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Sample records for a2bx4 spanish text

  1. The Cultural Content of Business Spanish Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Christine Uber; Uber, David

    1992-01-01

    Eight business Spanish texts were examined to learn about the cultural content of the business Spanish curriculum. Questions of cultural topics and themes, presentation of cultural information, activities and techniques, and use of authentic materials were considered. (16 references) (LB)

  2. The Cultural Content of Business Spanish Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Christine Uber; Uber, David

    A study examined eight business Spanish textbooks for cultural content by looking at commonly appearing cultural topics and themes, presentation of cultural information, activities and techniques used to promote cultural understanding, and incorporation of authentic materials. The texts were evenly divided among beginning, intermediate, and…

  3. "Ficciones," Jorge Luis Borges. Performance Guides to Spanish Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gies, David Thatcher, Comp.

    This performance guide is the result of work conducted at the University of Virginia's National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute, 1989, on "Spanish Literature in Performance," in which 25 secondary school Spanish teachers studied Spanish texts from the perspective of classroom performance to deepen knowledge of the texts and…

  4. Bilingual Text Messaging Translation: Translating Text Messages From English Into Spanish for the Text4Walking Program

    PubMed Central

    Sandi, Giselle; Ingram, Diana; Welch, Mary Jane; Ocampo, Edith V

    2015-01-01

    Background Hispanic adults in the United States are at particular risk for diabetes and inadequate blood pressure control. Physical activity improves these health problems; however Hispanic adults also have a low rate of recommended aerobic physical activity. To address improving physical inactivity, one area of rapidly growing technology that can be utilized is text messaging (short message service, SMS). A physical activity research team, Text4Walking, had previously developed an initial database of motivational physical activity text messages in English that could be used for physical activity text messaging interventions. However, the team needed to translate these existing English physical activity text messages into Spanish in order to have culturally meaningful and useful text messages for those adults within the Hispanic population who would prefer to receive text messages in Spanish. Objective The aim of this study was to translate a database of English motivational physical activity messages into Spanish and review these text messages with a group of Spanish speaking adults to inform the use of these text messages in an intervention study. Methods The consent form and study documents, including the existing English physical activity text messages, were translated from English into Spanish, and received translation certification as well as Institutional Review Board approval. The translated text messages were placed into PowerPoint, accompanied by a set of culturally appropriate photos depicting barriers to walking, as well as walking scenarios. At the focus group, eligibility criteria for this study included being an adult between 30 to 65 years old who spoke Spanish as their primary language. After a general group introduction, participants were placed into smaller groups of two or three. Each small group was asked to review a segment of the translated text messages for accuracy and meaningfulness. After the break out, the group was brought back together

  5. Bilingual Text Messaging Translation: Translating Text Messages From English Into Spanish for the Text4Walking Program.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Susan Weber; Sandi, Giselle; Ingram, Diana; Welch, Mary Jane; Ocampo, Edith V

    2015-05-06

    Hispanic adults in the United States are at particular risk for diabetes and inadequate blood pressure control. Physical activity improves these health problems; however Hispanic adults also have a low rate of recommended aerobic physical activity. To address improving physical inactivity, one area of rapidly growing technology that can be utilized is text messaging (short message service, SMS). A physical activity research team, Text4Walking, had previously developed an initial database of motivational physical activity text messages in English that could be used for physical activity text messaging interventions. However, the team needed to translate these existing English physical activity text messages into Spanish in order to have culturally meaningful and useful text messages for those adults within the Hispanic population who would prefer to receive text messages in Spanish. The aim of this study was to translate a database of English motivational physical activity messages into Spanish and review these text messages with a group of Spanish speaking adults to inform the use of these text messages in an intervention study. The consent form and study documents, including the existing English physical activity text messages, were translated from English into Spanish, and received translation certification as well as Institutional Review Board approval. The translated text messages were placed into PowerPoint, accompanied by a set of culturally appropriate photos depicting barriers to walking, as well as walking scenarios. At the focus group, eligibility criteria for this study included being an adult between 30 to 65 years old who spoke Spanish as their primary language. After a general group introduction, participants were placed into smaller groups of two or three. Each small group was asked to review a segment of the translated text messages for accuracy and meaningfulness. After the break out, the group was brought back together to review the text messages

  6. "Romancero gitano y Bodas de sangre," Federico Garcia Lorca. Performance Guides to Spanish Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gies, David Thatcher, Comp.

    This performance guide is the result of work conducted at the University of Virginia's National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute, 1989, on "Spanish Literature in Performance," in which 25 secondary school Spanish teachers studied Spanish texts from the perspective of classroom performance to deepen knowledge of the texts and…

  7. "San Manuel Bueno, martir," Miguel de Unamuno. Performance Guides to Spanish Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gies, David Thatcher, Comp.

    This performance guide is the result of work conducted at the University of Virginia's National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute, 1989, on "Spanish Literature in Performance," in which 25 secondary school Spanish teachers studied Spanish texts from the perspective of classroom performance to deepen knowledge of the texts and…

  8. "El coronel no tiene quien le escriba," Gabriel Garcia Marquez. Performance Guides to Spanish Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gies, David Thatcher, Comp.

    This performance guide is the result of work conducted at the University of Virginia's National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute, 1989, on "Spanish Literature in Performance," in which 25 secondary school Spanish teachers studied Spanish texts from the perspective of classroom performance to deepen knowledge of the texts and…

  9. "Historias de la Artamila," Ana Maria Matute. Performance Guides to Spanish Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gies, David Thatcher, Comp.

    This performance guide is the result of work conducted at the University of Virginia's National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute, 1989, on "Spanish Literature in Performance," in which 25 secondary school Spanish teachers studied Spanish texts from the perspective of classroom performance to deepen knowledge of the texts and…

  10. "Veinte poemas de amor y Canto general," Pablo Neruda. Performance Guides to Spanish Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gies, David Thatcher, Comp.

    This performance guide is the result of work conducted at the University of Virginia's National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute, 1989, on "Spanish Literature in Performance," in which 25 secondary school Spanish teachers studied Spanish texts from the perspective of classroom performance to deepen knowledge of the texts and…

  11. "Don Quijote de la Mancha," Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. Performance Guides to Spanish Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gies, David Thatcher, Comp.

    This performance guide is the result of work conducted at the University of Virginia's National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute, in 1989, on "Spanish Literature in Performance," in which 25 secondary school Spanish teachers studied Spanish texts from the perspective of classroom performance to deepen knowledge of the texts…

  12. Digital Stories: Bringing Multimodal Texts to the Spanish Writing Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oskoz, Ana; Elola, Idoia

    2016-01-01

    Despite the availability and growing use of digital story software for authoring and instructional purposes, little is known about learners' perceptions on its integration in the foreign language writing class. Following both a social semiotics approach and activity theory, this study focuses on six advanced Spanish learners' perceptions about the…

  13. "Necesita una vacuna": what Spanish-speakers want in text-message immunization reminders.

    PubMed

    Ahlers-Schmidt, Carolyn R; Chesser, Amy; Brannon, Jennifer; Lopez, Venessa; Shah-Haque, Sapna; Williams, Katherine; Hart, Traci

    2013-08-01

    Appointment reminders help parents deal with complex immunization schedules. Preferred content of text-message reminders has been identified for English-speakers. Spanish-speaking parents of children under three years old were recruited to develop Spanish text-message immunization reminders. Structured interviews included questions about demographic characteristics, use of technology, and willingness to receive text reminders. Each participant was assigned to one user-centered design (UCD) test: card sort, needs analysis or comprehension testing. Respondents (N=54) were female (70%) and averaged 27 years of age (SD=7). A card sort of 20 immunization-related statements resulted in identification of seven pieces of critical information, which were compiled into eight example texts. These texts were ranked in the needs assessment and the top two were assessed for comprehension. All participants were able to understand the content and describe intention to act. Utilizing UCD testing, Spanish-speakers identified short, specific text content that differed from preferred content of English-speaking parents.

  14. Syntactic Complexity and L2 Academic Immersion Effects on Readers' Recall and Pausing Strategies for English and Spanish Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarte, Alejandro A.; Barry, Sue

    2008-01-01

    In Experiment 1, monolingual native Spanish speakers (NSSs) had better kernel recall and longer end-of-clause (EOC) pauses than native English speakers (NESs) when reading texts that varied in syntactic complexity as a function of the number of nonessential clauses added to the kernel text. NSS familiarity with embedded clauses in Spanish seem to…

  15. The Importance of Concept of Word in Text as a Predictor of Sight Word Development in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Karen L.; Invernizzi, Marcia A.; Meyer, J. Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to determine whether Concept of Word in Text (COW-T) predicts later sight word reading achievement in Spanish, as it does in English. COW-T requires that children have beginning sound awareness, automatic recognition of letters and letter sounds, and the ability to coordinate these skills to finger point…

  16. The Importance of Concept of Word in Text as a Predictor of Sight Word Development in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Karen L.; Invernizzi, Marcia A.; Meyer, J. Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to determine whether Concept of Word in Text (COW-T) predicts later sight word reading achievement in Spanish, as it does in English. COW-T requires that children have beginning sound awareness, automatic recognition of letters and letter sounds, and the ability to coordinate these skills to finger point…

  17. Spanish/English Bilingual Students' Comprehension of Arithmetic Story Problem Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose, Rebecca; Molina, Marta

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we explore some of factors that affect bilingual students' comprehension of story problems: vocabulary, syntax, cultural relevance and understanding of the word problem genre. In an effort to determine how these factors interact, we asked 18 Spanish/English bilingual children to retell and solve arithmetic story problems in…

  18. Spanish/English Bilingual Students' Comprehension of Arithmetic Story Problem Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose, Rebecca; Molina, Marta

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we explore some of factors that affect bilingual students' comprehension of story problems: vocabulary, syntax, cultural relevance and understanding of the word problem genre. In an effort to determine how these factors interact, we asked 18 Spanish/English bilingual children to retell and solve arithmetic story problems in…

  19. Texting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilley, Carol L.

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing ranks of cell phone ownership is an increase in text messaging, or texting. During 2008, more than 2.5 trillion text messages were sent worldwide--that's an average of more than 400 messages for every person on the planet. Although many of the messages teenagers text each day are perhaps nothing more than "how r u?" or "c u…

  20. Teaching and Testing L2 Spanish Listening Using Scripted vs. Unscripted Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Elvis; Toth, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Even after years of study, many second language (L2) learners have difficulty comprehending proficient speakers in real-world settings. This difficulty stems partly from the inauthentic nature of the spoken texts learners are exposed to in foreign language (FL) classrooms--scripted, simplified, and overenunciated "textbook texts." This…

  1. Teaching and Testing L2 Spanish Listening Using Scripted vs. Unscripted Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Elvis; Toth, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Even after years of study, many second language (L2) learners have difficulty comprehending proficient speakers in real-world settings. This difficulty stems partly from the inauthentic nature of the spoken texts learners are exposed to in foreign language (FL) classrooms--scripted, simplified, and overenunciated "textbook texts." This…

  2. Tongue and lip frenectomy in Spanish medical texts of the 16th-18th centuries.

    PubMed

    Romero-Maroto, Martín; Sáez-Gómez, José Miguel

    2012-01-01

    The frena of the tongue and lip are normal structures of the buccal cavity, and surgical resection is only necessary in cases of hypertrophy. This article looks at medical texts of the Early Modern Era to analyze the origins and quality of our knowledge on this topic and examine any therapeutic measures proposed. This review shows that while the indications for carrying out tongue frenectomy are very similar to those today (speech and breastfeeding difficulties), those for carrying out a lip frenectomy are very different. Interestingly, apart from purely surgical or medicinal treatments, some authors indicated the need to complement such treatment with educational intervention and what can only be called basic speech therapy.

  3. The Role of Lexical Temporal Indicators and Text Interaction Format in the Incidental Acquisition of the Spanish Future Tense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossomondo, Amy E.

    2007-01-01

    The present study utilizes traditional silent reading and a think-aloud procedure to investigate the role of lexical cues to meaning in the incidental acquisition of the Spanish future tense. A total of 161 beginning-level university students of Spanish participated in the study. Two versions of a reading passage that contained 13 target items…

  4. Selected Essays and Curriculum Units: Foreign Language Instruction through the Study of Literary Texts. French, German, Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silber, Ellen S., Ed.; Krug, Clara, Ed.

    This guide presents essays and curriculum units designed for use by secondary and college teachers of French, German, and Spanish as a foreign language. The first section of the work includes two essays, in French, and eight curriculum units based on the stories of Guy de Maupassant. The second section contains seven curriculum units that…

  5. Selected Essays and Curriculum Units: Foreign Language Instruction through the Study of Literary Texts. French, German, Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silber, Ellen S., Ed.; Krug, Clara, Ed.

    This guide presents essays and curriculum units designed for use by secondary and college teachers of French, German, and Spanish as a foreign language. The first section of the work includes two essays, in French, and eight curriculum units based on the stories of Guy de Maupassant. The second section contains seven curriculum units that…

  6. Training in Identifying Oral Reading Departures from Text Which Can Be Explained As Spanish-English Phonological Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamberg, Walter J.; And Others

    Two studies were undertaken to investigate the effect of a tutoring practicum module. This module was designed to improve the performance of education undergraduates using the informal inventory (IRI) in making auditory discriminations during oral reading between departures from text that either could or could not be explained as phonological…

  7. Effects of Reader's Knowledge, Text Type, and Test Type on L1 and L2 Reading Comprehension in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantmeier, Cindy

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined how a reader's subject knowledge, the analogy versus nonanalogy difference in text type, and type of test (written recall, sentence completion, and multiple choice) affect first language (L1) and second language (L2) reading comprehension. There were three participant groups: (a) 53 native Costa Ricans enrolled in…

  8. Secondary School Languages: Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This curriculum guide outlines three programs for secondary school Spanish instruction, each program covering grades 9, 10, and 11 in British Columbian schools. Each outline specifies basic texts, supplementary readings, and teaching aids. In addition, a very basic outline of a beginner's Spanish 11 is offered, and a Spanish 12 literature course…

  9. Early Comprehension Instruction for Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners: Teaching Text-Level Reading Skills while Maintaining Effects on Word-Level Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solari, Emily J.; Gerber, Michael M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of three instructional conditions on precursors to successful reading for Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELL). The study was conducted using a randomized, alternate treatment control group design specifically targeting phonological awareness (PA) listening comprehension (LC), and decoding in a…

  10. "Castellano" y "Espanol" (Castilian and Spanish)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz-Plaja, Guillermo

    1977-01-01

    Argues that the term "Castilian" should replace "Spanish" to denote the Castilian form of the language. "Spanish" may then be a more inclusive term, enbracing all the dialects of the language. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  11. "Castellano" y "Espanol" (Castilian and Spanish)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz-Plaja, Guillermo

    1977-01-01

    Argues that the term "Castilian" should replace "Spanish" to denote the Castilian form of the language. "Spanish" may then be a more inclusive term, enbracing all the dialects of the language. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  12. From Spanish to Portuguese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulsh, Jack L.

    This text is designed for native speakers of American English who have a good command of Spanish and want to acquire a knowledge of Portuguese. The manual focuses on features of Portuguese pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary that have similar but not always identical counterparts in Spanish. Correspondences which often create interference for…

  13. Cultural Understanding: Spanish Level 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Reid

    The teacher's attention is focused on selected elements of Spanish culture which may be taught integrally with instructional materials found in the first-year Spanish texts "Entender y Hablar", "La Familia Fernandez", and "A-LM Spanish, Level One". Items are cross-referenced for 42 cultural concepts ranging from nicknames to streets, roads, and…

  14. Las uniones conjuntivas en espanol (Conjunctive Correspondences in Spanish)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez Botero, Luis

    1977-01-01

    This study of the medieval Spanish concept of order examines uses made of the word "y" ("and") in Spanish medieval writing to join words and phrases connoting social, natural and human order. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  15. Las uniones conjuntivas en espanol (Conjunctive Correspondences in Spanish)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez Botero, Luis

    1977-01-01

    This study of the medieval Spanish concept of order examines uses made of the word "y" ("and") in Spanish medieval writing to join words and phrases connoting social, natural and human order. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  16. Lengua espanola o castellana? (Spanish or Castilian?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazaro Carreter, Fernando

    1976-01-01

    This article outlines the history of the debate concerning usage of the terms "castellano" and "espanol" referring to the Spanish language. Development of the language and the question of standardization are touched on. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  17. Lengua espanola o castellana? (Spanish or Castilian?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazaro Carreter, Fernando

    1976-01-01

    This article outlines the history of the debate concerning usage of the terms "castellano" and "espanol" referring to the Spanish language. Development of the language and the question of standardization are touched on. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  18. El idioma espanol en el mundo (The Spanish Language in the World)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron Castro, Rodolfo

    1975-01-01

    This report to the Office of Ibero-American Education concerns the status of Spanish in five areas: 1) A program on Spanish in the Philippines; 2) Spanish in the United States; 3) Cooperation with the Commission on Spanish of UNESCO; 4) A professorship in Bogota, and 5) Spanish scientific terminology. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  19. El idioma espanol en el mundo (The Spanish Language in the World)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron Castro, Rodolfo

    1975-01-01

    This report to the Office of Ibero-American Education concerns the status of Spanish in five areas: 1) A program on Spanish in the Philippines; 2) Spanish in the United States; 3) Cooperation with the Commission on Spanish of UNESCO; 4) A professorship in Bogota, and 5) Spanish scientific terminology. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  20. Exploring French, German, and Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steigerwald, Jacob

    This text- and workbook serves as an introduction to French, German, and Spanish as second languages. An introductory chapter discusses the relatedness of languages and the interrelationships of the Indo-European language families. The relationships of French, German, and Spanish to English are demonstrated in cognate exercises. In the second…

  1. Espanol para Hoteleria y Turismo = Spanish for Travel and Tourism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montes, Yara G.

    This beginning through advanced Spanish text includes grammar explanations, readings, and exercises with the emphasis on situations involving travel and tourism. The introductory lesson covers the Spanish language, the importance of Spanish in the United States, the Spanish alphabet, pronunciation, capitalization, punctuation, syllabication,…

  2. Spanish Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Anne; Wilson, Mary Ellen

    1995-01-01

    Provides instructional strategies and materials designed to introduce students to Spanish art. Includes four lesson plans with student objectives, background information, and step-by-step instructional procedures. Also includes four full-page color reproductions of paintings by Murillo, Picasso, El Greco, and de Goya. (CFR)

  3. La Hispanidad en los Estados Unidos (Spanish Influence in the United States)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Da Silva, Zenia Sacks

    1975-01-01

    This paper recounts a brief history of Spanish exploration in the territory of the United States and surveys Spanish influence in industry, agriculture, foods, architecture and vocabulary. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  4. La Hispanidad en los Estados Unidos (Spanish Influence in the United States)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Da Silva, Zenia Sacks

    1975-01-01

    This paper recounts a brief history of Spanish exploration in the territory of the United States and surveys Spanish influence in industry, agriculture, foods, architecture and vocabulary. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  5. El espanol familiar y zonas afines--ensayo bibliografico: 26 (Colloquial Spanish and Related Areas--Bibliographic Essay: 26)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polo, Jose

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the study of colloquial Spanish in literary texts. Presents an annotated list of Spanish colloquial expressions extracted from "Paralelo 40" by Jose Luis Castillo-Puche. (Text is in Spanish.) (TL)

  6. El espanol familiar y zonas afines--ensayo bibliografico: 26 (Colloquial Spanish and Related Areas--Bibliographic Essay: 26)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polo, Jose

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the study of colloquial Spanish in literary texts. Presents an annotated list of Spanish colloquial expressions extracted from "Paralelo 40" by Jose Luis Castillo-Puche. (Text is in Spanish.) (TL)

  7. Spanish for Spanish-Speaking Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuentes, Irma; And Others

    This curriculum bulletin, completely in Spanish, is intended to serve as a guide to teaching Spanish and the culture of Spain and the Latin-American countries to students who come from Spanish-speaking homes. The bulletin presents an accelerated course of study for the first year and includes the vocabulary idiomatic expressions, and structures…

  8. Spanish: Programmatic Course, Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, C. Cleland; And Others

    This manual accompanies a programmatic text in beginning Spanish which was developed for use in the Foreign Service Institute of the U.S. Department of State and is available as FL 000 961. It consists of all of the voicing script that does not appear in the student text. (AF)

  9. Spanish Literacy Investigation Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Jacqueline; Quinones, Anisia

    The Spanish Literacy Investigation Project was implemented to identify adult Spanish literacy programs throughout the country, to explore the availability of relevant Spanish literacy teaching methods, to determine relevant elements between Spanish literacy and English as a Second Language (ESL), and to describe a model for incorporating a Spanish…

  10. Spanish Literacy Investigation Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Jacqueline; Quinones, Anisia

    The Spanish Literacy Investigation Project was implemented to identify adult Spanish literacy programs throughout the country, to explore the availability of relevant Spanish literacy teaching methods, to determine relevant elements between Spanish literacy and English as a Second Language (ESL), and to describe a model for incorporating a Spanish…

  11. Inglaterra, primitiva colonia espanola (England, Primitive Spanish Colony)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Til, Brianes

    1975-01-01

    The author fantasizes that at some point in the distant past England was a Spanish colony. He supports his thesis by revealing fantastic etymologies of some English place names showing the influence of Spanish on English, for example "Surrey" comes from "su rey." (Text is in Spanish.) (TL)

  12. Inglaterra, primitiva colonia espanola (England, Primitive Spanish Colony)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Til, Brianes

    1975-01-01

    The author fantasizes that at some point in the distant past England was a Spanish colony. He supports his thesis by revealing fantastic etymologies of some English place names showing the influence of Spanish on English, for example "Surrey" comes from "su rey." (Text is in Spanish.) (TL)

  13. El Espanol, lengua internacional (Spanish, an International Language)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron Castro, Rodolfo

    1975-01-01

    Provides a short summary on the background and evolution of the Spanish language, stressing particularly the international role it has played throughout the centuries. This is evident today as Spanish is both an official and working language of the United Nations. (Text is in Spanish.) (DS)

  14. El Espanol, una Lengua "Familiar." (Spanish, an Informal Language)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criado de Val, Manuel

    1976-01-01

    This article describes what is perceived as a gradual relaxation of language usage norms in Spanish, and calls for the creation of a center to help modernize technical Spanish and to minimize the intrusion of English technical vocabulary. (Text is in Spanish.) (CLK)

  15. El espanol, lengua internacional (Spanish, an International Language)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaramillo, Flores

    1975-01-01

    Shows the importance and spread of Spanish as a world language by surveying the countries in which it is the official language and listing many instances in which Spanish has been chosen as the means of communication throughout history. (Text is in Spanish.) (TL)

  16. Apuntes sobre Latinismos en Espanol (Notes on Latinisms in Spanish)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez B., L. A.

    1977-01-01

    Several Latinisms appear in Latin American Spanish, which would logically be farther from its Latin roots than Spanish in Spain. The existence of these elements and their importance as linguistic facts is analyzed here. Four words are treated: "Cliente,""cuadrar,""cuarto" and "rabula." (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  17. El espanol, lengua internacional (Spanish, an International Language)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaramillo, Flores

    1975-01-01

    Shows the importance and spread of Spanish as a world language by surveying the countries in which it is the official language and listing many instances in which Spanish has been chosen as the means of communication throughout history. (Text is in Spanish.) (TL)

  18. Spanish: Programmatic Course, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, C. Cleland; And Others

    This beginning Spanish course was developed for use in the Foreign Service Institute of the U.S. Department of State. It concentrates on word and phrase structure and pronunciation and consists of 25 units, each having an introduction, a dialog, a section on grammatical observations, and one on application. The programmatic text emphasizes…

  19. Text Mining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trybula, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

  20. For Spanish Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivas, Yolanda

    1979-01-01

    Reviews eight children's books written in Spanish and one written in both Spanish and English. One is a book of riddles; the others deal with the topics of animals, minerals, plants and flowers, Indians, and pirates. (GT)

  1. 48 CFR 252.222-7004 - Compliance with Spanish social security laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compliance with Spanish... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7004 Compliance with Spanish social... Spanish Social Security Laws and Regulations (JUN 1997) (a) The Contractor shall comply with all Spanish...

  2. Targeting Oral and Cultural Proficiency for Medical Personnel: An Examination of Current Medical Spanish Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Karol

    2012-01-01

    Demand for medical Spanish courses has grown with the rising needs of Spanish-speaking patients in the United States, but while there is no shortage of beginning medical Spanish textbooks, very few target the intermediate level. This article examines eighteen medical Spanish texts published in the last twenty years with respect to seven factors:…

  3. 48 CFR 252.222-7004 - Compliance with Spanish social security laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance with Spanish... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7004 Compliance with Spanish social... Spanish Social Security Laws and Regulations (JUN 1997) (a) The Contractor shall comply with all Spanish...

  4. Targeting Oral and Cultural Proficiency for Medical Personnel: An Examination of Current Medical Spanish Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Karol

    2012-01-01

    Demand for medical Spanish courses has grown with the rising needs of Spanish-speaking patients in the United States, but while there is no shortage of beginning medical Spanish textbooks, very few target the intermediate level. This article examines eighteen medical Spanish texts published in the last twenty years with respect to seven factors:…

  5. Paginas del estudiante de espanol (Pages for the Student of Spanish)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carballo Picazo, Alfredo

    1975-01-01

    The fifteenth in a series of workbook lessons, this consists of a passage in Spanish concerning the Spanish city of Avila. Following are exercises on vocabulary and passives in English and Spanish to be completed by the student. (Text is in English and Spanish.) (CK)

  6. Advanced Spanish Refresher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course is intended for third- or fourth-year Spanish students seeking to review the essentials of Spanish grammar and to increase their vocabulary. It is specifically intended for those planning to take the College Board Achievement Test in Spanish. Performance objectives are prescribed for culture study, speaking, reading, and writing…

  7. Transnational Spanish Language Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavillan, Eva; And Others

    The Transnational Spanish Language Project curriculum is a set of instructional materials designed to enhance intercultural business communication between North American and Spanish American cultures. The curriculum covers three areas: office procedures; banking; and import/export business. Lessons, all in Spanish, are intended for…

  8. Studies in Southwest Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, J. Donald, Ed.; Ornstein, Jacob, Ed.

    The Spanish dialects of the Southwest United States have received little serious attention until recently. The present volume contains studies designed to contribute to the understanding and acceptance of Southwest Spanish. The book consists of the following chapters: (1) "Linguistic Diversity in Southwest Spanish," by Garland D. Bills…

  9. El espanol con gusto - Spanish with Pleasure: A Television Course in Beginning College Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semprun, Morahima de

    Sixty-four Spanish lessons for use in a televised beginning college Spanish program are presented in this text. Lessons include exercises, verb study, conversation, vocabulary development, and grammatical analysis. Fundamental to the course is the belief that mastery of grammar can only be achieved through conversation. As a consequence, lessons…

  10. Text Prep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buehl, Doug

    2017-01-01

    To understand complex disciplinary texts, students need to possess a rich store of background knowledge. But what happens if students don't have that knowledge? In this article, Doug Buehl explores frontloading strategies that can bridge the gap between what students know and what they need to know to comprehend a disciplinary text. He outlines…

  11. Text Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents annotations of approximately 30 titles grouped in text sets. Defines a text set as five to ten books on a particular topic or theme. Discusses books on the following topics: living creatures; pirates; physical appearance; natural disasters; and the Irish potato famine. (SG)

  12. Text Prep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buehl, Doug

    2017-01-01

    To understand complex disciplinary texts, students need to possess a rich store of background knowledge. But what happens if students don't have that knowledge? In this article, Doug Buehl explores frontloading strategies that can bridge the gap between what students know and what they need to know to comprehend a disciplinary text. He outlines…

  13. Text Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents annotations of approximately 30 titles grouped in text sets. Defines a text set as five to ten books on a particular topic or theme. Discusses books on the following topics: living creatures; pirates; physical appearance; natural disasters; and the Irish potato famine. (SG)

  14. Paginas del estudiante de espanol (Study Pages for the Spanish Student)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carballo Picazo, Alfredo

    1977-01-01

    This Spanish lesson consists of an essay on the use of "usted" and "tu," followed by a series of exercises including questions on the text, vocabulary, grammar and the use of the subjunctive. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  15. Text mining.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Andrew B; Shepherd, Adrian J

    2008-01-01

    One of the fastest-growing fields in bioinformatics is text mining: the application of natural language processing techniques to problems of knowledge management and discovery, using large collections of biological or biomedical text such as MEDLINE. The techniques used in text mining range from the very simple (e.g., the inference of relationships between genes from frequent proximity in documents) to the complex and computationally intensive (e.g., the analysis of sentence structures with parsers in order to extract facts about protein-protein interactions from statements in the text). This chapter presents a general introduction to some of the key principles and challenges of natural language processing, and introduces some of the tools available to end-users and developers. A case study describes the construction and testing of a simple tool designed to tackle a task that is crucial to almost any application of text mining in bioinformatics--identifying gene/protein names in text and mapping them onto records in an external database.

