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Sample records for a3 receptor agonists

  1. Metabolic mapping of A3 adenosine receptor agonist MRS5980.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhong-Ze; Tosh, Dilip K; Tanaka, Naoki; Wang, Haina; Krausz, Kristopher W; O'Connor, Robert; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2015-09-15

    (1S,2R,3S,4R,5S)-4-(2-((5-Chlorothiophen-2-yl)ethynyl)-6-(methylamino)-9H-purin-9-yl)-2,3-dihydroxy-N-methylbicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-1-carboxamide (MRS5980) is an A3AR selective agonist containing multiple receptor affinity- and selectivity-enhancing modifications and a therapeutic candidate drug for many inflammatory diseases. Metabolism-related poor pharmacokinetic behavior and toxicities are a major reason for drug R&D failure. Metabolomics with UPLC-MS was employed to profile the metabolism of MRS5980 and MRS5980-induced disruption of endogenous compounds. Recombinant drug-metabolizing enzymes screening experiment were used to determine the enzymes involved in MRS5980 metabolism. Analysis of lipid metabolism-related genes was performed to investigate the reason for MRS5980-induced lipid metabolic disorders. Unsupervised principal components analysis separated the control and MRS5980 treatment groups in feces, urine, and liver samples, but not in bile and serum. The major ions mainly contributing to the separation of feces and urine were oxidized MRS5980, glutathione (GSH) conjugates and cysteine conjugate (degradation product of the GSH conjugates) of MRS5980. The major ions contributing to the group separation of liver samples were phosphatidylcholines. In vitro incubation experiments showed the involvement of CYP3A enzymes in the oxidative metabolism of MRS5980 and direct GSH reactivity of MRS5980. The electrophilic attack by MRS5980 is a minor pathway and did not alter GSH levels in liver or liver histology, and thus may be of minor clinical consequence. Gene expression analysis further showed decreased expression of PC biosynthetic genes choline kinase a and b, which further accelerated conversion of lysophosphatidylcholine to phosphatidylcholines through increasing the expression of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 3. These data will be useful to guide rational design of drugs targeting A3AR, considering efficacy, metabolic elimination, and

  2. Metabolic mapping of A3 adenosine receptor agonist MRS5980

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Zhong-Ze; Tosh, Dilip K.; Tanaka, Naoki; Wang, Haina; Krausz, Kristopher W.; O'Connor, Robert; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    (1S,2R,3S,4R,5S)-4-(2-((5-Chlorothiophen-2-yl)ethynyl)-6-(methylamino)-9H-purin-9-yl)-2,3-dihydroxy-N-methylbicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-1-carboxamide (MRS5980) is an A3AR selective agonist containing multiple receptor affinity- and selectivity-enhancing modifications and a therapeutic candidate drug for many inflammatory diseases. Metabolism-related poor pharmacokinetic behavior and toxicities are a major reason of drug R&D failure. Metabolomics with UPLC-MS was employed to profile the metabolism of MRS5980 and MRS5980-induced disruption of endogenous compounds. Recombinant drug-metabolizing enzymes screening experiment were used to determine the enzymes involved in MRS5980 metabolism. Analysis of lipid metabolism-related genes was performed to investigate the reason for MRS5980-induced lipid metabolic disorders. Unsupervised principal components analysis separated the control and MRS5980 treatment group in feces, urine, and liver samples, but not in bile and serum. The major ions mainly contributing to the separation for feces and urine were oxidized MRS5980, glutathione (GSH) conjugates and cysteine conjugate (degradation product of the GSH conjugates) of MRS5980. The major ions contributing to the group separation of liver samples were phosphatidylcholines. In vitro incubation experiments showed the major involvement of CYP3A enzymes in the oxidative metabolism of MRS5980 and direct GSH reactivity of MRS5980. The electrophilic attack by MRS5980 is a minor pathway and did not alter GSH levels in liver or liver histology, and thus may be of minor clinical consequence. Gene expression analysis further showed decreased expression of PC biosynthetic genes choline kinase a and b, which further accelerated conversion of lysophosphatidylcholine to phosphatidylcholines through increasing the expression of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 3. These data will be useful to guide rational design of drugs targeting A3AR, considering efficacy, metabolic elimination, and

  3. Medicinal Chemistry of the A3 Adenosine Receptor: Agonists, Antagonists, and Receptor Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Klutz, Athena M.; Tosh, Dilip K.; Ivanov, Andrei A.; Preti, Delia; Baraldi, Pier Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) ligands have been modified to optimize their interaction with the A3AR. Most of these modifications have been made to the N6 and C2 positions of adenine as well as the ribose moiety, and using a combination of these substitutions leads to the most efficacious, selective, and potent ligands. A3AR agonists such as IB-MECA and Cl-IB-MECA are now advancing into Phase II clinical trials for treatments targeting diseases such as cancer, arthritis, and psoriasis. Also, a wide number of compounds exerting high potency and selectivity in antagonizing the human (h)A3AR have been discovered. These molecules are generally characterized by a notable structural diversity, taking into account that aromatic nitrogen-containing monocyclic (thiazoles and thiadiazoles), bicyclic (isoquinoline, quinozalines, (aza)adenines), tricyclic systems (pyrazoloquinolines, triazoloquinoxalines, pyrazolotriazolopyrimidines, triazolopurines, tricyclic xanthines) and nucleoside derivatives have been identified as potent and selective A3AR antagonists. Probably due to the “enigmatic” physiological role of A3AR, whose activation may produce opposite effects (for example, concerning tissue protection in inflammatory and cancer cells) and may produce effects that are species dependent, only a few molecules have reached preclinical investigation. Indeed, the most advanced A3AR antagonists remain in preclinical testing. Among the antagonists described above, compound OT-7999 is expected to enter clinical trials for the treatment of glaucoma, while several thiazole derivatives are in development as antiallergic, antiasthmatic and/or antiinflammatory drugs. PMID:19639281

  4. Characterization by flow cytometry of fluorescent, selective agonist probes of the A(3) adenosine receptor.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Eszter; Gizewski, Elizabeth T; Tosh, Dilip K; Squarcialupi, Lucia; Auchampach, John A; Jacobson, Kenneth A

    2013-04-15

    Various fluorescent nucleoside agonists of the A3 adenosine receptor (AR) were compared as high affinity probes using radioligands and flow cytometry (FCM). They contained a fluorophore linked through the C2 or N(6) position and rigid A3AR-enhancing (N)-methanocarba modification. A hydrophobic C2-(1-pyrenyl) derivative MRS5704 bound nonselectively. C2-Tethered cyanine5-dye labeled MRS5218 bound selectively to hA3AR expressed in whole CHO cells and membranes. By FCM, binding was A3AR-mediated (blocked by A3AR antagonist, at least half through internalization), with t1/2 for association 38min in mA3AR-HEK293 cells; 26.4min in sucrose-treated hA3AR-CHO cells (Kd 31nM). Membrane binding indicated moderate mA3AR affinity, but not selectivity. Specific accumulation of fluorescence (50nM MRS5218) occurred in cells expressing mA3AR, but not other mouse ARs. Evidence was provided suggesting that MRS5218 detects endogenous expression of the A3AR in the human promyelocytic leukemic HL-60 cell line. Therefore, MRS5218 promises to be a useful tool for characterizing the A3AR.

  5. Adenosine A(3) receptor agonist acts as a homeostatic regulator of bone marrow hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Michal; Pospísil, Milan; Znojil, Vladimír; Holá, Jirina; Vacek, Antonín; Streitová, Denisa

    2007-07-01

    The present study was performed to define the optimum conditions of the stimulatory action of the adenosine A(3) receptor agonist, N(6)-(3-iodobenzyl)adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide (IB-MECA), on bone marrow hematopoiesis in mice. Effects of 2-day treatment with IB-MECA given at single doses of 200nmol/kg twice daily were investigated in normal mice and in mice whose femoral bone marrow cells were either depleted or regenerating after pretreatment with the cytotoxic drug 5-fluorouracil. Morphological criteria were used to determine the proliferation state of the granulocytic and erythroid cell systems. Significant negative correlation between the control proliferation state and the increase of cell proliferation after IB-MECA treatment irrespective of the cell lineage investigated was found. The results suggest the homeostatic character of the induced stimulatory effects and the need to respect the functional state of the target tissue when investigating effects of adenosine receptor agonists under in vivo conditions.

  6. Flexible modulation of agonist efficacy at the human A3 adenosine receptor by the imidazoquinoline allosteric enhancer LUF6000

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhan-Guo; Ye, Kai; Göblyös, Anikó; IJzerman, Adriaan P; Jacobson, Kenneth A

    2008-01-01

    Background A series of 1H-imidazo- [4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine derivatives, represented by LUF6000 (N-(3,4-dichloro-phenyl)-2-cyclohexyl-1H-imidazo [4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine), are allosteric modulators of the human A3 adenosine receptor (AR). Here we studied the modulation by LUF6000 of the maximum effect (Emax) of structurally diverse agonists at the A3 AR stably expressed in CHO cells. Results In an assay of [35S]GTPγS binding, the Emax of the A3 AR agonist Cl-IB-MECA at the A3 AR was lower than that of the non-selective AR agonist NECA. LUF6000 exerted an Emax-enhancing effect at a concentration of 0.1 μM or higher, and was shown to increase the Emax of Cl-IB-MECA and other low-efficacy agonists to a larger extent than that of the high-efficacy agonist NECA. Interestingly, LUF6000 converted a nucleoside A3 AR antagonist MRS542, but not a non-nucleoside antagonist MRS1220, into an agonist. LUF6000 alone did not show any effect. Mathematical modeling was performed to explain the differential effects of LUF6000 on agonists with various Emax. A simple explanation for the observation that LUF6000 has a much stronger effect on Cl-IB-MECA than on NECA derived from the mathematical modeling is that NECA has relatively strong intrinsic efficacy, such that the response is already close to the maximum response. Therefore, LUF6000 cannot enhance Emax much further. Conclusion LUF6000 was found to be an allosteric enhancer of Emax of structurally diverse agonists at the A3 AR, being more effective for low-Emax agonists than for high-Emax agonists. LUF6000 was demonstrated to convert an antagonist into an agonist, which represents the first example in G protein-coupled receptors. The observations from the present study are consistent with that predicted by mathematical modeling. PMID:19077268

  7. Homeostatic action of adenosine A3 and A1 receptor agonists on proliferation of hematopoietic precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Michal; Pospísil, Milan; Znojil, Vladimír; Holá, Jirina; Streitová, Denisa; Vacek, Antonín

    2008-07-01

    Two adenosine receptor agonists, N6-(3-iodobenzyl)adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide (IB-MECA) and N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), which selectively activate adenosine A3 and A1 receptors, respectively, were tested for their ability to influence proliferation of granulocytic and erythroid cells in femoral bone marrow of mice using morphological criteria. Agonists were given intraperitoneally to mice in repeated isomolar doses of 200 nmol/kg. Three variants of experiments were performed to investigate the action of the agonists under normal resting state of mice and in phases of cell depletion and subsequent regeneration after treatment with the cytotoxic drug 5-fluorouracil. In the case of granulopoiesis, IB-MECA 1) increased by a moderate but significant level proliferation of cells under normal resting state; 2) strongly increased proliferation of cells in the cell depletion phase; but 3) did not influence cell proliferation in the regeneration phase. CPA did not influence cell proliferation under normal resting state and in the cell depletion phase, but strongly suppressed the overshooting cell proliferation in the regeneration phase. The stimulatory effect of IB-MECA on cell proliferation of erythroid cells was observed only when this agonist was administered during the cell depletion phase. CPA did not modulate erythroid proliferation in any of the functional states investigated, probably due to the lower demand for cell production as compared with granulopoiesis. The results indicate opposite effects of the two adenosine receptor agonists on proliferation of hematopoietic cells and suggest the plasticity and homeostatic role of the adenosine receptor expression.

  8. Design of (N)-Methanocarba Adenosine 5′-Uronamides as Species-Independent A3 Receptor-Selective Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Melman, Artem; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Kumar, Deepmala; Wan, Tina C.; Gizewski, Elizabeth; Auchampach, John A.; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2008-01-01

    2-Chloro-5′ -N-methylcarboxamidoadenosine analogues containing the (N)-methanocarba (bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane) ring system as a ribose substitute display increased selectivity as agonists of the human A3 adenosine receptor (AR). However, the selectivity in mouse was greatly reduced due to an increased tolerance of this ring system at the mouse A1AR. Therefore, we varied substituents at the N6 and C2 positions in search of compounds that have improved A3AR selectivity and are species independent. An N6-methyl analogue was balanced in affinity at mouse A1/A3ARs, with high selectivity in comparison to the A2AAR. Substitution of the 2-chloro atom with larger and more hydrophobic substituents, such as iodo and alkynyl groups, tended to increase the A3AR selectivity (up to 430-fold) in mouse and preserve it in human. Extended and chemically functionalized alkynyl chains attached at the C2 position of the purine moiety preserved A3AR selectivity more effectively than similar chains attached at the 3 position of the N6–benzyl group. PMID:18424135

  9. Effects of adenosine A(3) receptor agonist on bone marrow granulocytic system in 5-fluorouracil-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Michal; Pospísil, Milan; Vacek, Antonín; Holá, Jirina; Znojil, Vladimír; Weiterová, Lenka; Streitová, Denisa

    2006-05-24

    The purpose of the experiments reported was to investigate effects of N(6)-(3-iodobenzyl)adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide (IB-MECA), a selective adenosine A(3) receptor agonist, on the granulocytic system in femoral marrow of mice depleted by the cytotoxic drug 5-fluorouracil. In the phase of the highest cell depletion IB-MECA was injected i.p. at single doses of 200 nmol/kg given either once or twice daily in 2- and 4-day regimens starting on day 1 after 5-fluorouracil administration; the effects were evaluated on days 3 and 5, respectively. The general effect of IB-MECA in all these experiments was an enhancement of the counts of morphologically recognizable proliferative granulocytic cells, interpreted as evidence of the differentiation of committed progenitor cells. A more expressive effect was observed after IB-MECA injected twice daily. It was found that the induction of the strong differentiation pressures by IB-MECA given twice daily shortly after 5-fluorouracil treatment can be counterproductive due to the preponderance of differentiaton processes over the proliferation control. In additional experiments, it has been shown that the use of the 2-day administration of IB-MECA given twice daily in the recovery phase, i.e., on days 5 and 6 after 5-fluorouracil administration, does not induce stimulatory effects. Thus, the dosing and timing of IB-MECA treatment determines its effectivity in stimulating granulopoiesis under conditions of myelosuppression.

  10. Design and Synthesis of N6-Substituted-4′-thioadenosine-5′-uronamides As Potent and Selective Human A3 Adenosine Receptor Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won Jun; Lee, Hyuk Woo; Kim, Hea Ok; Chinn, Moshe; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Patel, Amit; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Moon, Hyung Ryong; Jung, Young Hoon; Jeong, Lak Shin

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of a bioisosteric rationale, 4′-thionucleoside analogues of IB-MECA, which is a potent and selective A3 adenosine receptor agonist (AR), were synthesized from d-gulonic acid γ-lactone. The 4′-thio analogue (5h) of IB-MECA showed extremely high binding affinity (Ki = 0.25 nM) at the human A3AR and was more potent than IB-MECA (Ki = 1.4 nM). Bulky substituents at the 5′-uronamide position, such as cyclohexyl and 2- methylbenzyl, in this series of 2-H nucleoside derivatives were tolerated in A3AR binding, although small alkyl analogues were more potent. PMID:19879151

  11. Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) Dendrimer Conjugates of Clickable Agonists of the A3 Adenosine Receptor and Coactivation of the P2Y14 Receptor by a Tethered Nucleotide

    SciTech Connect

    Tosh, Dilip, K.; Yoo, Lena S.; Chinn, Moshe; Hong, Kunlun; Kilbey, II, S Michael; Barrett, Matthew O.; Fricks, Ingrid P.; Harden, T. Kendall; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    We previously synthesized a series of potent and selective A{sub 3} adenosine receptor (AR) agonists (North-methanocarba nucleoside 5{prime}-uronamides) containing dialkyne groups on extended adenine C2 substituents. We coupled the distal alkyne of a 2-octadiynyl nucleoside by Cu(I)-catalyzed 'click' chemistry to azide-derivatized G4 (fourth-generation) PAMAM dendrimers to form triazoles. A{sub 3}AR activation was preserved in these multivalent conjugates, which bound with apparent Ki of 0.1-0.3 nM. They were substituted with nucleoside moieties, solely or in combination with water-solubilizing carboxylic acid groups derived from hexynoic acid. A comparison with various amide-linked dendrimers showed that triazole-linked conjugates displayed selectivity and enhanced A{sub 3}AR affinity. We prepared a PAMAM dendrimer containing equiproportioned peripheral azido and amino groups for conjugation of multiple ligands. A bifunctional conjugate activated both A{sub 3} and P2Y{sub 14} receptors (via amide-linked uridine-5{prime}-diphosphoglucuronic acid), with selectivity in comparison to other ARs and P2Y receptors. This is the first example of targeting two different GPCRs with the same dendrimer conjugate, which is intended for activation of heteromeric GPCR aggregates. Synergistic effects of activating multiple GPCRs with a single dendrimer conjugate might be useful in disease treatment.

  12. Kappa Opioid Receptor Agonist and Brain Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Chunhua, Chen; Chunhua, Xi; Megumi, Sugita; Renyu, Liu

    2014-01-01

    Opioid receptors, especially Kappa opioid receptor (KOR) play an important role in the pathophysiological process of cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury. Previously accepted KOR agonists activity has included anti-nociception, cardiovascular, anti-pruritic, diuretic, and antitussive effects, while compelling evidence from various ischemic animal models indicate that KOR agonist have neuroprotective effects through various mechanisms. In this review, we aimed to demonstrate the property of KOR agonist and its role in global and focal cerebral ischemia. Based on current preclinical research, the KOR agonists may be useful as a neuroprotective agent. The recent discovery of salvinorin A, highly selective non-opioid KOR agonist, offers a new tool to study the role of KOR in brain HI injury and the protective effects of KOR agonist. The unique pharmacological profile of salvinorin A along with the long history of human usage provides its high candidacy as a potential alternative medication for brain HI injury. PMID:25574482

  13. Dopamine receptor partial agonists and addiction.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Fabricio A; Dalley, Jeffrey W

    2015-04-01

    Many drugs abused by humans acutely facilitate, either directly or indirectly, dopamine neurotransmission in the mesolimbic pathway. As a consequence dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists have been widely investigated as putative pharmacological therapies for addiction. This general strategy, however, has had only limited success due in part to poor treatment adherence and efficacy and the significant adverse effects of dopaminergic medications. In this perspective, we discuss the potential therapeutic use of dopamine receptor partial agonists in addiction, developed initially as antipsychotic agents. Recent research indicates that the dopamine D2 receptor partial agonists, such as aripiprazole, also shows useful ancillary efficacy in several animal models of psychostimulant and opioid addiction. Notably, these findings suggest that unlike full dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists these compounds have low abuse liability and are generally well tolerated. Indeed, partial dopamine agonists attenuate the rewarding properties of opioids without interfering with their analgesic effects. Herein we discuss the utility and potential of dopamine receptor partial agonists as treatments for both stimulant and non-stimulant drug addiction.

  14. RADIOLABELING AND EFFICIENT SYNTHESIS OF TRITIATED 2-CHLORO-N6-(3-IODOBENZYL)ADENOSINE-5'-N-METHYLURON-AMIDE, A POTENT, SELECTIVE A3 ADENOSINE RECEPTOR AGONIST

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hea O.; Hawes, Calvin; Towers, Pat; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY We recently reported that 2-substitution of N6-benzyladenosine-5'-uronamides greatly enhances selectivity of agonists for rat A3 adenosine receptors J. Med. Chem. 1994, 37, 3614–3621). Specifically, 2-Chloro-N6-(3-iodobenzyl)adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide (2-CI-IB-MECA), which displayed a K1 value of 0.33 nM, is the most selective for A3 receptors yet reported with selectivity versus A1 and A2a receptors of 2500- and 1400-fold, respectively. In order to obtain pharmacological tools for the study of A3 adenosine receptors, two routes for radiolabeling of 2-CI-IB-MECA through incorporation of tritium at the 5'-methylamido group were compared. One route formed a 2',3'-protected nucleoside 5'-carboxylic acid (9), which was condensed with methylamine and deprotected. The more efficient synthesis started from D-ribose and provided 2-CI-IB-MECA (12) in six steps with an overall yield of 5.6 %. Tritium was introduced in the penultimate step by heating N6-(3-iodobenzyl)-2-chloro-2',3'-di-O-acetyl-5'-(methoxycarbonyl)adenosine (17) with [3H]methylamine in methanol at 60 °C for 2 h. The specific activity of [3H]2-CI-IB-MECA was 29 Ci/mmol with a radiochemical purity of 99%. PMID:23598401

  15. Interactions between cannabinoid receptor agonists and mu opioid receptor agonists in rhesus monkeys discriminating fentanyl.

    PubMed

    Maguire, David R; France, Charles P

    2016-08-01

    Cannabinoid receptor agonists such as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) enhance some (antinociceptive) but not other (positive reinforcing) effects of mu opioid receptor agonists, suggesting that cannabinoids might be combined with opioids to treat pain without increasing, and possibly decreasing, abuse. The degree to which cannabinoids enhance antinociceptive effects of opioids varies across drugs insofar as Δ(9)-THC and the synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist CP55940 increase the potency of some mu opioid receptor agonists (e.g., fentanyl) more than others (e.g., nalbuphine). It is not known whether interactions between cannabinoids and opioids vary similarly for other (abuse-related) effects. This study examined whether Δ(9)-THC and CP55940 differentially impact the discriminative stimulus effects of fentanyl and nalbuphine in monkeys (n=4) discriminating 0.01mg/kg of fentanyl (s.c.) from saline. Fentanyl (0.00178-0.0178mg/kg) and nalbuphine (0.01-0.32mg/kg) dose-dependently increased drug-lever responding. Neither Δ(9)-THC (0.032-1.0mg/kg) nor CP55940 (0.0032-0.032mg/kg) enhanced the discriminative stimulus effects of fentanyl or nalbuphine; however, doses of Δ(9)-THC and CP55940 that shifted the nalbuphine dose-effect curve markedly to the right and/or down were less effective or ineffective in shifting the fentanyl dose-effect curve. The mu opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone (0.032mg/kg) attenuated the discriminative stimulus effects of fentanyl and nalbuphine similarly. These data indicate that the discriminative stimulus effects of nalbuphine are more sensitive to attenuation by cannabinoids than those of fentanyl. That the discriminative stimulus effects of some opioids are more susceptible to modification by drugs from other classes has implications for developing maximally effective therapeutic drug mixtures with reduced abuse liability. PMID:27184925

  16. Agonist-Directed Desensitization of the β2-Adrenergic Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Goral, Vasiliy; Jin, Yan; Sun, Haiyan; Ferrie, Ann M.; Wu, Qi; Fang, Ye

    2011-01-01

    The β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) agonists with reduced tachyphylaxis may offer new therapeutic agents with improved tolerance profile. However, receptor desensitization assays are often inferred at the single signaling molecule level, thus ligand-directed desensitization is poorly understood. Here we report a label-free biosensor whole cell assay with microfluidics to determine ligand-directed desensitization of the β2AR. Together with mechanistic deconvolution using small molecule inhibitors, the receptor desensitization and resensitization patterns under the short-term agonist exposure manifested the long-acting agonism of salmeterol, and differentiated the mechanisms of agonist-directed desensitization between a full agonist epinephrine and a partial agonist pindolol. This study reveals the cellular mechanisms of agonist-selective β2AR desensitization at the whole cell level. PMID:21541288

  17. Increased agonist affinity at the mu-opioid receptor induced by prolonged agonist exposure

    PubMed Central

    Birdsong, William T.; Arttamangkul, Seksiri; Clark, Mary J.; Cheng, Kejun; Rice, Kenner C.; Traynor, John R.; Williams, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to high-efficacy agonists results in desensitization of the mu opioid receptor (MOR). Desensitized receptors are thought to be unable to couple to G-proteins, preventing downstream signaling, however the changes to the receptor itself are not well characterized. In the current study, confocal imaging was used to determine whether desensitizing conditions cause a change in agonist-receptor interactions. Using rapid solution exchange, the binding kinetics of fluorescently labeled opioid agonist, dermorphin Alexa594 (derm A594), to MORs was measured in live cells. The affinity of derm A594 binding increased following prolonged treatment of cells with multiple agonists that are known to cause receptor desensitization. In contrast, binding of a fluorescent antagonist, naltrexamine Alexa 594, was unaffected by similar agonist pre-treatment. The increased affinity of derm A594 for the receptor was long-lived and partially reversed after a 45 min wash. Treatment of the cells with pertussis toxin did not alter the increase in affinity of the derm A594 for MOR. Likewise the affinity of derm A594 for MORs expressed in mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from arrestin 1 and 2 knockout animals increased following treatment of the cells with the desensitization protocol. Thus, opioid receptors were “imprinted” with a memory of prior agonist exposure that was independent of G-protein activation or arrestin binding that altered subsequent agonist-receptor interactions. The increased affinity suggests that acute desensitization results in a long lasting but reversible conformational change in the receptor. PMID:23447620

  18. [Effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists on carbohydrate metabolism control].

    PubMed

    Fernández-García, José Carlos; Colomo, Natalia; Tinahones, Francisco José

    2014-09-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are a new group of drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). In the present article, we review the available evidence on the efficacy of GLP-1 receptor agonists as glucose-lowering agents, their place in therapeutic algorithms, and the clinical factors associated with a favorable treatment response. Finally, we describe the clinical characteristics of patients who may benefit from these drugs.

  19. [Effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists on carbohydrate metabolism control].

    PubMed

    Fernández-García, José Carlos; Colomo, Natalia; Tinahones, Francisco José

    2014-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are a new group of drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). In the present article, we review the available evidence on the efficacy of GLP-1 receptor agonists as glucose-lowering agents, their place in therapeutic algorithms, and the clinical factors associated with a favorable treatment response. Finally, we describe the clinical characteristics of patients who may benefit from these drugs.

  20. [Effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists on carbohydrate metabolism control].

    PubMed

    Fernández-García, José Carlos; Colomo, Natalia; Tinahones, Francisco José

    2014-09-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are a new group of drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). In the present article, we review the available evidence on the efficacy of GLP-1 receptor agonists as glucose-lowering agents, their place in therapeutic algorithms, and the clinical factors associated with a favorable treatment response. Finally, we describe the clinical characteristics of patients who may benefit from these drugs. PMID:25437461

  1. [Effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists on carbohydrate metabolism control].

    PubMed

    Fernández-García, José Carlos; Colomo, Natalia; Tinahones, Francisco José

    2014-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are a new group of drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). In the present article, we review the available evidence on the efficacy of GLP-1 receptor agonists as glucose-lowering agents, their place in therapeutic algorithms, and the clinical factors associated with a favorable treatment response. Finally, we describe the clinical characteristics of patients who may benefit from these drugs. PMID:25326839

  2. The cardiovascular effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Friedland, Sayuri N; Leong, Aaron; Filion, Kristian B; Genest, Jacques; Lega, Iliana C; Mottillo, Salvatore; Poirier, Paul; Reoch, Jennifer; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2012-02-01

    Although peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists are prescribed to improve cardiovascular risk factors, their cardiovascular safety is controversial. We therefore reviewed the literature to identify landmark randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists (pioglitazone and rosiglitazone), alpha agonists (fenofibrate and gemfibrozil), and pan agonists (bezafibrate, muraglitazar, ragaglitazar, tesaglitazar, and aleglitazar) on cardiovascular outcomes. Pioglitazone may modestly reduce cardiovascular events but also may increase the risk of bladder cancer. Rosiglitazone increases the risk of myocardial infarction and has been withdrawn in European and restricted in the United States. Fibrates improve cardiovascular outcomes only in select subgroups: fenofibrate in diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome, gemfibrozil in patients with dyslipidemia, and bezafibrate in patients with diabetes or metabolic syndrome. The cardiovascular safety of the new pan agonist aleglitazar, currently in phase II trials, remains to be determined. The heterogenous effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists to date highlight the importance of postmarketing surveillance. The critical question of why peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists seem to improve cardiovascular risk factors without significantly improving cardiovascular outcomes requires further investigation. PMID:22269613

  3. Purine derivatives as ligands for A3 adenosine receptors.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Bhalchandra V; Jacobson, Kenneth A

    2005-01-01

    Selective agonists and antagonists for A3 adenosine receptors (ARs) are being explored for the treatment of a variety of disorders, including brain and heart ischemic conditions, cancer, and rheumatoid arthritis. This review covers both the structure activity relationships of nucleoside agonist ligands and selected antagonists acting at this receptor and the routes of synthesis. Highly selective agonists have been designed, using both empirical approaches and a semi-rational approach based on molecular modeling. The prototypical A3 agonists IB-MECA 10 and the more receptor-subtype-selective Cl-IB-MECA 11, both of which have affinity in binding to the receptor of approximately 1 nM, have been used widely as pharmacological probes in the elucidation of the physiological role of this receptor. In addition to the exploration of the effects of structural modification of the adenine and ribose moieties on A3AR affinity, the effects of these structural changes on the intrinsic efficacy have also been studied in a systematic fashion. Key structural features determining A3AR interaction include the N6-benzyl group, 2-position substitution such as halo, substitution of ribose (e.g., the (N)-methanocarba ring system, various 2'- and 3'-substitutions and 4'-thio substitution of oxygen). Conformational studies of the ribose moiety and its equivalents indicate that the ring oxygen is not required and the North (N) ring conformation is preferred in binding to the A3AR. Using these observations, a series of ring constrained (N)-methanocarba 5'-uronamide derivatives was recently reported to be highly selective A3AR agonists, the most notable amongst them was MRS3558 113 having a Ki value in binding to the human A3 receptor of 0.3 nM. PMID:16305531

  4. Systemic cancer immunotherapy with Toll-like receptor 7 agonists

    PubMed Central

    Hotz, Christian; Bourquin, Carole

    2012-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 agonists represent a promising strategy for the immunotherapy of cancer. We have recently investigated the influence of TLR tolerance on the efficacy of systemic tumor treatment with TLR7 ligands. We propose that considering the kinetics of receptor sensitivity highly improves the outcome of cancer immunotherapy. PMID:22720251

  5. Pharmacology and therapeutic applications of A3 receptor subtype.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Pnina; Bar-Yehuda, Sara

    2003-01-01

    The present study summarizes the biological effects elicit upon A(3) adenosine receptor (A(3)AR) activation in normal and tumor cells. Anti-inflamatory response is mediated upon A(3)AR activation in neutrophils, eosinophils and macrophages via direct effect on cell degranulation or the production of anti-inflamatory cytokines. In basophils, which highly express A(3)AR, degranulation and mediator release upon receptor activation lead to pro-inflammatory effects resulting in bronchospasm and asthma. In other normal cells such as cardiomyocytes, neuronal cells and bone marrow cells A(1)AR activation induces cytoprotective effects in vitro. In vivo, A(3)AR agonists act as cardio- and neuroprotective agents and attenuate ischemic damage. Furthermore, agonists to A(3)AR induce granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) production and myeloprotective effect in chemotherapy treated mice. Interestingly, A(3)AR agonists inhibit tumor cell growth both in vitro and in vivo through a cytostatic effect mediated via the de-regulation of the Wnt signaling pathway. The variety of activities elicit by A(3)AR agonists suggest their potential use as therapeutic agents in inflammation, brain/cardiac ischemia and cancer. Antagonists to A(3)AR may be implemented to the therapy of asthma and additional allergic conditions.

  6. [PPAR receptors and insulin sensitivity: new agonists in development].

    PubMed

    Pégorier, J-P

    2005-04-01

    Thiazolidinediones (or glitazones) are synthetic PPARgamma (Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors gamma) ligands with well recognized effects on glucose and lipid metabolism. The clinical use of these PPARgamma agonists in type 2 diabetic patients leads to an improved glycemic control and an inhanced insulin sensitivity, and at least in animal models, to a protective effect on pancreatic beta-cell function. However, they can produce adverse effects, generally mild or moderate, but some of them (mainly peripheral edema and weight gain) may conduct to treatment cessation. Several pharmacological classes are currently in pre-clinical or clinical development, with the objective to retain the beneficial metabolic properties of PPARgamma agonists, either alone or in association with the PPARalpha agonists (fibrates) benefit on lipid profile, but devoid of the side-effects on weight gain and fluid retention. These new pharmacological classes: partial PPARgamma agonists, PPARgamma antagonists, dual PPARalpha/PPARgamma agonists, pan PPARalpha/beta(delta)/gamma agonists, RXR receptor agonists (rexinoids), are presented in this review. Main results from in vitro cell experiments and animal model studies are discussed, as well as the few published short-term studies in type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:15959400

  7. Adenosine receptor agonists for promotion of dermal wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Valls, María D.; Cronstein, Bruce N.; Montesinos, M. Carmen

    2009-01-01

    Wound healing is a dynamic and complex process that involves a well coordinated, highly regulated series of events including inflammation, tissue formation, revascularization and tissue remodeling. However, this orderly sequence is impaired in certain pathophysiological conditions such as diabetes mellitus, venous insufficiency, chronic glucocorticoid use, aging and malnutrition. Together with proper wound care, promotion of the healing process is the primary objective in the management of chronic poorly healing wounds. Recent studies have demonstrated that A2A adenosine receptor agonists promote wound healing in normal and diabetic animals and one such agonist, Sonedenoson, is currently being evaluated as a prospective new therapy of diabetic foot ulcers. We will review the mechanisms by which adenosine receptor activation affects the function of the cells and tissues that participate in wound healing, emphasizing the potential beneficial impact of adenosine receptor agonists in diabetic impaired healing. PMID:19041853

  8. Pharmacogenetics of beta2 adrenergic receptor agonists in asthma management.

    PubMed

    Ortega, V E

    2014-07-01

    Beta2 (β2) adrenergic receptor agonists (beta agonists) are a commonly prescribed treatment for asthma despite the small increase in risk for life-threatening adverse responses associated with long-acting beta agonist (LABA). The concern for life-threatening adverse effects associated with LABA and the inter-individual variability of therapeutic responsiveness to LABA-containing combination therapies provide the rationale for pharmacogenetic studies of beta agonists. These studies primarily evaluated genes within the β2-adrenergic receptor and related pathways; however, recent genome-wide studies have identified novel loci for beta agonist response. Recent studies have identified a role for rare genetic variants in determining beta agonist response and, potentially, the risk for rare, adverse responses to LABA. Before genomics research can be applied to the development of genetic profiles for personalized medicine, it will be necessary to continue adapting to the analysis of an increasing volume of genetic data in larger cohorts with a combination of analytical methods and in vitro studies.

