drug discrimination procedure. Effects of pretreatments with the dopamine D1 antagonist SCH 23390 and the dopamine D2 antagonist eticlopride were evaluated. In intact mice, both SCH 23390 and eticlopride attenuated the cocaine discriminative stimulus effect, as expected. SCH 23390 similarly attenuated the cocaine discriminative stimulus effect in M1 knockout mice, but not in mice lacking M2 or M4 receptors. The effects of eticlopride were comparable in each knockout strain. These findings demonstrate differences in the way that D1 and D2 antagonists modulate the S(D) effects of cocaine, D1 modulation being at least partially dependent upon activity at the inhibitory M2/M4 muscarinic subtypes, while D2 modulation appeared independent of these systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Dopamine transporter and vesicular monoamine transporter knockout mice : implications for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Miller, G W; Wang, Y M; Gainetdinov, R R; Caron, M G

    2001-01-01

    VMAT2 expression in wild-type and DAT knockout midbrain. DAT immunoreactivity in wild-type (A) and DAT knockout midbrain (B). VMAT2 immunoreactivity in wild-type (C) and DAT knockout midbrain (D). Robust immunoreactivity was observed in the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra pars compacta and reticulata in the wild-type brain. Note absence of DAT immunoreactivity and modest reduction of VMAT2 immunoreactivity in the DAT knockout. Fig. 3. Characterization of VMAT2 gene disruption. (A) Southern blot analysis of mouse genomic DNA. The Southern blot was prepared with 15 μg of genomic DNA per lane and probed with a 1.4-kb 3' external genomic fragment. +/+, wild type littermates; +/-, heterozygote; -/-, homozygote. (B) RT-PCR analysis of mouse brain poly(A)+ RNA. For each reverse transcription assay, 0.5 μg of poly(A)+ RNA was used. Equal volumes of cDNA templates were used for each PCR assay. The PCR primers used flank the neomycin cassette for the purpose of detecting potential readthrough of the neomycin DNA. The heterozygote has a reduced amount of transcripts compared with the wild-type littermate; the homozygote is devoid of VMAT2 transcripts. G3PDH was used as internal control. (C) Western blot analysis of wholebrain synaptic vesicles. Samples (25 μg) of vesicles were solubilized and separated by SDS-PAGE, transferred to nitrocellulose, subjected to Western blot analysis with anti-VMAT2-Ct (top) or anti-a-tubulin (bottom) antibodies, and developed with chemiluminescence. Molecular mass markers (kDa) are shown to the left. To confirm equal loading and transfer of proteins, the blots were stripped and reprobed with an antibody to α-tubulin. (Reproduced with permission from ref. 1). The importance of DAT in neuronal function is highlighted in animals in which DAT has been genetically deleted (DAT KO) (3). In the homozygote DAT KO mice, released dopamine remains in the extracellular space up to 300 times longer than normal. As expected, these animals display

  13. [Effect of Huanglian Jiedu Decoction on Monocyte Development in apoE Gene Knockout Mice].

    PubMed

    Chen, Bing; Kong, Ya-xian; Ll, Yu-mei; Xue, Xin; Zhang, Jian-ping; Zeng, Hui; Hu, Jing- qing; Ma, Ya-luan

    2016-01-01

    To observe monocyte (Mo) development in wild type C57BL/6 mice and apoE gene knockout (apoE(-/-)) mice, and to evaluate the immuno-regulatory effect of Huanglian Jiedu Decoction (HJD) on peripheral Mo development in apoE(-/-) mice. Four, 8, 12, and 16 weeks old female C57BL/6 mice were set up as control groups of different ages, while 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks old female apoE(-/-) mice were set up as hyperlipidemia groups of different ages. Four-week old female C57BL/6 mice were recruited as a blank group. Four-week old female apoE(-/-) mice were randomly divided into the control group, the Western medicine group, and the Chinese medicine group by paired comparison, 5 in each group. Equivalent clinical dose was administered to mice according to body weight. Mice in the Western medicine group were administered with Atrovastatin at the daily dose of 10 mg/kg by gastrogavage, while those in the Chinese medicine group were administered with HJD at the daily dose of 5 g/kg by gastrogavage. Body weight was detected each week. After 4 weeks blood lipids levels (such as TG, TC, LDL-C, and HDL-C), and the proportions of Mo and Ly6c(hi) were detected. Compared with 4-week-old homogenic mice, the proportion of Mo decreased in 16-week-old C57BL/6 mice (P < 0.05). Levels of TC and TG, and the proportion of Ly6c(hi) subtype increased, but the proportion of Mo de- creased in 8-week-old apoE(-/-) mice (P <0. 05). Levels of TC, TG, and LDL-C increased in 12-week-old apoE(-/-) mice (P < 0.05). Levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, and HDL-C increased in 16-week-old apoE(-/-) mice (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Compared with 8-week-old homogenic mice, the proportion of Mo decreased in 16-week-old C57BL/6 mice (P < 0.05); levels of TC and LDL-C increased in 12-week-old apoE(-/-) mice (P < 0.05); levels of TC and HDL-C increased in 16-week-old apoE(-/-) mice (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Compared with C57BL/6 mice of the same age, TC and TG increased, HDL-C decreased (P < 0.01) in 4-and 8-week-old apoE(-/-) mice (P

  14. Particulate matter induced enhancement of inflammatory markers in the brains of apolipoprotein E knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Arezoo; Araujo, Jesus A; Li, Huihui; Sioutas, Constantinos; Kleinman, Michael

    2009-08-01

    Exposure to air particulate matter (PM) present in urban environments have been shown to induce systemic prooxidant and proinflammatory effects in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE-/-) mice and proinflammatory central nervous system (CNS) effects in BALB/c mice. We hypothesize that ApoE-/- mice would exhibit a greater propensity to develop PM-induced CNS effects due to their greater susceptibility to CNS inflammation. We studied the brains of ApoE-/- mice exposed in a previous study to concentrated air particles of different sizes (fine vs. ultrafine) or filtered-air to evaluate the effect of PM exposure on the development of CNS proinflammatory effects in a genetically susceptible background. This was important because, although the use of nano-sized materials opens an exciting potential for their use as diagnostic or therapeutic tools, not much is known about the possible CNS toxicity of these particles. Neuroinflammation has been shown to exacerbate progression of neurodegeneration. Since the onset and progression of idiopathic forms of neurodegenerative disorders are likely to be multifactorial and involve gene-environment interactions, we determined the possibility of particles in ambient air pollution to enhance neuroinflammation. Our results indicate that in the brain, there was significant modulation in the activation of the transcription factors NF-kappaB and AP-1 after exposure to the ultrafine fractions. Levels of two pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-1alpha) were also increased in the brain of exposed animals and this was independent of the size fraction of PM. Since inflammatory processes have been shown to contribute to the pathology associated with neurodegenerative diseases, it will be important to further evaluate the role ambient particles may play in the potentiation of existing CNS damage and progression of neurodegenerative disorders.

  15. Systemic and Cerebral Iron Homeostasis in Ferritin Knock-Out Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Garringer, Holly J.; Goodwin, Charles B.; Richine, Briana; Acton, Anthony; VanDuyn, Natalia; Muhoberac, Barry B.; Irimia-Dominguez, Jose; Chan, Rebecca J.; Peacock, Munro; Nass, Richard; Ghetti, Bernardino; Vidal, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Ferritin, a 24-mer heteropolymer of heavy (H) and light (L) subunits, is the main cellular iron storage protein and plays a pivotal role in iron homeostasis by modulating free iron levels thus reducing radical-mediated damage. The H subunit has ferroxidase activity (converting Fe(II) to Fe(III)), while the L subunit promotes iron nucleation and increases ferritin stability. Previous studies on the H gene (Fth) in mice have shown that complete inactivation of Fth is lethal during embryonic development, without ability to compensate by the L subunit. In humans, homozygous loss of the L gene (FTL) is associated with generalized seizure and atypical restless leg syndrome, while mutations in FTL cause a form of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. Here we generated mice with genetic ablation of the Fth and Ftl genes. As previously reported, homozygous loss of the Fth allele on a wild-type Ftl background was embryonic lethal, whereas knock-out of the Ftl allele (Ftl-/-) led to a significant decrease in the percentage of Ftl-/- newborn mice. Analysis of Ftl-/- mice revealed systemic and brain iron dyshomeostasis, without any noticeable signs of neurodegeneration. Our findings indicate that expression of the H subunit can rescue the loss of the L subunit and that H ferritin homopolymers have the capacity to sequester iron in vivo. We also observed that a single allele expressing the H subunit is not sufficient for survival when both alleles encoding the L subunit are absent, suggesting the need of some degree of complementation between the subunits as well as a dosage effect. PMID:25629408

  16. Behavioural and functional characterization of Kv10.1 (Eag1) knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Ufartes, Roser; Schneider, Tomasz; Mortensen, Lena Sünke; de Juan Romero, Camino; Hentrich, Klaus; Knoetgen, Hendrik; Beilinson, Vadim; Moebius, Wiebke; Tarabykin, Victor; Alves, Frauke; Pardo, Luis A.; Rawlins, J. Nicholas P.; Stuehmer, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Kv10.1 (Eag1), member of the Kv10 family of voltage-gated potassium channels, is preferentially expressed in adult brain. The aim of the present study was to unravel the functional role of Kv10.1 in the brain by generating knockout mice, where the voltage sensor and pore region of Kv10.1 were removed to render non-functional proteins through deletion of exon 7 of the KCNH1 gene using the ‘3 Lox P strategy’. Kv10.1-deficient mice show no obvious alterations during embryogenesis and develop normally to adulthood; cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum appear anatomically normal. Other tests, including general health screen, sensorimotor functioning and gating, anxiety, social behaviour, learning and memory did not show any functional aberrations in Kv10.1 null mice. Kv10.1 null mice display mild hyperactivity and longer-lasting haloperidol-induced catalepsy, but there was no difference between genotypes in amphetamine sensitization and withdrawal, reactivity to apomorphine and haloperidol in the prepulse inhibition tests or to antidepressants in the haloperidol-induced catalepsy. Furthermore, electrical properties of Kv10.1 in cerebellar Purkinje cells did not show any difference between genotypes. Bearing in mind that Kv10.1 is overexpressed in over 70% of all human tumours and that its inhibition leads to a reduced tumour cell proliferation, the fact that deletion of Kv10.1 does not show a marked phenotype is a prerequisite for utilizing Kv10.1 blocking and/or reduction techniques, such as siRNA, to treat cancer. PMID:23424202

  17. CDKL5 knockout leads to altered inhibitory transmission in the cerebellum of adult mice.

    PubMed

    Sivilia, S; Mangano, C; Beggiato, S; Giuliani, A; Torricella, R; Baldassarro, V A; Fernandez, M; Lorenzini, L; Giardino, L; Borelli, A C; Ferraro, L; Calzà, L

    2016-06-01

    Mutations in the X-linked cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 gene (CDKL5) are associated to severe neurodevelopmental alterations including motor symptoms. In order to elucidate the neurobiological substrate of motor symptoms in CDKL5 syndrome, we investigated the motor function, GABA and glutamate pathways in the cerebellum of CDKL5 knockout female mice. Behavioural data indicate that CDKL5-KO mice displayed impaired motor coordination on the Rotarod test, and altered steps, as measured by the gait analysis using the CatWalk test. A higher reduction in spontaneous GABA efflux, than that in glutamate, was observed in CDKL5-KO mouse cerebellar synaptosomes, leading to a significant increase of spontaneous glutamate/GABA efflux ratio in these animals. On the contrary, there were no differences between groups in K(+) -evoked GABA and glutamate efflux. The anatomical analysis of cerebellar excitatory and inhibitory pathways showed a selective defect of the GABA-related marker GAD67 in the molecular layer in CDKL5-KO mice, while the glutamatergic marker VGLUT1 was unchanged in the same area. Fine cerebellar structural abnormalities such as a reduction of the inhibitory basket 'net' estimated volume and an increase of the pinceau estimated volume were also observed in CDKL5-KO mice. Finally, the BDNF mRNA expression level in the cerebellum, but not in the hippocampus, was reduced compared with WT animals. These data suggest that CDKL5 deletion during development more markedly impairs the establishment of a correct GABAergic cerebellar network than that of glutamatergic one, leading to the behavioural symptoms associated with CDKL5 mutation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  18. Mechanism of Hyperphagia Contributing to Obesity in Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Edward A.; Biddinger, Jessica E.; Jones, Kevin R.; McAdams, Jennifer; Worman, Amber

    2012-01-01

    Global-heterozygous and brain-specific homozygous knockouts (KO's) of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) cause late- and early-onset obesity, respectively, both involving hyperphagia. Little is known about the mechanism underlying this hyperphagia or whether BDNF loss from peripheral tissues could contribute to overeating. Since global-homozygous BDNF-KO is perinatal lethal, a BDNF-KO that spared sufficient brainstem BDNF to support normal health was utilized to begin to address these issues. Meal pattern and microstructure analyses suggested overeating of BDNF-KO mice was mediated by deficits in both satiation and satiety that resulted in increased meal size and frequency and implicated a reduction of vagal signaling from gut-to-brain. Meal-induced c-Fos activation in the nucleus of the solitary tract, a more direct measure of vagal afferent signaling, however, was not decreased in BDNF-KO mice, and thus was not consistent with a vagal afferent role. Interestingly though, meal-induced c-Fos activation was increased in the dorsal vagal motor nucleus (DMV) of BDNF-KO mice. This could imply that augmentation of vago-vagal digestive reflexes occurred (e.g., accommodation), which would support increased meal size and possibly increased meal number by reducing the increase in intragastric pressure produced by a given amount of ingesta. Additionally, vagal sensory neuron number in BDNF-KO mice was altered in a manner consistent with the increased meal-induced activation of the DMV. These results suggest reduced BDNF causes satiety and satiation deficits that support hyperphagia, possibly involving augmentation of vago-vagal reflexes mediated by central pathways or vagal afferents regulated by BDNF levels. PMID:23069761

  19. STRIATAL-ENRICHED PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE (STEP) KNOCKOUT MICE HAVE ENHANCED HIPPOCAMPAL MEMORY

    PubMed Central

    Venkitaramani, Deepa V.; Moura, Paula J.; Picciotto, Marina R.; Lombroso, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    STEP is a brain-specific phosphatase that opposes synaptic strengthening by the regulation of key synaptic signaling proteins. Previous studies suggest a possible role for STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase (STEP) in learning and memory. To demonstrate the functional importance of STEP in learning and memory, we generated STEP knockout (KO) mice and examined the effect of deletion of STEP on behavioral performance, as well as the phosphorylation and expression of its substrates. Here we report that loss of STEP leads to significantly enhanced performance in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory tasks. In addition, STEP KO mice displayed greater dominance behavior, although they were normal in their motivation, motor coordination, visual acuity and social interactions. STEP KO mice displayed enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), the NR2B subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), Proline-rich tyrosine kinase (Pyk2), as well as an increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 substrates. Concomitant to the increased phosphorylation of NR2B, synaptosomal expression of NR1/NR2B NMDARs was increased in STEP KO mice, as was the GluR1/GluR2 containing α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid receptors (AMPAR), providing a potential molecular mechanism for the improved cognitive performance. The data support a role for STEP in the regulation of synaptic strengthening. The absence of STEP improves cognitive performance, and may do so by the regulation of downstream effectors necessary for synaptic transmission. PMID:21501258

  20. Excitability is increased in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells of Fmr1 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Luque, M. Angeles; Beltran-Matas, Pablo; Marin, M. Carmen; Torres, Blas

    2017-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by a failure of neuronal cells to express the gene encoding the fragile mental retardation protein (FMRP). Clinical features of the syndrome include intellectual disability, learning impairment, hyperactivity, seizures and anxiety. Fmr1 knockout (KO) mice do not express FMRP and, as a result, reproduce some FXS behavioral abnormalities. While intrinsic and synaptic properties of excitatory cells in various part of the brain have been studied in Fmr1 KO mice, a thorough analysis of action potential characteristics and input-output function of CA1 pyramidal cells in this model is lacking. With a view to determining the effects of the absence of FMRP on cell excitability, we studied rheobase, action potential duration, firing frequency–current intensity relationship and action potential after-hyperpolarization (AHP) in CA1 pyramidal cells of the hippocampus of wild type (WT) and Fmr1 KO male mice. Brain slices were prepared from 8- to 12-week-old mice and the electrophysiological properties of cells recorded. Cells from both groups had similar resting membrane potentials. In the absence of FMRP expression, cells had a significantly higher input resistance, while voltage threshold and depolarization voltage were similar in WT and Fmr1 KO cell groups. No changes were observed in rheobase. The action potential duration was longer in the Fmr1 KO cell group, and the action potential firing frequency evoked by current steps of the same intensity was higher. Moreover, the gain (slope) of the relationship between firing frequency and injected current was 1.25-fold higher in the Fmr1 KO cell group. Finally, AHP amplitude was significantly reduced in the Fmr1 KO cell group. According to these data, FMRP absence increases excitability in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells. PMID:28931075

  1. Mechanism of hyperphagia contributing to obesity in brain-derived neurotrophic factor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Fox, E A; Biddinger, J E; Jones, K R; McAdams, J; Worman, A

    2013-01-15

    Global-heterozygous and brain-specific homozygous knockouts (KOs) of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) cause late- and early-onset obesity, respectively, both involving hyperphagia. Little is known about the mechanism underlying this hyperphagia or whether BDNF loss from peripheral tissues could contribute to overeating. Since global-homozygous BDNF-KO is perinatal lethal, a BDNF-KO that spared sufficient brainstem BDNF to support normal health was utilized to begin to address these issues. Meal pattern and microstructure analyses suggested overeating of BDNF-KO mice was mediated by deficits in both satiation and satiety that resulted in increased meal size and frequency and implicated a reduction of vagal signaling from the gut to the brain. Meal-induced c-Fos activation in the nucleus of the solitary tract, a more direct measure of vagal afferent signaling, however, was not decreased in BDNF-KO mice, and thus was not consistent with a vagal afferent role. Interestingly though, meal-induced c-Fos activation was increased in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMV) of BDNF-KO mice. This could imply that augmentation of vago-vagal digestive reflexes occurred (e.g., accommodation), which would support increased meal size and possibly increased meal number by reducing the increase in intragastric pressure produced by a given amount of ingesta. Additionally, vagal sensory neuron number in BDNF-KO mice was altered in a manner consistent with the increased meal-induced activation of the DMV. These results suggest reduced BDNF causes satiety and satiation deficits that support hyperphagia, possibly involving augmentation of vago-vagal reflexes mediated by central pathways or vagal afferents regulated by BDNF levels. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Activation of PPARγ Ameliorates Spatial Cognitive Deficits through Restoring Expression of AMPA Receptors in Seipin Knock-Out Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Libin; Chen, Tingting; Li, Guoxi; Wu, Chaoming; Wang, Conghui; Li, Lin; Sha, Sha; Chen, Lei; Liu, George; Chen, Ling

    2016-01-27

    A characteristic phenotype of congenital generalized lipodystrophy 2 (CGL2) that is caused by loss-of-function of seipin gene is mental retardation. Here, we show that seipin deficiency in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells caused the reduction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Twelve-week-old systemic seipin knock-out mice and neuronal seipin knock-out (seipin-nKO) mice, but not adipose seipin knock-out mice, exhibited spatial cognitive deficits as assessed by the Morris water maze and Y-maze, which were ameliorated by the treatment with the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone (rosi). In addition, seipin-nKO mice showed the synaptic dysfunction and the impairment of NMDA receptor-dependent LTP in hippocampal CA1 regions. The density of AMPA-induced current (IAMPA) in CA1 pyramidal cells and GluR1/GluR2 expression were significantly reduced in seipin-nKO mice, whereas the NMDA-induced current (INMDA) and NR1/NR2 expression were not altered. Rosi treatment in seipin-nKO mice could correct the decrease in expression and activity of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) and was accompanied by recovered synaptic function and LTP induction. Furthermore, hippocampal ERK2 and CREB phosphorylation in seipin-nKO mice were reduced and this could be rescued by rosi treatment. Rosi treatment in seipin-nKO mice elevated BDNF concentration. The MEK inhibitor U0126 blocked rosi-restored AMPAR expression and LTP induction in seipin-nKO mice, but the Trk family inhibitor K252a did not. These findings indicate that the neuronal seipin deficiency selectively suppresses AMPAR expression through reducing ERK-CREB activities, leading to the impairment of LTP and spatial memory, which can be rescued by PPARγ activation. Congenital generalized lipodystrophy 2 (CGL2), caused by loss-of-function mutation of seipin gene, is characterized by mental retardation. By the generation of systemic or neuronal seipin knock-out mice, the present study provides in vivo evidence that neuronal seipin

  3. Impaired spine formation and learning in GPCR kinase 2 interacting protein-1 (GIT1) knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Menon, Prashanthi; Deane, Rashid; Sagare, Abhay; Lane, Steven M; Zarcone, Troy J; O'Dell, Michael R; Yan, Chen; Zlokovic, Berislav V; Berk, Bradford C

    2010-03-04

    The G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-kinase interacting proteins 1 and 2 (GIT1 and GIT2) are scaffold proteins with ADP-ribosylating factor GTPase activity. GIT1 and GIT2 control numerous cellular functions and are highly expressed in neurons, endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. GIT1 promotes dendritic spine formation, growth and motility in cultured neurons, but its role in brain in vivo is unknown. By using global GIT1 knockout mice (GIT1 KO), we show that compared to WT controls, deletion of GIT1 results in markedly reduced dendritic length and spine density in the hippocampus by 36.7% (p<0.0106) and 35.1% (p<0.0028), respectively. This correlated with their poor adaptation to new environments as shown by impaired performance on tasks dependent on learning. We also studied the effect of GIT1 gene deletion on brain microcirculation. In contrast to findings in systemic circulation, GIT1 KO mice had an intact blood-brain barrier and normal regional cerebral blood flow as determined with radiotracers. Thus, our data suggest that GIT1 plays an important role in brain in vivo by regulating spine density involved in synaptic plasticity that is required for processes involved in learning. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of impaired processing of neuropeptides in the brains of endoprotease knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Beinfeld, Margery C

    2011-01-01

    With the development of mice in which individual proteolytic enzymes have been inactivated, it has been of great interest to see how loss of these enzymes alters the processing of neuropeptides. In the course of studying changes in the peptide cholecystokinin (CCK) and other neuropeptides in several of these knockout mice, it has become clear that neuropeptide processing is complex and regionally specific. The enzyme responsible for processing in one part of the brain may not be involved in other parts of the brain. It is essential to do a detailed dissection of the brain and analyze peptide levels in many brain regions to fully understand the role of the enzymes. Because loss of these proteases may trigger compensatory mechanisms which involve expression of the neuropeptides being studied or other proteases or accessory proteins, it is also important to examine how loss of an enzyme alters expression of the neuropeptides being studied as well as other proteins thought to be involved in neuropeptide processing. By determining how loss of an enzyme alters the molecular form(s) of the peptide that are made, additional mechanistic information can be obtained. This review will describe established methods to achieve these research goals.

  5. Dietary selenium protects adiponectin knockout mice against chronic inflammation induced colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Arpit; Fayad, Raja; Kaur, Kamaljeet; Truman, Samantha; Greer, Julian; Carson, James A; Chanda, Anindya

    2017-04-03

    Selenium (Se) is an essential dietary micronutrient that has been examined for protection against different types of cancers including colon cancer. Despite an established inverse association between Se and chronic inflammation induced colon cancer (CICC), the mechanistic understanding of Se's protective effects requires additional in-vivo studies using preclinical animal models of CICC. Adiponectin (APN) is an adipocytokine that is protective against CICC as well. However, its role in the anti-mutagenic effects of the Se-diet remains unknown. To address this knowledge gap, here we examine the ability of dietary Se in reducing CICC in APN knockout mice (KO) and its wild-type C57BL/6. CICC was induced with the colon cancer agent 1,2 dimethyl hydrazine (DMH) along with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Se-enhanced diet increased selenoproteins, Gpx-1 and Gpx-2, in the colon tissues, thereby reducing oxidative stress. Se-mediated reduction of CICC was evident from the histopathological studies in both mouse models. In both mice, reduction in inflammation and tumorigenesis associated well with reduced p65 phosphorylation and elevated 53 phosphorylation. Finally, we show that in both models Se-administration promotes goblet cell differentiation with a concomitant increase in the levels of associated proteins, Muc-2 and Math-1. Our findings suggest that Se's protection against CICC involves both colonic epithelial protection and anti-tumor effects that are independent of APN.

  6. Abolition of lemniscal barrellette patterning in Prrxl1 knockout mice: Effects upon ingestive behavior.

    PubMed

    Bakalar, Dana; Tamaiev, Jonathan; Zeigler, H Philip; Feinstein, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Ingestive behaviors in mice are dependent on orosensory cues transmitted via the trigeminal nerve, as confirmed by transection studies. However, these studies cannot differentiate between deficits caused by the loss of the lemniscal pathway vs. the parallel paralemniscal pathway. The paired-like homeodomain protein Prrxl1 is expressed widely in the brain and spinal cord, including the trigeminal system. A knockout of Prrxl1 abolishes somatotopic barrellette patterning in the lemniscal brainstem nucleus, but not in the parallel paralemniscal nucleus. Null animals are significantly smaller than littermates by postnatal day 5, but reach developmental landmarks at appropriate times, and survive to adulthood on liquid diet. A careful analysis of infant and adult ingestive behavior reveals subtle impairments in suckling, increases in time spent feeding and the duration of feeding bouts, feeding during inappropriate times of the day, and difficulties in the mechanics of feeding. During liquid diet feeding, null mice display abnormal behaviors including extensive use of the paws to move food into the mouth, submerging the snout in the diet, changes in licking, and also have difficulty consuming solid chow pellets. We suggest that our Prrxl1(-/-) animal is a valuable model system for examining the genetic assembly and functional role of trigeminal lemniscal circuits in the normal control of eating in mammals and for understanding feeding abnormalities in humans resulting from the abnormal development of these circuits.

  7. Chronic minocycline treatment improves social recognition memory in adult male Fmr1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Yau, Suk Yu; Chiu, Christine; Vetrici, Mariana; Christie, Brian R

    2016-10-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by a mutation in the Fmr1 gene that leads to silencing of the gene and a loss of its gene product, Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Some of the key behavioral phenotypes for FXS include abnormal social anxiety and sociability. Here we show that Fmr1 knock-out (KO) mice exhibit impaired social recognition when presented with a novel mouse, and they display normal social interactions in other sociability tests. Administering minocycline to Fmr1 KO mice throughout critical stages of neural development improved social recognition memory in the novel mouse recognition task. To determine if synaptic changes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) could have played a role in this improvement, we examined PSD-95, a member of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase family, and signaling molecules (ERK1/2, and Akt) linked to synaptic plasticity in the PFC. Our analyses indicated that while minocycline treatment can enhance behavioral performance, it does not enhance expression of PSD-95, ERK1/2 or Akt in the PFC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. LRRK2 knockout mice have an intact dopaminergic system but display alterations in exploratory and motor co-ordination behaviors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the LRRK2 gene are the most common cause of genetic Parkinson’s disease. Although the mechanisms behind the pathogenic effects of LRRK2 mutations are still not clear, data emerging from in vitro and in vivo models suggests roles in regulating neuronal polarity, neurotransmission, membrane and cytoskeletal dynamics and protein degradation. We created mice lacking exon 41 that encodes the activation hinge of the kinase domain of LRRK2. We have performed a comprehensive analysis of these mice up to 20 months of age, including evaluation of dopamine storage, release, uptake and synthesis, behavioral testing, dendritic spine and proliferation/neurogenesis analysis. Our results show that the dopaminergic system was not functionally comprised in LRRK2 knockout mice. However, LRRK2 knockout mice displayed abnormal exploratory activity in the open-field test. Moreover, LRRK2 knockout mice stayed longer than their wild type littermates on the accelerated rod during rotarod testing. Finally, we confirm that loss of LRRK2 caused degeneration in the kidney, accompanied by a progressive enhancement of autophagic activity and accumulation of autofluorescent material, but without evidence of biphasic changes. PMID:22647713

  9. Gap Junctional Coupling in Lenses from α8 Connexin Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Baldo, George J.; Gong, Xiaohua; Martinez-Wittinghan, Francisco J.; Kumar, Nalin M.; Gilula, Norton B.; Mathias, Richard T.

    2001-01-01

    Lens fiber cell gap junctions contain α3 (Cx46) and α8 (Cx50) connexins. To examine the roles of the two different connexins in lens physiology, we have genetically engineered mice lacking either α3 or α8 connexin. Intracellular impedance studies of these lenses were used to measure junctional conductance and its sensitivity to intracellular pH. In Gong et al. 1998, we described results from α3 connexin knockout lenses. Here, we present original data from α8 connexin knockout lenses and a comparison with the previous results. The lens has two functionally distinct domains of fiber cell coupling. In wild-type mouse lenses, the outer shell of differentiating fibers (see 1, DF) has an average coupling conductance per area of cell–cell contact of ∼1 S/cm2, which falls to near zero when the cytoplasm is acidified. In the inner core of mature fibers (see 1, MF), the average coupling conductance is ∼0.4 S/cm2, and is insensitive to acidification of the cytoplasm. Both connexin isoforms appear to contribute about equally in the DF since the coupling conductance for either heterozygous knockout (+/−) was ∼70% of normal and 30–40% of the normal for both −/− lenses. However, their contribution to the MF was different. About 50% of the normal coupling conductance was found in the MF of α3 +/− lenses. In contrast, the coupling of MF in the α8 +/− lenses was the same as normal. Moreover, no coupling was detected in the MF of α3 −/− lenses. Together, these results suggest that α3 connexin alone is responsible for coupling MF. The pH- sensitive gating of DF junctions was about the same in wild-type and α3 connexin −/− lenses. However, in α8 −/− lenses, the pure α3 connexin junctions did not gate closed in the response to acidification. Since α3 connexin contributes about half the coupling conductance in DF of wild-type lenses, and that conductance goes to zero when the cytoplasmic pH drops, it appears α8 connexin regulates the gating

  10. Knockout of Epstein-Barr Virus BPLF1 Retards B-Cell Transformation and Lymphoma Formation in Humanized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guangming; Montgomery, Stephanie A.; Montgomery, Nathan D.; Su, Lishan; Pagano, Joseph S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT BPLF1 of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is classified as a late lytic cycle protein but is also found in the viral tegument, suggesting its potential involvement at both initial and late stages of viral infection. BPLF1 possesses both deubiquitinating and deneddylating activity located in its N-terminal domain and is involved in processes that affect viral infectivity, viral DNA replication, DNA repair, and immune evasion. A recently constructed EBV BPLF1-knockout (KO) virus was used in conjunction with a humanized mouse model that can be infected with EBV, enabling the first characterization of BPLF1 function in vivo. Results demonstrate that the BPLF1-knockout virus is approximately 90% less infectious than wild-type (WT) virus. Transformation of human B cells, a hallmark of EBV infection, was delayed and reduced with BPLF1-knockout virus. Humanized mice infected with EBV BPLF1-knockout virus showed less weight loss and survived longer than mice infected with equivalent infectious units of WT virus. Additionally, splenic tumors formed in 100% of mice infected with WT EBV but in only 25% of mice infected with BPLF1-KO virus. Morphological features of spleens containing tumors were similar to those in EBV-induced posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) and were almost identical to cases seen in human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The presence of EBV genomes was detected in all mice that developed tumors. The results implicate BPLF1 in human B-cell transformation and tumor formation in humanized mice. PMID:26489865

  11. Impaired structural and functional regeneration of skeletal muscles from β2-adrenoceptor knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Silva, M T; Wensing, L A; Brum, P C; Câmara, N O; Miyabara, E H

    2014-01-01

    Aims β2-adrenergic stimulation causes beneficial effects on structure and function of regenerating muscles; thus, the β2-adrenoceptor may play an important role in the muscle regenerative process. Here, we investigated the role of the β2-adrenoceptor in skeletal muscle regeneration. Methods Tibialis anterior (TA) muscles from β2-adrenoceptor knockout (β2KO) mice were cryolesioned and analysed after 1, 3, 10 and 21 days. The role of β2-adrenoceptor on regenerating muscles was assessed through the analysis of morphological and contractile aspects, M1 and M2 macrophage profile, cAMP content, and activation of TGF-β signalling elements. Results Regenerating muscles from β2KO mice showed decreased calibre of regenerating myofibres and reduced muscle contractile function at 10 days when compared with those from wild type. The increase in cAMP content in muscles at 10 days post-cryolesion was attenuated in the absence of the β2-adrenoceptor. Furthermore, there was an increase in inflammation and in the number of macrophages in regenerating muscles lacking the β2-adrenoceptor at 3 and 10 days, a predominance of M1 macrophage phenotype, a decrease in TβR-I/Smad2/3 activation, and in the Smad4 expression at 3 days, while akirin1 expression increased at 10 days in muscles from β2KO mice when compared to those from wild type. Conclusions Our results suggest that the β2-adrenoceptor contributes to the regulation of the initial phases of muscle regeneration, especially in the control of macrophage recruitment in regenerating muscle through activation of TβR-I/Smad2/3 and reduction in akirin1 expression. These findings have implications for the future development of better therapeutic approaches to prevent or treat muscle injuries. PMID:24938737

  12. Prenatal nicotine exposure increases hyperventilation in α4-knock-out mice during mild asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Avraam, Joanne; Cohen, Gary; Drago, John; Frappell, Peter B

    2015-03-01

    Prenatal nicotine exposure alters breathing and ventilatory responses to stress through stimulation of nicotine acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We tested the hypothesis that α4-containing nAChRs are involved in mediating the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on ventilatory and metabolic responses to intermittent mild asphyxia (MA). Using open-flow plethysmography, we measured ventilation (V̇(E)) and rate of O2 consumption ( V̇(O2)) of wild-type (WT) and α4-knock-out (KO) mice, at postnatal (P) days 1-2 and 7-8, with and without prenatal nicotine exposure (6 mg kg(-1) day(-1) beginning on embryonic day 14). Mice were exposed to seven 2 min cycles of mild asphyxia (10% O2 and 5% CO2), each interspersed with 2 min of air. Compared to WT, α4 KO mice had increased air V̇(E) and V̇(O2) at P7-8, but not P1-2. Irrespective of age, genotype had no effect on the hyperventilatory response (increase in V̇(E)/V̇(O2)) to MA. At P1-2, nicotine suppressed air V̇(E) and V̇(O2) in both genotypes but did not affect the hyperventilatory response to MA. At P7-8 nicotine suppressed air V̇(E) and V̇(O2) of only α4 KO's but also significantly enhanced V̇(E) during MA (nearly double that of WT; p<0.001). This study has revealed complex effects of α4 nAChR deficiency and prenatal nicotine exposure on ventilatory and metabolic interactions and responses to stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Impaired cognitive discrimination and discoordination of coupled theta-gamma oscillations in Fmr1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Radwan, Basma; Dvorak, Dino; Fenton, André A

    2016-04-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) patients do not make the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). The absence of FMRP causes dysregulated translation, abnormal synaptic plasticity and the most common form of inherited intellectual disability. But FMRP loss has minimal effects on memory itself, making it difficult to understand why the absence of FMRP impairs memory discrimination and increases risk of autistic symptoms in patients, such as exaggerated responses to environmental changes. While Fmr1 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice perform cognitive discrimination tasks, we find abnormal patterns of coupling between theta and gamma oscillations in perisomatic and dendritic hippocampal CA1 local field potentials of the KO. Perisomatic CA1 theta-gamma phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) decreases with familiarity in both the WT and KO, but activating an invisible shock zone, subsequently changing its location, or turning it off, changes the pattern of oscillatory events in the LFPs recorded along the somato-dendritic axis of CA1. The cognition-dependent changes of this pattern of neural activity are relatively constrained in WT mice compared to KO mice, which exhibit abnormally weak changes during the cognitive challenge caused by changing the location of the shock zone and exaggerated patterns of change when the shock zone is turned off. Such pathophysiology might explain how dysregulated translation leads to intellectual disability in FXS. These findings demonstrate major functional abnormalities after the loss of FMRP in the dynamics of neural oscillations and that these impairments would be difficult to detect by steady-state measurements with the subject at rest or in steady conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Impaired cognitive discrimination and discoordination of coupled theta-gamma oscillations in Fmr1 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Radwan, Basma; Dvorak, Dino; Fenton, André

    2016-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) patients do not make the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Absence of FMRP causes dysregulated translation, abnormal synaptic plasticity and the most common form of inherited intellectual disability. But FMRP loss has minimal effects on memory itself, making it difficult to understand why absence of FMRP impairs memory discrimination and increases risk of autistic symptoms in patients, such as exaggerated responses to environmental changes. While Fmr1 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice perform cognitive discrimination tasks, we find abnormal patterns of coupling between theta and gamma oscillations in perisomatic and dendritic hippocampal CA1 local field potentials of the KO. Perisomatic CA1 theta-gamma phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) decreases with familiarity in both the WT and KO, but activating an invisible shock zone, subsequently changing its location, or turning it off, changes the pattern of oscillatory events in the LFPs recorded along the somato-dendritic axis of CA1. The cognition-dependent changes of this pattern of neural activity are relatively constrained in WT mice compared to KO mice, which exhibit abnormally weak changes during the cognitive challenge caused by changing the location of the shock zone and exaggerated patterns of change when the shock zone is turned off. Such pathophysiology might explain how dysregulated translation leads to intellectual disability in FXS. These findings demonstrate major functional abnormalities after the loss of FMRP in the dynamics of neural oscillations and that these impairments would be difficult to detect by steady-state measurements with the subject at rest or in steady conditions. PMID:26792400

  15. Molecular characterization and development of Sarcocystis speeri sarcocysts in gamma interferon gene knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Verma, S K; Dunams, D; Calero-Bernal, R; Rosenthal, B M

    2015-11-01

    The North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is the definitive host for at least three named species of Sarcocystis: Sarcocystis falcatula, Sarcocystis neurona and Sarcocystis speeri. The South American opossums (Didelphis albiventris, Didelphis marsupialis and Didelphis aurita) are definitive hosts for S. falcatula and S. lindsayi. The sporocysts of these Sarcocystis species are similar morphologically. They are also not easily distinguished genetically because of the difficulties of DNA extraction from sporocysts and availability of distinguishing genetic markers. Some of these species can be distinguished by bioassay; S. neurona and S. speeri are infective to gamma interferon gene knockout (KO) mice, but not to budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus); whereas S. falcatula and S. lindsayi are infective to budgerigars but not to KO mice. The natural intermediate host of S. speeri is unknown. In the present study, development of sarcocysts of S. speeri in the KO mice is described. Sarcocysts were first seen at 12 days post-inoculation (p.i.), and they became macroscopic (up to 4 mm long) by 25 days p.i. The structure of the sarcocyst wall did not change from the time bradyzoites had formed at 50-220 days p.i. Sarcocysts contained unique villar protrusions, 'type 38'. The polymerase chain reaction amplifications and sequences analysis of three nuclear loci (18S rRNA, 28S rRNA and ITS1) and two mitochondrial loci (cox1 and cytb) of S. speeri isolate from an Argentinean opossum (D. albiventris) confirmed its membership among species of Sarcocystis and indicated an especially close relationship to another parasite in this genus that employs opossums as its definitive host, S. neurona. These results should be useful in finding natural intermediate host of S. speeri.

  16. Reversal of mineral ion homeostasis and soft-tissue calcification of klotho knockout mice by deletion of vitamin D 1α-hydroxylase

    PubMed Central

    Ohnishi, Mutsuko; Nakatani, Teruyo; Lanske, Beate; Razzaque, M. Shawkat

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the expression of klotho, a β-glucuronidase, contribute to the development of features that resemble those of premature aging, as well as chronic renal failure. Klotho knockout mice have increased expression of the sodium/phosphate cotransporter (NaPi2a) and 1α-hydroxylase in their kidneys, along with increased serum levels of phosphate and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. These changes are associated with widespread soft-tissue calcifications, generalized tissue atrophy, and a shorter lifespan in the knockout mice. To determine the role of the increased vitamin D activities in klotho knockout animals, we generated klotho and 1α-hydroxylase double-knockout mice. These double mutants regained body weight and developed hypophosphatemia with a complete elimination of the soft-tissue and vascular calcifications that were routinely found in klotho knockout mice. The markedly increased serum fibroblast growth factor 23 and the abnormally low serum parathyroid hormone levels, typical of klotho knockout mice, were significantly reversed in the double-knockout animals. These in vivo studies suggest that vitamin D has a pathologic role in regulating abnormal mineral ion metabolism and soft-tissue anomalies of klotho-deficient mice. PMID:19225558

  17. GPER/GPR30 knockout mice: effects of GPER on metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Geetanjali; Prossnitz, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    i. Summary Endogenous estrogens, predominantly 17β-estradiol (E2), mediate various very diverse effects throughout the body in both normal physiology and disease. Actions include development (including puberty) and reproduction as well as additional effects throughout life in the metabolic, endocrine, musculoskeletal, nervous, cardiovascular and immune systems. The actions of E2 have traditionally been attributed to the classical nuclear estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) that largely mediate transcriptional/genomic activities. However, more recently the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor GPER/GPR30 has become recognized as an essential mediator of certain, and particularly rapid, signaling events in response to E2. Murine genetic knockout (KO) models represent an important approach to understand the mechanisms of E2 action in physiology and disease. Studies of GPER KO mice over the last years have revealed functions for GPER in the regulation of obesity, insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, among other areas of (patho)physiology. This chapter focuses on methods for the evaluation of metabolic parameters in vivo and ex vivo with an emphasis on glucose homeostasis and metabolism through the use of glucose and insulin tolerance tests, pancreatic islet and adipocyte isolation and characterization. PMID:26585159

  18. GPER/GPR30 Knockout Mice: Effects of GPER on Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Geetanjali; Prossnitz, Eric R

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous estrogens, predominantly 17β-estradiol (E2), mediate various diverse effects throughout the body in both normal physiology and disease. Actions include development (including puberty) and reproduction as well as additional effects throughout life in the metabolic, endocrine, musculoskeletal, nervous, cardiovascular, and immune systems. The actions of E2 have traditionally been attributed to the classical nuclear estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) that largely mediate transcriptional/genomic activities. However, more recently the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor GPER/GPR30 has become recognized as an essential mediator of certain, and particularly rapid, signaling events in response to E2. Murine genetic knockout (KO) models represent an important approach to understand the mechanisms of E2 action in physiology and disease. Studies of GPER KO mice over the last years have revealed functions for GPER in the regulation of obesity, insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, among other areas of (patho)physiology. This chapter focuses on methods for the evaluation of metabolic parameters in vivo and ex vivo with an emphasis on glucose homeostasis and metabolism through the use of glucose and insulin tolerance tests, pancreatic islet and adipocyte isolation and characterization.