  16. Text Illustrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duchastel, Philippe C.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses three roles of textbook illustrations--to arrest the reader's attention and arouse interest, to provide explanation and clarification of complex verbal descriptions, and to aid retention of the information presented in the text. It is recommended that illustrations be designed with their specific role(s) in mind. (EAO)

  17. Reorganized text.

    PubMed

    2015-05-01

    Reorganized Text: In the Original Investigation titled “Patterns of Hospital Utilization for Head and Neck Cancer Care: Changing Demographics” posted online in the January 29, 2015, issue of JAMA Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery (doi:10.1001 /jamaoto.2014.3603), information was copied within sections and text rearranged to accommodate Continuing Medical Education quiz formatting. The information from the topic statements of each paragraph in the Hypothesis Testing subsection of the Methods section was collected in a new first paragraph for that subsection, which reads as follows: “Several hypotheses regarding the causes of regionalization of HNCA care were tested using the NIS data: (1) increasing patient comorbidities over time, causing a shift in care to teaching institutions that would theoretically be better equipped to handle such increased comorbidities; (2) shifting of payer status; (3) increased proportion of prior radiation therapy; and (4) a higher fraction of more complex procedures being referred and performed at teaching institutions.” In addition, the phrase "As summarized in Table3," was added to the beginning of paragraph 6 of the Discussion section, and the call-out to Table 3 in the middle of that paragraph was deleted. Finally, paragraphs 6 and 7 of the Discussion section were combined.

  18. El sistema fonologico del dialecto judeo-espanol de Bulgaria (The Phonological System of the Judeo-Spanish Dialect of Bulgaria)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanchev, Ivan V.

    1974-01-01

    The phonetics and phonological system of the Bulgarian Judeo-Spanish dialect is discussed, showing its similarities to and borrowings from modern Spanish and Bulgarian. Treatment of phonemes is analyzed in detail. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  19. El sistema fonologico del dialecto judeo-espanol de Bulgaria (The Phonological System of the Judeo-Spanish Dialect of Bulgaria)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanchev, Ivan V.

    1974-01-01

    The phonetics and phonological system of the Bulgarian Judeo-Spanish dialect is discussed, showing its similarities to and borrowings from modern Spanish and Bulgarian. Treatment of phonemes is analyzed in detail. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  20. Notas sobre los Sonidos Consonantes en Espanol (Notes on Consonant Sounds in Spanish)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezquerra, Raimundo

    1974-01-01

    This paper examines the Spanish phonetic system, as set forth by Navarro Tomas in his "Manual de Pronunciacion Espanola," and discusses the influences exerted by certain sounds over others. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  1. Informe sobre el proyecto contrastivo hispano-hungaro (Report on the Spanish-Hungarian Contrastive Project)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulei-Szanto, Andres

    1974-01-01

    A description of a contrastive linguistics project in Hungary aiming to augment linguistic theories in the Spanish language and propound theories for scientific and artistic translation. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  2. Informe sobre el proyecto contrastivo hispano-hungaro (Report on the Spanish-Hungarian Contrastive Project)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulei-Szanto, Andres

    1974-01-01

    A description of a contrastive linguistics project in Hungary aiming to augment linguistic theories in the Spanish language and propound theories for scientific and artistic translation. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  3. El espanol basico que debe ensenarse en la universidad (Basic Spanish That Must be Taught at the University Level)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    German Gallo, M.; Ruben Dario, Julio C.

    1975-01-01

    This article stresses the need for improved Spanish instruction in Spanish and Latin American universities for Spanish-speaking students. Obstacles to teaching such as student apathy and professional shortcomings are outlined. Suggestions for improved curriculum content and methodology are given. (Text is in Spanish.) (CLK)

  4. Introductory Spanish: Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This introductory conversational course in Spanish is intended primarily for classroom instruction. The student learns to speak contemporary Spanish through the use of short dialogs which take him from simple school activities to talk about the new student in class. Performance objectives are prescribed for culture study, listening, speaking,…

  5. Why I Study Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchmanowicz, Pauline

    English teachers together with multilingual and multidialect students can create new standards for language use and learning in the classroom. A teacher of writing and ethnic studies finds herself telling her students "I still have time to learn Spanish." Many to whom she speaks these words are native speakers of Spanish, struggling in classroom…

  6. Le Indeterminacy in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, David William

    The standard treatment of object pronouns in Latin American Spanish assigns a direct-object function to "lo" and "la" and an indirect-object function to "le." This study challenges this descriptive attribution in light of the contradictory and refractory evidence in Spanish morphosyntax. It is suggested that more…

  7. Teaching Spanish to the Spanish Speaking: Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes Fallis, Guadalupe, Ed.; Garcia-Moya, Rudolfo, Ed.

    This volume gathers a sampling of educators' ideas on the issue of the role of the non-standard dialect in the teaching of Spanish to Spanish speakers. Part one, "Rationale for the Teaching of Spanish to the Spanish Speaking," deals with philosophy and theory and contains papers by Guadalupe Valdes Fallis and Nasario Garcia. Part two,…

  8. Teaching Spanish to the Spanish Speaking: Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes Fallis, Guadalupe, Ed.; Garcia-Moya, Rudolfo, Ed.

    This volume gathers a sampling of educators' ideas on the issue of the role of the non-standard dialect in the teaching of Spanish to Spanish speakers. Part one, "Rationale for the Teaching of Spanish to the Spanish Speaking," deals with philosophy and theory and contains papers by Guadalupe Valdes Fallis and Nasario Garcia. Part two,…

  9. Teaching Spanish to the Spanish-Speaking: Classroom Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallis, Guadalupe Valdes

    Students of Spanish in the United States who are native speakers of Spanish need courses designed to meet their special linguistic needs. The tendency has been for teachers to place negative value judgments on the Spanish dialects spoken by Mexican-Americans. Instead, courses should be based on the areas in which the native Spanish speaker needs…

  10. Fiesta, Spanish-S: 7509.73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyar, Olga C.

    This course is intended to teach the student about Spanish and Latin American culture in order to broaden his capacity for understanding and appreciating those cultures. The subject matter in this course is the folklore, customs, types of food, and music of a culture as seen through holidays, festivals, styles, and special occasions. Learning…

  11. Teaching L2 Spanish Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saalfeld, Anita K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of training on the perception of Spanish stress, an important feature in the Spanish verbal morphology system. Participants were two intact classes of native English speakers enrolled in a six-week session of second-semester Spanish, as well as native English and native Spanish control groups. During the…

  12. Teaching L2 Spanish Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saalfeld, Anita K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of training on the perception of Spanish stress, an important feature in the Spanish verbal morphology system. Participants were two intact classes of native English speakers enrolled in a six-week session of second-semester Spanish, as well as native English and native Spanish control groups. During the…

  13. Intermediate Spanish, Part 3, Foreign Language: 7505.33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The third part of a five-part Spanish course serves as a curriculum guide to accompany the basic text, "ALM Spanish," Units 21 and 22. The overall goals of the course are to teach students to understand, speak, read, and write at a normal speed any arrangement of lexical and structural material learned. The guide focuses on six areas of…

  14. Progressing in Spanish Part 2, Foreign Language: 7504.32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The second part of a 5-part course in Spanish serves as a curriculum guide to accompany the basic text, "ALM Spanish," units 12 and 13. The guide focuses on six areas of language instruction: (1) listening, (2) speaking, (3) reading, (4) writing, (5) culture knowledge, and (6) student analysis of attitudes toward language learning. The…

  15. Progressing in Spanish Part 2, Foreign Language: 7504.12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The second part of a 5-part course in Spanish serves as a curriculum guide to accompany the basic text, "ALM Spanish," units 13 and 14. The guide focuses on six areas of language instruction: (1) listening, (2) speaking, (3) reading, (4) writing, (5) culture knowledge, and (6) student analysis of attitudes toward language learning. The…

  16. Progressing in Spanish Part 4, Foreign Language: 7504.34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The fourth part of a 5-part Spanish course serves as a curriculum guide to accompany the basic text, "ALM Spanish," units 16 and 17. Emphasis on guided discussion and free conversation is maintained throughout the course. The guide focuses on six areas of language instruction: (1) listening, (2) speaking, (3) reading, (4) writing, (5)…

  17. El Espanol como Idioma Universal (Spanish as a Universal Language)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mijares, Jose

    1977-01-01

    A proposal to transform Spanish into a universal language because it possesses the prerequisites: it is a living language, spoken in several countries; it is a natural language; and it uses the ordinary alphabet. Details on simplification and standardization are given. (Text is in Spanish.) (AMH)

  18. El Espanol como Idioma Universal (Spanish as a Universal Language)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mijares, Jose

    1977-01-01

    A proposal to transform Spanish into a universal language because it possesses the prerequisites: it is a living language, spoken in several countries; it is a natural language; and it uses the ordinary alphabet. Details on simplification and standardization are given. (Text is in Spanish.) (AMH)

  19. Paginas del Estudiante de Espanol (Pages for the Spanish Student)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picazo, Alfredo Carballo

    1977-01-01

    A complete lesson suitable for high school Spanish classes. A passage is presented, on which comprehension and vocabulary exercises are based. The grammar section deals with the subjunctive with "si" and the gerund and is accompanied by many exercises. (Text is in Spanish.) (AMH)

  20. Spicing up Spanish Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, Cawood; Vest, Terri

    2009-01-01

    Looking for a "habanero" (extremely hot) lesson to engage first-year Spanish language students in an in-depth study of Spanish-speaking countries? This article offers an overview of how the authors used 21st-century tools to get students excited about the not-so-new assignment of reporting on the people and culture of another country. Chances are,…

  1. 48 CFR 252.222-7004 - Compliance with Spanish social security laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... social security laws and regulations. 252.222-7004 Section 252.222-7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7004 Compliance with Spanish social... Spanish Social Security Laws and Regulations (JUN 1997) (a) The Contractor shall comply with all Spanish...

  2. 48 CFR 252.222-7004 - Compliance with Spanish social security laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... social security laws and regulations. 252.222-7004 Section 252.222-7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7004 Compliance with Spanish social... Spanish Social Security Laws and Regulations (JUN 1997) (a) The Contractor shall comply with all Spanish...

  3. 48 CFR 252.222-7004 - Compliance with Spanish social security laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... social security laws and regulations. 252.222-7004 Section 252.222-7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7004 Compliance with Spanish social... Spanish Social Security Laws and Regulations (JUN 1997) (a) The Contractor shall comply with all Spanish...

  4. 48 CFR 252.228-7006 - Compliance with Spanish laws and insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance with Spanish... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.228-7006 Compliance with Spanish laws and insurance. As prescribed at 228.370(e), use the following clause: Compliance with Spanish Laws and Insurance (DEC 1998) (a...

  5. Los americanismos, o espanol crecido en ultramar (Americanisms, or Spanish Created Overseas)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaza Calderon, Baltasar

    1976-01-01

    Because of the great number of speakers of Spanish in America, Spanish American vocabulary is greatly increasing. To be accepted as an "Americanism," a word must have originated in Hispanic America and be prevalent over a large geographic area. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  6. Los americanismos, o espanol crecido en ultramar (Americanisms, or Spanish Created Overseas)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaza Calderon, Baltasar

    1976-01-01

    Because of the great number of speakers of Spanish in America, Spanish American vocabulary is greatly increasing. To be accepted as an "Americanism," a word must have originated in Hispanic America and be prevalent over a large geographic area. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  7. Espanol avanzado para estudiantes de literatura (Advanced Spanish for Literature Students)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steel, Brian

    1974-01-01

    Spanish foreign language teaching should aim at the following: 1) adequate reading-comprehension ability; 2) fluency in spoken and written Spanish; and 3) ability to recognize linguistic characteristics in literature, which would serve as a basis for further graduate stylistic research. (Text is in Spanish.) (Author/DS)

  8. Espanol avanzado para estudiantes de literatura (Advanced Spanish for Literature Students)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steel, Brian

    1974-01-01

    Spanish foreign language teaching should aim at the following: 1) adequate reading-comprehension ability; 2) fluency in spoken and written Spanish; and 3) ability to recognize linguistic characteristics in literature, which would serve as a basis for further graduate stylistic research. (Text is in Spanish.) (Author/DS)

  9. Selecting Spanish Books in the Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corona, Elia

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author recommends a certain criteria for selecting Spanish-language books for elementary students such as cultural factors, setting, time, age, language and visuals. She also enumerates some authors and a listing of their many bilingual texts, which can be used to enrich a school or classroom library.

  10. Plant Nutrition in Spanish Secondary Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Concepcion; Garcia-Barrios, Susana; Martinez-Lozada, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the authors analyse the conceptual contents related to plant nutrition in the widely-used school texts of six Spanish publishers. An analysis dossier was elaborated based on the epistemological and pedagogical study of this subject. The publishers deal with the issue of plant nutrition at three different levels (multicellular,…

  11. Reading Levels of Spanish Deaf Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monreal, S. T.; Hernandez, R. S.

    2005-01-01

    The Reading Levels of a population of 93 Spanish deaf students were examined. All study participants had prelingual profound hearing loss; their ages ranged from 9 to 20 years. All were enrolled in compulsory education during 2002-2003 in the Canary Islands (Spain). They were evaluated with sentence and text comprehension subtests from the…

  12. Reading Levels of Spanish Deaf Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monreal, S. T.; Hernandez, R. S.

    2005-01-01

    The Reading Levels of a population of 93 Spanish deaf students were examined. All study participants had prelingual profound hearing loss; their ages ranged from 9 to 20 years. All were enrolled in compulsory education during 2002-2003 in the Canary Islands (Spain). They were evaluated with sentence and text comprehension subtests from the…

  13. Plant Nutrition in Spanish Secondary Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Concepcion; Garcia-Barrios, Susana; Martinez-Lozada, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the authors analyse the conceptual contents related to plant nutrition in the widely-used school texts of six Spanish publishers. An analysis dossier was elaborated based on the epistemological and pedagogical study of this subject. The publishers deal with the issue of plant nutrition at three different levels (multicellular,…

  14. Baseball/Beisbol. Spanish-English, English-Spanish. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Philip

    The bilingual glossary, in both English-to-Spanish and Spanish-to-English, defines words and phrases related to the game of baseball as it is reported by Spanish-language newspapers and magazines in Mexico and the United States. A list of U.S. and Mexican baseball league teams is appended. (MSE)

  15. The Acquisition of Spanish Grammar by Native Spanish Speaking Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gustavo

    The normal sequence of development of Spanish phonology and Spanish grammatical patterns in the speech of native Spanish-speaking children, two to five years old, was studied to determine the syntactic structures and range of language variability at each chronological age level. Middle-class children, living in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of…

  16. Spanish? What Spanish? The Search for a 'Caribbean Standard.'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, C.

    1978-01-01

    Variations in lexicon, phonology, morphology, and syntax of Spanish as spoken in Venezuela, Cuba, Mexico, and Castile have led to a diversity in the types of Spanish taught in Caribbean schools. The Programa Interamericano de Linguistica y Ensenanza de Idiomas is conducting a survey which will provide authoritative standards for Spanish teachers.…

  17. Spanish? What Spanish? The Search for a 'Caribbean Standard.'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, C.

    1978-01-01

    Variations in lexicon, phonology, morphology, and syntax of Spanish as spoken in Venezuela, Cuba, Mexico, and Castile have led to a diversity in the types of Spanish taught in Caribbean schools. The Programa Interamericano de Linguistica y Ensenanza de Idiomas is conducting a survey which will provide authoritative standards for Spanish teachers.…

  18. Reading prosody in Spanish dyslexics.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Álvarez-Cañizo, Marta; Martínez, Cristina; García, Noemí; Cuetos, Fernando

    2016-10-01

    Reading becomes expressive when word and text reading are quick, accurate and automatic. Recent studies have reported that skilled readers use greater pitch changes and fewer irrelevant pauses than poor readers. Given that developmental dyslexics have difficulty acquiring and automating the alphabetic code and developing orthographic representations of words, it is possible that their use of prosody when reading differs from that of typical readers. The goal of this study was to investigate whether the reading prosody of Spanish-speaking dyslexics differs from that of typical Spanish readers. Two experiments were performed. The first experiment involved 36 children (18 with dyslexia), and the second involved 46 adults (23 with dyslexia). Participants were asked to read aloud a text which included declarative, exclamatory and interrogative sentences. Data on pausing and reading rate (number of pauses, duration of pauses and utterances), pitch changes, intensity changes and syllable lengthening were extracted from the recordings. We found that dyslexic people read more slowly than typical readers and they also made more inappropriate and longer pauses, even as adults with considerable reading experience. We also observed that dyslexics differed from skilled readers in their use of some prosodic features, particularly pitch changes at the end of sentences. This is probably because they have trouble anticipating some structural features of prose, such as sentence ends.

  19. Developmental Assessment of Spanish Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toronto, Allen S.

    1976-01-01

    Described is the Developmental Assessment of Spanish Grammar, an analysis procedure designed to evaluate the language of American Spanish-speaking children with deficient grammatical skills and to serve as a model for structuring language remediation. (Author/SB)

  20. Using Authentic Reading Texts to Discover Underlying Sociocultural Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Carmen

    1991-01-01

    Describes the use of authentic Spanish language materials to design activities to help students discover and understand a text's underlying sociocultural context, using both pre- and postreading strategies to foster cultural awareness and understanding. (two references) (Author/CB)

  1. Availability of Spanish prescription labels.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Iman; Lo, Sarah; Ozuah, Philip O

    2006-02-01

    The research team conducted a cross-sectional telephone survey of all pharmacies in the Bronx, New York (99.4% participation rate) to determine availability of Spanish prescription labels. One hundred twenty five pharmacies (78%) were small independent pharmacies; 36 (22%) were large-chain pharmacies. Overall, 111 (69%) stated that they could provide prescription labels in Spanish. Overall, for all the pharmacy ZIP codes, the mean proportion of the population that was Spanish-speaking was 46.8% (range 11% to 71.6%). Seventy-eight (48%) pharmacies were located in areas where more than 50% of the population were Spanish-speaking, 48 (30%) were located in areas with 25.1-50% Spanish-speakers, and 35 (22%) were in areas with up to 25% Spanish-speakers. Small independent pharmacies were more likely than large chain pharmacies to provide prescription labels in Spanish (71% vs. 61%, p=0.25). All the pharmacists commented that a patient must specifically request a Spanish prescription label in order to receive one. Pharmacies located in areas with the highest proportion of Spanish speakers were more likely to provide prescription labels in Spanish (82% vs. 62% vs. 49%; p=.001). Of the 111 pharmacies that could provide Spanish labels, 95 (86%) used a computer program to perform the translation and 16(14%) used a lay employee. Of pharmacies using a computer program, only one had a Spanish-speaking pharmacist who could check and correct the computer translations.

  2. Know Your Laws. Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.; Ackerson, Leonor

    This Spanish language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult student with laws she/he will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three levels of…

  3. The Spanish Texans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Univ., San Antonio. Inst. of Texan Cultures.

    Prepared by the staff of the University of Texas Institute of Texan Cultures at San Antonio, this pamphlet is one of a series which reports contributions made by ethnic groups to the history and culture of Texas. Specifically, historical incidents involving Spanish explorers and missionaries are discussed, relating their contributions to Texas.…

  4. Introductory Spanish IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This introductory conversational course in Spanish is intended primarily for use in the classroom. The student is to learn some general differences between Argentina and the United States and how to better describe his friends. The common verbs "tener,""venir,""ir,""dar," and those that change "e" are presented. Additional uses of "ser" and…

  5. Puerto Rican Spanish: Opinions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Francisco

    Part of a larger study of Puerto Ricans' language attitudes, an investigation of the attitudes of 104 high school teachers and students in Puerto Rico focused on whether the subjects dissented within or among groups on the published cliches or statements that stereotype Puerto Rican Spanish (PRS) as inferior. All but two subjects placed themselves…

  6. Spanish Consensus Statement

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Guillermo Álvarez; Cuesta, Jordi Ardevol; Loureda, Rafael Arriaza; España, Fernando Ávila; Matas, Ramón Balius; Pazos, Fernando Baró; de Dios Beas Jiménez, Juan; Rosell, Jorge Candel; Fernandez, César Cobián; Ros, Francisco Esparza; Colmenero, Josefina Espejo; de Prado, Jorge Fernández; Cota, Juan José García; González, Jose Ignacio Garrido; Santander, Manuela González; Munilla, Miguel Ángel Herrador; Ruiz, Francisco Ivorra; Díaz, Fernando Jiménez; Marqueta, Pedro Manonelles; Fernandez, Antonio Maestro; Benito, Juan José Muñoz; Vilás, Ramón Olivé; Teres, Xavier Peirau; Amaro, José Peña; Roque, Juan Pérez San; Parenteu, Christophe Ramírez; Serna, Juan Ribas; Álvarez, Mikel Sánchez; Marchori, Carlos Sanchez; Soto, Miguel del Valle; Alonso, José María Villalón; García, Pedro Guillen; de la Iglesia, Nicolas Hugo; Alcorocho, Juan Manuel Lopez

    2015-01-01

    On the 21st of March, 2015, experts met at Clínica CEMTRO in Madrid, Spain, under the patronage of The Spanish Society for Sports Traumatology (SETRADE), The Spanish Federation of Sports Medicine (FEMEDE), The Spanish Association of Medical Services for Football Clubs (AEMEF), and The Spanish Association of Medical Services for Basketball Clubs (AEMB) with the aim of establishing a round table that would allow specialists to consider the most appropriate current general actions to be taken when treating muscle tears in sport, based on proven scientific data described in the medical literature. Each expert received a questionnaire prior to the aforementioned meeting comprising a set of questions concerning therapeutic indications generally applied in the different stages present during muscle repair. The present Consensus Document is the result of the answers to the questionnaire and resulting discussion and consensus over which are the best current indications in the treatment of muscle tears in sport. Avoiding immobilization, not taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) randomly, fostering early mobilization, increasing vascularization of injured, site and regulating inflammatory mechanisms—without inhibiting these from the early stages of the recovery period—all stood out as main points of the Consensus Document. Additionally, there is controversy concerning cell stimulation techniques and the use of growth factors or cell inhibitors. The decision concerning discharge was unanimous, as was the criteria considered when it came to performing sport techniques without pain. PMID:27213161

  7. Consumer Education. Spanish Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Continuing Education Curriculum Development.

    The teacher directed manual suggests lesson plans in the area of consumer education and is designed to provide appropriate basic educational materials for Spanish speaking, educationally disadvantaged students. Originally designed for use in adult basic education classes, each unit contains background material for the teacher, a detailed lesson…

  8. Know Your Laws. Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.; Ackerson, Leonor

    This Spanish language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult student with laws she/he will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three levels of…

  9. Spanish Vowel Sandhi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Sandra Pinkerton

    The effects of syllable timing and syllable sequence type on vowel sandhi in Spanish are investigated in this paper. It is argued that structuralist and generative treatments of vowel sandhi, which are characterized by generalizations about vowel "shortening" and dropping and glide formation, are inadequate because they focus exclusively…

  10. The Spanish Texans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Univ., San Antonio. Inst. of Texan Cultures.

    Prepared by the staff of the University of Texas Institute of Texan Cultures at San Antonio, this pamphlet is one of a series which reports contributions made by ethnic groups to the history and culture of Texas. Specifically, historical incidents involving Spanish explorers and missionaries are discussed, relating their contributions to Texas.…

  11. I Can Speak Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    The guide presents content and techniques for teaching conversational Spanish in the elementary grades. It contains an introductory section and 20 units for classroom instruction. The introduction includes notes on the overall objectives of the course, general guidelines on classroom procedure, and specific techniques for use of the materials…

  12. I Can Speak Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    The guide presents content and techniques for teaching conversational Spanish in the elementary grades. It contains an introductory section and 20 units for classroom instruction. The introduction includes notes on the overall objectives of the course, general guidelines on classroom procedure, and specific techniques for use of the materials…

  13. Spanish Resource Materials Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honea, Clara Pena; And Others

    Facts about Hispanic civilization, history, and culture are compiled to provide a resource for educators and students. Overviews are presented of the history and geographical features of Spain and Latin America, major personalities of the Hispanic world, aspects of Hispanic culture and religion, features of the Spanish language, Hispanic…

  14. Basic Spanish: Student Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Peggy J.; And Others

    This handbook was first planned for use by the teacher and students of two experimental introductory Spanish classes of the University of South Carolina, employing the materials "Espanol a lo vivo" during the 1971-72 and 1972-73 academic years. One group followed a traditional approach to instruction having class four times weekly, while the other…

  15. [Spanish immigration in Cuba].

    PubMed

    Gonzalez Suarez, D

    1988-01-01

    Trends in immigration to Cuba from Spain in the first three decades of the twentieth century are analyzed. The author notes that this immigration was responsible for more than 25 percent of the population growth that occurred during this period. The impact of changes in Spanish and Cuban law on migration flows is considered.

  16. Spanish-Speaking Heroes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axford, Roger W.

    Given in this book are 23 brief biographies of outstanding Spanish speaking athletes, businessmen, government employees, educators, politicians, a labor leader, singer, actor, and musician. Their struggles, sacrifices, courage, educational background, and accomplishments are described. Among those discussed are Cesar Chavez; Senator Joseph M.…

  17. Developmental assessment of Spanish grammar.

    PubMed

    Toronto, A S

    1976-05-01

    The Developmental Assessment of Spanish Grammar (DASG) provides a language analysis procedure for Spanish-speaking children similar to the Developmental Sentence Scoring (DSS) procedure in English. The DASG is not an attempted translation of the DSS but was developed independently, taking into consideration the present knowledge of Spanish language acquisition. The purpose of the DASG is to evaluate the language of children with deficient grammatical skills in Spanish and to serve as a model for structuring Spanish language therapy. Proposed syntactic hierarchies for the following six grammatical categories are presented: indefinite pronouns and noun modifiers, personal pronouns, primary verbs, secondary verbs, conjunctions, and interrogative words. Weighted scores are assigned to groups of structures within the hierarchies and are used to score Spanish sentences children use spontaneously in conversation with an adult. The DASG was standardized on 128 Spanish-speaking children between the ages of 3.0 and 6.11 years. Norms and reliability measures are presented.

  18. 7 CFR 51.2734 - Spanish type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Spanish type. 51.2734 Section 51.2734 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Definitions § 51.2734 Spanish type. Spanish type means peanuts of varieties which belong to the Spanish classification group and which are free from kernels of...

  19. 7 CFR 51.2734 - Spanish type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spanish type. 51.2734 Section 51.2734 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Definitions § 51.2734 Spanish type. Spanish type means peanuts of varieties which belong to the Spanish classification group and which are free from kernels of...

  20. 7 CFR 51.2734 - Spanish type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Spanish type. 51.2734 Section 51.2734 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Definitions § 51.2734 Spanish type. Spanish type means peanuts of varieties which belong to the Spanish...

  1. 7 CFR 51.2734 - Spanish type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Spanish type. 51.2734 Section 51.2734 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Definitions § 51.2734 Spanish type. Spanish type means peanuts of varieties which belong to the Spanish classification group and which are free from kernels of...

  2. 7 CFR 51.2734 - Spanish type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Spanish type. 51.2734 Section 51.2734 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Definitions § 51.2734 Spanish type. Spanish type means peanuts of varieties which belong to the Spanish...

  3. Text Enhancement: Controlled Vocabulary vs. Free Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Ernest

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the quality of information retrieval using "free text" searching in full-text databases and presents a critical perspective on the importance of augmenting access to full-text databases through some form of text enhancement, such as the use of a limited controlled vocabulary for indexing general concepts. (Author/JL)

  4. Espanol para el hispanolhablante (Spanish for the Spanish Speaker).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, George M.

