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Sample records for a2m alpha chain

  1. Gastric form of alpha chain disease.

    PubMed Central

    Coulbois, J; Galian, P; Galian, A; Couteaux, B; Danon, F; Rambaud, J

    1986-01-01

    A case of alpha chain disease, involving the stomach only, is reported in an Algerian man suffering from epigastric pains. Upper digestive tract fibreoptic endoscopy showed two antral ulcers and an ulcerative gastritis pattern, which promptly disappeared with cimetidine treatment. Antral biopsies at a distance from the ulcers, but not of the ulcer crater itself, disclosed a dense infiltration of antral lamina propria by mature or sometimes atypical plasma cells. On transmural surgical antral biopsy, the infiltrate spread to the superficial part of the submucosa. No other localisation of the disease was found in spite of multiple biopsies obtained by endoscopy, with a peroral capsule and during staging laparotomy. The alpha chain disease protein was absent from serum and urine, but found in the gastric juice and in the cytoplasma of the cellular infiltrate (alpha 1 subclass). A complete clinical, endoscopic, histological and immunological remission was observed after a six months' course of oral tetracycline. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:3087826

  2. The architecture design of a 2mW 18-bit high speed weight voltage type DAC based on dual weight resistance chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qixing, Chen; Qiyu, Luo

    2013-03-01

    At present, the architecture of a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) in essence is based on the weight current, and the average value of its D/A signal current increases in geometric series according to its digital signal bits increase, which is 2n-1 times of its least weight current. But for a dual weight resistance chain type DAC, by using the weight voltage manner to D/A conversion, the D/A signal current is fixed to chain current Icha; it is only 1/2n-1 order of magnitude of the average signal current value of the weight current type DAC. Its principle is: n pairs dual weight resistances form a resistance chain, which ensures the constancy of the chain current; if digital signals control the total weight resistance from the output point to the zero potential point, that could directly control the total weight voltage of the output point, so that the digital signals directly turn into a sum of the weight voltage signals; thus the following goals are realized: (1) the total current is less than 200 μA (2) the total power consumption is less than 2 mW; (3) an 18-bit conversion can be realized by adopting a multi-grade structure; (4) the chip area is one order of magnitude smaller than the subsection current-steering type DAC; (5) the error depends only on the error of the unit resistance, so it is smaller than the error of the subsection current-steering type DAC; (6) the conversion time is only one action time of switch on or off, so its speed is not lower than the present DAC.

  3. Alpha-decay chains of superheavy nuclei 292-296118

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, U. K.; Kumawat, M.; Saxena, G.; Kaushik, M.; Jain, S. K.

    2018-05-01

    We have employed relativistic mean-field plus BCS (RMF+BCS) approach for the study of even-even superheavy nuclei with Z = 118 which is the last and recent observed element in the periodic chart so far. Our study includes binding energies, Qα values, alpha-decay half-lives and spontaneous decay half-lives along with comparison of available experimental data and the results of FRDM calculations. We find an excellent match with the only known decay chain of 294118 for Z = 118 so far and predict decay chain of 292118 and 296118 in consistency with known experimental decay chains and FRDM results. These results may provide a very helpful insight to conduct experiments for realizing the presence of nuclei with Z = 118.

  4. Gene encoding the human. beta. -hexosaminidase. beta. chain: Extensive homology of intron placement in the. alpha. - and. beta. -chain genes

    SciTech Connect

    Proia, R.L.

    1988-03-01

    Lysosomal {beta}-hexosaminidase is composed of two structurally similar chains, {alpha} and {beta}, that are the products of different genes. Mutations in either gene causing {beta}-hexosaminidase deficiency result in the lysosomal storage disease GM2-gangliosidosis. To enable the investigation of the molecular lesions in this disorder and to study the evolutionary relationship between the {alpha} and {beta} chains, the {beta}-chain gene was isolated, and its organization was characterized. The {beta}-chain coding region is divided into 14 exons distributed over {approx}40 kilobases of DNA. Comparison with the {alpha}-chain gene revealed that 12 of the 13 introns interrupt the coding regions at homologous positions.more » This extensive sharing of intron placement demonstrates that the {alpha} and {beta} chains evolved by way of the duplication of a common ancestor.« less

  5. Overproduction of alpha chains provides a proton-insensitive component to the bluefish hemoglobin system.

    PubMed

    Bonaventura, Celia; Godette, Gerald; Stevens, Robert; Brenowitz, Michael; Henkens, Robert

    2005-12-09

    Expression of alpha and beta chains and their post-translational assembly into alpha(2)beta(2) tetramers is fundamental to the formation and function of most vertebrate hemoglobins. There is a strong evolutionary bias that favors expression of equal amounts of the two types of chains, because cooperativity, pH sensitivity, and anionic control of function occurs only for the alpha(2)beta(2) tetramers. Remarkably, an over-production of alpha chains, as in the pathological condition known as beta thalassemia in humans, is adaptive rather than pathological in the bluefish hemoglobin system. The thalassemia of the bluefish is a novel means of providing for oxygen uptake and delivery when low pH conditions incapacitate the highly pH-sensitive Root effect hemoglobins of the fish. Although fish often have pH-insensitive along with highly pH-sensitive hemoglobins, having pH-insensitive alpha chain monomers in circulation is an unusual structural variation. The role of bluefish alpha chains in oxygen transport is enabled by their remarkably lower oxygen affinity relative to human alpha chains. This is the first reported case of a thalassemic condition that is maintained in a species as an adaptive advantage.

  6. Fibrinogen Lincoln: a new truncated alpha chain variant with delayed clotting.

    PubMed

    Ridgway, H J; Brennan, S O; Gibbons, S; George, P M

    1996-04-01

    A patient referred for preoperative investigation of prolonged bleeding and easy bruising was found to have increased thrombin and reptilase times; however, the thrombin catalysed release of fibrinopeptides A and B was normal. Analysis of five other family members, spanning three generations, indicated that three had a similar defect and suggested autosomal dominant inheritance. Non-reducing SDS-PAGE of purified fibrinogen from affected individuals showed that the 340 kD form of their fibrinogen ran as a doublet. SSCP (single-stranded conformational polymorphism) analysis of exon 5 of the A alpha gene, which encodes the C-terminal half of the chain, confirmed the presence of a mutation. Cycle sequencing of PCR amplified DNA revealed a 13 base pair deletion (nt 4758-4770), resulting in a frame-shift at Ala 475, which translates as four new amino acids before terminating at a new stop codon (-476His-Cys-Leu-Ala-Stop). The presence of a circulating truncated A alpha chain was confirmed when SDS-PAGE gels were probed with an alpha chain specific antisera; which showed that the variant A alpha chain comigrated with gamma chains. The truncation results in a variant A alpha chain with a deletion of 131 amino acids (480-610), and four new amino acids at the C-terminal.

  7. IgE reactivity to alpha1 and alpha2 chains of bovine type 1 collagen in children with bovine gelatin allergy.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, M; Hori, H; Hattori, S; Irie, S; Imai, A; Yanagida, M; Miyazawa, H; Toda, M; Inouye, S

    1999-09-01

    Anaphylactic reactions to measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines, including gelatin as a stabilizer, have been reported. It had been found that most of these reactions to live vaccines are caused by the bovine gelatin included in these vaccines. Gelatin mainly includes denatured type I collagen, which consists of alpha1 and alpha2 chains. The current study was designed to investigate the IgE reactivity to alpha1 and alpha2 chains of bovine type I collagen in gelatin-sensitive children. Serum samples were taken from 10 children who had anaphylaxis to the vaccines and high levels of specific IgE to bovine gelatin. Bovine type I collagen was isolated from bovine skin and then separated to alpha1 and alpha2 chains by column chromatography. IgE reactivity to denatured type I collagen and its alpha1 and alpha2 chains was analyzed by immunoblotting, ELISA, and histamine release from the mast cells passive sensitized with IgE antibodies in pooled serum of the children. All children had specific IgE to bovine type I collagen. Furthermore, IgE antibodies in their sera reacted with the alpha;2 chain but not with the alpha1 chain. Similarly, the mast cells sensitized with pooled sera in the children showed alpha2 chain-specific histamine release but not alpha1 chain-specific histamine release. In gelatin allergy denatured bovine type I collagen is a major allergen and IgE-binding sites exist in the alpha2 chain of type I collagen.

  8. Dissociation of branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase (BDK) from branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC) by BDK inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Taro; Matsuo, Masayuki; Shimizu, Ayako; Shimomura, Yoshiharu

    2005-02-01

    Branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase (BDK) phosphorylates and inactivates the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in the branched-chain amino acid catabolism. BDK has been believed to be bound to the BCKDC. However, recent our studies demonstrated that protein-protein interaction between BDK and BCKDC is one of the factors to regulate BDK activity. Furthermore, only the bound form of BDK appears to have its activity. In the present study, we examined effects of BDK inhibitors on the amount of BDK bound to the BCKDC using rat liver extracts. The bound form of BDK in the extracts of liver from low protein diet-fed rats was measured by an immunoprecipitation pull down assay with or without BDK inhibitors. Among the BDK inhibitors. alpha-ketoisocaproate, alpha-chloroisocaproate, and a-ketoisovalerate released the BDK from the complex. Furthermore, the releasing effect of these inhibitors on the BDK appeared to depend on their inhibition constants. On the other hand, clofibric acid and thiamine pyrophosphate had no effect on the protein-protein interaction between two enzymes. These results suggest that the dissociation of the BDK from the BCKDC is one of the mechanisms responsible for the action of some inhibitors to BDK.

  9. Regulation of hepatic branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex in rats fed a high-fat diet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: Branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC) regulates branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism at the level of branched chain alpha-ketoacid (BCKA) catabolism. It has been demonstrated that the activity of hepatic BCKDC is markedly decreased in type 2 diabetic animal...

  10. Salt bridge residues between I-Ak dimer of dimers alpha-chains modulate antigen presentation.

    PubMed

    Yadati, S; Nydam, T; Demian, D; Wade, T K; Gabriel, J L; Barisas, B G; Wade, W F

    1999-03-15

    Class II dimers of dimers are predicted to have functional significance in antigen presentation. The putative contact amino acids of the I-Ak class II dimer of dimers have been identified by molecular modeling based on the DR1 crystal structure (Nydam et al., Int. Immunol. 10, 1237,1998). We have previously reported the role in antigen presentation of dimer of dimers contact amino acids located in the C-terminal domains of the alpha- and beta-chains of class II. Our calculations show that residues Ealpha89 and Ralpha145 in the alpha2-domain form an inter alpha-chain salt bridge between pairs of alphabeta-heterodimers. Other residues, Qalpha92 and Nalpha115, may be involved in close association in that part of the alpha-chain. We investigated the role of these amino acids on class II expression and antigen presentation. Class II composed of an Ealpha89K substituted alpha-chain paired with a wt beta-chain exhibited inhibited antigen presentation and expression of alpha-chain serologic epitopes. In contrast, mutation of Ralpha145E had less affect on antigen presentation and did not affect I-Ak serologic epitopes. Interchanging charges of the salt bridge residues by expressing both Ralpha145E and Ealpha89K on the same chain obviated the large negative effect of the Ealpha89K mutation on antigen presentation but not on the serologic epitopes. Our results are similar for those reported for mutation of DR3's inter-chain salt bridge with the exception that double mutants did not moderate the DR3 defect. Interestingly, the amino acids differences between I-A and DR change the location of the inter-chain salt bridges. In DR1 these residues are located at positions Ealpha88 and Kalpha111; in I-Ak these residues are located at position Ealpha89 and Ralpha145. Inter alpha-chain salt bridges are thus maintained in various class II molecules by amino acids located in different parts of the alpha2-domain. This conservation of structure suggests that considerable functional

  11. cDNA cloning and characterization of Type I procollagen alpha1 chain in the skate Raja kenojei.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae-Ho; Yokoyama, Yoshihiro; Mizuta, Shoshi; Yoshinaka, Reiji

    2006-05-01

    A full-length cDNA of the Type I procollagen alpha1 [pro-alpha1(I)] chain (4388 bp), coding for 1463 amino acid residues in the total length, was determined by RACE PCR using a cDNA library constructed from 4-week embryo of the skate Raja kenojei. The helical region of the skate pro-alpha1(I) chain consisted of 1014 amino acid residues - the same as other fibrillar collagen alpha chains from higher vertebrates. Comparison on denaturation temperatures of Type I collagens from the skate, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and rat (Rattus norvegicus) revealed that the number of Gly-Pro-Pro and Gly-Gly in the alpha1(I) chains could be directly related to the thermal stability of the helix. The expression property of the skate pro-alpha1(I) chain mRNA and phylogenetic analysis with other vertebrate pro-alpha1(I) chains suggested that skate pro-alpha1(I) chain could be a precursor form of the skate Type I collagen alpha1 chain. The present study is the first evidence for the primary structure of full-length pro-alpha1(I) chain in an elasmobranch.

  12. A new stable alpha chain variant: Hb Basel [alpha14(A12)Trp-->Leu (alpha1)].

    PubMed

    Hergersberg, Martin; Brunner-Agten, Saskia; Kühne, Thomas; Paulussen, Michael; Huber, Andreas R

    2010-06-01

    We describe a heterozygosity for a new missense mutation on the alpha1-globin gene of an 18-year-old woman of Portuguese ancestry with severe hypochromic anemia and iron deficiency. Hemoglobin (Hb) analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) found a prominent peak constituting about 12% of total Hb. Sequencing of the globin genes of the index patient found the mutation alpha14(A12)Trp-->Leu (alpha1), HBA1:c.44G

  13. Primary structure of the hemoglobin alpha-chain of rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri).

    PubMed

    Islam, A; Beg, O U; Persson, B; Zaidi, Z H; Jörnvall, H

    1988-10-01

    The structure of the hemoglobin alpha-chain of Rose-ringed Parakeet was determined by sequence degradations of the intact subunit, the CNBr fragments, and peptides obtained by digestion with staphylococcal Glu-specific protease and trypsin. Using this analysis, the complete alpha-chain structure of 21 avian species is known, permitting comparisons of the protein structure and of avian relationships. The structure exhibits differences from previously established avian alpha-chains at a total of 61 positions, five of which have residues unique to those of the parakeet (Ser-12, Gly-65, Ser-67, Ala-121, and Leu-134). The analysis defines hemoglobin variation within an additional avian order (Psittaciformes), demonstrates distant patterns for evaluation of relationships within other avian orders, and lends support to taxonomic conclusions from molecular data.

  14. Expression and function of CD8 alpha/beta chains on rat and human mast cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Sun; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Hye-Jung; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2004-03-01

    The expression and functional role of CD8 glycoprotein, a marker of cytotoxic/suppressor T lymphocytes and NK cells, were not studied on freshly isolated connective tissue type rat peritoneal mast cells, a rat mucosal type mast cell line (RBL 2H3), or human mast cell line (HMC-1). We used the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis identified the presence of CD8 alpha/beta chains on the mast cells, and immunohistochemistry confirmed CD8alpha expression on rat or human mast cells. Functional studies demonstrated that stimulation of CD8 alpha/beta chains on rat mast cells induced the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), which are regarded as important mediators during infection. However, co-stimulation with stem cell factor had no effect on CD8-induced mediator secretion. Our findings demonstrate novel biological roles of CD8 molecules in mast cells.

  15. Inhibition of laminin alpha 1-chain expression leads to alteration of basement membrane assembly and cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The expression of the constituent alpha 1 chain of laminin-1, a major component of basement membranes, is markedly regulated during development and differentiation. We have designed an antisense RNA strategy to analyze the direct involvement of the alpha 1 chain in laminin assembly, basement membrane formation, and cell differentiation. We report that the absence of alpha 1-chain expression, resulting from the stable transfection of the human colonic cancer Caco2 cells with an eukaryotic expression vector comprising a cDNA fragment of the alpha 1 chain inserted in an antisense orientation, led to (a) an incorrect secretion of the two other constituent chains of laminin-1, the beta 1/gamma 1 chains, (b) the lack of basement membrane assembly when Caco2-deficient cells were cultured on top of fibroblasts, assessed by the absence of collagen IV and nidogen deposition, and (c) changes in the structural polarity of cells accompanied by the inhibition of an apical digestive enzyme, sucrase-isomaltase. The results demonstrate that the alpha 1 chain is required for secretion of laminin-1 and for the assembly of basement membrane network. Furthermore, expression of the laminin alpha 1-chain gene may be a regulatory element in determining cell differentiation. PMID:8609173

  16. Identification of the NC1 domain of {alpha}3 chain as critical for {alpha}3{alpha}4{alpha}5 type IV collagen network assembly.

    PubMed

    LeBleu, Valerie; Sund, Malin; Sugimoto, Hikaru; Birrane, Gabriel; Kanasaki, Keizo; Finan, Elizabeth; Miller, Caroline A; Gattone, Vincent H; McLaughlin, Heather; Shield, Charles F; Kalluri, Raghu

    2010-12-31

    The network organization of type IV collagen consisting of α3, α4, and α5 chains in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is speculated to involve interactions of the triple helical and NC1 domain of individual α-chains, but in vivo evidence is lacking. To specifically address the contribution of the NC1 domain in the GBM collagen network organization, we generated a mouse with specific loss of α3NC1 domain while keeping the triple helical α3 chain intact by connecting it to the human α5NC1 domain. The absence of α3NC1 domain leads to the complete loss of the α4 chain. The α3 collagenous domain is incapable of incorporating the α5 chain, resulting in the impaired organization of the α3α4α5 chain-containing network. Although the α5 chain can assemble with the α1, α2, and α6 chains, such assembly is incapable of functionally replacing the α3α4α5 protomer. This novel approach to explore the assembly type IV collagen in vivo offers novel insights in the specific role of the NC1 domain in the assembly and function of GBM during health and disease.

  17. {sup 110,116}Cd({alpha},{alpha}){sup 110,116}Cd elastic scattering and systematic investigation of elastic {alpha} scattering cross sections along the Z=48 isotopic and N=62 isotonic chains

    SciTech Connect

    Kiss, G. G.; Fueloep, Zs.; Gyuerky, Gy.

    2011-06-15

    The elastic scattering cross sections for the reactions {sup 110,116}Cd({alpha},{alpha}){sup 110,116}Cd at energies above and below the Coulomb barrier are presented to provide a sensitive test for the {alpha}-nucleus optical potential parameter sets. Additional constraints for the optical potential are taken from the analysis of elastic scattering excitation functions at backward angles which are available in literature. Moreover, the variation of the elastic {alpha} scattering cross sections along the Z=48 isotopic and N=62 isotonic chain is investigated by the study of the ratios of the {sup 106,110,116}Cd({alpha},{alpha}){sup 106,110,116}Cd scattering cross sections at E{sub cm{approx_equal}}15.6and18.8 MeV and the ratio of themore » {sup 110}Cd({alpha},{alpha}){sup 110}Cd and {sup 112}Sn({alpha},{alpha}){sup 112}Sn reaction cross sections at E{sub cm{approx_equal}}18.8 MeV, respectively. These ratios are sensitive probes for the {alpha}-nucleus optical potential parametrizations. The potentials under study are a basic prerequisite for the prediction of {alpha}-induced reaction cross sections (e.g., for the calculation of stellar reaction rates in the astrophysical p or {gamma} process).« less

  18. Alterations of type IV collagen alpha chains in patients with chronic acquired glomerulopathies: mRNA levels, protein expression and urinary loss.

    PubMed

    Sanna-Cherchi, Simone; Carnevali, Maria Luisa; Martorana, Davide; Cravedi, Paolo; Maggiore, Umberto; Alinovi, Rossella; Bovino, Achiropita; Mattei, Silvia; Orlandini, Guido; Gatti, Rita; Savi, Mario; Sado, Yoshikazu; Neri, Tauro M; Allegri, Landino

    2007-01-01

    Type IV collagen is a major structural component of the normal kidney glomerulus. However, its role in chronic acquired glomerulopathies has been only partially elucidated. Urinary levels of col(IV)alpha1, col(IV)alpha3 and col(IV)alpha5 collagen chains were analyzed in 107 patients with chronic acquired glomerulopathies. In a subgroup of 33 patients, tissue mRNA levels, protein expression and urinary excretion were evaluated for all col(IV)alpha chains, from col(IV)alpha1 to col(IV)alpha5. The renal specimens were examined to get a semiquantitative score of the acute and chronic activity of the histological lesions. Urines obtained from 13 healthy subjects and 10 normal renal tissue samples were used as controls. Urinary levels of col(IV)alpha1, col(IV)alpha3, col(IV)alpha5 chains were significantly higher in patients than in controls [p < 0.01 for all], while only col(IV)alpha1 and col(IV)alpha3 urinary excretion correlated with the degree of chronic histological damage [col(IV)alpha1 R = 0.44, p < 0.001; col(IV)alpha3: R = 0.47, p < 0.001]. Compared with controls, patients showed a renal expression of mRNA for col(IV)alpha5 chain significantly higher [p = 0.001], while having a significantly lower protein expression of col(IV)alpha3, col(IV)alpha4 and col(IV)alpha5 chains [p < 0.01 for all]. Patients with chronic acquired glomerulopathies show important alterations in the col(IV)alpha chain network mimicking some molecular features of the X-linked Alport's syndrome. Further studies are needed to show whether urinary levels of the col(IV)alpha chains may be used as markers for monitoring renal injury. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Direct binding of F actin to the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha 2 integrin chain in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieffer, J. D.; Plopper, G.; Ingber, D. E.; Hartwig, J. H.; Kupper, T. S.

    1995-01-01

    The transmembrane integrins have been shown to interact with the cytoskeleton via noncovalent binding between cytoplasmic domains (CDs) of integrin beta chains and various actin binding proteins within the focal adhesion complex. Direct or indirect integrin alpha chain CD binding to the actin cytoskeleton has not been reported. We show here that actin, as an abundant constituent of focal adhesion complex proteins isolated from fibroblasts, binds strongly and specifically to alpha 2 CD, but not to alpha 1 CD peptide. Similar specific binding to alpha 2 CD peptide was seen for highly purified F actin, free of putative actin-binding proteins. The bound complex of actin and peptide was visualized directly by coprecipitation, and actin binding was abrogated by removal of a five amino acid sequence from the alpha 2 CD peptide. Our findings may explain the earlier observation that, while integrins alpha 2 beta 1 and alpha 1 beta 1 both bind to collagen, only alpha 2 beta 1 can mediate contraction of extracellular collagen matrices.

  20. Breathers and rogue waves in a Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin chain or an alpha helical protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jin-Wei; Gao, Yi-Tian; Su, Chuan-Qi; Wang, Qi-Min; Lan, Zhong-Zhou

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a fourth-order variable-coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation for a one-dimensional continuum anisotropic Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin chain or an alpha helical protein has been investigated. Breathers and rogue waves are constructed via the Darboux transformation and generalized Darboux transformation, respectively. Results of the breathers and rogue waves are presented: (1) The first- and second-order Akhmediev breathers and Kuznetsov-Ma solitons are presented with different values of variable coefficients which are related to the energy transfer or higher-order excitations and interactions in the helical protein, or related to the spin excitations resulting from the lowest order continuum approximation and octupole-dipole interaction in a Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin chain, and the nonlinear periodic breathers resulting from the Akhmediev breathers are studied as well; (2) For the first- and second-order rogue waves, we find that they can be split into many similar components when the variable coefficients are polynomial functions of time; (3) Rogue waves can also be split when the variable coefficients are hyperbolic secant functions of time, but the profile of each component in such a case is different.

  1. Alpha chain hemoglobins with electrophoretic mobility similar to that of hemoglobin S in a newborn screening program.

    PubMed

    Silva, Marcilene Rezende; Sendin, Shimene Mascarenhas; Araujo, Isabela Couto de Oliveira; Pimentel, Fernanda Silva; Viana, Marcos Borato

    2013-01-01

    To characterize alpha-chain variant hemoglobins with electric mobility similar to that of hemoglobin S in a newborn screening program. β(S) allele and alpha-thalassemia deletions were investigated in 14 children who had undefined hemoglobin at birth and an electrophoretic profile similar to that of hemoglobin S when they were six months old. Gene sequencing and restriction enzymes (DdeI, BsaJI, NlaIV, Bsu36I and TaqI) were used to identify hemoglobins. Clinical and hematological data were obtained from children who attended scheduled medical visits. THE FOLLOWING ALPHA CHAIN VARIANTS WERE FOUND: seven children with hemoglobin Hasharon [alpha2 47(CE5) Asp>His, HbA2:c.142G>C], all associated with alpha-thalassemia, five with hemoglobin Ottawa [alpha1 15(A13) Gly>Arg, HBA1:c.46G>C], one with hemoglobin St Luke's [alpha1 95(G2) Pro>Arg, HBA1:c.287C>G] and another one with hemoglobin Etobicoke [alpha212 84(F5) Ser>Arg, HBA212:c.255C>G]. Two associations with hemoglobin S were found: one with hemoglobin Ottawa and one with hemoglobin St Luke's. The mutation underlying hemoglobin Etobicoke was located in a hybrid α212 allele in one child. There was no evidence of clinically relevant hemoglobins detected in this study. Apparently these are the first cases of hemoglobin Ottawa, St Luke's, Etobicoke and the α212 gene described in Brazil. The hemoglobins detected in this study may lead to false diagnosis of sickle cell trait or sickle cell disease when only isoelectric focusing is used in neonatal screening. Additional tests are necessary for the correct identification of hemoglobin variants.

  2. Alternative splicing produces transcripts coding for alpha and beta chains of a hetero-dimeric phosphagen kinase.

    PubMed

    Ellington, W Ross; Yamashita, Daisuke; Suzuki, Tomohiko

    2004-06-09

    Glycocyamine kinase (GK) catalyzes the reversible phosphorylation of glycocyamine (guanidinoacetate), a reaction central to cellular energy homeostasis in certain animals. GK is a member of the phosphagen kinase enzyme family and appears to have evolved from creatine kinase (CK) early in the evolution of multi-cellular animals. Prior work has shown that GK from the polychaete Neanthes (Nereis) diversicolor exits as a hetero-dimer in vivo and that the two polypeptide chains (termed alpha and beta) are coded for by unique transcripts. In the present study, we demonstrate that the GK from a congener Nereis virens is also hetero-dimeric and is coded for by alpha and beta transcripts, which are virtually identical to the corresponding forms in N. diversicolor. The GK gene from N. diversicolor was amplified by PCR. Sequencing of the PCR products showed that the alpha and beta chains are the result of alternative splicing of the GK primary mRNA transcript. These results also strongly suggest that this gene underwent an early tandem exon duplication event. Full-length cDNAs for N. virens GKalpha and GKbeta were individually ligated into expression vectors and the resulting constructs used to transform Escherichia coli expression hosts. Regardless of expression conditions, minimal GK activity was observed in both GKalpha and GKbeta constructs. Inclusion bodies for both were harvested, unfolded in urea and alpha chains, beta chains and mixtures of alpha and beta chains were refolded by sequential dialysis. Only modest amounts of GK activity were observed when alpha and beta were refolded individually. In contrast, when refolded the alpha and beta mixture yielded highly active hetero-dimers, as validated by size exclusion chromatography, electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, with a specific activity comparable to that of natural GK. The above evidence suggests that there is a preference for hetero-dimer formation in the GKs from these two polychaetes. The evolution of the

  3. Isolation of human hexosaminidase. cap alpha. cDNA and expression of. cap alpha. chains in E. coli

    SciTech Connect

    Wiktorowicz, J.E.; Whitman, J.M.

    1986-05-01

    Pooled antisera against homogeneous, glutaraldehyde cross-linked hexosaminidase (hex) A was adsorbed with E. coli lysate insolubilized on Sepharose 4B. Aliquots of a human liver lambdagtll cDNA library (50,000-100,000 pfu) were plated on E. coli Y1090. Expression of cloned cDNA, after sufficient plaque growth at 42/sup 0/, was accomplished by induction with isopropylthiogalactoside soaked nitrocellulose filters. Identification of hex cDNA clones was performed by incubation of the filters with purified antisera. Protein A labelled with I-125 was used to develop the reactive plaques. Positive plaques, identified by autoradiography, were picked, replated at a lower density, and rescreened. This was repeated severalmore » more times until all plaques yielded positive signals. Identification of the clones as containing ..cap alpha.. or ..beta.. cDNA was accomplished by replating the purified phage and rescreening the plaques with anti-hex B antiserum preadsorbed with E. coli lysate. According to this protocol several hex ..cap alpha.. clones have been identified. While these clones generate ..beta..-galactosidase: hex ..cap alpha.. fusion proteins, these findings suggest that in the future it may be possible to obtain large quantities of unmodified hex ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. polypeptides from E. coli for the study of the structural and enzymatic properties of these polypeptides and for diagnostic purposes in the GM2 gangliosidoses.« less

  4. Epitope mapping of the alpha-chain of the insulin-like growth factor I receptor using antipeptide antibodies.

    PubMed

    Delafontaine, P; Ku, L; Ververis, J J; Cohen, C; Runge, M S; Alexander, R W

    1994-12-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF I) is an important mitogen for vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). The IGF I receptor (IGF IR) is a heterotetramer composed of two cross-linked extracellular alpha-chains and two membrane-spanning beta-chains that contain a tyrosine-kinase domain. It has a high degree of sequence similarity to the insulin receptor (IR), and the putative ligand-specific binding site has been localized to a cysteine-rich region (CRR) of the alpha-chain. To obtain insights into antigenic determinants of the IGF IR, we raised a panel of site-specific polyclonal antibodies against short peptide sequences N-terminal to and within the CRR. Several antibodies raised against linear epitopes within the CRR bound to solubilized and native rat and human IGF IR by ELISA, did not cross-react with IR, but unexpectedly failed to inhibit 125I-IGF I binding. A polyclonal antibody directed against a 48-amino acid synthetic peptide, corresponding to a region of the CRR postulated to be essential for ligand binding, failed to react with either solubilized, reduced or intact IGF IR. Three antibodies specific for the N-terminus of the alpha-chain reacted with solubilized and native IGF IR. One of these, RAB 6, directed against amino acids 38-44 of the IGF IR, inhibited 125I-IGF I binding to rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASM) and to IGF IR/3T3 cells (overexpressing human IGF IR) by up to 45%. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed strong IGF IR staining in the medial smooth muscle cell layer of rat aorta. These findings are consistent with a model wherein conformational epitopes within the CRR and linear epitopes within the N-terminus of the alpha-chain contribute to the IGF I binding pocket. These antibodies should provide a valuable tool to study structure-function relationships and in vivo regulation of the IGF IR.

  5. pH regulation of mitochondrial branch chain alpha-keto acid transport and oxidation in rat heart mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Hutson, S M

    1987-07-15

    The kinetics of branched chain alpha-keto acid uptake and efflux were studied as a function of varied external and matrix pH. Matrix pH was determined by the distribution of 5,5'-dimethyloxazolidine-2,4-dione. When rat heart mitochondria were incubated under transport conditions at pH 7.0 with succinate as respiratory substrate, the matrix pH was significantly greater than 8.0. Matrix pH remained greater than or equal to 8.0 when the medium pH was varied from 6.3 to 8.3, and it was lowered below 8.0 by addition of 5 mM phosphate or uncoupler. No pH gradient was detectable when mitochondria were incubated in the presence of valinomycin and uncoupler. Efflux of alpha-ketoisocaproate or alpha-ketoisovalerate from rat heart mitochondria obeyed first order kinetics. Varying the external pH from 6.6 to 8.3 had no significant effect on efflux, and at an external pH of 7.0, the first order rate constant for efflux was not affected by decreasing the matrix pH. On the other hand, exchange was sensitive to changes in medium but not matrix pH. The K0.5 for external branched chain alpha-keto acid was lowered by changing the medium pH from 7.6 to 6.3. At medium pH values greater than or equal to 8.0 both K0.5 and Vmax were affected. Uptake was determined either by measuring initial rates or was calculated after measuring the first order approach to a final equilibrium value. Unlike efflux, uptake was sensitive to changes in both external and matrix pH. The rate of branched chain alpha-keto acid uptake was stimulated by decreasing the medium pH from 8.3 to 6.3 and by alkalinization of the mitochondrial matrix. The estimated external pK for proton binding was 6.9. The data indicate that the branched chain alpha-keto acid transporter is asymmetric, that is, binding sites for substrate on the inside and outside of the mitochondrial membrane are not identical. alpha-Ketoisocaproate oxidation was measured at 37 degrees C in isolated mitochondria over the pH range of 6.6 to 8

  6. Sera of IgA nephropathy patients contain a heterogeneous population of relatively cationic alpha-heavy chains.

    PubMed

    Shuib, A S; Chua, C T; Hashim, O H

    1998-01-01

    Sera of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) patients and normal subjects were analysed by two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis. Densitometric analysis of the 2-D gels of IgAN patients and normal subjects revealed that their protein maps were comparable. There was no shift of pI values in the major alpha-heavy chain spots. However, the volume of the alpha-heavy chain bands were differently distributed. Distribution was significantly lower at the anionic region in IgAN patients (mean anionic:cationic ratio of 1.184 +/- 0.311) as compared to normal healthy controls (mean anionic:cationic ratio of 2.139 +/- 0.538). Our data are in support of the previously reported findings that IgA1 of IgAN patients were lacking in sialic acid residues.

  7. Serum free light chains, interferon-alpha, and interleukins in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Jolly, M; Francis, S; Aggarwal, R; Mikolaitis, R A; Niewold, T B; Chubinskaya, S; Block, J A; Scanzello, C; Sequeira, W

    2014-08-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), interferon-alpha (IFN-α), and free light chains (FLCs: lambda, kappa) have all been noted to be of importance in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Herein, we quantified and explored the relationship between these inflammatory mediators and disease activity in SLE; and stratified by their current anti-dsDNA antibody status. Seventy-seven SLE patients underwent assessment of disease activity using the SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI). Serum FLC (lambda, kappa, and total), IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-α were quantified. Demographics of disease characteristics were determined by chart reviews. Statistical analyses included Mann-Whitney test, chi square, and linear regression analyses. Mean (SD) age of the patients was 44.9 ± 12.7 years; SLEDAI (mean ± SD) was 3.4 ± 4.0. Serum lambda FLC levels had a moderate correlation (r = 0.46 with physician global assessment, 0.44 with SLEDAI) and the strongest correlation with disease activity as compared with other inflammatory mediators including current dsDNA antibody status. After adjusting for prednisone use, the correlation of lambda FLC with PGA (r = 0.48) and SLEDAI (r = 0.52) was better than of current dsDNA antibody status with PGA (r = 0.33) and adjusted SLEDAI (r = 0.24), respectively. IL-10 and IFN-α activity did not correlate with disease activity. Serum FLC and IL-6 levels could differentiate between active and inactive SLE patients. Serum lambda FLC and IL-6 levels differed significantly among patients with and without current dsDNA antibodies. Serum lambda FLC levels accounted for 31% of variance in SLEDAI scores. Serum FLC and IL-6 are potentially useful biomarkers of disease activity in SLE. Further studies, with larger study sample and longitudinal design, are indicated. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  8. Genotyping of alpha-thalassemia deletions using multiplex polymerase chain reactions and gold nanoparticle-filled capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Ling; Shih, Chi-Jen; Ferrance, Jerome; Chang, Ya-Sian; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Wu, Shou-Mei

    2009-02-13

    A gold nanoparticle-filled capillary electrophoresis method combined with three multiplex polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) was established for simultaneous diagnosis of five common alpha-thalassemia deletions, including the -alpha(3.7) deletion, -alpha(4.2) deletion, Southeast Asian (--(SEA)), Filipino (--(FIL)) and Thai (--(THAI)) deletions. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were used as a pseudostationary phase to improve the resolution between DNA fragments in a low-viscosity polymer. To achieve the best CE separation, several parameters were evaluated for optimizing the separation conditions, including the capillary coating, the concentrations of polymer sieving matrix, the sizes and concentrations of GNPs, the buffer concentrations, and the pH. The final CE method for separating a 200-base pair (bp) DNA ladder and alpha-thalassemia deletions used a DB-17 capillary, 0.6% poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) prepared in a mixture of GNP(32nm) solution and glycine buffer (25mM, pH 9.0) (80:20, v/v) as the sieving matrix with 1microM YO-PRO-1 for fluorescence detection; the applied voltage was -10kV (detector at anode side) and the separation temperature was 25 degrees C. Under these optimal conditions, 15 DNA fragments with sizes ranging from 0.2kb to 3.0kb were resolved within 11.5min. The RSDs of migration times were less than 2.81%. A total of 21 patients with alpha-thalassemia deletions were analyzed using this method, and all results showed good agreement with those obtained by gel electrophoresis.

  9. Mass spectral analysis of long chain alkyl aromatic compounds synthesized from alpha-olefin alkylation

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, M.T.; Hudson, J.D.

    1994-12-31

    Long chain alkyl aromatic compounds are important petrochemicals with many applications. They are generally synthesized by alkylating the corresponding aromatic nucleus. In this report, the authors will describe the mass spectral fragmentation of alkylphenols and alkylsalicylates.

  10. Localization in human interleukin 2 of the binding site to the alpha chain (p55) of the interleukin 2 receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Sauvé, K; Nachman, M; Spence, C; Bailon, P; Campbell, E; Tsien, W H; Kondas, J A; Hakimi, J; Ju, G

    1991-01-01

    Human interleukin 2 (IL-2) analogs with defined amino acid substitutions were used to identify specific residues that interact with the 55-kDa subunit (p55) or alpha chain of the human IL-2 receptor. Analog proteins containing specific substitutions for Lys-35, Arg-38, Phe-42, or Lys-43 were inactive in competitive binding assays for p55. All of these analogs retained substantial competitive binding to the intermediate-affinity p70 subunit (beta chain) of the receptor complex. The analogs varied in ability to interact with the high-affinity p55/p70 receptor. Despite the lack of binding to p55, all analogs exhibited significant biological activity, as assayed on the murine CTLL cell line. The dissociation constants of Arg-38 and Phe-42 analogs for p70 were consistent with intermediate-affinity binding; the Kd values were not significantly affected by the presence of p55 in binding to the high-affinity IL-2 receptor complex. These results confirm the importance of the B alpha-helix in IL-2 as the locus for p55-receptor binding and support a revised model of IL-2-IL-2 receptor interaction. PMID:2052547

  11. Decreased enzyme activity and contents of hepatic branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex subunits in a rat model for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bajotto, Gustavo; Murakami, Taro; Nagasaki, Masaru; Sato, Yuzo; Shimomura, Yoshiharu

    2009-10-01

    The mitochondrial branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC) is responsible for the committed step in branched-chain amino acid catabolism. In the present study, we examined BCKDC regulation in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats both before (8 weeks of age) and after (25 weeks of age) the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats were used as controls. Plasma branched-chain amino acid and branched-chain alpha-keto acid concentrations were significantly increased in young and middle-aged OLETF rats. Although the hepatic complex was nearly 100% active in all animals, total BCKDC activity and protein abundance of E1alpha, E1beta, and E2 subunits were markedly lower in OLETF than in LETO rats at 8 and 25 weeks of age. In addition, hepatic BCKDC activity and protein amounts were significantly decreased in LETO rats aged 25 weeks than in LETO rats aged 8 weeks. In skeletal muscle, E1beta and E2 proteins were significantly reduced, whereas E1alpha tended to increase in OLETF rats. Taken together, these results suggest that (1) whole-body branched-chain alpha-keto acid oxidation capacity is extremely reduced in OLETF rats independently of diabetes development, (2) the aging process decreases BCKDC activity and protein abundance in the liver of normal rats, and (3) differential posttranscriptional regulation for the subunits of BCKDC may exist in skeletal muscle.

  12. Disruption of the processing alpha-mannosidase gene does not prevent outer chain synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Puccia, R; Grondin, B; Herscovics, A

    1993-01-01

    Processing of N-linked oligosaccharides in Saccharomyces cerevisiae begins with the removal of glucose and mannose residues from Glc3Man9GlcNAc2 to form a single isomer of Man8GlcNAc2. The importance of mannose removal for subsequent outer chain synthesis was examined in strains of S. cerevisiae disrupted in the MNS1 gene encoding a specific alpha 1,2-mannosidase responsible for Man8GlcNAc2 synthesis [Camirand, Heysen, Grondin and Herscovics (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 15120-15127]. Both MNS1 transcripts of 1.85 kb and 1.7 kb were not observed in Northern blots of mns1 cells (i.e. cells containing the disrupted gene). Analysis on Bio-Gel P-6 of endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase-H-sensitive oligosaccharides following a 10 min pulse with [2-3H]mannose revealed similar amounts of labelled outer chains excluded from the gel in both control and mns1 cells. H.p.l.c. of the included oligosaccharides showed that a Man9GlcNAc, rather than a Man8GlcNAc, intermediate was formed in mns1 cells. Analysis of [3H]mannose-labelled core oligosaccharides from immunoprecipitated CPY and invertase by h.p.l.c. showed a similar size distribution in mns1 and control cells. Invertase immunoprecipitated from [35S]methionine-labelled mns1 cells was highly glycosylated, but migrated slightly faster than that from control cells on denaturing PAGE, indicating a small difference in glycosylation. A similar difference in mobility was observed for invertase activity stain following non-denaturing gel electrophoresis. It is concluded that the alpha-mannosidase encoded by MNS1 is the only enzyme responsible for mannose removal in vivo, and that this processing step is not essential for outer chain synthesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:8439291

  13. Disruption of the processing alpha-mannosidase gene does not prevent outer chain synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Puccia, R; Grondin, B; Herscovics, A

    1993-02-15

    Processing of N-linked oligosaccharides in Saccharomyces cerevisiae begins with the removal of glucose and mannose residues from Glc3Man9GlcNAc2 to form a single isomer of Man8GlcNAc2. The importance of mannose removal for subsequent outer chain synthesis was examined in strains of S. cerevisiae disrupted in the MNS1 gene encoding a specific alpha 1,2-mannosidase responsible for Man8GlcNAc2 synthesis [Camirand, Heysen, Grondin and Herscovics (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 15120-15127]. Both MNS1 transcripts of 1.85 kb and 1.7 kb were not observed in Northern blots of mns1 cells (i.e. cells containing the disrupted gene). Analysis on Bio-Gel P-6 of endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase-H-sensitive oligosaccharides following a 10 min pulse with [2-3H]mannose revealed similar amounts of labelled outer chains excluded from the gel in both control and mns1 cells. H.p.l.c. of the included oligosaccharides showed that a Man9GlcNAc, rather than a Man8GlcNAc, intermediate was formed in mns1 cells. Analysis of [3H]mannose-labelled core oligosaccharides from immunoprecipitated CPY and invertase by h.p.l.c. showed a similar size distribution in mns1 and control cells. Invertase immunoprecipitated from [35S]methionine-labelled mns1 cells was highly glycosylated, but migrated slightly faster than that from control cells on denaturing PAGE, indicating a small difference in glycosylation. A similar difference in mobility was observed for invertase activity stain following non-denaturing gel electrophoresis. It is concluded that the alpha-mannosidase encoded by MNS1 is the only enzyme responsible for mannose removal in vivo, and that this processing step is not essential for outer chain synthesis.

  14. cap alpha. -D-Mannopyranosylmethyl-P-nitrophenyltriazene effects on the degradation and biosynthesis of N-linked oligosaccharide chains on. cap alpha. /sub 1/-acid glycoprotein by liver cells

    SciTech Connect

    Docherty, P.A.; Aronson, N.N. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of ..cap alpha..-D-mannopyranosylmethyl-p-nitrophenyltriazene (..cap alpha..-ManMNT) on the degradation and processing of oligosaccharide chains on ..cap alpha../sub 1/-acid glycoprotein (AGP) were studied. Addition of the triazene to a perfused liver blocked the complete degradation of endocytosed N-acetyl (/sup 14/C)glucosamine-labeled asialo-AGP and caused the accumulation of Man/sub 2/GlcNAc/sub 1/ fragments in the lysosome-enriched fraction of the liver homogenate. This compound also reduced the reincorporation of lysosomally-derived (/sup 14/C)GlcNAc into newly secreted glycoproteins. Cultured hepatocytes treated with the inhibitor synthesized and secreted fully-glycosylated AGP. However, the N-linked oligosaccharide chains on AGP secreted by the ..cap alpha..-ManMNT-treated hepatocytes remained sensitive to digestionmore » with endoglycosidase H, were resistant to neuraminidase, and consisted of Man/sub 9-7/GlcNAc/sub 2/ structures as analyzed by high resolution Bio-Gel P-4 chromatography. As measured by their resistance to cleavage by endoglycosidase H, the normal processing of all six carbohydrate chains on AGP to the complex form did not completely resume until nearly 24 h after triazene treatment. Since ManMNT is likely to irreversibly inactivate ..cap alpha..-D-mannosidases, the return of AGP to secretory forms with complex chains after 24 h probably resulted from synthesis of new processing enzymes.« less

  15. Measurement of messenger RNA encoding the alpha-chain, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, and J-chain in duodenal mucosa from dogs with and without chronic diarrhea by use of quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays.

    PubMed

    Peters, Iain R; Helps, Chris R; Calvert, Emma L; Hall, Edward J; Day, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    To examine the difference in expression of messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts for polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (plgR), alpha-chain, and J-chain determined by use of quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) assays in duodenal biopsy specimens obtained from dogs with and without chronic diarrhea. Biopsy specimens of the proximal portion of the duodenum were obtained endoscopically from 39 dogs evaluated because of chronic diarrhea (12 German Shepherd Dogs and 27 non-German Shepherd Dog breeds); specimens were also obtained from a control group of 7 dogs evaluated because of other gastrointestinal tract diseases and 2 dogs that were euthanatized as a result of nongastrointestinal tract disease. Dogs were anesthetized, and multiple mucosal biopsy specimens were obtained endoscopically at the level of the caudal duodenal flexure by use of biopsy forceps; in 2 control dogs, samples were obtained from the descending duodenum within 5 minutes of euthanasia. One-step QRT-PCR was used to quantify the level of expression of transcripts for the housekeeper gene glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, plgR, alpha-chain, and J-chain in duodenal mucosal tissue. There was no significant difference in the level of expression of any transcript among non-German Shepherd Dog breeds without diarrhea (control group), non-German Shepherd Dog breeds with chronic diarrhea, and German Shepherd Dogs with chronic diarrhea. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results indicated that the susceptibility of German Shepherd Dogs to chronic diarrhea is not a result of simple failure of transcription of the key genes that encode molecules involved in mucosal IgA secretion.

  16. Effect of swainsonine on the processing of the asparagine-linked carbohydrate chains of alpha 1-antitrypsin in rat hepatocytes. Evidence for the formation of hybrid oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Gross, V; Tran-Thi, T A; Vosbeck, K; Heinrich, P C

    1983-03-25

    The biosynthesis of the proteinase inhibitor alpha 1-antitrypsin has been studied in rat hepatocyte primary cultures. Newly synthesized alpha 1-antitrypsin was found in hepatocytes as a glycoprotein of an apparent molecular weight of 49,000 carrying oligosaccharide side chains of the high mannose type. In the hepatocyte medium a secreted alpha 1-antitrypsin of an apparent molecular weight of 54,000 could be identified as a glycoprotein with carbohydrate chains of the complex type. Pulse-chase experiments revealed a precursor-product relationship for the two forms of alpha 1-antitrypsin. When the hepatocytes were treated with swainsonine, an intracellular form of alpha 1-antitrypsin with an apparent molecular weight of 49,000 indistinguishable from that of control cells was found. However, the alpha 1-antitrypsin secreted from swainsonine-treated hepatocytes was different from that present in control media. It was characterized by a lower apparent molecular weight (51,000), a higher amount of [3H]mannose incorporation, half as much incorporation of [3H]galactose, and the same amount of [3H]fucose incorporation compared to alpha 1-antitrypsin of control media. In contrast to the 54,000 complex type alpha 1-antitrypsin from control media the 51,000 alpha 1-antitrypsin from the medium of swainsonine-treated cells was found to be susceptible to the action of endoglucosaminidase H, even when fucose was attached to the proximal GlcNAc residue. alpha 1-Antitrypsin secreted from swainsonine-treated cells combines features usually associated with either high mannose or complex type oligosaccharides and therefore represents a hybrid structure. In spite of its effect on the carbohydrate part of alpha 1-antitrypsin swainsonine did not impair the secretion of the incompletely processed glycoprotein.

  17. Analysis of the major epitope of the alpha2 chain of bovine type I collagen in children with bovine gelatin allergy.

    PubMed

    Hori, Hisae; Hattori, Shunji; Inouye, Sakae; Kimura, Akinori; Irie, Shinkichi; Miyazawa, Hiroshi; Sakaguchi, Masahiro

    2002-10-01

    Anaphylaxis to measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines has been reported. It has been found that most of these reactions to live vaccines are caused by type I allergy with the bovine gelatin present in the vaccines as an allergen. Gelatin mainly includes denatured type I collagen, which consists of alpha1 and alpha2 chains. We previously reported that allergic reactions to gelatin are caused by the type I collagen alpha2 (alpha2[I]) chain. To aid in the development of gelatin that has little or no allergenicity in human subjects, we investigated epitopes of bovine alpha2(I) chain with use of IgE in gelatin-sensitive children. Serum samples were collected from 15 patients who had systemic allergic reactions to vaccines and high levels of specific IgE to bovine gelatin. Eleven overlapping recombinant proteins that cover bovine alpha2(I) were prepared with a bacterial expression vector. We examined IgE reactivity to these recombinant proteins by means of ELISA. Fifteen peptides covering a major reactive recombinant protein were synthesized. The IgE-reacting epitope was identified by means of IgE-ELISA inhibition with these synthetic peptides and pooled serum from the patients. We found that of the 15 patients, 13 showed IgE reactivity to a recombinant protein (no. 3) spanning the central region of the collagenous domain ((418)Gly-(662)Pro). Furthermore, all 13 patients showed IgE reactivity to the 4-kd recombinant protein (no. 3a) spanning the region from (461)Pro to (500)Glu. In IgE-ELISA inhibition we found that a minimum IgE epitope of gelatin allergen was composed of the 10-amino-acid sequence (485)Ile-Pro-Gly-Glu-Phe-Gly-Leu-Pro-Gly-Pro(494). This sequence is not observed in the human type I collagen alpha1 and alpha2 chains, nor is it found in the bovine type I collagen alpha1 chain. We found that Ile-Pro-Gly-Glu-Phe-Gly-Leu-Pro-Gly-Pro is a major IgE epitope of the alpha2 chain of bovine type I collagen in patients with gelatin allergy. The degree of anaphylaxis

  18. Suppression of the chain nuclear fusion reaction based on the p+{sup 11}B reaction because of the deceleration of alpha particles

    SciTech Connect

    Shmatov, M. L., E-mail: M.Shmatov@mail.ioffe.ru

    2016-09-15

    It is shown that a rapid deceleration of alpha particles in matter of electron temperature up to 100 keV leads a strong suppression of the chain nuclear fusion reaction on the basis of the p+{sup 11}B reaction with the reproduction of fast protons in the α+{sup 11}B and n+{sup 10}B reactions. The statement that the chain nuclear fusion reaction based on the p+{sup 11}B reaction with an acceleration of {sup 11}B nuclei because of elastic alpha-particle scattering manifests itself in experiments at the PALS (Prague Asterix Laser System) facility is analyzed.

  19. Molecular basis of maple syrup urine disease: Novel mutations at the E1[alpha] locus that impair E1([alpha][sub 2][beta][sub 2]) assembly or decrease steady-state E1[alpha] mRNA levels of branched-chain [alpha]-keto acid dehydrogenase complex

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, J.L.; Fisher, C.R.; Chuang, D.T.

    1994-08-01

    The authors report the occurrence of three novel mutations in the E1[alpha] (BCKDHA) locus of the branched-chain [alpha]-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKAD) complex that cause maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). An 8-bp deletion in exon 7 is present in one allele of a compound-heterozygous patient (GM-649). A single C nucleotide insertion in exon 2 occurs in one allele of an intermediate-MSUD patient (Lo). The second allele of patient Lo carries an A-to-G transition in exon 9 of the E1[alpha] gene. This missense mutation changes Tyr-368 to Cys (Y368C) in the E1[alpha] subunit. Both the 8-bp deletion and the single C insertionmore » generate a downstream nonsense codon. Both mutations appear to be associated with a low abundance of the mutant E1[alpha] mRNA, as determined by allele-specific oligonucleotide probing. Transfection studies strongly suggest that the Y368C substitution in the E1[alpha] subunit impairs its proper assembly with the normal E1[beta]. Unassembled as well as misassembled E1[alpha] and E1[beta] subunits are degraded in the cell. 32 refs., 8 figs.« less

  20. Creatine, arginine alpha-ketoglutarate, amino acids, and medium-chain triglycerides and endurance and performance.

    PubMed

    Little, Jonathan P; Forbes, Scott C; Candow, Darren G; Cornish, Stephen M; Chilibeck, Philip D

    2008-10-01

    Creatine (Cr) supplementation increases muscle mass, strength, and power. Arginine a-ketoglutarate (A-AKG) is a precursor for nitric oxide production and has the potential to improve blood flow and nutrient delivery (i.e., Cr) to muscles. This study compared a commercial dietary supplement of Cr, A-AKG, glutamine, taurine, branched-chain amino acids, and medium-chain triglycerides with Cr alone or placebo on exercise performance and body composition. Thirty-five men (approximately 23 yr) were randomized to Cr + A-AKG (0.1 g . kg(-1) . d(-1) Cr + 0.075 g . kg(-1) . d(-1)A-AKG, n = 12), Cr (0.1 g . kg(-1) . d(-1), n = 11), or placebo (1 g . kg(-1) . d(-1) sucrose, n = 12) for 10 d. Body composition, muscle endurance (bench press), and peak and average power (Wingate tests) were measured before and after supplementation. Bench-press repetitions over 3 sets increased with Cr + A-AKG (30.9 +/- 6.6 +/- 34.9 +/- 8.7 reps; p < .01) and Cr (27.6 +/- 5.9 +/- 31.0 +/- 7.6 reps; p < .01), with no change for placebo (26.8 +/- 5.0 +/- 27.1 +/- 6.3 reps). Peak power significantly increased in Cr + A-AKG (741 +/- 112 +/- 794 +/- 92 W; p < .01), with no changes in Cr (722 +/- 138 +/- 730 +/- 144 W) and placebo (696 +/- 63 +/- 705 +/- 77 W). There were no differences in average power between groups over time. Only the Cr-only group increased total body mass (79.9 +/- 13.0 +/- 81.1 +/- 13.8 kg; p < .01), with no significant changes in lean-tissue or fat mass. These results suggest that Cr alone and in combination with A-AKG improves upper body muscle endurance, and Cr + A-AKG supplementation improves peak power output on repeated Wingate tests.

  1. Increased Expression of Laminin Subunit Alpha 1 Chain by dCas9-VP160.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Arnaud; Rousseau, Joël; Tremblay, Jacques P

    2017-03-17

    Laminin-111 protein complex links the extracellular matrix to integrin α7β1 in sarcolemma, thus replacing in dystrophic muscles links normally insured by the dystrophin complex. Laminin-111 injection in mdx mouse stabilized sarcolemma, restored serum creatine kinase to wild-type levels, and protected muscles from exercised-induced damages. These results suggested that increased laminin-111 is a potential therapy for DMD. Laminin subunit beta 1 and laminin subunit gamma 1 are expressed in adult human muscle, but laminin subunit alpha 1 (LAMA1) gene is expressed only during embryogenesis. We thus developed an alternative method to laminin-111 protein repeated administration by inducing expression of the endogenous mouse Lama1 gene. This was done with the CRSPR/Cas9 system, i.e., by targeting the Lama1 promoter with one or several gRNAs and a dCas9 coupled with the VP160 transcription activation domain. Lama1 mRNA (qRT-PCR) and proteins (immunohistochemistry and western blot) were not detected in the control C2C12 myoblasts and in control muscles. However, significant expression was observed in cells transfected and in mouse muscles electroporated with plasmids coding for dCas9-VP160 and a gRNA. Larger synergic increases were observed by using two or three gRNAs. The increased Lama1 expression did not modify the expression of the α7 and β1 integrins. Increased expression of Lama1 by the CRISPR/Cas9 system will have to be further investigated by systemic delivery of the CRISPR/Cas9 components to verify whether this could be a treatment for several myopathies. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. CPT1{alpha} over-expression increases long-chain fatty acid oxidation and reduces cell viability with incremental palmitic acid concentration in 293T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jambor de Sousa, Ulrike L.; Koss, Michael D.; Fillies, Marion

    2005-12-16

    To test the cellular response to an increased fatty acid oxidation, we generated a vector for an inducible expression of the rate-limiting enzyme carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1{alpha} (CPT1{alpha}). Human embryonic 293T kidney cells were transiently transfected and expression of the CPT1{alpha} transgene in the tet-on vector was activated with doxycycline. Fatty acid oxidation was measured by determining the conversion of supplemented, synthetic cis-10-heptadecenoic acid (C17:1n-7) to C15:ln-7. CPT1{alpha} over-expression increased mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation about 6-fold. Addition of palmitic acid (PA) decreased viability of CPT1{alpha} over-expressing cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Both, PA and CPT1{alpha} over-expression increased cell death. Interestingly,more » PA reduced total cell number only in cells over-expressing CPT1{alpha}, suggesting an effect on cell proliferation that requires PA translocation across the mitochondrial inner membrane. This inducible expression system should be well suited to study the roles of CPT1 and fatty acid oxidation in lipotoxicity and metabolism in vivo.« less

  3. Role of microsomal retinol/sterol dehydrogenase-like short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases in the oxidation and epimerization of 3alpha-hydroxysteroids in human tissues.

    PubMed

    Belyaeva, Olga V; Chetyrkin, Sergei V; Clark, Amy L; Kostereva, Natalia V; SantaCruz, Karen S; Chronwall, Bibie M; Kedishvili, Natalia Y

    2007-05-01

    Allopregnanolone (ALLO) and androsterone (ADT) are naturally occurring 3alpha-hydroxysteroids that act as positive allosteric regulators of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors. In addition, ADT activates nuclear farnesoid X receptor and ALLO activates pregnane X receptor. At least with respect to gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors, the biological activity of ALLO and ADT depends on the 3alpha-hydroxyl group and is lost upon its conversion to either 3-ketosteroid or 3beta-hydroxyl epimer. Such strict structure-activity relationships suggest that the oxidation or epimerization of 3alpha-hydroxysteroids may serve as physiologically relevant mechanisms for the control of the local concentrations of bioactive 3alpha-hydroxysteroids. The exact enzymes responsible for the oxidation and epimerization of 3alpha-hydroxysteroids in vivo have not yet been identified, but our previous studies showed that microsomal nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs) with dual retinol/sterol dehydrogenase substrate specificity (RoDH-like group of SDRs) can oxidize and epimerize 3alpha-hydroxysteroids in vitro. Here, we present the first evidence that microsomal nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/epimerase activities are widely distributed in human tissues with the highest activity levels found in liver and testis and lower levels in lung, spleen, brain, kidney, and ovary. We demonstrate that RoDH-like SDRs contribute to the oxidation and epimerization of ALLO and ADT in living cells, and show that RoDH enzymes are expressed in tissues that have microsomal 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/epimerase activities. Together, these results provide further support for the role of RoDH-like SDRs in human metabolism of 3alpha-hydroxysteroids and offer a new insight into the enzymology of ALLO and ADT inactivation.

  4. Diving behaviour and haemoglobin function: the primary structure of the alpha- and beta-chains of the sea turtle (Caretta caretta) and its functional implications.

    PubMed

    Petruzzelli, R; Aureli, G; Lania, A; Galtieri, A; Desideri, A; Giardina, B

    1996-06-15

    The amino acid sequence of the alpha- and beta-chains of haemoglobin (Hb) from the loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) has been determined. Comparison with that of human Hb shows differences in several residues involved in both alpha 1 beta 1 and alpha 1 beta 2 packing contacts. On the whole, in spite of the mutations, the essential characteristics of both interfaces seem to be maintained. The functional properties of the sea turtle Hb have been investigated at different temperatures and as a function of proton, chloride and organic phosphate concentrations. In addition to overall similarities shared with most of the vertebrate Hbs previously described, this molecule shows significant differences which could be related to the life behaviour of the turtle. In fact, while the shape of the Bohr-effect curve is well adapted for gas exchange during prolonged dives, the very small enthalpy change for O2 binding ensures that O2 delivery becomes essentially insensitive to the temperature changes of the environment. Moreover, and similarly to the case of emperor penguin Hb, the small alkaline Bohr effect appears to be only choride-linked, since the pH dependence of the O2 affinity is abolished in the absence of this ion. These functional characteristics are discussed on the basis of the primary structure of alpha- and beta-chains.

  5. Mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors suppress prostaglandin F(2alpha)-induced myosin-light chain phosphorylation and contraction in iris sphincter smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Yousufzai, S Y; Gao, G; Abdel-Latif, A A

    2000-10-27

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential role of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in contraction by monitoring MAP kinase phosphorylation (activation) and contraction during agonist stimulation of cat iris sphincter smooth muscle. Changes in tension in response to prostaglandin F(2alpha), latanoprost, a prostaglandin F(2alpha) analog used as an anti-glaucoma drug, and carbachol were recorded isometrically, and MAP kinase activation was monitored by Western blot using a phosphospecific p42/p44 MAP kinase antibody. We found that treatment of the muscle with 2'-Amino-3'-methoxyflavone (PD98059) (10 microM), a specific inhibitor of MAP kinase kinase (MEK), inhibited significantly prostaglandin F(2alpha)- and latanoprost-induced phosphorylation and contraction, but had little effect on those evoked by carbachol. Prostaglandin F(2alpha) increased MAP kinase phosphorylation in a concentration-dependent manner with EC(50) value of 1.1 x 10(-8) M and increased contraction with EC(50) of 0.92 x 10(-9) M. The MAP kinase inhibitors PD98059, Apigenin and 1,4-Diamino-2,3-dicyano-1, 4bis(2-aminophenylthio)butadiene (UO126) inhibited prostaglandin F(2alpha)-induced contraction in a concentration-dependent manner with IC(50) values of 2.4, 3.0 and 4.8 microM, respectively. PD98059 had no effect on prostaglandin F(2alpha)- or on carbachol-stimulated inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) production. In contrast, the MAP kinase inhibitor inhibited prostaglandin F(2alpha)-induced myosin-light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, but had no effect on that of carbachol. N-[2-(N-(4-Chloro-cinnamyl)-N-methylaminomethyl)phenyl]-N-[2- hydroxyethyl]-4-methoxybenzenesulfonamide (KN-93) (10 microM), a Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase inhibitor, and Wortmannin (10 microM), an MLC kinase inhibitor, inhibited significantly (by 80%) prostaglandin F(2alpha)- and carbachol-induced contraction. It can be concluded that in this smooth muscle p42/p44 MAP kinases are involved in

  6. Three-dimensional structure of holo 3 alpha,20 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase: a member of a short-chain dehydrogenase family.

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, D; Weeks, C M; Grochulski, P; Duax, W L; Erman, M; Rimsay, R L; Orr, J C

    1991-01-01

    The x-ray structure of a short-chain dehydrogenase, the bacterial holo 3 alpha,20 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.53), is described at 2.6 A resolution. This enzyme is active as a tetramer and crystallizes with four identical subunits in the asymmetric unit. It has the alpha/beta fold characteristic of the dinucleotide binding region. The fold of the rest of the subunit, the quaternary structure, and the nature of the cofactor-enzyme interactions are, however, significantly different from those observed in the long-chain dehydrogenases. The architecture of the postulated active site is consistent with the observed stereospecificity of the enzyme and the fact that the tetramer is the active form. There is only one cofactor and one substrate-binding site per subunit; the specificity for both 3 alpha- and 20 beta-ends of the steroid results from the binding of the steroid in two orientations near the same cofactor at the same catalytic site. Images PMID:1946424

  7. Alpha-helix to beta-sheet transition in long-chain poly-l-lysine: Formation of alpha-helical fibrils by poly-l-lysine.

    PubMed

    Cieślik-Boczula, Katarzyna

    2017-06-01

    The temperature-induced α-helix to β-sheet transition in long-chain poly-l-lysine (PLL), accompanied by the gauche-to-trans isomerization of CH 2 groups in the hydrocarbon side chains of Lys amino acid residues, and formation of β-sheet as well as α-helix fibrillar aggregates of PLL have been studied using Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In a low-temperature alkaline water solution or in a methanol-rich water mixture, the secondary structure of PLL is represented by α-helical conformations with unordered and gauche-rich hydrocarbon side chains. Under these conditions, PLL molecules aggregate into α-helical fibrils. PLLs dominated by extended antiparallel β-sheet structures with highly ordered trans-rich hydrocarbon side chains are formed in a high-temperature range at alkaline pD and aggregate into fibrillar, protofibrillar, and spherical forms. Presented data support the idea that fibrillar aggregation is a varied phenomenon possible in repetitive structural elements with not only a β-sheet-rich conformation, but also an α-helical-rich conformation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  8. Identification of a second murine interleukin-11 receptor alpha-chain gene (IL11Ra2) with a restricted pattern of expression.

    PubMed

    Robb, L; Hilton, D J; Brook-Carter, P T; Begley, C G

    1997-03-15

    The interleukin-11 receptor alpha-chain, a member of the hematopoietin receptor superfamily, forms, together with gp130, a functional high-affinity receptor complex for interleukin 11. We, and others, reported the cloning of the murine interleukin 11 receptor alpha-chain cDNA (IL11Ra) and recently described the structure of the IL11Ra locus. We also described the presence of a second IL11Ra-like locus in some mouse strains. In this study we report that the second locus, designated IL11Ra2, encodes an mRNA species. The transcript was 99% identical to the IL11Ra transcript in the coding and 3'-untranslated region, but had a different 5'-untranslated region. The complete genomic organization of the IL11Ra2 locus is presented, and the two loci are shown to be located on a 200-kb NaeI genomic fragment. Comparison of the expression pattern of the IL11Ra and IL11Ra2 genes using an RT-PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism strategy revealed that while the expression of IL11Ra was widespread, expression of IL11Ra2 was restricted to testis, lymph node, and thymus.

  9. IL-4 function can be transferred to the IL-2 receptor by tyrosine containing sequences found in the IL-4 receptor alpha chain.

    PubMed

    Wang, H Y; Paul, W E; Keegan, A D

    1996-02-01

    IL-4 binds to a cell surface receptor complex that consists of the IL-4 binding protein (IL-4R alpha) and the gamma chain of the IL-2 receptor complex (gamma c). The receptors for IL-4 and IL-2 have several features in common; both use the gamma c as a receptor component, and both activate the Janus kinases JAK-1 and JAK-3. In spite of these similarities, IL-4 evokes specific responses, including the tyrosine phosphorylation of 4PS/IRS-2 and the induction of CD23. To determine whether sequences within the cytoplasmic domain of the IL-4R alpha specify these IL-4-specific responses, we transplanted the insulin IL-4 receptor motif (I4R motif) of the huIL-4R alpha to the cytoplasmic domain of a truncated IL-2R beta. In addition, we transplanted a region that contains peptide sequences shown to block Stat6 binding to DNA. We analyzed the ability of cells expressing these IL-2R-IL-4R chimeric constructs to respond to IL-2. We found that IL-4 function could be transplanted to the IL-2 receptor by these regions and that proliferative and differentiative functions can be induced by different receptor sequences.