  19. Repair of dentin defects from DSPP knockout mice by PILP mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Nurrohman, H.; Saeki, K.; Carneiro, K.; Chien, Y.C.; Djomehri, S.; Ho, S.P.; Qin, C.; Marshall, S.J.; Gower, L.B.; Marshall, G.W.; Habelitz, S.

    2016-01-01

    Dentinogenesis imperfecta type II (DGI-II) lacks intrafibrillar mineral with severe compromise of dentin mechanical properties. A Dspp knockout (Dspp−/−) mouse, with a phenotype similar to that of human DGI-II, was used to determine if poly-L-aspartic acid [poly(ASP)] in the “polymer-induced liquid-precursor” (PILP) system can restore its mechanical properties. Dentin from six-week old Dspp−/− and wild-type mice was treated with CaP solution containing poly(ASP) for up to 14 days. Elastic modulus and hardness before and after treatment were correlated with mineralization from Micro x-ray computed tomography (Micro-XCT). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)/Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) were used to compare matrix mineralization and crystallography. Mechanical properties of the Dspp−/− dentin were significantly less than wild-type dentin and recovered significantly (P < 0.05) after PILP-treatment, reaching values comparable to wild-type dentin. Micro-XCT showed mineral recovery similar to wild-type dentin after PILP-treatment. TEM/SAED showed repair of patchy mineralization and complete mineralization of defective dentin. This approach may lead to new strategies for hard tissue repair. PMID:27239097

  20. Investigation of the cardiomyocyte dysfunction in bradykinin type 2 receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Roman-Campos, Danilo; Duarte, Hugo Leonardo; Gomes, Enéas Ricardo; Castro, Carlos Henrique; Guatimosim, Silvia; Natali, Antonio José; Almeida, Alvair Pinto; Pesquero, João Bosco; Pesquero, Jorge Luiz; Cruz, Jader Santos

    2010-12-18

    Bradykinin type 2 receptor (B(2)R) is the key component to trigger the intracellular signaling pathway in response to bradykinin under physiological conditions. The present study sought to investigate whether the B(2)R gene deletion will have an impact on myocardial function. Isolated cell shortening, patch-clamp technique, Western blot and confocal microscopy. Isolated cell shortening measurements showed significant reduction in B(2)R knockout (B(2)R(-/-)) left ventricular cardiac myocytes' shortening. Whole-cell recordings were used to study the electrophysiological aspects of the left ventricular B(2)R(-/-) cardiomyocytes. Results showed: 1) action potential lengthening; 2) unchanged inwardly rectifying K(+) current; 3) reduced transient outward K(+) (I(to)) and L-type Ca(2+) current densities; 5) changes in kinetic properties related to I(to) and I(Ca,L). In addition, transient sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release was found to be smaller in B(2)R(-/-) cardiomyocytes. Importantly, evidence is provided that NO constitutive production is, at least in part, responsible for the reported electrophysiological modifications observed in cardiomyocytes from B(2)R(-/-) mice. Surprisingly, NO is not involved in the SR Ca(2+) release reduction as demonstrated in the present study. Taken together, our findings indicate that B(2)R plays a fundamental role in the regulation of cardiac function and Ca(2+) homeostasis, probably through a NO dependent pathway. These results may contribute to our understanding of the kinins participation in the control of cardiac function. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Single-neuron labeling with inducible cre-mediated knockout in transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Young, Paul; Qiu, Li; Wang, Dongqing; Zhao, Shengli; Gross, James; Feng, Guoping

    2011-01-01

    To facilitate functional analysis of neuronal connectivity in a mammalian nervous system tightly packed with billions of cells, we developed a new technique that allows inducible genetic manipulations within fluorescently labeled single neurons in mice. We term this technique SLICK for Single-neuron Labeling with Inducible Cre-mediated Knockout. SLICK is achieved by co-expressing a drug-inducible form of cre recombinase and a fluorescent protein within the same small subsets of neurons. Thus, SLICK combines the powerful cre recombinase system for conditional genetic manipulation and the fluorescent labeling of single neurons for imaging. We demonstrate efficient inducible genetic manipulation in several types of neurons using SLICK. Furthermore, we apply SLICK to eliminate synaptic transmission in a small subset of neuromuscular junctions. Our results provide evidence for the long-term stability of inactive neuromuscular synapses in adult animals. More broadly, these studies demonstrate a cre-LoxP compatible system for dissecting gene functions in single identifiable neurons. PMID:18454144

  2. Sucrose-conditioned flavor preferences in sweet ageusic T1r3 and Calhm1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Anthony; Marambaud, Philippe; Ackroff, Karen

    2014-03-14

    The present study compared the ability of sweet ageusic T1r3 knockout (KO) and Calhm1 KO mice to acquire preferences for a sucrose-paired flavor as well as for unflavored sucrose. The KO and wildtype (WT) mice were given 24-h one-bottle access to 8% sucrose containing one flavor CS+, e.g., grape) and to water containing a different flavor (CS-, e.g., cherry) over 4 training days. In subsequent two-bottle tests with the flavors in water only, the T1r3 KO and Calhm1 KO mice, like WT mice, preferred the CS+ to the CS-. After training with flavored solutions, both KO groups also preferred unflavored 8% sucrose to water although Calhm1 KO mice required more sugar experience to match the preference of the T1r3 KO mice. These findings demonstrate that Calhm1 KO mice, like T1r3 KO mice and WT mice, are sensitive to the post-oral preference conditioning actions of sucrose and can discriminate sugar from water. Yet, despite their acquired sucrose preferences, the Calhm1 KO and T1r3 KO mice consumed only half as much sugar per day as did WT mice. Thus, sweet taste signaling elements are not needed in the gut for sugar conditioning, but sweet taste signaling in the mouth is essential for the full expression of sugar appetite. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Proteomic analysis of PSD-93 knockout mice following the induction of ischemic cerebral injury.

    PubMed

    Rong, Rong; Yang, Hui; Rong, Liangqun; Wei, Xiue; Li, Qingjie; Liu, Xiaomei; Gao, Hong; Xu, Yun; Zhang, Qingxiu

    2016-03-01

    Postsynaptic density protein-93 (PSD-93) is enriched in the postsynaptic density and is involved in N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) triggered neurotoxicity through PSD-93/NMDAR/nNOS signaling pathway. In the present study, we found that PSD-93 deficiency reduced infarcted volume and neurological deficits induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) in the mice. To identify novel targets of PSD-93 related neurotoxicity, we applied isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitative (iTRAQ) labeling and combined this labeling with on-line two-dimensional LC/MS/MS technology to elucidate the changes in protein expression in PSD-93 knockout mice following tMCAO. The proteomic data set consisted of 1892 proteins. Compared to control group, differences in expression levels in ischemic group >1.5-fold and <0.66-fold were considered as differential expression. A total of 104 unique proteins with differential abundance levels were identified, among which 17 proteins were selected for further validation. Gene ontology analysis using UniProt database revealed that these differentially expressed proteins are involved in diverse function such as synaptic transmission, neuronal neurotransmitter and ion transport, modification of organelle membrane components. Moreover, network analysis revealed that the interacting proteins were involved in the transport of synaptic vesicles, the integrity of synaptic membranes and the activation of the ionotropic glutamate receptors NMDAR1 and NMDAR2B. Finally, RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that SynGAP, syntaxin-1A, protein kinase C β, and voltage-dependent L-type calcium channels were inhibited by ischemia-reperfusion. Identification of these proteins provides valuable clues to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the actions of PSD-93 in ischemia-reperfusion induced neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Liposome encapsulation of curcumin and resveratrol in combination reduces prostate cancer incidence in PTEN knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Narayanan K; Nargi, Dominick; Randolph, Carla; Narayanan, Bhagavathi A

    2009-07-01

    Increasing interest in the use of phytochemicals to reduce prostate cancer led us to investigate 2 potential agents, curcumin and resveratrol as preventive agents. However, there is concern about the bioavailability of these agents pertinent to the poor absorption and thereby limiting its clinical use. With the view to improve their bioavailability, we used the liposome encapsulated curcumin, and resveratrol individually and in combination in male B6C3F1/J mice. Further, we examined the chemopreventive effect of liposome encapsulated curcumin and resveratrol in combination in prostate-specific PTEN knockout mice. In vitro assays using PTEN-CaP8 cancer cells were performed to investigate the combined effects curcumin with resveratrol on (i) cell growth, apoptosis and cell cycle (ii) impact on activated p-Akt, cyclin D1, m-TOR and androgen receptor (AR) proteins involved in tumor progression. HPLC analysis of serum and prostate tissues showed a significant increase in curcumin level when liposome encapsulated curcumin coadministered with liposomal resveratrol (p < 0.001). Combination of liposomal forms of curcumin and resveratrol significantly decreased prostatic adenocarcinoma in vivo (p < 0.001). In vitro studies revealed that curcumin plus resveratrol effectively inhibit cell growth and induced apoptosis. Molecular targets activated due to the loss of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) including p-Akt, cyclin D1, mammalian target of rapamycin and AR were downregulated by these agents in combination. Findings from this study for the first time provide evidence on phytochemicals in combination to enhance chemopreventive efficacy in prostate cancer. These findings clearly suggest that phytochemicals in combination may reduce prostate cancer incidence due to the loss of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN.

  5. Newly generated heparanase knock-out mice unravel co-regulation of heparanase and matrix metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Zcharia, Eyal; Jia, Juan; Zhang, Xiao; Baraz, Lea; Lindahl, Ulf; Peretz, Tamar; Vlodavsky, Israel; Li, Jin-Ping

    2009-01-01

    Heparanase, a mammalian endo-beta-D-glucuronidase, specifically degrades heparan sulfate proteoglycans ubiquitously associated with the cell surface and extracellular matrix. This single gene encoded enzyme is over-expressed in most human cancers, promoting tumor metastasis and angiogenesis. We report that targeted disruption of the murine heparanase gene eliminated heparanase enzymatic activity, resulting in accumulation of long heparan sulfate chains. Unexpectedly, the heparanase knockout (Hpse-KO) mice were fertile, exhibited a normal life span and did not show prominent pathological alterations. The lack of major abnormalities is attributed to a marked elevation in the expression of matrix metalloproteinases, for example, MMP2 and MMP14 in the Hpse-KO liver and kidney. Co-regulation of heparanase and MMPs was also noted by a marked decrease in MMP (primarily MMP-2,-9 and 14) expression following transfection and over-expression of the heparanase gene in cultured human mammary carcinoma (MDA-MB-231) cells. Immunostaining (kidney tissue) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis (Hpse-KO mouse embryonic fibroblasts) suggest that the newly discovered co-regulation of heparanase and MMPs is mediated by stabilization and transcriptional activity of beta-catenin. The lack of heparanase expression and activity was accompanied by alterations in the expression level of MMP family members, primarily MMP-2 and MMP-14. It is conceivable that MMP-2 and MMP-14, which exert some of the effects elicited by heparanase (i.e., over branching of mammary glands, enhanced angiogenic response) can compensate for its absence, in spite of their different enzymatic substrate. Generation of viable Hpse-KO mice lacking significant abnormalities may provide a promising indication for the use of heparanase as a target for drug development.

  6. Cadium pathways during gestation and lactation in control vs. metallothionein 1,2-knockout mice.

    SciTech Connect

    Brako, E. E.; Wilson, A. K.; Jonah, M. M.

    2003-01-01

    Effects of metallothionein (MT) on cadmium absorption and transfer pathways during gestation and lactation in mice were investigated. Female 129/SvJ metallothionein-knockout (MT1,2KO) and metallothionein-normal (MTN) mice received drinking water containing trace amounts of {sup 109}CdCl{sub 2} (0.15 ng Cd/ml; 0.074 {mu}Ci {sup 109}Cd/ml). {sup 109}Cd and MT in maternal, fetal, and pup tissues were measured on gestation days 7, 14, and 17 and lactation day 11. In dams, MT influenced both the amount of {sup 109}Cd transferred from intestine into body (two- to three-fold higher in MT1,2KO than MTN dams) and tissue-specific {sup 109}Cd distribution (higher liver/kidney ratio in MT1,2KOmore » dams). Placental {sup 109}Cd concentrations in MT1,2KO dams were three- and seven-fold higher on gestation days 14 and 17, respectively, than in MTN dams. Fetal {sup 109}Cd levels were low in both mouse types, but at least 10-fold lower in MTN fetuses. MT had no effect on the amount of {sup 109}Cd transferred to pups via milk; furthermore, 85--90% of total pup {sup 109}Cd was recovered in gastrointestinal tracts of both types, despite high duodenal MT only in MTN pups. A relatively large percentage of milk-derived intestinal {sup 109}Cd was transferred to other pup tissues in both MT1,2KO and MTN pups (14 and 10%, respectively). These results demonstrate that specific sequestration of cadmium by both maternal and neonatal intestinal tract does not require MT. Although MT decreased oral cadmium transfer from intestine to body tissues at low cadmium exposure levels, MT did not play a major role in restricting transfer of cadmium from dam to fetus via placenta and to neonate via milk.« less

  7. Studies of UCP2 transgenic and knockout mice reveal that liver UCP2 is not essential for the antiobesity effects of fish oil.

    PubMed

    Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Sano, Kayo; Shozawa, Chikako; Osaka, Toshimasa; Ezaki, Osamu

    2008-03-01

    Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) is a possible target molecule for energy dissipation. Many dietary fats, including safflower oil and lard, induce obesity in C57BL/6 mice, whereas fish oil does not. Fish oil increases UCP2 expression in hepatocytes and may enhance UCP2 activity by activating the UCP2 molecule or altering the lipid bilayer environment. To examine the role of liver UCP2 in obesity, we created transgenic mice that overexpressed human UCP2 in hepatocytes and examined whether UCP2 transgenic mice showed less obesity when fed a high-fat diet (safflower oil or lard). In addition, we examined whether fish oil had antiobesity effects in UCP2 knockout mice. UCP2 transgenic and wild-type mice fed a high-fat diet (safflower oil or lard) developed obesity to a similar degree. UCP2 knockout and wild-type mice fed fish oil had lower rates of obesity than mice fed safflower oil. Remarkably, safflower oil did not induce obesity in female UCP2 knockout mice, an unexpected phenotype for which we presently have no explanation. However, this unexpected effect was not observed in male UCP2 knockout mice or in UCP2 knockout mice fed a high-lard diet. These data indicate that liver UCP2 is not essential for fish oil-induced decreases in body fat.

  8. Vascular changes in the cerebellum of Norrin /Ndph knockout mice correlate with high expression of Norrin and Frizzled-4.

    PubMed

    Luhmann, Ulrich F O; Neidhardt, John; Kloeckener-Gruissem, Barbara; Schäfer, Nikolaus F; Glaus, Esther; Feil, Silke; Berger, Wolfgang

    2008-05-01

    X-linked Norrie disease, familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR), Coat's disease and retinopathy of prematurity are severe human eye diseases and can all be caused by mutations in the Norrie disease pseudoglioma gene. They all show vascular defects and characteristic features of retinal hypoxia. Only Norrie disease displays additional neurological symptoms, which are sensorineural hearing loss and mental retardation. In the present study, we analysed transcript levels of the ligand Norrin (Ndph) and its two receptors Frizzled-4 (Fzd4) and LDL-related protein receptor 5 (Lrp5) in six different brain regions (cerebellum, cortex, hippocampus, olfactory bulb, pituitary and brain stem) of 6- to 8-month-old wild-type and Ndph knockout mice by quantitative real-time PCR. No effect of the Ndph knockout allele on Fzd4 or Lrp5 receptor expression was found. Furthermore, no alterations of the transcript levels of three hypoxia-regulated angiogenic factors (Vegfa, Itgrb3 and Tie1) were observed in the absence of Norrin. Interestingly, we identified significant differences in Ndph, Fzd4 and Lrp5 transcript levels in brain regions of wild-type mice and observed highest expression of Norrin and frizzled-4 in cerebellum. Transcript analyses were correlated with morphological data obtained from cerebellum and immunohistochemical studies of blood vessels in different brain regions. Vessel density was reduced in the cerebellum of Ndph knockout mice but the number of Purkinje and granular cells was not altered. This provides the first description of a brain phenotype in Ndph knockout mice, which will help to elucidate the role of Norrin in the brain.

  9. Rapid multislice T1 mapping of mouse myocardium: Application to quantification of manganese uptake in α-Dystrobrevin knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Kai; Li, Wen; Li, Wei; Jiao, Sen; Castel, Laurie; Van Wagoner, David R; Yu, Xin

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a rapid, multislice cardiac T1 mapping method in mice and to apply the method to quantify manganese (Mn(2+)) uptake in a mouse model with altered Ca(2+) channel activity. An electrocardiography-triggered multislice saturation-recovery Look-Locker method was developed and validated both in vitro and in vivo. A two-dose study was performed to investigate the kinetics of T1 shortening, Mn(2+) relaxivity in myocardium, and the impact of Mn(2+) on cardiac function. The sensitivity of Mn(2+)-enhanced MRI in detecting subtle changes in altered Ca(2+) channel activity was evaluated in a mouse model with α-dystrobrevin knockout. Validation studies showed strong agreement between the current method and an established method. High Mn(2+) dose led to significantly accelerated T1 shortening. Heart rate decreased during Mn(2+) infusion, while ejection ratio increased slightly at the end of imaging protocol. No statistical difference in cardiac function was detected between the two dose groups. Mice with α-dystrobrevin knockout showed enhanced Mn(2+) uptake in vivo. In vitro patch-clamp study showed increased Ca(2+) channel activity. The saturation recovery method provides rapid T1 mapping in mouse hearts, which allowed sensitive detection of subtle changes in Mn(2+) uptake in α-dystrobrevin knockout mice. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Altered morphology and function of the lacrimal functional unit in protein kinase C{alpha} knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhuo; Li, Zhijie; Basti, Surendra; Farley, William J; Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2010-11-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) α plays a major role in the parasympathetic neural stimulation of lacrimal gland (LG) secretion. It also has been reported to have antiapoptotic properties and to promote cell survival. Therefore, the hypothesis for the present study was that PKCα knockout ((-/-)) mice have impaired ocular surface-lacrimal gland signaling, rendering them susceptible to desiccating stress and impaired corneal epithelial wound healing. In this study, the lacrimal function unit (LFU) and the stressed wound-healing response were examined in PKCα(-/-) mice. In PKCα(+/+) control mice and PKCα(-/-) mice, tear production, osmolarity, and clearance rate were evaluated before and after experimental desiccating stress. Histology and immunofluorescent staining of PKC and epidermal growth factor were performed in tissues of the LFU. Cornified envelope (CE) precursor protein expression and cell proliferation were evaluated. The time course of healing and degree of neutrophil infiltration was evaluated after corneal epithelial wounding. Compared with the PKCα(+/+) mice, the PKCα(-/-) mice were noted to have significantly increased lacrimal gland weight, with enlarged, carbohydrate-rich, PAS-positive acinar cells; increased corneal epithelia permeability, with reduced CE expression; and larger conjunctival epithelial goblet cells. The PKCα(-/-) mice showed more rapid corneal epithelial healing, with less neutrophil infiltration and fewer proliferating cells than did the PKCα(+/+) mice. The PKCα(-/-) mice showed lower tear production, which appeared to be caused by impaired secretion by the LG and conjunctival goblet cells. Despite their altered tear dynamics, the PKCα(-/-) mice demonstrated more rapid corneal epithelial wound healing, perhaps due to decreased neutrophil infiltration.

  11. Metabolic alterations due to caloric restriction and every other day feeding in normal and growth hormone receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Reyhan; Bonkowski, Michael S; Arum, Oge; Strader, April D; Bartke, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Mutations causing decreased somatotrophic signaling are known to increase insulin sensitivity and extend life span in mammals. Caloric restriction and every other day (EOD) dietary regimens are associated with similar improvements to insulin signaling and longevity in normal mice; however, these interventions fail to increase insulin sensitivity or life span in growth hormone receptor knockout (GHRKO) mice. To investigate the interactions of the GHRKO mutation with caloric restriction and EOD dietary interventions, we measured changes in the metabolic parameters oxygen consumption (VO2) and respiratory quotient produced by either long-term caloric restriction or EOD in male GHRKO and normal mice. GHRKO mice had increased VO2, which was unaltered by diet. In normal mice, EOD diet caused a significant reduction in VO2 compared with ad libitum (AL) mice during fed and fasted conditions. In normal mice, caloric restriction increased both the range of VO2 and the difference in minimum VO2 between fed and fasted states, whereas EOD diet caused a relatively static VO2 pattern under fed and fasted states. No diet significantly altered the range of VO2 of GHRKO mice under fed conditions. This provides further evidence that longevity-conferring diets cause major metabolic changes in normal mice, but not in GHRKO mice.

  12. Chronic administration of methamphetamine promotes atherosclerosis formation in ApoE-/- knockout mice fed normal diet.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bo; Li, Lun; Zhu, Pengfei; Zhang, Mingjing; Hou, Lingbo; Sun, Yufei; Liu, Xiaoyan; Peng, Xiaohong; Gu, Ye

    2015-11-01

    Chronic methamphetamine (METH) abuse could induce neurotoxicity due to reactive oxygen species generation and sympathetic activation. Both factors are associated with atherosclerosis, so we tested the hypothesis that chronic METH administration might also promote atherosclerosis formation in Apo E-/- knockout mice fed normal diet. Male ApoE-/- mice (6 weeks-old) were treated with saline (NS) or METH [4 mg/kg/day (M4) or 8 mg/kg/day (M8) through intraperitoneal injection] for 24 weeks. Atherosclerotic lesion area on oil red O stained en face aorta was dose-dependently increased in M4 and M8 groups compared to NS group. Percentage of atherosclerotic lesion area was significantly higher in M8 group compared to NS and M4 groups. Plasma CRP was increased and inflammatory cytokine (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, TNF-α, and INF-γ) expression on aortic root was upregulated in METH groups compared to NS group. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) protein and mRNA expressions in aortic root and myocardial tissue were determined by Western blot and real time PCR, which were significantly upregulated in M4 and M8 groups. Moreover, mRNA expressions of NPY1R, NPY2R and NPY5R in aortic and myocardial tissue were also significantly upregulated in M4 and M8 groups. Raw264.7 cells were treated with NPY, NPY receptor antagonists, METH (10 μM or 100 μM) with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the expressions of TNF-α, CRP, MCP-1 and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were significantly increased in METH and LPS + METH groups compared to control and LPS groups. Co-treatment with NPY1R antagonist decreased the expressions of TNF-α, CRP and MCP-1 in NPY and METH treated cells. Chronic METH administration can promote inflammation and atherosclerotic plague formation in ApoE-/- mice fed normal chow. NPY might be involved in the pathogenesis of METH-induced atherogenic effects through NPY Y1 receptor pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cancer resistance of SR/CR mice in the genetic knockout backgrounds of leukocyte effector mechanisms: determinations for functional requirements.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Anne M; Stehle, John R; Blanks, Michael J; Riedlinger, Gregory; Kim-Shapiro, Jung W; Monjazeb, Arta M; Adams, Jonathan M; Willingham, Mark C; Cui, Zheng

    2010-03-31

    Spontaneous Regression/Complete Resistant (SR/CR) mice are a colony of cancer-resistant mice that can detect and rapidly destroy malignant cells with innate cellular immunity, predominately mediated by granulocytes. Our previous studies suggest that several effector mechanisms, such as perforin, granzymes, or complements, may be involved in the killing of cancer cells. However, none of these effector mechanisms is known as critical for granulocytes. Additionally, it is unclear which effector mechanisms are required for the cancer killing activity of specific leukocyte populations and the survival of SR/CR mice against the challenges of lethal cancer cells. We hypothesized that if any of these effector mechanisms was required for the resistance to cancer cells, its functional knockout in SR/CR mice should render them sensitive to cancer challenges. This was tested by cross breeding SR/CR mice into the individual genetic knockout backgrounds of perforin (Prf-/-), superoxide (Cybb-/), or inducible nitric oxide (Nos2-/). SR/CR mice were bred into individual Prf-/-, Cybb-/-, or Nos2-/- genetic backgrounds and then challenged with sarcoma 180 (S180). Their overall survival was compared to controls. The cancer killing efficiency of purified populations of macrophages and neutrophils from these immunodeficient mice was also examined. When these genetically engineered mice were challenged with cancer cells, the knockout backgrounds of Prf-/-, Cybb-/-, or Nos2-/- did not completely abolish the SR/CR cancer resistant phenotype. However, the Nos2-/- background did appear to weaken the resistance. Incidentally, it was also observed that the male mice in these immunocompromised backgrounds tended to be less cancer-resistant than SR/CR controls. Despite the previously known roles of perforin, superoxide or nitric oxide in the effector mechanisms of innate immune responses, these effector mechanisms were not required for cancer-resistance in SR/CR mice. The resistance was

  14. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4 isoform 2-knockout mice show reduced enzyme activity, airway hyporeactivity, and lung pathology

    PubMed Central

    Hüttemann, Maik; Lee, Icksoo; Gao, Xiufeng; Pecina, Petr; Pecinova, Alena; Liu, Jenney; Aras, Siddhesh; Sommer, Natascha; Sanderson, Thomas H.; Tost, Monica; Neff, Frauke; Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan Antonio; Becker, Lore; Naton, Beatrix; Rathkolb, Birgit; Rozman, Jan; Favor, Jack; Hans, Wolfgang; Prehn, Cornelia; Puk, Oliver; Schrewe, Anja; Sun, Minxuan; Höfler, Heinz; Adamski, Jerzy; Bekeredjian, Raffi; Graw, Jochen; Adler, Thure; Busch, Dirk H.; Klingenspor, Martin; Klopstock, Thomas; Ollert, Markus; Wolf, Eckhard; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Weissmann, Norbert; Doan, Jeffrey W.; Bassett, David J. P.; Grossman, Lawrence I.

    2012-01-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The purpose of this study was to analyze the function of lung-specific cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4 isoform 2 (COX4i2) in vitro and in COX4i2-knockout mice in vivo. COX was isolated from cow lung and liver as control and functionally analyzed. COX4i2-knockout mice were generated and the effect of the gene knockout was determined, including COX activity, tissue energy levels, noninvasive and invasive lung function, and lung pathology. These studies were complemented by a comprehensive functional screen performed at the German Mouse Clinic (Neuherberg, Germany). We show that isolated cow lung COX containing COX4i2 is about twice as active (88 and 102% increased activity in the presence of allosteric activator ADP and inhibitor ATP, respectively) as liver COX, which lacks COX4i2. In COX4i2-knockout mice, lung COX activity and cellular ATP levels were significantly reduced (−50 and −29%, respectively). Knockout mice showed decreased airway responsiveness (60% reduced Penh and 58% reduced airway resistance upon challenge with 25 and 100 mg methacholine, respectively), and they developed a lung pathology deteriorating with age that included the appearance of Charcot-Leyden crystals. In addition, there was an interesting sex-specific phenotype, in which the knockout females showed reduced lean mass (−12%), reduced total oxygen consumption rate (−8%), improved glucose tolerance, and reduced grip force (−14%) compared to wild-type females. Our data suggest that high activity lung COX is a central determinant of airway function and is required for maximal airway responsiveness and healthy lung function. Since airway constriction requires energy, we propose a model in which reduced tissue ATP levels explain protection from airway hyperresponsiveness, i.e., absence of COX4i2 leads to reduced lung COX activity and ATP levels, which results in impaired airway constriction

  15. Apolipoprotein E-knockout mice on high-fat diet show autoimmune injury on kidney and aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yuehai; Cardiovascular Department, The Second Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000; Lu, Huixia

    Highlights: • Titers of ANA and anti-dsDNA antibodies were similar in ApoE{sup −/−} and Fas{sup −/−} mice. • The spleen weights and glomerular areas were similar in ApoE{sup −/−} and Fas{sup −/−} mice. • Expressions of IgG and C3 in glomeruli were similar in ApoE{sup −/−} and Fas{sup −/−} mice. • IgG, C3 and macrophage infiltration in aortic plaques were found in ApoE{sup −/−} mice. - Abstract: Background: Apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE{sup −/−}) mice is a classic model of atherosclerosis. We have found that ApoE{sup −/−} mice showed splenomegaly, higher titers of serum anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) and anti-dsDNA antibody compared withmore » C57B6/L (B6) mice. However, whether ApoE{sup −/−} mice show autoimmune injury remains unclear. Methods and results: Six females and six males in each group, ApoE{sup −/−}, Fas{sup −/−} and B6 mice, were used in this study. The titers of serum ANA, anti-dsDNA antibody and creatinine and urine protein were measured by ELISA after 4 months of high-fat diet. The spleen weight and the glomerular area were determined. The expressions of IgG, C3 and macrophage in kidney and atherosclerotic plaque were detected by immunostaining followed by morphometric analysis. Similar to the characteristics of Fas{sup −/−} mice, a model of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), ApoE{sup −/−} mice, especially female, displayed significant increases of spleen weight and glomerular area when compared to B6 mice. Also, elevated titers of serum ANA, anti-dsDNA antibody and creatinine and urine protein. Moreover, the expressions of IgG, C3 and macrophage in glomeruli and aortic plaques were found in ApoE{sup −/−} mice. In addition, the IgG and C3 expressions in glomeruli and plaques significantly increased (or a trend of increase) in female ApoE{sup −/−} mice compared with males. Conclusions: Apolipoprotein E-knockout mice on high-fat diet show autoimmune injury on kidney and aorta.« less

  16. Knockout of Epstein-Barr virus BPLF1 retards B-cell transformation and lymphoma formation in humanized mice.

    PubMed

    Whitehurst, Christopher B; Li, Guangming; Montgomery, Stephanie A; Montgomery, Nathan D; Su, Lishan; Pagano, Joseph S

    2015-10-20

    BPLF1 of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is classified as a late lytic cycle protein but is also found in the viral tegument, suggesting its potential involvement at both initial and late stages of viral infection. BPLF1 possesses both deubiquitinating and deneddylating activity located in its N-terminal domain and is involved in processes that affect viral infectivity, viral DNA replication, DNA repair, and immune evasion. A recently constructed EBV BPLF1-knockout (KO) virus was used in conjunction with a humanized mouse model that can be infected with EBV, enabling the first characterization of BPLF1 function in vivo. Results demonstrate that the BPLF1-knockout virus is approximately 90% less infectious than wild-type (WT) virus. Transformation of human B cells, a hallmark of EBV infection, was delayed and reduced with BPLF1-knockout virus. Humanized mice infected with EBV BPLF1-knockout virus showed less weight loss and survived longer than mice infected with equivalent infectious units of WT virus. Additionally, splenic tumors formed in 100% of mice infected with WT EBV but in only 25% of mice infected with BPLF1-KO virus. Morphological features of spleens containing tumors were similar to those in EBV-induced posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) and were almost identical to cases seen in human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The presence of EBV genomes was detected in all mice that developed tumors. The results implicate BPLF1 in human B-cell transformation and tumor formation in humanized mice. Epstein-Barr virus infects approximately 90% of the world's population and is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis. EBV also causes aggressive lymphomas in individuals with acquired and innate immune disorders and is strongly associated with diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, classical Hodgkin lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Typically, EBV initially infects epithelial cells in the oropharynx, followed by a lifelong

  17. Analysis of knockout mice suggests a role for VGF in the control of fat storage and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Watson, Elizabeth; Fargali, Samira; Okamoto, Haruka; Sadahiro, Masato; Gordon, Ronald E; Chakraborty, Tandra; Sleeman, Mark W; Salton, Stephen R

    2009-10-28

    Previous studies of mixed background mice have demonstrated that targeted deletion of Vgf produces a lean, hypermetabolic mouse that is resistant to diet-, lesion-, and genetically-induced obesity. To investigate potential mechanism(s) and site(s) of action of VGF, a neuronal and endocrine secreted protein and neuropeptide precursor, we further analyzed the metabolic phenotypes of two independent VGF knockout lines on C57Bl6 backgrounds. Unlike hyperactive VGF knockout mice on a mixed C57Bl6-129/SvJ background, homozygous mutant mice on a C57Bl6 background were hypermetabolic with similar locomotor activity levels to Vgf+/Vgf+ mice, during day and night cycles, indicating that mechanism(s) other than hyperactivity were responsible for their increased energy expenditure. In Vgf-/Vgf- knockout mice, morphological analysis of brown and white adipose tissues (BAT and WAT) indicated decreased fat storage in both tissues, and decreased adipocyte perimeter and area in WAT. Changes in gene expression measured by real-time RT-PCR were consistent with increased fatty acid oxidation and uptake in BAT, and increased lipolysis, decreased lipogenesis, and brown adipocyte differentiation in WAT, suggesting that increased sympathetic nervous system activity in Vgf-/Vgf- mice may be associated with or responsible for alterations in energy expenditure and fat storage. In addition, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and UCP2 protein levels, mitochondrial number, and mitochondrial cristae density were upregulated in Vgf-/Vgf- BAT. Using immunohistochemical and histochemical techniques, we detected VGF in nerve fibers innervating BAT and Vgf promoter-driven reporter expression in cervical and thoracic spinal ganglia that project to and innervate the chest wall and tissues including BAT. Moreover, VGF peptide levels were quantified by radioimmunoassay in BAT, and were found to be down-regulated by a high fat diet. Lastly, despite being hypermetabolic, VGF knockout mice were cold intolerant. We

  18. Analysis of knockout mice suggests a role for VGF in the control of fat storage and energy expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Elizabeth; Fargali, Samira; Okamoto, Haruka; Sadahiro, Masato; Gordon, Ronald E; Chakraborty, Tandra; Sleeman, Mark W; Salton, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous studies of mixed background mice have demonstrated that targeted deletion of Vgf produces a lean, hypermetabolic mouse that is resistant to diet-, lesion-, and genetically-induced obesity. To investigate potential mechanism(s) and site(s) of action of VGF, a neuronal and endocrine secreted protein and neuropeptide precursor, we further analyzed the metabolic phenotypes of two independent VGF knockout lines on C57Bl6 backgrounds. Results Unlike hyperactive VGF knockout mice on a mixed C57Bl6-129/SvJ background, homozygous mutant mice on a C57Bl6 background were hypermetabolic with similar locomotor activity levels to Vgf+/Vgf+ mice, during day and night cycles, indicating that mechanism(s) other than hyperactivity were responsible for their increased energy expenditure. In Vgf-/Vgf- knockout mice, morphological analysis of brown and white adipose tissues (BAT and WAT) indicated decreased fat storage in both tissues, and decreased adipocyte perimeter and area in WAT. Changes in gene expression measured by real-time RT-PCR were consistent with increased fatty acid oxidation and uptake in BAT, and increased lipolysis, decreased lipogenesis, and brown adipocyte differentiation in WAT, suggesting that increased sympathetic nervous system activity in Vgf-/Vgf- mice may be associated with or responsible for alterations in energy expenditure and fat storage. In addition, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and UCP2 protein levels, mitochondrial number, and mitochondrial cristae density were upregulated in Vgf-/Vgf- BAT. Using immunohistochemical and histochemical techniques, we detected VGF in nerve fibers innervating BAT and Vgf promoter-driven reporter expression in cervical and thoracic spinal ganglia that project to and innervate the chest wall and tissues including BAT. Moreover, VGF peptide levels were quantified by radioimmunoassay in BAT, and were found to be down-regulated by a high fat diet. Lastly, despite being hypermetabolic, VGF knockout mice were

  19. Phosphocreatine kinetics at the onset of contractions in skeletal muscle of MM creatine kinase knockout mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Brian B.; Meyer, Ronald A.; Wiseman, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    Phosphocreatine (PCr) depletion during isometric twitch stimulation at 5 Hz was measured by (31)P-NMR spectroscopy in gastrocnemius muscles of pentobarbital-anesthetized MM creatine kinase knockout (MMKO) vs. wild-type C57B (WT) mice. PCr depletion after 2 s of stimulation, estimated from the difference between spectra gated to times 200 ms and 140 s after 2-s bursts of contractions, was 2.2 +/- 0.6% of initial PCr in MMKO muscle vs. 9.7 +/- 1.6% in WT muscles (mean +/- SE, n = 7, P < 0.001). Initial PCr/ATP ratio and intracellular pH were not significantly different between groups, and there was no detectable change in intracellular pH or ATP in either group after 2 s. The initial difference in net PCr depletion was maintained during the first minute of continuous 5-Hz stimulation. However, there was no significant difference in the quasi-steady-state PCr level approached after 80 s (MMKO 36.1 +/- 3.5 vs. WT 35.5 +/- 4.4% of initial PCr; n = 5-6). A kinetic model of ATPase, creatine kinase, and adenylate kinase fluxes during stimulation was consistent with the observed PCr depletion in MMKO muscle after 2 s only if ADP-stimulated oxidative phosphorylation was included in the model. Taken together, the results suggest that cytoplasmic ADP more rapidly increases and oxidative phosphorylation is more rapidly activated at the onset of contractions in MMKO compared with WT muscles.

  20. Knockout maternal adiponectin increases fetal growth in mice: potential role for trophoblast IGFBP-1.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Liping; Wattez, Jean-Sebastien; Lee, Samuel; Guo, Zhuyu; Schaack, Jerome; Hay, William W; Zita, Matteo Moretto; Parast, Mana; Shao, Jianhua

    2016-11-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate whether maternal adiponectin regulates fetal growth through the endocrine system in the fetal compartment. Adiponectin knockout (Adipoq (-/-) ) mice and in vivo adenovirus-mediated reconstitution were used to study the regulatory effect of maternal adiponectin on fetal growth. Primary human trophoblast cells were treated with adiponectin and a specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) agonist or antagonist to study the underlying mechanism through which adiponectin regulates fetal growth. The body weight of fetuses from Adipoq (-/-) dams was significantly greater than that of wild-type dams at both embryonic day (E)14.5 and E18.5. Adenoviral vector-mediated maternal adiponectin reconstitution attenuated the increased fetal body weight induced by maternal adiponectin deficiency. Significantly increased blood glucose, triacylglycerol and NEFA levels were observed in Adipoq (-/-) dams, suggesting that nutrient supply contributes to maternal adiponectin-regulated fetal growth. Although fetal blood IGF-1 concentrations were comparable in fetuses from Adipoq (-/-) and wild-type dams, remarkably low levels of IGF-binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1) were observed in the serum of fetuses from Adipoq (-/-) dams. IGFBP-1 was identified in the trophoblast cells of human and mouse placentas. Maternal fasting robustly increased IGFBP-1 levels in mouse placentas, while reducing fetal weight. Significantly low IGFBP-1 levels were found in placentas of Adipoq (-/-) dams. Adiponectin treatment increased IGFBP-1 levels in primary cultured human trophoblast cells, while the PPARα antagonist, MK886, abolished this stimulatory effect. These results indicate that, in addition to nutrient supply, maternal adiponectin inhibits fetal growth by increasing IGFBP-1 expression in trophoblast cells.

  1. Knockout maternal adiponectin increases fetal growth in mice: potential role for trophoblast IGFBP-1

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Liping; Wattez, Jean-Sebastien; Lee, Samuel; Guo, Zhuyu; Schaack, Jerome; Hay, William W.; Moretto Zita, Matteo; Parast, Mana; Shao, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis The main objective of this study was to investigate whether maternal adiponectin regulates fetal growth through the endocrine system in the fetal compartment. Methods Adiponectin knockout (Adipoq−/−) mice and in vivo adenovirus-mediated reconstitution were used to study the regulatory effect of maternal adiponectin on fetal growth. Primary human trophoblast cells were treated with adiponectin and a specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) agonist or antagonist to study the underlying mechanism through which adiponectin regulates fetal growth. Results The body weight of fetuses from Adipoq−/− dams was significantly greater than that of wild-type dams at both embryonic day (E)14.5 and E18.5. Adenoviral vector-mediated maternal adiponectin reconstitution attenuated the increased fetal body weight induced by maternal adiponectin deficiency. Significantly increased blood glucose, triacylglycerol and NEFA levels were observed in Adipoq−/− dams, suggesting that nutrient supply contributes to maternal adiponectin-regulated fetal growth. Although fetal blood IGF-1 concentrations were comparable in fetuses from Adipoq−/− and wild-type dams, remarkably low levels of IGF-binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1) were observed in the serum of fetuses from Adipoq−/− dams. IGFBP-1 was identified in the trophoblast cells of human and mouse placentas. Maternal fasting robustly increased IGFBP-1 levels in mouse placentas, while reducing fetal weight. Significantly low IGFBP-1 levels were found in placentas of Adipoq−/− dams. Adiponectin treatment increased IGFBP-1 levels in primary cultured human trophoblast cells, while the PPARα antagonist, MK886, abolished this stimulatory effect. Conclusions/interpretation These results indicate that, in addition to nutrient supply, maternal adiponectin inhibits fetal growth by increasing IGFBP-1 expression in trophoblast cells. PMID:27495989

  2. Oestrogen-deficient female aromatase knockout (ArKO) mice exhibit depressive-like symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Dalla, C; Antoniou, K; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Z; Balthazart, J; Bakker, J

    2004-07-01

    We recently found that female aromatase knockout (ArKO) mice that are deficient in oestradiol due to a targeted mutation in the aromatase gene show deficits in sexual behaviour that cannot be corrected by adult treatment with oestrogens. We determined here whether these impairments are associated with changes in general levels of activity, anxiety or 'depressive-like' symptomatology due to chronic oestrogen deficiency. We also compared the neurochemical profile of ArKO and wild-type (WT) females, as oestrogens have been shown to modulate dopaminergic, serotonergic and noradrenergic brain activities. ArKO females did not differ from WT in spontaneous motor activity, exploration or anxiety. These findings are in line with the absence of major neurochemical alterations in hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex or striatum, which are involved in the expression of these behaviours. By contrast, ArKO females displayed decreased active behaviours, such as struggling and swimming, and increased passive behaviours, such as floating, in repeated sessions of the forced swim test, indicating that these females exhibit 'depressive-like' symptoms. Adult treatment with oestradiol did not reverse the behavioural deficits observed in the forced swim test, suggesting that they may be due to the absence of oestradiol during development. Accordingly, an increased serotonergic activity was observed in the hippocampus of ArKO females compared with WT, which was also not reversed by adult oestradiol treatment. The possible organizational role of oestradiol on the hippocampal serotonergic system and the 'depressive-like' profile of ArKO females provide new insights into the pathophysiology of depression and the increased vulnerability of women to depression.