    This guide provides Texas teachers and administrators with guidelines, goals, instructional strategies, and activities for teaching Spanish to secondary level native speakers. It is based on the principle that the Spanish speaking student is the strongest linguistic and cultural resource to Texas teachers of languages other than English, and one…

  5. Continuing Spanish in Grade Four: MLA Teacher's Guide. A Course of Study Including Methods, Materials, and Aids for Teaching Conversational Spanish to Fourth-Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mary P.; And Others

    This is the second volume in a series of texts in a conversational Spanish course for elementary school children. Fourteen basic units present introductory linguistic patterns and cultural insights into the lives of the Spanish people. They include: (1) Review Unit 1, (2) Review Unit 2, (3) Special Unit A--"Cristobal Colon," (4) Review Unit 3, (5)…

  6. Continuing Spanish in Grade Five: MLA Teacher's Guide. A Course of Study Including Methods, Materials, and Aids for Teaching Conversational Spanish to Fifth-Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mary P.; And Others

    This is the third volume in a series of texts in a conversational Spanish course for elementary school children. Nine basic units present introductory linguistic patterns and cultural insights into the lives of the Spanish people. They include: (1) Review Unit 1, ("Cristobal Colon"), (2) Review Unit 2, (3) "Un Accidente,""La Navidad," and…

  7. Continuing Spanish in Grade Five: MLA Teacher's Guide. A Course of Study Including Methods, Materials, and Aids for Teaching Conversational Spanish to Fifth-Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mary P.; And Others

    This is the third volume in a series of texts in a conversational Spanish course for elementary school children. Nine basic units present introductory linguistic patterns and cultural insights into the lives of the Spanish people. They include: (1) Review Unit 1, ("Cristobal Colon"), (2) Review Unit 2, (3) "Un Accidente,""La Navidad," and…

  8. Continuing Spanish in Grade Four: MLA Teacher's Guide. A Course of Study Including Methods, Materials, and Aids for Teaching Conversational Spanish to Fourth-Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mary P.; And Others

    This is the second volume in a series of texts in a conversational Spanish course for elementary school children. Fourteen basic units present introductory linguistic patterns and cultural insights into the lives of the Spanish people. They include: (1) Review Unit 1, (2) Review Unit 2, (3) Special Unit A--"Cristobal Colon," (4) Review Unit 3, (5)…

  9. The Índice Flesch-Szigriszt and Spanish Lexile Analyzer to evaluate Spanish patient education materials in otolaryngology.

    PubMed

    Nassif, Samih J; Wong, Kevin; Levi, Jessica R

    2017-10-09

    Evaluate the reading difficulty of Spanish patient education materials using the validated Índice Flesch-Szigriszt (INFLESZ) and Spanish Lexile Analyzer, and to identify relationships between English and Spanish readability formulas. Cross-sectional analysis. All otolaryngology-related patient education articles written in Spanish from the health libraries of the top 10 US News & World Report-ranked hospitals, top 10 Doximity-ranked otolaryngology residencies, the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery website, and the US National Library of Medicine online section on ears, nose and throat were collected. Reading difficulty was assessed using the INFLESZ and Spanish Lexile Analyzer. Additional readability assessments included the traditional English tools: Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Flesch Reading Ease Score, and the Simple Measure of Gobbledygook score. A total of 497 articles were reviewed. The average INFLESZ score for all articles was 57.75, which is considered normal and requires the reading ability of a student who finished Escuela Secundaria Obligatoria or 10th grade equivalent in the United States. The average Spanish Lexile measure for all articles was 1062L, equivalent to a reading level between the 6th and 12th grade. English readability tools calculated a more difficult reading level compared to Spanish tools when performed on the same text. Current Spanish patient education materials in otolaryngology may be too difficult for the average Spanish-speaking reader to understand. Future improvements may be warranted to improve the readability of educational materials and increase health literacy. NA Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  10. Spanish. Annotated Bibliography of Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ. Test Collection.

    The 15 tests described in this bibliography assess knowledge of and proficiency in Spanish as a foreign language. Tests for bilingual or Spanish-speaking populations are not included. Most of the tests are geared toward students at the secondary or college level. Among the areas assessed are listening comprehension, reading comprehension,…

  11. Conversational Spanish: Quick and Easy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saloom, Barbara B.

    Prepared for the adult or college student who wants to attain a speaking knowledge of Spanish spoken in Hispanic America, this book places more emphasis on communication and comprehension than on grammatical depth. It does not presuppose a knowledge of Spanish or experience with a second language. Emphasis is on repetition. Each lesson includes…

  12. New Mexican Spanish Verb Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, J. Donald

    This paper presents a morphophonemic analysis of the characteristics that distinguish verb structure in New Mexican Spanish from that of Standard Spanish. Verb structure and classification are discussed, and verbs are analyzed as being composed of four components: stem, thematic vowel, tense-aspect, and person-number. Verbs are classified as…

  13. Library Guide: Spanish Literature, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Sumar, Juanita Jara, Comp.

    Intended for use by those conducting research in Spanish literature, this guide lists selected reference materials in literature from Spain, in Spanish, Galician, and Catalan languages. Annotations in the guide are divided into the following sections: (1) General Encyclopedias (1 annotation); (2) Guides to the Literature (4 annotations); (3)…

  14. On "Tough" Movement in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reider, Michael

    1993-01-01

    A survey of native Spanish speakers from both Spain and Latin America found that the choice of predicate adjectives governing "tough" constructions in Spanish (e.g., "el libro es facil de leer") varies by individual, but some patterns did emerge that suggest "tough" constructions and "it is" constructions…

  15. Aprendemos Espanol. (Let's Learn Spanish).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naranjo, Laura Villagomez; And Others

    A set of Peace Corps materials for introductory Spanish contains 19 units on aspects of Spanish verbs: the verb "estar"; the present tense of regular verbs; the use of "necesitar" and "ir" with infinitives; "querer,""poner,""tener que" and the infinitive; the verb "ser"; the…

  16. Teaching Spanish to the Deaf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Strizver, Nancy

    Conversational Spanish is taught to hearing-impaired adolescents at the Model Secondary School for the Deaf (MSSD) through the use of cued speech. This paper provides an explanation of this mode of instruction and a description of the Spanish program at MSSD. The students learn the four skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing. Cued…

  17. AMERICAN SOURCES OF SPANISH REALIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Teachers Coll., Emporia.

    DESIGNED FOR SPANISH TEACHERS AT ALL LEVELS, THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SELECTED SPANISH REALIA CURRENTLY AVAILABLE IN THE UNITED STATES CONTAINS SECTIONS OF PICTURES, SLIDES, FLIMS, MAPS, NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES, TAPES AND PHONOGRAPH RECORDS, AND PINS AND MEDALS. EACH ITEM IS ANNOTATED FOR CONTENT, COST (WHEN APPROPRIATE), NAME AND ADDRESS OF…

  18. On "Tough" Movement in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reider, Michael

    1993-01-01

    A survey of native Spanish speakers from both Spain and Latin America found that the choice of predicate adjectives governing "tough" constructions in Spanish (e.g., "el libro es facil de leer") varies by individual, but some patterns did emerge that suggest "tough" constructions and "it is" constructions…

  19. Acculturators for Spanish, Vol. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Tullio, Thomas, Ed.

    This set of teaching units, called acculturators, is designed to introduce Spanish language students to peninsular and Spanish-American culture. The acculturators deal with gestures, customs, family life, daily habits, and other aspects of culture. The intent is to aid the student in becoming as much a part of the target culture as his own…

  20. CRIE: An automated analyzer for Chinese texts.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yao-Ting; Chang, Tao-Hsing; Lin, Wei-Chun; Hsieh, Kuan-Sheng; Chang, Kuo-En

    2016-12-01

    Textual analysis has been applied to various fields, such as discourse analysis, corpus studies, text leveling, and automated essay evaluation. Several tools have been developed for analyzing texts written in alphabetic languages such as English and Spanish. However, currently there is no tool available for analyzing Chinese-language texts. This article introduces a tool for the automated analysis of simplified and traditional Chinese texts, called the Chinese Readability Index Explorer (CRIE). Composed of four subsystems and incorporating 82 multilevel linguistic features, CRIE is able to conduct the major tasks of segmentation, syntactic parsing, and feature extraction. Furthermore, the integration of linguistic features with machine learning models enables CRIE to provide leveling and diagnostic information for texts in language arts, texts for learning Chinese as a foreign language, and texts with domain knowledge. The usage and validation of the functions provided by CRIE are also introduced.

  1. Spanish as a Second Language. Beginning Conversation Spanish. Spanish for Beginners, Level l.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marin, Jose

    This manual outlines a beginning course in Spanish based on audio-visual-lingual methodology. Each lesson plan states the objectives, the activities to be performed, the materials to be used, and the method to use in evaluating the student's mastery of the lesson. Some examples of lesson topics are: greeting each other using Spanish names;…

  2. Twentieth-Century Spanish Textbooks: A Generational Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardinas-Barnes, Patricia

    1998-01-01

    Examines the evolution of Spanish textbooks qualitatively using computerized pedagogical data. Results show distinct generational text style trends from 1860 to 1998 which chronicle a common engine of change and conflict in standardization movements and the production of generational text styles. Summarizes 20th-century textbook generations and…

  3. Graphic Arts. A Bilingual Text = Artes Graficas. Un Texto Bilingue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA. Div. of Career and Continuing Education.

    This bilingual instructional text, one in a series of six texts covering various vocational and technical topics, provides secondary level English and Spanish instruction in graphic arts. Addressed in the individual sections are basic graphic arts (composition, stone and press work, offset printing, silk screen, and photography) and allied graphic…

  4. Graphic Arts. A Bilingual Text = Artes Graficas. Un Texto Bilingue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA. Div. of Career and Continuing Education.

    This bilingual instructional text, one in a series of six texts covering various vocational and technical topics, provides secondary level English and Spanish instruction in graphic arts. Addressed in the individual sections are basic graphic arts (composition, stone and press work, offset printing, silk screen, and photography) and allied graphic…

  5. Drafting. A Bilingual Text = Dibujo Mecanico. Un Texto Bilingue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA. Div. of Career and Continuing Education.

    This bilingual instructional text, one in a series of six texts covering various vocational and technical topics, provides secondary level English and Spanish instruction in drafting. Addressed in the individual units are the following topics: safety, drafting tools and techniques, sketching, geometric construction, working drawings, sectioning,…

  6. Drafting. A Bilingual Text = Dibujo Mecanico. Un Texto Bilingue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA. Div. of Career and Continuing Education.

    This bilingual instructional text, one in a series of six texts covering various vocational and technical topics, provides secondary level English and Spanish instruction in drafting. Addressed in the individual units are the following topics: safety, drafting tools and techniques, sketching, geometric construction, working drawings, sectioning,…

  7. Articulation Skills in Spanish-Speaking Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linares, Thomas A.

    The purpose of the research was to develop an articulation test for Spanish-speakers and to field-test the instrument in both a monolingual Spanish-speaking environment and a bilingual Spanish/English environment. Such a test is needed because there has been little available to enable the diagnostician, whose clientele includes Spanish-speakers,…

  8. Determinants of Research Productivity in Spanish Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Cecilia; Davia, María A.; Legazpe, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to widen the empirical evidence about the determinants of Spanish academics' publication productivity across fields of study. We use the Spanish Survey on Human Resources in Science and Technology addressed to Spanish resident PhDs employed in Spanish universities as academics. Productivity is measured as the total number of…

  9. Adult Second Language Learning of Spanish Vowels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Katherine; Simonet, Miquel

    2015-01-01

    The present study reports on the findings of a cross-sectional acoustic study of the production of Spanish vowels by three different groups of speakers: 1) native Spanish speakers; 2) native English intermediate learners of Spanish; and 3) native English advanced learners of Spanish. In particular, we examined the production of the five Spanish…

  10. Determinants of Research Productivity in Spanish Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Cecilia; Davia, María A.; Legazpe, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to widen the empirical evidence about the determinants of Spanish academics' publication productivity across fields of study. We use the Spanish Survey on Human Resources in Science and Technology addressed to Spanish resident PhDs employed in Spanish universities as academics. Productivity is measured as the total number of…

  11. Adult Second Language Learning of Spanish Vowels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Katherine; Simonet, Miquel

    2015-01-01

    The present study reports on the findings of a cross-sectional acoustic study of the production of Spanish vowels by three different groups of speakers: 1) native Spanish speakers; 2) native English intermediate learners of Spanish; and 3) native English advanced learners of Spanish. In particular, we examined the production of the five Spanish…

  12. [The Spanish influenza pandemic].

    PubMed

    Sabbatani, S; Fiorino, S

    2007-12-01

    The influenza pandemic of 1918-1919, so-called Spanish influenza, spread to almost all nations worldwide. This outbreak is thought to have killed 25 million people, although some have claimed that the epidemic resulted in as many as 40 million deaths. This pandemic was a particularly dramatic event, because it occurred at the end of World War I, when both armies and the civilian population, in nations involved in the war, were exhausted. In Italy 600,000 people are estimated to have died of Spanish influenza. Together with the death of 650,000 soldiers during the war, this had a major demographic impact. We describe the course of the epidemic in Italy as a whole and in Bologna in particular. In Bologna and in its province we analysed the lists drawn up at the end of the World War I by the Central Records Office in Bologna, which coordinated research into causes of death of soldiers engaged in the conflict. We also examined the trend of burials at Certosa in Bologna in the first decades of the last century in order to establish, during the two-year period 1918-1919, the impact of the epidemic upon annual mortality. In Bologna the impact of the epidemic, albeit important in comparison to other situations, was not particularly dramatic. No special preventive measures were adopted, with the exception of isolating seriously ill patients in a former school converted by the military authorities into a hospital. Family doctors worked together actively with the city's medical authorities when the epidemiological survey was carried out.

  13. Identifying Spanish-English Cognates to Scaffold Instruction for Latino ELs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montelongo, Jose A.; Hernandez, Anita; Herter, Roberta Joan

    2011-01-01

    Spanish-English cognates have been used for decades to facilitate the acquisition of English by Latino English learners (ELs). Using the online program, WordSift, in tandem with the online Find-a-Cognate database, teachers can identify important Spanish-English cognates and noncognate words in text. With this information, teachers can plan and…

  14. Letter to Editor: Support to the Spanish language, from Oral Medicine

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    In the form of a letter to the director, the author provides linguistic comments related to Spanish. He draws attention to some often misused words and suggests some expressions that may improve the use of the Spanish language in scientific texts. Key words:Spelling, linguistics, scientific language. PMID:28578376

  15. Chicano Spanish: The Problem of the "Underdeveloped" Code in Bilingual Repertoires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes, Guadalupe; Geoffrion-Vinci, Michelle

    1998-01-01

    Research described oral texts produced by second- and third- generation bilingual Chicano Spanish speakers when required to carry out a set of functions in only one of their available codes. Analysis focuses on characteristics of planned, noninteractive spoken language produced in Spanish by university students in a classroom setting, compared…

  16. The Representation of Latinos and the Use of Spanish: A Critical Content Analysis of "Skippyjon Jones"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez-Roldan, Carmen M.

    2013-01-01

    This study illustrates the presence of Mock Spanish in some English-based picture books and the ways this usage misrepresents Latino people, language, and culture. The author conducted a critical content analysis of five Skippyjon Jones books. Her guiding question was, How is language used, particularly Spanish, in these English texts, and what…

  17. The Representation of Latinos and the Use of Spanish: A Critical Content Analysis of "Skippyjon Jones"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez-Roldan, Carmen M.

    2013-01-01

    This study illustrates the presence of Mock Spanish in some English-based picture books and the ways this usage misrepresents Latino people, language, and culture. The author conducted a critical content analysis of five Skippyjon Jones books. Her guiding question was, How is language used, particularly Spanish, in these English texts, and what…

  18. Spanish-Language Health Communication Teaching Aids. A List of Printed Materials and Their Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isquith, Robert N., Comp.; Webb, Charles T., Comp.

    Over 450 Spanish printed materials about the various aspects of health and their sources are listed in this publication. Italics are used to indicate either the translation of Spanish titles or the titles of English-language editions. Publications with bilingual texts are shown by hyphenated titles. Information about the distribution of materials…

  19. Libros Bilingues, Traducciones y Libros Recomendables. (Bilingual Books, Translations and Recommended Books in Spanish.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jose G., Comp.

    Citing 123 books published between 1960 and 1977, this bibliography is divided into 3 main categories: (1) books with Spanish and English text, (2) translations of books also available in English, and (3) recommended books in Spanish. The first two sections concentrate on books for use in grades K-3. The final section includes books for older…

  20. Spanish-Language Health Communication Teaching Aids. A List of Printed Materials and Their Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isquith, Robert N., Comp.; Webb, Charles T., Comp.

    Over 450 Spanish printed materials about the various aspects of health and their sources are listed in this publication. Italics are used to indicate either the translation of Spanish titles or the titles of English-language editions. Publications with bilingual texts are shown by hyphenated titles. Information about the distribution of materials…

  1. Libros Bilingues, Traducciones y Libros Recomendables. (Bilingual Books, Translations and Recommended Books in Spanish.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jose G., Comp.

    Citing 123 books published between 1960 and 1977, this bibliography is divided into 3 main categories: (1) books with Spanish and English text, (2) translations of books also available in English, and (3) recommended books in Spanish. The first two sections concentrate on books for use in grades K-3. The final section includes books for older…

  2. Identifying Spanish-English Cognates to Scaffold Instruction for Latino ELs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montelongo, Jose A.; Hernandez, Anita; Herter, Roberta Joan

    2011-01-01

    Spanish-English cognates have been used for decades to facilitate the acquisition of English by Latino English learners (ELs). Using the online program, WordSift, in tandem with the online Find-a-Cognate database, teachers can identify important Spanish-English cognates and noncognate words in text. With this information, teachers can plan and…

  3. Suggestions on the Transcription of Sephardic Texts into the Roman Alphabet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, George K.

    Difficulties in transcription from the Hebrew to the Roman alphabet are discussed. The resolution of some of the problems in Judeo-Spanish texts using the "aljamiado" writing system are reviewed, including the use of some Hebrew consonants as vowels, representation of Judeo-Spanish sounds non-existent in Hebrew, and phonetic variations…

  4. Writing Home/Decolonizing Text(s)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asher, Nina

    2009-01-01

    The article draws on postcolonial and feminist theories, combined with critical reflection and autobiography, and argues for generating decolonizing texts as one way to write and reclaim home in a postcolonial world. Colonizers leave home to seek power and control elsewhere, and the colonized suffer loss of home as they know it. This dislocation…

  5. Writing Home/Decolonizing Text(s)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asher, Nina

    2009-01-01

    The article draws on postcolonial and feminist theories, combined with critical reflection and autobiography, and argues for generating decolonizing texts as one way to write and reclaim home in a postcolonial world. Colonizers leave home to seek power and control elsewhere, and the colonized suffer loss of home as they know it. This dislocation…

  6. Spanish-cedar : Cedrela spp.

    Treesearch

    B. F. Kukachka

    1964-01-01

    From the earliest days of exploration and colonization in tropical America, Spanish-cedar has been one of the most important timber trees of the area. The wood became an article for the export trade during the 1800’s when the cigar industry demanded the use of Spanish-cedar for packing cigars. These fragrant boxes were commonplace before rising costs in the 1930’s...

  7. Diccionario de palabras equivocas o malsonantes en Espana, Hispanoamerica y Filipinas: Continuacion. (Dictionary of Ambiguous or Offensive Words in Spain, Spanish America and the Philippines: Continued)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criado de Val, Manuel

    1976-01-01

    This list of obscene, ambiguous, or offensive Spanish words indicates their off-color meaning in various Spanish-speaking countries. The list comprises words beginning with letters H-M, and is intended to protect the traveller or non-native speaker from embarrassment. It is a continuation of a previous article. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  8. Diccionario de palabras equivocas o malsonantes en Espana, Hispanoamerica y Filipinas: Continuacion. (Dictionary of Ambiguous or Offensive Words in Spain, Spanish America and the Philippines: Continued)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criado de Val, Manuel

    1976-01-01

    This list of obscene, ambiguous, or offensive Spanish words indicates their off-color meaning in various Spanish-speaking countries. The list comprises words beginning with letters H-M, and is intended to protect the traveller or non-native speaker from embarrassment. It is a continuation of a previous article. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  9. Resultados de una encuesta sobre posibles reformas ortograficas en el espanol del siglo XX (Results of a Survey Concerning Possible Orthographic Reforms in Twentieth Century Spanish)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varela Cuellar, Beatriz

    1976-01-01

    This article presents the results of a questionnaire sent to Spanish teachers regarding possible orthographic reforms in Spanish. Changes considered included elimination of certain letters and representation of each phoneme by only one letter. Responses to each question are classified and explained. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  10. Resultados de una encuesta sobre posibles reformas ortograficas en el espanol del siglo XX (Results of a Survey Concerning Possible Orthographic Reforms in Twentieth Century Spanish)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varela Cuellar, Beatriz

    1976-01-01

    This article presents the results of a questionnaire sent to Spanish teachers regarding possible orthographic reforms in Spanish. Changes considered included elimination of certain letters and representation of each phoneme by only one letter. Responses to each question are classified and explained. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  11. Text File Display Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vavrus, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    LOOK program permits user to examine text file in pseudorandom access manner. Program provides user with way of rapidly examining contents of ASCII text file. LOOK opens text file for input only and accesses it in blockwise fashion. Handles text formatting and displays text lines on screen. User moves forward or backward in file by any number of lines or blocks. Provides ability to "scroll" text at various speeds in forward or backward directions.

  12. Contextual Text Mining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mei, Qiaozhu

    2009-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…

  13. Contextual Text Mining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mei, Qiaozhu

    2009-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…

  14. Bilingual Language Development and Disorders in Spanish-English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Brian A., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    With the increasing number of Spanish-English bilingual children in the U.S., both SLPs and researchers must understand speech and language developments in these children--and SLPs also need reliable assessment and intervention approaches for serving bilingual children with language disorders. This comprehensive text is one of the few to offer…

  15. Democratic Citizenship in Textbooks in Spanish Primary Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De La Caba Collado, Mariangeles; Lopez Atxurra, Rafael

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses how textbooks deal with the issues of education for democratic citizenship encompassed within the European framework and Spanish educational reforms. The sample comprised the 24 individual texts in social science, natural science, and technology for 6-12-year-olds. This paper delimits and defines the six themes for analysis:…

  16. Articulatory Phonetics in the First-Year Spanish Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arteaga, Deborah L.

    2000-01-01

    Reconsiders the general question of the role of articulatory phonetics in the second language (L2) classroom and reviews the phonetic presentation in 10 recent first-year Spanish texts. Proposes a phonetics program based on the notion of a learners' dialect, then measures the phonetics of the textbooks against a learners' dialect. Argues against…

  17. Democratic Citizenship in Textbooks in Spanish Primary Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De La Caba Collado, Mariangeles; Lopez Atxurra, Rafael

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses how textbooks deal with the issues of education for democratic citizenship encompassed within the European framework and Spanish educational reforms. The sample comprised the 24 individual texts in social science, natural science, and technology for 6-12-year-olds. This paper delimits and defines the six themes for analysis:…

  18. The Real World Spanish Cassette Program. Script Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternburg, Sheldon G.

    This dual cassette program, accompanied by a script book, is designed to give students listening practice in Spanish, particularly for regional differences of pronunciation and for variety in idiomatic construction. The program may be integrated with texts used in intermediate and advanced levels of instruction. The announcements, jingles, and…

  19. Articulatory Phonetics in the First-Year Spanish Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arteaga, Deborah L.

    2000-01-01

    Reconsiders the general question of the role of articulatory phonetics in the second language (L2) classroom and reviews the phonetic presentation in 10 recent first-year Spanish texts. Proposes a phonetics program based on the notion of a learners' dialect, then measures the phonetics of the textbooks against a learners' dialect. Argues against…

  20. Driver Education, English-Spanish. Learning Achievement Packages. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendon, Rene

    This text contains three suggested driver education curriculum units and is intended for use in a bilingual education setting. Each unit is in Spanish and English. The three units are: (1) "Procedures in Driving," (2) "Car Maintenance," and (3) "Tires." Each unit contains information for the teacher, explanations and…

  1. Helping Parents Learn a Second Language with Their Children: Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gradisnik, Anthony, Comp.

    This guide for parents of elementary school Spanish language students who wish to learn the language along with their children contains the following materials: (1) language learning hints; (2) pronunciation help including rhythm patterns; (3) conversation capsules (small dialogs and a selection of drawings to accompany the texts) permitting…

  2. Driver Education, English-Spanish. Learning Achievement Packages. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendon, Rene

    This text contains three suggested driver education curriculum units and is intended for use in a bilingual education setting. Each unit is in Spanish and English. The three units are: (1) "Procedures in Driving," (2) "Car Maintenance," and (3) "Tires." Each unit contains information for the teacher, explanations and…

  3. Reading through Linguistic Borderlands: Latino Students' Transactions with Narrative Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Roldan, Carmen; Sayer, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the biliteracy development of a group of bilingual Latino third graders in an elementary school in the south-west USA. It focuses on the role of language in children's reading comprehension of narrative texts in Spanish and English in a school context. The authors frame their analysis within the "Continua of Biliteracy" model…

  4. Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, A.; Cerezo, F.; Fernandez, M.; Lomba, J.; Lopez, M.; Moreno, J.; Neira, A.; Quintana, C.; Torres, J.; Trigo, R.; Urena, J.; Vega, E.; Vez, E.

    2010-12-01

    The Spanish Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (MITyC) and the Ministry of Defense (MoD) signed an agreement in 2007 for the development of a "Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System" based, in first instance, on two satellites: a high resolution optical satellite, called SEOSAT/Ingenio, and a radar satellite based on SAR technology, called SEOSAR/Paz. SEOSAT/Ingenio is managed by MITyC through the Centre for the Development of Industrial Technology (CDTI), with technical and contractual support from the European Space Agency (ESA). HISDESA T together with the Spanish Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA, National Institute for Aerospace Technology) will be responsible for the in-orbit operation and the commercial operation of both satellites, and for the technical management of SEOSAR/Paz on behalf of the MoD. In both cases EADS CASA Espacio (ECE) is the prime contractor leading the industrial consortia. The ground segment development will be assigned to a Spanish consortium. This system is the most important contribution of Spain to the European Programme Global Monitoring for Environment and Security, GMES. This paper presents the Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System focusing on SEOSA T/Ingenio Programme and with special emphasis in the potential contribution to the ESA Third Party Missions Programme and to the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security initiative (GMES) Data Access.

  5. Text Coherence in Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Yanping

    2009-01-01

    In the thesis a coherent text is defined as a continuity of senses of the outcome of combining concepts and relations into a network composed of knowledge space centered around main topics. And the author maintains that in order to obtain the coherence of a target language text from a source text during the process of translation, a translator can…

  6. Nuevos Anglicismos en el Espanol Peninsular (New Anglicisms in Peninsular Spanish)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arango, Guillermo

    1975-01-01

    Linguists should not only observe but actively try to control the internationalization of languages. Borrowings may be harmful to the smooth functioning of a language and contribute to the loss of its distinctive character. (Text is in Spanish.) (TL)

  7. Spanish Is Foreign: Heritage Speakers' Interpretations of the Introductory Spanish Language Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFeo, Dayna Jean

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a case study of the perceptions of Spanish heritage speakers enrolled in introductory-level Spanish foreign language courses. Despite their own identities that were linked to the United States and Spanish of the Borderlands, the participants felt that the curriculum acknowledged the Spanish of Spain and foreign countries but…

  8. Spanish Is Foreign: Heritage Speakers' Interpretations of the Introductory Spanish Language Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFeo, Dayna Jean

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a case study of the perceptions of Spanish heritage speakers enrolled in introductory-level Spanish foreign language courses. Despite their own identities that were linked to the United States and Spanish of the Borderlands, the participants felt that the curriculum acknowledged the Spanish of Spain and foreign countries but…

  9. Ecologia: Spanish Ecology Packet Resource Units and Materials for Intermediate and Advanced Spanish Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Mozelle Sawyer; Arribas, E. Jaime

    This Spanish ecology packet contains resource units and materials for intermediate and advanced Spanish classes. It is designed to be used for individual and small-group instruction in the senior high school to supplement the Spanish language curriculum. Included are articles, pictures, and cartoons from Spanish-language newspapers and magazines…

  10. [Spanish flu related data].