  10. Fcγ receptor I alpha chain (CD64) expression in macrophages is critical for the onset of meningitis by Escherichia coli K1.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Rahul; Sukumaran, Sunil K; Selvaraj, Suresh K; Wooster, David G; Babu, M Madan; Schreiber, Alan D; Verbeek, J Sjef; Prasadarao, Nemani V

    2010-11-18

    Neonatal meningitis due to Escherichia coli K1 is a serious illness with unchanged morbidity and mortality rates for the last few decades. The lack of a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of meningitis contributes to this poor outcome. Here, we demonstrate that depletion of macrophages in newborn mice renders the animals resistant to E. coli K1 induced meningitis. The entry of E. coli K1 into macrophages requires the interaction of outer membrane protein A (OmpA) of E. coli K1 with the alpha chain of Fcγ receptor I (FcγRIa, CD64) for which IgG opsonization is not necessary. Overexpression of full-length but not C-terminal truncated FcγRIa in COS-1 cells permits E. coli K1 to enter the cells. Moreover, OmpA binding to FcγRIa prevents the recruitment of the γ-chain and induces a different pattern of tyrosine phosphorylation of macrophage proteins compared to IgG2a induced phosphorylation. Of note, FcγRIa(-/-) mice are resistant to E. coli infection due to accelerated clearance of bacteria from circulation, which in turn was the result of increased expression of CR3 on macrophages. Reintroduction of human FcγRIa in mouse FcγRIa(-/-) macrophages in vitro increased bacterial survival by suppressing the expression of CR3. Adoptive transfer of wild type macrophages into FcγRIa(-/-) mice restored susceptibility to E. coli infection. Together, these results show that the interaction of FcγRI alpha chain with OmpA plays a key role in the development of neonatal meningitis by E. coli K1.

  11. Short-chain consensus alpha-neurotoxin: a synthetic 60-mer peptide with generic traits and enhanced immunogenic properties.

    PubMed

    de la Rosa, Guillermo; Corrales-García, Ligia L; Rodriguez-Ruiz, Ximena; López-Vera, Estuardo; Corzo, Gerardo

    2018-07-01

    The three-fingered toxin family and more precisely short-chain α-neurotoxins (also known as Type I α-neurotoxins) are crucial in defining the elapid envenomation process, but paradoxically, they are barely neutralized by current elapid snake antivenoms. This work has been focused on the primary structural identity among Type I neurotoxins in order to create a consensus short-chain α-neurotoxin with conserved characteristics. A multiple sequence alignment considering the twelve most toxic short-chain α-neurotoxins reported from the venoms of the elapid genera Acanthophis, Oxyuranus, Walterinnesia, Naja, Dendroaspis and Micrurus led us to propose a short-chain consensus α-neurotoxin, here named ScNtx. The synthetic ScNtx gene was de novo constructed and cloned into the expression vector pQE30 containing a 6His-Tag and an FXa proteolytic cleavage region. Escherichia coli Origami cells transfected with the pQE30/ScNtx vector expressed the recombinant consensus neurotoxin in a soluble form with a yield of 1.5 mg/L of culture medium. The 60-amino acid residue ScNtx contains canonical structural motifs similar to α-neurotoxins from African elapids and its LD 50 of 3.8 µg/mice is similar to the most toxic short-chain α-neurotoxins reported from elapid venoms. Furthermore, ScNtx was also able to antagonize muscular, but not neuronal, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Rabbits immunized with ScNtx were able to immune-recognize short-chain α-neurotoxins within whole elapid venoms. Type I neurotoxins are difficult to isolate and purify from natural sources; therefore, the heterologous expression of molecules such ScNtx, bearing crucial motifs and key amino acids, is a step forward to create common immunogens for developing cost-effective antivenoms with a wider spectrum of efficacy, quality and strong therapeutic value.

  12. Three cases of congenital dysfibrinogenemia in unrelated Chinese families: heterozygous missense mutation in fibrinogen alpha chain Argl6His

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Meiling; Deng, Donghong; Xiang, Liqun; Cheng, Peng; Liao, Lin; Deng, Xuelian; Yan, Jie; Lin, Faquan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Congenital dysfibrinogenemia (CD) is a qualitative fibrinogen disorder caused by an abnormal fibrinogen molecule structure, leading to dysfunctional blood coagulation. This study describes 3 cases of dysfibrinogenemia identified in the unrelated Chinese pedigrees. Routine coagulation screening tests were performed on the probands and their families. The antigens and functionality of fibrinogen was measured using an immunoturbidimetry assay and the Clauss method, respectively. To identify the genetic mutation responsible for these dysfibrinogens, genomic DNA extracted from the blood was analyzed using PCR amplification and direct sequencing. The presence of the mutant chains was determined using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectroscopy. Purified plasma fibrinogen of 3 probands was analyzed using SDS–PAGE, fibrinogen clottability, fibrin polymerization, fibrinopeptide release, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The 3 probands had a long thrombin time. Levels of functional fibrinogen were found to be very low, while the fibrinogen antigen was within the normal range. DNA sequencing revealed a heterozygous Arg16His substitution in the fibrinogen Aα chain (FGA). The mutant chains were found to be expressed using MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy. SDS–PAGE did not reveal any difference in the molecular weights of 3 polypeptide chains between normal and abnormal fibrinogens. Fibrinogen clottability showed a slower fibrin clot formation than the healthy control. Fibrin polymerization, after addition of thrombin, showed a prolonged lag phase and decreased final turbidity. The kinetics of fibrinopeptides release revealed a decreased amount of the released fibrinopeptide A. SEM of the patient's fibrin clot was found to be abnormal. Results indicate that the 3 probands with dysfibrinogenemia were caused by mutations of Aα chain Arg16His. Mutation of this fibrinogen induced dysfunction of plasma fibrinogen. PMID

  13. Absence of Fc epsilonRI alpha chain results in upregulation of Fc gammaRIII-dependent mast cell degranulation and anaphylaxis. Evidence of competition between Fc epsilonRI and Fc gammaRIII for limiting amounts of FcR beta and gamma chains.

    PubMed Central

    Dombrowicz, D; Flamand, V; Miyajima, I; Ravetch, J V; Galli, S J; Kinet, J P

    1997-01-01

    In mouse mast cells, both Fc epsilonRI and Fc gammaRIII are alpha beta gamma2 tetrameric complexes in which different alpha chains confer IgE or IgG ligand recognition while the signaling FcR beta and gamma chains are identical. We used primarily noninvasive techniques (changes in body temperature, dye extravasation) to assess systemic anaphylactic responses in nonanesthetized wild-type, Fc epsilonRI alpha chain -/- and FcR gamma chain -/- mice. We confirm that systemic anaphylaxis in mice can be mediated largely through IgG1 and Fc gammaRIII and we provide direct evidence that these responses reflect activation of Fc gammaRIII rather than Fc gammaRI. Furthermore, we show that Fc gammaRIII-dependent responses are more intense in normal than in congenic mast cell-deficient KitW/KitW-v mice, indicating that Fc gammaRIII responses have mast cell-dependent and -independent components. Finally, we demonstrate that the upregulation of cell surface expression of Fc gammaRIII seen in Fc epsilonRI alpha chain -/- mice corresponds to an increased association of Fc gammaRIII alpha chains with FcR beta and gamma chains and is associated with enhanced Fc gammaRIII-dependent mast cell degranulation and systemic anaphylactic responses. Therefore, the phenotype of the Fc epsilonRI alpha chain -/- mice suggests that expression of Fc epsilonRI and Fc gammaRIII is limited by availability of the FcR beta and gamma chains and that, in normal mice, changes in the expression of one receptor (Fc epsilonRI) may influence the expression of functional responses dependent on the other (Fc gammaRIII). PMID:9062349

  14. Lack of association between atopic eczema and the genetic variants of interleukin-4 and the interleukin-4 receptor alpha chain gene: heterogeneity of genetic backgrounds on immunoglobulin E production in atopic eczema patients.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, K; Sugiura, H; Uehara, M; Hashimoto, Y; Donnelly, C; Montgomery, D S

    2001-10-01

    The genetic background of atopic eczema might be heterogeneous and there is a possibility that immunoglobulin (Ig)E responsiveness in patients with atopic eczema is controlled separately from the development of atopic eczema. Although both interleukin (IL)-4 and the IL-4 receptor alpha chain have an important role for IgE production and are therefore possible candidate genes for atopy, it has not been clarified whether these genes play any roles in atopic eczema patients who have normal IgE productivity. We aimed to assess whether the polymorphisms of the IL-4 gene and the IL-4 receptor alpha chain gene play any roles in atopic eczema patients, particularly in patients who have normal IgE productivity. We determined the genotype with regard to polymorphisms in the genes for IL-4 and the IL-4 receptor alpha chain (- 589C/T of IL-4; Ile50Val, Ala375Glu and Arg551Gln of IL-4 receptor alpha chain) in patients with atopic eczema using the fluorogenic 5' nuclease assay. IL-4 and the IL-4 receptor alpha chain genotypes were not significantly associated with either total patients with atopic eczema or atopic eczema patients who had normal IgE productivity. The distribution of genotypes of IL-4-589C/T differed by the serum IgE levels in patients with atopic eczema. These results suggest that the polymorphisms in the IL-4 gene and the IL-4 receptor alpha chain gene play no role in the development of atopic eczema in patients who have normal IgE productivity.

  15. Complementary DNA sequences encoding the multimammate rat MHC class II DQ alpha and beta chains and cross-species sequence comparison in rodents.

    PubMed

    de Bellocq, J Goüy; Leirs, H

    2009-09-01

    Sequences of the complete open reading frame (ORF) for rodents major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes are rare. Multimammate rat (Mastomys natalensis) complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding the alpha and beta chains of MHC class II DQ gene was cloned from a rapid amplifications of cDNA Emds (RACE) cDNA library. The ORFs consist of 801 and 771 bp encoding 266 and 256 amino acid residues for DQB and DQA, respectively. The genomic structure of Mana-DQ genes is globally analogous to that described for other rodents except for the insertion of a serine residue in the signal peptide of Mana-DQB, which is unique among known rodents.

  16. Linkage of the gene that encodes the alpha 1 chain of type V collagen (COL5A1) to type II Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS II).

    PubMed

    Loughlin, J; Irven, C; Hardwick, L J; Butcher, S; Walsh, S; Wordsworth, P; Sykes, B

    1995-09-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a group of heritable disorders of connective tissue with skin, ligaments and blood vessels being the main sites affected. The commonest variant (EDS II) exhibits an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance and is characterized by joint hypermobility, cigarette paper scars, lax skin and excessive bruising. As yet no gene has been linked to EDS II, nor has linkage been established to a specific region of the genome. However, several candidate genes encoding proteins of the extracellular matrix have been excluded. Using an intragenic simple sequence repeat polymorphism, we report linkage of the COL5A1 gene, which encodes the alpha 1(V) chain of type V collagen, to EDS II. A maximum LOD score (Zmax) for linkage of 8.3 at theta = 0.00 was generated for a single large pedigree.

  17. Regulation of acetylcholine receptor alpha subunit variants in human myasthenia gravis. Quantification of steady-state levels of messenger RNA in muscle biopsy using the polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Guyon, T; Levasseur, P; Truffault, F; Cottin, C; Gaud, C; Berrih-Aknin, S

    1994-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease mediated by auto-antibodies that attack the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR). To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the decrease in AChR levels at the neuromuscular junction, we investigated the regulation of AChR expression by analyzing mRNA of the two AChR alpha subunit isoforms (P3A+ and P3A-) in muscle samples from myasthenic patients relative to controls. We applied a quantitative method based on reverse transcription of total RNA followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using an internal standard we constructed by site-directed mutagenesis. An increased expression of mRNA coding for the alpha subunit of the AChR isoforms was observed in severely affected patients (P < 0.003 versus controls) but not in moderately affected patients, independently of the anti-AChR antibody titer. Study of mRNA precursor levels indicates a higher expression in severely affected patients compared to controls, suggesting an enhanced rate of transcription of the message coding for the alpha subunit isoforms in these patients. We have also reported that mRNA encoding both isoforms are expressed at an approximate 1:1 ratio in controls and in patients. We have thus identified a new biological parameter correlated with disease severity, and provide evidence of a compensatory mechanism to balance the loss of AChR in human myasthenia gravis, which is probably triggered only above a certain degree of AChR loss. Images PMID:8040257

  18. Regulation of hepatic branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase in a rat model for type 2 diabetes mellitus at different stages of the disease.

    PubMed

    Doisaki, Masao; Katano, Yoshiaki; Nakano, Isao; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Itoh, Akihiro; Ishigami, Masatoshi; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Goto, Hidemi; Fujita, Yuko; Kadota, Yoshihiro; Kitaura, Yasuyuki; Bajotto, Gustavo; Kazama, Shunsuke; Tamura, Tomohiro; Tamura, Noriko; Feng, Guo-Gang; Ishikawa, Naohisa; Shimomura, Yoshiharu

    2010-03-05

    Branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) kinase (BDK) is responsible for the regulation of BCKDH complex, which is the rate-limiting enzyme in the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). In the present study, we investigated the expression and activity of hepatic BDK in spontaneous type 2 diabetes using hyperinsulinemic Zucker diabetic fatty rats aged 9weeks and hyperglycemic, but not hyperinsulinemic rats aged 18weeks. The abundance of hepatic BDK mRNA and total BDK protein did not correlate with changes in serum insulin concentrations. On the other hand, the amount of BDK bound to the complex and its kinase activity were correlated with alterations in serum insulin levels, suggesting that hyperinsulinemia upregulates hepatic BDK. The activity of BDK inversely corresponded with the BCKDH complex activity, which was suppressed in hyperinsulinemic rats. These results suggest that insulin regulates BCAA catabolism in type 2 diabetic rats by modulating the hepatic BDK activity. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Stabilizing interactions between aromatic and basic side chains in alpha-helical peptides and proteins. Tyrosine effects on helix circular dichroism.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Charles D; Bhattacharjee, Samita; Kokkoni, Nicoleta; Hirst, Jonathan D; Jones, Gareth R; Doig, Andrew J

    2002-10-30

    Here we investigate the structures and energetics of interactions between aromatic (Phe or Tyr) and basic (Lys or Arg) amino acids in alpha-helices. Side chain interaction energies are measured using helical peptides, by quantifying their helicities with circular dichroism at 222 nm and interpreting the results with Lifson-Roig-based helix/coil theory. A difficulty in working with Tyr is that the aromatic ring perturbs the CD spectrum, giving an incorrect helicity. We calculated the effect of Tyr on the CD at 222 nm by deriving the intensities of the bands directly from the electronic and magnetic transition dipole moments through the rotational strengths corresponding to each excited state of the polypeptide. This gives an improved value of the helix preference of Tyr (from 0.48 to 0.35) and a correction to the helicity for the peptides containing Tyr. We find that Phe-Lys, Lys-Phe, Phe-Arg, Arg-Phe, and Tyr-Lys are all stabilizing by -0.10 to -0.18 kcal.mol-1 when placed i, i + 4 on the surface of a helix in aqueous solution, despite the great difference in polarity between these residues. Interactions between these side chains have previously been attributed to cation-pi bonds. A survey of protein structures shows that they are in fact predominantly hydrophobic interactions between the CH2 groups of Lys or Arg and the aromatic rings.

  20. Determination of branched chain amino acids, methionine, phenylalanine, tyrosine and alpha-keto acids in plasma and dried blood samples using HPLC with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Kand'ár, Roman; Záková, Pavla; Jirosová, Jana; Sladká, Michaela

    2009-01-01

    The determination of branched chain amino acids [BCAA; valine (Val), leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile)], alpha-keto acids derived from BCAA [BCKA; alpha-ketoisovaleric acid (KIV), alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC), alpha-ketomethylvaleric acid (KMV)], methionine (Met), phenylalanine (Phe) and tyrosine (Tyr) is currently the most reliable approach for the diagnosis of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), hypermethioninemia, phenylketonuria (PKU) and tyrosinemia. The aim of this study was to develop rapid and simple HPLC methods for measurement of BCAA, Met, Phe, Tyr and BCKA in plasma and dried blood samples. Samples of peripheral venous blood with EDTA as anticoagulant were obtained from a group of healthy blood donors (n=70, 35 females, 27-41 years of age and 35 males, 28-43 years of age). Blood-spot samples from a group of newborns (n=80, 40 girls and 40 boys 3-5 days of age) were collected onto #903 Specimen Collection Paper and allowed to dry for at least 24 h before analysis. Prior to separation, the amino acids (AA) were derivatized with o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) and BCKA with o-phenylenediamine (OPD). Reverse phase column chromatography (LiChroCart 125-4 Purospher RP-18e, 5 microm) was used for separation and fluorescence detection used to monitoring of effluent. For AA analysis, 25 mmol/L sodium hydrogenphosphate-methanol (90:10, v/v), pH 6.5+/-0.1 was used as mobile phase A and 100% methanol was used as mobile phase B. Measurement of BCKA used a mixture of methanol and deionized water (55:45, v/v) as mobile phase A and mobile phase B consisted of 100% methanol. Analytical performance of these methods was satisfactory for the determination of all AA and BCKA. The intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation were below 10% and recovery ranged from 90%-110%. We have developed simple, rapid and selective HPLC methods with fluorescence detection for the determination of BCAA, Met, Phe, Tyr and BCKA in plasma and dried blood samples.

  1. Jellyfish mesogloea collagen. Characterization of molecules as alpha 1 alpha 2 alpha 3 heterotrimers.

    PubMed

    Miura, S; Kimura, S

    1985-12-05

    The mesogloea collagen of a primitive animal, the jellyfish Stomolophus nomurai, belonging to the class Scyphozoa in the Coelenterata, was studied with respect to its chain structure. Most of the mesogloea collagen was solubilized by limited digestion with pepsin and isolated by selective precipitation at 0.9 m NaCl in 0.5 M acetic acid. Upon denaturation, the pepsin-solubilized collagen produced three distinct alpha chains, alpha 1, alpha 2, and alpha 3, in comparable amounts which were separable by CM-cellulose chromatography. The nonidentity of these alpha chains was confirmed by amino acid and carbohydrate analyses and peptide mapping. Furthermore, the introduction of intramolecular cross-links into native molecules by formaldehyde yielded a large proportion of gamma 123 chain with chain structure alpha 1 alpha 2 alpha 3, as judged by chromatographic behavior and peptide maps. We concluded that mesogloea collagen is comprised of alpha 1 alpha 2 alpha 3 heterotrimers and is chemically like vertebrate Type V collagen. On the other hand, sea anemone mesogloea collagen from the class Anthozoa was previously reported to comprise (alpha)3 homotrimers (Katzman, R. L., and Kang, A. H. (1972) J. Biol. Chem. 247, 5486-5489). On the basis of these findings, we assume that alpha 1 alpha 2 alpha 3 heterotrimers arose in evolution with the divergence of Scyphozoa and Anthozoa.

  2. Enhancing effect of medium-chain triglycerides on intestinal absorption of d-alpha-tocopherol acetate from lecithin-dispersed preparations in the rat.

    PubMed

    Fukui, E; Kurohara, H; Kageyu, A; Kurosaki, Y; Nakayama, T; Kimura, T

    1989-02-01

    The effect of formulations of lecithin-dispersed preparation on the absorption of d-alpha-tocopherol acetate (VEA) from the small intestine was investigated in rats. When lecithin-dispersed preparations containing VEA or polysorbate 80 (PS-80)-solubilized solution of VEA were intraduodenally administered, VEA was hydrolyzed to d-alpha-tocopherol (VE) and was not detected in the plasma nor in the thoracic lymph. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of VE after the intraduodenal administration of a preparation consisting of VEA, soybean phosphatidylcholine (PC) and medium-chain triglycerides (MCTG) (VEA/PC/MCTG, 5/16/1 by weight) was highest among the VEA preparations, and PS-80-solubilized solution gave the lowest Cmax. AUC of VE up to 24 h was also increased by the addition of MCTG to VEA/PC preparation. In the thoracic duct-fistula rat, the transport of VE into the thoracic lymph was increased by the administration of the VEA/PC/MCTG preparation significantly more than the VEA/PC preparation; the cumulative amounts of VE recovered in the thoracic lymph up to 24 h were 23.2 +/- 0.5% and 10.9 +/- 1.5% of dose, respectively. The plasma concentration of VE was not increased in the thoracic duct-fistula rat even after the intraduodenal administration of VEA preparations, suggesting that VE is not transported directly to the systemic circulation, but by way of the lymphatic route. The lymphatic transport of VE following the intraduodenal administration of VEA/PC/MCTG preparation was markedly diminished by the simultaneous administration of Pluronic L-81 emulsion, an inhibitor of chylomicron formation. It is suggested that the chylomicron is essential to the lymphatic transport of VE from VEA preparations.

  3. Autoimmunity to the alpha 3 chain of type IV collagen in glomerulonephritis is triggered by ‘autoantigen complementarity’

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, John; Preston, Gloria A.; Pressler, Barrak M.; Hewins, Peter; Brown, Michael; Roth, Aleeza; Alderman, Elizabeth; Bunch, Donna; Jennette, J. Charles; Cook, H. Terence; Falk, Ronald J.; Pusey, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    ‘Autoantigen complementarity’ is a theory proposing that the initiator of an autoimmune response is not necessarily the autoantigen or its molecular mimic, but may instead be a peptide that is ‘antisense/complementary’ to the autoantigen. We investigated whether such complementary proteins play a role in the immunopathogenesis of autoimmune glomerulonephritis. Experimental autoimmune glomerulonephritis, a model of anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) disease, can be induced in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats by immunization with the α3 chain of type IV collagen. In this study, WKY rats were immunized with a complementary α3 peptide (c-α3-Gly) comprised of amino acids that ‘complement’ the well characterized epitope on α3(IV)NC1, pCol(24–38). Within 8 weeks post-immunization, these animals developed cresentic glomerulonephritis, similar to pCol(24–38)-immunized rats, while animals immunized with scrambled peptide were normal. Anti-idiotypic antibodies to epitopes from c-α3-Gly-immunized animals were shown to be specific for α3 protein, binding in a region containing sense pCol(24–38) sequence. Interestingly, anticomplementary α3 antibodies were identified in sera from patients with anti-GBM disease, suggesting a role for ‘autoantigen complementarity’ in immunopathogenesis of the human disease. This work supports the idea that autoimmune glomerulonephritis can be initiated through an immune response against a peptide that is anti-sense or complementary to the autoantigen. The implications of this discovery may be far reaching, and other autoimmune diseases could be due to responses to these once unsuspected ‘complementary’ antigens. PMID:25841937

  4. Increase in cardiac myosin heavy-chain (MyHC) alpha protein isoform in hibernating ground squirrels, with echocardiographic visualization of ventricular wall hypertrophy and prolonged contraction

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, O. Lynne; Rourke, Bryan C.

    2013-01-01

    myosin heavy-chain (MyHC) isoforms in a separate cohort of squirrels over 5 months, including time points before hibernation, during hibernation and just prior to emergence. Hibernating individuals were maintained in both a 4°C cold room and a 20°C warm room. Measured by SDS-PAGE, relative percentages of cardiac MyHC alpha were increased during hibernation, at both hibernacula temperatures. A potential increase in contractile speed, and power, from more abundant MyHC alpha may aid force generation at low temperature and at low heart rates. Unlike many models of cardiomyopathies where the alpha isoform is replaced by the beta isoform in order to reduce oxygen consumption, ground squirrels demonstrate a potential cardioprotective mechanism to maintain cardiac output during torpor. PMID:24072796

  5. Activation of mouse and human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha by perfluoroalkyl acids of different functional groups and chain lengths.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Cynthia J; Takacs, Margy L; Schmid, Judith E; Lau, Christopher; Abbott, Barbara D

    2008-11-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are surfactants used in consumer products and persist in the environment. Some PFAAs elicit adverse effects on rodent development and survival. PFAAs can activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) and may act via PPARalpha to produce some of their effects. This study evaluated the ability of numerous PFAAs to induce mouse and human PPARalpha activity in a transiently transfected COS-1 cell assay. COS-1 cells were transfected with either a mouse or human PPARalpha receptor-luciferase reporter plasmid. After 24 h, cells were exposed to either negative controls (water or dimethyl sulfoxide, 0.1%); positive control (WY-14643, PPARalpha agonist); perfluorooctanoic acid or perfluorononanoic acid at 0.5-100 microM; perfluorobutanoic acid, perfluorohexanoic acid, perfluorohexane sulfonate, or perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) at 5-100 microM; or perfluorobutane sulfonate or perfluorooctane sulfonate at 1-250 microM. After 24 h of exposure, luciferase activity from the plasmid was measured. Each PFAA activated both mouse and human PPARalpha in a concentration-dependent fashion, except PFDA with human PPARalpha. Activation of PPARalpha by PFAA carboxylates was positively correlated with carbon chain length, up to C9. PPARalpha activity was higher in response to carboxylates compared to sulfonates. Activation of mouse PPARalpha was generally higher compared to that of human PPARalpha. We conclude that, in general, (1) PFAAs of increasing carbon backbone chain lengths induce increasing activity of the mouse and human PPARalpha with a few exceptions, (2) PFAA carboxylates are stronger activators of mouse and human PPARalpha than PFAA sulfonates, and (3) in most cases, the mouse PPARalpha appears to be more sensitive to PFAAs than the human PPARalpha in this model.

  6. Expression of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) single-chain variable fragment (scFv) in Spirodela punctata plants transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Parthasarathy; Satheeshkumar, P K; Venkataraman, Krishnan; Vijayalakshmi, M A

    2016-05-01

    Therapeutic antibodies against tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) have been considered effective for some of the autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's diseases, and so on. But associated limitations of the current therapeutics in terms of cost, availability, and immunogenicity have necessitated the need for alternative candidates. Single-chain variable fragment (scFv) can negate the limitations tagged with the anti-TNFα therapeutics to a greater extent. In the present study, Spirodela punctata plants were transformed with anti-TNFα through in planta transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain, EHA105. Instead of cefotaxime, garlic extract (1 mg/mL) was used to remove the agrobacterial cells after cocultivation. To the best of our knowledge, this report shows for the first time the application of plant extracts in transgenic plant development. 95% of the plants survived screening under hygromycin. ScFv cDNA integration in the plant genomic DNA was confirmed at the molecular level by PCR. The transgenic protein expression was followed up to 10 months. Expression of scFv was confirmed by immunodot blot. Protein expression levels of up to 6.3% of total soluble protein were observed. β-Glucuronidase and green fluorescent protein expressions were also detected in the antibiotic resistant plants. The paper shows the generation of transgenic Spirodela punctuata plants through in planta transformation. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Proteomic demonstration of the recurrent presence of inter-alpha-inhibitor H4 heavy-chain during aspergillosis induced in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Jourdan, Marie-Lise; Valera, Lionel; Jardin, Bénédicte; Hem, Sonia; Caille, Agnès; Cormier, Bénédicte; Marchand-Adam, Sylvain; Bailly, Éric; Diot, Patrice; Chandenier, Jacques

    2014-05-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis remains a matter of great concern in oncology/haematology, intensive care units and organ transplantation departments. Despite the availability of various diagnostic tools with attractive features, new markers of infection are required for better medical care. We therefore looked for potential pulmonary biomarkers of aspergillosis, by carrying out two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis comparing the proteomes of bronchial-alveolar lavage fluids (BALF) from infected rats and from control rats presenting non-specific inflammation, both immunocompromised. A bioinformatic analysis of the 2D-maps revealed significant differences in the abundance of 20 protein spots (ANOVA P-value<0.01; q-value<0.03; power>0.8). One of these proteins, identified by mass spectrometry, was considered of potential interest: inter-alpha-inhibitor H4 heavy-chain (ITIH4), characterised for the first time in this infectious context. Western blotting confirmed its overabundance in all infected BALF, particularly at early stages of murine aspergillosis. Further investigations were carried on rat serum, and confirmed that ITIH4 levels increased during experimental aspergillosis. Preliminary results in human samples strengthened this trend. To our knowledge, this is the first description of the involvement of ITIH4 in aspergillosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Digenic mutational inheritance of the integrin alpha 7 and the myosin heavy chain 7B genes causes congenital myopathy with left ventricular non-compact cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Teresa; Sampaolo, Simone; Limongelli, Giuseppe; Varone, Antonio; Formicola, Daniela; Diodato, Daria; Farina, Olimpia; Napolitano, Filomena; Pacileo, Giuseppe; Gianfrancesco, Fernando; Di Iorio, Giuseppe

    2013-06-21

    We report an Italian family in which the proband showed a severe phenotype characterized by the association of congenital fiber type disproportion (CFTD) with a left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy (LVNC). This study was focused on the identification of the responsible gene/s. Using the whole-exome sequencing approach, we identified the proband homozygous missense mutations in two genes, the myosin heavy chain 7B (MYH7B) and the integrin alpha 7 (ITGA7). Both genes are expressed in heart and muscle tissues, and both mutations were predicted to be deleterious and were not found in the healthy population.The R890C mutation in the MYH7B gene segregated with the LVNC phenotype in the examined family. It was also found in one unrelated patient affected by LVNC, confirming a causative role in cardiomyopathy.The E882K mutation in the ITGA7 gene, a key component of the basal lamina of muscle fibers, was found only in the proband, suggesting a role in CFTD. This study identifies two novel disease genes. Mutation in MYH7B causes a classical LVNC phenotype, whereas mutation in ITGA7 causes CFTD. Both phenotypes represent alterations of skeletal and cardiac muscle maturation and are usually not severe. The severe phenotype of the proband is most likely due to a synergic effect of these two mutations.This study provides new insights into the genetics underlying Mendelian traits and demonstrates a role for digenic inheritance in complex phenotypes.

  9. Identification of high-mannose and multiantennary complex-type N-linked glycans containing alpha-galactose epitopes from Nurse shark IgM heavy chain.

    PubMed

    Harvey, David J; Crispin, Max; Moffatt, Beryl E; Smith, Sylvia L; Sim, Robert B; Rudd, Pauline M; Dwek, Raymond A

    2009-11-01

    MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, negative ion nano-electrospray MS/MS and exoglycosidase digestion were used to identify 36 N-linked glycans from 19S IgM heavy chain derived from the nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum). The major glycan was the high-mannose compound, Man(6)GlcNAc(2) accompanied by small amounts of Man(5)GlcNAc(2), Man(7)GlcNAc(2) and Man(8)GlcNAc(2). Bi- and tri-antennary (isomer with a branched 3-antenna) complex-type glycans were also abundant, most contained a bisecting GlcNAc residue (beta1-->4-linked to the central mannose) and with varying numbers of alpha-galactose residues capping the antennae. Small amounts of monosialylated glycans were also found. This appears to be the first comprehensive study of glycosylation in this species of animal. The glycosylation pattern has implications for the mechanism of activation of the complement system by nurse shark IgM.

  10. Ginger extract mitigates ethanol-induced changes of alpha and beta - myosin heavy chain isoforms gene expression and oxidative stress in the heart of male wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Shirpoor, Alireza; Zerehpoosh, Mitra; Ansari, Mohammad Hasan Khadem; Kheradmand, Fatemeh; Rasmi, Yousef

    2017-09-01

    The association between ethanol consumption and heart abnormalities, such as chamber dilation, myocyte damage, ventricular hypertrophy, and hypertension is well known. However, underlying molecular mediators involved in ethanol-induced heart abnormalities remain elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic ethanol exposure on alpha and beta - myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms gene expression transition and oxidative stress in rats' heart. It was also planned to find out whether ginger extract mitigated the abnormalities induced by ethanol in rats' heart. Male wistar rats were divided into three groups of eight animals as follows: Control, ethanol, and ginger extract treated ethanolic (GETE) groups. After six weeks of treatment, the results revealed a significant increase in the β-MHC gene expression, 8- OHdG amount, and NADPH oxidase level. Furthermore, a significant decrease in the ratio of α-MHC/β-MHC gene expression to the amount of paraoxonase enzyme in the ethanol group compared to the control group was found. The consumption of Ginger extract along with ethanol ameliorated the changes in MHC isoforms gene expression and reduced the elevated amount of 8-OHdG and NADPH oxidase. Moreover, compared to the consumption of ethanol alone, it increased the paraoxonase level significantly. These findings indicate that ethanol-induced heart abnormalities may in part be associated with MHC isoforms changes mediated by oxidative stress, and that these effects can be alleviated by using ginger extract as an antioxidant molecule. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A 2 m inelastic x-ray scattering spectrometer at CMC-XOR, Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J. P.; Coburn, D. S.; Kim, Y. J.

    2007-07-01

    The design and commissioning of an inelastic X-ray scattering instrument at CMC-XOR at the Advanced Photon Source is reported. The instrument features a 2 m vertical-scattering arm with a novel counterweight design to reduce the twisting moment as the arm is moved in the scattering plane. A Ge(733) spherical analyzer was fabricated and an overall resolution of 118 meV (FWHM) was obtained with a Si(444) monochromator and a Si(111) pre-monochromator. Early results from a representative cuprate, La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4}, are reported.

  12. Association of cerebrospinal fluid Aβ42 with A2M gene in cognitively normal subjects

    PubMed Central

    Millard, Steven P.; Lutz, Franziska; Li, Ge; Galasko, Douglas R.; Farlow, Martin R.; Quinn, Joseph F.; Kaye, Jeffrey A.; Leverenz, James B.; Tsuang, Debby; Yu, Chang-En; Peskind, Elaine R.; Bekris, Lynn M.

    2013-01-01

    Low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Aβ42 levels correlate with increased brain Aβ deposition in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which suggests a disruption in the degradation and clearance of Aβ from the brain. In addition, APOE ε4 carriers have lower CSF Aβ42 levels than non-carriers. The hypothesis of this investigation was that CSF Aβ42 levels correlate with regulatory region variation in genes that are biologically associated with degradation or clearance of Aβ from the brain. CSF Aβ42 levels were tested for associations with Aβ degradation and clearance genes and APOE ε4. Twenty-four SNPs located within the 5′ and 3′ regions of 12 genes were analyzed. The study sample consisted of 99 AD patients and 168 cognitively normal control subjects. CSF Aβ42 levels were associated with APOE ε4 status in controls but not in AD patients; A2M regulatory region SNPs were also associated with CSF Aβ42 levels in controls, but not in AD patients, even after adjusting for APOE ε4. These results suggest that genetic variation within the A2M gene influences CSF Aβ42 levels. PMID:24011543

  13. Light-induced yellowing of selectively 13C-enriched dehydrogenation polymers (DHPs). Part 1, Side-chain 13C-enriched DHP ([alpha], [beta], and [gamma]-13C)

    Treesearch

    Jim Parkas; Magnus Paulsson; Terashima Noritsugu; Ulla Westermark; Sally Ralph

    2004-01-01

    Light-induced yellowing has been studied using side-chain ([alpha], [beta], and [gamma]) 13C-enriched DHP (dehydrogenation polymer) and quantitative solution state 13C NMR spectroscopy. The DHP was formed from 13C-enriched coniferin using an enzymatic system consisting of [beta]-glucosidase, glucose oxidase, and peroxidase in a pH 6 buffer solution. The DHP was applied...

  14. Linkage of interactions in sickle hemoglobin fiber assembly: inhibitory effect emanating from mutations in the AB region of the alpha-chain is annulled by a mutation at its EF corner.

    PubMed

    Sudha, Rajamani; Anantharaman, Lavanya; Sivaram, Mylavarapu V S; Mirsamadi, Neda; Choudhury, Devapriya; Lohiya, Nirmal K; Gupta, Rasik B; Roy, Rajendra P

    2004-05-07

    The AB and GH regions of the alpha-chain are located in spatial proximity and contain a cluster of intermolecular contact residues of the sickle hemoglobin (HbS) fiber. We have examined the role of dynamics of AB/GH region on HbS polymerization through simultaneous replacement of non-contact Ala(19) and Ala(21) of the AB corner with more flexible Gly or rigid alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) residues. The polymerization behavior of HbS with Aib substitutions was similar to the native HbS. In contrast, Gly substitutions inhibited HbS polymerization. Molecular dynamics simulation studies of alpha-chains indicated that coordinated motion of AB and GH region residues present in native (Ala) as well as in Aib mutant was disrupted in the Gly mutant. The inhibitory effect due to Gly substitutions was further explored in triple mutants that included mutation of an inter-doublestrand contact (alphaAsn(78) --> His or Gln) at the EF corner. Although the inhibitory effect of Gly substitutions in the triple mutant was unaffected in the presence of alphaGln(78), His at this site almost abrogated its inhibitory potential. The polymerization studies of point mutants (alphaGln(78) --> His) indicated that the inhibitory effect due to Gly substitutions in the triple mutant was synergistically compensated for by the polymerization-enhancing activity of His(78). Similar synergistic coupling, between alphaHis(78) and an intra-double-strand contact point (alpha16) mutation located in the AB region, was also observed. Thus, two conclusions are made: (i) Gly mutations at the AB corner inhibit HbS polymerization by perturbing the dynamics of the AB/GH region, and (ii) perturbations of AB region (through changes in dynamics of the AB/GH region or abolition of a specific fiber contact site) that influence HbS polymerization do so in concert with alpha78 site at the EF corner. The overall results provide insights about the interaction-linkage between distant regions of the HbS tetramer in

  15. Pharmacogenetic Study on the Impact of Rivastigmine Concerning Genetic Variants of A2M and IL-6 Genes on Iranian Alzheimer's Patients.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Mahdi; Mohammadi, Masomeh; Zamani, Hamid; Tavasoli, Alireza

    2016-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a polygenic and multifactorial disease with a complex inheritance caused by the formation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. Increasing evidence indicates that many genes including interleukin-6 (IL-6) and alpha 2-macroglobulin (A2M) may contribute to the pathogenesis of AD. The A2M gene encodes α2-macroglobulin which specifically binds with the beta-amyloid peptides and prevents fibril formation. Protein of the IL-6 gene linked to beta-amyloid (βA) aggregation was detected in βA plaques in the brain of AD patients. The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship of the IL-6 and A2M gene polymorphisms with AD and also the impact of rivastigmine on AD patients regarding their genotypes on IL-6 and A2M genes in 150 Iranian AD patients under rivastigmine therapy and 150 matched healthy controls. The results indicated that IL-6 G and C alleles had significant positive and negative association with AD, respectively, (P = 0.0001, relative risks (RR) = 1.39) and frequency of AD patients carrying IL-6 GG genotype was significantly in higher proportion in familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) patients compared to controls (P = 0.02, RR = 2.25), and the IL-6 CC genotype was significantly protective against AD (P = 0.0003, RR = 0.65). Genotype analysis of A2M gene showed a significant positive correlation between A2M AA genotype and the AD patients (sporadic Alzheimer's disease (SAD) and FAD) (P = 0.001, RR = 1.56), proposing it as a possible risk factor for AD. Drug response from pharmacogenetic viewpoint after 3-year follow-up of AD patients and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) analysis demonstrated that AD patients carrying bigenic genotype IL-6 CC-A2M AG (ΔCDR = 4.5) and male patients with IL-6 CC genotype (ΔCDR = 3.83) provided the best response and the A2M GG genotype (ΔCDR = 7.97) and bigenic genotype IL-6 GG-A2M GG (ΔCDR = 8.5) conferred the worst

  16. Preparation of Mirror Coatings for the Vacuum Ultraviolet in a 2-m Evaporator.

    PubMed

    Bradford, A P; Hass, G; Osantowski, J F; Toft, A R

    1969-06-01

    The design and features of a 2-m evaporator suitable for coating large mirrors uniformly with Al + MgF(2) and Al + LiF films of high reflectance in the vacuum uv are described. The techniques used for monitoring film thicknesses during the film deposition and for producing films of uniform thicknesses over large areas are discussed. It is shown that the Al films for MgF(2)_ and LiF-protected mirrors of highest reflectance in the vacuum uv down to 1000 A should be 700-800 A thick. Data on the vacuum uv reflectance of Al coated with MgF(2) films of various thicknesses are presented. It was found that mirror coatings prepared in a large evaporator have a higher reflectance in the vacuum uv than those deposited under the same vacuum and deposition conditions in a small vacuum unit. At lambda = 1216 A, the reflectance of Al overcoated with 250 A of MgF(2) was measured to be about 85%.

  17. Influence of dietary long-chain n-3 fatty acids from menhaden fish oil on plasma concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in geriatric beagles.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jean A; Tooley, Katie A; Gradin, Joseph L; Jewell, Dennis E; Wander, Rosemary C

    2002-01-01

    To determine effects of dietary n-3 fatty acids from Menhaden fish oil on plasma alpha-tocopherol concentrations in Beagles. 32 female Beagles. For 82 days, dogs were fed diets that contained 1 of 2 ratios of n-6:n-3 fatty acids (40:1 [low n-3] and 1.4:1 [high n-3]) and 1 of 3 concentrations of all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (low, 17 mg/kg of diet; medium, 101 mg/kg; and high, 447 mg/kg) in a 2 X 3 factorial study. Diets high in n-3 fatty acids significantly increased total content of n-3 fatty acids in plasma (17.0 g/100 g of fatty acids), compared with low n-3 diets (2.02 g/100 g of fatty acids). Mean +/- SEM plasma concentration of cholesterol was significantly lower in dogs consuming high n-3 diets (4.59 +/- 0.48 mmol/L), compared with dogs consuming low n-3 diets (5.71 +/- 0.48 mmol/L). A significant interaction existed between the ratio for n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and amount of alpha-tocopheryl acetate in the diet (plasma alpha-tocopherol concentration expressed on a molar basis), because the plasma concentration of alpha-toco-pherol was higher in dogs consuming low n-3 diets, compared with those consuming high n-3 diets, at the 2 higher amounts of dietary alpha-tocopheryl acetate. Plasma alpha-tocopherol concentration expressed relative to total lipid content did not reveal effects of dietary n-3 fatty acids on concentration of alpha-tocopherol. Plasma alpha-tocopherol concentration is not dependent on dietary ratio of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids when alpha-tocopherol concentration is expressed relative to the total lipid content of plasma.

  18. CAWSES Related Projects in Japan : Grant-in-Aid for Creative Scientific Research ügBasic Study of Space Weather Predictionüh and CHAIN (Continuous H Alpha Imaging Network)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, K.; Kurokawa, H.

    The Grant-in-Aid for Creative Scientific Research of the Ministry of Education Science Sports Technology and Culture of Japan The Basic Study of Space Weather Prediction PI K Shibata Kyoto Univ has started in 2005 as 5 years projects with total budget 446Myen The purpose of this project is to develop a physical model of solar-terrestrial phenomena and space storms as a basis of space weather prediction by resolving fundamental physics of key phenomena from solar flares and coronal mass ejections to magnetospheric storms under international cooperation program CAWSES Climate and Weather of the Sun-Earth System Continuous H Alpha Imaging Network CHAIN Project led by H Kurokawa is a key project in this space weather study enabling continuous H alpha full Sun observations by connecting many solar telescopes in many countries through internet which provides the basis of the study of space weather prediction

  19. Regulation of the oncodevelopmental expression of type 1 chain ABH and Lewis(b) blood group antigens in human colon by alpha-2-L-fucosylation.

    PubMed Central

    Orntoft, T F; Greenwell, P; Clausen, H; Watkins, W M

    1991-01-01

    Blood group antigen expression in the distal human colon is related to the development of the organ and is modified by malignant transformation. To elucidate the biochemical basis for these changes, we have (a) analysed the activity of glycosyltransferases coded for by the H, Se, Le, X, and A genes, in tissue biopsy specimens from normal and malignant proximal and distal human colon; (b) characterised the glycosphingolipids expressed in the various regions of normal and malignant colon by immunostaining of high performance thin layer chromatography plates; and (c) located the antigens on tissue sections from the same subjects by immunohistochemistry. In both secretors and non-secretors we found a significantly higher activity of alpha-2-L-fucosyltransferases in carcinomatous rectal tissue than in tissue from normal subjects, whereas the other transferase activities studied showed no significant differences. The acceptor substrate specificity suggested that both the Se and the H gene dependent alpha-2-L-fucosyltransferases are increased in carcinomas. In non-malignant tissue the only enzyme which showed appreciably higher activity in caecum than in rectum was alpha-2-L-fucosyltransferase. Immunochemistry and immunohistochemistry showed alpha-2-L-fucosylated structures in normal caecum from secretors and in tumour tissue from both secretors and non-secretors. We conclude that the alpha-2-L-fucosyltransferases control the expression of ABH, and Lewis(b) structures in normal and malignant colon. Images Figure 4 PMID:1826491

  20. Energy-dependent etching-related impacts on CR-39 alpha detection efficiency for the Rn-222 and Rn-220 decay chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Y.; Yuan, H.; Kearfott, K. J.

    2018-04-01

    CR-39 detectors are widely used to measure environmental levels of Rn-222, Rn-220 and their progeny. Prior research reported the CR-39 detection efficiency for alpha particles from Rn-222, Rn-220 and their progeny under a variety of etching conditions. This paper provides an explanation for interesting observations included in that work, namely that the critical incidence angle decreases with the increasing particle energy and the detection efficiency for 8.78 MeV alpha particles is zero. This paper explains these phenomena from a consideration of the interaction of alpha particles with the CR-39 detectors and the physics of etching dynamics. The proposed theory provides a rationale for an approach to optimizing the etching conditions of CR-39 detector for measuring Rn-222, Rn-220 and their progenies.

  1. Effects of prostaglandin F2alpha and latanoprost on phosphoinositide turnover, myosin light chain phosphorylation and contraction in cat iris sphincter.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Habib R; Davis, Angela M; Kaddour-Djebbar, Ismail; Abdel-Latif, Ata A

    2003-06-01

    The effects of the ocular hypotensive agents prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) and its analog latanoprost on intraocular pressure (IOP) in both animals and human have been investigated extensively in the last two decades. While there is general agreement that application of these PGs to the eye alters IOP by altering the aqueous humor outflow of the eye via the uveoscleral and trabecular meshwork pathways, the mechanism of action of these agents on IOP lowering remains unclear. There is evidence which suggests that myosin light kinase (MLC kinase) may be involved in the IOP-lowering effects of these agents. Thus, the purpose of the present work was to investigate in cat iris sphincter the effects of these PGs on the MLC kinase signaling pathway, inositol phosphates production, MLC phosphorylation and contraction, in order to gain more information about the mechanism through which these agents modulate smooth muscle function and lower IOP. [(3)H]myo-inositol phosphates production was measured by ion-exchange chromatography, MLC kinase activity was measured by incorporation of (32)Pi into MLC, and changes in muscle tension were recorded isometrically. PGF(2alpha) and latanoprost induced contraction in a concentration-dependent manner with EC(50) values of 18.6 and 29.9 nM, respectively, and increased inositol phosphates production in a concentration-dependent manner. At 1 microM, PGF(2alpha) and latanoprost increased inositol phosphates formation by 125 and 102% over basal, respectively. PGF(2alpha) and latanoprost increased MLC phosphorylation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, at 1 microM and 5 min incubation, the PGs increased the MLC response by 181 and 176% over basal, respectively. In general, PGF(2alpha) was slightly more potent in inducing the biochemical and pharmacological responses. Wortmannin, ML-7 and ML-9, selective inhibitors of MLC kinase, inhibited significantly PGF(2alpha)- and latanoprost-induced MLC phosphorylation and contraction

  2. Lack of association between alpha2-macroglobulin polymorphisms and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Luedecking, E K; Minster, R L; Ganguli, M; DeKosky, S T; Kamboh, M I

    2001-02-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the role of two alpha2-macroglobulin (A2M) polymorphisms, an intronic 5-bp deletion and Ile1000Val, in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to evaluate the interaction between the apolipoprotein E (APOE) and A2M polymorphisms. The A2M polymorphisms were screened by using polymerase-chain-reaction-based assays in 555 white late-onset AD cases and 446 controls. The gentoype distributions of the 5-bp deletion and Ile1000Val polymorphisms were comparable between cases and controls (P = 0.158 and P = 0.148, respectively). Likewise, there was no significant difference in allele frequencies of each polymorphism among cases and controls (P = 0.361 and P = 0.062, respectively). The stratification of data by APOE*4 status also did not yield any significant association. In conclusion, we observed no association between either the intronic deletion polymorphism or the Ile1000Val polymorphism of A2M and AD in our case-control cohort.

  3. Alpha fetoprotein

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003573.htm Alpha fetoprotein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) is a protein produced by the liver ...

  4. A Novel Alpha Cardiac Actin (ACTC1) Mutation Mapping to a Domain in Close Contact with Myosin Heavy Chain Leads to a Variety of Congenital Heart Defects, Arrhythmia and Possibly Midline Defects.

    PubMed

    Augière, Céline; Mégy, Simon; El Malti, Rajae; Boland, Anne; El Zein, Loubna; Verrier, Bernard; Mégarbané, André; Deleuze, Jean-François; Bouvagnet, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    A Lebanese Maronite family presented with 13 relatives affected by various congenital heart defects (mainly atrial septal defects), conduction tissue anomalies and midline defects. No mutations were found in GATA4 and NKX2-5. A set of 399 poly(AC) markers was used to perform a linkage analysis which peaked at a 2.98 lod score on the long arm of chromosome 15. The haplotype analysis delineated a 7.7 meganucleotides genomic interval which included the alpha-cardiac actin gene (ACTC1) among 36 other protein coding genes. A heterozygous missense mutation was found (c.251T>C, p.(Met84Thr)) in the ACTC1 gene which changed a methionine residue conserved up to yeast. This mutation was absent from 1000 genomes and exome variant server database but segregated perfectly in this family with the affection status. This mutation and 2 other ACTC1 mutations (p.(Glu101Lys) and p.(Met125Val)) which result also in congenital heart defects are located in a region in close apposition to a myosin heavy chain head region by contrast to 3 other alpha-cardiac actin mutations (p.(Ala297Ser),p.(Asp313His) and p.(Arg314His)) which result in diverse cardiomyopathies and are located in a totally different interaction surface. Alpha-cardiac actin mutations lead to congenital heart defects, cardiomyopathies and eventually midline defects. The consequence of an ACTC1 mutation may in part be dependent on the interaction surface between actin and myosin.

  5. A novel anti-alpha-fetoprotein single-chain variable fragment displays anti-tumor effects in HepG2 cells as a single agent or in combination with paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiaonan; Shen, Yanli; Sun, Hao; Gao, Xiangdong

    2016-08-01

    Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has a high rate of tumor recurrence and metastasis, resulting in shortened survival time. The function of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) as a regulatory factor in the growth of HCC cells has been well defined. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of a novel AFP-specific single-chain variable fragment that blocked AFP and inhibited HCC cell growth. The results indicated that the anti-AFP single-chain variable fragment (scFv) induced growth inhibition of AFP-expressing HCC cell lines in vitro through induction of G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The mechanism of apoptosis probably involved with blocking AFP internalization and regulation of the PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling network. Moreover, the anti-AFP-scFv also effectively sensitized the HepG2 cells to paclitaxel (PTX) at a lower concentration. The combination effect of PTX and anti-AFP-scFv displayed a synergistic effect on HepG2 cells both in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrated that targeting AFP by specific antibodies has potential immunotherapeutic efficacy in human HCC.

  6. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors of the lung carrying a chimeric A2M-ALK gene: report of 2 infantile cases and review of the differential diagnosis of infantile pulmonary lesions.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Mio; Kohashi, Kenichi; Kushitani, Kei; Yoshida, Misa; Kurihara, Sho; Kawashima, Masumi; Ueda, Yuka; Souzaki, Ryota; Kinoshita, Yoshiaki; Oda, Yoshinao; Takeshima, Yukio; Hiyama, Eiso; Taguchi, Tomoaki; Tanaka, Yukichi

    2017-08-01

    We report 2 infantile cases of pulmonary tumor carrying a chimeric A2M-ALK gene. A2M-ALK is a newly identified anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-related chimeric gene from a tumor diagnosed as fetal lung interstitial tumor (FLIT). FLIT is a recently recognized infantile pulmonary lesion defined as a mass-like lesion that morphologically resembles the fetal lung. Grossly, FLIT characteristically appears as a well-circumscribed spongy mass, whereas the tumors in these patients were solid and firm. Histologically, the tumors showed intrapulmonary lesions composed of densely proliferating polygonal or spindle-shaped mesenchymal cells with diffuse and dense infiltrations of inflammatory cells forming microcystic or micropapillary structures lined by thyroid transcription factor 1-positive pneumocytes, favoring inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor rather than FLIT. The proliferating cells were immunoreactive for ALK, and A2M-ALK was identified in both tumors with reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The dense infiltration of inflammatory cells, immunoreactivity for ALK, and identification of an ALK-related chimeric gene suggested a diagnosis of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. Histologically, most reported FLITs show sparse inflammatory infiltrates and a relatively low density of interstitial cells in the septa, although prominent infiltration of inflammatory cells and high cellularity of interstitial cells are seen in some FLITs. The present cases suggest that ALK rearrangements, including the chimeric A2M-ALK gene, may be present in these infantile pulmonary lesions, especially those with inflammatory cell infiltration. We propose that these infantile pulmonary lesions containing a chimeric A2M-ALK gene be categorized as a specific type of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor that develops exclusively in neonates and infants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. New members of the A2 M ‧ M2″ structure family (A=Ca, Sr, Yb, La; M ‧ = In , Sn , Pb; M ″ = Si , Ge)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jehle, Michael; Dürr, Ines; Fink, Saskia; Lang, Britta; Langenmaier, Michael; Steckhan, Julia; Röhr, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    The new mixed tetrelides Sr2PbGe2 and Yb2SnGe2, several mixed Ca/Sr (AII) germanides A2II (Sn, Pb)Ge2 and two polymorphs of La2 InSi2 represent new members of the general structure family of ternary alkaline-earth/lanthanoid main group silicides/germanides A2 M ‧ M2″ (M ‧ = In , Sn , Pb ; M ″ = Si , Ge). All compounds were synthesized from melts of the elements and their crystal structures have been determined by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction. Sr2PbGe2 (Cmmm, a=402.36(11), b=1542.3(4), c=463.27(10) pm) crystallizes with the Mn2AlB2 -type structure. In exhibiting infinite planar Ge zig-zag chains, it represents one border of the compound series. The other borderline case, where only [Ge2 ] dumbbells are left as Ge building units, is represented by the Ca/Yb tin germanides Ca2SnGe2 and Yb2SnGe2 (Mo2FeB2 -type; P4/mbm, a=748.58(13)/740.27(7), c=445.59(8)/435.26(5) pm). In between these two border structures compounds with variable Si/Ge chain lengths could be obtained by varying the averaged size of the AII cations: Ca0.45Sr1.55PbGe2 (new structure type; Pbam, a=791.64(5), b=2311.2(2), c=458.53(3) pm) contains planar six-membered chain segments [Ge6 ]. Tetrameric pieces [Ge4 ] are the conspicuous structure elements in Ca1.16Sr0.84SnGe2 and La2 InSi2 (La2InNi2 -type; Pbam, a=781.01(2)/762.01(13), b=1477.95(3)/1494.38(6), c=457.004(9)/442.1(3) pm). The tetragonal form of 'La2 In Si2‧ (exact composition: La2In1.07Si1.93, P4/mbm, a=1309.11(12), c=443.32(4) pm) also crystallizes in a new structure type, containing only [Si3 ] trimers as cutouts of the planar chains. In all structures the Si/Ge zig-zag chains/chain segments are connected by In/Sn/Pb atoms to form planar M layers, which are separated by pure A layers. Band structure calculations within the FP-LAPW DFT approach together with the Zintl formalism, extended by the presence of hypervalent bonding of the heavier M ‧ elements, give insight into the chemical bonding of this series of p

  8. Maple syrup urine disease: The E1{beta} gene of human branched-chain {alpha}-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex has 11 rather than 10 exons, and the 3{prime} UTR in one of the two E1{beta} mRNAs arises from intronic sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, J.L.; Chuang, D.T.; Cox, R.P.

    1996-06-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) or branched-chain ketoaciduria is caused by a deficiency in the mitochondrial branched-chain {alpha}-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKAD) complex. The clinical manifestations are characterized by accumulation of branched chain amino and {alpha}-ketoacids, which leads to severe cerebral edema with seizures, ketoacidosis, and mental retardation. The BCKAD complex comprises three catalytic components, i.e., a decarboxylase (E1) consisting of two E1{alpha} (M{sub r} = 46,000) and two E1{Beta} (M{sub r} = 37,500) subunits, a transacylase (E2) that contains 24 lipoic acid-bearing subunits, and a dehydrogenase (E3), which is a homodimeric flavoprotein. MSUD is genetically heterogeneous, since mutations in the E1{alpha}more » subunit (type IA MSUD), the E1{Beta} subunit (type IB), the E2 subunit (type II) and the E3 subunit (type III) have been described. The functional consequences of certain mutations in the BCKAD complex have been studied. 23 refs., 3 figs.« less

  9. A complex of serine protease genes expressed preferentially in cytotoxic T-lymphocytes is closely linked to the T-cell receptor alpha- and delta-chain genes on mouse chromosome 14.

    PubMed

    Crosby, J L; Bleackley, R C; Nadeau, J H

    1990-02-01

    A complex of genes encoding serine proteases that are preferentially expressed in cytotoxic T-cells was shown to be closely linked to the T-cell receptor alpha- and delta-chain genes on mouse chromosome 14. A striking difference in recombination frequencies among linkage crosses was reported. Two genes, Np-1 and Tcra, which fail to recombine in crosses involving conventional strains of mice, were shown to recombine readily in interspecific crosses involving Mus spretus. This difference in recombination frequency suggests chromosomal rearrangements that suppress recombination in conventional crosses, recombination hot spots in interspecific crosses, or selection against recombinant haplotypes during development of recombinant inbred strains. Finally, a mutation called disorganization, which is located near the serine protease complex, is of considerable interest because it causes an extraordinarily wide variety of congenital defects. Because of the involvement of serine protease loci in several homeotic mutations in Drosophila, disorganization must be considered a candidate for a mutation in a serine protease-encoding gene.

  10. Bilinear forms and soliton solutions for a fourth-order variable-coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation in an inhomogeneous Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin chain or an alpha helical protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jin-Wei; Gao, Yi-Tian; Wang, Qi-Min; Su, Chuan-Qi; Feng, Yu-Jie; Yu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a fourth-order variable-coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation is studied, which might describe a one-dimensional continuum anisotropic Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin chain with the octuple-dipole interaction or an alpha helical protein with higher-order excitations and interactions under continuum approximation. With the aid of auxiliary function, we derive the bilinear forms and corresponding constraints on the variable coefficients. Via the symbolic computation, we obtain the Lax pair, infinitely many conservation laws, one-, two- and three-soliton solutions. We discuss the influence of the variable coefficients on the solitons. With different choices of the variable coefficients, we obtain the parabolic, cubic, and periodic solitons, respectively. We analyse the head-on and overtaking interactions between/among the two and three solitons. Interactions between a bound state and a single soliton are displayed with different choices of variable coefficients. We also derive the quasi-periodic formulae for the three cases of the bound states.

  11. The monoclonal antibody that recognizes an epitope in the C-terminal region of the fibrinogen alpha-chain reacts with soluble fibrin and fibrin monomer generated by thrombin but not with those formed as plasmin degradation products.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Akiko; Ebinuma, Hiroyuki; Matsuo, Masanao; Miyazaki, Osamu; Yago, Hirokazu

    2007-01-01

    The presence of soluble fibrin (SF) provides evidence of thrombin activation in the blood; therefore, SF is a useful marker for diagnosing blood coagulation diseases such as disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). The antibody that specifically detects SF could be a useful tool for diagnosing thrombotic diseases. By using an acid-solubilized desAA-FM (fibrin monomer) as an immunogen, we developed a monoclonal antibody, namely J2-23, which specifically reacts with SF and FM. We examined the specificity of J2-23 by ELISA and immunoblotting and confirmed the reactivity of J2-23 with SF and FM by gel filtration. J2-23 specifically reacted with SF, but not with fibrinogen or plasmic fibrinogen-derived Fbg-X, Fbg-Y, Fbg-E, and D; thrombin-treated Fbn-X, Fbn-Y, and Fbn-E; and plasmic cross-linked fibrin (DD, XDP). The epitope recognized by J2-23 was located within the Aalpha 502-521 region on the C-terminal of the fibrinogen alpha-chain. The reactivity of J2-23 disappeared following the action of the fibrinolytic enzyme plasmin. Furthermore, J2-23 reacted not only with SF but also with FM in plasma from DIC patients. This indicated that J2-23 specifically detected coagulation without reflecting the plasmin action. We demonstrated the potential of J2-23 as a useful antibody for detecting SF for diagnosing blood coagulation.

  12. Alpha-2 macroglobulin is genetically associated with Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Blacker, D; Wilcox, M A; Laird, N M; Rodes, L; Horvath, S M; Go, R C; Perry, R; Watson, B; Bassett, S S; McInnis, M G; Albert, M S; Hyman, B T; Tanzi, R E

    1998-08-01

    Alpha-2-macroglobulin (alpha-2M; encoded by the gene A2M) is a serum pan-protease inhibitor that has been implicated in Alzheimer disease (AD) based on its ability to mediate the clearance and degradation of A beta, the major component of beta-amyloid deposits. Analysis of a deletion in the A2M gene at the 5' splice site of 'exon II' of the bait region (exon 18) revealed that inheritance of the deletion (A2M-2) confers increased risk for AD (Mantel-Haenzel odds ratio=3.56, P=0.001). The sibship disequilibrium test (SDT) also revealed a significant association between A2M and AD (P=0.00009). These values were comparable to those obtained for the APOE-epsilon4 allele in the same sample, but in contrast to APOE-epsilon4, A2M-2 did not affect age of onset. The observed association of A2M with AD did not appear to account for the previously published linkage of AD to chromosome 12, which we were unable to confirm in this sample. A2M, LRP1 (encoding the alpha-2M receptor) and the genes for two other LRP ligands, APOE and APP (encoding the amyloid beta-protein precursor), have now all been genetically linked to AD, suggesting that these proteins may participate in a common neuropathogenic pathway leading to AD.

  13. Mycobacterium leprae specific genomic target in the promoter region of probable 4-alpha-glucanotransferase (ML1545) gene with potential sensitivity for polymerase chain reaction based diagnosis of leprosy.

    PubMed

    Sundeep Chaitanya, V; Das, Madhusmita; Eisenbach, Tiffany L; Amoako, Angela; Rajan, Lakshmi; Horo, Ilse; Ebenezer, Mannam

    2016-06-01

    With the absence of an effective diagnostic tool for leprosy, cases with negative bacteriological index and limited clinical manifestations often pose diagnostic challenges. In this study, we investigated the utility of a novel Mycobacterium leprae specific 112-bp DNA sequence in the promoter region of probable 4-alpha-glucanotransferase (pseudogene, ML1545) for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based diagnosis of leprosy in comparison to that of the RLEP gene. DNA was extracted from slit skin scrapings of 180 newly diagnosed untreated leprosy cases that were classified as per Ridley Jopling classifications and bacteriological index (BI). Primers were designed using Primer Blast 3.0 and PCR was performed with annealing temperatures of 61°C for ML1545 and 58°C for the RLEP gene using conventional gradient PCR. The results indicated a significant increase in PCR positivity of ML1545 when compared to RLEP across the study groups (164/180 [91.11%] were positive for ML1545 whereas 114/180 (63.33%) were positive for RLEP [p<.0001, z=6.3]). Among 58 leprosy cases with negative BI, 28 (48.28%) were positive for RLEP and 48 (82.76%) were positive for ML1545 (p=.0001, z=3.8). Of the 42 borderline tuberculoid leprosy cases, 23 (54.76%) were positive for RLEP whereas 37 (88.09%) were positive for ML1545 (p<.0001, z=3.9). Increase in PCR positivity for ML1545 was also noted in lepromatous leprosy and BI-positive groups. ML1545 can be a potential gene target for PCR-based diagnosis of leprosy especially in cases where clinical manifestations were minimal. Copyright © 2016 Asian-African Society for Mycobacteriology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Soluble stem cell factor receptor (CD117) and IL-2 receptor alpha chain (CD25) levels in the plasma of patients with mastocytosis: relationships to disease severity and bone marrow pathology.

    PubMed

    Akin, C; Schwartz, L B; Kitoh, T; Obayashi, H; Worobec, A S; Scott, L M; Metcalfe, D D

    2000-08-15

    Systemic mastocytosis is a disease of mast cell proliferation that may be associated with hematologic disorders. There are no features on examination that allow the diagnosis of systemic disease, and mast cell-derived mediators, which may be elevated in urine or blood, may also be elevated in individuals with severe allergic disorders. Thus, the diagnosis usually depends on results of bone marrow biopsy. To facilitate evaluation, surrogate markers of the extent and severity of the disease are needed. Because of the association of mastocytosis with hematologic disease, plasma levels were measured for soluble KIT (sKIT) and soluble interleukin-2 receptor alpha chain (sCD25), which are known to be cleaved in part from the mast cell surface and are elevated in some hematologic malignancies. Results revealed that levels of both soluble receptors are increased in systemic mastocytosis. Median plasma sKIT concentrations as expressed by AU/mL (1 AU = 1.4 ng/mL) were as follows: controls, 176 (n = 60); urticaria pigmentosa without systemic involvement, 194 (n = 8); systemic indolent mastocytosis, 511 (n = 30); systemic mastocytosis with an associated hematologic disorder, 1320 (n = 7); aggressive mastocytosis, 3390 (n = 3). Plasma sCD25 levels were elevated in systemic mastocytosis; the highest levels were associated with extensive bone marrow involvement. Levels of sKIT correlated with total tryptase levels, sCD25 levels, and bone marrow pathology. These results demonstrate that sKIT and sCD25 are useful surrogate markers of disease severity in patients with mastocytosis and should aid in diagnosis, in the selection of those needing a bone marrow biopsy, and in the documentation of disease progression. (Blood. 2000;96:1267-1273)

  15. Salicylic acid binding of mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase E2 affects mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and electron transport chain components and plays a role in basal defense against tobacco mosaic virus in tomato.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yangwenke; Tian, Miaoying; Zhang, Huan; Li, Xin; Wang, Yu; Xia, Xiaojian; Zhou, Jie; Zhou, Yanhong; Yu, Jingquan; Shi, Kai; Klessig, Daniel F

    2015-02-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays a critical role in plant defense against pathogen invasion. SA-induced viral defense in plants is distinct from the pathways mediating bacterial and fungal defense and involves a specific pathway mediated by mitochondria; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. The SA-binding activity of the recombinant tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (Slα-kGDH) E2 subunit of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was characterized. The biological role of this binding in plant defenses against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) was further investigated via Slα-kGDH E2 silencing and transient overexpression in plants. Slα-kGDH E2 was found to bind SA in two independent assays. SA treatment, as well as Slα-kGDH E2 silencing, increased resistance to TMV. SA did not further enhance TMV defense in Slα-kGDH E2-silenced tomato plants but did reduce TMV susceptibility in Nicotiana benthamiana plants transiently overexpressing Slα-kGDH E2. Furthermore, Slα-kGDH E2-silencing-induced TMV resistance was fully blocked by bongkrekic acid application and alternative oxidase 1a silencing. These results indicated that binding by Slα-kGDH E2 of SA acts upstream of and affects the mitochondrial electron transport chain, which plays an important role in basal defense against TMV. The findings of this study help to elucidate the mechanisms of SA-induced viral defense. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Contribution of alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) Collagen IV to the Mechanical Properties of the Glomerular Basement Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyoneva, Lazarina

    The glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is a vital part of the blood-urine filtration barrier in the kidneys. In healthy GBMs, the main tension-resisting component is alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) type IV collagen, but in some diseases it is replaced by other collagen IV isoforms. As a result, the GBM becomes leaky and disorganized, ultimately resulting in kidney failure. Our goal is to understanding the biomechanical aspects of the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) chains and how their absence could be responsible for (1) the initial injury to the GBM and (2) progression to kidney failure. A combination of experiments and computational models were designed for that purpose. A model basement membrane was used to compare experimentally the distensibility of tissues with the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) chains present and missing. The experiments showed basement membranes containing alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) chains were less distensible. It has been postulated that the higher level of lateral cross-linking (supercoiling) in the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) networks contributes additional strength/stability to basement membranes. In a computational model of supercoiled networks, we found that supercoiling greatly increased the stiffness of collagen IV networks but only minimally decreased the permeability, which is well suited for the needs of the GBM. It is also known that the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) networks are more protected from enzymatic degradation, and we explored their significance in GBM remodeling. Our simulations showed that the more protected network was needed to prevent the system from entering a dangerous feedback cycle due to autoregulation mechanisms in the kidneys. Overall, the work adds to the evidence of biomechanical differences between the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) networks and other collagen IV networks, points to supercoiling as the main source of biomechanical differences, discusses the suitability of alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha

  17. Localization of type IV collagen a 1 to a 6 chains in basement membrane during mouse molar germ development.

    PubMed

    Nagai, N; Nakano, K; Sado, Y; Naito, I; Gunduz, M; Tsujigiwa, H; Nagatsuka, H; Ninomiya, Y; Siar, C H

    2001-10-01

    The dental basement membrane (BM) putatively mediates epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during tooth morphogenesis and cytodifferentiation. Type IV collagen alpha chains, a major network-forming protein of the dental BM, was studied and results disclosed distinct expression patterns at different stages of mouse molar germ development. At the dental placode and bud stage, the BM of the oral epithelium expressed alpha 1, alpha 2, alpha 5 and alpha 6 chains while the gubernaculum dentis, in addition to the above four chains, also expressed a 4 chain. An asymmetrical expression for alpha 4, alpha 5 and alpha 6 chains was observed at the bud stage. At the early bell stage, the BM associated with the inner enamel epithelium (IEE) of molar germ expressed alpha 1, alpha 2 and alpha 4 chains while the BM of the outer enamel epithelium (OEE) expressed only alpha 1 and a 2 chains. With the onset of dentinogenesis, the collagen a chain profile of the IEE BM gradually disappeared. Howeverfrom the early to late bell stage, the gubernaculum dentis consistently expressed alpha 1, alpha 2, alpha 5 and a 6 chains resembling fetal oral mucosa. These findings suggest that stage- and position-specific distribution of type IV collagen alpha subunits occur during molar germ development and that these changes are essential for molar morphogenesis and cytodifferentiation.