  9. Emerging strategies for exploiting cannabinoid receptor agonists as medicines.

    PubMed

    Pertwee, Roger G

    2009-02-01

    Medicines that activate cannabinoid CB(1) and CB(2) receptor are already in the clinic. These are Cesamet (nabilone), Marinol (dronabinol; Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol) and Sativex (Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol with cannabidiol). The first two of these medicines can be prescribed to reduce chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Marinol can also be prescribed to stimulate appetite, while Sativex is prescribed for the symptomatic relief of neuropathic pain in adults with multiple sclerosis and as an adjunctive analgesic treatment for adult patients with advanced cancer. One challenge now is to identify additional therapeutic targets for cannabinoid receptor agonists, and a number of potential clinical applications for such agonists are mentioned in this review. A second challenge is to develop strategies that will improve the efficacy and/or the benefit-to-risk ratio of a cannabinoid receptor agonist. This review focuses on five strategies that have the potential to meet either or both of these objectives. These are strategies that involve: (i) targeting cannabinoid receptors located outside the blood-brain barrier; (ii) targeting cannabinoid receptors expressed by a particular tissue; (iii) targeting up-regulated cannabinoid receptors; (iv) targeting cannabinoid CB(2) receptors; or (v) 'multi-targeting'. Preclinical data that justify additional research directed at evaluating the clinical importance of each of these strategies are also discussed. PMID:19226257

  10. Functional selectivity of dopamine D1 receptor agonists in regulating the fate of internalized receptors *

    PubMed Central

    Ryman-Rasmussen, Jessica P.; Griffith, Adam; Oloff, Scott; Vaidehi, Nagarajan; Brown, Justin T.; Goddard, William A.; Mailman, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that D1 agonists can cause functionally selective effects when the endpoints of receptor internalization and adenylate cyclase activation are compared. The present study was designed to probe the phenomenon of functional selectivity at the D1 receptor further by testing the hypothesis that structurally dissimilar agonists with efficacies at these endpoints that equal or exceed those of dopamine would differ in ability to influence receptor fate after internalization, a functional endpoint largely unexplored for the D1 receptor. We selected two novel agonists of therapeutic interest that meet these criteria (the isochroman A-77636, and the isoquinoline dinapsoline), and compared the fates of the D1 receptor after internalization in response to these two compounds with that of dopamine. We found that dopamine caused the receptor to be rapidly recycled to the cell surface within 1 h of removal. Conversely, A-77636 caused the receptor to be retained intracellularly up to 48 h after agonist removal. Most surprisingly, the D1 receptor recovered to the cell surface 48 h after removal of dinapsoline. Taken together, these data indicate that these agonists target the D1 receptor to different intracellular trafficking pathways, demonstrating that the phenomenon of functional selectivity at the D1 receptor is operative for cellular events that are temporally downstream of immediate receptor activation. We hypothesize that these differential effects result from interactions of the synthetic ligands with aspects of the D1 receptor that are distal from the ligand binding domain. PMID:17067639

  11. Synthesis and Anti-Renal Fibrosis Activity of Conformationally Locked Truncated 2-Hexynyl-N6-Substituted-(N)-Methanocarba-nucleosides as A3 Adenosine Receptor Antagonists and Partial Agonists

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Truncated N6-substituted-(N)-methanocarba-adenosine derivatives with 2-hexynyl substitution were synthesized to examine parallels with corresponding 4′-thioadenosines. Hydrophobic N6 and/or C2 substituents were tolerated in A3AR binding, but only an unsubstituted 6-amino group with a C2-hexynyl group promoted high hA2AAR affinity. A small hydrophobic alkyl (4b and 4c) or N6-cycloalkyl group (4d) showed excellent binding affinity at the hA3AR and was better than an unsubstituted free amino group (4a). A3AR affinities of 3-halobenzylamine derivatives 4f–4i did not differ significantly, with Ki values of 7.8–16.0 nM. N6-Methyl derivative 4b (Ki = 4.9 nM) was a highly selective, low efficacy partial A3AR agonist. All compounds were screened for renoprotective effects in human TGF-β1-stimulated mProx tubular cells, a kidney fibrosis model. Most compounds strongly inhibited TGF-β1-induced collagen I upregulation, and their A3AR binding affinities were proportional to antifibrotic effects; 4b was most potent (IC50 = 0.83 μM), indicating its potential as a good therapeutic candidate for treating renal fibrosis. PMID:24456490

  12. Orvinols with Mixed Kappa/Mu Opioid Receptor Agonist Activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Dual-acting kappa opioid receptor (KOR) agonist and mu opioid receptor (MOR) partial agonist ligands have been put forward as potential treatment agents for cocaine and other psychostimulant abuse. Members of the orvinol series of ligands are known for their high binding affinity to both KOR and MOR, but efficacy at the individual receptors has not been thoroughly evaluated. In this study, it is shown that a predictive model for efficacy at KOR can be derived, with efficacy being controlled by the length of the group attached to C20 and by the introduction of branching into the side chain. In vivo evaluation of two ligands with the desired in vitro profile confirms both display KOR, and to a lesser extent MOR, activity in an analgesic assay suggesting that, in this series, in vitro measures of efficacy using the [35S]GTPγS assay are predictive of the in vivo profile. PMID:23438330

  13. Orvinols with mixed kappa/mu opioid receptor agonist activity.

    PubMed

    Greedy, Benjamin M; Bradbury, Faye; Thomas, Mark P; Grivas, Konstantinos; Cami-Kobeci, Gerta; Archambeau, Ashley; Bosse, Kelly; Clark, Mary J; Aceto, Mario; Lewis, John W; Traynor, John R; Husbands, Stephen M

    2013-04-25

    Dual-acting kappa opioid receptor (KOR) agonist and mu opioid receptor (MOR) partial agonist ligands have been put forward as potential treatment agents for cocaine and other psychostimulant abuse. Members of the orvinol series of ligands are known for their high binding affinity to both KOR and MOR, but efficacy at the individual receptors has not been thoroughly evaluated. In this study, it is shown that a predictive model for efficacy at KOR can be derived, with efficacy being controlled by the length of the group attached to C20 and by the introduction of branching into the side chain. In vivo evaluation of two ligands with the desired in vitro profile confirms both display KOR, and to a lesser extent MOR, activity in an analgesic assay suggesting that, in this series, in vitro measures of efficacy using the [(35)S]GTPγS assay are predictive of the in vivo profile.

  14. Insect Nicotinic Receptor Agonists as Flea Adulticides in Small Animals

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Dai Tan; Hsu, Walter H.; Martin, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Fleas are significant ectoparasites of small animals. They can be a severe irritant to animals and serve as a vector for a number of infectious diseases. In this article, we discuss the pharmacological characteristics of four insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists used as fleacides in dogs and cats, which include three neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, nitenpyram, and dinotefuran) and spinosad. Insect nAChR agonists are one of the most important new classes of insecticides, which are used to control sucking insects both on plants and on companion animals. These new compounds provide a new approach for practitioners to safely and effectively eliminate fleas. PMID:20646191

  15. Ligand Binding Ensembles Determine Graded Agonist Efficacies at a G Protein-coupled Receptor.

    PubMed

    Bock, Andreas; Bermudez, Marcel; Krebs, Fabian; Matera, Carlo; Chirinda, Brian; Sydow, Dominique; Dallanoce, Clelia; Holzgrabe, Ulrike; De Amici, Marco; Lohse, Martin J; Wolber, Gerhard; Mohr, Klaus

    2016-07-29

    G protein-coupled receptors constitute the largest family of membrane receptors and modulate almost every physiological process in humans. Binding of agonists to G protein-coupled receptors induces a shift from inactive to active receptor conformations. Biophysical studies of the dynamic equilibrium of receptors suggest that a portion of receptors can remain in inactive states even in the presence of saturating concentrations of agonist and G protein mimetic. However, the molecular details of agonist-bound inactive receptors are poorly understood. Here we use the model of bitopic orthosteric/allosteric (i.e. dualsteric) agonists for muscarinic M2 receptors to demonstrate the existence and function of such inactive agonist·receptor complexes on a molecular level. Using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, dynophores (i.e. a combination of static three-dimensional pharmacophores and molecular dynamics-based conformational sampling), ligand design, and receptor mutagenesis, we show that inactive agonist·receptor complexes can result from agonist binding to the allosteric vestibule alone, whereas the dualsteric binding mode produces active receptors. Each agonist forms a distinct ligand binding ensemble, and different agonist efficacies depend on the fraction of purely allosteric (i.e. inactive) versus dualsteric (i.e. active) binding modes. We propose that this concept may explain why agonist·receptor complexes can be inactive and that adopting multiple binding modes may be generalized also to small agonists where binding modes will be only subtly different and confined to only one binding site.

  16. Ligand Binding Ensembles Determine Graded Agonist Efficacies at a G Protein-coupled Receptor.

    PubMed

    Bock, Andreas; Bermudez, Marcel; Krebs, Fabian; Matera, Carlo; Chirinda, Brian; Sydow, Dominique; Dallanoce, Clelia; Holzgrabe, Ulrike; De Amici, Marco; Lohse, Martin J; Wolber, Gerhard; Mohr, Klaus

    2016-07-29

    G protein-coupled receptors constitute the largest family of membrane receptors and modulate almost every physiological process in humans. Binding of agonists to G protein-coupled receptors induces a shift from inactive to active receptor conformations. Biophysical studies of the dynamic equilibrium of receptors suggest that a portion of receptors can remain in inactive states even in the presence of saturating concentrations of agonist and G protein mimetic. However, the molecular details of agonist-bound inactive receptors are poorly understood. Here we use the model of bitopic orthosteric/allosteric (i.e. dualsteric) agonists for muscarinic M2 receptors to demonstrate the existence and function of such inactive agonist·receptor complexes on a molecular level. Using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, dynophores (i.e. a combination of static three-dimensional pharmacophores and molecular dynamics-based conformational sampling), ligand design, and receptor mutagenesis, we show that inactive agonist·receptor complexes can result from agonist binding to the allosteric vestibule alone, whereas the dualsteric binding mode produces active receptors. Each agonist forms a distinct ligand binding ensemble, and different agonist efficacies depend on the fraction of purely allosteric (i.e. inactive) versus dualsteric (i.e. active) binding modes. We propose that this concept may explain why agonist·receptor complexes can be inactive and that adopting multiple binding modes may be generalized also to small agonists where binding modes will be only subtly different and confined to only one binding site. PMID:27298318

  17. Structure of the agonist-bound neurotensin receptor.

    PubMed

    White, Jim F; Noinaj, Nicholas; Shibata, Yoko; Love, James; Kloss, Brian; Xu, Feng; Gvozdenovic-Jeremic, Jelena; Shah, Priyanka; Shiloach, Joseph; Tate, Christopher G; Grisshammer, Reinhard

    2012-10-25

    Neurotensin (NTS) is a 13-amino-acid peptide that functions as both a neurotransmitter and a hormone through the activation of the neurotensin receptor NTSR1, a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). In the brain, NTS modulates the activity of dopaminergic systems, opioid-independent analgesia, and the inhibition of food intake; in the gut, NTS regulates a range of digestive processes. Here we present the structure at 2.8 Å resolution of Rattus norvegicus NTSR1 in an active-like state, bound to NTS(8-13), the carboxy-terminal portion of NTS responsible for agonist-induced activation of the receptor. The peptide agonist binds to NTSR1 in an extended conformation nearly perpendicular to the membrane plane, with the C terminus oriented towards the receptor core. Our findings provide, to our knowledge, the first insight into the binding mode of a peptide agonist to a GPCR and may support the development of non-peptide ligands that could be useful in the treatment of neurological disorders, cancer and obesity.

  18. Octopaminergic agonists for the cockroach neuronal octopamine receptor

    PubMed Central

    Hirashima, Akinori; Morimoto, Masako; Kuwano, Eiichi; Eto, Morifusa

    2003-01-01

    The compounds 1-(2,6-diethylphenyl)imidazolidine-2-thione and 2-(2,6-diethylphenyl)imidazolidine showed the almost same activity as octopamine in stimulating adenylate cyclase of cockroach thoracic nervous system among 70 octopamine agonists, suggesting that only these compounds are full octopamine agonists and other compounds are partial octopamine agonists. The quantitative structure-activity relationship of a set of 22 octopamine agonists against receptor 2 in cockroach nervous tissue, was analyzed using receptor surface modeling. Three-dimensional energetics descriptors were calculated from receptor surface model/ligand interaction and these three-dimensional descriptors were used in quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis. A receptor surface model was generated using some subset of the most active structures and the results provided useful information in the characterization and differentiation of octopaminergic receptor. Abbreviation: AEA arylethanolamine AII 2-(arylimino)imidazolidine AIO 2-(arylimino)oxazolidine AIT 2-(arylimino)thiazolidine APAT 2-(α-phenylethylamino)-2-thiazoline BPAT 2-(β-phenylethylamino)-2-thiazoline CAO 2-(3-chlorobenzylamino)-2-oxazoline DCAO 2-(3,5-dichlorobenzylamino)-2-oxazoline DET5 2-(2,6-diethylphenylimino)-5-methylthiazolidine DET6 2-(2,6-diethylphenylimino)thiazine EGTA ethylene glycol bis(β-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid GFA genetic function approximation G/PLS genetic partial least squares IND 2-aminomethyl-2-indanol LAH lithium aluminum hydride MCSG maximum common subgroup MCT6 2-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenylimino)thiazine OA octopamine PLS partial least squares QSAR quantitative structure-activity relationship SBAT 2-(substituted benzylamino)-2-thiazoline SD the sum of squared deviations of the dependent variable values from their mean SPIT 3-(substituted phenyl)imidazolidine-2-thione THI 2-amino-1-(2-thiazoyl)ethanol TMS tetramethyl silane PMID:15841226

  19. Activation of endplate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by agonists.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, Anthony

    2015-10-15

    The interaction of a small molecule made in one cell with a large receptor made in another is the signature event of cell signaling. Understanding the structure and energy changes associated with agonist activation is important for engineering drugs, receptors and synapses. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) is a ∼300kD ion channel that binds the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) and other cholinergic agonists to elicit electrical responses in the central and peripheral nervous systems. This mini-review is in two sections. First, general concepts of skeletal muscle AChR operation are discussed in terms of energy landscapes for conformational change. Second, adult vs. fetal AChRs are compared with regard to interaction energies between ACh and agonist-site side chains, measured by single-channel electrophysiology and molecular dynamics simulations. The five aromatic residues that form the core of each agonist binding site can be divided into two working groups, a triad (led by αY190) that behaves similarly at all sites and a coupled pair (led by γW55) that has a large influence on affinity only in fetal AChRs. Each endplate AChR has 5 homologous subunits, two of α(1) and one each of β, δ, and either γ (fetal) or ϵ (adult). These nicotinic AChRs have only 2 functional agonist binding sites located in the extracellular domain, at αδ and either αγ or αϵ subunit interfaces. The receptor undergoes a reversible, global isomerization between structures called C and O. The C shape does not conduct ions and has a relatively low affinity for ACh, whereas O conducts cations and has a higher affinity. When both agonist sites are empty (filled only with water) the probability of taking on the O conformation (PO) is low, <10(-6). When ACh molecules occupy the agonist sites the C→O opening rate constant and C↔O gating equilibrium constant increase dramatically. Following a pulse of ACh at the nerve-muscle synapse, the endplate current rises rapidly

  20. Synthesis of fluorinated agonist of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Aliouane, Lucie; Chao, Sovy; Brizuela, Leyre; Pfund, Emmanuel; Cuvillier, Olivier; Jean, Ludovic; Renard, Pierre-Yves; Lequeux, Thierry

    2014-09-01

    The bioactive metabolite sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a product of sphingosine kinases (SphKs), mediates diverse biological processes such as cell differentiation, proliferation, survival and angiogenesis. A fluorinated analogue of S1P receptor agonist has been synthesized by utilizing a ring opening reaction of oxacycles by a lithiated difluoromethylphosphonate anion as the key reaction. In vitro activity of this S1P analogue is also reported.

  1. Improving the developability profile of pyrrolidine progesterone receptor partial agonists

    SciTech Connect

    Kallander, Lara S.; Washburn, David G.; Hoang, Tram H.; Frazee, James S.; Stoy, Patrick; Johnson, Latisha; Lu, Qing; Hammond, Marlys; Barton, Linda S.; Patterson, Jaclyn R.; Azzarano, Leonard M.; Nagilla, Rakesh; Madauss, Kevin P.; Williams, Shawn P.; Stewart, Eugene L.; Duraiswami, Chaya; Grygielko, Eugene T.; Xu, Xiaoping; Laping, Nicholas J.; Bray, Jeffrey D.; Thompson, Scott K.

    2010-09-17

    The previously reported pyrrolidine class of progesterone receptor partial agonists demonstrated excellent potency but suffered from serious liabilities including hERG blockade and high volume of distribution in the rat. The basic pyrrolidine amine was intentionally converted to a sulfonamide, carbamate, or amide to address these liabilities. The evaluation of the degree of partial agonism for these non-basic pyrrolidine derivatives and demonstration of their efficacy in an in vivo model of endometriosis is disclosed herein.

  2. Peripheral Adenosine A3 Receptor Activation Causes Regulated Hypothermia in Mice That Is Dependent on Central Histamine H1 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Carlin, Jesse Lea; Tosh, Dilip K.; Xiao, Cuiying; Piñol, Ramón A.; Chen, Zhoumou; Salvemini, Daniela; Gavrilova, Oksana; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine can induce hypothermia, as previously demonstrated for adenosine A1 receptor (A1AR) agonists. Here we use the potent, specific A3AR agonists MRS5698, MRS5841, and MRS5980 to show that adenosine also induces hypothermia via the A3AR. The hypothermic effect of A3AR agonists is independent of A1AR activation, as the effect was fully intact in mice lacking A1AR but abolished in mice lacking A3AR. A3AR agonist–induced hypothermia was attenuated by mast cell granule depletion, demonstrating that the A3AR hypothermia is mediated, at least in part, via mast cells. Central agonist dosing had no clear hypothermic effect, whereas peripheral dosing of a non–brain-penetrant agonist caused hypothermia, suggesting that peripheral A3AR-expressing cells drive the hypothermia. Mast cells release histamine, and blocking central histamine H1 (but not H2 or H4) receptors prevented the hypothermia. The hypothermia was preceded by hypometabolism and mice with hypothermia preferred a cooler environmental temperature, demonstrating that the hypothermic state is a coordinated physiologic response with a reduced body temperature set point. Importantly, hypothermia is not required for the analgesic effects of A3AR agonists, which occur with lower agonist doses. These results support a mechanistic model for hypothermia in which A3AR agonists act on peripheral mast cells, causing histamine release, which stimulates central histamine H1 receptors to induce hypothermia. This mechanism suggests that A3AR agonists will probably not be useful for clinical induction of hypothermia. PMID:26606937

  3. Narrow SAR in odorant sensing Orco receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Romaine, Ian M; Taylor, Robert W; Saidu, Samsudeen P; Kim, Kwangho; Sulikowski, Gary A; Zwiebel, Laurence J; Waterson, Alex G

    2014-06-15

    The systematic exploration of a series of triazole-based agonists of the cation channel insect odorant receptor is reported. The structure-activity relationships of independent sections of the molecules are examined. Very small changes to the compound structure were found to exert a large impact on compound activity. Optimal substitutions were combined using a 'mix-and-match' strategy to produce best-in-class compounds that are capable of potently agonizing odorant receptor activity and may form the basis for the identification of a new mode of insect behavior modification. PMID:24813736

  4. Estrogen Receptor Agonists and Antagonists in the Yeast Estrogen Bioassay.

    PubMed

    Wang, Si; Bovee, Toine F H

    2016-01-01

    Cell-based bioassays can be used to predict the eventual biological activity of a substance on a living organism. In vitro reporter gene bioassays are based on recombinant vertebrate cell lines or yeast strains and especially the latter are easy-to-handle, cheap, and fast. Moreover, yeast cells do not express estrogen, androgen, progesterone or glucocorticoid receptors, and are thus powerful tools in the development of specific reporter gene systems that are devoid of crosstalk from other hormone pathways. This chapter describes our experience with an in-house developed RIKILT yeast estrogen bioassay for testing estrogen receptor agonists and antagonists, focusing on the applicability of the latter. PMID:26585147

  5. Impact of Efficacy at the μ-Opioid Receptor on Antinociceptive Effects of Combinations of μ-Opioid Receptor Agonists and Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Cannabinoid receptor agonists, such as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), enhance the antinociceptive effects of μ-opioid receptor agonists, which suggests that combining cannabinoids with opioids would improve pain treatment. Combinations with lower efficacy agonists might be preferred and could avoid adverse effects associated with large doses; however, it is unclear whether interactions between opioids and cannabinoids vary across drugs with different efficacy. The antinociceptive effects of μ-opioid receptor agonists alone and in combination with cannabinoid receptor agonists were studied in rhesus monkeys (n = 4) using a warm water tail withdrawal procedure. Etorphine, fentanyl, morphine, buprenorphine, nalbuphine, Δ9-THC, and CP 55,940 (2-[(1R,2R,5R)-5-hydroxy-2-(3-hydroxypropyl) cyclohexyl]-5-(2-methyloctan-2-yl)phenol) each increased tail withdrawal latency. Pretreatment with doses of Δ9-THC (1.0 mg/kg) or CP 55,940 (0.032 mg/kg) that were ineffective alone shifted the fentanyl dose-effect curve leftward 20.6- and 52.9-fold, respectively, and the etorphine dose-effect curve leftward 12.4- and 19.6-fold, respectively. Δ9-THC and CP 55,940 shifted the morphine dose-effect curve leftward only 3.4- and 7.9-fold, respectively, and the buprenorphine curve only 5.4- and 4.1-fold, respectively. Neither Δ9-THC nor CP 55,940 significantly altered the effects of nalbuphine. Cannabinoid receptor agonists increase the antinociceptive potency of higher efficacy opioid receptor agonists more than lower efficacy agonists; however, because much smaller doses of each drug can be administered in combinations while achieving adequate pain relief and that other (e.g., abuse-related) effects of opioids do not appear to be enhanced by cannabinoids, these results provide additional support for combining opioids with cannabinoids to treat pain. PMID:25194020

  6. Pharmacology of the Adenosine A3 Receptor in the Vasculature and Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Ming-Fen; Low, Leanne M.; Rose’Meyer, Roselyn B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Essential hypertension is considered to be a multifactorial disorder and its aetiology has yet to be clearly identified. As the adenosine receptors have a significant role in mediating vasodilation, alterations in their structures or signalling pathways may be involved in the development of hypertension. This study aimed to measure the expression of adenosine A3 receptors in a range of cardiovascular tissues and determine whether they could be altered with essential hypertension, and to functionally test responses to adenosine A3 receptor agonists in coronary blood vessels using the isolated perfused heart preparation. Methods mRNA samples from cardiovascular tissues and a range of blood vessels were collected from 10 week old male spontaneously hypertensive rats and age-gender matched Wistar rats (n = 8). The Langendorff heart perfusion preparation was used to characterise adenosine A3 receptor mediated coronary vasodilation in the rat heart. Results Adenosine A3 receptor agonists induced coronary vasodilation. The expression of adenosine A3 receptors in cardiovascular tissues was altered in a tissue-specific pattern. Specifically, down-regulation of adenosine A3 receptor expression occurred in hypertensive hearts, which might be associated with attenuated vasodilator responses observed in coronary vessels to adenosine A3 receptor agonists. Conclusions This study demonstrated alterations in the expression of adenosine A3 receptors occurred in a tissue specific mode, and reduced adenosine A3 receptor mediated coronary vasodilation in hearts from spontaneously hypertensive rats. Our findings with regard to changes in the adenosine A3 receptor in hypertensive hearts suggest that adenosine A3 receptor might play a role in the physiopathology of essential hypertension and potentially open the way to pharmacologic manipulation of vasomotor activity by the use of adenosine A3 receptor agonists. PMID:26907173

  7. Additive antinociceptive effects of mixtures of the κ-opioid receptor agonist spiradoline and the cannabinoid receptor agonist CP55940 in rats.

    PubMed

    Maguire, David R; France, Charles P

    2016-02-01

    Pain is a significant clinical problem, and there is a need for pharmacotherapies that are more effective with fewer adverse effects than currently available medications. Cannabinoid receptor agonists enhance the antinociceptive effects of μ-opioid receptor agonists; it is unclear whether they impact the effects of agonists acting at other opioid receptors. κ-Opioid receptor agonists have antinociceptive effects, but their clinical use is precluded by adverse effects; however, their therapeutic potential might be realized if antinociceptive effects could be selectively enhanced. In this study, the antinociceptive effects of the cannabinoid receptor agonist CP55940 and the κ-opioid receptor agonist spiradoline, alone and in combination, were studied in rats (n=7) using a warm water tail-withdrawal procedure. When administered alone, CP55940 (0.032-1.0 mg/kg) and spiradoline (1.0-32.0 mg/kg) increased tail-withdrawal latency, and mixtures of CP55940 and spiradoline (ratios of 1 : 3, 1 : 1, and 3 : 1) produced additive effects. It remains to be determined whether this additive interaction between a κ-opioid receptor agonist and a cannabinoid receptor agonist is selective for antinociception and whether it can be generalized to other drugs. PMID:26292184

  8. Identification of agonists for a group of human odorant receptors

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Kristeller, Daniela C.; do Nascimento, João B. P.; Galante, Pedro A. F.; Malnic, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    Olfaction plays a critical role in several aspects of the human life. Odorants are detected by hundreds of odorant receptors (ORs) which belong to the superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors. These receptors are expressed in the olfactory sensory neurons of the nose. The information provided by the activation of different combinations of ORs in the nose is transmitted to the brain, leading to odorant perception and emotional and behavioral responses. There are ~400 intact human ORs, and to date only a small percentage of these receptors (~10%) have known agonists. The determination of the specificity of the human ORs will contribute to a better understanding of how odorants are discriminated by the olfactory system. In this work, we aimed to identify human specific ORs, that is, ORs that are present in humans but absent from other species, and their corresponding agonists. To do this, we first selected 22 OR gene sequences from the human genome with no counterparts in the mouse, rat or dog genomes. Then we used a heterologous expression system to screen a subset of these human ORs against a panel of odorants of biological relevance, including foodborne aroma volatiles. We found that different types of odorants are able to activate some of these previously uncharacterized human ORs. PMID:25784876

  9. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of novel indazolyl glucocorticoid receptor partial agonists.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, John L; Sheppeck, James E; Wang, Jim; Dhar, T G Murali; Cavallaro, Cullen; Doweyko, Arthur M; Mckay, Lorraine; Cunningham, Mark D; Habte, Sium F; Nadler, Steven G; Dodd, John H; Somerville, John E; Barrish, Joel C

    2013-10-01

    SAR was used to further develop an indazole class of non-steroidal glucocorticoid receptor agonists aided by a GR LBD (ligand-binding domain)-agonist co-crystal structure described in the accompanying paper. Progress towards discovering a dissociated GR agonist guided by human in vitro assays biased the optimization of this compound series towards partial agonists that possessed excellent selectivity against other nuclear hormone receptors. PMID:23916594

  10. Agonist induced constitutive receptor activation as a novel regulatory mechanism. Mu receptor regulation.

    PubMed

    Sadée, W; Wang, Z

    1995-01-01

    We propose the hypothesis that certain G protein coupled receptors can become constitutively activated during agonist stimulation so that the receptor remains active even after the agonist is removed. This new paradigm of receptor regulation may account for some long term effects of neurotransmitters and hormones. We have tested the hypothesis that constitutive mu receptor activation represents a crucial step driving narcotic tolerance and dependence. Our results indeed support the conversion of mu to a constitutively active state, mu*, observed in neuroblastoma SK-N-SH and SH-SY5Y tissue culture, in U293 cells transfected with the mu receptor gene, and in vivo. Constitutive mu activation may result from receptor phosphorylation to yield mu*, and further, in vivo studies indicate that formation of mu* could account for narcotic tolerance and dependence.

  11. Agonist Derived Molecular Probes for A2A Adenosine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Pannell, Lewis K.; Ji, Xiao-duo; Jarvis, Michael F.; Williams, Michael; Hutchison, Alan J.; Barrington, William W.; Stiles, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    The adenosine agonist 2-(4-(2-carboxyethyl)phenylethylamino)-5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS21680) was recently reported to be selective for the A2A adenosine receptor subtype, which mediates its hypotensive action. To investigate structurelactivity relationships at a distal site, CGS21680 was derivatized using a functionalized congener approach. The carboxylic group of CGS21680 has been esterified to form a methyl ester, which was then treated with ethylenediamine to produce an amine congener. The amine congener was an intermediate for acylation reactions, in which the reactive acyl species contained a reported group, or the precursor for such. For radioiodination, derivatives of p-hydroxyphenylpropionic, 2-thiophenylacetic, and p-aminophenylacetic acids were prepared. The latter derivative (PAPA-APEC) was iodinated electrophilically using [125I]iodide resulting in a radioligand which was used for studies of competition of binding to striatal A, adenosine receptors in bovine brain. A biotin conjugate and an aryl sulfonate were at least 350-fold selective for A, receptors. For spectroscopic detection, a derivative of the stable free radical tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO) was prepared. For irreversible inhibition of receptors, meta- and para-phenylenediisothiocyanate groups were incorporated in the analogs. We have demonstrated that binding at A2A receptors is relatively insensitive to distal structural changes at the 2-position, and we report high affinity molecular probes for receptor characterization by radioactive, spectroscopic and affinity labelling methodology. PMID:2561548

  12. Hypotensive effects of ghrelin receptor agonists mediated through a novel receptor

    PubMed Central

    Callaghan, Brid; Kosari, Samin; Pustovit, Ruslan V; Sartor, Daniela M; Ferens, Dorota; Ban, Kung; Baell, Jonathan; Nguyen, Trung V; Rivera, Leni R; Brock, James A; Furness, John B

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Some agonists of ghrelin receptors cause rapid decreases in BP. The mechanisms by which they cause hypotension and the pharmacology of the receptors are unknown. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The effects of ligands of ghrelin receptors were investigated in rats in vivo, on isolated blood vessels and on cells transfected with the only molecularly defined ghrelin receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR1a). KEY RESULTS Three agonists of GHSR1a receptors, ulimorelin, capromorelin and CP464709, caused a rapid decrease in BP in the anaesthetized rat. The effect was not reduced by either of two GHSR1a antagonists, JMV2959 or YIL781, at doses that blocked effects on colorectal motility, in vivo. The rapid hypotension was not mimicked by ghrelin, unacylated ghrelin or the unacylated ghrelin receptor agonist, AZP531. The early hypotension preceded a decrease in sympathetic nerve activity. Early hypotension was not reduced by hexamethonium or by baroreceptor (sino-aortic) denervation. Ulimorelin also relaxed isolated segments of rat mesenteric artery, and, less potently, relaxed aorta segments. The vascular relaxation was not reduced by JMV2959 or YIL781. Ulimorelin, capromorelin and CP464709 activated GHSR1a in transfected HEK293 cells at nanomolar concentrations. JMV2959 and YIL781 both antagonized effects in these cells, with their pA2 values at the GHSR1a receptor being 6.55 and 7.84. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Our results indicate a novel vascular receptor or receptors whose activation by ulimorelin, capromorelin and CP464709 lowered BP. This receptor is activated by low MW GHSR1a agonists, but is not activated by ghrelin. PMID:24670149

  13. Newspapers and newspaper ink contain agonists for the ah receptor.

    PubMed

    Bohonowych, Jessica E S; Zhao, Bin; Timme-Laragy, Alicia; Jung, Dawoon; Di Giulio, Richard T; Denison, Michael S

    2008-04-01

    Ligand-dependent activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway leads to a diverse array of biological and toxicological effects. The best-studied ligands for the AhR include polycyclic and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, the most potent of which is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). However, as new AhR ligands are identified and characterized, their structural and physiochemical diversity continues to expand. Our identification of AhR agonists in crude extracts from diverse materials raises questions as to the magnitude and extent of human exposure to AhR ligands through normal daily activities. We have found that solvent extracts of newspapers from countries around the world stimulate the AhR signaling pathway. AhR agonist activity was observed for dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethanol, and water extracts of printed newspaper, unprinted virgin paper, and black printing ink, where activation of luciferase reporter gene expression was transient, suggesting that the AhR active chemical(s) was metabolically labile. DMSO and ethanol extracts also stimulated AhR transformation and DNA binding, and also competed with [(3)H]TCDD for binding to the AhR. In addition, DMSO extracts of printed newspaper induced cytochrome P450 1A associated 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity in zebrafish embryos in vivo. Although the responsible bioactive chemical(s) remain to be identified, our results demonstrate that newspapers and printing ink contain relatively potent metabolically labile agonists of the AhR. Given the large amount of recycling and reprocessing of newspapers throughout the world, release of these easily extractable AhR agonists into the environment should be examined and their potential effects on aquatic organisms assessed. PMID:18203687

  14. [Safety and tolerability of GLP-1 receptor agonists].

    PubMed

    Soldevila, Berta; Puig-Domingo, Manel

    2014-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1ra) are a new group of drugs with a glucose-lowering action due to their incretin effect. The GLP-1 receptor is expressed in various human tissues, which could be related to the pleiotropic effects of human GLP-1, as well as to the adverse effects described in patients treated with GLP-1ra. The risk of hypoglycaemia is low, which is one of the main considerations in the safety of this family of compounds and is also important to patients with diabetes. The most frequent adverse effect is nausea, which usually occurs at the start of treatment and is transient in 20-60% of affected patients. This article also reviews the information available on antibody formation, the potential effect on the thyroid gland, and the controversial association between this group of drugs with pancreatitis and cancer.

  15. [Safety and tolerability of GLP-1 receptor agonists].

    PubMed

    Soldevila, Berta; Puig-Domingo, Manel

    2014-09-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1ra) are a new group of drugs with a glucose-lowering action due to their incretin effect. The GLP-1 receptor is expressed in various human tissues, which could be related to the pleiotropic effects of human GLP-1, as well as to the adverse effects described in patients treated with GLP-1ra. The risk of hypoglycaemia is low, which is one of the main considerations in the safety of this family of compounds and is also important to patients with diabetes. The most frequent adverse effect is nausea, which usually occurs at the start of treatment and is transient in 20-60% of affected patients. This article also reviews the information available on antibody formation, the potential effect on the thyroid gland, and the controversial association between this group of drugs with pancreatitis and cancer.

  16. Role of A3 adenosine receptor in diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Yan, Heng; Zhang, Enshui; Feng, Chang; Zhao, Xin

    2016-10-01

    Neuropathy is the most common diabetic complication. Although the A1 and A2A adenosine receptors are important pharmacological targets in alleviating diabetic neuropathy, the role of the A3 adenosine receptor remains unknown. Because the A3 adenosine receptor regulates pain induced by chronic constriction injury or chemotherapy, its stimulation might also attenuate diabetic neuropathy. This study examines the effects of systemic treatment with the A3 adenosine receptor agonist 1-deoxy-1-[6-[[(3-iodophenyl)methyl]amino]-9H-purin-9-yl]-N-methyl-β-d-ribofuranuronamide (IB-MECA) on diabetic neuropathy and explores the putative mechanisms underlying its pharmacological effects. We show that IB-MECA alleviated mechanical hyperalgesia and thermal hypoalgesia in mice 2 weeks but not 4 weeks after streptozocin (STZ) treatment. Furthermore, IB-MECA prevented the reduction in sciatic motor nerve conduction velocity and sensory nerve conduction velocity in diabetic mice 2 weeks but not 4 weeks after STZ treatment. Similarly, IB-MECA inhibited the activation of nuclear factor-κB and decreased the generation of tumor necrosis factor-α in the spinal cord of mice 2 weeks but not 4 weeks after STZ treatment. These phenomena were associated with reduction of A3 adenosine receptor expression in the spinal cord after long-term diabetes. Our results suggest that the A3 adenosine receptor plays a critical role in regulating diabetic neuropathy and that reduction in A3 adenosine receptor expression/function might contribute to the progression of diabetic neuropathy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Comparative receptor surface analysis of agonists for tyramine receptor which inhibit sex-pheromone production in Plodia interpunctella.

    PubMed

    Hirashima, A; Eiraku, T; Kuwano, E; Eto, M

    2004-03-01

    The quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) of a set of 29 agonists for tyramine (TA) receptor responsible for the inhibition of sex-pheromone production in Plodia interpunctella, was analyzed using comparative receptor surface analysis (CoRSA). Using the common steric and electrostatic features of the most active members of a series of compounds, CoRSA generated a virtual receptor model, represented as points on a surface complementary to the van der Waals or Wyvill steric surface of the aligned compounds. Three-dimensional energetics descriptors were calculated from receptor surface model (RSM)/ligand interaction and these three-dimensional descriptors were used in genetic partial least squares data analysis to generate a QSAR model, giving a 3D QSAR with r(2)=0.969 for calibration and CV- r(2)=0.635 for the leave-one-out cross validation.

  18. Therapeutic applications of TRAIL receptor agonists in cancer and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Amarante-Mendes, Gustavo P.; Griffith, Thomas S.

    2016-01-01

    TRAIL/Apo-2L is a member of the TNF superfamily first described as an apoptosis-inducing cytokine in 1995. Similar to TNF and Fas ligand, TRAIL induces apoptosis in caspase-dependent manner following TRAIL death receptor trimerization. Because tumor cells were shown to be particularly sensitive to this cytokine while normal cells/tissues proved to be resistant along with being able to synthesize and release TRAIL, it was rapidly appreciated that TRAIL likely served as one of our major physiologic weapons against cancer. In line with this, a number of research laboratories and pharmaceutical companies have attempted to exploit the ability of TRAIL to kill cancer cells by developing recombinant forms of TRAIL or TRAIL receptor agonists (e.g., receptor-specific mAb) for therapeutic purposes. In this review article we will describe the biochemical pathways used by TRAIL to induce different cell death programs. We will also summarize the clinical trials related to this pathway and discuss possible novel uses of TRAIL-related therapies. In recent years, the physiological importance of TRAIL has expanded beyond being a tumoricidal molecule to one critical for a number of clinical settings — ranging from infectious disease and autoimmunity to cardiovascular anomalies. We will also highlight some of these conditions where modulation of the TRAIL/TRAIL receptor system may be targeted in the future. PMID:26343199

  19. Glyoxalase 1 increases anxiety by reducing GABAA receptor agonist methylglyoxal

    PubMed Central

    Distler, Margaret G.; Plant, Leigh D.; Sokoloff, Greta; Hawk, Andrew J.; Aneas, Ivy; Wuenschell, Gerald E.; Termini, John; Meredith, Stephen C.; Nobrega, Marcelo A.; Palmer, Abraham A.