    PubMed

    Shimao, Tadao

    2009-10-01

    Swine flu epidemic is a current topic, and data relating to Spanish flu pandemic from 1918 to 1920 were presented for your information. Monthly trend of number of deaths due to influenza, acute bronchitis, pneumonia and bronchopneumonia together with PTB, other TB and TB of all forms from 1917 to 1920 was presented in Table 1 and Fig. 1. Flu epidemics in early 1917 and from winter 1917 to spring 1818 were so-called common seasonal flu epidemic, however, new pandemic started from October 1918, and the number of deaths due to flu increased 14 times compared with previous month in October, 19 times in November, and the pandemic reached the summit, and started to decrease from December, however, marked decline was seen only after April 1919. The number of deaths due to flu started to increase again from November 1919, and reached its summit again in January 1920, and the pandemic ended in July. The age- and sex-specific mortality rate due to influenza in 1918 was shown in Fig. 2. The rate was high among infants, 20s and 30s and elderly, and by sex, the rate of female was higher below 35 and lower above 35. The number of deaths due to acute bronchitis and pneumonia and bronchopneumonia fluctuated in parallel with that of influenza, and deaths due to these conditions were very difficult to differentiate, and the impact of flu could better be evaluated by summing up all these three conditions, the sum of deaths due to three conditions was expressed as influenza related death. The proportion of deaths due to three conditions by age group was shown in Fig. 3. The proportion of acute bronchitis was high in infants and elderly, and in the other age groups, influenza occupied around 30% and pneumonia and bronchopneumonia around 70% of influenza related death. Total number of deaths due to influenza related diseases from 1918 to 1920 was 816,884, and the annual rate was 489.4 per 100,000. Annual age- and sex-specific mortality rate due to influenza related diseases was shown in

  11. The Sources of Error in Spanish Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justicia, Fernando; Defior, Sylvia; Pelegrina, Santiago; Martos, Francisco J.

    1999-01-01

    Determines the pattern of errors in Spanish spelling. Analyzes and proposes a classification system for the errors made by children in the initial stages of the acquisition of spelling skills. Finds the diverse forms of only 20 Spanish words produces 36% of the spelling errors in Spanish; and substitution is the most frequent type of error. (RS)

  12. "How": The Missing Interrogative in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitley, M. Stanley

    1986-01-01

    Describes a comparative study of interrogative words in Spanish and English, which resulted in a series of hypotheses about the way Spanish speakers convey the interrogative how plus adjective or adverb. To test the hypotheses, surveys were conducted with native Spanish speakers. Surveys and results are discussed. (AMH)

  13. CINDOC, CSIC, and Spanish R and D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaviesca, Rosa

    1994-01-01

    The organizational structure and functional activities of the Spanish Center for Scientific Information and Documentation (CINDOC) are discussed. The library holds 8,500 journals, including all the Spanish scientific journals; 16,000 books and 20 CD-ROM data bases. CINDOC creates and distributes its own data bases that include all the articles published in Spanish scientific journals.

  14. Composition Courses in Spanish: Revolution or Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bou, Myrsa Landron

    Because of the pressures of modernization and other cultural factors, freshmen students at the University of the Sacred Heart in Puerto Rico lack basic communication skills in both Spanish and English. At present, there is no composition course in Spanish at the college, and the basic Spanish textbook currently in use reflects attitudes on…

  15. The Sources of Error in Spanish Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justicia, Fernando; Defior, Sylvia; Pelegrina, Santiago; Martos, Francisco J.

    1999-01-01

    Determines the pattern of errors in Spanish spelling. Analyzes and proposes a classification system for the errors made by children in the initial stages of the acquisition of spelling skills. Finds the diverse forms of only 20 Spanish words produces 36% of the spelling errors in Spanish; and substitution is the most frequent type of error. (RS)

  16. Spanish Guide. Kindergarten. Michigan Oral Language Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soriano, Jesse M.; And Others

    This guide, designed for use by kindergarten teachers, to teach Spanish to speakers of other languages and to teach standard Spanish to speakers of non-standard Spanish, contains 136 half hour lessons, covering the school year. The completely oral program presents a structured sequence of language learning experiences geared to the children's…

  17. Linguistic Perspectives from Spanish Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Mark, Ed.; Koike, Dale April, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Papers reporting research on Spanish second language learning include: "Discourse Features of Spanish Oral Production at the Novice Level" (Rebecca Jo Bearden); "A Discourse Approach to the Assessment of Foreign Language Oral Proficiency" (Dale April Koike, Fanny Hinojosa); "Acquisition of Spanish Definite Articles by English-Speaking Learners of…

  18. Composition Courses in Spanish: Revolution or Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bou, Myrsa Landron

    Because of the pressures of modernization and other cultural factors, freshmen students at the University of the Sacred Heart in Puerto Rico lack basic communication skills in both Spanish and English. At present, there is no composition course in Spanish at the college, and the basic Spanish textbook currently in use reflects attitudes on…

  19. The Great Spanish "Le-Lo" Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roldan, Mercedes

    1975-01-01

    The distinction between the clitics "le" and "lo" is different for Peninsular Spanish than for Latin American Spanish but is in both cases systematic. The division in Castilian Spanish is along the line of animate-inanimate. The Latin American division is between accusative and dative case. (TL)

  20. English Loanwords in Spanish Computer Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabanillas, Isabel de la Cruz; Martinez, Cristina Tejedor; Prados, Mercedes Diez; Redondo, Esperanza Cerda

    2007-01-01

    Contact with the English language, especially from the 20th century onwards, has had as a consequence an increase in the number of words that are borrowed from English into Spanish. This process is particularly noticeable in Spanish for Specific Purposes, and, more specifically, in the case of Spanish computer language. Although sociocultural and…

  1. Spanish Language Health Materials: A Selective Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trujillo, Roberto G., Ed.; And Others

    This selected bibliography, compiled from recommendations by practicing librarians providing service to Spanish-speaking communities, includes Spanish and bilingual Spanish/English materials dealing with health. The topic is broadly defined to include any conditions which affect a person's well-being, and includes alcohol and drugs, consumer…

  2. Spanish Language Health Materials: A Selective Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trujillo, Roberto G., Ed.; And Others

    This selected bibliography, compiled from recommendations by practicing librarians providing service to Spanish-speaking communities, includes Spanish and bilingual Spanish/English materials dealing with health. The topic is broadly defined to include any conditions which affect a person's well-being, and includes alcohol and drugs, consumer…

  3. Validating a Spanish Developmental Spelling Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferroli, Lou; Krajenta, Marilyn

    The creation and validation of a Spanish version of an English developmental spelling test (DST) is described. An introductory section reviews related literature on the rationale for and construction of DSTs, spelling development in the early grades, and Spanish-English bilingual education. Differences between the English and Spanish test versions…

  4. Spanish Guide. Kindergarten. Michigan Oral Language Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soriano, Jesse M.; And Others

    This guide, designed for use by kindergarten teachers, to teach Spanish to speakers of other languages and to teach standard Spanish to speakers of non-standard Spanish, contains 136 half hour lessons, covering the school year. The completely oral program presents a structured sequence of language learning experiences geared to the children's…

  5. Espanol mexicano y espanol chicano: Problemas y propuestas fundamentales (Mexican Spanish and Chicano Spanish: Fundamental Problems and Proposals).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidalgo, Margarita

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the rise of Mexican Spanish as a distinct variety of Spanish and describes the regional and social dialects of contemporary Mexican Spanish. Although countless similarities exist between Mexican Spanish and the Chicano Spanish spoken in the southwestern United States, Mexican Spanish shows greater variability. (GR)

  6. Espanol mexicano y espanol chicano: Problemas y propuestas fundamentales (Mexican Spanish and Chicano Spanish: Fundamental Problems and Proposals).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidalgo, Margarita

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the rise of Mexican Spanish as a distinct variety of Spanish and describes the regional and social dialects of contemporary Mexican Spanish. Although countless similarities exist between Mexican Spanish and the Chicano Spanish spoken in the southwestern United States, Mexican Spanish shows greater variability. (GR)

  7. Making Sense of Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Rebecca G.

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the triadic nature regarding meaning construction of texts. Grounded in Rosenblatt's (1995; 1998; 2004) Transactional Theory, research conducted in an undergraduate Language Arts curriculum course revealed that when presented with unfamiliar texts, students used prior experiences, social interactions, and literary strategies…

  8. Text File Comparator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotler, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    File Comparator program IFCOMP, is text file comparator for IBM OS/VScompatable systems. IFCOMP accepts as input two text files and produces listing of differences in pseudo-update form. IFCOMP is very useful in monitoring changes made to software at the source code level.

  9. The Perfect Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Ruth

    1998-01-01

    A chemistry teacher describes the elements of the ideal chemistry textbook. The perfect text is focused and helps students draw a coherent whole out of the myriad fragments of information and interpretation. The text would show chemistry as the central science necessary for understanding other sciences and would also root chemistry firmly in the…

  10. [Traditional midwife texts].

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Ingela; Stolt, Carl-Magnus

    2007-01-01

    We report an hermeneutic text study in two early midwife text books. In Louise Bourgeois book from early 17th century the individual caring perspective is more present than in Helena Malhiems book from the middle of the 18th century. In both books, however, non-technological aspects of child birth delivery is more prominent than in books written by doctors.

  11. Solar Energy Project: Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    The text is a compilation of background information which should be useful to teachers wishing to obtain some technical information on solar technology. Twenty sections are included which deal with topics ranging from discussion of the sun's composition to the legal implications of using solar energy. The text is intended to provide useful…

  12. Text File Comparator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotler, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    File Comparator program IFCOMP, is text file comparator for IBM OS/VScompatable systems. IFCOMP accepts as input two text files and produces listing of differences in pseudo-update form. IFCOMP is very useful in monitoring changes made to software at the source code level.

  13. Workbook-Text Combination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Eddie

    1982-01-01

    "Science Work-A-Text" combines a text and workbook approach to studying/teaching grades 1-6 elementary science. Five major themes (living things; health/nutrition; planet earth; the universe; matter and energy) are covered at each grade level. Major focus of the series is on reading and content rather than process. (Author/SK)

  14. Composing Texts, Composing Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perl, Sondra

    1994-01-01

    Using composition, reader response, critical, and feminist theories, a teacher demonstrates how adult students respond critically to literary texts and how teachers must critically analyze the texts of their teaching practice. Both students and teachers can use writing to bring their experiences to interpretation. (SK)

  15. Texting "boosts" felt security.

    PubMed

    Otway, Lorna J; Carnelley, Katherine B; Rowe, Angela C

    2014-01-01

    Attachment security can be induced in laboratory settings (e.g., Rowe & Carnelley, 2003) and the beneficial effects of repeated security priming can last for a number of days (e.g., Carnelley & Rowe, 2007). The priming process, however, can be costly in terms of time. We explored the effectiveness of security priming via text message. Participants completed a visualisation task (a secure attachment experience or neutral experience) in the laboratory. On three consecutive days following the laboratory task, participants received (secure or neutral) text message visualisation tasks. Participants in the secure condition reported significantly higher felt security than those in the neutral condition, immediately after the laboratory prime, after the last text message prime and one day after the last text prime. These findings suggest that security priming via text messages is an innovative methodological advancement that effectively induces felt security, representing a potential direction forward for security priming research.

  16. Vocalic Variations in Spanish Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Linda Schwartz; Sanders, Gerald A.

    1977-01-01

    Roots of Spanish verbs exhibit systematic vowel alternations. In traditional accounts of these alternations, the mid simplex nuclei are assumed to be basic, with complex nuclei being derived from them by rule. This paper suggests an alternative analysis assuming that the complex nuclei are more basic than the simplex ones. (CHK)

  17. Spanglish: An Anglicized Spanish Dialect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardila, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    The blend between Spanish and English found in Hispanic or Latino communities in the United States is usually known as "Spanglish." It is suggested that Spanglish represents the most important contemporary linguistic phenomenon in the United States that has barely been approached from a linguistic point of view. Spanglish may be…

  18. Spanish Aid in Clinical Dietetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bringas, Juliet G.; Chan, Teresa Y.

    Designed to aid dietitians, nutritionists, and other health professionals to better serve the nutritional needs of Hispanics, this bilingual booklet describes the different cultural eating habits of Mexican, Cuban, and Puerto Rican Americans, with in-depth description of Mexican Americans. Written in Spanish and English, the booklet includes…

  19. The Spanish-Language Roundtable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criticas: An English Speaker's Guide to the Latest Spanish Language Titles, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Reports on a meeting with a group of experts including Leylha Ahuile, Rene Alegria, Rueben Martinez, Diana Martinez Calice, Silvia Matute, Anne Messitte, and Teresa Mlawer from the Spanish language market for books. Topics include publishing; school and library markets; bookstores; the role of the Latino press and Latino authors; coverage in…

  20. Teaching Sociocultural Literacy. Spanish Fiesta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenwood, Alun

    1998-01-01

    Describes the rich, historical tradition of festivals in Spain, explaining that a multidisciplinary focus is necessary to understand the full significance of fiesta in Spain (geography, history, music, literature, and the fine arts). Students should be encouraged to study Spanish fiestas in order to develop a deep understanding of the diversity of…

  1. Puerto Rican Spanish: Linguistic Insecurity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Francisco

    The three conditions given in the literature for the pervasiveness of linguistic insecurity (a speaker's attitude toward his or her own speech revealed in face to face interaction through the upward or downward shift of language forms) exist in the case of speakers of the Spanish vernacular of Puerto Rico. The conditions are: the rise of a middle…

  2. Guidance Services in Spanish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidal, Javier; Diez, Gloria; Vieira, Maria J.

    2003-01-01

    Since the 80s, higher education in Spain has undergone important modifications such as greater autonomy, expansion in the number of students and the introduction of more flexible programmes. In this context, guidance services have proliferated in an unstructured way. This paper presents a description of guidance services in Spanish universities…

  3. Processing Controlled PROs in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancort, Moises; Carreiras, Manuel; Acuna-Farina, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to investigate the processing of the empty category PRO and the time-course of this in Spanish. Eye movements were recorded while participants read sentences in which a matrix clause was followed by a subordinate infinitival clause, so that the subject or the object of the main clause could act as controller of…

  4. Atlanta Public Schools Spanish Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atlanta Public Schools, GA.

    This guide for teachers of Spanish outlines course objectives and general educational goals. Contents include information on (1) philosophy and long-range goals, (2) student recruitment, (3) program counseling, (4) English in the classroom, (5) grammar, (6) articulation, (7) independent study, (8) grouping for student-centered work, (9) reading in…

  5. Romano-Kalo: Spanish Romany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denley, Gerald

    1994-01-01

    Discusses recent development related to Romano-Kalo (Spanish Romany), the language of the Gypsy population of Spain, including periodicals and publications available from the Romany Union and other organizations. Common Romany expressions that have entered the English language are reviewed. (six references) (MDM)

  6. The Spanish-Language Roundtable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criticas: An English Speaker's Guide to the Latest Spanish Language Titles, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Reports on a meeting with a group of experts including Leylha Ahuile, Rene Alegria, Rueben Martinez, Diana Martinez Calice, Silvia Matute, Anne Messitte, and Teresa Mlawer from the Spanish language market for books. Topics include publishing; school and library markets; bookstores; the role of the Latino press and Latino authors; coverage in…

  7. 1,000 Spanish Idioms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, J. Dale

    The idioms, rated numerically on frequency of occurrence and prevailing usage, are presented with an illustrative example and English translation. An alphabetical listing of the English translations of the Spanish idioms includes reference to page citation and frequency of usage. Appendixes contain a sample evaluation sheet used in the selection…

  8. Teaching Spanish for Technical Purposes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, William

    An Eastern Michigan University course in Spanish for special purposes with an emphasis on technology was intended to serve students of business, international trade, and technology, but the actual enrollment came largely from the department of foreign languages and bilingual studies. However, significant diversity in scientific preparation and…

  9. Teaching Sociocultural Literacy. Spanish Fiesta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenwood, Alun

    1998-01-01

    Describes the rich, historical tradition of festivals in Spain, explaining that a multidisciplinary focus is necessary to understand the full significance of fiesta in Spain (geography, history, music, literature, and the fine arts). Students should be encouraged to study Spanish fiestas in order to develop a deep understanding of the diversity of…

  10. About the Spanish Verb HABER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Cecil

    1990-01-01

    The Spanish verb "haber" presents unresolved puzzles concerning its meaning and derivations. Apart from its familiar and recent function as auxiliary in the perfect tenses, the verb's underlying meaning "to have, to hold" persists in the impersonal "hay" while other morphemes previously associated with "haber" may prove unrelated. (Author/MSE)

  11. Spanish Aid in Clinical Dietetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bringas, Juliet G.; Chan, Teresa Y.

    Designed to aid dietitians, nutritionists, and other health professionals to better serve the nutritional needs of Hispanics, this bilingual booklet describes the different cultural eating habits of Mexican, Cuban, and Puerto Rican Americans, with in-depth description of Mexican Americans. Written in Spanish and English, the booklet includes…

  12. A Spanish American War Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hands, Edmund

    1992-01-01

    Discusses a database used by honors high school U.S. history students learning about the Spanish-American War. Reports that the students compiled the database. Includes some of the historical background of the war, questions for study, a database key, and a table showing U.S. senators' votes relating to the War. (SG)

  13. Bibliography of Spanish Teaching Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharples, Hedley, Comp.

    This guide for teachers to books, tapes, instructional aids, and materials on Spain and Latin America is classified into 10 major sections. They include: (1) courses, (2) drills and exercises, (3) reference grammars, (4) prose, translation, and composition, (5) linguistic aspects of Spanish, (6) readers, (7) periodicals, (8) dictionaries and…

  14. Spanish Language Workbook (In Development).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Santiago (Chile).

    This guide is designed for the Spanish language training of Peace Corps workers in Chile and reflects daily communication needs in that context. The workbook contains a series of sentence completion exercises at the intermediate to advanced level, notes and exercises on metric system conversion, verb/substantive lists, specialized vocabulary lists…

  15. Texting on the Move

    MedlinePlus

    ... Texting Lexi bumped into someone at the mall. Curtis slammed into a parking meter. Ryan tripped over ... the move. ER docs who treat people like Curtis (he cracked his ribs in his encounter with ...

  16. Noisy text categorization.

    PubMed

    Vinciarelli, Alessandro

    2005-12-01

    This work presents categorization experiments performed over noisy texts. By noisy, we mean any text obtained through an extraction process (affected by errors) from media other than digital texts (e.g., transcriptions of speech recordings extracted with a recognition system). The performance of a categorization system over the clean and noisy (Word Error Rate between approximately 10 and approximately 50 percent) versions of the same documents is compared. The noisy texts are obtained through handwriting recognition and simulation of optical character recognition. The results show that the performance loss is acceptable for Recall values up to 60-70 percent depending on the noise sources. New measures of the extraction process performance, allowing a better explanation of the categorization results, are proposed.

  17. Impact of Spanish-language information sessions on Spanish-speaking patients seeking bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Martin, Allison N; Marino, Miguel; Killerby, Marie; Rosselli-Risal, Liliana; Isom, Kellene A; Robinson, Malcolm K

    2017-06-01

    Bariatric centers frequently provide preoperative educational programs to inform patients about the risks and benefits of weight loss surgery. However, most programs are conducted in English, which may create barriers to effective treatment and access to care for non-English speaking populations. To address this concern, we instituted a comprehensive Spanish-language education program consisting of preoperative information and group nutrition classes conducted entirely in, and supported with Spanish-language materials. The primary aim was to examine the effect of this intervention on Spanish-speaking patients' decision to undergo surgery in a pilot study. University Hospital/Community Health Center, United States. Three cohorts of patients seeking bariatric surgery between January 1, 2011 and March 31, 2012 were identified: 1) primary English speakers attending English-language programs ("English-English"); 2) primary Spanish speakers attending Spanish-language programs ("Spanish-Spanish"); and 3) primary Spanish speakers attending English-speaking programs with the assistance of a Spanish-to-English translator ("Spanish-English"). 26% of the English-English cohort ultimately underwent surgery compared with only 12% of the Spanish-Spanish cohort (P = .009). Compared with the English-English group, time to surgery was 35 days longer for the Spanish-Spanish and 185 days longer for the Spanish-English group (both P< .001). Spanish-speaking patients were less likely to undergo bariatric surgery regardless of the language in which educational sessions are provided. For those choosing surgery, providing Spanish-language sessions can shorten time to surgery. A barrier to effective obesity treatment may exist for Spanish speakers, which may be only partially overcome by providing support in Spanish. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. [Spanish adaptation of Beers criteria].

    PubMed

    Pastor Cano, J; Aranda García, A; Gascón Cánovas, J J; Rausell Rausell, V J; Tobaruela Soto, M

    2015-01-01

    The Beers criteria, which were drawn up in the USA and updated in 2012, were developed to detect potentially inappropriate prescriptions in older adults. Since there are significant differences between the Spanish and North American drug catalogues, our aim was to produce a Spanish adaptation of the criteria. A comparison of the drugs mentioned in the Beers list with the 2012 Spanish Drugs Catalogue identified those active substances that were on the list in the USA but not commercially available in Spain. We also searched for Spanish drugs that were similar to those listed in the criteria. If these drugs were available in the USA, it was assumed that they had been evaluated by the Beers authors. On the other hand, if similar active substances were not available in the USA, they were evaluated by reference to three information sources: articles reviewed by the American Geriatrics Society in support of the Beers criteria, the product characteristics and information leaflets, and the European STOPP/START, NORGEP and PRISCUS criteria. Of the 199 active substances listed in the Beers criteria, 54 (27.0%) were not commercially available in Spain, but 50 new active substances could be included. These figures differed when “Direct Criteria” were considered: 47 (34.3%) active substances were not commercially available in Spain and 40 new ones could be included in the Beers list. As regards “Disease Dependent Criteria” the figures were 33 (21.3%) and 48, respectively. A great number of drugs on the Beers list were not commercially available in Spain, and we added many active substances not included in the original version. This study is thus an adaptation of the Beers Criteria to the Spanish health care scenario.

  19. The earliest medical texts.

    PubMed

    Frey, E F

    The first civilization known to have had an extensive study of medicine and to leave written records of its practices and procedures was that of ancient Egypt. The oldest extant Egyptian medical texts are six papyri from the period between 2000 B.C. and 1500 B.C.: the Kahun Medical Papyrus, the Ramesseum IV and Ramesseum V Papyri, the Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus, The Ebers Medical Papyrus and the Hearst Medical Papyrus. These texts, most of them based on older texts dating possibly from 3000 B.C., are comparatively free of the magician's approach to treating illness. Egyptian medicine influenced the medicine of neighboring cultures, including the culture of ancient Greece. From Greece, its influence spread onward, thereby affecting Western civilization significantly.

  20. Text Exchange System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, W. V.; Hanson, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Text Exchange System (TES) exchanges and maintains organized textual information including source code, documentation, data, and listings. System consists of two computer programs and definition of format for information storage. Comprehensive program used to create, read, and maintain TES files. TES developed to meet three goals: First, easy and efficient exchange of programs and other textual data between similar and dissimilar computer systems via magnetic tape. Second, provide transportable management system for textual information. Third, provide common user interface, over wide variety of computing systems, for all activities associated with text exchange.

  1. Toward Independent L2 Readers: Effects of Text Adjuncts, Subject Knowledge, L1 Reading, and L2 Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantmeier, Cindy; Hammadou Sullivan, JoAnn; Strube, Michael

    2014-01-01

    With 97 learners in an advanced Spanish course, the study examines the effects of textual enhancement adjuncts, prior subject knowledge, first language (L1) reading ability, and second language (L2) Spanish proficiency on L2 comprehension of scientific passages. Readings included two texts with two types of embedded questions: a pause or written…

  2. Toward Independent L2 Readers: Effects of Text Adjuncts, Subject Knowledge, L1 Reading, and L2 Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantmeier, Cindy; Hammadou Sullivan, JoAnn; Strube, Michael

    2014-01-01

    With 97 learners in an advanced Spanish course, the study examines the effects of textual enhancement adjuncts, prior subject knowledge, first language (L1) reading ability, and second language (L2) Spanish proficiency on L2 comprehension of scientific passages. Readings included two texts with two types of embedded questions: a pause or written…

  3. Polymorphous Perversity in Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Eilola, Johndan

    2012-01-01

    Here's the tricky part: If we teach ourselves and our students that texts are made to be broken apart, remixed, remade, do we lose the polymorphous perversity that brought us pleasure in the first place? Does the pleasure of transgression evaporate when the borders are opened?

  4. Teaching Expository Text Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montelongo, Jose; Berber-Jimenez, Lola; Hernandez, Anita C.; Hosking, David

    2006-01-01

    Many students enter high school unskilled in the art of reading to learn from science textbooks. Even students who can read full-length novels often find science books difficult to read because students have relatively little practice with the various types of expository text structures used by such textbooks (Armbruster, 1991). Expository text…

  5. Texts On-Line.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jean-Jacques

    1993-01-01

    Maintains that the study of signs is divided between those scholars who use the Saussurian binary sign (semiology) and those who prefer the Peirce tripartite sign (semiotics). Concludes that neither the Saussurian nor Peircian analysis methods can produce a semiotic interpretation based on a hierarchy of the text's various components. (CFR)

  6. Taming the Wild Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allyn, Pam

    2012-01-01

    As a well-known advocate for promoting wider reading and reading engagement among all children--and founder of a reading program for foster children--Pam Allyn knows that struggling readers often face any printed text with fear and confusion, like Max in the book Where the Wild Things Are. She argues that teachers need to actively create a…

  7. Listening with text

    PubMed Central

    McKinney, Blake

    2016-01-01

    Asynchronous, text-based patient-physician encounters are highly effective as a first touch point to the health system as they allow experienced physicians to make the first decision on next steps. Results are beginning to come in with patients in Colorado and Texas along five key measures: utilization, re-engagement, compliance, response time, and overall savings. PMID:28293592

  8. Texts and Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iser, Wolfgang

    1980-01-01

    Notes that, since fictional discourse need not reflect prevailing systems of meaning and norms or values, readers gain detachment from their own presuppositions; by constituting and formulating text-sense, readers are constituting and formulating their own cognition and becoming aware of the operations for doing so. (FL)

  9. Taming the Wild Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allyn, Pam

    2012-01-01

    As a well-known advocate for promoting wider reading and reading engagement among all children--and founder of a reading program for foster children--Pam Allyn knows that struggling readers often face any printed text with fear and confusion, like Max in the book Where the Wild Things Are. She argues that teachers need to actively create a…

  10. Texts On-Line.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jean-Jacques

    1993-01-01

    Maintains that the study of signs is divided between those scholars who use the Saussurian binary sign (semiology) and those who prefer the Peirce tripartite sign (semiotics). Concludes that neither the Saussurian nor Peircian analysis methods can produce a semiotic interpretation based on a hierarchy of the text's various components. (CFR)

  11. Summarizing Expository Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westby, Carol; Culatta, Barbara; Lawrence, Barbara; Hall-Kenyon, Kendra

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This article reviews the literature on students' developing skills in summarizing expository texts and describes strategies for evaluating students' expository summaries. Evaluation outcomes are presented for a professional development project aimed at helping teachers develop new techniques for teaching summarization. Methods: Strategies…

  12. Text as Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woal, Michael; Corn, Marcia Lynn

    As electronically mediated communication becomes more prevalent, print is regaining the original pictorial qualities which graphemes (written signs) lost when primitive pictographs (or picture writing) and ideographs (simplified graphemes used to communicate ideas as well as to represent objects) evolved into first written, then printed, texts of…

  13. Text Mining for Neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirupattur, Naveen; Lapish, Christopher C.; Mukhopadhyay, Snehasis

    2011-06-01

    Text mining, sometimes alternately referred to as text analytics, refers to the process of extracting high-quality knowledge from the analysis of textual data. Text mining has wide variety of applications in areas such as biomedical science, news analysis, and homeland security. In this paper, we describe an approach and some relatively small-scale experiments which apply text mining to neuroscience research literature to find novel associations among a diverse set of entities. Neuroscience is a discipline which encompasses an exceptionally wide range of experimental approaches and rapidly growing interest. This combination results in an overwhelmingly large and often diffuse literature which makes a comprehensive synthesis difficult. Understanding the relations or associations among the entities appearing in the literature not only improves the researchers current understanding of recent advances in their field, but also provides an important computational tool to formulate novel hypotheses and thereby assist in scientific discoveries. We describe a methodology to automatically mine the literature and form novel associations through direct analysis of published texts. The method first retrieves a set of documents from databases such as PubMed using a set of relevant domain terms. In the current study these terms yielded a set of documents ranging from 160,909 to 367,214 documents. Each document is then represented in a numerical vector form from which an Association Graph is computed which represents relationships between all pairs of domain terms, based on co-occurrence. Association graphs can then be subjected to various graph theoretic algorithms such as transitive closure and cycle (circuit) detection to derive additional information, and can also be visually presented to a human researcher for understanding. In this paper, we present three relatively small-scale problem-specific case studies to demonstrate that such an approach is very successful in

  14. Identifying randomized clinical trials in Spanish-language dermatology journals.

    PubMed

    Sanclemente, G; Pardo, H; Sánchez, S; Bonfill, X

    2015-06-01

    The necessary foundation for good clinical practice lies in knowledge derived from clinical research. Evidence from randomized clinical trials (RCTs) is the pillar on which decisions about therapy are based. To search exhaustively and rigorously to identify RCTs in dermatology journals published in Spanish. We located dermatology journals through the following search engines and indexes: PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, Periódica, Latindex, Índice Médico Español, C-17, IBECS, EMBASE, and IMBIOMED. We also sought information through dermatology associations and dermatologists in countries where Spanish was the usual language of publication, and we searched the Internet (Google). Afterwards we searched the journals electronically and manually to identify RCTs in all available volumes and issues, checking from the year publication started through 2012. Of 28 journals identified, we included 21 in the search. We found a total of 144 RCTs published since 1969; 78 (54%) were in Latin American journals and 66 (46%) were in Spanish journals. The most frequent disease contexts for RCTs in Spanish journals were psoriasis, mycoses, and acne vulgaris. In Latin American journals, the most frequent disease contexts were common warts, mycoses, acne vulgaris, and skin ulcers on the lower limbs. Manual searches identified more RCTs than electronic searches. Manual searches found a larger number of RCTs. Relatively fewer RCTs are published in Spanish and Latin American journals than in English-language journals. Internet facilitated access to full texts published by many journals; however, free open access to these texts is still unavailable and a large number of journal issues are still not posted online. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  15. Highlights of Spanish Astrophysics IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueras, F.; Girart, J. M.; Hernanz, M.; Jordi, C.