  3. Serotonin abnormalities in Engrailed-2 knockout mice: New insight relevant for a model of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Viaggi, Cristina; Gerace, Claudio; Pardini, Carla; Corsini, Giovanni U; Vaglini, Francesca

    2015-08-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a congenital neurodevelopmental behavioral disorder that appears in early childhood. Recent human genetic studies identified the homeobox transcription factor, Engrailed 2 (EN2), as a possible ASD susceptibility gene. En2 knockout mice (En2-/-) display subtle cerebellar neuropathological changes and reduced levels of tyrosine hydroxylase, noradrenaline and serotonin in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex similar to those ones which have been observed in the ASD brain. Furthermore other similarities link En2 knockout mice to ASD patients. Several lines of evidence suggest that serotonin may play an important role in the pathophysiology of the disease. In the present study we measured, by using an HPLC, the 5-HT levels in different brain areas and at different ages in En2-/- mice. In the frontal and occipital cortex, the content of 5HT was reduced in En2-/- 1 and 3 months old mice; in 6 month old mice, the difference was still present, but it was not statistically significant. The 5-HT content of cerebellar cortex was significantly reduced at 1 month old but significantly high when the KO mice reached 3 months of age. The increase was present even at 6 months of age. A similar trend was highlighted by SERT immunolabeling in En2-/- mice compared to control in the same areas and age analyzed. Our findings, in agreement with the current knowledge on the 5-HT system alterations in ASD, confirm the early neurotransmitter deficit with a late compensatory recovery in En2 KO-mice further suggesting that this experimental animal may be considered a good predictive model for the human disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mucus secretion by single tracheal submucosal glands from normal and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Ianowski, Juan P; Choi, Jae Young; Wine, Jeffrey J; Hanrahan, John W

    2007-01-01

    Submucosal glands line the cartilaginous airways and produce most of the antimicrobial mucus that keeps the airways sterile. The glands are defective in cystic fibrosis (CF), but how this impacts airway health remains uncertain. Although most CF mouse strains exhibit mild airway defects, those with the C57Bl/6 genetic background have increased airway pathology and susceptibility to Pseudomonas. Thus, they offer the possibility of studying whether, and if so how, abnormal submucosal gland function contributes to CF airway disease. We used optical methods to study fluid secretion by individual glands in tracheas from normal, wild-type (WT) mice and from cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) knockout mice (Cftrm1UNC/Cftrm1UNC; CF mice). Glands from WT mice qualitatively resembled those in humans by responding to carbachol and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), although the relative rates of VIP- and forskolin-stimulated secretion were much lower in mice than in large mammals. The pharmacology of mouse gland secretion was also similar to that in humans; adding bumetanide or replacement of HCO3− by Hepes reduced the carbachol response by ∼50%, and this inhibition increased to 80% when both manoeuvres were performed simultaneously. It is important to note that glands from CFTR knockout mice responded to carbachol but did not secrete when exposed to VIP or forskolin, as has been shown previously for glands from CF patients. Tracheal glands from WT and CF mice both had robust secretory responses to electrical field stimulation that were blocked by tetrodotoxin. It is interesting that local irritation of the mucosa using chili pepper oil elicited secretion from WT glands but did not stimulate glands from CF mice. These results clarify the mechanisms of murine submucosal gland secretion and reveal a novel defect in local regulation of glands lacking CFTR which may also compromise airway defence in CF patients. PMID:17204498

  5. Microarray analysis of gene expression in the cyclooxygenase knockout mice - a connection to autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Rai-Bhogal, Ravneet; Ahmad, Eizaaz; Li, Hongyan; Crawford, Dorota A

    2018-03-01

    The cellular and molecular events that take place during brain development play an important role in governing function of the mature brain. Lipid-signalling molecules such as prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) play an important role in healthy brain development. Abnormalities along the COX-PGE 2 signalling pathway due to genetic or environmental causes have been linked to autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study aims to evaluate the effect of altered COX-PGE 2 signalling on development and function of the prenatal brain using male mice lacking cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-1 -/- and COX-2 -/- ) as potential model systems of ASD. Microarray analysis was used to determine global changes in gene expression during embryonic days 16 (E16) and 19 (E19). Gene Ontology: Biological Process (GO:BP) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) were implemented to identify affected developmental genes and cellular processes. We found that in both knockouts the brain at E16 had nearly twice as many differentially expressed genes, and affected biological pathways containing various ASD-associated genes important in neuronal function. Interestingly, using GeneMANIA and Cytoscape we also show that the ASD-risk genes identified in both COX-1 -/- and COX-2 -/- models belong to protein-interaction networks important for brain development despite of different cellular localization of these enzymes. Lastly, we identified eight genes that belong to the Wnt signalling pathways exclusively in the COX-2 -/- mice at E16. The level of PKA-phosphorylated β-catenin (S552), a major activator of the Wnt pathway, was increased in this model, suggesting crosstalk between the COX-2-PGE 2 and Wnt pathways during early brain development. Overall, these results provide further molecular insight into the contribution of the COX-PGE 2 pathways to ASD and demonstrate that COX-1 -/- and COX-2 -/- animals might be suitable new model systems for studying the disorders. © 2017 Federation of

  6. Imaging colon cancer development in mice: IL-6 deficiency prevents adenoma in azoxymethane-treated Smad3 knockouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harpel, Kaitlin; Leung, Sarah; Faith Rice, Photini; Jones, Mykella; Barton, Jennifer K.; Bommireddy, Ramireddy

    2016-02-01

    The development of colorectal cancer in the azoxymethane-induced mouse model can be observed by using a miniaturized optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging system. This system is uniquely capable of tracking disease development over time, allowing for the monitoring of morphological changes in the distal colon due to tumor development and the presence of lymphoid aggregates. By using genetically engineered mouse models deficient in Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and Smad family member 3 (Smad3), the role of inflammation on tumor development and the immune system can be elucidated. Smad3 knockout mice develop inflammatory response, wasting, and colitis associated cancer while deficiency of proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 confers resistance to tumorigenesis. We present pilot data showing that the Smad3 knockout group had the highest tumor burden, highest spleen weight, and lowest thymus weight. The IL-6 deficiency in Smad3 knockout mice prevented tumor development, splenomegaly, and thymic atrophy. This finding suggests that agents that inhibit IL-6 (e.g. anti-IL-6 antibody, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs], etc.) could be used as novel therapeutic agents to prevent disease progression and increase the efficacy of anti-cancer agents. OCT can also be useful for initiating early therapy and assessing the benefit of combination therapy targeting inflammation.

  7. Advanced age-related denervation and fiber-type grouping in skeletal muscle of SOD1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Kostrominova, Tatiana Y

    2010-11-30

    In this study skeletal muscles from 1.5- and 10-month-old Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) homozygous knockout (JLSod1(-/-)) mice obtained from The Jackson Laboratory (C57Bl6/129SvEv background) were compared with muscles from age- and sex-matched heterozygous (JLSod1(+/-)) littermates. The results of this study were compared with previously published data on two different strains of Sod1(-/-) mice: one from Dr. Epstein's laboratory (ELSod1(-/-); C57Bl6 background) and the other from Cephalon, Inc. (CSod1(-/-); 129/CD-1 background). Grouping of succinate dehydrogenase-positive fibers characterized muscles of Sod1(-/-) mice from all three strains. The 10-month-old Sod1(-/-)C and JL mice displayed pronounced denervation of the gastrocnemius muscle, whereas the ELSod1(-/-) mice displayed a small degree of denervation at this age, but developed accelerated age-related denervation later on. Denervation markers were up-regulated in skeletal muscle of 10-month-old JLSod1(-/-) mice. This study is the first to show that metallothionein mRNA and protein expression was up-regulated in the skeletal muscle of 10-month-old JLSod1(-/-) mice and was mostly localized to the small atrophic muscle fibers. In conclusion, all three strains of Sod1(-/-) mice develop accelerated age-related muscle denervation, but the genetic background has significant influence on the progress of denervation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Western Diet-Induced Dysbiosis in Farnesoid X Receptor Knockout Mice Causes Persistent Hepatic Inflammation after Antibiotic Treatment.

    PubMed

    Jena, Prasant K; Sheng, Lili; Liu, Hui-Xin; Kalanetra, Karen M; Mirsoian, Annie; Murphy, William J; French, Samuel W; Krishnan, Viswanathan V; Mills, David A; Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne

    2017-08-01

    Patients who have liver cirrhosis and liver cancer also have reduced farnesoid X receptor (FXR). The current study analyzes the effect of diet through microbiota that affect hepatic inflammation in FXR knockout (KO) mice. Wild-type and FXR KO mice were on a control (CD) or Western diet (WD) for 10 months. In addition, both CD- and WD-fed FXR KO male mice, which had hepatic lymphocyte and neutrophil infiltration, were treated by vancomycin, polymyxin B, and Abx (ampicillin, neomycin, metronidazole, and vancomycin). Mice were subjected to morphological analysis as well as gut microbiota and bile acid profiling. Male WD-fed FXR KO mice had the most severe steatohepatitis. FXR KO also had reduced Firmicutes and increased Proteobacteria, which could be reversed by Abx. In addition, Abx eliminated hepatic neutrophils and lymphocytes in CD-fed, but not WD-fed, FXR KO mice. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes persisted in WD-fed FXR KO mice even after Abx treatment. Only polymyxin B could reduce hepatic lymphocytes in WD-fed FXR KO mice. The reduced hepatic inflammation by antibiotics was accompanied by decreased free and conjugated secondary bile acids as well as changes in gut microbiota. Our data revealed that Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, and Coprococcus protect the liver from inflammation. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. INDUCTION OF MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN ESTROGEN RECEPTOR-ALPHA KNOCKOUT MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mammary glands from the estrogen receptor knockout ( ERKO) mouse do not undergo ductal morphogenesis or alveolar development. Disrupted Er signaling may result in reduced estrogen-responsive gene products in the mammary gland or reduced mammotropic hormones that contribute t...

  10. Knockout of TRPV1 Exacerbates Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction Induced by A High-fat Diet in Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Beihua; Rubinstein, Jack; Ma, Shuangtao; Wang, Donna H

    2018-05-03

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels in sensory nerves have anti-oxidative properties and counteract obesity and diabetes that are associated with diastolic dysfunction with preserved ejection fraction. We tested the hypothesis that TRPV1 knockout exacerbates high-fat diet (HFD)-induced glucose intolerance and diastolic dysfunction. Trpv1-/- and wild-type (WT) mice were fed chow diet or HFD for 20 weeks. Then, we performed the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, measured the heart function through transthoracic echocardiography and Langendorff heart perfusion system, analyzed cardiac histology, and measured the myocardial superoxide production and the expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases. HFD increased body weight, heart weight, and levels of fasting glucose, insulin, and leptin in both strains, with no differences between two strains. HFD impaired glucose tolerance in both strains with a more profound effect in Trpv1-/- than WT mice. HFD increased left ventricular (LV) internal diameter in diastole in both strains, while increased LV posterior wall thickness in diastole in Trpv1-/- but not in WT mice. HFD increased LV end-diastolic pressure in both strains with a further increase in Trpv1-/- mice, while decreased -dP/dt in Trpv1-/- but not in WT mice. HFD-induced cardiac collagen deposition and superoxide production were enhanced in Trpv1-/- mice. HFD upregulated cardiac p22phox in both strains, while increased p47phox in Trpv1-/- but not in WT mice. In summary, TRPV1 knockout exacerbates HFD-induced glucose intolerance, cardiac oxidative stress and collagen deposition, leading to aggravated LV diastolic dysfunction. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Examining Hippocampal Mossy Fiber Synapses by 3D Electron Microscopy in Wildtype and Kirrel3 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rawson, Randi L.

    2017-01-01

    Neural circuits balance excitatory and inhibitory activity and disruptions in this balance are commonly found in neurodevelopmental disorders. Mice lacking the intellectual disability and autism-associated gene Kirrel3 have an excitation-inhibition imbalance in the hippocampus but the precise synaptic changes underlying this functional defect are unknown. Kirrel3 is a homophilic adhesion molecule expressed in dentate gyrus (DG) and GABA neurons. It was suggested that the excitation-inhibition imbalance of hippocampal neurons in Kirrel3 knockout mice is due to loss of mossy fiber (MF) filopodia, which are DG axon protrusions thought to excite GABA neurons and thereby provide feed-forward inhibition to CA3 pyramidal neurons. Fewer filopodial structures were observed in Kirrel3 knockout mice but neither filopodial synapses nor DG en passant synapses, which also excite GABA neurons, were examined. Here, we used serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBEM) with 3D reconstruction to define the precise connectivity of MF filopodia and elucidate synaptic changes induced by Kirrel3 loss. Surprisingly, we discovered wildtype MF filopodia do not synapse exclusively onto GABA neurons as previously thought, but instead synapse with similar frequency onto GABA neurons and CA3 neurons. Moreover, Kirrel3 loss selectively reduces MF filopodial synapses onto GABA neurons but not those made onto CA3 neurons or en passant synapses. In sum, the selective loss of MF filopodial synapses with GABA neurons likely underlies the hippocampal activity imbalance observed in Kirrel3 knockout mice and may impact neural function in patients with Kirrel3-dependent neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:28670619

  12. Motor Deficits and Decreased Striatal Dopamine Receptor 2 Binding Activity in the Striatum-Specific Dyt1 Conditional Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yokoi, Fumiaki; Dang, Mai Tu; Li, Jianyong; Standaert, David G.; Li, Yuqing

    2011-01-01

    DYT1 early-onset generalized dystonia is a hyperkinetic movement disorder caused by mutations in DYT1 (TOR1A), which codes for torsinA. Recently, significant progress has been made in studying pathophysiology of DYT1 dystonia using targeted mouse models. Dyt1 ΔGAG heterozygous knock-in (KI) and Dyt1 knock-down (KD) mice exhibit motor deficits and alterations of striatal dopamine metabolisms, while Dyt1 knockout (KO) and Dyt1 ΔGAG homozygous KI mice show abnormal nuclear envelopes and neonatal lethality. However, it has not been clear whether motor deficits and striatal abnormality are caused by Dyt1 mutation in the striatum itself or the end results of abnormal signals from other brain regions. To identify the brain region that contributes to these phenotypes, we made a striatum-specific Dyt1 conditional knockout (Dyt1 sKO) mouse. Dyt1 sKO mice exhibited motor deficits and reduced striatal dopamine receptor 2 (D2R) binding activity, whereas they did not exhibit significant alteration of striatal monoamine contents. Furthermore, we also found normal nuclear envelope structure in striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of an adult Dyt1 sKO mouse and cerebral cortical neurons in cerebral cortex-specific Dyt1 conditional knockout (Dyt1 cKO) mice. The results suggest that the loss of striatal torsinA alone is sufficient to produce motor deficits, and that this effect may be mediated, at least in part, through changes in D2R function in the basal ganglia circuit. PMID:21931745

  13. Involvement of substance P in the antinociceptive effect of botulinum toxin type A: Evidence from knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Matak, Ivica; Tékus, Valéria; Bölcskei, Kata; Lacković, Zdravko; Helyes, Zsuzsanna

    2017-09-01

    The antinociceptive action of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) has been demonstrated in behavioral animal studies and clinical settings. It was shown that this effect is associated with toxin activity in CNS, however, the mechanism is not fully understood. Substance P (SP) is one of the dominant neurotransmitters in primary afferent neurons transmitting pain and itch. Thus, here we examined association of SP-mediated transmission and BoNT/A antinociceptive action by employing gene knockouts. Antinociceptive activity of intraplantarly (i.pl.) injected BoNT/A was examined in mice lacking the gene encoding for SP/neurokinin A (tac1 -/- ) or SP-preferred receptor neurokinin 1 (tac1r -/- ), compared to control C57Bl/6J wild type animals. BoNT/A action was assessed in inflammatory pain induced by formalin and CFA, and neuropathic pain induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation. BoNT/A activity in CNS was examined by c-Fos and BoNT/A-cleaved SNAP-25 immunohistochemistry. In wild type mice, acute (formalin-evoked) and chronic pain (neuropathic and inflammatory) was reduced by peripherally injected BoNT/A. In tac1 -/- and tac1r -/- knockout mice, BoNT/A exerted no analgesic effect. In control animals BoNT/A reduced the formalin-evoked c-Fos expression in lumbar dorsal horn, while in knockout mice the c-Fos expression was not reduced. After peripheral toxin injection, cleaved SNAP-25 occurred in lumbar dorsal horn in all animal genotypes. BoNT/A antinociceptive activity is absent in animals lacking the SP and neurokinin 1 receptor encoding genes, in spite of presence of toxin's enzymatic activity in central sensory regions. Thus, we conclude that the integrity of SP-ergic system is necessary for the antinociceptive activity of BoNT/A. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Severe hypertriglyceridemia, reduced high density lipoprotein, and neonatal death in lipoprotein lipase knockout mice. Mild hypertriglyceridemia with impaired very low density lipoprotein clearance in heterozygotes.

    PubMed Central

    Weinstock, P H; Bisgaier, C L; Aalto-Setälä, K; Radner, H; Ramakrishnan, R; Levak-Frank, S; Essenburg, A D; Zechner, R; Breslow, J L

    1995-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-deficient mice have been created by gene targeting in embryonic stem cells. At birth, homozygous knockout pups have threefold higher triglycerides and sevenfold higher VLDL cholesterol levels than controls. When permitted to suckle, LPL-deficient mice become pale, then cyanotic, and finally die at approximately 18 h of age. Before death, triglyceride levels are severely elevated (15,087 +/- 3,805 vs 188 +/- 71 mg/dl in controls). Capillaries in tissues of homozygous knockout mice are engorged with chylomicrons. This is especially significant in the lung where marginated chylomicrons prevent red cell contact with the endothelium, a phenomenon which is presumably the cause of cyanosis and death in these mice. Homozygous knockout mice also have diminished adipose tissue stores as well as decreased intracellular fat droplets. By crossbreeding with transgenic mice expressing human LPL driven by a muscle-specific promoter, mouse lines were generated that express LPL exclusively in muscle but not in any other tissue. This tissue-specific LPL expression rescued the LPL knockout mice and normalized their lipoprotein pattern. This supports the contention that hypertriglyceridemia caused the death of these mice and that LPL expression in a single tissue was sufficient for rescue. Heterozygous LPL knockout mice survive to adulthood and have mild hypertriglyceridemia, with 1.5-2-fold elevated triglyceride levels compared with controls in both the fed and fasted states on chow, Western-type, or 10% sucrose diets. In vivo turnover studies revealed that heterozygous knockout mice had impaired VLDL clearance (fractional catabolic rate) but no increase in transport rate. In summary, total LPL deficiency in the mouse prevents triglyceride removal from plasma, causing death in the neonatal period, and expression of LPL in a single tissue alleviates this problem. Furthermore, half-normal levels of LPL cause a decrease in VLDL fractional catabolic rate and mild

  15. Oxidative Stress Induced Age Dependent Meibomian Gland Dysfunction in Cu, Zn-Superoxide Dismutase-1 (Sod1) Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Osama M. A.; Dogru, Murat; Matsumoto, Yukihiro; Igarashi, Ayako; Kojima, Takashi; Wakamatsu, Tais Hitomi; Inaba, Takaaki; Shimizu, Takahiko; Shimazaki, Jun; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of our study was to investigate alterations in the meibomian gland (MG) in Cu, Zn-Superoxide Dismutase-1 knockout (Sod1 −/−) mouse. Methods Tear function tests [Break up time (BUT) and cotton thread] and ocular vital staining test were performed on Sod1 −/− male mice (n = 24) aged 10 and 50 weeks, and age and sex matched wild–type (+/+) mice (n = 25). Tear and serum samples were collected at sacrifice for inflammatory cytokine assays. MG specimens underwent Hematoxylin and Eosin staining, Mallory staining for fibrosis, Oil Red O lipid staining, TUNEL staining, immunohistochemistry stainings for 4HNE, 8-OHdG and CD45. Transmission electron microscopic examination (TEM) was also performed. Results Corneal vital staining scores in the Sod1 −/− mice were significantly higher compared with the wild type mice throughout the follow-up. Tear and serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels also showed significant elevations in the 10 to 50 week Sod1 −/− mice. Oil Red O staining showed an accumulation of large lipid droplets in the Sod1 −/− mice at 50 weeks. Immunohistochemistry revealed both increased TUNEL and oxidative stress marker stainings of the MG acinar epithelium in the Sod1 −/− mice compared to the wild type mice. Immunohistochemistry staining for CD45 showed increasing inflammatory cell infiltrates from 10 to 50 weeks in the Sod1 −/− mice compared to the wild type mice. TEM revealed prominent mitochondrial changes in 50 week Sod1 −/− mice. Conclusions Our results suggest that reactive oxygen species might play a vital role in the pathogensis of meibomian gland dysfunction. The Sod1 −/− mouse appears to be a promising model for the study of reactive oxygen species associated MG alterations. PMID:25036096

  16. Differential response of nNOS knockout mice to MDMA ("ecstasy")- and methamphetamine-induced psychomotor sensitization and neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Itzhak, Yossef; Anderson, Karen L; Ali, Syed F

    2004-10-01

    It has been shown that mice deficient in neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) gene are resistant to cocaine-induced psychomotor sensitization and methamphetamine (METH)-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity. The present study was undertaken to investigate the hypothesis that nNOS has a major role in dopamine (DA)- but not serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT)-mediated effects of psychostimulants. The response of nNOS knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice to the psychomotor-stimulating and neurotoxic effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; "Ecstasy") and METH were investigated. Repeated administration of MDMA for 5 days resulted in psychomotor sensitization in both WT and nNOS KO mice, while repeated administration of METH caused psychomotor sensitization in WT but not in KO mice. Sensitization to both MDMA and METH was persistent for 40 days in WT mice, but not in nNOS KO mice. These findings suggest that the induction of psychomotor sensitization to MDMA and METH is NO independent and NO dependent, respectively, while the persistence of sensitization to both drugs is NO dependent. For the neurochemical studies, a high dose of MDMA caused marked depletion of 5-HT in several brain regions of both WT and KO mice, suggesting that the absence of the nNOS gene did not afford protection against MDMA-induced depletion of 5-HT. Striatal dopaminergic neurotoxicity caused by high doses of MDMA and METH in WT mice was partially prevented in KO mice administered with MDMA, but it was fully precluded in KO mice administered with METH. The differential response of nNOS KO mice to the behavioral and neurotoxic effects of MDMA and METH suggests that the nNOS gene is required for the expression and persistence of DA-mediated effects of METH and MDMA, while 5-HT-mediated effects of MDMA (induction of sensitization and 5-HT depletion) are not dependent on nNOS.

  17. TASK-3 knockout mice exhibit exaggerated nocturnal activity, impairments in cognitive functions, and reduced sensitivity to inhalation anesthetics.

    PubMed

    Linden, Anni-Maija; Sandu, Cristina; Aller, M Isabel; Vekovischeva, Olga Y; Rosenberg, Per H; Wisden, William; Korpi, Esa R

    2007-12-01

    The TASK-3 channel is an acid-sensitive two-pore-domain K+ channel, widely expressed in the brain and probably involved in regulating numerous neuronal populations. Here, we characterized the behavioral and pharmacological phenotypes of TASK-3 knockout (KO) mice. Circadian locomotor activity measurements revealed that the nocturnal activity of the TASK-3 KO mice was increased by 38% (P < 0.01) compared with wild-type littermate controls, light phase activity being similar. Although TASK-3 channels are abundant in cerebellar granule cells, the KO mice performed as well as the wild-type mice in walking on a rotating rod or along a 1.2-cm-diameter beam. However, they fell more frequently from a narrower 0.8-cm beam. The KO mice showed impaired working memory in the spontaneous alternation task, with the alternation percentage being 62 +/- 3% for the wild-type mice and 48 +/- 4% (P < 0.05) for the KO mice. Likewise, during training for the Morris water-maze spatial memory task, the KO mice were slower to find the hidden platform, and in the probe trial, the female KO mice visited fewer times the platform quadrant than the male KO and wild-type mice. In pharmacological tests, the TASK-3 KO mice showed reduced sensitivity to the inhalation anesthetic halothane and the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55212-2 mesylate [(R)-(+)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-(4-morpholinylmethyl)pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl]-1-naphthalenylmethanone mesylate] but unaltered responses to the alpha2 adrenoceptor agonist dexmedetomidine, the i.v. anesthetic propofol, the opioid receptor agonist morphine, and the local anesthetic lidocaine. Overall, our results suggest important contributions of TASK-3 channels in the neuronal circuits regulating circadian rhythms, cognitive functions, and mediating specific pharmacological effects.

  18. IL-1 receptor-antagonist (IL-1Ra) knockout mice show anxiety-like behavior by aging.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Chisato; Numakawa, Tadahiro; Odaka, Haruki; Ooshima, Yoshiko; Kiyama, Yuji; Manabe, Toshiya; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Iwakura, Yoichiro

    2015-07-10

    Interleukin 1 (IL-1) plays a critical role in stress responses, and its mRNA is induced in the brain by restraint stress. Previously, we reported that IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) knockout (KO) mice, which lacked IL-1Ra molecules that antagonize the IL-1 receptor, showed anti-depression-like behavior via adrenergic modulation at the age of 8 weeks. Here, we report that IL-1Ra KO mice display an anxiety-like phenotype that is induced spontaneously by aging in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test. This anxiety-like phenotype was improved by the administration of diazepam. The expression of the anxiety-related molecule glucocorticoid receptor (GR) was significantly reduced in 20-week-old but not in 11-week-old IL-1Ra KO mice compared to wild-type (WT) littermates. The expression of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) was not altered between IL-1Ra KO mice and WT littermates at either 11 or 20 weeks old. Analysis of monoamine concentration in the hippocampus revealed that tryptophan, the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), and the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA) were significantly increased in 20-week-old IL-1Ra KO mice compared to littermate WT mice. These findings strongly suggest that the anxiety-like behavior observed in older mice was caused by the complicated alteration of monoamine metabolism and/or GR expression in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Decreased levels of free D-aspartic acid in the forebrain of serine racemase (Srr) knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Horio, Mao; Ishima, Tamaki; Fujita, Yuko; Inoue, Ran; Mori, Hisashi; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2013-05-01

    d-Serine, an endogenous co-agonist of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is synthesized from l-serine by serine racemase (SRR). A previous study of Srr knockout (Srr-KO) mice showed that levels of d-serine in forebrain regions, such as frontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum, but not cerebellum, of mutant mice are significantly lower than those of wild-type (WT) mice, suggesting that SRR is responsible for d-serine production in the forebrain. In this study, we attempted to determine whether SRR affects the level of other amino acids in brain tissue. We found that tissue levels of d-aspartic acid in the forebrains (frontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum) of Srr-KO mice were significantly lower than in WT mice, whereas levels of d-aspartic acid in the cerebellum were not altered. Levels of d-alanine, l-alanine, l-aspartic acid, taurine, asparagine, arginine, threonine, γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) and methionine, remained the same in frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum and cerebellum of WT and mutant mice. Furthermore, no differences in d-aspartate oxidase (DDO) activity were detected in the forebrains of WT and Srr-KO mice. These results suggest that SRR and/or d-serine may be involved in the production of d-aspartic acid in mouse forebrains, although further detailed studies will be necessary to confirm this finding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Astrocytic leptin-receptor knockout mice show partial rescue of leptin resistance in diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Jayaram, Bhavaani; Pan, Weihong; Wang, Yuping; Hsuchou, Hung; Mace, Aurelien; Cornelissen-Guillaume, Germaine G; Mishra, Pramod K; Koza, Robert A; Kastin, Abba J

    2013-03-15

    To determine how astrocytic leptin signaling regulates the physiological response of mice to diet-induced obesity (DIO), we performed metabolic analyses and hypothalamic leptin signaling assays on astrocytic leptin-receptor knockout (ALKO) mice in which astrocytes lack functional leptin receptor (ObR) signaling. ALKO mice and wild-type (WT) littermate controls were studied at different stages of DIO with measurement of body wt, percent fat, metabolic activity, and biochemical parameters. When fed regular chow, the ALKO mice had similar body wt, percent fat, food intake, heat dissipation, respiratory exchange ratio, and activity as their WT littermates. There was no change in blood concentrations of triglyceride, soluble leptin receptor (sObR), mRNA for leptin and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in adipose tissue, and insulin sensitivity. Unexpectedly, in response to a high-fat diet the ALKO mice had attenuated hyperleptinemia and sObR, a lower level of leptin mRNA in subcutaneous fat, and a paradoxical increase in UCP1 mRNA. Thus, ALKO mice did not show the worsening of obesity that occurs with normal WT mice and the neuronal ObR mutation that results in morbid obesity. The findings are consistent with a competing, counterregulatory model between neuronal and astrocytic leptin signaling.

  1. Alternative polyadenylation drives genome-to-phenome information detours in the AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuwen; Zhang, Yangzi; Zhou, Xiang; Fu, Xing; Michal, Jennifer J; Ji, Guoli; Du, Min; Davis, Jon F; Jiang, Zhihua

    2018-04-24

    Currently available mouse knockout (KO) lines remain largely uncharacterized for genome-to-phenome (G2P) information flows. Here we test our hypothesis that altered myogenesis seen in AMPKα1- and AMPKα2-KO mice is caused by use of alternative polyadenylation sites (APSs). AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 are two α subunits of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which serves as a cellular sensor in regulation of many biological events. A total of 56,483 APSs were derived from gastrocnemius muscles. The differentially expressed APSs (DE-APSs) that were down-regulated tended to be distal. The DE-APSs that were related to reduced and increased muscle mass were down-regulated in AMPKα1-KO mice, but up-regulated in AMPKα2-KO mice, respectively. Five genes: Car3 (carbonic anhydrase 3), Mylk4 (myosin light chain kinase family, member 4), Neb (nebulin), Obscn (obscurin) and Pfkm (phosphofructokinase, muscle) utilized different APSs with potentially antagonistic effects on muscle function. Overall, gene knockout triggers genome plasticity via use of APSs, completing the G2P processes. However, gene-based analysis failed to reach such a resolution. Therefore, we propose that alternative transcripts are minimal functional units in genomes and the traditional central dogma concept should be now examined under a systems biology approach.

  2. Shorter duration of non-rapid eye movement sleep slow waves in EphA4 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Freyburger, Marlène; Poirier, Gaétan; Carrier, Julie; Mongrain, Valérie

    2017-10-01

    Slow waves occurring during non-rapid eye movement sleep have been associated with neurobehavioural performance and memory. In addition, the duration of previous wakefulness and sleep impacts characteristics of these slow waves. However, molecular mechanisms regulating the dynamics of slow-wave characteristics remain poorly understood. The EphA4 receptor regulates glutamatergic transmission and synaptic plasticity, which have both been linked to sleep slow waves. To investigate if EphA4 regulates slow-wave characteristics during non-rapid eye movement sleep, we compared individual parameters of slow waves between EphA4 knockout mice and wild-type littermates under baseline conditions and after a 6-h sleep deprivation. We observed that, compared with wild-type mice, knockout mice display a shorter duration of positive and negative phases of slow waves under baseline conditions and after sleep deprivation. However, the mutation did not change slow-wave density, amplitude and slope, and did not affect the sleep deprivation-dependent changes in slow-wave characteristics, suggesting that EphA4 is not involved in the response to elevated sleep pressure. Our present findings suggest a role for EphA4 in shaping cortical oscillations during sleep that is independent from sleep need. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  3. Knockout of the ASIC2 channel in mice does not impair cutaneous mechanosensation, visceral mechanonociception and hearing

    PubMed Central

    Roza, Carolina; Puel, Jean-Luc; Kress, Michaela; Baron, Anne; Diochot, Sylvie; Lazdunski, Michel; Waldmann, Rainer

    2004-01-01

    Mechanosensitive cation channels are thought to be crucial for different aspects of mechanoperception, such as hearing and touch sensation. In the nematode C. elegans, the degenerins MEC-4 and MEC-10 are involved in mechanosensation and were proposed to form mechanosensitive cation channels. Mammalian degenerin homologues, the H+-gated ASIC channels, are expressed in sensory neurones and are therefore interesting candidates for mammalian mechanosensors. We investigated the effect of an ASIC2 gene knockout in mice on hearing and on cutaneous mechanosensation and visceral mechanonociception. However, our data do not support a role of ASIC2 in those facets of mechanoperception. PMID:15169849

  4. Metallothionein-I/II Knockout Mice Aggravate Mitochondrial Superoxide Production and Peroxiredoxin 3 Expression in Thyroid after Excessive Iodide Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Na; Wang, Lingyan; Duan, Qi; Lin, Laixiang; Ahmed, Mohamed; Wang, Tingting; Yao, Xiaomei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. We aim to figure out the effect of metallothioneins on iodide excess induced oxidative stress in the thyroid. Methods. Eight-week-old MT-I/II knockout (MT-I/II KO) mice and background-matched wild-type (WT) mice were used. Mitochondrial superoxide production and peroxiredoxin (Prx) 3 expression were measured. Results. In in vitro study, more significant increases in mitochondrial superoxide production and Prx 3 expression were detected in the MT-I/II KO groups. In in vivo study, significantly higher concentrations of urinary iodine level were detected in MT-I/II KO mice in 100 HI group. Compared to the NI group, there was no significant difference existing in serum thyroid hormones level in either groups (P > 0.05), while the mitochondrial superoxide production was significantly increased in 100 HI groups with significantly increased LDH activity and decreased relative cell viability. Compared to WT mice, more significant changes were detected in MT-I/II KO mice in 100 HI groups. No significant differences were detected between the NI group and 10 HI group in both the MT-I/II KO and WT mice groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions. Iodide excess in a thyroid without MT I/II protection may result in strong mitochondrial oxidative stress, which further leads to the damage of thyrocytes. PMID:26101557

  5. Abolished thermal and mechanical antinociception but retained visceral chemical antinociception induced by butorphanol in μ-opioid receptor knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Ide, Soichiro; Minami, Masabumi; Ishihara, Kumatoshi; Uhl, George R.; Satoh, Masamichi; Sora, Ichiro; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2012-01-01

    Butorphanol is hypothesized to induce analgesia via opioid pathways, although the precise mechanisms for its effects remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of the μ-opioid receptor (MOP) in thermal, mechanical, and visceral chemical antinociception induced by butorphanol using MOP knockout (KO) mice. Butorphanol-induced thermal antinociception, assessed by the hot-plate and tail-flick tests, was significantly reduced in heterozygous and abolished in homozygous MOP-KO mice compared with wildtype mice. The results obtained from our butorphanol-induced mechanical antinociception experiments, assessed by the Randall-Selitto test, were similar to the results obtained from the thermal antinociception experiments in these mice. Interestingly, however, butorphanol retained its ability to induce significant visceral chemical antinociception, assessed by the writhing test, in homozygous MOP-KO mice. The butorphanol-induced visceral chemical antinociception that was retained in homozygous MOP-KO mice was completely blocked by pretreatment with nor-binaltorphimine, a κ-opioid receptor (KOP) antagonist. In vitro binding and cyclic adenosine monophosphate assays also showed that butorphanol possessed higher affinity for KOPs and MOPs than for δ-opioid receptors. These results molecular pharmacologically confirmed previous studies implicating MOPs, and partially KOPs, in mediating butorphanol-induced analgesia. PMID:18417173

  6. Dynamic control of glutamatergic synaptic input in the spinal cord by muscarinic receptor subtypes defined using knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Rui; Chen, Hong; Yuan, Wei-Xiu; Wess, Jürgen; Pan, Hui-Lin

    2010-12-24

    Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) in the spinal cord inhibits pain transmission. At least three mAChR subtypes (M(2), M(3), and M(4)) are present in the spinal dorsal horn. However, it is not clear how each mAChR subtype contributes to the regulation of glutamatergic input to dorsal horn neurons. We recorded spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) from lamina II neurons in spinal cord slices from wild-type (WT) and mAChR subtype knock-out (KO) mice. The mAChR agonist oxotremorine-M increased the frequency of glutamatergic sEPSCs in 68.2% neurons from WT mice and decreased the sEPSC frequency in 21.2% neurons. Oxotremorine-M also increased the sEPSC frequency in ∼50% neurons from M(3)-single KO and M(1)/M(3) double-KO mice. In addition, the M(3) antagonist J104129 did not block the stimulatory effect of oxotremorine-M in the majority of neurons from WT mice. Strikingly, in M(5)-single KO mice, oxotremorine-M increased sEPSCs in only 26.3% neurons, and J104129 abolished this effect. In M(2)/M(4) double-KO mice, but not M(2)- or M(4)-single KO mice, oxotremorine-M inhibited sEPSCs in significantly fewer neurons compared with WT mice, and blocking group II/III metabotropic glutamate receptors abolished this effect. The M(2)/M(4) antagonist himbacine either attenuated the inhibitory effect of oxotremorine-M or potentiated the stimulatory effect of oxotremorine-M in WT mice. Our study demonstrates that activation of the M(2) and M(4) receptor subtypes inhibits synaptic glutamate release to dorsal horn neurons. M(5) is the predominant receptor subtype that potentiates glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the spinal cord.

  7. Dynamic Control of Glutamatergic Synaptic Input in the Spinal Cord by Muscarinic Receptor Subtypes Defined Using Knockout Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shao-Rui; Chen, Hong; Yuan, Wei-Xiu; Wess, Jürgen; Pan, Hui-Lin

    2010-01-01

    Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) in the spinal cord inhibits pain transmission. At least three mAChR subtypes (M2, M3, and M4) are present in the spinal dorsal horn. However, it is not clear how each mAChR subtype contributes to the regulation of glutamatergic input to dorsal horn neurons. We recorded spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) from lamina II neurons in spinal cord slices from wild-type (WT) and mAChR subtype knock-out (KO) mice. The mAChR agonist oxotremorine-M increased the frequency of glutamatergic sEPSCs in 68.2% neurons from WT mice and decreased the sEPSC frequency in 21.2% neurons. Oxotremorine-M also increased the sEPSC frequency in ∼50% neurons from M3-single KO and M1/M3 double-KO mice. In addition, the M3 antagonist J104129 did not block the stimulatory effect of oxotremorine-M in the majority of neurons from WT mice. Strikingly, in M5-single KO mice, oxotremorine-M increased sEPSCs in only 26.3% neurons, and J104129 abolished this effect. In M2/M4 double-KO mice, but not M2- or M4-single KO mice, oxotremorine-M inhibited sEPSCs in significantly fewer neurons compared with WT mice, and blocking group II/III metabotropic glutamate receptors abolished this effect. The M2/M4 antagonist himbacine either attenuated the inhibitory effect of oxotremorine-M or potentiated the stimulatory effect of oxotremorine-M in WT mice. Our study demonstrates that activation of the M2 and M4 receptor subtypes inhibits synaptic glutamate release to dorsal horn neurons. M5 is the predominant receptor subtype that potentiates glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the spinal cord. PMID:20940295

  8. Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum LP-Onlly on gut flora and colitis in interleukin-10 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yang; Chen, Hong-Qi; Zhang, Min; Jiang, Yan-Qun; Hang, Xiao-Min; Qin, Huan-Long

    2011-02-01

    Probiotics are used in the therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. This study aimed to determine the effects of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum LP-Onlly (LP) on gut flora and colitis in interleukin-10 knockout (IL-10(-/-) ) mice, a model of spontaneous colitis. IL-10(-/-) and wild-type mice were used at 8 weeks of age and LP by gavage was administered at a dose of 10(9) cells/day per mice for 4 weeks. Mice were maintained for another one week without LP treatment. The colonic tissues were collected for histological and ultrastructural analysis at death after 4 weeks treatment of LP, and the feces were collected at 1-week intervals throughout the experiment for the analysis of gut flora and LP using selective culture-based techniques. Compared with control mice, IL-10(-/-) mice developed a severe intestinal inflammation and tissue damage, and had an abnormal composition of gut microflora. LP administration attenuated colitis with the decreased inflammatory scoring and histological injury in the colon of IL-10(-/-) mice. In addition, LP administration increased the numbers of beneficial total bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, and decreased the numbers of potential pathogenic enterococci and Clostridium perfringens, although the decrease of coliforms was not significant after LP treatment in IL-10(-/-) mice. Oral administration of LP was effective in the treatment of colitis, with the direct modification of gut microflora in IL-10(-/-) mice. This probiotic strain could be used as a potential adjuvant in the therapy of inflammatory bowel disease, although further studies are required in human. © 2011 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Brief Report: Altered Social Behavior in Isolation-Reared "Fmr1" Knockout Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzer, Andrew M.; Roth, Alexandra K.; Nawrocki, Lauren; Wrenn, Craige C.; Valdovinos, Maria G.

    2013-01-01

    Social behavior abnormalities in Fragile X syndrome (FXS) are characterized by social withdrawal, anxiety, and deficits in social cognition. To assess these deficits, a model of FXS, the "Fmr1" knockout mouse ("Fmr1" KO), has been utilized. This mouse model has a null mutation in the fragile X mental retardation 1 gene ("Fmr1") and displays…

  10. Semaphorin 6A knockout mice display abnormalities across ethologically-based topographies of exploration and in motor learning.