    2012-01-01

    Glyoxalase 1 (Glo1) expression has previously been associated with anxiety in mice; however, its role in anxiety is controversial, and the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that GLO1 increases anxiety by reducing levels of methylglyoxal (MG), a GABAA receptor agonist. Mice overexpressing Glo1 on a Tg bacterial artificial chromosome displayed increased anxiety-like behavior and reduced brain MG concentrations. Treatment with low doses of MG reduced anxiety-like behavior, while higher doses caused locomotor depression, ataxia, and hypothermia, which are characteristic effects of GABAA receptor activation. Consistent with these data, we found that physiological concentrations of MG selectively activated GABAA receptors in primary neurons. These data indicate that GLO1 increases anxiety by reducing levels of MG, thereby decreasing GABAA receptor activation. More broadly, our findings potentially link metabolic state, neuronal inhibitory tone, and behavior. Finally, we demonstrated that pharmacological inhibition of GLO1 reduced anxiety, suggesting that GLO1 is a possible target for the treatment of anxiety disorders. PMID:22585572

  20. Therapeutic applications of TRAIL receptor agonists in cancer and beyond.

    PubMed

    Amarante-Mendes, Gustavo P; Griffith, Thomas S

    2015-11-01

    TRAIL/Apo-2L is a member of the TNF superfamily first described as an apoptosis-inducing cytokine in 1995. Similar to TNF and Fas ligand, TRAIL induces apoptosis in caspase-dependent manner following TRAIL death receptor trimerization. Because tumor cells were shown to be particularly sensitive to this cytokine while normal cells/tissues proved to be resistant along with being able to synthesize and release TRAIL, it was rapidly appreciated that TRAIL likely served as one of our major physiologic weapons against cancer. In line with this, a number of research laboratories and pharmaceutical companies have attempted to exploit the ability of TRAIL to kill cancer cells by developing recombinant forms of TRAIL or TRAIL receptor agonists (e.g., receptor-specific mAb) for therapeutic purposes. In this review article we will describe the biochemical pathways used by TRAIL to induce different cell death programs. We will also summarize the clinical trials related to this pathway and discuss possible novel uses of TRAIL-related therapies. In recent years, the physiological importance of TRAIL has expanded beyond being a tumoricidal molecule to one critical for a number of clinical settings - ranging from infectious disease and autoimmunity to cardiovascular anomalies. We will also highlight some of these conditions where modulation of the TRAIL/TRAIL receptor system may be targeted in the future.

  1. Identification of Determinants Required for Agonistic and Inverse Agonistic Ligand Properties at the ADP Receptor P2Y12

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Philipp; Ritscher, Lars; Dong, Elizabeth N.; Hermsdorf, Thomas; Cöster, Maxi; Wittkopf, Doreen; Meiler, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The ADP receptor P2Y12 belongs to the superfamily of G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), and its activation triggers platelet aggregation. Therefore, potent antagonists, such as clopidogrel, are of high clinical relevance in prophylaxis and treatment of thromboembolic events. P2Y12 displays an elevated basal activity in vitro, and as such, inverse agonists may be therapeutically beneficial compared with antagonists. Only a few inverse agonists of P2Y12 have been described. To expand this limited chemical space and improve understanding of structural determinants of inverse agonist-receptor interaction, this study screened a purine compound library for lead structures using wild-type (WT) human P2Y12 and 28 constitutively active mutants. Results showed that ATP and ATP derivatives are agonists at P2Y12. The potency at P2Y12 was 2-(methylthio)-ADP > 2-(methylthio)-ATP > ADP > ATP. Determinants required for agonistic ligand activity were identified. Molecular docking studies revealed a binding pocket for the ATP derivatives that is bordered by transmembrane helices 3, 5, 6, and 7 in human P2Y12, with Y105, E188, R256, Y259, and K280 playing a particularly important role in ligand interaction. N-Methyl-anthraniloyl modification at the 3′-OH of the 2′-deoxyribose leads to ligands (mant-deoxy-ATP [dATP], mant-deoxy-ADP) with inverse agonist activity. Inverse agonist activity of mant-dATP was found at the WT human P2Y12 and half of the constitutive active P2Y12 mutants. This study showed that, in addition to ADP and ATP, other ATP derivatives are not only ligands of P2Y12 but also agonists. Modification of the ribose within ATP can result in inverse activity of ATP-derived ligands. PMID:23093496

  2. Different serotonin receptor agonists have distinct effects on sound-evoked responses in inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Laura M

    2006-11-01

    The neuromodulator serotonin has a complex set of effects on the auditory responses of neurons within the inferior colliculus (IC), a midbrain auditory nucleus that integrates a wide range of inputs from auditory and nonauditory sources. To determine whether activation of different types of serotonin receptors is a source of the variability in serotonergic effects, four selective agonists of serotonin receptors in the serotonin (5-HT) 1 and 5-HT2 families were iontophoretically applied to IC neurons, which were monitored for changes in their responses to auditory stimuli. Different agonists had different effects on neural responses. The 5-HT1A agonist had mixed facilitatory and depressive effects, whereas 5-HT1B and 5-HT2C agonists were both largely facilitatory. Different agonists changed threshold and frequency tuning in ways that reflected their effects on spike count. When pairs of agonists were applied sequentially to the same neurons, selective agonists sometimes affected neurons in ways that were similar to serotonin, but not to other selective agonists tested. Different agonists also differentially affected groups of neurons classified by the shapes of their frequency-tuning curves, with serotonin and the 5-HT1 receptors affecting proportionally more non-V-type neurons relative to the other agonists tested. In all, evidence suggests that the diversity of serotonin receptor subtypes in the IC is likely to account for at least some of the variability of the effects of serotonin and that receptor subtypes fulfill specialized roles in auditory processing. PMID:16870843

  3. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist attenuates ILC2-dependent airway hyperreactivity

    PubMed Central

    Galle-Treger, Lauriane; Suzuki, Yuzo; Patel, Nisheel; Sankaranarayanan, Ishwarya; Aron, Jennifer L.; Maazi, Hadi; Chen, Lin; Akbari, Omid

    2016-01-01

    Allergic asthma is a complex and chronic inflammatory disorder that is associated with airway hyperreactivity (AHR) and driven by Th2 cytokine secretion. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) produce large amounts of Th2 cytokines and contribute to the development of AHR. Here, we show that ILC2s express the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR), which is thought to have an anti-inflammatory role in several inflammatory diseases. We show that engagement of a specific agonist with α7nAChR on ILC2s reduces ILC2 effector function and represses ILC2-dependent AHR, while decreasing expression of ILC2 key transcription factor GATA-3 and critical inflammatory modulator NF-κB, and reducing phosphorylation of upstream kinase IKKα/β. Additionally, the specific α7nAChR agonist reduces cytokine production and AHR in a humanized ILC2 mouse model. Collectively, our data suggest that α7nAChR expressed by ILC2s is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of ILC2-mediated asthma. PMID:27752043

  4. Proopiomelanocortin Deficiency Treated with a Melanocortin-4 Receptor Agonist.

    PubMed

    Kühnen, Peter; Clément, Karine; Wiegand, Susanna; Blankenstein, Oliver; Gottesdiener, Keith; Martini, Lea L; Mai, Knut; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Grüters, Annette; Krude, Heiko

    2016-07-21

    Patients with rare defects in the gene encoding proopiomelanocortin (POMC) have extreme early-onset obesity, hyperphagia, hypopigmentation, and hypocortisolism, resulting from the lack of the proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides melanocyte-stimulating hormone and corticotropin. In such patients, adrenal insufficiency must be treated with hydrocortisone early in life. No effective pharmacologic treatments have been available for the hyperphagia and obesity that characterize the condition. In this investigator-initiated, open-label study, two patients with proopiomelanocortin deficiency were treated with setmelanotide, a new melanocortin-4 receptor agonist. The patients had a sustainable reduction in hunger and substantial weight loss (51.0 kg after 42 weeks in Patient 1 and 20.5 kg after 12 weeks in Patient 2). PMID:27468060

  5. Antiinfective applications of toll-like receptor 9 agonists.

    PubMed

    Krieg, Arthur M

    2007-07-01

    The innate immune system detects pathogens by the presence of highly conserved pathogen-expressed molecules, which trigger host immune defenses. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 detects unmethylated CpG dinucleotides in bacterial or viral DNA, and can be stimulated for therapeutic applications with synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides containing immune stimulatory "CpG motifs." TLR9 activation induces both innate and adaptive immunity. The TLR9-induced innate immune activation can be applied in the prevention or treatment of infectious diseases, and the adaptive immune-enhancing effects can be harnessed for improving vaccines. This article highlights the current understanding of the mechanism of action of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides, and provides an overview of the preclinical data and early human clinical trial results, applying these TLR9 agonists in the field of infectious diseases. PMID:17607015

  6. Recent advances in the development of farnesoid X receptor agonists

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Elizabeth J.; Lindor, Keith D.

    2015-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptors (FXRs) are nuclear hormone receptors expressed in high amounts in body tissues that participate in bilirubin metabolism including the liver, intestines, and kidneys. Bile acids (BAs) are the natural ligands of the FXRs. FXRs regulate the expression of the gene encoding for cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase, which is the rate-limiting enzyme in BA synthesis. In addition, FXRs play a critical role in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and regulation of insulin sensitivity. FXRs also modulate live growth and regeneration during liver injury. Preclinical studies have shown that FXR activation protects against cholestasis-induced liver injury. Moreover, FXR activation protects against fatty liver injury in animal models of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and improved hyperlipidemia, glucose intolerance, and insulin sensitivity. Obeticholic acid (OCA), a 6α-ethyl derivative of the natural human BA chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) is the first-in-class selective FXR agonist that is ~100-fold more potent than CDCA. Preliminary human clinical trials have shown that OCA is safe and effective. In a phase II clinical trial, administration of OCA was well-tolerated, increased insulin sensitivity and reduced markers of liver inflammation and fibrosis in patients with type II diabetes mellitus and NAFLD. In two clinical trials of OCA in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), a progressive cholestatic liver disease, OCA significantly reduced serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels, an important disease marker that correlates well with clinical outcomes of patients with PBC. Together, these studies suggest that FXR agonists could potentially be used as therapeutic tools in patients suffering from nonalcoholic fatty and cholestatic liver diseases. Larger and Longer-term studies are currently ongoing. PMID:25705637

  7. Mixed Kappa/Mu Opioid Receptor Agonists: The 6β-Naltrexamines

    PubMed Central

    Cami-Kobeci, Gerta; Neal, Adrian P.; Bradbury, Faye A.; Purington, Lauren C.; Aceto, Mario D.; Harris, Louis S.; Lewis, John W.; Traynor, John R.; Husbands, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    Ligands from the naltrexamine series have consistently demonstrated agonist activity at kappa opioid receptors (KOR), with varying activity at the mu opioid receptor (MOR). Various 6β-cinnamoylamino derivatives were made with the aim of generating ligands with a KOR agonist/MOR partial agonist profile, as ligands with this activity may be of interest as treatment agents for cocaine abuse. The ligands all displayed the desired high affinity, non-selective binding in vitro and in the functional assays were high efficacy KOR agonists with some partial agonist activity at MOR. Two of the new ligands (12a, 12b) have been evaluated in vivo, with 12a acting as a KOR agonist, and therefore somewhat similar to the previously evaluated analogues 3–6, while 12b displayed predominant MOR agonist activity. PMID:19253970

  8. Liver X Receptor and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Agonist from Cornus alternifolia

    PubMed Central

    He, Yang-Qing; Ma, Guo-Yi; Peng, Jiang-nan; Ma, Zhan-Ying; Hamann, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) belong to the nuclear receptors superfamily and are transcription factors activated by specific ligands. Liver X receptors (LXR) belong to the nuclear hormone receptors and have been shown to play an important role in cholesterol homeostasis. From the previous screening of several medicinal plants for potential partial PPARγ agonists, the extracts of Cornus alternifolia were found to exhibit promising bioactivity. In this paper, we report the isolation and structural elucidation of four new compounds and their potential as ligands for PPAR. Methods The new compounds were extracted from the leaves of Cornus alternifolia and fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and analysis of their hydrolysis products. Results Three new iridoid glycosides including an iridolactone, alternosides A-C (1–3), a new megastigmane glycoside, cornalternoside (4) and 10 known compounds, were obtained from the leaves of Cornus alternifolia. Kaempferol-3-O-β-glucopyranoside (5) exhibited potent agonistic activities for PPARα, PPARγ and LXR with EC50 values of 0.62, 3.0 and 1.8 μ M, respectively. Conclusions We isolated four new and ten known compounds from Cornus alternifolia, and one known compound showed agonistic activities for PPARα, PPARγ and LXR. General significance Compound 1 is the first example of a naturally occurring iridoid glycoside containing a β-glucopyranoside moiety at C-6. PMID:22353334

  9. Dihydromorphine-peptide hybrids with delta receptor agonistic and mu receptor antagonistic actions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.B.; Medzihradsky, F.; Woods, J.H.

    1986-03-05

    The actions of two morphine derivatives with short peptide side chains were evaluated upon the contraction of the isolated mouse vas deferens and upon displacement of /sup 3/H-etorphine from rat brain membranes. NIH-9833 (N-(6,14-endoetheno-7,8-dihydromorphine-7-alpha-carbonyl)-L-phenylalanyl-L-leucine ethyl ester HCl) was a potent agonist upon the vas deferens. Its EC50 for inhibition of the twitch was 1.2 +/- 0.1 nM. Both naltrexone (10/sup -7/ M) a relatively nonselective opioid antagonist, and ICI-174864 (10/sup -/' M) a highly selective delta receptor antagonist, blocked the actions of NIH-9833 which indicates that this drug is a delta receptor agonist. In contrast, NIH-9835 (N-(6,14-endoetheno-7,8-dihydromorphine-7-alpha-carbonyl)-L-glycyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-leucine ethyl ester HCl), which differs from NIH-9835 by the presence of a single amino acid residue, was devoid of opioid agonistic activity but was a potent antagonist of the inhibitory actions on the vas deferens of morphine and sufentanil. NIH-9833 and NIH-9835 were potent displacers of /sup 3/H-etorphine from rat cerebral membranes with EC50's of 0.58 nM and 1.7 nM, respectively. The observation that addition of a single glycyl group changes a dihydromorphine-peptide analog from a potent delta receptor agonist to an equally potent mu receptor antagonist suggests that the two receptor sites might be structurally quite similar.

  10. Development of novel silicon-containing inverse agonists of retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors.

    PubMed

    Toyama, Hirozumi; Nakamura, Masaharu; Nakamura, Masahiko; Matsumoto, Yotaro; Nakagomi, Madoka; Hashimoto, Yuichi

    2014-03-15

    Retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-related orphan receptors (RORs) regulate a variety of physiological processes, including hepatic gluconeogenesis, lipid metabolism, circadian rhythm and immune function. The RAR agonist: all-trans retinoic acid was reported to be an RORβ inverse agonist, but no information is available regarding ROR activity of its synthetic analogue Am580. Therefore, we screened Am580 and some related tetramethyltetrahydronaphthalene derivatives and carried out structural development studies, including substitution of carbon atoms with silicon, with the aim of creating a potent ROR transcriptional inhibitor. The phenyl amide disila compound 22 showed the most potent ROR-inhibitory activity among the compounds examined. Its activity towards RORα, RORβ and RORγ was increased compared to that of Am580. The IC₅₀ values for RORα, RORβ and RORγ are 1.3, >10 and 4.5 μM, respectively.

  11. Effect of a toggle switch mutation in TM6 of the human adenosine A3 receptor on Gi protein-dependent signalling and Gi-independent receptor internalization

    PubMed Central

    Stoddart, Leigh A; Kellam, Barrie; Briddon, Stephen J; Hill, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The highly conserved tryptophan (W6.48) in transmembrane domain 6 of GPCRs has been shown to play a central role in forming an active conformation in response to agonist binding. We set out to characterize the effect of this mutation on the efficacy of two agonists at multiple signalling pathways downstream of the adenosine A3 receptor. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Residue W6.48 in the human adenosine A3 receptor fused to yellow fluorescent protein was mutated to phenylalanine and expressed in CHO-K1 cells containing a cAMP response element reporter gene. The effects on agonist-mediated receptor internalization were monitored by automated confocal microscopy and image analysis. Further experiments were carried out to investigate agonist-mediated ERK1/2 phosphorylation, inhibition of [3H]-cAMP accumulation and β-arrestin2 binding. KEY RESULTS NECA was able to stimulate agonist-mediated internalization of the W6.48F mutant receptor, while the agonist HEMADO was inactive. Investigation of other downstream signalling pathways indicated that G-protein coupling was impaired for both agonists tested. Mutation of W6.48F therefore resulted in differential effects on agonist efficacy, and introduced signalling pathway bias for HEMADO at the adenosine A3 receptor. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Investigation of the pharmacology of the W6.48F mutant of the adenosine A3 receptor confirms that this region is important in forming the active conformation of the receptor for stimulating a number of different signalling pathways and that mutations in this residue can lead to changes in agonist efficacy and signalling bias. PMID:24750014

  12. Meclizine is an agonist ligand for mouse constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and an inverse agonist for human CAR.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wendong; Zhang, Jun; Wei, Ping; Schrader, William T; Moore, David D

    2004-10-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) is a key regulator of xenobiotic and endobiotic metabolism. The ligand-binding domains of murine (m) and human (h) CAR are divergent relative to other nuclear hormone receptors, resulting in species-specific differences in xenobiotic responses. Here we identify the widely used antiemetic meclizine (Antivert; Bonine) as both an agonist ligand for mCAR and an inverse agonist for hCAR. Meclizine increases mCAR transactivation in a dose-dependent manner. Like the mCAR agonist 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene, meclizine stimulates binding of steroid receptor coactivator 1 to the murine receptor in vitro. Meclizine administration to mice increases expression of CAR target genes in a CAR-dependent manner. In contrast, meclizine suppresses hCAR transactivation and inhibits the phenobarbital-induced expression of the CAR target genes, cytochrome p450 monooxygenase (CYP)2B10, CYP3A11, and CYP1A2, in primary hepatocytes derived from mice expressing hCAR, but not mCAR. The inhibitory effect of meclizine also suppresses acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity in humanized CAR mice. These results demonstrate that a single compound can induce opposite xenobiotic responses via orthologous receptors in rodents and humans. PMID:15272053

  13. Intrinsic relative activities of κ opioid agonists in activating Gα proteins and internalizing receptor: Differences between human and mouse receptors.

    PubMed

    DiMattio, Kelly M; Ehlert, Frederick J; Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan

    2015-08-15

    Several investigators recently identified biased κ opioid receptor (KOP receptor) agonists. However, no comprehensive study of the functional selectivity of available KOP receptor agonists at the human and mouse KOP receptors (hKOP receptor and mKOP receptor, respectively) has been published. Here we examined the ability of over 20 KOP receptor agonists to activate G proteins and to internalize the receptor. Clonal neuro-2a mouse neuroblastoma (N2a) cells stably transfected with the hKOP receptor or mKOP receptor were used. We employed agonist-induced [(35)S]GTPγS binding and KOP receptor internalization as measures of activation of G protein and β-arrestin pathways, respectively. The method of Ehlert and colleagues was used to quantify intrinsic relative activities at G protein activation (RAi-G) and receptor internalization (RAi-I) and the degree of functional selectivity between the two [Log RAi-G - logRAi-I, RAi-G/RAi-I and bias factor]. The parameter, RAi, represents a relative estimate of agonist affinity for the active receptor state that elicits a given response. The endogenous ligand dynorphin A (1-17) was designated as the balanced ligand with a bias factor of 1. Interestingly, we found that there were species differences in functional selectivity. The most striking differences were for 12-epi-salvinorin A, U69,593, and ICI-199,441. 12-Epi-salvinorin A was highly internalization-biased at the mKOP receptor, but apparently G protein-biased at hKOP receptor. U69,593 was much more internalization-biased at mKOP receptor than hKOP receptor. ICI199,441 showed internalization-biased at the mKOP receptor and G protein-biased at the hKOP receptor. Possible mechanisms for the observed species differences are discussed.

  14. Intrinsic Relative Activities of Opioid Agonists in Activating Gα proteins and Internalizing Receptor: Differences between Human and Mouse Receptors

    PubMed Central

    DiMattio, Kelly M.; Ehlert, Frederick J.; Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Several investigators recently identified biased opioid receptor (KOP receptor) agonists. However, no comprehensive study of the functional selectivity of available KOP receptor agonists at the human and mouse KOP receptors (hKOP receptor and mKOP receptor, respectively) has been published. Here we examined the ability of over 20 KOP receptor agonists to activate G proteins and to internalize the receptor. Clonal neuro-2a mouse neuroblastoma (N2a) cells stably transfected with the hKOP receptor or mKOP receptor were used. We employed agonist-induced [35S]GTPγS binding and KOP receptor internalization as measures of activation of G protein and β-arrestin pathways, respectively. The method of Ehlert and colleagues was used to quantify intrinsic relative activities at G protein activation (RAi−G) and receptor internalization (RAi−I) and the degree of functional selectivity between the two [Log RAi−G − Log RAi−I, RAi−G/RAi−I and bias factor]. The parameter, RAi, represents a relative estimate of agonist affinity for the active receptor state that elicits a given response. The endogenous ligand dynorphin A (1–17) was designated as the balanced ligand with a bias factor of 1. Interestingly, we found that there were species differences in functional selectivity. The most striking differences were for 12-epi-salvinorin A, U69,593, and ICI-199,441. 12-Epi-salvinorin A was highly internalization-biased at the mKOP receptor, but apparently G protein-biased at hKOP receptor. U69,593 was much more internalization-biased at mKOP receptor than hKOP receptor. ICI199,441 showed internalization-biased at the mKOP receptor and G protein-biased at the hKOP receptor. Possible mechanisms for the observed species differences are discussed. PMID:26057692

  15. Discovery of potent and selective nonsteroidal indazolyl amide glucocorticoid receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Sheppeck, James E; Gilmore, John L; Xiao, Hai-Yun; Dhar, T G Murali; Nirschl, David; Doweyko, Arthur M; Sack, Jack S; Corbett, Martin J; Malley, Mary F; Gougoutas, Jack Z; Mckay, Lorraine; Cunningham, Mark D; Habte, Sium F; Dodd, John H; Nadler, Steven G; Somerville, John E; Barrish, Joel C

    2013-10-01

    Modification of a phenolic lead structure based on lessons learned from increasing the potency of steroidal glucocorticoid agonists lead to the discovery of exceptionally potent, nonsteroidal, indazole GR agonists. SAR was developed to achieve good selectivity against other nuclear hormone receptors with the ultimate goal of achieving a dissociated GR agonist as measured by human in vitro assays. The specific interactions by which this class of compounds inhibits GR was elucidated by solving an X-ray co-crystal structure. PMID:23953070

  16. Agonists and partial agonists of rhodopsin: retinal polyene methylation affects receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Reiner; Lüdeke, Steffen; Siebert, Friedrich; Sakmar, Thomas P; Hirshfeld, Amiram; Sheves, Mordechai

    2006-02-14

    Using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) difference spectroscopy, we have studied the impact of sites and extent of methylation of the retinal polyene with respect to position and thermodynamic parameters of the conformational equilibrium between the Meta I and Meta II photoproducts of rhodopsin. Deletion of methyl groups to form 9-demethyl and 13-demethyl analogues, as well as addition of a methyl group at C10 or C12, shifted the Meta I/Meta II equilibrium toward Meta I, such that the retinal analogues behaved like partial agonists. This equilibrium shift resulted from an apparent reduction of the entropy gain of the transition of up to 65%, which was only partially offset by a concomitant reduction of the enthalpy increase. The analogues produced Meta II photoproducts with relatively small alterations, while their Meta I states were significantly altered, which accounted for the aberrant transitions to Meta II. Addition of a methyl group at C14 influenced the thermodynamic parameters but had little impact on the position of the Meta I/Meta II equilibrium. Neutralization of the residue 134 in the E134Q opsin mutant increased the Meta II content of the 13-demethyl analogue, but not of the 9-demethyl analogue, indicating a severe impairment of the allosteric coupling between the conserved cytoplasmic ERY motif involved in proton uptake and the Schiff base/Glu 113 microdomain in the 9-demethyl analogue. The 9-methyl group appears therefore essential for the correct positioning of retinal to link protonation of the cytoplasmic motif with protonation of Glu 113 during receptor activation.

  17. Cardiovascular Effects of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yu Mi

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a member of the proglucagon incretin family, and GLP-1 receptor agonists (RAs) have been introduced as a new class of antidiabetic medications in the past decade. The benefits of GLP-1 RAs are derived from their pleiotropic effects, which include glucose-dependent insulin secretion, suppressed glucagon secretion, and reduced appetite. Moreover, GLP-1 RAs also exert beneficial roles on multiple organ systems in which the GLP-1 receptors exist, including the cardiovascular system. Cardiovascular effects of GLP-1 RAs have been of great interest since the burden from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has been unbearably increasing in a diabetic population worldwide, despite strict glycemic control and advanced therapeutic techniques to treat CVD. Preclinical studies have already demonstrated the beneficial effects of GLP-1 on myocardium and vascular endothelium, and many clinical studies evaluating changes in surrogate markers of CVD have suggested potential benefits from the use of GLP-1 RAs. Data from numerous clinical trials primarily evaluating the antihyperglycemic effects of multiple GLP-1 RAs have also revealed that changes in most CVD risk markers reported as secondary outcomes have been in favor of GLP-1 RAs treatment. However, to date, there is only one randomized clinical trial of GLP-1 RAs (the ELIXA study) evaluating major cardiovascular events as their primary outcomes, and in this study, a neutral cardiovascular effect of lixisenatide was observed in high-risk diabetic subjects. Therefore, the results of ongoing CVD outcome trials with the use of GLP-1 RAs should be awaited to elucidate the translation of benefits previously seen in CVD risk marker studies into large clinical trials with primary cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:27118277

  18. Identification of Ecdysone Hormone Receptor Agonists as a Therapeutic Approach for Treating Filarial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Mhashilkar, Amruta S.; Vankayala, Sai L.; Liu, Canhui; Kearns, Fiona; Mehrotra, Priyanka; Tzertzinis, George; Palli, Subba R.; Woodcock, H. Lee; Unnasch, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    Background A homologue of the ecdysone receptor has previously been identified in human filarial parasites. As the ecdysone receptor is not found in vertebrates, it and the regulatory pathways it controls represent attractive potential chemotherapeutic targets. Methodology/ Principal Findings Administration of 20-hydroxyecdysone to gerbils infected with B. malayi infective larvae disrupted their development to adult stage parasites. A stable mammalian cell line was created incorporating the B. malayi ecdysone receptor ligand-binding domain, its heterodimer partner and a secreted luciferase reporter in HEK293 cells. This was employed to screen a series of ecdysone agonist, identifying seven agonists active at sub-micromolar concentrations. A B. malayi ecdysone receptor ligand-binding domain was developed and used to study the ligand-receptor interactions of these agonists. An excellent correlation between the virtual screening results and the screening assay was observed. Based on both of these approaches, steroidal ecdysone agonists and the diacylhydrazine family of compounds were identified as a fruitful source of potential receptor agonists. In further confirmation of the modeling and screening results, Ponasterone A and Muristerone A, two compounds predicted to be strong ecdysone agonists stimulated expulsion of microfilaria and immature stages from adult parasites. Conclusions The studies validate the potential of the B. malayi ecdysone receptor as a drug target and provide a means to rapidly evaluate compounds for development of a new class of drugs against the human filarial parasites. PMID:27300294

  19. Design, evaluation, and comparison of ghrelin receptor agonists and inverse agonists as suitable radiotracers for PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Chollet, Constance; Bergmann, Ralf; Pietzsch, Jens; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G

    2012-04-18

    Ghrelin agonist and inverse agonist radiotracers, suitable for positron emission tomography (PET), were developed to study the behavior of ghrelin receptor ligands in vivo and for further design of druggable peptides. The target peptides were synthesized on solid support and conjugated to the bifunctional chelator 1,4,7-triazacyclononane,1-glutaric acid-4,7-acetic acid (NODAGA), which is known to form a stable complex with Ga(3+). Complexation with (68)Ga could be achieved under mild conditions and led to radiotracers with high radiochemical purity and specific activity. The biological activity of the radiotracers was evaluated in vitro by an inositol phosphate turnover assay. Pharmacokinetic profile and metabolic stability of the (68)Ga-NODAGA-radiotracers were investigated by small animal PET in rodent. Ghrelin derived agonists presented very high kidney accumulation, negligible tissue distribution, fast blood clearance, and poor stability in blood. Contrarily, the inverse agonist radiotracer exhibited very high stability in blood, large diffusion in tissues, reasonable kidney and liver metabolism, and slow blood clearance. This pharmacokinetic profile makes the ghrelin inverse agonist motif KwFwLL-CONH(2) suitable for further development of radiotracers and a promising lead to design peptide-based therapeutics against obesity. PMID:22372770

  20. Combined sodium ion sensitivity in agonist binding and internalization of vasopressin V1b receptors

    PubMed Central

    Koshimizu, Taka-aki; Kashiwazaki, Aki; Taniguchi, Junichi

    2016-01-01

    Reducing Na+ in the extracellular environment may lead to two beneficial effects for increasing agonist binding to cell surface G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs): reduction of Na+-mediated binding block and reduce of receptor internalization. However, such combined effects have not been explored. We used Chinese Hamster Ovary cells expressing vasopressin V1b receptors as a model to explore Na+ sensitivity in agonist binding and receptor internalization. Under basal conditions, a large fraction of V1b receptors is located intracellularly, and a small fraction is in the plasma membrane. Decreases in external Na+ increased cell surface [3H]AVP binding and decreased receptor internalization. Substitution of Na+ by Cs+ or NH4+ inhibited agonist binding. To suppress receptor internalization, the concentration of NaCl, but not of CsCl, had to be less than 50 mM, due to the high sensitivity of the internalization machinery to Na+ over Cs+. Iso-osmotic supplementation of glucose or NH4Cl maintained internalization of the V1b receptor, even in a low-NaCl environment. Moreover, iodide ions, which acted as a counter anion, inhibited V1b agonist binding. In summary, we found external ionic conditions that could increase the presence of high-affinity state receptors at the cell surface with minimum internalization during agonist stimulations. PMID:27138239

  1. Trial Watch: Immunostimulation with Toll-like receptor agonists in cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Iribarren, Kristina; Bloy, Norma; Buqué, Aitziber; Cremer, Isabelle; Eggermont, Alexander; Fridman, Wolf Hervé; Fucikova, Jitka; Galon, Jérôme; Špíšek, Radek; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Accumulating preclinical evidence indicates that Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists efficiently boost tumor-targeting immune responses (re)initiated by most, if not all, paradigms of anticancer immunotherapy. Moreover, TLR agonists have been successfully employed to ameliorate the efficacy of various chemotherapeutics and targeted anticancer agents, at least in rodent tumor models. So far, only three TLR agonists have been approved by regulatory agencies for use in cancer patients. Moreover, over the past decade, the interest of scientists and clinicians in these immunostimulatory agents has been fluctuating. Here, we summarize recent advances in the preclinical and clinical development of TLR agonists for cancer therapy. PMID:27141345

  2. Agonist-Specific Recruitment of Arrestin Isoforms Differentially Modify Delta Opioid Receptor Function

    PubMed Central

    Perroy, Julie; Walwyn, Wendy M.; Smith, Monique L.; Vicente-Sanchez, Ana; Segura, Laura; Bana, Alia; Kieffer, Brigitte L.; Evans, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Ligand-specific recruitment of arrestins facilitates functional selectivity of G-protein-coupled receptor signaling. Here, we describe agonist-selective recruitment of different arrestin isoforms to the delta opioid receptor in mice. A high-internalizing delta opioid receptor agonist (SNC80) preferentially recruited arrestin 2 and, in arrestin 2 knock-outs (KOs), we observed a significant increase in the potency of SNC80 to inhibit mechanical hyperalgesia and decreased acute tolerance. In contrast, the low-internalizing delta agonists (ARM390, JNJ20788560) preferentially recruited arrestin 3 with unaltered behavioral effects in arrestin 2 KOs. Surprisingly, arrestin 3 KO revealed an acute tolerance to these low-internalizing agonists, an effect never observed in wild-type animals. Furthermore, we examined delta opioid receptor–Ca2+ channel coupling in dorsal root ganglia desensitized by ARM390 and the rate of resensitization was correspondingly decreased in arrestin 3 KOs. Live-cell imaging in HEK293 cells revealed that delta opioid receptors are in pre-engaged complexes with arrestin 3 at the cell membrane and that ARM390 strengthens this membrane interaction. The disruption of these complexes in arrestin 3 KOs likely accounts for the altered responses to low-internalizing agonists. Together, our results show agonist-selective recruitment of arrestin isoforms and reveal a novel endogenous role of arrestin 3 as a facilitator of resensitization and an inhibitor of tolerance mechanisms. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Agonists that bind to the same receptor can produce highly distinct signaling events and arrestins are a major mediator of this ligand bias. Here, we demonstrate that delta opioid receptor agonists differentially recruit arrestin isoforms. We found that the high-internalizing agonist SNC80 preferentially recruits arrestin 2 and knock-out (KO) of this protein results in increased efficacy of SNC80. In contrast, low-internalizing agonists (ARM390 and JNJ20788560

  3. Rational design of orally-active, pyrrolidine-based progesterone receptor partial agonists

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Scott K.; Washburn, David G.; Frazee, James S.; Madauss, Kevin P.; Hoang, Tram H.; Lapinski, Leahann; Grygielko, Eugene T.; Glace, Lindsay E.; Trizna, Walter; Williams, Shawn P.; Duraiswami, Chaya; Bray, Jeffrey D.; Laping, Nicholas J.

    2010-09-03

    Using the X-ray crystal structure of an amide-based progesterone receptor (PR) partial agonist bound to the PR ligand binding domain, a novel PR partial agonist class containing a pyrrolidine ring was designed. Members of this class of N-alkylpyrrolidines demonstrate potent and highly selective partial agonism of the progesterone receptor, and one of these analogs was shown to be efficacious upon oral dosing in the OVX rat model of estrogen opposition.

  4. Identification of Hydroxybenzoic Acids as Selective Lactate Receptor (GPR81) Agonists with Antilipolytic Effects.

    PubMed

    Dvorak, Curt A; Liu, Changlu; Shelton, Jonathan; Kuei, Chester; Sutton, Steven W; Lovenberg, Timothy W; Carruthers, Nicholas I

    2012-08-01

    Following the characterization of the lactate receptor (GPR81), a focused screening effort afforded 3-hydroxybenzoic acid 1 as a weak agonist of both GPR81 and GPR109a (niacin receptor). An examination of structurally similar arylhydroxy acids led to the identification of 3-chloro-5-hydroxybenzoic acid 2, a selective GPR81 agonist that exhibited favorable in vivo effects on lipolysis in a mouse model of obesity.

  5. Identification of Hydroxybenzoic Acids as Selective Lactate Receptor (GPR81) Agonists with Antilipolytic Effects

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Following the characterization of the lactate receptor (GPR81), a focused screening effort afforded 3-hydroxybenzoic acid 1 as a weak agonist of both GPR81 and GPR109a (niacin receptor). An examination of structurally similar arylhydroxy acids led to the identification of 3-chloro-5-hydroxybenzoic acid 2, a selective GPR81 agonist that exhibited favorable in vivo effects on lipolysis in a mouse model of obesity. PMID:24900524

  6. Differential effects of subtype-specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists on early and late hippocampal LTP.