    This volume documents the contributions presented at the Seventh Scientific Meeting of the Spanish Astronomical Society (Sociedad Española de Astronomía, SEA). The event bought together 301 participants who presented 161 contributed talks and 120 posters, the greatest numbers up to now. The fact that most exciting items of the current astronomical research were addressed in the meeting proofs the good health of the SEA, a consolidated organization founded fifteen years ago in Barcelona. Two plenary sessions of the meeting were devoted to the approved entrance of Spain as a full member of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and to the imminent first light of the greatest telescope in the world, the GTC (Gran Telescopio de Canarias), milestones that will certainly lead the Spanish Astronomy in the next future. Link: http://www.springer.com/west/home?SGWID=4-102-22-173725709-0&changeHeader=true

  16. SPANISH PEAKS PRIMITIVE AREA, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calkins, James A.; Pattee, Eldon C.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Spanish Peaks Primitive Area, Montana, disclosed a small low-grade deposit of demonstrated chromite and asbestos resources. The chances for discovery of additional chrome resources are uncertain and the area has little promise for the occurrence of other mineral or energy resources. A reevaluation, sampling at depth, and testing for possible extensions of the Table Mountain asbestos and chromium deposit should be undertaken in the light of recent interpretations regarding its geologic setting.

  17. 7 CFR 51.2731 - U.S. Spanish Splits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false U.S. Spanish Splits. 51.2731 Section 51.2731... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2731 U.S. Spanish Splits. “U.S. Spanish Splits” consists of shelled Spanish type peanut kernels which are split or broken...

  18. 7 CFR 51.2731 - U.S. Spanish Splits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Spanish Splits. 51.2731 Section 51.2731... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2731 U.S. Spanish Splits. “U.S. Spanish Splits” consists of shelled Spanish type peanut kernels which are split or broken...

  19. 7 CFR 51.2731 - U.S. Spanish Splits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false U.S. Spanish Splits. 51.2731 Section 51.2731... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2731 U.S. Spanish Splits. “U.S. Spanish Splits” consists of shelled Spanish type peanut...

  20. 7 CFR 51.2731 - U.S. Spanish Splits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false U.S. Spanish Splits. 51.2731 Section 51.2731... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2731 U.S. Spanish Splits. “U.S. Spanish Splits” consists of shelled Spanish type peanut...

  1. 7 CFR 51.2731 - U.S. Spanish Splits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false U.S. Spanish Splits. 51.2731 Section 51.2731... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2731 U.S. Spanish Splits. “U.S. Spanish Splits” consists of shelled Spanish type peanut kernels which are split or broken...

  2. The Text Retrieval Conferences (TRECs)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-10-01

    Toulouse (France) ISS (Singapore) APL, Johns Hopkins University Lexis-N exis MDS at RMIT, Australia MIT /IBM Almaden Research Center NEC...and Medicine Institut de Recherche en Informatique de Toulouse The Johns Hopkins University - APL Kasetsart University KDD R&D Laboratories Keio... Smeaton & Wilkinson, 1997; Wilkin- son, 1998) The first non-English track was started in TREC-3. Four groups worked with 25 topics in Spanish, us

  3. TRMM Gridded Text Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocker, Erich Franz

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) has many products that contain instantaneous or gridded rain rates often among many other parameters. However, these products because of their completeness can often seem intimidating to users just desiring surface rain rates. For example one of the gridded monthly products contains well over 200 parameters. It is clear that if only rain rates are desired, this many parameters might prove intimidating. In addition, for many good reasons these products are archived and currently distributed in HDF format. This also can be an inhibiting factor in using TRMM rain rates. To provide a simple format and isolate just the rain rates from the many other parameters, the TRMM product created a series of gridded products in ASCII text format. This paper describes the various text rain rate products produced. It provides detailed information about parameters and how they are calculated. It also gives detailed format information. These products are used in a number of applications with the TRMM processing system. The products are produced from the swath instantaneous rain rates and contain information from the three major TRMM instruments: radar, radiometer, and combined. They are simple to use, human readable, and small for downloading.

  4. Metacomprehension of text material.

    PubMed

    Maki, R H; Berry, S L

    1984-10-01

    Subjects' abilities to predict future multiple-choice test performance after reading sections of text were investigated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, subjects who scored above median test performance showed some accuracy in their predictions of that test performance. They gave higher mean ratings to material related to correct than to incorrect test answers. Subjects who scored below median test performance did not show this prediction accuracy. The retention interval between reading and the test was manipulated in Experiment 2. Subjects who were tested after at least a 24-hr delay showed results identical to those of Experiment 1. However, when subjects were tested immediately after reading, subjects above and below median test performance gave accurate predictions for the first immediate test. In contrast, both types of subjects gave inaccurate predictions for the second immediate test. Structural variables, such as length, serial position, and hierarchical level of the sections of text were related to subjects' predictions. These variables, in general, were not related to test performance, although the predictions were related to test performance in the conditions described above.

  5. Spanish version of Colquitt's Organizational Justice Scale.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Gracia, Liliana; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Moreno-Jiménez, Bernardo

    2014-01-01

    Organizational justice (OJ) is an important predictor of different work attitudes and behaviors. Colquitt's Organizational Justice Scale (COJS) was designed to assess employees' perceptions of fairness. This scale has four dimensions: distributive, procedural, informational, and interpersonal justice. The objective of this study is to validate it in a Spanish sample. The scale was administered to 460 Spanish employees from the service sector. 40.4% were men and 59.6% women. The Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) supported the four dimensions structure for Spanish version of COJS. This model showed a better fit to data that the others models tested. Cronbach's alpha obtained for subscales ranged between .88 and .95. Correlations of the Spanish version of COJS with measures of incivility and job satisfaction were statistically significant and had a moderate to high magnitude, indicating a reasonable degree of construct validity. The Spanish version of COJS has adequate psychometric properties and may be of value in assessing OJ in Spanish setting.

  6. Keeping Pace: Science Trade Books in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schon, Isabel

    1985-01-01

    Describes elementary school science trade books written in Spanish. Topics considered in these books include: animal life; astronomy; biology; earth sciences; mathematics; general science; and general technology. (DH)

  7. Keeping Pace: Science Trade Books in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schon, Isabel

    1985-01-01

    Describes elementary school science trade books written in Spanish. Topics considered in these books include: animal life; astronomy; biology; earth sciences; mathematics; general science; and general technology. (DH)

  8. An Investigation of Anglicized Spanish as a Communication Strategy in the Beginning Spanish Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobeck, Ashley Brianne

    2013-01-01

    Considering the recent increase in Spanish use in the United States, particularly as reflected in the media, beginning Spanish students are entering their classrooms with knowledge of phrases such as "hasta la vista" and "numero uno," regardless of their amount of previous formal Spanish study. The present research focuses on…

  9. The Dimensionality of Spanish in Young Spanish-English Dual-Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the latent dimensionality of Spanish in young Spanish-English dual-language learners (DLLs). Method: Two hundred eighty-six children participated. In their prekindergarten year, children completed norm-referenced and experimental language measures in Spanish requiring different levels of cognitive processing in both…

  10. High School Spanish Teachers' Attitudes and Practices toward Spanish Heritage Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Brittany D.; Kuriscak, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    This case study uses survey data to examine the attitudes and pedagogical practices of preservice and current high school Spanish teachers toward Spanish heritage language learners (HLLs). The research questions addressed were (1) the extent to which participants were aware of the challenges facing Spanish HLLs who are enrolled in traditional…

  11. Attitudes toward Spanish and Code-Switching in Belize: Stigmatization and Innovation in the Spanish Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balam, Osmer; de Prada Pérez, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Through the analysis of survey and interview data, we investigated the attitudes and perceptions of 32 multilingual teachers of Spanish in Belize, a code-switching (CS) context where Spanish is in intense contact with English and Belizean Kriol. More specifically, we examined teachers' and students' attitudes toward Spanish and CS and teachers'…

  12. The Dimensionality of Spanish in Young Spanish-English Dual-Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the latent dimensionality of Spanish in young Spanish-English dual-language learners (DLLs). Method: Two hundred eighty-six children participated. In their prekindergarten year, children completed norm-referenced and experimental language measures in Spanish requiring different levels of cognitive processing in both…

  13. Attitudes toward Spanish and Code-Switching in Belize: Stigmatization and Innovation in the Spanish Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balam, Osmer; de Prada Pérez, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Through the analysis of survey and interview data, we investigated the attitudes and perceptions of 32 multilingual teachers of Spanish in Belize, a code-switching (CS) context where Spanish is in intense contact with English and Belizean Kriol. More specifically, we examined teachers' and students' attitudes toward Spanish and CS and teachers'…

  14. High School Spanish Teachers' Attitudes and Practices toward Spanish Heritage Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Brittany D.; Kuriscak, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    This case study uses survey data to examine the attitudes and pedagogical practices of preservice and current high school Spanish teachers toward Spanish heritage language learners (HLLs). The research questions addressed were (1) the extent to which participants were aware of the challenges facing Spanish HLLs who are enrolled in traditional…

  15. An Investigation of Anglicized Spanish as a Communication Strategy in the Beginning Spanish Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobeck, Ashley Brianne

    2013-01-01

    Considering the recent increase in Spanish use in the United States, particularly as reflected in the media, beginning Spanish students are entering their classrooms with knowledge of phrases such as "hasta la vista" and "numero uno," regardless of their amount of previous formal Spanish study. The present research focuses on…

  16. Reading Text While Driving

    PubMed Central

    Horrey, William J.; Hoffman, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In this study, we investigated how drivers adapt secondary-task initiation and time-sharing behavior when faced with fluctuating driving demands. Background Reading text while driving is particularly detrimental; however, in real-world driving, drivers actively decide when to perform the task. Method In a test track experiment, participants were free to decide when to read messages while driving along a straight road consisting of an area with increased driving demands (demand zone) followed by an area with low demands. A message was made available shortly before the vehicle entered the demand zone. We manipulated the type of driving demands (baseline, narrow lane, pace clock, combined), message format (no message, paragraph, parsed), and the distance from the demand zone when the message was available (near, far). Results In all conditions, drivers started reading messages (drivers’ first glance to the display) before entering or before leaving the demand zone but tended to wait longer when faced with increased driving demands. While reading messages, drivers looked more or less off road, depending on types of driving demands. Conclusions For task initiation, drivers avoid transitions from low to high demands; however, they are not discouraged when driving demands are already elevated. Drivers adjust time-sharing behavior according to driving demands while performing secondary tasks. Nonetheless, such adjustment may be less effective when total demands are high. Application This study helps us to understand a driver’s role as an active controller in the context of distracted driving and provides insights for developing distraction interventions. PMID:25850162

  17. Baseball--Beisbol: Spanish--English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Philip

    This pamphlet is an alphabetical English-Spanish listing of more than three hundred words, phrases, and sentences related to the game of baseball as it is reported in Mexico City, in border towns, and in Spanish language newspapers in the United States. At the end of this dictionary are listed the major league teams of the United States and Canada…

  18. Forms of Address in Chilean Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Kelley; Michnowicz, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examines possible social and linguistic factors that influence forms of address used in Chilean Spanish with various interlocutors. A characteristic of the Spanish of Chile is the use of a variety of forms of address for the second person singular, "tu", "vos", and "usted", with corresponding…

  19. Spanish for Agricultural Purposes: The Video Episodes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainous, Bruce H.; And Others

    The transcripts of dialogues from videotape recordings were developed, along with accompanying language laboratory material, as part of a one-semester course in Spanish for North American agriculture specialists preparing to work in Latin America. Included are 48 episodes covering such topics as: working with a local Spanish-speaking counterpart,…

  20. Variation in Miami Cuban Spanish Interrogative Intonation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvord, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    The interrogative intonation of Cubans and Cuban Americans living in Miami is investigated. Two different intonation patterns are used in this variety of Spanish to convey absolute interrogative meaning: one with a falling final contour, as has been observed in Cuban Spanish, and one with a rising final contour, as is used in American English and…

  1. Subverting Cervantes: Language Authority in Global Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mar-Molinero, Clare

    2008-01-01

    This article seeks to situate Spanish as a global language by exploring both the top-down institutional processes that promote it and the bottom-up grassroots actions that are also increasingly important in the spread and maintenance of global Spanish. This article argues that one of the most important influences now in the explosion of Spanish…

  2. Selecting Books in Spanish To Teach Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Victoria R.; Bennett, Tom R.; Bullock, Cathy

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a resource for identifying and obtaining high-quality children's literature printed in Spanish and published worldwide. Presents some guidelines for selecting literature to teach mathematics. Provides specific examples of Spanish language books that are high-quality and have strong potential for furthering students' mathematical…

  3. The Spanish Family Guidance Center of Miami.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hispanic Research Center: Research Bulletin, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Two major programs of the Spanish Family Guidance Center, a facility that addresses the mental health needs of Hispanics in the Greater Miami (Florida) area, are described in this report. One program, the Spanish Drug Rehabilitation Project (completed in 1977), compared a series of activities including: (1) research on the characteristics of…

  4. A Reading Study of Spanish Heritage Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hislope, Kristi

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the self-reported reading habits and levels of ability in reading of ten heritage speakers of Spanish enrolled in Spanish classes at Purdue University. Results warrant more explicit focus on form instruction and activation of background knowledge for heritage speakers. (Author/VWL)

  5. A Spanish-Language Preschool Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campos, James

    The Carpinteria school district in California has developed a model preschool program to bring Spanish-dominant preschool children up to a level of readiness for school that compares favorably with that of English-speaking children in the same community. That goal is achieved by developing skills in four major areas: Spanish language, cognition,…

  6. Modeling Spanish Mood Choice in Belief Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Jason R.

    2013-01-01

    This work develops a computational methodology new to linguistics that empirically evaluates competing linguistic theories on Spanish verbal mood choice through the use of computational techniques to learn mood and other hidden linguistic features from Spanish belief statements found in corpora. The machine learned probabilistic linguistic models…

  7. Workplace Spanish for Health Care Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Paula

    This syllabus and curriculum guide were developed for a 12-week course in workplace Spanish for clinical workers at the Claretian Medical Center on the south side of Chicago. The purpose of the class was to provide basic communicative abilities in Spanish to the medical staff---registered nurses, triage nurses, and laboratory technologists--such…

  8. Variation in Conversational Discourse: Spanish "Pragmatic Expressions."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carranza, Isolda

    This study reports on preliminary findings of two research projects conducted during the 1988-89 and 1990-91 in Cordoba, Argentina, that examined fixed, idiomatic, Spanish-language expressions that are very common, but often ignored, in oral Spanish discourse. Study 1 subjects were 13 university-educated, adults, born in the city; study 2 subjects…

  9. Spanish: Familiarization and Short-Term Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbelaez, Vicente; And Others

    The State Department's Foreign Service Institute short-term, intensive course in Spanish language and culture for government employees going to work in Spanish-speaking countries contains an introductory section and 38 lessons and 10 related audio cassettes intended as the basis for a ten-week program with an instructor. The lessons cover these…

  10. Career Spanish at Mesa State College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkenton, David

    The development and results of Career Spanish instruction at Mesa State College in Colorado from 1975 to 1991 are described. The class is an individualized, career-oriented class for students who have only 3 to 6 semester hours available for foreign language study and an interest in particular vocational applications of Spanish. With no…

  11. Noteworthy Books in Spanish for Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schon, Isabel

    2002-01-01

    This annotated bibliography includes 18 titles that appeal to Spanish-speaking teens under the categories of contemporary novels, historical fiction, longtime favorites, health, and myths and legends. A sidebar lists dealers of books in Spanish for children and young adults. (LRW)

  12. Defying Analysis: Spanish-American Plural Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romens, Thomas L.

    Spanish American plural formation is discussed in relation to attempts that have been made to write a set of phonological rules that would correctly predict the Spanish plural using a combination of phonological rules and word structure constraints. A brief synopsis is resented of why previous attempts to predict the plural are in error.…

  13. How To Learn Spanish the Easy Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampe, Livia

    An approach to learning Spanish is presented in this guide that builds on the similarities of alphabet, structure, and vocabulary between Spanish and English. The first two introductory lessons deal with the similarities and differences of the alphabet and sentence structure, and the third covers important words to memorize, including…

  14. Noteworthy Books in Spanish for Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schon, Isabel

    2000-01-01

    Spanish-speaking adolescents' interests and tastes in books vary as much as those of their English-speaking counterparts. This annotated bibliography includes brief short stories, realistic novels, an Internet guide, engrossing mysteries, passionate poems, all recently published books available for Spanish-speaking adolescents. (AEF)

  15. Forms of Address in Chilean Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Kelley; Michnowicz, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examines possible social and linguistic factors that influence forms of address used in Chilean Spanish with various interlocutors. A characteristic of the Spanish of Chile is the use of a variety of forms of address for the second person singular, "tu", "vos", and "usted", with corresponding…

  16. A Marketing Strategy for Spanish for Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Christine Uber

    The development of a marketing strategy for business Spanish courses by means of situational analysis is described. The planner of marketing strategy must consider demand for a course, institutional acceptance, and financial support. A survey of 508 universities revealed a low level of demand for business Spanish which could potentially be…

  17. How To Learn Spanish the Easy Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampe, Livia

    An approach to learning Spanish is presented in this guide that builds on the similarities of alphabet, structure, and vocabulary between Spanish and English. The first two introductory lessons deal with the similarities and differences of the alphabet and sentence structure, and the third covers important words to memorize, including…

  18. Spanish: Familiarization and Short-Term Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbelaez, Vicente; And Others

    The State Department's Foreign Service Institute short-term, intensive course in Spanish language and culture for government employees going to work in Spanish-speaking countries contains an introductory section and 38 lessons and 10 related audio cassettes intended as the basis for a ten-week program with an instructor. The lessons cover these…

  19. "Proyecto Sherezade": Teaching Spanish Literature Interactively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Enrique

    2001-01-01

    Describes "Proyecto Sherezade," an Internet-based project publicly available to anyone. Founded in 1996 by a group of Spanish language and literature academics in Canada and the United States, the project began as an Internet literary magazine that published non-established writers's short stories in Spanish and commentaries sent by readers.…

  20. Modeling Spanish Mood Choice in Belief Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Jason R.

    2013-01-01

    This work develops a computational methodology new to linguistics that empirically evaluates competing linguistic theories on Spanish verbal mood choice through the use of computational techniques to learn mood and other hidden linguistic features from Spanish belief statements found in corpora. The machine learned probabilistic linguistic models…

  1. Black/Indian Interaction in Spanish Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landers, Jane

    The history of the lives of non-white peoples in the United States largely has been neglected although the Spanish bureaucrats kept meticulous records of the Spanish Mission period in Florida. These records represent an important source for the cultural history of these groups and offer new perspectives on the tri-racial nature of frontier…

  2. Career Spanish at Mesa State College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkenton, David

    The development and results of Career Spanish instruction at Mesa State College in Colorado from 1975 to 1991 are described. The class is an individualized, career-oriented class for students who have only 3 to 6 semester hours available for foreign language study and an interest in particular vocational applications of Spanish. With no…

  3. "Proyecto Sherezade": Teaching Spanish Literature Interactively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Enrique

    2001-01-01

    Describes "Proyecto Sherezade," an Internet-based project publicly available to anyone. Founded in 1996 by a group of Spanish language and literature academics in Canada and the United States, the project began as an Internet literary magazine that published non-established writers's short stories in Spanish and commentaries sent by readers.…

  4. Spanish. A Guide to the Spoken Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1975

    This pocket-sized guide is designed to enable the learner to carry on simple conversations in Spanish. It is not intended to give a complete command of the Spanish language. The first section, "Useful Words and Phrases," includes these topics: Greetings and General Phrases, Location (e.g. Where is the restaurant?), Directions (e.g. to the right),…

  5. Chicago's Spanish-Speaking Population: Selected Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Dept. of Development and Planning, IL.

    Based on selected data from the 1970 census, this report provides a general description of Chicago's Spanish-speaking population's: (1) general population characteristics; (2) age and family characteristics; (3) income; (4) labor force characteristics; (5) education; and (6) housing. Using the Census Bureau's definition of Spanish speaking (all…

  6. Bibliografia en Espanol (Bibliography in Spanish).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego County Office of Education, CA.

    Teachers, librarians and resource teachers are provided with a list of 110 high quality books in the Spanish language which will help the needs of limited and non-English-speaking students. The entries are annotated in English and graded "Primary,""Intermediate," and/or "Junior High." Four of the stories are classified as Spanish/English. The…

  7. Bibliografia en Espanol (Bibliography in Spanish).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego County Office of Education, CA.

    Teachers, librarians and resource teachers are provided with a list of 110 high quality books in the Spanish language which will help the needs of limited and non-English-speaking students. The entries are annotated in English and graded "Primary,""Intermediate," and/or "Junior High." Four of the stories are classified as Spanish/English. The…

  8. Spanish/Espanol. Resource Guides for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Ken; Clayton, John

    This resource guide is designed for teachers and others interested in fostering Spanish instruction in the schools of the United Kingdom, especially at the secondary level. The first of nine chapters looks at the status of and rationale for Spanish language instruction in the United Kingdom. The second chapter addresses topics in instructional…

  9. Haciendo Escritores: Espanol = Creating Writers: Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Melissa G.; Arrasmith, Dean G.

    This teacher guide is meant to provide a rationale for an assessment model for Spanish writing. A wide variety of bilingual and English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) programs have emerged to meet this challenge, and writing is integral to these approaches because learning to write well in Spanish is often the key to academic success in English.…

  10. "Plaza Sesamo" and Spanish Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Sulamita R.

    The Spanish version of "Sesame Street" was used in a project in a class of 12 students in the second semester of first-year Spanish at Phillips Exeter Academy, and an attempt was made to evaluate the usefulness of the series in second language acquisition. This account of the project has five parts: (1) a history of the production of…

  11. Commercial Spanish at Eastern Michigan University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voght, Geoffrey M.

    The commercial Spanish courses at Eastern Michigan University, examinations in commercial Spanish, and cooperative education exchange programs are described, and the university's new programs that combine the study of foreign language and business are briefly addressed. A six-course sequence offered on the junior, senior, and graduate levels cover…

  12. Fictive Motion in English and Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojo, Ana; Valenzuela, Javier

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes fictive motion expressions in English and Spanish with the twofold aim of (a) finding out whether the differences that have been reported in the expression of motion in English and Spanish also apply to fictive motion, and (b) checking whether the similarities and differences reported by Matsumoto for English and Japanese also…

  13. Commercial Communication in the Spanish Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhardt-Childers, Ilva

    A college course in commercial Spanish is described. The course objectives are to: build a solid foundation of business and professional vocabulary, grammar, spelling, and punctuation; prepare for oral and written communication with commonly-used Spanish business phrases and terminology; expose students to the different types of written…

  14. The Spanish Family Guidance Center of Miami.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hispanic Research Center: Research Bulletin, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Two major programs of the Spanish Family Guidance Center, a facility that addresses the mental health needs of Hispanics in the Greater Miami (Florida) area, are described in this report. One program, the Spanish Drug Rehabilitation Project (completed in 1977), compared a series of activities including: (1) research on the characteristics of…

  15. THE SPANISH AMERICANS IN NEW MEXICO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KNOWLTON, CLARK S.

    THE SPANISH AMERICANS IN NEW MEXICO ARE UNDERGOING GREAT SOCIAL AND CULTURAL CHANGE. THEIR VILLAGE CULTURE, FORMED IN ISOLATION NEAR IRRIGATED LAND WHICH HAD REMAINED REMARKABLY STABLE FOR SEVERAL HUNDRED YEARS, IS BREAKING DOWN. THE SPANISH AMERICANS ARE LEAVING THEIR VILLAGES AND MIGRATING TO INDUSTRIAL CENTERS. FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THIS…

  16. Spanish health information resources for nurses.

    PubMed

    Hebert, Becky

    2006-01-01

    According to the U.S. Census Bureau, Spanish-speakers currently constitute 1 in 10 U.S. households, and the number is expected to rise. To provide responsible and responsive care, many nurses will need to develop communication skills for working with Spanish speakers and be able to find quality, reliable health information in Spanish for their patients and patients' families. A number of efforts have been described in the literature. This article augments prior efforts by providing nurses with resources for learning key words and phrases, sources to increase awareness of and sensitivity to cultural nuances, reliable consumer Web resources for Spanish-speaking patients, and tips for evaluating Spanish language health information on other Web sites.

  17. Comprehending Conceptual Anaphors in Spanish

    PubMed Central

    Carreiras, Manuel; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the mechanisms involved in the assignment of an antecedent to an anaphoric element. In general, pronouns must match their antecedents at least with respect to number and gender. Sensitivity to such constraints has been shown in several experiments. But Gernsbacher (1991) has also shown that people have no difficulty comprehending a plural pronoun with an antecedent that is grammatically singular but conceptually plural. In the first three experiments, we tested whether such a “conceptual effect” was preserved with zero anaphors in Spanish. (The typical omission of pronouns in subject position in Spanish.) Verbs in a second clause were marked with plural or singular endings. Plural verbs were rated more natural than singular verbs when they followed three types of singular but conceptually plural antecedents (Experiment 1). Clauses containing plural verbs were read faster when they followed one type of singular but conceptually plural antecedents, i.e. collective sets (Experiments 2 and 3). In fact, clauses containing plural verbs were read equally fast when they followed literally singular collective sets or explicitly group nouns. Using pronominal anaphors, these reading time effects were replicated and extended to sentences that contained generic types as antecedents (Experiment 4). The results are discussed in terms of the use of information during the comprehension of anaphors. PMID:25425750

  18. The Spanish flu in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Kolte, Ida Viktoria; Skinhøj, Peter; Keiding, Niels; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2008-01-01

    The spread of H5N1 influenza and the similarity between this avian virus and the Spanish flu virus causes fear of a new influenza pandemic, but data from the Spanish flu may also be of guidance in planning for preventive measures. Using data on influenza cases, influenza deaths and total deaths for Denmark and for Danish towns from 1917 to 1921, and population data from the 1916 and 1921 censuses, we analysed incident cases, cumulative, age-specific and age-standardized rates. Overall, more than 900,000 persons contracted flu during the y 1918-1920, and 1 out of 50 patients died from the disease. An early wave of the flu occurred in the capital and major towns, but not in peripheral towns. Influenza incidence in 1918 peaked at age 5-15 y, closely followed by the age groups 1-5 y and 15-65 y, but the influenza mortality was highest in the age groups 0-1 y and 15-65 y, with a peak mortality at age 20-34 y producing a W curve for mortality by age. The background for the better outcome in children aged 1-15 y as well as for the disease immunity in the elderly population should be further investigated.