    PubMed

    Håkansson, Kerstin; Runker, Annette E; O'Sullivan, Gerard J; Mitchell, Kevin J; Waddington, John L; O'Tuathaigh, Colm M P

    2017-02-22

    Semaphorins are secreted or membrane-bound proteins implicated in neurodevelopmental processes of axon guidance and cell migration. Exploratory behaviour and motor learning was examined ethologically in Semaphorin 6A (Sema6A) mutant mice. The ethogram of initial exploration in Sema6A knockout mice was characterised by increased rearing to wall with decreased sifting; over subsequent habituation, locomotion, sniffing and rearing to wall were increased, with reduced habituation of rearing seated. Rotarod analysis indicated delayed motor learning in Sema6A heterozygous mutants. Disruption to the axonal guidance and cell migration processes regulated by Sema6A is associated with topographically specific disruption to fundamental aspects of behaviour, namely the ethogram of initial exploration and subsequent habituation to the environment, and motor learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of [3H] oxymorphone binding sites in mouse brain: Quantitative autoradiography in opioid receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Ji Hoon; Borsodi, Anna; Tóth, Géza; Benyhe, Sándor; Gaspar, Robert; Matifas, Audrey; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Metaxas, Athanasios; Kitchen, Ian; Bailey, Alexis

    2017-03-16

    Oxymorphone, one of oxycodone's metabolic products, is a potent opioid receptor agonist which is thought to contribute to the analgesic effect of its parent compound and may have high potential abuse liability. Nonetheless, the in vivo pharmacological binding profile of this drug is still unclear. This study uses mice lacking mu (MOP), kappa (KOP) or delta (DOP) opioid receptors as well as mice lacking all three opioid receptors to provide full characterisation of oxymorphone binding sites in the brain. Saturation binding studies using [ 3 H]oxymorphone revealed high affinity binding sites in mouse brain displaying Kd of 1.7nM and Bmax of 147fmol/mg. Furthermore, we performed quantitative autoradiography binding studies using [ 3 H]oxymorphone in mouse brain. The distribution of [ 3 H]oxymorphone binding sites was found to be similar to the selective MOP agonist [ 3 H]DAMGO in the mouse brain. [ 3 H]Oxymorphone binding was completely abolished across the majority of the brain regions in mice lacking MOP as well as in mice lacking all three opioid receptors. DOP and KOP knockout mice retained [ 3 H]oxymorphone binding sites suggesting oxymorphone may not target DOP or KOP. These results confirm that the MOP, and not the DOP or the KOP is the main high affinity binding target for oxymorphone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hypolocomotion, anxiety and serotonin syndrome-like behavior contribute to the complex phenotype of serotonin transporter knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Kalueff, A V; Fox, M A; Gallagher, P S; Murphy, D L

    2007-06-01

    Although mice with a targeted disruption of the serotonin transporter (SERT) have been studied extensively using various tests, their complex behavioral phenotype is not yet fully understood. Here we assess in detail the behavior of adult female SERT wild type (+/+), heterozygous (+/-) and knockout (-/-) mice on an isogenic C57BL/6J background subjected to a battery of behavioral paradigms. Overall, there were no differences in the ability to find food or a novel object, nest-building, self-grooming and its sequencing, and horizontal rod balancing, indicating unimpaired sensory functions, motor co-ordination and behavioral sequencing. In contrast, there were striking reductions in exploration and activity in novelty-based tests (novel object, sticky label and open field tests), accompanied by pronounced thigmotaxis, suggesting that combined hypolocomotion and anxiety (rather than purely anxiety) influence the SERT -/- behavioral phenotype. Social interaction behaviors were also markedly reduced. In addition, SERT -/- mice tended to move close to the ground, frequently displayed spontaneous Straub tail, tics, tremor and backward gait - a phenotype generally consistent with 'serotonin syndrome'-like behavior. In line with replicated evidence of much enhanced serotonin availability in SERT -/- mice, this serotonin syndrome-like state may represent a third factor contributing to their behavioral profile. An understanding of the emerging complexity of SERT -/- mouse behavior is crucial for a detailed dissection of their phenotype and for developing further neurobehavioral models using these mice.

  13. Effect of Shenxinning decoction on ventricular remodeling in AT1 receptor-knockout mice with chronic renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuejun; Zhou, Hua; Qu, Huiyan; Liu, Weifang; Huang, Xiaojin; Shun, Yating; He, Liqun

    2014-01-01

    To observe the efficacy of Shenxinning Decoction (SXND) in ventricular remodeling in AT1 receptor-knockout (AT1-KO) mice with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI). AT1-KO mice modeled with subtotal (5/6) nephrectomy were intervened with SXND for 12 weeks. Subsequently, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (SCr), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), echocardiography (left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, LVDD; left ventricular end-systolic diameter, LVDS; fractional shortening, FS; and ejection fraction, EF), collagen types I and III in the heart and kidney, myocardial mitochondria, and cardiac transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) of the AT1-KO mice were compared with the same model with nephrectomy only and untreated with SXND. AT1-KO mice did not affect the process of CRI but it could significantly affect cardiac remodeling process. SXND decreased to some extent the AT1-KO mice's BUN, SCr, BNP, and cardiac LVDD, LVDS, and BNP, improved FS and EF, lowered the expression of collagen type I and III in heart and kidney, increased the quantity of mitochondria and ameliorated their structure, and down-regulated the expression of TGF-β1. SXND may antagonize the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and decrease uremia toxins, thereby ameliorating ventricular remodeling in CRI. Furthermore, SXND has a mechanism correlated with the improvement of myocardial energy metabolism and the down-regulation of TGF-β1.

  14. Calorie restriction ameliorates neurodegenerative phenotypes in forebrain-specific presenilin-1 and presenilin-2 double knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pu; Shen, Qian; Dong, Suzhen; Xu, Zhiliang; Tsien, Joe Z; Hu, Yinghe

    2008-10-01

    Conditional double knockout of presenilin-1 and presenilin-2 (cDKO) in forebrain of mice led to brain atrophy, tau hyperphosphorylation, synaptic dysfunction and cognitive deficit. These brain changes recapitulated most of the neurodegenerative phenotypes of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this report, we have investigated the effects of 4-month calorie restriction (CR) regimen on different phenotypes in cDKO mice. We found that CR improved novel object recognition and contextual fear conditioning memory in the cDKO mice. Histological and biochemical analysis showed that CR attenuated ventricle enlargement, caspase-3 activation and astrogliosis. In addition, the induction of tau hyperphosphorylation in the cDKO mice was reduced by CR, possibly through reduction of p25 accumulation and aberrant CDK5 activation. Finally, DNA microarray analysis demonstrated that CR could increase the expression of neurogenesis related genes and decrease the expression of inflammation related genes in the hippocampus of cDKO mice. The possible molecular mechanisms of the CR effects on alleviating AD pathogenesis have been discussed.

  15. Effect of Shenxinning decoction on ventricular remodeling in AT1 receptor-knockout mice with chronic renal insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xuejun; Zhou, Hua; Qu, Huiyan; Liu, Weifang; Huang, Xiaojin; Shun, Yating; He, Liqun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To observe the efficacy of Shenxinning Decoction (SXND) in ventricular remodeling in AT1 receptor-knockout (AT1-KO) mice with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI). Materials and Methods: AT1-KO mice modeled with subtotal (5/6) nephrectomy were intervened with SXND for 12 weeks. Subsequently, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (SCr), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), echocardiography (left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, LVDD; left ventricular end-systolic diameter, LVDS; fractional shortening, FS; and ejection fraction, EF), collagen types I and III in the heart and kidney, myocardial mitochondria, and cardiac transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) of the AT1-KO mice were compared with the same model with nephrectomy only and untreated with SXND. Results: AT1-KO mice did not affect the process of CRI but it could significantly affect cardiac remodeling process. SXND decreased to some extent the AT1-KO mice's BUN, SCr, BNP, and cardiac LVDD, LVDS, and BNP, improved FS and EF, lowered the expression of collagen type I and III in heart and kidney, increased the quantity of mitochondria and ameliorated their structure, and down-regulated the expression of TGF-β1. Conclusion: SXND may antagonize the renin–angiotensin system (RAS) and decrease uremia toxins, thereby ameliorating ventricular remodeling in CRI. Furthermore, SXND has a mechanism correlated with the improvement of myocardial energy metabolism and the down-regulation of TGF-β1. PMID:25097276

  16. Germinated Brown Rice Attenuates Atherosclerosis and Vascular Inflammation in Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ruozhi; Ghazzawi, Nora; Wu, Jiansu; Le, Khuong; Li, Chunyang; Moghadasian, Mohammed H; Siow, Yaw L; Apea-Bah, Franklin B; Beta, Trust; Yin, Zhengfeng; Shen, Garry X

    2018-05-02

    The present study investigates the impact of germinated brown rice (GBR) on atherosclerosis and the underlying mechanism in low-density lipoprotein receptor-knockout (LDLr-KO) mice. The intensity of atherosclerosis in aortas of LDLr-KO mice receiving diet supplemented with 60% GBR (weight/weight) was significantly less than that in mice fed with 60% white rice (WR) or control diet ( p < 0.05); all diets contained 0.06% cholesterol. WR or GBR diet did not significantly alter plasma total or LDL-cholesterol, fecal sterols, or glucose, or the activities of antioxidant enzymes, compared to the control diet. The adhesion of monocytes to aortas from LDLr-KO mice fed with WR diet was significantly more than that from mice receiving the control diet ( p < 0.01). GBR diet decreased monocyte adhesion to aortas compared to WR diet ( p < 0.01). GBR diet also reduced the levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in plasma, and the abundances of MCP-1, PAI-1, TNF-α, intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1, toll-like receptor-4, PAI-1, LDLr-like protein, and urokinase plasminogen activator and its receptor in aortas or hearts from LDLr-KO mice in comparison to the WR diet ( p < 0.05, 0.01, respectively). The findings suggest that GBR administration attenuated atherosclerosis and vascular inflammation in LDLr-KO mice compared to WR. The anti-atherosclerotic effect of GBR in LDLr-KO mice at least in part results from its anti-inflammatory activity.

  17. Control of glycinergic input to spinal dorsal horn neurons by distinct muscarinic receptor subtypes revealed using knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Mei; Zhou, Hong-Yi; Chen, Shao-Rui; Gautam, Dinesh; Wess, Jürgen; Pan, Hui-Lin

    2007-12-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) play an important role in the tonic regulation of nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord. However, how mAChR subtypes contribute to the regulation of synaptic glycine release is unknown. To determine their role, glycinergic spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) were recorded in lamina II neurons by using whole-cell recordings in spinal cord slices of wild-type (WT) and mAChR subtype knockout (KO) mice. In WT mice, the mAChR agonist oxotremorine-M dose-dependently decreased the frequency of sIPSCs in most neurons, but it had variable effects in other neurons. In contrast, in M3-KO mice, oxotremorine-M consistently decreased the glycinergic sIPSC frequency in all neurons tested, and in M2/M4 double-KO mice, it always increased the sIPSC frequency. In M2/M4 double-KO mice, the potentiating effect of oxotremorine-M was attenuated by higher concentrations in some neurons through activation of GABA(B) receptors. In pertussis toxin-treated WT mice, oxotremorine-M also consistently increased the sIPSC frequency. In M2-KO and M4-KO mice, the effect of oxotremorine-M on sIPSCs was divergent because of the opposing functions of the M3 subtype and the M2 and M4 subtypes. This study demonstrates that stimulation of the M2 and M4 subtypes inhibits glycinergic inputs to spinal dorsal horn neurons of mice, whereas stimulation of the M3 subtype potentiates synaptic glycine release. Furthermore, GABA(B) receptors are involved in the feedback regulation of glycinergic synaptic transmission in the spinal cord. This study revealed distinct functions of mAChR subtypes in controlling glycinergic input to spinal dorsal horn neurons.

  18. K+ channel TASK-1 knockout mice show enhanced sensitivities to ataxic and hypnotic effects of GABA(A) receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Linden, Anni-Maija; Aller, M Isabel; Leppä, Elli; Rosenberg, Per H; Wisden, William; Korpi, Esa R

    2008-10-01

    TASK two-pore-domain leak K(+) channels occur throughout the brain. However, TASK-1 and TASK-3 knockout (KO) mice have few neurological impairments and only mildly reduced sensitivities to inhalational anesthetics, contrasting with the anticipated functions and importance of these channels. TASK-1/-3 channel expression can compensate for the absence of GABA(A) receptors in GABA(A) alpha6 KO mice. To investigate the converse, we analyzed the behavior of TASK-1 and -3 KO mice after administering drugs with preferential efficacies at GABA(A) receptor subtypes: benzodiazepines (diazepam and flurazepam, active at alpha1betagamma2, alpha2betagamma2, alpha3betagamma2, and alpha5betagamma2 subtypes), zolpidem (alpha1betagamma2 subtype), propofol (beta2-3-containing receptors), gaboxadol (alpha4betadelta and alpha6betadelta subtypes), pregnanolone, and pentobarbital (many subtypes). TASK-1 KO mice showed increased motor impairment in rotarod and beam-walking tests after diazepam and flurazepam administration but not after zolpidem. They also showed prolonged loss of righting reflex induced by propofol and pentobarbital. Autoradiography indicated no change in GABA(A) receptor ligand binding levels. These altered behavioral responses to GABAergic drugs suggest functional up-regulation of alpha2beta2/3gamma2 and alpha3beta2/3gamma2 receptor subtypes in TASK-1 KO mice. In addition, female, but not male, TASK-1 KO mice were more sensitive to gaboxadol, suggesting an increased influence of alpha4betadelta or alpha6betadelta subtypes. The benzodiazepine sensitivity of TASK-3 KO mice was marginally increased. Our results underline that TASK-1 channels perform such key functions in the brain that compensation is needed for their absence. Furthermore, because inhalation anesthetics act partially through GABA(A) receptors, the up-regulation of GABA(A) receptor function in TASK-1 KO mice might mask TASK-1 channel's significance as a target for inhalation anesthetics.

  19. Differential modulation of endothelin ligand-induced contraction in isolated tracheae from endothelin B (ETB) receptor knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Douglas W P; Douglas, Stephen A; Ao, Zhaohui; Moesker, Rodney M; Self, Glenn J; Rigby, Paul J; Luttmann, Mark A; Goldie, Roy G

    2001-01-01

    The role of endothelin B (ETB) receptors in mediating ET ligand-induced contractions in mouse trachea was examined in ETB receptor knockout animals.Autoradiographic binding studies, using [125I]-ET-1, confirmed the presence of ETA receptors in tracheal and bronchial airway smooth muscle from wild-type (+/+) and homozygous recessive (−/−) ETB receptor knockout mice. In contrast, ETB receptors were not detected in airway tissues from (−/−) mice.In tracheae from (+/+) mice, the rank order of potencies of the ET ligands was sarafotoxin (Stx) S6c>ET-1>ET-3; Stx S6c had a lower efficacy than ET-1 or ET-3. In tissues from (−/−) mice there was no response to Stx S6c (up to 0.1 μM), whereas the maximum responses and potencies of ET-1 and ET-3 were similar to those in (+/+) tracheae. ET-3 concentration-response curve was biphasic in (+/+) tissues (via ETA and ETB receptor activation), and monophasic in (−/−) preparations (via stimulation of only ETA receptors).In (+/+) preparations SB 234551 (1 nM), an ETA receptor-selective antagonist, inhibited the secondary phase, but not the first phase, of the ET-3 concentration-response curve, whereas A192621 (100 nM), an ETB receptor-selective antagonist, had the opposite effect. In (−/−) tissues SB 234551 (1 nM), but not A192621 (100 nM), produced a rightward shift in ET-3 concentration-response curves.The results confirm the significant influence of both ETA and ETB receptors in mediating ET-1-induced contractions in mouse trachea. Furthermore, the data do not support the hypothesis of atypical ETB receptors. In this preparation ET-3 is not an ETB receptor-selective ligand, producing contractions via activation of both ETA and ETB receptors. PMID:11309263

  20. Specific dietary polyphenols attenuate atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice by alleviating inflammation and endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Loke, Wai Mun; Proudfoot, Julie M; Hodgson, Jonathan M; McKinley, Allan J; Hime, Neil; Magat, Maria; Stocker, Roland; Croft, Kevin D

    2010-04-01

    Animal and clinical studies have suggested that polyphenols in fruits, red wine, and tea may delay the development of atherosclerosis through their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated whether individual dietary polyphenols representing different polyphenolic classes, namely quercetin (flavonol), (-)-epicatechin (flavan-3-ol), theaflavin (dimeric catechin), sesamin (lignan), or chlorogenic acid (phenolic acid), reduce atherosclerotic lesion formation in the apolipoprotein E (ApoE)(-/-) gene-knockout mouse. Quercetin and theaflavin (64-mg/kg body mass daily) significantly attenuated atherosclerotic lesion size in the aortic sinus and thoracic aorta (P<0.05 versus ApoE(-/-) control mice). Quercetin significantly reduced aortic F(2)-isoprostane, vascular superoxide, vascular leukotriene B(4), and plasma-sP-selectin concentrations; and augmented vascular endothelial NO synthase activity, heme oxygenase-1 protein, and urinary nitrate excretion (P<0.05 versus control ApoE(-/-) mice). Theaflavin showed similar, although less extensive, significant effects. Although (-)-epicatechin significantly reduced F(2)-isoprostane, superoxide, and endothelin-1 production (P<0.05 versus control ApoE(-/-) mice), it had no significant effect on lesion size. Sesamin and chlorogenic acid treatments exerted no significant effects. Quercetin, but not (-)-epicatechin, significantly increased the expression of heme oxygenase-1 protein in lesions versus ApoE(-/-) controls. Specific dietary polyphenols, in particular quercetin and theaflavin, may attenuate atherosclerosis in ApoE(-/-) gene-knockout mice by alleviating inflammation, improving NO bioavailability, and inducing heme oxygenase-1. These data suggest that the cardiovascular protection associated with diets rich in fruits, vegetables, and some beverages may in part be the result of flavonoids, such as quercetin.

  1. Toll-like receptor 4 knockout ameliorates neuroinflammation due to lung-brain interaction in mechanically ventilated mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting; Chen, Chang; Zhang, Zongze; Zou, Yufeng; Peng, Mian; Wang, Yanlin

    2016-08-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a crucial receptor in the innate immune system, and increasing evidence supports its role in inflammation, stress, and tissue injury, including injury to the lung and brain. We aimed to investigate the effects of TLR4 on neuroinflammation due to the lung-brain interaction in mechanically ventilated mice. Male wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 and TLR4 knockout (TLR4 KO) mice were divided into three groups: (1) control group (C): spontaneous breathing; (2) anesthesia group (A): spontaneous breathing under anesthesia; and (3) mechanical ventilation group (MV): 6h of MV under anesthesia. The behavioral responses of mice were tested with fear conditioning tests. The histological changes in the lung and brain were assessed using hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. The level of TLR4 mRNA in tissue was measured using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The levels of inflammatory cytokines were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Microgliosis, astrocytosis, and the TLR4 immunoreactivity in the hippocampus were measured by double immunofluorescence. MV mice exhibited impaired cognition, and this impairment was less severe in TLR4 KO mice than in WT mice. In WT mice, MV increased TLR4 mRNA expression in the lung and brain. MV induced mild lung injury, which was prevented in TLR4 KO mice. MV mice exhibited increased levels of inflammatory cytokines, increased microglia and astrocyte activation. Microgliosis was alleviated in TLR4 KO mice. MV mice exhibited increased TLR4 immunoreactivity, which was expressed in microglia and astrocytes. These results demonstrate that TLR4 is involved in neuroinflammation due to the lung-brain interaction and that TLR4 KO ameliorates neuroinflammation due to lung-brain interaction after prolonged MV. In addition, Administration of a TLR4 antagonist (100μg/mice) to WT mice also significantly attenuated neuroinflammation of lung-brain interaction due to prolonged MV. TLR4 antagonism

  2. Effect of Diet High in Coconut Oil on Cardiovascular Disease Risk in ApoE Knockout and Wild Type Mice (Mus musculus)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-07

    Objective: We evaluated the risk of cardiovascular disease in both control and proatherosclerotic mice consuming diets high in coconut oil. Methods...The mice were weighed and randomly assigned to receive a custom diet with either coconut oil or milk fat. Both diets were formulated to have the...significant differences were seen between knockout and wildtype mice in aorta score regardless of diet, and in liver score with coconut oil diet

  3. Alterations of amino acids and monoamine metabolism in male Fmr1 knockout mice: a putative animal model of the human fragile X mental retardation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gruss, M; Braun, K

    2001-01-01

    The Fragile X syndrome, a common form of mental retardation in humans, is caused by silencing the fragile X mental retardation (FMR1) gene leading to the absence of the encoded fragile X mental retardation protein 1 (FMRP). We describe morphological and behavioral abnormalities for both affected humans and Fmr1 knockout mice, a putative animal model for the human Fragile X syndrome. The aim of the present study was to identify possible neurochemical abnormalities in Fmr1 knockout mice, with particular focus on neurotransmission. Significant region-specific differences of basal neurotransmitter and metabolite levels were found between wildtype and Fmr1 knockout animals, predominantly in juveniles (post-natal days 28 to 31). Adults (postnatal days 209 to 221) showed only few abnormalities as compared with the wildtype. In juvenile knockout mice, aspartate and taurine were especially increased in cortical regions, striatum, hippocampus, cerebellum, and brainstem. In addition, juveniles showed an altered balance between excitatory and inhibitory amino acids in the caudal cortex, hippocampus, and brainstem. We detected very few differences in monoamine turnover in both age stages. The results presented here provide the first evidence that lack of FMRP expression in FMRP knockout mice is accompanied by age-dependent, region-specific alterations in neurotransmission.

  4. Apolipoprotein E-knockout mice show increased titers of serum anti-nuclear and anti-dsDNA antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yuehai; Huang, Ziyang, E-mail: huangziyang666@126.com; Lu, Huixia

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Titers of ANA and anti-dsDNA antibodies were higher in ApoE{sup -/-} than C57B6/L mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spleen was greater and splenocyte apoptosis lower in ApoE{sup -/-} than B6 mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Level of TLR4 was lower in spleen tissue of ApoE{sup -/-} than B6 mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TLR4 pathway may participate in maintaining the balance of splenocyte apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TLR4 pathway may participate in antibody production in spleen tissue. -- Abstract: Apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE{sup -/-}) mice, atherosclerosis-prone mice, show an autoimmune response, but the pathogenesis is not fully understood. We investigated the pathogenesis in female and male ApoE{sup -/-}more » mice. The spleens of all ApoE{sup -/-} and C57BL/6 (B6) mice were weighed. The serum IgG level and titers of anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) and anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibody were assayed by ELISA. Apoptosis of spleen tissue was evaluated by TUNEL. TLR4 level in spleen tissue was tested by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Levels of MyD88, p38, phosphorylated p38 (pp38), interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) in spleen tissue were detected by Western blot analysis. We also survey the changes of serum autoantibodies, spleen weight, splenocyte apoptosis and the expressions of TLR4, MyD88, pp38, IRF3 and Bax in spleen tissue in male ApoE{sup -/-} mice after 4 weeks of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Toll-like receptor 4 ligand, administration. ApoE{sup -/-} mice showed splenomegaly and significantly increased serum level of IgG and titers of ANA and anti-dsDNA antibody as compared with B6 mice. Splenocyte apoptosis and the expression of TLR4, MyD88, pp38, IRF3 and Bax in spleen tissue were significantly lower in ApoE{sup -/-} than B6 mice. The expression of TLR4, MyD88, IRF3, pp38, and Bax differed by sex in ApoE{sup -/-} spleen

  5. Lentivirus-ABCG1 instillation reduces lipid accumulation and improves lung compliance in GM-CSF knock-out mice

    SciTech Connect

    Malur, Anagha; Huizar, Isham; Wells, Greg

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lentivirus-ABCG1 reduces lipid accumulation in lungs of GM-CSF knock-out mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Up-regulation of ABCG1 improves lung function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upregulation of ABCG1 improves surfactant metabolism. -- Abstract: We have shown decreased expression of the nuclear transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR{gamma}) and the PPAR{gamma}-regulated ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) in alveolar macrophages from patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). PAP patients also exhibit neutralizing antibodies to granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), an upregulator of PPAR{gamma}. In association with functional GM-CSF deficiency, PAP lung is characterized by surfactant-filled alveolar spaces and lipid-filled alveolar macrophages. Similar pathology characterizes GM-CSF knock-out (KO)more » mice. We reported previously that intratracheal instillation of a lentivirus (lenti)-PPAR{gamma} plasmid into GM-CSF KO animals elevated ABCG1 and reduced alveolar macrophage lipid accumulation. Here, we hypothesized that instillation of lenti-ABCG1 might be sufficient to decrease lipid accumulation and improve pulmonary function in GM-CSF KO mice. Animals received intratracheal instillation of lenti-ABCG1 or control lenti-enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (eGFP) plasmids and alveolar macrophages were harvested 10 days later. Alveolar macrophage transduction efficiency was 79% as shown by lenti-eGFP fluorescence. Quantitative PCR analyses indicated a threefold (p = 0.0005) increase in ABCG1 expression with no change of PPAR{gamma} or ABCA1 in alveolar macrophages of lenti-ABCG1 treated mice. ABCG1 was unchanged in control lenti-eGFP and PBS-instilled groups. Oil Red O staining detected reduced intracellular neutral lipid in alveolar macrophages from lenti-ABCG1 treated mice. Extracellular cholesterol and phospholipids were also decreased as

  6. Alcoholic fatty liver is enhanced in CYP2A5 knockout mice: the role of the PPARα-FGF21 axis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xue; Ward, Stephen C.; Cederbaum, Arthur I.; Xiong, Huabao; Lu, Yongke

    2017-01-01

    Background & Aims Cytochrome P450 2A5 (CYP2A5) is induced by ethanol, and the ethanol induction of CYP2A5 is regulated by nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2). Cyp2a5 knockout (Cyp2a5−/−) mice develop more severe alcoholic fatty liver than Cyp2a5+/+ mice. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a PPARα-regulated liver hormone, is involved in hepatic lipid metabolism. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver are enhanced in Pparα knockout (Pparα−/−) mice. This study investigates the relationship between the PPARα-FGF21 axis and the enhanced alcoholic fatty liver in Cyp2a5−/− mice. Methods Mice were fed the Lieber-Decarli ethanol diet to induce alcoholic fatty liver. Results More severe alcoholic fatty liver disease was developed in Cyp2a5−/− mice than in Cyp2a5+/+ mice. Basal FGF21 levels were higher in Cyp2a5−/− mice than in Cyp2a5+/+ mice, but ethanol did not further increase the elevated FGF21 levels in Cyp2a5−/− mice while FGF21 was induced by ethanol in Cyp2a5+/+ mice. Basal levels of serum FGF21 were lower in Pparα−/− mice than in Pparα+/+ mice; ethanol induced FGF21 in Pparα+/+ mice but not in Pparα−/− mice, whereas ethanol induced hypertriglyceridemia in Pparα−/− mice but not in Pparα+/+ mice. Administration of recombinant FGF21 normalized serum FGF21 and triglyceride in Pparα−/− mice. Alcoholic fatty liver was enhanced in liver-specific Fgf21 knockout mice. Pparα and Cyp2a5 double knockout (Pparα−/−/Cyp2a5−/−) mice developed more severe alcoholic fatty liver than Pparα+/+/Cyp2a5−/− mice. Conclusions These results suggest that CYP2A5 protects against the development of alcoholic fatty liver disease, and the PPARα-FGF21 axis contributes to the protective effects of CYP2A5 on alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:28131861

  7. Alcoholic fatty liver is enhanced in CYP2A5 knockout mice: The role of the PPARα-FGF21 axis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue; Ward, Stephen C; Cederbaum, Arthur I; Xiong, Huabao; Lu, Yongke

    2017-03-15

    Cytochrome P450 2A5 (CYP2A5) is induced by ethanol, and the ethanol induction of CYP2A5 is regulated by nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2). Cyp2a5 knockout (Cyp2a5 -/- ) mice develop more severe alcoholic fatty liver than Cyp2a5 +/+ mice. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a PPARα-regulated liver hormone, is involved in hepatic lipid metabolism. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver are enhanced in Pparα knockout (Pparα -/- ) mice. This study investigates the relationship between the PPARα-FGF21 axis and the enhanced alcoholic fatty liver in Cyp2a5 -/- mice. Mice were fed the Lieber-Decarli ethanol diet to induce alcoholic fatty liver. More severe alcoholic fatty liver disease was developed in Cyp2a5 -/- mice than in Cyp2a5 +/+ mice. Basal FGF21 levels were higher in Cyp2a5 -/- mice than in Cyp2a5 +/+ mice, but ethanol did not further increase the elevated FGF21 levels in Cyp2a5 -/- mice while FGF21 was induced by ethanol in Cyp2a5 +/+ mice. Basal levels of serum FGF21 were lower in Pparα -/- mice than in Pparα +/+ mice; ethanol induced FGF21 in Pparα +/+ mice but not in Pparα -/- mice, whereas ethanol induced hypertriglyceridemia in Pparα -/- mice but not in Pparα +/+ mice. Administration of recombinant FGF21 normalized serum FGF21 and triglyceride in Pparα -/- mice. Alcoholic fatty liver was enhanced in liver-specific Fgf21 knockout mice. Pparα and Cyp2a5 double knockout (Pparα -/- /Cyp2a5 -/- ) mice developed more severe alcoholic fatty liver than Pparα +/+ /Cyp2a5 -/- mice. These results suggest that CYP2A5 protects against the development of alcoholic fatty liver disease, and the PPARα-FGF21 axis contributes to the protective effects of CYP2A5 on alcoholic fatty liver disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization of liver injury, oval cell proliferation and cholangiocarcinogenesis in glutathione S-transferase A3 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Dana R; Ilic, Zoran; Guest, Ian; Milne, Ginger L; Hayes, John D; Sell, Stewart

    2017-07-01

    We recently generated glutathione S-transferase (GST) A3 knockout (KO) mice as a novel model to study the risk factors for liver cancer. GSTA3 KO mice are sensitive to the acute cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), confirming the crucial role of GSTA3 in resistance to AFB1. We now report histopathological changes, tumor formation, biochemical changes and gender response following AFB1 treatment as well as the contribution of oxidative stress. Using a protocol of weekly 0.5 mg AFB1/kg administration, we observed extensive oval (liver stem) cell (OC) proliferation within 1-3 weeks followed by microvesicular lipidosis, megahepatocytes, nuclear inclusions, cholangiomas and small nodules. Male and female GSTA3 KO mice treated with 12 and 24 weekly AFB1 injections followed by a rest period of 12 and 6 months, respectively, all had grossly distorted livers with macro- and microscopic cysts, hepatocellular nodules, cholangiomas and cholangiocarcinomas and OC proliferation. We postulate that the prolonged AFB1 treatment leads to inhibition of hepatocyte proliferation, which is compensated by OC proliferation and eventually formation of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). At low-dose AFB1, male KO mice showed less extensive acute liver injury, OC proliferation and AFB1-DNA adducts than female KO mice. There were no significant compensatory changes in KO mice GST subunits, GST enzymatic activity, epoxide hydrolase, or CYP1A2 and CYP3A11 levels. Finally, there was a modest increase in F2-isoprostane and isofuran in KO mice that confirmed putative GSTA3 hydroperoxidase activity in vivo for the first time. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Smooth muscle cells healing atherosclerotic plaque disruptions are of local, not blood, origin in apolipoprotein E knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Bentzon, Jacob F; Sondergaard, Claus S; Kassem, Moustapha; Falk, Erling

    2007-10-30

    Signs of preceding episodes of plaque rupture and smooth muscle cell (SMC)-mediated healing are common in atherosclerotic plaques, but the source of the healing SMCs is unknown. Recent studies suggest that activated platelets adhering to sites of injury recruit neointimal SMCs from circulating bone marrow-derived progenitor cells. Here, we analyzed the contribution of this mechanism to plaque healing after spontaneous and mechanical plaque disruption in apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE-/-) mice. To determine the origin of SMCs after spontaneous plaque disruption, irradiated 18-month-old apoE-/- mice were reconstituted with bone marrow cells from enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) transgenic apoE-/- mice and examined when they died up to 9 months later. Plaque hemorrhage, indicating previous plaque disruption, was widely present, but no bone marrow-derived eGFP+ SMCs were detected. To examine the origin of healing SMCs in a model that recapitulates more features of human plaque rupture and healing, we developed a mechanical technique that produced consistent plaque disruption, superimposed thrombosis, and SMC-mediated plaque healing in apoE-/- mice. Mechanical plaque disruption was produced in irradiated apoE-/- mice reconstituted with eGFP+ apoE-/- bone marrow cells and in carotid bifurcations cross-grafted between apoE-/- and eGFP+ apoE-/- mice. Apart from few non-graft-derived SMCs near the anastomosis site in 1 transplanted carotid bifurcation, no SMCs originating from outside the local arterial segment were detected in healed plaques. Healing SMCs after atherosclerotic plaque disruption are derived entirely from the local arterial wall and not circulating progenitor cells in apoE-/- mice.

  10. Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry) polyphenol-rich extract improves antioxidant function and reduces total plasma cholesterol in apolipoprotein E knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bohkyung; Ku, Chai Siah; Pham, Tho X; Park, Youngki; Martin, Derek A; Xie, Liyang; Taheri, Rod; Lee, Jiyoung; Bolling, Bradley W

    2013-05-01

    We hypothesized that a polyphenol-rich chokeberry extract (CBE) would modulate hepatic lipid metabolism and improve antioxidant function in apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE(-/-)) mice. ApoE(-/-) mice were fed diets containing 15% fat with 0.2% cholesterol alone or supplemented with 0.005% or 0.05% CBE for 4 weeks. CBE polyphenol content was determined by the total phenols, 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde, and ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods. The 0.05% CBE diet provided mice with mean daily doses of 1.2 mg gallic acid equivalents of total phenols, 0.19 mg anthocyanins, 0.17 mg phenolic acids, 0.06 mg proanthocyanidins (as catechin-equivalents), and 0.02 mg flavonols. The 0.05% CBE group had 12% less plasma total cholesterol concentrations than the control. Despite the hypocholesterolemic effect of CBE, hepatic mRNA levels of low-density lipoprotein receptor, hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase in CBE-fed mice were not significantly different from controls. Dietary CBE did not alter hepatic lipid content or the hepatic expression of genes involved in lipogenesis and fatty acid β-oxidation such as fatty acid synthase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 and acyl-CoA oxidase. Plasma paraoxonase and catalase activities were significantly increased in mice fed 0.05% CBE. Both CBE diets increased hepatic glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity but the 0.05% CBE group had 24% less proximal intestine GPx activity relative to controls. Thus, dietary CBE lowered total cholesterol and improved plasma and hepatic antioxidant function at nutritionally-relevant doses in apoE(-/-) mice. Furthermore, the CBE cholesterol-lowering mechanism in apoE(-/-) mice was independent of hepatic expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Regional registration of [6-14C]glucose metabolism during brain activation of α-syntrophin knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Nancy F.; Ball, Kelly K.; Froehner, Stanley C.; Adams, Marvin E.; Dienel, Gerald A.

    2013-01-01

    α-Syntrophin is a component of the dystrophin scaffold-protein complex that serves as an adaptor for recruitment of key proteins to the cytoplasmic side of plasma membranes. α-Syntrophin knockout (KO) causes loss of the polarized localization of aquaporin4 (AQP4) at astrocytic endfeet and interferes with water and K+ homeostasis. During brain activation, release of ions and metabolites from endfeet is anticipated to increase perivascular fluid osmolarity, AQP4-mediated osmotic water flow from endfeet, and metabolite washout from brain. This study tests the hypothesis that reduced levels of endfoot AQP4 increase retention of [14C]metabolites during sensory stimulation. Conscious KO and wildtype mice were pulse-labeled with [6-14C]glucose during unilateral acoustic stimulation or bilateral acoustic plus whisker stimulation, and label retention was assayed by computer-assisted brain imaging or analysis of [14C]metabolites in extracts, respectively. High-resolution autoradiographic assays detected a 17% side-to-side difference (P<0.05) in inferior colliculus of KO mice, not wildtype mice. However, there were no labeling differences between KO and wildtype mice for five major HPLC fractions from four dissected regions, presumably due to insufficient anatomical resolution. The results suggest a role for AQP4-mediated water flow in support of washout of metabolites, and underscore the need for greater understanding of astrocytic water and metabolite fluxes. PMID:23346911

  12. An extremely high dietary iodide supply forestalls severe hypothyroidism in Na+/I- symporter (NIS) knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Ferrandino, Giuseppe; Kaspari, Rachel R; Reyna-Neyra, Andrea; Boutagy, Nabil E; Sinusas, Albert J; Carrasco, Nancy

    2017-07-13

    The sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) mediates active iodide (I - ) accumulation in the thyroid, the first step in thyroid hormone (TH) biosynthesis. Mutations in the SLC5A5 gene encoding NIS that result in a non-functional protein lead to congenital hypothyroidism due to I - transport defect (ITD). ITD is a rare autosomal disorder that, if not treated promptly in infancy, can cause mental retardation, as the TH decrease results in improper development of the nervous system. However, in some patients, hypothyroidism has been ameliorated by unusually large amounts of dietary I - . Here we report the first NIS knockout (KO) mouse model, obtained by targeting exons 6 and 7 of the Slc5a5 gene. In NIS KO mice, in the thyroid, stomach, and salivary gland, NIS is absent, and hence there is no active accumulation of the NIS substrate pertechnetate ( 99m TcO 4 - ). NIS KO mice showed undetectable serum T 4 and very low serum T 3 levels when fed a diet supplying the minimum I - requirement for rodents. These hypothyroid mice displayed oxidative stress in the thyroid, but not in the brown adipose tissue or liver. Feeding the mice a high-I - diet partially rescued TH biosynthesis, demonstrating that, at high I - concentrations, I - enters the thyroid through routes other than NIS.

  13. Oxytocin receptor and Mecp2 308/Y knockout mice exhibit altered expression of autism-related social behaviors.

    PubMed

    Pobbe, Roger L H; Pearson, Brandon L; Blanchard, D Caroline; Blanchard, Robert J

    2012-12-05

    The development of tasks measuring behaviors specific to the three major symptom categories for autism makes it possible to differentiate mouse models of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in terms of changes in these specific categories. Prior studies indicate that BTBR T+tf/J mice, the strain that has been evaluated most extensively, show autism-relevant changes in all three symptom categories; reciprocal social interactions; communication; and repetitive, ritualized behaviors. This report reviews the behaviors of oxytocin receptor (Oxtr) and Mecp2(308/Y) wild-type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice, in a number of tests specifically designed to provide information on behaviors that may show functional parallels to the core symptoms of ASD. Oxtr KO mice show robust decreases in reciprocal social interactions, and reduced levels of communication, but no changes in repetitive, ritualized behaviors; whereas Mecp2(308/Y) KO mice show a slight but consistent enhancement of social behavior and communication, and no changes in repetitive, ritualized behaviors. This data base, although small, strongly indicates that mouse models can sort the diagnostic symptoms of autism, and suggests that biological and physiological analyses of these strains may be capable of providing differential information on the brain systems involved in particular symptoms of this disorder. Profiles of behavioral changes in other mouse models of ASD should provide additional specificity in the search for biomarkers associated with particular ASD symptoms and symptom clusters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hyperfunction of muscarinic receptor maintains long-term memory in 5-HT4 receptor knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Segu, Luis; Lecomte, Marie-José; Wolff, Mathieu; Santamaria, Julie; Hen, René; Dumuis, Aline; Berrard, Sylvie; Bockaert, Joël; Buhot, Marie-Christine; Compan, Valérie

    2010-03-04

    Patients suffering from dementia of Alzheimer's type express less serotonin 4 receptors (5-HTR(4)), but whether an absence of these receptors modifies learning and memory is unexplored. In the spatial version of the Morris water maze, we show that 5-HTR(4) knock-out (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice performed similarly for spatial learning, short- and long-term retention. Since 5-HTR(4) control mnesic abilities, we tested whether cholinergic system had circumvented the absence of 5-HTR(4). Inactivating muscarinic receptor with scopolamine, at an ineffective dose (0.8 mg/kg) to alter memory in WT mice, decreased long-term but not short-term memory of 5-HTR(4) KO mice. Other changes included decreases in the activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), the required enzyme for acetylcholine synthesis, in the septum and the dorsal hippocampus in 5-HTR(4) KO under baseline conditions. Training- and scopolamine-induced increase and decrease, respectively in ChAT activity in the septum in WT mice were not detected in the 5-HTR(4) KO animals. Findings suggest that adaptive changes in cholinergic systems may circumvent the absence of 5-HTR(4) to maintain long-term memory under baseline conditions. In contrast, despite adaptive mechanisms, the absence of 5-HTR(4) aggravates scopolamine-induced memory impairments. The mechanisms whereby 5-HTR(4) mediate a tonic influence on ChAT activity and muscarinic receptors remain to be determined.