    PubMed

    Kroker, Katja S; Rast, Georg; Rosenbrock, Holger

    2011-12-01

    Brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are involved in several neuropsychiatric disorders, e.g. Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, Tourette's syndrome, schizophrenia, depression, autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and anxiety. Currently, approaches selectively targeting the activation of specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are in clinical development for treatment of memory impairment of Alzheimer's disease patients. These are α4β2 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists which are believed to enhance cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission, respectively. In order to gain a better insight into the mechanistic role of these two nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in learning and memory, we investigated the effects of the α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist TC-1827 and the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist SSR180711 on hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a widely accepted cellular experimental model of memory formation. Generally, LTP is distinguished in an early and a late form, the former being protein-synthesis independent and the latter being protein-synthesis dependent. TC-1827 was found to increase early LTP in a bell-shaped dose dependent manner, but did not affect late LTP. In contrast, the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist SSR180711 showed enhancing effects on both early and late LTP in a bell-shaped manner. Furthermore, SSR180711 not only increased early LTP, but also transformed it into late LTP, which was not observed with the α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist. Therefore, based on these findings α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (partial) agonists appear to exhibit stronger efficacy on memory improvement than α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists. PMID:21968142

  7. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of a potent opioid receptor agonist, biphalin, compared to subtype-selective opioid receptor agonists for stroke treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li; Islam, Mohammad R; Karamyan, Vardan T.; Abbruscato, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    To meet the challenge of identification of new treatments for stroke, this study was designed to evaluate a potent, nonselective opioid receptor (OR) agonist, biphalin, in comparison to subtype selective OR agonists, as a potential neuroprotective drug candidate using in vitro and in vivo models of ischemic stroke. Our in vitro approach included mouse primary neuronal cells that were challenged with glutamate and hypoxic/aglycemic (H/A) conditions. We observed that 10 nM biphalin, exerted a statistically significant neuroprotective effect after glutamate challenge, compared to all selective opioid agonists, according to lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays. Moreover, 10 nM biphalin provided superior neuroprotection after H/A-reoxygenation compared to selective opioid agonists in all cases. Our in vitro investigations were supported by in vivo studies which indicate that the nonselective opioid agonist, biphalin, achieves enhanced neuroprotective potency compared to any of the selective opioid agonists, evidenced by reduced edema and infarct ratios. Reduction of edema and infarction was accompanied by neurological improvement of the animals in two independent behavioral tests. Collectively these data strongly suggest that concurrent agonist stimulation of mu, kappa and delta ORs with biphalin is neuroprotective and superior to neuroprotection by activation of any single OR subtype. PMID:25801116

  8. Yawning and locomotor behavior induced by dopamine receptor agonists in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Su-Min; Collins, Gregory T; Paul, Noel M; Grundt, Peter; Newman, Amy H; Xu, Ming; Grandy, David K; Woods, James H; Katz, Jonathan L

    2010-05-01

    Dopaminergic (DA) agonist-induced yawning in rats seems to be mediated by DA D3 receptors, and low doses of several DA agonists decrease locomotor activity, an effect attributed to presynaptic D2 receptors. Effects of several DA agonists on yawning and locomotor activity were examined in rats and mice. Yawning was reliably produced in rats, and by the cholinergic agonist, physostigmine, in both the species. However, DA agonists were ineffective in producing yawning in Swiss-Webster or DA D2R and DA D3R knockout or wild-type mice. The drugs significantly decreased locomotor activity in rats at one or two low doses, with activity returning to control levels at higher doses. In mice, the drugs decreased locomotion across a 1000-10 000-fold range of doses, with activity at control levels (U-91356A) or above control levels [(+/-)-7-hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralin HBr, quinpirole] at the highest doses. Low doses of agonists decreased locomotion in all mice except the DA D2R knockout mice, but were not antagonized by DA D2R or D3R antagonists (L-741 626, BP 897, or PG01037). Yawning does not provide a selective in-vivo indicator of DA D3R agonist activity in mice. Decreases in mouse locomotor activity by the DA agonists seem to be mediated by D2 DA receptors.

  9. Prolonging Survival of Corneal Transplantation by Selective Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptor 1 Agonist

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Min; Liu, Yong; Xiao, Yang; Han, Gencheng; Jia, Liang; Wang, Liqiang; Lei, Tian; Huang, Yifei

    2014-01-01

    Corneal transplantation is the most used therapy for eye disorders. Although the cornea is somewhat an immune privileged organ, immune rejection is still the major problem that reduces the success rate. Therefore, effective chemical drugs that regulate immunoreactions are needed to improve the outcome of corneal transplantations. Here, a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) selective agonist was systematically evaluated in mouse allogeneic corneal transplantation and compared with the commonly used immunosuppressive agents. Compared with CsA and the non-selective sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonist FTY720, the S1P1 selective agonist can prolong the survival corneal transplantation for more than 30 days with a low immune response. More importantly, the optimal dose of the S1P1 selective agonist was much less than non-selective S1P receptor agonist FTY720, which would reduce the dose-dependent toxicity in drug application. Then we analyzed the mechanisms of the selected S1P1 selective agonist on the immunosuppression. The results shown that the S1P1 selective agonist could regulate the distribution of the immune cells with less CD4+ T cells and enhanced Treg cells in the allograft, moreover the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines TGF-β1 and IL-10 unregulated which can reduce the immunoreactions. These findings suggest that S1P1 selective agonist may be a more appropriate immunosuppressive compound to effectively prolong mouse allogeneic corneal grafts survival. PMID:25216235

  10. Synthesis and characterization of photoactivatable peptide agonists of the human thrombin receptor.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, R; Cordier, Y; Rasmussen, U B; Schlesinger, Y; Gachet, C; Jaquinod, M; Tripet, B; Chong, P C; Pavirani, A

    1994-08-01

    Chemical synthesis and biochemical analysis of modified agonist peptides of the human thrombin receptor derived from the sequence SFLLRNP containing photoactivatable azido groups and biotin for sensitive detection is described. Substitution of leucine in position three with p-azidophenylalanine and extension of the C-terminus with a KGGK spacer containing biotin covalently linked to the side chain of the C-terminal lysine residue resulted in an active receptor agonist as determined by intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in human erythroleukemia (HEL) cells. In contrast, substitution of phenylalanine in position two with p-azidophenylalanine reduced agonist activity significantly. PMID:8050586

  11. Mimicking corticosterone's daily rhythm with specific receptor agonists: effects on food, water, and sodium intake.

    PubMed

    Devenport, L; Stith, R

    1992-06-01

    The endogenous pattern of type I and II corticosteroid receptor stimulation was systematically assembled from specific agonists in order to detect any unique receptor interactions in the control of ingestive behavior. The type II agonists dexamethasone (0, 5, or 25 micrograms/kg) or RU28362 (0, 5, or 25 micrograms/kg) were injected daily in the final hour of the light phase of the illumination cycle of adrenalectomized rats. This was carried out in the presence or absence of continuous aldosterone (type I agonist) infusion. Additional comparisons were made with sham-operated groups and animals receiving type II agonists by continuous infusion. Type II agonists increased the intake of 2% saline and the proportion of food taken at night, but had negligible effects on total food intake. Type II agonists did not interact with the type I agonist. Type II effects were greatly potentiated by continuous infusion, though administered at the same doses as acute injection. When the effects of type II receptor stimulation emerged, they always consisted of an exacerbation of the adrenalectomy syndrome, not a return to normal quantities or patterns. In contrast, type I receptor stimulation restored both the quantities and unique day-night patterns of saline, water, and food intake to values matching intact animals. The findings suggest that the behavioral significance of corticosterone's nocturnal peak of type II stimulation is small, and that its most important function may lie in the metabolic processes it instigates during its steady rise in the light phase.

  12. Contamination with retinoic acid receptor agonists in two rivers in the Kinki region of Japan.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Daisuke; Nakama, Koki; Sawada, Kazuko; Watanabe, Taro; Takagi, Mai; Sei, Kazunari; Yang, Min; Hirotsuji, Junji; Hu, Jianying; Nishikawa, Jun-ichi; Nakanishi, Tsuyoshi; Ike, Michihiko

    2010-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the agonistic activity against human retinoic acid receptor (RAR) alpha in the Lake Biwa-Yodo River and the Ina River in the Kinki region of Japan. To accomplish this, a yeast two-hybrid assay was used to elucidate the spatial and temporal variations and potential sources of RARalpha agonist contamination in the river basins. RARalpha agonistic activity was commonly detected in the surface water samples collected along two rivers at different periods, with maximum all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) equivalents of 47.6 ng-atRA/L and 23.5 ng-atRA/L being observed in Lake Biwa-Yodo River and Ina River, respectively. The results indicated that RARalpha agonists are always present and widespread in the rivers. Comparative investigation of RARalpha and estrogen receptor alpha agonistic activities at 20 stations along each river revealed that the spatial variation pattern of RARalpha agonist contamination was entirely different from that of the estrogenic compound contamination. This suggests that the effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plants, a primary source of estrogenic compounds, seemed not to be the cause of RARalpha agonist contamination in the rivers. Fractionation using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) directed by the bioassay found two bioactive fractions from river water samples, suggesting the presence of at least two RARalpha agonists in the rivers. Although a trial conducted to identify RARalpha agonists in the major bioactive fraction was not completed as part of this study, comparison of retention times in HPLC analysis and quantification with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the major causative contaminants responsible for the RARalpha agonistic activity were not RAs (natural RAR ligands) and 4-oxo-RAs, while 4-oxo-RAs were identified as the major RAR agonists in sewage in Beijing, China. These findings suggest that there are unknown RARalpha agonists with high

  13. Competitive Agonists and Antagonists of Steroid Nuclear Receptors: Evolution of the Concept or Its Reversal.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, O V

    2015-10-01

    The mechanisms displaying pure and mixed steroid agonist/antagonist activity as well as principles underlying in vivo action of selective steroid receptor modulators dependent on tissue or cell type including interaction with various types of nuclear receptors are analyzed in this work. Mechanisms of in vitro action for mixed agonist/antagonist steroids are discussed depending on: specific features of their interaction with receptor hormone-binding pocket; steroid-dependent allosteric modulation of interaction between hormone-receptor complex and hormone response DNA elements; features of interacting hormone-receptor complex with protein transcriptional coregulators; level and tissue-specific composition of transcriptional coregulators. A novel understanding regarding context-selective modulators replacing the concept of steroid agonists and antagonists is discussed.

  14. Scaffold-Based Pan-Agonist Design for the PPARα, PPARβ and PPARγ Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei-Ren; Wang, Run-Ling; Wang, Jing-Fang

    2012-01-01

    As important members of nuclear receptor superfamily, Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) play essential roles in regulating cellular differentiation, development, metabolism, and tumorigenesis of higher organisms. The PPAR receptors have 3 identified subtypes: PPARα, PPARβ and PPARγ, all of which have been treated as attractive targets for developing drugs to treat type 2 diabetes. Due to the undesirable side-effects, many PPAR agonists including PPARα/γ and PPARβ/γ dual agonists are stopped by US FDA in the clinical trials. An alternative strategy is to design novel pan-agonist that can simultaneously activate PPARα, PPARβ and PPARγ. Under such an idea, in the current study we adopted the core hopping algorithm and glide docking procedure to generate 7 novel compounds based on a typical PPAR pan-agonist LY465608. It was observed by the docking procedures and molecular dynamics simulations that the compounds generated by the core hopping and glide docking not only possessed the similar functions as the original LY465608 compound to activate PPARα, PPARβ and PPARγ receptors, but also had more favorable conformation for binding to the PPAR receptors. The additional absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) predictions showed that the 7 compounds (especially Cpd#1) hold high potential to be novel lead compounds for the PPAR pan-agonist. Our findings can provide a new strategy or useful insights for designing the effective pan-agonists against the type 2 diabetes. PMID:23119024

  15. Scaffold-based pan-agonist design for the PPARα, PPARβ and PPARγ receptors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Song; Wang, Shu-Qing; Xu, Wei-Ren; Wang, Run-Ling; Wang, Jing-Fang

    2012-01-01

    As important members of nuclear receptor superfamily, Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) play essential roles in regulating cellular differentiation, development, metabolism, and tumorigenesis of higher organisms. The PPAR receptors have 3 identified subtypes: PPARα, PPARβ and PPARγ, all of which have been treated as attractive targets for developing drugs to treat type 2 diabetes. Due to the undesirable side-effects, many PPAR agonists including PPARα/γ and PPARβ/γ dual agonists are stopped by US FDA in the clinical trials. An alternative strategy is to design novel pan-agonist that can simultaneously activate PPARα, PPARβ and PPARγ. Under such an idea, in the current study we adopted the core hopping algorithm and glide docking procedure to generate 7 novel compounds based on a typical PPAR pan-agonist LY465608. It was observed by the docking procedures and molecular dynamics simulations that the compounds generated by the core hopping and glide docking not only possessed the similar functions as the original LY465608 compound to activate PPARα, PPARβ and PPARγ receptors, but also had more favorable conformation for binding to the PPAR receptors. The additional absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) predictions showed that the 7 compounds (especially Cpd#1) hold high potential to be novel lead compounds for the PPAR pan-agonist. Our findings can provide a new strategy or useful insights for designing the effective pan-agonists against the type 2 diabetes. PMID:23119024

  16. Different characteristics of AMPA receptor agonists acting at AMPA receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Wahl, P; Madsen, U; Banke, T; Krogsgaard-Larsen, P; Schousboe, A

    1996-07-18

    A series of (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (AMPA) analogues were evaluated for activity at homo-oligomeric glutamate1-flop (Glu1-flop) receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes, using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique. (RS)-2-Amino-3-(3-carboxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (ACPA) (EC50, 2.4 microM), a homologue of AMPA having a carboxyl group as the terminal acidic functionality, was five times more potent than AMPA (EC50, 12 microM) and 20 times more potent than kainate (EC50, 46 microM). (RS)-2-Amino-3(3-hydroxy-5-trifluoromethyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (Tri-F-AMPA), in which an electronegative trifluoromethyl group is substituted for the methyl group on the isoxazole ring in the AMPA structure, was three times more potent than AMPA, whereas (RS)-3-hydroxy-4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridine-5-carboxylic acid (5-HPCA), a bicyclic analogue of AMPA with highly restricted conformational flexibility was 10 times less potent than AMPA. The limiting slope of log-log plots of Glu1-flop receptor currents versus low agonist concentrations had a value of 1.7 for ACPA and kainate compared to 1.5 for Tri-F-AMPA and 1.3 for 5-HPCA and AMPA. The amplitude of responses evoked by near saturating concentrations of the agonists varied more than 7-fold. The sequence of efficacy was ACPA = kainate > Tri-F-AMPA > AMPA > 5-HPCA. Moreover, when saturating concentrations of Tri-F-AMPA and kainate were co-applied, the response was significantly greater than when each of the agonists was applied separately. The potency of the antagonist 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoylbenzo(f)quinoxaline (NBQX) (estimated KB, approximately 200 nM), to block currents mediated by Glu1-flop receptors was similar for all of the agonists tested in this study. These results indicate that relatively minor changes in the molecular structure of AMPA are associated with marked effects on potency and efficacy. In particular, it is suggested that the acidity of

  17. Preclinical pharmacology of mGlu2/3 receptor agonists: novel agents for schizophrenia?

    PubMed

    DD, Darryle D Schoepp; Marek, Gerard J

    2002-04-01

    Agonists for mGlu2/3 receptors decrease the evoked release of glutamate at certain (ie. forebrain / limbic) glutamatergic synapses, indicating that the functional role of mGlu2 and/or mGlu3 receptors is to suppress glutamate excitations. This offers a mechanism for dampening glutamate excitation under pathological states resulting from excessive glutamate release. Based, in part, on the psychotomimetic actions of phencyclidine (PCP)- like drugs, excessive or pathological glutamate release has been implicated in a number of clinical conditions including psychosis. With this in mind, the pharmacology of multiple mGlu2/3 receptor agonists have been investigated in PCP treated rats. Agonists for mGlu2/3 receptors such as LY354740 and LY379268 have been shown to block certain behavioral responses to PCP in rats. The effects of mGlu2/3 agonists on PCP-induced behaviors are blocked by a low doses of a selective mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist, indicating that these actions are mediated via mGlu2/3 receptors. In addition, mGlu2/3 agonists potently suppress glutamate release in rat prefrontal cortex, as reflected by excitatory post-synaptic potentials (EPSPs) induced by serotonin (5-HT) acting on 5HT(2A) receptors. These actions of LY354740 and LY379268 are also blocked by a selective mGlu2/3 antagonist. Atypical antipsychotic drugs such as clozapine also suppress 5-HT-induced EPSPs in this brain region, thus suggesting a common pathway for the actions of atypical antipsychotic drugs and mGlu2/3 receptor agonists. As glutamatergic dysfunction has been implicated in psychotic states and possibly in the etiology of schizophrenia, clinical studies with mGlu2/3 agonists may be warranted to further explore the validity of the glutamatergic hypothesis of schizophrenia. PMID:12769628

  18. Biperiden enhances L-DOPA methyl ester and dopamine D(l) receptor agonist SKF-82958 but antagonizes D(2)/D(3) receptor agonist rotigotine antihemiparkinsonian actions.

    PubMed

    Domino, Edward F; Ni, Lisong

    2008-12-01

    The effects of biperiden (0, 100, and 320 microg/kg), a selective muscarinic M(1)/M(4) receptor cholinergic antagonist, were studied alone and in combination with those of L-DOPA methyl ester (16.7 mg/kg), a selective dopamine D(1) receptor agonist SKF-82958 (74.8 microg/kg), or a selective D(2)/D(3) receptor agonist rotigotine (32 microg/kg) on circling behavior in MPTP induced hemiparkinsonian monkeys. The doses selected were given i.m. in approximately equieffective doses to produce contraversive circling. Biperiden alone with 5% dextrose vehicle produced a slight increase in contraversive circling in a dose related manner. When combined with L-DOPA methyl ester, it enhanced contraversive circling and decreased ipsiversive circling. When biperiden was combined with SKF-82958, contraversive circling also was enhanced and ipsiversive circling decreased. Exactly the opposite was observed with the combination of biperiden and rotigotine. The results indicate a dramatic difference in effects of a prototypic muscarinic M(1)/M(4) receptor cholinergic antagonist in combination with prototypic full dopamine D(1) or D(2)/D(3) receptor agonists. Biperiden interactions with L-DOPA methyl ester were more predominantly D(l) than D(2)/D(3) receptor-like in this animal model of hemiparkinsonism.

  19. Dissociated sterol-based liver X receptor agonists as therapeutics for chronic inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shan; Li, Sijia; Henke, Adam; Muse, Evan D; Cheng, Bo; Welzel, Gustav; Chatterjee, Arnab K; Wang, Danling; Roland, Jason; Glass, Christopher K; Tremblay, Matthew

    2016-07-01

    Liver X receptor (LXR), a nuclear hormone receptor, is an essential regulator of immune responses. Activation of LXR-mediated transcription by synthetic agonists, such as T0901317 and GW3965, attenuates progression of inflammatory disease in animal models. However, the adverse effects of these conventional LXR agonists in elevating liver lipids have impeded exploitation of this intriguing mechanism for chronic therapy. Here, we explore the ability of a series of sterol-based LXR agonists to alleviate inflammatory conditions in mice without hepatotoxicity. We show that oral treatment with sterol-based LXR agonists in mice significantly reduces dextran sulfate sodium colitis-induced body weight loss, which is accompanied by reduced expression of inflammatory markers in the large intestine. The anti-inflammatory property of these agonists is recapitulated in vitro in mouse lamina propria mononuclear cells, human colonic epithelial cells, and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In addition, treatment with LXR agonists dramatically suppresses inflammatory cytokine expression in a model of traumatic brain injury. Importantly, in both disease models, the sterol-based agonists do not affect the liver, and the conventional agonist T0901317 results in significant liver lipid accumulation and injury. Overall, these results provide evidence for the development of sterol-based LXR agonists as novel therapeutics for chronic inflammatory diseases.-Yu, S., Li, S., Henke, A., Muse, E. D., Cheng, B., Welzel, G., Chatterjee, A. K., Wang, D., Roland, J., Glass, C. K., Tremblay, M. Dissociated sterol-based liver X receptor agonists as therapeutics for chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:27025962

  20. GLP-1 Receptor Agonists: Nonglycemic Clinical Effects in Weight Loss and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Donna; Acosta, Andres

    2015-01-01

    Obective Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are indicated for treatment of type 2 diabetes since they mimic the actions of native GLP-1 on pancreatic islet cells, stimulating insulin release, while inhibiting glucagon release, in a glucose-dependent manner. The observation of weight loss has led to exploration of their potential as antiobesity agents, with liraglutide 3.0 mg day−1 approved for weight management in the US on December 23, 2014, and in the EU on March 23, 2015. This review examines the potential nonglycemic effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists. Methods A literature search was conducted to identify preclinical and clinical evidence on nonglycemic effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists. Results GLP-1 receptors are distributed widely in a number of tissues in humans, and their effects are not limited to the well-recognized effects on glycemia. Nonglycemic effects include weight loss, which is perhaps the most widely recognized nonglycemic effect. In addition, effects on the cardiovascular, neurologic, and renal systems and on taste perception may occur independently of weight loss. Conclusions GLP-1 receptor agonists may provide other nonglycemic clinical effects besides weight loss. Understanding these effects is important for prescribers in using GLP-1 receptor agonists for diabetic patients, but also if approved for chronic weight management. PMID:25959380

  1. Blockade of Cocaine or σ Receptor Agonist Self Administration by Subtype-Selective σ Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Katz, Jonathan L; Hiranita, Takato; Kopajtic, Theresa A; Rice, Kenner C; Mesangeau, Christophe; Narayanan, Sanju; Abdelazeem, Ahmed H; McCurdy, Christopher R

    2016-07-01

    The identification of sigma receptor (σR) subtypes has been based on radioligand binding and, despite progress with σ1R cellular function, less is known about σR subtype functions in vivo. Recent findings that cocaine self administration experience will trigger σR agonist self administration was used in this study to assess the in vivo receptor subtype specificity of the agonists (+)-pentazocine, PRE-084 [2-(4-morpholinethyl) 1-phenylcyclohexanecarboxylate hydrochloride], and 1,3-di-o-tolylguanidine (DTG) and several novel putative σR antagonists. Radioligand binding studies determined in vitro σR selectivity of the novel compounds, which were subsequently studied for self administration and antagonism of cocaine, (+)-pentazocine, PRE-084, or DTG self administration. Across the dose ranges studied, none of the novel compounds were self administered, nor did they alter cocaine self administration. All compounds blocked DTG self administration, with a subset also blocking (+)-pentazocine and PRE-084 self administration. The most selective of the compounds in binding σ1Rs blocked cocaine self administration when combined with a dopamine transport inhibitor, either methylphenidate or nomifensine. These drug combinations did not decrease rates of responding maintained by food reinforcement. In contrast, the most selective of the compounds in binding σ2Rs had no effect on cocaine self administration in combination with either dopamine transport inhibitor. Thus, these results identify subtype-specific in vivo antagonists, and the utility of σR agonist substitution for cocaine self administration as an assay capable of distinguishing σR subtype selectivity in vivo. These results further suggest that effectiveness of dual σR antagonism and dopamine transport inhibition in blocking cocaine self administration is specific for σ1Rs and further support this dual targeting approach to development of cocaine antagonists. PMID:27189970

  2. Blockade of Cocaine or σ Receptor Agonist Self Administration by Subtype-Selective σ Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Hiranita, Takato; Kopajtic, Theresa A.; Rice, Kenner C.; Mesangeau, Christophe; Narayanan, Sanju; Abdelazeem, Ahmed H.; McCurdy, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    The identification of sigma receptor (σR) subtypes has been based on radioligand binding and, despite progress with σ1R cellular function, less is known about σR subtype functions in vivo. Recent findings that cocaine self administration experience will trigger σR agonist self administration was used in this study to assess the in vivo receptor subtype specificity of the agonists (+)-pentazocine, PRE-084 [2-(4-morpholinethyl) 1-phenylcyclohexanecarboxylate hydrochloride], and 1,3-di-o-tolylguanidine (DTG) and several novel putative σR antagonists. Radioligand binding studies determined in vitro σR selectivity of the novel compounds, which were subsequently studied for self administration and antagonism of cocaine, (+)-pentazocine, PRE-084, or DTG self administration. Across the dose ranges studied, none of the novel compounds were self administered, nor did they alter cocaine self administration. All compounds blocked DTG self administration, with a subset also blocking (+)-pentazocine and PRE-084 self administration. The most selective of the compounds in binding σ1Rs blocked cocaine self administration when combined with a dopamine transport inhibitor, either methylphenidate or nomifensine. These drug combinations did not decrease rates of responding maintained by food reinforcement. In contrast, the most selective of the compounds in binding σ2Rs had no effect on cocaine self administration in combination with either dopamine transport inhibitor. Thus, these results identify subtype-specific in vivo antagonists, and the utility of σR agonist substitution for cocaine self administration as an assay capable of distinguishing σR subtype selectivity in vivo. These results further suggest that effectiveness of dual σR antagonism and dopamine transport inhibition in blocking cocaine self administration is specific for σ1Rs and further support this dual targeting approach to development of cocaine antagonists. PMID:27189970

  3. Characterizing novel metabolic pathways of melatonin receptor agonist agomelatine using metabolomic approaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agomelatine (AGM), an analog of melatonin, is a potential agonist at melatonin receptors 1/2 and a selective antagonist at 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C receptors. AGM is widely used for the treatment of major depressive episodes in adults. However, multiple adverse effects associated with AGM have been re...

  4. Systemic cancer immunotherapy with Toll-like receptor 7 agonists: Timing is everything.

    PubMed

    Hotz, Christian; Bourquin, Carole

    2012-03-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 agonists represent a promising strategy for the immunotherapy of cancer. We have recently investigated the influence of TLR tolerance on the efficacy of systemic tumor treatment with TLR7 ligands. We propose that considering the kinetics of receptor sensitivity highly improves the outcome of cancer immunotherapy. PMID:22720251

  5. In vivo and in vitro evaluation of novel μ-opioid receptor agonist compounds.

    PubMed

    Nikaido, Yoshiaki; Kurosawa, Aya; Saikawa, Hitomi; Kuroiwa, Satoshi; Suzuki, Chiharu; Kuwabara, Nobuo; Hoshino, Hazime; Obata, Hideaki; Saito, Shigeru; Saito, Tamio; Osada, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Isao; Sezutsu, Hideki; Takeda, Shigeki

    2015-11-15

    Opioids are the most effective and widely used drugs for pain treatment. Morphine is an archetypal opioid and is an opioid receptor agonist. Unfortunately, the clinical usefulness of morphine is limited by adverse effects such as analgesic tolerance and addiction. Therefore, it is important to study the development of novel opioid agonists as part of pain control. The analgesic effects of opioids are mediated by three opioid receptors, namely opioid μ-, δ-, and κ-receptors. They belong to the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily and are coupled to Gi proteins. In the present study, we developed a ligand screening system to identify novel opioid μ-receptor agonists that measures [(35)S]GTPγS binding to cell membrane fractions prepared from the fat body of transgenic silkworms expressing μ-receptor-Gi1α fusion protein. We screened the RIKEN Natural Products Depository (NPDepo) chemical library, which contains 5848 compounds, and analogs of hit compounds. We successfully identified a novel, structurally unique compound, that we named GUM1, with agonist activity for the opioid μ-receptor (EC50 of 1.2 µM). The Plantar Test (Hargreaves' Method) demonstrated that subcutaneous injection of 3mg/kg of GUM1 into wild-type rats significantly extended latency time. This extension was also observed in a rat model of morphine tolerance and was inhibited by pre-treatment of naloxone. The unique molecular skeleton of GUM1 makes it an attractive molecule for further ligand-opioid receptor binding studies.

  6. Thrombopoietin receptor agonists: a new immune modulatory strategy in immune thrombocytopenia?

    PubMed

    Schifferli, Alexandra; Kühne, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    In 2008, new drugs that mimic the effects of thrombopoietin became available for the treatment of primary immune thrombocytopenia, eg, romiplostim and eltrombopag. These drugs activate the thrombopoietin receptor, stimulate the production of megakaryocytes, and increase the production of platelets. Important clinical observation has been gained, such as unexpected long-term remission after stopping thrombopoietin receptor agonists. The pathophysiology of this unforeseen cure is currently the subject of discussion and is investigated in clinical trials and laboratory research projects. Here we evaluate the different hypotheses on how thrombopoietin receptor agonists can affect the immune system, particularly the induction of tolerance, and by which mechanisms this may be achieved. PMID:27312161

  7. γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is not an agonist of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors.

    PubMed

    Connelly, William M; Errington, Adam C; Crunelli, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an endogenous compound and a drug used clinically to treat the symptoms of narcolepsy. GHB is known to be an agonist of GABAB receptors with millimolar affinity, but also binds with much higher affinity to another site, known as the GHB receptor. While a body of evidence has shown that GHB does not bind to GABAA receptors widely, recent evidence has suggested that the GHB receptor is in fact on extrasynaptic α4β1δ GABAA receptors, where GHB acts as an agonist with an EC50 of 140 nM. We investigated three neuronal cell types that express a tonic GABAA receptor current mediated by extrasynaptic receptors: ventrobasal (VB) thalamic neurons, dentate gyrus granule cells and striatal medium spiny neurons. Using whole-cell voltage clamp in brain slices, we found no evidence that GHB (10 µM) induced any GABAA receptor mediated current in these cell types, nor that it modulated inhibitory synaptic currents. Furthermore, a high concentration of GHB (3 mM) was able to produce a GABAB receptor mediated current, but did not induce any other currents. These results suggest either that GHB is not a high affinity agonist at native α4β1δ receptors, or that these receptors do not exist in classical areas associated with extrasynaptic currents.

  8. Structure-guided development of dual β2 adrenergic/dopamine D2 receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Weichert, Dietmar; Stanek, Markus; Hübner, Harald; Gmeiner, Peter

    2016-06-15

    Aiming to discover dual-acting β2 adrenergic/dopamine D2 receptor ligands, a structure-guided approach for the evolution of GPCR agonists that address multiple targets was elaborated. Starting from GPCR crystal structures, we describe the design, synthesis and biological investigation of a defined set of compounds leading to the identification of the benzoxazinone (R)-3, which shows agonist properties at the adrenergic β2 receptor and substantial G protein-promoted activation at the D2 receptor. This directed approach yielded molecular probes with tuned dual activity. The congener desOH-3 devoid of the benzylic hydroxyl function was shown to be a β2 adrenergic antagonist/D2 receptor agonist with Ki values in the low nanomolar range. The compounds may serve as a promising starting point for the investigation and treatment of neurological disorders. PMID:27132867

  9. Lepidozenolide from the liverwort Lepidozia fauriana acts as a farnesoid X receptor agonist.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiang-Ru

    2015-01-01

    Lepidozenolide is a sesquiterpenoid isolated from the liverwort Lepidozia fauriana and its possible bioactivity is unclear. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of nuclear receptor superfamily that has been widely targeted for developing treatments for chronic liver disease and hyperglycemia. In this study, whether lepidozenolide may act as a FXR agonist was determined. Indeed, in mammalian one-hybrid and transient transfection reporter assays, lepidozenolide transactivated FXR to modulate promoter action including GAL4, CYP7A1, and PLTP promoters in a dose-dependent manner, while it exhibited slightly less agonistic activity than chenodeoxycholic acid, an endogenous FXR agonist. Through the molecular modeling docking studies lepidozenolide was shown to bind to FXR ligand binding pocket fairly well. All these results indicate that lepidozenolide acts as a FXR agonist. PMID:25315435

  10. NOP receptor mediates anti-analgesia induced by agonist-antagonist opioids.

    PubMed

    Gear, R W; Bogen, O; Ferrari, L F; Green, P G; Levine, J D

    2014-01-17

    Clinical studies have shown that agonist-antagonist opioid analgesics that produce their analgesic effect via action on the kappa-opioid receptor, produce a delayed-onset anti-analgesia in men but not women, an effect blocked by co-administration of a low dose of naloxone. We now report the same time-dependent anti-analgesia and its underlying mechanism in an animal model. Using the Randall-Selitto paw-withdrawal assay in male rats, we found that nalbuphine, pentazocine, and butorphanol each produced analgesia during the first hour followed by anti-analgesia starting at ∼90min after administration in males but not females, closely mimicking its clinical effects. As observed in humans, co-administration of nalbuphine with naloxone in a dose ratio of 12.5:1 blocked anti-analgesia but not analgesia. Administration of the highly selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69593 produced analgesia without subsequent anti-analgesia, and confirmed by the failure of the selective kappa antagonist nor-binaltorphimine to block nalbuphine-induced anti-analgesia, indicating that anti-analgesia is not mediated by kappa-opioid receptors. We therefore tested the role of other receptors in nalbuphine anti-analgesia. Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (NOP) and sigma-1 and sigma-2 receptors were chosen on the basis of their known anti-analgesic effects and receptor binding studies. The selective NOP receptor antagonists, JTC801, and J-113397, but not the sigma receptor antagonist, BD 1047, antagonized nalbuphine anti-analgesia. Furthermore, the NOP receptor agonist NNC 63-0532 produced anti-analgesia with the same delay in onset observed with the three agonist-antagonists, but without producing preceding analgesia and this anti-analgesia was also blocked by naloxone. These results strongly support the suggestion that clinically used agonist-antagonists act at the NOP receptor to produce anti-analgesia. PMID:24188792

  11. Systemic administration of the neurotensin NTS1 receptor agonist PD149163 improves performance on a memory task in naturally deficient male Brown Norway rats

    PubMed Central

    Keiser, Ashley A.; Matazel, Katelin S.; Esser, Melissa K.; Feifel, David; Prus, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Agonists for neurotensin NTS1 receptor consistently exhibit antipsychotic effects in animal models without producing catalepsy, suggesting that NTS1 receptor agonists may be a novel class of drugs to treat schizophrenia. Moreover, studies utilizing NTS1 agonists have reported improvements in some aspects of cognitive functioning, including prepulse inhibition and learning procedures, that suggest an ability of NTS1 receptor agonists to diminish neurocognitive deficits. The present study sought to assess both baseline delay-induced memory performance and the effects of NTS1 receptor activation on learning and memory consolidation in male Long Evans and Brown Norway rats using a delayed non-match to position radial arm maze task. In the absence of drugs, Brown Norway rats displayed a significant increase in spatial memory errors following a 3, 7, and 24 hour delay, whereas Long Evans rats exhibited an increase in spatial memory errors following only a 7 and 24 hour delay. With Brown Norway rats, administration of PD149163 before or after an information trial significantly reduced errors during a retention trial after a 24 hour delay. Administration of the NTS1/2 receptor antagonist SR142948 prior to the information trial did not affect retention trial errors. These data are consistent with previous findings that Brown Norway rats have natural cognitive deficits and that they may be useful for assessing putative antipsychotic drugs for cognitive efficacy. Moreover, this study supports previous findings suggesting that NTS1 receptor agonists may improve some aspects of cognitive functioning. PMID:25222546

  12. DNA Aptamer Assembly as a Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor Agonist

    PubMed Central

    Ramaswamy, Vidhya; Monsalve, Adam; Sautina, Larysa; Segal, Mark S.; Dobson, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Controlling receptor-mediated processes in cells is paramount in many research areas. The activity of small molecules and growth factors is difficult to control and can lead to off-target effects through the activation of nonspecific receptors as well as binding affinity to nonspecific cell types. In this study, we report the development of a molecular trigger in the form of a divalent nucleic acid aptamer assembly toward vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2). The assembly binds to VEGFR2 and functions as a receptor agonist with targeted receptor binding, promoting receptor phosphorylation, activation of the downstream Akt pathway, upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and endothelial cell capillary tube formation. The agonist action we report makes this aptamer construct a promising strategy to control VEGFR2-mediated cell signaling. PMID:26125598

  13. DNA Aptamer Assembly as a Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor Agonist.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, Vidhya; Monsalve, Adam; Sautina, Larysa; Segal, Mark S; Dobson, Jon; Allen, Josephine B

    2015-10-01

    Controlling receptor-mediated processes in cells is paramount in many research areas. The activity of small molecules and growth factors is difficult to control and can lead to off-target effects through the activation of nonspecific receptors as well as binding affinity to nonspecific cell types. In this study, we report the development of a molecular trigger in the form of a divalent nucleic acid aptamer assembly toward vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2). The assembly binds to VEGFR2 and functions as a receptor agonist with targeted receptor binding, promoting receptor phosphorylation, activation of the downstream Akt pathway, upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and endothelial cell capillary tube formation. The agonist action we report makes this aptamer construct a promising strategy to control VEGFR2-mediated cell signaling.