  18. Synthesis of 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha,25-tetrahydroxy-5 beta-cholestan-24-one, an intermediate in the 25-hydroxylation pathway of cholic acid biosynthesis from cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Dayal, B; Tint, G S; Batta, A K; Shefer, S; Salen, G; Bose, A K; Pramanik, B N

    1983-02-01

    This paper describes the chemical synthesis of 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha,25-tetrahydroxy-5 beta-cholestan-24-one via selective oxidation of 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha, 24 xi,25-pentol with silver carbonate on celite. The structure of this 24-keto bile alcohol was confirmed by gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Synthesis of this compound via pyridinium chlorochromate oxidation of the triacetoxy derivative of 5 beta-cholestane-3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha,24 xi,25-pentol followed by saponification further established its structure. 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha,25-Tetrahydroxy-5 beta-cholestan-24-one was required for the in vivo and in vitro studies of side-chain oxidation and cleavage in the 25-hydroxylation pathway of cholic acid biosynthesis.

  19. Giant thermally-enhanced electrostriction and polar surface phase in L a2M o2O9 oxygen ion conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qian; Lu, Teng; Schiemer, Jason; Laanait, Nouamane; Balke, Nina; Zhang, Zhan; Ren, Yang; Carpenter, Michael A.; Wen, Haidan; Li, Jiangyu; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Liu, Yun

    2018-04-01

    Ferroelectrics possess spontaneous electric polarization at macroscopic scales which nonetheless imposes strict limitations on the material classes. Recent discoveries of untraditional symmetry-breaking phenomena in reduced material dimensions have indicated feasibilities to extend polar properties to broader types of materials, potentially opening up the freedom for designing materials with hybrid functionalities. Here, we report the unusual electromechanical properties of L a2M o2O9 (LAMOX) oxygen ion conductors, systematically investigated at both bulk and surface length levels. We first observed giant electrostriction effects in L a2M o2O9 bulk ceramics that are thermally enhanced in concert with their low-energy oxygen-vacancy hopping dynamics. Moreover, while no clear bulk polarization was detected, the surface phases of LAMOX were found to be manifestly polar, likely originating from the coupling between the intrinsic structural flexibilities with strain gradients (i.e., flexoelectricity) and/or chemical heterogeneities present in the materials. These findings identify L a2M o2O9 as a promising electromechanical material system and suggest that the flexible structural and chemical configurations in ionically active materials could enable fundamentally different venues to accommodate electric polarization.

  20. Primary structure of the hemoglobin beta-chain of rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri).

    PubMed

    Islam, A; Persson, B; Zaidi, Z H; Jörnvall, H

    1989-08-01

    The primary structure of Rose-ringed Parakeet hemoglobin beta-chain was established, completing the analysis of this hemoglobin. Comparison with other avian beta-chains show variations smaller than those for the corresponding alpha-chains. There are 11 amino acid exchanges in relationship to the only other characterized psittaciform beta-chain, and a total of 35 positions are affected by differences among all avian beta-chains analyzed (versus 61 for the alpha-chains). At three positions, the Psittacula beta-chain has residues unique to this species. Three alpha 1 beta 1 contacts are modified, by substitutions at positions beta 51, beta 116, and beta 125.

  1. Stromal laminin chain distribution in normal, hyperplastic and malignant oral mucosa: relation to myofibroblast occurrence and vessel formation.

    PubMed

    Franz, Marcus; Wolheim, Anke; Richter, Petra; Umbreit, Claudia; Dahse, Regine; Driemel, Oliver; Hyckel, Peter; Virtanen, Ismo; Kosmehl, Hartwig; Berndt, Alexander

    2010-04-01

    The contribution of stromal laminin chain expression to malignant potential, tumour stroma reorganization and vessel formation in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is not fully understood. Therefore, the expression of the laminin chains alpha2, alpha3, alpha4, alpha5 and gamma2 in the stromal compartment/vascular structures in OSCC was analysed. Frozen tissue of OSCC (9x G1, 24x G2, 8x G3) and normal (2x)/hyperplastic (11x) oral mucosa was subjected to laminin chain and alpha-smooth muscle actin (ASMA) immunohistochemistry. Results were correlated to tumour grade. The relation of laminin chain positive vessels to total vessel number was assessed by immunofluorescence double labelling with CD31. Stromal laminin alpha2 chain significantly decreases and alpha3, alpha4, alpha5 and gamma2 chains and also ASMA significantly increase with rising grade. The amount of stromal alpha3, alpha4 and gamma2 chains significantly increased with rising ASMA positivity. There is a significant decrease in alpha3 chain positive vessels with neoplastic transformation. Mediated by myofibroblasts, OSCC development is associated with a stromal up-regulation of laminin isoforms possibly contributing to a migration promoting microenvironment. A vascular basement membrane reorganization concerning alpha3 and gamma2 chain laminins during tumour angioneogenesis is suggested.

  2. Two assays for measuring fibrosis: reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction of collagen alpha(1) (III) mRNA is an early predictor of subsequent collagen deposition while a novel serum N-terminal procollagen (III) propeptide assay reflects manifest fibrosis in carbon tetrachloride-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Kauschke, S G; Knorr, A; Heke, M; Kohlmeyer, J; Schauer, M; Theiss, G; Waehler, R; Burchardt, E R

    1999-11-15

    Using a novel quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay, we have determined the amount of specific mRNA for procollagen alpha(1) (III) (PIIIP) in the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) model of liver fibrosis in rats. After a single week of CCl(4) application, the amount of PIIIP mRNA was increased approximately 10 times over the untreated control group and continued to increase to approximately 30 times after 7 weeks of intoxication. In this model substantial fibrosis was demonstrated by computer-aided morphometry after 5 to 7 weeks of treatment. Using recombinant murine N-terminal procollagen alpha(1) (III) propeptide (PIIINP), a novel sensitive immunoassay for the measurement of circulating PIIINP in rodent sera was established. An increase in PIIINP serum levels was observed after 5 to 7 weeks of CCl(4) intoxication. Our results suggest PIIIP gene expression is an early marker of tissue fibrosis. Early PIIIP gene expression is correlated with the extent of the subsequent fibrosis. PIIIP mRNA levels increase much earlier than conventional histological examination or PIIINP levels. PIIINP measurements with our new serum assay, on the other hand, are a good noninvasive marker of manifest fibrosis but are a poor marker of fibrogenesis. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  3. alpha-Hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    alpha - Hexachlorocyclohexane ( alpha - HCH ) ; CASRN 319 - 84 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Ass

  4. Amino acid substitutions of conserved residues in the carboxyl-terminal domain of the [alpha]I(X) chain of type X collagen occur in two unrelated families with metaphyseal chondrodysplasia type Schmid

    SciTech Connect

    Wallis, G.A.; Rash, B.; Sweetman, W.A.

    1994-02-01

    Type X collagen is a homotrimeric, short-chain, nonfibrillar extracellular-matrix component that is specifically and transiently synthesized by hypertrophic chondrocytes at the site of endochondral ossification. The precise function of type X collagen is not known, but its specific pattern of expression suggests that mutations within the encoding gene (COL10A1) that alter the structure or synthesis of the protein may cause heritable forms of chondrodysplasia. The authors used the PCR and the SSCP techniques to analyze the coding and upstream promoter regions of the COL10A1 gene in a number of individuals with forms of chondrodysplasia. Using this approach, they identified twomore » individuals with metaphyseal chondrodysplasia type Schmid (MCDS) with SSCP changes in the region of the gene encoding the carboxyl-terminal domain. Sequence analysis demonstrated that the individuals were heterozygous for two unique single-base-pair transitions that led to the substitution of the highly conserved amino acid residue tyrosine at position 598 by aspartic acid in one person and of leucine at position 614 by proline in the other. The substitution at residue 598 segregated with the phenotype in a family of eight (five affected and three unaffected) related persons. The substitutions at residue 614 occurred in a sporadically affected individual but not in her unaffected mother and brother. Additional members of this family were not available for further study. These results suggest that certain amino acid substitutions within the carboxyl-terminal domain of the chains of the type X collagen molecule cause MCDS. These amino acid substitutions are likely to alter either chain recognition or assembly of the type X collagen molecule, thereby depleting the amount of normal type X collagen deposited in the extracellular matrix, with consequent aberrations in bone growth and development. 36 refs., 5 figs.« less

  5. Discovery, structural characterization and functional analysis of alpha-2-macroglobulin, a novel immune-related molecule from Holothuria atra.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jing; Ren, Chunhua; Xia, Jianjun; Chen, Ting; Yu, Zonghe; Hu, Chaoqun

    2016-07-10

    The non-specific protease inhibitor alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M) is a key macromolecular glycoprotein that involved in host immune defense against pathogens in vertebrates and invertebrates. However, no research regarding A2M has been developed in echinoderms to date. In this study, the full-length cDNA of A2M was cloned from the sea cucumber (Holothuria atra), which is a tropical species widely distributed along the coasts of the South China Sea and designated HaA2M. HaA2M possesses all three conserved functional domains of known A2M proteins, including the bait region domain, thioester domain and receptor-binding domain. Compared to fish and shrimp A2Ms, the histidine residue from the catalytical regions is well conserved in HaA2M. HaA2M mRNA was predominantly expressed in coelomocytes and, to a lesser extent, in the body wall, intestine and respiratory tree. A2M activity was detected in the coelomic fluids of H. atra. The mRNA expression and activity levels were investigated in the major immune tissues and coelomic fluids of H. atra after challenge with inactivated Vibrio alginolyticus or polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid [Poly (I: C)]. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of HaA2M resulted in a significant reduction of HaA2M gene transcript level (86%). RNAi-mediated silencing of HaA2M gene significantly decreased the A2M activity (38%) and increased the number of viable bacteria (2.8-fold) in the coelomic fluids of H. atra infected by V. alginolyticus. Our study, as a whole, supplied the evidences for HaA2M as an immune-relevant molecule and it might have multiple functions in the innate immune system of H. atra. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of low electric fields on alpha scintillation light yield in liquid argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnes, P.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Alexander, T.; Alton, A. K.; Asner, D. M.; Back, H. O.; Baldin, B.; Biery, K.; Bocci, V.; Bonfini, G.; Bonivento, W.; Bossa, M.; Bottino, B.; Brigatti, A.; Brodsky, J.; Budano, F.; Bussino, S.; Cadeddu, M.; Cadoni, M.; Calaprice, F.; Canci, N.; Candela, A.; Caravati, M.; Cariello, M.; Carlini, M.; Catalanotti, S.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Cicalò, C.; Cocco, A. G.; Covone, G.; D'Angelo, D.; D'Incecco, M.; Davini, S.; De Cecco, S.; De Deo, M.; De Vincenzi, M.; Derbin, A.; Devoto, A.; Di Eusanio, F.; Di Pietro, G.; Dionisi, C.; Edkins, E.; Empl, A.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Fomenko, K.; Forster, G.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Giagu, S.; Giganti, C.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goretti, A. M.; Granato, F.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M.; Guardincerri, Y.; Hackett, B. R.; Herner, K.; Hughes, D.; Humble, P.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ianni, A.; James, I.; Johnson, T. N.; Jollet, C.; Keeter, K.; Kendziora, C. L.; Koh, G.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kubankin, A.; Li, X.; Lissia, M.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, P.; Longo, G.; Ma, Y.; Machulin, I. N.; Mandarano, A.; Mari, S. M.; Maricic, J.; Marini, L.; Martoff, C. J.; Meregaglia, A.; Meyers, P. D.; Milincic, R.; Miller, J. D.; Montanari, D.; Monte, A.; Mount, B. J.; Muratova, V. N.; Musico, P.; Napolitano, J.; Navrer Agasson, A.; Odrowski, S.; Oleinik, A.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Parmeggiano, S.; Pelczar, K.; Pelliccia, N.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Pugachev, D. A.; Qian, H.; Randle, K.; Ranucci, G.; Razeti, M.; Razeto, A.; Reinhold, B.; Renshaw, A. L.; Rescigno, M.; Riffard, Q.; Romani, A.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Rountree, D.; Sablone, D.; Saggese, P.; Sands, W.; Savarese, C.; Schlitzer, B.; Segreto, E.; Semenov, D. A.; Shields, E.; Singh, P. N.; Skorokhvatov, M. D.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Stanford, C.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Tatarowicz, J.; Testera, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Trinchese, P.; Unzhakov, E. V.; Verducci, M.; Vishneva, A.; Vogelaar, B.; Wada, M.; Walker, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Watson, A. W.; Westerdale, S.; Wilhelmi, J.; Wojcik, M. M.; Xiang, X.; Xiao, X.; Xu, J.; Yang, C.; Zhong, W.; Zhu, C.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-01-01

    Measurements were made of scintillation light yield of alpha particles from the 222Rn decay chain within the DarkSide-50 liquid argon time projection chamber. The light yield was found to increase as the applied electric field increased, with alphas in a 200 V/cm electric field exhibiting a ~2% increase in light yield compared to alphas in no field.

  7. Identification of a major continuous epitope of human alpha crystallin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takemoto, L.; Emmons, T.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Human lens proteins were digested with trypsin or V8 protease, and the resulting peptides resolved on a C18 reverse phase column. Fractions from this column were probed with polyclonal antiserum made against the whole alpha crystallin molecule. Peptides in the seropositive fraction were purified to homogeneity, then characterized by mass spectral analysis and partial Edman degradation. The tryptic and V8 digests contained only one seropositive peptide that was derived from the C-terminal region of the alpha-A molecule. To determine the exact boundaries of the epitope, various size analogues of this region were synthesized and probed with anti-alpha serum. Together, these studies demonstrate that the major continuous epitope of the alpha-A chain includes the sequence KPTSAPS, corresponding to residues 166-172 of the human alpha-A crystallin chain.

  8. The Alpha Centauri System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderblom, David R.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the Alpha Centauri star system, which is the closest star system to the sun. Discusses the difficulties associated with measurements involving Alpha Centauri, along with some of the recent advances in stellar seismology. Raises questions about the possibilities of planets around Alpha Centauri. (TW)

  9. Conformationally constrained dipeptide surrogates with aromatic side-chains: synthesis of 4-aryl indolizidin-9-one amino acids by conjugate addition to a common alpha,omega-diaminoazelate enone intermediate.

    PubMed

    Cluzeau, Jérôme; Lubell, William D

    2004-03-05

    Four methyl 9-oxo-8-(N-(Boc)-amino)-4-phenyl-1-azabicyclo[4.3.0]nonane carboxylates (11, 4-Ph-I(9)aa-OMe) were synthesized from (2S,8S,5E)-di-tert-butyl-4-oxo-5-ene-2,8-bis[N-(PhF)amino]azelate [(5E)-7, PhF = 9-(9-phenylfluorenyl)] via a seven-step process featuring a conjugate addition/reductive amination/lactam cyclization sequence. Various nucleophiles were used in the conjugate addition reactions on enone (5E)-7 as a general route for making alpha,omega-diaminoazelates possessing different substituents in good yield albeit low diastereoselectivity except in the case of aryl Grignard reagents (9/1 to 15/1 drs). 6-Phenylazelates (6S)-8d and (6R)-8d were separated by chromatography and diastereoselective precipitation and independently transformed into 4-Ph-I(9)aa-OMe. From (6S)-8d, (2S,4R,6R,8S)-4-Ph-I(9)aa-OMe 11 was prepared selectively in 51% yield. Reductive amination of (6R)-8d provided the desired pipecolates 9 along with desamino compound 10, which was minimized by performing the hydrogenation in the presence of ammonium acetate. Subsequent ester exchange, lactam cyclization, and amine protection provided three products (2R,4S,6S,8R)-, (2R,4S,6S,8S)-, and (2S,4S,6R,8S)-4-Ph-I(9)aa-OMe 11 in 10, 6, and 6% yields, respectively, from (6R)-8d. Ester hydrolysis of (2S,4R,6R,8S)-11 furnished 4-phenyl indolizidin-9-one N-(Boc)amino acid 3 as a novel constrained Ala-Phe dipeptide surrogate for studying conformation-activity relationships of biologically active peptides.

  10. Increased cardiac alpha-myosin heavy chain in left atria and decreased myocardial insulin-like growth factor (Igf-I) expression accompany low heart rate in hibernating grizzly bears.

    PubMed

    Barrows, N D; Nelson, O L; Robbins, C T; Rourke, B C

    2011-01-01

    Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) tolerate extended periods of extremely low heart rate during hibernation without developing congestive heart failure or cardiac chamber dilation. Left ventricular atrophy and decreased left ventricular compliance have been reported in this species during hibernation. We evaluated the myocardial response to significantly reduced heart rate during hibernation by measuring relative myosin heavy-chain (MyHC) isoform expression and expression of a set of genes important to muscle plasticity and mass regulation in the left atria and left ventricles of active and hibernating bears. We supplemented these data with measurements of systolic and diastolic function via echocardiography in unanesthetized grizzly bears. Atrial strain imaging revealed decreased atrial contractility, decreased expansion/reservoir function (increased atrial stiffness), and decreased passive-filling function (increased ventricular stiffness) in hibernating bears. Relative MyHC-α protein expression increased significantly in the atrium during hibernation. The left ventricle expressed 100% MyHC-β protein in both groups. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) mRNA expression was reduced by ∼50% in both chambers during hibernation, consistent with the ventricular atrophy observed in these bears. Interestingly, mRNA expression of the atrophy-related ubiquitin ligases Muscle Atrophy F-box (MAFBx) and Muscle Ring Finger 1 did not increase, nor did expression of myostatin or hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α). We report atrium-specific decreases of 40% and 50%, respectively, in MAFBx and creatine kinase mRNA expression during hibernation. Decreased creatine kinase expression is consistent with lowered energy requirements and could relate to reduced atrial emptying function during hibernation. Taken together with our hemodynamic assessment, these data suggest a potential downregulation of atrial chamber function during hibernation to prevent fatigue and dilation

  11. Identification of functional domains within the alpha and beta subunits of beta-hexosaminidase A through the expression of alpha-beta fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Tse, R; Wu, Y J; Vavougios, G; Hou, Y; Hinek, A; Mahuran, D J

    1996-08-20

    There are three human beta-hexosaminidase isozymes which are composed of all possible dimeric combinations of an alpha and/or a beta subunit; A (alpha beta), and B (beta beta), and S (alpha alpha). The amino acid sequences of the two subunits are 60% identical. The homology between the two chains varies with the middle > the carboxy-terminal > > the amino-terminal portions. Although dimerization is required for activity, each subunit contains its own active site and differs in its substrate specificity and thermal stability. The presence of the beta subunit in hexosaminidase A also influences the substrate specificity of the alpha subunit; e.g., in vivo only the A heterodimer can hydrolyze GM2 ganglioside. In this report, we localize functional regions in the two subunits by cellular expression of alpha/beta fusion proteins joined at adjacently aligned residues. First, a chimeric alpha/beta chain was made by replacing the least well-conserved amino-terminal section of the beta chain with the corresponding alpha section. The biochemical characteristics of this protein were nearly identical to hexosaminidase B. Therefore, the most dissimilar regions in the subunits are not responsible for their dissimilar biochemical properties. A second fusion protein was made that also included the more homologous middle section of the alpha chain. This protein expressed the substrate specificity unique to isozymes containing an alpha subunit (A and S). We conclude that the region responsible for the ability of the alpha subunit to bind negatively charged substrates is located within residues alpha 132-283. Interestingly, the remaining carboxy-terminal section from the beta chain, beta 316-556, was sufficient to allow this chimera to hydrolyze GM2 ganglioside with 10% the specific activity of heterodimeric hexosaminidase A. Thus, the carboxy-terminal section of each subunit is likely involved in subunit-subunit interactions.

  12. alpha-decay half-lives and Q{sub a}lpha values of superheavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Jianmin; Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049; School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000

    2010-06-15

    The alpha-decay half-lives of recently synthesized superheavy nuclei (SHN) are investigated by employing a unified fission model (UFM) where a new method to calculate the assault frequency of alpha emission is used. The excellent agreement with the experimental data indicates the UFM is a useful tool to investigate these alpha decays. It is found that the alpha-decay half-lives become more and more insensitive to the Q{sub a}lpha values as the atomic number increases on the whole, which is favorable for us to predict the half-lives of SHN. In addition, a formula is proposed to compute the Q{sub a}lpha values formore » the nuclei with Z>=92 and N>=140 with a good accuracy, according to which the long-lived SHN should be neutron rich. Several weeks ago, two isotopes of a new element with atomic number Z=117 were synthesized and their alpha-decay chains have been observed. The Q{sub a}lpha formula is found to work well for these nuclei, confirming its predictive power. The experimental half-lives are well reproduced by employing the UFM with the experimental Q{sub a}lpha values. This fact that the experimental half-lives are compatible with experimental Q{sub a}lpha values supports the synthesis of a new element 117 and the experimental measurements to a certain extent.« less

  13. Shrimp Alpha-2-Macroglobulin Prevents the Bacterial Escape by Inhibiting Fibrinolysis of Blood Clots

    PubMed Central

    Chaikeeratisak, Vorrapon; Somboonwiwat, Kunlaya; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2012-01-01

    Proteomic analysis of the hemocytic proteins of Penaeus monodon (Pm) has previously shown that alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M) was among the proteins that showed substantially altered expression levels upon Vibrio harveyi infection. Therefore, in this study its potentially important role in the response of shrimp to bacterial infection was further characterized. The yeast two-hybrid system revealed that the receptor binding domain of PmA2M interacted with the carboxyl-terminus of one or both of the transglutaminase type II isoforms, which are key enzymes involved in the shrimp clotting system. In accord with this, PmA2M was found to be localized on the extracellular blood clots and to colocalize with clottable proteins. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of A2M transcript levels reduced the PmA2M transcript levels (∼94%) and significantly reduced the bacterial seizing ability of the clotting system, resulting in an up to 3.3-fold higher number of V. harveyi that systemically disseminated into the circulatory system at 5 min post-infection before subsequent clearance by the immune system. Furthermore, an appearance of PmA2M depleted clots in the presence of V. harveyi strikingly demonstrated fibrinolysis zones surrounding the bacteria. This study provides the first evidence of the vital role of PmA2M in enhancing bacterial sequestration by protecting blood clots against fibrinolysis. PMID:23082160

  14. Shrimp alpha-2-macroglobulin prevents the bacterial escape by inhibiting fibrinolysis of blood clots.

    PubMed

    Chaikeeratisak, Vorrapon; Somboonwiwat, Kunlaya; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2012-01-01

    Proteomic analysis of the hemocytic proteins of Penaeus monodon (Pm) has previously shown that alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M) was among the proteins that showed substantially altered expression levels upon Vibrio harveyi infection. Therefore, in this study its potentially important role in the response of shrimp to bacterial infection was further characterized. The yeast two-hybrid system revealed that the receptor binding domain of PmA2M interacted with the carboxyl-terminus of one or both of the transglutaminase type II isoforms, which are key enzymes involved in the shrimp clotting system. In accord with this, PmA2M was found to be localized on the extracellular blood clots and to colocalize with clottable proteins. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of A2M transcript levels reduced the PmA2M transcript levels (∼94%) and significantly reduced the bacterial seizing ability of the clotting system, resulting in an up to 3.3-fold higher number of V. harveyi that systemically disseminated into the circulatory system at 5 min post-infection before subsequent clearance by the immune system. Furthermore, an appearance of PmA2M depleted clots in the presence of V. harveyi strikingly demonstrated fibrinolysis zones surrounding the bacteria. This study provides the first evidence of the vital role of PmA2M in enhancing bacterial sequestration by protecting blood clots against fibrinolysis.

  15. Emphysema and Alpha-1

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Alpha-1 Facts Alpha-1 Links Emphysema Emphysema, which is a form of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, can occur when a person inherits a defective copy of the AAT gene from both parents. People who ... of developing emphysema, but generally they will only develop the disease ...

  16. Alpha Thalassemia (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Alpha Thalassemia KidsHealth / For Parents / Alpha Thalassemia What's in this ... Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Print en español Alfa talasemia Thalassemias Thalassemias are a group of blood disorders that ...

  17. Rational design, synthesis, biologic evaluation, and structure-activity relationship studies of novel 1-indanone alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Li, Minyong; Xia, Lin

    2007-11-01

    In the present report, a novel series of 1-indanone alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists were designed and synthesized based on 3D-pharmacophore model. Their in vitro alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonistic assay showed that three compounds (2a, 2m, and 2o) had similar or improved alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonistic activities relative to the positive control prazosin. Based on these results, a three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship study was performed using a Self-Organizing Molecular Field Analysis method to provide insight for the future development of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists.

  18. Event counting alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    Bolton, Richard D.; MacArthur, Duncan W.

    1996-01-01

    An electrostatic detector for atmospheric radon or other weak sources of alpha radiation. In one embodiment, nested enclosures are insulated from one another, open at the top, and have a high voltage pin inside and insulated from the inside enclosure. An electric field is produced between the pin and the inside enclosure. Air ions produced by collision with alpha particles inside the decay volume defined by the inside enclosure are attracted to the pin and the inner enclosure. With low alpha concentrations, individual alpha events can be measured to indicate the presence of radon or other alpha radiation. In another embodiment, an electrical field is produced between parallel plates which are insulated from a single decay cavity enclosure.

  19. Event counting alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    Bolton, R.D.; MacArthur, D.W.

    1996-08-27

    An electrostatic detector is disclosed for atmospheric radon or other weak sources of alpha radiation. In one embodiment, nested enclosures are insulated from one another, open at the top, and have a high voltage pin inside and insulated from the inside enclosure. An electric field is produced between the pin and the inside enclosure. Air ions produced by collision with alpha particles inside the decay volume defined by the inside enclosure are attracted to the pin and the inner enclosure. With low alpha concentrations, individual alpha events can be measured to indicate the presence of radon or other alpha radiation. In another embodiment, an electrical field is produced between parallel plates which are insulated from a single decay cavity enclosure. 6 figs.

  20. Imaging alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, D.F.

    1980-10-29

    A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging alpha particles sources is described. A dielectric coated high voltage electrode and a tungsten wire grid constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by alpha particles from a source to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window allows the alpha particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other alpha particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the alpha particle signal.

  1. Imaging alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging alpha particles sources is described. A conducting coated high voltage electrode (1) and a tungsten wire grid (2) constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by alpha particles from a source (3) to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window (4) allows the alpha particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other alpha particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the alpha particle signal.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: alpha thalassemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Alpha thalassemia Alpha thalassemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Alpha thalassemia is a blood disorder that reduces the production ...

  3. Distinct expression pattern of IFN-alpha and TNF-alpha in juvenile idiopathic arthritis synovial tissue.

    PubMed

    Gattorno, M; Chicha, L; Gregorio, A; Ferlito, F; Rossi, F; Jarrossay, D; Lanzavecchia, A; Martini, A; Manz, M G

    2007-04-01

    Recent laboratory and clinical data suggest that two prototype autoimmune diseases, systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis are mainly driven by distinct cytokines, interferon (IFN)-alpha and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, respectively. We here investigated the presence and characteristics of natural type I IFN-producing cells (IPCs), as well as IFN-alpha and TNF-alpha expression at sites of inflammation in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Peripheral blood (PB) and synovial fluid (SF) mononuclear cells (MNCs) (n = 25 each) from JIA patients with active disease were studied. IPCs were identified as BCDA-2(+)CD123(+)HLA-DR(+)CD45RA(+) cells, and dendritic cells (DCs) as CD11c(+)CD14(-/low)lin(-) cells by flow cytometry. IPCs and DCs were analysed for Toll-like receptor-7 and -9 mRNA expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction. IFN-alpha was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in serum, SF and in supernatants of influenza virus-infected, cultured IPCs. Synovial tissues of n = 6 additional JIA patients were analysed by immunohistochemistry using mAbs against CD123, IFN-alpha, TNF-alpha, CD3, CD19 and CD138. IPCs were enriched in SF MNCs compared with PB MNCs in all JIA patients. Influenza-induced, but no spontaneous IFN-alpha release was detected from SF IPCs, and serum and SF IFN-alpha levels were not elevated. Nonetheless, in synovial tissue IFN-alpha producing cells accumulated at inflammatory lymph-follicular-like structures, while TNF-alpha producing cells were mostly found at the lining and sublining layers. These data suggest that besides TNF-alpha-expressing cells, IFN-alpha-producing IPCs are involved in initiation, maintenance or regulation of the inflammatory response in JIA.

  4. The alpha channeling effect

    SciTech Connect

    Fisch, N. J.

    2015-12-10

    Alpha particles born through fusion reactions in a tokamak reactor tend to slow down on electrons, but that could take up to hundreds of milliseconds. Before that happens, the energy in these alpha particles can destabilize on collisionless timescales toroidal Alfven modes and other waves, in a way deleterious to energy confinement. However, it has been speculated that this energy might be instead be channeled into useful energy, so as to heat fuel ions or to drive current. Such a channeling needs to be catalyzed by waves Waves can produce diffusion in energy of the alpha particles in a waymore » that is strictly coupled to diffusion in space. If these diffusion paths in energy-position space point from high energy in the center to low energy on the periphery, then alpha particles will be cooled while forced to the periphery. The energy from the alpha particles is absorbed by the wave. The amplified wave can then heat ions or drive current. This process or paradigm for extracting alpha particle energy collisionlessly has been called alpha channeling. While the effect is speculative, the upside potential for economical fusion is immense. The paradigm also operates more generally in other contexts of magnetically confined plasma.« less

  5. The alpha channeling effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisch, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    Alpha particles born through fusion reactions in a tokamak reactor tend to slow down on electrons, but that could take up to hundreds of milliseconds. Before that happens, the energy in these alpha particles can destabilize on collisionless timescales toroidal Alfven modes and other waves, in a way deleterious to energy confinement. However, it has been speculated that this energy might be instead be channeled into useful energy, so as to heat fuel ions or to drive current. Such a channeling needs to be catalyzed by waves Waves can produce diffusion in energy of the alpha particles in a way that is strictly coupled to diffusion in space. If these diffusion paths in energy-position space point from high energy in the center to low energy on the periphery, then alpha particles will be cooled while forced to the periphery. The energy from the alpha particles is absorbed by the wave. The amplified wave can then heat ions or drive current. This process or paradigm for extracting alpha particle energy collisionlessly has been called alpha channeling. While the effect is speculative, the upside potential for economical fusion is immense. The paradigm also operates more generally in other contexts of magnetically confined plasma.

  6. alpha-Ketoglutarate application in hemodialysis patients improves amino acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Riedel, E; Nündel, M; Hampl, H

    1996-01-01

    In hemodialysis patients, free amino acids and alpha-ketoacids in plasma were determined by fluorescence HPLC to assess the effect of alpha-ketoglutarate administration in combination with the phosphate binder calcium carbonate on the amino acid metabolism. During 1 year of therapy in parallel to inorganic phosphate, urea in plasma decreased significantly, histidine, arginine and proline as well as branched chain alpha-ketoacids, in particular alpha-ketoisocaproate, a regulator of protein metabolism, increased. Thus, administration of alpha-ketoglutarate with calcium carbonate effectively improves amino acid metabolism in hemodialysis patients as it decreases hyperphosphatemia.

  7. Alpha Monocerotids 2017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roggemans, Paul; Johannink, Carl; Biets, Jean-Marie

    2018-01-01

    17 orbits of the annual component of the Alpha Monocerotids (246 AMO) were captured by CAMS networks between 21 and 24 November, 10 of them in the United Arab Emirates on 21 November between 21h to 24h UT.

  8. Coaching the alpha male.

    PubMed

    Ludeman, Kate; Erlandson, Eddie

    2004-05-01

    Highly intelligent, confident, and successful, alpha males represent about 70% of all senior executives. Natural leaders, they willingly take on levels of responsibility most rational people would find overwhelming. But many of their quintessential strengths can also make alphas difficult to work with. Their self-confidence can appear domineering. Their high expectations can make them excessively critical. Their unemotional style can keep them from inspiring their teams. That's why alphas need coaching to broaden their interpersonal tool kits while preserving their strengths. Drawing from their experience coaching more than 1,000 senior executives, the authors outline an approach tailored specifically for the alpha. Coaches get the alpha's attention by inundating him with data from 360-degree feedback presented in ways he will find compelling--both hard-boiled metrics and vivid verbatim comments from colleagues about his strengths and weaknesses. A 360-degree assessment is a wake-up call for most alphas, providing undeniable proof that their behavior doesn't work nearly as well as they think it does. That paves the way for a genuine commitment to change. In order to change, the alpha must venture into unfamiliar--and often uncomfortable--psychological territory. He must admit vulnerability, accept accountability not just for his own work for others', connect with his underlying emotions, learn to motivate through a balance of criticism and validation, and become aware of unproductive behavior patterns. The goal of executive coaching is not simply to treat the alpha as an individual problem but to improve the entire team dynamic. Initial success creates an incentive to persevere, and the virtuous cycle reverberates throughout the entire organization.

  9. Measurements and analysis of alpha-induced reactions of importance for nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Messieres, Genevieve Escande

    2011-11-01

    Reactions during stellar helium burning are of primary importance for understanding nucleosynthesis. A detailed understanding of the critical reaction chain 4He(2alpha, gamma)12C( alpha, gamma)16O(alpha, gamma) 20Ne is necessary both because it is the primary energy source and because it determines the ratio of 12C to 16O produced, which in turn significantly effects subsequent nucleosynthesis. Also during Helium burning, the reactions 22Ne(alpha, n)25Mg and 22Ne(alpha, gamma )26Mg are crucial in determining the amount of neutrons available for the astrophysical s-process. This thesis presents new experimental results concerning the 16O(alpha, gamma) 20Ne, 22Ne(alpha, n)25Mg, and 22Ne(alpha, gamma)26Mg reaction rates. These results are then applied to the calculation of the associated stellar reaction rates in order to achieve better accuracy.

  10. Analysis of the specificity of sialyltransferases toward mucin core 2, globo, and related structures. identification of the sialylation sequence and the effects of sulfate, fucose, methyl, and fluoro substituents of the carbohydrate chain in the biosynthesis of selectin and siglec ligands, and novel sialylation by cloned alpha2,3(O)sialyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, E V; Xue, Jun; Xia, Jie; Chawda, Ram; Piskorz, Conrad; Locke, Robert D; Neelamegham, Sriram; Matta, Khushi L

    2005-11-29

    Sialic acids are key determinants in many carbohydrates involved in biological recognition. We studied the acceptor specificities of three cloned sialyltransferases (STs) [alpha2,3(N)ST, alpha2,3(O)ST, and alpha2,6(N)ST] and another alpha2,3(O)ST present in prostate cancer cell LNCaP toward mucin core 2 tetrasaccharide [Galbeta1,4GlcNAcbeta1,6(Galbeta1,3)GalNAcalpha-O-Bn] and Globo [Galbeta1,3GalNAcbeta1,3Galalpha-O-Me] structures containing sialyl, fucosyl, sulfo, methyl, or fluoro substituents by identifying the products by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectral analysis and other biochemical methods. The Globo precursor was an efficient acceptor for both alpha2,3(N)ST and alpha2,3(O)ST, whereas only alpha2,3(O)ST used its deoxy analogue (d-Fucbeta1,3GalNAcbeta1,3-Gal-alpha-O-Me); 2-O-MeGalbeta1,3GlcNAc and 4-OMeGalbeta1,4GlcNAc were specific acceptors for alpha2,3(N)ST. Other major findings of this study include: (i) alpha2,3 sialylation of beta1,3Gal in mucin core 2 can proceed even after alpha1,3 fucosylation of beta1,6-linked LacNAc. (ii) Sialylation of beta1,3Gal must precede the sialylation of beta1,4Gal for favorable biosynthesis of mucin core 2 compounds. (iii) alpha2,3 sialylation of the 6-O-sulfoLacNAc moiety in mucin core 2 (e.g., GlyCAM-1) is facilitated when beta1,3Gal has already been alpha2,3 sialylated. (iv) alpha2,6(N)ST was absolutely specific for the beta1,4Gal in mucin core 2. Either alpha1,3 fucosylation or 6-O-sulfation of the GlcNAc moiety reduced the activity. Sialylation of beta1,3Gal in addition to 6-O-sulfation of GlcNAc moiety abolished the activity. (v) Prior alpha2,3 sialylation or 3-O-sulfation of beta1,3Gal would not affect alpha2,6 sialylation of Galbeta1,4GlcNAc of mucin core 2. (vi) A 3- or 4-fluoro substituent in beta1,4Gal resulted in poor acceptors for the cloned alpha2,6(N)ST and alpha2,3(N)ST, whereas 4-fluoro- or 4-OMe-Galbeta1,3GalNAcalpha was a good acceptor for cloned alpha2,3(O)ST. (vii) 4-O-Methylation of beta1

  11. Manifestation of the structure of heavy nuclei in their alpha decays

    SciTech Connect

    Adamian, G. G., E-mail: adamian@theor.jinr.ru; Antonenko, N. V.; Bezbakh, A. N.

    2016-11-15

    Low-lying one- and two-quasiparticle states of heavy nuclei are predicted. Alpha-decay chains, including those that proceed through isomeric states, are examined on the basis of the predicted properties of superheavy nuclei.

  12. Characterization of the major cyanogen bromide fragment of alpha-A crystallin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ifeanyi, F.; Takemoto, L.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    Alpha crystallin from the bovine lens has been digested with cyanogen bromide, and the major fragment (CB-1) has been purified using reverse phase HPLC. Characterization of this fragment by Edman degradation and antisera to synthetic peptides indicates that it originates from alpha-A crystallin, but lacks the N-terminal methionine and the last 35 amino acids from the C-terminus of the molecule. The purified CB-1 fragment binds as well as native alpha crystallin to lens membrane, but is unable to self-assemble into the correct size of high molecular weight oligomeric complexes characteristic of the intact alpha-A chain. Together, these results demonstrate that the alpha-A chain is comprised of at least two functional domains, one of which is involved in binding of alpha-A crystallin to lens membrane, and another which is necessary for correct self-assembly of the molecule into high molecular weight oligomers.

  13. Pathophysiologic roles of the fibrinogen gamma chain.

    PubMed

    Farrell, David H

    2004-05-01

    Fibrinogen binds through its gamma chains to cell surface receptors, growth factors, and coagulation factors to perform its key roles in fibrin clot formation, platelet aggregation, and wound healing. However, these binding interactions can also contribute to pathophysiologic processes, including inflammation and thrombosis. This review summarizes the latest findings on the role of the fibrinogen gamma chain in these processes, and illustrates the potential for therapeutic intervention. Novel gamma chain epitopes that bind platelet integrin alpha IIbbeta3 and leukocyte integrin alphaMbeta2 have been characterized, leading to the revision of former dogma regarding the processes of platelet aggregation, clot retraction, inflammation, and thrombosis. A series of studies has shown that the gamma chain serves as a depot for fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), which is likely to play an important role in wound healing. Inhibition of gamma chain function with the monoclonal antibody 7E9 has been shown to interfere with multiple fibrinogen activities, including factor XIIIa crosslinking, platelet adhesion, and platelet-mediated clot retraction. The role of the enigmatic variant fibrinogen gamma chain has also become clearer. Studies have shown that gamma chain binding to thrombin and factor XIII results in clots that are mechanically stiffer and resistant to fibrinolysis, which may explain the association between gammaA/gamma' fibrinogen levels and cardiovascular disease. The identification of new interactions with gamma chains has revealed novel targets for the treatment of inflammation and thrombosis. In addition, several exciting studies have shown new functions for the variant gamma chain that may contribute to cardiovascular disease.

  14. Effect of low electric fields on alpha scintillation light yield in liquid argon

    DOE PAGES

    Agnes, P.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Alexander, T.; ...

    2017-01-24

    Measurements were made of scintillation light yield of alpha particles from themore » $$^{222}$$Rn decay chain within the DarkSide-50 liquid argon time projection chamber. Furthermore, the light yield was found to increase as the applied electric field increased, with alphas in a 200 V/cm electric field exhibiting a 2% increase in light yield compared to alphas in no field.« less

  15. In vitro and in vivo expression of interleukin-1alpha and tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA in pemphigus vulgaris: interleukin-1alpha and tumor necrosis factor-alpha are involved in acantholysis.

    PubMed

    Feliciani, C; Toto, P; Amerio, P; Pour, S M; Coscione, G; Shivji, G; Wang, B; Sauder, D N

    2000-01-01

    Keratinocyte-derived cytokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of skin diseases. In this study we examined the possible role of keratinocyte-derived cytokines in the development of acantholysis in pemphigus vulgaris. Nineteen patients with pemphigus vulgaris, demonstrating the characteristic clinical, pathologic, and immunopathologic findings were studied. In situ immunolabeling demonstrated the presence of two cytokines interleukin-1alpha and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, in lesional and perilesional areas. Results were confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, demonstrating overexpression of both cytokines in vivo. To study the role of these cytokines in the pathogenesis of pemphigus vulgaris both in vitro and in vivo studies were performed. The results of the in vitro study demonstrated that pemphigus vulgaris IgG induced interleukin-1alpha and tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA in the skin. The potential pathogenic role of these mediators was demonstrated by a blocking study using antibodies against human interleukin-1alpha and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in keratinocytes cultures. A combination of anti-interleukin-1alpha and anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha antibodies inhibited in vitro pemphigus vulgaris IgG induced acantholysis. To confirm the role of interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in pemphigus, we utilized passive transfer studies using interleukin-1 deficient mice (ICE-/-, interleukin-1beta-/-) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor deficient mice (TNFR1R2-/-). Both groups demonstrated a decreased susceptibility to the passive transfer of pemphigus. Our data support the role of cytokines interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the pathogenesis of pemphigus vulgaris.

  16. Crater Chains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The large crater at the top of this THEMIS visible image has several other craters inside of it. Most noticeable are the craters that form a 'chain' on the southern wall of the large crater. These craters are a wonderful example of secondary impacts. They were formed when large blocks of ejecta from an impact crashed back down onto the surface of Mars. Secondaries often form radial patterns around the impact crater that generated them, allowing researchers to trace them back to their origin.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 19.3, Longitude 347.5 East (12.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  17. The Apollo Alpha Spectrometer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagoda, N.; Kubierschky, K.; Frank, R.; Carroll, J.

    1973-01-01

    Located in the Science Instrument Module of Apollo 15 and 16, the Alpha Particle Spectrometer was designed to detect and measure the energy of alpha particles emitted by the radon isotopes and their daughter products. The spectrometer sensor consisted of an array of totally depleted silicon surface barrier detectors. Biased amplifier and linear gate techniques were utilized to reduce resolution degradation, thereby permitting the use of a single 512 channel PHA. Sensor identification and in-flight radioactive calibration were incorporated to enhance data reduction.

  18. Lack of association of the two polymorphisms in alpha-2 macroglobulin with Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Poduslo, S E; Shook, B; Drigalenko, E; Yin, X

    2002-06-01

    Alzheimer disease is a complex neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by cognitive decline and distinct neuropathology. The gene for alpha-2 macroglobulin (A2M) on chromosome 12 has two polymorphisms that, in some cases, are associated with Alzheimer disease. We examined these two polymorphisms in our families in the DNA Bank (a collection of DNA samples from families with Alzheimer disease in Texas). Using both association studies and sib transmission/disequilibrium tests, we found no association of the two polymorphisms with the disease in our collection. In addition, we did not find an association of the disease with the two polymorphisms in A2M in a small subset of National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) families. Thus, our studies do not support the A2M polymorphisms as a risk factor for Alzheimer disease. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. [alpha]-Oxocarboxylic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.

    2010-01-01

    Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…

  20. Comparative analysis of novel autoantibody isotypes against citrullinated-inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 3 (ITIH3)(542-556) peptide in serum from Taiwanese females with rheumatoid arthritis, primary Sjögren's syndrome and secondary Sjögren's syndrome in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chen-Chung; Chou, Pei-Lun; Cheng, Chao-Wen; Chang, Yu-Sheng; Chi, Wei-Ming; Tsai, Kai-Leun; Chen, Wei-Jung; Kung, Ting-Shuan; Tai, Chih-Chun; Lee, Kuan-Wei; Chen, You-Chia; Lin, Ching-Yu

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover and validate inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H3 (ITIH3) as novel biomarkers, and evaluate autoantibody isotypes against an unmodified and citrullinated ITIH3(542-556) peptide among Taiwanese female patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS), secondary Sjögren's syndrome in rheumatoid arthritis (RA-sSS), and healthy controls (HCs). We used concanavalin A (Con A) affinity chromatography, 1-D SDS-PAGE, and label-free nano-LC-MS/MS to screen biomarker candidates (serum-derived Con A-captured proteins) and then identify PTMs of validated biomarkers (serum proteins) using pooled serum from 7 RA-sSS female patients and 7 age-matched HCs (the discovery set). Furthermore, the protein level and autoantibody isotype analyses were further validated against individual serum from 18 HCs, 18 RA, 18 pSS, and 18 RA-sSS patients (the validation set). Con A-bound ITIH3 was identified and validated as the only differentially expressed protein, which was elevated. Additionally, 2 novel PTMs in ITIH3 were identified and included citrullination at arginine-(546) and arginine-(556), and hexosamine at tryptophan-(558). Further, concentrations of anti-citrullinatd-ITIH3(542-556) peptide autoantibodies significantly increased in patients with RA, pSS, and RA-sSS compared to HCs. Especially, autoantibody IgM against the citrullinated-ITIH3(542-556) peptide showed better diagnostic performance in discriminating both RA versus pSS and pSS versus RA-sSS. By using comparative proteomic analysis of serum samples, the current study discovered and validates differentially expressed Con A-bound ITIH3 as a potential biomarker for secondary Sjögren's syndrome (SS) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and healthy controls (HCs). Besides, hexosamine and citrullination on ITIH3 were further identified. Through analyzing autoantibody isotypes against the citrullinated ITIH3 peptide, patients with RA, primary SS, and RA

  1. Stereoselective Synthesis of [alpha, alpha][superscript ']-Biprolines

    SciTech Connect

    Vartak, Ashish P.; Young, Jr., Victor G.; Johnson, Rodney L.

    2010-11-10

    A means to induce dehydrodimerization of Seebach's oxazolidinone (5), the stereochemical outcome of which is entirely temperature dependent, is described. The resultant dimers 3 and 4 are precursors to (R,R)-alpha,alpha'-biproline (1) and meso-alpha,alpha'-biproline (2), respectively. An organohypobromite and an iminium halide are proposed to serve as electrophiles in the reaction with the enolate of 5 to give 3 and 4, respectively.

  2. Mind Your p's and Alphas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallings, William M.

    1985-01-01

    In the educational research literature, alpha and p are often conflated. Paradoxically, alpha retains a prominent place in textbook discussions, but it is often supplanted by p in the results sections of journal articles. Because alpha and p have unique uses, researchers should continue to employ both conventions in summarizing the outcomes of…

  3. Simultaneous quantification of GABAergic 3alpha,5alpha/3alpha,5beta neuroactive steroids in human and rat serum.

    PubMed

    Porcu, Patrizia; O'Buckley, Todd K; Alward, Sarah E; Marx, Christine E; Shampine, Lawrence J; Girdler, Susan S; Morrow, A Leslie

    2009-01-01

    The 3alpha,5alpha- and 3alpha,5beta-reduced derivatives of progesterone, deoxycorticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and testosterone enhance GABAergic neurotransmission and produce inhibitory neurobehavioral and anti-inflammatory effects. Despite substantial information on the progesterone derivative (3alpha,5alpha)-3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THP, allopregnanolone), the physiological significance of the other endogenous GABAergic neuroactive steroids has remained elusive. Here, we describe the validation of a method using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to simultaneously identify serum levels of the eight 3alpha,5alpha- and 3alpha,5beta-reduced derivatives of progesterone, deoxycorticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and testosterone. The method shows specificity, sensitivity and enhanced throughput compared to other methods already available for neuroactive steroid quantification. Administration of pregnenolone to rats and progesterone to women produced selective effects on the 3alpha,5alpha- and 3alpha,5beta-reduced neuroactive steroids, indicating differential regulation of their biosynthetic pathways. Pregnenolone administration increased serum levels of 3alpha,5alpha-THP (+1488%, p<0.001), (3alpha,5alpha)-3,21-dihydroxypregnan-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THDOC, +205%, p<0.01), (3alpha,5alpha)-3-hydroxyandrostan-17-one (3alpha,5alpha-A, +216%, p<0.001), (3alpha,5alpha,17beta)-androstane-3,17-diol (3alpha,5alpha-A-diol, +190%, p<0.01). (3alpha,5beta)-3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (3alpha,5beta-THP) and (3alpha,5beta)-3-hydroxyandrostan-17-one (3alpha,5beta-A) were not altered, while (3alpha,5beta)-3,21-dihydroxypregnan-20-one (3alpha,5beta-THDOC) and (3alpha,5beta,17beta)-androstane-3,17-diol (3alpha,5beta-A-diol) were increased from undetectable levels to 271+/-100 and 2.4+/-0.9 pg+/-SEM, respectively (5/8 rats). Progesterone administration increased serum levels of 3alpha,5alpha-THP (+1806%, p<0.0001), 3alpha,5beta-THP (+575%, p<0.001), 3alpha,5alpha

  4. Secondary reduction of alpha7B integrin in laminin alpha2 deficient congenital muscular dystrophy supports an additional transmembrane link in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Cohn, R D; Mayer, U; Saher, G; Herrmann, R; van der Flier, A; Sonnenberg, A; Sorokin, L; Voit, T

    1999-03-01

    The integrins are a large family of heterodimeric transmembrane cellular receptors which mediate the association between the extracellular matrix (ECM) and cytoskeletal proteins. The alpha7beta1 integrin is a major laminin binding integrin in skeletal and cardiac muscle and is thought to be involved in myogenic differentiation and migration processes. The main binding partners of the alpha7 integrin are laminin-1 (alpha1-beta1-gamma1), laminin-2 (alpha2-beta1-gamma1) and laminin-4 (alpha2-beta2-gamma1). Targeted deletion of the gene for the alpha7 integrin subunit (ITGA7) in mice leads to a novel form of muscular dystrophy. In the present study we have investigated the expression of two alternative splice variants, the alpha7B and beta1D integrin subunits, in normal human skeletal muscle, as well as in various forms of muscular dystrophy. In normal human skeletal muscle the expression of the alpha7 integrin subunit appeared to be developmentally regulated: it was first detected at 2 years of age. In contrast, the beta1D integrin could be detected in immature and mature muscle in the sarcolemma of normal fetal skeletal muscle at 18 weeks gestation. The expression of alpha7B integrin was significantly reduced at the sarcolemma in six patients with laminin alpha2 chain deficient congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) (age >2 years). However, this reduction was not correlated with the amount of laminin alpha2 chain expressed. In contrast, the expression of the laminin alpha2 chain was not altered in the skeletal muscle of the alpha7 knock-out mice. These data argue in favor that there is not a tight correlation between the expression of the alpha7 integrin subunit and that of the laminin alpha2 chain in either human or murine dystrophic muscle. Interestingly, in dystrophinopathies (Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy; DMD/BMD) expression of alpha7B was upregulated irrespective of the level of dystrophin expression as shown by a strong sarcolemmal staining pattern even

  5. Health supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Rolf; Gallagher, Pat

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * The actual application of supply chain practice and disciplines required for service delivery improvement within the current health environment. * A rationale for the application of Supply Chain Management (SCM) approaches to the Health sector. * The tools and methods available for supply chain analysis and benchmarking. * Key supply chain success factors.

  6. The Buccaneer software for automated model building. 1. Tracing protein chains.

    PubMed

    Cowtan, Kevin

    2006-09-01

    A new technique for the automated tracing of protein chains in experimental electron-density maps is described. The technique relies on the repeated application of an oriented electron-density likelihood target function to identify likely C(alpha) positions. This function is applied both in the location of a few promising ;seed' positions in the map and to grow those initial C(alpha) positions into extended chain fragments. Techniques for assembling the chain fragments into an initial chain trace are discussed.

  7. Closed Circular Chains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caglayan, Günhan

    2016-01-01

    A Steiner chain is defined as the sequence of n circles that are all tangent to two given non-intersecting circles. A closed chain, in particular, is one in which every circle in the sequence is tangent to the previous and next circles of the chain. In a closed Steiner chain the first and the "n"th circles of the chain are also tangent…

  8. Differential expression of alpha 2 macroglobulin in response to dietylstilbestrol and in ovarian carcinomas in chickens

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Alpha 2 macroglobulin (A2M; also known as ovostatin), a homotetrameric protein with four disulfide-linked subunits, has the unique feature of inactivating/inhibiting most known proteases including serine-, threonine-, cysteine-, aspartic- and metalloproteases. In chickens, A2M has been identified and characterized biochemically, but little is known of its functional role(s) in the oviduct, hormonal regulation of expression or its expression in ovarian carcinomas in chickens. Therefore, we investigated estrogen regulation of A2M gene expression during development of the chicken oviduct, and its expression in normal and cancerous ovaries from chickens. Methods To determine tissue-specific expression of A2M in chickens, we collected various organs from male and female chickens and performed RT-PCR analyses. To examine A2M gene expression in the oviduct of 1-week-old female chicks that received a subcutaneous implant of 15 mg DES in the abdominal region for 20 days, we performed RT-PCR, qPCR and in situ hybridization analyses using cDNAs from control- (n = 5) and DES-treated oviducts (n = 5), and then each segment of the oviduct from DES-treated chicks. To determine if A2M is a biomarker of ovarian cancer in hens, we collected cancerous (n = 10) ovaries from a total of 136 chickens which had completely stopped egg-laying and performed RT-PCR and in situ hybridization analyses. Results We found that A2M is most abundant in the chicken oviduct, specifically luminal (LE) and glandular epithelia (GE), but it was not detected in any other tissues of either sex. We then determined that DES (dietylstilbestrol, a synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen) increased A2M mRNA only in LE and GE of the oviduct of chicks. Further, expression of A2M was most abundant in GE of endometrioid adenocarcinoma of cancerous, but not normal ovaries of hens. Conclusions Collectively, results of the present study indicate that A2M is novel estrogen-stimulated gene expressed in LE and GE of

  9. Expression of alpha-AR subtypes in T lymphocytes and role of the alpha-ARs in mediating modulation of T cell function.

    PubMed

    Bao, Jing-Yin; Huang, Yan; Wang, Feng; Peng, Yu-Ping; Qiu, Yi-Hua

    2007-01-01

    Previous work in our laboratory has shown that alpha-adrenoreceptors (alpha-ARs) and beta-ARs exist on lymphocytes from functional profile, and that the receptors mediate the regulation of lymphocyte function by catecholamines. In the present study, we directly examined the expression of alpha-AR subtypes, alpha(1)-AR and alpha(2)-AR mRNAs, in T lymphocytes and explored the roles of the alpha-AR subtypes and intracellular signal transduction mechanisms linked to the receptors in mediating the modulation of T lymphocyte function. T lymphocytes from mesenteric lymph nodes of rats were purified by using a nylon wool column. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the expression of alpha(1)-AR and alpha(2)-AR mRNAs in the freshly isolated T cells and the mitogen concanavalin A (Con A)-activated lymphocytes. Colorimetric methylthiazoletetrazolium assay was employed to measure lymphocyte proliferation induced by Con A. Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) levels in the Con A-stimulated lymphocyte culture supernatants were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. T cells expressed both alpha(1)-AR and alpha(2)-AR mRNAs. The expression of both alpha(1)-AR and alpha(2)-AR mRNAs was significantly higher in the Con A-activated lymphocytes than in the resting lymphocytes. Phenylephrine, a selective alpha(1)-AR agonist, had no evident effect on lymphocyte proliferation nor on IFN-gamma and IL-4 production induced by Con A. However, the selective alpha(2)-AR agonist clonidine attenuated Con A-induced lymphocyte proliferation as well as IFN-gamma and IL-4 production. The inhibited lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-gamma and IL-4 production by clonidine were blocked by yohimbine, an alpha(2)-AR antagonist. Either phospholipase C inhibitor U-73122 or protein kinase C inhibitor chelerythrine partially prevented the suppressive effect of clonidine on Con A-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation and IL-4 production. T lymphocytes express

  10. Realizing the potential of the Actinium-225 radionuclide generator in targeted alpha-particle therapy applications

    PubMed Central

    Miederer, Matthias; Scheinberg, David A.; McDevitt, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Alpha particle-emitting isotopes have been proposed as novel cytotoxic agents for augmenting targeted therapy. Properties of alpha particle radiation such as their limited range in tissue of a few cell diameters and their high linear energy transfer leading to dense radiation damage along each alpha track are promising in the treatment of cancer, especially when single cells or clusters of tumor cells are targeted. Actinium-225 (225Ac) is an alpha particle-emitting radionuclide that generates 4 net alpha particle isotopes in a short decay chain to stable 209Bi, and as such can be described as an alpha particle nanogenerator. This article reviews the literature pertaining to the research, development, and utilization of targeted 225Ac to potently and specifically affect cancer. PMID:18514364

  11. Association analysis of TNFR2, VDR, A2M, GSTT1, GSTM1, and ACE genes with rheumatoid arthritis in South Asians and Caucasians of East Midlands in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Ghelani, Anant M; Samanta, Ash; Jones, Adrian C; Mastana, Sarabjit S

    2011-10-01

    Genetic associations of TNFR2, VDR (Bsm I and Fok I), A2M, GSTT(1), GSTM(1) and ACE in South Asian and Caucasian patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were assessed in this study. DNA samples from South Asians (134 cases, 149 controls) and Caucasians (137 cases, 150 controls) from the East Midlands of the United Kingdom were genotyped for seven polymorphisms. All cases were rheumatoid-factor positive. Significant genetic associations were observed with TNFR2 R-R (OR = 3.16, CI 1.20-9.26, P < 0.05), A2M 1-1 (OR = 2.09, CI 1.21-3.64, P < 0.05) and GST T(1)null (OR = 1.97, CI 1.07-3.68, P < 0.05) among Caucasian patients. In South Asians, VDR Bsm I B-B genotype (OR = 2.08, CI 1.23-3.52, P < 0.05), A2M 2-2 genotype (OR = 3.99, CI 1.19-17.18, P < 0.05), and GST T(1)null genotype (OR = 2.81, CI 1.40-5.77, P < 0.002) genotypes were associated with RA. In the majority of cases, recessive and multiplicative modes of inheritance explained the observed associations. This study demonstrates that ethnicity affects the genetic associations in RA.

  12. An algorithm for converting a virtual-bond chain into a complete polypeptide backbone chain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luo, N.; Shibata, M.; Rein, R.

    1991-01-01

    A systematic analysis is presented of the algorithm for converting a virtual-bond chain, defined by the coordinates of the alpha-carbons of a given protein, into a complete polypeptide backbone. An alternative algorithm, based upon the same set of geometric parameters used in the Purisima-Scheraga algorithm but with a different "linkage map" of the algorithmic procedures, is proposed. The global virtual-bond chain geometric constraints are more easily separable from the loal peptide geometric and energetic constraints derived from, for example, the Ramachandran criterion, within the framework of this approach.

  13. Laser amplifier chain

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, R.P.

    1992-10-20

    A laser amplifier chain has a plurality of laser amplifiers arranged in a chain to sequentially amplify a low-power signal beam to produce a significantly higher-power output beam. Overall efficiency of such a chain is improved if high-gain, low efficiency amplifiers are placed on the upstream side of the chain where only a very small fraction of the total pumped power is received by the chain and low-gain, high-efficiency amplifiers are placed on the downstream side where a majority of pumping energy is received by the chain. 6 figs.

  14. Laser amplifier chain

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    A laser amplifier chain has a plurality of laser amplifiers arranged in a chain to sequentially amplify a low-power signal beam to produce a significantly higher-power output beam. Overall efficiency of such a chain is improved if high-gain, low efficiency amplifiers are placed on the upstream side of the chain where only a very small fraction of the total pumped power is received by the chain and low-gain, high-efficiency amplifiers are placed on the downstream side where a majority of pumping energy is received by the chain.

  15. Solution structure for Pandinus toxin K-alpha (PiTX-K alpha), a selective blocker of A-type potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Tenenholz, T C; Rogowski, R S; Collins, J H; Blaustein, M P; Weber, D J

    1997-03-11

    PiTX-K alpha, a 35-residue peptide recently isolated from the venom of Pandinus imperator, blocks the rapidly inactivating (A-type) K+ channel(s) in rat brain synaptosomes and the cloned Kv 1.2 potassium channel at very low toxin concentrations (6 nM and 32 pM, respectively) [Rogowski, R. S., Collins, J. H., O'Neil, T. J., Gustafson, T. A., Werkman, T. A., Rogawski, M. A., Tenenholz, T. C., Weber, D. J., & Blaustein, M. P. (1996) Mol. Pharmacol. 50, 1167-1177]. The three-dimensional structure of PiTX-K alpha was determined using NMR spectroscopy in order to understand its selectivity and affinity toward K+ channels. PiTX-K alpha was found to have an alpha-helix from residues 10 to 21 and two beta-strands (betaI, 26-28; betaII, 33-35) connected by a type II beta-turn to form a small antiparallel beta-sheet. Three disulfide bonds, which are conserved in all members of the charybdotoxin family (alpha-K toxins), anchor one face of the alpha-helix to the beta-sheet. The N-terminal portion of PiTX-K alpha has three fewer residues than other alpha-K toxins such as charybdotoxin. Rather than forming a third beta-strand as found for other alpha-K toxins, the N-terminal region of PiTX-K alpha adopts an extended conformation. This structural difference in PiTX-K alpha together with differences in sequence at Pro-10, Tyr-14, and Asn-25 (versus Ser-10, Trp-14, and Arg-25 in CTX) may explain why PiTX-K alpha does not block maxi-K+ channels. Differences in three-dimensional structure between PiTX-K alpha and charybdotoxin are also observed in both the tight turn and the loop that connects the first beta-strand to the alpha-helix. As a result, side chains of two residues (Tyr-23 and Arg-31) are in regions of PiTX-K alpha that probably interact with rapidly inactivating A-type K+ channels. The analogous residues in charybdotoxin are positioned differently on the toxin surface. Thus, the locations of Tyr-23 and Arg-31 side chains in PiTX-K alpha could explain why this toxin blocks A

  16. Cloning and purification of alpha-neurotoxins from king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah).

    PubMed

    He, Ying-Ying; Lee, Wei-Hui; Zhang, Yun

    2004-09-01

    Thirteen complete and three partial cDNA sequences were cloned from the constructed king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom gland cDNA library. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences of king cobra with those from other snake venoms revealed that obtained cDNAs are highly homologous to snake venom alpha-neurotoxins. Alignment of deduced mature peptide sequences of the obtained clones with those of other reported alpha-neurotoxins from the king cobra venom indicates that our obtained 16 clones belong to long-chain neurotoxins (seven), short-chain neurotoxins (seven), weak toxin (one) and variant (one), respectively. Up to now, two out of 16 newly cloned king cobra alpha-neurotoxins have identical amino acid sequences with CM-11 and Oh-6A/6B, which have been characterized from the same venom. Furthermore, five long-chain alpha-neurotoxins and two short-chain alpha-neurotoxins were purified from crude venom and their N-terminal amino acid sequences were determined. The cDNAs encoding the putative precursors of the purified native peptide were also determined based on the N-terminal amino acid sequencing. The purified alpha-neurotoxins showed different lethal activities on mice.

  17. Mouse interleukin-2 structure-function studies: substitutions in the first alpha-helix can specifically inactivate p70 receptor binding and mutations in the fifth alpha-helix can specifically inactivate p55 receptor binding.

    PubMed Central

    Zurawski, S M; Zurawski, G

    1989-01-01

    The function of two alpha-helical regions of mouse interleukin-2 were analyzed by saturation substitution analysis. The functional parts of the first alpha-helix (A) was defined as residues 31-39 by the observation that proline substitutions within this region inactivate the protein. Four residues within alpha-helix A, Leu31, Asp34, Leu35 and Leu38, were found to be crucial for biological activity. Structural modeling suggested that these four residues are clustered on one face of alpha-helix A. Residues 31 and 35 had to remain hydrophobic for the molecule to be functional. At residue 38 there was a preference for hydrophobic side chain residues, while at residue 34 some small side chain residues as well as acidic or amide side chain residues were functionally acceptable. Inactivating changes at residue 34 had no effect upon the ability of the protein to interact with the p55 receptor. Disruption of the fifth alpha-helix (E), which had little effect upon biological activity, resulted in an inability of the protein to interact with the p55 receptor. Mutagenesis of the alpha-helix E region demonstrated that alpha-helicity and the nature of the side chain residues in this region were unimportant for biological activity. The region immediately proximal to alpha-helix E was important only for the single intramolecular disulfide linkage. PMID:2583124

  18. TNF-alpha infusion impairs corpora cavernosa reactivity.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Fernando S; Zemse, Saiprazad; Giachini, Fernanda R C; Carneiro, Zidonia N; Lima, Victor V; Webb, R Clinton; Tostes, Rita C

    2009-03-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED), as well as cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), is associated with endothelial dysfunction and increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). We hypothesized that increased TNF-alpha levels impair cavernosal function. In vitro organ bath studies were used to measure cavernosal reactivity in mice infused with vehicle or TNF-alpha (220 ng/kg/min) for 14 days. Gene expression of nitric oxide synthase isoforms was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Corpora cavernosa from TNF-alpha-infused mice exhibited decreased nitric oxide (NO)-dependent relaxation, which was associated with decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) cavernosal expression. Cavernosal strips from the TNF-alpha-infused mice displayed decreased nonadrenergic-noncholinergic (NANC)-induced relaxation (59.4 +/- 6.2 vs. control: 76.2 +/- 4.7; 16 Hz) compared with the control animals. These responses were associated with decreased gene expression of eNOS and nNOS (P < 0.05). Sympathetic-mediated, as well as phenylephrine (PE)-induced, contractile responses (PE-induced contraction; 1.32 +/- 0.06 vs. control: 0.9 +/- 0.09, mN) were increased in cavernosal strips from TNF-alpha-infused mice. Additionally, infusion of TNF-alpha increased cavernosal responses to endothelin-1 and endothelin receptor A subtype (ET(A)) receptor expression (P < 0.05) and slightly decreased tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor 1 (TNFR1) expression (P = 0.063). Corpora cavernosa from TNF-alpha-infused mice display increased contractile responses and decreased NANC nerve-mediated relaxation associated with decreased eNOS and nNOS gene expression. These changes may trigger ED and indicate that TNF-alpha plays a detrimental role in erectile function. Blockade of TNF-alpha actions may represent an alternative therapeutic approach for ED, especially in pathologic conditions associated with increased levels

  19. Co-regulation of the atrial natriuretic factor and cardiac myosin light chain-2 genes during alpha-adrenergic stimulation of neonatal rat ventricular cells. Identification of cis sequences within an embryonic and a constitutive contractile protein gene which mediate inducible expression.