  19. [Pioneers of Spanish dermatologic surgery].

    PubMed

    Del Río, E

    2008-06-01

    Even before dermatology was born as a specialty at the beginning of the 19th century, most skin lesions and dermatoses tended to be treated by surgeons rather than physicians. After medicine and surgery were unified into a single discipline and dermatology emerged as a modern specialty, this relationship became blurred and Spanish dermatologists leaned more towards medicine than surgery. Then improvements in surgical techniques, knowledge of antiseptic and aseptic procedures, the development and introduction of anesthesia, and the greater interest in micrographic approaches led to the rediscovery and almost complete rebirth of this old surgical tradition in the second half of the 19th century. In Spain, dermatologic surgery as such did not really exist until the first third of the 20th century, when Enrique Alvarez Sainz de Aja and Vicente Gimeno emerged as the main exponents of this discipline. Of these 2, Alvarez Sainz de Aja drawing on his previous experience as a general surgeon and obstetrician was the better practitioner of the incipient dermatologic surgery. The other, Gimeno, wrote an interesting booklet on dermatologic surgery that was published in 1923 and that formed the basis of his inaugural speech to the Spanish Royal National Academy of Medicine.

  20. Linea abierta -- Comunicacion en espanol. Nivel Uno (Open Line -- Communication in Spanish. Level One).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This text is the first of a series of four units concerning language skills for Spanish speakers of limited English-speaking ability in grades 6-9. The text includes a variety of learning experiences designed to develop competence in the student's cognitive and affective skills derived from the following basic areas: listening, speaking, reading,…

  1. Linea abierta -- Comunicacion en Espanol. Edicion del maestro (Open Line -- Communication in Spanish. Teacher's Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This teacher's guide corresponds to the text that is the first of a series of four units concerning language skills for Spanish speakers of limited English-speaking ability in grades 6-9. The text includes a variety of learning experiences designed to develop competence in the student's cognitive and affective skills derived from the following…

  2. Teaching Text Structure: Examining the Affordances of Children's Informational Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Cindy D.; Clark, Sarah K.; Reutzel, D. Ray

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the affordances of informational texts to serve as model texts for teaching text structure to elementary school children. Content analysis of a random sampling of children's informational texts from top publishers was conducted on text structure organization and on the inclusion of text features as signals of text…

  3. Teaching Text Structure: Examining the Affordances of Children's Informational Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Cindy D.; Clark, Sarah K.; Reutzel, D. Ray

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the affordances of informational texts to serve as model texts for teaching text structure to elementary school children. Content analysis of a random sampling of children's informational texts from top publishers was conducted on text structure organization and on the inclusion of text features as signals of text…

  4. Industrial Crafts. A Bilingual Text = Trabajos Manuales Industriales. Un Texto Bilingue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA. Div. of Career and Continuing Education.

    This bilingual instructional text, one in a series of six texts covering various vocational and technical topics, provides secondary level English and Spanish instruction in industrial crafts. Addressed in the individual units are the following topics: plastics; laminating acrylic plastic; thermoforming plastics; sawing, shaping, and finishing…

  5. Industrial Crafts. A Bilingual Text = Trabajos Manuales Industriales. Un Texto Bilingue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA. Div. of Career and Continuing Education.

    This bilingual instructional text, one in a series of six texts covering various vocational and technical topics, provides secondary level English and Spanish instruction in industrial crafts. Addressed in the individual units are the following topics: plastics; laminating acrylic plastic; thermoforming plastics; sawing, shaping, and finishing…

  6. Natural radioactivity in Spanish soils

    SciTech Connect

    Quindos, L.S.; Fernandez, P.L.; Soto, J.

    1994-02-01

    The program of studies and surveys of natural radiation and radioactivity in Spain organized by our research group at the end of the 1980s included a 4-y national survey to determine the concentrations of natural radionuclides in soil. Results obtained from measurements of soil samples collected nationwide at >900 sampling sites are reported and discussed in this paper. Correlations between absorbed dose rates in air calculated from natural radionuclide concentrations in soil and terrestrial gamma dose rates measured experimentally outdoors are shown for the different autonomous regions of Spain. Assessment is also made of the dose to the Spanish population from outdoor exposure to terrestrial gamma rays. 26 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. 16 CFR 455.5 - Spanish language sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Spanish language sales. 455.5 Section 455.5... § 455.5 Spanish language sales. If you conduct a sale in Spanish, the window form required by § 455.2... vehicle both an English language window form and a Spanish language translation of that form. Use the...

  8. Spanish Courses for Spanish Speakers: Partial Listing of Programs. [and] Spanish Materials Being Used in Courses for Native Spanish Speakers at the Secondary Level. CLEAR Materials Resource Series, Numbers 3 and 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfus, Dan; Willetts, Karen

    Two numbers of the CLEAR Materials Resource Series that both deal with teaching Spanish to native Spanish speakers have been combined. Number three provides a brief description of the courses and curricula developed by various school districts for the teaching of Spanish language arts to native speakers of Spanish at the elementary and secondary…

  9. Beginning Spanish in Grade Three: MLA Teacher's Guide. A Course of Study Including Methods, Materials, and Aids for Teaching Conversational Spanish to Third-Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mary P.; And Others

    This is the first in a series of texts in a conversational Spanish course for elementary school children. Fifteen basic units present introductory linguistic patterns and cultural insights into the lives of Spaniards. They include: (1) Greetings, Identifications, and Farewells, (2) Some Classroom Objects and Instructions, (3) Colors, (4) More…

  10. Beginning Spanish in Grade Three: MLA Teacher's Guide. A Course of Study Including Methods, Materials, and Aids for Teaching Conversational Spanish to Third-Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mary P.; And Others

    This is the first in a series of texts in a conversational Spanish course for elementary school children. Fifteen basic units present introductory linguistic patterns and cultural insights into the lives of Spaniards. They include: (1) Greetings, Identifications, and Farewells, (2) Some Classroom Objects and Instructions, (3) Colors, (4) More…

  11. The advantage of first mention in Spanish

    PubMed Central

    CARREIRAS, MANUEL; GERNSBACHER, MORTON ANN; VILLA, VICTOR

    2015-01-01

    An advantage of first mention—that is, faster access to participants mentioned first in a sentence—has previously been demonstrated only in English. We report three experiments demonstrating that the advantage of first mention occurs also in Spanish sentences, regardless of whether the first-mentioned participants are syntactic subjects, and regardless, too, of whether they are proper names or inanimate objects. Because greater word-order flexibility is allowed in Spanish than in English (e.g., nonpassive object-verb-subject constructions exist in Spanish), these findings provide additional evidence that the advantage of first mention is a general cognitive phenomenon. PMID:24203596

  12. Automatic Text Summarization for Indonesian Language Using TextTeaser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawan, D.; Pasaribu, A.; Rahmat, R. F.; Budiarto, R.

    2017-04-01

    Text summarization is one of the solution for information overload. Reducing text without losing the meaning not only can save time to read, but also maintain the reader’s understanding. One of many algorithms to summarize text is TextTeaser. Originally, this algorithm is intended to be used for text in English. However, due to TextTeaser algorithm does not consider the meaning of the text, we implement this algorithm for text in Indonesian language. This algorithm calculates four elements, such as title feature, sentence length, sentence position and keyword frequency. We utilize TextRank, an unsupervised and language independent text summarization algorithm, to evaluate the summarized text yielded by TextTeaser. The result shows that the TextTeaser algorithm needs more improvement to obtain better accuracy.

  13. Important Text Characteristics for Early-Grades Text Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Elmore, Jeff; Koons, Heather; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Bowen, Kimberly; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core set a standard for all children to read increasingly complex texts throughout schooling. The purpose of the present study was to explore text characteristics specifically in relation to early-grades text complexity. Three hundred fifty primary-grades texts were selected and digitized. Twenty-two text characteristics were identified…

  14. Important Text Characteristics for Early-Grades Text Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Elmore, Jeff; Koons, Heather; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Bowen, Kimberly; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core set a standard for all children to read increasingly complex texts throughout schooling. The purpose of the present study was to explore text characteristics specifically in relation to early-grades text complexity. Three hundred fifty primary-grades texts were selected and digitized. Twenty-two text characteristics were identified…

  15. Problemas del Lenguaje Espanol en la Prensa: El Castellano, Esta Lengua Enferma (Problems of the Spanish Language in the Press: Castillian, That Closed-In Language)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quijada, Carlos Alonso

    1977-01-01

    Learned academies deplore the deterioration of Castillian Spanish due to foreign contamination. They ignore the real source of the problem within Spain itself where everyone speaks the language badly except those in the remote towns and a few intellectuals. A ray of hope comes from the Americans. (Text is in Spanish.) (AMH)

  16. Problemas del Lenguaje Espanol en la Prensa: El Castellano, Esta Lengua Enferma (Problems of the Spanish Language in the Press: Castillian, That Closed-In Language)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quijada, Carlos Alonso

    1977-01-01

    Learned academies deplore the deterioration of Castillian Spanish due to foreign contamination. They ignore the real source of the problem within Spain itself where everyone speaks the language badly except those in the remote towns and a few intellectuals. A ray of hope comes from the Americans. (Text is in Spanish.) (AMH)

  17. Attitudes of Teachers of Spanish as a Foreign Language toward Teaching Spanish to Hispanic Students in Urban Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Rossana Ramirez

    The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate the attitudes of teachers of Spanish as a foreign language toward teaching Spanish to Hispanic American students--students who often possess oral fluency in Spanish but lack reading and writing skills in Spanish. The research was guided by four questions about the teachers' attitudes toward the…

  18. The Impact of a Systematic and Explicit Vocabulary Intervention in Spanish with Spanish-Speaking English Learners in First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cena, Johanna; Baker, Doris Luft; Kame'enui, Edward J.; Baker, Scott K.; Park, Yonghan; Smolkowski, Keith

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a 15-min daily explicit vocabulary intervention in Spanish on expressive and receptive vocabulary knowledge and oral reading fluency in Spanish, and on language proficiency in English. Fifty Spanish-speaking English learners who received 90 min of Spanish reading instruction in an early transition model were…

  19. The Impact of a Systematic and Explicit Vocabulary Intervention in Spanish with Spanish-Speaking English Learners in First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cena, Johanna; Baker, Doris Luft; Kame'enui, Edward J.; Baker, Scott K.; Park, Yonghan; Smolkowski, Keith

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a 15-min daily explicit vocabulary intervention in Spanish on expressive and receptive vocabulary knowledge and oral reading fluency in Spanish, and on language proficiency in English. Fifty Spanish-speaking English learners who received 90 min of Spanish reading instruction in an early transition model were…

  20. Improving text recognition by distinguishing scene and overlay text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quehl, Bernhard; Yang, Haojin; Sack, Harald

    2015-02-01

    Video texts are closely related to the content of a video. They provide a valuable source for indexing and interpretation of video data. Text detection and recognition task in images or videos typically distinguished between overlay and scene text. Overlay text is artificially superimposed on the image at the time of editing and scene text is text captured by the recording system. Typically, OCR systems are specialized on one kind of text type. However, in video images both types of text can be found. In this paper, we propose a method to automatically distinguish between overlay and scene text to dynamically control and optimize post processing steps following text detection. Based on a feature combination a Support Vector Machine (SVM) is trained to classify scene and overlay text. We show how this distinction in overlay and scene text improves the word recognition rate. Accuracy of the proposed methods has been evaluated by using publicly available test data sets.

  1. Retinal locus for scanning text.

    PubMed

    Timberlake, George T; Sharma, Manoj K; Grose, Susan A; Maino, Joseph H

    2006-01-01

    A method of mapping the retinal location of text during reading is described in which text position is plotted cumulatively on scanning laser ophthalmoscope retinal images. Retinal locations that contain text most often are the brightest in the cumulative plot, and locations that contain text least often are the darkest. In this way, the retinal area that most often contains text is determined. Text maps were plotted for eight control subjects without vision loss and eight subjects with central scotomas from macular degeneration. Control subjects' text maps showed that the fovea contained text most often. Text maps of five of the subjects with scotomas showed that they used the same peripheral retinal area to scan text and fixate. Text maps of the other three subjects with scotomas showed that they used separate areas to scan text and fixate. Retinal text maps may help evaluate rehabilitative strategies for training individuals with central scotomas to use a particular retinal area to scan text.

  2. Spanish cabinet moves to liberalize abortion law.

    PubMed

    1995-07-14

    On July 7 (1995), the cabinet of Spain's socialist prime minister Felipe Gonzalez approved a measure to expand the country's abortion law by permitting a woman to obtain the procedure during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy in circumstances not currently allowed. Since 1985, abortion has been legal throughout pregnancy in the following situations: when a medical specialist not associated with the procedure determines that an abortion is necessary to "avert a serious risk to [a woman's] physical or mental health;" during the first 12 weeks if the pregnancy results from reported rape; and within the first 22 weeks when two physicians not associated with the abortion certify that the fetus would develop "severe physical or mental defects." The new legislation, which also requires women to receive nonbinding counseling, permits abortions when a health care professional determines that carrying to term will cause a woman severe anxiety for social or economic reasons. Before the measure can become law, it must be approved by the Spanish Parliament, which is expected to vote on the proposal in September. The Catalan nationalist grouping, which has been a key supporter of the socialist government, is among the forces opposing liberalization of the abortion statute. Partly due to the abortion controversy, the Catalan coalition is expected to vote on July 17 to decide whether to continue its backing. full text

  3. Spanish Reflexives: A Critique of Pedagogical Descriptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Anthony G.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses pedagogical descriptions in high school textbooks covering Spanish reflexive verb constructions. Points out that these textbooks rarely contain the full reflexive construction displayed with all the grammatical persons and complete English glosses. (17 references) (Author/CK)

  4. Spanish Comes Alive on "la Isla Caribe"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Von N.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a program in which native English-speaking students were immersed in a Spanish-only environment for a week. The program was so successful that teachers asked for, and got, their own program. (IRT)

  5. The Spanish-Speaking Elderly: A Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado, Maria; Finley, Gordon E.

    1978-01-01

    The present bibliography contains selected professional, research, and scholarly references regarding the Spanish-speaking elderly from Latin America, Spain, and the United States for the years 1960 to 1977. (Author)

  6. Internal Contradictions of a Spanish Subjunctive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, David William

    1982-01-01

    Gives some examples of internal contradictions in the use of the Spanish subjunctive. Details these contradictions to show there is only a tenuous relationship between surface forms and semantic features and categories. (EKN)

  7. Intonational phonology description of Porteno Spanish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barjam, John P.

    2003-10-01

    In this study the intonational patterns of Porteno Spanish (PS) are described within an Autosegmental Metrical (AM) (Ladd, 1996) approach. Porteno Spanish is the Spanish spoken in Buenos Aires, Argentina, and because of the influence from Italian and other languages, it differs markedly from varieties of Spanish that have been previously described. Six monolingual PS speakers were recorded saying 99 sentences which include declaratives, interrogatives, imperatives, and focused declarative and interrogative sentences. A ToBI framework, based on the F0 contour, was developed for labeling the sentences intonation. Preliminary results suggest that each phrase contains a somewhat regular pattern: (1) the stressed syllables of content words carry one of five pre-nuclear pitch accents, (2) nuclear pitch accents are more restrictive and tend to vary depending on the sentence type, and (3) boundary tones, both intermediate and intonational, are regular but also vary depending on sentence type.

  8. The Spanish participation in the SKA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Garrido, J.; González-García, M.

    2017-03-01

    The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) will be a radio interferometer aiming to answer fundamental questions in Astrophysics, Fundamental Physics, and Astrobiology. It will be composed of thousands of antennas distributed over distances of more than 3000 kilometres on both Africa and Australia. The SKA has been recently identified as a Landmark Project in the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) roadmap. Spain has been participating in SKA-related activities since the 1990s, coordinated since 2011 by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC). Up to now, 21 researchers participate in 7 out of the 11 main SKA Science Working Groups, and a total of 119 researchers from 40 Spanish centres have participated in the Spanish SKA White Book, published in 2015. From a technological point of view, more than 20 research centres and companies are contributing to the design of the SKA as part of 7 international consortia. The Spanish contribution was estimated in 2M euro (2014), officially recognized by the SKA Organisation Director General in a letter to the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness. In addition, the Spanish Astronomy Infrastructures Network (RIA from its Spanish initials) issued a recommendation on the interest of the scientific community and industry that Spain explores the possibility to join the SKA project as Full Member before the construction phase starts. In December 2015, the Spanish Secretary of State of Research, Development and Innovation sent a letter to the SKA Organisation Director General proposing to establish a dialogue in order to explore scenarios for Spain to join the SKA, what constitutes a further motivation for the Spanish community to continue its efforts.

  9. Temporal Adverbials in Text Structuring: On Temporal Text Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virtanen, Tuija

    This paper discusses clause-initial adverbials of time functioning as signals of the temporal text strategy. A chain of such markers creates cohesion and coherence by forming continuity in the text and also signals textual boundaries that occur on different hierarchic levels. The temporal text strategy is closely associated with narrative text.…

  10. Text analysis methods, text analysis apparatuses, and articles of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Whitney, Paul D; Willse, Alan R; Lopresti, Charles A; White, Amanda M

    2014-10-28

    Text analysis methods, text analysis apparatuses, and articles of manufacture are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a text analysis method includes accessing information indicative of data content of a collection of text comprising a plurality of different topics, using a computing device, analyzing the information indicative of the data content, and using results of the analysis, identifying a presence of a new topic in the collection of text.

  11. Classroom Texting in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettijohn, Terry F.; Frazier, Erik; Rieser, Elizabeth; Vaughn, Nicholas; Hupp-Wilds, Bobbi

    2015-01-01

    A 21-item survey on texting in the classroom was given to 235 college students. Overall, 99.6% of students owned a cellphone and 98% texted daily. Of the 138 students who texted in the classroom, most texted friends or significant others, and indicate the reason for classroom texting is boredom or work. Students who texted sent a mean of 12.21…

  12. Reinforcing stigmatization: coverage of mental illness in Spanish newspapers.

    PubMed

    Aragonès, Enric; López-Muntaner, Judit; Ceruelo, Santiago; Basora, Josep

    2014-01-01

    Because the media influences society's perceptions of reality, the treatment of mental illness in the news can have an effect on the societal stigma related to it. This study aimed to analyze the content and form of news items related to mental illness in Spanish newspapers in order to understand their role in propagating or attenuating stereotypes, prejudices, and stigma. The authors conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study on the basis of a review of news items related to mental illness appearing in the Spanish print media. A sample was taken from articles published on the subject in the 20 Spanish newspapers with the widest circulations over the course of the year 2010. Formal elements and content were analyzed by means of a structured evaluation system. The authors analyzed 695 news items. The content of 47.9% (n = 333) of the articles was not strictly related to mental illness, but rather clinical or psychiatric terms were used metaphorically, and frequently in a pejorative sense. The remaining 52.1% (n = 362) consisted of news items related specifically to mental illness. Of these, news items linking mental illness to danger were the most common (178 texts, 49.2%), specifically those associating mental illness with violent crime (130 texts, 35.9%) or a danger to others (126 texts, 34.8%). The results confirm the hypothesis that the press treats mental illness in a manner that encourages stigmatization. The authors appeal to the press's responsibility to society and advocate an active role in reducing the stigma towards mental illness.

  13. Familiarization effects for bilingual letter detection involving translation or exact text repetition.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Holly Krech; Healy, Alice F; Greenberg, Seth N

    2007-12-01

    In two experiments, English-Spanish bilinguals read passages, performing letter detection on some passages by circling target letters as they read. Detection passages were sometimes familiarized (primed) by prior reading of the same passage or a translation of it. Participants detected letters in English passages in Experiment 1 and in Spanish passages in Experiment 2. For both experiments, a missing letter effect occurred (depressed detection accuracy on frequent function words relative to less frequent content words). Familiarization promoted overall improvements in letter detection only for English passages, suggesting that reprocessing benefits depend on high language fluency. For Spanish passages, cognates engendered greater error rates than noncognates; the visual similarity of Spanish and English cognates apparently enabled faster identification of Spanish cognates in a way unaffected by familiarization of the whole text passage. Priming by familiarized text was significantly higher when the passages were in the same language than when they were in different languages, suggesting that the reprocessing benefits are at the word level instead of the semantic level. These results are consistent with the GO model of reading (Greenberg, Healy, Koriat, & Kreiner, 2004) but require an expanded consideration of attention redistribution processes in that model.

  14. Mining the Text: 34 Text Features that Can Ease or Obstruct Text Comprehension and Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sheida

    2012-01-01

    This article presents 34 characteristics of texts and tasks ("text features") that can make continuous (prose), noncontinuous (document), and quantitative texts easier or more difficult for adolescents and adults to comprehend and use. The text features were identified by examining the assessment tasks and associated texts in the national…

  15. Mining the Text: 34 Text Features that Can Ease or Obstruct Text Comprehension and Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sheida

    2012-01-01

    This article presents 34 characteristics of texts and tasks ("text features") that can make continuous (prose), noncontinuous (document), and quantitative texts easier or more difficult for adolescents and adults to comprehend and use. The text features were identified by examining the assessment tasks and associated texts in the national…

  16. Observation of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] decays.

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Andreassi, G; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Archilli, F; d'Argent, P; Arnau Romeu, J; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Babuschkin, I; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Baker, S; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Baszczyk, M; Batozskaya, V; Batsukh, B; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Bel, L J; Bellee, V; Belloli, N; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bertolin, A; Betancourt, C; Betti, F; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bezshyiko, Ia; Bifani, S; Billoir, P; Bird, T; Birnkraut, A; Bitadze, A; Bizzeti, A; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Boettcher, T; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Bordyuzhin, I; Borgheresi, A; Borghi, S; Borisyak, M; Borsato, M; Bossu, F; Boubdir, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Braun, S; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Buchanan, E; Burr, C; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D H; Capriotti, L; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carniti, P; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cavallero, G; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chatzikonstantinidis, G; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S-F; Chobanova, V; Chrzaszcz, M; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Cogoni, V; Cojocariu, L; Collazuol, G; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombs, G; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Costa Sobral, C M; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Crocombe, A; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Da Cunha Marinho, F; Dall'Occo, E; Dalseno, J; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Aguiar Francisco, O; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Serio, M; De Simone, P; Dean, C-T; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Demmer, M; Dendek, A; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dey, B; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dufour, L; Dujany, G; Dungs, K; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Déléage, N; Easo, S; Ebert, M; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fay, R; Fazzini, D; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Prieto, A; Ferrari, F; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fini, R A; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fleuret, F; Fohl, K; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forshaw, D C; Forty, R; Franco Lima, V; Frank, M; Frei, C; Fu, J; Furfaro, E; Färber, C; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garcia Martin, L M; García Pardiñas, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Garsed, P J; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gavardi, L; Gazzoni, G; Gerick, D; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianì, S; Gibson, V; Girard, O G; Giubega, L; Gizdov, K; Gligorov, V V; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorelov, I V; Gotti, C; Govorkova, E; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graverini, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Gruberg Cazon, B R; Grünberg, O; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Göbel, C; Hadavizadeh, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hatch, M; He, J; Head, T; Heister, A; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hombach, C; Hopchev, H; Hulsbergen, W; Humair, T; Hushchyn, M; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jawahery, A; Jiang, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Kariuki, J M; Karodia, S; Kecke, M; Kelsey, M; Kenyon, I R; Kenzie, M; Ketel, T; Khairullin, E; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Kirn, T; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Koliiev, S; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Kosmyntseva, A; Kozachuk, A; Kozeiha, M; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Krzemien, W; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kuonen, A K; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Lefèvre, R; Lemaitre, F; Lemos Cid, E; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Likhomanenko, T; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Liu, X; Loh, D; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lucchesi, D; Lucio Martinez, M; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Lusiani, A; Lyu, X; Machefert, F; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Maguire, K; Malde, S; Malinin, A; Maltsev, T; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Manning, P; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marino, P; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martin, M; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massacrier, L M; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathad, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mauri, A; Maurin, B; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Melnychuk, D; Merk, M; Merli, A; Michielin, E; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Mitzel, D S; Mogini, A; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monroy, I A; Monteil, S; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Moron, J; Morris, A B; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Mulder, M; Mussini, M; Müller, D; Müller, J; Müller, K; Müller, V; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nandi, A; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nieswand, S; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Novoselov, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Ogilvy, S; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, C J G; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Otto, A; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pais, P R; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L L; Parker, W; Parkes, C; Passaleva, G; Pastore, A; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perret, P; Pescatore, L; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Petrov, A; Petruzzo, M; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pikies, M; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Piucci, A; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Poikela, T; Polci, F; Poluektov, A; Polyakov, I; Polycarpo, E; Pomery, G J; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Poslavskii, S; Potterat, C; Price, E; Price, J D; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Quagliani, R; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rama, M; Ramos Pernas, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Ratnikov, F; Raven, G; Redi, F; Reichert, S; Dos Reis, A C; Remon Alepuz, C; Renaudin, V; Ricciardi, S; Richards, S; Rihl, M; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Lopez, J A; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogozhnikov, A; Roiser, S; Rollings, A; Romanovskiy, V; Romero Vidal, A; Ronayne, J W; Rotondo, M; Rudolph, M S; Ruf, T; Ruiz Valls, P; Saborido Silva, J J; Sadykhov, E; Sagidova, N; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santimaria, M; Santovetti, E; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Saunders, D M; Savrina, D; Schael, S; Schellenberg, M; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmelzer, T; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schubert, K; Schubiger, M; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Semennikov, A; Sergi, A; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Siddi, B G; Silva Coutinho, R; Silva de Oliveira, L; Simi, G; Simone, S; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, E; Smith, I T; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Spradlin, P; Sridharan, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, M; Stahl, S; Stefko, P; Stefkova, S; Steinkamp, O; Stemmle, S; Stenyakin, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Tayduganov, A; Tekampe, T; Tellarini, G; Teubert, F; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tilley, M J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Toriello, F; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Trabelsi, K; Traill, M; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Trisovic, A; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tully, A; Tuning, N; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vacca, C; Vagnoni, V; Valassi, A; Valat, S; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; van Veghel, M; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Venkateswaran, A; Vernet, M; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Viemann, H; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vitti, M; Volkov, V; Vollhardt, A; Voneki, B; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; de Vries, J A; Vázquez Sierra, C; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Wark, H M; Watson, N K; Websdale, D; Weiden, A; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wilkinson, G; Wilkinson, M; Williams, M; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Williams, T; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wraight, K; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yin, H; Yu, J; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zarebski, K A; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zheng, Y; Zhokhov, A; Zhu, X; Zhukov, V; Zucchelli, S

    2017-01-01

    The decays [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] are observed for the first time using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb[Formula: see text], collected by the LHCb experiment in proton-proton collisions at the centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8[Formula: see text]. The branching fractions relative to that of [Formula: see text] are measured to be [Formula: see text]where the first uncertainties are statistical and the second are systematic.