  14. Competitive molecular docking approach for predicting estrogen receptor subtype α agonists and antagonists

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous compounds that interfere with the endocrine system of vertebrates, often through direct or indirect interactions with nuclear receptor proteins. Estrogen receptors (ERs) are particularly important protein targets and many EDCs are ER binders, capable of altering normal homeostatic transcription and signaling pathways. An estrogenic xenobiotic can bind ER as either an agonist or antagonist to increase or inhibit transcription, respectively. The receptor conformations in the complexes of ER bound with agonists and antagonists are different and dependent on interactions with co-regulator proteins that vary across tissue type. Assessment of chemical endocrine disruption potential depends not only on binding affinity to ERs, but also on changes that may alter the receptor conformation and its ability to subsequently bind DNA response elements and initiate transcription. Using both agonist and antagonist conformations of the ERα, we developed an in silico approach that can be used to differentiate agonist versus antagonist status of potential binders. Methods The approach combined separate molecular docking models for ER agonist and antagonist conformations. The ability of this approach to differentiate agonists and antagonists was first evaluated using true agonists and antagonists extracted from the crystal structures available in the protein data bank (PDB), and then further validated using a larger set of ligands from the literature. The usefulness of the approach was demonstrated with enrichment analysis in data sets with a large number of decoy ligands. Results The performance of individual agonist and antagonist docking models was found comparable to similar models in the literature. When combined in a competitive docking approach, they provided the ability to discriminate agonists from antagonists with good accuracy, as well as the ability to efficiently select true agonists and antagonists from

  15. Ligand-based receptor tyrosine kinase partial agonists: New paradigm for cancer drug discovery?

    PubMed Central

    Riese, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are validated targets for oncology drug discovery and several RTK antagonists have been approved for the treatment of human malignancies. Nonetheless, the discovery and development of RTK antagonists has lagged behind the discovery and development of agents that target G-protein coupled receptors. In part, this is because it has been difficult to discover analogs of naturally-occurring RTK agonists that function as antagonists. Areas covered Here we describe ligands of ErbB receptors that function as partial agonists for these receptors, thereby enabling these ligands to antagonize the activity of full agonists for these receptors. We provide insights into the mechanisms by which these ligands function as antagonists. We discuss how information concerning these mechanisms can be translated into screens for novel small molecule- and antibody-based antagonists of ErbB receptors and how such antagonists hold great potential as targeted cancer chemotherapeutics. Expert opinion While there have been a number of important key findings into this field, the identification of the structural basis of ligand functional specificity is still of the greatest importance. While it is true that, with some notable exceptions, peptide hormones and growth factors have not proven to be good platforms for oncology drug discovery; addressing the fundamental issues of antagonistic partial agonists for receptor tyrosine kinases has the potential to steer oncology drug discovery in new directions. Mechanism based approaches are now emerging to enable the discovery of RTK partial agonists that may antagonize both agonist-dependent and –independent RTK signaling and may hold tremendous promise as targeted cancer chemotherapeutics. PMID:21532939

  16. GLP-1 receptor agonists or DPP-4 inhibitors: how to guide the clinician?

    PubMed

    Scheen, André J

    2013-12-01

    Pharmacological treatment of type 2 diabetes has been enriched during recent years, with the launch of incretin therapies targeting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Such medications comprise either GLP-1 receptor agonists, with short (one or two daily injections: exenatide, liraglutide, lixisenatide) or long duration (one injection once weekly: extended-released exenatide, albiglutide, dulaglutide, taspoglutide); or oral compounds inhibiting dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4), the enzyme that inactives GLP-1, also called gliptins (sitagliptin, vildagliptin, saxagliptin, linagliptin, alogliptin). Although both pharmacological approaches target GLP-1, important differences exist concerning the mode of administration (subcutaneous injection versus oral ingestion), the efficacy (better with GLP-1 agonists), the effects on body weight and systolic blood pressure (diminution with agonists versus neutrality with gliptins), the tolerance profile (nausea and possibly vomiting with agonists) and the cost (higher with GLP-1 receptor agonists). Both agents may exert favourable cardiovascular effects. Gliptins may represent a valuable alternative to a sulfonylurea or a glitazone after failure of monotherapy with metformin while GLP-1 receptor agonists may be considered as a good alternative to insulin (especially in obese patients) after failure of a dual oral therapy. However, this scheme is probably too restrictive and modalities of using incretins are numerous, in almost all stages of type 2 diabetes. Physicians may guide the pharmacological choice based on clinical characteristics, therapeutic goals and patient's preference.

  17. Functional assays to define agonists and antagonists of the sigma-2 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Chenbo; Rothfuss, Justin M.; Zhang, Jun; Vangveravong, Suwanna; Chu, Wenhua; Li, Shihong; Tu, Zhude; Xu, Jinbin; Mach, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    The sigma-2 receptor has been identified as a biomarker in proliferating tumors. Up to date there is no well-established functional assay for defining sigma-2 agonists and antagonists. Many sigma-2 ligands with diverse structures have been shown to induce cell death in a variety of cancer cells by triggering caspase-dependent and independent apoptosis. Therefore, in the current study, we used the cell viability assay and the caspase-3 activity assay to determine sigma-2 agonists and antagonists. Three classes of sigma-2 ligands developed in our laboratory were evaluated for their potency to induce cell death in two tumor cell lines, mouse breast cancer cell line EMT-6 and human melanoma cell line MDA-MB-435. The data showed that the EC50 values of the sigma-2 ligands using the cell viability assay ranged from 11.4 μM to >200 μM, which were comparable with the EC50 values obtained using the caspase-3 assay. Based on the cytotoxicity of a sigma-2 ligand relative to that of siramesine, a commonly accepted sigma-2 agonist, we have categorized our sigma-2 ligands into agonists, partial agonists, and antagonists. The establishment of functional assays for defining sigma-2 agonists and antagonists will facilitate functional characterization of sigma-2 receptor ligands and sigma-2 receptors. PMID:24333652

  18. Alpha/sub 1/ receptor coupling events initiated by methoxy-substituted tolazoline partial agonists

    SciTech Connect

    Wick, P.; Keung, A.; Deth, R.

    1986-03-01

    A series of mono- and dimethyoxy substituted tolazoline derivatives, known to be partial agonists at the alpha/sub 1/ receptor, were compared with the ..cap alpha../sub 1/ selective full agonist phenylephrine (PE) on isolated strips of rabbit aorta Agonist activity was evaluated in contraction, /sup 45/Ca influx, /sup 45/Ca efflux, and /sup 32/P-Phospholipid labelling studies. Maximum contractile responses for the 2-, 3-, and 3, 5- methoxy substituted tolazoline derivatives (10/sup -5/M) were 53.8, 67.6 and 99.7% of the PE (10/sup -5/M) response respectively. These same partial agonists caused a stimulation of /sup 45/Ca influx to the extent of 64, 86, and 95% of the PE response respectively. In /sup 45/Ca efflux studies, (a measure of the intracellular Ca/sup +2/ release) the tolazolines caused: 30%, 63%, and 78% of the PE stimulated level. /sup 32/P-Phosphatidic acid (PA) labelling was measured as an index of PI turnover after ..cap alpha../sub 1/ receptor stimulation. Compared to PE, the 2-, 3-, and 3,5- methoxy substituted tolazoline derivatives caused 22, 46, and 72% PA labelling. The above values are all in reasonable accord with the rank order or agonist activity shown in maximum contractile responses. The results of this investigation suggest that partial agonists stimulate ..cap alpha.. receptor coupling events at a level which is quantitatively comparable to their potencies in causing contraction of arterial smooth muscle.

  19. Quantitative Measure of Receptor Agonist and Modulator Equi-Response and Equi-Occupancy Selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rumin; Kavana, Michael

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are an important class of drug targets. Quantitative analysis by global curve fitting of properly designed dose-dependent GPCR agonism and allosterism data permits the determination of all affinity and efficacy parameters based on a general operational model. We report here a quantitative and panoramic measure of receptor agonist and modulator equi-response and equi-occupancy selectivity calculated from these parameters. The selectivity values help to differentiate not only one agonist or modulator from another, but on-target from off-target receptor or functional pathway as well. Furthermore, in conjunction with target site free drug concentrations and endogenous agonist tones, the allosterism parameters and selectivity values may be used to predict in vivo efficacy and safety margins. PMID:27116909

  20. Bifunctional epitope-agonist ligands of the bradykinin B(2) receptor.

    PubMed

    Gera, Lajos; Roy, Caroline; Marceau, François

    2013-03-01

    Two bradykinin (BK) B(2) receptor agonists N-terminally extended with the myc epitope were synthesized and evaluated: myc-KPG-BK and myc-KGP-B-9972. The latter was modeled on the inactivation-resistant agonist B-9972 (D-Arg(0), Hyp(3), Igl(5), Oic(7), Igl(8)-BK) and is also resistant to endosomal inactivation. Despite a large loss of affinity relative to the parent peptide, the tagged analogs are conventional agonists in the umbilical vein contractility assay and compete for [(3)H]BK binding at the rabbit B(2) receptor. Endocytosed myc-KGP-B-9972 most effectively carried AlexaFluor-488-conjugated anti-myc monoclonal antibodies into intact cells expressing the B(2) receptor. Results support the prospects of functionally-active cargoes entering cells in a pharmacologically controlled manner.

  1. Agonistic autoantibodies to the α(1) -adrenergic receptor and the β(2) -adrenergic receptor in Alzheimer's and vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Karczewski, P; Hempel, P; Kunze, R; Bimmler, M

    2012-05-01

    Although primary causes of Alzheimer's and vascular dementia are unknown, the importance of preceding vascular lesions is widely accepted. Furthermore, there is strong evidence for the involvement of autoimmune mechanisms. Here, we report the presence of agonistic autoantibodies directed at adrenergic receptors in the circulation of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's and vascular dementia. In 59% of these patients, agonistic autoantibodies against the α(1) -adrenergic receptor and the β(2) -adrenergic receptor were identified. The majority of positive patients (66%) contained both types of autoantibodies in combination. In a control group of patients with neurological impairments others than Alzheimer's and vascular dementia, only 17% were found to harbour these autoantibodies. The autoantibodies to the α(1) -adrenergic receptor interacted preferably with the extracellular loop1 of the receptor. They were further studied in IgG preparations from the column regenerate of a patient who underwent immunoadsorption. The α(1) -adrenergic receptor autoantibodies specifically bound to the extracellular loop1 peptide of the receptor with an apparent EC(50) value of 30 nm. They mobilized intracellular calcium in a clonal cell line expressing the human form of the α(1) -adrenergic receptor. Our data support the notion that autoimmune mechanisms play a significant role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's and vascular dementia. We suggest that agonistic autoantibodies to the α(1) -adrenergic and the β(2) -adrenergic receptor may contribute to vascular lesions and increased plaque formation.

  2. Neuroprotection by a selective estrogen receptor beta agonist in a mouse model of global ischemia.

    PubMed

    Carswell, H V O; Macrae, I M; Gallagher, L; Harrop, E; Horsburgh, K J

    2004-10-01

    The present study employs selective estrogen receptor (ER) agonists to determine whether 17beta-estradiol-induced neuroprotection in global ischemia is receptor mediated and, if so, which subtype of receptor (ERalpha or ERbeta) is predominantly responsible. Halothane-anesthetized female C57Bl/6J mice were ovariectomized, and osmotic minipumps containing ERbeta agonist diarylpropiolnitrile (DPN) (8 mg.kg(-1).day(-1), n = 12) or vehicle (50% DMSO in 0.9% saline) (n = 9) or ERalpha agonist propyl pyrazole triol (PPT) (2 mg.kg(-1).day(-1), n = 13) or vehicle (50% DMSO in 0.9% saline) (n = 10) were implanted subcutaneously. One week later transient global ischemia was induced by bilateral carotid artery occlusion under halothane anesthesia, and the mice were perfusion fixed 72 h later. ERbeta agonist DPN significantly reduced ischemic damage by 70% in the caudate nucleus and 55% in the CA1 region compared with vehicle controls (P < 0.05, Mann-Whitney U-statistic). In contrast, pretreatment with the ERalpha agonist PPT had no effect on the extent of neuronal damage compared with controls. The data indicate a significant estrogen receptor-mediated neuroprotection in a global cerebral ischemia model involving ERbeta.

  3. Identification of adiponectin receptor agonist utilizing a fluorescence polarization based high throughput assay.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yiyi; Zang, Zhihe; Zhong, Ling; Wu, Min; Su, Qing; Gao, Xiurong; Zan, Wang; Lin, Dong; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Zhonglin

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin, the adipose-derived hormone, plays an important role in the suppression of metabolic disorders that can result in type 2 diabetes, obesity, and atherosclerosis. It has been shown that up-regulation of adiponectin or adiponectin receptor has a number of therapeutic benefits. Given that it is hard to convert the full size adiponectin protein into a viable drug, adiponectin receptor agonists could be designed or identified using high-throughput screening. Here, we report on the development of a two-step screening process to identify adiponectin agonists. First step, we developed a high throughput screening assay based on fluorescence polarization to identify adiponectin ligands. The fluorescence polarization assay reported here could be adapted to screening against larger small molecular compound libraries. A natural product library containing 10,000 compounds was screened and 9 hits were selected for validation. These compounds have been taken for the second-step in vitro tests to confirm their agonistic activity. The most active adiponectin receptor 1 agonists are matairesinol, arctiin, (-)-arctigenin and gramine. The most active adiponectin receptor 2 agonists are parthenolide, taxifoliol, deoxyschizandrin, and syringin. These compounds may be useful drug candidates for hypoadiponectin related diseases. PMID:23691032

  4. Agonist mediated conformational changes of solubilized calf forebrain muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Vanderheyden, P; Andre, C; de Backer, J P; Vauquelin, G

    1984-10-01

    Muscarinic receptors in calf forebrain membranes can be identified by the specific binding of the radiolabelled antagonist [3H]dexetimide. These receptors (2.8 pM/mg protein) comprise two non-interconvertible subpopulations with respectively high and low agonist affinity but with the same antagonist affinity. For all the agonists tested the low affinity sites represent 85 +/- 5% of the total receptor population. 0.5% Digitonin solubilized extracts contain 0.8 pM muscarinic receptor/mg protein. In contrast with the membranes, these extracts contain only sites with low agonist affinity. The alkylating reagent N-ethylmaleimide causes an increase of the acetylcholine affinity for the low affinity sites in membranes as well as for the solubilized sites. This effect is time dependent until a maximal 3-fold increase in affinity is attained. The rate of N-ethylmaleimide action is enhanced by the concomitant presence of agonists. In contrast, N-ethylmaleimide does not affect antagonist binding. This suggests that agonists mediate a conformational change of both the membrane bound low affinity muscarinic sites and of the solubilized sites, resulting in their increased susceptibility towards NEM alkylation. PMID:6487351

  5. Kaempferol is an estrogen-related receptor alpha and gamma inverse agonist.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junjian; Fang, Fang; Huang, Zhiyan; Wang, Yanfei; Wong, Chiwai

    2009-02-18

    Kaempferol is a dietary flavonoid that is thought to function as a selective estrogen receptor modulator. In this study, we established that kaempferol also functions as an inverse agonist for estrogen-related receptors alpha and gamma (ERRalpha and ERRgamma). We demonstrated that kaempferol binds to ERRalpha and ERRgamma and blocks their interaction with coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha). Kaempferol also suppressed the expressions of ERR-target genes pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2 and 4 (PDK2 and PDK4). This evidence suggests that kaempferol may exert some of its biological effect through both estrogen receptors and estrogen-related receptors. PMID:19171140

  6. Distinct activities of GABA agonists at synaptic- and extrasynaptic-type GABAA receptors.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Martin; Ebert, Bjarke; Wafford, Keith; Smart, Trevor G

    2010-04-15

    The activation characteristics of synaptic and extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptors are important for shaping the profile of phasic and tonic inhibition in the central nervous system, which will critically impact on the activity of neuronal networks. Here, we study in isolation the activity of three agonists, GABA, muscimol and 4,5,6,7-tetrahydoisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3(2H)-one (THIP), to further understand the activation profiles of alpha 1 beta 3 gamma 2, alpha 4 beta 3 gamma 2 and alpha 4 beta 3 delta receptors that typify synaptic- and extrasynaptic-type receptors expressed in the hippocampus and thalamus. The agonists display an order of potency that is invariant between the three receptors, which is reliant mostly on the agonist dissociation constant. At delta subunit-containing extrasynaptic-type GABA(A) receptors, both THIP and muscimol additionally exhibited, to different degrees, superagonist behaviour. By comparing whole-cell and single channel currents induced by the agonists, we provide a molecular explanation for their different activation profiles. For THIP at high concentrations, the unusual superagonist behaviour on alpha 4 beta 3 delta receptors is a consequence of its ability to increase the duration of longer channel openings and their frequency, resulting in longer burst durations. By contrast, for muscimol, moderate superagonist behaviour was caused by reduced desensitisation of the extrasynaptic-type receptors. The ability to specifically increase the efficacy of receptor activation, by selected exogenous agonists over that obtained with the natural transmitter, may prove to be of therapeutic benefit under circumstances when synaptic inhibition is compromised or dysfunctional.

  7. Molecular determinants of agonist and antagonist signaling through the IL-36 receptor.

    PubMed

    Günther, Sebastian; Sundberg, Eric J

    2014-07-15

    The IL-1 family consists of 11 cytokines that control a complex network of proinflammatory signals critical for regulating immune responses to infections. They also play a central role in numerous chronic inflammatory disorders. Accordingly, inhibiting the activities of these cytokines is an important therapeutic strategy for treating autoimmune diseases and lymphomas. Agonist cytokines in the IL-1 family activate signaling by binding their cognate receptor and then recruiting a receptor accessory protein. Conversely, antagonist cytokines bind their cognate receptor but prohibit recruitment of receptor accessory protein, which precludes functional signaling complexes. The IL-36 subfamily of cytokines is the most diverse, including three agonists and at least one antagonist, and is the least well-characterized group within this family. Signaling through the IL-36 receptor directly stimulates dendritic cells and primes naive CD4 T cells for Th1 responses. Appropriately balanced IL-36 signaling is a critical determinant of skin and lung health. IL-36 signaling has been presumed to function analogously to IL-1 signaling. In this study, we have defined molecular determinants of agonist and antagonist signaling through the IL-36 receptor. We present the crystal structure of IL-36γ, which, to our knowledge, is the first reported structure of an IL-36 agonist. Using this structure as a guide, we designed a comprehensive series of IL-36 agonist/antagonist chimeric proteins for which we measured binding to the IL-36 receptor/IL-1 receptor accessory protein complex and functional activation and inhibition of signaling. Our data reveal how the fine specificity of IL-36 signaling is distinct from that of IL-1.

  8. Agonist- and antagonist-induced up-regulation of surface 5-HT3A receptors

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Russell A; Baptista-Hon, Daniel T; Hales, Tim G; Lovinger, David M

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The 5-HT3 receptor is a member of the pentameric ligand-gated ion channel family and is pharmacologically targeted to treat irritable bowel syndrome and nausea/emesis. Furthermore, many antidepressants elevate extracellular concentrations of 5-HT. This study investigates the functional consequences of exposure of recombinant 5-HT3A receptors to agonists and antagonists. Experimental Approach We used HEK cells stably expressing recombinant 5-HT3A receptors and the ND7/23 (mouse neuroblastoma/dorsal root ganglion hybrid) cell line, which expresses endogenous 5-HT3 receptors. Surface expression of recombinant 5-HT3A receptors, modified to contain the bungarotoxin (BTX) binding sequence, was quantified using fluorescence microscopy to image BTX-conjugated fluorophores. Whole cell voltage-clamp electrophysiology was used to measure the density of current mediated by 5-HT3A receptors. Key Results 5-HT3A receptors were up-regulated by the prolonged presence of agonists (5-HT and m-chlorophenylbiguanide) and antagonists (MDL-72222 and morphine). The up-regulation of 5-HT3A receptors by 5-HT and MDL-72222 was time- and concentration-dependent but was independent of newly translated receptors. The phenomenon was observed for recombinant rodent and human 5-HT3A receptors and for endogenous 5-HT3 receptors in neuronal ND7/23 cells. Conclusions and Implications Up-regulation of 5-HT3A receptors, following exposure to either agonists or antagonists suggests that this phenomenon may occur in response to different therapeutic agents. Medications that elevate 5-HT levels, such as the antidepressant inhibitors of 5-HT reuptake and antiemetic inhibitors of 5-HT3 receptor function, may both raise receptor expression. However, this will require further investigation in vivo. PMID:25989383

  9. Agonist self-inhibition at the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor a nonspecific action

    SciTech Connect

    Forman, S.A.; Firestone, L.L.; Miller, K.W.

    1987-05-19

    Agonist concentration-response relationships at nicotinic postsynaptic receptors were established by measuring /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ efflux from acetylcholine receptor rich native Torpedo membrane vesicles under three different conditions: (1) integrated net ion efflux (in 10 s) from untreated vesicles, (2) integrated net efflux from vesicles in which most acetylcholine sites were irreversibly blocked with ..cap alpha..-bungarotoxin, and (3) initial rates of efflux (5-100 ms) from vesicles that were partially blocked with ..cap alpha..-bungarotoxin. Exposure to acetylcholine, carbamylcholine, suberyldicholine, phenyltrimethylammonium, or (-)-nicotine over 10/sup 8/-fold concentration ranges results in bell-shaped ion flux response curves due to stimulation of acetylcholine receptor channel opening at low concentrations and inhibition of channel function at 60-2000 times higher concentrations. Concentrations of agonists that inhibit their own maximum /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ efflux by 50% (K/sub B/ values) are 110, 211, 3.0, 39, and 8.9 mM, respectively, for the agonists listed above. For acetylcholine and carbamylcholine, K/sub B/ values determined from both 10-s and 15-ms efflux measurements are the same, indicating that the rate of agonist-induced desensitization increases to maximum at concentrations lower than those causing self-inhibition. For all partial and full agonists studied, Hill coefficients for self-inhibition are close to 1.0. Concentrations of agonists up to 8 times K/sub B/ did not change the order parameter reported by a spin-labeled fatty acid incorporated in Torpedo membranes. The authors conclude that agonist self-inhibition cannot be attributed to a general nonspecific membrane perturbation. Instead, these results are consistent with a saturable site of action either at the lipid-protein interface or on the acetylcholine receptor protein itself.

  10. Multifunctional Antibody Agonists Targeting Glucagon-like Peptide-1, Glucagon, and Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide Receptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Du, Jintang; Zou, Huafei; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Yuhan; Gonzalez, Jose; Chao, Elizabeth; Lu, Lucy; Yang, Pengyu; Parker, Holly; Nguyen-Tran, Van; Shen, Weijun; Wang, Danling; Schultz, Peter G; Wang, Feng

    2016-09-26

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R), glucagon (GCG) receptor (GCGR), and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP, also known as gastric inhibitory polypeptide) receptor (GIPR), are three metabolically related peptide hormone receptors. A novel approach to the generation of multifunctional antibody agonists that activate these receptors has been developed. Native or engineered peptide agonists for GLP-1R, GCGR, and GIPR were fused to the N-terminus of the heavy chain or light chain of an antibody, either alone or in pairwise combinations. The fusion proteins have similar in vitro biological activities on the cognate receptors as the corresponding peptides, but circa 100-fold longer plasma half-lives. The GLP-1R mono agonist and GLP-1R/GCGR dual agonist antibodies both exhibit potent effects on glucose control and body weight reduction in mice, with the dual agonist antibody showing enhanced activity in the latter. PMID:27595986

  11. Using caffeine and other adenosine receptor antagonists and agonists as therapeutic tools against neurodegenerative diseases: a review.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Oliver, Marla; Díaz-Ríos, Manuel

    2014-04-17

    Caffeine is the most consumed pychostimulant in the world, and it is known to affect basic and fundamental human processes such as sleep, arousal, cognition and learning and memory. It works as a nonselective blocker of adenosine receptors (A1, A2a, A2b and A3) and has been related to the regulation of heart rate, the contraction/relaxation of cardiac and smooth muscles, and the neural signaling in the central nervous system (CNS). Since the late 1990s, studies using adenosine receptor antagonists, such as Caffeine, to block the A1 and A2a adenosine receptor subtypes have shown to reduce the physical, cellular and molecular damages caused by a spinal cord injury (SCI) or a stroke (cerebral infarction) and by other neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Interestingly, other studies using adenosine receptor agonists have also shown to provide a neuroprotective effect on various models of neurodegenerative diseases through the reduction of excitatory neurotransmitter release, apoptosis and inflammatory responses, among others. The seemingly paradoxical use of both adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists as neuroprotective agents has been attributed to differences in dosage levels, drug delivery method, extracellular concentration of excitatory neurotransmitters and stage of disease progression. We discuss and compare recent findings using both antagonists and agonists of adenosine receptors in animal models and patients that have suffered spinal cord injuries, brain strokes, and Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Additionally, we propose alternative interpretations on the seemingly paradoxical use of these drugs as potential pharmacological tools to treat these various types of neurodegenerative diseases.

  12. Using caffeine and other adenosine receptor antagonists and agonists as therapeutic tools against neurodegenerative diseases: a review.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Oliver, Marla; Díaz-Ríos, Manuel

    2014-04-17

    Caffeine is the most consumed pychostimulant in the world, and it is known to affect basic and fundamental human processes such as sleep, arousal, cognition and learning and memory. It works as a nonselective blocker of adenosine receptors (A1, A2a, A2b and A3) and has been related to the regulation of heart rate, the contraction/relaxation of cardiac and smooth muscles, and the neural signaling in the central nervous system (CNS). Since the late 1990s, studies using adenosine receptor antagonists, such as Caffeine, to block the A1 and A2a adenosine receptor subtypes have shown to reduce the physical, cellular and molecular damages caused by a spinal cord injury (SCI) or a stroke (cerebral infarction) and by other neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Interestingly, other studies using adenosine receptor agonists have also shown to provide a neuroprotective effect on various models of neurodegenerative diseases through the reduction of excitatory neurotransmitter release, apoptosis and inflammatory responses, among others. The seemingly paradoxical use of both adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists as neuroprotective agents has been attributed to differences in dosage levels, drug delivery method, extracellular concentration of excitatory neurotransmitters and stage of disease progression. We discuss and compare recent findings using both antagonists and agonists of adenosine receptors in animal models and patients that have suffered spinal cord injuries, brain strokes, and Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Additionally, we propose alternative interpretations on the seemingly paradoxical use of these drugs as potential pharmacological tools to treat these various types of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24530739

  13. Identification of isosilybin a from milk thistle seeds as an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma.

    PubMed

    Pferschy-Wenzig, Eva-Maria; Atanasov, Atanas G; Malainer, Clemens; Noha, Stefan M; Kunert, Olaf; Schuster, Daniela; Heiss, Elke H; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Wagner, Hildebert; Bauer, Rudolf; Dirsch, Verena M

    2014-04-25

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a key regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism. Agonists of this nuclear receptor are used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and are also studied as a potential treatment of other metabolic diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Silymarin, a concentrated phenolic mixture from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) seeds, is used widely as a supportive agent in the treatment of a variety of liver diseases. In this study, the PPARγ activation potential of silymarin and its main constituents was investigated. Isosilybin A (3) caused transactivation of a PPARγ-dependent luciferase reporter in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect could be reversed upon co-treatment with the PPARγ antagonist T0070907. In silico docking studies suggested a binding mode for 3 distinct from that of the inactive silymarin constituents, with one additional hydrogen bond to Ser342 in the entrance region of the ligand-binding domain of the receptor. Hence, isosilybin A (3) has been identified as the first flavonolignan PPARγ agonist, suggesting its further investigation as a modulator of this nuclear receptor.

  14. In silico analysis of the binding of agonists and blockers to the β2-adrenergic receptor

    PubMed Central

    Vilar, Santiago; Karpiak, Joel; Berk, Barkin; Costanzi, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is a complex phenomenon. Here, we applied Induced Fit docking (IFD) in tandem with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to generate hypotheses on the conformational changes induced to the β2-adrenergic receptor by agonist binding, preliminary to the sequence of events that characterize activation of the receptor. This analysis, corroborated by a follow-up molecular dynamics study, suggested that agonists induce subtle movements to the fifth transmembrane domain (TM5) of the receptor. Furthermore, molecular dynamics also highlighted a correlation between movements of TM5 and the second extracellular loop (EL2), suggesting that freedom of motion of EL2 is required for the agonist-induced TM5 displacement. Importantly, we also showed that the IFD/LDA procedure can be used as a computational means to distinguish agonists from blockers on the basis of the differential conformational changes induced to the receptor. In particular, the two most predictive models obtained are based on the RMSD induced to Ser207 and on the counterclockwise rotation induced to TM5. PMID:21334234

  15. The estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780 can act both as an agonist and an inverse agonist when estrogen receptor α AF-2 is modified

    PubMed Central

    Movérare-Skrtic, Sofia; Börjesson, Anna E.; Farman, Helen H.; Sjögren, Klara; Windahl, Sara H.; Lagerquist, Marie K.; Andersson, Annica; Stubelius, Alexandra; Carlsten, Hans; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Ohlsson, Claes

    2014-01-01

    The bone-sparing effect of estrogen is primarily mediated via estrogen receptor (ER) α, which stimulates target gene transcription through two activation functions (AFs), AF-1 in the N-terminal and AF-2 in the ligand-binding domain. It was recently demonstrated that the ER antagonist ICI 182,780 (ICI) acts as an ER agonist in uterus of mice with mutations in the ERα AF-2. To evaluate the estrogen-like effects of ICI in different tissues, ovariectomized wild-type mice and mice with mutations in the ERα AF-2 (ERαAF-20) were treated with ICI, estradiol, or vehicle for 3 wk. Estradiol increased the trabecular and cortical bone mass as well as the uterine weight, whereas it reduced fat mass, thymus weight, and the growth plate height in wild-type but not in ERαAF-20 mice. Although ICI had no effect in wild-type mice, it exerted tissue-specific effects in ERαAF-20 mice. It acted as an ERα agonist on trabecular bone mass and uterine weight, whereas no effect was seen on cortical bone mass, fat mass, or thymus weight. Surprisingly, a pronounced inverse agonistic activity was seen on the growth plate height, resulting in enhanced longitudinal bone growth. In conclusion, ICI uses ERα AF-1 in a tissue-dependent manner in mice lacking ERαAF-2, resulting in no effect, agonistic activity, or inverse agonistic activity. We propose that ERα lacking AF-2 is constitutively active in the absence of ligand in the growth plate, enabling ICI to act as an inverse agonist. PMID:24395795

  16. Agonist binding to the NMDA receptor drives movement of its cytoplasmic domain without ion flow

    PubMed Central

    Dore, Kim; Aow, Jonathan; Malinow, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The NMDA receptor (R) plays important roles in brain physiology and pathology as an ion channel. Here we examine the ion flow-independent coupling of agonist to the NMDAR cytoplasmic domain (cd). We measure FRET between fluorescently tagged cytoplasmic domains of GluN1 subunits of NMDARs expressed in neurons. Different neuronal compartments display varying levels of FRET, consistent with different NMDARcd conformations. Agonist binding drives a rapid and transient ion flow-independent reduction in FRET between GluN1 subunits within individual NMDARs. Intracellular infusion of an antibody targeting the GluN1 cytoplasmic domain blocks agonist-driven FRET changes in the absence of ion flow, supporting agonist-driven movement of the NMDARcd. These studies indicate that extracellular ligand binding to the NMDAR can transmit conformational information into the cell in the absence of ion flow. PMID:26553997

  17. Potent agonists of a hematopoietic stem cell cytokine receptor, c-Mpl.

    PubMed

    Tarasova, Anna; Haylock, David N; Meagher, Laurence; Be, Cheang Ly; White, Jacinta; Nilsson, Susan K; Andrade, Jessica; Cartledge, Kellie; Winkler, David A

    2013-05-01

    Several growth factors feature prominently in the control of hematopoiesis. Thrombopoietin, a class I hematopoietic cytokine, plays critical roles in regulating hematopoietic stem cell numbers and also stimulates the production and differentiation of megakaryocytes, the bone marrow cells that ultimately produce platelets. Thrombopoietin interacts with the c-Mpl cell-surface receptor. Recently, several peptide and small-molecule agonists and antagonists of c-Mpl have been reported. We conducted a bioinformatics and molecular modeling study aimed at understanding the agonist activities of peptides that bind to c-Mpl, and developed new potent peptide agonists with low nanomolar activity. These agonists also show very high activity in human CD34(+) primary cell cultures, and doubled the mean blood platelet counts when injected into mice.

  18. The pharmacokinetics of Toll-like receptor agonists and the impact on the immune system.

    PubMed

    Engel, Abbi L; Holt, Gregory E; Lu, Hailing

    2011-03-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligation activates both the innate and adaptive immune systems, and plays an important role in antiviral and anti-tumor immunity. Therefore, a significant amount of effort has been devoted to exploit the therapeutic potential of TLR agonists. Depending on the therapeutic purpose, either as adjuvants to vaccine, chemotherapy or standalone therapy, TLR agonists have been administered via different routes. Both preclinical and clinical studies have suggested that the route of administration has significant effects on pharmacokinetics, and that understanding these effects is critical to the success of TLR agonist drug development. This article will summarize the pharmacokinetics of TLR agonists with different administration routes, with an emphasis on clinical studies of TLR ligands in oncologic applications. PMID:21643519

  19. The pharmacokinetics of Toll-like receptor agonists and the impact on the immune system

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Abbi L; Holt, Gregory E; Lu, Hailing

    2011-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligation activates both the innate and adaptive immune systems, and plays an important role in antiviral and anti-tumor immunity. Therefore, a significant amount of effort has been devoted to exploit the therapeutic potential of TLR agonists. Depending on the therapeutic purpose, either as adjuvants to vaccine, chemotherapy or standalone therapy, TLR agonists have been administered via different routes. Both preclinical and clinical studies have suggested that the route of administration has significant effects on pharmacokinetics, and that understanding these effects is critical to the success of TLR agonist drug development. This article will summarize the pharmacokinetics of TLR agonists with different administration routes, with an emphasis on clinical studies of TLR ligands in oncologic applications. PMID:21643519

  20. Bile acid receptor agonist GW4064 regulates PPARγ coactivator-1α expression through estrogen receptor-related receptor α.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Shailendra Kumar Dhar; Singh, Nidhi; Kumari, Rashmi; Mishra, Jay Sharan; Tripathi, Sarita; Banerjee, Priyam; Shah, Priyanka; Kukshal, Vandana; Tyagi, Abdul Malik; Gaikwad, Anil Nilkanth; Chaturvedi, Rajnish Kumar; Mishra, Durga Prasad; Trivedi, Arun Kumar; Sanyal, Somali; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Ramachandran, Ravishankar; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Bandyopadhyay, Arun; Arora, Ashish; Lundåsen, Thomas; Anakk, Sayee Priyadarshini; Moore, David D; Sanyal, Sabyasachi

    2011-06-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) is induced in energy-starved conditions and is a key regulator of energy homeostasis. This makes PGC-1α an attractive therapeutic target for metabolic syndrome and diabetes. In our effort to identify new regulators of PGC-1α expression, we found that GW4064, a widely used synthetic agonist for the nuclear bile acid receptor [farnesoid X receptor (FXR)] strongly enhances PGC-1α promoter reporter activity, mRNA, and protein expression. This induction in PGC-1α concomitantly enhances mitochondrial mass and expression of several PGC-1α target genes involved in mitochondrial function. Using FXR-rich or FXR-nonexpressing cell lines and tissues, we found that this effect of GW4064 is not mediated directly by FXR but occurs via activation of estrogen receptor-related receptor α (ERRα). Cell-based, biochemical and biophysical assays indicate GW4064 as an agonist of ERR proteins. Interestingly, FXR disruption alters GW4064 induction of PGC-1α mRNA in a tissue-dependent manner. Using FXR-null [FXR knockout (FXRKO)] mice, we determined that GW4064 induction of PGC-1α expression is not affected in oxidative soleus muscles of FXRKO mice but is compromised in the FXRKO liver. Mechanistic studies to explain these differences revealed that FXR physically interacts with ERR and protects them from repression by the atypical corepressor, small heterodimer partner in liver. Together, this interplay between ERRα-FXR-PGC-1α and small heterodimer partner offers new insights into the biological functions of ERRα and FXR, thus providing a knowledge base for therapeutics in energy balance-related pathophysiology.