    PubMed

    Knowlton, K U; Baracchini, E; Ross, R S; Harris, A N; Henderson, S A; Evans, S M; Glembotski, C C; Chien, K R

    1991-04-25

    To study the mechanisms which mediate the transcriptional activation of cardiac genes during alpha adrenergic stimulation, the present study examined the regulated expression of three cardiac genes, a ventricular embryonic gene (atrial natriuretic factor, ANF), a constitutively expressed contractile protein gene (cardiac MLC-2), and a cardiac sodium channel gene. alpha 1-Adrenergic stimulation activates the expression and release of ANF from neonatal ventricular cells. As assessed by RNase protection analyses, treatment with alpha-adrenergic agonists increases the steady-state levels of ANF mRNA by greater than 15-fold. However, a rat cardiac sodium channel gene mRNA is not induced, indicating that alpha-adrenergic stimulation does not lead to an increase in the expression of all cardiac genes. Studies employing a series of rat ANF luciferase and rat MLC-2 luciferase fusion genes identify 315- and 92-base pair cis regulatory sequences within an embryonic gene (ANF) and a constitutively expressed contractile protein gene (MLC-2), respectively, which mediate alpha-adrenergic-inducible gene expression. Transfection of various ANF luciferase reporters into neonatal rat ventricular cells demonstrated that upstream sequences which mediate tissue-specific expression (-3003 to -638) can be segregated from those responsible for inducibility. The lack of inducibility of a cardiac Na+ channel gene, and the segregation of ANF gene sequences which mediate cardiac specific from those which mediate inducible expression, provides further insight into the relationship between muscle-specific and inducible expression during cardiac myocyte hypertrophy. Based on these results, a testable model is proposed for the induction of embryonic cardiac genes and constitutively expressed contractile protein genes and the noninducibility of a subset of cardiac genes during alpha-adrenergic stimulation of neonatal rat ventricular cells.

  20. Complete primary structure of rainbow trout type I collagen consisting of alpha1(I)alpha2(I)alpha3(I) heterotrimers.

    PubMed

    Saito, M; Takenouchi, Y; Kunisaki, N; Kimura, S

    2001-05-01

    The subunit compositions of skin and muscle type I collagens from rainbow trout were found to be alpha1(I)alpha2(I)alpha3(I) and [alpha1(I)](2)alpha2(I), respectively. The occurrence of alpha3(I) has been observed only for bonyfish. The skin collagen exhibited more susceptibility to both heat denaturation and MMP-13 digestion than the muscle counterpart; the former had a lower denaturation temperature by about 0.5 degrees C than the latter. The lower stability of skin collagen, however, is not due to the low levels of imino acids because the contents of Pro and Hyp were almost constant in both collagens. On the other hand, some cDNAs coding for the N-terminal and/or a part of triple-helical domains of proalpha(I) chains were cloned from the cDNA library of rainbow trout fibroblasts. These cDNAs together with the previously cloned collagen cDNAs gave information about the complete primary structure of type I procollagen. The main triple-helical domain of each proalpha(I) chain had 338 uninterrupted Gly-X-Y triplets consisting of 1014 amino acids and was unique in its high content of Gly-Gly doublets. In particular, the bonyfish-specific alpha(I) chain, proalpha3(I) was characterized by the small number of Gly-Pro-Pro triplets, 19, and the large number of Gly-Gly doublets, 38, in the triple-helical domain, compared to 23 and 22, respectively, for proalpha1(I). The small number of Gly-Pro-Pro and the large number of Gly-Gly in proalpha3(I) was assumed to partially loosen the triple-helical structure of skin collagen, leading to the lower stability of skin collagen mentioned above. Finally, phylogenetic analyses revealed that proalpha3(I) had diverged from proalpha1(I). This study is the first report of the complete primary structure of fish type I procollagen.

  1. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

    1996-06-11

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone. 5 figs.

  2. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Allander, Krag S.; Bounds, John A.

    1996-01-01

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone.

  3. TNF-alpha SNP haplotype frequencies in equidae.

    PubMed

    Brown, J J; Ollier, W E R; Thomson, W; Matthews, J B; Carter, S D; Binns, M; Pinchbeck, G; Clegg, P D

    2006-05-01

    Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays a crucial role in the regulation of inflammatory and immune responses. In all vertebrate species the genes encoding TNF-alpha are located within the major histocompatability complex. In the horse TNF-alpha has been ascribed a role in a variety of important disease processes. Previously two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reported within the 5' un-translated region of the equine TNF-alpha gene. We have examined the equine TNF-alpha promoter region further for additional SNPs by analysing DNA from 131 horses (Equus caballus), 19 donkeys (E. asinus), 2 Grant's zebras (E. burchellii boehmi) and one onager (E. hemionus). Two further SNPs were identified at nucleotide positions 24 (T/G) and 452 (T/C) relative to the first nucleotide of the 522 bp polymerase chain reaction product. A sequence variant at position 51 was observed between equidae. SNaPSHOT genotyping assays for these and the two previously reported SNPs were performed on 457 horses comprising seven different breeds and 23 donkeys to determine the gene frequencies. SNP frequencies varied considerably between different horse breeds and also between the equine species. In total, nine different TNF-alpha promoter SNP haplotypes and their frequencies were established amongst the various equidae examined, with some haplotypes being found only in horses and others only in donkeys or zebras. The haplotype frequencies observed varied greatly between different horse breeds. Such haplotypes may relate to levels of TNF-alpha production and disease susceptibility and further investigation is required to identify associations between particular haplotypes and altered risk of disease.

  4. Aplastic crisis revealing the diagnosis of Hb Evans [alpha62(E11)Val-->Met, GTG-->ATG (alpha2)] in a Hispanic kindred: case report and review.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Laurie A; Van Hoff, Jack; Kutlar, Ferdane; Gallagher, Patrick G

    2007-01-01

    This report describes a Hispanic girl who presented in aplastic crisis due to parvovirus infection. She was subsequently found to have a chronic hemolytic anemia secondary to an unstable hemoglobinopathy. Genetic testing revealed that the girl and two symptomatic family members had Hb Evans [alpha62(E11)Val-->Met, GTG-->ATG (alpha2)], an unstable hemoglobin (Hb) variant due to a mutation in the alpha2-globin chain. Hb Evans has been described only once previously, in a Caucasian kindred. Literature review indicates aplastic crisis is a rare initial presentation of unstable hemoglobinopathies and that these disorders are infrequent but important causes of hemolytic anemia in Hispanic patients.

  5. Long range alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; Wolf, M.A.; McAtee, J.L.; Unruh, W.P.; Cucchiara, A.L.; Huchton, R.L.

    1993-02-02

    An alpha particle detector capable of detecting alpha radiation from distant sources. In one embodiment, a high voltage is generated in a first electrically conductive mesh while a fan draws air containing air molecules ionized by alpha particles through an air passage and across a second electrically conductive mesh. The current in the second electrically conductive mesh can be detected and used for measurement or alarm. The detector can be used for area, personnel and equipment monitoring.

  6. Long range alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Wolf, Michael A.; McAtee, James L.; Unruh, Wesley P.; Cucchiara, Alfred L.; Huchton, Roger L.

    1993-01-01

    An alpha particle detector capable of detecting alpha radiation from distant sources. In one embodiment, a high voltage is generated in a first electrically conductive mesh while a fan draws air containing air molecules ionized by alpha particles through an air passage and across a second electrically conductive mesh. The current in the second electrically conductive mesh can be detected and used for measurement or alarm. The detector can be used for area, personnel and equipment monitoring.

  7. A sulfated alpha-L-fucan from sea cucumber.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, A C; Vieira, R P; Mourão, P A; Mulloy, B

    1994-03-04

    A purified sulfated alpha-L-fucan from the sea cucumber body wall was studied, before and after almost complete desulfation, using methylation analysis and NMR spectroscopy. NMR analysis indicates that 2,4-di-O-sulfo-L-fucopyranose and unsubstituted fucopyranose are present in equal proportions, and that 2-O-sulfo-L-fucopyranose is present in twice that proportion. There is some NMR evidence that a regular repeating sequence of four residues comprises most or all of the polysaccharide chain.

  8. Distribution of alpha3, alpha5 and alpha(v) integrin subunits in mature and immature human oocytes.

    PubMed

    Capmany, G; Mart, M; Santaló, J; Bolton, V N

    1998-10-01

    The distribution of three integrin subunits, alpha3, alpha5 and alpha(v), in immature and mature human oocytes has been examined using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. The results demonstrate that both alpha5 and alpha(v) are present at the germinal vesicle stage, while alpha3 was only detected in oocytes after germinal vesicle breakdown, in metaphase I and II stage oocytes. The cortical concentration of integrin subunits alpha3 and alpha5 is consistent with their localization in the oolemma. In contrast, the homogeneous distribution of alpha(v) throughout the oocyte suggests the existence of cytoplasmic reservoirs of this protein in the oocyte.

  9. Synthesis of 3 alpha, 5 alpha-tetrahydroaldosterone.

    PubMed

    Harnik, M; Kashman, Y; Morris, D J

    1984-06-01

    3 alpha, 5 alpha-Tetrahydroaldosterone (12a), a metabolite of aldosterone, has been synthesized from the lactone 2a or, preferably 11 beta, 21-dihydroxy-5-pregnene-3,20-dione-18-oic acid 3,20-di-(ethylene glycol)-ketal (18----11) lactone 21-acetate (6b), via 11 beta, 21-dihydroxy-5 alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione-18-oic acid 3,20-di-(ethylene glycol) ketal (18----11) lactone 21-acetate (4b). Selective hydrolysis of the latter at C-3 furnished the monoketal 5 which, on reduction with potassium tri-sec-butylborohydride, yielded predominantly 3 alpha, 11 beta, 21-trihydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one-18-oic acid 20-(ethylene glycol)-ketal (18----11) lactone (8a) and its acetate 8b. Further reduction with diisobutylaluminum hydride afforded 3 alpha, 5 alpha-tetrahydroaldosterone-20-ketal (10a), which was directly hydrolyzed to 12a with dilute acid in tetrahydrofuran-dioxan. Periodate oxidation led to the gamma-etiolactone 14a, which was then further converted into 5 alpha-dihydroaldosterone-gamma-etiolactone (14c).

  10. Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority's Reading Improvement Program for Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marable, June Morehead

    This document discusses the founding and establishment of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority's reading experience pilot project. The efforts of this project were aligned with those of Right to Read and Reading Is Fundamental (RIF). Because of the response from parents and children, plans are being made to increase present operations within the next…

  11. The analysis of predictability of recent alpha decay formulae and the alpha partial half-lives of some exotic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta-Schubert, N.; Reyes, M. A.; Tamez, V. A.

    2009-04-20

    Alpha decay is one of the two main decay modes of the heaviest nuclei, (SHE), and constitutes one of the dominant decay modes of highly neutron deficient medium mass nuclei ('exotics'). Thus identifying and characterizing the alpha decay chains form a crucial part of the identification of SHE. We report the extension of the previously developed method for the detailed and systematic investigation of the reliability of the three main extant analytical formulae of alpha decay half-lives: the generalized liquid drop model based formula of Royer et al. (FR), the Sobiczewski modified semi-empirical Viola-Seaborg formula (VSS) and the recent phenomenologicalmore » formula of Sobiczewski and Parkhomenko (SP)« less

  12. AlphaACT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-20

    t**k HOUM 1i7iOSh»d, uro .*fto»d ^Sunflower V«()*Uil«n Rviiauiani :{31 Chkn Bii^ R:ad •Pel Lov*ri Cotnpanton ^&i«na’i RMUuram 1U17 VVtMjltfl...Select a case to tailor • Click Customize CUSTOMIZE lO ) Alpha j[~:: 0:09:15 3 .~^’’ I ~J^’ Purpose Tasks Tailor the case to scenario...present o o ® =T Does the event area have tall buildings o o ® a^ ^KBPPB^ or choose up lo 3 n«nts Irom the VKiii^P Knowledge Base bela» Tim

  13. T-cell receptor V sub. alpha. and C sub. alpha. alleles associated with multiple sclerosis and myasthenia gravis

    SciTech Connect

    Oksenberg, J.R.; Cavalli-Sforza, L.L.; Steinman, L.

    1989-02-01

    Polymorphic markers in genes encoding the {alpha} chain of the human T-cell receptor (TcR) have been detected by Southern blot analysis in Pss I digests. Polymorphic bands were observed at 6.3 and 2.0 kilobases (kb) with frequencies of 0.30 and 0.44, respectively, in the general population. Using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, the authors amplified selected sequences derived from the full-length TcR {alpha} cDNA probe. These PcR products were used as specific probes to demonstrate that the 6.3-kb polymorphic fragment hybridizes to the variable (V)-region probe and the 2.0-kb fragment hybridizes to the constant (C)-region probe. Segregation of themore » polymorphic bands was analyzed in family studies. To look for associations between these markers and autoimmune diseases, the authors have studied the restriction fragment length polymorphism distribution of the Pss I markers in patients with multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, and Graves disease. Significant differences in the frequency of the polymorphic V{sub {alpha}} and C{sub {alpha}} markers were identified between patients and healthy individuals.« less

  14. Gushing metal chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, Alexander; Sukhanov, Alexander; Tsvetkov, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    This article addresses the problem in which a chain falls from a glass from some height. This phenomenon demonstrates a paradoxical rise of the chain over the glass. To explain this effect, an initial hypothesis and an appropriate theory are proposed for calculating the steady fall parameters of the chain. For this purpose, the modified Cayley's problem of falling chain given its rise due to the centrifugal force of upward inertia is solved. Results show that the lift caused by an increase in linear density at the part of chain where it is being bent (the upper part) is due to the convergence of the chain balls to one another. The experiments confirm the obtained estimates of the lifting chain.

  15. The ability of lens alpha crystallin to protect against heat-induced aggregation is age-dependent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horwitz, J.; Emmons, T.; Takemoto, L.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Alpha crystallin was prepared from newborn and aged bovine lenses. SDS-PAGE and tryptic peptide mapping demonstrated that both preparations contained only the alpha-A and alpha-B chains, with no significant contamination of other crystallins. Compared with alpha crystallin from the aged lens, alpha crystallin from the newborn lens was much more effective in the inhibition of beta L crystallin denaturation and precipitation induced in vitro by heat. Together, these results demonstrate that during the aging process, the alpha crystallins lose their ability to protect against protein denaturation, consistent with the hypothesis that the alpha crystallins play an important role in the maintenance of protein native structure in the intact lens.

  16. The electrophoretically 'slow' and 'fast' forms of the alpha 2-macroglobulin molecule.

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, A J; Brown, M A; Sayers, C A

    1979-01-01

    alpha 2-Macroglobulin (alpha 2M) was isolated from human plasma by a four-step procedure: poly(ethylene glyco) fractionation, gel chromatography, euglobulin precipitation and immunoadsorption. No contaminants were detected in the final preparations by electrophoresis or immunoprecipitation. The protein ran as a single slow band in gel electrophoresis, and was designated 'S-alpha 2M'. S-alpha 2M bound about 2 mol of trypsin/mol. Treatment of S-alpha 2M with a proteinase or ammonium salts produced a form of the molecule more mobile in electrophoresis, and lacking proteinase-binding activity (F-alpha 2M). The electrophoretic mobility of the F-alpha 2M resulting from reaction with NH4+ salts was identical with that of proteinase complexes. We attribute the change in electrophoretic mobility of the alpha 2M to a conformation change, but there was no evidence of a change in pI or Strokes radius. Electrophoresis of S-alpha 2M in the presence of sodium dodecylsulphate gave results consistent with the view that the alpha 2M molecule is a tetramer of identical subunits, assembled as a non-covalent pair of disulphide-linked dimers. Some of the subunits seemed to be 'nicked' into two-thires-length and one-third-length chains, however. This was not apparent with F-alpha 2M produced by ammonium salts. F-alpha 2M produced by trypsin showed two new bands attributable to cleavage of the subunit polypeptide chain near the middle. Immunoassays of F-alpha 2M gave 'rockets' 12-29% lower than those with S-alpha 2M. The nature of the interactions between subunits in S-alpha 2M and F-alpha 2M was investigated by treating each form with glutaraldehyde before electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate. A much greater degree of cross-linking was observed with the F-alpha 2M, indicating that the subunits interact most closely in this form of the molecule. Exposure of S-alpha 2M to 3 M-urea or pH3 resulted in dissociation to the disulphide-bonded half-molecules; these did not

  17. Mind Your p's and Alphas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallings, William M.

    In the educational research literature alpha, the a priori level of significance, and p, the a posteriori probability of obtaining a test statistic of at least a certain value when the null hypothesis is true, are often confused. Explanations for this confusion are offered. Paradoxically, alpha retains a prominent place in textbook discussions of…

  18. Study on molecular epidemiology of the alpha-thalassemias in Liuzhou City, Guangxi Autonomous Region, China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Ren; Liu, Jingzhong; Wang, Lirong; Liang, Xin; Xiao, Bai; Su, Liu; Zhou, Yan; Pan, Lizhen

    2004-01-01

    Guangxi is one of the provinces of Southern China with the highest incidence of alpha-thalassemia (thal). Liuzhou is the second biggest city in Guangxi. To find out the incidence of the various alpha-thal genotypes, and their distribution in the Liuzhou area, an F820 Blood Cell Analysis System was used to measure the parameters of red blood cells. A SPIFE Rapid Auto-Electrophoresis System was used to analyze the normal and abnormal hemoglobins (Hbs). Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) was used to detect the alpha-globin genotypes. Thirty-two (2.05%) out of 7805 young couples undergoing pre-marriage counseling, were diagnosed as having an Hb H (beta4) disease. The study of 1228 cord blood samples revealed 138 newborn children carrying an alpha-thal determinant with nine different genotypes, thus making the total incidence of alpha-thal 11.24%. Among 185 cases of Hb H, 119 (64.1%) were confirmed as being deletional, and 66 cases (35.7%) nondeletional types. The severity of the Hb H diseases could be classified in the following order: alphaCSalpha/--SEA (alphaConstant (Spring)alpha/--Southeast Asia); alpha(-4.2)/--SEA; alpha(-3.7)/--SEA. Ten cases of alpha-thal determinants were found in combination with beta-thal. The mPCR technique can detect all kinds of combinations of the three common large deletions (--SEA, alpha(-4.2) and alpha(-3.7)) accurately and conveniently.

  19. Prevalence of -alpha(3.7) and alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) alleles in sickle cell trait and beta-thalassemia patients in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Nava, María Paulina; Ibarra, Bertha; Magaña, María Teresa; de la Luz Chávez, María; Perea, F Javier

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of alpha-globin gene mutations in three groups of Mexican unrelated individuals. The first two groups were normal and sickle cell trait individuals from the Costa Chica region, a place with a 12.8% frequency of HbS carriers, and the third group comprised of Mexican mestizo patients with beta-thalassemia. We searched for -alpha(3.7) and -alpha(4.2) alpha(+)-thalassemia deletion alleles, as well as the alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) triplication through long-gap PCR. The alleles -alpha(3.7) and alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) were found in the heterozygote state only; 19% of the normal subjects had the -alpha(3.7) allele, and 2% showed the alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) allele. In individuals with the sickle cell trait, 17% had the -alpha(3.7) deletion, and the alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) triplication was observed in 3% of these individuals. We revealed that 16% of the subjects with beta-thalassemia showed the -alpha(3.7) deletion and 28% the alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) triplication. The -alpha(4.2) deletion was not detected in any individual. The frequency of the -alpha(3.7) allele was roughly the same in the three groups studied; this can be explained by the fact that the three groups have common genes from Africa and the Mediterranean, where a high prevalence of alpha(+)-thalassemia has been observed. To our knowledge, the frequency of alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) triplication observed in the Mexican beta-thalassemia patients is the highest reported. As the -alpha(3.7) and alpha alpha alpha(anti3.7) alleles are very common in our selected populations, we believe that there is a need to investigate systematically the alpha-globin gene mutations in all hemoglobinopathies in the Mexican population.

  20. Proline-catalysed asymmetric amination of alpha,alpha-disubstituted aldehydes: synthesis of configurationally stable enantioenriched alpha-aminoaldehydes.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Henning; Vanderheiden, Sylvia; Bräse, Stefan

    2003-10-07

    Proline-catalysed amination of alpha,alpha-disubstituted racemic aldehydes with azodicarboxylates proceeds smoothly to give configurationally stable scalemic aldehydes and oxazolidinones in up to 86% ee.

  1. Structural analyses of polymorphic transitions of sn-1, 3-distearoyl-2-oleoylglycerol (SOS) and sn-1, 3-dioleoyl-2-stearoylglycerol (OSO): assessment on steric hindrance of unsaturated and saturated acyl chain interactions.

    PubMed

    Yano, J; Sato, K; Kaneko, F; Small, D M; Kodali, D R

    1999-01-01

    Polymorphic transformations in two saturated-unsaturated mixed acid triacylglycerols, SOS (sn -1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoylglycerol) and OSO (sn -1,3-dioleoyl-2-stearoylglycerol), have been studied by FT-IR spectroscopy using deuterated specimens in which stearoyl chains are fully deuterated. A reversible phase transition between sub alpha and alpha and a series of irreversible transitions (alpha-->gamma-->beta'-->beta (beta2, beta1) for SOS and alpha-->beta'-->beta for OSO) were studied with an emphasis on the conformational ordering process of stearoyl and oleoyl chains. The alpha-->sub alpha reversible transition was due to the orientational change of stearoyl chains in the lateral directions from the hexagonal subcell to a perpendicularly packed one. As the first stage of the series of irreversible transitions from alpha to beta, the conformational ordering of saturated chains took place in the alpha-->gamma transition of SOS and in the alpha-->beta' transition of OSO; one stearoyl chain in SOS and OSO takes the all-trans conformation and the second stearoyl chain in SOS takes the bent conformation like those observed in the most stable beta-type. As the final stage, the ordering of unsaturated chains occurred in the beta'-->beta transition both for SOS and OSO. A conversion in the layered structure from bilayer to trilayer was also accompanied by the conformational ordering in the alpha-->gamma transition of SOS and in the beta'-->beta transition of OSO.

  2. Sequence similarities and evolutionary relationships of microbial, plant and animal alpha-amylases.

    PubMed

    Janecek, S

    1994-09-01

    Amino acid sequence comparison of 37 alpha-amylases from microbial, plant and animal sources was performed to identify their mutual sequence similarities in addition to the five already described conserved regions. These sequence regions were examined from structure/function and evolutionary perspectives. An unrooted evolutionary tree of alpha-amylases was constructed on a subset of 55 residues from the alignment of sequence similarities along with conserved regions. The most important new information extracted from the tree was as follows: (a) the close evolutionary relationship of Alteromonas haloplanctis alpha-amylase (thermolabile enzyme from an antarctic psychrotroph) with the already known group of homologous alpha-amylases from streptomycetes, Thermomonospora curvata, insects and mammals, and (b) the remarkable 40.1% identity between starch-saccharifying Bacillus subtilis alpha-amylase and the enzyme from the ruminal bacterium Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, an alpha-amylase with an unusually large polypeptide chain (943 residues in the mature enzyme). Due to a very high degree of similarity, the whole amino acid sequences of three groups of alpha-amylases, namely (a) fungi and yeasts, (b) plants, and (c) A. haloplanctis, streptomycetes, T. curvata, insects and mammals, were aligned independently and their unrooted distance trees were calculated using these alignments. Possible rooting of the trees was also discussed. Based on the knowledge of the location of the five disulfide bonds in the structure of pig pancreatic alpha-amylase, the possible disulfide bridges were established for each of these groups of homologous alpha-amylases.

  3. alpha-Crystallin A sequences of Alligator mississippiensis and the lizard Tupinambis teguixin: molecular evolution and reptilian phylogeny.

    PubMed

    de Jong, W W; Zweers, A; Versteeg, M; Dessauer, H C; Goodman, M

    1985-11-01

    The amino acid sequences of the eye lens protein alpha-crystallin A from many mammalian and avian species, two frog species, and a dogfish have provided detailed information about the molecular evolution of this protein and allowed some useful inferences about phylogenetic relationships among these species. We now have isolated and sequenced the alpha-crystallins of the American alligator and the common tegu lizard. The reptilian alpha A chains appear to have evolved as slowly as those of other vertebrates, i.e., at two to three amino acid replacements per 100 residues in 100 Myr. The lack of charged replacements and the general types and distribution of replacements also are similar to those in other vertebrate alpha A chains. Maximum-parsimony analyses of the total data set of 67 vertebrate alpha A sequences support the monophyletic origin of alligator, tegu, and birds and favor the grouping of crocodilians and birds as surviving sister groups in the subclass Archosauria.

  4. Supply chain planning classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hvolby, Hans-Henrik; Trienekens, Jacques; Bonde, Hans

    2001-10-01

    Industry experience a need to shift in focus from internal production planning towards planning in the supply network. In this respect customer oriented thinking becomes almost a common good amongst companies in the supply network. An increase in the use of information technology is needed to enable companies to better tune their production planning with customers and suppliers. Information technology opportunities and supply chain planning systems facilitate companies to monitor and control their supplier network. In spite if these developments, most links in today's supply chains make individual plans, because the real demand information is not available throughout the chain. The current systems and processes of the supply chains are not designed to meet the requirements now placed upon them. For long term relationships with suppliers and customers, an integrated decision-making process is needed in order to obtain a satisfactory result for all parties. Especially when customized production and short lead-time is in focus. An effective value chain makes inventory available and visible among the value chain members, minimizes response time and optimizes total inventory value held throughout the chain. In this paper a supply chain planning classification grid is presented based current manufacturing classifications and supply chain planning initiatives.

  5. Alpha-particle spectrometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorenstein, P.; Bjorkholm, P.

    1972-01-01

    Mapping the radon emanation of the moon was studied to find potential areas of high activity by detection of radon isotopes and their daughter products. It was felt that based on observation of regions overflown by Apollo spacecraft and within the field of view of the alpha-particle spectrometer, a radon map could be constructed, identifying and locating lunar areas of outgassing. The basic theory of radon migration from natural concentrations of uranium and thorium is discussed in terms of radon decay and the production of alpha particles. The preliminary analysis of the results indicates no significant alpha emission.

  6. Organocatalyzed asymmetric alpha-oxidation, alpha-aminoxylation and alpha-amination of carbonyl compounds.

    PubMed

    Vilaivan, Tirayut; Bhanthumnavin, Worawan

    2010-02-11

    Organocatalytic asymmetric alpha-oxidation and amination reactions of carbonyl compounds are highly useful synthetic methodologies, especially in generating chiral building blocks that previously have not been easily accessible by traditional methods. The concept is relatively new and therefore the list of new catalysts, oxidizing and aminating reagents, as well as new substrates, are expanding at an amazing rate. The scope of this review includes new reactions and catalysts, mechanistic aspects and synthetic applications of alpha-oxidation, hydroxylation, aminoxylation, amination, hydrazination, hydroxyamination and related alpha-heteroatom functionalization of aldehydes, ketones and related active methylene compounds published during 2005-2009.

  7. Critical Chain Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, John Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Critical Chains project management focuses on holding buffers at the project level vs. task level, and managing buffers as a project resource. A number of studies have shown that Critical Chain project management can significantly improve organizational schedule fidelity (i.e., improve the proportion of projects delivered on time) and reduce…

  8. Chain Reaction Polymerization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, James E.

    1981-01-01

    The salient features and importance of chain-reaction polymerization are discussed, including such topics as the thermodynamics of polymerization, free-radical polymerization kinetics, radical polymerization processes, copolymers, and free-radical chain, anionic, cationic, coordination, and ring-opening polymerizations. (JN)

  9. Supply Chain Interoperability Measurement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-19

    Supply Chain Interoperability Measurement DISSERTATION June 2015 Christos E. Chalyvidis, Major, Hellenic Air...ENS-DS-15-J-001 SUPPLY CHAIN INTEROPERABILITY MEASUREMENT DISSERTATION Presented to the Faculty Department of Operational Sciences...INTEROPERABILITY MEASUREMENT Christos E. Chalyvidis, BS, MSc. Major, Hellenic Air Force Committee Membership: Dr. A.W. Johnson Chair

  10. Cloning and characterization of the mouse alpha1C/A-adrenergic receptor gene and analysis of an alpha1C promoter in cardiac myocytes: role of an MCAT element that binds transcriptional enhancer factor-1 (TEF-1).

    PubMed

    O'Connell, T D; Rokosh, D G; Simpson, P C

    2001-05-01

    alpha1-Adrenergic receptor (AR) subtypes in the heart are expressed by myocytes but not by fibroblasts, a feature that distinguishes alpha1-ARs from beta-ARs. Here we studied myocyte-specific expression of alpha1-ARs, focusing on the subtype alpha1C (also called alpha1A), a subtype implicated in cardiac hypertrophic signaling in rat models. We first cloned the mouse alpha1C-AR gene, which consisted of two exons with an 18 kb intron, similar to the alpha1B-AR gene. The receptor coding sequence was >90% homologous to that of rat and human. alpha1C-AR transcription in mouse heart was initiated from a single Inr consensus sequence at -588 from the ATG; this and a putative polyadenylation sequence 8.5 kb 3' could account for the predominant 11 kb alpha1C mRNA in mouse heart. A 5'-nontranscribed fragment of 4.4 kb was active as a promoter in cardiac myocytes but not in fibroblasts. Promoter activity in myocytes required a single muscle CAT (MCAT) element, and this MCAT bound in vitro to recombinant and endogenous transcriptional enhancer factor-1. Thus, alpha1C-AR transcription in cardiac myocytes shares MCAT dependence with other cardiac-specific genes, including the alpha- and beta-myosin heavy chains, skeletal alpha-actin, and brain natriuretic peptide. However, the mouse alpha1C gene was not transcribed in the neonatal heart and was not activated by alpha1-AR and other hypertrophic agonists in rat myocytes, and thus differed from other MCAT-dependent genes and the rat alpha1C gene.

  11. Progesterone's 5 alpha-reduced metabolite, 3 alpha,5 alpha-THP, mediates lateral displacement of hamsters.

    PubMed

    Frye, Cheryl A; Rhodes, Madeline E

    2005-03-15

    5 alpha-Pregnan-3 alpha-ol-20-one (3 alpha,5 alpha-THP), progesterone (P4)'s 5 alpha-reduced, 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid oxidoreduced product, facilitates lordosis of rodents in part via agonist-like actions at GABA(A)/benzodiazepine receptor complexes in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Whether 3 alpha,5 alpha-THP influences another reproductively-relevant behavior, lateral displacement, of hamsters was investigated. Lateral displacement is the movement that female hamsters make with their perineum towards male-like tactile stimulation. This behavior facilitates, and is essential for, successful mating. Hamsters in behavioral estrus had greater lateral displacement responses when endogenous progestin levels were elevated compared to when progestin levels were lower. Administration of P4, a prohormone for 3 alpha,5 alpha-THP, dose-dependently (500 > 200 > 100, 50, or 0 microg) enhanced lateral displacement of ovariectomized hamsters that had been primed with SC estradiol benzoate (5 or 10 microg). Inhibiting P4's metabolism to 3 alpha,5 alpha-THP by co-administering finasteride, a 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor, or indomethacin, a 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase inhibitor, either systemically or to the VTA, significantly decreased lateral displacement and midbrain progestin levels of naturally receptive or hormone-primed hamsters compared to controls. These data suggest that lateral displacement is progestin-sensitive and requires the formation of 3 alpha,5 alpha-THP in the midbrain VTA.

  12. Alpha-Mannosidosis: Therapeutic Strategies.

    PubMed

    Ceccarini, Maria Rachele; Codini, Michela; Conte, Carmela; Patria, Federica; Cataldi, Samuela; Bertelli, Matteo; Albi, Elisabetta; Beccari, Tommaso

    2018-05-17

    Alpha-mannosidosis (α-mannosidosis) is a rare lysosomal storage disorder with an autosomal recessive inheritance caused by mutations in the gene encoding for the lysosomal α-d-mannosidase. So far, 155 variants from 191 patients have been identified and in part characterized at the biochemical level. Similarly to other lysosomal storage diseases, there is no relationship between genotype and phenotype in alpha-mannosidosis. Enzyme replacement therapy is at the moment the most effective therapy for lysosomal storage disease, including alpha-mannosidosis. In this review, the genetic of alpha-mannosidosis has been described together with the results so far obtained by two different therapeutic strategies: bone marrow transplantation and enzyme replacement therapy. The primary indication to offer hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients affected by alpha-mannosidosis is preservation of neurocognitive function and prevention of early death. The results obtained from a Phase I⁻II study and a Phase III study provide evidence of the positive clinical effect of the recombinant enzyme on patients with alpha-mannosidosis.

  13. Improved synthesis of 3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha, 24 = xi-tetrahydroxy-5 beta-cholestan-26-oic acid.

    PubMed

    Batta, A K; Tint, G S; Dayal, B; Shefer, S; Salen, G

    1982-06-01

    This paper describes three simple and short methods for the conversion of cholic acid into cholylaldehyde with protected hydroxyl groups. The first method involves lithium aluminum hydride reduction of the tetrahydropyranyl ether of methyl cholate and oxidation of the resulting primary alcohol with pyridinium chlorochromate. The second method employs diborane for the reduction of the -COOH group to the -CH2OH group, while the third method involves the reduction of 3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-triformyloxy-5 beta-cholan-24-oic acid (as the acid chloride) directly into 3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-triformyloxy-5 beta-cholan-24-al with TMA-ferride (tetramethylammonium hydridoirontetracarbonyl). The aldehyde obtained by any of the above methods underwent smooth Reformatsky reaction with ethyl alpha-bromopropionate to yield 3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha, 24 xi-tetrahydroxy-5 beta-cholestan-26-oic acid.

  14. 21 CFR 882.1610 - Alpha monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alpha monitor. 882.1610 Section 882.1610 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1610 Alpha monitor. (a) Identification. An alpha... electroencephalogram which is referred to as the alpha wave. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ...

  15. 21 CFR 882.1610 - Alpha monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alpha monitor. 882.1610 Section 882.1610 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1610 Alpha monitor. (a) Identification. An alpha... electroencephalogram which is referred to as the alpha wave. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ...

  16. 21 CFR 882.1610 - Alpha monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alpha monitor. 882.1610 Section 882.1610 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1610 Alpha monitor. (a) Identification. An alpha... electroencephalogram which is referred to as the alpha wave. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ...

  17. Binding of actin to lens alpha crystallins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalakrishnan, S.; Takemoto, L.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Actin has been coupled to a cyanogen bromide-activated Sepharose 4B column, then tested for binding to alpha, beta, and gamma crystallin preparations from the bovine lens. Alpha, but not beta or gamma, crystallins bound to the actin affinity column in a time dependent and saturable manner. Subfractionation of the alpha crystallin preparation into the alpha-A and alpha-B species, followed by incubation with the affinity column, demonstrated that both species bound approximately the same. Together, these studies demonstrate a specific and saturable binding of lens alpha-A and alpha-B with actin.

  18. Mitochondria mediate tumor necrosis factor-alpha/NF-kappaB signaling in skeletal muscle myotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Y. P.; Atkins, C. M.; Sweatt, J. D.; Reid, M. B.; Hamilton, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is implicated in muscle atrophy and weakness associated with a variety of chronic diseases. Recently, we reported that TNF-alpha directly induces muscle protein degradation in differentiated skeletal muscle myotubes, where it rapidly activates nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). We also have found that protein loss induced by TNF-alpha is NF-kappaB dependent. In the present study, we analyzed the signaling pathway by which TNF-alpha activates NF-kappaB in myotubes differentiated from C2C12 and rat primary myoblasts. We found that activation of NF-kappaB by TNF-alpha was blocked by rotenone or amytal, inhibitors of complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. On the other hand, antimycin A, an inhibitor of complex III, enhanced TNF-alpha activation of NK-kappaB. These results suggest a key role of mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mediating NF-kappaB activation in muscle. In addition, we found that TNF-alpha stimulated protein kinase C (PKC) activity. However, other signal transduction mediators including ceramide, Ca2+, phospholipase A2 (PLA2), and nitric oxide (NO) do not appear to be involved in the activation of NF-kappaB.

  19. Cr(II) reactivity of taurine/alpha-ketoglutarate dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Grzyska, Piotr K; Hausinger, Robert P

    2007-11-26

    The interaction of CrII with taurine/alpha-ketoglutarate (alphaKG) dioxygenase (TauD) was examined. CrII replaces FeII and binds stoichiometrically with alphaKG to the FeII/alphaKG binding site of the protein, with additional CrII used to generate a chromophore attributed to a CrIII-semiquinone in a small percentage of the sample. Formation of the latter oxygen-sensitive species requires the dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) quinone form of Tyr-73. This preformed side chain is generated by intracellular self-hydroxylation of Tyr-73 to form DOPA, which is subsequently oxidized to the quinone. No chromophore is generated when using NaBH4-treated sample, protein isolated from anaerobically grown cells, inactive TauD variants that are incapable of self-hydroxylation, or the Y73F active mutant of TauD. A CrIII-DOPA semiquinone also was observed in the herbicide hydroxylase SdpA.

  20. Characterization of alpha-ketobutyrate metabolism in rat tissues: effects of dietary protein and fasting.

    PubMed

    Steele, R D; Weber, H; Patterson, J I

    1984-04-01

    The oxidative decarboxylation of alpha-ketobutyrate was studied in rat tissue preparations. Decarboxylation was confined to the mitochondrial fraction and required coenzyme A, NAD, TPP and FAD for optimal activity in solubilized preparations. The pH optimum for this reaction in liver was 7.8, somewhat higher than that reported for other alpha-keto acid dehydrogenases. An apparent Km of 0.63 mM for alpha-ketobutyrate was determined for the rat liver system. Competition by other alpha-keto acids at 10 mM concentrations inhibited enzyme activity up to 75%. Tissue distribution of alpha-ketobutyrate dehydrogenase activity relative to liver activity was (in percent): liver, 100; heart, 127; brain, 63; kidney, 57; skeletal muscle, 38; and small intestine, 7. Total liver alpha-ketobutyrate dehydrogenase was decreased by 40% after a 24-hour fast. Similar results were found for kidney and heart activity. alpha-Aminobutyrate-pyruvate aminotransferase activity in liver or kidney was not affected by fasting; however, it was induced in liver by 50% after feeding a 40% casein diet for 10 days compared to rats fed a 20% casein diet. Increasing the dietary casein content from 6 through 40% of the diet resulted in about a fivefold increase in liver alpha-ketobutyrate dehydrogenase activity. The substantial extrahepatic capacity for alpha-ketobutyrate metabolism makes it unlikely that a loss of liver function results in an inability to metabolize alpha-ketobutyrate. Whether alpha-ketobutyrate is decarboxylated by a specific enzyme or by an already characterized complex such as pyruvate dehydrogenase or the branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase remains to be established.

  1. Partial rescue of glomerular laminin alpha5 mutations by wild-type endothelia produce hybrid glomeruli.

    PubMed

    Abrahamson, Dale R; St John, Patricia L; Isom, Kathryn; Robert, Barry; Miner, Jeffrey H

    2007-08-01

    Both endothelial cells and podocytes are sources for laminin alpha1 at the inception of glomerulogenesis and then for laminin alpha5 during glomerular maturation. Why glomerular basement membranes (GBM) undergo laminin transitions is unknown, but this may dictate glomerular morphogenesis. In mice that genetically lack laminin alpha5, laminin alpha5beta2gamma1 is not assembled, vascularized glomeruli fail to form, and animals die at midgestation with neural tube closure and placental deficits. It was previously shown that renal cortices of newborn mice contain endothelial progenitors (angioblasts) and that when embryonic day 12 kidneys are transplanted into newborn kidney, hybrid glomeruli (host-derived endothelium and donor-derived podocytes) result. Reasoning that host endothelium may correct the glomerular phenotype that is seen in laminin alpha5 mutants, alpha5 null embryonic day 12 metanephroi were grafted into wild-type newborn kidney. Hybrid glomeruli were identified in grafts by expression of a host-specific LacZ lineage marker. Labeling of glomerular hybrid GBM with chain-specific antibodies showed a markedly stratified distribution of laminins: alpha5 was found only on the inner endothelial half of GBM, whereas alpha1 located to outer layers beneath mutant podocytes. For measurement of the contribution of host endothelium to hybrid GBM, immunofluorescent signals for laminin alpha5 were quantified: Hybrid GBM contained approximately 50% the normal alpha5 complement as wild-type GBM. Electron microscopy of glomerular hybrids showed vascularization, but podocyte foot processes were absent. It was concluded that (1) endothelial and podocyte-derived laminins remain tethered to their cellular origin, (2) developing endothelial cells contribute large amounts of GBM laminins, and (3) podocyte foot process differentiation may require direct exposure to laminin alpha5.

  2. Efficient asymmetric alpha-oxyamination of aldehydes by resin-supported peptide catalyst in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Akagawa, Kengo; Fujiwara, Takuma; Sakamoto, Seiji; Kudo, Kazuaki

    2010-04-16

    The resin-supported peptide catalyst having the terminal five-residue Pro-d-Pro-Aib-Trp-Trp combined with polyleucine successfully catalyzed the asymmetric alpha-oxyamination of aldehydes in aqueous media. The secondary structure and the chirality sense of the hydrophobic polyleucine chain significantly affected both reactivity and enantioselectivity.

  3. Interaction of cord factor (alpha, alpha'-trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate) with phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Crowe, L M; Spargo, B J; Ioneda, T; Beaman, B L; Crowe, J H

    1994-08-24

    We previously reported that cord factor (alpha,alpha'-trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate) isolated from Nocardia asteroides strain GUH-2 strongly inhibits fusion between unilamellar vesicles containing acidic phospholipid. We chose to study the effects of this molecule on liposome fusion since the presence of N. asteroides GUH-2 in the phagosomes of mouse macrophages had been shown to prevent phagosomal acidification and inhibit phagosome-lysosome fusion. A virtually non-virulent strain, N. asteroides 10905, does not prevent acidification or phagosome-lysosome fusion and, further, contains only trace amounts of cord factor. In the present paper, we have investigated the effects of cord factor on phospholipid bilayers that could be responsible for the inhibition of fusion. We show that cord factor increases molecular area, measured by isothermal compression of a monolayer film, in a mixed monolayer more than would be expected based in its individual contribution to molecular area. Cord factor, as well as other glycolipids investigated, increased the overall hydration of bilayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine by 50%, as estimated from the unfrozen water fraction measured by differential scanning calorimetry. The effect of calcium on this increased molecular area and headgroup hydration was measured by fluorescence anisotropy and FTIR spectroscopy of phosphatidylserine liposomes. Both techniques showed that cord factor, incorporated at 10 mol%, increased acyl chain disorder over controls in the presence of Ca2+. However, FTIR showed that cord factor did not prevent headgroup dehydration by the Ca2+. The other glycolipids tested did not prevent either the Ca(2+)-induced chain crystallization or headgroup dehydration of phosphatidylserine bilayers. These data point to a possible role of the bulky mycolic acids of cord factor in preventing Ca(2+)-induced fusion of liposomes containing acidic phospholipids.

  4. Unraveling double stranded alpha-helical coiled coils: an x-ray diffraction study on hard alpha-keratin fibers.

    PubMed

    Kreplak, L; Doucet, J; Briki, F

    2001-04-15

    Transformations of proteins secondary and tertiary structures are generally studied in globular proteins in solution. In fibrous proteins, such as hard alpha-keratin, that contain long and well-defined double stranded alpha-helical coiled coil domains, such study can be directly done on the native fibrous tissue. In order to assess the structural behavior of the coiled coil domains under an axial mechanical stress, wide angle x-ray scattering and small angle x-ray scattering experiments have been carried out on stretched horse hair fibers at relative humidity around 30%. Our observations of the three major axial spacings as a function of the applied macroscopic strain have shown two rates. Up to 4% macroscopic strain the coiled coils were slightly distorted but retained their overall conformation. Above 4% the proportion of coiled coil domains progressively decreased. The main and new result of our study is the observation of the transition from alpha-helical coiled coils to disordered chains instead of the alpha-helical coiled coil to beta-sheet transition that occurs in wet fibers.

  5. Characterizing Oregon's supply chains.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-03-01

    In many regions throughout the world, freight models are used to aid infrastructure investment and : policy decisions. Since freight is such an integral part of efficient supply chains, more realistic : transportation models can be of greater assista...

  6. Atomic Chain Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamada, Toshishige; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Adatom chains, precise structures artificially created on an atomically regulated surface, are the smallest possible candidates for future nanoelectronics. Since all the devices are created by combining adatom chains precisely prepared with atomic precision, device characteristics are predictable, and free from deviations due to accidental structural defects. In this atomic dimension, however, an analogy to the current semiconductor devices may not work. For example, Si structures are not always semiconducting. Adatom states do not always localize at the substrate surface when adatoms form chemical bonds to the substrate atoms. Transport properties are often determined for the entire system of the chain and electrodes, and not for chains only. These fundamental issues are discussed, which will be useful for future device considerations.

  7. Effect of chronic alcohol consumption on Hepatic SIRT1 and PGC-1{alpha} in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Lieber, Charles S.; Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY; Leo, Maria A.

    2008-05-23

    The nuclear genes, NAD-dependent deacetylase Sirtuis 1 (SIRT1) and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} coactivator1{alpha} (PGC-1{alpha}) are regulators of energy metabolism. Here, we studied the role of alcohol consumption in expression of these sensing molecules. Alcohol significantly reduced hepatic SIRT1 mRNA by 50% and PGC-1{alpha} mRNA by 46% and it significantly inhibited the protein expression of SIRT1 and PGC-1{alpha}, while the transcription factor PPAR-{gamma} remained unchanged. However, when the lipid composition of the alcohol diet was changed by replacing long-chain triglycerides (LCT) with medium chain triglycerides (MCT), SIRT1 and PGC-1{alpha} mRNA were restored to near control levels. This study demonstrates thatmore » alcohol reduces key energy sensing proteins and that replacement of LCT by MCT affects the transcription of these genes. Since there is a pathophysiological link between SIRT1 and PGC-1{alpha} and mitochondrial energy, the implication of the study is that mitochondrial dysfunction due to alcohol abuse can be treated by dietary modifications.« less

  8. Alpha Centauri at a Crossroads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Nearby Alpha Centauri (G2V+K1V) contains the two best characterized solar-like dwarf stars, which also have the best studied X-ray activity cycles, extending back to the 1970's. Objective is to continue tracking the evolving multi-decadal high-energy narrative of Alpha Cen with semiannual HRC-I pointings in Cycles 16-18, as the system reaches a coronal crossroads: solar twin A rising toward cycle maximum, K-type companion B sinking into a minimum. HST/STIS UV spectra will support and leverage the X-ray measurements by probing subcoronal dynamics, with connection to the corona through the FUV Fe XII forbidden line. Only Chandra can resolve the AB X-ray sources as the Alpha Cen orbit also reaches a crossroads in 2016.

  9. Space Station alpha joint bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everman, Michael R.; Jones, P. Alan; Spencer, Porter A.

    1987-01-01

    Perhaps the most critical structural system aboard the Space Station is the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint which helps align the power generation system with the sun. The joint must provide structural support and controlled rotation to the outboard transverse booms as well as power and data transfer across the joint. The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint is composed of two transition sections and an integral, large diameter bearing. Alpha joint bearing design presents a particularly interesting problem because of its large size and need for high reliability, stiffness, and on orbit maintability. The discrete roller bearing developed is a novel refinement to cam follower technology. It offers thermal compensation and ease of on-orbit maintenance that are not found in conventional rolling element bearings. How the bearing design evolved is summarized. Driving requirements are reviewed, alternative concepts assessed, and the selected design is described.

  10. Alpha 2 LASSO Data Bundles

    DOE Data Explorer

    Gustafson, William Jr; Vogelmann, Andrew; Endo, Satoshi; Toto, Tami; Xiao, Heng; Li, Zhijin; Cheng, Xiaoping; Kim, Jinwon; Krishna, Bhargavi

    2015-08-31

    The Alpha 2 release is the second release from the LASSO Pilot Phase that builds upon the Alpha 1 release. Alpha 2 contains additional diagnostics in the data bundles and focuses on cases from spring-summer 2016. A data bundle is a unified package consisting of LASSO LES input and output, observations, evaluation diagnostics, and model skill scores. LES input include model configuration information and forcing data. LES output includes profile statistics and full domain fields of cloud and environmental variables. Model evaluation data consists of LES output and ARM observations co-registered on the same grid and sampling frequency. Model performance is quantified by skill scores and diagnostics in terms of cloud and environmental variables.

  11. Stimulation of H(2)O(2) generation by calcium in brain mitochondria respiring on alpha-glycerophosphate.

    PubMed

    Tretter, Laszlo; Takacs, Katalin; Kövér, Kinga; Adam-Vizi, Vera

    2007-11-15

    It has been reported recently (Tretter et al., 2007b) that in isolated guinea pig brain mitochondria supported by alpha-glycerophosphate (alpha-GP) reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced through the reverse electron transport (RET) in the respiratory chain and by alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (alpha-GPDH). We studied the effect of calcium on the generation of H(2)O(2) as measured by the Amplex Red fluorescent assay in this model. H(2)O(2) production in alpha-GP-supported mitochondria was increased significantly in the presence of 100, 250, and 500 nM Ca(2+), respectively. In addition, Ca(2+) enhanced the membrane potential, the rate of oxygen consumption, and the NAD(P)H autofluorescence in these mitochondria. Direct measurement of alpha-GPDH activity showed that Ca(2+) stimulated the enzyme by decreasing the Km for alpha-GP. In those mitochondria where RET was eliminated by the Complex I inhibitor rotenone (2 microM) or due to depolarization by ADP (1 mM), the rate of H(2)O(2) formation was smaller and the stimulation of H(2)O(2) generation by Ca(2+) was prevented partly, but the stimulatory effect of Ca(2+) was still significant. These data indicate that in alpha-GP-supported mitochondria activation of alpha-GPDH by Ca(2+) leads to an accelerated RET-mediated ROS generation as well as to a stimulated ROS production by alpha-GPDH.

  12. Molecular cloning of the mouse gene coding for {alpha}{sub 2}-macroglobulin and targeting of the gene in embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Umans, L.; Serneels, L.; Hilliker, C.

    1994-08-01

    The authors have cloned the mouse gene coding for {alpha}{sub 2}-macroglobulin in overlapping {lambda} clones and have analyzed its structure. The gene contains 36 exons, coding for the 4.8-kb cDNA that we cloned previously. Including putative control elements in the 5{prime} flanking region, the gene covers about 45 kb. A region of 3.8 kb, stretching from 835 bases upstream of the cDNA start site to exon 4, including all intervening sequences, was sequenced completely. The analysis demonstrated that the putative promoter region of the mouse A2M gene differed considerably from the known promoter sequences of the human A2M gene andmore » of the rat acute-phas A2M gene. Comparison of the exon-intron structure of all known genes of the A2M family confirmed that the rat acute phase A2M gene is more closely related to the human gene than to the mouse A2M gene. To generate mice with the A2M gene inactivated, an insertion type of construct containing 7.5 kb of genomic DNA of the mouse strain 129/J, encompassing exons 16 to 19, was synthesized. A hygromycin marker gene was embedded in intron 17. After electroporation, 198 hygromycin-resistant ES cell lines were isolated and analyzed by Southern blotting. Five ES cell lines were obtained with one allele of the mouse A2M gene targeted by this insertion construct, demonstrating that the position and the characteristics of the vector served the intended goal.« less

  13. Test chamber for alpha spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Larsen, Robert P.

    1977-01-01

    Alpha emitters for low-level radiochemical analysis by measurement of alpha spectra are positioned precisely with respect to the location of a surface-barrier detector by means of a chamber having a removable threaded planchet holder. A pedestal on the planchet holder holds a specimen in fixed engagement close to the detector. Insertion of the planchet holder establishes an O-ring seal that permits the chamber to be pumped to a desired vacuum. The detector is protected against accidental contact and resulting damage.

  14. Crystal structure of alpha poly-p-xylylene.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubo, S.; Wunderlich, B.

    1971-01-01

    A crystal structure of alpha poly-p-xylylene is proposed with the help of data of oriented crystals grown during polymerization. The unit cell is monoclinic with the parameters a = 8.57 A, b = 10.62 A, c = 6.54 A (chain axis), and beta = 101.3 deg. Four repeating units per cell lead to a calculated density of 1.185 g/cu cm and a packing density of 0.71. The probable space group is P2 sub 1/m.

  15. [Perissodactyla: the primary structure of hemoglobins from the lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris): glutamic acid in position 2 of the beta chains].

    PubMed

    Mazur, G; Braunitzer, G

    1984-09-01

    The hemoglobins from a lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) were analysed and the complete primary structure is described. The globin chains were separated on CM cellulose column in 8M urea and the amino-acid sequences were determined in the liquid phase sequenator. The results show that globin consists of two alpha chains (alpha I and alpha II) and beta major and beta minor components. The alpha chains differ only at one position: alpha I contains aspartic acid and alpha II glycine. The beta chains are heterogeneous: aspartic and glutamic acid were found at position beta 21 and beta 73 of the beta major components and asparagine and serine at position beta 139. In the beta minor components four positions were found with more than one amino acid, namely beta 2, beta 4, beta 6 and beta 56. The sequences are compared with those of man, horse and rhinoceros. Four residues of horse methemoglobin, which are involved in the alpha 1 beta 1 contacts are substituted in tapir hemoglobins. In the alpha chains: alpha 107(G14)Ser----Val, alpha 111-(G18) Val----Leu, alpha 115(GH3) Asn----Asp or Gly; in the beta chains: beta 116(G18) Arg----Gln. The amino acid at beta 2 of the major components is glutamic acid while glutamine and histidine are found in the minor components. Although glutamic acid, a binding site for ATP, does not interact with 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate, glutamine and histidine in the minor components are responsible for the slight effect of 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate on tapir hemoglobin.

  16. Chemical conversion of corticosteroids to 3 alpha,5 alpha-tetrahydro derivatives. Synthesis of 5 alpha-cortol 3-glucuronides and 5 alpha-cortolone 3-glucuronides.

    PubMed

    Hosoda, H; Osanai, K; Nambara, T

    1991-12-01

    The synthesis of the 3-glucuronides of 5 alpha-cortol-20 alpha, 5 alpha-cortolone-20 alpha and their 20 beta-epimers is described. The 5 alpha-cortol 20,21-diacetates (12, 17) and 5 alpha-cortolone 20,21-diacetates (14, 19) were the key intermediates. Sodium borohydride reduction of the carbonyl group at C-20 in 5 alpha-tetrahydrocortisol 3-tert-butyldimethylsilyl ether 17,21-acetonide (8) gave the 20 alpha-hydroxy-acetonide (9). Selective removal of the acetonide ring was successful when the 20 alpha-acetoxy-17 alpha,21-acetonide (10) was treated with 50% acetic acid. Subsequent acetylation with acetic anhydride in pyridine, followed by removal of the protecting group at C-3 in the silyl ether-acetate (11) gave the desired 20 alpha-intermediate (12). The 11-ketone (14) was prepared from 11 by oxidation with pyridinium chlorochromate, followed by desilylation. The 20 beta-acetates (17, 19) were synthesized from 21-acetoxy-3 alpha,11 beta,17 alpha-trihydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one 3-tert-butyldimethylsilyl ether (15). Introduction of the glucuronyl residue at C-3 was carried out by means of the Koenigs-Knorr reaction.

  17. Synthesis of methyl 3-O-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl-alpha-D-talopyranoside and methyl 3-O-alpha-D-talopyranosyl-alpha-D-talopyranoside.

    PubMed

    Dubey, R; Jain, R K; Abbas, S A; Matta, K L

    1987-08-01

    Methyl 2-O-benzyl-3-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl)-alpha- D-mannopyranoside (4) and methyl 2-O-benzyl-3-O-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl-alpha-D-mannopyranoside (6) were prepared from a common intermediate, namely, methyl 2-O-benzyl-4,6-O-benzylidene-3-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-alpha-D- mannopyranosyl)-alpha-D-mannopyranoside. On treatment with tert-butylchlorodiphenylsilane, in N,N-dimethylformamide in the presence of imidazole, 4 and 6 afforded methyl 2-O-benzyl-6-O-tert-butyldiphenylsilyl-3-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl -alpha-D- mannopyranosyl)-alpha-D-mannopyranoside (7), and methyl 2-O-benzyl-6-O-tert-butyldiphenylsilyl-3-O-(6-O-tert- butyldiphenylsilyl-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl)-alpha-D-mannopyranoside (8), respectively. Compound 8 was converted into its 2,3-O-isopropylidene derivative (9), and oxidation of 7 and 9 with pyridinium chlorochromate, and reduction of the resulting carbonyl intermediates gave methyl 2-O-benzyl-6-O-tert-butyldiphenylsilyl-3-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl -alpha-D- mannopyranosyl)-alpha-D-talopyranoside and methyl 2-O-benzyl-6-O-tert-butyldiphenylsilyl-3-O-(6-O-tert-butyldiphe nylsilyl- 2,3-O-isopropylidene-alpha-D-talopyranosyl)-alpha-D-talopyranoside , respectively. Removal of the protecting groups furnished the title disaccharides.

  18. Phasic Triplet Markov Chains.

    PubMed

    El Yazid Boudaren, Mohamed; Monfrini, Emmanuel; Pieczynski, Wojciech; Aïssani, Amar

    2014-11-01

    Hidden Markov chains have been shown to be inadequate for data modeling under some complex conditions. In this work, we address the problem of statistical modeling of phenomena involving two heterogeneous system states. Such phenomena may arise in biology or communications, among other fields. Namely, we consider that a sequence of meaningful words is to be searched within a whole observation that also contains arbitrary one-by-one symbols. Moreover, a word may be interrupted at some site to be carried on later. Applying plain hidden Markov chains to such data, while ignoring their specificity, yields unsatisfactory results. The Phasic triplet Markov chain, proposed in this paper, overcomes this difficulty by means of an auxiliary underlying process in accordance with the triplet Markov chains theory. Related Bayesian restoration techniques and parameters estimation procedures according to the new model are then described. Finally, to assess the performance of the proposed model against the conventional hidden Markov chain model, experiments are conducted on synthetic and real data.

  19. Nodal-chain metals.

    PubMed

    Bzdušek, Tomáš; Wu, QuanSheng; Rüegg, Andreas; Sigrist, Manfred; Soluyanov, Alexey A

    2016-10-06

    The band theory of solids is arguably the most successful theory of condensed-matter physics, providing a description of the electronic energy levels in various materials. Electronic wavefunctions obtained from the band theory enable a topological characterization of metals for which the electronic spectrum may host robust, topologically protected, fermionic quasiparticles. Many of these quasiparticles are analogues of the elementary particles of the Standard Model, but others do not have a counterpart in relativistic high-energy theories. A complete list of possible quasiparticles in solids is lacking, even in the non-interacting case. Here we describe the possible existence of a hitherto unrecognized type of fermionic excitation in metals. This excitation forms a nodal chain-a chain of connected loops in momentum space-along which conduction and valence bands touch. We prove that the nodal chain is topologically distinct from previously reported excitations. We discuss the symmetry requirements for the appearance of this excitation and predict that it is realized in an existing material, iridium tetrafluoride (IrF 4 ), as well as in other compounds of this class of materials. Using IrF 4 as an example, we provide a discussion of the topological surface states associated with the nodal chain. We argue that the presence of the nodal-chain fermions will result in anomalous magnetotransport properties, distinct from those of materials exhibiting previously known excitations.

  20. Alpha Centauri at a Crossroads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Nearby Alpha Centauri AB (G2V+K1V) contains the two best characterized solar-like dwarf stars, which also have the best studied multi-MK coronal X-ray activity cycles, extending back to the 1970's. Objective is to continue tracking the evolving multi-decadal high-energy narrative of Alpha Cen with semiannual X-ray pointings in Chandra Cycles 16-18, as the system reaches a coronal crossroads: solar twin A rising toward starspot cycle maximum, K-type companion B sinking into a minimum. HST/STIS UV spectra will support and leverage the X-ray measurements by probing chromospheric and subcoronal dynamics, with connection to the corona through the FUV Fe XII 1242 forbidden line. Only Chandra can resolve the AB X-ray pair as the Alpha Cen orbit also reaches a crossroads in 2016 (only 4 separation), and only HST/STIS can measure the bright Alpha Cen stars with sufficient UV spectral resultion and wavelength coherence. What's more, the recent validation of the STIS NDA,B,C long slits for echelle use now make feasible NUV E230H measurements (e.g., of key chromospheric tracers Mg II 2800 and Mg I 2852) which heretofore were not practical in a long-term program of this nature.

  1. Alpha Centauri at a Crossroads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Nearby Alpha Centauri AB (G2V+K1V) contains the two best characterized solar-like dwarf stars, which also have the best studied multi-MK coronal X-ray activity cycles, extending back to the 1970's. Objective is to continue tracking the evolving multi-decadal high-energy narrative of Alpha Cen with semiannual X-ray pointings in Chandra Cycles 16-18, as the system reaches a coronal crossroads: solar twin A rising toward starspot cycle maximum, K-type companion B sinking into a minimum. HST/STIS UV spectra will support and leverage the X-ray measurements by probing chromospheric and subcoronal dynamics, with connection to the corona through the FUV Fe XII 1242 forbidden line. Only Chandra can resolve the AB X-ray pair as the Alpha Cen orbit also reaches a crossroads in 2016 (only 4 separation), and only HST/STIS can measure the bright Alpha Cen stars with sufficient UV spectral resolution and wavelength coherence. What's more, the recent validation of the STIS NDA,B,C long slits for echelle use now make feasible NUV E230H measurements (e.g., of key chromospheric tracers Mg II 2800 and Mg I 2852) which heretofore were not practical in a long-term program of this nature.

  2. Meet the Alpha-Pets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zitlaw, Jo Ann Bruce; Frank, Cheryl Standish

    1985-01-01

    "Alpha-Pets" are the focal point of an integrated, multidisciplinary curriculum. Each pet is featured for a week in a vocabulary-rich story and introduces related activities beginning with the featured letter, such as the four food groups during Freddie Fish's week or universe during Ulysses Unicorn's week. (MT)

  3. Alpha proton x ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieder, Rudi; Waeke, H.; Economou, T.

    1994-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder will carry an alpha-proton x ray spectrometer (APX) for the determination of the elemental chemical composition of Martian rocks and soils. The instrument will measure the concentration of all major and some minor elements, including C, N, and O at levels above typically 1 percent.

  4. Exercise promotes alpha7 integrin gene transcription and protection of skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Boppart, Marni D; Volker, Sonja E; Alexander, Nicole; Burkin, Dean J; Kaufman, Stephen J

    2008-11-01

    The alpha7beta1 integrin is increased in skeletal muscle in response to injury-producing exercise, and transgenic overexpression of this integrin in mice protects against exercise-induced muscle damage. The present study investigates whether the increase in the alpha7beta1 integrin observed in wild-type mice in response to exercise is due to transcriptional regulation and examines whether mobilization of the integrin at the myotendinous junction (MTJ) is a key determinant in its protection against damage. A single bout of downhill running exercise selectively increased transcription of the alpha7 integrin gene in 5-wk-old wild-type mice 3 h postexercise, and an increased alpha7 chain was detected in muscle sarcolemma adjacent to tendinous tissue immediately following exercise. The alpha7B, but not alpha7A isoform, was found concentrated and colocalized with tenascin-C in muscle fibers lining the MTJ. To further validate the importance of the integrin in the protection against muscle damage following exercise, muscle injury was quantified in alpha7(-/-) mice. Muscle damage was extensive in alpha7(-/-) mice in response to both a single and repeated bouts of exercise and was largely restricted to areas of high MTJ concentration and high mechanical force near the Achilles tendon. These results suggest that exercise-induced muscle injury selectively increases transcription of the alpha7 integrin gene and promotes a rapid change in the alpha7beta integrin at the MTJ. These combined molecular and cellular alterations are likely responsible for integrin-mediated attenuation of exercise-induced muscle damage.

  5. Fission Chain Restart Theory

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, K. S.; Nakae, L. F.; Prasad, M. K.; ...

    2017-07-31

    We present that fast nanosecond timescale neutron and gamma-ray counting can be performed with a (liquid) scintillator array. Fission chains in metal evolve over a timescale of tens of nanoseconds. If the metal is surrounded by moderator, neutrons leaking from the metal can thermalize and diffuse in the moderator. With finite probability, the diffusing neutrons can return to the metal and restart the fast fission chain. The timescale for this restart process is microseconds. A theory describing time evolving fission chains for metal surrounded by moderator, including this restart process, is presented. Finally, this theory is sufficiently simple for itmore » to be implemented for real-time analysis.« less

  6. Supply-Chain Optimization Template

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quiett, William F.; Sealing, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Supply-Chain Optimization Template (SCOT) is an instructional guide for identifying, evaluating, and optimizing (including re-engineering) aerospace- oriented supply chains. The SCOT was derived from the Supply Chain Council s Supply-Chain Operations Reference (SCC SCOR) Model, which is more generic and more oriented toward achieving a competitive advantage in business.

  7. Orthopositronium Lifetime: Analytic Results in O({alpha}) and O({alpha}{sup 3}ln{alpha})

    SciTech Connect

    Kniehl, Bernd A.; Kotikov, Anatoly V.; Veretin, Oleg L.

    2008-11-07

    We present the O({alpha}) and O({alpha}{sup 3}ln{alpha}) corrections to the total decay width of orthopositronium in closed analytic form, in terms of basic irrational numbers, which can be evaluated numerically to arbitrary precision.

  8. Modulation of gene expression by alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocopheryl phosphate in thp-1 monocytes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The naturally occurring vitamin E analogue, alpha-tocopheryl phosphate (alphaTP), has been reported to be more potent than the un-phosphorylated alpha alpha-tocopherol (alphaT). We have now measured plasma levels of alphaTP and compared the cellular effects of alphaTP and gamma-tocopheryl phosphate ...

  9. Magnetic ground states in the three O s6 + (5 d2 ) double perovskites B a2M Os O6 (M =Mg ,Zn,and Cd) from Néel order to its suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marjerrison, C. A.; Thompson, C. M.; Sharma, A. Z.; Hallas, A. M.; Wilson, M. N.; Munsie, T. J. S.; Flacau, R.; Wiebe, C. R.; Gaulin, B. D.; Luke, G. M.; Greedan, J. E.

    2016-10-01

    Three closely related double perovskites (DP) based on the 5 d2 ion, O s6 +,B a2M Os O6 , with M =Mg , Zn, and Cd have been prepared and characterized using x-ray (XRD) and neutron diffraction (ND), dc magnetization, heat capacity, and muon spin relaxation (μ SR ) techniques. All three are cubic, Fm-3 m , at ambient temperature from XRD with Δ d /d ˜5 ×10-4 resolution. For both M =Mg and Zn, ND data at 3.5 K and lower, Δ d /d =2 ×10-3 , resolution show no signs of a distortion. The results are compared with the known DP material, B a2CaOs O6 , which shows antiferromagnetic (AF) order below TN=49 K and a moderate frustration index, f ˜4 , (f =| θCW|/ TN ), where θCW is the Curie-Weiss temperature. B a2MgOs O6 with a unit cell constant a0=8.0757 (1 ) Å , 3% smaller than for B a2CaOs O6 , also shows Néel order below TN=51 K with f ˜2 . However, B a2ZnOs O6,a0=8.0975 (1 ) Å , 0.27% larger than B a2MgOs O6 , does not show Néel order from either heat capacity or μ SR data. A zero field cooled/field cooled (ZFC/FC) irreversibility occurs near 30 K and a broad heat capacity anomaly is detected at a similar temperature. The μ SR data are consistent with a weak spin ordering with an onset below 28 K but with a coexisting dynamic component. B a2CdOs O6 with a0=8.3190 (1 ) Å , 0.5% smaller than B a2CaOs O6 , shows no evidence for any type of order/spin freezing to 0.47 K from any of the measurement techniques applied. The results for M =Zn and Cd appear to lie outside of the mean field theory of Chen and Balents [Phys. Rev. B 84, 094420 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevB.84.094420] for cubic d2 DP with strong spin orbit coupling, but B a2MgOs O6 , along with B a2CaOs O6 , is likely one of the three predicted AF phases. The remarkable contrast between the doppelgänger pairs M =Mg /Zn and M =Ca /Cd may be traceable to differences in electronic structure of the diamagnetic M ions. All of the super-super exchange pathways in these DP materials involve Os-O-M -O-Os linkages.