  15. Astrocyte- and endothelial-targeted CCL2 conditional knockout mice: critical tools for studying the pathogenesis of neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Ge, Shujun; Murugesan, Nivetha; Pachter, Joel S

    2009-09-01

    While the expression of the C-C chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) in the central nervous system (CNS) is associated with numerous neuroinflammatory conditions, the critical cellular sources of this chemokine, which is responsible for disease processes-as well as associated pathogenic mechanisms, remain unresolved. As the potential for anti-CCL2 therapeutics in treating neuroinflammatory disease is likely to be contingent upon effective drug delivery to the source(s) and/or target(s) of CCL2 action in the CNS, tools to highlight the course of CCL2 action during neuroinflammation are imperative. In response to this need, we used the Cre/loxP and FLP-FRT recombination system to develop the first two, cell-conditional CCL2 knockout mice-separately targeting CCL2 gene elimination to astrocytes and endothelial cells, both of which have been considered to play crucial though undefined roles in neuroinflammatory disease. Specifically, mice containing a floxed CCL2 allele were intercrossed with GFAP-Cre or Tie2-Cre transgenic mice to generate mice with CCL2-deficient astrocytes (astrocyte KO) or endothelial cells (endothelial KO), respectively. Polymerase chain reaction, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction/quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of CCL2 gene, RNA, and protein, respectively, from cultured astrocytes and brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC) established the efficiency and specificity of the CCL2 gene deletions and a CCL2 null phenotype in these CNS cells. Effective cell-conditional knockout of CCL2 was also confirmed in an in vivo setting, wherein astrocytes and BMEC were retrieved by immune-guided laser capture microdissection from their in situ positions in the brains of mice experiencing acute, lipopolysaccharide-mediated endotoxemia to induce CCL2 gene expression. In vivo analysis further revealed apparent cross-talk between BMEC and astrocytes regarding the regulation of astrocyte CCL

  16. Sex-dependent alterations in motor and anxiety-like behavior of aged bacterial peptidoglycan sensing molecule 2 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Arentsen, Tim; Khalid, Roksana; Qian, Yu; Diaz Heijtz, Rochellys

    2018-01-01

    Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are key sensing-molecules of the innate immune system that specifically detect bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN) and its derivates. PGRPs have recently emerged as potential key regulators of normal brain development and behavior. To test the hypothesis that PGRPs play a role in motor control and anxiety-like behavior in later life, we used 15-month old male and female peptidoglycan recognition protein 2 (Pglyrp2) knockout (KO) mice. Pglyrp2 is an N-acetylmuramyl-l-alanine amidase that hydrolyzes PGN between the sugar backbone and the peptide chain (which is unique among the mammalian PGRPs). Using a battery of behavioral tests, we demonstrate that Pglyrp2 KO male mice display decreased levels of anxiety-like behavior compared with wild type (WT) males. In contrast, Pglyrp2 KO female mice show reduced rearing activity and increased anxiety-like behavior compared to WT females. In the accelerated rotarod test, however, Pglyrp2 KO female mice performed better compared to WT females (i.e., they had longer latency to fall off the rotarod). Further, Pglyrp2 KO male mice exhibited decreased expression levels of synaptophysin, gephyrin, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the frontal cortex, but not in the amygdala. Pglyrp2 KO female mice exhibited increased expression levels of spinophilin and alpha-synuclein in the frontal cortex, while exhibiting decreased expression levels of synaptophysin, gephyrin and spinophilin in the amygdala. Our findings suggest a novel role for Pglyrp2asa key regulator of motor and anxiety-like behavior in late life. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors Attenuate the Asthma Phenotype Produced by β2-Adrenoceptor Agonists in Phenylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase-Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Forkuo, Gloria S; Kim, Hosu; Thanawala, Vaidehi J; Al-Sawalha, Nour; Valdez, Daniel; Joshi, Radhika; Parra, Sergio; Pera, Tonio; Gonnella, Patricia A; Knoll, Brian J; Walker, Julia K L; Penn, Raymond B; Bond, Richard A

    2016-08-01

    Mice lacking the endogenous β2-adrenoceptor (β2AR) agonist epinephrine (phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase [PNMT]-knockout mice) are resistant to developing an "asthma-like" phenotype in an ovalbumin sensitization and challenge (Ova S/C) model, and chronic administration of β2AR agonists to PNMT-KO mice restores the phenotype. Based on these and other studies showing differential effects of various β2AR ligands on the asthma phenotype, we have speculated that the permissive effect of endogenous epinephrine and exogenous β2AR agonists on allergic lung inflammation can be explained by qualitative β2AR signaling. The β2AR can signal through at least two pathways: the canonical Gαs-cAMP pathway and a β-arrestin-dependent pathway. Previous studies suggest that β-arrestin-2 is required for allergic lung inflammation. On the other hand, cell-based assays suggest antiinflammatory effects of Gαs-cAMP signaling. This study was designed to test whether the in vitro antiinflammatory effects of phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors, known to increase intracellular cAMP in multiple airway cell types, attenuate the asthma-like phenotype produced by the β2AR agonists formoterol and salmeterol in vivo in PNMT-KO mice, based on the hypothesis that skewing β2AR signaling toward Gαs-cAMP pathway is beneficial. Airway inflammatory cells, epithelial mucus production, and airway hyperresponsiveness were quantified. In Ova S/C PNMT-KO mice, formoterol and salmeterol restored the asthma-like phenotype comparable to Ova S/C wild-type mice. However, coadministration of either roflumilast or rolipram attenuated this formoterol- or salmeterol-driven phenotype in Ova S/C PNMT-KO. These findings suggest that amplification of β2AR-mediated cAMP by phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors attenuates the asthma-like phenotype promoted by β-agonists.

  18. The FKBP5 Gene Affects Alcohol Drinking in Knockout Mice and Is Implicated in Alcohol Drinking in Humans.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Bin; Luczak, Susan E; Wall, Tamara L; Kirchhoff, Aaron M; Xu, Yuxue; Eng, Mimy Y; Stewart, Robert B; Shou, Weinian; Boehm, Stephen L; Chester, Julia A; Yong, Weidong; Liang, Tiebing

    2016-08-05

    FKBP5 encodes FK506-binding protein 5, a glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-binding protein implicated in various psychiatric disorders and alcohol withdrawal severity. The purpose of this study is to characterize alcohol preference and related phenotypes in Fkbp5 knockout (KO) mice and to examine the role of FKBP5 in human alcohol consumption. The following experiments were performed to characterize Fkpb5 KO mice. (1) Fkbp5 KO and wild-type (WT) EtOH consumption was tested using a two-bottle choice paradigm; (2) The EtOH elimination rate was measured after intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 2.0 g/kg EtOH; (3) Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was measured after 3 h limited access of alcohol; (4) Brain region expression of Fkbp5 was identified using LacZ staining; (5) Baseline corticosterone (CORT) was assessed. Additionally, two SNPs, rs1360780 (C/T) and rs3800373 (T/G), were selected to study the association of FKBP5 with alcohol consumption in humans. Participants were college students (n = 1162) from 21-26 years of age with Chinese, Korean or Caucasian ethnicity. The results, compared to WT mice, for KO mice exhibited an increase in alcohol consumption that was not due to differences in taste sensitivity or alcohol metabolism. Higher BAC was found in KO mice after 3 h of EtOH access. Fkbp5 was highly expressed in brain regions involved in the regulation of the stress response, such as the hippocampus, amygdala, dorsal raphe and locus coeruleus. Both genotypes exhibited similar basal levels of plasma corticosterone (CORT). Finally, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FKBP5 were found to be associated with alcohol drinking in humans. These results suggest that the association between FKBP5 and alcohol consumption is conserved in both mice and humans.

  19. Normal radial migration and lamination are maintained in dyslexia-susceptibility candidate gene homolog Kiaa0319 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Garay, Isabel; Guidi, Luiz G; Holloway, Zoe G; Bailey, Melissa A G; Lyngholm, Daniel; Schneider, Tomasz; Donnison, Timothy; Butt, Simon J B; Monaco, Anthony P; Molnár, Zoltán; Velayos-Baeza, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Developmental dyslexia is a common disorder with a strong genetic component, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unknown. Several candidate dyslexia-susceptibility genes, including KIAA0319, DYX1C1, and DCDC2, have been identified in humans. RNA interference experiments targeting these genes in rat embryos have shown impairments in neuronal migration, suggesting that defects in radial cortical migration could be involved in the disease mechanism of dyslexia. Here we present the first characterisation of a Kiaa0319 knockout mouse line. Animals lacking KIAA0319 protein do not show anatomical abnormalities in any of the layered structures of the brain. Neurogenesis and radial migration of cortical projection neurons are not altered, and the intrinsic electrophysiological properties of Kiaa0319-deficient neurons do not differ from those of wild-type neurons. Kiaa0319 overexpression in cortex delays radial migration, but does not affect final neuronal position. However, knockout animals show subtle differences suggesting possible alterations in anxiety-related behaviour and in sensorimotor gating. Our results do not reveal a migration disorder in the mouse model, adding to the body of evidence available for Dcdc2 and Dyx1c1 that, unlike in the rat in utero knockdown models, the dyslexia-susceptibility candidate mouse homolog genes do not play an evident role in neuronal migration. However, KIAA0319 protein expression seems to be restricted to the brain, not only in early developmental stages but also in adult mice, indicative of a role of this protein in brain function. The constitutive and conditional knockout lines reported here will be useful tools for further functional analyses of Kiaa0319.

  20. Milk intake and survival in newborn cannabinoid CB1 receptor knockout mice: evidence for a "CB3" receptor.

    PubMed

    Fride, Ester; Foox, Anat; Rosenberg, Elana; Faigenboim, Moran; Cohen, Vickey; Barda, Lena; Blau, Hannah; Mechoulam, Raphael

    2003-02-07

    Cannabinoids, whether plant-derived, synthetic or endogenous, have been shown to stimulate appetite in the adult organism. We have reported previously that cannabinoid receptors play a critical role during the early suckling period: The selective cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonist N-(piperidiny-1-yl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (SR141617A) permanently prevented milk ingestion in a dose-dependent manner, when administered to (Sabra, albino) mouse pups, within 1 day of birth. As a consequence, these pups died within the first week of life. We now generalize this finding to a different strain of mice (C57BL/6). Further, we show that cannabinoid CB(1) receptor blockade (20 mg/kg SR141716A) must occur within 24 h after birth as injection of SR141716A into 2- or 5-day-old pups had a much smaller effect or no effect at all, respectively. Cannabinoid CB(1) receptor knockout mice did not ingest milk on the first day of life, similarly to SR141716A-treated normal pups, as measured by the appearance of "milkbands". However, the knockout pups started to display milkbands from day 2 of life. Survival rates of cannabinoid CB(1) receptor knockout mice were affected significantly, but to a lesser extent than normal pups, by the administration of SR141716A. Daily administration of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, or the synthetic agonists (R)-(+)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-(4-morpholinylmethyl)pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl]-1-naphthalenylmethanone (WIN55,212-2, 5 mg/kg) or (-)-cis-3-[2-Hydroxy4-(1,1-dimethylheptyl) phenyl]-trans-4-(3-hydroxypropyl)cyclohexanol (CP55,940, 5 or 20 mg/kg) did not promote survival or weight gain in CB(1)(-/-) pups. Our data support previous evidence for a critical role of cannabinoid CB(1) receptors for the initiation of suckling. Further, the present observations support the existence of an unknown cannabinoid receptor, with partial control over milk ingestion in newborns. Our data

  1. Attraction thresholds and sex discrimination of urinary odorants in male and female aromatase knockout (ArKO) mice.

    PubMed

    Pierman, Sylvie; Douhard, Quentin; Balthazart, Jacques; Baum, Michael J; Bakker, Julie

    2006-01-01

    We previously found that both male and female aromatase knockout (ArKO) mice, which cannot synthesize estrogens due to a targeted mutation of the aromatase gene, showed less investigation of volatile body odors from anesthetized conspecifics of both sexes in Y-maze tests. We now ask whether ArKO mice are in fact capable of discriminating between and/or responding to volatile odors. Using habituation/dishabituation tests, we found that gonadectomized ArKO and wild-type (WT) mice of both sexes, which were tested without any sex hormone replacement, reliably distinguished between undiluted volatile urinary odors of either adult males or estrous females versus deionized water as well as between these two urinary odors themselves. However, ArKO mice of both sexes were less motivated than WT controls to investigate same-sex odors when they were presented last in the sequence of stimuli. In a second experiment, we compared the ability of ArKO and WT mice to respond to decreasing concentrations of either male or female urinary odors. We found a clear-cut sex difference in urinary odor attraction thresholds among WT mice: WT males failed to respond to urine dilutions higher than 1:20 by volume, whereas WT females continued to respond to urine dilutions up to 1:80. Male ArKO mice resembled WT females in their ability to respond to lower concentrations of urinary odors, raising the possibility that the observed sex difference among WT mice in urine attraction thresholds results from the perinatal actions of estrogen in the male nervous system. Female ArKO mice failed to show significant dishabituation responses to two (1:20 and 1:80) dilutions of female urine, perhaps, again, because of a reduced motivation to investigate less salient, same-sex urinary odors. Previously observed deficits in the preference of ArKO male and female mice to approach volatile body odors from conspecifics of either sex cannot be attributed to an inability of ArKO subjects to discriminate these

  2. Fatty acid desaturase 1 knockout mice are lean with improved glycemic control and decreased development of atheromatous plaque

    PubMed Central

    Powell, David R; Gay, Jason P; Smith, Melinda; Wilganowski, Nathaniel; Harris, Angela; Holland, Autumn; Reyes, Maricela; Kirkham, Laura; Kirkpatrick, Laura L; Zambrowicz, Brian; Hansen, Gwenn; Platt, Kenneth A; van Sligtenhorst, Isaac; Ding, Zhi-Ming; Desai, Urvi

    2016-01-01

    Delta-5 desaturase (D5D) and delta-6 desaturase (D6D), encoded by fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1) and FADS2 genes, respectively, are enzymes in the synthetic pathways for ω3, ω6, and ω9 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Although PUFAs appear to be involved in mammalian metabolic pathways, the physiologic effect of isolated D5D deficiency on these pathways is unclear. After generating >4,650 knockouts (KOs) of independent mouse genes and analyzing them in our high-throughput phenotypic screen, we found that Fads1 KO mice were among the leanest of 3,651 chow-fed KO lines analyzed for body composition and were among the most glucose tolerant of 2,489 high-fat-diet-fed KO lines analyzed by oral glucose tolerance test. In confirmatory studies, chow- or high-fat-diet-fed Fads1 KO mice were leaner than wild-type (WT) littermates; when data from multiple cohorts of adult mice were combined, body fat was 38% and 31% lower in Fads1 male and female KO mice, respectively. Fads1 KO mice also had lower glucose and insulin excursions during oral glucose tolerance tests along with lower fasting glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels. In additional studies using a vascular injury model, Fads1 KO mice had significantly decreased femoral artery intima/media ratios consistent with a decreased inflammatory response in their arterial wall. Based on this result, we bred Fads1 KO and WT mice onto an ApoE KO background and fed them a Western diet for 14 weeks; in this atherogenic environment, aortic trees of Fads1 KO mice had 40% less atheromatous plaque compared to WT littermates. Importantly, PUFA levels measured in brain and liver phospholipid fractions of Fads1 KO mice were consistent with decreased D5D activity and normal D6D activity. The beneficial metabolic phenotype demonstrated in Fads1 KO mice suggests that selective D5D inhibitors may be useful in the treatment of human obesity, diabetes, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. PMID:27382320

  3. Differential regulation of primary afferent input to spinal cord by muscarinic receptor subtypes delineated using knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Rui; Chen, Hong; Yuan, Wei-Xiu; Wess, Jürgen; Pan, Hui-Lin

    2014-05-16

    Stimulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) inhibits nociceptive transmission at the spinal level. However, it is unclear how each mAChR subtype regulates excitatory synaptic input from primary afferents. Here we examined excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) of dorsal horn neurons evoked by dorsal root stimulation in spinal cord slices from wild-type and mAChR subtype knock-out (KO) mice. In wild-type mice, mAChR activation with oxotremorine-M decreased the amplitude of monosynaptic EPSCs in ∼67% of neurons but increased it in ∼10% of neurons. The inhibitory effect of oxotremorine-M was attenuated by the M2/M4 antagonist himbacine in the majority of neurons, and the remaining inhibition was abolished by group II/III metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) antagonists in wild-type mice. In M2/M4 double-KO mice, oxotremorine-M inhibited monosynaptic EPSCs in significantly fewer neurons (∼26%) and increased EPSCs in significantly more neurons (33%) compared with wild-type mice. Blocking group II/III mGluRs eliminated the inhibitory effect of oxotremorine-M in M2/M4 double-KO mice. In M2 single-KO and M4 single-KO mice, himbacine still significantly reduced the inhibitory effect of oxotremorine-M. However, the inhibitory and potentiating effects of oxotremorine-M on EPSCs in M3 single-KO and M1/M3 double-KO mice were similar to those in wild-type mice. In M5 single-KO mice, oxotremorine-M failed to potentiate evoked EPSCs, and its inhibitory effect was abolished by himbacine. These findings indicate that activation of presynaptic M2 and M4 subtypes reduces glutamate release from primary afferents. Activation of the M5 subtype either directly increases primary afferent input or inhibits it through indirectly stimulating group II/III mGluRs. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Differential Regulation of Primary Afferent Input to Spinal Cord by Muscarinic Receptor Subtypes Delineated Using Knockout Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shao-Rui; Chen, Hong; Yuan, Wei-Xiu; Wess, Jürgen; Pan, Hui-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Stimulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) inhibits nociceptive transmission at the spinal level. However, it is unclear how each mAChR subtype regulates excitatory synaptic input from primary afferents. Here we examined excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) of dorsal horn neurons evoked by dorsal root stimulation in spinal cord slices from wild-type and mAChR subtype knock-out (KO) mice. In wild-type mice, mAChR activation with oxotremorine-M decreased the amplitude of monosynaptic EPSCs in ∼67% of neurons but increased it in ∼10% of neurons. The inhibitory effect of oxotremorine-M was attenuated by the M2/M4 antagonist himbacine in the majority of neurons, and the remaining inhibition was abolished by group II/III metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) antagonists in wild-type mice. In M2/M4 double-KO mice, oxotremorine-M inhibited monosynaptic EPSCs in significantly fewer neurons (∼26%) and increased EPSCs in significantly more neurons (33%) compared with wild-type mice. Blocking group II/III mGluRs eliminated the inhibitory effect of oxotremorine-M in M2/M4 double-KO mice. In M2 single-KO and M4 single-KO mice, himbacine still significantly reduced the inhibitory effect of oxotremorine-M. However, the inhibitory and potentiating effects of oxotremorine-M on EPSCs in M3 single-KO and M1/M3 double-KO mice were similar to those in wild-type mice. In M5 single-KO mice, oxotremorine-M failed to potentiate evoked EPSCs, and its inhibitory effect was abolished by himbacine. These findings indicate that activation of presynaptic M2 and M4 subtypes reduces glutamate release from primary afferents. Activation of the M5 subtype either directly increases primary afferent input or inhibits it through indirectly stimulating group II/III mGluRs. PMID:24695732

  5. Epileptogenesis following Kainic Acid-Induced Status Epilepticus in Cyclin D2 Knock-Out Mice with Diminished Adult Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kondratiuk, Ilona; Plucinska, Gabriela; Miszczuk, Diana; Wozniak, Grazyna; Szydlowska, Kinga; Kaczmarek, Leszek; Filipkowski, Robert K.; Lukasiuk, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether a substantial decrease in adult neurogenesis influences epileptogenesis evoked by the intra-amygdala injection of kainic acid (KA). Cyclin D2 knockout (cD2 KO) mice, which lack adult neurogenesis almost entirely, were used as a model. First, we examined whether status epilepticus (SE) evoked by an intra-amygdala injection of KA induces cell proliferation in cD2 KO mice. On the day after SE, we injected BrdU into mice for 5 days and evaluated the number of DCX- and DCX/BrdU-immunopositive cells 3 days later. In cD2 KO control animals, only a small number of DCX+ cells was observed. The number of DCX+ and DCX/BrdU+ cells/mm of subgranular layer in cD2 KO mice increased significantly following SE (p<0.05). However, the number of newly born cells was very low and was significantly lower than in KA-treated wild type (wt) mice. To evaluate the impact of diminished neurogenesis on epileptogenesis and early epilepsy, we performed video-EEG monitoring of wt and cD2 KO mice for 16 days following SE. The number of animals with seizures did not differ between wt (11 out of 15) and cD2 KO (9 out of 12) mice. The median latency to the first spontaneous seizure was 4 days (range 2 – 10 days) in wt mice and 8 days (range 2 – 16 days) in cD2 KO mice and did not differ significantly between groups. Similarly, no differences were observed in median seizure frequency (wt: 1.23, range 0.1 – 3.4; cD2 KO: 0.57, range 0.1 – 2.0 seizures/day) or median seizure duration (wt: 51 s, range 23 – 103; cD2 KO: 51 s, range 23 – 103). Our results indicate that SE-induced epileptogenesis is not disrupted in mice with markedly reduced adult neurogenesis. However, we cannot exclude the contribution of reduced neurogenesis to the chronic epileptic state. PMID:26020770

  6. Ataxin-2 (Atxn2)-Knock-Out Mice Show Branched Chain Amino Acids and Fatty Acids Pathway Alterations.

    PubMed

    Meierhofer, David; Halbach, Melanie; Şen, Nesli Ece; Gispert, Suzana; Auburger, Georg

    2016-05-01

    Human Ataxin-2 (ATXN2) gene locus variants have been associated with obesity, diabetes mellitus type 1,and hypertension in genome-wide association studies, whereas mouse studies showed the knock-out of Atxn2 to lead to obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Intriguingly, the deficiency of ATXN2 protein orthologs in yeast and flies rescues the neurodegeneration process triggered by TDP-43 and Ataxin-1 toxicity. To understand the molecular effects of ATXN2 deficiency by unbiased approaches, we quantified the global proteome and metabolome of Atxn2-knock-out mice with label-free mass spectrometry. In liver tissue, significant downregulations of the proteins ACADS, ALDH6A1, ALDH7A1, IVD, MCCC2, PCCA, OTC, together with bioinformatic enrichment of downregulated pathways for branched chain and other amino acid metabolism, fatty acids, and citric acid cycle were observed. Statistical trends in the cerebellar proteome and in the metabolomic profiles supported these findings. They are in good agreement with recent claims that PBP1, the yeast ortholog of ATXN2, sequestrates the nutrient sensor TORC1 in periods of cell stress. Overall, ATXN2 appears to modulate nutrition and metabolism, and its activity changes are determinants of growth excess or cell atrophy. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Cholecystokinin knockout mice are resistant to high-fat diet-induced obesity

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Chun-Min; King, Alexandra; Samuelson, Linda C; Kindel, Tammy Lyn; Rider, Therese; Jandacek, Ronald J; Raybould, Helen E; Woods, Stephen C; Tso, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a satiation peptide released during meals in response to lipid intake; it regulates pancreatic digestive enzymes that are required for absorption of nutrients. We proposed that mice with a disruption in the CCK gene (CCK-KO mice) that were fed a diet of 20% butter fat would have altered fat metabolism. Methods We used quantitative magnetic resonance imaging to determine body composition and monitored food intake of CCK-KO mice using an automated measurement system. Intestinal fat absorption and energy expenditure were determined using a noninvasive assessment of intestinal fat absorption and an open circuit calorimeter, respectively. Results After consuming a high-fat diet for 10 weeks, CCK-KO mice had reduced body weight gain and body fat mass and enlarged adipocytes, despite the same level of food intake as wild-type mice. CCK-KO mice also had defects in fat absorption, especially of long-chain saturated fatty acids, but pancreatic triglyceride lipase (PTL) did not appear to have a role in the fat malabsorption. Energy expenditure was higher in CCK-KO than wild-type mice and CCK-KO mice had greater oxidation of carbohydrates while on the high-fat diet. Plasma leptin levels in the CCK-KO mice fed the high-fat diet were markedly lower than in wild-type mice, although levels of insulin, gastric-inhibitory polypeptide, and glucagon-like peptide-1 were normal. Conclusion CCK is involved in regulating the metabolic rate and is important for lipid absorption and control of body weight in mice placed on a high-fat diet. PMID:20117110

  8. Salivary Gland Hypofunction in tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase-2 Knockout Mice Is Due to Primary Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Westmuckett, Andrew D.; Siefert, Joseph C.; Tesiram, Yasvir A.; Pinson, David M.; Moore, Kevin L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Protein-tyrosine sulfation is a post-translational modification of an unknown number of secreted and membrane proteins mediated by two known Golgi tyrosylprotein sulfotransferases (TPST-1 and TPST-2). We reported that Tpst2-/- mice have mild-moderate primary hypothyroidism, whereas Tpst1-/- mice are euthyroid. While using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to look at the thyroid gland we noticed that the salivary glands in Tpst2-/- mice appeared smaller than in wild type mice. This prompted a detailed analysis to compare salivary gland structure and function in wild type, Tpst1-/-, and Tpst2 -/- mice. Methodology/Principal Findings Quantitative MRI imaging documented that salivary glands in Tpst2-/- females were ≈ 30% smaller than wild type or Tpst1-/- mice and that the granular convoluted tubules in Tpst2-/- submandibular glands were less prominent and were almost completely devoid of exocrine secretory granules compared to glands from wild type or Tpst1-/- mice. In addition, pilocarpine–induced salivary flow and salivary α-amylase activity in Tpst2-/- mice of both sexes was substantially lower than in wild type and Tpst1-/- mice. Anti-sulfotyrosine Western blots of salivary gland extracts and saliva showed no differences between wild type, Tpst1-/-, and Tpst2-/- mice, suggesting that the salivary gland hypofunction is due to factor(s) extrinsic to the salivary glands. Finally, we found that all indicators of hypothyroidism (serum T4, body weight) and salivary gland hypofunction (salivary flow, salivary α-amylase activity, histological changes) were restored to normal or near normal by thyroid hormone supplementation. Conclusions/Significance Our findings conclusively demonstrate that low body weight and salivary gland hypofunction in Tpst2-/- mice is due solely to primary hypothyroidism. PMID:23951251

  9. Comparison of Whole Body SOD1 Knockout with Muscle-Specific SOD1 Knockout Mice Reveals a Role for Nerve Redox Signaling in Regulation of Degenerative Pathways in Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Sakellariou, Giorgos K; McDonagh, Brian; Porter, Helen; Giakoumaki, Ifigeneia I; Earl, Kate E; Nye, Gareth A; Vasilaki, Aphrodite; Brooks, Susan V; Richardson, Arlan; Van Remmen, Holly; McArdle, Anne; Jackson, Malcolm J

    2018-02-01

    Lack of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) in homozygous knockout mice (Sod1 -/- ) leads to accelerated age-related muscle loss and weakness, but specific deletion of CuZnSOD in skeletal muscle (mSod1KO mice) or neurons (nSod1KO mice) resulted in only mild muscle functional deficits and failed to recapitulate the loss of mass and function observed in Sod1 -/- mice. To dissect any underlying cross-talk between motor neurons and skeletal muscle in the degeneration in Sod1 -/- mice, we characterized neuromuscular changes in the Sod1 -/- model compared with mSod1KO mice and examined degenerative molecular mechanisms and pathways in peripheral nerve and skeletal muscle. In contrast to mSod1KO mice, myofiber atrophy in Sod1 -/- mice was associated with increased muscle oxidative damage, neuromuscular junction degeneration, denervation, nerve demyelination, and upregulation of proteins involved in maintenance of myelin sheaths. Proteomic analyses confirmed increased proteasomal activity and adaptive stress responses in muscle of Sod1 -/- mice that were absent in mSod1KO mice. Peripheral nerve from neither Sod1 -/- nor mSod1KO mice showed increased oxidative damage or molecular responses to increased oxidation compared with wild type mice. Differential cysteine (Cys) labeling revealed a specific redox shift in the catalytic Cys residue of peroxiredoxin 6 (Cys47) in the peripheral nerve from Sod1 -/- mice. Innovation and Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that neuromuscular integrity, redox mechanisms, and pathways are differentially altered in nerve and muscle of Sod1 -/- and mSod1KO mice. Results support the concept that impaired redox signaling, rather than oxidative damage, in peripheral nerve plays a key role in muscle loss in Sod1 -/- mice and potentially sarcopenia during aging. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 275-295.

  10. Glutathione-S-transferase A3 knockout mice are sensitive to acute cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aflatoxin B1

    SciTech Connect

    Ilic, Zoran, E-mail: zxi01@health.state.ny.u; Crawford, Dana, E-mail: crawfod@mail.amc.ed; Egner, Patricia A., E-mail: pegner@jhsph.ed

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in humans. However, mice, a major animal model for the study of AFB1 carcinogenesis, are resistant, due to high constitutive expression, in the mouse liver, of glutathione S-transferase A3 subunit (mGSTA3) that is lacking in humans. Our objective was to establish that a mouse model for AFB1 toxicity could be used to study mechanisms of toxicity that are relevant for human disease, i.e., an mGSTA3 knockout (KO) mouse that responds to toxicants such as AFB1 in a manner similar to humans. Exons 3-6 of the mGSTA3 were replacedmore » with a neomycin cassette by homologous recombination. Southern blotting, RT-PCR, Western blotting, and measurement of AFB1-N{sup 7}-DNA adduct formation were used to evaluate the mGSTA3 KO mice. The KO mice have deletion of exons 3-6 of the mGSTA3 gene, as expected, as well as a lack of mGSTA3 expression at the mRNA and protein levels. Three hours after injection of 5 mg/kg AFB1, mGSTA3 KO mice have more than 100-fold more AFB1-N{sup 7}-DNA adducts in their livers than do similarly treated wild-type (WT) mice. In addition, the mGSTA3 KO mice die of massive hepatic necrosis, at AFB1 doses that have minimal toxic effects in WT mice. We conclude that mGSTA3 KO mice are sensitive to the acute cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of AFB1, confirming the crucial role of GSTA3 subunit in protection of normal mice against AFB1 toxicity. We propose the mGSTA3 KO mouse as a useful model with which to study the interplay of risk factors leading to HCC development in humans, as well as for testing of additional possible functions of mGSTA3.« less

  11. Progesterone receptor knockout mice have an improved glucose homeostasis secondary to -cell proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, Frédéric; Wanatabe, Mitsuhiro; Schoonjans, Kristina; Lydon, John; O'Malley, Bert W.; Auwerx, Johan

    2002-11-01

    Gestational diabetes coincides with elevated circulating progesterone levels. We show that progesterone accelerates the progression of diabetes in female db/db mice. In contrast, RU486, an antagonist of the progesterone receptor (PR), reduces blood glucose levels in both female WT and db/db mice. Furthermore, female, but not male, PR-/- mice had lower fasting glycemia than PR+/+ mice and showed higher insulin levels on glucose injection. Pancreatic islets from female PR-/- mice were larger and secreted more insulin consequent to an increase in -cell mass due to an increase in -cell proliferation. These findings demonstrate an important role of progesterone signaling in insulin release and pancreatic function and suggest that it affects the susceptibility to diabetes.

  12. Lessons from Hepatocyte-Specific Cyp51 Knockout Mice: Impaired Cholesterol Synthesis Leads to Oval Cell-Driven Liver Injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorbek, Gregor; Perše, Martina; Jeruc, Jera; Juvan, Peter; Gutierrez-Mariscal, Francisco M.; Lewinska, Monika; Gebhardt, Rolf; Keber, Rok; Horvat, Simon; Björkhem, Ingemar; Rozman, Damjana

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate unequivocally that defective cholesterol synthesis is an independent determinant of liver inflammation and fibrosis. We prepared a mouse hepatocyte-specific knockout (LKO) of lanosterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) from the part of cholesterol synthesis that is already committed to cholesterol. LKO mice developed hepatomegaly with oval cell proliferation, fibrosis and inflammation, but without steatosis. The key trigger was reduced cholesterol esters that provoked cell cycle arrest, senescence-associated secretory phenotype and ultimately the oval cell response, while elevated CYP51 substrates promoted the integrated stress response. In spite of the oval cell-driven fibrosis being histologically similar in both sexes, data indicates a female-biased down-regulation of primary metabolism pathways and a stronger immune response in males. Liver injury was ameliorated by dietary fats predominantly in females, whereas dietary cholesterol rectified fibrosis in both sexes. Our data place defective cholesterol synthesis as a focus of sex-dependent liver pathologies.

  13. The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium Web Portal, a unified point of access for knockout mice and related phenotyping data

    PubMed Central

    Koscielny, Gautier; Yaikhom, Gagarine; Iyer, Vivek; Meehan, Terrence F.; Morgan, Hugh; Atienza-Herrero, Julian; Blake, Andrew; Chen, Chao-Kung; Easty, Richard; Di Fenza, Armida; Fiegel, Tanja; Grifiths, Mark; Horne, Alan; Karp, Natasha A.; Kurbatova, Natalja; Mason, Jeremy C.; Matthews, Peter; Oakley, Darren J.; Qazi, Asfand; Regnart, Jack; Retha, Ahmad; Santos, Luis A.; Sneddon, Duncan J.; Warren, Jonathan; Westerberg, Henrik; Wilson, Robert J.; Melvin, David G.; Smedley, Damian; Brown, Steve D. M.; Flicek, Paul; Skarnes, William C.; Mallon, Ann-Marie; Parkinson, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC) web portal (http://www.mousephenotype.org) provides the biomedical community with a unified point of access to mutant mice and rich collection of related emerging and existing mouse phenotype data. IMPC mouse clinics worldwide follow rigorous highly structured and standardized protocols for the experimentation, collection and dissemination of data. Dedicated ‘data wranglers’ work with each phenotyping center to collate data and perform quality control of data. An automated statistical analysis pipeline has been developed to identify knockout strains with a significant change in the phenotype parameters. Annotation with biomedical ontologies allows biologists and clinicians to easily find mouse strains with phenotypic traits relevant to their research. Data integration with other resources will provide insights into mammalian gene function and human disease. As phenotype data become available for every gene in the mouse, the IMPC web portal will become an invaluable tool for researchers studying the genetic contributions of genes to human diseases. PMID:24194600

  14. Methylprednisolone prevents nerve injury-induced hyperalgesia in neprilysin knockout mice.

    PubMed

    He, Lan; Uçeyler, Nurcan; Krämer, Heidrun H; Colaço, Maria Nandini; Lu, Bao; Birklein, Frank; Sommer, Claudia

    2014-03-01

    The pathophysiology of the complex regional pain syndrome involves enhanced neurogenic inflammation mediated by neuropeptides. Neutral endopeptidase (neprilysin, NEP) is a key enzyme in neuropeptide catabolism. Our previous work revealed that NEP knock out (ko) mice develop more severe hypersensitivity to thermal and mechanical stimuli after chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve than wild-type (wt) mice. Because treatment with glucocorticoids is effective in early complex regional pain syndrome, we investigated whether methylprednisolone (MP) reduces pain and sciatic nerve neuropeptide content in NEP ko and wt mice with nerve injury. After CCI, NEP ko mice developed more severe thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity and hind paw edema than wt mice, confirming previous findings. Hypersensitivity was prevented by MP treatment in NEP ko but not in wt mice. MP treatment had no effect on protein levels of calcitonin-gene related peptide, substance P, and bradykinin in sciatic nerves of NEP ko mice. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels were higher in naïve and nerve-injured NEP ko than in wt mice, without an effect of MP treatment. Gene expression of the ET-1 receptors ETAR and ETBR was not different between genotypes and was not altered after CCI, but was increased after additional MP treatment. The ETBR agonist IRL-1620 was analgesic in NEP ko mice after CCI, and the ETBR antagonist BQ-788 showed a trend to reduce the analgesic effect of MP. The results provide evidence that MP reduces CCI-induced hyperalgesia in NEP ko mice, and that this may be related to ET-1 via analgesic actions of ETBR. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. One-step generation of complete gene knockout mice and monkeys by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing with multiple sgRNAs.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Erwei; Cai, Yi-Jun; Li, Kui; Wei, Yu; Wang, Bang-An; Sun, Yidi; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Jiwei; Hu, Xinde; Wei, Wei; Huo, Xiaona; Shi, Linyu; Tang, Cheng; Liang, Dan; Wang, Yan; Nie, Yan-Hong; Zhang, Chen-Chen; Yao, Xuan; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Changyang; Ying, Wenqin; Wang, Qifang; Chen, Ren-Chao; Shen, Qi; Xu, Guo-Liang; Li, Jinsong; Sun, Qiang; Xiong, Zhi-Qi; Yang, Hui

    2017-07-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is an efficient gene-editing method, but the majority of gene-edited animals showed mosaicism, with editing occurring only in a portion of cells. Here we show that single gene or multiple genes can be completely knocked out in mouse and monkey embryos by zygotic injection of Cas9 mRNA and multiple adjacent single-guide RNAs (spaced 10-200 bp apart) that target only a single key exon of each gene. Phenotypic analysis of F0 mice following targeted deletion of eight genes on the Y chromosome individually demonstrated the robustness of this approach in generating knockout mice. Importantly, this approach delivers complete gene knockout at high efficiencies (100% on Arntl and 91% on Prrt2) in monkey embryos. Finally, we could generate a complete Prrt2 knockout monkey in a single step, demonstrating the usefulness of this approach in rapidly establishing gene-edited monkey models.

  16. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 prevents atherosclerosis via inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Wang, Jinfeng; Quan, Guihua; Wang, Xiaojun; Yang, Longfei; Zhong, Lili

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 on the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice. Eight-week-old ApoE(-/-) mice were fed a Western diet with or without L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 daily for 16 weeks. L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 protected ApoE(-/-) mice from atherosclerosis by reducing their plasma cholesterol levels from 923 ± 44 to 581 ± 18 mg/dl, likely via a marked decrease in cholesterol absorption caused by modulation of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1). In addition, suppression of cholesterol absorption induced reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) in macrophages through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor/liver X receptor (PPAR/LXR) pathway. Fecal lactobacillus and bifidobacterium counts were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 treatment groups than in the control groups. Furthermore, L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 was detected in the rat small intestine, colon, and feces during the feeding trial. The bacterial levels remained high even after the administration of lactic acid bacteria had been stopped for 2 weeks. These results suggest that administration of L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 can protect against atherosclerosis through the inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption. Therefore, L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 may be a potential therapeutic material for preventing the progression of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Beneficial effect of agmatine in the acute phase of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in iNOS-/- knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Stevanovic, Ivana; Ninkovic, Milica; Stojanovic, Ivana; Ljubisavljevic, Srdjan; Stojnev, Slavica; Bokonjic, Dubravko

    2013-11-25

    The aim of the study was to investigate the hypothesis that agmatine (AGM) provides protection against oxidative stress in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Wild-type (WT) and knockout (KO) CBA/H iNOS-/- 3 months old (15 ± 5 g) mice, were used for EAE induction by myelin basic protein (MBP), dissolved in Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA). The animals were divided into control, EAE, CFA, EAE+AGM and AGM groups. After the development of full clinical remission, animals were decapitated and oxidative stress parameters were determined in whole encephalitic mass (WEM) and cerebellum homogenates. The EAE clinical expression manifested to greater extent in WT than KO mice, was significantly decreased during AGM treatment. We demonstrated significant elevations of superoxide dismutase activity in WT and KO EAE animals, in WEM and cerebellum tissues, which were decreased during AGM treatment in both groups. Superoxide anion content was increased in WEM of both study groups, with a decrease during AGM treatment. The observed changes were more pronounced in WT than in KO animals. Also, the increased expressions of transferrin receptor and glial fibrillary acidic protein observed in WT and KO EAE mice were significantly decreased during AGM treatment. The results suggest potentially beneficial AGM effects in EAE, which might be used for a modified antioxidative approach in MS therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Inhalation exposure of gas-metal arc stainless steel welding fume increased atherosclerotic lesions in apolipoprotein E knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Erdely, Aaron; Hulderman, Tracy; Salmen-Muniz, Rebecca; Liston, Angie; Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C; Chen, Bean T; Stone, Samuel; Frazer, David G; Antonini, James M; Simeonova, Petia P

    2011-07-04

    Epidemiological studies suggest that welding, a process which generates an aerosol of inhalable gases and metal rich particulates, increases the risk for cardiovascular disease. In this study we analyzed systemic inflammation and atherosclerotic lesions following gas metal arc-stainless steel (GMA-SS) welding fume exposure. Apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE(-/-)) mice, fed a Western diet, were exposed to GMA-SS at 40mg/m(3) for 3h/day for ten days (∼8.26μg daily alveolar deposition). Mice were sacrificed two weeks after exposure and serum chemistry, serum protein profiling and aortic lesion area were determined. There were no significant changes in serum total cholesterol, triglycerides or alanine aminotransferase. Serum levels of uric acid, a potent antioxidant, were decreased perhaps suggesting a reduced capacity to combat systemic oxidative stress. Inflammatory serum proteins interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 3 (MCP-3) were increased two weeks after GMA-SS exposure. Analysis of atherosclerotic plaques showed an increase in lesion area as the result of GMA-SS exposure. In conclusion, GMA-SS exposure showed evidence of systemic inflammation and increased plaque progression in apoE(-/-) mice. These results complement epidemiological and functional human studies that suggest welding may result in adverse cardiovascular effects. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 Prevents Atherosclerosis via Inhibition of Intestinal Cholesterol Absorption in Apolipoprotein E-Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinfeng; Quan, Guihua; Wang, Xiaojun; Yang, Longfei; Zhong, Lili

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 on the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE−/−) mice. Eight-week-old ApoE−/− mice were fed a Western diet with or without L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 daily for 16 weeks. L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 protected ApoE−/− mice from atherosclerosis by reducing their plasma cholesterol levels from 923 ± 44 to 581 ± 18 mg/dl, likely via a marked decrease in cholesterol absorption caused by modulation of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1). In addition, suppression of cholesterol absorption induced reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) in macrophages through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor/liver X receptor (PPAR/LXR) pathway. Fecal lactobacillus and bifidobacterium counts were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 treatment groups than in the control groups. Furthermore, L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 was detected in the rat small intestine, colon, and feces during the feeding trial. The bacterial levels remained high even after the administration of lactic acid bacteria had been stopped for 2 weeks. These results suggest that administration of L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 can protect against atherosclerosis through the inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption. Therefore, L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 may be a potential therapeutic material for preventing the progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:25261526

  20. Elevated glutaric acid levels in Dhtkd1-/Gcdh- double knockout mice challenge our current understanding of lysine metabolism.

    PubMed

    Biagosch, Caroline; Ediga, Raga Deepthi; Hensler, Svenja-Viola; Faerberboeck, Michael; Kuehn, Ralf; Wurst, Wolfgang; Meitinger, Thomas; Kölker, Stefan; Sauer, Sven; Prokisch, Holger

    2017-09-01

    Glutaric aciduria type I (GA-I) is a rare organic aciduria caused by the autosomal recessive inherited deficiency of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH). GCDH deficiency leads to disruption of l-lysine degradation with characteristic accumulation of glutarylcarnitine and neurotoxic glutaric acid (GA), glutaryl-CoA, 3-hydroxyglutaric acid (3-OHGA). DHTKD1 acts upstream of GCDH, and its deficiency leads to none or often mild clinical phenotype in humans, 2-aminoadipic 2-oxoadipic aciduria. We hypothesized that inhibition of DHTKD1 may prevent the accumulation of neurotoxic dicarboxylic metabolites suggesting DHTKD1 inhibition as a possible treatment strategy for GA-I. In order to validate this hypothesis we took advantage of an existing GA-I (Gcdh -/- ) mouse model and established a Dhtkd1 deficient mouse model. Both models reproduced the biochemical and clinical phenotype observed in patients. Under challenging conditions of a high lysine diet, only Gcdh -/- mice but not Dhtkd1 -/- mice developed clinical symptoms such as lethargic behaviour and weight loss. However, the genetic Dhtkd1 inhibition in Dhtkd1 -/- /Gcdh -/- mice could not rescue the GA-I phenotype. Biochemical results confirm this finding with double knockout mice showing similar metabolite accumulations as Gcdh -/- mice with high GA in brain and liver. This suggests that DHTKD1 inhibition alone is not sufficient to treat GA-I, but instead a more complex strategy is needed. Our data highlights the many unresolved questions within the l-lysine degradation pathway and provides evidence for a so far unknown mechanism leading to glutaryl-CoA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Chondroitin Sulphate Attenuates Atherosclerosis in ApoE Knockout Mice Involving Cellular Regulation of the Inflammatory Response.