  1. Pharmacological Profiles of Alpha 2 Adrenergic Receptor Agonists Identified Using Genetically Altered Mice and Isobolographic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fairbanks, Carolyn A.; Stone, Laura S.; Wilcox, George L.

    2009-01-01

    Endogenous, descending noradrenergic fibers convey powerful analgesic control over spinal afferent circuitry mediating the rostrad transmission of pain signals. These fibers target alpha 2 adrenergic receptors (α2ARs) on both primary afferent terminals and secondary neurons, and their activation mediates substantial inhibitory control over this transmission, rivaling that of opioid receptors which share similar a similar pattern of distribution. The terminals of primary afferent nociceptive neurons and secondary spinal dorsal horn neurons express α2AAR and α2CAR subtypes, respectively. Spinal delivery of these agents serves to reduce their side effects, which are mediated largely at supraspinal sites, by concentrating the drugs at the spinal level. Targeting these spinal α2ARs with one of five selective therapeutic agonists, clonidine, dexmedetomidine, brimonidine, ST91 and moxonidine, produces significant antinociception that can work in concert with opioid agonists to yield synergistic antinociception. Application of several genetically altered mouse lines had facilitated identification of the primary receptor subtypes that likely mediate the antinociceptive effects of these agents. This review provides first an anatomical description of the localization of the three subtypes in the central nervous system, second a detailed account of the pharmacological history of each of these six primary agonists, and finally a comprehensive report of the specific interactions of other GPCR agonists with each of the six principal α2AR agonists featured. PMID:19393691

  2. Discovery of a Novel Selective Kappa-Opioid Receptor Agonist Using Crystal Structure-Based Virtual Screening

    PubMed Central

    Negri, Ana; Rives, Marie-Laure; Caspers, Michael J.; Prisinzano, Thomas E.; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Filizola, Marta

    2013-01-01

    Kappa-opioid (KOP) receptor agonists exhibit analgesic effects without activating reward pathways. In the search for non-addictive opioid therapeutics and novel chemical tools to study physiological functions regulated by the KOP receptor, we screened in silico its recently released inactive crystal structure. A selective novel KOP receptor agonist emerged as a notable result, and is proposed as a new chemotype for the study of the KOP receptor in the etiology of drug addiction, depression, and/or pain. PMID:23461591

  3. Antagonist but not agonist labeling of serotonin-1A receptors is decreased in major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Stockmeier, Craig A.; Howley, Eimear; Shi, Xiaochun; Sobanska, Anna; Clarke, Gerard; Friedman, Lee; Rajkowska, Grazyna

    2009-01-01

    Serotonin-1A receptors may play a role in the pathophysiology of depression and suicide. In postmortem brain tissue, agonist binding to serotonin-1A receptors is reportedly increased or unchanged in depression or suicide, while neuroimaging studies report a decrease in antagonist binding to these receptors in subjects with depression. In this study, both agonist and antagonist radioligand binding to serotonin-1A receptors were examined in postmortem orbitofrontal cortex from subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD). Brain tissue was collected at autopsy from 11 subjects with MDD and 11 age- and gender-matched normal control subjects. Two depressed subjects had a recent psychoactive substance use disorder. Six subjects with MDD had a prescription for an antidepressant drug in the last month of life, and, of these six, postmortem bloods from only two subjects tested positive for an antidepressant drug. There was no significant difference between cohorts for age, postmortem interval or tissue pH. The receptor agonist [3H]8-OH-DPAT or the antagonist [3H]MPPF were used to autoradiographically label serotonin-1A receptors in frozen sections from cytoarchitectonically-defined left rostral orbitofrontal cortex (area 47). There was no significant difference between depressed and control subjects in agonist binding to serotonin-1A receptors. However, antagonist binding was significantly decreased in outer layers of orbitofrontal cortex in MDD. This observation in postmortem tissue confirms reports using an antagonist radioligand in living subjects with depression. Decreased antagonist binding to serotonin-1A receptors in outer layers of orbitofrontal cortex suggests diminished receptor signaling and may be linked to corresponding neuronal changes detected previously in these depressed subjects. PMID:19215942

  4. Structural complexes of the agonist, inverse agonist and antagonist bound C5a receptor: insights into pharmacology and signaling.

    PubMed

    Rana, Soumendra; Sahoo, Amita Rani; Majhi, Bharat Kumar

    2016-04-26

    The C5a receptor (C5aR) is a pharmacologically important G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) that interacts with (h)C5a, by recruiting both the "orthosteric" sites (site1 at the N-terminus and site2 at the ECS, extra cellular surface) on C5aR in a two site-binding model. However, the complex pharmacological landscape and the distinguishing chemistry operating either at the "orthosteric" site1 or at the functionally important "orthosteric" site2 of C5aR are still not clear, which greatly limits the understanding of C5aR pharmacology. One of the major bottlenecks is the lack of an experimental structure or a refined model structure of C5aR with appropriately defined active sites. The study attempts to understand the pharmacology at the "orthosteric" site2 of C5aR rationally by generating a highly refined full-blown model structure of C5aR through advanced molecular modeling techniques, and further subjecting it to automated docking and molecular dynamics (MD) studies in the POPC bilayer. The first series of structural complexes of C5aR respectively bound to a linear native peptide agonist ((h)C5a-CT), a small molecule inverse agonist (NDT) and a cyclic peptide antagonist (PMX53) are reported, apparently establishing the unique pharmacological landscape of the "orthosteric" site2, which also illustrates an energetically distinct but coherent competitive chemistry ("cation-π" vs. "π-π" interactions) involved in distinguishing the established ligands known for targeting the "orthosteric" site2 of C5aR. Over a total of 1 μs molecular dynamics (MD) simulation in the POPC bilayer, it is evidenced that while the agonist prefers a "cation-π" interaction, the inverse agonist prefers a "cogwheel/L-shaped" interaction in contrast to the "edge-to-face/T-shaped" type π-π interactions demonstrated by the antagonist by engaging the F275(7.28) of the C5aR. In the absence of a NMR or crystallographically guided model structure of C5aR, the computational model complexes not only

  5. Characterization of methadone as a β-arrestin-biased μ-opioid receptor agonist

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Seira; Mori, Tomohisa; Uzawa, Naoki; Arima, Takamichi; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Uchida, Masashi; Yawata, Ayaka; Narita, Michiko; Uezono, Yasuhito; Suzuki, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Background Methadone is a unique µ-opioid receptor agonist. Although several researchers have insisted that the pharmacological effects of methadone are mediated through the blockade of NMDA receptor, the underlying mechanism by which methadone exerts its distinct pharmacological effects compared to those of other µ-opioid receptor agonists is still controversial. In the present study, we further investigated the pharmacological profile of methadone compared to those of fentanyl and morphine as measured mainly by the discriminative stimulus effect and in vitro assays for NMDA receptor binding, µ-opioid receptor-internalization, and µ-opioid receptor-mediated β-arrestin recruitment. Results We found that fentanyl substituted for the discriminative stimulus effects of methadone, whereas a relatively high dose of morphine was required to substitute for the discriminative stimulus effects of methadone in rats. Under these conditions, the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 did not substitute for the discriminative stimulus effects of methadone. In association with its discriminative stimulus effect, methadone failed to displace the receptor binding of MK801 using mouse brain membrane. Methadone and fentanyl, but not morphine, induced potent µ-opioid receptor internalization accompanied by the strong recruitment of β-arrestin-2 in µ-opioid receptor-overexpressing cells. Conclusions These results suggest that methadone may, at least partly, produce its pharmacological effect as a β-arrestin-biased µ-opioid receptor agonist, similar to fentanyl, and NMDA receptor blockade is not the main contributor to the pharmacological profile of methadone. PMID:27317580

  6. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists suppress water intake independent of effects on food intake.

    PubMed

    McKay, Naomi J; Kanoski, Scott E; Hayes, Matthew R; Daniels, Derek

    2011-12-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is produced by and released from the small intestine following ingestion of nutrients. GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists applied peripherally or centrally decrease food intake and increase glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. These effects make the GLP-1 system an attractive target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. In addition to these more frequently studied effects of GLP-1R stimulation, previous reports indicate that GLP-1R agonists suppress water intake. The present experiments were designed to provide greater temporal resolution and site specificity for the effect of GLP-1 and the long-acting GLP-1R agonists, exendin-4 and liraglutide, on unstimulated water intake when food was and was not available. All three GLP-1R ligands suppressed water intake after peripheral intraperitoneal administration, both in the presence of and the absence of food; however, the magnitude and time frame of water intake suppression varied by drug. GLP-1 had an immediate, but transient, hypodipsic effect when administered peripherally, whereas the water intake suppression by IP exendin-4 and liraglutide was much more persistent. Additionally, intracerebroventricular administration of GLP-1R agonists suppressed water intake when food was absent, but the suppression of intake showed modest differences depending on whether the drug was administered to the lateral or fourth ventricle. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of GLP-1 receptor agonists affecting unstimulated, overnight intake in the absence of food, the first test for antidipsogenic effects of hindbrain application of GLP-1 receptor agonists, and the first test of a central effect (forebrain or hindbrain) of liraglutide on water intake. Overall, these results show that GLP-1R agonists have a hypodipsic effect that is independent of GLP-1R-mediated effects on food intake, and this occurs, in part, through central nervous system GLP-1R activation.

  7. LY354740 is a potent and highly selective group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist in cells expressing human glutamate receptors.

    PubMed

    Schoepp, D D; Johnson, B G; Wright, R A; Salhoff, C R; Mayne, N G; Wu, S; Cockerman, S L; Burnett, J P; Belegaje, R; Bleakman, D; Monn, J A

    1997-01-01

    The novel compound LY354740 is a conformationally constrained analog of glutamate, which was designed for interaction at metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors. In this paper the selectivity of LY354740 for recombinant human mGlu receptor subtypes expressed in non-neuronal (RGT) cells is described. At human mGlu2 receptors, LY354740 produced > 90% suppression of forskolin-stimulated cAMP formation with an EC50 of 5.1 +/- 0.3 nM. LY354740 was six-fold less potent in activating human mGlu3 receptors (EC50 = 24.3 +/- 0.5 nM). LY354740 inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP formation in human mGlu2 receptor-expressing cells was blocked by competitive mGlu receptor antagonists, including (+)-alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG) and LY307452 ((2S,4S)-2-amino-4-(4,4-diphenylbut-1-yl)-pentane-1,5-dioic acid). LY354740 had no agonist or antagonist activities at cells expressing human mGlu4 or mGlu7 (group III mGlu receptors) (EC50 > 100,000 nM). When tested at group I phosphoinositide-coupled human mGlu receptors (mGlu1a and mGlu5a), LY354740 did not activate or inhibit mGlu receptor agonist-evoked phosphoinositide hydrolysis at up to 100,000 nM. Electrophysiological experiments also demonstrated that LY354740 also had no appreciable activity in cells expressing human recombinant AMPA (GluR4) and kainate (GluR6) receptors. Thus, LY354740 is a highly potent, efficacious and selective group II (mGlu2/3) receptor agonist, useful to explore the functions of these receptors in situ. PMID:9144636

  8. Memantine agonist action at dopamine D2High receptors.

    PubMed

    Seeman, Philip; Caruso, Carla; Lasaga, Mercedes

    2008-02-01

    Memantine is reported to improve symptoms in moderate cases of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, but is also known to trigger psychosis in some Parkinson patients. Because these clinical features suggested a possible dopamine component of memantine action, we measured the potency of memantine on the functional high-affinity state of dopamine D2 receptors, or D2(High). Using [(3)H]domperidone to label D2 receptors, the memantine dissociation constant at D2(High) was 917 +/- 23 nM for rat striatal D2 receptors and 137 +/- 19 nM for human cloned D2Long receptors. The memantine dissociation constant for striatal N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors labeled by [(3)H]MK 801 was 2200 +/- 400 nM. Memantine stimulated the incorporation of [(35)S]GTP-gamma-S into D2-expressing Chinese Hamster Ovary cells with a dissociation constant of 1200 +/- 400 nM. Memantine, between 200 and 2000 nM, directly acted on D2(High) to inhibit the release of prolactin from isolated anterior pituitary cells in culture. Because the memantine potencies at NMDA receptors and dopamine D2(High) receptors are of a similar order of magnitude, it is likely that the clinical features of memantine can be attributed to its action at both types of receptors.

  9. Thrombin receptor agonist Peptide immobilized in microspheres stimulates reparative processes in rats with gastric ulcer.

    PubMed

    Rusanova, A V; Makarova, A M; Strukova, S M; Markvicheva, E A; Gorbachyova, L R; Stashevskaya, K S; Vasil'eva, T V; Sidorova, E I; Bespalova, Zh D; Grandfils, Ch

    2006-07-01

    The effect of synthetic thrombin receptor (PAR1) agonist peptide encapsulated in microspheres made of lactic and glycolic acid copolymer on tissue reparation was studied in rats with acetate-induced ulcer. PAR1 agonist peptide was immobilized in biodegraded lactic and glycolic acid microspheres by double emulgation, the kinetics of peptide release was analyzed, and the dynamics of ulcer healing was studied in experimental (administration of microspheres with the peptide into the stomach) and two control groups (administration of saline or spheres without peptide). Thrombin receptor agonist peptide gradually released from lactic and glycolic acid microspheres into the stomach shortened the inflammation phase and shifted the proliferation phase to the earlier period, thus accelerating healing of experimental ulcers in rats. PMID:17369897

  10. Cell type and gene-specific activity of the retinoid inverse agonist AGN 193109: divergent effects from agonist at retinoic acid receptor gamma in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Thacher, S M; Nagpal, S; Klein, E S; Arefieg, T; Krasinski, G; DiSepio, D; Agarwal, C; Johnson, A; Eckert, R L; Chandraratna, R A

    1999-04-01

    Retinoids are important regulators of epithelial differentiation. AGN 193109 is a high-affinity antagonist and inverse agonist for the nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RARs). Paradoxically, both AGN 193109 and retinoid agonists inhibit the expression of the differentiation marker MRP-8 in normal human keratinocytes (NHKs). TTNPB, an RAR agonist, and AGN 193109 mutually antagonize MRP-8 inhibition at both mRNA and protein levels. We find that this antagonism, which is greatest at an AGN 193109:TTNPB ratio of about 10:1, is absent when either compound is in significant excess. The potent RARalpha-specific agonist, AGN 193836, has no effect on MRP-8 regulation. These data indicate that inverse agonists and agonists suppress MRP-8 in NHKs through RARgamma using distinct and mutually inhibitory mechanisms. The activity of AGN 193109 on MRP-8 is cell type specific. In differentiating ECE16-1 cervical cells, TTNPB inhibits while AGN 193109 induces MRP-8 mRNA levels. The effect of AGN 193109 on genes inhibited by retinoid agonists in NHKs is also selective; expression of the differentiation markers transglutaminase 1 and keratin 6 is not down-regulated by AGN 193109 whereas stromelysin-1 expression is suppressed. These results show a complex gene and cell context-specific interplay between agonist and inverse agonist for the regulation of gene expression.

  11. Agonists with supraphysiological efficacy at the muscarinic M2 ACh receptor

    PubMed Central

    Schrage, R; Seemann, WK; Klöckner, J; Dallanoce, C; Racké, K; Kostenis, E; De Amici, M; Holzgrabe, U; Mohr, K

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Artificial agonists may have higher efficacy for receptor activation than the physiological agonist. Until now, such ‘superagonism’ has rarely been reported for GPCRs. Iperoxo is an extremely potent muscarinic receptor agonist. We hypothesized that iperoxo is a ‘superagonist’. Experimental Approach Signalling of iperoxo and newly synthesized structural analogues was compared with that of ACh at label-free M2 muscarinic receptors applying whole cell dynamic mass redistribution, measurement of G-protein activation, evaluation of cell surface agonist binding and computation of operational efficacies. Key Results In CHO-hM2 cells, iperoxo significantly exceeds ACh in Gi/Gs signalling competence. In the orthosteric loss-of-function mutant M2-Y1043.33A, the maximum effect of iperoxo is hardly compromised in contrast to ACh. ‘Superagonism’ is preserved in the physiological cellular context of MRC-5 human lung fibroblasts. Structure–signalling relationships including iperoxo derivatives with either modified positively charged head group or altered tail suggest that ‘superagonism’ of iperoxo is mechanistically based on parallel activation of the receptor protein via two orthosteric interaction points. Conclusion and Implications Supraphysiological agonist efficacy at muscarinic M2 ACh receptors is demonstrated for the first time. In addition, a possible underlying molecular mechanism of GPCR ‘superagonism’ is provided. We suggest that iperoxo-like orthosteric GPCR activation is a new avenue towards a novel class of receptor activators. Linked Article This article is commented on by Langmead and Christopoulos, pp. 353–356 of this issue. To view this commentary visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.12142 PMID:23062057

  12. Antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of selective 5-HT6 receptor agonists in rats

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Gregory V.; Schechter, Lee E.; Lucki, Irwin

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Although selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) produce clinical therapeutic effects on depression and anxiety through augmentation of serotonergic neurotransmission, there is little known about the potential contributions of the 5-HT6 receptor in the treatment of mood disorders. Objectives The aim of this study was to test the potential antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like effects of the 5-HT6 receptor agonists WAY-208466 and WAY-181187 using established behavioral tests in rats. Methods In order to determine if the 5-HT6 receptor agonists possess antidepressant-like activity, rats were treated with WAY-208466 or WAY-181187 and tested in the modified rat forced swim test (FST). Also, the potential anxiolytic-like effects of WAY-208466 and WAY-181187 were measured using the defensive burying (DB) test and novelty-induced hypophagia (NIH) test. Results WAY-208466 and WAY-181187 produced both antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like effects. Both compounds decreased immobility and increased swimming behavior in the FST. The effects of the 5-HT6 receptor agonists were similar to those seen after treatment with the SSRI fluoxetine. Both 5-HT6 receptor agonists also decreased burying duration in the DB test, indicative of anxiolytic activity in the test. The anxiolytic effects of WAY-208466 were reproduced in the NIH test. Assessment of the anxiolytic effects of WAY-181187 in the NIH was confounded by alterations in home cage feeding behavior. Conclusions These findings suggest that 5-HT6 receptor agonists may represent a new class of potential antidepressant and anxiolytic compounds and could possess a number of advantages over currently available treatments, including rapid onset of anxiolytic efficacy. PMID:20217056

  13. Pyridopyrimidine based cannabinoid-1 receptor inverse agonists: Synthesis and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Debenham, John S; Madsen-Duggan, Christina B; Wang, Junying; Tong, Xinchun; Lao, Julie; Fong, Tung M; Schaeffer, Marie-Therese; Xiao, Jing Chen; Huang, Cathy C R-R; Shen, Chun-Pyn; Sloan Stribling, D; Shearman, Lauren P; Strack, Alison M; Euan Macintyre, D; Hale, Jeffrey J; Walsh, Thomas F

    2009-05-01

    The synthesis, SAR and binding affinities are described for cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) specific inverse agonists based on pyridopyrimidine and heterotricyclic scaffolds. Food intake and pharmacokinetic evaluation of several of these compounds indicate that they are effective orally active modulators of CB1R.

  14. Profound and rapid reduction in body temperature induced by the melanocortin receptor agonists

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) plays a major role in body weight regulation and its agonist MTII has been widely used to study the role of MC4Rs in energy expenditure promotion and feeding reduction. Unexpectedly, we observed that intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of MTII induced a rapid red...

  15. Discovery and characterization of novel small-molecule CXCR4 receptor agonists and antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Rama K.; Shum, Andrew K.; Platanias, Leonidas C.; Miller, Richard J.; Schiltz, Gary E.

    2016-01-01

    The chemokine CXCL12 (SDF-1) and its cognate receptor CXCR4 are involved in a large number of physiological processes including HIV-1 infectivity, inflammation, tumorigenesis, stem cell migration, and autoimmune diseases. While previous efforts have identified a number of CXCR4 antagonists, there have been no small molecule agonists reported. Herein, we describe the identification of a novel series of CXCR4 modulators, including the first small molecules to display agonist behavior against this receptor, using a combination of structure- and ligand-based virtual screening. These agonists produce robust calcium mobilization in human melanoma cell lines which can be blocked by the CXCR4-selective antagonist AMD3100. We also demonstrate the ability of these new agonists to induce receptor internalization, ERK activation, and chemotaxis, all hallmarks of CXCR4 activation. Our results describe a new series of biologically relevant small molecules that will enable further study of the CXCR4 receptor and may contribute to the development of new therapeutics. PMID:27456816

  16. Conversion of the interleukin 1 receptor antagonist into an agonist by site-specific mutagenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Ju, G; Labriola-Tompkins, E; Campen, C A; Benjamin, W R; Karas, J; Plocinski, J; Biondi, D; Kaffka, K L; Kilian, P L; Eisenberg, S P

    1991-01-01

    Interleukin 1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) is a naturally occurring protein that binds to the IL-1 receptor present on T cells, fibroblasts, and other cell types and acts to block IL-1-induced responses. IL-1ra is a pure antagonist and has no agonist activity in in vitro or in vivo systems. By site-specific mutagenesis, an analog of IL-1ra was created that contained a substitution of a single amino acid, Lys-145----Asp. This analog, IL-1ra K145D, exhibited partial agonist activity in the D10.G4.1 cell proliferation assay. The newly acquired agonist activity could not be neutralized by antisera to IL-1 alpha or IL-1 beta, but it could be blocked by a monoclonal antibody to the T-cell IL-1 receptor. The analog also showed agonist activity as assayed by increased prostaglandin E2 synthesis from CHO cells expressing recombinant mouse IL-1 receptor. These results with IL-1ra K145D demonstrate the importance of the region surrounding the corresponding Asp-145 residue in IL-1 beta for triggering the biological response to IL-1. Images PMID:1826365

  17. Differential Effects of Cannabinoid Receptor Agonist on Social Discrimination and Contextual Fear in Amygdala and Hippocampus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segev, Amir; Akirav, Irit

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN; 5 [mu]g/side) microinjected into the hippocampus or the amygdala would differentially affect memory processes in a neutral vs. an aversive task. In the aversive contextual fear task, WIN into the basolateral amygdala impaired fear acquisition/consolidation, but not retrieval.…

  18. Discovery and characterization of novel small-molecule CXCR4 receptor agonists and antagonists.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Rama K; Shum, Andrew K; Platanias, Leonidas C; Miller, Richard J; Schiltz, Gary E

    2016-01-01

    The chemokine CXCL12 (SDF-1) and its cognate receptor CXCR4 are involved in a large number of physiological processes including HIV-1 infectivity, inflammation, tumorigenesis, stem cell migration, and autoimmune diseases. While previous efforts have identified a number of CXCR4 antagonists, there have been no small molecule agonists reported. Herein, we describe the identification of a novel series of CXCR4 modulators, including the first small molecules to display agonist behavior against this receptor, using a combination of structure- and ligand-based virtual screening. These agonists produce robust calcium mobilization in human melanoma cell lines which can be blocked by the CXCR4-selective antagonist AMD3100. We also demonstrate the ability of these new agonists to induce receptor internalization, ERK activation, and chemotaxis, all hallmarks of CXCR4 activation. Our results describe a new series of biologically relevant small molecules that will enable further study of the CXCR4 receptor and may contribute to the development of new therapeutics. PMID:27456816

  19. [Cardiovascular effects of GLP-1 receptor agonist treatment: focus on liraglutide].

    PubMed

    Haluzík, Martin; Trachta, Pavel; Mráz, Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk reduction is the major aim of type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment. The effects of various antidiabetics on the cardiovascular complications are currently under careful scrutiny. Incretin-based therapy that utilizes the effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) or stimulation of its receptor by GLP-1 receptor agonists represents one of the most promising approaches from the potential cardiovascular risk reduction point of view. Experimental studies have shown that the GLP-1 and GLP-1 agonists treatment improves endothelial function, decrease blood pressure and protects myocardium during experimentally-induced ischemia. Clinical studies with GLP-1 receptor agonists consistently show that, in addition to good antidiabetic efficacy, its long-term administration decreases blood pressure, body weight and improves circulating lipid levels while slightly increasing heart rate. In this paper, we focus on the cardiovascular effects of GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide. Preliminary analyses of cardiovascular complications in phase III trials with liraglutide indicate its good cardiovascular safety. A possibility of cardioprotective effects of liraglutide remains still open and is currently studied within a prospective cardiovascular trial LEADER. PMID:26375689

  20. [Cardiovascular effects of GLP-1 receptor agonist treatment: focus on liraglutide].

    PubMed

    Haluzík, Martin; Trachta, Pavel; Mráz, Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk reduction is the major aim of type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment. The effects of various antidiabetics on the cardiovascular complications are currently under careful scrutiny. Incretin-based therapy that utilizes the effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) or stimulation of its receptor by GLP-1 receptor agonists represents one of the most promising approaches from the potential cardiovascular risk reduction point of view. Experimental studies have shown that the GLP-1 and GLP-1 agonists treatment improves endothelial function, decrease blood pressure and protects myocardium during experimentally-induced ischemia. Clinical studies with GLP-1 receptor agonists consistently show that, in addition to good antidiabetic efficacy, its long-term administration decreases blood pressure, body weight and improves circulating lipid levels while slightly increasing heart rate. In this paper, we focus on the cardiovascular effects of GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide. Preliminary analyses of cardiovascular complications in phase III trials with liraglutide indicate its good cardiovascular safety. A possibility of cardioprotective effects of liraglutide remains still open and is currently studied within a prospective cardiovascular trial LEADER.

  1. Profiling of histamine H4 receptor agonists in native human monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gschwandtner, M; Koether, B; Werfel, T; Stark, H; Gutzmer, R

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Since the identification of the histamine H4 receptor, several ligands activating this receptor have been described and more compounds are in development. These ligands are well characterized in pharmacological assays, including radioligand competition binding studies, GTPγS and GTPase assays. In most cases, these experiments are performed in transfected cell lines, expressing unnaturally high levels of target receptors and G-protein signalling components. In this study we investigated the specific properties of H4 receptor ligands in native cells. Experimental Approach Histamine and five different H4 receptor agonists – 4-methylhistamine, UR-PI376, clobenpropit, VUF8430 and ST-1006 – were characterized in freshly isolated human monocytes. The ligands (10 nM–10 μM) were tested as inhibitors of IL-12p70 secretion from human monocytes and the effects of the H2 receptor antagonist ranitidine and the H4 receptor antagonist JNJ7777120 on their action was investigated. Key Results Histamine and all the tested agonists reduced IL-12p70 secretion into monocyte supernatants by 40–70%. The potencies varied with pEC50 values ranging from 5.7 to 6.9, depending on the agonist used. All potencies were lower than those determined in the original investigations of the compounds. Pretreatment of monocytes with H2 or H4 receptor antagonists showed that some H4 receptor ligands also had low activity at the H2 receptor. Conclusions and Implications Our study demonstrates discrepancies between the potencies obtained from assays in transfected cell lines and assays in native human cells, indicating the importance of evaluating H4 receptor ligands in native cells. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed issue on Histamine Pharmacology Update. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2013.170.issue-1 PMID:23638754

  2. 5-HT2 Receptor Regulation of Mitochondrial Genes: Unexpected Pharmacological Effects of Agonists and Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Jennifer L; Wills, Lauren P; McOmish, Caitlin E; Demireva, Elena Y; Gingrich, Jay A; Beeson, Craig C; Schnellmann, Rick G

    2016-04-01

    In acute organ injuries, mitochondria are often dysfunctional, and recent research has revealed that recovery of mitochondrial and renal functions is accelerated by induction of mitochondrial biogenesis (MB). We previously reported that the nonselective 5-HT2 receptor agonist DOI [1-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)propan-2-amine] induced MB in renal proximal tubular cells (RPTCs). The goal of this study was to determine the role of 5-HT2 receptors in the regulation of mitochondrial genes and oxidative metabolism in the kidney. The 5-HT2C receptor agonist CP-809,101 [2-[(3-chlorophenyl)methoxy]-6-(1-piperazinyl)pyrazine] and antagonist SB-242,084 [6-chloro-2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-N-[6-[(2-methyl-3-pyridinyl)oxy]-3-pyridinyl]-1H-indole-1-carboxyamide dihydrochloride] were used to examine the induction of renal mitochondrial genes and oxidative metabolism in RPTCs and in mouse kidneys in the presence and absence of the 5-HT2C receptor. Unexpectedly, both CP-809,101 and SB-242,084 increased RPTC respiration and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) mRNA expression in RPTCs at 1-10 nM. In addition, CP-809,101 and SB-242,084 increased mRNA expression of PGC-1α and the mitochondrial proteins NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) β subcomplex 8 in mice. These compounds increased mitochondrial genes in RPTCs in which the 5-HT2C receptor was downregulated with small interfering RNA and in the renal cortex of mice lacking the 5-HT2C receptor. By contrast, the ability of these compounds to increase PGC-1α mRNA and respiration was blocked in RPTCs treated with 5-HT2A receptor small interfering RNA or the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist eplivanserin. In addition, the 5-HT2A receptor agonist NBOH-2C-CN [4-[2-[[(2-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]amino]ethyl]-2,5-dimethoxybenzonitrile] increased RPTC respiration at 1-100 nM. These results suggest that agonism of the 5-HT2A receptor induces MB and that the classic 5-HT2C receptor agonist CP

  3. The therapeutic potential of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists for pain control.

    PubMed

    Decker, M W; Meyer, M D; Sullivan, J P

    2001-10-01

    Due to the limitations of currently available analgesics, a number of novel alternatives are currently under investigation, including neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists. During the 1990s, the discovery of the antinociceptive properties of the potent nAChR agonist epibatidine in rodents sparked interest in the analgesic potential of this class of compounds. Although epibatidine also has several mechanism-related toxicities, the identification of considerable nAChR diversity suggested that the toxicities and therapeutic actions of the compound might be mediated by distinct receptor subtypes. Consistent with this view, a number of novel nAChR agonists with antinociceptive activity and improved safety profiles in preclinical models have now been identified, including A-85380, ABT-594, DBO-83, SIB-1663 and RJR-2403. Of these, ABT-594 is the most advanced and is currently in Phase II clinical evaluation. Nicotinically-mediated antinociception has been demonstrated in a variety of rodent pain models and is likely mediated by the activation of descending inhibitory pathways originating in the brainstem with the predominant high-affinity nicotine site in brain, the alpha4beta2 subtype, playing a critical role. Thus, preclinical findings suggest that nAChR agonists have the potential to be highly efficacious treatments in a variety of pain states. However, clinical proof-of-principle studies will be required to determine if nAChR agonists are active in pathological pain.

  4. Computational Prediction and Biochemical Analyses of New Inverse Agonists for the CB1 Receptor.

    PubMed

    Scott, Caitlin E; Ahn, Kwang H; Graf, Steven T; Goddard, William A; Kendall, Debra A; Abrol, Ravinder

    2016-01-25

    Human cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) G-protein coupled receptor is a potential therapeutic target for obesity. The previously predicted and experimentally validated ensemble of ligand-free conformations of CB1 [Scott, C. E. et al. Protein Sci. 2013 , 22 , 101 - 113 ; Ahn, K. H. et al. Proteins 2013 , 81 , 1304 - 1317] are used here to predict the binding sites for known CB1-selective inverse agonists including rimonabant and its seven known derivatives. This binding pocket, which differs significantly from previously published models, is used to identify 16 novel compounds expected to be CB1 inverse agonists by exploiting potential new interactions. We show experimentally that two of these compounds exhibit inverse agonist properties including inhibition of basal and agonist-induced G-protein coupling activity, as well as an enhanced level of CB1 cell surface localization. This demonstrates the utility of using the predicted binding sites for an ensemble of CB1 receptor structures for designing new CB1 inverse agonists.

  5. Estrogen or estrogen receptor agonist inhibits lipopolysaccharide induced microglial activation and death.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua A; Das, Arabinda; Butler, Jonathan T; Ray, Swapan K; Banik, Naren L

    2011-09-01

    Inflammation is an important pathogenic mechanism in many neurodegenerative disorders. Activated microglia play a pivotal role in releasing pro-inflammatory factors including interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) for inducing inflammation. While microglia mediated inflammation is essential in maintaining CNS homeostasis, chronic inflammation results in activation of proteases for cell death. Here, we examined the effect of PPT (estrogen receptor α agonist), DPN (estrogen receptor β agonist), and estrogen on rat primary microglia following exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Exposure of microglia to LPS (200 ng/ml) for 24 h induced cell death. After LPS toxicity for 15 min, microglia were treated with 25 nM PPT, 25 nM DPN, or 100 nM estrogen that prevented cell death by attenuating the release of IL-1α, IL-1β, TNF-α, and COX-2. Treatment of cells with 100 nM fulvestrant (estrogen receptor antagonist) prior to addition of PPT, DPN, or estrogen significantly decreased their ability to prevent cell death, indicating involvement of estrogen receptor (ER) in providing PPT, DPN, or estrogen mediated cytoprotection. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses showed alterations in mRNA expression of Bax, Bcl-2, calpain, and calpastatin during apoptosis. We also examined mRNA expression of ERβ and ERα following exposure of microglia to LPS and subsequent treatment with PPT, DPN, or estrogen. We found that estrogen or estrogen receptor agonists upregulated expression of ERs. Overall, results indicate that estrogen receptor agonist or estrogen uses a receptor mediated pathway to protect microglia from LPS toxicity.