  10. A synopsis of collective alpha effects and implications for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Sigmar, D.J.

    1990-10-01

    This paper discusses the following: Alpha Interaction with Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes; Alpha Interaction with Ballooning Modes; Alpha Interaction with Fishbone Oscillations; and Implications for ITER.

  11. Venus - False Color Image of Alpha Regio

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-02-07

    NASA's Magellan radar image shows Alpha Regio, a topographic upland. In 1963 Alpha Regio was the first feature on Venus to be identified from Earth based radar. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00147

  12. Q (Alpha) Function and Squeezing Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yunjie, Xia; Xianghe, Kong; Kezhu, Yan; Wanping, Chen

    1996-01-01

    The relation of squeezing and Q(alpha) function is discussed in this paper. By means of Q function, the squeezing of field with gaussian Q(alpha) function or negative P(a)function is also discussed in detail.

  13. FcepsilonRI-alpha siRNA inhibits the antigen-induced activation of mast cells.

    PubMed

    Safaralizadeh, Reza; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Deezagi, Abdolkhaleg; Pourpak, Zahra; Samiei, Shahram; Moin, Mostafa

    2009-12-01

    FcepsilonRI, The high affinity receptor for IgE plays a critical role in triggering the allergic reactions. It is responsible for inducing mast cell degranulation and deliberation of allergy mediators when it is aggregated by allergen and IgE complexes. FcepsilonRI on the mast cells consists of three subunits; alpha chain directly binds IgE, beta chain and dimmer of gamma chains together mediate intracellular signaling. Cross-linking of IgE-bound FcepsilonRI on the surface of mast cells and basophils by the multivalent antigen induces release of chemical mediators. The present in vitro study was designed to investigate the effect of synthetic FcepsilonRI-alpha siRNA on the antigen-induced activation of MC/9 cells. MC/9 cells which are murine mast cells were transfected by FcepsilonRI-alpha siRNA and negative control siRNA. After 6 h, anti-DNP (Dinitrophenyl) IgE was used for the cells sensitization. Then the cells were challenged with Dinitrophenyl-Human Serum Albumin (DNP-HSA) for mast cell degranulation induction before collection of supernatants. The amount of mRNA and protein expression was measured by Real Time PCR and western blot analysis, respectively. Determination of the expression rate of FcepsilonRI-alpha on cell surface was achieved by flow cytometry. ELISA and spectrophotometry methods were used subsequently for measuring the effects of FcepsilonRI-alpha siRNA on antigen-induced histamine and beta-hexosaminidase release. FcepsilonRI-alpha siRNA treated cells showed significant decrease in FcepsilonRI-alpha mRNA and protein expression in comparison to control cells. FcepsilonRI-mediated mast cell release of beta-hexosaminidase and histamine were also inhibited. In this study it was shown that FcepsilonRI-alpha siRNA could suppress FcepsilonRI-alpha expression and inhibited degranulation and histamine release in antigen-stimulated MC/9 cells. In conclusion, knock-down of FcepsilonRI-alpha by siRNA could be a promising method for inhibition of the mast

  14. Three dimensional structural studies of alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (alpha-NAGA) in alpha-NAGA deficiency (Kanzaki disease): different gene mutations cause peculiar structural changes in alpha-NAGAs resulting in different substrate specificities and clinical phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Kanekura, Takuro; Sakuraba, Hitoshi; Matsuzawa, Fumiko; Aikawa, Seiichi; Doi, Hirofumi; Hirabayashi, Yoshio; Yoshii, Noriko; Fukushige, Tomoko; Kanzaki, Tamotsu

    2005-01-01

    Kanzaki disease (OMIM#104170) is attributable to a deficiency in alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (alpha-NAGA; E.C.3.2.1.49), which hydrolyzes GalNAcalpha1-O-Ser/Thr. Missense mutations, R329W or R329Q were identified in two Japanese Kanzaki patients. Although they are on the same codon, the clinical manifestation was more severe in R329W because an amino acid substitution led to protein instability resulting in structural change, which is greater in R329W than in R329Q. To examine whether the different clinical phenotypes are attributable to the two mutations. Plasma alpha-NAGA activity and urinary excreted glycopeptides were measured and three-dimensional models of human alpha-NAGA and its complexes with GalNAcalpha1-O-Ser and GalNAcalpha1-O-Thr were constructed by homology modeling. Residual enzyme activity was significantly higher in the R329Q- than the R329W mutant (0.022+/-0.005 versus 0.005+/-0.001 nmol/h/ml: p<0.05); the urinary ratios of GalNAcalpha1-O-Ser:GalNAcalpha1-O-Thr were 2:10 and 8:10, respectively. GalNAcalpha1-O-Ser/Thr fit tightly in a narrow space of the active site pocket of alpha-NAGA. GalNAcalpha1-O-Thr requires a larger space to associate with alpha-NAGA because of the side chain (CH3) of the threonine residue. Our findings suggest that the association of alpha-NAGA with its substrates is strongly affected by the amino acid substitution at R329 and that the association with GalNAcalpha1-O-Thr is more highly susceptible to structural changes. The residual mutant enzyme in R329W could not associate with GalNAcalpha1-O-Thr and GalNAcalpha1-O-Ser. However, the residual mutant enzyme in R329Q catalyzed GalNAcalpha1-O-Ser to some extent. Therefore, the urinary ratio of GalNAcalpha1-O-Ser:GalNAcalpha1-O-Thr was lower and the clinical phenotype was milder in the R329Q mutation. Structural analysis revealed biochemical and phenotypic differences in these Kanzaki patients with the R329Q and R329W mutation.

  15. The ultraviolet spectra of Alpha Aquilae and Alpha Canis Minoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, D. C.; Bruzual A., G.; Kurucz, R. L.; Spinrad, H.

    1977-01-01

    Scans of Alpha Aql (A7 IV, V) and Alpha CMi (F5 IV-V) obtained with the Copernicus satellite spectrometer over the wavelength range from 2100 to 3200 A are presented along with a spectrum of the integrated solar disk over the same range procured during a calibrated rocket flight. About 1500 fairly strong absorption lines in the Alpha CMi spectrum between 2400 and 2961 A are identified by comparison with a solar atlas and by using a theoretical spectrum synthesized from a blanketed LTE model with an effective temperature of 6500 K and a surface gravity of 10,000 cm/sec per sec. The Mg II resonance doublet at 2795.528 and 2802.704 A is found to be present in all three stars together with a discontinuity at 2635 A due to Fe II, Fe I, Cr I, and Mn II. It is concluded that the Mg II resonance lines and the 2635-A continuum break would be the best spectral features for estimating the redshift of a galaxy observed at low resolution provided the redshift is not less than about 0.75.

  16. Long-chain n-3 PUFA: plant v. marine sources.

    PubMed

    Williams, Christine M; Burdge, Graham

    2006-02-01

    Increasing recognition of the importance of the long-chain n-3 PUFA, EPA and DHA, to cardiovascular health, and in the case of DHA to normal neurological development in the fetus and the newborn, has focused greater attention on the dietary supply of these fatty acids. The reason for low intakes of EPA and DHA in most developed countries (0.1-0.5 g/d) is the low consumption of oily fish, the richest dietary source of these fatty acids. An important question is whether dietary intake of the precursor n-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (alphaLNA), can provide sufficient amounts of tissue EPA and DHA by conversion through the n-3 PUFA elongation-desaturation pathway. alphaLNA is present in marked amounts in plant sources, including green leafy vegetables and commonly-consumed oils such as rape-seed and soyabean oils, so that increased intake of this fatty acid would be easier to achieve than via increased fish consumption. However, alphaLNA-feeding studies and stable-isotope studies using alphaLNA, which have addressed the question of bioconversion of alphaLNA to EPA and DHA, have concluded that in adult men conversion to EPA is limited (approximately 8%) and conversion to DHA is extremely low (<0.1%). In women fractional conversion to DHA appears to be greater (9%), which may partly be a result of a lower rate of utilisation of alphaLNA for beta-oxidation in women. However, up-regulation of the conversion of EPA to DHA has also been suggested, as a result of the actions of oestrogen on Delta6-desaturase, and may be of particular importance in maintaining adequate provision of DHA in pregnancy. The effect of oestrogen on DHA concentration in pregnant and lactating women awaits confirmation.

  17. [Vitamin E activity of some alpha-tocopherol derivatives and their effect on the ubiquinone level in rat liver in vitro].

    PubMed

    Donchenko, G V; Kovalenko, V N; Zolotashko, O M; Makovetskiĭ, V P; Basalkevich, E D; Sivachek, T E; Svishchuk, A A; Khalmuradov, A G

    1979-01-01

    An addition of alpha-tocopherol (I) and its synthetic derivatives (alpha-tocopheryl quinone (II), its short-chained analog (III), alpha-tocopherol lactone (IV), and short-chained alpha-tocopheryl acetate (V)) to the homogenized liver of vitamin E deficient rats resulted in a significant increase of ubiquinone after 2 hour incubation. Activity of the above derivatives (II-V) was not associated directly with their transformation into I or with a noticeable increase of the I content. There is a certain correlation between the chemical structure and the level of vitamin E activity of alpha-tocopherol derivatives that led to an increase in the ubiquinone content and prevented the decrease of tissue respiration and termination of pregnancy in rats.

  18. Synthesis of methyl 2-O-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl-alpha-D-talopyranoside and methyl 2-O-alpha-D-talopyranosyl-alpha-D-talopyranoside.

    PubMed

    Jain, R K; Dubey, R; Abbas, S A; Matta, K L

    1987-03-15

    Treatment of methyl 3-O-benzyl-2-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl)-alpha-D- mannopyranoside (1) with tert-butyldiphenylsilyl chloride in N,N-dimethylformamide afforded methyl 3-O-benzyl-6-O-tert-butyldiphenylsilyl-2-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl -alpha-D- mannopyranosyl)-alpha-D-mannopyranoside (2). Oxidation of 2 with pyridinium chlorochromate, followed by reduction of the carbonyl group, and subsequent O-deacetylation afforded methyl 3-O-benzyl-6-O-tert-butyldiphenylsilyl-2-O-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl- alpha-D- talopyranoside (5). Cleavage of the tert-butyldiphenylsilyl group of 5 with tetrabutylammonium fluoride in oxolane, followed by hydrogenolysis, gave methyl 2-O-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl-alpha-D-talopyranoside (7). O-Deacetylation of 1 gave methyl 3-O-benzyl-2-O-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl-alpha-D-mannopyranoside (8). Treatment of 8 with tert-butyldiphenylsilyl chloride afforded a 6,6'-disilyl derivative, which was converted into a 2',3'-O-isopropylidene derivative, and then further oxidized with pyridinium chlorochromate. The resulting diketone was reduced and removal of the protecting groups gave methyl 2-O-alpha-D-talopyranosyl-alpha-D-talopyranoside (15). The structures of both 7 and 15 were established by 13C-n.m.r. spectroscopy.

  19. 21 CFR 882.1610 - Alpha monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alpha monitor. 882.1610 Section 882.1610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1610 Alpha monitor. (a) Identification. An alpha...

  20. 21 CFR 882.1610 - Alpha monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alpha monitor. 882.1610 Section 882.1610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1610 Alpha monitor. (a) Identification. An alpha...

  1. Theoretical and experimental {alpha} decay half-lives of the heaviest odd-Z elements and general predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H. F.; Royer, G.

    Theoretical {alpha} decay half-lives of the heaviest odd-Z nuclei are calculated using the experimental Q{sub {alpha}} value. The barriers in the quasimolecular shape path are determined within a Generalized Liquid Drop Model (GLDM) and the WKB approximation is used. The results are compared with calculations using the Density-Dependent M3Y (DDM3Y) effective interaction and the Viola-Seaborg-Sobiczewski (VSS) formulas. The calculations provide consistent estimates for the half-lives of the {alpha} decay chains of these superheavy elements. The experimental data stand between the GLDM calculations and VSS ones in the most time. Predictions are provided for the {alpha} decay half-lives of other superheavymore » nuclei within the GLDM and VSS approaches using the recent extrapolated Q{sub {alpha}} of Audi, Wapstra, and Thibault [Nucl. Phys. A729, 337 (2003)], which may be used for future experimental assignment and identification.« less

  2. Breaking the Chains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2007-01-01

    In 1792 more than 350,000 people in Britain signed a petition calling for an end to the slave trade. It was, writes historian Adam Hochschild in his book "Bury the Chains," "the first time in history that a large number of people became outraged, and stayed outraged for many years, over someone else's rights". In 1807--after 15…

  3. Chain Saw Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mark; Helbling, Wayne

    This curriculum is designed to supplement the Comprehensive Small Engine Repair guide by covering in detail all aspects of chain saw repair. The publication contains materials for both teacher and student and is written in terms of student performance using measurable objectives. The course includes six units. Each unit contains some or all of the…

  4. Galileo Chain Thermometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ucke, C.; Schlichting, H. J.

    2017-01-01

    This relatively rare thermometer has a rather unusual display: lower temperatures are located at the top of the scale, higher ones at the bottom. A sphere on a chain floats in a suitable liquid, sinking at high temperatures when the density of the liquid decreases and rising in the increased density at low temperatures. With reasonable effort and…

  5. Exploration Supply Chain Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Exploration Supply Chain Simulation project was chartered by the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate to develop a software tool, with proper data, to quantitatively analyze supply chains for future program planning. This tool is a discrete-event simulation that uses the basic supply chain concepts of planning, sourcing, making, delivering, and returning. This supply chain perspective is combined with other discrete or continuous simulation factors. Discrete resource events (such as launch or delivery reviews) are represented as organizational functional units. Continuous resources (such as civil service or contractor program functions) are defined as enabling functional units. Concepts of fixed and variable costs are included in the model to allow the discrete events to interact with cost calculations. The definition file is intrinsic to the model, but a blank start can be initiated at any time. The current definition file is an Orion Ares I crew launch vehicle. Parameters stretch from Kennedy Space Center across and into other program entities (Michaud Assembly Facility, Aliant Techsystems, Stennis Space Center, Johnson Space Center, etc.) though these will only gain detail as the file continues to evolve. The Orion Ares I file definition in the tool continues to evolve, and analysis from this tool is expected in 2008. This is the first application of such business-driven modeling to a NASA/government-- aerospace contractor endeavor.

  6. Supply chain quality.

    PubMed

    Feary, Simon

    2009-01-01

    As the development of complex manufacturing models and virtual companies become more prevalent in today's growing global markets, it is increasingly important to support the relationships between manufacturer and supplier. Utilising these relationships will ensure that supply chains operate more effectively and reduce costs, risks and time-to-market time frames, whilst maintaining product quality.

  7. Polymerase chain reaction system

    DOEpatents

    Benett, William J.; Richards, James B.; Stratton, Paul L.; Hadley, Dean R.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Belgrader, Phil; Meyer, Peter L.

    2004-03-02

    A portable polymerase chain reaction DNA amplification and detection system includes one or more chamber modules. Each module supports a duplex assay of a biological sample. Each module has two parallel interrogation ports with a linear optical system. The system is capable of being handheld.

  8. Improved chain control operations.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-01-01

    In California, field maintenance personnel use turntable signs to advise motorists of chain control conditions on rural : highways and freeways. To do this an operator has to park, exit the vehicle, turn the sign on the shoulder and then : walk acros...

  9. Atwood's Heavy Chain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beeken, Paul

    2011-01-01

    While perusing various websites in search of a more challenging lab for my students, I came across a number of ideas where replacing the string in an Atwood's machine with a simple ball chain like the kind found in lamp pulls created an interesting system to investigate. The replacement of the string produced a nice nonuniform acceleration, but…

  10. The thalidomide analogue CC-3052 inhibits HIV-1 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) expression in acutely and chronically infected cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    La Maestra, L; Zaninoni, A; Marriott, J B; Lazzarin, A; Dalgleish, A G; Barcellini, W

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the in vitro effect of the water-soluble, highly stable thalidomide analogue CC-3052 on HIV-1 expression and TNF-alpha production in latently infected promonocytic U1 cells, acutely infected T cells and monocyte-derived human macrophages (MDM), and in mitogen-stimulated ex vivo cultures from patients with primary acute HIV-1 infection. HIV-1 expression was assessed by Northern blot analysis of RNAs, and ELISA for p24 antigen release and reverse transcriptase (RT) activity. TNF-alpha expression was evaluated by RT-polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-ELISA for mRNA and ELISA for protein secretion. We demonstrated that CC-3052 is able to inhibit HIV-1 expression, as evaluated by mRNA, p24 release and RT activity, in phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)- and cytokine-stimulated U1 cells. Furthermore, CC-3052 inhibited HIV-1 expression, as evaluated by p24 and RT activity, in acutely infected MDM and T cells. As far as TNF-alpha is concerned, CC-3052 significantly reduced TNF-alpha mRNA and protein secretion in PMA-stimulated U937 and U1 cells, and in PMA-stimulated uninfected and acutely infected MDM. Consistently, the addition of CC-3052 reduced TNF-alpha production in phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated whole blood cultures from patients during the primary acute phase of HIV-1 infection. Since TNF-alpha is among the most potent enhancers of HIV-1 expression, the effect of CC-3052 on TNF-alpha may account for its inhibitory activity on HIV-1 expression. Given the well documented immunopathological role of TNF-alpha and its correlation with viral load, advanced disease and poor prognosis, CC-3052 could be an interesting drug for the design of therapeutic strategies in association with anti-retroviral agents.

  11. 40 CFR 721.10300 - Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10300 Section 721.10300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10300 Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10300 - Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10300 Section 721.10300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10300 Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10300 - Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10300 Section 721.10300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10300 Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha...

  14. Hippocampal 3alpha,5alpha-THP may alter depressive behavior of pregnant and lactating rats.

    PubMed

    Frye, Cheryl A; Walf, Alicia A

    2004-07-01

    The 5alpha-reduced metabolite of progesterone (P), 5alpha-pregnan-3alpha-ol-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THP), may mediate progestins' effects to reduce depressive behavior of female rats in part through actions in the hippocampus. To investigate, forced swim test behavior and plasma and hippocampal progestin levels were assessed in groups of rats expected to differ in their 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels due to endogenous differences (pregnant and postpartum), administration of a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor (finasteride; 50 mg/kg sc), and/or gestational stress [prenatal stress (PNS)], an animal model of depression. Pregnant rats had higher plasma and hippocampal 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels and less depressive behavior (decreased immobility, increased struggling and swimming) in the forced swim test than did postpartum rats. Finasteride, compared to vehicle-administration, reduced plasma and hippocampal 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels and increased depressive behavior (increased immobility, decreased struggling and swimming). PNS was associated with lower hippocampal, but not plasma, 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels and increased swimming compared to that observed in control rats. Together, these data suggest that 3alpha,5alpha-THP in the hippocampus may mediate antidepressive behavior of female rats.

  15. Fusion protein of CDR mimetic peptide with Fc inhibit TNF-alpha induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Qin, Weisong; Feng, Jiannan; Li, Yan; Lin, Zhou; Shen, Beifen

    2006-02-01

    The variable regions of antibodies play central roles in the binding with antigens. Based on the model of a tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) neutralizing monoclonal antibody (named as Z12) with TNF-alpha, heavy chain CDR2 (HCDR2) and light chain CDR3 (LCDR3) of Z12 were found to be the most responsible to bind with TNF-alpha. A mimetic peptide (PT) was designed based on the sequence derived from HCDR2 and LCDR3. Fusion protein PT-Fc was constructed by linking PT with Fc of human IgG1 through a flexible linker (GGGGGS). The primary structural characteristics of Fc and PT-Fc were analyzed, including the flexibility, hydrophilicity and epitopes. It was demonstrated that PT and Fc in the fusion protein possessed bio-function properly and non-interfering with each other. Furthermore, PT-Fc was expressed in Escherichia coli by fusion with thioredoxin (Trx). After trx-PT-Fc was cleaved with recombinant enterokinase, PT-Fc was obtained. The results of in vitro cytotoxic assays showed that both PT and PT-Fc could efficiently inhibit TNF-alpha induced apoptosis on L929 cells. At the same micromole concentration, the inhibition activity of PT-Fc was significantly higher than PT.

  16. Stable, inducible thermoacidophilic alpha-amylase from Bacillus acidocaldarius.

    PubMed Central

    Buonocore, V; Caporale, C; De Rosa, M; Gambacorta, A

    1976-01-01

    Bacillus acidocaldarius Agnano 101 produces an inducible thermoacidophilic alpha-amylase. The enzyme production occurs during the stationary phase of growth in the presence of compounds with alpha-1,4-glucosidic linkages. The enzymatic activity is both present in the culture medium and associated with the cells; the enzymes purified from both sources show identical molecular and catalytic properties. The purified amylase has a single polypeptide chain of molecular weight 68,000 and behaves like an alpha-amylase with affinity constants for starch and related substances of 0.8 to 0.9 mg/ml. The pH and temperature optima for activity are 3.5 and 75degreesC, respectively. The amylase is stable at acidic pH (below 4.5). Its thermal stability is strictly dependent upon protein concentration; the half-life at 60degreesC of the amylase in a 70-mug/ml solution is about 5 days. PMID:10276

  17. Alpha voltaic batteries and methods thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Phillip (Inventor); Scheiman, David (Inventor); Castro, Stephanie (Inventor); Raffaelle, Ryne P. (Inventor); Wilt, David (Inventor); Chubb, Donald (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An alpha voltaic battery includes at least one layer of a semiconductor material comprising at least one p/n junction, at least one absorption and conversion layer on the at least one layer of semiconductor layer, and at least one alpha particle emitter. The absorption and conversion layer prevents at least a portion of alpha particles from the alpha particle emitter from damaging the p/n junction in the layer of semiconductor material. The absorption and conversion layer also converts at least a portion of energy from the alpha particles into electron-hole pairs for collection by the one p/n junction in the layer of semiconductor material.

  18. Alpha channeling in a rotating plasma.

    PubMed

    Fetterman, Abraham J; Fisch, Nathaniel J

    2008-11-14

    The wave-particle alpha-channeling effect is generalized to include rotating plasma. Specifically, radio frequency waves can resonate with alpha particles in a mirror machine with ExB rotation to diffuse the alpha particles along constrained paths in phase space. Of major interest is that the alpha-particle energy, in addition to amplifying the rf waves, can directly enhance the rotation energy which in turn provides additional plasma confinement in centrifugal fusion reactors. An ancillary benefit is the rapid removal of alpha particles, which increases the fusion reactivity.

  19. THE LYMAN ALPHA REFERENCE SAMPLE: EXTENDED LYMAN ALPHA HALOS PRODUCED AT LOW DUST CONTENT

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, Matthew; Oestlin, Goeran; Duval, Florent

    2013-03-10

    We report on new imaging observations of the Lyman alpha emission line (Ly{alpha}), performed with the Hubble Space Telescope, that comprise the backbone of the Lyman alpha Reference Sample. We present images of 14 starburst galaxies at redshifts 0.028 < z < 0.18 in continuum-subtracted Ly{alpha}, H{alpha}, and the far ultraviolet continuum. We show that Ly{alpha} is emitted on scales that systematically exceed those of the massive stellar population and recombination nebulae: as measured by the Petrosian 20% radius, R{sub P20}, Ly{alpha} radii are larger than those of H{alpha} by factors ranging from 1 to 3.6, with an average ofmore » 2.4. The average ratio of Ly{alpha}-to-FUV radii is 2.9. This suggests that much of the Ly{alpha} light is pushed to large radii by resonance scattering. Defining the Relative Petrosian Extension of Ly{alpha} compared to H{alpha}, {xi}{sub Ly{alpha}} = R {sup Ly{alpha}}{sub P20}/R {sup H{alpha}}{sub P20}, we find {xi}{sub Ly{alpha}} to be uncorrelated with total Ly{alpha} luminosity. However, {xi}{sub Ly{alpha}} is strongly correlated with quantities that scale with dust content, in the sense that a low dust abundance is a necessary requirement (although not the only one) in order to spread Ly{alpha} photons throughout the interstellar medium and drive a large extended Ly{alpha} halo.« less

  20. Coordinated balancing of muscle oxidative metabolism through PGC-1{alpha} increases metabolic flexibility and preserves insulin sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Summermatter, Serge; Troxler, Heinz; Santos, Gesa

    2011-04-29

    Highlights: {yields} PGC-1{alpha} enhances muscle oxidative capacity. {yields} PGC-1{alpha} promotes concomitantly positive and negative regulators of lipid oxidation. {yields} Regulator abundance enhances metabolic flexibility and balances oxidative metabolism. {yields} Balanced oxidation prevents detrimental acylcarnitine and ROS generation. {yields} Absence of detrimental metabolites preserves insulin sensitivity -- Abstract: The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} coactivator 1{alpha} (PGC-1{alpha}) enhances oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle. Excessive lipid oxidation and electron transport chain activity can, however, lead to the accumulation of harmful metabolites and impair glucose homeostasis. Here, we investigated the effect of over-expression of PGC-1{alpha} on metabolic control and generation of insulin desensitizing agentsmore » in extensor digitorum longus (EDL), a muscle that exhibits low levels of PGC-1{alpha} in the untrained state and minimally relies on oxidative metabolism. We demonstrate that PGC-1{alpha} induces a strictly balanced substrate oxidation in EDL by concomitantly promoting the transcription of activators and inhibitors of lipid oxidation. Moreover, we show that PGC-1{alpha} enhances the potential to uncouple oxidative phosphorylation. Thereby, PGC-1{alpha} boosts elevated, yet tightly regulated oxidative metabolism devoid of side products that are detrimental for glucose homeostasis. Accordingly, PI3K activity, an early phase marker for insulin resistance, is preserved in EDL muscle. Our findings suggest that PGC-1{alpha} coordinately coactivates the simultaneous transcription of gene clusters implicated in the positive and negative regulation of oxidative metabolism and thereby increases metabolic flexibility. Thus, in mice fed a normal chow diet, over-expression of PGC-1{alpha} does not alter insulin sensitivity and the metabolic adaptations elicited by PGC-1{alpha} mimic the beneficial effects of endurance

  1. Does alpha 1-acid glycoprotein act as a non-functional receptor for alpha 1-adrenergic antagonists?

    PubMed

    Qin, M; Oie, S

    1994-11-01

    The ability of a variety of alpha 1-acid glycoproteins (AAG) to affect the intrinsic activity of the alpha 1-adrenergic antagonist prazosin was studied in rabbit aortic strip preparations. From these studies, the activity of AAG appears to be linked to their ability to bind the antagonist. However, a capability to bind prazosin was not the only requirement for this effect. The removal of sialic acid and partial removal of the galactose and mannose residues by periodate oxidation of human AAG all but eliminated the ability of AAG to affect the intrinsic pharmacologic activity of prazosin, although the binding of prazosin was not significantly affected. The presence of bovine AAG, a protein that has a low ability to bind prazosin, reduced the effect of human AAG on prazosin activity. Based upon these results, we propose that AAG is able to bind in the vicinity of the alpha 1-adrenoceptors, therefore extending the binding region for antagonists in such a way as to decrease the ability of the antagonist to interact with the receptor. The carbohydrate side-chains are important for the binding of AAG in the region of the adrenoceptor.

  2. New Methods for Targeted Alpha Radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, J. David

    2014-03-01

    Targeted radiotherapies based on alpha emitters are a promising alternative to beta emitting radionuclides. Because of their much shorter range, targeted α-radiotherapy (TAT) agents have great potential for application to small, disseminated tumors and micro metastases and treatment of hematological malignancies consisting of individual, circulating neoplastic cells. A promising approach to TAT is the use of the in vivo α-generator radionuclides 223 = 11.4 d) and 225Ac 1/2 = 10.0 d). In addition to their longer half-lives, these two isotopes have the potential of dramatically increasing the therapeutic efficacy of TAT as they each emit four α particles in their decay chain. This principle has recently been exploited in the development of Xofigo®, the first TAT agent approved for clinical use by the U.S. FDA. Xofigo, formulated as 223RaCl2, is used for treatment of metastatic bone cancer in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer. TAT with 223Ra works, however, only in the case of bone cancer because radium, as a chemical analogue of calcium, efficiently targets bone. In order to bring the benefits of TAT with 223Ra or 225Ac to other tumor types, a new delivery method must be devised. Retaining the in vivo α generator radionuclides at the target site through the decay process is one of the major challenges associated with the development of TAT. Because the recoil energy of the daughter radionuclides from the α-emission is ~ 100 keV - a value which is four orders of magnitude greater than the energy of a covalent bond - the daughters will not remain bound to the bioconjugate at the targeting site. Various approaches have been attempted to achieve retention of the α-generator daughter radionuclides at the target site, including incorporation of the in vivo generator into liposomes and fullerenes. Unfortunately, to date single wall liposomes and fullerenes are able to retain less than 10% of the daughter radionuclides. We have recently demonstrated that a

  3. Tumour Necrosis Factor-alpha and Nuclear Factor-kappa B Gene Variants in Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Acar, Leyla; Atalan, Nazan; Karagedik, E Hande; Ergen, Arzu

    2018-01-20

    The humoral system is activated and various cytokines are released due to infections in tissues and traumatic damage. Nuclear factor-kappa B dimers are encoded by nuclear factor-kappa B genes and regulate transcription of several crucial proteins of inflammation such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha. To investigate the possible effect of polymorphisms on tumour necrosis factor-alpha serum levels with clinical and prognostic parameters of sepsis by determining the nuclear factor-kappa B-1-94 ins/del ATTG and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (-308 G/A) gene polymorphisms and tumour necrosis factor-alpha serum levels. Case-control study. Seventy-two patients with sepsis and 104 healthy controls were included in the study. In order to determine the polymorphisms of nuclear factor-kappa B-1-94 ins/del ATTG and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (-308 G/A), polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was performed and serum tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We observed no significant differences in tumour necrosis factor-alpha serum levels between the study groups. In the patient group, an increase in the tumour necrosis factor-alpha serum levels in patients carrying the tumour necrosis factor-alpha (-308 G/A) A allele compared to those without the A allele was found to be statistically significant. Additionally, an increase in the tumour necrosis factor-alpha serum levels in patients carrying tumour necrosis factor-alpha (-308 G/A) AA genotype compared with patients carrying the AG or GG genotypes was statistically significant. No significant differences were found in these 2 polymorphisms between the patient and control groups (p>0.05). Our results showed the AA genotype and the A allele of the tumour necrosis factor-alpha (-308 G/A) polymorphism may be used as a predictor of elevated tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels in patients with sepsis.

  4. Molecular study of electron transfer flavoprotein alpha-subunit deficiency in two Japanese children with different phenotypes of glutaric acidemia type II.

    PubMed

    Purevjav, E; Kimura, M; Takusa, Y; Ohura, T; Tsuchiya, M; Hara, N; Fukao, T; Yamaguchi, S

    2002-09-01

    Electron transfer flavoprotein is a mitochondrial matrix protein composed of alpha- and beta-subunits (ETF alpha and ETF beta, respectively). This protein transfers electrons between several mitochondrial dehydrogenases and the main respiratory chain via ETF dehydrogenase (ETF-DH). Defects in ETF or ETF-DH cause glutaric acidemias type II (GAII). We investigated the molecular basis of ETF alpha deficiency in two Japanese children with different clinical phenotypes using expression study. Patient 1 had the severe form of GAII, a compound heterozygote of two mutations: 799G to A (alpha G267R) and nonsense 7C to T (alpha R3X). Patient 2 had the mild form and carried two heterozygous mutations: 764G to T (alpha G255V) and 478delG (frameshift). Both patients had one each of missense mutations in one allele; the others were either nonsense or truncated. Restriction enzyme digestion assay using genomic DNAs from 100 healthy Japanese revealed that these mutations were all novel. No signal for ETF alpha was detected by immunoblotting in cases of missense mutants, while wild-type cDNA resulted in expression of ETF alpha protein. Transfection with wild-type ETF alpha cDNA into cultured cells from both patients elevated incorporation of radioisotope-labelled fatty acids. These four mutations were pathogenic for GAII and missense mutations, alpha G255V and alpha G267R were considered anecdotal for mild and severe forms, respectively.

  5. Cross-contact chain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieneweg, Udo (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A system is provided for use with wafers that include multiple integrated circuits that include two conductive layers in contact at multiple interfaces. Contact chains are formed beside the integrated circuits, each contact chain formed of the same two layers as the circuits, in the form of conductive segments alternating between the upper and lower layers and with the ends of the segments connected in series through interfaces. A current source passes a current through the series-connected segments, by way of a pair of current tabs connected to opposite ends of the series of segments. While the current flows, voltage measurements are taken between each of a plurality of pairs of voltage tabs, the two tabs of each pair connected to opposite ends of an interface that lies along the series-connected segments. A plot of interface conductances on a normal probability chart, enables prediction of the yield of good integrated circuits from the wafer.

  6. Cross-contact chain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieneweg, U. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A system is provided for use with wafers that include multiple integrated circuits that include two conductive layers in contact at multiple interfaces. Contact chains are formed beside the integrated circuits, each contact chain formed of the same two layers as the circuits, in the form of conductive segments alternating between the upper and lower layers and with the ends of the segments connected in series through interfaces. A current source passes a current through the series-connected segments, by way of a pair of current tabs connected to opposite ends of the series of segments. While the current flows, voltage measurements are taken between each of a plurality of pairs of voltage tabs, the two tabs of each pair connected to opposite ends of an interface that lies along the series-connected segments. A plot of interface conductances on normal probability chart enables prediction of the yield of good integrated circuits from the wafer.

  7. The IASI detection chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicol, Patrick; Fleury, Joel; Le Naour, Claire; Bernard, Frédéric

    2017-11-01

    IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) is an infrared atmospheric sounder. It will provide meteorologist and scientific community with atmospheric spectra. The instrument is composed of a Fourier transform spectrometer and an associated infrared imager. The presentation will describe the spectrometer detection chain architecture, composed by three different detectors cooled in a passive cryo-cooler (so called CBS : Cold Box Subsystem) and associated analog electronics up to digital conversion. It will mainly focus on design choices with regards to environment constraints, implemented technologies, and associated performances. CNES is leading the IASI program in collaboration with EUMETSAT. The instrument Prime is ALCATEL SPACE responsible, notably, of the detection chain architecture. SAGEM SA provides the detector package (so called CAU : Cold Acquisition Unit).

  8. The IASI detection chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicol, Patrick; Fleury, Joel; Bernard, Frédéric

    2004-06-01

    IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) is an infrared atmospheric sounder. It will provide meteorologist and scientific community with atmospheric spectra. The instrument is composed of a Fourier transform spectrometer and an associated infrared imager. The presentation will describe the spectrometer detection chain architecture, composed by three different detectors cooled in a passive cryo-cooler (so called CBS : Cold Box Subsystem) and associated analog electronics up to digital conversion. It will mainly focus on design choices with regards to environment constraints, implemented technologies, and associated performances . CNES is leading the IASI program in collaboration with EUMETSAT. The instrument Prime is ALCATEL SPACE responsible, notably, of the detection chain architecture. SAGEM SA provides the detector package (so called CAU: Cold Acquisition Unit).

  9. Production of reactive oxygen species in brain mitochondria: contribution by electron transport chain and non-electron transport chain sources.

    PubMed

    Adam-Vizi, Vera

    2005-01-01

    Overwhelming evidence has accumulated indicating that oxidative stress is a crucial factor in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. The major site of production of superoxide, the primary reactive oxygen species (ROS), is considered to be the respiratory chain in the mitochondria, but the exact mechanism and the precise location of the physiologically relevant ROS generation within the respiratory chain have not been disclosed as yet. Studies performed with isolated mitochondria have located ROS generation on complex I and complex III, respectively, depending on the substrates or inhibitors used to fuel or inhibit respiration. A more "physiological" approach is to address ROS generation of in situ mitochondria, which are present in their normal cytosolic environment. Hydrogen peroxide formation in mitochondria in situ in isolated nerve terminals is enhanced when complex I, complex III, or complex IV is inhibited. However, to induce a significant increase in ROS production, complex III and complex IV have to be inhibited by >70%, which raises doubts as to the physiological importance of ROS generation by these complexes. In contrast, complex I inhibition to a small degree is sufficient to enhance ROS generation, indicating that inhibition of complex I by approximately 25-30% observed in postmortem samples of substantia nigra from patients suffering from Parkinson's disease could be important in inducing oxidative stress. Recently, it has been described that a key Krebs cycle enzyme, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (alpha-KGDH), is also able to produce ROS. ROS formation by alpha-KGDH is regulated by the NADH/NAD+ ratio, suggesting that this enzyme could substantially contribute to generation of oxidative stress due to inhibition of complex I. As alpha-KGDH is not only a generator but also a target of ROS, it is proposed that alpha-KGDH is a key factor in a vicious cycle by which oxidative stress is induced and promoted in nerve terminals.

  10. Accurate determinations of alpha(s) from realistic lattice QCD.

    PubMed

    Mason, Q; Trottier, H D; Davies, C T H; Foley, K; Gray, A; Lepage, G P; Nobes, M; Shigemitsu, J

    2005-07-29

    We obtain a new value for the QCD coupling constant by combining lattice QCD simulations with experimental data for hadron masses. Our lattice analysis is the first to (1) include vacuum polarization effects from all three light-quark flavors (using MILC configurations), (2) include third-order terms in perturbation theory, (3) systematically estimate fourth and higher-order terms, (4) use an unambiguous lattice spacing, and (5) use an [symbol: see text](a2)-accurate QCD action. We use 28 different (but related) short-distance quantities to obtain alpha((5)/(MS))(M(Z)) = 0.1170(12).

  11. Streamlining the supply chain.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Lydon

    2003-07-01

    Effective management of the supply chain requires attention to: Product management--formulary development and maintenance, compliance, clinical involvement, standardization, and demand-matching. Sourcing and contracting--vendor consolidation, GPO portfolio management, price leveling, content management, and direct contracting Purchasing and payment-cycle--automatic placement, web enablement, centralization, evaluated receipts settlement, and invoice matching Inventory and distribution management--"unofficial" and "official" locations, vendor-managed inventory, automatic replenishment, and freight management.

  12. The innovation value chain.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Morten T; Birkinshaw, Julian

    2007-06-01

    The challenges of coming up with fresh ideas and realizing profits from them are different for every company. One firm may excel at finding good ideas but may have weak systems for bringing them to market. Another organization may have a terrific process for funding and rolling out new products and services but a shortage of concepts to develop. In this article, Hansen and Birkinshaw caution executives against using the latest and greatest innovation approaches and tools without understanding the unique deficiencies in their companies' innovation systems. They offer a framework for evaluating innovation performance: the innovation value chain. It comprises the three main phases of innovation (idea generation, conversion, and diffusion) as well as the critical activities performed during those phases (looking for ideas inside your unit; looking for them in other units; looking for them externally; selecting ideas; funding them; and promoting and spreading ideas companywide). Using this framework, managers get an end-to-end view of their innovation efforts. They can pinpoint their weakest links and tailor innovation best practices appropriately to strengthen those links. Companies typically succumb to one of three broad "weakest-link" scenarios. They are idea poor, conversion poor, or diffusion poor. The article looks at the ways smart companies - including Intuit, P&G, Sara Lee, Shell, and Siemens- modify the best innovation practices and apply them to address those organizations' individual needs and flaws. The authors warn that adopting the chain-based view of innovation requires new measures of what can be delivered by each link in the chain. The approach also entails new roles for employees "external scouts" and "internal evangelists," for example. Indeed, in their search for new hires, companies should seek out those candidates who can help address particular weaknesses in the innovation value chain.

  13. Folding of polyglutamine chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopra, Manan; Reddy, Allam S.; Abbott, N. L.; de Pablo, J. J.

    2008-10-01

    Long polyglutamine chains have been associated with a number of neurodegenerative diseases. These include Huntington's disease, where expanded polyglutamine (PolyQ) sequences longer than 36 residues are correlated with the onset of symptoms. In this paper we study the folding pathway of a 54-residue PolyQ chain into a β-helical structure. Transition path sampling Monte Carlo simulations are used to generate unbiased reactive pathways between unfolded configurations and the folded β-helical structure of the polyglutamine chain. The folding process is examined in both explicit water and an implicit solvent. Both models reveal that the formation of a few critical contacts is necessary and sufficient for the molecule to fold. Once the primary contacts are formed, the fate of the protein is sealed and it is largely committed to fold. We find that, consistent with emerging hypotheses about PolyQ aggregation, a stable β-helical structure could serve as the nucleus for subsequent polymerization of amyloid fibrils. Our results indicate that PolyQ sequences shorter than 36 residues cannot form that nucleus, and it is also shown that specific mutations inferred from an analysis of the simulated folding pathway exacerbate its stability.

  14. The coprime quantum chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mussardo, G.; Giudici, G.; Viti, J.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper we introduce and study the coprime quantum chain, i.e. a strongly correlated quantum system defined in terms of the integer eigenvalues n i of the occupation number operators at each site of a chain of length M. The n i ’s take value in the interval [2,q] and may be regarded as S z eigenvalues in the spin representation j  =  (q  -  2)/2. The distinctive interaction of the model is based on the coprimality matrix \\boldsymbolΦ : for the ferromagnetic case, this matrix assigns lower energy to configurations where occupation numbers n i and n i+1 of neighbouring sites share a common divisor, while for the anti-ferromagnetic case it assigns a lower energy to configurations where n i and n i+1 are coprime. The coprime chain, both in the ferro and anti-ferromagnetic cases, may present an exponential number of ground states whose values can be exactly computed by means of graph theoretical tools. In the ferromagnetic case there are generally also frustration phenomena. A fine tuning of local operators may lift the exponential ground state degeneracy and, according to which operators are switched on, the system may be driven into different classes of universality, among which the Ising or Potts universality class. The paper also contains an appendix by Don Zagier on the exact eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the coprimality matrix in the limit q\\to ∞ .

  15. Quantum Markov chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudder, Stanley

    2008-07-01

    A new approach to quantum Markov chains is presented. We first define a transition operation matrix (TOM) as a matrix whose entries are completely positive maps whose column sums form a quantum operation. A quantum Markov chain is defined to be a pair (G,E) where G is a directed graph and E =[Eij] is a TOM whose entry Eij labels the edge from vertex j to vertex i. We think of the vertices of G as sites that a quantum system can occupy and Eij is the transition operation from site j to site i in one time step. The discrete dynamics of the system is obtained by iterating the TOM E. We next consider a special type of TOM called a transition effect matrix. In this case, there are two types of dynamics, a state dynamics and an operator dynamics. Although these two types are not identical, they are statistically equivalent. We next give examples that illustrate various properties of quantum Markov chains. We conclude by showing that our formalism generalizes the usual framework for quantum random walks.

  16. Behavior of a cloned murine interferon alpha/beta receptor expressed in homospecific or heterospecific background.

    PubMed Central

    Uzé, G; Lutfalla, G; Bandu, M T; Proudhon, D; Mogensen, K E

    1992-01-01

    A murine interferon (IFN) alpha/beta receptor was cloned from the IFN-sensitive L1210 cell line on the basis of its homology with the human receptor. A combination of methods that includes the screening of random-primed and oligo(dT)-primed cDNA libraries and polymerase chain reactions with a single-side specificity was used. At the amino acid level, the murine IFN-alpha/beta shows 46% identity with its human counterpart. Both human WISH cells presenting a low sensitivity to mouse IFN and a murine L1210 mutant subline that does not express the receptor have been stably transfected with the murine IFN-alpha/beta receptor. Whereas transfected human cells became sensitive to a limited number of mouse IFN-alpha/beta subtypes, the transfected murine L1210 mutant was found to be fully complemented and became sensitive to all mouse IFN-alpha/beta subtypes tested, including those that were not active on transfected human cells. These results strongly suggest that the receptor described here is implicated in the mediation of the activities of all murine IFN-alpha/beta subtypes. Images PMID:1533935

  17. Behavior of a cloned murine interferon alpha/beta receptor expressed in homospecific or heterospecific background.

    PubMed

    Uzé, G; Lutfalla, G; Bandu, M T; Proudhon, D; Mogensen, K E

    1992-05-15

    A murine interferon (IFN) alpha/beta receptor was cloned from the IFN-sensitive L1210 cell line on the basis of its homology with the human receptor. A combination of methods that includes the screening of random-primed and oligo(dT)-primed cDNA libraries and polymerase chain reactions with a single-side specificity was used. At the amino acid level, the murine IFN-alpha/beta shows 46% identity with its human counterpart. Both human WISH cells presenting a low sensitivity to mouse IFN and a murine L1210 mutant subline that does not express the receptor have been stably transfected with the murine IFN-alpha/beta receptor. Whereas transfected human cells became sensitive to a limited number of mouse IFN-alpha/beta subtypes, the transfected murine L1210 mutant was found to be fully complemented and became sensitive to all mouse IFN-alpha/beta subtypes tested, including those that were not active on transfected human cells. These results strongly suggest that the receptor described here is implicated in the mediation of the activities of all murine IFN-alpha/beta subtypes.

  18. Study on preparation and formation mechanism of n-alkanol/water emulsion using alpha-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Hashizaki, Kaname; Kageyama, Takashi; Inoue, Motoki; Taguchi, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Haruhisa; Saito, Yoshihiro

    2007-11-01

    Surfactants are usually used for the preparation of emulsions; however, some have an adverse effect on the human body such as skin irritation, hemolysis, and protein denaturation, etc. In this study, we examined the preparation and formation mechanism of n-alkanol/water emulsions using alpha-cyclodextrin (alpha-CD) as an emulsifier. Emulsions were prepared by mixing oil and water phases for 4 min at 2500 rpm using a vortex mixer. The mechanism of emulsification was investigated with some physico-chemical techniques. From phase diagrams of n-alkanol/alpha-CD/water systems, the emulsion phase extended as the chain length of n-alkanols and the amount of alpha-CD added increased. Furthermore, the emulsion was not formed in the region where the n-alkanol/alpha-CD complex didn't precipitate; however, the emulsion was formed in the region where the complex precipitated. In addition, it was clear that the emulsions have a yield stress value and correspond to the Maxwell model from rheological measurement. Our experiments clearly showed that the stable emulsions are formed because the precipitated complexes form a dense film at the oil-water interface and prevent aggregation among dispersed phases. Furthermore, it is suggested that the creation of a three-dimensional network structure formed by precipitated complexes in the continuous phase contributes to the stabilization of the emulsion. Thus, we concluded that the n-alkanol/water emulsions using alpha-cyclodextrin were a kind of the Pickering emulsion.

  19. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of alpha radiation in cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Patricia; Tracy, Bliss; Ping, Tilly; Baweja, Anar; Wickstrom, Mark; Sidhu, Narinder; Hiebert, Linda

    2007-03-01

    Northern peoples can receive elevated radiation doses (1- 10 mSv/y) from transfer of polonium-210 (210Po) through the lichen-caribou-human food chain. Ingested 210Po is primarily blood-borne and thus many of its short range alpha particles irradiate the endothelial cells lining the blood vessels. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of alpha particles vs. x-rays was examined in porcine aortic endothelial cells as a surrogate for understanding what might happen to human endothelial cells in northern populations consuming traditional foods. Cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells were exposed to x-ray and 210Po alpha particle radiation. Alpha irradiation was applied to the cell cultures internally via the culture medium and externally, using thin-bottomed culture dishes. The results given here are based on the external irradiation method, which was found to be more reliable. Dose-response curves were compared for four lethal endpoints (cell viability, live cell fraction, release of lactate dehydrogenase [LDH] and clonogenic survival) to determine the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of alpha radiation. The alpha RBE for porcine cells varied from 1.6-21, depending on the endpoint: 21.2+/-4.5 for cell viability, 12.9+/-2.7 for decrease in live cell number, 5.3+/-0.4 for LDH release to the medium but only 1.6 +/-0.1 for clonogenic survival. The low RBE of 1.6 was due to x-ray hypersensitivity of endothelial cells at low doses.

  20. Ancient roots for polymorphism at the HLA-DQ. alpha. locus in primates

    SciTech Connect

    Gyllensten, U.B.; Erlich, H.A.

    1989-12-01

    The genes encoding the human histocompatibility antigens (HLA) exhibit a remarkable degree of polymorphism as revealed by immunologic and molecular analyses. This extensive sequence polymorphism either may have been generated during the lifetime of the human species or could have arisen before speciation and been maintained in the contemporary human population by selection or, possibly, by genetic drift. These two hypotheses were examined using the polymerase chain reaction method to amplify polymorphic sequences from the DQ{alpha} locus, as well as the DX{alpha} locus, an homologous but nonexpressed locus, in a series of primates that diverged at known times. In general,more » the amino acid sequence of a specific human DQ{alpha} allelic type is more closely related to its chimpanzee or gorilla counterpart than to other human DQ{alpha} alleles. Phylogenetic analysis of the silent nucleotide position changes shows that the similarity of allelic types between species is due to common ancestry rather than convergent evolution. Thus, most of the polymorphism at the DQ{alpha} locus in the human species was already present at least 5 million years ago in the ancestral species that gave rise to the chimpanzee, gorilla, and human lineages. However, one of the DQ{alpha} alleles may have arisen after speciation by recombination between two ancestral alleles.« less

  1. The mongoose acetylcholine receptor alpha-subunit: analysis of glycosylation and alpha-bungarotoxin binding.

    PubMed

    Asher, O; Jensen, B S; Lupu-Meiri, M; Oron, Y; Fuchs, S

    1998-04-17

    The mongoose AChR alpha-subunit has been cloned and shown to be highly homologous to other AChR alpha-subunits, with only six differences in amino acid residues at positions that are conserved in animal species that bind alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BTX). Four of these six substitutions cluster in the ligand binding site, and one of them, Asn-187, forms a consensus N-glycosylation site. The mongoose glycosylated alpha-subunit has a higher apparent molecular mass than that of the rat glycosylated alpha-subunit, probably resulting from the additional glycosylation at Asn-187 of the mongoose subunit. The in vitro translated mongoose alpha-subunit, in a glycosylated or non-glycosylated form, does not bind alpha-BTX, indicating that lack of alpha-BTX binding can be achieved also in the absence of glycosylation.

  2. 21 CFR 178.3780 - Polyhydric alcohol esters of long chain monobasic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... chloride copolymer articles complying with § 177.1980 of this chapter that contact food of Types I, II, IV... 1,050 to 1,700. The esters are produced by the reaction of either ethylene glycol or glycerol with... chain alpha-olefins, the unreacted carboxylic acids in the formation of the glycerol esters being...

  3. 21 CFR 178.3780 - Polyhydric alcohol esters of long chain monobasic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... chloride copolymer articles complying with § 177.1980 of this chapter that contact food of Types I, II, IV... 1,050 to 1,700. The esters are produced by the reaction of either ethylene glycol or glycerol with... chain alpha-olefins, the unreacted carboxylic acids in the formation of the glycerol esters being...

  4. 21 CFR 178.3780 - Polyhydric alcohol esters of long chain monobasic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... chloride copolymer articles complying with § 177.1980 of this chapter that contact food of Types I, II, IV... 1,050 to 1,700. The esters are produced by the reaction of either ethylene glycol or glycerol with... chain alpha-olefins, the unreacted carboxylic acids in the formation of the glycerol esters being...

  5. 21 CFR 178.3780 - Polyhydric alcohol esters of long chain monobasic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... chloride copolymer articles complying with § 177.1980 of this chapter that contact food of Types I, II, IV... 1,050 to 1,700. The esters are produced by the reaction of either ethylene glycol or glycerol with... chain alpha-olefins, the unreacted carboxylic acids in the formation of the glycerol esters being...

  6. Baecklund transformations of Toda chains

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, V.A.

    Baecklund transformations of the nonperiodic Toda chains corresponding to the algebras A/sub n/, B/sub n/, C/sub n/, G/sub 2/ and the periodic Toda chains corresponding to the algebras A/sub n/ and C/sub n/ are constructed. Baecklund transformations of matrix Toda chains are also considered.

  7. High gas flow alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    Bolton, Richard D.; Bounds, John A.; Rawool-Sullivan, Mohini W.

    1996-01-01

    An alpha detector for application in areas of high velocity gas flows, such as smokestacks and air vents. A plurality of spaced apart signal collectors are placed inside an enclosure, which would include smokestacks and air vents, in sufficient numbers to substantially span said enclosure so that gas ions generated within the gas flow are electrostatically captured by the signal collector means. Electrometer means and a voltage source are connected to the signal collectors to generate an electrical field between adjacent signal collectors, and to indicate a current produced through collection of the gas ions by the signal collectors.

  8. High gas flow alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    Bolton, R.D.; Bounds, J.A.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.

    1996-05-07

    An alpha detector for application in areas of high velocity gas flows, such as smokestacks and air vents. A plurality of spaced apart signal collectors are placed inside an enclosure, which would include smokestacks and air vents, in sufficient numbers to substantially span said enclosure so that gas ions generated within the gas flow are electrostatically captured by the signal collector means. Electrometer means and a voltage source are connected to the signal collectors to generate an electrical field between adjacent signal collectors, and to indicate a current produced through collection of the gas ions by the signal collectors. 4 figs.

  9. Crossing symmetry in alpha space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogervorst, Matthijs; van Rees, Balt C.

    2017-11-01

    We initiate the study of the conformal bootstrap using Sturm-Liouville theory, specializing to four-point functions in one-dimensional CFTs. We do so by decomposing conformal correlators using a basis of eigenfunctions of the Casimir which are labeled by a complex number α. This leads to a systematic method for computing conformal block decompositions. Analyzing bootstrap equations in alpha space turns crossing symmetry into an eigenvalue problem for an integral operator K. The operator K is closely related to the Wilson transform, and some of its eigenfunctions can be found in closed form.

  10. Targeted alpha therapy for cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Barry J.; Raja, Chand; Rizvi, Syed; Li, Yong; Tsui, Wendy; Zhang, David; Song, Emma; Qu, Chang Fa; Kearsley, John; Graham, Peter; Thompson, John

    2004-08-01

    Targeted alpha therapy (TAT) offers the potential to inhibit the growth of micrometastases by selectively killing isolated and preangiogenic clusters of cancer cells. The practicality and efficacy of TAT is tested by in vitro and in vivo studies in melanoma, leukaemia, colorectal, breast and prostate cancers, and by a phase 1 trial of intralesional TAT for melanoma. The alpha-emitting radioisotope used is Bi-213, which is eluted from the Ac-225 generator and chelated to a cancer specific monoclonal antibody (mab) or protein (e.g. plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 PAI2) to form the alpha-conjugate (AC). Stable alpha-ACs have been produced which have been tested for specificity and cytotoxicity in vitro against melanoma (9.2.27 mab), leukaemia (WM60), colorectal (C30.6), breast (PAI2, herceptin), ovarian (PAI2, herceptin, C595), prostate (PAI2, J591) and pancreatic (PAI2, C595) cancers. Subcutaneous inoculation of 1-1.5 million human cancer cells into the flanks of nude mice causes tumours to grow in all mice. Tumour growth is compared for untreated controls, nonspecific AC and specific AC, for local (subcutaneous) and systemic (tail vein or intraperitoneal) injection models. The 213Bi-9.2.27 AC is injected into secondary skin melanomas in stage 4 patients in a dose escalation study to determine the effective tolerance dose, and to measure kinematics to obtain the equivalent dose to organs. In vitro studies show that TAT is one to two orders of magnitude more cytotoxic to targeted cells than non-specific ACs, specific beta emitting conjugates or free isotopes. In vivo local TAT at 2 days post-inoculation completely prevents tumour formation for all cancers tested so far. Intra-lesional TAT can completely regress advanced sc melanoma but is less successful for breast and prostate cancers. Systemic TAT inhibits the growth of sc melanoma xenografts and gives almost complete control of breast and prostate cancer tumour growth. Intralesional doses up to 450 µCi in human

  11. Effect of interaction range on phonon relaxation in Fermi-Pasta-Ulam beta chain.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, G; Kumar, Deepak

    2007-08-01

    We study the effect of increasing the range of interactions on phonon relaxation in a chain of atoms with quartic anharmonicity. The study is motivated by recent numerical studies, showing that the value of the exponent alpha characterizing the divergence of conductivity with system size apparently depends on the presence of second neighbor couplings. We perform a quantum calculation of the wave-vector (q) dependent relaxation rate gamma(q) in the second order perturbation theory. The nonanalytic dependence of gamma(q) arises due to small-q singularity of the collision integral. We find that gamma(q) proportional to Aq(5/3) + Bq2. This gives rise to an asymptotic value alpha = 0.4, but the q2 terms lead to a higher apparent value of alpha at small sizes of the chain.

  12. The C-terminal region of alpha-crystallin: involvement in protection against heat-induced denaturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takemoto, L.; Emmons, T.; Horwitz, J.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the alpha-crystallins can protect other proteins against heat-induced denaturation and aggregation. To determine the possible involvement of the C-terminal region in this activity, the alpha-crystallins were subjected to limited tryptic digestion, and the amount of cleavage from the N-terminal and C-terminal regions of the alpha-A and alpha-B crystallin chains was assessed using antisera specific for these regions. Limited tryptic digestion resulted in cleavage only from the C-terminal region of alpha-A crystallin. This trypsin-treated alpha-A crystallin preparation showed a decreased ability to protect proteins from heat-induced aggregation using an in vitro assay. Together, these results demonstrate that the C-terminal region of alpha-A crystallin is important for its ability to protect against heat-induced aggregation, which is consistent with the hypothesis that post-translational changes that are known to occur at the C-terminal region may have significant effects on the ability of alpha-A crystallin to protect against protein denaturation in vivo.

  13. Schindler disease: the molecular lesion in the alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase gene that causes an infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, A M; Schindler, D; Desnick, R

    1990-01-01

    Schindler disease is a recently recognized infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy resulting from the deficient activity of the lysosomal hydrolase, alpha-N-acetylgalctosaminidase (alpha-GalNAc). The recent isolation and expression of the full-length cDNA encoding alpha-GalNAc facilitated the identification of the molecular lesions in the affected brothers from family D, the first cases described with this autosomal recessive disease. Southern and Northern hybridization analyses of DNA and RNA from the affected homozygotes revealed a grossly normal alpha-GalNAc gene structure and normal transcript sizes and amounts. Therefore, the alpha-GalNAc transcript from an affected homozygote was reverse-transcribed, amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and sequenced. A single G to A transition at nucleotide 973 was detected in multiple subclones containing the PCR products. This point mutation resulted in a glutamic acid to lysine substitution in residue 325 (E325K) of the alpha-GalNAc polypeptide. The base substitution was confirmed by dot blot hybridization analyses of PCR-amplified genomic DNA from family members with allele-specific oligonucleotides. Furthermore, transient expression of an alpha-GalNAc construct containing the E325K mutation resulted in the expression of an immunoreactive polypeptide which had no detectable alpha-GalNAc activity. Images PMID:2243144

  14. [Effect of TNF-alpha gene polymorphism on outcome of thalidomide-based regimens for multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    DU, Juan; Yuan, Zhen-Gang; Zhang, Chun-Yang; Fu, Wei-Jun; Jiang, Hua; Chen, Bao-An; Hou, Jian

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of polymorphism at the -238 and -308 position of the TNF-alpha promotor region on the clinical outcome of thalidomide (Thal)-based regimens for the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM). The polymorphism at the -238 and -308 position of the TNF-alpha promotor region of 168 MM patients treated with Thal-based regimens were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Genotypes were tested for association with overall response by logistic regression, and survival was evaluated by univariate and multivariate analysis. In TNF-alpha -238 position, 11 (6.5%) patients had GA genotype and 1 (0.6%) AA genotype. In TNF-alpha -308 position, 19 (11.3%) had GA genotype and 1 (0.6%) AA genotype. In univariate analysis, the TNF-alpha -238 GA + AA genotypes were associated with a significantly prolonged progression free survival (PFS) (P = 0.017), and a better overall survival (OS) (P = 0.150). Multivariate COX regression analysis showed that TNF-alpha -238 polymorphic status was an independent prognostic factor for prolonged PFS (P = 0.049). The TNF-alpha -238 polymorphic status is associated with a favorable clinical outcome in MM patients treated with thalidomide-based regimen. The polymorphism status of TNF-alpha gene might be of promise for developing a more informative stratification system for MM.

  15. Solubilization of cyclohexane in aqueous solutions of sodium. cap alpha. -alkyl alkanoates

    SciTech Connect

    Sagitani, H.; Suzuki, T.; Nagai, M.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of branched alkyl chain length and the position of the COONa group on the solubilizing power of n-alkane sodium carboxylates was studied. The lipophilic property and the amount of solubilized cyclohexane increased with the branched chain length of branched soaps, and with the change of the position of the -COONa group from 3 to 7 in the alkyl chain of pentadecane -3, -5, and -7 sodium carboxylates. Alpha-branched soaps having proper branched alkyl chains were better solubilizers for cyclohexane than straight chain compounds. The amount of cyclohexane solublized by C/sub 10/ H/sub 21/ CH(C/sub 6/H/sub 13/) COONa wasmore » about three times greater than the amount solubilized by C/sub 17/ H/sub 35/ COONa. There was a marked increase in the solubilization of cyclohexane replacing ..cap alpha..-branched fatty acid soaps with optimum amount of cosurfactants such as C/sub 8/H/sub 17/ (OCH/sub 2/CH/sub 2/)/sub 2/OH. Namely, solubilization increased markedly at the optimum hydrophile-lipophile balance of mixed surfactant. 21 references.« less

  16. Generation of reactive oxygen species in the reaction catalyzed by alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Tretter, Laszlo; Adam-Vizi, Vera

    2004-09-08

    Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (alpha-KGDH), a key enzyme in the Krebs' cycle, is a crucial early target of oxidative stress (Tretter and Adam-Vizi, 2000). The present study demonstrates that alpha-KGDH is able to generate H(2)O(2) and, thus, could also be a source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mitochondria. Isolated alpha-KGDH with coenzyme A (HS-CoA) and thiamine pyrophosphate started to produce H(2)O(2) after addition of alpha-ketoglutarate in the absence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-oxidized (NAD(+)). NAD(+), which proved to be a powerful inhibitor of alpha-KGDH-mediated H(2)O(2) formation, switched the H(2)O(2) forming mode of the enzyme to the catalytic [nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-reduced (NADH) forming] mode. In contrast, NADH stimulated H(2)O(2) formation by alpha-KGDH, and for this, neither alpha-ketoglutarate nor HS-CoA were required. When all of the substrates and cofactors of the enzyme were present, the NADH/NAD(+) ratio determined the rate of H(2)O(2) production. The higher the NADH/NAD(+) ratio the higher the rate of H(2)O(2) production. H(2)O(2) production as well as the catalytic function of the enzyme was activated by Ca(2+). In synaptosomes, using alpha-ketoglutarate as respiratory substrate, the rate of H(2)O(2) production increased by 2.5-fold, and aconitase activity decreased, indicating that alpha-KGDH can generate H(2)O(2) in in situ mitochondria. Given the NADH/NAD(+) ratio as a key regulator of H(2)O(2) production by alpha-KGDH, it is suggested that production of ROS could be significant not only in the respiratory chain but also in the Krebs' cycle when oxidation of NADH is impaired. Thus alpha-KGDH is not only a target of ROS but could significantly contribute to generation of oxidative stress in the mitochondria.

  17. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha acts as a tumor suppressor in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Zhang, Haiyang; Zhang, Yan; Li, Shuang; Wang, Xinyi; Wang, Xia; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Bin; Zen, Ke; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Zhang, Chunni; Ba, Yi

    2017-04-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha plays a crucial role in regulating the biosynthesis of mitochondria, which is closely linked to the energy metabolism in various tumors. This study investigated the regulatory role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, the changes of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha messenger RNA levels between normal human liver and hepatocellular carcinoma tissue were examined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Knockdown of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha was conducted by RNA interference in the human liver cell line L02, while overexpression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha was conducted by adenovirus encoding peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha complementary DNA in the human hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2. Cellular morphological changes were observed via optical and electron microscopy. Cellular apoptosis was determined by Hoechst 33258 staining. In addition, the expression levels of 21,400 genes in tissues and cells were detected by microarray. It was shown that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha expression was significantly downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma compared with normal liver tissues. After knockdown of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha expression in L02 cells, cells reverted to immature and dedifferentiated morphology exhibiting cancerous tendency. Apoptosis occurred in the HepG2 cells after transfection by adenovirus encoding peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha. Microarray analysis showed consistent results. The results suggest that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha acts as a tumor

  18. Radiology's value chain.

    PubMed

    Enzmann, Dieter R

    2012-04-01

    A diagnostic radiology value chain is constructed to define its main components, all of which are vulnerable to change, because digitization has caused disaggregation of the chain. Some components afford opportunities to improve productivity, some add value, while some face outsourcing to lower labor cost and to information technology substitutes, raising commoditization risks. Digital image information, because it can be competitive at smaller economies of scale, allows faster, differential rates of technological innovation of components, initiating a centralization-to-decentralization technology trend. Digitization, having triggered disaggregation of radiology's professional service model, may soon usher in an information business model. This means moving from a mind-set of "reading images" to an orientation of creating and organizing information for greater accuracy, faster speed, and lower cost in medical decision making. Information businesses view value chain investments differently than do small professional services. In the former model, producing a better business product will extend image interpretation beyond a radiologist's personal fund of knowledge to encompass expanding external imaging databases. A follow-on expansion with integration of image and molecular information into a report will offer new value in medical decision making. Improved interpretation plus new integration will enrich and diversify radiology's key service products, the report and consultation. A more robust, information-rich report derived from a "systems" and "computational" radiology approach will be facilitated by a transition from a professional service to an information business. Under health care reform, radiology will transition its emphasis from volume to greater value. Radiology's future brightens with the adoption of a philosophy of offering information rather than "reads" for decision making. Staunchly defending the status quo via turf wars is unlikely to constitute a

  19. Musical Markov Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volchenkov, Dima; Dawin, Jean René

    A system for using dice to compose music randomly is known as the musical dice game. The discrete time MIDI models of 804 pieces of classical music written by 29 composers have been encoded into the transition matrices and studied by Markov chains. Contrary to human languages, entropy dominates over redundancy, in the musical dice games based on the compositions of classical music. The maximum complexity is achieved on the blocks consisting of just a few notes (8 notes, for the musical dice games generated over Bach's compositions). First passage times to notes can be used to resolve tonality and feature a composer.

  20. Binding-dependent disorder-order transition in PKI alpha: a fluorescence anisotropy study.

    PubMed

    Hauer, J A; Taylor, S S; Johnson, D A

    1999-05-25

    The conformational flexibility of peptidyl ligands may be an essential element of many peptide-macromolecular interactions. Consequently, the alpha-carbonyl backbone flexibility of the 8 kDa protein kinase inhibitor (PKI alpha) peptide of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK) free in solution and bound to cAPK was assessed by time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy. Specifically, three full-length, single-site PKI alpha mutants (V3C, S28C, and S59C) were prepared, and fluorescein iodoacetamide (FI) was selectively conjugated to the side chains of each substituted cysteine. The time-resolved anisotropy decay profiles of the labeled mutants were well fit to a model-free nonassociative biexponential equation. Free in solution, the three labeled proteins had very similar anisotropy decays arising primarily from local alpha-carbonyl backbone movements. Only a small fraction of the anisotropy decay was associated with slower, whole-body tumbling, confirming that PKI alpha is highly disordered at all three locations. Complexation of the mutants with the catalytic (C) subunit of cAPK decreased the rate of whole-body tumbling for all three mutants. The effects on the rapid decay processes, however, were dependent upon the site of conjugation. The anisotropy decay profiles of both FI-V3C- and FI-S28C-PKI alpha were associated with significantly reduced contributions from the fast decay processes, while that of FI-S59C-PKI alpha was largely unaffected by binding to the C-subunit. The results suggest that the cAPK-binding domain of PKI alpha extends from the its N-terminus to residues beyond Ser28 but does not include the segment around Ser59, which is still part of a highly flexible domain when bound to the C-subunit.