  17. The Challenge of Challenging Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Timothy; Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards emphasize the value of teaching students to engage with complex text. But what exactly makes a text complex, and how can teachers help students develop their ability to learn from such texts? The authors of this article discuss five factors that determine text complexity: vocabulary, sentence structure, coherence,…

  18. Text Complexity and the CCSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspen Institute, 2012

    2012-01-01

    What is meant by text complexity is a measurement of how challenging a particular text is to read. There are a myriad of different ways of explaining what makes text challenging to read, from the sophistication of the vocabulary employed to the length of its sentences to even measurements of how the text as a whole coheres. Research shows that no…

  19. The Challenge of Challenging Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Timothy; Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards emphasize the value of teaching students to engage with complex text. But what exactly makes a text complex, and how can teachers help students develop their ability to learn from such texts? The authors of this article discuss five factors that determine text complexity: vocabulary, sentence structure, coherence,…

  20. Texts in Homes and Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahl, Kate

    This paper considers how children's text making is shaped by the environment in which the texts are made. By considering texts made in classrooms and texts made in homes, the paper explores how classrooms and homes interact with children's (6-7 year old boys) reflective processes as they create artifacts--drawings, models, and writings. The paper…

  1. Construction and Reconstruction of Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, A. K.

    Readers cannot profitably be studied without some assessment of the texts they read. Analyses of texts, however, are of doubtful value unless tested against readers' behavior. Despite the relative neglect of text in research on reading, numerous approaches to the analysis of text have been proposed. The developments within linguistics and the…

  2. Text-Attentional Convolutional Neural Network for Scene Text Detection.

    PubMed

    He, Tong; Huang, Weilin; Qiao, Yu; Yao, Jian

    2016-06-01

    Recent deep learning models have demonstrated strong capabilities for classifying text and non-text components in natural images. They extract a high-level feature globally computed from a whole image component (patch), where the cluttered background information may dominate true text features in the deep representation. This leads to less discriminative power and poorer robustness. In this paper, we present a new system for scene text detection by proposing a novel text-attentional convolutional neural network (Text-CNN) that particularly focuses on extracting text-related regions and features from the image components. We develop a new learning mechanism to train the Text-CNN with multi-level and rich supervised information, including text region mask, character label, and binary text/non-text information. The rich supervision information enables the Text-CNN with a strong capability for discriminating ambiguous texts, and also increases its robustness against complicated background components. The training process is formulated as a multi-task learning problem, where low-level supervised information greatly facilitates the main task of text/non-text classification. In addition, a powerful low-level detector called contrast-enhancement maximally stable extremal regions (MSERs) is developed, which extends the widely used MSERs by enhancing intensity contrast between text patterns and background. This allows it to detect highly challenging text patterns, resulting in a higher recall. Our approach achieved promising results on the ICDAR 2013 data set, with an F-measure of 0.82, substantially improving the state-of-the-art results.

  3. Spanish-for-Native-Speaker Matters: Narrowing the Latino Achievement Gap through Spanish Language Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carreira, Maria

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that Spanish-for-native-speakers (SNS) instruction at the secondary level can play a key role in narrowing the Latino achievement gap. To this end, SNS curricula and practices should be configured to: 1) support Spanish-English biliteracy, 2) support and facilitate learning across the curriculum, 3) socialize Latino students and…

  4. The Spanish Lexical Base of Old St. Augustine Mahonese: A Missing Link in Florida Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasico, Philip D.

    1986-01-01

    Considers the historical background and the demographical characteristics of those residents of St. Augustine, Florida, who are descended from the city's original Spanish and Minorcan population. Included are a list and analysis of words found in the English dialect which represent the lexical vestiges of colonial Florida Spanish. (SED)

  5. Spanish Heritage Language Learners' Allocation of Time to Writing Processes in English and Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikulski, Ariana; Elola, Idoia

    2011-01-01

    This study brings together previous research on writing processes and Spanish heritage language (SHL) learners to obtain a clearer picture of these learners' writing behaviors in English and Spanish. Following a cognitive-oriented framework, the study explores planning time, execution time, monitoring time, accuracy, and fluency. Twelve SHL…

  6. Heritage Language Learners in Mixed Spanish Classes: Subtractive Practices and Perceptions of High School Spanish Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Linwood J., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the language ideologies and instructional practices of an entire Spanish language faculty at a high school in a new gateway state for immigration. The study examined additive and subtractive practices of teachers as they strived to teach Spanish to heritage language learners (HLLs) enrolled in mixed…

  7. Spanish Teachers' Sense of Humor and Student Performance on the National Spanish Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that second/foreign language teachers' sense of humor is directly related to many outcomes for teachers and their students. This research investigates the relationship between the perceived sense of humor of in-service Spanish teachers' (n?=?102) and their students' (n?=?5,419) score on the National Spanish Exams…

  8. The Acquisition of Prosodic Word Structures in Spanish by Monolingual and Spanish-German Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lleo, Conxita

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the constraints on Prosodic Word production in Spanish by three monolingual and three Spanish-German bilingual children from the beginning of word production until 2;2. It also considers the relationship between Prosodic Words and Phonological Phrases, and in the case of monosyllabic words, it takes into consideration…

  9. SCDC Spanish Curricula Units. Spanish SL, Unit 6, Grade 2, Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanish Curricula Development Center, Miami Beach, FL.

    Spanish for second graders is explored in the instructional and assessment activities of the unit six Spanish as a Second Language strand. The function of the strand is to help provide the English-dominant child with the structures and vocabulary needed for effective communication in a bilingual environment. Focus, objective, and materials for…

  10. Spanish Teachers' Sense of Humor and Student Performance on the National Spanish Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that second/foreign language teachers' sense of humor is directly related to many outcomes for teachers and their students. This research investigates the relationship between the perceived sense of humor of in-service Spanish teachers' (n?=?102) and their students' (n?=?5,419) score on the National Spanish Exams…

  11. SCDC Spanish Curricula Units. Spanish SL, Unit 6, Grade 2, Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanish Curricula Development Center, Miami Beach, FL.

    Spanish for second graders is explored in the instructional and assessment activities of the unit six Spanish as a Second Language strand. The function of the strand is to help provide the English-dominant child with the structures and vocabulary needed for effective communication in a bilingual environment. Focus, objective, and materials for…

  12. Understanding Spanish-Speaking Cultures. Selected Concepts, That May Be Developed at Spanish Level I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Joseph Reid

    The hypothesis underlying this volume is that certain cultural facts are necessary to understand and use a language correctly. The book was prepared to instruct the language teacher on concepts of Spanish and Latin American (chiefly Mexican) culture to be taught in a beginning Spanish class. The concepts are cross-referenced to be used with five…

  13. Text analysis devices, articles of manufacture, and text analysis methods

    DOEpatents

    Turner, Alan E; Hetzler, Elizabeth G; Nakamura, Grant C

    2013-05-28

    Text analysis devices, articles of manufacture, and text analysis methods are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a text analysis device includes processing circuitry configured to analyze initial text to generate a measurement basis usable in analysis of subsequent text, wherein the measurement basis comprises a plurality of measurement features from the initial text, a plurality of dimension anchors from the initial text and a plurality of associations of the measurement features with the dimension anchors, and wherein the processing circuitry is configured to access a viewpoint indicative of a perspective of interest of a user with respect to the analysis of the subsequent text, and wherein the processing circuitry is configured to use the viewpoint to generate the measurement basis.

  14. Text-Attentional Convolutional Neural Networks for Scene Text Detection.

    PubMed

    He, Tong; Huang, Weilin; Qiao, Yu; Yao, Jian

    2016-03-28

    Recent deep learning models have demonstrated strong capabilities for classifying text and non-text components in natural images. They extract a high-level feature computed globally from a whole image component (patch), where the cluttered background information may dominate true text features in the deep representation. This leads to less discriminative power and poorer robustness. In this work, we present a new system for scene text detection by proposing a novel Text-Attentional Convolutional Neural Network (Text-CNN) that particularly focuses on extracting text-related regions and features from the image components. We develop a new learning mechanism to train the Text-CNN with multi-level and rich supervised information, including text region mask, character label, and binary text/nontext information. The rich supervision information enables the Text-CNN with a strong capability for discriminating ambiguous texts, and also increases its robustness against complicated background components. The training process is formulated as a multi-task learning problem, where low-level supervised information greatly facilitates main task of text/non-text classification. In addition, a powerful low-level detector called Contrast- Enhancement Maximally Stable Extremal Regions (CE-MSERs) is developed, which extends the widely-used MSERs by enhancing intensity contrast between text patterns and background. This allows it to detect highly challenging text patterns, resulting in a higher recall. Our approach achieved promising results on the ICDAR 2013 dataset, with a F-measure of 0.82, improving the state-of-the-art results substantially.

  15. Test of Picture-Text Amalgams in Procedural Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, David Edey

    Designed to assess how people read and comprehend information presented in picture-text amalgams in procedural texts, this instrument presents various combinations of text information and illustrative information on slides. Subjects are assigned to one of four conditions and directed to follow the instructions presented on the slides. Videotapes…

  16. Text-Dependent Questions: Reflecting and Transcending the Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boelé, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    Posing text-dependent questions is crucial for facilitating students' comprehension of the text. However, text-dependent questions should not merely ask students to reflect the author's literal or even inferential meaning. The author's message is the starting place for comprehension, rather than the end goal or object of comprehension. The text…

  17. Supported eText: Assistive Technology through Text Transformations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson-Inman, Lynne; Horney, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    To gain meaningful access to the curriculum, students with reading difficulties must overcome substantial barriers imposed by the printed materials they are asked to read. Technology can assist students to overcome these challenges by enabling a shift from printed text to electronic text. By electronic text it means textual material read using a…

  18. Compare and Contrast Electronic Text with Traditionally Printed Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karchmer, Rachel

    The electronic text program described in this lesson plan guides students to compare and contrast the characteristics of electronic text with the characteristics of traditionally printed text, gaining a deeper understanding of how to navigate and comprehend information found on the Internet. During a 30 minute and a 45 minutes lesson, students…

  19. Text-Dependent Questions: Reflecting and Transcending the Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boelé, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    Posing text-dependent questions is crucial for facilitating students' comprehension of the text. However, text-dependent questions should not merely ask students to reflect the author's literal or even inferential meaning. The author's message is the starting place for comprehension, rather than the end goal or object of comprehension. The text…

  20. Predicting Texts: Aspects of a Strategic Model of Text Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meinhof, Ulrike Hanna

    The concept of authenticity in foreign language pedagogy is discussed with particular reference to the methodology of instructing through the medium of authentic texts. It is suggested that the use of authentic texts in a classroom setting actually deauthenticates those elements that made the texts originally authentic; i.e., placing them in a…

  1. The Impact of Text Browsing on Text Retrieval Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodner, Richard C.; Chignell, Mark H.; Charoenkitkarn, Nipon; Golovchinsky, Gene; Kopak, Richard W.

    2001-01-01

    Compares empirical results from three experiments using Text Retrieval Conference (TREC) data and search topics that involved three different user interfaces. Results show that marking Boolean queries on text, which encourages browsing, and hypertext interfaces to text retrieval systems can benefit recall and can also benefit novice users.…

  2. Effect of Spanish language immersion rotations on medical student Spanish fluency.

    PubMed

    Reuland, Daniel S; Slatt, Lisa M; Alemán, Marco A; Fernandez, Alicia; Dewalt, Darren

    2012-02-01

    The study's objective was to determine whether participation in an international health rotation in a Spanish-speaking country (immersion) is associated with improved Spanish fluency compared to participation in domestic medical Spanish coursework alone. Participants matriculated at one US medical school in the years 2004--2008. At matriculation (baseline), all had intermediate to advanced Spanish fluency based on a standardized, oral fluency test. All took didactic coursework in years 1 and 2 of medical school. Some elected to participate in a post-year 1 immersion rotation in a Spanish-speaking Latin American country. Oral fluency was reassessed using the same method in years 2 and 4 by independent evaluators who were blind to individuals' immersion participation status and prior fluency scores. The authors compared participants' likelihood of demonstrating greater Spanish fluency over baseline among those who did post-year 1 immersion versus those who did US-based coursework alone (controls). The likelihood of having greater Spanish fluency at the second-year assessment was 80% (45/56) among immersion participants, compared with 46% (21/46) for controls. The likelihood of having increased fluency at the fourth-year assessment was 65% (13/20) among those who did immersion versus 28% (7/25) for controls. Odds of having improved fluency for immersion participants remained statistically significantly higher after adjusting for baseline fluency (AOR [95%CI]=4.3 [1.7, 10.6], at year 2 and 5.1 [1.2, 21.6], at year 4). Among medical students with intermediate to advanced baseline Spanish fluency, participants in a post-year 1 Spanish language international health immersion rotation were more likely to improve their Spanish fluency than participants in US-based coursework alone.

  3. Preparing Students for Advanced Placement Spanish Literature: Content Sequencing of the Reading Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Roger D.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a reading-skill-building curriculum that prepares students to handle the reading in the Advanced Placement Spanish Literature course, a course that treats the works of Borges, Garcia Lorca, Matute, Neruda, and Unamuno. Suggests techniques and texts that aid in the teaching of these skills. (SED)

  4. Keys to Communication: English for Spanish Speakers. Teacher Edition, Level One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This text is the first of four levels sequenced as a continuum of language skills for the Spanish speaker of limited English speaking ability in grades six through nine. Levels one and two emphasize oral skills and levels three and four emphasize written skills. The teacher's edition is designed to follow along with and complement exercises…

  5. The Role of Gender, Embedded Questions, and Domain Specific Readings with Learners of Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantmeier, Cindy; Callender, Aimee; McDaniel, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The present study utilizes readings taken from texts in social psychology to examine the effects by gender of embedded "what" questions and elaborative "why" questions on reading comprehension. During regular class time, 97 advanced second language (L2) learners of Spanish read two different vignettes, either with or without…

  6. "Co-Constructing" Explicit L2 Knowledge with High School Spanish Learners through Guided Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toth, Paul D.; Wagner, Elvis; Moranski, Kara

    2013-01-01

    This article documents how second language (L2) Spanish learners in an American high school formulated explicit grammar rules during three inductive lessons on the pronominal clitic "se." Following Adair-Hauck "et al." (2010), each lesson first presented a property of "se" within a narrative text, and then had learners inductively "Co-construct"…

  7. The Role of Gender, Embedded Questions, and Domain Specific Readings with Learners of Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantmeier, Cindy; Callender, Aimee; McDaniel, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The present study utilizes readings taken from texts in social psychology to examine the effects by gender of embedded "what" questions and elaborative "why" questions on reading comprehension. During regular class time, 97 advanced second language (L2) learners of Spanish read two different vignettes, either with or without…

  8. El Espanol Hablado en Pamplona (Colombia) (Spanish Spoken in Pamplona, Colombia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabeza Barrios, Jorge Enrique

    1974-01-01

    Using two informants and the questionnaires of the "Linguistic and Ethnographic Atlas of Colombia," a linguistic corpus of Pamplona, Colombia, was derived. Regional speech characteristics are discussed here, including use of vowels and consonants, reversing sound position, elision, and lexical anomalies. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  9. Programa de lengua espanola: Guia para el profesor, 2 (Spanish Language Program: Teacher's Guide 2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Emiliano; And Others

    This teacher's guide is designed for use with "La Ciudad" and "Otros Amigos, Otras Culturas," two textbooks in the second part of the Spanish language series of readers. It contains lesson plans to enable the teacher to make better use of the texts and includes illustrations taken from each of the books themselves. (SK)

  10. Preparing Students for Advanced Placement Spanish Literature: Content Sequencing of the Reading Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Roger D.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a reading-skill-building curriculum that prepares students to handle the reading in the Advanced Placement Spanish Literature course, a course that treats the works of Borges, Garcia Lorca, Matute, Neruda, and Unamuno. Suggests techniques and texts that aid in the teaching of these skills. (SED)

  11. Programa de lengua espanola: Guia para el profesor, 2 (Spanish Language Program: Teacher's Guide 2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Emiliano; And Others

    This teacher's guide is designed for use with "La Ciudad" and "Otros Amigos, Otras Culturas," two textbooks in the second part of the Spanish language series of readers. It contains lesson plans to enable the teacher to make better use of the texts and includes illustrations taken from each of the books themselves. (SK)

  12. Effects of Two Tutoring Programs on the English Reading Development of Spanish-English Bilingual Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Carolyn A.; Anthony, Jason L.; Parker, Richard; Hasbrouck, Jan E.

    2004-01-01

    Spanish-dominant bilingual students in grades 2-5 were tutored 3 times per week for 40 minutes over 10 weeks, using 2 English reading interventions. Tutoring took place from February through April of 1 school year. One, Read Well, combined systematic phonics instruction with practice in decodable text, and the other, a revised version of Read…

  13. Performance of Boer-Spanish and Spanish goats in Texas I: Body weights, fertility, prolificacy, and number of kids weaned.

    PubMed

    Rhone, J A; Waldron, D F; Herring, A D

    2013-10-01

    Production records from 291 Boer-Spanish and Spanish does, collected between 1994 and 2004 in the Edwards Plateau region of West Texas, were examined to compare Boer-Spanish and Spanish does for body weights, fertility, prolificacy, and number of kids weaned. Traits were analyzed using single-trait mixed models. Boer-Spanish does were heavier at birth than Spanish does (2.79 vs. 2.67 kg, P = 0.05) but similar weight at weaning (15.2 vs. 15.0 kg, P = 0.59). Boer-Spanish does had a heavier body weight at breeding than Spanish does (46.5 vs. 43.5 kg, P < 0.01). Boer-Spanish does had similar fertility over 8 annual breeding seasons (0.87 vs. 0.84, P = .22). Boer-Spanish does had an advantage over Spanish does for fertility to a 30-d breeding season (0.53 vs. 0.48; P = .09). Boer-Spanish does produced more kids than Spanish does (1.70 vs. 1.62, P = .09). Boer-Spanish does weaned a similar number of kids (1.30 vs. 1.31, P = .76). Age of doe significantly affected (P < 0.05) both number of kids born and number of kids weaned, with older does giving birth to, and weaning, more kids. Boer-Spanish does had greater birth weight, body weight at breeding, and number of kids born than Spanish does. Boer-Spanish does had a similar number of kids weaned as Spanish does.

  14. Managing the Written Text: The Beginning of Punctuation in Children's Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreiro, Emilia; Pontecorvo, Clotilde

    1999-01-01

    Studied the use of punctuation in children's early writings in connection with organization of the text. Collected 134 stories of second graders written in Spanish, Portuguese, or Italian. Children tried to make sense of writing conventions, including the use of punctuation, and some tried to distinguish the functions of punctuation marks. (SLD)

  15. A Formative Study: Inquiry and Informational Text with Fifth-Grade Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Lindsey

    2014-01-01

    This article includes the findings from a formative experiment implementing inquiry with informational texts in a fifth-grade bilingual classroom after the completion of state assessments. The pedagogical goals were focused on facilitating engaged reading and writing for native Spanish-speakers and building content knowledge and related academic…

  16. The Family Backpack Project: Responding to Dual-Language Texts through Family Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Deborah; Fain, Jeanne Gilliam

    2013-01-01

    The Family Backpack Project provided 249 low-income, prekindergarten children and their families with opportunities to read and listen to audio recordings of 3 sets of books in their homes. Families received English or dual-language texts (English plus Spanish, Arabic, Kurdish, or Somali) matched to their home languages. Children and their…

  17. A Formative Study: Inquiry and Informational Text with Fifth-Grade Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Lindsey

    2014-01-01

    This article includes the findings from a formative experiment implementing inquiry with informational texts in a fifth-grade bilingual classroom after the completion of state assessments. The pedagogical goals were focused on facilitating engaged reading and writing for native Spanish-speakers and building content knowledge and related academic…

  18. Shared Features of L2 Writing: Intergroup Homogeneity and Text Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates intergroup homogeneity within high intermediate and advanced L2 writers of English from Czech, Finnish, German, and Spanish first language backgrounds. A variety of linguistic features related to lexical sophistication, syntactic complexity, and cohesion were used to compare texts written by L1 speakers of English to L2…

  19. A Contrastive Study of Qualification Devices in Native and Non-Native Argumentative Texts in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, JoAnne; Martinez, Francisco; Rica, Juan Pedro

    This paper presents results from a contrastive study of qualification devices used in a 400,000-word corpus of English argumentative texts, written by English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) Spanish university students, U.S. university students, and native professional writers (newspaper editorials in English). The study attempted to account for the…

  20. The Family Backpack Project: Responding to Dual-Language Texts through Family Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Deborah; Fain, Jeanne Gilliam

    2013-01-01

    The Family Backpack Project provided 249 low-income, prekindergarten children and their families with opportunities to read and listen to audio recordings of 3 sets of books in their homes. Families received English or dual-language texts (English plus Spanish, Arabic, Kurdish, or Somali) matched to their home languages. Children and their…

  1. Effects of Repeated Readings on Bilingual and Monolingual Memory for Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durgunoglu, Aydin Y.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Across 4 experiments, 121 college students and 80 Spanish-English bilingual members of the university community read narrative or expository texts and answered comprehension questions. Manipulating intervals between readings, language, and the activity between the readings indicates that all these variables influence whether a repeated reading…

  2. Flavonoids intake among Polish and Spanish students.

    PubMed

    Kozłowska, Aleksandra; Przekop, Damian; Szostak-Węgierek, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoids are a group of bioactive compounds that are extensively found in foodstuffs of plant origin. Their regular consumption plays an important role in the prevention of degenerative diseases, particularly cardiovascular disease, and cancer. The purpose of the study was to estimate dietary flavonoid intake among Polish and Spanish students and to establish the main dietary sources of flavonoids. This study included 91 Polish and 60 Spanish students. Dietary data were collected using a food frequency questionnaire. The dietary USDA Database for the flavonoid content of selected foods was used to calculate daily and weekly flavonoid intakes by the subjects. The average flavonoid consumption in the Polish students was 801 mg/day, and in Spanish students 297 mg/day. Food categories such as beverages, vegetables and fruits were found to be significant sources of flavonoids, of which tea, oranges, orange juice, dried parsley and oregano were the main contributors among Polish students and oranges, tea, chick-peas, orange juice and dried parsley were the main sources of flavonoids among Spanish students. Flavonoid consumption in Polish students was more than two times higher than in Spanish students. Compared to other population studies consumption of flavonoids in both students groups was adequate.

  3. Writing Disabilities in Spanish-Speaking Children: Introduction to the Special Series.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Juan E

    2016-05-10

    This special issue of the Journal of Learning Disabilities focuses on studies of writing disabilities in Spanish-speaking children. The World Health Organization (2001) included writing difficulties as one of the problems considered to constitute an impediment to school participation, a significant element in the normal developmental process of the child. In this introduction, I describe the background of a larger project promoted by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). This special series offers recent findings on writing disabilities in Spanish-Speaking children within the UNESCO project. The pilot study was carried out in the Canary Islands, an autonomous Spanish region located between three continents and composed of seven islands in the Atlantic Ocean. Most of the current empirical evidence on writing disabilities comes from English, a language with deep orthography; therefore, it is very relevant to investigate the writing process in Spanish, a language with shallow, fine-grained orthography. Included are a number of articles that form a conspectus on writing disabilities in the Spanish language. Topics center on early grade writing assessment, prevalence of writing disabilities, handwriting and keyboarding, transcription and text generation, graphonomic and handwriting analysis, and instructional practices with an learning disabled population.

  4. Text Editing in Chemistry Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngu, Bing Hiong; Low, Renae; Sweller, John

    2002-01-01

    Describes experiments with Australian high school students that investigated differences in performance on chemistry word problems between two learning strategies: text editing, and conventional problem solving. Concluded that text editing had no advantage over problem solving in stoichiometry problems, and that the suitability of a text editing…

  5. Text Signals Influence Team Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clariana, Roy B.; Rysavy, Monica D.; Taricani, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory quasi-experimental investigation describes the influence of text signals on team visual map artifacts. In two course sections, four-member teams were given one of two print-based text passage versions on the course-related topic "Social influence in groups" downloaded from Wikipedia; this text had two paragraphs, each…

  6. Too Dumb for Complex Texts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauerlein, Mark

    2011-01-01

    High school students' lack of experience and practice with reading complex texts is a primary cause of their difficulties with college-level reading. Filling the syllabus with digital texts does little to address this deficiency. Complex texts demand three dispositions from readers: a willingness to probe works characterized by dense meanings, the…

  7. Online Databases. ASCII Full Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    1995-01-01

    Defines the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) full text, and reviews its past, present, and future uses in libraries. Discusses advantages, disadvantages, and uses of searchable and nonsearchable full-text databases. Also comments on full-text CD-ROM products and on technological advancements made by library vendors. (JMV)

  8. Automatic Text Structuring and Summarization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salton, Gerard; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of the use of information retrieval techniques for automatic generation of semantic hypertext links focuses on automatic text summarization. Topics include World Wide Web links, text segmentation, and evaluation of text summarization by comparing automatically generated abstracts with manually prepared abstracts. (Author/LRW)

  9. Selecting Texts and Course Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert E.

    One of the most important decisions speech communication basic course directors make is the selection of the textbook. The first consideration in their choice of text should be whether or not the proposed text covers the units integral to the course. A second consideration should be whether or not the text covers the special topics integral to the…

  10. Text Editing in Chemistry Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngu, Bing Hiong; Low, Renae; Sweller, John

    2002-01-01

    Describes experiments with Australian high school students that investigated differences in performance on chemistry word problems between two learning strategies: text editing, and conventional problem solving. Concluded that text editing had no advantage over problem solving in stoichiometry problems, and that the suitability of a text editing…

  11. Slippery Texts and Evolving Literacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    The idea of "slippery texts" provides a useful descriptor for materials that mutate and evolve across different media. Eight adult gamers, encountering the slippery text "American McGee's Alice," demonstrate a variety of ways in which players attempt to manage their attention as they encounter a new text with many resonances. The range of their…

  12. Text Signals Influence Team Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clariana, Roy B.; Rysavy, Monica D.; Taricani, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory quasi-experimental investigation describes the influence of text signals on team visual map artifacts. In two course sections, four-member teams were given one of two print-based text passage versions on the course-related topic "Social influence in groups" downloaded from Wikipedia; this text had two paragraphs, each…

  13. Too Dumb for Complex Texts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauerlein, Mark

    2011-01-01

    High school students' lack of experience and practice with reading complex texts is a primary cause of their difficulties with college-level reading. Filling the syllabus with digital texts does little to address this deficiency. Complex texts demand three dispositions from readers: a willingness to probe works characterized by dense meanings, the…

  14. Choosing Software for Text Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Robert M.

    1983-01-01

    Review of text processing software for microcomputers covers data entry, text editing, document formatting, and spelling and proofreading programs including "Wordstar,""PeachText,""PerfectWriter,""Select," and "The Word Plus.""The Whole Earth Software Catalog" and a new terminal to be…

  15. Choosing Software for Text Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Robert M.

    1983-01-01

    Review of text processing software for microcomputers covers data entry, text editing, document formatting, and spelling and proofreading programs including "Wordstar,""PeachText,""PerfectWriter,""Select," and "The Word Plus.""The Whole Earth Software Catalog" and a new terminal to be…

  16. Informational Text and the CCSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspen Institute, 2012

    2012-01-01

    What constitutes an informational text covers a broad swath of different types of texts. Biographies & memoirs, speeches, opinion pieces & argumentative essays, and historical, scientific or technical accounts of a non-narrative nature are all included in what the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) envisions as informational text. Also included…

  17. Text Association Analysis and Ambiguity in Text Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhonde, S. B.; Paikrao, R. L.; Rahane, K. U.

    2010-11-01

    Text Mining is the process of analyzing a semantically rich document or set of documents to understand the content and meaning of the information they contain. The research in Text Mining will enhance human's ability to process massive quantities of information, and it has high commercial values. Firstly, the paper discusses the introduction of TM its definition and then gives an overview of the process of text mining and the applications. Up to now, not much research in text mining especially in concept/entity extraction has focused on the ambiguity problem. This paper addresses ambiguity issues in natural language texts, and presents a new technique for resolving ambiguity problem in extracting concept/entity from texts. In the end, it shows the importance of TM in knowledge discovery and highlights the up-coming challenges of document mining and the opportunities it offers.

  18. ParaText : scalable text analysis and visualization.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

    2010-07-01

    Automated analysis of unstructured text documents (e.g., web pages, newswire articles, research publications, business reports) is a key capability for solving important problems in areas including decision making, risk assessment, social network analysis, intelligence analysis, scholarly research and others. However, as data sizes continue to grow in these areas, scalable processing, modeling, and semantic analysis of text collections becomes essential. In this paper, we present the ParaText text analysis engine, a distributed memory software framework for processing, modeling, and analyzing collections of unstructured text documents. Results on several document collections using hundreds of processors are presented to illustrate the exibility, extensibility, and scalability of the the entire process of text modeling from raw data ingestion to application analysis.