  6. Selective Retinoic Acid Receptor γ Agonists Promote Repair of Injured Skeletal Muscle in Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Di Rocco, Agnese; Uchibe, Kenta; Larmour, Colleen; Berger, Rebecca; Liu, Min; Barton, Elisabeth R.; Iwamoto, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Retinoic acid signaling regulates several biological events, including myogenesis. We previously found that retinoic acid receptor γ (RARγ) agonist blocks heterotopic ossification, a pathological bone formation that mostly occurs in the skeletal muscle. Interestingly, RARγ agonist also weakened deterioration of muscle architecture adjacent to the heterotopic ossification lesion, suggesting that RARγ agonist may oppose skeletal muscle damage. To test this hypothesis, we generated a critical defect in the tibialis anterior muscle of 7-week-old mice with a cautery, treated them with RARγ agonist or vehicle corn oil, and examined the effects of RARγ agonist on muscle repair. The muscle defects were partially repaired with newly regenerating muscle cells, but also filled with adipose and fibrous scar tissue in both RARγ-treated and control groups. The fibrous or adipose area was smaller in RARγ agonist–treated mice than in the control. In addition, muscle repair was remarkably delayed in RARγ-null mice in both critical defect and cardiotoxin injury models. Furthermore, we found a rapid increase in retinoid signaling in lacerated muscle, as monitored by retinoid signaling reporter mice. Together, our results indicate that endogenous RARγ signaling is involved in muscle repair and that selective RARγ agonists may be beneficial to promote repair in various types of muscle injuries. PMID:26205250

  7. Antimitogenic effect of bitter taste receptor agonists on airway smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pawan; Panebra, Alfredo; Pera, Tonio; Tiegs, Brian C; Hershfeld, Alena; Kenyon, Lawrence C; Deshpande, Deepak A

    2016-02-15

    Airway remodeling is a hallmark feature of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Clinical studies and animal models have demonstrated increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass, and ASM thickness is correlated with severity of the disease. Current medications control inflammation and reverse airway obstruction effectively but have limited effect on remodeling. Recently we identified the expression of bitter taste receptors (TAS2R) on ASM cells, and activation with known TAS2R agonists resulted in ASM relaxation and bronchodilation. These studies suggest that TAS2R can be used as new therapeutic targets in the treatment of obstructive lung diseases. To further establish their effectiveness, in this study we aimed to determine the effects of TAS2R agonists on ASM growth and promitogenic signaling. Pretreatment of healthy and asthmatic human ASM cells with TAS2R agonists resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of ASM proliferation. The antimitogenic effect of TAS2R ligands was not dependent on activation of protein kinase A, protein kinase C, or high/intermediate-conductance calcium-activated K(+) channels. Immunoblot analyses revealed that TAS2R agonists inhibit growth factor-activated protein kinase B phosphorylation without affecting the availability of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate, suggesting TAS2R agonists block signaling downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Furthermore, the antimitogenic effect of TAS2R agonists involved inhibition of induced transcription factors (activator protein-1, signal transducer and activator of transcription-3, E2 factor, nuclear factor of activated T cells) and inhibition of expression of multiple cell cycle regulatory genes, suggesting a direct inhibition of cell cycle progression. Collectively, these findings establish the antimitogenic effect of TAS2R agonists and identify a novel class of receptors and signaling pathways that can be targeted to reduce or prevent airway remodeling as well as

  8. Estrogen receptor agonists alleviate cardiac and renal oxidative injury in rats with renovascular hypertension.

    PubMed

    Özdemir Kumral, Zarife Nigâr; Kolgazi, Meltem; Üstünova, Savaş; Kasımay Çakır, Özgür; Çevik, Özge Dağdeviren; Şener, Göksel; Yeğen, Berrak Ç

    2016-01-01

    Although endogenous estrogen is known to offer cardiac and vascular protection, the involvement of estrogen receptors in mediating the protective effect of estrogen on hypertension-induced cardiovascular and renal injury is not fully explained. We aimed to investigate the effects of estrogen receptor (ER) agonists on oxidative injury, cardiovascular and renal functions of rats with renovascular hypertension (RVH). Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided as control and RVH groups, and RVH groups had either ovariectomy (OVX) or sham-OVX. Sham-OVX-RVH and OVX-RVH groups received either ERβ agonist diarylpropiolnitrile (1 mg/kg/day) or ERα agonist propyl pyrazole triol (1 mg/kg/day) for 6 weeks starting at the third week following the surgery. At the end of the 9(th) week, systolic blood pressures were recorded, cardiac functions were determined, and the contraction/relaxation responses of aortic rings were obtained. Serum creatinine levels, tissue malondialdehyde, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase levels, and myeloperoxidase activity in heart and kidney samples were analyzed, and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity was measured in kidney samples. In both sham-OVX and OVX rats, both agonists reduced blood pressure and reversed the impaired contractile performance of the heart, while ERβ agonist improved renal functions in both the OVX and non-OVX rats. Both agonists reduced neutrophil infiltration, lipid peroxidation, and elevated antioxidant levels in the heart, but a more ERβ-mediated protective effect was observed in the kidney. Our data suggest that activation of ERβ might play a role in preserving the function of the stenotic kidney and delaying the progression of renal injury, while both receptors mediate similar cardioprotective effects. PMID:27399230

  9. Agonist-bound structure of the human P2Y12 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Kaihua; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Paoletta, Silvia; Zhang, Dandan; Han, Gye Won; Li, Tingting; Ma, Limin; Zhang, Wenru; Müller, Christa E.; Yang, Huaiyu; Jiang, Hualiang; Cherezov, Vadim; Katritch, Vsevolod; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Stevens, Raymond C.; Wu, Beili; Zhao, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    The P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12R), one of eight members of the P2YR family expressed in humans, has been identified as one of the most prominent clinical drug targets for inhibition of platelet aggregation. Consequently, extensive mutagenesis and modeling studies of the P2Y12R have revealed many aspects of agonist/antagonist binding1-4. However, the details of agonist and antagonist recognition and function at the P2Y12R remain poorly understood at the molecular level. Here, we report the structures of the human P2Y12R in complex with a full agonist 2-methylthio-adenosine-5′-diphosphate (2MeSADP, a close analogue of endogenous agonist ADP) at 2.5 Å resolution, and the corresponding ATP derivative 2-methylthio-adenosine-5′-triphosphate (2MeSATP) at 3.1 Å resolution. Analysis of these structures, together with the structure of the P2Y12R with antagonist ethyl 6-(4-((benzylsulfonyl)carbamoyl)piperidin-1-yl)-5-cyano-2-methylnicotinate (AZD1283)5, reveals dramatic conformational changes between nucleotide and non-nucleotide ligand complexes in the extracellular regions, providing the first insight into a different ligand binding landscape in the δ-group of class A G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Agonist and non-nucleotide antagonist adopt different orientations in the P2Y12R, with only partially overlapped binding pockets. The agonist-bound P2Y12R structure answers long-standing ambiguities surrounding P2Y12R-agonist recognition, and reveals interactions with several residues that had not been reported to be involved in agonist binding. As a first example of a GPCR where agonist access to the binding pocket requires large scale rearrangements in the highly malleable extracellular region, the structural studies therefore will provide invaluable insight into the pharmacology and mechanisms of action of agonists and different classes of antagonists for the P2Y12R and potentially for other closely related P2YRs. PMID:24784220

  10. Conformational variability of the glycine receptor M2 domain in response to activation by different agonists.

    PubMed

    Pless, Stephan A; Dibas, Mohammed I; Lester, Henry A; Lynch, Joseph W

    2007-12-01

    Models describing the structural changes mediating Cys loop receptor activation generally give little attention to the possibility that different agonists may promote activation via distinct M2 pore-lining domain structural rearrangements. We investigated this question by comparing the effects of different ligands on the conformation of the external portion of the homomeric alpha1 glycine receptor M2 domain. Conformational flexibility was assessed by tethering a rhodamine fluorophore to cysteines introduced at the 19' or 22' positions and monitoring fluorescence and current changes during channel activation. During glycine activation, fluorescence of the label attached to R19'C increased by approximately 20%, and the emission peak shifted to lower wavelengths, consistent with a more hydrophobic fluorophore environment. In contrast, ivermectin activated the receptors without producing a fluorescence change. Although taurine and beta-alanine were weak partial agonists at the alpha1R19'C glycine receptor, they induced large fluorescence changes. Propofol, which drastically enhanced these currents, did not induce a glycine-like blue shift in the spectral emission peak. The inhibitors strychnine and picrotoxin elicited fluorescence and current changes as expected for a competitive antagonist and an open channel blocker, respectively. Glycine and taurine (or beta-alanine) also produced an increase and a decrease, respectively, in the fluorescence of a label attached to the nearby L22'C residue. Thus, results from two separate labeled residues support the conclusion that the glycine receptor M2 domain responds with distinct conformational changes to activation by different agonists. PMID:17911099

  11. Chloride is an Agonist of Group II and III Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors.

    PubMed

    DiRaddo, John O; Miller, Eric J; Bowman-Dalley, Carrie; Wroblewska, Barbara; Javidnia, Monica; Grajkowska, Ewa; Wolfe, Barry B; Liotta, Dennis C; Wroblewski, Jarda T

    2015-09-01

    The elemental anion chloride is generally considered a passive participant in neuronal excitability, and has never been shown to function as an agonist in its own right. We show that the antagonist-mediated, glutamate-independent inverse agonism of group II and III metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors results from inhibition of chloride-mediated activation. In silico molecular modeling, site-directed mutagenesis, and functional assays demonstrate (1) that chloride is an agonist of mGlu3, mGlu4, mGlu6, and mGlu8 receptors with its own orthosteric site, and (2) that chloride is not an agonist of mGlu2 receptors. Molecular modeling-predicted and site-directed mutagenesis supported that this unique property of mGlu2 receptors results from a single divergent amino acid, highlighting a molecular switch for chloride insensitivity that is transduced through an arginine flip. Ultimately, these results suggest that activation of group II and III mGlu receptors is mediated not only by glutamate, but also by physiologically relevant concentrations of chloride. PMID:26089372

  12. Agonistic aptamer to the insulin receptor leads to biased signaling and functional selectivity through allosteric modulation.

    PubMed

    Yunn, Na-Oh; Koh, Ara; Han, Seungmin; Lim, Jong Hun; Park, Sehoon; Lee, Jiyoun; Kim, Eui; Jang, Sung Key; Berggren, Per-Olof; Ryu, Sung Ho

    2015-09-18

    Due to their high affinity and specificity, aptamers have been widely used as effective inhibitors in clinical applications. However, the ability to activate protein function through aptamer-protein interaction has not been well-elucidated. To investigate their potential as target-specific agonists, we used SELEX to generate aptamers to the insulin receptor (IR) and identified an agonistic aptamer named IR-A48 that specifically binds to IR, but not to IGF-1 receptor. Despite its capacity to stimulate IR autophosphorylation, similar to insulin, we found that IR-A48 not only binds to an allosteric site distinct from the insulin binding site, but also preferentially induces Y1150 phosphorylation in the IR kinase domain. Moreover, Y1150-biased phosphorylation induced by IR-A48 selectively activates specific signaling pathways downstream of IR. In contrast to insulin-mediated activation of IR, IR-A48 binding has little effect on the MAPK pathway and proliferation of cancer cells. Instead, AKT S473 phosphorylation is highly stimulated by IR-A48, resulting in increased glucose uptake both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we present IR-A48 as a biased agonist able to selectively induce the metabolic activity of IR through allosteric binding. Furthermore, our study also suggests that aptamers can be a promising tool for developing artificial biased agonists to targeted receptors. PMID:26245346

  13. Agonistic aptamer to the insulin receptor leads to biased signaling and functional selectivity through allosteric modulation

    PubMed Central

    Yunn, Na-Oh; Koh, Ara; Han, Seungmin; Lim, Jong Hun; Park, Sehoon; Lee, Jiyoun; Kim, Eui; Jang, Sung Key; Berggren, Per-Olof; Ryu, Sung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Due to their high affinity and specificity, aptamers have been widely used as effective inhibitors in clinical applications. However, the ability to activate protein function through aptamer-protein interaction has not been well-elucidated. To investigate their potential as target-specific agonists, we used SELEX to generate aptamers to the insulin receptor (IR) and identified an agonistic aptamer named IR-A48 that specifically binds to IR, but not to IGF-1 receptor. Despite its capacity to stimulate IR autophosphorylation, similar to insulin, we found that IR-A48 not only binds to an allosteric site distinct from the insulin binding site, but also preferentially induces Y1150 phosphorylation in the IR kinase domain. Moreover, Y1150-biased phosphorylation induced by IR-A48 selectively activates specific signaling pathways downstream of IR. In contrast to insulin-mediated activation of IR, IR-A48 binding has little effect on the MAPK pathway and proliferation of cancer cells. Instead, AKT S473 phosphorylation is highly stimulated by IR-A48, resulting in increased glucose uptake both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we present IR-A48 as a biased agonist able to selectively induce the metabolic activity of IR through allosteric binding. Furthermore, our study also suggests that aptamers can be a promising tool for developing artificial biased agonists to targeted receptors. PMID:26245346

  14. Selective ligand behaviors provide new insights into agonist activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Marotta, Christopher B; Rreza, Iva; Lester, Henry A; Dougherty, Dennis A

    2014-05-16

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are a diverse set of ion channels that are essential to everyday brain function. Contemporary research studies selective activation of individual subtypes of receptors, with the hope of increasing our understanding of behavioral responses and neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we aim to expand current binding models to help explain the specificity seen among three activators of α4β2 receptors: sazetidine-A, cytisine, and NS9283. Through mutational analysis, we can interchange the activation profiles of the stoichiometry-selective compounds sazetidine-A and cytisine. In addition, mutations render NS9283--currently identified as a positive allosteric modulator--into an agonist. These results lead to two conclusions: (1) occupation at each primary face of an α subunit is needed to activate the channel and (2) the complementary face of the adjacent subunit dictates the binding ability of the agonist.

  15. Novel Oxazolidinone-Based Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Agonists: Molecular Modeling, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Fresno, N; Macías-González, M; Torres-Zaguirre, A; Romero-Cuevas, M; Sanz-Camacho, P; Elguero, J; Pavón, F J; Rodríguez de Fonseca, F; Goya, P; Pérez-Fernández, R

    2015-08-27

    A series of new peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) chiral ligands have been designed following the accepted three-module structure comprising a polar head, linker, and hydrophobic tail. The majority of the ligands incorporate the oxazolidinone moiety as a novel polar head, and the nature of the hydrophobic tail has also been varied. Docking studies using the crystal structure of an agonist bound to the ligand binding domain of the PPARα receptor have been performed as a tool for their design. Suitable synthetic procedures have been developed, and compounds with different stereochemistries have been prepared. Evaluation of basal and ligand-induced activity proved that several compounds showed agonist activity at the PPARα receptor, thus validating the oxazolidinone template for PPAR activity. In addition, two compounds, 2 and 4, showed dual PPARα/PPARγ agonism and interesting food intake reduction in rats.

  16. Highly selective and potent agonists of sphingosine-1-phosphate 1 (S1P1) receptor.

    PubMed

    Vachal, Petr; Toth, Leslie M; Hale, Jeffrey J; Yan, Lin; Mills, Sander G; Chrebet, Gary L; Koehane, Carol A; Hajdu, Richard; Milligan, James A; Rosenbach, Mark J; Mandala, Suzanne

    2006-07-15

    Novel series of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonists were developed through a systematic SAR aimed to achieve high selectivity for a single member of the S1P family of receptors, S1P1. The optimized structure represents a highly S1P1-selective and efficacious agonist: S1P1/S1P2, S1P1/S1P3, S1P1/S1P4>10,000-fold, S1P1/S1P5>600-fold, while EC50 (S1P1) <0.2 nM. In vivo experiments are consistent with S1P1 receptor agonism alone being sufficient for achieving desired lymphocyte-lowering effect.

  17. Potent complement C3a receptor agonists derived from oxazole amino acids: Structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ranee; Reed, Anthony N; Chu, Peifei; Scully, Conor C G; Yau, Mei-Kwan; Suen, Jacky Y; Durek, Thomas; Reid, Robert C; Fairlie, David P

    2015-12-01

    Potent ligands for the human complement C3a receptor (C3aR) were developed from the almost inactive tripeptide Leu-Ala-Arg corresponding to the three C-terminal residues of the endogenous peptide agonist C3a. The analogous Leu-Ser-Arg was modified by condensing the serine side chain with the leucine carbonyl with elimination of water to form leucine-oxazole-arginine. Subsequent elaboration with a variety of N-terminal amide capping groups produced agonists as potent as human C3a itself in stimulating Ca(2+) release from human macrophages. Structure-activity relationships are discussed.

  18. Dimethyl-diphenyl-propanamide derivatives as nonsteroidal dissociated glucocorticoid receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bingwei V; Weinstein, David S; Doweyko, Lidia M; Gong, Hua; Vaccaro, Wayne; Huynh, Tram; Xiao, Hai-Yun; Doweyko, Arthur M; McKay, Lorraine; Holloway, Deborah A; Somerville, John E; Habte, Sium; Cunningham, Mark; McMahon, Michele; Townsend, Robert; Shuster, David; Dodd, John H; Nadler, Steven G; Barrish, Joel C

    2010-12-01

    A series of 2,2-dimethyl-3,3-diphenyl-propanamides as novel glucocorticoid receptor modulators is reported. SAR exploration led to the identification of 4-hydroxyphenyl propanamide derivatives displaying good agonist activity in GR-mediated transrepression assays and reduced agonist activity in GR-mediated transactivation assays. Compounds 17 and 30 showed anti-inflammatory activity comparable to prednisolone in the rat carrageenan-induced paw edema model, with markedly decreased side effects with regard to increases in blood glucose and expression of hepatic tyrosine aminotransferase. A hypothetical binding mode accounting for the induction of the functional activity by a 4-hydroxyl group is proposed. PMID:21073190

  19. Truncation of the cytoplasmic tail of the lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor prevents agonist-induced uncoupling.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Yagüe, J; Rodríguez, M C; Segaloff, D L; Ascoli, M

    1992-04-15

    An agonist-induced change in the functional properties of a constant number of receptors seems to be a ubiquitous phenomenon involved in the regulation of cell surface receptors. Although the mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon (called uncoupling or desensitization) have been studied in detail using beta 2-adrenergic receptors it is unclear if the models derived from these studies are applicable to other members of the family of G protein-coupled receptors. Since it has been shown previously that truncation of the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail of the beta 2-adrenergic receptor results in a delay in the onset of agonist-induced uncoupling (Bouvier, M., Hausdorff, W.P., De Blasi, A., O'Dowd, B.F., Kobilka, B.K., Caron , M.G., and Lefkowitz, R.J. (1988) Nature 333, 370-373), we now present experiments designed to test the effects of a similar truncation of the lutropin/choriogonadotropin (LH/CG) receptor on its functional properties. The results presented herein show that (i) clonal lines of human embryonic kidney cells stably transfected with cDNAs encoding for the wild-type (rLHR-wt) or a mutant receptor truncated at amino acid residue 631 (rLHR-t631) express functional LH/CG receptors as judged by their ability to bind hCG and to respond to it with increased cAMP accumulation; (ii) a preincubation of the cells expressing rLHR-wt with hCG leads to a reduction in the ability of hCG to activate adenylylcyclase; and (iii) this reduction is severely blunted in cells expressing rLHR-t631. These results demonstrate that the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail of the LH/CG receptor is necessary for agonist-induced uncoupling.

  20. The 5-HT1A receptor agonist flesinoxan shares discriminative stimulus properties with some 5-HT2 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Herremans, A H; van der Heyden, J A; van Drimmelen, M; Olivier, B

    1999-10-01

    Ten homing pigeons were trained to discriminate the selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist flesinoxan (0.25 mg/kg p.o.) from its vehicle in a fixed-ratio (FR) 30 two-key operant drug discrimination procedure. The 5-HT2 receptor antagonist mianserin (ED50 = 4.8 mg/kg) fully substituted for flesinoxan, whereas ketanserin, ritanserin, mesulergine, and SB200646A substituted only partially, suggesting an interaction between 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 receptors. However, the 5-HT2 receptor agonists [DOI (0.6 mg/kg), TFMPP (10 mg/kg), mCPP (4 mg/kg)] were unable to antagonize the flesinoxan cue. The 5-HT1A receptor antagonists DU125530 (0.5-13 mg/kg) and WAY100,635 (0.1-1 mg/kg) partially antagonized the generalization of mianserin to flesinoxan. Taken together, these results are in accordance with the hypothesis that 5-HT1A receptor activation exerts an inhibitory effect on activation of 5-HT2 receptors. These results are in broad agreement with existing theories on 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 receptor interaction. Furthermore, it is argued that the discriminative stimulus properties of a drug may undergo qualitative changes with prolonged training.

  1. Binding affinity and agonist activity of putative endogenous cannabinoids at the human neocortical CB1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Steffens, Marc; Zentner, Josef; Honegger, Jürgen; Feuerstein, Thomas J

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the affinity of putative endocannabinoids (2-arachidonylglycerol, 2-AG; noladin ether, virodhamine) for the human neocortical CB1 receptor. Functional activity of these compounds (including anandamide, AEA) was determined by examining basal and forskolin-stimulated cAMP formation. Assays were performed with synaptosomes, prepared from fresh human neocortical tissue. Receptor affinity was assessed from competition binding experiments with the CB1/2 agonist [3H]-CP55.940 in absence or presence of a protease inhibitor to assess enzymatic stability. Noladin ether and virodhamine inhibited [3H]-CP55.940 binding (Ki: 98, 1740 nM, respectively). Protease inhibition decreased the Ki value of virodhamine (Ki: 912 nM), but left that of noladin ether unchanged. 2-AG almost lacked affinity (Ki lymphoblasic )10 microM). Basal cAMP formation was unaffected by AEA and noladin ether, but strongly enhanced by 2-AG and virodhamine. Forskolin-stimulated cAMP formation was inhibited by AEA and noladin ether (IC50: 69, 427 nM, respectively) to the same extent as by CP55.940 (Imax each approximately 30%). Inhibitions by AEA or noladin ether were blocked by the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251. Virodhamine increased forskolin-stimulated cAMP formation, also in presence of AM251, by approximately 20%. 2-AG had no effect; in presence of AM251, however, 10 microM 2-AG stimulated cAMP formation by approximately 15%. Our results suggest, that AEA and noladin ether are full CB1 receptor agonists in human neocortex, whereas virodhamine may act as a CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist. Particularly the (patho)physiological role of 2-AG should be further investigated, since its CB1 receptor affinity and agonist activity especially in humans might be lower than generally assumed. PMID:15588725

  2. Serotonin 2A receptor agonist binding in the human brain with [11C]Cimbi-36

    PubMed Central

    Ettrup, Anders; da Cunha-Bang, Sophie; McMahon, Brenda; Lehel, Szabolcs; Dyssegaard, Agnete; Skibsted, Anine W; Jørgensen, Louise M; Hansen, Martin; Baandrup, Anders O; Bache, Søren; Svarer, Claus; Kristensen, Jesper L; Gillings, Nic; Madsen, Jacob; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2014-01-01

    [11C]Cimbi-36 was recently developed as a selective serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor agonist radioligand for positron emission tomography (PET) brain imaging. Such an agonist PET radioligand may provide a novel, and more functional, measure of the serotonergic system and agonist binding is more likely than antagonist binding to reflect 5-HT levels in vivo. Here, we show data from a first-in-human clinical trial with [11C]Cimbi-36. In 29 healthy volunteers, we found high brain uptake and distribution according to 5-HT2A receptors with [11C]Cimbi-36 PET. The two-tissue compartment model using arterial input measurements provided the most optimal quantification of cerebral [11C]Cimbi-36 binding. Reference tissue modeling was feasible as it induced a negative but predictable bias in [11C]Cimbi-36 PET outcome measures. In five subjects, pretreatment with the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ketanserin before a second PET scan significantly decreased [11C]Cimbi-36 binding in all cortical regions with no effects in cerebellum. These results confirm that [11C]Cimbi-36 binding is selective for 5-HT2A receptors in the cerebral cortex and that cerebellum is an appropriate reference tissue for quantification of 5-HT2A receptors in the human brain. Thus, we here describe [11C]Cimbi-36 as the first agonist PET radioligand to successfully image and quantify 5-HT2A receptors in the human brain. PMID:24780897

  3. Time and space profiling of NMDA receptor co-agonist functions.

    PubMed

    Mothet, Jean-Pierre; Le Bail, Matildé; Billard, Jean-Marie

    2015-10-01

    The N-Methyl D-Aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors (NMDAR) are key tetrameric ionotropic glutamate receptors that transduce glutamatergic signals throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and spinal cord. Although NMDARs are diverse in their subunit composition, subcellular localization, and biophysical and pharmacological properties, their activation always requires the binding of a co-agonist that has long been thought to be glycine. However, intense research over the last decade has challenged this classical model by showing that another amino acid, d-serine, is the preferential co-agonist for a subset of synaptic NMDARs in many areas of the adult brain. Nowadays, a totally new picture of glutamatergic synapses at work is emerging where both glycine and d-serine are involved in a complex interplay to regulate NMDAR functions in the CNS following time and space constraints. The purpose of this review was to highlight the particular role of each co-agonist in modulating NMDAR-dependent activities in healthy and diseased brains. We have herein integrated our most advanced knowledge of how glycine and d-serine may orchestrate synapse dynamics and drive neuronal network activity in a time- and synapse-specific manner and how changes in synaptic availability of these amino acids may contribute to cognitive impairments such as those associated with healthy aging, epilepsy, and schizophrenia. The N-Methyl D-Aspartic acid (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptors are central to many physiological functions and are linked to brain disorders. Their functions require glutamate and a co-agonist d-serine or glycine. After years of intense research and controversy on the identity of the amino acid that serves as the right co-agonist, we are just entering a new era of consensus where glycine and d-serine are teaming up to regulate the function of different subsets of NMDA receptors and at different synapses during different time windows of brain development. PMID:26088787

  4. Discovery of PF-5190457, a Potent, Selective, and Orally Bioavailable Ghrelin Receptor Inverse Agonist Clinical Candidate

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The identification of potent, highly selective orally bioavailable ghrelin receptor inverse agonists from a spiro-azetidino-piperidine series is described. Examples from this series have promising in vivo pharmacokinetics and increase glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in human whole and dispersed islets. A physicochemistry-based strategy to increase lipophilic efficiency for ghrelin receptor potency and retain low clearance and satisfactory permeability while reducing off-target pharmacology led to the discovery of 16h. Compound 16h has a superior balance of ghrelin receptor pharmacology and off-target selectivity. On the basis of its promising pharmacological and safety profile, 16h was advanced to human clinical trials. PMID:24900864

  5. Potent contractile actions of prostanoid EP3-receptor agonists on human isolated pulmonary artery.

    PubMed

    Qian, Y M; Jones, R L; Chan, K M; Stock, A I; Ho, J K

    1994-10-01

    1. In 13 of 15 experiments, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and sulprostone (a prostanoid EP1/EP3-receptor agonist) contracted isolated rings of human pulmonary artery at low concentrations (> or = 5 and > or = 0.5 nM respectively). Tissue was obtained from patients undergoing surgery mainly for carcinoma of the lung. Characterization of the receptors involved was complicated by loss of sensitivity to the contractile PGE action over the experimental period. In contrast, contractile responses to KCl, phenylephrine and the specific thromboxane (TP-) receptor agonist, U-46619, did not decrease with time. 2. The relative contractile potencies for seven PGE analogues, measured during the first few hours after setting up the preparations, were as follows: sulprostone > misoprostol = gemeprost > or = PGE2 > or = GR 63799X > 17-phenyl-omega-trinor PGE2 > or = 11-deoxy PGE1. This ranking indicates that an EP3-receptor is involved. 3. The contractile action of sulprostone was not blocked by the TP-receptor antagonists, EP 169 and GR 32191, and the EP1-receptor antagonist, AH 6809. 4. In two experiments, PGE2 (50 nM) reduced basal tone and sulprostone was a weak contractile agent. Phenylephrine-induced tone was also inhibited by PGE2 (EC50 = 5-20 nM), 11-deoxy PGE1 and butaprost (a selective EP2-receptor agonist); the latter prostanoids were about 2 and 4 times less potent than PGE2 respectively. Interactions with phenylephrine were different in experiments where PGE2 alone was contractile: PGE2 induced contraction superimposed on the phenylephrine response and 11-deoxy PGE1 induced either further contraction or had no effect. Butaprost produced relaxation at high concentrations;this may not be an EP2 action since preparations were highly sensitive to relaxant actions of prostacyclin (IP-) receptor agonists (cicaprost and TEI-9063).5 The study has shown that in the majority of experiments on the human isolated pulmonary artery,the contractile EP3 system outweighed the relaxant EP2

  6. Agonist-promoted ubiquitination differentially regulates receptor trafficking of endothelin type A and type B receptors.

    PubMed

    Terada, Koji; Horinouchi, Takahiro; Fujioka, Yoichiro; Higashi, Tsunehito; Nepal, Prabha; Horiguchi, Mika; Karki, Sarita; Hatate, Chizuru; Hoshi, Akimasa; Harada, Takuya; Mai, Yosuke; Ohba, Yusuke; Miwa, Soichi

    2014-12-19

    Two types of G protein-coupled receptors for endothelin-1 (ET-1), ET type A receptor (ETAR) and ETBR, closely resemble each other, but upon ET-1 stimulation, they follow totally different intracellular trafficking pathways; ETAR is recycled back to plasma membrane, whereas ETBR is targeted to lysosome for degradation. However, the mechanisms for such different fates are unknown. Here we demonstrated that ETBR but not ETAR was ubiquitinated on the cell surface following ET-1 stimulation and that ETBR was internalized and degraded in lysosome more rapidly than ETAR. The mutant ETBR (designated "5KR mutant") in which 5 lysine residues in the C-tail were substituted to arginine was not ubiquitinated, and its rates of internalization and degradation after ET-1 stimulation became slower, being comparable with those of ETAR. Confocal microscopic study showed that following ET-1 stimulation, ETAR and 5KR mutant of ETBR were co-localized mainly with Rab11, a marker of recycling endosome, whereas ETBR was co-localized with Rab7, a marker of late endosome/lysosome. In the 5KR mutant, ET-1-induced ERK phosphorylation and an increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration upon repetitive ET-1 stimulation were larger. A series of ETBR mutants (designated "4KR mutant"), in which either one of 5 arginine residues of the 5KR mutant was reverted to lysine, were normally ubiquitinated, internalized, and degraded, with ERK phosphorylation being normalized. These results demonstrate that agonist-induced ubiquitination at either lysine residue in the C-tail of ETBR but not ETAR switches intracellular trafficking from recycling to plasma membrane to targeting to lysosome, causing decreases in the cell surface level of ETBR and intracellular signaling.

  7. Modulation of agonist binding to human dopamine receptor subtypes by L-prolyl-L-leucyl-glycinamide and a peptidomimetic analog.

    PubMed

    Verma, Vaneeta; Mann, Amandeep; Costain, Willard; Pontoriero, Giuseppe; Castellano, Jessica M; Skoblenick, Kevin; Gupta, Suresh K; Pristupa, Zdenek; Niznik, Hyman B; Johnson, Rodney L; Nair, Venugopalan D; Mishra, Ram K

    2005-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of the hypothalamic tripeptide L-prolyl-L-leucyl-glycinamide (PLG) and its conformationally constrained analog 3(R)-[(2(S)-pyrrolidinylcarbonyl)amino]-2-oxo-1-pyrrolidineacetamide (PAOPA) in modulating agonist binding to human dopamine (DA) receptor subtypes using human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells stably transfected with respective cDNAs. Both PLG and PAOPA enhanced agonist [3H]N-propylnorapomorphine (NPA) and [3H]quinpirole binding in a dose-dependent manner to the DA D2L,D2S, and D4 receptors. However, agonist binding to the D1 and D3 receptors and antagonist binding to the D2L receptors by PLG were not significantly affected. Scatchard analysis of [3H]NPA binding to membranes in the presence of PLG revealed a significant increase in affinity of the agonist binding sites for the D2L, D2S, and D4 receptors. Analysis of agonist/antagonist competition curves revealed that PLG and PAOPA increased the population and affinity of the high-affinity form of the D2L receptor and attenuated guanosine 5'-(beta,gamma-imido)-triphosphate-induced inhibition of high-affinity agonist binding sites for the DA D2L receptor. Furthermore, direct NPA binding with D2L cell membranes pretreated with suramin, a compound that can uncouple receptor/G protein complexes, and incubated with and without DA showed that both PLG and PAOPA had only increased agonist binding in membranes pretreated with both suramin and DA, suggesting that PLG requires the D2L receptor/G protein complex to increase agonist binding. These results suggest that PLG possibly modulates DA D2S, D2L, and D4 receptors in an allosteric manner and that the coupling of D2 receptors to the G protein is essential for this modulation to occur. PMID:16126839

  8. New 4-Functionalized Glutamate Analogues Are Selective Agonists at Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Subtype 2 or Selective Agonists at Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Group III.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Tri H V; Erichsen, Mette N; Tora, Amélie S; Goudet, Cyril; Sagot, Emmanuelle; Assaf, Zeinab; Thomsen, Christian; Brodbeck, Robb; Stensbøl, Tine B; Bjørn-Yoshimoto, Walden E; Nielsen, Birgitte; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Gefflaut, Thierry; Bunch, Lennart

    2016-02-11

    The metabotropic glutamate (Glu) receptors (mGluRs) play key roles in modulating excitatory neurotransmission in the brain. In all, eight subtypes have been identified and divided into three groups, group I (mGlu1,5), group II (mGlu2,3), and group III (mGlu4,6-8). In this article, we present a L-2,4-syn-substituted Glu analogue, 1d, which displays selective agonist activity at mGlu2 over the remaining mGluR subtypes. A modeling study and redesign of the core scaffold led to the stereoselective synthesis of four new conformationally restricted Glu analogues, 2a-d. Most interestingly, 2a retained a selective agonist activity profile at mGlu2 (EC50 in the micromolar range), whereas 2c/2d were both selective agonists at group III, subtypes mGlu4,6,8. In general, 2d was 20-fold more potent than 2c and potently activated mGlu4,6,8 in the low-mid nanomolar range.

  9. Behavioral effects of a synthetic agonist selective for nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide receptors in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Ko, Mei-Chuan; Woods, James H; Fantegrossi, William E; Galuska, Chad M; Wichmann, Jürgen; Prinssen, Eric P

    2009-08-01

    Behavioral effects of a nonpeptidic NOP (nociceptin/orphanin FQ Peptide) receptor agonist, Ro 64-6198, have not been studied in primate species. The aim of the study was to verify the receptor mechanism underlying the behavioral effects of Ro 64-6198 and to systematically compare behavioral effects of Ro 64-6198 with those of a mu-opioid receptor agonist, alfentanil, in monkeys. Both Ro 64-6198 (0.001-0.06 mg/kg, s.c.) and alfentanil (0.001-0.06 mg/kg, s.c.) produced antinociception against an acute noxious stimulus (50 degrees C water) and capsaicin-induced allodynia. An NOP receptor antagonist, J-113397 (0.01-0.1 mg/kg, s.c.), dose-dependently produced rightward shifts of the dose-response curve of Ro 64-6198-induced antinociception. The apparent pA(2) value of J-113397 was 8.0. Antagonist studies using J-113397 and naltrexone revealed that Ro 64-6198 produced NOP receptor-mediated antinociception independent of mu-opioid receptors. In addition, alfentanil dose-dependently produced respiratory depression and itch/scratching responses, but antinociceptive doses of Ro 64-6198 did not produce such effects. More important, Ro 64-6198 did not produce reinforcing effects comparable with those of alfentanil, cocaine, or methohexital under self-administration procedures in monkeys. These results provide the first functional evidence that the activation of NOP receptors produces antinociception without reinforcing effects in primates. Non-peptidic NOP receptor agonists may have therapeutic value as novel analgesics without abuse liability in humans. PMID:19279568

  10. Incorporation of Phosphonate into Benzonaphthyridine Toll-like Receptor 7 Agonists for Adsorption to Aluminum Hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Cortez, Alex; Li, Yongkai; Miller, Andrew T; Zhang, Xiaoyue; Yue, Kathy; Maginnis, Jillian; Hampton, Janice; Hall, De Shon; Shapiro, Michael; Nayak, Bishnu; D'Oro, Ugo; Li, Chun; Skibinski, David; Mbow, M Lamine; Singh, Manmohan; O'Hagan, Derek T; Cooke, Michael P; Valiante, Nicholas M; Wu, Tom Y-H

    2016-06-23

    Small molecule Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonists have been used as vaccine adjuvants by enhancing innate immune activation to afford better adaptive response. Localized TLR7 agonists without systemic exposure can afford good adjuvanticity, suggesting peripheral innate activation (non-antigen-specific) is not required for immune priming. To enhance colocalization of antigen and adjuvant, benzonaphthyridine (BZN) TLR7 agonists are chemically modified with phosphonates to allow adsorption onto aluminum hydroxide (alum), a formulation commonly used in vaccines for antigen stabilization and injection site deposition. The adsorption process is facilitated by enhancing aqueous solubility of BZN analogs to avoid physical mixture of two insoluble particulates. These BZN-phosphonates are highly adsorbed onto alum, which significantly reduced systemic exposure and increased local retention post injection. This report demonstrates a novel approach in vaccine adjuvant design using phosphonate modification to afford adsorption of small molecule immune potentiator (SMIP) onto alum, thereby enhancing co-delivery with antigen. PMID:27270029

  11. Metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists potentiate a slow afterdepolarization in CNS neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, F.; Gallagher, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    We have previously reported that, in the rat dorsolateral septal nucleus (DLSN), metabotropic glutamate receptor (met-GluR) agonists evoked a slow depolarization accompanied by an increase in membrane conductance and burst firing. We have speculated that the burst firing elicited by met-GluR agonists may be due to activation or enhancement of a non-specific cation current, which exists in some DLSN neurons. Now we report that a slow afterdepolarization (sADP) mediated by a non-specific cation current was potentiated by both 1S,3R-ACPD and quisqualate. In addition, met-GluR agonists unmask a sADP in DLSN neurons which did not show a sADP under control conditions. Our data suggest that a non-specific cation current can be potentiated by activation of the met-GluR.

  12. Measuring relative acetylcholine receptor agonist binding by selective proton nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation experiments.