  1. Regulation of valine and. alpha. -ketoisocaproate metabolism in rat kidney mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.H.; Harper, A.E.

    1988-10-01

    Activities of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) aminotransferase (BCAT) and {alpha}-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD) were assayed in mitochondria isolated from kidneys of rats. Rates of transamination of valine and oxidation of keto acids {alpha}-ketoisocaproate (KIC) or {alpha}-ketoisovalerate (KIV) were estimated using radioactive tracers of the appropriate substrate from amounts of {sup 14}C-labeled products formed. Because of the high mitochondrial BCAT activity, an amino acceptor for BCAT, {alpha}-ketoglutarate ({alpha}-KG) or KIC, was added to the assay medium when valine was the substrate. Rates of valine transamination and subsequent oxidation of the KIV formed were determined with 0.5 mM {alpha}-KG as the aminomore » acceptor; these rates were 5- to 50-fold those without added {alpha}-KG. Rates of CO{sub 2} evolution from valine also increased when KIC was present; however, with KIC concentrations above 0.2 mM, rates of CO{sub 2} evolution from valine declined although rates of transamination continued to rise. When 0.05 mM KIC was added to the assay medium, oxidation of KIC was suppressed by inclusion of valine or glutamate in the medium. When valine was present KIC was not oxidized preferentially, presumably because it was also serving as an amino acceptor for BCAT. These results indicate that as the supply of amino acceptor, {alpha}-KG or KIC, is increased in mitochondria not only is the rate of valine transamination stimulated but also the rate of oxidation of the KIV formed from valine. Thus the rate of oxidation of BCAA can be controlled by factors that influence the rate and direction of BCAA transamination and, thereby, the supply of substrate for BCKD.« less

  2. Morphological characterization of the AlphaA- and AlphaB-crystallin double knockout mouse lens

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Daniel L; Takemoto, Larry; Brady, James P; Wawrousek, Eric F

    2003-01-01

    Background One approach to resolving some of the in vivo functions of alpha-crystallin is to generate animal models where one or both of the alpha-crystallin gene products have been eliminated. In the single alpha-crystallin knockout mice, the remaining alpha-crystallin may fully or partially compensate for some of the functions of the missing protein, especially in the lens, where both alphaA and alphaB are normally expressed at high levels. The purpose of this study was to characterize gross lenticular morphology in normal mice and mice with the targeted disruption of alphaA- and alphaB-crystallin genes (alphaA/BKO). Methods Lenses from 129SvEvTac mice and alphaA/BKO mice were examined by standard scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy methodologies. Results Equatorial and axial (sagittal) dimensions of lenses for alphaA/BKO mice were significantly smaller than age-matched wild type lenses. No posterior sutures or fiber cells extending to the posterior capsule of the lens were found in alphaA/BKO lenses. Ectopical nucleic acid staining was observed in the posterior subcapsular region of 5 wk and anterior subcapsular cortex of 54 wk alphaA/BKO lenses. Gross morphological differences were also observed in the equatorial/bow, posterior and anterior regions of lenses from alphaA/BKO mice as compared to wild mice. Conclusion These results indicated that both alphaA- and alphaB-crystallin are necessary for proper fiber cell formation, and that the absence of alpha-crystallin can lead to cataract formation. PMID:12546709

  3. Anticonvulsant properties of alpha, gamma, and alpha, gamma-substituted gamma-butyrolactones.

    PubMed

    Klunk, W E; Covey, D F; Ferrendelli, J A

    1982-09-01

    Derivatives of gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) substituted on the alpha- and/or gamma-positions were synthesized and tested for their effects on behavior in mice, on the electroencephalographs and blood pressure of paralyzed-ventilated guinea pigs, and on electrical activity of incubated hippocampal slices. Several compounds, including alpha-ethyl-alpha-methyl GBL (alpha-EMGBL), alpha, alpha-dimethyl GBL, alpha, gamma-diethyl-alpha, gamma-dimethyl GBL, and gamma-ethyl-gamma-methyl GBL, prevented seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol, beta-ethyl-beta-methyl-gamma-butyrolactone (beta-EMGBL), picrotoxin, or all three compounds in mice and guinea pigs but had no effect on seizures induced by maximal electroshock or bicuculline. Neither gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) nor alpha-isopropylidine GBL had any anticonvulsant activity. The anticonvulsant alpha-substituted compounds had a potent hypotensive effect and antagonized the hypertensive effect of beta-EMGBL, alpha-EMGBL was tested in incubated hippocampal slices and was found to depress basal activity and antagonize excitation induced by beta-EMGBL. These results demonstrate that alpha-alkyl-substituted GBL and, to a lesser extent, gamma-substituted derivatives are anticonvulsant agents and that their effects are strikingly different from those of GHB or beta-alkyl-substituted GBLs, which are epileptogenic. Possibly beta- and alpha-substituted GBLs act at the same site as agonists and antagonists, respectively.

  4. Beta/alpha continuous air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Becker, Gregory K.; Martz, Dowell E.

    1989-01-01

    A single deep layer silicon detector in combination with a microcomputer, recording both alpha and beta activity and the energy of each pulse, distinguishing energy peaks using a novel curve fitting technique to reduce the natural alpha counts in the energy region where plutonium and other transuranic alpha emitters are present, and using a novel algorithm to strip out radon daughter contribution to actual beta counts.

  5. Beta/alpha continuous air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Becker, G.K.; Martz, D.E.

    1988-06-27

    A single deep layer silicon detector in combination with a microcomputer, recording both alpha and beta activity and the energy of each pulse, distinquishing energy peaks using a novel curve fitting technique to reduce the natural alpha counts in the energy region where plutonium and other transuranic alpha emitters are present, and using a novel algorithm to strip out radon daughter contribution to actual beta counts. 7 figs.

  6. N-substituted imidazolines and ethylenediamines and their action on alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Hamada, A; Yaden, E L; Horng, J S; Ruffolo, R R; Patil, P N; Miller, D D

    1985-09-01

    A series of N-substituted imidazolines and ethylenediamines were synthesized and examined for their activity in alpha- and beta-adrenergic systems. The length of the intermediate side chain between the catechol and imidazoline ring or the amine of the ethylenediamine segment was shown to affect the adrenergic activity. N-[2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl]imidazoline hydrochloride (2) and N-[2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl]ethylenediamine dihydrochloride (4), both with two methylene groups between the catechol and amine segment, were found to be somewhat selective for alpha 2-adrenergic receptors while 1-(3,4-dihydroxybenzyl)imidazoline hydrochloride (1) and N-2-(3,4-dihydroxybenzyl)ethylenediamine dihydrochloride (3), both with one methylene group between the catechol and amine segment, were more selective for alpha1-adrenergic receptors in a pithed rat model. Of the four compounds examined, only compound 2 showed significant direct activity on beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors.

  7. Gene transfer mediated by alpha2-macroglobulin.

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, H; Huse, K; Birkenmeier, G; Otto, A; Scholz, G H

    1996-01-01

    alpha2-Macroglobulin covalently linked to poly(L)-lysine can be used as a vehicle for receptor-mediated gene transfer. This modified alpha2-macroglobulin maintains its ability to bind to the alpha2-macroglobulin receptor, and was shown to introduce a luciferase reporter gene plasmid into HepG2 human hepatoma cells in vitro. The alpha2-macroglobulin receptor is a very large and multifunctional cell surface receptor, whose rapid and efficient internalization rate makes it attractive for gene therapy, e.g. for hepatic gene targeting via injection into the portal vein. PMID:8871570

  8. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha polymorphism as one of the complex inherited factors in pemphigus.

    PubMed Central

    Torzecka, Jolanta Dorota; Narbutt, Joanna; Sysa-Jedrzejowska, Anna; Borowiec, Maciej; Ptasinska, Anetta; Woszczek, Grzegorz; Kowalski, Marek L

    2003-01-01

    The aim of our study was to analyse a significance of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha promoter gene polymorphisms in relation to the HLA-DR locus in genetic predisposition to pemphigus. TNF-alpha gene polymorphisms in position -238 and -308 were identified using a modified polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method in 53 patients with pemphigus (38 with pemphigus vulgaris, 15 with pemphigus foliaceus) and 87 healthy controls. The HLA-DRB1 locus was typed using the polymerase chain reaction SSO method in all the patients and 152 population controls. Carriers of the TNF-alpha polymorphic -308 A allele were found to be more frequent in the pemphigus foliaceus group in comparison with the control group (odds ratio (OR) = 8.12; p = 0.0005). A significant association between HLA-DRB1*04 (OR = 3.86; pcor = 0.0001) and DRB1*14 (OR = 8.4; pcor = 0.0001) and pemphigus vulgaris was found. In this group of patients a decreased frequency of HLA-DRB1*07 (OR = 0.08; pcor = 0.006) was also identified. We have shown for the first time a positive association of TNF-alpha polymorphism in position -308 with pemphigus foliaceus. PMID:14760938

  9. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha polymorphism as one of the complex inherited factors in pemphigus.

    PubMed

    Torzecka, Jolanta Dorota; Narbutt, Joanna; Sysa-Jedrzejowska, Anna; Borowiec, Maciej; Ptasinska, Anetta; Woszczek, Grzegorz; Kowalski, Marek L

    2003-10-01

    The aim of our study was to analyse a significance of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha promoter gene polymorphisms in relation to the HLA-DR locus in genetic predisposition to pemphigus. TNF-alpha gene polymorphisms in position -238 and -308 were identified using a modified polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method in 53 patients with pemphigus (38 with pemphigus vulgaris, 15 with pemphigus foliaceus) and 87 healthy controls. The HLA-DRB1 locus was typed using the polymerase chain reaction SSO method in all the patients and 152 population controls. Carriers of the TNF-alpha polymorphic -308 A allele were found to be more frequent in the pemphigus foliaceus group in comparison with the control group (odds ratio (OR) = 8.12; p = 0.0005). A significant association between HLA-DRB1*04 (OR = 3.86; pcor = 0.0001) and DRB1*14 (OR = 8.4; pcor = 0.0001) and pemphigus vulgaris was found. In this group of patients a decreased frequency of HLA-DRB1*07 (OR = 0.08; pcor = 0.006) was also identified. We have shown for the first time a positive association of TNF-alpha polymorphism in position -308 with pemphigus foliaceus.

  10. Doping of Semiconducting Atomic Chains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toshishige, Yamada; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Due to the rapid progress in atom manipulation technology, atomic chain electronics would not be a dream, where foreign atoms are placed on a substrate to form a chain, and its electronic properties are designed by controlling the lattice constant d. It has been shown theoretically that a Si atomic chain is metallic regardless of d and that a Mg atomic chain is semiconducting or insulating with a band gap modified with d. For electronic applications, it is essential to establish a method to dope a semiconducting chain, which is to control the Fermi energy position without altering the original band structure. If we replace some of the chain atoms with dopant atoms randomly, the electrons will see random potential along the chain and will be localized strongly in space (Anderson localization). However, if we replace periodically, although the electrons can spread over the chain, there will generally appear new bands and band gaps reflecting the new periodicity of dopant atoms. This will change the original band structure significantly. In order to overcome this dilemma, we may place a dopant atom beside the chain at every N lattice periods (N > 1). Because of the periodic arrangement of dopant atoms, we can avoid the unwanted Anderson localization. Moreover, since the dopant atoms do not constitute the chain, the overlap interaction between them is minimized, and the band structure modification can be made smallest. Some tight-binding results will be discussed to demonstrate the present idea.

  11. Resting-State Alpha in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Alpha Associations with Thalamic Volume

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, J. Christopher; Heiken, Kory; Chen, Yu-Han; Herrington, John D.; Chow, Vivian; Liu, Song; Bloy, Luke; Huang, Mingxiong; Pandey, Juhi; Cannon, Katelyn M.; Qasmieh, Saba; Levy, Susan E.; Schultz, Robert T.; Roberts, Timothy P. L.

    2015-01-01

    Alpha circuits (8-12 Hz), necessary for basic and complex brain processes, are abnormal in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present study obtained estimates of resting-state (RS) alpha activity in children with ASD and examined associations between alpha activity, age, and clinical symptoms. Given that the thalamus modulates cortical RS alpha…

  12. Polymerase chain displacement reaction.

    PubMed

    Harris, Claire L; Sanchez-Vargas, Irma J; Olson, Ken E; Alphey, Luke; Fu, Guoliang

    2013-02-01

    Quantitative PCR assays are now the standard method for viral diagnostics. These assays must be specific, as well as sensitive, to detect the potentially low starting copy number of viral genomic material. We describe a new technique, polymerase chain displacement reaction (PCDR), which uses multiple nested primers in a rapid, capped, one-tube reaction that increases the sensitivity of normal quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays. Sensitivity was increased by approximately 10-fold in a proof-of-principle test on dengue virus sequence. In PCDR, when extension occurs from the outer primer, it displaces the extension strand produced from the inner primer by utilizing a polymerase that has strand displacement activity. This allows a greater than 2-fold increase of amplification product for each amplification cycle and therefore increased sensitivity and speed over conventional PCR. Increased sensitivity in PCDR would be useful in nucleic acid detection for viral diagnostics.

  13. Atwood's Heavy Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beeken, Paul

    2011-11-01

    While perusing various websites in search of a more challenging lab for my students, I came across a number of ideas where replacing the string in an Atwood's machine with a simple ball chain like the kind found in lamp pulls created an interesting system to investigate. The replacement of the string produced a nice nonuniform acceleration, but one that my AP® students found difficult to analyze given their current math background. As the year progressed, we began to explore the importance of work and its utility in making predictions on systems that did not lend themselves to easy analysis using Newtonian mechanics. The effort made it apparent that the heavy rope Atwood's machine would make a perfect system for investigation using the lessons gained from work and energy.

  14. Light Chain Amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Milani, Paolo; Merlini, Giampaolo

    2018-01-01

    Light chain (AL) amyloidosis is caused by a usually small plasma-cell clone that is able to produce the amyloidogenic light chains. They are able to misfold and aggregate, deposit in tissues in the form of amyloid fibrils and lead to irreversible organ dysfunction and eventually death if treatment is late or ineffective. Cardiac damage is the most important prognostic determinant. The risk of dialysis is predicted by the severity of renal involvement, defined by the baseline proteinuria and glomerular filtration rate, and by the response to therapy. The specific treatment is chemotherapy targeting the underlying plasma-cell clone. It needs to be risk-adapted, according to the severity of cardiac and/or multi-organ involvement. Autologous stem cell transplant (preceded by induction and/or followed by consolidation with bortezomib-based regimens) can be considered for low-risk patients (~20%). Bortezomib combined with alkylators is used in the majority of intermediate-risk patients, and with possible dose escalation in high-risk subjects. Novel, powerful anti-plasma cell agents were investigated in the relapsed/refractory setting, and are being moved to upfront therapy in clinical trials. In addition, the use of novel approaches based on antibodies targeting the amyloid deposits or small molecules interfering with the amyloidogenic process gave promising results in preliminary studies. Some of them are under evaluation in controlled trials. These molecules will probably add powerful complements to standard chemotherapy. The understanding of the specific molecular mechanisms of cardiac damage and the characteristics of the amyloidogenic clone are unveiling novel potential treatment approaches, moving towards a cure for this dreadful disease. PMID:29531659

  15. Consensus Prediction of Charged Single Alpha-Helices with CSAHserver.

    PubMed

    Dudola, Dániel; Tóth, Gábor; Nyitray, László; Gáspári, Zoltán

    2017-01-01

    Charged single alpha-helices (CSAHs) constitute a rare structural motif. CSAH is characterized by a high density of regularly alternating residues with positively and negatively charged side chains. Such segments exhibit unique structural properties; however, there are only a handful of proteins where its existence is experimentally verified. Therefore, establishing a pipeline that is capable of predicting the presence of CSAH segments with a low false positive rate is of considerable importance. Here we describe a consensus-based approach that relies on two conceptually different CSAH detection methods and a final filter based on the estimated helix-forming capabilities of the segments. This pipeline was shown to be capable of identifying previously uncharacterized CSAH segments that could be verified experimentally. The method is available as a web server at http://csahserver.itk.ppke.hu and also a downloadable standalone program suitable to scan larger sequence collections.

  16. 27 CFR 21.95 - Alpha terpineol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alpha terpineol. 21.95 Section 21.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Alpha terpineol. (a) Boiling point at 752mm 218.8-219.4 °C. (b) Density at 15° 0.9386. (c) Refractive...

  17. 27 CFR 21.95 - Alpha terpineol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alpha terpineol. 21.95 Section 21.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Alpha terpineol. (a) Boiling point at 752mm 218.8-219.4 °C. (b) Density at 15° 0.9386. (c) Refractive...

  18. 27 CFR 21.95 - Alpha terpineol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alpha terpineol. 21.95 Section 21.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Alpha terpineol. (a) Boiling point at 752mm 218.8-219.4 °C. (b) Density at 15° 0.9386. (c) Refractive...

  19. 27 CFR 21.95 - Alpha terpineol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alpha terpineol. 21.95 Section 21.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Alpha terpineol. (a) Boiling point at 752mm 218.8-219.4 °C. (b) Density at 15° 0.9386. (c) Refractive...

  20. 27 CFR 21.95 - Alpha terpineol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alpha terpineol. 21.95 Section 21.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Alpha terpineol. (a) Boiling point at 752mm 218.8-219.4 °C. (b) Density at 15° 0.9386. (c) Refractive...

  1. Atypical Alpha Asymmetry in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, T. Sigi; Smalley, Susan L.; Hanada, Grant; Macion, James; McCracken, James T.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: A growing body of literature suggests atypical cerebral asymmetry and interhemispheric interaction in ADHD. A common means of assessing lateralized brain function in clinical populations has been to examine the relative proportion of EEG alpha activity (8-12 Hz) in each hemisphere (i.e., alpha asymmetry). Increased rightward alpha…

  2. Commentary on Coefficient Alpha: A Cautionary Tale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Samuel B.; Yang, Yanyun

    2009-01-01

    The general use of coefficient alpha to assess reliability should be discouraged on a number of grounds. The assumptions underlying coefficient alpha are unlikely to hold in practice, and violation of these assumptions can result in nontrivial negative or positive bias. Structural equation modeling was discussed as an informative process both to…

  3. Inhibitory spectrum of alpha 2-plasmin inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Saito, H; Goldsmith, G H; Moroi, M; Aoki, N

    1979-01-01

    alpha 2-Plasmin inhibitor (alpha 2PI) has been recently characterized as a fast-reacting inhibitor of plasmin in human plasma and appears to play an important role in the regulation of fibrinolysis in vivo. We have studied the effect of purified alpha 2PI upon various proteases participating in human blood coagulation and kinin generation. At physiological concentration (50 microgram/ml), alpha 2PI inhibited the clot-promoting and prekallikrein-activating activity of Hageman factor fragments, the amidolytic, kininogenase, and clot-promoting activities of plasma kallikrein, and the clot-promoting properties of activated plasma thromboplastin antecedent (PTA, Factor XIa) and thrombin. alpha 2PI had minimal inhibitory effect on surface-bound activated PTA and activated Stuart factor (Factor Xa). alpha 2PI did not inhibit the activity of activated Christmas factor (Factor IXa) or urinary kallikrein. Heparin (1.5-2.0 units/ml) did not enhance the inhibitory function of alpha 2PI. These results suggest that, like other plasma protease inhibitors, alpha 2PI possesses a broad in vitro spectrum of inhibitory properties. PMID:156364

  4. Preparation of 3 beta, 5 alpha-, 3 alpha, 5 alpha- and 3 alpha, 5 beta-tetrahydro derivatives of 19-noraldosterone by chemical synthesis and microbial bioconversion.

    PubMed

    Harnik, M; Kashman, Y; Carmely, S; Cojocaru, M

    1988-07-01

    The 3 beta, 5 alpha-, 3 alpha, 5 alpha- and 3 alpha, 5 beta-tetrahydro derivatives 19, 20 and 27 of 19-noraldosterone (1) were prepared to facilitate the search for these compounds in urine. The diketal 4, consisting of a 2:1 mixture of the 5,6- and 5(10)-ene isomers, was hydrogenated with Pd-C and partially hydrolyzed to 5 alpha, 10 alpha- and 5 alpha, 10 beta-dihydroketals 8 and 10 in a 1:2.5 ratio. Assignment of protons was done with aid of COSY 45 experiments. Compound 10 was reduced with diisobutylaluminum hydride (DIBAH) to 4 products: the 3 alpha- and 3 beta-ol hemiacetals 16 and 15, and the corresponding tetraols 14 and 13. Alternatively, hydrogenation of the 4-en-3-one 2 gave 10, its 5 beta, 10 beta-isomer 21 and the tetrahydro compound 22, in a 4:2:1 ratio. A better way to prepare the 5 beta, 10 beta-series involved microbial conversion of 2 with Clostridium paraputrificum, and the resulting tetrahydrolactone 23 was reduced with DIBAH to the hemiacetal 24. Acid hydrolysis of 16, 15 and 24 afforded 20, 19 and 27, respectively. According to [1H]-NMR, in solution 20 and 24 exist as mixtures of isomers, while 19 appears in one form only. Periodate oxidation converted 19 and 27 into their gamma-etiolactones 18 and 28. EI MS base peaks are different and characteristic for 19, 20 and 27.

  5. Teaching Calculus with Wolfram|Alpha

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimiceli, Vincent E.; Lang, Andrew S. I. D.; Locke, LeighAnne

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the benefits and drawbacks of using Wolfram|Alpha as the platform for teaching calculus concepts in the lab setting. It is a result of our experiences designing and creating an entirely new set of labs using Wolfram|Alpha. We present the reasoning behind our transition from using a standard computer algebra system (CAS) to…

  6. Coefficient Alpha Bootstrap Confidence Interval under Nonnormality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin; Newton, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Three different bootstrap methods for estimating confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient alpha were investigated. In addition, the bootstrap methods were compared with the most promising coefficient alpha CI estimation methods reported in the literature. The CI methods were assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation utilizing conditions…

  7. Alpha particle spectrometry using superconducting microcalorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horansky, Robert; Ullom, Joel; Beall, James; Hilton, Gene; Stiehl, Gregory; Irwin, Kent; Plionis, Alexander; Lamont, Stephen; Rudy, Clifford; Rabin, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Alpha spectrometry is the preferred technique for analyzing trace samples of radioactive material because the alpha particle flux can be significantly higher than the gamma-ray flux from nuclear materials of interest. Traditionally, alpha spectrometry is performed with Si detectors whose resolution is at best 8 keV FWHM. Here, we describe the design and operation of a microcalorimeter alpha detector with an energy resolution of 1.06 keV FWHM at 5 MeV. We demonstrate the ability of the microcalorimeter to clearly resolve the alpha particles from Pu-239 and Pu-240, whose ratio differentiates reactor-grade Pu from weapons-grade. We also show the first direct observation of the decay of Po-209 to the ground state of Pb-205 which has traditionally been obscured by a much stronger alpha line 2 keV away. Finally, the 1.06 keV resolution observed for alpha particles is far worse than the 0.12 keV resolution predicted from thermal fluctuations and measurement of gamma-rays. The cause of the resolution degradation may be ion damage in the tin. Hence, alpha particle microcalorimeters may provide a novel tool for studying ion damage and lattice displacement energies in bulk materials.

  8. Producing alpha-olefins using polyketide synthases

    SciTech Connect

    Fortman, Jeffrey L.; Katz, Leonard; Steen, Eric J.

    2018-01-02

    The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing an .alpha.-olefin, such as 1-hexene or butadiene. The present invention also provides for a host cell comprising the PKS and when cultured produces the .alpha.-olefin.

  9. Psychiatric Symptoms in Alpha-Mannosidosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malm, D.; Pantel, J.; Linaker, O. M.

    2005-01-01

    Alpha-mannosidosis is characterized by mild to moderate intellectual disability (ID), moderate to severe neurosensory hearing loss, frequent infections, psychomotor disturbances and skeletal dysmorphism. For the first time, a panel of nine alpha-mannosidosis patients with psychiatric symptoms is presented. The clinical picture has several…

  10. Remote Associates Test and Alpha Brain Waves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haarmann, Henk J.; George, Timothy; Smaliy, Alexei; Dien, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies found that performance on the remote associates test (RAT) improves after a period of incubation and that increased alpha brain waves over the right posterior brain predict the emergence of RAT insight solutions. We report an experiment that tested whether increased alpha brain waves during incubation improve RAT performance.…

  11. Bayesian Meta-Analysis of Coefficient Alpha

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannick, Michael T.; Zhang, Nanhua

    2013-01-01

    The current paper describes and illustrates a Bayesian approach to the meta-analysis of coefficient alpha. Alpha is the most commonly used estimate of the reliability or consistency (freedom from measurement error) for educational and psychological measures. The conventional approach to meta-analysis uses inverse variance weights to combine…

  12. Meta-Analysis of Coefficient Alpha

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Michael C.; Maeda, Yukiko

    2006-01-01

    The meta-analysis of coefficient alpha across many studies is becoming more common in psychology by a methodology labeled reliability generalization. Existing reliability generalization studies have not used the sampling distribution of coefficient alpha for precision weighting and other common meta-analytic procedures. A framework is provided for…

  13. Alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocopheryl quinone levels in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Palan, Prabhudas R; Woodall, Angela L; Anderson, Patrick S; Mikhail, Magdy S

    2004-05-01

    alpha-Tocopherol is a potent antioxidant that protects cell membranes against oxidative damage. Red blood cell alpha-tocopherol levels reflect membrane alpha-tocopherol concentrations, and altered levels may suggest membrane damage. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocopheryl quinone, the oxidized product of alpha-tocopherol, in plasma and red blood cells that were obtained from control subjects and patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer. In this cross-sectional study, 72 women, (32 African American and 40 Hispanic) were recruited. Among these subjects, 37 women had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; 14 women had cervical cancer, and 21 women were considered control subjects, who had normal Papanicolaou test results. alpha-Tocopherol and alpha-tocopheryl quinone levels were determined in red blood cell and plasma by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Plasma levels of alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocopheryl quinone were decreased significantly (P=.012 and=.005, respectively, by Kruskal-Wallis test) in study groups compared with the control group; red blood cell levels of alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocopheryl quinone were not altered significantly. The lower alpha-tocopherol level that was observed in this study is consistent with our previous reports of decreased antioxidant concentrations and increased oxidative stress in women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Unaltered red blood cell alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocopheryl quinone levels suggest undamaged cell membrane. Further studies are needed to investigate the potential role of oxidative stress in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

  14. Solution conformation of a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist {alpha}-conotoxin OmIA that discriminates {alpha}3 vs. {alpha}6 nAChR subtypes

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, Seung-Wook; Kim, Do-Hyoung; Olivera, Baldomero M.

    2006-06-23

    {alpha}-Conotoxin OmIA from Conus omaria is the only {alpha}-conotoxin that shows a {approx}20-fold higher affinity to the {alpha}3{beta}2 over the {alpha}6{beta}2 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. We have determined a three-dimensional structure of {alpha}-conotoxin OmIA by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. {alpha}-Conotoxin OmIA has an '{omega}-shaped' overall topology with His{sup 5}-Asn{sup 12} forming an {alpha}-helix. Structural features of {alpha}-conotoxin OmIA responsible for its selectivity are suggested by comparing its surface characteristics with other functionally related {alpha}4/7 subfamily conotoxins. Reduced size of the hydrophilic area in {alpha}-conotoxin OmIA seems to be associated with the reduced affinity towards the {alpha}6{beta}2 nAChR subtype.

  15. Integrins (alpha7beta1) in muscle function and survival. Disrupted expression in merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Vachon, P H; Xu, H; Liu, L; Loechel, F; Hayashi, Y; Arahata, K; Reed, J C; Wewer, U M; Engvall, E

    1997-01-01

    Mutations in genes coding for dystrophin, for alpha, beta, gamma, and delta-sarcoglycans, or for the alpha2 chain of the basement membrane component merosin (laminin-2/4) cause various forms of muscular dystrophy. Analyses of integrins showed an abnormal expression and localization of alpha7beta1 isoforms in myofibers of merosin-deficient human patients and mice, but not in dystrophin-deficient or sarcoglycan-deficient humans and animals. It was shown previously that skeletal muscle fibers require merosin for survival and function (Vachon, P.H., F. Loechel, H. Xu, U.M. Wewer, and E. Engvall. 1996. J. Cell Biol. 134:1483-1497). Correction of merosin deficiency in vitro through cell transfection with the merosin alpha2 chain restored the normal localization of alpha7beta1D integrins as well as myotube survival. Overexpression of the apoptosis-suppressing molecule Bcl-2 also promoted the survival of merosin-deficient myotubes, but did not restore a normal expression of alpha7beta1D integrins. Blocking of beta1 integrins in normal myotubes induced apoptosis and severely reduced their survival. These findings (a) identify alpha7beta1D integrins as the de facto receptors for merosin in skeletal muscle; (b) indicate a merosin dependence for the accurate expression and membrane localization of alpha7beta1D integrins in myofibers; (c) provide a molecular basis for the critical role of merosin in myofiber survival; and (d) add new insights to the pathogenesis of neuromuscular disorders. PMID:9312189

  16. DOS cones along atomic chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwapiński, Tomasz

    2017-03-01

    The electron transport properties of a linear atomic chain are studied theoretically within the tight-binding Hamiltonian and the Green’s function method. Variations of the local density of states (DOS) along the chain are investigated. They are crucial in scanning tunnelling experiments and give important insight into the electron transport mechanism and charge distribution inside chains. It is found that depending on the chain parity the local DOS at the Fermi level can form cone-like structures (DOS cones) along the chain. The general condition for the local DOS oscillations is obtained and the linear behaviour of the local density function is confirmed analytically. DOS cones are characterized by a linear decay towards the chain which is in contrast to the propagation properties of charge density waves, end states and Friedel oscillations in one-dimensional systems. We find that DOS cones can appear due to non-resonant electron transport, the spin-orbit scattering or for chains fabricated on a substrate with localized electrons. It is also shown that for imperfect chains (e.g. with a reduced coupling strength between two neighboring sites) a diamond-like structure of the local DOS along the chain appears.

  17. Processing of MOPC 315 immunoglobulin A oligosaccharides: evidence for endoplasmic reticulum and trans Golgi alpha 1,2-mannosidase activity

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    The processing of asparagine-linked oligosaccharides on the alpha- chains of an immunoglobulin A (IgA) has been investigated using MOPC 315 murine plasmacytoma cells. These cells secrete IgA containing complex-type oligosaccharides that were not sensitive to endo-beta-N- acetylglucosaminidase H. In contrast, oligosaccharides present on the intracellular alpha-chain precursor were of the high mannose-type, remaining sensitive to endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H despite a long intracellular half-life of 2-3 h. The major [3H]mannose-labeled alpha-chain oligosaccharides identified after a 20-min pulse were Man8GlcNAc2 and Man9GlcNAc2. Following chase incubations, the major oligosaccharide accumulating intracellularly was Man6GlcNAc2, which was shown to contain a single alpha 1,2-linked mannose residue. Conversion of Man6GlcNAc2 to complex-type oligosaccharides occurred at the time of secretion since appreciable amounts of Man5GlcNAc2 or further processed structures could not be detected intracellularly. The subcellular locations of the alpha 1,2-mannosidase activities were studied using carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone and monensin. Despite inhibiting the secretion of IgA, these inhibitors of protein migration did not effect the initial processing of Man9GlcNAc2 to Man6GlcNAc2. Furthermore, no large accumulation of Man5GlcNAc2 occurred, indicating the presence of two subcellular locations of alpha 1,2-mannosidase activity involved in oligosaccharide processing in MOPC 315 cells. Thus, the first three alpha 1,2-linked mannose residues were removed shortly after the alpha-chain was glycosylated, most likely in rough endoplasmic reticulum, since this processing occurred in the presence of carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. However, the removal of the final alpha 1,2-linked mannose residue as well as subsequent carbohydrate processing occurred just before IgA secretion, most likely in the trans Golgi complex since processing of Man6GlcNAc2 to Man5GlcNAc2

  18. Processing of MOPC 315 immunoglobulin A oligosaccharides: evidence for endoplasmic reticulum and trans Golgi alpha 1,2-mannosidase activity.

    PubMed

    Hickman, S; Theodorakis, J L; Greco, J M; Brown, P H

    1984-02-01

    The processing of asparagine-linked oligosaccharides on the alpha-chains of an immunoglobulin A (IgA) has been investigated using MOPC 315 murine plasmacytoma cells. These cells secrete IgA containing complex-type oligosaccharides that were not sensitive to endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H. In contrast, oligosaccharides present on the intracellular alpha-chain precursor were of the high mannose-type, remaining sensitive to endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H despite a long intracellular half-life of 2-3 h. The major [3H]mannose-labeled alpha-chain oligosaccharides identified after a 20-min pulse were Man8GlcNAc2 and Man9GlcNAc2. Following chase incubations, the major oligosaccharide accumulating intracellularly was Man6GlcNAc2, which was shown to contain a single alpha 1,2-linked mannose residue. Conversion of Man6GlcNAc2 to complex-type oligosaccharides occurred at the time of secretion since appreciable amounts of Man5GlcNAc2 or further processed structures could not be detected intracellularly. The subcellular locations of the alpha 1,2-mannosidase activities were studied using carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone and monensin. Despite inhibiting the secretion of IgA, these inhibitors of protein migration did not effect the initial processing of Man9GlcNAc2 to Man6GlcNAc2. Furthermore, no large accumulation of Man5GlcNAc2 occurred, indicating the presence of two subcellular locations of alpha 1,2-mannosidase activity involved in oligosaccharide processing in MOPC 315 cells. Thus, the first three alpha 1,2-linked mannose residues were removed shortly after the alpha-chain was glycosylated, most likely in rough endoplasmic reticulum, since this processing occurred in the presence of carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. However, the removal of the final alpha 1,2-linked mannose residue as well as subsequent carbohydrate processing occurred just before IgA secretion, most likely in the trans Golgi complex since processing of Man6GlcNAc2 to Man5GlcNAc2

  19. Overexpression of IL-7R alpha provides a competitive advantage during early T-cell development.

    PubMed

    Laouar, Yasmina; Crispe, I Nicholas; Flavell, Richard A

    2004-03-15

    Critical checkpoints controlling early thymic T-cell development and homeostasis are set by the proper signaling function of the interleukin 7 receptor (IL-7R) and the pre-T-cell antigen receptor. Although alpha beta T-cell development is observed in IL-7- and IL-7R alpha-deficient mice, the number of thymocytes is significantly reduced, implying a role for the IL-7R in controlling the size of the thymic T-cell compartment. Here, we report the overexpression of IL-7R alpha that occurs in the early T-cell compartment from AKR/J mice, animals that are highly susceptible to the spontaneous development of thymoma. Increased IL-7R alpha was revealed by surface staining, and increased IL-7R alpha mRNA was documented by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). This resulted in increased survival of AKR/J early thymocytes, shown by the decreased frequency of TUNEL(+) (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate [dUTP]-fluorescein nick end labeling) cells. In an in vivo thymocyte repopulation model, AKR/J thymocytes had a selective advantage over healthy thymocytes. This advantage occurred at early stages of T-cell development. Our findings support the model that overexpression of growth factor receptors can contribute to proliferation and malignancy.

  20. Cardiac stem cell genetic engineering using the alphaMHC promoter.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Brandi; Izarra, Alberto; Alvarez, Roberto; Fischer, Kimberlee M; Cottage, Christopher T; Quijada, Pearl; Díez-Juan, Antonio; Sussman, Mark A

    2009-11-01

    Cardiac stem cells (CSCs) show potential as a cellular therapeutic approach to blunt tissue damage and facilitate reparative and regenerative processes after myocardial infarction. Despite multiple published reports of improvement, functional benefits remain modest using normal stem cells delivered by adoptive transfer into damaged myocardium. The goal of this study is to enhance survival and proliferation of CSCs that have undergone lineage commitment in early phases as evidenced by expression of proteins driven by the alpha-myosin heavy chain (alphaMHC) promoter. The early increased expression of survival kinases augments expansion of the cardiogenic CSC pool and subsequent daughter progeny. Normal CSCs engineered with fluorescent reporter protein constructs under control of the alphaMHC promoter show transgene protein expression, confirming activity of the promoter in CSCs. Cultured CSCs from both nontransgenic and cardiac-specific transgenic mice expressing survival kinases driven by the alphaMHC promoter were analyzed to characterize transgene expression following treatments to promote differentiation in culture. Therapeutic genes controlled by the alphaMHC promoter can be engineered into and expressed in CSCs and cardiomyocyte progeny with the goal of improving the efficacy of cardiac stem cell therapy.

  1. Modulating Vascular Hemodynamics With an Alpha Globin Mimetic Peptide (HbαX).

    PubMed

    Keller, T C Stevenson; Butcher, Joshua T; Broseghini-Filho, Gilson Brás; Marziano, Corina; DeLalio, Leon J; Rogers, Stephen; Ning, Bo; Martin, Jennifer N; Chechova, Sylvia; Cabot, Maya; Shu, Xiahong; Best, Angela K; Good, Miranda E; Simão Padilha, Alessandra; Purdy, Michael; Yeager, Mark; Peirce, Shayn M; Hu, Song; Doctor, Allan; Barrett, Eugene; Le, Thu H; Columbus, Linda; Isakson, Brant E

    2016-12-01

    The ability of hemoglobin to scavenge the potent vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) in the blood has been well established as a mechanism of vascular tone homeostasis. In endothelial cells, the alpha chain of hemoglobin (hereafter, alpha globin) and endothelial NO synthase form a macromolecular complex, providing a sink for NO directly adjacent to the production source. We have developed an alpha globin mimetic peptide (named HbαX) that displaces endogenous alpha globin and increases bioavailable NO for vasodilation. Here we show that, in vivo, HbαX administration increases capillary oxygenation and blood flow in arterioles acutely and produces a sustained decrease in systolic blood pressure in normal and angiotensin II-induced hypertensive states. HbαX acts with high specificity and affinity to endothelial NO synthase, without toxicity to liver and kidney and no effect on p50 of O 2 binding in red blood cells. In human vasculature, HbαX blunts vasoconstrictive response to cumulative doses of phenylephrine, a potent constricting agent. By binding to endothelial NO synthase and displacing endogenous alpha globin, HbαX modulates important metrics of vascular function, increasing vasodilation and flow in the resistance vasculature. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Leptin potentiates Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced production of TNF-alpha in monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Jo

    2010-06-01

    In addition to regulating body weight, leptin is also recognized for its role in the regulation of immune function and inflammation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of leptin on Prevotella (P.) intermedia lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production in differentiated THP-1 cells, a human monocytic cell line. LPS from P. intermedia ATCC 25611 was prepared by the standard hot phenol-water method. THP-1 cells were incubated in the medium supplemented with phorbol myristate acetate to induce differentiation into macrophage-like cells. The amount of TNF-alpha and interleukin-8 secreted into the culture medium was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). TNF-alpha and Ob-R mRNA expression levels were determined by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Leptin enhanced P. intermedia LPS-induced TNF-alpha production in a dose-dependent manner. Leptin modulated P. intermedia LPS-induced TNF-alpha expression predominantly at the transcriptional level. Effect of leptin on P. intermedia LPS-induced TNF-alpha production was not mediated by the leptin receptor. The ability of leptin to enhance P. intermedia LPS-induced TNF-alpha production may be important in the establishment of chronic lesion accompanied by osseous tissue destruction observed in inflammatory periodontal disease.

  3. AtFXG1, an Arabidopsis gene encoding alpha-L-fucosidase active against fucosylated xyloglucan oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    de La Torre, Francisco; Sampedro, Javier; Zarra, Ignacio; Revilla, Gloria

    2002-01-01

    An alpha-L-fucosidase (EC 3.2.1.51) able to release the t-fucosyl residue from the side chain of xyloglucan oligosaccharides has been detected in the leaves of Arabidopsis plants. Moreover, an alpha-L-fucosidase with similar substrate specificity was purified from cabbage (Brassica oleracea) leaves to render a single band on SDS-PAGE. Two peptide sequences were obtained from this protein band, and they were used to identify an Arabidopsis gene coding for an alpha-fucosidase that we propose to call AtFXG1. In addition, an Arabidopsis gene with homology with known alpha-L-fucosidases has been also found, and we proposed to name it as AtFUC1. Both AtFXG1 and ATFUC1 were heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris cells and the alpha-L-fucosidase activities secreted to the culture medium. The alpha-L-fucosidase encoded by AtFXG1 was active against the oligosaccharides from xyloglucan XXFG as well as against 2'-fucosyl-lactitol but not against p-nitrophenyl-alpha-L-fucopyranoside. However, the AtFUC1 heterologously expressed was active only against 2'-fucosyl-lactitol. Thus, the former must be related to xyloglucan metabolism.

  4. Characterization of synthesis and storage of TGF-alpha in rat parotid acinar and intercalated duct cells.

    PubMed

    Login, G R; Yang, J; Bryan, K P; Digenis, E C; McBride, J; Elovic, A; Quissell, D O; Dvorak, A M; Wong, D T

    1997-03-01

    Although the expression and biological role of transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) have been explored in a variety of normal cells in mammalian species, little is known about the storage of TGF-alpha in secretory cells of exocrine organs. Parotid glands from four rats were homogenized for RNA isolation followed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to determine the presence of TGF-alpha message. In situ hybridization using a hamster-specific TGF-alpha riboprobe was done on paraffin sections. Parotid gland and isolated acinar cells were processed for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and postembedding immunogold labeled for TGF-alpha. Gold particles were counted on approximately 200 granules in 10 acinar cells and in 10 intercalated duct cells. Labeling density was calculated as the number of gold particles per square micrometer +/- SD. Statistical significance was calculated using one-way analysis of variance. Using multiple technologies, we have established that rat parotid acinar and intercalated duct cells synthesize TGF-alpha and store the precursor form of this cytokine in their secretory granules.

  5. Preparation of fluorescent tocopherols for use in protein binding and localization with the alpha-tocopherol transfer protein.

    PubMed

    Nava, Phillip; Cecchini, Matt; Chirico, Sara; Gordon, Heather; Morley, Samantha; Manor, Danny; Atkinson, Jeffrey

    2006-06-01

    Sixteen fluorescent analogues of the lipid-soluble antioxidant vitamin alpha-tocopherol were prepared incorporating fluorophores at the terminus of omega-functionalized 2-n-alkyl-substituted chromanols (1a-d and 4a-d) that match the methylation pattern of alpha-tocopherol, the most biologically active form of vitamin E. The fluorophores used include 9-anthroyloxy (AO), 7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD), N-methyl anthranilamide (NMA), and dansyl (DAN). The compounds were designed to function as fluorescent reporter ligands for protein-binding and lipid transfer assays. The fluorophores were chosen to maximize the fluorescence changes observed upon moving from an aqueous environment (low fluorescence intensity) to an hydrophobic environment such as a protein's binding site (high fluorescence intensity). Compounds 9d (anthroyloxy) and 10d (nitrobenzoxadiazole), having a C9-carbon chain between the chromanol and the fluorophore, were shown to bind specifically and reversibly to recombinant human tocopherol transfer protein (alpha-TTP) with dissociation constants of approximately 280 and 60 nM, respectively, as compared to 25 nM for the natural ligand 2R,4'R,8'R-alpha-tocopherol. Thus, compounds have been prepared that allow the investigation of the rate of alpha-TTP-mediated inter-membrane transfer of alpha-tocopherol and to investigate the mechanism of alpha-TTP function at membranes of different composition.

  6. Folate receptor {alpha} regulates cell proliferation in mouse gonadotroph {alpha}T3-1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Congjun; Evans, Chheng-Orn; Stevens, Victoria L.

    We have previously found that the mRNA and protein levels of the folate receptor alpha (FR{alpha}) are uniquely over-expressed in clinically human nonfunctional (NF) pituitary adenomas, but the mechanistic role of FR{alpha} has not fully been determined. We investigated the effect of FR{alpha} over-expression in the mouse gonadotroph {alpha}T3-1 cell line as a model for NF pituitary adenomas. We found that the expression and function of FR{alpha} were strongly up-regulated, by Western blotting and folic acid binding assay. Furthermore, we found a higher cell growth rate, an enhanced percentage of cells in S-phase by BrdU assay, and a higher PCNAmore » staining. These observations indicate that over-expression of FR{alpha} promotes cell proliferation. These effects were abrogated in the same {alpha}T3-1 cells when transfected with a mutant FR{alpha} cDNA that confers a dominant-negative phenotype by inhibiting folic acid binding. Finally, by real-time quantitative PCR, we found that mRNA expression of NOTCH3 was up-regulated in FR{alpha} over-expressing cells. In summary, our data suggests that FR{alpha} regulates pituitary tumor cell proliferation and mechanistically may involve the NOTCH pathway. Potentially, this finding could be exploited to develop new, innovative molecular targeted treatment for human NF pituitary adenomas.« less

  7. Chain Dynamics in Magnetorheological Suspensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gast, A. P.; Furst, E. M.

    1999-01-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) suspensions are composed of colloidal particles which acquire dipole moments when subjected to an external magnetic field. At sufficient field strengths and concentrations, the dipolar particles rapidly aggregate to form long chains. Subsequent lateral cross-linking of the dipolar chains is responsible for a rapid liquid-to-solid-like rheological transition. The unique, magnetically-activated rheological properties of MR suspensions make them ideal for interfacing mechanical systems to electronic controls. Additionally, the ability to experimentally probe colloidal suspensions interacting through tunable anisotropic potentials is of fundamental interest. Our current experimental work has focused on understanding the fluctuations of dipolar chains. It has been proposed by Halsey and Toor (HT) that the strong Landau-Peierls thermal fluctuations of dipolar chains could be responsible for long-range attractions between chains. Such interactions will govern the long-time relaxation of MR suspensions. We have synthesized monodisperse neutrally buoyant MR suspensions by density matching stabilized ferrofluid emulsion droplets with D2O. This allows us to probe the dynamics of the dipolar chains using light scattering without gravitational, interfacial, and polydispersity effects to resolve the short-wavelength dynamics of the dipolar chains. We used diffusing wave spectroscopy to measure these dynamics. The particle displacements at short times that show an independence to the field strength, but at long times exhibit a constrained, sub-diffusive motion that slows as the dipole strength is increased. The experiments are in good qualitative agreement with Brownian dynamics simulations of dipolar chains. Although there have been several important and detailed studies of the structure and interactions in MR suspensions, there has not been conclusive evidence that supports or contradicts the HT model prediction that long-range interactions exist between

  8. Requirements of supply chain management in differentiating European pork chains.

    PubMed

    Trienekens, Jacques; Wognum, Nel

    2013-11-01

    This paper summarizes results obtained by research into pork chain management in the EU Integrated Project Q-Porkchains. Changing demands for intrinsic and extrinsic quality attributes of pork products impact the way supply chain management should be organized from the farmer down to the consumer. The paper shows the importance of Quality Management Systems for integrating supply chains and enhancing consumer confidence. The paper also presents innovations in information system integration for aligning information exchange in the supply chain and logistics concepts based on innovative measurement technologies at the slaughterhouse stage. In the final section research challenges towards sustainable pork supply chains satisfying current consumer demands are presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Chain Reacting System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fermi, Enrico; Leverett, Miles C.

    This Patent focuses mainly on the description of an automatic system for the control rods in a nuclear reactor (in the present case made of natural uranium and graphite) reporting, aside from several related theoretical points (already considered in previous Patents), a detailed description of it. Since the reproduction ratio of a lattice structure is reduced by the presence of neutron absorbing impurities, such impurities can be introduced in the lattice in the form of control rods, made of a material such as boron or cadmium, which will absorb large amounts of neutrons. The control procedure is based on the fact that the depth to which the control rod penetrates into the lattice will determine the value of the neutron density in the system. This relatively simple task faces the fact that the reproduction ratio of the structure can change due to changes in temperature and pressure in the system. So, a connection of the control rods with an ionization chamber, measuring neutron density, can give an automatic control of the stability of the chain reaction. Moreover, an emergency circuit for operating the safety rods is illustrated in this Patent, and, in case of failure of both the control and emergency circuits, a third automatic circuit is depicted which causes the dump of a portion of the lattice structure for interrupting the neutron density rise. In a system of the type considered, about 92 percent of the total heat generated originates in the uranium toward the center of the lattice, about 6 percent originates in the graphite used as slowing medium, and the remaining 2 percent is generated in the structures surrounding the pile. Accordingly, the permissible power output of the reactor is limited by the rate of heat removal, so that, to prevent the accumulation of heat in the chain reaction pile, a coolant into contact with the uranium must be employed. However, the corrosive effect on uranium of the possible coolants has to be taken into account, because the

  10. Mapping High-Velocity H-alpha and Lyman-alpha Emission from Supernova 1987A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    France, Kevin; McCray, Richard; Fransson, Claes; Larsson, Josefin; Frank, Kari A.; Burrows, David N.; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Chevalier, Roger A.; Garnavich, Peter; hide

    2015-01-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope images of high-velocity H-alpha and Lyman-alpha emission in the outer debris of SN 1987A. The H-alpha images are dominated by emission from hydrogen atoms crossing the reverse shock. For the first time we observe emission from the reverse shock surface well above and below the equatorial ring, suggesting a bipolar or conical structure perpendicular to the ring plane. Using the H-alpha imaging, we measure the mass flux of hydrogen atoms crossing the reverse shock front, in the velocity intervals (-7,500 < V(sub obs) < -2,800 km/s) and (1,000 < V(sub obs) < 7,500 km/s), ?M(sub H) = 1.2 × 10(exp -3) M/ y. We also present the first Lyman-alpha imaging of the whole remnant and new Chandra X-ray observations. Comparing the spatial distribution of the Lyman-alpha and X-ray emission, we observe that the majority of the high-velocity Lyman-alpha emission originates interior to the equatorial ring. The observed Lyman-alpha/H-alpha photon ratio, R(L-alpha/H-alpha) approx. = 17, is significantly higher than the theoretically predicted ratio of approx. = 5 for neutral atoms crossing the reverse shock front. We attribute this excess to Lyman-alpha emission produced by X-ray heating of the outer debris. The spatial orientation of the Lyman-alpha and X-ray emission suggests that X-ray heating of the outer debris is the dominant Lyman-alpha production mechanism in SN 1987A at this phase in its evolution.

  11. Direct catalytic asymmetric alpha-amination of aldehydes.

    PubMed

    List, Benjamin

    2002-05-22

    The first direct catalytic asymmetric alpha-amination of aldehydes is described herein. alpha-Unbranched aldehydes react in this novel proline-catalyzed reaction with dialkyl azodicarboxylates to give alpha-amino aldehydes in excellent yields and enantioselectivities.

  12. Increased virulence and competitive advantage of a/alpha over a/a or alpha/alpha offspring conserves the mating system of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, Shawn R; Wu, Wei; Radke, Joshua B; Zhao, Rui; Soll, David R

    2005-04-01

    The majority of Candida albicans strains in nature are a/alpha and must undergo homozygosis to a/a or alpha/alpha to mate. Here we have used a mouse model for systemic infection to test the hypothesis that a/alpha strains predominate in nature because they have a competitive advantage over a/a and alpha/alpha offspring in colonizing hosts. Single-strain injection experiments revealed that a/alpha strains were far more virulent than either their a/a or alpha/alpha offspring. When equal numbers of parent a/alpha and offspring a/a or alpha/alpha cells were co-injected, a/alpha always exhibited a competitive advantage at the time of extreme host morbidity or death. When equal numbers of an engineered a/a/alpha2 strain and its isogenic a/a parent strain were co-injected, the a/a/alpha2 strain exhibited a competitive advantage at the time of host morbidity or death, suggesting that the genotype of the mating-type (MTL) locus, not associated genes on chromosome 5, provides a competitive advantage. We therefore propose that heterozygosity at the MTL locus not only represses white-opaque switching and genes involved in the mating process, but also affects virulence, providing a competitive advantage to the a/alpha genotype that conserves the mating system of C. albicans in nature.

  13. Pulse propagation in granular chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosas, Alexandre; Lindenberg, Katja

    2018-03-01

    In this comprehensive review we present, discuss, and compare a number of theoretical approaches to the propagation of impulses in granular chains found in the literature, emphasizing the strengths and weaknesses of each. Experimental and numerical results are compared, and common features of the dynamics of pulse propagation for distinct chain setups are highlighted.

  14. Monitoring the vaccine cold chain.

    PubMed

    Cheriyan, E

    1993-11-01

    Maintaining the vaccine cold chain is an essential part of a successful immunisation programme. A continuous electronic temperature monitor helped to identify breaks in the cold chain in the community and the study led to the issue of proper guidelines and replacement of faulty equipment.

  15. Building an efficient supply chain.

    PubMed

    Scalise, Dagmara

    2005-08-01

    Realizing at last that supply chain management can produce efficiencies and save costs, hospitals are beginning to adopt practices from other industries, such as the concept of extended supply chains, to improve product flow. They're also investing in enterprise planning resource software, radio frequency identification and other technologies, using quality data to drive standardization and streamlining processes.

  16. Verifying the Hanging Chain Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karls, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    The wave equation with variable tension is a classic partial differential equation that can be used to describe the horizontal displacements of a vertical hanging chain with one end fixed and the other end free to move. Using a web camera and TRACKER software to record displacement data from a vibrating hanging chain, we verify a modified version…

  17. Product ion tandem mass spectrometric differentiation of regioisomeric side-chain groups in cathinone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Abiedalla, Younis; DeRuiter, Jack; Clark, C Randall

    2016-07-30

    Precursor materials are available to prepare aminoketone drugs containing regioisomeric propyl and isopropyl side-chain groups related to the drug alpha-pyrrovalerone (Flakka) and MDPV (3,4-methylenedioxypyrrovalerone). These compounds yield equivalent regioisomeric iminium cation base peaks in electron ionization mass spectrometry (EI-MS). The propyl and isopropyl side-chain groups related to alpha-pyrrovalerone and MDPV were prepared and evaluated in EI-MS and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) product ion experiments. Deuterium labeling in both the pyrrolidine and alkyl side-chain groups allowed for the confirmation of the structures for the major product ions formed from the regioisomeric EI-MS iminium cation base peaks. These iminium cation base peaks show characteristic product ion spectra which allow differentiation of the side-chain propyl and isopropyl groups in the structure. The n-propyl side chain containing iminium cation base peak (m/z 126) in the EI-MS spectrum yields a major product ion at m/z 84 while the regioisomeric m/z 126 base peak for the isopropyl side chain yields a characteristic product ion at m/z 70. Deuterium labeling in both the pyrrolidine ring and the alkyl side chain confirmed the process for the formation of these major product ions. Product ion fragmentation provides useful data for differentiation of n-propyl and isopropyl side-chain iminium cations from cathinone derivative drugs of abuse. Regioisomeric n-propyl and isopropyl iminium cations of equal mass yield characteristic product ions identifying the alkyl side-chain regioisomers in the pyrrolidine cathinone derivatives. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Diabetes and Alpha Lipoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Golbidi, Saeid; Badran, Mohammad; Laher, Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a multi-faceted metabolic disorder where there is increased oxidative stress that contributes to the pathogenesis of this debilitating disease. This has prompted several investigations into the use of antioxidants as a complementary therapeutic approach. Alpha lipoic acid, a naturally occurring dithiol compound which plays an essential role in mitochondrial bioenergetic reactions, has gained considerable attention as an antioxidant for use in managing diabetic complications. Lipoic acid quenches reactive oxygen species, chelates metal ions, and reduces the oxidized forms of other antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, and glutathione. It also boosts antioxidant defense system through Nrf-2-mediated antioxidant gene expression and by modulation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors-regulated genes. ALA inhibits nuclear factor kappa B and activates AMPK in skeletal muscles, which in turn have a plethora of metabolic consequences. These diverse actions suggest that lipoic acid acts by multiple mechanisms, many of which have only been uncovered recently. In this review we briefly summarize the known biochemical properties of lipoic acid and then discussed the oxidative mechanisms implicated in diabetic complications and the mechanisms by which lipoic acid may ameliorate these reactions. The findings of some of the clinical trials in which lipoic acid administration has been tested in diabetic patients during the last 10 years are summarized. It appears that the clearest benefit of lipoic acid supplementation is in patients with diabetic neuropathy. PMID:22125537

  19. Diagnostics for PLX-alpha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, Mark; Hsu, Scott

    2015-11-01

    The goal of the Plasma Liner eXperiment PLX-alpha at Los Alamos National Laboratory is to establish the viability of creating a spherically imploding plasma liner for MIF and HED applications, using a spherical array of supersonic plasma jets launched by innovative contoured-gap coaxial plasma guns. PLX- α experiments will focus in particular on establishing the ram pressure and uniformity scalings of partial and fully spherical plasma liners. In order to characterize these parameters experimentally, a suite of diagnostics is planned, including multi-camera fast imaging, a 16-channel visible interferometer (upgraded from 8 channels) with reconfigurable, fiber-coupled front end, and visible and VUV high-resolution and survey spectroscopy. Tomographic reconstruction and data fusion techniques will be used in conjunction with interferometry, imaging, and synthetic diagnostics from modeling to characterize liner uniformity in 3D. Diagnostic and data analysis design, implementation, and status will be presented. Supported by the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy - U.S. Department of Energy.

  20. Cortical Alpha Activity in Schizoaffective Patients

    PubMed Central

    Moeini, Mahdi; Khaleghi, Ali; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Zarafshan, Hadi; Fazio, Rachel L.; Majidi, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Electrophysiological studies have identified abnormal oscillatory activities in the cerebral cortex in schizophrenia and mood disorders. Biological and pathophysiological evidence suggests specific deficits in serotonin (5-HT) receptor function in schizoaffective disorder (SA), a clinical syndrome with characteristics of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. This study investigated alpha oscillations in patients with SA. Method: Electroencephalography was used to measure ongoing and evoked alpha oscillations in 38 adults meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders–Fourth Edition (DSM–IV) criteria for SA, and in 39 healthy controls. Results: Spontaneous alpha power of the participants with SA was significantly lower than that of healthy participants [F (1, 75) = 8.81, P < 0.01]. Evoked alpha activity was also decreased in SA compared to controls [F (1, 75) = 5.67, P = 0.025]. Conclusion: A strong reduction of alpha power in the posterior regions may reflect abnormality in the thalamocortical circuits. It is shown that hypoxia and reduced cerebral blood flow is associated with reduced alpha activity among different regions of the brain. Therefore, it can be concluded that greatly decreased alpha activity, particularly in centro-parietal and occipital regions, is related to SA symptoms such as hallucinations. PMID:28496495

  1. Lyman alpha radiation in external galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neufeld, David A.; Mckee, Christopher F.

    1990-01-01

    The Ly alpha line of atomic hydrogen is often a luminous component of the radiation emitted by distant galaxies. Except for those galaxies which have a substantial central source of non-stellar ionizing radiation, most of the Ly alpha radiation emitted by galaxies is generated within regions of the interstellar medium which are photoionized by starlight. Conversely, much of the energy radiated by photoionized regions is carried by the Ly alpha line. Only hot, massive stars are capable of ionizing hydrogen in the interstellar medium which surrounds them, and because such stars are necessarily short-lived, Ly alpha emission traces regions of active star formation. Researchers argue that the strength of the Ly alpha emission observed from external galaxies may be used to estimate quantitatively the dust content of the emitting region, while the Ly alpha line profile is sensitive to the presence of shock waves. Interstellar dust particles and shock waves are intimately associated with the process of star formation in two senses. First, both dust particles and shock waves owe their existence to stellar activity; second, they may both serve as agents which facilitate the formation of stars, shocks by triggering gravitational instabilities in the interstellar gas that they compress, and dust by shielding star-forming molecular clouds from the ionizing and dissociative effects of external UV radiation. By using Ly alpha observations as a probe of the dust content in diffuse gas at high redshift, we might hope to learn about the earliest epochs of star formation.

  2. Cortical Alpha Activity in Schizoaffective Patients.

    PubMed

    Moeini, Mahdi; Khaleghi, Ali; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Zarafshan, Hadi; Fazio, Rachel L; Majidi, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Electrophysiological studies have identified abnormal oscillatory activities in the cerebral cortex in schizophrenia and mood disorders. Biological and pathophysiological evidence suggests specific deficits in serotonin (5-HT) receptor function in schizoaffective disorder (SA), a clinical syndrome with characteristics of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. This study investigated alpha oscillations in patients with SA. Method: Electroencephalography was used to measure ongoing and evoked alpha oscillations in 38 adults meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria for SA, and in 39 healthy controls. Results: Spontaneous alpha power of the participants with SA was significantly lower than that of healthy participants [F (1, 75) = 8.81, P < 0.01]. Evoked alpha activity was also decreased in SA compared to controls [F (1, 75) = 5.67, P = 0.025]. Conclusion : A strong reduction of alpha power in the posterior regions may reflect abnormality in the thalamocortical circuits. It is shown that hypoxia and reduced cerebral blood flow is associated with reduced alpha activity among different regions of the brain. Therefore, it can be concluded that greatly decreased alpha activity, particularly in centro-parietal and occipital regions, is related to SA symptoms such as hallucinations.

  3. Amide-based inhibitors of p38alpha MAP kinase. Part 2: design, synthesis and SAR of potent N-pyrimidyl amides.

    PubMed

    Tester, Richland; Tan, Xuefei; Luedtke, Gregory R; Nashashibi, Imad; Schinzel, Kurt; Liang, Weiling; Jung, Joon; Dugar, Sundeep; Liclican, Albert; Tabora, Jocelyn; Levy, Daniel E; Do, Steven

    2010-04-15

    Optimization of a tri-substituted N-pyridyl amide led to the discovery of a new class of potent N-pyrimidyl amide based p38alpha MAP kinase inhibitors. Initial SAR studies led to the identification of 5-dihydrofuran as an optimal hydrophobic group. Additional side chain modifications resulted in the introduction of hydrogen bond interactions. Through extensive SAR studies, analogs bearing free amino groups and alternatives to the parent (S)-alpha-methyl benzyl moiety were identified. These compounds exhibited improved cellular activities and maintained balance between p38alpha and CYP3A4 inhibition. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Developing sustainable food supply chains.

    PubMed

    Smith, B Gail

    2008-02-27

    This paper reviews the opportunities available for food businesses to encourage consumers to eat healthier and more nutritious diets, to invest in more sustainable manufacturing and distribution systems and to develop procurement systems based on more sustainable forms of agriculture. The important factors in developing more sustainable supply chains are identified as the type of supply chain involved and the individual business attitude to extending responsibility for product quality into social and environmental performance within their own supply chains. Interpersonal trust and working to standards are both important to build more sustainable local and many conserved food supply chains, but inadequate to transform mainstream agriculture and raw material supplies to the manufactured and commodity food markets. Cooperation among food manufacturers, retailers, NGOs, governmental and farmers' organizations is vital in order to raise standards for some supply chains and to enable farmers to adopt more sustainable agricultural practices.

  5. Enzymatic preparation of. cap alpha. - and. beta. -deuterated or tritiated amino acids with l-methionine. gamma. -lyase

    SciTech Connect

    Esaki, N.; Sawada, S.; Tanaka, H.

    L-Methionine ..gamma..-lyase catalyzes the exchange of ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-hydrogens of L-methionine and S-methyl-L-cysteine with deuterium or tritium of solvents. The rate of ..cap alpha..-hydrogen exchange with deuterium was about 40 times faster than that of the elimination reactions. The deuterium and tritium were exchanged also with the ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-hydrogens of the straight-chain amino acids which do not undergo the elimination: L-alanine, L-..cap alpha..-aminobutyrate, L-norvaline, and L-norleucine. No exchange occurs for the D-isomers, acidic L-amino acids, basic L-amino acids, and branched-chain L-amino acids, although ..cap alpha..-hydrogen of glycine, L-trypotophan, and L-phenylalanine is exchanged slowly. These enzymatic hydrogen-exchange reactionsmore » facilitate specific labeling of the L-amino acids with deuterium and tritium.« less

  6. Thermal diffusivity of alpha-mercuric iodide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, A.; Morgan, S. H.; Henderson, D. O.; Silberman, E.; Nason, D.

    1991-01-01

    The thermal diffusivity and its anisotropy is measured along the principal axes of tetragonal alpha-HgI2 semiconductor single crystals grown from vapor. The experiments are carried out using the flash pulse method. The results show that alpha(100-line-type) = 0.00370 sq cm/s + or - 3 percent and alpha(001-line-type = 0.00103 sq cm/s + or - 10 percent. Necessary corrections are made for the experimental variables of heat losses and finite pulse duration in the data analysis.

  7. Alpha particle confinement in tandem mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Devoto, R.S.; Ohnishi, M.; Kerns, J.

    1980-10-10

    Mechanisms leading to loss of alpha particles from non-axisymmetric tandem mirrors are considered. Stochastic diffusion due to bounce-drift resonances, which can cause rapid radial losses of high-energy alpha particles, can be suppressed by imposing a 20% rise in axisymmetric fields before the quadrupole transition sections. Alpha particles should then be well-confined until thermal energies when they enter the resonant plateau require. A fast code for computation of drift behavior in reactors is described. Sample calculations are presented for resonant particles in a proposed coil set for the Tandem Mirror Next Step.

  8. Variable displacement alpha-type Stirling engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homutescu, V. M.; Bălănescu, D. T.; Panaite, C. E.; Atanasiu, M. V.

    2016-08-01

    The basic design and construction of an alpha-type Stirling engine with on load variable displacement is presented. The variable displacement is obtained through a planar quadrilateral linkage with one on load movable ground link. The physico-mathematical model used for analyzing the variable displacement alpha-type Stirling engine behavior is an isothermal model that takes into account the real movement of the pistons. Performances and power adjustment capabilities of such alpha-type Stirling engine are calculated and analyzed. An exemplification through the use of the numerical simulation was performed in this regard.

  9. Ultraviolet observations of alpha Aurigae from Copernicus

    SciTech Connect

    Dupree, A. K.

    1975-08-01

    Emission lines of L$alpha$ (1215.67 A) and O vi (1031.94 A) were detected in the spectroscopic binary $alpha$ Aur (Capella) with the Princeton experiment on Copernicus. Temperatures of the emitting regions are inferred to be in excess of 3times10$sup 5$ K. The temperature and emission measure are consistent with atmosphere is expanding with velocities approx.20 to 100 km s$sup -1$. Such expansion can lead to material within the binary system. The density of interstellar hydrogen inferred from absorption of stellar L$alpha$ appears to be approx.0.01 hydrogen atoms cm$sup -3$.

  10. Synthesis of methyl 2-O- and 3-O-alpha-D-talopyranosyl-alpha-D-mannopyranoside.

    PubMed

    Rana, S S; Matta, K L

    1986-09-01

    Methyl 3,4,6-tri-O-benzyl-2-O-[6-O-(tert-butyldiphenylsilyl)-alpha-D- mannopyranosyl]-alpha-D-mannopyranoside (2) was synthesized by treatment of methyl 3,4,6-tri-O-benzyl-2-O-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl-alpha-D-mannopyranoside with tert-butylchlorodiphenylsilane in the presence of imidazole. Isopropylidenation, followed by oxidation with pyridinium chlorochromate, and stereoselective reduction with sodium borohydride, converted 2 into methyl 3,4,6-tri-O-benzyl-2-O-[6-O-(tert-butyldiphenylsilyl)-2,3-O-isopro pylidene- alpha-D-talopyranosyl]-alpha-D-mannopyranoside (5). Treatment of 5 with a molar solution of tetrabutylammonium fluoride in dry oxolane produced a diol which, on O-de-isopropylidenation followed by catalytic hydrogenolysis, afforded the disaccharide glycoside methyl 2-O-alpha-D-talopyranosyl-alpha-D-mannopyranoside. Synthesis of methyl 3-O-alpha-D-talopyranosyl-alpha-D-mannopyranoside was accomplished by a similar reaction-sequence. The structures of the final disaccharides, and of various other intermediates, were established by 1H- and 13C-n.m.r. spectroscopy.