    PubMed

    Melgar-Lesmes, Pedro; Sánchez-Herrero, Alvaro; Lozano-Juan, Ferran; Hernández, Jose María de la Torre; Montell, Eulàlia; Jiménez, Wladimiro; Edelman, Elazer R; Balcells, Mercedes

    2018-06-06

    Chondroitin sulphate (CS) has long been used to treat osteoarthritis. Some investigations have also shown that the treatment with CS could reduce coronary events in patients with heart disease but no studies have identified the mechanistic role of these therapeutic effects. We aimed to investigate how the treatment with CS can interfere with the progress of atherosclerosis. The aortic arch, thoracic aorta and serum were obtained from apolipoprotein E (ApoE) knockout mice fed for 10 weeks with high-fat diet and then treated with CS (300 mg/kg, n  = 15) or vehicle ( n  = 15) for 4 weeks. Atheromatous plaques were highlighted in aortas with Oil Red staining and analysed by microscopy. ApoE knockout mice treated with CS exhibited attenuated atheroma lesion size by 68% as compared with animals receiving vehicle. Serum lipids, glucose and C-reactive protein were not affected by treatment with CS. To investigate whether CS locally affects the inflamed endothelium or the formation of foam cells in plaques, human endothelial cells and monocytes were stimulated with tumour necrosis factor α or phorbol myristate acetate in the presence or absence of CS. CS reduced the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and ephrin-B2 and improved the migration of inflamed endothelial cells. CS inhibited foam cell formation in vivo and concomitantly CD36 and CD146 expression and oxidized low-density lipoprotein uptake and accumulation in cultured activated human monocytes and macrophages. Reported cardioprotective effects of CS may arise from modulation of pro-inflammatory activation of endothelium and monocytes and foam cell formation. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  2. Muscle Glycogen Remodeling and Glycogen Phosphate Metabolism following Exhaustive Exercise of Wild Type and Laforin Knockout Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Irimia, Jose M.; Tagliabracci, Vincent S.; Meyer, Catalina M.; Segvich, Dyann M.; DePaoli-Roach, Anna A.; Roach, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Glycogen, the repository of glucose in many cell types, contains small amounts of covalent phosphate, of uncertain function and poorly understood metabolism. Loss-of-function mutations in the laforin gene cause the fatal neurodegenerative disorder, Lafora disease, characterized by increased glycogen phosphorylation and the formation of abnormal deposits of glycogen-like material called Lafora bodies. It is generally accepted that the phosphate is removed by the laforin phosphatase. To study the dynamics of skeletal muscle glycogen phosphorylation in vivo under physiological conditions, mice were subjected to glycogen-depleting exercise and then monitored while they resynthesized glycogen. Depletion of glycogen by exercise was associated with a substantial reduction in total glycogen phosphate and the newly resynthesized glycogen was less branched and less phosphorylated. Branching returned to normal on a time frame of days, whereas phosphorylation remained suppressed over a longer period of time. We observed no change in markers of autophagy. Exercise of 3-month-old laforin knock-out mice caused a similar depletion of glycogen but no loss of glycogen phosphate. Furthermore, remodeling of glycogen to restore the basal branching pattern was delayed in the knock-out animals. From these results, we infer that 1) laforin is responsible for glycogen dephosphorylation during exercise and acts during the cytosolic degradation of glycogen, 2) excess glycogen phosphorylation in the absence of laforin delays the normal remodeling of the branching structure, and 3) the accumulation of glycogen phosphate is a relatively slow process involving multiple cycles of glycogen synthesis-degradation, consistent with the slow onset of the symptoms of Lafora disease. PMID:26216881

  3. GPR39 (zinc receptor) knockout mice exhibit depression-like behavior and CREB/BDNF down-regulation in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Młyniec, Katarzyna; Budziszewska, Bogusława; Holst, Birgitte; Ostachowicz, Beata; Nowak, Gabriel

    2014-10-31

    Zinc may act as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system by activation of the GPR39 metabotropic receptors. In the present study, we investigated whether GPR39 knockout would cause depressive-like and/or anxiety-like behavior, as measured by the forced swim test, tail suspension test, and light/dark test. We also investigated whether lack of GPR39 would change levels of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB),brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tropomyosin related kinase B (TrkB) protein in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of GPR39 knockout mice subjected to the forced swim test, as measured by Western-blot analysis. In this study, GPR39 knockout mice showed an increased immobility time in both the forced swim test and tail suspension test, indicating depressive-like behavior and displayed anxiety-like phenotype. GPR39 knockout mice had lower CREB and BDNF levels in the hippocampus, but not in the frontal cortex, which indicates region specificity for the impaired CREB/BDNF pathway (which is important in antidepressant response) in the absence of GPR39. There were no changes in TrkB protein in either structure. In the present study, we also investigated activity in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis under both zinc- and GPR39-deficient conditions. Zinc-deficient mice had higher serum corticosterone levels and lower glucocorticoid receptor levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. There were no changes in the GPR39 knockout mice in comparison with the wild-type control mice, which does not support a role of GPR39 in hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation. The results of this study indicate the involvement of the GPR39 Zn(2+)-sensing receptor in the pathophysiology of depression with component of anxiety. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  4. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Subunit Vaccines Induce High Levels of Neutralizing Antibodies But No Protection in STAT1 Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Kortekaas, Jeroen; Vloet, Rianka P M; McAuley, Alexander J; Shen, Xiaoli; Bosch, Berend Jan; de Vries, Laura; Moormann, Rob J M; Bente, Dennis A

    2015-12-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus is a tick-borne bunyavirus of the Nairovirus genus that causes hemorrhagic fever in humans with high case fatality. Here, we report the development of subunit vaccines and their efficacy in signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) knockout mice. Ectodomains of the structural glycoproteins Gn and Gc were produced using a Drosophila insect cell-based expression system. A single vaccination of STAT129 mice with adjuvanted Gn or Gc ectodomains induced neutralizing antibody responses, which were boosted by a second vaccination. Despite these antibody responses, mice were not protected from a CCHFV challenge infection. These results suggest that neutralizing antibodies against CCHFV do not correlate with protection of STAT1 knockout mice.

  5. Glucagon receptor knockout mice are protected against acute olanzapine-induced hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Castellani, Laura N; Peppler, Willem T; Sutton, Charles D; Whitfield, Jamie; Charron, Maureen J; Wright, David C

    2017-08-01

    To determine if glucagon is involved in mediating the increase in blood glucose levels caused by the second-generation antipsychotic drug olanzapine. Whole body glucagon receptor deficient mice (Gcgr -/- ) or WT littermate controls were injected with olanzapine (5mg/kg BW IP) and changes in blood glucose measured over the following 120min. Separate cohorts of mice were treated with olanzapine and changes in pyruvate tolerance, insulin tolerance and whole body substrate oxidation were determined. Olanzapine treatment increased serum glucagon and lead to rapid increases in blood glucose concentrations in WT mice. Gcgr -/- mice were protected against olanzapine-induced increases in blood glucose but this was not explained by differences in terminal serum insulin concentrations, enhanced AKT phosphorylation in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue or liver or differences in RER. In both genotypes olanzapine induced an equivalent degree of insulin resistance as measured using an insulin tolerance test. Olanzapine treatment led to an exaggerated glucose response to a pyruvate challenge in WT but not Gcgr -/- mice and this was paralleled by reductions in the protein content of PEPCK and G6Pase in livers from Gcgr -/- mice. Gcgr -/- mice are protected against olanzapine-induced increases in blood glucose. This is likely a result of reductions in liver glucose output, perhaps secondary to decreases in PEPCK and G6Pase protein content. Our findings highlight the central role of the liver in mediating olanzapine-induced disturbances in glucose homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Small heterodimer partner overexpression partially protects against liver tumor development in farnesoid X receptor knockout mice

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Guodong; Kong, Bo; Zhu, Yan

    2013-10-15

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR, Nr1h4) and small heterodimer partner (SHP, Nr0b2) are nuclear receptors that are critical to liver homeostasis. Induction of SHP serves as a major mechanism of FXR in suppressing gene expression. Both FXR{sup −/−} and SHP{sup −/−} mice develop spontaneous hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). SHP is one of the most strongly induced genes by FXR in the liver and is a tumor suppressor, therefore, we hypothesized that deficiency of SHP contributes to HCC development in the livers of FXR{sup −/−} mice and therefore, increased SHP expression in FXR{sup −/−} mice reduces liver tumorigenesis. To test this hypothesis, wemore » generated FXR{sup −/−} mice with overexpression of SHP in hepatocytes (FXR{sup −/−}/SHP{sup Tg}) and determined the contribution of SHP in HCC development in FXR{sup −/−} mice. Hepatocyte-specific SHP overexpression did not affect liver tumor incidence or size in FXR{sup −/−} mice. However, SHP overexpression led to a lower grade of dysplasia, reduced indicator cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. All tumor-bearing mice had increased serum bile acid levels and IL-6 levels, which was associated with activation of hepatic STAT3. In conclusion, SHP partially protects FXR{sup −/−} mice from HCC formation by reducing tumor malignancy. However, disrupted bile acid homeostasis by FXR deficiency leads to inflammation and injury, which ultimately results in uncontrolled cell proliferation and tumorigenesis in the liver. - Highlights: • SHP does not prevent HCC incidence nor size in FXR KO mice but reduces malignancy. • Increased SHP promotes apoptosis. • Bile acids and inflammation maybe critical for HCC formation with FXR deficiency.« less

  7. Serotonin₂A/C receptors mediate the aggressive phenotype of TLX gene knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Juárez, Pablo; Valdovinos, Maria G; May, Michael E; Lloyd, Blair P; Couppis, Maria H; Kennedy, Craig H

    2013-11-01

    Deleting the tailless (TLX) gene in mice produces a highly aggressive phenotype yet to be characterized in terms of heterozygous animals or neurotransmitter mechanisms. We sought to establish pharmacological control over aggression and study the role of serotonin (5-HT)(2A/C) receptors in mediating changes in aggression. We analyzed aggression in mice heterozygous (+/-) or homozygous (-/-) for the TLX gene and wild-types (+/+) using a resident-intruder paradigm. No +/+ mice were aggressive, 36% of +/- TLX and 100% of -/- TLX mice showed aggression. Dose-effect functions were established for clozapine (0.1-1.5mg/kg, ip), ketanserin (0.3-1.25 mg/kg, ip), and (±)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane [(±)DOI] (0.5-2.0 mg/kg, ip). Injecting clozapine decreased the frequency and duration of attacks for +/- TLX and -/- TLX mice. Clozapine did not decrease grooming in either +/- TLX or -/- TLX mice but may have increased locomotion for -/- TLX mice. Injecting ketanserin, a 5-HT(2A/C) receptor antagonist, produced differential decreases in frequency and latency to aggression between genotypes and corresponding increases in locomotor behavior. Injecting (±)DOI, a 5-HT(2A/C) receptor agonist, increased the frequency and duration of attacks, decreased the latency to attacks, and decreased locomotion in +/- and -/- TLX mice. Results of the current study suggest aggression displayed by TLX null and heterozygous mice involves 5-HT(2A/C) receptors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. RETINOIC ACID INDUCTION OF CLEFT PALATE IN EGF AND TGF-ALPHA KNOCKOUT MICE: STAGE SPECIFIC INFLUENCES OF GROWTH FACTOR EXPRESSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABBOTT, B. D., LEFFLER, K.E. AND BUCKALEW, A.R, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Retinoic acid induction of cleft palate (CP) in EGF and TGF knockout mice: Stage specific influences of growth factor expression.
    <...

  9. 2,3,7, 8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN (TCDD)-MEDIATED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN FEMALE CYP1A-2 KNOCKOUT (CYP1A2-/-) MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlordibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-Mediated Oxidative Stress in Female CYP1A2 Knockout (CYP1A2-/-) Mice

    Deborah Burgin1, Janet Diliberto2, Linda Birnbaum2
    1UNC Toxicology; 2USEPA/ORD/NHEERL, RTP, NC

    Most of the effects due to TCDD exposure are mediated via...

  10. Neuropeptide Y-Y2 receptor knockout mice: influence of genetic background on anxiety-related behaviors.

    PubMed

    Zambello, E; Zanetti, L; Hédou, G F; Angelici, O; Arban, R; Tasan, R O; Sperk, G; Caberlotto, L

    2011-03-10

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been extensively studied in relation to anxiety and depression but of the seven NPY receptors known to date, it is not yet clear which one is mainly involved in mediating its effects in emotional behavior. Mice lacking the NPY-Y2 receptors were previously shown to be less anxious due to their improved ability to cope with stressful situations. In the present study, the behavioral phenotype including the response to challenges was analyzed in NPY-Y2 knockout (KO) mice backcrossed in to congenic C57BL/6 background. In the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and the forced swim test (FST), the anxiolytic-like or antidepressant-like phenotype of the NPY-Y2 KO mice could not be confirmed, although this study differs from the previous one only with regard to the genetic background of the mice. In addition, no differences in response to acute stress or to the antidepressant desipramine in the FST were detected between wild type (WT) and NPY-Y2 KO animals. These results suggest that the genetic background of the animals appears to have a strong influence on the behavioral phenotype of NPY-Y2 KO mice. Additionally, to further characterize the animals by their biochemical response to a challenge, the neurochemical changes induced by the anxiogenic compound yohimbine were measured in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of NPY-Y2 KO and compared to WT mice. Dopamine (DA) levels were significantly increased by yohimbine in the WT but unaffected in the KO mice, suggesting that NPY-Y2 receptor exerts a direct control over both the tonic and phasic release of DA and that, although the anxiety-like behavior of these NPY-Y2 KO mice is unaltered, there are clear modifications of DA dynamics. However, yohimbine led to a significant increase in noradrenaline (NA) concentration and a slight reduction in serotonin concentration that were identical for both phenotypes. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Selective Attention to Visual Stimuli Using Auditory Distractors Is Altered in Alpha-9 Nicotinic Receptor Subunit Knock-Out Mice.

    PubMed

    Terreros, Gonzalo; Jorratt, Pascal; Aedo, Cristian; Elgoyhen, Ana Belén; Delano, Paul H

    2016-07-06

    During selective attention, subjects voluntarily focus their cognitive resources on a specific stimulus while ignoring others. Top-down filtering of peripheral sensory responses by higher structures of the brain has been proposed as one of the mechanisms responsible for selective attention. A prerequisite to accomplish top-down modulation of the activity of peripheral structures is the presence of corticofugal pathways. The mammalian auditory efferent system is a unique neural network that originates in the auditory cortex and projects to the cochlear receptor through the olivocochlear bundle, and it has been proposed to function as a top-down filter of peripheral auditory responses during attention to cross-modal stimuli. However, to date, there is no conclusive evidence of the involvement of olivocochlear neurons in selective attention paradigms. Here, we trained wild-type and α-9 nicotinic receptor subunit knock-out (KO) mice, which lack cholinergic transmission between medial olivocochlear neurons and outer hair cells, in a two-choice visual discrimination task and studied the behavioral consequences of adding different types of auditory distractors. In addition, we evaluated the effects of contralateral noise on auditory nerve responses as a measure of the individual strength of the olivocochlear reflex. We demonstrate that KO mice have a reduced olivocochlear reflex strength and perform poorly in a visual selective attention paradigm. These results confirm that an intact medial olivocochlear transmission aids in ignoring auditory distraction during selective attention to visual stimuli. The auditory efferent system is a neural network that originates in the auditory cortex and projects to the cochlear receptor through the olivocochlear system. It has been proposed to function as a top-down filter of peripheral auditory responses during attention to cross-modal stimuli. However, to date, there is no conclusive evidence of the involvement of olivocochlear

  12. Atomoxetine reduces hyperactive/impulsive behaviours in neurokinin-1 receptor 'knockout' mice.

    PubMed

    Pillidge, Katharine; Porter, Ashley J; Vasili, Temis; Heal, David J; Stanford, S Clare

    2014-12-01

    Mice with functional ablation of the neurokinin-1 receptor gene (NK1R(-/-)) display behavioural abnormalities which resemble the hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity seen in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Here, we investigated whether the established ADHD treatment, atomoxetine, alleviates these abnormalities when tested in the light/dark exploration box (LDEB) and 5-Choice Serial Reaction-Time Task (5-CSRTT). Separate cohorts of mice were tested in the 5-CSRTT and LDEB after treatment with no injection, vehicle or atomoxetine (5-CSRTT: 0.3, 3 or 10mg/kg; LDEB: 1, 3 or 10mg/kg). Atomoxetine reduced the hyperactivity displayed by NK1R(-/-) mice in the LDEB at a dose (3mg/kg) which did not affect the locomotor activity of wildtypes. Atomoxetine (10mg/kg) also reduced impulsivity in NK1R(-/-) mice, but not wildtypes, in the 5-CSRTT. No dose of drug affected attention in either genotype. This evidence that atomoxetine reduces hyperactive/impulsive behaviours in NK1R(-/-) mice consolidates the validity of using NK1R(-/-) mice in research of the aetiology and treatment of ADHD. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Differential action of methamphetamine on tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transport in the nigrostriatal pathway of μ-opioid receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Won; He, Zhi; Shen, Xine; Roman, Richard J; Ma, Tangeng

    2012-06-01

    Extensive anatomical and functional interactions exist between central dopaminergic and opioidergic systems and both systems are proposed to be targets for amphetamine-like drugs. We have previously reported that μ-opioid receptor (μ-OR) knockout mice are resistant to the loss of dopamine in the striatum and the development of behavioral sensitization induced by repeated methamphetamine (METH) treatment. The present study assessed whether METH-treated μ-OR knockout mice exhibit a differential response of the expression of dopamine transporter and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme for dopamine synthesis and maintaining dopamine levels. Mice daily received intraperitoneal injection of METH (0, 0.6, 2.5, or 10 mg/kg) for 7 days and sacrificed on day 11 (4 days after the last injection). The expression of TH protein in the striatum and the levels of TH mRNA and number of TH positive neurons in the substantia nigra were reduced in wild-type mice treated with METH (2.5 and 10 mg/kg), but not in the μ-OR knockout mice. In contrast, METH exposure at the highest dose (10 mg/kg) reduced dopamine transporter levels in both strains of mice. These results suggest that the μ-OR contributes to METH-induced loss of dopamine and behavioral sensitization by decreasing the expression of TH.

  14. Age- and region-specific imbalances of basal amino acids and monoamine metabolism in limbic regions of female Fmr1 knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Gruss, Michael; Braun, Katharina

    2004-07-01

    The Fragile X syndrome, a common form of mental retardation in humans, originates from the loss of expression of the Fragile X mental retardation gene leading to the absence of the encoded Fragile X mental retardation protein 1 (FMRP). A broad pattern of morphological and behavioral abnormalities is well described for affected humans as well as Fmr1 knock-out mice, a transgenic animal model for the human Fragile X syndrome. In the present study, we examined neurochemical differences between female Fmr1 knock-out and wildtype mice with particular focus on neurotransmission. Significant age- and region-specific differences of basal tissue neurotransmitter and metabolite levels measured by high performance liquid chromatography were found. Those differences were more numerous in juvenile animals (postnatal day (PND) 28-31) compared to adults (postnatal day 209-221). In juvenile female knock-out mice, especially aspartate and taurine were increased in cortical regions, striatum, cerebellum, and brainstem. Furthermore, compared to the wildtype animals, the juvenile knock-out mice displayed an increased level of neuronal inhibition in the hippocampus and brainstem reflected by decreased ratios of (aspartate + glutamate)/(taurine + GABA), as well as an increased dopamine (DA) turnover in cortical regions, striatum, and hippocampus. These results provide the first evidence that the lack of FMRP expression in female Fmr1 knock-out mice is accompanied by age-dependent, region-specific alterations in brain amino acids, and monoamine turnover, which might be related to the reported synaptical and behavioural alterations in these animals.

  15. Adaptive and Behavioral Changes in Kynurenine 3-Monooxygenase Knockout Mice: Relevance to Psychotic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Erhardt, Sophie; Pocivavsek, Ana; Repici, Mariaelena; Liu, Xi-Cong; Imbeault, Sophie; Maddison, Daniel C; Thomas, Marian A R; Smalley, Joshua L; Larsson, Markus K; Muchowski, Paul J; Giorgini, Flaviano; Schwarcz, Robert

    2017-11-15

    Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase converts kynurenine to 3-hydroxykynurenine, and its inhibition shunts the kynurenine pathway-which is implicated as dysfunctional in various psychiatric disorders-toward enhanced synthesis of kynurenic acid, an antagonist of both α7 nicotinic acetylcholine and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Possibly as a result of reduced kynurenine 3-monooxygenase activity, elevated central nervous system levels of kynurenic acid have been found in patients with psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia. In the present study, we investigated adaptive-and possibly regulatory-changes in mice with a targeted deletion of Kmo (Kmo -/- ) and characterized the kynurenine 3-monooxygenase-deficient mice using six behavioral assays relevant for the study of schizophrenia. Genome-wide differential gene expression analyses in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of these mice identified a network of schizophrenia- and psychosis-related genes, with more pronounced alterations in cerebellar tissue. Kynurenic acid levels were also increased in these brain regions in Kmo -/- mice, with significantly higher levels in the cerebellum than in the cerebrum. Kmo -/- mice exhibited impairments in contextual memory and spent less time than did controls interacting with an unfamiliar mouse in a social interaction paradigm. The mutant animals displayed increased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze and in a light/dark box. After a D-amphetamine challenge (5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), Kmo -/- mice showed potentiated horizontal activity in the open field paradigm. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the elimination of Kmo in mice is associated with multiple gene and functional alterations that appear to duplicate aspects of the psychopathology of several neuropsychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Adaptive and Behavioral Changes in Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase Knockout Mice: Relevance to Psychotic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Erhardt, Sophie; Pocivavsek, Ana; Repici, Mariaelena; Liu, Xi-Cong; Imbeault, Sophie; Maddison, Daniel C; Thomas, Marian AR; Smalley, Joshua L; Larsson, Markus K; Muchowski, Paul J; Giorgini, Flaviano; Schwarcz, Robert

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) converts kynurenine to 3-hydroxykynurenine, and its inhibition shunts the kynurenine pathway - which is implicated as dysfunctional in various psychiatric disorders - towards enhanced synthesis of kynurenic acid (KYNA), an antagonist of both α7 nicotinic acetylcholine and NMDA receptors. Possibly as a result of reduced KMO activity, elevated central nervous system levels of KYNA have been found in patients with psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia (SZ). METHODS In the present study, we investigated adaptive – and possibly regulatory – changes in mice with a targeted deletion of Kmo (Kmo−/−) and characterized the KMO-deficient mice using six behavioral assays relevant for the study of SZ. RESULTS Genome-wide differential gene expression analyses in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of these mice identified a network of SZ- and psychosis-related genes, with more pronounced alterations in cerebellar tissue. KYNA levels were also increased in these brain regions in Kmo−/− mice, with significantly higher levels in the cerebellum than in the cerebrum. Kmo−/− mice exhibited impairments in contextual memory and spent less time than controls interacting with an unfamiliar mouse in a social interaction paradigm. The mutant animals displayed increased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze and in a light-dark box. After a D-amphetamine challenge (5 mg/kg, i.p.), Kmo−/− mice showed potentiated horizontal activity in the open field paradigm. CONCLUSIONS Taken together, these results demonstrate that the elimination of Kmo in mice is associated with multiple gene and functional alterations that appear to duplicate aspects of the psychopathology of several neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:28187857

  17. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of voltage-gated calcium channel beta-anchoring and -regulatory protein knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Nakao, Akito; Miki, Takafumi; Shoji, Hirotaka; Nishi, Miyuki; Takeshima, Hiroshi; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs) induces numerous intracellular events such as neuronal excitability, neurotransmitter release, synaptic plasticity, and gene regulation. It has been shown that genes related to Ca2+ signaling, such as the CACNA1C, CACNB2, and CACNA1I genes that encode VGCC subunits, are associated with schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. Recently, VGCC beta-anchoring and -regulatory protein (BARP) was identified as a novel regulator of VGCC activity via the interaction of VGCC β subunits. To examine the role of the BARP in higher brain functions, we generated BARP knockout (KO) mice and conducted a comprehensive battery of behavioral tests. BARP KO mice exhibited greatly reduced locomotor activity, as evidenced by decreased vertical activity, stereotypic counts in the open field test, and activity level in the home cage, and longer latency to complete a session in spontaneous T-maze alteration test, which reached “study-wide significance.” Acoustic startle response was also reduced in the mutants. Interestingly, they showed multiple behavioral phenotypes that are seemingly opposite to those seen in the mouse models of schizophrenia and its related disorders, including increased working memory, flexibility, prepulse inhibition, and social interaction, and decreased locomotor activity, though many of these phenotypes are statistically weak and require further replications. These results demonstrate that BARP is involved in the regulation of locomotor activity and, possibly, emotionality. The possibility was also suggested that BARP KO mice may serve as a unique tool for investigating the pathogenesis/pathophysiology of schizophrenia and related disorders. Further evaluation of the molecular and physiological phenotypes of the mutant mice would provide new insights into the role of BARP in higher brain functions. PMID:26136667

  18. Galanin knockout mice show disturbances in ethanol consumption and expression of hypothalamic peptides that stimulate ethanol intake

    PubMed Central

    Karatayev, Olga; Baylan, Jessica; Weed, Valerie; Chang, Siyi; Wynick, David; Leibowitz, Sarah F.

    2009-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence suggesting that hypothalamic galanin (GAL), which is known to stimulate intake of a fat-rich diet, has a role in promoting the consumption of ethanol. The present study further examined this possibility in GAL knockout (GALKO) mice. Methods Two groups of female and male GALKO mice, compared to wild-type (WT) controls, were trained to voluntarily drink increasing concentrations of ethanol, while maintained on lab chow and water. They were examined in terms of their daily ethanol intake and preference, acute consumption of a high-fat diet, preference for flavored solutions, and expression of different peptides shown to stimulate ethanol intake. Results In the GALKO mice compared to WT, the results revealed: 1) a 35-45% decrease in ethanol intake and preference, which was evident only at the highest (15%) ethanol concentration, was stronger in female than in male mice, and was seen with comparisons to littermate as well as non-littermate WT mice; 2) a 48% decrease in acute intake of a fat-rich diet, again stronger in female than male mice; 3) no difference in consumption of sucrose or quinine solutions in preference tests; 4) a total loss of GAL mRNA in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of female and male mice; and 5) a gender-specific change in mRNA levels of peptides in the perifornical lateral hypothalamus (PFLH), orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone, which are known to stimulate ethanol and food intake and were markedly decreased in females while increased in males Conclusions These results provide strong support for a physiological role of PVN GAL in stimulating the consumption of ethanol, as well as a fat-rich diet. Ablation of the GAL gene produced a behavioral phenotype, particularly in females, which may reflect the functional relationship of galanin to ovarian steroids. It also altered the peptides in the PFLH, with their reduced expression contributing to the larger behavioral effects observed in females

  19. Phosphoproteomic analysis of the striatum from pleiotrophin knockout and midkine knockout mice treated with cocaine reveals regulation of oxidative stress-related proteins potentially underlying cocaine-induced neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Vicente-Rodríguez, Marta; Gramage, Esther; Herradón, Gonzalo; Pérez-García, Carmen

    2013-12-06

    The neurotrophic factors pleiotrophin (PTN) and midkine (MK) are highly upregulated in different brain areas relevant to drug addiction after administrations of different drugs of abuse, including psychostimulants. We have previously demonstrated that PTN and MK modulate amphetamine-induced neurotoxicity and that PTN prevents cocaine-induced cytotoxicity in NG108-15 and PC12 cells. In an effort to dissect the different mechanisms of action triggered by PTN and MK to exert their protective roles against psychostimulant neurotoxicity, we have now used a proteomic approach to study protein phosphorylation, in which we combined phosphoprotein enrichment, by immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC), with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, in order to identify the phosphoproteins regulated in the striatum of PTN knockout, MK knockout and wild type mice treated with a single dose of cocaine (15mg/kg, i.p.). We identified 7 differentially expressed phosphoproteins: 5'(3')-deoxyribonucleotidase, endoplasmic reticulum resident protein 60 (ERP60), peroxiredoxin-6 (PRDX6), glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (GLUD1), aconitase and two subunits of hemoglobin. Most of these proteins are related to neurodegeneration processes and oxidative stress and their variations specially affect the PTN knockout mice, suggesting a protective role of endogenous PTN against cocaine-induced neural alterations. Further studies are needed to validate these proteins as possible targets against neural alterations induced by cocaine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Chronic Desipramine Treatment Rescues Depression-Related, Social and Cognitive Deficits in Engrailed-2 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Brielmaier, Jennifer; Senerth, Julia M.; Silverman, Jill L.; Matteson, Paul G.; Millonig, James H.; DiCicco-Bloom, Emanuel; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    2014-01-01

    Engrailed-2 (En2) is a homeobox transcription factor that regulates neurodevelopmental processes including neuronal connectivity and elaboration of monoaminergic neurons in the ventral hindbrain. We previously reported abnormalities in brain noradrenergic concentrations in En2 null mutant mice that were accompanied by increased immobility in the forced swim test, relevant to depression. An EN2 genetic polymorphism has been associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and mice with a deletion in En2 display social abnormalities and cognitive deficits that may be relevant to multiple neuropsychiatric conditions. The present study evaluated the ability of chronic treatment with desipramine (DMI), a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor and classical antidepressant, to reverse behavioral abnormalities in En2 −/− mice. DMI treatment significantly reduced immobility in the tail suspension and forced swim tests, restored sociability in the three-chambered social approach task, and reversed impairments in contextual fear conditioning in En2 −/− mice. Our findings indicate that modulation of brain noradrenergic systems rescues the depression-related phenotype in En2 −/− mice and suggest new roles for norepinephrine in the pathophysiology of the social and cognitive deficits seen in neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism or schizophrenia. PMID:24730055

  1. Glucagon Receptor Knockout Prevents Insulin-Deficient Type 1 Diabetes in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young; Wang, May-Yun; Du, Xiu Quan; Charron, Maureen J.; Unger, Roger H.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the role of glucagon action in the metabolic phenotype of untreated insulin deficiency. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We compared pertinent clinical and metabolic parameters in glucagon receptor-null (Gcgr−/−) mice and wild-type (Gcgr+/+) controls after equivalent destruction of β-cells. We used a double dose of streptozotocin to maximize β-cell destruction. RESULTS Gcgr+/+ mice became hyperglycemic (>500 mg/dL), hyperketonemic, polyuric, and cachectic and had to be killed after 6 weeks. Despite comparable β-cell destruction in Gcgr−/− mice, none of the foregoing clinical or laboratory manifestations of diabetes appeared. There was marked α-cell hyperplasia and hyperglucagonemia (∼1,200 pg/mL), but hepatic phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mRNA were profoundly reduced compared with Gcgr+/+ mice with diabetes—evidence that glucagon action had been effectively blocked. Fasting glucose levels and oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests were normal. Both fasting and nonfasting free fatty acid levels and nonfasting β-hydroxy butyrate levels were lower. CONCLUSIONS We conclude that blocking glucagon action prevents the deadly metabolic and clinical derangements of type 1 diabetic mice. PMID:21270251

  2. Effects of long- and short-term darbepoetin-α treatment on oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial injury in ApoE knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Özdemir, Evrim Dursun; Hanikoglu, Aysegul; Cort, Aysegul; Ozben, Beste; Suleymanlar, Gultekin; Ozben, Tomris

    2017-07-01

    Atherosclerosis and atherosclerosis-related complications are the main cause of death in the world. Vascular injury in response to inflammation and enhanced oxidant stress promotes endothelial dysfunction and leads to atherosclerotic lesions. Low-dose treatment with darbepoetin-α may be a potential therapeutic tool for endothelial injury and atherosclerosis. In order to study the effect of darbepoetin-α on endothelial injury and atherosclerosis, we used ApoE-/- mice as the atherosclerotic mice model. We monitored atherosclerosis and plaque formation histochemically in ApoE knockout mice at early and late stages of atherosclerosis. Darbepoetin-α was injected intraperitoneally at a dose of 0.1 μg/kg to ApoE-/- mice. The results of 2 ApoE-/- mice groups injected with darbepoetin-α (early and late stages of atherosclerosis) were compared to the results of the corresponding saline injected ApoE-/- mice groups and the control (C57BL/6) mice. Lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglyceride), inflammation (CRP, IL-6, histamine), endothelial injury (ICAM-1, selectin) and oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation) were significantly increased in 4 atherosclerotic groups compared to the control group. Short-term darbepoetin-α had no marked effects on indicators of inflammation and endothelial injury in the ApoE knockout mice groups compared to the ApoE knockout mice not treated with darbepoetin-α, however, darbepoetin-α significantly decreased 8-isoprostane and protein carbonyl content. Long term darbepoetin-α treatment reduced oxidative stress in ApoE-/- mice. This study contributes to understanding and elucidating the biochemical changes occurring during early and late stages of atherosclerosis development regarding lipid profile, inflammation, endothelial injury and oxidative stress markers.

  3. Effects of muscarinic receptor antagonists on cocaine discrimination in wild-type mice and in muscarinic receptor M1, M2, and M4 receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Lauren; Thomsen, Morgane

    2017-06-30

    Muscarinic M 1 /M 4 receptor stimulation can reduce abuse-related effects of cocaine and may represent avenues for treating cocaine addiction. Muscarinic antagonists can mimic and enhance effects of cocaine, including discriminative stimulus (S D ) effects, but the receptor subtypes mediating those effects are not known. A better understanding of the complex cocaine/muscarinic interactions is needed to evaluate and develop potential muscarinic-based medications. Here, knockout mice lacking M 1 , M 2 , or M 4 receptors (M 1 -/- , M 2 -/- , M 4 -/- ), as well as control wild-type mice and outbred Swiss-Webster mice, were trained to discriminate 10mg/kg cocaine from saline. Muscarinic receptor antagonists with no subtype selectivity (scopolamine), or preferential affinity at the M 1 , M 2 , or M 4 subtype (telenzepine, trihexyphenidyl; methoctramine, AQ-RA 741; tropicamide) were tested alone and in combination with cocaine. In intact animals, antagonists with high affinity at M 1 /M 4 receptors partially substituted for cocaine and increased the S D effect of cocaine, while M 2 -preferring antagonists did not substitute, and reduced the S D effect of cocaine. The cocaine-like effects of scopolamine were absent in M 1 -/- mice. The cocaine S D attenuating effects of methoctramine were absent in M 2 -/- mice and almost absent in M 1 -/- mice. The findings indicate that the cocaine-like S D effects of muscarinic antagonists are primarily mediated through M 1 receptors, with a minor contribution of M 4 receptors. The data also support our previous findings that stimulation of M 1 receptors and M 4 receptors can each attenuate the S D effect of cocaine, and show that this can also be achieved by blocking M 2 autoreceptors, likely via increased acetylcholine release. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Adrenocortical and behavioural response to chronic restraint stress in neurokinin-1 receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Morales, Raúl; del Río, Eva; Gómez-Román, Almudena; Bisagno, Verónica; Nadal, Roser; de Felipe, Carmen; Armario, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    Brain substance P and its receptor (neurokinin-1, NK1) have a widespread brain distribution and are involved in an important number of behavioural and physiological responses to emotional stimuli. However, the role of NK1 receptors in the consequences of exposure to chronic stress has not been explored. The present study focused on the role of these receptors in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) response to daily repeated restraint stress (evaluated by plasma corticosterone levels), as well as on the effect of this procedure on anxiety-like behaviour, spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze (MWM), a hippocampus-dependent task. Adult null mutant NK1-/- mice, with a C57BL/6J background, and the corresponding wild-type mice showed similar resting corticosterone levels and, also, did not differ in corticosterone response to a first restraint. Nevertheless, adaptation to the repeated stressor was faster in NK1-/- mice. Chronic restraint modestly increased anxiety-like behaviour in the light-dark test, irrespective of genotype. Throughout the days of the MWM trials, NK1-/- mice showed a similar learning rate to that of wild-type mice, but had lower levels of thigmotaxis and showed a better retention in the probe trial. Chronic restraint stress did not affect these variables in either genotype. These results indicate that deletion of the NK1 receptor does not alter behavioural susceptibility to chronic repeated stress in mice, but accelerates adaptation of the HPA axis. In addition, deletion may result in lower levels of thigmotaxis and improved short-term spatial memory, perhaps reflecting a better learning strategy in the MWM. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Knockout of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor results in distinct hepatic and renal phenotypes in rats and mice

    SciTech Connect

    Harrill, Joshua A.; Hukkanen, Renee R.; Lawson, Marie

    2013-10-15

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor which plays a role in the development of multiple tissues and is activated by a large number of ligands, including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). In order to examine the roles of the AHR in both normal biological development and response to environmental chemicals, an AHR knockout (AHR-KO) rat model was created and compared with an existing AHR-KO mouse. AHR-KO rats harboring either 2-bp or 29-bp deletion mutation in exon 2 of the AHR were created on the Sprague–Dawley genetic background using zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) technology. Rats harboring either mutation type lacked expressionmore » of AHR protein in the liver. AHR-KO rats were also insensitive to thymic involution, increased hepatic weight and the induction of AHR-responsive genes (Cyp1a1, Cyp1a2, Cyp1b1, Ahrr) following acute exposure to 25 μg/kg TCDD. AHR-KO rats had lower basal expression of transcripts for these genes and also accumulated ∼ 30–45-fold less TCDD in the liver at 7 days post-exposure. In untreated animals, AHR-KO mice, but not AHR-KO rats, had alterations in serum analytes indicative of compromised hepatic function, patent ductus venosus of the liver and persistent hyaloid arteries in the eye. AHR-KO rats, but not AHR-KO mice, displayed pathological alterations to the urinary tract: bilateral renal dilation (hydronephrosis), secondary medullary tubular and uroepithelial degenerative changes and bilateral ureter dilation (hydroureter). The present data indicate that the AHR may play significantly different roles in tissue development and homeostasis and toxicity across rodent species. - Highlights: • An AHR knockout rat was generated on a Sprague–Dawley outbred background. • AHR-KO rats lack expression of AHR protein. • AHR-KO rats are insensitive to TCDD-mediated effects. • Data suggests difference in the role of AHR in tissue development of rats and mice. • Abnormalities in

  6. Electrophysiological and Ultrastructural Characterization of Neuromuscular Junctions in Diaphragm Muscle of Acetylcholinesterase Knockout Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    conditioned fresh air. The mice were on a 12-hr light/dark full-spectrum lighting cycle . AChE +/+ and AChE -/- mice were 58.7 ± 2.9 and 51.6 ± 3.2 days old...diaphragms were excised and pinned at resting length in Sylgard (Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI) coated dishes containing oxygenated Krebs -Ringer solution of...measurements Hemidiaphragms with attached phrenic nerves were mounted in tissue baths at 37o C and immersed in an oxygenated Krebs -Ringer solution. To

  7. NMDA receptor hypofunction in the dentate gyrus and impaired context discrimination in adult Fmr1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Eadie, Brennan D; Cushman, Jesse; Kannangara, Timal S; Fanselow, Michael S; Christie, Brian R

    2012-02-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability in humans. This X-linked disorder is caused by the transcriptional repression of a single gene, Fmr1. The loss of Fmr1 transcription prevents the production of Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) which in turn disrupts the expression of a variety of key synaptic proteins that appear to be important for intellectual ability. A clear link between synaptic dysfunction and behavioral impairment has been elusive, despite the fact that several animal models of FXS have been generated. Here we report that Fmr1 knockout mice exhibit impaired bidirectional synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus. These deficits are associated with a novel decrease in functional NMDARs (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors). In addition, mice lacking the Fmr1 gene show impaired performance in a context discrimination task that normally requires functional NMDARs in the DG. These data indicate that Fmr1 deletion results in significant NMDAR-dependent electrophysiological and behavioral impairments specific to the DG. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Anterior Chamber-Associated Immune Deviation (ACAID): What We Have Learned from Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Vendomèle, Julie; Khebizi, Quentin; Fisson, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    Anterior chamber-associated immune deviation (ACAID) is a well-known phenomenon that can occur after an antigen is introduced without any danger signal into the anterior chamber of a murine eye. It is reported to lead to an antigen-specific immune deviation throughout the body. Despite the relatively little evidence of this phenomenon in humans, it has been suggested as a potential prophylactic strategy in allograft rejections and in several autoimmune diseases. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of ACAID have been explored in different murine models mainly as proofs of concept, first by direct analyses of immune components in normal immunocompetent settings and by cell transfer experiments. Later, use of knockout (KO) mice has helped considerably to decipher ACAID mechanisms. However, several factors raise questions about the reliability and validity of studies using KO murine models. This mini-review summarizes results obtained with KO mice and discusses their advantages, their potential weaknesses, and their potential methods for further progress. PMID:29250068

  9. Gene knockout of Zmym3 in mice arrests spermatogenesis at meiotic metaphase with defects in spindle assembly checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiangjing; Shen, Bin; Liao, Shangying; Ning, Yan; Ma, Longfei; Chen, Jian; Lin, Xiwen; Zhang, Daoqin; Li, Zhen; Zheng, Chunwei; Feng, Yanmin; Huang, Xingxu; Han, Chunsheng

    2017-06-29

    ZMYM3, a member of the MYM-type zinc finger protein family and a component of a LSD1-containing transcription repressor complex, is predominantly expressed in the mouse brain and testis. Here, we show that ZMYM3 in the mouse testis is expressed in somatic cells and germ cells until pachytene spermatocytes. Knockout (KO) of Zmym3 in mice using the CRISPR-Cas9 system resulted in adult male infertility. Spermatogenesis of the KO mice was arrested at the metaphase of the first meiotic division (MI). ZMYM3 co-immunoprecipitated with LSD1 in spermatogonial stem cells, but its KO did not change the levels of LSD1 or H3K4me1/2 or H3K9me2. However, Zmym3 KO resulted in elevated numbers of apoptotic germ cells and of MI spermatocytes that are positive for BUB3, which is a key player in spindle assembly checkpoint. Zmym3 KO also resulted in up-regulated expression of meiotic genes in spermatogonia. These results show that ZMYM3 has an essential role in metaphase to anaphase transition during mouse spermatogenesis by regulating the expression of diverse families of genes.