  19. The Only Safe SMS Texting Is No SMS Texting.

    PubMed

    Toth, Cheryl; Sacopulos, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Many physicians and practice staff use short messaging service (SMS) text messaging to communicate with patients. But SMS text messaging is unencrypted, insecure, and does not meet HIPAA requirements. In addition, the short and abbreviated nature of text messages creates opportunities for misinterpretation, and can negatively impact patient safety and care. Until recently, asking patients to sign a statement that they understand and accept these risks--as well as having policies, device encryption, and cyber insurance in place--would have been enough to mitigate the risk of using SMS text in a medical practice. But new trends and policies have made SMS text messaging unsafe under any circumstance. This article explains these trends and policies, as well as why only secure texting or secure messaging should be used for physician-patient communication.

  20. Evaluating the linguistic appropriateness and cultural sensitivity of a self-report system for spanish-speaking patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Tofthagen, Cindy; Halpenny, Barbara; Melendez, Maribel; Gonzalez, Laura; Sanchez Varela, Veronica; Negrón, Rosalyn; Berry, Donna L

    2014-01-01

    Spanish speakers in the United States encounter numerous communication barriers during cancer treatment. Communication-focused interventions may help Spanish speakers communicate better with healthcare providers and manage symptoms and quality of life issues (SQOL). For this study, we developed a Spanish version of the electronic self-report assessment for cancer (ESRA-C), a web-based program that helps people with cancer report, track, and manage cancer-related SQOL. Four methods were used to evaluate the Spanish version. Focus groups and cognitive interviews were conducted with 51 Spanish-speaking individuals to elicit feedback. Readability was assessed using the Fry readability formula. The cultural sensitivity assessment tool was applied by three bilingual, bicultural reviewers. Revisions were made to personalize the introduction using a patient story and photos and to simplify language. Focus group participants endorsed changes to the program in a second round of focus groups. Cultural sensitivity of the program was scored unacceptable ([Formula: see text]) for audiovisual material and acceptable ([Formula: see text]) for written material. Fry reading levels ranged from 4th to 10th grade. Findings from this study provide several next steps to refine ESRA-C for Spanish speakers with cancer.

  1. ParaText : scalable text modeling and analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

    2010-06-01

    Automated processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text (news documents, web content, journal articles, etc.) is a key task in many data analysis and decision making applications. As data sizes grow, scalability is essential for deep analysis. In many cases, documents are modeled as term or feature vectors and latent semantic analysis (LSA) is used to model latent, or hidden, relationships between documents and terms appearing in those documents. LSA supplies conceptual organization and analysis of document collections by modeling high-dimension feature vectors in many fewer dimensions. While past work on the scalability of LSA modeling has focused on the SVD, the goal of our work is to investigate the use of distributed memory architectures for the entire text analysis process, from data ingestion to semantic modeling and analysis. ParaText is a set of software components for distributed processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text. The ParaText source code is available under a BSD license, as an integral part of the Titan toolkit. ParaText components are chained-together into data-parallel pipelines that are replicated across processes on distributed-memory architectures. Individual components can be replaced or rewired to explore different computational strategies and implement new functionality. ParaText functionality can be embedded in applications on any platform using the native C++ API, Python, or Java. The ParaText MPI Process provides a 'generic' text analysis pipeline in a command-line executable that can be used for many serial and parallel analysis tasks. ParaText can also be deployed as a web service accessible via a RESTful (HTTP) API. In the web service configuration, any client can access the functionality provided by ParaText using commodity protocols ... from standard web browsers to custom clients written in any language.

  2. 6. INTERIOR, FORMER QUARTERS OF THE SPANISH NAVY, LARGE ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR, FORMER QUARTERS OF THE SPANISH NAVY, LARGE ROOM WING TO WEST OF ENTRANCE PORTICO SHOWING BEAMED CEILING CONSTRUCTION. - El Arsenal, Former Headquarters of the Spanish Navy, Calle Arsenal, San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  3. 1. FORMER QUARTERS OF THE SPANISH NAVY, WEST ELEVATION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. FORMER QUARTERS OF THE SPANISH NAVY, WEST ELEVATION OF TWO STORY WING TO EAST OF PRINCIPAL COURTYARD. - El Arsenal, Former Headquarters of the Spanish Navy, Calle Arsenal, San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  4. 7. INTERIOR, FORMER QUARTERS OF THE SPANISH NAVY, DETAIL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR, FORMER QUARTERS OF THE SPANISH NAVY, DETAIL OF THE UNDERSIDE OF BEAM AND BATTEN CEILING, WING TO WEST OF ENTRANCE PORTICO. - El Arsenal, Former Headquarters of the Spanish Navy, Calle Arsenal, San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  5. 2. FORMER QUARTERS OF THE SPANISH NAVY, BRICK WALL CONSTRUCTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. FORMER QUARTERS OF THE SPANISH NAVY, BRICK WALL CONSTRUCTION DETAIL SHOWING ARCHES OF SOUTH WALL OF WEST WING OF ENTRANCE PORTICO. - El Arsenal, Former Headquarters of the Spanish Navy, Calle Arsenal, San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  6. An Assessment of the Carpinteria Preschool Spanish Immersion Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keatinge, H. Robert

    1984-01-01

    The Carpinteria Preschool Spanish Immersion Project was developed to bring Spanish speaking children to a level in school readiness skills that matched English dominant children upon entrance to kindergarten. A description of the program and its effectiveness is offered. (DF)

  7. Currency as an Instructional Medium in the Spanish Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuessel, Frank H., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Examines effective ways of utilizing foreign currency from various countries whose official language is Spanish as means to promote conversation and enrich vocabulary in Spanish classes. Use of currency has pedagogical, cultural, and historical aspects. (Author/BK)

  8. A Prototype Analysis of Spanish Indeterminate Reflexive Constructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turley, Jeffrey S.

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of the Spanish indeterminate reflexive construction, the impersonal reflexive, finds that prototype theory allows this subjectless Spanish construction to be included within the category of generally subject-bearing indeterminates in Romance languages. (MSE)

  9. The Surface Pattern Vb a Vb in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, David William

    1977-01-01

    Describes a study using transformational generative grammar to demonstrate that the frequently used structure "verb a verb" in Spanish is to be interpreted in three ways. Conclusions are drawn for the teaching of Spanish as a foreign language. (AMH)

  10. Text analysis devices, articles of manufacture, and text analysis methods

    DOEpatents

    Turner, Alan E; Hetzler, Elizabeth G; Nakamura, Grant C

    2015-03-31

    Text analysis devices, articles of manufacture, and text analysis methods are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a text analysis device includes a display configured to depict visible images, and processing circuitry coupled with the display and wherein the processing circuitry is configured to access a first vector of a text item and which comprises a plurality of components, to access a second vector of the text item and which comprises a plurality of components, to weight the components of the first vector providing a plurality of weighted values, to weight the components of the second vector providing a plurality of weighted values, and to combine the weighted values of the first vector with the weighted values of the second vector to provide a third vector.

  11. Texting while driving: is speech-based text entry less risky than handheld text entry?

    PubMed

    He, J; Chaparro, A; Nguyen, B; Burge, R J; Crandall, J; Chaparro, B; Ni, R; Cao, S

    2014-11-01

    Research indicates that using a cell phone to talk or text while maneuvering a vehicle impairs driving performance. However, few published studies directly compare the distracting effects of texting using a hands-free (i.e., speech-based interface) versus handheld cell phone, which is an important issue for legislation, automotive interface design and driving safety training. This study compared the effect of speech-based versus handheld text entries on simulated driving performance by asking participants to perform a car following task while controlling the duration of a secondary text-entry task. Results showed that both speech-based and handheld text entries impaired driving performance relative to the drive-only condition by causing more variation in speed and lane position. Handheld text entry also increased the brake response time and increased variation in headway distance. Text entry using a speech-based cell phone was less detrimental to driving performance than handheld text entry. Nevertheless, the speech-based text entry task still significantly impaired driving compared to the drive-only condition. These results suggest that speech-based text entry disrupts driving, but reduces the level of performance interference compared to text entry with a handheld device. In addition, the difference in the distraction effect caused by speech-based and handheld text entry is not simply due to the difference in task duration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. SparkText: Biomedical Text Mining on Big Data Framework.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhan; Tafti, Ahmad P; He, Karen Y; Wang, Kai; He, Max M

    Many new biomedical research articles are published every day, accumulating rich information, such as genetic variants, genes, diseases, and treatments. Rapid yet accurate text mining on large-scale scientific literature can discover novel knowledge to better understand human diseases and to improve the quality of disease diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. In this study, we designed and developed an efficient text mining framework called SparkText on a Big Data infrastructure, which is composed of Apache Spark data streaming and machine learning methods, combined with a Cassandra NoSQL database. To demonstrate its performance for classifying cancer types, we extracted information (e.g., breast, prostate, and lung cancers) from tens of thousands of articles downloaded from PubMed, and then employed Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Logistic Regression to build prediction models to mine the articles. The accuracy of predicting a cancer type by SVM using the 29,437 full-text articles was 93.81%. While competing text-mining tools took more than 11 hours, SparkText mined the dataset in approximately 6 minutes. This study demonstrates the potential for mining large-scale scientific articles on a Big Data infrastructure, with real-time update from new articles published daily. SparkText can be extended to other areas of biomedical research.

  13. SparkText: Biomedical Text Mining on Big Data Framework

    PubMed Central

    He, Karen Y.; Wang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Background Many new biomedical research articles are published every day, accumulating rich information, such as genetic variants, genes, diseases, and treatments. Rapid yet accurate text mining on large-scale scientific literature can discover novel knowledge to better understand human diseases and to improve the quality of disease diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. Results In this study, we designed and developed an efficient text mining framework called SparkText on a Big Data infrastructure, which is composed of Apache Spark data streaming and machine learning methods, combined with a Cassandra NoSQL database. To demonstrate its performance for classifying cancer types, we extracted information (e.g., breast, prostate, and lung cancers) from tens of thousands of articles downloaded from PubMed, and then employed Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Logistic Regression to build prediction models to mine the articles. The accuracy of predicting a cancer type by SVM using the 29,437 full-text articles was 93.81%. While competing text-mining tools took more than 11 hours, SparkText mined the dataset in approximately 6 minutes. Conclusions This study demonstrates the potential for mining large-scale scientific articles on a Big Data infrastructure, with real-time update from new articles published daily. SparkText can be extended to other areas of biomedical research. PMID:27685652

  14. Hermeneutic reading of classic texts.

    PubMed

    Koskinen, Camilla A-L; Lindström, Unni Å

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to broaden the understandinfg of the hermeneutic reading of classic texts. The aim is to show how the choice of a specific scientific tradition in conjunction with a methodological approach creates the foundation that clarifies the actual realization of the reading. This hermeneutic reading of classic texts is inspired by Gadamer's notion that it is the researcher's own research tradition and a clearly formulated theoretical fundamental order that shape the researcher's attitude towards texts and create the starting point that guides all reading, uncovering and interpretation. The researcher's ethical position originates in a will to openness towards what is different in the text and which constantly sets the researcher's preunderstanding and research tradition in movement. It is the researcher's attitude towards the text that allows the text to address, touch and arouse wonder. Through a flexible, lingering and repeated reading of classic texts, what is different emerges with a timeless value. The reading of classic texts is an act that may rediscover and create understanding for essential dimensions and of human beings' reality on a deeper level. The hermeneutic reading of classic texts thus brings to light constantly new possibilities of uncovering for a new envisioning and interpretation for a new understanding of the essential concepts and phenomena within caring science.

  15. 27 CFR 24.214 - Spanish type blending sherry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Spanish type blending... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.214 Spanish..., produced under this section, is designated “Spanish Type Blending Sherry.” Upon removal, the shipping...

  16. Alternatives to the Traditional Intermediate Spanish Courses in Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Lama, Sonia

    The alternatives to the traditional intermediate or second-year courses in community colleges are three student-centered plans designed for colleges with low or high enrollment of second-year Spanish students. Plan A is a two-year program of Spanish instruction. It consists of Spanish 101 and 102 and eight four-week minicourses, including two…

  17. VOCABULARY GUIDE OF COGNATE WORDS IN SPANISH AND ENGLISH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KRIPPNER, STANLEY

    A VOCABULARY GUIDE OF COGNATE WORDS IN ENGLISH AND SPANISH IS PRESENTED. THE VALUE OF THE GUIDE RESTS ON THE ASSUMPTIONS THAT THE LEARNING OF SIMILAR WORDS IN BOTH LANGUAGES COULD CHANGE SPANISH-SPEAKING AMERICAN PUPILS' NEGATIVE ATTITUDE ABOUT ENGLISH AS WELL AS INCREASE THEIR VOCABULARY. WORDS IN THE "VELAZQUEZ SPANISH AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY" OF…

  18. Structural Priming in Spanish as Evidence of Implicit Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gámez, Perla B.; Shimpi, Priya M.

    2016-01-01

    This study uses a structural priming technique with young Spanish speakers to test whether exposure to a rare syntactic form in Spanish ("fue"-passive) would increase the production and comprehension of that form. In Study 1, 14 six-year-old Spanish speakers described pictures of transitive scenes. This baseline study revealed that…

  19. Input, Output, and Negotiation of Meaning in Spanish Conversation Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rondon-Pari, Graziela

    2014-01-01

    This research study is based on the analysis of speech in three Spanish conversation classes. Research questions are: What is the ratio of English and Spanish spoken in class? Is classroom speech more predominant in students or the instructor? And, are teachers' beliefs in regards to the use of English and Spanish consistent with their classroom…

  20. Enriching the Spanish Curriculum at a Large Urban Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Held, Judy

    1994-01-01

    Describes a series of new Spanish courses in a Service Track. This five-year plan of curriculum revision includes a preparatory Developmental Spanish course as well as Spanish for Allied Health Professionals, Criminal Justice Professionals, Social Workers, and Business. The plan reflects the needs of both the Hispanic and non-Hispanic citizens of…

  1. On the L1 Attrition of the Spanish Present Tense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuza, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the potential native language (L1) attrition of the ongoing value of the Spanish present tense among long-term Spanish immigrants. Based on the assumption of second-language (L2) transfer and proposals on the permeability of interface-conditioned structures, it is hypothesized that long-term Spanish immigrants will show…

  2. Input, Output, and Negotiation of Meaning in Spanish Conversation Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rondon-Pari, Graziela

    2014-01-01

    This research study is based on the analysis of speech in three Spanish conversation classes. Research questions are: What is the ratio of English and Spanish spoken in class? Is classroom speech more predominant in students or the instructor? And, are teachers' beliefs in regards to the use of English and Spanish consistent with their classroom…

  3. 27 CFR 24.214 - Spanish type blending sherry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Spanish type blending... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.214 Spanish..., produced under this section, is designated “Spanish Type Blending Sherry.” Upon removal, the shipping...

  4. 27 CFR 24.214 - Spanish type blending sherry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Spanish type blending... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.214 Spanish..., produced under this section, is designated “Spanish Type Blending Sherry.” Upon removal, the shipping...

  5. 27 CFR 24.214 - Spanish type blending sherry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Spanish type blending... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.214 Spanish..., produced under this section, is designated “Spanish Type Blending Sherry.” Upon removal, the shipping...

  6. On the Internal Structure of Spanish Verbless Clauses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Rivera, Melvin

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation I discuss several aspects of the syntax, semantics and discourse properties of what I call Spanish verbless clauses -i.e. non-finite utterances with clausal properties: Spanish PredNP "muy listo este tio" "very intelligent this guy", Spanish PP complement clause "me sorprende lo caro del piso" "it amazes me how expensive this…

  7. Spanish in Four Continents: Studies in Language Contact and Bilingualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva-Corvalan, Carmen, Ed.

    Papers on Spanish bilingualism and Spanish in contact with other languages include: "The Study of Language Contact: An Overview of the Issues" (Carmen Silva-Corvalan); "Language Mixture: Ordinary Processes, Extraordinary Results" (Sarah G. Thomason); "The Impact of Quichua on Verb Forms Used in Spanish Requests in Otavalo,…

  8. Monolinguals Teaching Bilinguals: Reading in ESL for Spanish Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taschow, Horst G.

    The purpose of this paper is to examine pertinent research concerned with teaching English as a second language (ESL) to speakers of Spanish, to analyze fundamental problems Spanish speakers may experience when taught to read and learn in the target language English, and to suggest practices for teachers of ESL to assist Spanish-English bilingual…

  9. Language Attitudes toward Spanish and English Varieties: A Chicano Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galindo, D. Letticia

    1995-01-01

    Interviews with 30 Chicano adolescents in 2 Austin barrios examined the varieties of English and Spanish used by respondents and their Anglo and African American peers, functions of the language varieties, maintenance of Spanish, language shift toward English, Spanish-accented English, and ethnic and social identity. Contains 43 references.…

  10. Teaching Reading and Writing in Spanish in the Bilingual Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Yvonne S.; Freeman, David E.

    The book provides teachers, program directors, administrators, and parents involved in Spanish-English bilingual education programs with practical ideas to support the development of reading and writing programs in Spanish, using literacy approaches that are effective and empowering for Spanish-speaking children in American schools. It describes…

  11. Recent Noteworthy Books in Spanish for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schon, Isabel

    1994-01-01

    Reviews 19 books in Spanish for young, Spanish-speaking children or others who may wish to learn Spanish. The titles include a variety of informative books and entertaining stories on topics such as pirates, trains, giants, art, and animals of all kinds. (TJQ)

  12. Lexical Reading in Spanish: Two Cases of Phonological Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iribarren, I. Carolina; Jarema, Gonia; Lecours, Andre Roch

    1999-01-01

    Discusses two monolingual Spanish-speaking patients who were able to read words but showed great difficulty reading nonwords, a pattern of behavior known as phonological dyslexia. Contradicts the hypothesis that lexical reading is not an option for Spanish readers, because Spanish orthography is highly irregular, and supports the view that…

  13. Linguistic Transfer in Andean Spanish: Syntax or Pragmatics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muntendam, Antje

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation uses the generative framework to study the syntax and pragmatics of word order variation in the Andean Spanish of Bolivia and Ecuador. While Standard Spanish has basic order SVO, in Andean Spanish the object frequently appears in preverbal position, resulting in alternative orders (e.g. OVS). Previous studies have attributed this…

  14. Language and Culture in Secondary Level Spanish Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Arnulfo G.; Hall, Joan Kelly

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of the cultural content of Spanish textbooks used in New York secondary schools revealed that the majority of Spanish-speaking countries and Spanish-speaking groups within the United States were underrepresented. Photographs and references tended to depict the middle and upper classes, and few references were made to poverty,…

  15. Recommended Readings in Spanish Literature, Kindergarten through Grade Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    A list of almost 300 titles of Spanish language reading materials represents the recommendations of the California Media and Library Educators Association for use with Spanish-speaking, limited-English-proficient students in kindergarten through eighth grade. It is intended as a guide for teachers of Spanish and teachers of English language arts…

  16. A Comprehensive Guide to the Subjunctive in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampe, Livia

    A guidebook, accompanied by a companion book, directed toward English-speaking students learning Spanish and Spanish teachers, presents a step-by-step approach to learning/teaching the formation and uses of all subjunctive tenses in Spanish. The author assumes that students are already familiar with some grammatical concepts and terminology such…

  17. New Thoughts on the Origins of Zamboangueno (Philippine Creole Spanish).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipski, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Attempts to reconcile the similarities and differences among Philippine Creole Spanish (PCS) dialects by suggesting that Zamboangueno was formed gradually in a downward fashion from received Spanish, aided by two components. The first is pidginization that resulted in the Spanish garrison at Zamboanga, and the second was the arrival of Manila Bay…

  18. VOCABULARY GUIDE OF COGNATE WORDS IN SPANISH AND ENGLISH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KRIPPNER, STANLEY

    A VOCABULARY GUIDE OF COGNATE WORDS IN ENGLISH AND SPANISH IS PRESENTED. THE VALUE OF THE GUIDE RESTS ON THE ASSUMPTIONS THAT THE LEARNING OF SIMILAR WORDS IN BOTH LANGUAGES COULD CHANGE SPANISH-SPEAKING AMERICAN PUPILS' NEGATIVE ATTITUDE ABOUT ENGLISH AS WELL AS INCREASE THEIR VOCABULARY. WORDS IN THE "VELAZQUEZ SPANISH AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY" OF…

  19. Spanish in Four Continents: Studies in Language Contact and Bilingualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva-Corvalan, Carmen, Ed.

    Papers on Spanish bilingualism and Spanish in contact with other languages include: "The Study of Language Contact: An Overview of the Issues" (Carmen Silva-Corvalan); "Language Mixture: Ordinary Processes, Extraordinary Results" (Sarah G. Thomason); "The Impact of Quichua on Verb Forms Used in Spanish Requests in Otavalo,…

  20. On the Internal Structure of Spanish Verbless Clauses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Rivera, Melvin

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation I discuss several aspects of the syntax, semantics and discourse properties of what I call Spanish verbless clauses -i.e. non-finite utterances with clausal properties: Spanish PredNP "muy listo este tio" "very intelligent this guy", Spanish PP complement clause "me sorprende lo caro del piso" "it amazes me how expensive this…

  1. La Dicha de Los Libros--Children's Books in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schon, Isabel

    2000-01-01

    Reviews a collection of high-quality books in Spanish which can help encourage Spanish-speaking children and adolescents to read. From creative books for the very young to the lives of famous women, to fantasies and animated traditional tales, these recently published books are designed to appeal to Spanish speakers and those wishing to learn…

  2. Articulatory Economy in Present-Day American Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadler, Eric H.

    1979-01-01

    Describes features of articulatory shortcuts discovered among middle class, educated native speakers of Spanish in Mexico, Guatemala, and El Salvador. It is maintained that these features should be taught to students of Spanish in order that they may understand colloquial Spanish speech. (AM)

  3. A Responsive, Integrative Spanish Curriculum at UNC Charlotte

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    The Spanish program at UNC Charlotte is timely and responsive because it is designed to meet documented societal (job market) needs in today's and tomorrow's global village and economy by providing graduates with strong specialties in English-Spanish translating and in business Spanish. It is integrative in that it does so while maintaining its…

  4. Espanol en el bosque (Spanish in the forest).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuentes, Maria R.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a total Spanish immersion program designed to improve students' spoken Spanish and deepen their cultural awareness under the auspices of a natural and informal environment. Students and their teachers meet in the forest at the end of the week from 40 to 50 hours and converse solely in Spanish. (Author/CK)

  5. La Dicha de Los Libros--Children's Books in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schon, Isabel

    2000-01-01

    Reviews a collection of high-quality books in Spanish which can help encourage Spanish-speaking children and adolescents to read. From creative books for the very young to the lives of famous women, to fantasies and animated traditional tales, these recently published books are designed to appeal to Spanish speakers and those wishing to learn…

  6. THE SPANISH-SPEAKING PEOPLE OF THE SOUTHWEST.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SAUNDERS, LYLE

    THE BACKGROUND AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SPANISH SPEAKING PEOPLE OF THE SOUTHWEST ARE DISCUSSED. THE SPANISH SPEAKING PEOPLE ARE A HETEROGENEOUS GROUP COMPOSED OF SPANISH-AMERICANS, MEXICAN-AMERICANS, AND MEXICANS INTERMIXED WITH INDIANS. THE SOUTHWEST WAS SETTLED BY THEM DURING THE 16TH AND 17TH CENTURIES. HERE THEY WERE ISOLATED UNTIL THE 19TH…

  7. Linguistic Transfer in Andean Spanish: Syntax or Pragmatics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muntendam, Antje

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation uses the generative framework to study the syntax and pragmatics of word order variation in the Andean Spanish of Bolivia and Ecuador. While Standard Spanish has basic order SVO, in Andean Spanish the object frequently appears in preverbal position, resulting in alternative orders (e.g. OVS). Previous studies have attributed this…

  8. Spanish As an Economic Resource in Metropolitan Miami.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fradd, Sandra H.; Boswell, Thomas D.

    1996-01-01

    Examines growth of metropolitan Miami's Spanish-language economy and the economic and cultural advantages of a multilingual workforce. Discusses Hispanic and Latin American businesses, Spanish-language media, statewide and local Spanish instructional programs, Dade County census data on language use and educational attainment, a Miami business…

  9. Zum Uebersetzen fachlicher Texte (On the Translation of Technical Texts)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friederich, Wolf

    1975-01-01

    Reviews a 1974 East German publication on translation of scientific literature from Russian to German. Considers terminology, different standard levels of translation in East Germany, and other matters related to translation. (Text is in German.) (DH)

  10. Text Genres in Information Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahotko, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Text genres used by so-called information organizers in the processes of information organization in information systems were explored in this research. Method: The research employed text genre socio-functional analysis. Five genre groups in information organization were distinguished. Every genre group used in information…

  11. The Case for Multiple Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, Sunday

    2017-01-01

    Reading just one text on any topic, Cummins argues, isn't enough if we expect students to learn at deep levels about the topic, synthesize various sources of information, and gain the knowledge they need to write and speak seriously about the topic. Reading a second or third text expands a reader's knowledge on any topic or story--and the why…

  12. Improve Reading with Complex Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards have cast a renewed light on reading instruction, presenting teachers with the new requirements to teach close reading of complex texts. Teachers and administrators should consider a number of essential features of close reading: They are short, complex texts; rich discussions based on worthy questions; revisiting…

  13. Understanding and Teaching Complex Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Teachers in today's classrooms struggle every day to design instructional interventions that would build students' reading skills and strategies in order to ensure their comprehension of complex texts. Text complexity can be determined in both qualitative and quantitative ways. In this article, the authors describe various innovative…

  14. Improve Reading with Complex Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards have cast a renewed light on reading instruction, presenting teachers with the new requirements to teach close reading of complex texts. Teachers and administrators should consider a number of essential features of close reading: They are short, complex texts; rich discussions based on worthy questions; revisiting…

  15. Towards Sustainable Text Concept Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conlon, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Previous experimental studies have indicated that young people's text comprehension and summarisation skills can be improved by techniques based on text concept mapping (TCM). However, these studies have done little to elucidate a practical pedagogy that can make the techniques adoptable within the context of typical secondary school classrooms.…

  16. The Case for Multiple Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, Sunday

    2017-01-01

    Reading just one text on any topic, Cummins argues, isn't enough if we expect students to learn at deep levels about the topic, synthesize various sources of information, and gain the knowledge they need to write and speak seriously about the topic. Reading a second or third text expands a reader's knowledge on any topic or story--and the why…

  17. Secretaries as Producers of Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ronald E.

    1992-01-01

    Researches secretarial writing in a medium-sized manufacturing company. Finds that secretaries' duties include correcting grammar and usage, providing proper format for letters and memoranda, and generating texts. Supports further research into the role of secretaries as producers of texts. (MM)

  18. Text mining for systems biology.

    PubMed

    Fluck, Juliane; Hofmann-Apitius, Martin

    2014-02-01

    Scientific communication in biomedicine is, by and large, still text based. Text mining technologies for the automated extraction of useful biomedical information from unstructured text that can be directly used for systems biology modelling have been substantially improved over the past few years. In this review, we underline the importance of named entity recognition and relationship extraction as fundamental approaches that are relevant to systems biology. Furthermore, we emphasize the role of publicly organized scientific benchmarking challenges that reflect the current status of text-mining technology and are important in moving the entire field forward. Given further interdisciplinary development of systems biology-orientated ontologies and training corpora, we expect a steadily increasing impact of text-mining technology on systems biology in the future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Spanish-Hispanic Culture from A to V (Actualidades to Venezuela): 72 Spanish-Language Interdisciplinary Cultural Themes with Suggested Resource Materials and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Merriam M.

    This guidebook is intended for use by teachers of Spanish (FLES through college level) and by teachers in Spanish bilingual programs. It lists all of the Spanish-speaking countries and 72 Spanish-language cultural themes, such as "Actualidades" (Current Events), "Carreras y espanol comercial" (Careers and Commercial Spanish), "Deportes" (Sports),…

  20. Spanish-Hispanic Culture from A to V (Actualidades to Venezuela): 72 Spanish-Language Interdisciplinary Cultural Themes with Suggested Resource Materials and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Merriam M.

    This guidebook is intended for use by teachers of Spanish (FLES through college level) and by teachers in Spanish bilingual programs. It lists all of the Spanish-speaking countries and 72 Spanish-language cultural themes, such as "Actualidades" (Current Events), "Carreras y espanol comercial" (Careers and Commercial Spanish), "Deportes" (Sports),…