  11. Essential role for the alpha 1 chain of type VIII collagen in zebrafish notochord formation.

    PubMed

    Gansner, John M; Gitlin, Jonathan D

    2008-12-01

    Several zebrafish mutants identified in large-scale forward genetic screens exhibit notochord distortion. We now report the cloning and further characterization of one such mutant, gulliver(m208) (gul(m208)). The notochord defect in gul(m208) mutants is exacerbated under conditions of copper depletion or lysyl oxidase cuproenzyme inhibition that are without a notochord effect on wild-type embryos. The gul(m208) phenotype results from a missense mutation in the gene encoding Col8a1, a lysyl oxidase substrate, and morpholino knockdown of col8a1 recapitulates the notochord distortion observed in gul(m208) mutants. Of interest, the amino acid mutated in gul(m208) Col8a1 is highly conserved, and the equivalent substitution in a closely related human protein, COL10A1, causes Schmid metaphyseal chondrodysplasia. Taken together, the data identify a new protein essential for notochord morphogenesis, extend our understanding of gene-nutrient interactions in early development, and suggest that human mutations in COL8A1 may cause structural birth defects. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Alpha1- and alpha2-containing GABAA receptor modulation is not necessary for benzodiazepine-induced hyperphagia.

    PubMed

    Morris, H V; Nilsson, S; Dixon, C I; Stephens, D N; Clifton, P G

    2009-06-01

    Benzodiazepines increase food intake, an effect attributed to their ability to enhance palatability. We investigated which GABA(A) receptor subtypes may be involved in mediating benzodiazepine-induced hyperphagia. The role of the alpha2 subtype was investigated by observing the effects of midazolam, on the behavioural satiety sequence in mice with targeted deletion of the alpha2 gene (alpha2 knockout). Midazolam (0.125, 0.25 and 0.5mg/kg) increased food intake and the amount of time spent feeding in alpha2 knockout mice, suggesting that BZ-induced hyperphagia does not involve alpha2-containing GABA(A) receptors. We further investigated the roles of alpha1- and alpha3-containing GABA(A) receptors in mediating BZ-induced hyperphagia. We treated alpha2(H101R) mice, in which alpha2-containing receptors are rendered benzodiazepine insensitive, with L-838417, a compound which acts as a partial agonist at alpha2-, alpha3- and alpha5-receptors but is inactive at alpha1-containing receptors. L-838417 (10 and 30 mg/kg) increased food intake and the time spent feeding in both wildtype and alpha2(H101R) mice, demonstrating that benzodiazepine-induced hyperphagia does not require alpha1- and alpha2-containing GABA(A) receptors. These observations, together with evidence against the involvement of alpha5-containing GABA(A) receptors, suggest that alpha3-containing receptors mediate BZ-induced hyperphagia in the mouse.

  13. Stability of vertical magnetic chains

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    A linear stability analysis is performed for a pair of coaxial vertical chains made from permanently magnetized balls under the influence of gravity. While one chain rises from the ground, the other hangs from above, with the remaining ends separated by a gap of prescribed length. Various boundary conditions are considered, as are situations in which the magnetic dipole moments in the two chains are parallel or antiparallel. The case of a single chain attached to the ground is also discussed. The stability of the system is examined with respect to three quantities: the number of balls in each chain, the length of the gap between the chains, and a single dimensionless parameter which embodies the competition between magnetic and gravitational forces. Asymptotic scaling laws involving these parameters are provided. The Hessian matrix is computed in exact form, allowing the critical parameter values at which the system loses stability and the respective eigenmodes to be determined up to machine precision. A comparison with simple experiments for a single chain attached to the ground shows good agreement. PMID:28293135

  14. Stability of vertical magnetic chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönke, Johannes; Fried, Eliot

    2017-02-01

    A linear stability analysis is performed for a pair of coaxial vertical chains made from permanently magnetized balls under the influence of gravity. While one chain rises from the ground, the other hangs from above, with the remaining ends separated by a gap of prescribed length. Various boundary conditions are considered, as are situations in which the magnetic dipole moments in the two chains are parallel or antiparallel. The case of a single chain attached to the ground is also discussed. The stability of the system is examined with respect to three quantities: the number of balls in each chain, the length of the gap between the chains, and a single dimensionless parameter which embodies the competition between magnetic and gravitational forces. Asymptotic scaling laws involving these parameters are provided. The Hessian matrix is computed in exact form, allowing the critical parameter values at which the system loses stability and the respective eigenmodes to be determined up to machine precision. A comparison with simple experiments for a single chain attached to the ground shows good agreement.

  15. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency (Inherited Emphysema)

    MedlinePlus

    ... often given once a week. There are three brands of augmentation therapy. They include: • Prolastin® • Aralast™ • Zemaira™ • In addition to medicines, the management of Alpha-1 related emphysema includes: • Exercise and ...

  16. Nuclear diagnostic for fast alpha particles

    DOEpatents

    Grisham, L.R.; Post, D.E. Jr.; Dawson, J.M.

    1983-11-23

    This invention relates generally to high energy confined plasmas and more particularly is directed to measuring the velocity distribution of confined energetic alpha particles resulting from deuterium-tritium fusion reactions in a confined energetic plasma.

  17. Frontal alpha asymmetry and sexually motivated states.

    PubMed

    Prause, Nicole; Staley, Cameron; Roberts, Verena

    2014-03-01

    Anterior alpha asymmetry of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals has been suggested to index state approach (or avoidance) motivation. This model has not yet been extended to high approach-motivation sexual stimuli, which may represent an important model of reward system function. Sixty-five participants viewed a neutral and a sexually motivating film while their EEG was recorded, and reported their sexual feelings after each film. Greater alpha power in the left hemisphere during sexually motivated states was evident. A positive relationship between self-reported mental sexual arousal and alpha asymmetry was identified, where coherence between these indicators was higher in women. Notably, coherence was stronger when mental versus physical sexual arousal was rated. Alpha asymmetry appears to offer a new method for further examining this novel coherence pattern across men and women. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: alpha-mannosidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... on PubMed Gutschalk A, Harting I, Cantz M, Springer C, Rohrschneider K, Meinck HM. Adult alpha-mannosidosis: ... AL, Heikinheimo P, Sbaragli M, Balducci C, Persichetti E, Van Maldergem L, Filocamo M, Bembi B, Beccari ...

  19. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue express and secrete functional alpha2hsglycoprotein (fetuin a) especially in obesity.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sotelo, Diego; Roca-Rivada, Arturo; Larrosa-García, María; Castelao, Cecilia; Baamonde, Iván; Baltar, Javier; Crujeiras, Ana Belen; Seoane, Luisa María; Casanueva, Felipe F; Pardo, María

    2017-02-01

    The secretion of the hepatokine alpha-2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein/Fetuin A, implicated in pathological processes including systemic insulin resistance, by adipose tissue has been recently described. Thus, we have recently identified its presence in white adipose tissue secretomes by mass spectrometry. However, the secretion pattern and function of adipose-derived alpha-2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein are poorly understood. The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression and secretion of total and active phosphorylated alpha-2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein by adipose tissue from visceral and subcutaneous localizations in animals at different physiological and nutritional status including anorexia and obesity. Alpha-2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein expression and secretion in visceral adipose tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue explants from animals under fasting and exercise training, at pathological situations such as anorexia and obesity, and from human obese individuals were assayed by immunoblotting, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We reveal that visceral adipose tissue expresses and secretes more alpha-2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein than subcutaneous adipose tissue, and that this secretion is diminished after fasting and exercise training. Visceral adipose tissue from anorectic animals showed reduced alpha-2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein secretion; on the contrary, alpha-2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein is over-secreted by visceral adipose tissue in the occurrence of obesity. While secretion of active-PhophoSer321α2HSG by visceral adipose tissue is independent of body mass index, we found that the fraction of active-alpha-2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein secreted by subcutaneous adipose tissue increments significantly in situations of obesity. Functional studies show that the inhibition of adipose-derived alpha-2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein increases insulin sensitivity in differentiated adipocytes. In

  20. The antagonistic effect of antipsychotic drugs on a HEK293 cell line stably expressing human alpha1A1-adrenoceptors.

    PubMed

    Nourian, Zahra; Mulvany, Michael J; Nielsen, Karsten Bork; Pickering, Darryl S; Kristensen, Torsten

    2008-10-31

    Antipsychotic drugs often cause orthostatic hypotension, probably through antagonist action on resistance vessel alpha(1A)-adrenoceptors. Here we have tested this possibility directly using cells transfected with a relevant human alpha(1A)-adrenoceptor splice variant. To determine a splice variant which was relevant, we used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to determine the prevalence in human subcutaneous small arteries of three of the five splice variants ADRA1A_v1-5, which encode functional protein: alpha(1A1)-, alpha(1A3)-, alpha(1A4)-adrenoceptors. Our statistical analysis showed higher transcription levels of alpha(1A1)- than of alpha(1A3)- and alpha(1A4)-adrenoceptors (1.6 and 5.8 times, respectively). We therefore chose to study the alpha(1A1)-adrenoceptor, and the cDNA encoding it was transfected into the Flp-In-293 (modified from HEK-293) cell line to produce a cell line stably expressing a functional form of this splice variant. The expression of recombinant alpha(1A1)-adrenoceptor subtype was confirmed by Western immunoblot analysis, and its functionality demonstrated using a Fura-2 assay by a rise in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) when challenged with phenylephrine (EC(50)=1.61x10(-8) M). From Schild analysis, prazosin, sertindole, risperidone, and haloperidol caused a concentration-dependent, rightward shift of the cumulative concentration-response curves for phenylephrine in cells expressing human recombinant alpha(1A1)-adrenoceptors to yield pK(B) values of 8.40, 8.05, 8.26 and 7.38, respectively. In [7-methoxy-(3)H]-prazosin binding experiments, high expression was seen (B(max)=48.5+/-16.7 pmol/mg protein, +/-S.E.M.) along with high affinity binding to a single site (K(d)=0.210+/-0.034 nM). The pharmacological profiles of recombinant human alpha(1A1)-adrenoceptors in competition binding studies confirmed much higher antagonist affinity of sertindole and risperidone than haloperidol for these receptors. In

  1. Properties of the branched-chain 2-hydroxy acid/2-oxo acid shuttle in mouse spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Coronel, C E; Gallina, F G; Gerez de Burgos, N M; Burgos, C; Blanco, A

    1986-05-01

    Operation of the branched-chain 2-hydroxy acid/2-oxo acid shuttle for the transfer of reducing equivalents in mitochondria of mouse spermatozoa was studied in vitro in reconstituted systems. Results show that the branched-chain 2-oxo acids within the mitochondria are offered several metabolic pathways. (a) Decarboxylation: mouse sperm mitochondria possess high branched-chain 2-oxo acid decarboxylase activity. (b) Recycling to the cytosol by using a transport system which can be inhibited by alpha-cyano-3-hydroxycinnamate and pH 6.8. (c) Transamination to the corresponding amino acids: experiments presented indicate that leucine formed from 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate may pass to the external phase, re-initiating the cycle. These two last possibilities would allow autocatalytic operation of the shuttle. The branched-chain 2-hydroxy acids apparently do not utilize the monocarboxylate carrier to penetrate the mitochondria.

  2. Vaccine Development for Biothreat Alpha Viruses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-25

    gaviridae, are causative agents of debilitative, acute, and sometimes fatal encephalitis in North, Central, and South America [1]. These viruses are...and can be lyophilized. VEEV was tested as a biowarfare agent during the U.S. offensive program in the 1950’s and 1960’s, and may have been...MD 21702, USA Abstract The majority of alpha virus is non-pathogenic to humans. However, select alpha viruses can cause severe disease in humans

  3. Measurement system for alpha emitters in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, A.; Sella, C.; Heindl, R.

    1984-08-01

    The measurement of alpha emitter concentrations in solution corresponds to a need felt in particular by laboratories working on actinides and in the spent fuel reprocessing industry. The instrument present here allows this measurement continuously by the use of a new scintillator that is insensitive to corrosive liquids. The extreme thinness of the scintillator guarantees good detection selectivity of alpha particles in the presence of beta and gamma emissions. Examples of uranium-233, plutonium-239 and americium-241 concentration measurements are presented.

  4. How to maintain chain drives

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J.L.

    1992-06-18

    Properly selected and maintained chain drives can be expected to give thousands of hours of reliable service. Selection is usually done just once. This paper reports on good maintenance which must be done regularly to keep the drive operating. An effective maintenance program for roller chain should include correct type and adequate amounts of lubrication, replacement of worn chains and sprockets, and elimination of drive interferences. It is important to set u a lubrication and inspection/correction schedule to ensure that all required maintenance is carried out.

  5. Alpha-dispersion in human tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimnes, Sverre; Martinsen, Ørjan G.

    2010-04-01

    Beta dispersion is found in living tissue in the kilohertz - megahertz range and is caused by the cellular structure of biological materials with low frequency properties caused by cell membranes. Alpha dispersion is found in the hertz range and the causes are not so well known. Alpha dispersions are the first to disappear when tissue dies. Tissue data have often been based upon excised specimen from animals and are therefore not necessarily representative for human tissue alpha dispersions. Here we present data obtained with non-invasive skin surface electrodes for different segments of the living human body. We found alpha dispersions in all cases; the ankle-wrist results had the smallest. Large alpha dispersions were found where the distance between the electrodes and muscle masses was small, e.g. on the calf. Further studies on electrode technique and reciprocity, electrode positioning, statistical variations, gender, age and bodily constitutions are necessary in order to reveal more about the alpha dispersion, its appearance and disappearance.

  6. Alpha1-adrenergic blockers: current usage considerations.

    PubMed

    Sica, Domenic A

    2005-12-01

    Alpha1-adrenergic-blocking drugs are effective in reducing blood pressure and do so in a fashion comparable to most other antihypertensive drug classes. These compounds are most effective in patients in the upright position, reducing systolic and diastolic pressures by 8%-10%. Alpha1-adrenergic-blocking drugs incrementally reduce blood pressure when combined with most drug classes and are the only antihypertensive drug class to improve plasma lipid profiles. Alpha1-adrenergic-blocking drugs are also accepted as important elements of the treatment plan for symptomatic benign prostatic hypertrophy. Dose escalation of an alpha1-adrenergic-blocking drug can trigger renal Na+ retention, and the ensuing volume expansion can attenuate its blood pressure-lowering effect. Orthostatic hypotension can occur with these compounds, particularly when a patient is volume-contracted. Dizziness, headache, and drowsiness are common side effects with alpha1-adrenergic blockers. A modest decline in the use of doxazosin and other alpha1-adrenergic-blocking drugs has occurred coincident to the early termination of the doxazosin treatment arm in the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial.

  7. Methods for the synthesis and polymerization of .alpha.,.alpha.'-dihalo-p-xylenes

    DOEpatents

    Ferraris, John P.; Neef, Charles J.

    2002-07-30

    The present invention describes an improved method for the polymerization of .alpha.,.alpha.-dihalo-p-xylene's such as the .alpha.,.alpha.'-dihalo-2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-xylene's. The procedure for synthesis is based on the specific order of addition of reagents and the use of an anionic initiator that allows control of the molecular weight of the polymer. The molecular weight control allows processability of the polymer which is important for its utility in applications including in light-emitting-diodes, field effect transistors and photovoltaic devices.

  8. Bile alcohol metabolism in man. Conversion of 5beta-cholestane-3alpha, 7alpha,12alpha, 25-tetrol to cholic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Salen, G; Shefer, S; Setoguchi, T; Mosbach, E H

    1975-01-01

    To study the role of C25-HYDROXY BILE ALCOHOLS AS PRECURSORS OF CHOlic acid, [G-3-H]5beta-cholestane-3alpha,7alpha12alpha,25-tetrol was administered intravenously to two subjects with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) and two normal individuals. One day after pulse labeling, radioactivity was present in the cholic acid isolated from the bile and feces of the subjects with CTX and the bile of the normal individuals. In the two normal subjects, the sp act decay curves of [G-3-H]-cholic acid were exponential, and no traces of [G-3-H]-5beta-cholestane-3alpha,7alpha,12alpha,25-tetrol were detected. In contrast, appreciable quantities of labeled 5beta-cholestane-3alpha,-7aopha,12alpha,25-tetrol were present in the bile and feces of the CTX subjects. The sp act vs. time curves of fecal [G-3-H]5beta-cholestane-3alpha,7alpha,12alpha,25-tetrol and [G-3-H]-cholic acid showed a precursor-product relationship. Although these results suggest that 5beta-cholestane-3alpha,7alpha,12alpha,25-tetrol may be a precursor of cholic acid in man, the possibility that C26-hydroxy intermediates represent the normal pathway can not be excluded. PMID:1141434

  9. alpha-Adrenergic-mediated activation of human reconstituted fibrinogen receptor (integrin alphaIIbbeta3) in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Butta, Nora; Larrucea, Susana; Gonzalez-Manchon, Consuelo; Alonso, Sonia; Parrilla, Roberto

    2004-12-01

    This work reports the functional studies of CHO cells coexpressing alpha-adrenergic (alphaAR) and human fibrinogen (Fg) receptors (integrin alphaIIbbeta3). Stimulation of these cells with alpha-agonists produced a transient rise in the free cytosolic calcium (Ca(++)) accompanied by enhanced binding to soluble Fg, and these effects were prevented by specific alphaAR antagonists. The alpha-adrenergic-induced activation of alphaIIbbeta3 in CHO-alphaIIbbeta3-alphaAR increased the rate of adhesion and extension of cells onto Fg coated plates, and also induced a soluble Fg- and alphaIIbbeta3-dependent formation of cell aggregates, whereas no effects were observed by the stimulation of CHO-alphaIIbbeta3 cells. alpha-Adrenergic antagonists, the ligand mimetic peptide RGDS, pertussis toxin (PTX), or EDTA, they all prevented the alpha-adrenergic stimulation of adhesion and aggregation. However, inhibition of PKC prevented the alpha-adrenergic stimulation of cell adherence, whereas blocking the intracellular Ca(++) mobilization impeded the stimulation of cell aggregation. The alpha-adrenergic activation was associated with phosphorylation of a protein of approximately 100 kDa and proteins of the MAPK family. The former was selectively phosphorylated by alpha-adrenergic stimulation whereas the latter were phosphorylated by the binding of cells to Fg and markedly intensified by alpha-adrenergic stimulation.

  10. Cooperative alpha-helix formation of beta-lactoglobulin induced by sodium n-alkyl sulfates.

    PubMed

    Chamani, J; Moosavi-Movahedi, A A; Rajabi, O; Gharanfoli, M; Momen-Heravi, M; Hakimelahi, G H; Neamati-Baghsiah, A; Varasteh, A R

    2006-01-01

    It is generally assumed that folding intermediates contain partially formed native-like secondary structures. However, if we consider the fact that the conformational stability of the intermediate state is simpler than that of the native state, it would be expected that the secondary structures in a folding intermediate would not necessarily be similar to those of the native state. beta-Lactoglobulin is a predominantly beta-sheet protein, although it has a markedly high intrinsic preference for alpha-helical structure. The formation of non-native alpha-helical intermediate of beta-lactoglobulin was induced by n-alkyl sulfates including sodium octyl sulfate, SOS; sodium decyl sulfate, SDeS; sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS; and sodium tetradecyl sulfate, STS at special condition. The effect of n-alkyl sulfates on the structure of native beta-lactoglobulin at pH 2 was utilized to investigate the contribution of hydrophobic interactions to the stability of non-native alpha-helical intermediate. The addition of various concentrations of n-alkyl sulfates to the native state of beta-lactoglobulin (pH 2) appears to support the stabilized form of non-native alpha-helical intermediate at pH 2. The m values of the intermediate state of beta-lactoglobulin by SOS, SDeS, SDS and STS showed substantial variation. The enhancement of m values as the stability criterion of non-native alpha-helical intermediate state corresponded with increasing chain length of the cited n-alkyl sulfates. The present results suggest that the folding reaction of beta-lactoglobulin follows a non-hierarchical mechanism and hydrophobic interactions play important roles in stabilizing the non-native alpha-helical intermediate state.

  11. Nuclear receptor ERR alpha and coactivator PGC-1 beta are effectors of IFN-gamma-induced host defense.

    PubMed

    Sonoda, Junichiro; Laganière, Josée; Mehl, Isaac R; Barish, Grant D; Chong, Ling-Wa; Li, Xiangli; Scheffler, Immo E; Mock, Dennis C; Bataille, Alain R; Robert, Francois; Lee, Chih-Hao; Giguère, Vincent; Evans, Ronald M

    2007-08-01

    Macrophage activation by the proinflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) is a critical component of the host innate response to bacterial pathogenesis. However, the precise nature of the IFN-gamma-induced activation pathway is not known. Here we show using genome-wide expression and chromatin-binding profiling that IFN-gamma induces the expression of many nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial respiratory chain machinery via activation of the nuclear receptor ERR alpha (estrogen-related receptor alpha, NR3B1). Studies with macrophages lacking ERR alpha demonstrate that it is required for induction of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and efficient clearance of Listeria monocytogenes (LM) in response to IFN-gamma. As a result, mice lacking ERR alpha are susceptible to LM infection, a phenotype that is localized to bone marrow-derived cells. Furthermore, we found that IFN-gamma-induced activation of ERR alpha depends on coactivator PGC-1 beta (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 beta), which appears to be a direct target for the IFN-gamma/STAT-1 signaling cascade. Thus, ERR alpha and PGC-1 beta act together as a key effector of IFN-gamma-induced mitochondrial ROS production and host defense.

  12. TNF-alpha and IL-10 gene polymorphisms show a weak association with pemphigus vulgaris in the Slovak population.

    PubMed

    Javor, J; Chmurova, N; Parnicka, Z; Ferencik, S; Grosse-Wilde, H; Buc, M; Svecova, D

    2010-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris is a rare chronic autoimmune disease of skin and mucous membranes, with several cytokines participating in its development. The role of their gene polymorphisms in susceptibility to the disease is, however, not fully understood. The aim of our case-control study was to investigate whether some of 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 13 cytokine genes (IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-1RI, IL-1Ra, IL-4Ralpha, IL-12, IFN-gamma, TGF-beta1, TNF-alpha, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10) are associated with pemphigus vulgaris in the Slovak population. DNA samples were obtained from 34 pemphigus vulgaris patients and 140 healthy controls of Slovak origin. Cytokine gene SNPs were determined using the polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) method. Results We found a weak association between pemphigus vulgaris and polymorphic variants in TNF-alpha and IL-10 genes only, with haplotypes TNF-alpha-308G/-238G and IL-10 -1082A/-819C/-592C being significantly overrepresented in pemphigus vulgaris patients (TNF-alpha GG: 94.12% vs. 82.86%, P = 0.0216; IL-10 ACC: 44.12% vs. 30.00%, P = 0.0309). Our preliminary results suggest that certain TNF-alpha and IL-10 gene polymorphisms might contribute to genetic susceptibility to pemphigus vulgaris; however, their overall impact on disease development will be rather limited.

  13. Removing peroxide impurities from ether improves the quality of globin chains for biosynthetic studies.

    PubMed

    Mirzazadeh, Roghieh; Khatami, Shohreh; Bayat, Parastoo; Zamani, Zahra; Sadeghi, Sedigheh; Roohi, Soghra; Saidi, Parinaz

    2005-01-01

    The diagnosis of the different forms of thalassemia is one of the important applications of analysis of globin chains. These analyses are done by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a MONO-S cation exchange column and ether is used for washing the globin powder in the final step. The presence of peroxide impurities in ether could change the structure of the globin chains. In the chromatograms, these modified globins appear as separated peaks next to the unmodified globin peaks. In these cases, the alpha/beta ratio exceed by artifact the correct value. Our study demonstrates that diagnostic centers should ensure that the ether they use is pure.

  14. Detection limit of a VCO based detection chain dedicated to particles recognition and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulié, K.; Rahajandraibe, W.; Aziza, H.; Micolau, G.; Vauché, R.

    2018-01-01

    A particle detection chain based on CMOS-SOI VCO circuit is presented. The solution is used for the recognition and the tracking of a given particle at circuit level. TCAD simulation of the detector has been performed on a 3×3 matrix of diodes based detector for particles recognition and tracking. The current response of the detector has been used for a case study in order to determine the ability of the chain to recognize an alpha particle crossing a 3×3 detection cell. The detection limit of the proposed solution is investigated and discussed in this paper.

  15. Reinforcement learning in supply chains.

    PubMed

    Valluri, Annapurna; North, Michael J; Macal, Charles M

    2009-10-01

    Effective management of supply chains creates value and can strategically position companies. In practice, human beings have been found to be both surprisingly successful and disappointingly inept at managing supply chains. The related fields of cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence have postulated a variety of potential mechanisms to explain this behavior. One of the leading candidates is reinforcement learning. This paper applies agent-based modeling to investigate the comparative behavioral consequences of three simple reinforcement learning algorithms in a multi-stage supply chain. For the first time, our findings show that the specific algorithm that is employed can have dramatic effects on the results obtained. Reinforcement learning is found to be valuable in multi-stage supply chains with several learning agents, as independent agents can learn to coordinate their behavior. However, learning in multi-stage supply chains using these postulated approaches from cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence take extremely long time periods to achieve stability which raises questions about their ability to explain behavior in real supply chains. The fact that it takes thousands of periods for agents to learn in this simple multi-agent setting provides new evidence that real world decision makers are unlikely to be using strict reinforcement learning in practice.

  16. Spatial and Time Coincidence Detection of the Decay Chain of Short-Lived Radioactive Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Granja, Carlos; Jakubek, Jan; Platkevic, Michal

    The quantum counting position sensitive pixel detector Timepix with per-pixel energy and time resolution enables to detect radioactive ions and register the consecutive decay chain by simultaneous position-and time-correlation. This spatial and timing coincidence technique in the same sensor is demonstrated by the registration of the decay chain {sup 8}He{yields}{sup {beta} 8}Li and {sup 8}Li{yields}{sup {beta}-} {sup 8}Be{yields}{alpha}+{alpha} and by the measurement of the {beta} decay half-lives. Radioactive ions, selectively obtained from the Lohengrin fission fragment spectrometer installed at the High Flux Reactor of the ILL Grenoble, are delivered to the Timepix silicon sensor where decays of the implanted ionsmore » and daughter nuclei are registered and visualized. We measure decay lifetimes in the range {>=}{mu}s with precision limited just by counting statistics.« less

  17. Overview Of Suborbital Human Transportation Concept Alpha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adirim, H.; Pilz, N.; Marini, M.; Hendrick, P.; Schmid, M.; Behr, R.; Barth, T.; Tarfeld, F.; Wiegand, A.; Charbonnier, D.; Haya Ramos, R.; Steeland, J.; Mack, A.

    2011-05-01

    Within the EC co-funded project FAST20XX (Future high-Altitude high-Speed Transport 20XX), the European suborbital passenger transportation system concept ALPHA (Airplane Launched PHoenix Aircraft), which shall be based to a maximum extent on existing technologies and capabilities, is currently being investigated as collaborative project by a European consortium under coordination of ESA. The ALPHA concept incorporates an air-launch from a carrier aircraft, which shall be used as first stage. The ALPHA vehicle shall be capable of transporting up to four passengers plus one pilot to an altitude of at least 100 km. The ALPHA vehicle is a down-scaled version of the suborbital space transportation concept Hopper, which was already deeply investigated within the European FESTIP System Study and the German ASTRA program including the successfully flown experimental landing demonstrator Phoenix. This approach has allowed the use of existing aerodynamic vehicle data and has led to the adaptation of the external Hopper/Phoenix configuration for ALPHA. In FESTIP and ASTRA, the Hopper configuration showed sufficient stability margins. Due to the geometric similarity of the ALPHA and Hopper vehicles, a trimable and flyable configuration could be derived by means of ALPHA flight trajectory calculations. In its current configuration, the ALPHA vehicle has a length of ca. 9 m and a gross take-off mass of ca. 3.5 Mg. The launch, staging and separation of ALPHA shall be performed either as internal air-launch from the cargo bay of the carrier aircraft, as under-wing air-launch or as towed air-launch. After separation from the carrier aircraft, the ALPHA vehicle ignites its onboard rocket propulsion system. Since conventional liquid and solid propulsion did not seem suitable for ALPHA due to Their high cost, limited safety and toxicity, a low-cost, “green” and non-hazardous hybrid propulsion system based on liquid nitrous oxide in combination with a solid polymer fuel was

  18. Localization and characterization of an alpha-thrombin-binding site on platelet glycoprotein Ib alpha.

    PubMed

    De Marco, L; Mazzucato, M; Masotti, A; Ruggeri, Z M

    1994-03-04

    Glycoprotein (GP) Ib alpha is required for expression of the highest affinity alpha-thrombin-binding site on platelets, possibly contributing to platelet activation through a pathway involving cleavage of a specific receptor. This function may be important for the initiation of hemostasis and may also play a role in the development of pathological vascular occlusion. We have now identified a discrete sequence in the extracytoplasmic domain of GP Ib alpha, including residues 271-284 of the mature protein, which appears to be part of the high affinity alpha-thrombin-binding site. Synthetic peptidyl mimetics of this sequence inhibit alpha-thrombin binding to GP Ib as well as platelet activation and aggregation induced by subnanomolar concentrations of the agonist; they also inhibit alpha-thrombin binding to purified glycocalicin, the isolated extracytoplasmic portion of GP Ib alpha. The inhibitory peptides interfere with the clotting of fibrinogen by alpha-thrombin but not with the amidolytic activity of the enzyme on a small synthetic substrate, a finding compatible with the concept that the identified GP Ib alpha sequence interacts with the anion-binding exosite of alpha-thrombin but not with its active proteolytic site. The crucial structural elements of this sequence necessary for thrombin binding appear to be a cluster of negatively charged residues as well as three tyrosine residues that, in the native protein, may be sulfated. GP Ib alpha has no significant overall sequence homology with the thrombin inhibitor, hirudin, nor with the specific thrombin receptor on platelets; all three molecules, however, possess a distinct region rich in negatively charged residues that appear to be involved in thrombin binding. This may represent a case of convergent evolution of unrelated proteins for high affinity interaction with the same ligand.

  19. Ultrastructural studies of human and rabbit alpha-M-globulins.

    PubMed

    Bloth, B; Chesebro, B; Svehag, S E

    1968-04-01

    Electron micrographs of isolated human alpha(2)M-molecules, obtained by the negative contrast technique, revealed morphologically homogenous structures resembling a graceful monogram of the two letters H and I. The modal values for the length and width of the alpha(2)M particles were 170 A and 100 A, respectively. Purified rabbit alphamacroglobulins contained about 80% alpha(1)M- and 20% alpha(2)M-globulins. The isolated rabbit alpha(1)M- and alpha(2)M-molecules were morphologically indistinguishable from one another and from human alpha(2)M-molecules. Preliminary immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that the two rabbit alphaM-globulins were antigenically different. Sedimentation constant determinations gave s(20, w) values of 18.8 and 18.2 for rabbit alpha(1)M and alpha(2)M, respectively.

  20. Molecular dynamics of individual alpha-helices of bacteriorhodopsin in dimyristol phosphatidylocholine. I. Structure and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Woolf, T B

    1997-11-01

    Understanding the role of the lipid bilayer in membrane protein structure and dynamics is needed for tertiary structure determination methods. However, the molecular details are not well understood. Molecular dynamics computer calculations can provide insight into these molecular details of protein:lipid interactions. This paper reports on 10 simulations of individual alpha-helices in explicit lipid bilayers. The 10 helices were selected from the bacteriorhodopsin structure as representative alpha-helical membrane folding components. The bilayer is constructed of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine molecules. The only major difference between simulations is the primary sequence of the alpha-helix. The results show dramatic differences in motional behavior between alpha-helices. For example, helix A has much smaller root-mean-squared deviations than does helix D. This can be understood in terms of the presence of aromatic residues at the interface for helix A that are not present in helix D. Additional motions are possible for the helices that contain proline side chains relative to other amino acids. The results thus provide insight into the types of motion and the average structures possible for helices within the bilayer setting and demonstrate the strength of molecular simulations in providing molecular details that are not directly visualized in experiments.

  1. Registration of alpha particles in Makrofol-E nuclear track detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rammah, Y. S.; Abdalla, Ayman M.; Ashraf, O.; Ashry, A. H.

    2016-06-01

    Fast detection of alpha particles in the range from 1 to 5 MeV in Makrofol-E polycarbonate nuclear track detectors (PCTDs) using a new chemical etchant was investigated. 252Cf and 241Am-thin open sources were used for irradiating Makrofol-E detectors with fission fragments and alpha particles in air at normal pressure and temperature (NPT). A chain of experimental work has been carried out using new etchants to register alpha particle in short time in Makrofol-E polycarbonate detectors. The etching efficiency were exhibited a clear dependence on the amount of methanol in the etching solution and etching time. The optimized chemical condition obtained at this stage of development for 200 μm Makrofol-E detectors are (8 ml of 10 N NaOH + 2 ml CH3OH) etching solutions at 60 °C for 3 h. In this study; it is possible to observe energy detection windows for Makrofol-E detectors according to applied etching duration. Makrofol-E introduced the characteristic Bragg peak, which indicates the advantages of this detector as alpha spectrometer. Consequently, the suggested new etchant can be developed for heavy ions detection and monitoring radon levels and its daughters.

  2. Change of motion and localization of cholesterol molecule during L(alpha)-H(II) transition.

    PubMed Central

    Hayakawa, E; Naganuma, M; Mukasa, K; Shimozawa, T; Araiso, T

    1998-01-01

    Formation of the inverted hexagonal (H(II)) phase from the lamellar (L(alpha)) phase of bovine brain-extracted phosphatidylcholine (BBPC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (BBPE) was investigated using 31P-NMR with or without cholesterol. When the ratio of BBPC to BBPE was 1:1, the H(II) formation was observed in the presence of 33 mol% cholesterol (i.e., BBPC:BBPE:cholesterol = 1:1:1) at 47 degrees C. The fraction of the H(II) phase in the BBPC/BBPE/cholesterol system could be controlled by the addition of dioleoylglycerol. The change of molecular motion of cholesterol affected by the H(II) formation was measured at various ratios of the L(alpha) to H(II) phase with the time-resolved fluorescence depolarization method, using dehydroergosterol as a fluorescent probe. It is observed that the motion of cholesterol became vigorous in the mixture state of the L(alpha) and the H(II) phases compared to that in the L(alpha) or the H(II) phase only. These facts show that cholesterol has the strong ability to induce the H(II) phase, probably by special molecular motion, which includes change of its location from the headgroup area to the acyl-chain area. PMID:9533700

  3. Polymorphism at the merozoite surface protein-3alpha locus of Plasmodium vivax: global and local diversity.

    PubMed

    Bruce, M C; Galinski, M R; Barnwell, J W; Snounou, G; Day, K P

    1999-10-01

    Allelic diversity at the Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-3alpha (PvMsp-3alpha) locus was investigated using a combined polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP) protocol. Symptomatic patient isolates from global geographic origins showed a high level of polymorphism at the nucleotide level. These samples were used to validate the sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of the PCR/RFLP method. It was then used to investigate PvMsp3alpha diversity in field samples from children living in a single village in a malaria-endemic region of Papua New Guinea, with the aim of assessing the usefulness of this locus as an epidemiologic marker of P. vivax infections. Eleven PvMsp-3alpha alleles were distinguishable in 16 samples with single infections, revealing extensive parasite polymorphism within this restricted area. Multiple infections were easily detected and accounted for 5 (23%) of 22 positive samples. Pairs of samples from individual children provided preliminary evidence for high turnover of P. vivax populations.

  4. Cloning, sequence, and expression of a blood group B active recombinant alpha-D-galactosidase from pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Davis, M O; Hata, D J; Johnson, S A; Jones, D E; Harmata, M A; Evans, M L; Walker, J C; Smith, D S

    1997-07-01

    -D-galactosidases have activity against alpha-D-galactosyl residues on cell membrane glycoconjugates. Glycosidases with this property are useful for carbohydrate structural studies and biotechnical applications. Enzymes free of other glycosidase activities with activity near neutral pH are particularly useful for membrane modification studies on native cells. Complex sugar chains in glycolipids and glycoproteins have often been implicated in the growth and development of eucaryotes. In particular, complex sugar chains play an important role in the recognition of self in the immune system. Some alpha-D-galactosidases can modify certain carbohydrate membrane epitopes, thereby modulating the immune response. For example, the blood group B epitope expressed on erythrocytes contains a terminal alpha-D-galactosyl residue. Individuals lacking this antigen produce naturally occurring complement fixing antibodies to the B epitope. Hydrolysis of this terminal saccharide destroys the antigenic activity of the B determinant producing H antigen (blood type O) on erythrocytes. Only rare individuals produce clinically significant antibodies to the H antigen, and therefore, type O red blood cells are "universally" compatible and in great demand. Dhar purified alpha-D-galactosidase isozymes from Phaseolus vulgaris and characterized their activity. To our knowledge, our laboratory, in a brief report, is the first to describe the cloning of the gene and the use of recombinant enzyme for seroconverting blood type B to O cells. This paper describes the cloning, sequence, expression, purification, and characterization of recombinant alpha-D-galactosidase. Activity of the recombinant enzyme on the native human erythrocyte blood group B epitope is shown.

  5. Exploiting the CNC side chain in heterocyclic rearrangements: synthesis of 4(5)-acylamino-imidazoles.

    PubMed

    Piccionello, Antonio Palumbo; Buscemi, Silvestre; Vivona, Nicolò; Pace, Andrea

    2010-08-06

    A new variation on the Boulton-Katritzky reaction is reported, namely, involving use of a CNC side chain. A novel Montmorillonite-K10 catalyzed nonreductive transamination of a 3-benzoyl-1,2,4-oxadiazole afforded a 3-(alpha-aminobenzyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazole, which was condensed with benzaldehydes to afford the corresponding imines. In the presence of strong base, these imines underwent Boulton-Katritzky-type rearrangement to afford novel 4(5)-acylaminoimidazoles.

  6. Identification of a novel bile acid in swans, tree ducks, and geese: 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid.

    PubMed

    Kakiyama, Genta; Iida, Takashi; Goto, Takaaki; Mano, Nariyasu; Goto, Junichi; Nambara, Toshio; Hagey, Lee R; Schteingart, Claudio D; Hofmann, Alan F

    2006-07-01

    By HPLC, a taurine-conjugated bile acid with a retention time different from that of taurocholate was found to be present in the bile of the black-necked swan, Cygnus melanocoryphus. The bile acid was isolated and its structure, established by (1)H and (13)C NMR and mass spectrometry, was that of the taurine N-acyl amidate of 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid. The compound was shown to have chromatographic and spectroscopic properties that were identical to those of the taurine conjugate of authentic 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid, previously synthesized by us from ursodeoxycholic acid. By HPLC, the taurine conjugate of 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid was found to be present in 6 of 6 species in the subfamily Dendrocygninae (tree ducks) and in 10 of 13 species in the subfamily Anserinae (swans and geese) but not in other subfamilies in the Anatidae family. It was also not present in species from the other two families of the order Anseriformes. 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-Trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid is a new primary bile acid that is present in the biliary bile acids of swans, tree ducks, and geese and may be termed 15alpha-hydroxy-chenodeoxycholic acid.

  7. Effect of alpha-tocopherol on bovine in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Marques, A; Santos, P; Antunes, G; Chaveiro, A; Moreira da Silva, F

    2010-02-01

    The objectives of this work are to determine if exogenous supplementation with alpha-tocopherol increases the in vitro fertilization (IVF) rate of bovine oocytes and improves viability of selected spermatozoa after 'swim-up'. The percentage of fertilized oocytes was significantly but negatively correlated (r = -0.941, p < 0.01) with the concentration of alpha-tocopherol. The control resulted in 95% of fertilized oocytes, which decreased as follows: 25 microM alpha-tocopherol (alpha25) 86%, 50 microM alpha-tocopherol (alpha50) 74%, 100 microM alpha-tocopherol (alpha100) 66% and 200 microM alpha-tocopherol (alpha200) 56%. Relatively to sperm viability after 'swim-up' with alpha-tocopherol supplementation, this antioxidant proved to have a beneficial effect as its concentration increased up to alpha50, decreasing for the concentrations of alpha100 and alpha200. Control resulted in 83% of live cells and 16% of dead cells; alpha25 resulted in 88% of live cells and 12% of dead cells; alpha50 resulted in 91% of live cells and 9% of dead cells; alpha100 resulted in 67% of live cells and 33% of dead cells; and finally alpha200 resulted in 57% of live cells and 42% of dead cells. In summary, the present study allows to conclude that, in our conditions, supplementation with the antioxidant alpha-tocopherol in IVF of bovine oocytes has a detrimental effect on fertilization rates. Nevertheless, exogenous supplementation with alpha-tocopherol at a concentration of 50 mM in the sperm-TALP media during the 'swim-up' technique has a significant beneficial effect on the selected spermatozoa viability.

  8. Simultaneous measurements of the hydrogen airglow emissions of Lyman alpha, Lyman beta, and Balmer alpha.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weller, C. S.; Meier, R. R.; Tinsley, B. A.

    1971-01-01

    Comparison of Lyman-alpha, 740- to 1050-A, and Balmer-alpha airglow measurements made at 134 deg solar-zenith angle on Oct. 13, 1969, with resonance-scattering models of solar radiation. Model comparison with Lyman-alpha data fixes the hydrogen column abundance over 215 km to 2 x 10 to the 13th per cu cm within a factor of 2. Differences between the Lyman-alpha model and data indicate a polar-equatorial departure from spherical symmetry in the hydrogen distribution. A Lyman-beta model based on the hydrogen distribution found to fit the Lyman-alpha data fits the spatial variation of the 740- to 1050-A data well from 100 to 130 km, but it does not fit the data well at higher altitudes; thus the presence of more rapidly absorbed shorter-wavelength radiation is indicated. This same resonance-scattering model yields Balmer-alpha intensities that result in good spatial agreement with the Balmer-alpha measurements, but a fivefold increase in the measured solar line center Lyman-beta flux is required (as required for the Lyman-beta measurement). The intensity ratio of Lyman-beta and Balmer-alpha at night is found to be a simple measure of the hydrogen optical depth if measurements with good accuracy can be made in the visible and ultraviolet spectrum.

  9. Correcting Coefficient Alpha for Correlated Errors: Is [alpha][K]a Lower Bound to Reliability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    When errors of measurement are positively correlated, coefficient alpha may overestimate the "true" reliability of a composite. To reduce this inflation bias, Komaroff (1997) has proposed an adjusted alpha coefficient, ak. This article shows that ak is only guaranteed to be a lower bound to reliability if the latter does not include correlated…

  10. Experimental and Theoretical Electron Density Distribution of Alpha,Alpha-Trehalose Dihydrate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alpha,alpha-rehalose is of interest because of its cryoprotective and antidessicant properties, and because it possesses various technical anomalies such as 13C NMR spectra that give misleading indications of intramolecular structural symmetry. It is a non-reducing disaccharide, with the glycosidic...

  11. Human alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (alpha-NAGA) deficiency: no association with neuroaxonal dystrophy?

    PubMed

    Bakker, H D; de Sonnaville, M L; Vreken, P; Abeling, N G; Groener, J E; Keulemans, J L; van Diggelen, O P

    2001-02-01

    Two new individuals with alpha-NAGA deficiency are presented. The index patient, 3 years old, has congenital cataract, slight motor retardation and secondary demyelinisation. Screening of his sibs revealed an alpha-NAGA deficiency in his 7-year-old healthy brother who had no clinical or neurological symptoms. Both sibs are homozygous for the E325K mutation, the same genotype that was found in the most severe form of alpha-NAGA deficiency presenting as infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy. Thus, at the age of 7 years the same genotype of alpha-NAGA may present as a 'non-disease' (present healthy case) and can be associated with the vegetative state (the first two patients described with alpha-NAGA deficiency). The clinical heterogeneity among the 11 known individuals with alpha-NAGA deficiency is extreme, with a 'non-disease' (two cases) and infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (two cases) at the opposite sides of the clinical spectrum. The broad spectrum is completed by a very heterogeneous group of patients with various degrees of epilepsy/behavioural difficulties/psychomotor retardation (four patients) and a mild phenotype in adults without overt neurological manifestations who have angiokeratoma and clear vacuolisation in various cell types (three cases). These observations are difficult to reconcile with a straightforward genotype-phenotype correlation and suggest that factors or genes other than alpha-NAGA contribute to the clinical heterogeneity of the 11 patients with alpha-NAGA deficiency.

  12. Aligning incentives in supply chains.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, V G; Raman, Ananth

    2004-11-01

    Most companies don't worry about the behavior of their supply chain partners. Instead, they expect the supply chain to work efficiently without interference, as if guided by Adam Smith's famed invisible hand. In their study of more than 50 supply networks, V.G. Narayanan and Ananth Raman found that companies often looked out for their own interests and ignored those of their network partners. Consequently, supply chains performed poorly. Those results aren't shocking when you consider that supply chains extend across several functions and many companies, each with its own priorities and goals. Yet all those functions and firms must pull in the same direction for a chain to deliver goods and services to consumers quickly and cost-effectively. According to the authors, a supply chain works well only if the risks, costs, and rewards of doing business are distributed fairly across the network. In fact, misaligned incentives are often the cause of excess inventory, stock-outs, incorrect forecasts, inadequate sales efforts, and even poor customer service. The fates of all supply chain partners are interlinked: If the firms work together to serve consumers, they will all win. However, they can do that only if incentives are aligned. Companies must acknowledge that the problem of incentive misalignment exists and then determine its root cause and align or redesign incentives. They can improve alignment by, for instance, adopting revenue-sharing contracts, using technology to track previously hidden information, or working with intermediaries to build trust among network partners. It's also important to periodically reassess incentives, because even top-performing networks find that changes in technology or business conditions alter the alignment of incentives.

  13. [Anti-TNF alpha in dermatology].

    PubMed

    Mahe, E; Descamps, V

    2002-12-01

    The discovery of the major role of TNF alpha in the physiopathology of certain inflammatory diseases and notably in rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease has led to the development of anti-TNF alpha drugs. These new therapeutic arms issued from bio-technology have rapidly demonstrated their efficacy in the treatment of these two diseases. The anti-TNF alpha arsenal is currently dominated by etanercept, a fusion protein composed of a soluble TNF alpha receptor, and infliximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody. However, new molecules will soon enrich this arsenal. TNF alpha is a major cytokine of inflammatory diseases of the skin. Many dermatological diseases will probably benefit from these new treatments. Two studies have already demonstrated their interest in cutaneous and articular psoriasis. Encouraging sporadic results suggest other potential indications (Behcet's disease, bullous dermatitis, neutrophilic dermatitis, toxic epidermal necrolysis, systemic vascularitis,.). These promising new treatments, although expensive, and with yet unknown long term side effects, justify rigorous assessment of their efficacy and tolerance in each indication. Here again the dermatologist has a major role to play in post-marketing pharmacovigilance.

  14. Alpha Background Discrimination in the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruszko, Julieta; Majorana Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The Majorana Demonstrator (MJD) searches for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge using arrays of high-purity germanium detectors. If observed, this process would have implications for grand-unification and the predominance of matter over antimatter in the universe. A problematic background in such large granular detector arrays is posed by alpha particles. In MJD, potential background events that are consistent with energy-degraded alphas originating on the passivated detector surface have been observed. We have studied these events by scanning the passivated surface of a P-type point contact detector like those used in MJD with a collimated alpha source. We observe that surface alpha events exhibit high charge-trapping, with a significant fraction of the trapped charge being re-released slowly. This leads to both a reduced prompt signal and a measurable change in slope of the tail of a recorded pulse. In this contribution we discuss the characteristics of these events and the filter developed to identify the occurrence of this delayed charge recovery, allowing for the efficient rejection of passivated surface alpha events while retaining 99.8% of bulk events. We also discuss the impact of this filter on the sensitivity of MJD. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. DOE, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Phys., the Particle Astrophys. and Nuclear Phys. Programs of the NSF, and SURF. Additional support from the NSFGRFP under Grant No. 1256082.

  15. Role of Frontal Alpha Oscillations in Creativity

    PubMed Central

    Lustenberger, Caroline; Boyle, Michael R.; Foulser, A. Alban; Mellin, Juliann M.; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    Creativity, the ability to produce innovative ideas, is a key higher-order cognitive function that is poorly understood. At the level of macroscopic cortical network dynamics, recent EEG data suggests that cortical oscillations in the alpha frequency band (8 – 12 Hz) are correlated with creative thinking. However, whether alpha oscillations play a fundamental role in creativity has remained unknown. Here we show that creativity is increased by enhancing alpha power using 10 Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation (10Hz-tACS) of the frontal cortex. In a study of 20 healthy participants with a randomized, balanced cross-over design, we found a significant improvement of 7.4% in the Creativity Index measured by the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, a comprehensive and most frequently used assay of creative potential and strengths. In a second similar study with 20 subjects, 40Hz-tACS was used in instead of 10Hz-tACS to rule out a general “electrical stimulation” effect. No significant change in the Creativity Index was found for such frontal gamma stimulation. Our results suggest that alpha activity in frontal brain areas is selectively involved in creativity; this enhancement represents the first demonstration of specific neuronal dynamics that drive creativity and can be modulated by non-invasive brain stimulation. Our findings agree with the model that alpha recruitment increases with internal processing demands and is involved in inhibitory top-down control, which is an important requirement for creative ideation. PMID:25913062

  16. Transepithelial transport of alpha-lipoic acid across human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Takaishi, Naoki; Yoshida, Kazutaka; Satsu, Hideo; Shimizu, Makoto

    2007-06-27

    Alpha-lipoic acid (LA) is used in dietary supplements or food with antioxidative functions. The mechanism for the intestinal absorption of alpha-lipoic acid was investigated in this study by using human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers. LA was rapidly transported across the Caco-2 cell monolayers, this transport being energy-dependent, suggesting transporter-mediated transport to be the mechanism involved. The LA transport was strongly dependent on the pH value, being accelerated in the acidic pH range. Furthermore, such monocarboxylic acids as benzoic acid and medium-chain fatty acids significantly inhibited LA transport, suggesting that a proton-linked monocarboxylic acid transporter (MCT) was involved in the intestinal transport of LA. The conversion of LA to the more antioxidative dihydrolipoic acid was also apparent during the transport process.

  17. Disposable cartridge extraction of retinol and alpha-tocopherol from fatty samples.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, C F; Ciba, N

    1988-01-01

    A new approach is proposed for liquid/solid extraction of retinol and alpha-tocopherol from samples, using a disposable kieselguhr cartridge. The substitution of the mixture methanol-ethanol-n-butanol (4 + 3 + 1) for methanol in the alkaline hydrolysis solution makes it now possible to process fatty samples. Methanol is necessary to solubilize the antioxidant ascorbic acid, and a linear chain alcohol such as n-butanol is necessary to reduce the size of soap micelles so that they can penetrate into the kieselguhr pores. In comparisons of the proposed method with conventional methods on mineral premixes and fatty feedstuffs, recovery and accuracy are at least as good by the proposed method. Advantages are increased rate of determinations and the ability to hydrolyze and extract retinol and alpha-tocopherol together from the same sample.

  18. Influence of fast alpha diffusion and thermal alpha buildup on tokamak reactor performance

    SciTech Connect

    Uckan, N.A.; Tolliver, J.S.; Houlberg, W.A.

    1987-11-01

    The effect of fast alpha diffusion and thermal alpha accumulation on the confinement capability of a candidate Engineering Test Reactor (ETR) plasma (Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor (TIBER-II)) in achieving ignition and steady-state driven operation has been assessed using both global and 1-1/2-D transport models. Estimates are made of the threshold for radial diffusion of fast alphas and thermal alpha buildup. It is shown that a relatively low level of radial transport, when combined with large gradients in the fast alpha density, leads to a significant radial flow with a deleterious effect on plasma performance. Similarly, modest levels of thermal alphamore » concentration significantly influence the ignition and steady-state burn capability. 23 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.« less

  19. Enhanced actions of insulin-like growth factor-I and interferon-alpha co-administration in experimental cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Tutau, Federico; Rodríguez-Ortigosa, Carlos; Puche, Juan Enrique; Juanarena, Nerea; Monreal, Iñigo; García Fernández, María; Clavijo, Encarna; Castilla, Alberto; Castilla-Cortázar, Inma

    2009-01-01

    Cirrhosis is a diffuse process of hepatic fibrosis and regenerative nodule formation. The liver is the major source of circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) whose plasma levels are diminished in cirrhosis. IGF-I supplementation has been shown to induce beneficial effects in cirrhosis, including antifibrogenic and hepatoprotective effects. On other hand, interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) therapy seems to suppress the progression of hepatic fibrosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the co-administration of IGF-I+IFN-alpha to Wistar rats with CCl(4)-induced cirrhosis, exploring liver function tests, hepatic lipid peroxidation and histopathology. The mechanisms underlying the effects of these agents were studied by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, determining the expression of some factors [hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), alpha-smooth muscle actin, collagen, tissular inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 and pregnane X receptor (PXR)] involved in fibrogenesis, fibrolysis and/or hepatoprotection. Both IGF-I and IFN-alpha exerted significant effects on fibrogenesis. IGF-I significantly increased serum albumin and HGF whereas IFN-alpha-therapy did not. The inhibition of TGF-beta expression was only observed by the effect of IFN-alpha-therapy. In addition, only the co-administration of IGF-I and IFN-alpha was able to increase the PXR. The combined therapy with both factors improved liver function tests, hepatic lipid peroxidation and reduced fibrosis, inducing a relevant histological improvement, reducing fibrosis and recovering hepatic architecture. The co-administration IGF-I+IFN enhanced all the beneficial effects observed with each factor separately, showing an additive action on histopathology and PXR expression, which is involved in the inhibition of fibrogenesis.

  20. The alpha glycerophosphate cycle in Drosophila melanogaster V. molecular analysis of alpha glycerophosphate dehydrogenase and alpha glycerophosphate oxidase mutants.

    PubMed

    Carmon, Amber; Chien, Jeff; Sullivan, David; MacIntyre, Ross

    2010-01-01

    Two enzymes, alpha glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH-1) in the cytoplasm and alpha glycerophosphate oxidase (GPO-1) in the mitochondrion cooperate in Drosophila flight muscles to generate the ATP needed for muscle contraction. Null mutants for either enzyme cannot fly. Here, we characterize 15 ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS)-induced mutants in GPDH-1 at the molecular level and assess their effects on structural and evolutionarily conserved domains of this enzyme. In addition, we molecularly characterize 3 EMS-induced GPO-1 mutants and excisions of a P element insertion in the GPO-1 gene. The latter represent the best candidate for null or amorphic mutants in this gene.

  1. Alpha-1-Antitrypsin Deficiency in Serbian Adults with Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Stankovic, Marija; Divac-Rankov, Aleksandra; Petrovic-Stanojevic, Natasa; Mitic-Milikic, Marija; Nagorni-Obradovic, Ljudmila; Radojkovic, Dragica

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) is the main inhibitor of neutrophil elastase, and severe alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (A1ATD) is a genetic risk factor for early-onset emphysema. Despite the relatively high prevalence of A1ATD, this condition is frequently underdiagnosed. Our aim was to determine the distribution of the A1ATD phenotypes/alleles in patients with lung diseases as well as in the Serbian population. Methods: The study included the adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n=348), asthma (n=71), and bronchiectasis (n=35); the control was 1435 healthy blood donors. The A1ATD variants were identified by isoelectric focusing or polymerase chain reaction-mediated site-directed mutagenesis. Results: PiMZ heterozygotes, PiZZ homozygotes, and Z allele carriers are associated with significantly higher risk of developing COPD than healthy individuals (odds ratios 3.43, 42.42, and 5.49 respectively). The calculated prevalence of PiZZ, PiMZ, and PiSZ was higher in patients with COPD (1:202, 1:8, and 1:1243) than in the Serbian population (1:5519, 1:38, and 1:5519). Conclusion: The high prevalence of A1ATD phenotypes/allele in our population has confirmed the necessity of screening for A1ATD in patients with COPD. On the other hand, on the basis of the estimated number of those with A1ATD among the COPD patients, it is possible to assess the diagnostic efficiency of A1ATD in the Serbian population. PMID:22971141

  2. CD90-positive cells, an additional cell population, produce laminin {alpha}2 upon transplantation to dy{sup 3k}/dy{sup 3k} mice

    SciTech Connect

    Fukada, So-ichiro; Yamamoto, Yukiko; Segawa, Masashi

    2008-01-01

    Laminin {alpha}2 is a component of skeletal and cardiac muscle basal lamina. A defect of the laminin {alpha}2 chain leads to severe congenital muscular dystrophy (MDC1A) in humans and dy/dy mice. Myogenic cells including myoblasts, myotubes, and myofibers in skeletal muscle are a possible source of the laminin {alpha}2 chain, and myogenic cells are thus proposed as a cell source for congenital muscular dystrophy therapy. However, we observed production of laminin {alpha}2 in non-myogenic cells of normal mice, and we could enrich these laminin {alpha}2-producing cells in CD90{sup +} cell fractions. Intriguingly, the number of CD90{sup +} cells increased dramaticallymore » during skeletal muscle regeneration in mice. This fraction did not include myogenic cells but exhibited a fibroblast-like phenotype. Moreover, these cells were resident in skeletal muscle, not derived from bone marrow. Finally, the production of laminin {alpha}2 in CD90{sup +} cells was not dependent on fusion with myogenic cells. Thus, CD90{sup +} cells are a newly identified additional cell fraction that increased during skeletal muscle regeneration in vivo and could be another cell source for therapy for lama2-deficient muscular dystrophy.« less

  3. Hb Adana (HBA2 or HBA1: c.179G > A) and alpha thalassemia: Genotype-phenotype correlation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sharon A; Sarangi, Susmita; Appiah-Kubi, Abena; Hsu, Peihong; Smith, W Byron; Gallagher, Patrick G; Glader, Bertil; Chui, David H K

    2018-05-11

    Alpha thalassemia due to nondeletional mutations usually leads to more severe disease than that caused by deletional mutations. Devastating outcomes such as hydrops fetalis can occur with two nondeletional mutations, therefore warranting DNA-based workup for suspected carriers with subtle hematological abnormalities for family counseling purposes. We describe three cases with hemoglobin (Hb) Adana, a nondeletional alpha chain mutation, compounded with an alpha globin gene deletion resulting in thalassemia intermedia. We review the literature, draw genotype-phenotype correlations from published cases of Hb Adana, and propose that this correlation can be used by clinicians to help direct diagnostic studies and urge hematologists to thoroughly workup high-risk patients. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Interaction of a chick skin collagen fragment (alpha1-CB5) with human platelets. Biochemical studies during the aggregation and release reaction.

    PubMed

    Chiang, T M; Beachey, E H; Kang, A H

    1975-09-10

    The denatured alpha1(I) chain and the cyanogen bromide peptide, alpha1(I)-CB5, of chick skin collagen cause the release of serotonin and leakage of lactic dehydrogenase from human platelets in a manner similar to the release reaction mediated by adenosine diphosphate and native collagen. These peptides also cause a decrease in the level of adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate (cAMP) in platelets. Adenylate cyclase activity of platelets is partially inhibited by these peptides as well as by native collagen, ADP, and epinephrine, but cAMP phosphodiesterase activity is unaltered by these substances. In contrast, the level of platelet guanosine 3':5'-monophosphate (cGMP) is increased by the collagen peptides as well as the other aggregating agents. The increase is associated with increased guanylate cyclase, but normal cGMP phosphodiesterase activities of platelets. Optical rotatory and viscometric measurements of the alpha1 chains and alpha1-CB5 of chick skin in 0.01 M phosphate/0.15 M sodium chloride, pH 7.4, at various temperatures as a function of time indicate that no detectable renaturation occurs at 37 degrees for at least 30 min of observation. Molecular sieve chromatography of alpha1-CB5 in the phosphate buffer at 37 degrees shows that its elution position is identical to that performed under denaturing conditions (at 45 degrees) with no evidence of higher molecular weight aggregates, and the alpha1-CB5 glycopeptide fraction eluting from the column at the position of its monomer retains the platelet aggregating activity. Additionally, electron microscopic examination of the platelet-rich plasma that had been reacted with these peptides fail to show any ordered collagen structures. These data indicate that the denatured alpha1 chain and alpha1-CB5 glycopeptide of chick skin collagen mediate platelet aggregation through the "physiologic" release reaction in a manner similar to that induced by other aggregating agents such as ADP, epinephrine, or native collagen, and

  5. Urokinase plasminogen activator mRNA is induced by IL-1alpha and TNF-alpha in in vitro acantholysis.

    PubMed

    Feliciani, Claudio; Toto, Paola; Wang, Binghe; Sauder, Daniel N; Amerio, Pierluigi; Tulli, Antonio

    2003-08-01

    The role of urokinase type plasminogen activator (uPA) has been well documented in the pathogenesis of pemphigus vulgaris (PV). Activation of plasminogen into active serine protease plasmin initiates extracellular proteolysis leading to acantholysis but the mechanisms underlying this process are not clearly understood. We have previously shown that keratinocyte derived cytokines IL-1alpha and TNF-alpha are involved in PV-induced acantholysis. In the present study we sought to examine whether keratinocyte-derived IL-1alpha and TNF-alpha are correlated with uPA induction in keratinocytes during acantholysis. Normal human keratinocytes were incubated with diluted PV serum. mRNAs for IL-1alpha, TNF-alpha and uPA were examined with RT-PCR at various time points and acantholysis was measured. IL-1alpha, TNF-alpha and uPA mRNAs were all induced in keratinocytes following PV serum stimulation; IL-1alpha/TNF-alpha mRNAs' expression was earlier than the expression of uPA mRNA. To further examine the role of IL-1alpha, TNF-alpha and uPA in acantholysis, we performed antibody blocking studies. Anti-IL-1alpha, anti-TNF-alpha and anti-uPA antibodies suppressed acantholysis by 76%, 80% and 90%, respectively. In addition, anti-IL-1alpha and anti-TNF-alpha antibodies inhibited uPA mRNA induction, whereas anti-uPA antibodies did not alter IL-1alpha/TNF-alpha mRNAs' expression. Our results confirm the role of uPA in acantholysis and suggest an involvement of IL-1alpha/TNF-alpha in uPA induction.

  6. Data-driven backward chaining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haley, Paul

    1991-01-01

    The C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) cannot effectively perform sound and complete logical inference in most real-world contexts. The problem facing CLIPS is its lack of goal generation. Without automatic goal generation and maintenance, forward chaining can only deduce all instances of a relationship. Backward chaining, which requires goal generation, allows deduction of only that subset of what is logically true which is also relevant to ongoing problem solving. Goal generation can be mimicked in simple cases using forward chaining. However, such mimicry requires manual coding of additional rules which can assert an inadequate goal representation for every condition in every rule that can have corresponding facts derived by backward chaining. In general, for N rules with an average of M conditions per rule the number of goal generation rules required is on the order of N*M. This is clearly intractable from a program maintenance perspective. We describe the support in Eclipse for backward chaining which it automatically asserts as it checks rule conditions. Important characteristics of this extension are that it does not assert goals which cannot match any rule conditions, that 2 equivalent goals are never asserted, and that goals persist as long as, but no longer than, they remain relevant.

  7. Variability and repertoire size of T-cell receptor V alpha gene segments.

    PubMed

    Becker, D M; Pattern, P; Chien, Y; Yokota, T; Eshhar, Z; Giedlin, M; Gascoigne, N R; Goodnow, C; Wolf, R; Arai, K

    The immune system of higher organisms is composed largely of two distinct cell types, B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes, each of which is independently capable of recognizing an enormous number of distinct entities through their antigen receptors; surface immunoglobulin in the case of the former, and the T-cell receptor (TCR) in the case of the latter. In both cell types, the genes encoding the antigen receptors consist of multiple gene segments which recombine during maturation to produce many possible peptides. One striking difference between B- and T-cell recognition that has not yet been resolved by the structural data is the fact that T cells generally require a major histocompatibility determinant together with an antigen whereas, in most cases, antibodies recognize antigen alone. Recently, we and others have found that a series of TCR V beta gene sequences show conservation of many of the same residues that are conserved between heavy- and light-chain immunoglobulin V regions, and these V beta sequences are predicted to have an immunoglobulin-like secondary structure. To extend these studies, we have isolated and sequenced eight additional alpha-chain complementary cDNA clones and compared them with published sequences. Analyses of these sequences, reported here, indicate that V alpha regions have many of the characteristics of V beta gene segments but differ in that they almost always occur as cross-hybridizing gene families. We conclude that there may be very different selective pressures operating on V alpha and V beta sequences and that the V alpha repertoire may be considerably larger than that of V beta.

  8. Involvement of Human Estrogen Related Receptor Alpha 1 (hERR 1) in Breast Cancer and Hormonally Insensitive Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    SV40 early-to-late switch involves titration of cellular transcriptional repressors, Genes Dev. 7: 2206-19, 1993. 6. Bonnelye, E., Vanacker , J. M ...transcriptional regulator of the human medium-chain acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase gene, Mol Cell Biol. 17: 5400-9, 1997. 8. Vanacker , J. M ., Bonnelye, E...related receptor-alpha), Mol Endocrinol. 13: 764-73, 1999. 9. Vanacker , J. M ., Pettersson, K., Gustafsson, J. A., and Laudet, V. Transcriptional

  9. Coefficient alpha and interculture test selection.

    PubMed

    Thurber, Steven; Kishi, Yasuhiro

    2014-04-01

    The internal consistency reliability of a measure can be a focal point in an evaluation of the potential adequacy of an instrument for adaptation to another cultural setting. Cronbach's alpha (α) coefficient is often used as the statistical index for such a determination. However, alpha presumes a tau-equivalent test and may constitute an inaccurate population estimate for multidimensional tests. These notions are expanded and examined with a Japanese version of a questionnaire on nursing attitudes toward suicidal patients, originally constructed in Sweden using the English language. The English measure was reported to have acceptable internal consistency (α) albeit the dimensionality of the questionnaire was not addressed. The Japanese scale was found to lack tau-equivalence. An alternative to alpha, "composite reliability," was computed and found to be below acceptable standards in magnitude and precision. Implications for research application of the Japanese instrument are discussed. © The Author(s) 2012.

  10. Alternating current long range alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; McAtee, James L.

    1993-01-01

    An alpha particle detector, utilizing alternating currents, whcih is capable of detecting alpha particles from distinct sources. The use of alternating currents allows use of simpler ac circuits which, in turn, are not susceptible to dc error components. It also allows the benefit of gas gain, if desired. In the invention, a voltage source creates an electric field between two conductive grids, and between the grids and a conductive enclosure. Air containing air ions created by collision with alpha particles is drawn into the enclosure and detected. In some embodiments, the air flow into the enclosure is interrupted, creating an alternating flow of ions. In another embodiment, a modulated voltage is applied to the grid, also modulating the detection of ions.

  11. Alternating current long range alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; McAtee, J.L.

    1993-02-16

    An alpha particle detector, utilizing alternating currents, which is capable of detecting alpha particles from distinct sources. The use of alternating currents allows use of simpler ac circuits which, in turn, are not susceptible to dc error components. It also allows the benefit of gas gain, if desired. In the invention, a voltage source creates an electric field between two conductive grids, and between the grids and a conductive enclosure. Air containing air ions created by collision with alpha particles is drawn into the enclosure and detected. In some embodiments, the air flow into the enclosure is interrupted, creating an alternating flow of ions. In another embodiment, a modulated voltage is applied to the grid, also modulating the detection of ions.

  12. Lyman-alpha imagery of Comet Kohoutek

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruthers, G. R.; Opal, C. B.; Page, T. L.; Meier, R. R.; Prinz, D. K.

    1974-01-01

    Electrographic imagery of Comet Kohoutek in the 1100-1500 A wavelength range was obtained from a sounding rocket on Jan. 8, 1974, and from the Skylab space station on 13 occasions between Nov. 26, 1973 and Feb. 2, 1974. These images are predominantly due to Lyman-alpha (1216 A) emission from the hydrogen coma of the comet. The rocket pictures have been calibrated for absolute sensitivity and a hydrogen production rate has been determined. However, the Skylab camera suffered degradation of its sensitivity during the mission, and its absolute sensitivity for each observation can only be estimated by comparison of the comet images with those taken by the rocket camera, with imagery of the geocoronal Lyman-alpha glow, of the moon in reflected Lyman-alpha, and of ultraviolet-bright stars. The rocket and geocoronal comparisons are used to derive a preliminary, qualitative history of the development of the cometary hydrogen coma and the associated hydrogen production rate.