  10. Curcumin Protects against Atherosclerosis in Apolipoprotein E-Knockout Mice by Inhibiting Toll-like Receptor 4 Expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shanshan; Zou, Jun; Li, Peiyang; Zheng, Xiumei; Feng, Dan

    2018-01-17

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been reported to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, the current study aimed to investigate whether curcumin suppresses atherosclerosis development in ApoE-knockout (ApoE -/- ) mice by inhibiting TLR4 expression. ApoE -/- mice were fed a high-fat diet supplemented with or without curcumin (0.1% w/w) for 16 weeks. Curcumin supplementation significantly reduced TLR4 expression and macrophage infiltration in atherosclerotic plaques. Curcumin also reduced aortic interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity, and plasma IL-1β, TNF-α, soluble VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 levels. In addition, aortic sinus sections revealed that curcumin treatment reduced the extent of atherosclerotic lesions and inhibited atherosclerosis development. In vitro, curcumin inhibited NF-κB activation in macrophages and reduced TLR4 expression induced by lipopolysaccharide. Our results indicate that curcumin protects against atherosclerosis at least partially by inhibiting TLR4 expression and its related inflammatory reaction.

  11. Zika virus-induced acute myelitis and motor deficits in adult interferon αβ/γ receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Zukor, Katherine; Wang, Hong; Siddharthan, Venkatraman; Julander, Justin G; Morrey, John D

    2018-06-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) has received widespread attention because of its effect on the developing fetus. It is becoming apparent, however, that severe neurological sequelae, such as Guillian-Barrë syndrome (GBS), myelitis, encephalitis, and seizures can occur after infection of adults. This study demonstrates that a contemporary strain of ZIKV can widely infect astrocytes and neurons in the brain and spinal cord of adult, interferon α/β receptor knockout mice (AG129 strain) and cause progressive hindlimb paralysis, as well as severe seizure-like activity during the acute phase of disease. The severity of hindlimb motor deficits correlated with increased numbers of ZIKV-infected lumbosacral spinal motor neurons and decreased numbers of spinal motor neurons. Electrophysiological compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitudes in response to stimulation of the lumbosacral spinal cord were reduced when obvious motor deficits were present. ZIKV immunoreactivity was high, intense, and obvious in tissue sections of the brain and spinal cord. Infection in the brain and spinal cord was also associated with astrogliosis as well as T cell and neutrophil infiltration. CMAP and histological analysis indicated that peripheral nerve and muscle functions were intact. Consequently, motor deficits in these circumstances appear to be primarily due to myelitis and possibly encephalitis as opposed to a peripheral neuropathy or a GBS-like syndrome. Thus, acute ZIKV infection of adult AG129 mice may be a useful model for ZIKV-induced myelitis, encephalitis, and seizure activity.

  12. Characterization of adult ghrelin and ghrelin receptor knockout mice under positive and negative energy balance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ghrelin and the ghrelin receptor (GH secretagogue receptor, GHS-R) are believed to have important roles in energy homeostasis. We describe results from the first studies to be conducted in congenic (N10) adult ghrelin(-/-) and Ghsr(-/-) mice under conditions of both positive (high-fat diet) and nega...

  13. Spatial Frequency Selectivity Is Impaired in Dopamine D2 Receptor Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Bruno Oliveira Ferreira; Abou Rjeili, Mira; Quintana, Clémentine; Beaulieu, Jean M.; Casanova, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Dopamine is a neurotransmitter implicated in several brain functions, including vision. In the present study, we investigated the impacts of the lack of D2 dopamine receptors on the structure and function of the primary visual cortex (V1) of D2-KO mice using optical imaging of intrinsic signals. Retinotopic maps were generated in order to measure anatomo-functional parameters such as V1 shape, cortical magnification factor, scatter, and ocular dominance. Contrast sensitivity and spatial frequency selectivity (SF) functions were computed from responses to drifting gratings. When compared to control mice, none of the parameters of the retinotopic maps were affected by D2 receptor loss of function. While the contrast sensitivity function of D2-KO mice did not differ from their wild-type counterparts, SF selectivity function was significantly affected as the optimal SF and the high cut-off frequency (p < 0.01) were higher in D2-KO than in WT mice. These findings show that the lack of function of D2 dopamine receptors had no influence on cortical structure whereas it had a significant impact on the spatial frequency selectivity and high cut-off. Taken together, our results suggest that D2 receptors play a specific role on the processing of spatial features in early visual cortex while they do not seem to participate in its development. PMID:29379422

  14. Accelerated Growth Plate Mineralization and Foreshortened Proximal Limb Bones in Fetuin-A Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Himadri S.; Schäfer, Cora; Krauss, Stefanie; Dunlop, John W. C.; Masic, Admir; Kerschnitzki, Michael; Zaslansky, Paul; Boesecke, Peter; Catalá-Lehnen, Philip; Schinke, Thorsten; Fratzl, Peter; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi

    2012-01-01

    The plasma protein fetuin-A/alpha2-HS-glycoprotein (genetic symbol Ahsg) is a systemic inhibitor of extraskeletal mineralization, which is best underscored by the excessive mineral deposition found in various tissues of fetuin-A deficient mice on the calcification-prone genetic background DBA/2. Fetuin-A is known to accumulate in the bone matrix thus an effect of fetuin-A on skeletal mineralization is expected. We examined the bones of fetuin-A deficient mice maintained on a C57BL/6 genetic background to avoid bone disease secondary to renal calcification. Here, we show that fetuin-A deficient mice display normal trabecular bone mass in the spine, but increased cortical thickness in the femur. Bone material properties, as well as mineral and collagen characteristics of cortical bone were unaffected by the absence of fetuin-A. In contrast, the long bones especially proximal limb bones were severely stunted in fetuin-A deficient mice compared to wildtype littermates, resulting in increased biomechanical stability of fetuin-A deficient femora in three-point-bending tests. Elevated backscattered electron signal intensities reflected an increased mineral content in the growth plates of fetuin-A deficient long bones, corroborating its physiological role as an inhibitor of excessive mineralization in the growth plate cartilage matrix - a site of vigorous physiological mineralization. We show that in the case of fetuin-A deficiency, active mineralization inhibition is a necessity for proper long bone growth. PMID:23091616

  15. Triple selectin knockout (ELP-/-) mice fail to develop OVA-induced acute asthma phenotype

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective The recruitment of leukocytes from circulation to sites of inflammation requires several families of adhesion molecules among which are selectins expressed on a variety of cells. In addition, they have also been shown to play key roles in the activation of cells in inflammation. Methods To explore the collective role of E-, L-, and P- selectins in OVA-induced Th2 mediated response in acute asthma pathophysiology, ELP-/- mice were used and compared with age-matched wildtype (WT). Results Asthma phenotype was assessed by measuring pulmonary function, inflammation and OVA-specific serum IgE, which were completely abrogated in ELP-/- mice. Adoptive transfer of sensitized L selectin+CD4+ T cells into naïve ELP-/- mice which post-OVA challenge, developed asthma, suggesting that L-selectin may be critically involved in the onset of Th2 response in asthma. Tissue resident ELP-deficient cells were otherwise functionally competent as proved by normal proliferative response. Conclusions: Comparative studies between ELP-/- and WT mice uncovered functional roles of these three integrins in inflammatory response in allergic asthma. All three selectins seem to impede inflammatory migration while only L-selectin also possibly regulates activation of specific T cell subsets in lung and airways. PMID:21835035

  16. Ocular Dominance Plasticity after Stroke Was Preserved in PSD-95 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Greifzu, Franziska; Parthier, Daniel; Goetze, Bianka; Schlüter, Oliver M.; Löwel, Siegrid

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal plasticity is essential to enable rehabilitation when the brain suffers from injury, such as following a stroke. One of the most established models to study cortical plasticity is ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in the primary visual cortex (V1) of the mammalian brain induced by monocular deprivation (MD). We have previously shown that OD-plasticity in adult mouse V1 is absent after a photothrombotic (PT) stroke lesion in the adjacent primary somatosensory cortex (S1). Exposing lesioned mice to conditions which reduce the inhibitory tone in V1, such as raising animals in an enriched environment or short-term dark exposure, preserved OD-plasticity after an S1-lesion. Here we tested whether modification of excitatory circuits can also be beneficial for preserving V1-plasticity after stroke. Mice lacking postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95), a signaling scaffold present at mature excitatory synapses, have lifelong juvenile-like OD-plasticity caused by an increased number of AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) -silent synapses in V1 but unaltered inhibitory tone. In fact, using intrinsic signal optical imaging, we show here that OD-plasticity was preserved in V1 of adult PSD-95 KO mice after an S1-lesion but not in PSD-95 wildtype (WT)-mice. In addition, experience-enabled enhancement of the optomotor reflex of the open eye after MD was compromised in both lesioned PSD-95 KO and PSD-95 WT mice. Basic V1-activation and retinotopic map quality were, however, not different between lesioned PSD-95 KO mice and their WT littermates. The preserved OD-plasticity in the PSD-95 KO mice indicates that V1-plasticity after a distant stroke can be promoted by either changes in excitatory circuitry or by lowering the inhibitory tone in V1 as previously shown. Furthermore, the present data indicate that an increased number of AMPA-silent synapses preserves OD-plasticity not only in the healthy brain, but also in another experimental paradigm of

  17. Ocular Dominance Plasticity after Stroke Was Preserved in PSD-95 Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Greifzu, Franziska; Parthier, Daniel; Goetze, Bianka; Schlüter, Oliver M; Löwel, Siegrid

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal plasticity is essential to enable rehabilitation when the brain suffers from injury, such as following a stroke. One of the most established models to study cortical plasticity is ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in the primary visual cortex (V1) of the mammalian brain induced by monocular deprivation (MD). We have previously shown that OD-plasticity in adult mouse V1 is absent after a photothrombotic (PT) stroke lesion in the adjacent primary somatosensory cortex (S1). Exposing lesioned mice to conditions which reduce the inhibitory tone in V1, such as raising animals in an enriched environment or short-term dark exposure, preserved OD-plasticity after an S1-lesion. Here we tested whether modification of excitatory circuits can also be beneficial for preserving V1-plasticity after stroke. Mice lacking postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95), a signaling scaffold present at mature excitatory synapses, have lifelong juvenile-like OD-plasticity caused by an increased number of AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) -silent synapses in V1 but unaltered inhibitory tone. In fact, using intrinsic signal optical imaging, we show here that OD-plasticity was preserved in V1 of adult PSD-95 KO mice after an S1-lesion but not in PSD-95 wildtype (WT)-mice. In addition, experience-enabled enhancement of the optomotor reflex of the open eye after MD was compromised in both lesioned PSD-95 KO and PSD-95 WT mice. Basic V1-activation and retinotopic map quality were, however, not different between lesioned PSD-95 KO mice and their WT littermates. The preserved OD-plasticity in the PSD-95 KO mice indicates that V1-plasticity after a distant stroke can be promoted by either changes in excitatory circuitry or by lowering the inhibitory tone in V1 as previously shown. Furthermore, the present data indicate that an increased number of AMPA-silent synapses preserves OD-plasticity not only in the healthy brain, but also in another experimental paradigm of

  18. Hydrogen-rich pure water prevents cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary emphysema in SMP30 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yohei; Sato, Tadashi; Sugimoto, Masataka; Baskoro, Hario; Karasutani, Keiko; Mitsui, Aki; Nurwidya, Fariz; Arano, Naoko; Kodama, Yuzo; Hirano, Shin-Ichi; Ishigami, Akihito; Seyama, Kuniaki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2017-10-07

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is predominantly a cigarette smoke (CS)-triggered disease with features of chronic systemic inflammation. Oxidants derived from CS can induce DNA damage and stress-induced premature cellular senescence in the respiratory system, which play significant roles in COPD. Therefore, antioxidants should provide benefits for the treatment of COPD; however, their therapeutic potential remains limited owing to the complexity of this disease. Recently, molecular hydrogen (H 2 ) has been reported as a preventive and therapeutic antioxidant. Molecular H 2 can selectively reduce hydroxyl radical accumulation with no known side effects, showing potential applications in managing oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and lipid metabolism. However, there have been no reports on the efficacy of molecular H 2 in COPD patients. In the present study, we used a mouse model of COPD to investigate whether CS-induced histological damage in the lungs could be attenuated by administration of molecular H 2 . We administered H 2 -rich pure water to senescence marker protein 30 knockout (SMP30-KO) mice exposed to CS for 8 weeks. Administration of H 2 -rich water attenuated the CS-induced lung damage in the SMP30-KO mice and reduced the mean linear intercept and destructive index of the lungs. Moreover, H 2 -rich water significantly restored the static lung compliance in the CS-exposed mice compared with that in the CS-exposed H 2 -untreated mice. Moreover, treatment with H 2 -rich water decreased the levels of oxidative DNA damage markers such as phosphorylated histone H2AX and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, and senescence markers such as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1, and β-galactosidase in the CS-exposed mice. These results demonstrated that H 2 -rich pure water attenuated CS-induced emphysema in SMP30-KO mice by reducing CS-induced oxidative DNA damage and premature cell senescence in the lungs. Our

  19. Acceleration of atherogenesis by COX-1-dependent prostanoid formation in low density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Praticò, D; Tillmann, C; Zhang, Z B; Li, H; FitzGerald, G A

    2001-03-13

    The cyclooxygenase (COX) product, prostacyclin (PGI(2)), inhibits platelet activation and vascular smooth-muscle cell migration and proliferation. Biochemically selective inhibition of COX-2 reduces PGI(2) biosynthesis substantially in humans. Because deletion of the PGI(2) receptor accelerates atherogenesis in the fat-fed low density lipoprotein receptor knockout mouse, we wished to determine whether selective inhibition of COX-2 would accelerate atherogenesis in this model. To address this hypothesis, we used dosing with nimesulide, which inhibited COX-2 ex vivo, depressed urinary 2,3 dinor 6-keto PGF(1alpha) by approximately 60% but had no effect on thromboxane formation by platelets, which only express COX-1. By contrast, the isoform nonspecific inhibitor, indomethacin, suppressed platelet function and thromboxane formation ex vivo and in vivo, coincident with effects on PGI(2) biosynthesis indistinguishable from nimesulide. Indomethacin reduced the extent of atherosclerosis by 55 +/- 4%, whereas nimesulide failed to increase the rate of atherogenesis. Despite their divergent effects on atherogenesis, both drugs depressed two indices of systemic inflammation, soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 to a similar but incomplete degree. Neither drug altered serum lipids and the marked increase in vascular expression of COX-2 during atherogenesis. Accelerated progression of atherosclerosis is unlikely during chronic intake of specific COX-2 inhibitors. Furthermore, evidence that COX-1-derived prostanoids contribute to atherogenesis suggests that controlled evaluation of the effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and/or aspirin on plaque progression in humans is timely.

  20. Physiological role of ghrelin as revealed by the ghrelin and GOAT knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kihwa; Zmuda, Erik; Sleeman, Mark W

    2011-11-01

    Ghrelin is a gastric hormone that has been shown to regulate food intake and energy metabolism. One unique feature of ghrelin is that its activity is regulated post transcriptionally by ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) through the addition of fatty acid to the serine residue in the N terminal region. Despite much biochemical characterization, to date no other proteins have been shown to be specifically octonylated by GOAT, suggesting a unique matching of the acyl transferase for a single ligand, ghrelin. If this is indeed correct, then genetic deletion of ghrelin or GOAT should produce near identical phenotypes and there should be extensive overlap in expression patterns. This review summarizes the similarities and differences in the phenotypes with the genetic deletion of ghrelin and GOAT in the various knockout mouse lines reported to date. While there is considerable overlap in expression pattern between ghrelin and GOAT, the latter does exhibit some unique tissue expression that could suggest that additional peptides may be acylated and await discovery and characterization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Beyond 'knock-out' mice: new perspectives for the programmed modification of the mammalian genome.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Tannoudji, M; Babinet, C

    1998-10-01

    The emergence of gene inactivation by homologous recombination methodology in embryonic stem cells has revolutionized the field of mouse genetics. Indeed, the availability of a rapidly growing number of mouse null mutants has represented an invaluable source of knowledge on mammalian development, cellular biology and physiology and has provided many models for human inherited diseases. In recent years, improvements of the original 'knock-out' strategy, as well as the exploitation of exogenous enzymatic systems that are active in the recombination process, have considerably extended the range of genetic manipulations that can be produced. For example, it is now possible to create a mouse bearing a targeted point mutation as the unique change in its entire genome therefore allowing very fine dissection of gene function in vivo. Chromosome alterations such as large deletions, inversions or translocations can also be designed and will facilitate the global functional analysis of the mouse genome. This will extend the possibilities of creating models of human pathologies that frequently originate from various chromosomal disorders. Finally, the advent of methods allowing conditional gene targeting will open the way for the analysis of the consequence of a particular mutation in a defined organ and at a specific time during the life of a mouse.

  2. Anterior segment dysgenesis correlation with epithelial-mesenchymal transition in Smad4 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Qin, Yu; Zhao, Fang-Kun; Wu, Di; He, Xue-Fei; Liu, Jia; Zhao, Jiang-Yue; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2016-01-01

    To explore the molecular mechanisms in lens development and the pathogenesis of Peters anomaly in Smad4 defective mice. Le-Cre transgenic mouse line was employed to inactivate Smad4 in the surface ectoderm selectively. Pathological techniques were used to reveal the morphological changes of the anterior segment in Smad4 defective eye. Immunohistochemical staining was employed to observe the expression of E-cadherin, N-cadherin and α-SMA in anterior segment of Smad4 defective mice and control mice at embryonic (E) day 16.5. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was performed to detect the expression of Snail, Zeb1, Zeb2 and Twist2 in lens of Smad4 defective mice and control mice at E16.5. Statistical evaluations were performed using the unpaired Student's t-test (two-tailed) by SPSS 11.0 software. Conditional deletion of Smad4 on eye surface ectoderm resulted in corneal dysplasia, iridocorneal angle closure, corneolenticular adhesions and cataract resembling Peters anomaly. Loss of Smad4 function inhibited E-cadherin expression in the lens epithelium cells and corneal epithelium cells in Smad4 defective eye. Expression of N-cadherin was up-regulated in corneal epithelium and corneal stroma. Both E-cadherin and N-cadherin were down-regulated at the future trabecular meshwork region in mutant eye. The qPCR results showed that the expression of Twist2 was increased significantly in the mutant lens (P<0.01). Smad4 is essential to eye development and likely a candidate pathogenic gene to Peters anomaly by regulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Twist2 can be regulated by Smad4 and plays an essential role in lens development.

  3. Hypnotic Hypersensitivity to Volatile Anesthetics and Dexmedetomidine in Dopamine β-Hydroxylase Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Frances Y.; Hanna, George M.; Han, Wei; Mardini, Feras; Thomas, Steven A.; Wyner, Abraham J.; Kelz, Max B.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the adrenergic system can modulate sensitivity to anesthetic-induced immobility and anesthetic-induced hypnosis as well. However, several considerations prevent the conclusion that the endogenous adrenergic ligands norepinephrine and epinephrine alter anesthetic sensitivity. METHODS Using dopamine β-hydroxylase (Dbh−/−) mice genetically engineered to lack the adrenergic ligands and their siblings with normal adrenergic levels, we test the contribution of the adrenergic ligands upon volatile anesthetic induction and emergence. Moreover, we investigate the effects of intravenous dexmedetomidine in adrenergic-deficient mice and their siblings using both righting reflex and processed electroencephalographic measures of anesthetic hypnosis. RESULTS We demonstrate that the loss of norepinephrine and epinephrine and not other neuromodulators copackaged in adrenergic neurons is sufficient to cause hypersensitivity to induction of volatile anesthesia. However, the most profound effect of adrenergic deficiency is retarding emergence from anesthesia, which takes two to three times as long in Dbh−/− mice for sevoflurane, isoflurane, and halothane. Having shown that Dbh−/− mice are hypersensitive to volatile anesthetics, we further demonstrate that their hypnotic hypersensitivity persists at multiple doses of dexmedetomidine. Dbh−/− mice exhibit up to 67% shorter latencies to loss of righting reflex and up to 545% longer durations of dexmedetomidine-induced general anesthesia. Central rescue of adrenergic signaling restores control-like dexmedetomidine sensitivity. A novel continuous electroencephalographic analysis illustrates that the longer duration of dexmedetomidine-induced hypnosis is not due to a motor confound, but occurs because of impaired anesthetic emergence. CONCLUSIONS Adrenergic signaling is essential for normal emergence from general anesthesia. Dexmedetomidine-induced general anesthesia does

  4. Green tea polyphenol treatment attenuates atherosclerosis in high-fat diet-fed apolipoprotein E-knockout mice via alleviating dyslipidemia and up-regulating autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jinjin; Yu, Pengxin; Zhang, Guofu; Zhang, Guanghui; Liu, Xiaoting

    2017-01-01

    Background: Green tea polyphenol (GTP) is a polyphenol source from green tea that has drawn wide attention owing to epidemiological evidence of its beneficial effects in the prevention of cardiovascular disease; the underlying molecular mechanisms of these effects are not well understood. This study aimed to investigate the effects of GTP treatment on autophagy regulation in the vessel wall and lipid metabolism of HFD-fed male ApoE-knockout mice. Methods: Adult male ApoE-knockout mice (n = 30) fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) were treated with either vehicle or GTP (3.2 or 6.4 g/L) administered via drinking water for 15 weeks, and C57BL/6J mice fed with standard chow diet (STD) were used as the control group. Metabolic parameters, expression of key mRNAs and proteins of hepatic lipid metabolism and autophagy in the vessel wall of mice were determined after the 15-week treatment. Results: A HFD induced atherosclerosis formation and lipid metabolism disorders as well as reduced autophagy expression in the vessel wall of ApoE-knockout mice, but GTP treatment alleviated the lipid metabolism disorders, decreased the oxLDL levels in serum, and increased the mRNA and protein expressions of hepatic PPARα and autophagy markers (LC3, Beclin1 and p62) in the vessel wall of ApoE-knockout mice. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that GTP supplementation showed marked suppression of atherogenesis through improved lipid metabolism as well as through a direct impact on oxLDL and autophagy flux in the vessel wall. PMID:28777810

  5. Quantification of Pelvic Organ Prolapse in Mice: Vaginal Protease Activity Precedes Increased MOPQ Scores in Fibulin 5 Knockout Mice1

    PubMed Central

    Wieslander, Cecilia K.; Rahn, David D.; McIntire, Donald D.; Acevedo, Jesús F.; Drewes, Peter G.; Yanagisawa, Hiromi; Word, R. Ann

    2008-01-01

    Two mouse models of pelvic organ prolapse have been generated recently, both of which have null mutations in genes involved in elastic fiber synthesis and assembly (fibulin 5 and lysyl oxidase-like 1). Interestingly, although these mice exhibit elastinopathies early in life, pelvic organ prolapse does not develop until later in life. In this investigation we developed and validated a tool to quantify the severity of pelvic organ prolapse in mice, and we used this tool prospectively to study the role of fibulin 5, aging, and vaginal proteases in the development of pelvic organ prolapse. The results indicate that >90% of Fbln5−/− mice develop prolapse by 6 mo of age, even in the absence of vaginal delivery, and that increased vaginal protease activity precedes the development of prolapse. PMID:18987327

  6. MicroRNA-590 Inhibits Lipoprotein Lipase Expression and Prevents Atherosclerosis in apoE Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Yun-Cheng; Wang, Zong-Bao; Yao, Feng; Xie, Wei; Tan, Yu-Lin; Li, Liang; Zhang, Min; Lan, Gang; Gong, Duo; Cheng, Hai-Peng; Zhong, Hui-Juan; Liu, Dan; Huang, Chong; Li, Zhao-Xia; Zheng, Xi-Long; Yin, Wei-Dong; Tang, Chao-Ke

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that miR-590 may play critical roles in cardiovascular disease. This study was designed to determine the effects of miR-590 on lipoprotein lipase (LPL) expression and development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE−/−) mice and explore the potential mechanisms. En face analysis of the whole aorta revealed that miR-590 significantly decreased aortic atherosclerotic plaque size and lipid content in apoE−/− mice. Double immunofluorescence staining in cross-sections of the proximal aorta showed that miR-590 agomir reduced CD68 and LPL expression in macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions. MiR-590 agomir down-regulated LPL mRNA and protein expression as analyzed by RT-qPCR and western blotting analyses, respectively. Consistently, miR-590 decreased the expression of CD36 and scavenger receptor A1 (SRA1) mRNA and protein. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)analysis confirmed that treatment with miR-590 agomir reduced lipid levels either in plasma orinabdominal cavity macrophages of apoE−/− mice. ELISA analysis showed that miR-590 agomir decreased plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin-1β (IL-1β)and interleukin-6 (IL-6). In contrast, treatment with miR-590 antagomir prevented or reversed these effects. Taken together, these results reveal a novel mechanism of miR-590 effects, and may provide new insights into the development of strategies for attenuating lipid accumulation and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. PMID:26397958

  7. Hematopoietic G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 deficiency decreases atherosclerotic lesion formation in LDL receptor-knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Otten, Jeroen J. T.; de Jager, Saskia C. A.; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Seijkens, Tom; Bot, Ilze; Wijnands, Erwin; Beckers, Linda; Westra, Marijke M.; Bot, Martine; Busch, Matthias; Bermudez, Beatriz; van Berkel, Theo J. C.; Heijnen, Cobi J.; Biessen, Erik A. L.

    2013-01-01

    Leukocyte chemotaxis is deemed instrumental in initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. It is mediated by G-protein-coupled receptors (e.g., CCR2 and CCR5), the activity of which is controlled by G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs). In this study, we analyzed the effect of hematopoietic deficiency of a potent regulator kinase of chemotaxis (GRK2) on atherogenesis. LDL receptor-deficient (LDLr−/−) mice with heterozygous hematopoietic GRK2 deficiency, generated by bone marrow transplantation (n=15), displayed a dramatic attenuation of plaque development, with 79% reduction in necrotic core and increased macrophage content. Circulating monocytes decreased and granulocytes increased in GRK2+/− chimeras, which could be attributed to diminished granulocyte colony-forming units in bone marrow. Collectively, these data pointed to myeloid cells as major mediators of the impaired atherogenic response in GRK2+/− chimeras. LDLr−/− mice with macrophage/granulocyte-specific GRK2 deficiency (LysM-Cre GRK2flox/flox; n=8) failed to mimic the aforementioned phenotype, acquitting these cells as major responsible subsets for GRK2 deficiency-associated atheroprotection. To conclude, even partial hematopoietic GRK2 deficiency prevents atherosclerotic lesion progression beyond the fatty streak stage, identifying hematopoietic GRK2 as a potential target for intervention in atherosclerosis.—Otten, J. J. T., de Jager, S. C. A., Kavelaars, A., Seijkens, T., Bot, I., Wijnands, E., Beckers, L., Westra, M. M., Bot, M., Busch, M., Bermudez, B., van Berkel, T. J. C., Heijnen, C. J., Biessen, E. A. L. Hematopoietic G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 deficiency decreases atherosclerotic lesion formation in LDL receptor-knockout mice. PMID:23047899

  8. Atorvastatin Upregulates the Expression of miR-126 in Apolipoprotein E-knockout Mice with Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaque.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xudong; Hou, Rongyao; Ma, Aijun; Wang, Ting; Wu, Mei; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Yang, Shaonan; Xiao, Xing

    2017-01-01

    Carotid atherosclerosis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the carotid arterial wall, which is very important in terms of the occurrence of cerebral vascular accidents. Studies have demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) and their target genes are involved in the formation of atherosclerosis and that atorvastatin might reduce atherosclerotic plaques by regulating the expression of miRNAs. However, the related mechanism is not yet known. In this study, we first investigated the effects of atorvastatin on miR-126 and its target gene, i.e., vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE-/-) mice with carotid atherosclerotic plaque in vivo. We compared the expressions of miR-126 and VCAM-1 between the control, atherosclerotic model and atorvastatin treatment groups of ApoE-/- mice using RT-PCR and Western blot. We found the miR-126 expression was significantly down-regulated, and the VCAM-1 expression was significantly up-regulated in the atherosclerotic model group, which accelerated the progression of atherosclerosis in the ApoE-/- mice. These results following atorvastatin treatment indicated that miR-126 expression was significantly up-regulated, VCAM-1 expression was significantly down-regulated and atherosclerotic lesions were reduced. The present results might explain the mechanism by which miR-126 is involved in the formation of atherosclerosis in vivo. Our study first indicated that atorvastatin might exert its anti-inflammatory effects in atherosclerosis by regulating the expressions of miR-126 and VCAM-1 in vivo.

  9. Nox2 Knockout Delays Infarct Progression and Increases Vascular Recovery through Angiogenesis in Mice following Ischaemic Stroke with Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Sarah K.; Dusting, Gregory J.; Roulston, Carli L.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests the NADPH oxidases contribute to ischaemic stroke injury and Nox2 is the most widely studied subtype in the context of stroke. There is still conjecture however regarding the benefits of inhibiting Nox2 to improve stroke outcome. The current study aimed to examine the temporal effects of genetic Nox2 deletion on neuronal loss after ischaemic stroke using knockout (KO) mice with 6, 24 and 72 hour recovery. Transient cerebral ischaemia was induced via intraluminal filament occlusion and resulted in reduced infarct volumes in Nox2 KO mice at 24 h post-stroke compared to wild-type controls. No protection was evident at either 6 h or 72 h post-stroke, with both genotypes exhibiting similar volumes of damage. Reactive oxygen species were detected using dihydroethidium and were co-localised with neurons and microglia in both genotypes using immunofluorescent double-labelling. The effect of Nox2 deletion on vascular damage and recovery was also examined 24 h and 72 h post-stroke using an antibody against laminin. Blood vessel density was decreased in the ischaemic core of both genotypes 24 h post-stroke and returned to pre-stroke levels only in Nox2 KO mice by 72 h. Overall, these results are the first to show that genetic Nox2 deletion merely delays the progression of neuronal loss after stroke but does not prevent it. Additionally, we show for the first time that Nox2 deletion increases re-vascularisation of the damaged brain by 72 h, which may be important in promoting endogenous brain repair mechanisms that rely on re-vascularisation. PMID:25375101

  10. Senescence marker protein-30/superoxide dismutase 1 double knockout mice exhibit increased oxidative stress and hepatic steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Yoshitaka; Masutomi, Hirofumi; Noda, Yoshihiro; Ozawa, Yusuke; Takahashi, Keita; Handa, Setsuko; Maruyama, Naoki; Shimizu, Takahiko; Ishigami, Akihito

    2014-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) is an antioxidant enzyme that converts superoxide anion radicals into hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen. The senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30) is a gluconolactonase that functions as an antioxidant protein in mammals due to its involvement in ascorbic acid (AA) biosynthesis. SMP30 also participates in Ca2+ efflux by activating the calmodulin-dependent Ca2+-pump. To reveal the role of oxidative stress in lipid metabolism defects occurring in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease pathogenesis, we generated SMP30/SOD1-double knockout (SMP30/SOD1-DKO) mice and investigated their survival curves, plasma and hepatic lipid profiles, amounts of hepatic oxidative stress, and hepatic protein levels expressed by genes related to lipid metabolism. While SMP30/SOD1-DKO pups had no growth retardation by 14 days of age, they did have low plasma and hepatic AA levels. Thereafter, 39% and 53% of male and female pups died by 15–24 and 89 days of age, respectively. Compared to wild type, SMP30-KO and SOD1-KO mice, by 14 days SMP30/SOD1-DKO mice exhibited: (1) higher plasma levels of triglyceride and aspartate aminotransferase; (2) severe accumulation of hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol; (3) higher levels of superoxide anion radicals and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in livers; and (4) decreased mRNA and protein levels of Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) in livers – ApoB is an essential component of VLDL secretion. These results suggest that high levels of oxidative stress due to concomitant deficiency of SMP30 and/or AA, and SOD1 cause abnormal plasma lipid metabolism, hepatic lipid accumulation and premature death resulting from impaired VLDL secretion. PMID:25003023

  11. Increased plasma cholesterol esterification by LCAT reduces diet-induced atherosclerosis in SR-BI knockout mice[S

    PubMed Central

    Thacker, Seth G.; Rousset, Xavier; Esmail, Safiya; Zarzour, Abdalrahman; Jin, Xueting; Collins, Heidi L.; Sampson, Maureen; Stonik, John; Demosky, Stephen; Malide, Daniela A.; Freeman, Lita; Vaisman, Boris L.; Kruth, Howard S.; Adelman, Steven J.; Remaley, Alan T.

    2015-01-01

    LCAT, a plasma enzyme that esterifies cholesterol, has been proposed to play an antiatherogenic role, but animal and epidemiologic studies have yielded conflicting results. To gain insight into LCAT and the role of free cholesterol (FC) in atherosclerosis, we examined the effect of LCAT over- and underexpression in diet-induced atherosclerosis in scavenger receptor class B member I-deficient [Scarab(−/−)] mice, which have a secondary defect in cholesterol esterification. Scarab(−/−)×LCAT-null [Lcat(−/−)] mice had a decrease in HDL-cholesterol and a high plasma ratio of FC/total cholesterol (TC) (0.88 ± 0.033) and a marked increase in VLDL-cholesterol (VLDL-C) on a high-fat diet. Scarab(−/−)×LCAT-transgenic (Tg) mice had lower levels of VLDL-C and a normal plasma FC/TC ratio (0.28 ± 0.005). Plasma from Scarab(−/−)×LCAT-Tg mice also showed an increase in cholesterol esterification during in vitro cholesterol efflux, but increased esterification did not appear to affect the overall rate of cholesterol efflux or hepatic uptake of cholesterol. Scarab(−/−)×LCAT-Tg mice also displayed a 51% decrease in aortic sinus atherosclerosis compared with Scarab(−/−) mice (P < 0.05). In summary, we demonstrate that increased cholesterol esterification by LCAT is atheroprotective, most likely through its ability to increase HDL levels and decrease pro-atherogenic apoB-containing lipoprotein particles. PMID:25964513

  12. A novel form of ciliopathy underlies hyperphagia and obesity in Ankrd26 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Acs, Peter; Bauer, Peter O.; Mayer, Balazs; Bera, Tapan; Macallister, Rhonda; Pastan, Ira

    2015-01-01

    Human ciliopathies are genetic disorders caused by mutations in genes responsible for the formation and function of primary cilia. Some are associated with hyperphagia and obesity (e.g., Bardet–Biedl Syndrome, Alström Syndrome), but the mechanisms underlying these problems are not fully understood. The human gene ANKRD26 is located on 10p12, a locus that is associated with some forms of hereditary obesity. Previously, we reported that disruption of this gene causes hyperphagia, obesity and gigantism in mice. In the present study, we looked for the mechanisms that induce hyperphagia in the Ankrd26−/− mice and found defects in primary cilia in regions of the central nervous system that control appetite and energy homeostasis. PMID:24633808

  13. A novel form of ciliopathy underlies hyperphagia and obesity in Ankrd26 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Acs, Peter; Bauer, Peter O; Mayer, Balazs; Bera, Tapan; Macallister, Rhonda; Mezey, Eva; Pastan, Ira

    2015-01-01

    Human ciliopathies are genetic disorders caused by mutations in genes responsible for the formation and function of primary cilia. Some are associated with hyperphagia and obesity (e.g., Bardet-Biedl Syndrome, Alström Syndrome), but the mechanisms underlying these problems are not fully understood. The human gene ANKRD26 is located on 10p12, a locus that is associated with some forms of hereditary obesity. Previously, we reported that disruption of this gene causes hyperphagia, obesity and gigantism in mice. In the present study, we looked for the mechanisms that induce hyperphagia in the Ankrd26-/- mice and found defects in primary cilia in regions of the central nervous system that control appetite and energy homeostasis.

  14. Attenuated sensitivity to neuroactive steroids in γ-aminobutyrate type A receptor delta subunit knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Mihalek, Robert M.; Banerjee, Pradeep K.; Korpi, Esa R.; Quinlan, Joseph J.; Firestone, Leonard L.; Mi, Zhi-Ping; Lagenaur, Carl; Tretter, Verena; Sieghart, Werner; Anagnostaras, Stephan G.; Sage, Jennifer R.; Fanselow, Michael S.; Guidotti, Alessandro; Spigelman, Igor; Li, Zhiwei; DeLorey, Timothy M.; Olsen, Richard W.; Homanics, Gregg E.

    1999-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptors mediate fast inhibitory synaptic transmission and have been implicated in responses to sedative/hypnotic agents (including neuroactive steroids), anxiety, and learning and memory. Using gene targeting technology, we generated a strain of mice deficient in the δ subunit of the GABA type A receptors. In vivo testing of various behavioral responses revealed a strikingly selective attenuation of responses to neuroactive steroids, but not to other modulatory drugs. Electrophysiological recordings from hippocampal slices revealed a significantly faster miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current decay time in null mice, with no change in miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current amplitude or frequency. Learning and memory assessed with fear conditioning were normal. These results begin to illuminate the novel contributions of the δ subunit to GABA pharmacology and sedative/hypnotic responses and behavior and provide insights into the physiology of neurosteroids. PMID:10536021

  15. Lethal Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus infection in interferon α/β receptor knockout mice is associated with high viral loads, proinflammatory responses, and coagulopathy.

    PubMed

    Zivcec, Marko; Safronetz, David; Scott, Dana; Robertson, Shelly; Ebihara, Hideki; Feldmann, Heinz

    2013-06-15

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a widely distributed viral hemorrhagic fever characterized by rapid onset of flu-like symptoms often followed by hemorrhagic manifestations. CCHF virus (CCHFV), a bunyavirus in the Nairovirus genus, is capable of infecting a wide range of mammalian hosts in nature but so far only causes disease in humans. Recently, immunocompromised mice have been reported as CCHF disease models, but detailed characterization is lacking. Here, we closely followed infection and disease progression in CCHFV-infected interferon α/β receptor knockout (IFNAR(-/-)) mice and age-matched wild-type (WT) mice. WT mice quickly clear CCHFV without developing any disease signs. In contrast, CCHFV infected IFNAR(-/-) mice develop an acute fulminant disease with high viral loads leading to organ pathology (liver and lymphoid tissues), marked proinflammatory host responses, severe thrombocytopenia, coagulopathy, and death. Disease progression closely mimics hallmarks of human CCHF disease, making IFNAR(-/-) mice an excellent choice to assess medical countermeasures.

  16. Antiatherogenic effects of S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine in hypercholesterolemic LDL receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Krieger, M H; Santos, K F R; Shishido, S M; Wanschel, A C B A; Estrela, H F G; Santos, L; De Oliveira, M G; Franchini, K G; Spadari-Bratfisch, R C; Laurindo, F R M

    2006-02-01

    The pathophysiology of the NO/NO synthase system and dysfunctional changes in the endothelium in the early phases of the atherogenic process are incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of the nitrosothiol NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine (SNAC) in the early prevention of plaque development in the hypercholesterolemic LDLr-/- mice as well as the changes in endothelium-dependent relaxation and NO synthase expression. LDLr-/- mice were fed a 1.25% cholesterol-enriched diet for 15 days. Plasma cholesterol/triglyceride levels increased and this increase was accompanied by the development of aortic root lesions. Aortic vasorelaxation to acetylcholine was increased, although endothelium-independent relaxation in response to sodium nitroprusside did not change, which suggest stimulated NO release enhanced. This dysfunction was associated with enhanced aortic superoxide production and with increased levels of constitutive NOS isoform expression, particularly neuronal NOS. SNAC (S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine) administration (0.51 micromol/kg/day i.p. for 15 days) decreased the extent of the plaque by 55% in hypercholesterolemic mice, but had no effects on vasomotor changes. It did, however, lead to a decrease in constitutive NOS expression. The SNAC induced only minor changes in plasma lipid profile. The present study has shown that, in early stages of plaque development in LDLr-/- mice, specific changes in NO/NO synthase system develop, that are characterized by increased endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and increased constitutive NOS expression. Since the development of plaque and the indicator of endothelial cell dysfunction were prevented by SNAC, such treatment may constitute a novel strategy for the halting of progression of early plaque.

  17. Improved systemic metabolism and adipocyte biology in miR-150 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Minsung; Liu, Xiaobing; Fu, Yuchang; Timothy Garvey, W

    2018-06-01

    Short non-coding micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional factors that directly regulate protein expression by degrading or inhibiting target mRNAs; however, the role of miRNAs in obesity and cardiometabolic disease remains unclarified. Based on our earlier study demonstrating that miR-150 influences lipid metabolism, we have studied effects of miR-150 on systemic metabolism and adipocyte biology. Metabolic phenotypes including body weight, food intake, body composition, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were assessed in WT and global miR-150 KO male mice fed a high-fat diet. Molecular changes in epididymal adipose tissue were evaluated through qRT-PCR and Western blotting. miR-150 KO mice displayed lower body weight characterized by a reduction in % fat mass while % lean mass was increased. Lower body weight was associated with reduced food consumption and an increase in circulating leptin concentrations, as well as enhanced insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance compared with WT mice. Absence of miR-150 resulted in increased mTOR expression known to participate in increased leptin production leading to reduction of food intake. Expression of PGC-1α, another target gene of miR-150, was also increased together with upregulation of PPARα and glycerol kinase in adipose tissue as well as other genes participating in triglyceride degradation and lipid oxidation. miR-150 KO mice showed metabolic benefits accompanied by reduced body weight, decreased energy intake, and enhanced lipid metabolism. miR-150 may represent both a biomarker and novel therapeutic target regarding obesity and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Ghrelin knockout mice display defective skeletal muscle regeneration and impaired satellite cell self-renewal.