  13. Ultraviolet observations of alpha Aurigae from Copernicus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupree, A. K.

    1975-01-01

    Emission lines of L-alpha (1215.67 A) and O VI (1031.94 A) were detected in the spectroscopic binary alpha Aur (Capella) with the Princeton experiment on Copernicus. Temperatures of the emitting regions are inferred to be in excess of 300,000 K. The temperature and emission measure are consistent with a variable source of soft X-rays. If the emission is attributed to the primary star (G5 III), the atmosphere is expanding with velocities of about 20-100 km/s. Such expansion can lead to material within the binary system. The density of interstellar hydrogen inferred from absorption of stellar L-alpha appears to be approximately 0.01 hydrogen atoms per cu cm.

  14. Nuclear diagnostic for fast alpha particles

    DOEpatents

    Grisham, Larry R.; Post Jr., Douglass E.; Dawson, John M.

    1986-06-03

    Measurement of the velocity distribution of confined energetic alpha particles resulting from deuterium-tritium fusion reactions in a magnetically contained plasma is provided. The fusion plasma is seeded with energetic boron neutrals for producing, by means of the reaction .sup.10 B (.alpha.,n) .sup.13 N reaction, radioactive nitrogen nuclei which are then collected by a probe. The radioactivity of the probe is then measured by conventional techniques in determining the energy distribution of the alpha particles in the plasma. In a preferred embodiment, diborane gas (B.sub.2 H.sub.6) is the source of the boron neutrals to produce .sup.13 N which decays almost exclusively by positron emission with a convenient half-life of 10 minutes.

  15. Nuclear diagnostic for fast alpha particles

    DOEpatents

    Grisham, Larry R.; Post, Jr., Douglass E.; Dawson, John M.

    1986-01-01

    Measurement of the velocity distribution of confined energetic alpha particles resulting from deuterium-tritium fusion reactions in a magnetically contained plasma is provided. The fusion plasma is seeded with energetic boron neutrals for producing, by means of the reaction .sup.10 B (.alpha.,n) .sup.13 N reaction, radioactive nitrogen nuclei which are then collected by a probe. The radioactivity of the probe is then measured by conventional techniques in determining the energy distribution of the alpha particles in the plasma. In a preferred embodiment, diborane gas (B.sub.2 H.sub.6) is the source of the boron neutrals to produce .sup.13 N which decays almost exclusively by positron emission with a convenient half-life of 10 minutes.

  16. The stars with H-alpha missing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downes, Ronald A.

    1987-01-01

    During the course of a survey for ultraviolet-excess objects, a group of objects were found that spectroscopically resemble the subdwarf B stars, except for variable strength H-alpha absorption. The H-alpha line can have the nominal strength predicted from the other Balmer lines, or it can be completely absent. Observations reveal significant changes in the H-alpha profile on both a night-to-night and month-to-month basis. IUE observations of three stars reveal few features in the ultraviolet region and, when combined with optical data, allow a rough determination of photospheric temperatures. A binary model is proposed for these systems, and the ramifications of the objects found here and in the Palomar-Green survey are discussed.

  17. Synthesis of peptide .alpha.-thioesters

    DOEpatents

    Camarero, Julio A [Livermore, CA; Mitchell, Alexander R [Livermore, CA; De Yoreo, James J [Clayton, CA

    2008-08-19

    Disclosed herein is a new method for the solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) of C-terminal peptide .alpha. thioesters using Fmoc/t-Bu chemistry. This method is based on the use of an aryl hydrazine linker, which is totally stable to conditions required for Fmoc-SPPS. When the peptide synthesis has been completed, activation of the linker is achieved by mild oxidation. The oxidation step converts the acyl-hydrazine group into a highly reactive acyl-diazene intermediate which reacts with an .alpha.-amino acid alkylthioester (H-AA-SR) to yield the corresponding peptide .alpha.-thioester in good yield. A variety of peptide thioesters, cyclic peptides and a fully functional Src homology 3 (SH3) protein domain have been successfully prepared.

  18. Structure of gel phase saturated lecithin bilayers: temperature and chain length dependence.

    PubMed Central

    Sun, W J; Tristram-Nagle, S; Suter, R M; Nagle, J F

    1996-01-01

    Systematic low-angle and wide-angle x-ray scattering studies have been performed on fully hydrated unoriented multilamamellar vesicles of saturated lecithins with even chain lengths N = 16, 18, 20, 22, and 24 as a function of temperature T in the normal gel (L beta') phase. For all N, the area per chain Ac increases linearly with T with an average slope dAc/dT = 0.027 A2/degree C, and the lamellar D-spacings also increase linearly with an average slope dD/dT = 0.040 A/degree C. At the same T, longer chain length lecithins have more densely packed chains, i.e., smaller Ac's, than shorter chain lengths. The chain packing of longer chain lengths is found to be more distorted from hexagonal packing than that of smaller N, and the distortion epsilon of all N approaches the same value at the respective transition temperatures. The thermal volume expansion of these lipids is accounted for by the expansion in the hydrocarbon chain region. Electron density profiles are constructed using four orders of low-angle lamellar peaks. These show that most of the increase in D with increasing T is due to thickening of the bilayers that is consistent with a decrease in tilt angle theta and with little change in water spacing with either T or N. Because of the opposing effects of temperature on area per chain Ac and tilt angle 0, the area expansivity alpha A is quite small. A qualitative theoretical model based on competing head and chain interactions accounts for our results. PMID:8842227

  19. Solution structure of {alpha}-conotoxin PIA, a novel antagonist of {alpha}6 subunit containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, Seung-Wook; Lee, Si-Hyung; Kim, Do-Hyoung

    2005-12-30

    {alpha}-Conotoxin PIA is a novel nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist isolated from Conus purpurascens that targets nAChR subtypes containing {alpha}6 and {alpha}3 subunits. {alpha}-conotoxin PIA displays 75-fold higher affinity for rat {alpha}6/{alpha}3{beta}2{beta}3 nAChRs than for rat {alpha}3{beta}2 nAChRs. We have determined the three-dimensional structure of {alpha}-conotoxin PIA by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The {alpha}-conotoxin PIA has an '{omega}-shaped' overall topology as other {alpha}4/7 subfamily conotoxins. Yet, unlike other neuronally targeted {alpha}4/7-conotoxins, its N-terminal tail Arg{sup 1}-Asp{sup 2}-Pro{sup 3} protrudes out of its main molecular body because Asp{sup 2}-Pro{sup 3}-Cys{sup 4}-Cys{sup 5} forms a stable type I {beta}-turn. In addition, amore » kink introduced by Pro{sup 15} in the second loop of this toxin provides a distinct steric and electrostatic environment from those in {alpha}-conotoxins MII and GIC. By comparing the structure of {alpha}-conotoxin PIA with other functionally related {alpha}-conotoxins we suggest structural features in {alpha}-conotoxin PIA that may be associated with its unique receptor recognition profile.« less

  20. Tips for longwall conveyor chain

    SciTech Connect

    Courtney, J.C.; Fortune, J.

    1977-03-01

    Mining chain must be capable of sustaining imposed loads of 80 or 90 percent of its minimum breaking strength, and still return to its original dimensions. This means that the chain should behave like an extremely sophisticated spring up to very high load levels, and return to its unloaded state without any plastic stretch or permanent dimensional deformation having taken place. This feature is absolutely essential, not only to enable repeat loadings to be made, but to ensure that constant, precise engagement of the drive and idler sprockets takes place. The mining chain production process, therefore, is carefully designed somore » that the last stage of manufacture introduces these necessary features.« less

  1. Precise Nanoelectronics with Adatom Chains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamada, Toshishige

    1999-01-01

    Adatom chains on an atomically regulated substrate will be building components in future precise nanoelectronics. Adatoms need to be secured with chemical bonding, but then electronic isolation between the adatom and substrate systems is not guaranteed. A one-dimensional model shows that good isolation with existence of surface states is expected on an s-p crossing substrate such as Si, Ge, or GaAs, reflecting the bulk nature of the substrate. Isolation is better if adatoms are electronically similar to the substrate atoms, and can be manipulated by hydrogenation. Chain structures with group IV adatoms with two chemical bonds, or group III adatoms with one chemical bond, are semiconducting, reflecting the surface nature of the substrate. These structures are unintentionally doped due to the charge transfer across the chemical bonds. Physical properties of adatom chains have to be determined for the unified adatom-substrate system.

  2. Disordering Chain Motions in Fluoropolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, David B.; Farmer, Barry L.

    1998-03-01

    Rotational and conformational disorder play important roles in the solid state phases of fluoropolymers such as polytetrafluoro- ethylene (PTFE). Modeling disordering processes and transitions which occur in fluoropolymers has been hampered due to a lack of force field parameters that adequately describe both the intra- and intermolecular characteristics (conformations and distances) of these polymers in the solid state. A force field has been developed which overcomes these inadequacies and has been utilized in molecular dynamics simulations on a system of PTFE oligomers to investigate two of the primary disordering processes that occur in the solid phases: rotations of chains about their helical axes and the formation and subsequent behavior of helix reversals. The simulation results confirm helix reversal activity at low temperatures and demonstrate correlations between chain segment rotations or librations and helix reversal motion. A mechanism for large scale chain segment rotations is proposed.

  3. Fan-less long range alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; Bounds, J.A.

    1994-05-10

    A fan-less long range alpha detector is disclosed which operates by using an electrical field between a signal plane and the surface or substance to be monitored for air ions created by collisions with alpha radiation. Without a fan, the detector can operate without the possibility of spreading dust and potential contamination into the atmosphere. A guard plane between the signal plane and the electrically conductive enclosure and maintained at the same voltage as the signal plane, reduces leakage currents. The detector can easily monitor soil, or other solid or liquid surfaces. 2 figures.

  4. Fan-less long range alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Bounds, John A.

    1994-01-01

    A fan-less long range alpha detector which operates by using an electrical field between a signal plane and the surface or substance to be monitored for air ions created by collisions with alpha radiation. Without a fan, the detector can operate without the possibility of spreading dust and potential contamination into the atmosphere. A guard plane between the signal plane and the electrically conductive enclosure and maintained at the same voltage as the signal plane, reduces leakage currents. The detector can easily monitor soil, or other solid or liquid surfaces.

  5. Lyman Alpha Searches at Redshift Z>7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, Jon

    2007-05-01

    The ZEN survey is a narrow J-band survey for Ly-alpha emitting galaxies at z > 7. I will briefly review the pros and cons of narrow band observations before summarising the ZEN1 and ZEN2 searches based upon deep ISAAC pointings. I will then present ZEN3, consisting of wide field, narrow band observations of two fields using the CFHT WIRCam facility. I will conclude by reviewing the current sample of candidates and what we have learned about the z > 7 Ly-alpha emitting population.

  6. Intense Ly-alpha emission from Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durrance, S. T.; Moos, H. W.

    1982-01-01

    The existence of intense atomic hydrogen Ly-alpha emission from Uranus is demonstrated here by utilizing the monochromatic imaging capabilities of the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spectrograph. Observations show increased emission in the vicinity of Uranus superimposed on the geocoronal/interplanetary background. If resonant scattering of solar Ly-alpha is the source of the 1.6 + or - 0.4 kR disk averaged brightness, then very high column densities of atomic H above the absorbing methane are required. Precipitation of trapped charged particles, i.e., aurora, could explain the emissions. This would imply a planetary magnetic field.

  7. Leading a supply chain turnaround.

    PubMed

    Slone, Reuben E

    2004-10-01

    Just five years ago, salespeople at Whirlpool were in the habit of referring to their supply chain organization as the "sales disablers." Now the company excels at getting products to the right place at the right time--while managing to keep inventories low. How did that happen? In this first-person account, Reuben Slone, Whirlpool's vice president of Global Supply Chain, describes how he and his colleagues devised the right supply chain strategy, sold it internally, and implemented it. Slone insisted that the right focal point for the strategy was the satisfaction of consumers at the end of the supply chain. Most supply chain initiatives do the opposite: They start with the realities of a company's manufacturing base and proceed from there. Through a series of interviews with trade customers large and small, his team identified 27 different capabilities that drove industry perceptions of Whirlpool's performance. Knowing it was infeasible to aim for world-class performance across all of them, Slone weighed the costs of excelling at each and found the combination of initiatives that would provide overall competitive advantage. A highly disciplined project management office and broad training in project management were key to keeping work on budget and on benefit. Slone set an intense pace--three "releases" of new capabilities every month--that the group maintains to this day. Lest this seem like a technology story, however, Slone insists it is just as much a "talent renaissance." People are proud today to be part of Whirlpool's supply chain organization, and its new generation of talent will give the company a competitive advantage for years to come.

  8. Innovations in cold chain equipment for immunization supply chains.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Joanie; Franzel, Lauren; Maire, Denis

    2017-04-19

    Since 2010, numerous new technologies have entered the immunization cold chain equipment market. The World Health Organization (WHO) Immunization Devices Programme-Performance, Quality and Safety (PQS)-has played a key role in bringing these to market. In this article, the authors explore the emergence of new cold chain equipment technologies from 2004 to 2016 and the role of PQS in this evolution. This review focuses on three major vaccine cold chain technology innovations-solar direct-drive refrigerators, long-term passive cold boxes, and equipment with user-independent freeze prevention. For the review, we used online data from WHO PQS, a literature search, and unpublished research reports. Timelines with key milestones in the emergence of the three focus technologies show delays of between one and three years between earliest field trials and publication of WHO specifications; procurement builds after the WHO prequalification of initial devices. The timelines show the role of PQS as both gatekeeper and enabler for cold chain equipment technologies. The use of target product profiles by PQS has increased its ability to signal preferred attributes and to engage with manufacturers during the product-development stage. Procurement data show how demand for solar direct-drive refrigerators increased over time. Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, is employing demand-generation strategies to try to drive procurement of technologies with favorable technical attributes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Reverse-phase HPLC analysis of human alpha crystallin.

    PubMed

    Swamy, M S; Abraham, E C

    1991-03-01

    A rapid and highly sensitive reverse-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) method was used to separate crystallin subunits from human alpha crystallin. Three distinct peaks were separated; by electrophoretic and immunological analyses the first and second peaks were identified as alpha B and alpha A respectively. On the other hand, peak 3 appeared to be a modified form of alpha crystallin. The ratio of alpha A and alpha B proteins was 3:1 in 1 day old lenses which gradually changed to 2:1 in 17 year old lenses and to 1:1 in the 50 and 82 year old whole lenses and 82 year old lens cortex, with a concomitant increase in the modified alpha, suggesting that alpha A subunits are relatively more involved in aggregation. Analysis of the 82 year old lens nucleus also supported this conclusion. The RP-HPLC analysis of the HMW aggregate fraction showed substantial enrichment of the modified alpha. The alpha A and alpha B subunits independently reassociated to form polymeric alpha crystallin whereas the modified alpha reassociated to form HMW aggregates as shown by molecular sieve HPLC. Hence it appears that the HMW aggregate peak was constituted by modified alpha crystallin. Only in the peak 3 material the 280 nm absorbance was about 2-fold higher than what was expected from the actual protein content. The data suggest that the changes induced by post-translational modifications may have some role in the formation of modified alpha. The present RP-HPLC method is useful in separating these modified alpha from the unmodified alpha A and alpha B subunits.

  10. How main-chains of proteins explore the free-energy landscape in native states.

    PubMed

    Senet, Patrick; Maisuradze, Gia G; Foulie, Colette; Delarue, Patrice; Scheraga, Harold A

    2008-12-16

    Understanding how a single native protein diffuses on its free-energy landscape is essential to understand protein kinetics and function. The dynamics of a protein is complex, with multiple relaxation times reflecting a hierarchical free-energy landscape. Using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of an alpha/beta protein (crambin) and a beta-sheet polypeptide (BS2) in their "native" states, we demonstrate that the mean-square displacement of dihedral angles, defined by 4 successive C(alpha) atoms, increases as a power law of time, t(alpha), with an exponent alpha between 0.08 and 0.39 (alpha = 1 corresponds to Brownian diffusion), at 300 K. Residues with low exponents are located mainly in well-defined secondary elements and adopt 1 conformational substate. Residues with high exponents are found in loops/turns and chain ends and exist in multiple conformational substates, i.e., they move on multiple-minima free-energy profiles.

  11. The 2.0-A resolution structure of soybean beta-amylase complexed with alpha-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Mikami, B; Hehre, E J; Sato, M; Katsube, Y; Hirose, M; Morita, Y; Sacchettini, J C

    1993-07-13

    New crystallographic findings are presented which offer a deeper understanding of the structure and functioning of beta-amylase, the first known exo-type starch-hydrolyzing enzyme. A refined three-dimensional structure of soybean beta-amylase, complexed with the inhibitor alpha-cyclodextrin, has been determined at 2.0-A resolution with a conventional R-value of 17.5%. The model contains 491 amino acid residues, 319 water molecules, 1 sulfate ion, and 1 alpha-cyclodextrin molecule. The protein consists of a core with an (alpha/beta)8 supersecondary structure, plus a smaller globular region formed by long loops (L3, L4, and L5) extending from beta-strands beta 3, beta 4, and beta 5. Between the two regions is a cleft that opens into a pocket whose floor contains the postulated catalytic center near the carboxyl group of Glu 186. The annular alpha-cyclodextrin binds in (and partly projects from) the cleft with its glucosyl O-2/O-3 face abutting the (alpha/beta)8 side and with its alpha-D(1 --> 4) glucosidic linkage progression running clockwise as viewed from that side. The ligand does not bind deeply enough to interact with the carboxyl group of Glu 186. Rather, it occupies most of the cleft entrance, strongly suggesting that alpha-cyclodextrin inhibits catalysis by blocking substrate access to the more deeply located reaction center. Of the various alpha-cyclodextrin interactions with protein residues in loops L4, L5, L6, and L7, most notable is the shallow inclusion complex formed with Leu 383 (in L7, on the core side of the cleft) through contacts of its methyl groups with the C-3 atoms of four of the ligand's D-glucopyranosyl residues. All six residues of the bound alpha-cyclodextrin are of 4C1 conformation and are joined by alpha-1,4 linkages with similar torsional angles to form a nearly symmetrical torus as reported for crystalline inclusion complexes with alpha-cyclodextrin. We envision a significant role for the methyl groups of Leu 383 at the cleft entrance

  12. Specific reaction of alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds such as 6-shogaol with sulfhydryl groups in tubulin leading to microtubule damage.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Kazuhiro; Ando, Takafumi; Watanabe, Osamu; Goto, Hidemi

    2008-10-15

    6-Shogaol and 6-gingerol are ginger components with similar chemical structures. However, while 6-shogaol damages microtubules, 6-gingerol does not. We have investigated the molecular mechanism of 6-shogaol-induced microtubule damage and found that the action of 6-shogaol results from the structure of alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. alpha,beta-Unsaturated carbonyl compounds such as 6-shogaol react with sulfhydryl groups of cysteine residues in tubulin, and impair tubulin polymerization. The reaction with sulfhydryl groups depends on the chain length of alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. In addition, alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds are more reactive with sulfhydryl groups in tubulin than in 2-mercaptoethanol, dithiothreitol, glutathione and papain, a cysteine protease.

  13. Precise low cost chain gears for heliostats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liedke, Phillip; Lewandowski, Arkadiusz; Pfahl, Andreas; Hölle, Erwin

    2016-05-01

    This work investigates the potential of chain gears as precise and low cost driving systems for rim drive heliostats. After explaining chain gear basics the polygon effect and chain lengthening are investigated. The polygon effect could be measured by a heliostat with chain rim gear and the chain lengthening with an accordant test set up. Two gear stages are scope of this work: a rim gear and an intermediate gear. Dimensioning, pretensioning and designing for both stages are explained.

  14. The alpha-form of the hydroxides of bivalent metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feitknecht, W.

    1984-01-01

    X-ray analyses were made of the hydroxides of the bivalent metals. The freshly pptd. hydroxide is usually in the alpha-form, which on standing is converted to another form or other forms. The alpha and c grating dimensions of the alpha-form and the C6-type of Co, Zn, C, Co-Zn and Ni-Zn hydroxides are tabulated. Ni hydroxide does not exhibit an alpha-form. The alpha-Co(OH)2, the blue form, is stabilized by sugar or by the higher alcohols: these compounds do not stabilize alpha-Zn(OH)2.

  15. A survey of the alpha-nucleon interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, S.; Ahmad, A. A. Z.; Ferdous, N.

    1985-10-01

    This paper gives a survey of the alpha-nucleon interaction and then describes experimental work on angular distributions of differential scattering cross sections and polarizations in proton-alpha and neutron-alpha scattering. The phenomenological approach, which includes the study of both local and nonlocal potentials reproducing the experimental alpha-nucleon scattering data, is discussed. Basic studies of the alpha-nucleon interaction attempting to build an interaction between an alpha particle and a nucleon from first principles are then described. The authors then present a critical discussion of the results with some concluding remarks suggesting the direction for further investigation.

  16. Aggregation of alpha-synuclein by a coarse-grained Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, Barry; Pandey, Ras

    Alpha-synuclein, an intrinsic protein abundant in neurons, is believed to be a major cause of neurodegenerative diseases (e.g. Alzheimer, Parkinson's disease). Abnormal aggregation of ASN leads to Lewy bodies with specific morphologies. We investigate the self-organizing structures in a crowded environment of ASN proteins by a coarse-grained Monte Carlo simulation. ASN is a chain of 140 residues. Structure detail of residues is neglected but its specificity is captured via unique knowledge-based residue-residue interactions. Large-scale simulations are performed to analyze a number local and global physical quantities (e.g. mobility profile, contact map, radius of gyration, structure factor) as a function of temperature and protein concentration. Trend in multi-scale structural variations of the protein in a crowded environment is compared with that of a free protein chain.

  17. Independent movement, dimerization and stability of tandem repeats of chicken brain alpha-spectrin

    SciTech Connect

    Kusunoki, H.; Minasov, G.; Macdonald, R.I.

    Previous X-ray crystal structures have shown that linkers of five amino acid residues connecting pairs of chicken brain {alpha}-spectrin and human erythroid {beta}-spectrin repeats can undergo bending without losing their {alpha}-helical structure. To test whether bending at one linker can influence bending at an adjacent linker, the structures of two and three repeat fragments of chicken brain {alpha}-spectrin have been determined by X-ray crystallography. The structure of the three-repeat fragment clearly shows that bending at one linker can occur independently of bending at an adjacent linker. This observation increases the possible trajectories of modeled chains of spectrin repeats. Furthermore, themore » three-repeat molecule crystallized as an antiparallel dimer with a significantly smaller buried interfacial area than that of {alpha}-actinin, a spectrin-related molecule, but large enough and of a type indicating biological specificity. Comparison of the structures of the spectrin and {alpha}-actinin dimers supports weak association of the former, which could not be detected by analytical ultracentrifugation, versus strong association of the latter, which has been observed by others. To correlate features of the structure with solution properties and to test a previous model of stable spectrin and dystrophin repeats, the number of inter-helical interactions in each repeat of several spectrin structures were counted and compared to their thermal stabilities. Inter-helical interactions, but not all interactions, increased in parallel with measured thermal stabilities of each repeat and in agreement with the thermal stabilities of two and three repeats and also partial repeats of spectrin.« less

  18. [Application of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the diagnosis of Hb S-beta(+)-thalassemia].

    PubMed

    Harano, K; Harano, T; Kushida, Y; Ueda, S

    1991-08-01

    Isoelectric focusing of the hemolysate prepared from a two-year-old American black boy with microcytic hypochromia showed the presence of a high percentage (63.3%) of such Hb variant as Hb S, while the levels of Hb A, Hb F and Hb A2 were 20.0%, 12.7%, and 4.0%, respectively. The ratio of the non-alpha-chain to the alpha-chain of the biosynthesized globin chains was 0.49. The variant was identified as Hb S by amino acid analysis of the abnormal peptide (beta T-1) and digestion of DNA amplified by the polymerase chain reaction with enzyme Eco 81 I. This was further confirmed by DNA sequencing. DNA sequencing of a beta-gene without the beta s-mutation revealed a nucleotide change of T to C in the polyadenylation signal sequence AATAAA 3' to the beta-gene, resulting in beta(+)-thalassemia. These results are consistent with the existence of a beta s-gene and a beta(+)-thalassemia gene in trans.

  19. Method of making nanocrystalline alpha alumina

    DOEpatents

    Siegel, Richard W.; Hahn, Horst; Eastman, Jeffrey A.

    1992-01-01

    Method of making selected phases of nanocrystalline ceramic materials. Various methods of controlling the production of nanocrystalline alpha alumina and titanium oxygen phases are described. Control of the gas atmosphere and use of particular oxidation treatments give rise to the ability to control the particular phases provided in the aluminum/oxygen and titanium/oxygen system.

  20. Alpha 97: Basic Education and Institutional Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hautecoeur, Jean-Paul, Ed.

    This document was published by Alpha, a research program specializing in alternative, experimental approaches to adult basic education. It is an attempt to widen the field and examine the relationship between the micro and macro levels, between the diversity of different practices and the major policy orientations that foster or limit this…

  1. Understanding a Widely Misunderstood Statistic: Cronbach's "Alpha"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Nicola L.

    2010-01-01

    It is important to explore score reliability in virtually all studies, because tests are not reliable. The present paper explains the most frequently used reliability estimate, coefficient alpha, so that the coefficient's conceptual underpinnings will be understood. Researchers need to understand score reliability because of the possible impact…

  2. Sierra Nevada meadows: species alpha diversity

    Treesearch

    Raymond D. Ratliff

    1993-01-01

    Plant species diversity refers to variety and abundance; it does not necessarily relate to meadow health but may provide information important in an ecosystem context. Monitoring to detect change in diversity usually begins with estimating alpha (within) diversity of plant communities. Because few such estimates exist for meadow site classes or specific sites of the...

  3. Coefficient Alpha and Reliability of Scale Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almehrizi, Rashid S.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of large-scale assessments develop various score scales that are either linear or nonlinear transformations of raw scores for better interpretations and uses of assessment results. The current formula for coefficient alpha (a; the commonly used reliability coefficient) only provides internal consistency reliability estimates of raw…

  4. Alpha Project. Townsight Canada. Project Canada West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Curriculum Project on Canada Studies, Edmonton (Alberta).

    In order to acquaint students with other environments and to develop an awareness of their own community, the study of a small community in Canada was undertaken by this project development team. The Alpha students studied Chilliwack the first year (ED 066 352) and this second report covers their study of Powell River. The aim of the developers is…

  5. Alpha particles diffusion due to charge changes

    SciTech Connect

    Clauser, C. F., E-mail: cesar.clauser@ib.edu.ar; Farengo, R.

    2015-12-15

    Alpha particles diffusion due to charge changes in a magnetized plasma is studied. Analytical calculations and numerical simulations are employed to show that this process can be very important in the pedestal-edge-SOL regions. This is the first study that presents clear evidence of the importance of atomic processes on the diffusion of alpha particles. A simple 1D model that includes inelastic collisions with plasma species, “cold” neutrals, and partially ionized species was employed. The code, which follows the exact particle orbits and includes the effect of inelastic collisions via a Monte Carlo type random process, runs on a graphic processormore » unit (GPU). The analytical and numerical results show excellent agreement when a uniform background (plasma and cold species) is assumed. The simulations also show that the gradients in the density of the plasma and cold species, which are large and opposite in the edge region, produce an inward flux of alpha particles. Calculations of the alpha particles flux reaching the walls or divertor plates should include these processes.« less

  6. EEG alpha power and creative ideation☆

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Andreas; Benedek, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscientific studies revealed first insights into neural mechanisms underlying creativity, but existing findings are highly variegated and often inconsistent. Despite the disappointing picture on the neuroscience of creativity drawn in recent reviews, there appears to be robust evidence that EEG alpha power is particularly sensitive to various creativity-related demands involved in creative ideation. Alpha power varies as a function of creativity-related task demands and the originality of ideas, is positively related to an individuals’ creativity level, and has been observed to increase as a result of creativity interventions. Alpha increases during creative ideation could reflect more internally oriented attention that is characterized by the absence of external bottom-up stimulation and, thus, a form of top-down activity. Moreover, they could indicate the involvement of specific memory processes such as the efficient (re-)combination of unrelated semantic information. We conclude that increased alpha power during creative ideation is among the most consistent findings in neuroscientific research on creativity and discuss possible future directions to better understand the manifold brain mechanisms involved in creativity. PMID:23246442

  7. Interplanetary Supply Chain Risk Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galluzzi, Michael C.

    2018-01-01

    Emphasis on KSC ground processing operations, reduced spares up-mass lift requirements and campaign-level flexible path perspective for space systems support as Regolith-based ISM is achieved by; Network modeling for sequencing space logistics and in-space logistics nodal positioning to include feedstock. Economic modeling to assess ISM 3D printing adaption and supply chain risk.

  8. Experimental discovery of nodal chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Qinghui; Liu, Rongjuan; Yan, Zhongbo; Liu, Boyuan; Chen, Hongsheng; Wang, Zhong; Lu, Ling

    2018-05-01

    Three-dimensional Weyl and Dirac nodal points1 have attracted widespread interest across multiple disciplines and in many platforms but allow for few structural variations. In contrast, nodal lines2-4 can have numerous topological configurations in momentum space, forming nodal rings5-9, nodal chains10-15, nodal links16-20 and nodal knots21,22. However, nodal lines are much less explored because of the lack of an ideal experimental realization23-25. For example, in condensed-matter systems, nodal lines are often fragile to spin-orbit coupling, located away from the Fermi level, coexist with energy-degenerate trivial bands or have a degeneracy line that disperses strongly in energy. Here, overcoming all these difficulties, we theoretically predict and experimentally observe nodal chains in a metallic-mesh photonic crystal having frequency-isolated linear band-touching rings chained across the entire Brillouin zone. These nodal chains are protected by mirror symmetry and have a frequency variation of less than 1%. We use angle-resolved transmission measurements to probe the projected bulk dispersion and perform Fourier-transformed field scans to map out the dispersion of the drumhead surface state. Our results establish an ideal nodal-line material for further study of topological line degeneracies with non-trivial connectivity and consequent wave dynamics that are richer than those in Weyl and Dirac materials.

  9. Smallest Nanoelectronics with Adatom Chains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamada, Toshishige; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation is focused on the general aspect of atomic chain electronics that I have been studying. Results have been published before, but are being rederived here using a new physical/mathematical picture/model, which deepens the physical understanding. Precise adatom structures can be used as a template on a regulated surface with no uncertainty.

  10. Involvement of the Clock Gene Rev-erb alpha in the Regulation of Glucagon Secretion in Pancreatic Alpha-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Elaine; Marroquí, Laura; Figueroa, Ana Lucia C.; Merino, Beatriz; Fernandez-Ruiz, Rebeca; Nadal, Angel; Burris, Thomas P.; Gomis, Ramon; Quesada, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Disruption of pancreatic clock genes impairs pancreatic beta-cell function, leading to the onset of diabetes. Despite the importance of pancreatic alpha-cells in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and in diabetes pathophysiology, nothing is known about the role of clock genes in these cells. Here, we identify the clock gene Rev-erb alpha as a new intracellular regulator of glucagon secretion. Rev-erb alpha down-regulation by siRNA (60–70% inhibition) in alphaTC1-9 cells inhibited low-glucose induced glucagon secretion (p<0.05) and led to a decrease in key genes of the exocytotic machinery. The Rev-erb alpha agonist GSK4112 increased glucagon secretion (1.6 fold) and intracellular calcium signals in alphaTC1-9 cells and mouse primary alpha-cells, whereas the Rev-erb alpha antagonist SR8278 produced the opposite effect. At 0.5 mM glucose, alphaTC1-9 cells exhibited intrinsic circadian Rev-erb alpha expression oscillations that were inhibited by 11 mM glucose. In mouse primary alpha-cells, glucose induced similar effects (p<0.001). High glucose inhibited key genes controlled by AMPK such as Nampt, Sirt1 and PGC-1 alpha in alphaTC1-9 cells (p<0.05). AMPK activation by metformin completely reversed the inhibitory effect of glucose on Nampt-Sirt1-PGC-1 alpha and Rev-erb alpha. Nampt inhibition decreased Sirt1, PGC-1 alpha and Rev-erb alpha mRNA expression (p<0.01) and glucagon release (p<0.05). These findings identify Rev-erb alpha as a new intracellular regulator of glucagon secretion via AMPK/Nampt/Sirt1 pathway. PMID:23936124

  11. Cloning, expression, and mapping of allergenic determinants of alphaS1-casein, a major cow's milk allergen.

    PubMed

    Schulmeister, Ulrike; Hochwallner, Heidrun; Swoboda, Ines; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Geller, Beate; Nystrand, Mats; Härlin, Annika; Thalhamer, Josef; Scheiblhofer, Sandra; Keller, Walter; Niggemann, Bodo; Quirce, Santiago; Ebner, Christoph; Mari, Adriano; Pauli, Gabrielle; Herz, Udo; Valenta, Rudolf; Spitzauer, Susanne

    2009-06-01

    Milk is one of the first components introduced into human diet. It also represents one of the first allergen sources, which induces IgE-mediated allergies in childhood ranging from gastrointestinal, skin, and respiratory manifestations to severe life-threatening manifestations, such as anaphylaxis. Here we isolated a cDNA coding for a major cow's milk allergen, alphaS1-casein, from a bovine mammary gland cDNA library with allergic patients' IgE Abs. Recombinant alphaS1-casein was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized by circular dichroism as a folded protein. IgE epitopes of alphaS1-casein were determined with recombinant fragments and synthetic peptides spanning the alphaS1-casein sequence using microarrayed components and sera from 66 cow's milk-sensitized patients. The allergenic activity of ralphaS1-casein and the alphaS1-casein-derived peptides was determined using rat basophil leukemia cells transfected with human FcepsilonRI, which had been loaded with the patients' serum IgE. Our results demonstrate that ralphaS1-casein as well as alphaS1-casein-derived peptides exhibit IgE reactivity, but mainly the intact ralphaS1-casein induced strong basophil degranulation. These results suggest that primarily intact alphaS1-casein or larger IgE-reactive portions thereof are responsible for IgE-mediated symptoms of food allergy. Recombinant alphaS1-casein as well as alphaS1-casein-derived peptides may be used in clinical studies to further explore pathomechanisms of food allergy as well as for the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for milk allergy.

  12. Supply chain challenges. building relationships.

    PubMed

    Beth, Scott; Burt, David N; Copacino, William; Gopal, Chris; Lee, Hau L; Lynch, Robert Porter; Morris, Sandra

    2003-07-01

    Supply chain management is all about software and systems, right? Put in the best technology, sit back, and watch as your processes run smoothly and the savings roll in? Apparently not. When HBR convened a panel of leading thinkers in the field of supply chain management, technology was not top of mind. People and relationships were the dominant issues of the day. The opportunities and problems created by globalization, for example, are requiring companies to establish relationships with new types of suppliers. The ever-present pressure for speed and cost containment is making it even more important to break down stubbornly high internal barriers and establish more effective cross-functional relationships. The costs of failure have never been higher. The leading supply chain performers are applying new technology, new innovations, and process thinking to far greater advantage than the laggards, reaping tremendous gains in all the variables that affect shareholder value: cost, customer service, asset productivity, and revenue generation. And the gap between the leaders and the losers is growing in almost every industry. This roundtable gathered many of the leading thinkers and doers in the field of supply chain management, including practitioners Scott Beth of Intuit, Sandra Morris of Intel, and Chris Gopal of Unisys. David Burt of the University of San Diego and Stanford's Hau Lee bring the latest research from academia. Accenture's William Copacino and the Warren Company's Robert Porter Lynch offer the consultant's perspectives. Together, they take a wide-ranging view of such topics as developing talent, the role of the chief executive, and the latest technologies, exploring both the tactical and the strategic in the current state of supply chain management.

  13. [Alpha power voluntary increasing training for cognition enhancement study].

    PubMed

    Alekseeva, M V; Balioz, N V; Muravleva, K B; Sapina, E V; Bazanova, O M

    2012-01-01

    With the aim simultaneous alpha EEG stimulating and EMG decreasing biofeedback training impact on the alpha-activity and cognitive functions 27 healthy male subjects (18-34 years) were investigated in pre- and post 10 training sessions of the voluntary increasing alpha power in individual upper alpha range. The accuracy of conceptual span task, fluency and flexibility in alternatives use task performance and alpha-activity indices were compared in real (14 participants) and sham (13 participants) biofeedback groups for the discrimination of the feedback role in training. The follow up effect oftrainings was studied through month over the training sessions. Results showed that alpha biofeedback training enhanced the fluency and accuracy in cognitive performance, increased resting frequency, width and power in individual upper alpha range only in participants with low baseline alpha frequency. While mock biofeedback increased resting alpha power only in participants with high baseline resting alpha frequency and did not change the cognitive performance. Biofeedback training eliminated the alpha power decrease in response to arithmetic task in both with high and low alpha frequency participants and this effect was followed up over the month. Mock biofeedback training has no such effect. It could be concluded that alpha-EEG-EMG biofeedback has application not only for cognition enhancement, but also in prognostic aims in clinical practice and brain-computer interface technology.

  14. Prototype development of ion exchanging alpha detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupp, Dominik; Scherer, Ulrich W.

    2018-07-01

    In contemporary alpha particle spectrometry, the sample preparation is separated from the detection of the radionuclides. The sample preparation itself requires much time and the equipment of a radiochemistry lab. If sample preparation and detection could be combined in one step, a huge time-saving potential becomes available. One way to realize such a combination is described here. The concept was explored by simulations with the well-established computer programs SRIM and AASI. In a proof of concept, the active surface of commercially available alpha detectors was modified with sulfonic acid groups as a well-known type of cation exchanger. It was shown, that in contrast to a pristine detector, a chemically modified detector is able to extract uranium-238 and -234 selectively as uranyl cations onto the detector surface from a diluted [238/234U]uranyl acetate solution. It was possible to measure directly in the sample solution for one week or to prepare the modified detector surfaces within 30 s for measurements in conventional alpha chambers. In either case, the full width at half maximum of the measured spectra was around 100 keV, allowing a clear nuclide identification. After regenerating the cation exchanger surfaces by rinsing with hydrochloric acid the typical uranium spectra had disappeared, proving chemical bonding of the uranium. Due to the large variety of potential functional groups this new way of alpha spectrometry could be beneficial for all fields of alpha particle spectrometry, from environmental analysis, over security measurements to studies of the heaviest elements.

  15. Formation and self-organization kinetics of alpha-CD/PEO-based pseudo-polyrotaxanes in water. A specific behavior at 30 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Travelet, Christophe; Schlatter, Guy; Hébraud, Pascal; Brochon, Cyril; Lapp, Alain; Hadziioannou, Georges

    2009-08-04

    alpha-Cyclodextrins (alpha-CDs) have the ability to form inclusion complexes with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) polymer chains. These pseudo-polyrotaxanes (PPRs) can be obtained by quenching an alpha-CD/PEO mixture in water from 70 degrees C down to a lower temperature (typically in the range from 5 to 30 degrees C) thanks to favorable interactions between alpha-CD cavities and PEO chains. Moreover, starting from a liquid alpha-CD/PEO mixture at a total mass fraction of 15% w/w at 70 degrees C, the formation of PPRs with time at a lower temperature induces a white physical gel with time, and phase separation is observed. We established that PPR molecules are exclusively found in the precipitated phase although unthreaded alpha-CD molecules and unthreaded PEO chains are in the liquid phase. At 30 degrees C, the physical gel formation is much slower than at 5 degrees C. At 30 degrees C, we established that, in a first step, alpha-CDs thread onto PEO chains, forming PPR molecules which are not in good solvent conditions in water. At a higher length scale, rapid aggregation of the PPR molecules occurs, and threaded alpha-CD-based nanocylinders form (cylinder length L = 5.7 nm and cylinder radius R = 4.7 nm). At a higher length scale, alpha-CD-based nanocylinders associate in a Gaussian way, engendering the formation of precipitated domains which are responsible for the high turbidity of the studied system. At the end of this first step (i.e., after 20 min), the system still remains liquid and the PPRs are totally formed. Then, in a second step (i.e., after 150 min), the system undergoes its reorganization characterized by a compacity increase of the precipitated domains and forms a physical gel. We found that PPRs are totally formed after 20 min at 30 degrees C and that the system stays in a nongel state up to 150 min. This opens new perspectives regarding the PPR chemical modification: between these two characteristic times, we can easily envisage an efficient chemical

  16. Alterations of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha in the hippocampus of mice acutely and repeatedly exposed to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Shao, Guo; Gao, Cui-Ying; Lu, Guo-Wei

    2005-01-01

    This work aims at investigating the effects of hypoxic preconditioning on hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) expression in the hippocampus of mice during acute and repeated hypoxic exposures. The mice were randomly divided into three groups and exposed, respectively, to hypoxia for 4 runs (group H4), 1 run (group H1), and 0 run (group H0). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), and chromatin immunoprecipitation were used to examine the HIF-1alpha responses in the mouse hippocampus following exposure to hypoxia. The tolerance of mice to hypoxia increased significantly following acute and repetitive exposure to autoprogressive hypoxia. Total mRNA, total protein, and nuclear protein were extracted from the hippocampus for RT-PCR, Western blot, and EMSA, respectively. The HIF-1alpha mRNA levels were found to be increased in group H1 and decreased in group H4. The HIF-1alpha protein levels and HIF-1 DNA-binding activities were increased in group H1 and markedly increased in group H4. One of the HIF-1 target genes, vascular endothelial growth factor, increased in group H4. HIF-1 activation is thought to be involved in the protection of the brain of hypoxic preconditioned mice. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. [Changes of interlukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels in gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic tooth movement].

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu-Lou; Xie, Jiang-Chun; Zhao, Zhen-Jin; Zhang, Yang

    2006-06-01

    To investigate the dynamic changes of interlukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) during orthodontic tooth movement, and to discuss the biological significance. Fifteen patients were chosen as subjects. For each patient, upper and lower canines at one side having one treatment for distal movement by elastic chain served as the experimental teeth, whereas the contralateral ones were used as controls. The GCF were taken before activation and at 1, 24, 48, 72, 168 hours respectively after initiation of the experiment. The levels of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha in GCF were determined by radioimmunoassay. The levels of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha in experimental group began to increase at 24 hours and reached to its peak value at 72 hours after initiation of the experiment, but their levels returned to baseline at 168 hours. Both of them, however, remained at the baseline level in control group. The changes of the two cytokines level were found statistically significant at 48 and 72 hours (P<0.05) between experimental and control group. No statistically significant were observed before activation and at 1, 168 hours after application of orthodontic forces (P>0.05) between experimental and control group. The levels of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha in gingival crevicular fluid experience dynamic changes during the early phase of orthodontic treatment, indicate that they might play an important role in the process of alveolar regeneration and tooth movement.

  18. Crystal structure of a new alpha-cyclodextrin hydrate form. Molecular geometry and packing features: disordered solvent contribution.

    PubMed

    Puliti, R; Mattia, C A; Paduano, L

    1998-08-01

    The crystallographic study of a new hydrated form of alpha-cyclodextrin (cyclohexaamylose) is reported. C36H60O30 . 11H2O; space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) with cell constants a = 13.839(3), b = 15.398(3), c = 24.209(7) A; final discrepancy index R = 0.057 for the 5182 observed reflections and 632 refined parameters. Besides four ordered water molecules placed outside alpha-cyclodextrins, the structure shows regions of severely disordered solvent mainly confined in the oligosaccharide cavities. The contribution of the observed disorder has been computed via Fourier inversions of the residual electron density and incorporated into the structure factors in further refinements of the ordered part. The alpha-cyclodextrin molecule assumes a relaxed round shape stabilised by a ring sequence of all the six possible O2 ... O3 intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The four ordered water molecules take part in an extensive network of hydrogen bonds (infinite chains and loops) without modifying the scheme of intramolecular H-bonds or the (-)gauche conformation of O-6-H hydroxyl groups. The structure shows a new molecular arrangement, for an "empty" hydrated alpha-cyclodextrin, like that "brick-type" observed for alpha-CD in the iodoanilide trihydrate complex crystallising in an isomorphous cell.

  19. TNF-alpha single nucleotide polymorphisms in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Behniafard, Nasrin; Gharagozlou, Mohammad; Farhadi, Elham; Khaledi, Mojdeh; Sotoudeh, Soheila; Darabi, Behzad; Fathi, Seid Mohammad; Gholizadeh Moghaddam, Zahra; Mahmoudi, Mahdi; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Amirzargar, Ali Akbar; Rezaei, Nima

    2012-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) could be considered as potential biomarkers in atopic dermatitis (AD), while its level could be influenced by cytokine single gene polymorphisms (SNP). This study was performed in 89 pediatric patients with AD and 137 controls to assess polymorphisms of the TNF-α gene at positions -308 and -238, using the polymerase chain reaction and the sequence-specific primers method. The highest positive allelic association that made the patients susceptible to AD was seen for TNF-α -238/G (p<0.001) and TNF-α -308/G (p = 0.003). The GG genotypes at TNF-α -238 and TNF-α -308, were both significantly higher in the patients with AD, compared to the controls (p<0.01). The GG haplotype at TNF-α (-308,-238) was seen in 92.7% of the patients, which was significantly higher than the controls (p<0.001), while a negative haplotypic association with AD was seen for TNF-α (-308, -238) AG and GA (p<0.01). This study showed that the AG genotype of TNF-α -308, associated with a high production of cytokines, was significantly decreased in patients with AD, while the low-producing GG genotype, which could lead to low production of TNF-α, was over-expressed in the atopic patients.

  20. Alpha thalassemia among sickle cell anaemia patients in Kampala, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Lubega, Irene; Ndugwa, Christopher M; Mworozi, Edison A; Tumwine, James K

    2015-06-01

    Sickle cell anaemia is prevalent in sub Saharan Africa. While α+-thalassaemia is known to modulate sickle cell anaemia, its magnitude and significance in Uganda have hitherto not been described. To determine the prevalence of α+thalassaemia among sickle cell anaemia patients in Mulago Hospital and to describe the clinical and laboratory findings in these patients. A cross sectional study was carried out on patients with sickle cell anaemia in Kampala. Dried blood spots were used to analyze for the deletional α+ thalassaemia using multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Of the 142 patients with sickle cell anaemia, 110 (77.5%) had the αα+thalassaemia deletion. The gene frequency of (-α) was 0.425. Ninety one percent (100/110) of those with α+thalassaemia were heterozygous (αα/α-). Amongst the patients older than 60 months, 15 (83.3%) of those without αα+thalassaemia had significant hepatomegaly of greater than 4 cm compared to 36 (45.6%) of those with α+thalassaemia (p=0.003). The gene frequency of (-α) of 0.425 noted in this study is higher than that reported from many places in Africa. Concurrent alpha thalassemia might be a protective trait against significant hepatomegaly in sickle cell anaemia patients more than 60 months of age at Mulago hospital.

  1. Axolotl hemoglobin: cDNA-derived amino acid sequences of two alpha globins and a beta globin from an adult Ambystoma mexicanum.

    PubMed

    Shishikura, Fumio; Takeuchi, Hiro-aki; Nagai, Takatoshi

    2005-11-01

    Erythrocytes of the adult axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum, have multiple hemoglobins. We separated and purified two kinds of hemoglobin, termed major hemoglobin (Hb M) and minor hemoglobin (Hb m), from a five-year-old male by hydrophobic interaction column chromatography on Alkyl Superose. The hemoglobins have two distinct alpha type globin polypeptides (alphaM and alpham) and a common beta globin polypeptide, all of which were purified in FPLC on a reversed-phase column after S-pyridylethylation. The complete amino acid sequences of the three globin chains were determined separately using nucleotide sequencing with the assistance of protein sequencing. The mature globin molecules were composed of 141 amino acid residues for alphaM globin, 143 for alpham globin and 146 for beta globin. Comparing primary structures of the five kinds of axolotl globins, including two previously established alpha type globins from the same species, with other known globins of amphibians and representatives of other vertebrates, we constructed phylogenetic trees for amphibian hemoglobins and tetrapod hemoglobins. The molecular trees indicated that alphaM, alpham, beta and the previously known alpha major globin were adult types of globins and the other known alpha globin was a larval type. The existence of two to four more globins in the axolotl erythrocyte is predicted.

  2. Alpha-particle emission probabilities of ²³⁶U obtained by alpha spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Marouli, M; Pommé, S; Jobbágy, V; Van Ammel, R; Paepen, J; Stroh, H; Benedik, L

    2014-05-01

    High-resolution alpha-particle spectrometry was performed with an ion-implanted silicon detector in vacuum on a homogeneously electrodeposited (236)U source. The source was measured at different solid angles subtended by the detector, varying between 0.8% and 2.4% of 4π sr, to assess the influence of coincidental detection of alpha-particles and conversion electrons on the measured alpha-particle emission probabilities. Additional measurements were performed using a bending magnet to eliminate conversion electrons, the results of which coincide with normal measurements extrapolated to an infinitely small solid angle. The measured alpha emission probabilities for the three main peaks - 74.20 (5)%, 25.68 (5)% and 0.123 (5)%, respectively - are consistent with literature data, but their precision has been improved by at least one order of magnitude in this work. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. {alpha}+{alpha} scattering reexamined in the context of the Sao Paulo potential

    SciTech Connect

    Chamon, L. C.; Gasques, L. R.; Carlson, B. V.

    2011-03-15

    We have analyzed a large set of {alpha}+{alpha} elastic scattering data for bombarding energies ranging from 0.6 to 29.5 MeV. Because of the complete lack of open reaction channels, the optical interaction at these energies must have a vanishing imaginary part. Thus, this system is particularly important because the corresponding elastic scattering cross sections are very sensitive to the real part of the interaction. The data were analyzed in the context of the velocity-dependent Sao Paulo potential, which is a successful theoretical model for the description of heavy-ion reactions from sub-barrier to intermediate energies. We have verified that, even inmore » this low-energy region, the velocity dependence of the model is quite important for describing the data of the {alpha}+{alpha} system.« less

  4. Distribution of C22-, C24- and C26-alpha-unit-containing mycolic acid homologues in mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Kaneda, K; Imaizumi, S; Yano, I

    1995-01-01

    There are three mycolic acid homologues with C22-, C24- and C26-alpha-units in Mycobacterium. In order to reveal the composition and distribution of these homologues in each subclass and molecular species of mycolic acids and to compare them with the composition of constitutive non-polar fatty acids (free and bound forms), we have separated non-polar fatty acids and each subclass of mycolic acids from 21 mycobacterial species by thin-layer chromatography, and analyzed non-polar fatty acid methyl esters by gas chromatography (GC) and the cleavage products of methyl mycolate by pyrolysis GC. We further performed mass chromatographic analysis of trimethylsilyl (TMS) ether derivatives of mycolic acid methyl esters by monitoring [B-29]+ ions (loss of CHO from the alpha-branched-chain structure of mycolic acids) of m/z 426, 454 and 482 which are attributed to C22-, C24- and C26-alpha-units of TMS ether derivatives of methyl mycolates, respectively, (Kaneda, K. et al, J. Clin. Microbiol. 24: 1060-1070, 1986). By pyrolysis GC, C22:0, C24:0 and C26:0 fatty acid methyl esters generated by the C2-C3 cleavage of C22-, C24- and C26-alpha-unit-containing mycolic acid methyl esters, respectively, were detected. Their proportion was almost the same among subclasses of mycolic acids in every Mycobacterium and also similar to the proportion of constitutive non-polar C22:0, C24:0 and C26:0 fatty acids. By mass chromatography, the composition and distribution of C22- and C24-alpha-unit-containing homologues were revealed to be similar between alpha- and alpha'-mycolic acids in every Mycobacterium.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Velocity space instabilities of alpha particles in tokamak reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Sigmar, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    In this lecture on high frequency instability due to isotropic hollow alpha velocity distributions it was first shown that such distributions can actually arise under thermonuclear conditions in a tokamak reactor, particularly for the case of imperfect alpha particle confinement. The toroidal geometry (i.e., the poloidal variation of the alpha gyrofrequency) then leads to linear instability of the compressional Alfven wave ..omega.. = C/sub A/k/sub perpendicular/ with k/sub parallel/ congruent to O, k/sub perpendicular/ rho/sub ..cap alpha../ greater than or equal to 1, v/sub ..cap alpha../ > C/sub A/, at the low harmonics ..omega.. congruent to n ..omega../sub c..cap alpha../.more » Thus the free energy of the inverted alpha distribution is accessible and produces anomalously rapid diffusion of F/sub ..cap alpha../(v/sub perpendicular/). (MOW)« less

  6. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha}-independent peroxisome proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xiuguo; Tanaka, Naoki; Nakajima, Takero

    2006-08-11

    Hepatic peroxisome proliferation, increases in the numerical and volume density of peroxisomes, is believed to be closely related to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) activation; however, it remains unknown whether peroxisome proliferation depends absolutely on this activation. To verify occurrence of PPAR{alpha}-independent peroxisome proliferation, fenofibrate treatment was used, which was expected to significantly enhance PPAR{alpha} dependence in the assay system. Surprisingly, a novel type of PPAR{alpha}-independent peroxisome proliferation and enlargement was uncovered in PPAR{alpha}-null mice. The increased expression of dynamin-like protein 1, but not peroxisome biogenesis factor 11{alpha}, might be associated with the PPAR{alpha}-independent peroxisome proliferation at least in part.

  7. Antibody-mediated reduction of {alpha}-ketoamides

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, P.G.; Gallop, M.A.

    1998-06-09

    Monoclonal antibodies raised against a 4-nitrophenyl phosphonate hapten catalyze the stereospecific reduction of an {alpha}-ketoamide to the corresponding {alpha}-hydroxyamide in the presence of an appropriate reducing agent.

  8. Antibody-mediated reduction of .alpha.-ketoamides

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter G.; Gallop, Mark A.

    1998-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies raised against a 4-nitrophenyl phosphonate hapten catalyze the stereospecific reduction of an .alpha.-ketoamide to the corresponding .alpha.-hydroxyamide in the presence of an appropriate reducing agent.

  9. [Building immune microsphere against tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qin; Wu, Xiongfei; Wang, Junxia; Liu, Hong; Li, Lian; Jin, Xiyu

    2005-12-01

    We have constructed the immune microsphere against tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) prospectively, hoping to establish the experiment groundwork in more researches which could be used in specific elimination of the TNF-alpha by blood purification method for the future. The recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha monoclonal antibody (rHTNF-alpha McAb) was wrapped on the polystyrene microsphere (PSM) carrier connecting poly-L-lysine (PLL) beforehand. They were earmarked by the fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) respectively. The packing conditions were examined using the inversted and fluorescence microscopes and the spectrophotometer. The results showed that the best conditions for wrapping were 20 degrees C, pH9.5 and 60 minutes. The PLL content was not changed in the washing fluid after coating, which indicated the wrapping was quite firm. At the same temperature and same coating time, the rHTNF-alpha McAb coated on the PLL was obviously substantial when the concentration of glutaraldehyde solution was 0.2%. The findings demonstrated that the built immune microsphers can be used as a novel adsorption material. This method is simple and economic, and it offers a new approach to the related studies.

  10. Determination of the volume activity concentration of alpha artificial radionuclides with alpha spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Liu, B; Zhang, Q; Li, Y

    1997-12-01

    This paper introduces a method to determine the volume activity concentration of alpha and/or beta artificial radionuclides in the environment and radon/thoron progeny background-compensation based on a Si surface-barrier detector. By measuring the alpha peak counts of 218Po and 214Po in two time intervals, the activity concentration of 218Po, 214Pb and 214Bi aerosol particles were determined; meanwhile, the total beta count of 214Pb and 214Bi aerosols was also calculated from their decay scheme. With the average equilibrium factor of thoron progeny in general environment, the alpha and beta counts of thoron progeny were approximately evaluated by 212Po alpha peak counts. The alpha count of transuranic aerosols was determined by subtracting the trail counts of radon/thoron progeny alpha peaks. The total count of beta artificial radionuclides was determined by subtracting the beta counts of radon/thoron progeny aerosol particles. In our preliminary experiments, if the radon progeny concentration is less than 15 Bq m(-3), the lower limit of detection of transuranics concentration is less than 0.1 Bq m(-3). Even if the radon progeny concentration is as high as 75 Bq m(-3), the lower limit of detection of total beta activity concentration of artificial nuclides aerosols is less than 1 Bq m(-3).

  11. Significance of two distinct types of tryptophan synthase beta chain in Bacteria, Archaea and higher plants.

    PubMed

    Xie, Gary; Forst, Christian; Bonner, Carol; Jensen, Roy A

    2002-01-01

    Tryptophan synthase consists of two subunits, alpha and beta. Two distinct subgroups of beta chain exist. The major group (TrpEb_1) includes the well-studied beta chain of Salmonella typhimurium. The minor group of beta chain (TrpEb_2) is most frequently found in the Archaea. Most of the amino-acid residues important for catalysis are highly conserved between both TrpE subfamilies. Conserved amino-acid residues of TrpEb_1 that make allosteric contact with the TrpEa subunit (the alpha chain) are absent in TrpEb_2. Representatives of Archaea, Bacteria and higher plants all exist that possess both TrpEb_1 and TrpEb_2. In those prokaryotes where two trpEb genes coexist, one is usually trpEb_1 and is adjacent to trpEa, whereas the second is trpEb_2 and is usually unlinked with other tryptophan-pathway genes. TrpEb_1 is nearly always partnered with TrpEa in the tryptophan synthase reaction. However, by default at least six lineages of the Archaea are likely to use TrpEb_2 as the functional beta chain, as TrpEb_1 is absent. The six lineages show a distinctive divergence within the overall TrpEa phylogenetic tree, consistent with the lack of selection for amino-acid residues in TrpEa that are otherwise conserved for interfacing with TrpEb_1. We suggest that the standalone function of TrpEb_2 might be to catalyze the serine deaminase reaction, an established catalytic capability of tryptophan synthase beta chains. A coincident finding of interest is that the Archaea seem to use the citramalate pathway, rather than threonine deaminase (IlvA), to initiate the pathway of isoleucine biosynthesis.

  12. Functional coupling of rat myometrial alpha 1-adrenergic receptors to Gh alpha/tissue transglutaminase 2 during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dupuis, Morgan; Lévy, Arlette; Mhaouty-Kodja, Sakina

    2004-04-30

    Gh alpha protein, which exhibits both transglutaminase and GTPase activities, represents a new class of GTP-binding proteins. In the present study, we characterized Gh alpha in rat uterine smooth muscle (myometrium) and followed its expression during pregnancy by reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot. We also measured transglutaminase and GTP binding functions and used a smooth muscle cell line to evaluate the role of Gh alpha in cell proliferation. The results show that pregnancy is associated with an up-regulation of Gh alpha expression at both the mRNA and protein level. Gh alpha induced during pregnancy is preferentially localized to the plasma membrane. This was found associated with an increased ability of plasma membrane preparations to catalyze Ca(2+)-dependent incorporation of [(3)H]putrescine into casein in vitro. In the cytosol, significant changes in the level of immunodetected Gh alpha and transglutaminase activity were seen only at term. Activation of alpha1-adrenergic receptors (alpha1-AR) enhanced photoaffinity labeling of plasma membrane Gh alpha. Moreover, the level of alpha1-AR-coupled Gh alpha increased progressively with pregnancy, which parallels the active period of myometrial cell proliferation. Overexpression of wild type Gh alpha in smooth muscle cell line DDT1-MF2 increased alpha1-AR-induced [(3)H]thymidine incorporation. A similar response was obtained in cells expressing the transglutaminase inactive mutant (C277S) of Gh alpha. Together, these findings underscore the role of Gh alpha as signal transducer of alpha1-AR-induced smooth muscle cell proliferation. In this context, pregnant rat myometrium provides an interesting physiological model to study the mechanisms underlying the regulation of the GTPase function of Gh alpha

  13. Contribution of HIF-1alpha or HIF-2alpha to erythropoietin expression: in vivo evidence based on chromatin immunoprecipitation.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Eun-Jin; Cho, Young-Suk; Kim, Myung-Suk; Park, Jong-Wan

    2008-01-01

    Circulating erythropoietin (EPO) is mainly produced by the kidneys and mediates erythrogenesis in bone marrow and nonhematopoietic cell survival. EPO is also produced in other tissues where it functions as a paracrine. Moreover, the hypoxic induction of EPO is known to be mediated by HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha, but it remains obscure as to which of these two mediators mainly contributes to EPO expression. Thus, we designed in vivo experiments to evaluate the contributions made by HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha to EPO expression. In mice exposed to mild whole body hypoxia, HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha were both induced in all tissues examined. However, EPO mRNA was expressed in kidney and brain, but not in liver and lung. Likewise, chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) analyses demonstrated that HIF-1alpha or HIF-2alpha binding to the EPO gene increased under hypoxic conditions only in kidney and brain. A comparison of CHIP data and EPO mRNA levels suggested that, during mild hypoxia, renal EPO transcription is induced equally by HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha, but that brain EPO is mainly induced during hypoxia by HIF-2alpha. Thus, HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha appear to contribute to EPO expression tissue specifically.

  14. Alpha-2-Macroglobulin Levels in Gingival Crevicular Fluid Pre- and Post-scaling and Root Planing with Adjunctive Tetracycline Fibers in Chronic Periodontitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Chhina, Shivjot; Rathore, Ajit Singh; Juneja, Saurabh

    2015-06-01

    This split-mouth clinical study aimed to investigate levels of alpha-2-macroglobulin (a2M) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of chronic periodontitis patients pre- and post-scaling and root planing (SRP) with or without adjunctive use of tetracycline fibers. In 30 patients of chronic periodontitis, samples of GCF were collected from the gingival sulcus before SRP. Recording of clinical parameters was conducted. This was followed by local drug delivery (LDD) of tetracycline fibers in test sites. In control sites, no LDD was done. Second samples of GCF were taken 90 days after treatment. Samples of crevicular fluid were analyzed to determine the levels of a2m. A gain of clinical attachment (CAL) of 3.30 mm for SRP and LDD and for SRP alone was 1.62 mm (p < 0.001). The pocket probing depth was significantly decreased by 2.43 mm for SRP and LDD and for SRP alone was 1.61 mm (p < 0.001) after 90 days. Alpha-2-macroglobulin was significantly reduced in GCF by SRP and SRP and LDD after 90 days (p < 0.001). Clinical and biochemical variables showed a more favorable outcome when SRP was combined with LDD of tetracycline fibers in management of patients suffering from chronic periodontitis.

  15. alpha-Mannosidosis in the guinea pig: cloning of the lysosomal alpha-mannosidase cDNA and identification of a missense mutation causing alpha-mannosidosis.

    PubMed

    Berg, Thomas; Hopwood, John J

    2002-03-16

    alpha-Mannosidosis is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficient activity of the lysosomal alpha-mannosidase. We report here the sequencing and expression of the lysosomal alpha-mannosidase cDNA from normal and alpha-mannosidosis guinea pigs. The amino acid sequence of the guinea pig enzyme displayed 82-85% identity to the lysosomal alpha-mannosidase in other mammals. The cDNA of the alpha-mannosidosis guinea pig contained a missense mutation, 679C>T, leading to substitution of arginine by tryptophan at amino acid position 227 (R227W). The R227W allele segregated with the alpha-mannosidosis genotype in the guinea pig colony and introduction of R227W into the wild-type sequence eliminated the production of recombinant alpha-mannosidase activity in heterologous expression studies. Furthermore, the guinea pig mutation has been found in human patients. Our results strongly indicate that the 679C>T mutation causes alpha-mannosidosis and suggest that the guinea pig will be an excellent model for investigation of pathogenesis and evaluation of therapeutic strategies for human alpha-mannosidosis.

  16. Role of guanine nucleotides in the vinblastine-induced self-association of tubulin: effects of guanosine alpha,beta-methylenetriphosphate and guanosine alpha,beta-methylenediphosphate.

    PubMed

    Vulevic, B; Lobert, S; Correia, J J

    1997-10-21

    It is now well established that guanine nucleotides are allosteric effectors of the vinca alkaloid-induced self-association of tubulin. GDP enhances self-association for vinblastine-, vincristine- and vinorelbine-induced spiral assembly relative to GTP by 0.90 +/- 0.17 kcal/mol [Lobert et al. (1996) Biochemistry 35, 6806-6814]. Since chemical modifications of the vinca alkaloid structure are known to modulate the overall affinity of drug binding, it is very likely that, by Wyman linkage, chemical modifications of guanine nucleotide allosteric effectors also modulate drug binding. Here we compare the effects of the GTP and GDP alpha,beta-methylene analogues GMPCPP and GMPCP on vinblastine-induced tubulin association in 10 and 100 mM piperazine-N,N'-bis(2-ethanesulfonic acid) (Pipes), 1 mM MgSO4, and 2 mM [ethylenebis(oxyethylenenitrilo)]tetraacetic acid (EGTA), pH 6. 9, at different temperatures. We found that GMPCPP perfectly mimics GTP in its effect on spiral assembly under all ionic strength and temperature conditions. However, GMPCP in 10 mM Pipes behaves not as a GDP analogue, but as a GTP analogue. In 100 mM Pipes, GMPCP has characteristics that are intermediate between GDP and GTP. These data suggest that the alpha,beta methylene group in GMPCP and GMPCPP is sufficient to produce a GTP-like effect on vinblastine-induced tubulin self-assembly. This is consistent with previous observations that GMPCP-tubulin will assemble into microtubules in a 2 M glycerol and 100 mM Pipes buffer [Vulevic & Correia (1997) Biophys. J. 72, 1357-1375]. Our results demonstrate that an alpha,beta methylene modification of the guanine nucleotide phosphate moiety can induce a salt-dependent conformational change in the tubulin heterodimer that favors the GTP-tubulin structure. This has important implications for understanding allosteric interactions that occur in the binding of guanine nucleotides to tubulin.

  17. 40 CFR 721.10491 - Benzenepropanal,.alpha.-methyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benzenepropanal,.alpha.-methyl-. 721... Substances § 721.10491 Benzenepropanal,.alpha.-methyl-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzenepropanal,.alpha.-methyl- (PMN P-05...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10491 - Benzenepropanal,.alpha.-methyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benzenepropanal,.alpha.-methyl-. 721... Substances § 721.10491 Benzenepropanal,.alpha.-methyl-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzenepropanal,.alpha.-methyl- (PMN P-05...

  19. Alpha particle-induced soft errors in microelectronic devices. I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redman, D. J.; Sega, R. M.; Joseph, R.

    1980-03-01

    The article provides a tutorial review and trend assessment of the problem of alpha particle-induced soft errors in VLSI memories. Attention is given to an analysis of the design evolution of modern ICs, and the characteristics of alpha particles and their origin in IC packaging are reviewed. Finally, the process of an alpha particle penetrating an IC is examined.

  20. [Interferon alpha-2b modified with polyethylene glycol].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yingxin; Zhai, Yanqin; Lei, Jiandu; Ma, Guanghui; Su, Zhiguo

    2008-09-01

    In order to obtain a more stable PEGylated interferon alpha-2b, and prolong its half life, interferon alpha-2b (IFN alpha-2b) was modified with monomethoxy polyethylene glycol propionaldehyde (mPEG-ALD) 20000. It was found that the optimized reaction condition for the maximum bioactivity and highest PEGylation degree of the mono PEGylated interferon alpha-2b was as follows: in 20 mmol/L, pH 6.5, citric acid and sodium dihydrogen phosphate buffer, the concentration of IFN alpha-2b was 4 mg/mL, and the molar ratio of PEG/IFN alpha-2b was 8:1, and the reaction time was 20 h at 4 degrees C. Under the optimized reaction condition, the mono PEGylation degree reached to 55%. Ion exchange chromatography was used to separate and purify mono PEGylated interferon alpha-2b from the reaction mixture. The purity of mono PEGylated interferon alpha-2b was higher than 97% characterized by HPLC. The bioactivity of the mono PEGylated interferon alpha-2b was 13.4% of the native IFN alpha-2b, while its half life in SD rat is much longer than the native IFN alpha-2b. The mono PEGylated interferon alpha-2b is also stable in aqueous.