    PubMed

    Angelino, Elia; Reano, Simone; Bollo, Alessandro; Ferrara, Michele; De Feudis, Marilisa; Sustova, Hana; Agosti, Emanuela; Clerici, Sara; Prodam, Flavia; Tomasetto, Catherine-Laure; Graziani, Andrea; Filigheddu, Nicoletta

    2018-05-30

    Muscle regeneration depends on satellite cells (SCs), quiescent precursors that, in consequence of injury or pathological states such as muscular dystrophies, activate, proliferate, and differentiate to repair the damaged tissue. A subset of SCs undergoes self-renewal, thus preserving the SC pool and its regenerative potential. The peptides produced by the ghrelin gene, i.e., acylated ghrelin (AG), unacylated ghrelin (UnAG), and obestatin (Ob), affect skeletal muscle biology in several ways, not always with overlapping effects. In particular, UnAG and Ob promote SC self-renewal and myoblast differentiation, thus fostering muscle regeneration. To delineate the endogenous contribution of preproghrelin in muscle regeneration, we evaluated the repair process in Ghrl -/- mice upon CTX-induced injury. Although muscles from Ghrl -/- mice do not visibly differ from WT muscles in term of weight, structure, and SCs content, muscle regeneration after CTX-induced injury is impaired in Ghrl -/- mice, indicating that ghrelin-derived peptides actively participate in muscle repair. Remarkably, the lack of ghrelin gene impacts SC self-renewal during regeneration. Although we cannot discern the specific Ghrl-derived peptide responsible for such activities, these data indicate that Ghrl contributes to a proper muscle regeneration.

  19. Extinction of an instrumental response: a cognitive behavioral assay in Fmr1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Sidorov, M S; Krueger, D D; Taylor, M; Gisin, E; Osterweil, E K; Bear, M F

    2014-06-01

    Fragile X (FX) is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability and autism. Previous studies have shown that partial inhibition of metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling is sufficient to correct behavioral phenotypes in a mouse model of FX, including audiogenic seizures, open-field hyperactivity and social behavior. These phenotypes model well the epilepsy (15%), hyperactivity (20%) and autism (30%) that are comorbid with FX in human patients. Identifying reliable and robust mouse phenotypes to model cognitive impairments is critical considering the 90% comorbidity of FX and intellectual disability. Recent work characterized a five-choice visuospatial discrimination assay testing cognitive flexibility, in which FX model mice show impairments associated with decreases in synaptic proteins in prefrontal cortex (PFC). In this study, we sought to determine whether instrumental extinction, another process requiring PFC, is altered in FX model mice, and whether downregulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling pathways is sufficient to correct both visuospatial discrimination and extinction phenotypes. We report that instrumental extinction is consistently exaggerated in FX model mice. However, neither the extinction phenotype nor the visuospatial discrimination phenotype is corrected by approaches targeting metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling. This work describes a novel behavioral extinction assay to model impaired cognition in mouse models of neurodevelopmental disorders, provides evidence that extinction is exaggerated in the FX mouse model and suggests possible limitations of metabotropic glutamate receptor-based pharmacotherapy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  20. Friction-Induced Mitochondrial Dysregulation Contributes to Joint Deterioration in Prg4 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Kimberly A.; Zhang, Ling X.; Jay, Gregory D.

    2017-01-01

    Deficiency of PRG4 (lubricin), the boundary lubricant in mammalian joints, contributes to increased joint friction accompanied by superficial and upper intermediate zone chondrocyte caspase-3 activation, as shown in lubricin-null (Prg4−/−) mice. Caspase-3 activity appears to be reversible upon the restitution of Prg4 either endogenously in vivo, in a gene trap mouse, or as an applied lubricant in vitro. In this study we show that intra-articular injection of human PRG4 in vivo in Prg4−/− mice prevented caspase-3 activation in superficial zone chondrocytes and was associated with a modest decrease in whole joint friction measured ex vivo using a joint pendulum method. Non-lubricated Prg4−/− mouse cartilage shows caspase cascade activation caused by mitochondrial dysregulation, and significantly higher levels of peroxynitrite (ONOO− and −OH) and superoxide (O−2) compared to Prg4+/+ and Prg4+/− cartilage. Enzymatic activity levels of caspase 8 across Prg4 mutant mice were not significantly different, indicating no extrinsic apoptosis pathway activation. Western blots showed caspase-3 and 9 activation in Prg4−/− tissue extracts, and the appearance of nitrosylated Cys163 in the active cleft of caspase-3 which inhibits its enzymatic activity. These findings are relevant to patients at risk for arthrosis, from camptodactyl-arthropathy-coxa vara-pericarditis (CACP) syndrome and transient lubricin insufficiency due to trauma and inflammation. PMID:28604608

  1. Mlkl knockout mice demonstrate the indispensable role of Mlkl in necroptosis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianfeng; Huang, Zhe; Ren, Junming; Zhang, Zhirong; He, Peng; Li, Yangxin; Ma, Jianhui; Chen, Wanze; Zhang, Yingying; Zhou, Xiaojuan; Yang, Zhentao; Wu, Su-Qin; Chen, Lanfen; Han, Jiahuai

    2013-08-01

    Mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (Mlkl) was recently found to interact with receptor interacting protein 3 (Rip3) and to be essential for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced programmed necrosis (necroptosis) in cultured cell lines. We have generated Mlkl-deficient mice by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs)-mediated gene disruption and found Mlkl to be dispensable for normal mouse development as well as immune cell development. Mlkl-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and macrophages both showed resistance to necrotic but not apoptotic stimuli. Mlkl-deficient MEFs and macrophages were indistinguishable from wild-type cells in their ability to activate NF-κB, ERK, JNK, and p38 in response to TNF and lipopolysaccharides (LPS), respectively. Consistently, Mlkl-deficient macrophages and mice exhibited normal interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and TNF production after LPS treatment. Mlkl deficiency protects mice from cerulean-induced acute pancreatitis, a necrosis-related disease, but has no effect on polymicrobial septic shock-induced animal death. Our results provide genetic evidence for the role of Mlkl in necroptosis.

  2. Mlkl knockout mice demonstrate the indispensable role of Mlkl in necroptosis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianfeng; Huang, Zhe; Ren, Junming; Zhang, Zhirong; He, Peng; Li, Yangxin; Ma, Jianhui; Chen, Wanze; Zhang, Yingying; Zhou, Xiaojuan; Yang, Zhentao; Wu, Su-Qin; Chen, Lanfen; Han, Jiahuai

    2013-01-01

    Mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (Mlkl) was recently found to interact with receptor interacting protein 3 (Rip3) and to be essential for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced programmed necrosis (necroptosis) in cultured cell lines. We have generated Mlkl-deficient mice by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs)-mediated gene disruption and found Mlkl to be dispensable for normal mouse development as well as immune cell development. Mlkl-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and macrophages both showed resistance to necrotic but not apoptotic stimuli. Mlkl-deficient MEFs and macrophages were indistinguishable from wild-type cells in their ability to activate NF-κB, ERK, JNK, and p38 in response to TNF and lipopolysaccharides (LPS), respectively. Consistently, Mlkl-deficient macrophages and mice exhibited normal interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and TNF production after LPS treatment. Mlkl deficiency protects mice from cerulean-induced acute pancreatitis, a necrosis-related disease, but has no effect on polymicrobial septic shock-induced animal death. Our results provide genetic evidence for the role of Mlkl in necroptosis. PMID:23835476

  3. Differential sensitivity of Pak5, Pak6, and Pak5/Pak6 double-knockout mice to the stimulant effects of amphetamine and exercise-induced alterations in body weight.

    PubMed

    Furnari, Melody A; Jobes, Michelle L; Nekrasova, Tanya; Minden, Audrey; Wagner, George C

    2014-04-01

    PAK5 and PAK6 are protein kinases highly expressed in the brain. Previously, we observed that Pak6 knockout mice gained significantly more weight during development than Pak5 knockout mice as well as wild-type controls and double-knockout mice lacking both Pak5 and Pak6. In this study, we assessed the effects of exercise on food intake and weight gain of these mice as well as their sensitivity to the stimulant effects of amphetamine. Mice of each genotype were placed in cages with free access to run wheel exercise or in cages without run wheels for a total of 74 days. Food and fluid intake as well as body weight of each mouse were measured on a weekly basis. Finally, mice were given a high dose of amphetamine and activity levels were observed immediately thereafter for 90 minutes. Brains and testes of mice were assayed for protein levels of the estrogen alpha and progesterone receptors. While run wheel mice consumed significantly more food, they weighed less than non-run wheel mice. In addition, although Pak6 knockout mice consumed the same amount of food as wild-type mice, they were significantly heavier regardless of run wheel condition. Pak5 knockout mice were found to be more active than other genotypes after amphetamine treatment. Finally, protein levels of the progesterone and estrogen alpha receptors were altered in brain and testes of the Pak6 knockout mice. Collectively, these data suggest that PAK6 play a role in weight gain unrelated to exercise and caloric intake and that Pak5 knockout mice are more sensitive to the stimulant effects of amphetamine.

  4. Endothelin-1 overexpression exacerbates atherosclerosis and induces aortic aneurysms in apolipoprotein E knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Melissa W; Mian, Muhammad Oneeb Rehman; Barhoumi, Tlili; Rehman, Asia; Mann, Koren; Paradis, Pierre; Schiffrin, Ernesto L

    2013-10-01

    Endothelin (ET)-1 plays a role in vascular reactive oxygen species production and inflammation. ET-1 has been implicated in human atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) development. ET-1 overexpression exacerbates high-fat diet-induced atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E(-/-) (Apoe(-/-)) mice. ET-1-induced reactive oxygen species and inflammation may contribute to atherosclerosis progression and AAA development. Eight-week-old male wild-type mice, transgenic mice overexpressing ET-1 selectively in endothelium (eET-1), Apoe(-/-) mice, and eET-1/Apoe(-/-) mice were fed high-fat diet for 8 weeks. eET-1/Apoe(-/-) had a 45% reduction in plasma high-density lipoprotein (P<0.05) and presented ≥ 2-fold more aortic atherosclerotic lesions compared with Apoe(-/-) (P<0.01). AAAs were detected only in eET-1/Apoe(-/-) (8/21; P<0.05). Reactive oxygen species production was increased ≥ 2-fold in perivascular fat, media, or atherosclerotic lesions in the ascending aorta and AAAs of eET-1/Apoe(-/-) compared with Apoe(-/-) (P<0.05). Monocyte/macrophage infiltration was enhanced ≥ 2.5-fold in perivascular fat of ascending aorta and AAAs in eET-1/Apoe(-/-) compared with Apoe(-/-) (P<0.05). CD4(+) T cells were detected almost exclusively in perivascular fat (3/6) and atherosclerotic lesions (5/6) in ascending aorta of eET-1/Apoe(-/-) (P<0.05). The percentage of spleen proinflammatory Ly-6C(hi) monocytes was enhanced 26% by ET-1 overexpression in Apoe(-/-) (P<0.05), and matrix metalloproteinase-2 was increased 2-fold in plaques of eET-1/Apoe(-/-) (P<0.05) compared with Apoe(-/-). ET-1 plays a role in progression of atherosclerosis and AAA formation by decreasing high-density lipoprotein, and increasing oxidative stress, inflammatory cell infiltration, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 in perivascular fat, vascular wall, and atherosclerotic lesions.

  5. Effects of Simulated Heat Waves with Strong Sudden Cooling Weather on ApoE Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuyu; Kuang, Zhengzhong; Zhang, Xiakun

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the mechanism of influence of heat waves with strong sudden cooling on cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in ApoE−/− mice. The process of heat waves with strong sudden cooling was simulated with a TEM1880 meteorological-environment simulation chamber according to the data obtained at 5 a.m. of 19 June 2006 to 11 p.m. of 22 June 2006. Forty-eight ApoE−/− mice were divided into six blocks based on their weight. Two mice from each block were randomly assigned to control, heat wave, temperature drop, and rewarming temperature groups. The experimental groups were transferred into the climate simulator chamber for exposure to the simulated heat wave process with strong sudden temperature drop. After 55, 59, and 75 h of exposure, the experimental groups were successively removed from the chamber to monitor physiological indicators. Blood samples were collected by decollation, and the hearts were harvested in all groups. The levels of heat stress factors (HSP60, SOD, TNF, sICAM-1, HIF-1α), cold stress factors (NE, EPI), vasoconstrictor factors (ANGII, ET-1, NO), and four items of blood lipid (TC, TG, HDL-C, and LDL-C) were measured in each ApoE−/− mouse. Results showed that the heat waves increased the levels of heat stress factors except SOD decreased, and decreased the levels of vasoconstrictor factors and blood lipid factors except TC increased. The strong sudden temperature drop in the heat wave process increased the levels of cold stress factors, vasoconstrictor factors and four blood lipid items (except the level of HDL-C which decreased) and decreased the levels of heat stress factors (except the level of SOD which increased). The analysis showed that heat waves could enhance atherosclerosis of ApoE−/− mice. The strong sudden temperature drop during the heat wave process increased the plasma concentrations of NE and ANGII, which indicates SNS activation, and resulted in increased blood pressure. NE and ANGII are vasoconstrictors

  6. Effects of Simulated Heat Waves with Strong Sudden Cooling Weather on ApoE Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuyu; Kuang, Zhengzhong; Zhang, Xiakun

    2015-05-26

    This study analyzes the mechanism of influence of heat waves with strong sudden cooling on cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in ApoE-/- mice. The process of heat waves with strong sudden cooling was simulated with a TEM1880 meteorological-environment simulation chamber according to the data obtained at 5 a.m. of 19 June 2006 to 11 p.m. of 22 June 2006. Forty-eight ApoE-/- mice were divided into six blocks based on their weight. Two mice from each block were randomly assigned to control, heat wave, temperature drop, and rewarming temperature groups. The experimental groups were transferred into the climate simulator chamber for exposure to the simulated heat wave process with strong sudden temperature drop. After 55, 59, and 75 h of exposure, the experimental groups were successively removed from the chamber to monitor physiological indicators. Blood samples were collected by decollation, and the hearts were harvested in all groups. The levels of heat stress factors (HSP60, SOD, TNF, sICAM-1, HIF-1α), cold stress factors (NE, EPI), vasoconstrictor factors (ANGII, ET-1, NO), and four items of blood lipid (TC, TG, HDL-C, and LDL-C) were measured in each ApoE-/- mouse. Results showed that the heat waves increased the levels of heat stress factors except SOD decreased, and decreased the levels of vasoconstrictor factors and blood lipid factors except TC increased. The strong sudden temperature drop in the heat wave process increased the levels of cold stress factors, vasoconstrictor factors and four blood lipid items (except the level of HDL-C which decreased) and decreased the levels of heat stress factors (except the level of SOD which increased). The analysis showed that heat waves could enhance atherosclerosis of ApoE-/- mice. The strong sudden temperature drop during the heat wave process increased the plasma concentrations of NE and ANGII, which indicates SNS activation, and resulted in increased blood pressure. NE and ANGII are vasoconstrictors involved in systemic

  7. BSN723T Prevents Atherosclerosis and Weight Gain in ApoE Knockout Mice Fed a Western Diet

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jarrod; Ensor, Charles; Gardner, Scott; Smith, Rebecca; Lodder, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study tests the hypothesis that BSN723T can prevent the development of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- knockout mice fed a Western (high fat, high cholesterol, and high sucrose) diet. BSN723T is a combination drug therapy consisting of D-tagatose and dihydromyricetin (BSN723). Background D-tagatose has an antihyperglycemic effect in animal and human studies and shows promise as a treatment for type 2 diabetes and obesity. Many claims regarding BSN723's pharmacological activities have been made including anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherosclerotic effects. To our knowledge this is the first study that combines D-tagatose and BSN723 for the treatment of hyperlipidemia and the prevention of atherosclerosis. Methods ApoE-deficient mice were randomized into five groups with equivalent mean body weights. The mice were given the following diets for 8 weeks: Group 1 - Standard diet; Group 2 - Western diet; Group 3 - Western diet formulated with D-tagatose; Group 4 - Western diet formulated with BSN723; Group 5 - Western diet formulated with BSN723T. Mice were measured for weight gain, tissue and organ weights, total serum cholesterol and triglycerides and formation of atherosclerosis. Results The addition of D-tagatose, either alone or in combination with BSN723, prevented the increase in adipose tissue and weight gain brought on by the Western diet. Both D-tagatose and BSN723 alone reduced total cholesterol and the formation of atherosclerosis in the aorta compared to mice on the Western diet. Addition of BSN723 to D-tagatose (BSN723T) did not increase efficacy in prevention of increases in cholesterol or atherosclerosis compared to D-tagatose alone. Conclusion Addition of either D-tagatose or BSN723 alone to a Western diet prevented weight gain, increases in total serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and the formation of atherosclerosis. However, there was no additive or synergistic effect on the

  8. BSN723T Prevents Atherosclerosis and Weight Gain in ApoE Knockout Mice Fed a Western Diet.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jarrod; Ensor, Charles; Gardner, Scott; Smith, Rebecca; Lodder, Robert

    This study tests the hypothesis that BSN723T can prevent the development of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in ApoE -/- knockout mice fed a Western (high fat, high cholesterol, and high sucrose) diet. BSN723T is a combination drug therapy consisting of D-tagatose and dihydromyricetin (BSN723). D-tagatose has an antihyperglycemic effect in animal and human studies and shows promise as a treatment for type 2 diabetes and obesity. Many claims regarding BSN723's pharmacological activities have been made including anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherosclerotic effects. To our knowledge this is the first study that combines D-tagatose and BSN723 for the treatment of hyperlipidemia and the prevention of atherosclerosis. ApoE-deficient mice were randomized into five groups with equivalent mean body weights. The mice were given the following diets for 8 weeks: Group 1 - Standard diet; Group 2 - Western diet; Group 3 - Western diet formulated with D-tagatose; Group 4 - Western diet formulated with BSN723; Group 5 - Western diet formulated with BSN723T. Mice were measured for weight gain, tissue and organ weights, total serum cholesterol and triglycerides and formation of atherosclerosis. The addition of D-tagatose, either alone or in combination with BSN723, prevented the increase in adipose tissue and weight gain brought on by the Western diet. Both D-tagatose and BSN723 alone reduced total cholesterol and the formation of atherosclerosis in the aorta compared to mice on the Western diet. Addition of BSN723 to D-tagatose (BSN723T) did not increase efficacy in prevention of increases in cholesterol or atherosclerosis compared to D-tagatose alone. Addition of either D-tagatose or BSN723 alone to a Western diet prevented weight gain, increases in total serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and the formation of atherosclerosis. However, there was no additive or synergistic effect on the measured parameters with the combination BSN

  9. 2-Methyl-6-(phenylethynyl) pyridine (MPEP) reverses maze learning and PSD-95 deficits in Fmr1 knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Réno M; Kogan, Cary S; Messier, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is caused by the lack of expression of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), which results in intellectual disability and other debilitating symptoms including impairment of visual-spatial functioning. FXS is the only single-gene disorder that is highly co-morbid with autism spectrum disorder and can therefore provide insight into its pathophysiology. Lack of FMRP results in altered group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) signaling, which is a target for putative treatments. The Hebb-Williams (H-W) mazes are a set of increasingly complex spatial navigation problems that depend on intact hippocampal and thus mGluR-5 functioning. In the present investigation, we examined whether an antagonist of mGluR-5 would reverse previously described behavioral deficits in fragile X mental retardation 1 knock-out (Fmr1 KO) mice. Mice were trained on a subset of the H-W mazes and then treated with either 20 mg/kg of an mGluR-5 antagonist, 2-Methyl-6-(phenylethynyl) pyridine (MPEP; n = 11) or an equivalent dose of saline (n = 11) prior to running test mazes. Latency and errors were dependent variables recorded during the test phase. Immediately after completing each test, marble-burying behavior was assessed, which confirmed that the drug treatment was pharmacologically active during maze learning. Although latency was not statistically different between the groups, MPEP treated Fmr1 KO mice made significantly fewer errors on mazes deemed more difficult suggesting a reversal of the behavioral deficit. MPEP treated mice were also less perseverative and impulsive when navigating mazes. Furthermore, MPEP treatment reversed post-synaptic density-95 (PSD-95) protein deficits in Fmr1 KO treated mice, whereas levels of a control protein (β-tubulin) remained unchanged. These data further validate MPEP as a potentially beneficial treatment for FXS. Our findings also suggest that adapted H-W mazes may be a useful tool to document alterations in

  10. Exposure to diesel exhaust up-regulates iNOS expression in ApoE knockout mice

    SciTech Connect

    Bai Ni; James Hogg Research Centre, Providence Heart and Lung Institute, St. Paul's Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC; Kido, Takashi

    Traffic related particulate matter air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular events; however, the biological mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesize that diesel exhaust (DE) inhalation induces up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which is known to contribute to vascular dysfunction, progression of atherosclerosis and ultimately cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Methods: ApoE knockout mice (30-week) were exposed to DE (at 200 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of particulate matter) or filtered-air (control) for 7 weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week). iNOS expression in the blood vessels and heart was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blotting analysis. To examine iNOS activity, thoracic aortae weremore » mounted in a wire myograph, and vasoconstriction stimulated by phenylephrine (PE) was measured with and without the presence of the specific inhibitor for iNOS (1400 W). NF-{kappa}B (p65) activity was examined by ELISA. The mRNA expression of iNOS and NF-{kappa}B (p65) was determined by real-time PCR. Results: DE exposure significantly enhanced iNOS expression in the thoracic aorta (4-fold) and heart (1.5 fold). DE exposure significantly attenuated PE-stimulated vasoconstriction by {approx} 20%, which was partly reversed by 1400 W. The mRNA expression of iNOS and NF-{kappa}B was significantly augmented after DE exposure. NF-{kappa}B activity was enhanced 2-fold after DE inhalation, and the augmented NF-{kappa}B activity was positively correlated with iNOS expression (R{sup 2} = 0.5998). Conclusions: We show that exposure to DE increases iNOS expression and activity possibly via NF-{kappa}B-mediated pathway. We suspect that DE exposure-caused up-regulation of iNOS contributes to vascular dysfunction and atherogenesis, which could ultimately lead to urban air pollution-associated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. - Highlights: > Exposed ApoE knockout mice (30-week) to diesel exhaust (DE) for 7 weeks. > Examine iNOS expression and activity in

  11. The Sleep–Wake Cycle in the Nicotinic Alpha-9 Acetylcholine Receptor Subunit Knock-Out Mice

    PubMed Central

    Madrid-López, Natalia; Estrada, Jorge; Díaz, Javier; Bassi, Alejandro; Délano, Paul H.; Ocampo-Garcés, Adrián

    2017-01-01

    There is a neural matrix controlling the sleep–wake cycle (SWC) embedded within high ranking integrative mechanisms in the central nervous system. Nicotinic alpha-9 acetylcholine receptor subunit (alpha-9 nAChR) participate in physiological processes occurring in sensory, endocrine and immune systems. There is a relationship between the SWC architecture, body homeostasis and sensory afferents so that disruption of afferent signaling is expected to affect the temporal organization of sleep and wake states. The analysis of the SWC of 9 nAChR knock-out animals may help to reveal the contribution of alpha-9 nAChR to sleep chronobiological determinants. Here we explore the polysomnogram in chronically implanted alpha-9 nAChR knock-out (KO) and wild-type (WT) individuals of the hybrid CBA/Sv129 mouse strain. Records were obtained in isolation chambers under a stable 12:12 light:dark cycle (LD). To unmask the 24-h modulation of the SWC a skeleton photoperiod (SP) protocol was performed. Under LD the daily quota (in %) of wakefulness (W), NREM sleep and REM sleep obtained in KO and WT animals were 45, 48 and 7, and 46, 46 and 8 respectively. Both groups exhibit nocturnal phase preference of W as well as diurnal and unimodal phase preference of NREM and REM sleep. The acrophase mean angles of KO vs. WT genotypes were not different (Zeitgeber Time: 6.5 vs. 14.9 for W, 4.3 vs. 2.8 for NREM sleep and 5.3 vs. 3.4 for REM sleep, respectively). Transference to SP do not affect daily state quotas, phase preferences and acrophases among genotypes. Unmasking phenomena of the SWC such as wake increment during the rest phase under SP was evident only among WT mice suggesting the involvement of retinal structures containing alpha-9 nAChR in masking processes. Furthermore, KO animals exhibit longer NREM and REM sleep episodes that is independent of illumination conditions. Consolidated diurnal NREM sleep contributed to obtain higher values of NREM sleep delta-EEG activity among KO

  12. Role of CCK-A receptor for pancreatic function in mice: a study in CCK-A receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Takiguchi, Soichi; Suzuki, Shinji; Sato, Yuko; Kanai, Setsuko; Miyasaka, Kyoko; Jimi, Atsuo; Shinozaki, Hirotsugu; Takata, Yutaka; Funakoshi, Akihiro; Kono, Akira; Minowa, Osamu; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Noda, Tetsuo

    2002-04-01

    The cholecystokinin (CCK) family of peptides and receptors is present throughout the brain and gastrointestinal tract. The CCK receptors can be pharmacologically subdivided into two subtypes: CCK-A and CCK-B. CCK-A receptor is enriched in the pancreas of mice. To determine pancreatic functions in a CCK-A receptor deficient mouse mutant generated by gene targeting in embryonic stem cells. The targeting vector contained lacZ and neo insertions in exon 2. To examine exocrine functions, amylase release from the dispersed acini in vitro was examined. In the in vivo study, the mixture of bile-pancreatic juice was collected, and amylase, bicarbonate, and bile acid outputs were determined after the administration of various stimulants. The cystic duct of the gallbladder and the pylorus were ligated to exclude the involvement of gallbladder contraction and gastric acid. Pancreatic enzyme content was measured, and histologic examinations by HE and lacZ staining were conducted. To examine endocrine functions, oral glucose tolerance test (2 g/kg) was determined. The body weight, pancreatic wet weight, and enzyme content in the pancreas were similar among the three genotypes. Amylase release in vivo and in vitro and bicarbonate secretion in vivo were not stimulated by CCK-8 in CCK-AR (-/-) mice, whereas the responses to other stimulants were substantial in (-/-) mice. Administration of secretin did not increase bicarbonate secretion regardless of genotype. A normal glucose tolerance was observed in (-/-) mice. Acinar cells, islets, and duct cells were stained by lacZ, and HE staining revealed no pathologic findings. The CCK-A receptor is important for pancreatic exocrine secretion, but not essential for maintaining glucose concentration and pancreatic growth in mice.

  13. RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenic differentiation of macrophages in the abdominal aorta of angiotensin II-infused apolipoprotein E knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Teruyoshi; Kelly, Matthew; Takei, Yuichiro; Yamanouchi, Dai

    2018-04-20

    Osteoclastogenic activation of macrophages (OCG) occurs in human abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) and in calcium chloride-induced degenerative AAAs in mice, which have increased matrix metalloproteinase activity. As the activity of OCG in dissecting aneurysms is not clear, we tested the hypothesis that OCG contributes to angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced dissecting aneurysm (Ang II-induced AAA) in apolipoprotein E knockout mice. AAAs were produced in apolipoprotein E knockout mice via the administration of Ang II. Additionally, receptor activator of nuclear factor kB ligand (RANKL)-neutralizing antibody (5 mg/kg) was administered to one group of mice 7 days prior to Ang II infusion. Aneurysmal sections were probed for presence of RANKL and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase via immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining. Mouse aortas were also examined for RANKL and matrix metalloproteinase 9 expression via Western blot. In vitro murine vascular smooth muscle cells (MOVAS) and murine macrophages (RAW 264.7) were analyzed for the expression of osteogenic factors via Western blot, qPCR, and flow cytometry in response to Ang II or RANKL stimulation. The signaling pathway that mediates Ang II-induced RANKL expression in MOVAS cells was also investigated via application of TG101348, a Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) inhibitor, and Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical staining of Ang II-induced AAA sections revealed OCG as evidenced by increased RANKL and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase expression compared with control mice. Immunofluorescence staining of AAA sections revealed co-localization of vascular smooth muscle cells and RANKL, revealing vascular smooth muscle cells as one potential source of RANKL. Systemic administration of RANKL-neutralizing antibody suppressed Ang II-induced AAA, with significant reduction of the maximum diameter of the abdominal aorta compared with vehicle controls (1.5 ± 0.4 mm vs 2.2 ± 0.2 mm). Ang II (1 μM) treatment

  14. Aldolase-B knockout in mice phenocopies hereditary fructose intolerance in humans.

    PubMed

    Oppelt, Sarah A; Sennott, Erin M; Tolan, Dean R

    2015-03-01

    The rise in fructose consumption, and its correlation with symptoms of metabolic syndrome (MBS), has highlighted the need for a better understanding of fructose metabolism. To that end, valid rodent models reflecting the same metabolism as in humans, both biochemically and physiologically, are critical. A key to understanding any type of metabolism comes from study of disease states that affect such metabolism. A serious defect of fructose metabolism is the autosomal recessive condition called hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI), caused by mutations in the human aldolase B gene (Aldob). Those afflicted with HFI experience liver and kidney dysfunction after fructose consumption, which can lead to death, particularly during infancy. With very low levels of fructose exposure, HFI patients develop non-alcoholic fatty acid liver disease and fibrosis, sharing liver pathologies also seen in MBS. A major step toward establishing that fructose metabolism in mice mimics that of humans is reported by investigating the consequences of targeting the mouse aldolase-B gene (Aldo2) for deletion in mice (Aldo2(-/-)). The Aldo2(-/-) homozygous mice show similar pathology following exposure to fructose as humans with HFI such as failure to thrive, liver dysfunction, and potential morbidity. Establishing that this mouse reflects the symptoms of HFI in humans is critical for comparison of rodent studies to the human condition, where this food source is increasing, and increasingly controversial. This animal should provide a valuable resource for answering remaining questions about fructose metabolism in HFI, as well as help investigate the biochemical mechanisms leading to liver pathologies seen in MBS from high fructose diets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Chronic estrogen deficiency leads to molecular aberrations related to neurodegenerative changes in follitropin receptor knockout female mice.

    PubMed

    Tam, J; Danilovich, N; Nilsson, K; Sairam, M R; Maysinger, D

    2002-01-01

    The follitropin receptor knockout (FORKO) mouse undergoes ovarian failure, thereby providing an animal model to investigate the consequences of the depletion of circulating estrogen in females. The estrogen deficiency causes marked defects in the female reproductive system, obesity, and skeletal abnormalities. In light of estrogen's known pleiotropic effects in the nervous system, our study examined the effects of genetically induced estrogen-testosterone imbalance on this system in female FORKO mice. Circulating concentrations of 17-beta-estradiol (E2) in FORKO mice are significantly decreased (FORKO -/-: 1.13+/-0.34 pg/ml; wild-type +/+: 17.6+/-3.5 pg/ml, P<0.0001, n=32-41); in contrast, testosterone levels are increased (-/-: 37.7+/-2.3 pg/ml; wild-type +/+: 3.9+/-1.7 pg/ml, P<0.005, n=25-33). The focus was on the activities of key enzymes in the central cholinergic and peripheral nervous systems, on dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) capacity for neurite outgrowth, and on the phosphorylation state of structural neurofilament (NF) proteins. Choline acetyltransferase activity was decreased in several central cholinergic structures (striatum 50+/-3%, hippocampus 24+/-2%, cortex 12+/-3%) and in DRGs (11+/-6%). Moreover, we observed aberrations in the enzymatic activities of mitogen-activated protein kinases (extracellular-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase) in the hippocampus, DRGs, and sciatic nerves. Hippocampal and sensory ganglia samples from FORKO mice contained hyper-phosphorylated NFs. Finally, explanted ganglia of FORKO mice displayed decreased neurite outgrowth (20-50%) under non-treated conditions and when treated with E2 (10 nM). Our results demonstrate that genetic depletion of circulating estrogen leads to biochemical and morphological changes in central and peripheral neurons, and underlie the importance of estrogen in the normal development and functioning of the nervous system. In particular, the findings suggest that an early and persisting

  16. Low-cholesterol and high-fat diets reduce atherosclerotic lesion development in ApoE-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Calleja, L; París, M A; Paul, A; Vilella, E; Joven, J; Jiménez, A; Beltrán, G; Uceda, M; Maeda, N; Osada, J

    1999-10-01

    We have investigated the effect of most common oils used in human nutrition on the development of atherosclerosis in apoE-knockout mice. Seven groups of animals, separated according to sex, were fed for 10 weeks either chow diet or the chow diet 10% (wt/wt) enriched with different oils (palm, coconut, 2 types of olive oil, and 2 types of sunflower oil) without addition of cholesterol. At the end of this period, plasma lipid parameters were measured and vascular lesions scored. None of the diets induced changes in plasma cholesterol concentrations, whereas plasma triglycerides were uniformly reduced in all diet groups. Some diets caused significant reductions in the size of atherosclerotic lesions in males and others in females; males responded most to sunflower oils and females to palm oil and one olive oil (II). The lesion reduction in males consuming sunflower oils was associated with the decrease of triglycerides in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, whereas the decrease in females consuming olive oil II or palm oil was accompanied by an increase in plasma apoA-I. The increase in plasma apoA-I in the latter condition, is mainly due to overexpression of hepatic message elicited by a mechanism independent of apoE ligand. The data suggest that the different diets modulate lesion development in a gender specific manner and by different mechanisms and that the development of atherosclerosis, due to genetic deficiencies, may be modulated by nutritional maneuvers that may be implemented in human nutrition.

  17. 11-β hydroxysteroid type 1 knockout mice display an antidepressant-like phenotype in the forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Slattery, David A; Uzunov, Doncho P; Cryan, John F

    2016-02-01

    11β-dehydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) types 1 and 2, enzymes are involved in the activation and inactivation of glucocorticoids in vivo, respectively. Indirect evidence implicates two enzymes in the aetiology of depression but no study has directly assessed the potential role of 11 β-HSD1 in animal tests. We assessed 11 β-HSD1 knockout mice in the forced swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and for locomotor activity. Genetic ablation of the 11β-HSD1 gene results in an antidepressant-like phenotype in the FST; the most widely utilised animal test of antidepressant activity, but not in the related TST. This may be related to the different biological substrates underlying these tests. The decreased FST immobility was not due to alterations in general activity. Taken together these results suggest that 11β-HSD1 may play an important role in depression-related behaviours and further studies are necessary to fully characterise its role in such behaviour.

  18. Hypoglycemia, hyperglucagonemia, and fetoplacental defects in glucagon receptor knockout mice: a role for glucagon action in pregnancy maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Ouhilal, Sophia; Cui, Lingguang; Du, Xiu-Quan; Gelling, Richard W.; Reznik, Sandra E.; Russell, Robert; Parlow, Albert F.; Karpovsky, Clara; Santoro, Nanette; Charron, Maureen J.

    2012-01-01

    Alterations in insulin signaling as well as insulin action predispose to infertility as well as adverse pregnancy outcomes; however, little is known about the role of glucagon signaling in reproduction. The glucagon receptor knockout (Gcgr−/−) mouse created by our laboratory was used to define the role of glucagon signaling in maintaining normal reproduction. In this mouse model, lack of glucagon signaling did not alter the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Pregnant Gcgr−/− female mice displayed persistent hypoglycemia and hyperglucagonemia. Gcgr−/− pregnancies were associated with decreased fetal weight, increased late-gestation fetal demise, and significant abnormalities of placentation. Gcgr−/− placentas contained areas of extensive mineralization, fibrinoid necrosis, narrowing of the vascular channels, and a thickened interstitium associated with trophoblast hyperplasia. Absent glucagon signaling did not alter glycogen content in Gcgr−/− placentas but significantly downregulated genes that control growth, adrenergic signaling, vascularization, oxidative stress, and G protein-coupled receptors. Our data suggest that, similarly to insulin, glucagon action contributes to normal female reproductive function. PMID:22167521

  19. Developing rods transplanted into the degenerating retina of Crx-knockout mice exhibit neural activity similar to native photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Homma, Kohei; Okamoto, Satoshi; Mandai, Michiko; Gotoh, Norimoto; Rajasimha, Harsha K.; Chang, Yi-Sheng; Chen, Shan; Li, Wei; Cogliati, Tiziana; Swaroop, Anand; Takahashi, Masayo

    2013-01-01

    Replacement of dysfunctional or dying photoreceptors offers a promising approach for retinal neurodegenerative diseases, including age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. Several studies have demonstrated the integration and differentiation of developing rod photoreceptors when transplanted in wild type or degenerating retina; however, the physiology and function of the donor cells are not adequately defined. Here, we describe the physiological properties of developing rod photoreceptors that are tagged with GFP driven by the promoter of rod differentiation factor, Nrl. GFP-tagged developing rods show Ca2+ responses and rectifier outward currents that are smaller than those observed in fully developed photoreceptors, suggesting their immature developmental state. These immature rods also exhibit hyperpolarization-activated current (Ih) induced by the activation of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels. When transplanted into the subretinal space of wild type or retinal degeneration mice, GFP-tagged developing rods can integrate into the photoreceptor outer nuclear layer in wild-type mouse retina, and exhibit Ca2+ responses and membrane current comparable to native rod photoreceptors. A proportion of grafted rods develop rhodopsin-positive outer segment-like structures within two weeks after transplantation into the retina of Crx-knockout mice, and produce rectifier outward current and Ih upon membrane depolarization and hyperpolarization. GFP-positive rods derived from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells also display similar membrane current Ih as native developing rod photoreceptors, express rod-specific phototransduction genes, and HCN-1 channels. We conclude that Nrl-promoter driven GFP-tagged donor photoreceptors exhibit physiological characteristics of rods and that iPS cell-derived rods in vitro may provide a renewable source for cell replacement therapy. PMID:23495178

  20. Activation of cellular death programs associated with immunosenescence-like phenotype in TPPII knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Huai, Jisen; Firat, Elke; Nil, Ahmed; Million, Daniele; Gaedicke, Simone; Kanzler, Benoit; Freudenberg, Marina; van Endert, Peter; Kohler, Gabriele; Pahl, Heike L.; Aichele, Peter; Eichmann, Klaus; Niedermann, Gabriele

    2008-01-01

    The giant cytosolic protease tripeptidyl peptidase II (TPPII) has been implicated in the regulation of proliferation and survival of malignant cells, particularly lymphoma cells. To address its functions in normal cellular and systemic physiology we have generated TPPII-deficient mice. TPPII deficiency activates cell type-specific death programs, including proliferative apoptosis in several T lineage subsets and premature cellular senescence in fibroblasts and CD8+ T cells. This coincides with up-regulation of p53 and dysregulation of NF-κB. Prominent degenerative alterations at the organismic level were a decreased lifespan and symptoms characteristic of immunohematopoietic senescence. These symptoms include accelerated thymic involution, lymphopenia, impaired proliferative T cell responses, extramedullary hematopoiesis, and inflammation. Thus, TPPII is important for maintaining normal cellular and systemic physiology, which may be relevant for potential therapeutic applications of TPPII inhibitors. PMID:18362329

  1. Lens epithelial cells derived from alphaB-crystallin knockout mice demonstrate hyperproliferation and genomic instability.

    PubMed

    Andley, U P; Song, Z; Wawrousek, E F; Brady, J P; Bassnett, S; Fleming, T P

    2001-01-01

    alphaB-crystallin is a member of the small heat shock protein family and can act as a molecular chaperone preventing the in vitro aggregation of other proteins denatured by heat or other stress conditions. Expression of alphaB-crystallin increases in cells exposed to stress and enhanced in tumors of neuroectodermal origin and in many neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we examined the properties of lens epithelial cells derived from mice in which the alphaB-crystallin gene had been knocked out. Primary rodent cells immortalize spontaneously in tissue culture with a frequency of 10(-5) to 10(-6). Primary lens epithelial cells derived from alphaB-crystallin-/- mice produced hyperproliferative clones at a frequency of 7.6 x 10(-2), four orders of magnitude greater than predicted by spontaneous immortalization (1). Hyperproliferative alphaB-crystallin-/- cells were shown to be truly immortal since they have been passaged for more than 100 population doublings without any diminution in growth potential. In striking contrast to the wild-type cells, which were diploid, the alphaB-crystallin-/- cultures had a high proportion of tetraploid and higher ploidy cells, indicating that the loss of alphaB-crystallin is associated with an increase in genomic instability. Further evidence of genomic instability of alphaB-crystallin-/- cells was observed when primary cultures were infected with Ad12-SV40 hybrid virus. In striking contrast to wild-type cells, alphaB-crystallin-/- cells expressing SV40 T antigen exhibited a widespread cytocidal response 2 to 3 days after attaining confluence, indicating that SV40 T antigen enhanced the intrinsic genomic instability of alphaB-crystallin-/- lens epithelial cells. These observations suggest that the widely distributed molecular chaperone alphaB-crystallin may play an important nuclear role in maintaining genomic integrity.

  2. Lipid-lowering effects of anti-angiopoietin-like 4 antibody recapitulate the lipid phenotype found in angiopoietin-like 4 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Urvi; Lee, E-Chiang; Chung, Kyu; Gao, Cuihua; Gay, Jason; Key, Billie; Hansen, Gwenn; Machajewski, Dennis; Platt, Kenneth A.; Sands, Arthur T.; Schneider, Matthias; Van Sligtenhorst, Isaac; Suwanichkul, Adisak; Vogel, Peter; Wilganowski, Nat; Wingert, June; Zambrowicz, Brian P.; Landes, Greg; Powell, David R.

    2007-01-01

    We used gene knockout mice to explore the role of Angiopoietin-like-4 (Angptl4) in lipid metabolism as well as to generate anti-Angptl4 mAbs with pharmacological activity. Angptl4 −/− mice had lower triglyceride (TG) levels resulting both from increased very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) clearance and decreased VLDL production and had modestly lower cholesterol levels. Also, both Angptl4 −/− suckling mice and adult mice fed a high-fat diet showed reduced viability associated with lipogranulomatous lesions of the intestines and their draining lymphatics and mesenteric lymph nodes. Treating C57BL/6J, ApoE −/−, LDLr −/−, and db/db mice with the anti-Angptl4 mAb 14D12 recapitulated the lipid and histopathologic phenotypes noted in Angptl4 −/− mice