    PubMed Central

    Behling, R W; Yamane, T; Navon, G; Sammon, M J; Jelinski, L W

    1988-01-01

    A method is presented that uses selective proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) relaxation measurements of nicotine in the presence of the acetylcholine receptor to obtain relative binding constants for acetylcholine, carbamylcholine, and muscarine. For receptors from Torpedo californica the results show that (a) the binding constants are in the order acetylcholine greater than nicotine greater than carbamylcholine greater than muscarine; (b) selective NMR measurements provide a rapid and direct method for monitoring both the specific and nonspecific binding of agonists to these receptors and to the lipid; (c) alpha-bungarotoxin can be used to distinguish between specific and nonspecific binding to the receptor; (d) the receptor--substrate interaction causes a large change in the selective relaxation time of the agonists even at concentrations 100x greater than that of the receptor. This last observation means that these measurements provide a rapid method to monitor drug binding when only small amounts of receptor are available. Furthermore, the binding strategies presented here may be useful for the NMR determination of the conformation of the ligand in its bound state. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:3395661

  13. Small-molecule nociceptin receptor agonist ameliorates mast cell activation and pain in sickle mice

    PubMed Central

    Vang, Derek; Paul, Jinny A.; Nguyen, Julia; Tran, Huy; Vincent, Lucile; Yasuda, Dennis; Zaveri, Nurulain T.; Gupta, Kalpna

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of pain with morphine and its congeners in sickle cell anemia is suboptimal, warranting the need for analgesics devoid of side effects, addiction and tolerance liability. Small-molecule nociceptin opioid receptor ligands show analgesic efficacy in acute and chronic pain models. We show that AT-200, a high affinity nociceptin opioid receptor agonist with low efficacy at the mu opioid receptor, ameliorated chronic and hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced mechanical, thermal and deep tissue/musculoskeletal hyperalgesia in HbSS-BERK sickle mice. The antinociceptive effect of AT-200 was antagonized by SB-612111, a nociceptin opioid receptor antagonist, but not naloxone, a non-selective mu opioid receptor antagonist. Daily 7-day treatment with AT-200 did not develop tolerance and showed a sustained anti-nociceptive effect, which improved over time and led to reduced plasma serum amyloid protein, neuropeptides, inflammatory cytokines and mast cell activation in the periphery. These data suggest that AT-200 ameliorates pain in sickle mice via the nociceptin opioid receptor by reducing inflammation and mast cell activation without causing tolerance. Thus, nociceptin opioid receptor agonists are promising drugs for treating pain in sickle cell anemia. PMID:26294734

  14. Targeting the endocannabinoid system with cannabinoid receptor agonists: pharmacological strategies and therapeutic possibilities.

    PubMed

    Pertwee, Roger G

    2012-12-01

    Human tissues express cannabinoid CB(1) and CB(2) receptors that can be activated by endogenously released 'endocannabinoids' or exogenously administered compounds in a manner that reduces the symptoms or opposes the underlying causes of several disorders in need of effective therapy. Three medicines that activate cannabinoid CB(1)/CB(2) receptors are now in the clinic: Cesamet (nabilone), Marinol (dronabinol; Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC)) and Sativex (Δ(9)-THC with cannabidiol). These can be prescribed for the amelioration of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (Cesamet and Marinol), stimulation of appetite (Marinol) and symptomatic relief of cancer pain and/or management of neuropathic pain and spasticity in adults with multiple sclerosis (Sativex). This review mentions several possible additional therapeutic targets for cannabinoid receptor agonists. These include other kinds of pain, epilepsy, anxiety, depression, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, stroke, cancer, drug dependence, glaucoma, autoimmune uveitis, osteoporosis, sepsis, and hepatic, renal, intestinal and cardiovascular disorders. It also describes potential strategies for improving the efficacy and/or benefit-to-risk ratio of these agonists in the clinic. These are strategies that involve (i) targeting cannabinoid receptors located outside the blood-brain barrier, (ii) targeting cannabinoid receptors expressed by a particular tissue, (iii) targeting upregulated cannabinoid receptors, (iv) selectively targeting cannabinoid CB(2) receptors, and/or (v) adjunctive 'multi-targeting'. PMID:23108552

  15. Small-molecule nociceptin receptor agonist ameliorates mast cell activation and pain in sickle mice.

    PubMed

    Vang, Derek; Paul, Jinny A; Nguyen, Julia; Tran, Huy; Vincent, Lucile; Yasuda, Dennis; Zaveri, Nurulain T; Gupta, Kalpna

    2015-12-01

    Treatment of pain with morphine and its congeners in sickle cell anemia is suboptimal, warranting the need for analgesics devoid of side effects, addiction and tolerance liability. Small-molecule nociceptin opioid receptor ligands show analgesic efficacy in acute and chronic pain models. We show that AT-200, a high affinity nociceptin opioid receptor agonist with low efficacy at the mu opioid receptor, ameliorated chronic and hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced mechanical, thermal and deep tissue/musculoskeletal hyperalgesia in HbSS-BERK sickle mice. The antinociceptive effect of AT-200 was antagonized by SB-612111, a nociceptin opioid receptor antagonist, but not naloxone, a non-selective mu opioid receptor antagonist. Daily 7-day treatment with AT-200 did not develop tolerance and showed a sustained anti-nociceptive effect, which improved over time and led to reduced plasma serum amyloid protein, neuropeptides, inflammatory cytokines and mast cell activation in the periphery. These data suggest that AT-200 ameliorates pain in sickle mice via the nociceptin opioid receptor by reducing inflammation and mast cell activation without causing tolerance. Thus, nociceptin opioid receptor agonists are promising drugs for treating pain in sickle cell anemia.

  16. Targeting the endocannabinoid system with cannabinoid receptor agonists: pharmacological strategies and therapeutic possibilities

    PubMed Central

    Pertwee, Roger G.

    2012-01-01

    Human tissues express cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors that can be activated by endogenously released ‘endocannabinoids’ or exogenously administered compounds in a manner that reduces the symptoms or opposes the underlying causes of several disorders in need of effective therapy. Three medicines that activate cannabinoid CB1/CB2 receptors are now in the clinic: Cesamet (nabilone), Marinol (dronabinol; Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC)) and Sativex (Δ9-THC with cannabidiol). These can be prescribed for the amelioration of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (Cesamet and Marinol), stimulation of appetite (Marinol) and symptomatic relief of cancer pain and/or management of neuropathic pain and spasticity in adults with multiple sclerosis (Sativex). This review mentions several possible additional therapeutic targets for cannabinoid receptor agonists. These include other kinds of pain, epilepsy, anxiety, depression, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, stroke, cancer, drug dependence, glaucoma, autoimmune uveitis, osteoporosis, sepsis, and hepatic, renal, intestinal and cardiovascular disorders. It also describes potential strategies for improving the efficacy and/or benefit-to-risk ratio of these agonists in the clinic. These are strategies that involve (i) targeting cannabinoid receptors located outside the blood-brain barrier, (ii) targeting cannabinoid receptors expressed by a particular tissue, (iii) targeting upregulated cannabinoid receptors, (iv) selectively targeting cannabinoid CB2 receptors, and/or (v) adjunctive ‘multi-targeting’. PMID:23108552

  17. Structure-Activity Analysis of Biased Agonism at the Human Adenosine A3 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Baltos, Jo-Anne; Paoletta, Silvia; Nguyen, Anh T. N.; Gregory, Karen J.; Tosh, Dilip K.; Christopoulos, Arthur; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    Biased agonism at G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) has significant implications for current drug discovery, but molecular determinants that govern ligand bias remain largely unknown. The adenosine A3 GPCR (A3AR) is a potential therapeutic target for various conditions, including cancer, inflammation, and ischemia, but for which biased agonism remains largely unexplored. We now report the generation of bias “fingerprints” for prototypical ribose containing A3AR agonists and rigidified (N)-methanocarba 5′-N-methyluronamide nucleoside derivatives with regard to their ability to mediate different signaling pathways. Relative to the reference prototypical agonist IB-MECA, (N)-methanocarba 5′-N-methyluronamide nucleoside derivatives with significant N6 or C2 modifications, including elongated aryl-ethynyl groups, exhibited biased agonism. Significant positive correlation was observed between the C2 substituent length (in Å) and bias toward cell survival. Molecular modeling suggests that extended C2 substituents on (N)-methanocarba 5′-N-methyluronamide nucleosides promote a progressive outward shift of the A3AR transmembrane domain 2, which may contribute to the subset of A3AR conformations stabilized on biased agonist binding. PMID:27136943

  18. Melanocortin Receptor Agonists Facilitate Oxytocin-Dependent Partner Preference Formation in the Prairie Vole.

    PubMed

    Modi, Meera E; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Barrett, Catherine E; Kittelberger, Kara A; Smith, Daniel G; Landgraf, Rainer; Young, Larry J

    2015-07-01

    The central melanocortin (MC) system has been widely studied for its effects on food intake and sexual behavior. However, the MC system, and more specifically the MC4 receptor (MC4R), also interacts with neurochemical systems that regulate socioemotional behaviors, including oxytocin (OT) and dopamine. In monogamous prairie voles, OT and dopamine interact to promote partner preference formation, a laboratory measure of an enduring social bond between mates. Here we investigated the effects of MC receptor activation on partner preference formation in prairie voles, as well as the interaction between the MC and OT systems during this process. Peripheral administration of the brain penetrant MC3/4R receptor peptide agonist, Melanotan II (MTII), and the highly selective, small-molecule MC4R agonist, Pf-446687, enhanced partner preference formation in the prairie vole, but not in the non-monogamous meadow vole. MTII-induced partner preferences were enduring, as they were present 1 week after drug manipulation. The prosocial effects of MCR agonists may be mediated, in part, through modulation of OT, as coadministration of an OT receptor antagonist prevented MTII-induced partner preferences. MTII also selectively activated hypothalamic OT neurons and potentiated central OT release. As OT has been shown to enhance some aspects of social cognition in humans, our data suggest that the MC4R may be a viable therapeutic target for enhancing social function in psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, potentially through activation of the OT system.

  19. Melanocortin Receptor Agonists Facilitate Oxytocin-Dependent Partner Preference Formation in the Prairie Vole

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Meera E; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Barrett, Catherine E; Kittelberger, Kara A; Smith, Daniel G; Landgraf, Rainer; Young, Larry J

    2015-01-01

    The central melanocortin (MC) system has been widely studied for its effects on food intake and sexual behavior. However, the MC system, and more specifically the MC4 receptor (MC4R), also interacts with neurochemical systems that regulate socioemotional behaviors, including oxytocin (OT) and dopamine. In monogamous prairie voles, OT and dopamine interact to promote partner preference formation, a laboratory measure of an enduring social bond between mates. Here we investigated the effects of MC receptor activation on partner preference formation in prairie voles, as well as the interaction between the MC and OT systems during this process. Peripheral administration of the brain penetrant MC3/4R receptor peptide agonist, Melanotan II (MTII), and the highly selective, small-molecule MC4R agonist, Pf-446687, enhanced partner preference formation in the prairie vole, but not in the non-monogamous meadow vole. MTII-induced partner preferences were enduring, as they were present 1 week after drug manipulation. The prosocial effects of MCR agonists may be mediated, in part, through modulation of OT, as coadministration of an OT receptor antagonist prevented MTII-induced partner preferences. MTII also selectively activated hypothalamic OT neurons and potentiated central OT release. As OT has been shown to enhance some aspects of social cognition in humans, our data suggest that the MC4R may be a viable therapeutic target for enhancing social function in psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, potentially through activation of the OT system. PMID:25652247

  20. Antitussive activity of sigma-1 receptor agonists in the guinea-pig.

    PubMed

    Brown, Claire; Fezoui, Malika; Selig, William M; Schwartz, Carl E; Ellis, James L

    2004-01-01

    1. Current antitussive medications have limited efficacy and often contain the opiate-like agent dextromethorphan (DEX). The mechanism whereby DEX inhibits cough is ill defined. DEX displays affinity at both NMDA and sigma receptors, suggesting that the antitussive activity may involve central or peripheral activity at either of these receptors. This study examined and compared the antitussive activity of DEX and various putative sigma receptor agonists in the guinea-pig citric-acid cough model. 2. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DEX (30 mg kg(-1)) and the sigma-1 agonists SKF-10,047 (1-5 mg kg(-1)), Pre-084 (5 mg kg(-1)), and carbetapentane (1-5 mg kg(-1)) inhibited citric-acid-induced cough in guinea-pigs. Intraperitoneal administration of a sigma-1 antagonist, BD 1047 (1-5 mg kg(-1)), reversed the inhibition of cough elicited by SKF-10,047. In addition, two structurally dissimilar sigma agonists SKF-10,047 (1 mg ml(-1)) and Pre-084 (1 mg ml(-1)) inhibited cough when administered by aerosol. 3. Aerosolized BD 1047 (1 mg ml(-1), 30 min) prevented the antitussive action of SKF-10,047 (5 mg kg(-1)) or DEX (30 mg kg(-1)) given by i.p. administration and, likewise, i.p. administration of BD 1047 (5 mg kg(-1)) prevented the antitussive action of SKF-10,047 given by aerosol (1 mg ml(-1)). 4. These results therefore support the argument that antitussive effects of DEX may be mediated via sigma receptors, since both systemic and aerosol administration of sigma-1 receptor agonists inhibit citric-acid-induced cough in guinea-pigs. While significant systemic exposure is possible with aerosol administration, the very low doses administered (estimated <0.3 mg kg(-1)) suggest that there may be a peripheral component to the antitussive effect.

  1. Therapeutic Potential of 5-HT2C Receptor Agonists for Addictive Disorders.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Guy A; Fletcher, Paul J

    2015-07-15

    The neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) has long been associated with the control of a variety of motivated behaviors, including feeding. Much of the evidence linking 5-HT and feeding behavior was obtained from studies of the effects of the 5-HT releaser (dex)fenfluramine in laboratory animals and humans. Recently, the selective 5-HT2C receptor agonist lorcaserin received FDA approval for the treatment of obesity. This review examines evidence to support the use of selective 5-HT2C receptor agonists as treatments for conditions beyond obesity, including substance abuse (particularly nicotine, psychostimulant, and alcohol dependence), obsessive compulsive, and excessive gambling disorder. Following a brief survey of the early literature supporting a role for 5-HT in modulating food and drug reinforcement, we propose that intrinsic differences between SSRI and serotonin releasers may have underestimated the value of serotonin-based pharmacotherapeutics to treat clinical forms of addictive behavior beyond obesity. We then highlight the critical involvement of the 5-HT2C receptor in mediating the effect of (dex)fenfluramine on feeding and body weight gain and the evidence that 5-HT2C receptor agonists reduce measures of drug reward and impulsivity. A recent report of lorcaserin efficacy in a smoking cessation trial further strengthens the idea that 5-HT2C receptor agonists may have potential as a treatment for addiction. This review was prepared as a contribution to the proceedings of the 11th International Society for Serotonin Research Meeting held in Hermanus, South Africa, July 9-12, 2014.

  2. Engagement of the GABA to KCC2 signaling pathway contributes to the analgesic effects of A3AR agonists in neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Ford, Amanda; Castonguay, Annie; Cottet, Martin; Little, Joshua W; Chen, Zhoumou; Symons-Liguori, Ashley M; Doyle, Timothy; Egan, Terrance M; Vanderah, Todd W; De Konnick, Yves; Tosh, Dilip K; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Salvemini, Daniela

    2015-04-15

    More than 1.5 billion people worldwide suffer from chronic pain, yet current treatment strategies often lack efficacy or have deleterious side effects in patients. Adenosine is an inhibitory neuromodulator that was previously thought to mediate antinociception through the A1 and A2A receptor subtypes. We have since demonstrated that A3AR agonists have potent analgesic actions in preclinical rodent models of neuropathic pain and that A3AR analgesia is independent of adenosine A1 or A2A unwanted effects. Herein, we explored the contribution of the GABA inhibitory system to A3AR-mediated analgesia using well-characterized mouse and rat models of chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain. The deregulation of GABA signaling in pathophysiological pain states is well established: GABA signaling can be hampered by a reduction in extracellular GABA synthesis by GAD65 and enhanced extracellular GABA reuptake via the GABA transporter, GAT-1. In neuropathic pain, GABAAR-mediated signaling can be further disrupted by the loss of the KCC2 chloride anion gradient. Here, we demonstrate that A3AR agonists (IB-MECA and MRS5698) reverse neuropathic pain via a spinal mechanism of action that modulates GABA activity. Spinal administration of the GABAA antagonist, bicuculline, disrupted A3AR-mediated analgesia. Furthermore, A3AR-mediated analgesia was associated with reductions in CCI-related GAD65 and GAT-1 serine dephosphorylation as well as an enhancement of KCC2 serine phosphorylation and activity. Our results suggest that A3AR-mediated reversal of neuropathic pain increases modulation of GABA inhibitory neurotransmission both directly and indirectly through protection of KCC2 function, underscoring the unique utility of A3AR agonists in chronic pain. PMID:25878279

  3. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist administration suppresses both water and saline intake in rats.

    PubMed

    McKay, N J; Daniels, D

    2013-10-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) plays an important role in energy homeostasis. Injections of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists suppress food intake, and endogenous GLP-1 is released when nutrients enter the gut. There is also growing evidence that the GLP-1 system is involved in the regulation of body fluid homeostasis. GLP-1R agonists suppress water intake independent of their effects on food intake. It is unknown, however, whether this suppressive effect of GLP-1R agonists extends to saline intake. Accordingly, we tested the effect of the GLP-1R agonists liraglutide (0.05 μg) and exendin-4 (0.05 μg) on water and saline intake, as stimulated either by angiotensin II (AngII) or by water deprivation with partial rehydration (WD-PR). Each agonist suppressed AngII-induced water intake; however, only exendin-4 suppressed saline intake. WD-PR-induced water and saline intakes were both attenuated by each agonist. Analysis of drinking microstructure after WD-PR found a reliable effect of the agonists on burst number. Furthermore, exendin-4 conditioned a robust taste avoidance to saccharine; however, there was no similar effect of liraglutide. To evaluate the relevance of the conditioned taste avoidance, we tested whether inducing visceral malaise by injection of lithium chloride (LiCl) suppressed fluid intake. Injection of LiCl did not suppress water or saline intakes. Overall, these results indicate that the fluid intake suppression by GLP-1R activation is not selective to water intake, is a function of post-ingestive feedback, and is not secondary to visceral malaise.

  4. PPAR-γ Agonists and Their Effects on IGF-I Receptor Signaling: Implications for Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Belfiore, A.; Genua, M.; Malaguarnera, R.

    2009-01-01

    It is now well established that the development and progression of a variety of human malignancies are associated with dysregulated activity of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system. In this regard, promising drugs have been developed to target the IGF-I receptor or its ligands. These therapies are limited by the development of insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia, which in turn, may stimulate cancer growth. Novel therapeutic approaches are, therefore, required. Synthetic PPAR-γ agonists, such as thiazolidinediones (TZDs), are drugs universally used as antidiabetic agents in patients with type 2 diabetes. In addition of acting as insulin sensitizers, PPAR-γ agonists mediate in vitro and in vivo pleiotropic anticancer effects. At least some of these effects appear to be linked with the downregulation of the IGF system, which is induced by the cross-talk of PPAR-γ agonists with multiple components of the IGF system signaling. As hyperinsulinemia is an emerging cancer risk factor, the insulin lowering action of PPAR-γ agonists may be expected to be also beneficial to reduce cancer development and/or progression. In light of these evidences, TZDs or other PPAR-γ agonists may be exploited in those tumors “addicted” to the IGF signaling and/or in tumors occurring in hyperinsulinemic patients. PMID:19609453

  5. Modulation Effect of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Agonists on Lipid Droplet Proteins in Liver.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yun-Xia; Zhang, Ming-Liang; Zhong, Yuan; Wang, Chen; Jia, Wei-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists are used for treating hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. However, the mechanism of action of these agonists is still under investigation. The lipid droplet-associated proteins FSP27/CIDEC and LSDP5, regulated directly by PPARγ and PPARα, are associated with hepatic steatosis and insulin sensitivity. Here, we evaluated the expression levels of FSP27/CIDEC and LSDP5 and the regulation of these proteins by consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) or administration of PPAR agonists. Mice with diet-induced obesity were treated with the PPARγ or PPARα agonist, pioglitazone or fenofibrate, respectively. Liver tissues from db/db diabetic mice and human were also collected. Interestingly, FSP27/CIEDC was expressed in mouse and human livers and was upregulated in obese C57BL/6J mice. Fenofibrate treatment decreased hepatic triglyceride (TG) content and FSP27/CIDEC protein expression in mice fed an HFD diet. In mice, LSDP5 was not detected, even in the context of insulin resistance or treatment with PPAR agonists. However, LSDP5 was highly expressed in humans, with elevated expression observed in the fatty liver. We concluded that fenofibrate greatly decreased hepatic TG content and FSP27/CIDEC protein expression in mice fed an HFD, suggesting a potential regulatory role for fenofibrate in the amelioration of hepatic steatosis.

  6. Natural product agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ): a review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Limei; Waltenberger, Birgit; Pferschy-Wenzig, Eva-Maria; Blunder, Martina; Liu, Xin; Malainer, Clemens; Blazevic, Tina; Schwaiger, Stefan; Rollinger, Judith M; Heiss, Elke H; Schuster, Daniela; Kopp, Brigitte; Bauer, Rudolf; Stuppner, Hermann; Dirsch, Verena M; Atanasov, Atanas G

    2014-11-01

    Agonists of the nuclear receptor PPARγ are therapeutically used to combat hyperglycaemia associated with the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. In spite of being effective in normalization of blood glucose levels, the currently used PPARγ agonists from the thiazolidinedione type have serious side effects, making the discovery of novel ligands highly relevant. Natural products have proven historically to be a promising pool of structures for drug discovery, and a significant research effort has recently been undertaken to explore the PPARγ-activating potential of a wide range of natural products originating from traditionally used medicinal plants or dietary sources. The majority of identified compounds are selective PPARγ modulators (SPPARMs), transactivating the expression of PPARγ-dependent reporter genes as partial agonists. Those natural PPARγ ligands have different binding modes to the receptor in comparison to the full thiazolidinedione agonists, and on some occasions activate in addition PPARα (e.g. genistein, biochanin A, sargaquinoic acid, sargahydroquinoic acid, resveratrol, amorphastilbol) or the PPARγ-dimer partner retinoid X receptor (RXR; e.g. the neolignans magnolol and honokiol). A number of in vivo studies suggest that some of the natural product activators of PPARγ (e.g. honokiol, amorfrutin 1, amorfrutin B, amorphastilbol) improve metabolic parameters in diabetic animal models, partly with reduced side effects in comparison to full thiazolidinedione agonists. The bioactivity pattern as well as the dietary use of several of the identified active compounds and plant extracts warrants future research regarding their therapeutic potential and the possibility to modulate PPARγ activation by dietary interventions or food supplements.

  7. Natural product agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ): a review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Limei; Waltenberger, Birgit; Pferschy-Wenzig, Eva-Maria; Blunder, Martina; Liu, Xin; Malainer, Clemens; Blazevic, Tina; Schwaiger, Stefan; Rollinger, Judith M.; Heiss, Elke H.; Schuster, Daniela; Kopp, Brigitte; Bauer, Rudolf; Stuppner, Hermann; Dirsch, Verena M.; Atanasov, Atanas G.

    2014-01-01

    Agonists of the nuclear receptor PPARγ are therapeutically used to combat hyperglycaemia associated with the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. In spite of being effective in normalization of blood glucose levels, the currently used PPARγ agonists from the thiazolidinedione type have serious side effects, making the discovery of novel ligands highly relevant. Natural products have proven historically to be a promising pool of structures for drug discovery, and a significant research effort has recently been undertaken to explore the PPARγ-activating potential of a wide range of natural products originating from traditionally used medicinal plants or dietary sources. The majority of identified compounds are selective PPARγ modulators (SPPARMs), transactivating the expression of PPARγ-dependent reporter genes as partial agonists. Those natural PPARγ ligands have different binding modes to the receptor in comparison to the full thiazolidinedione agonists, and on some occasions activate in addition PPARα (e.g. genistein, biochanin A, sargaquinoic acid, sargahydroquinoic acid, resveratrol, amorphastilbol) or the PPARγ-dimer partner retinoid X receptor (RXR; e.g. the neolignans magnolol and honokiol). A number of in vivo studies suggest that some of the natural product activators of PPARγ (e.g. honokiol, amorfrutin 1, amorfrutin B, amorphastilbol) improve metabolic parameters in diabetic animal models, partly with reduced side effects in comparison to full thiazolidinedione agonists. The bioactivity pattern as well as the dietary use of several of the identified active compounds and plant extracts warrants future research regarding their therapeutic potential and the possibility to modulate PPARγ activation by dietary interventions or food supplements. PMID:25083916

  8. Endogenous adenosine A3 receptor activation selectively alleviates persistent pain states.

    PubMed

    Little, Joshua W; Ford, Amanda; Symons-Liguori, Ashley M; Chen, Zhoumou; Janes, Kali; Doyle, Timothy; Xie, Jennifer; Luongo, Livio; Tosh, Dillip K; Maione, Sabatino; Bannister, Kirsty; Dickenson, Anthony H; Vanderah, Todd W; Porreca, Frank; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Salvemini, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain is a global burden that promotes disability and unnecessary suffering. To date, efficacious treatment of chronic pain has not been achieved. Thus, new therapeutic targets are needed. Here, we demonstrate that increasing endogenous adenosine levels through selective adenosine kinase inhibition produces powerful analgesic effects in rodent models of experimental neuropathic pain through the A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR, now known as ADORA3) signalling pathway. Similar results were obtained by the administration of a novel and highly selective A3AR agonist. These effects were prevented by blockade of spinal and supraspinal A3AR, lost in A3AR knock-out mice, and independent of opioid and endocannabinoid mechanisms. A3AR activation also relieved non-evoked spontaneous pain behaviours without promoting analgesic tolerance or inherent reward. Further examination revealed that A3AR activation reduced spinal cord pain processing by decreasing the excitability of spinal wide dynamic range neurons and producing supraspinal inhibition of spinal nociception through activation of serotonergic and noradrenergic bulbospinal circuits. Critically, engaging the A3AR mechanism did not alter nociceptive thresholds in non-neuropathy animals and therefore produced selective alleviation of persistent neuropathic pain states. These studies reveal A3AR activation by adenosine as an endogenous anti-nociceptive pathway and support the development of A3AR agonists as novel therapeutics to treat chronic pain. PMID:25414036

  9. Thyroid receptor agonists for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie Jack; Mitchell, Lorna H; Dow, Robert L

    2010-01-01

    A thyroid hormone receptor beta subtype-selective thyromimetic 5 was found to be efficacious in both mouse and monkey hair growth models after topical applications. It penetrates the skin according to the test in human cadaver skin mounted onto Franz diffusion chambers. The serum drug level of 5 is below the limit of quantification during tests in the bald stump-tailed macaques (Macaca arctoides). It is tested negative in the 3T3 neutral red uptake (NRU) phototoxicity test, indicating a low risk for causing photo-irritation. It is also rapidly metabolized according to the PK data, thus the systemic exposure is limited. PMID:19900809

  10. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta agonist ameliorated inflammasome activation in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Yeon, Jong Eun; Ko, Eun Jung; Yoon, Eileen L; Suh, Sang Jun; Kang, Keunhee; Kim, Hae Rim; Kang, Seoung Hee; Yoo, Yang Jae; Je, Jihye; Lee, Beom Jae; Kim, Ji Hoon; Seo, Yeon Seok; Yim, Hyung Joon; Byun, Kwan Soo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the inflammasome activation and the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)-δ agonist treatment in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) models. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were classified according to control or high fat diet (HFD) with or without PPAR-δ agonist (GW) over period of 12 wk [control, HFD, HFD + lipopolysaccharide (LPS), HFD + LPS + GW group]. HepG2 cells were exposed to palmitic acid (PA) and/or LPS in the absence or presence of GW. RESULTS: HFD caused glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis. In mice fed an HFD with LPS, caspase-1 and interleukin (IL)-1β in the liver were significantly increased. Treatment with GW ameliorated the steatosis and inhibited overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In HepG2 cells, PA and LPS treatment markedly increased mRNA of several nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor family members (NLRP3, NLRP6, and NLRP10), caspase-1 and IL-1β. PA and LPS also exaggerated reactive oxygen species production. All of the above effects of PA and LPS were reduced by GW. GW also enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPK-α. CONCLUSION: PPAR-δ agonist reduces fatty acid-induced inflammation and steatosis by suppressing inflammasome activation. Targeting the inflammasome by the PPAR-δ agonist may have therapeutic implication for NAFLD. PMID:26668503

  11. Preclinical evaluation of SMM-189, a cannabinoid receptor 2-specific inverse agonist

    PubMed Central

    Presley, Chaela; Abidi, Ammaar; Suryawanshi, Satyendra; Mustafa, Suni; Meibohm, Bernd; Moore, Bob M

    2015-01-01

    Cannabinoid receptor 2 agonists and inverse agonists are emerging as new therapeutic options for a spectrum of autoimmune-related disease. Of particular interest, is the ability of CB2 ligands to regulate microglia function in neurodegenerative diseases and traumatic brain injury. We have previously reported the receptor affinity of 3′,5′-dichloro-2,6-dihydroxy-biphenyl-4-yl)-phenyl-methanone (SMM-189) and the characterization of the beneficial effects of SMM-189 in the mouse model of mild traumatic brain injury. Herein, we report the further characterization of SMM-189 as a potent and selective CB2 inverse agonist, which acts as a noncompetitive inhibitor of CP 55,940. The ability of SMM-189 to regulate microglial activation, in terms of chemokine expression and cell morphology, has been determined. Finally, we have determined that SMM-189 possesses acceptable biopharmaceutical properties indicating that the triaryl class of CB2 inverse agonists are viable compounds for continued preclinical development for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders and traumatic brain injury. PMID:26196013

  12. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists modulate neuropathic pain: a link to chemokines?

    PubMed Central

    Freitag, Caroline M.; Miller, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain presents a widespread and intractable medical problem. While numerous pharmaceuticals are used to treat chronic pain, drugs that are safe for extended use and highly effective at treating the most severe pain do not yet exist. Chronic pain resulting from nervous system injury (neuropathic pain) is common in conditions ranging from multiple sclerosis to HIV-1 infection to type II diabetes. Inflammation caused by neuropathy is believed to contribute to the generation and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Chemokines are key inflammatory mediators, several of which (MCP-1, RANTES, MIP-1α, fractalkine, SDF-1 among others) have been linked to chronic, neuropathic pain in both human conditions and animal models. The important roles chemokines play in inflammation and pain make them an attractive therapeutic target. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a family of nuclear receptors known for their roles in metabolism. Recent research has revealed that PPARs also play a role in inflammatory gene repression. PPAR agonists have wide-ranging effects including inhibition of chemokine expression and pain behavior reduction in animal models. Experimental evidence suggests a connection between the pain ameliorating effects of PPAR agonists and suppression of inflammatory gene expression, including chemokines. In early clinical research, one PPARα agonist, palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), shows promise in relieving chronic pain. If this link can be better established, PPAR agonists may represent a new drug therapy for neuropathic pain. PMID:25191225

  13. SC-46275: a potent and highly selective agonist at the EP3 receptor.

    PubMed

    Savage, M A; Moummi, C; Karabatsos, P J; Lanthorn, T H

    1993-12-01

    The agonist properties of SC-46275 have been investigated in EP receptor subtype-specific smooth muscle assays. In the isolated guinea pig vas deferens (GPVD), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), via the EP3 receptor, potently inhibited electrically induced contractions with an EC50 of 5.4 +/- 1.1 nM. Sulprostone and misoprostol were both potent relaxers of the GPVD yielding EC50s of 1.6 +/- 0.4 nM and 4.3 +/- 0.9 nM, respectively, while butaprost (10,000 nM) was inactive. SC-46275 was by far the most potent agonist in the GPVD exhibiting an EC50 of 0.04 +/- 0.02 nM. PGE2, via the EP1 receptor, stimulates contractions in the longitudinal muscle layer of the guinea pig ileum (GPIL) with an EC50 of 74.4 +/- 10.6 nM. SC-46275 was extremely weak in this preparation, generating only 33% of the maximal PGE2 effect at 30,000 nM. The circular muscle layer of guinea pig ileum (GPIC) is responsive to inhibition of electrically stimulated contractions by PGE2 (EC50 = 179.6 +/- 20.8 nM) via the EP2 receptor. SC-46275 (up to 10,000 nM) was completely inactive in this preparation. We conclude from these findings that SC-46275 is a very potent and highly selective EP3 receptor agonist. SC-46275 should prove to be an extremely valuable tool in probing the physiological significance of EP3 receptors. The high potency of SC-46275 at the EP3 receptor may account for its antisecretory and cytoprotective actions, while its lack of activity at the EP1 or EP2 sites may explain its very weak diarrheagenic potential.

  14. Allosteric interactions between agonists and antagonists within the adenosine A2A receptor-dopamine D2 receptor heterotetramer

    PubMed Central

    Bonaventura, Jordi; Navarro, Gemma; Casadó-Anguera, Verònica; Azdad, Karima; Rea, William; Moreno, Estefanía; Brugarolas, Marc; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I.; Lluís, Carme; Cortés, Antoni; Volkow, Nora D.; Schiffmann, Serge N.; Ferré, Sergi; Casadó, Vicent

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) heteromers are key modulators of striatal neuronal function. It has been suggested that the psychostimulant effects of caffeine depend on its ability to block an allosteric modulation within the A2AR-D2R heteromer, by which adenosine decreases the affinity and intrinsic efficacy of dopamine at the D2R. We describe novel unsuspected allosteric mechanisms within the heteromer by which not only A2AR agonists, but also A2AR antagonists, decrease the affinity and intrinsic efficacy of D2R agonists and the affinity of D2R antagonists. Strikingly, these allosteric modulations disappear on agonist and antagonist coadministration. This can be explained by a model that considers A2AR-D2R heteromers as heterotetramers, constituted by A2AR and D2R homodimers, as demonstrated by experiments with bioluminescence resonance energy transfer and bimolecular fluorescence and bioluminescence complementation. As predicted by the model, high concentrations of A2AR antagonists behaved as A2AR agonists and decreased D2R function in the brain. PMID:26100888

  15. LP-211 is a brain penetrant selective agonist for the serotonin 5-HT(7) receptor.

    PubMed

    Hedlund, Peter B; Leopoldo, Marcello; Caccia, Silvio; Sarkisyan, Gor; Fracasso, Claudia; Martelli, Giuliana; Lacivita, Enza; Berardi, Francesco; Perrone, Roberto

    2010-08-30

    We have determined the pharmacological profile of the new serotonin 5-HT(7) receptor agonist N-(4-cyanophenylmethyl)-4-(2-diphenyl)-1-piperazinehexanamide (LP-211). Radioligand binding assays were performed on a panel of 5-HT receptor subtypes. The compound was also evaluated in vivo by examining its effect on body temperature regulation in mice lacking the 5-HT(7) receptor (5-HT(7)(-/-)) and their 5-HT(7)(+/+) sibling controls. Disposition studies were performed in mice of both genotypes. It was found that LP-211 was brain penetrant and underwent metabolic degradation to 1-(2-diphenyl)piperazine (RA-7). In vitro binding assays revealed that RA-7 possessed higher 5-HT(7) receptor affinity than LP-211 and a better selectivity profile over a panel of 5-HT receptor subtypes. In vivo it was demonstrated that LP-211, and to a lesser degree RA-7, induced hypothermia in 5-HT(7)(+/+) but not in 5-HT(7)(-/-) mice. Our results suggest that LP-211 can be used as a 5-HT(7) receptor agonist in vivo. PMID:20600619

  16. Using the fragment molecular orbital method to investigate agonist-orexin-2 receptor interactions.

    PubMed

    Heifetz, Alexander; Aldeghi, Matteo; Chudyk, Ewa I; Fedorov, Dmitri G; Bodkin, Mike J; Biggin, Philip C

    2016-04-15

    The understanding of binding interactions between any protein and a small molecule plays a key role in the rationalization of affinity and selectivity and is essential for an efficient structure-based drug discovery (SBDD) process. Clearly, to begin SBDD, a structure is needed, and although there has been fantastic progress in solving G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) crystal structures, the process remains quite slow and is not currently feasible for every GPCR or GPCR-ligand complex. This situation significantly limits the ability of X-ray crystallography to impact the drug discovery process for GPCR targets in 'real-time' and hence there is still a need for other practical and cost-efficient alternatives. We present here an approach that integrates our previously described hierarchical GPCR modelling protocol (HGMP) and the fragment molecular orbital (FMO) quantum mechanics (QM) method to explore the interactions and selectivity of the human orexin-2 receptor (OX2R) and its recently discovered nonpeptidic agonists. HGMP generates a 3D model of GPCR structures and its complexes with small molecules by applying a set of computational methods. FMO allowsab initioapproaches to be applied to systems that conventional QM methods would find challenging. The key advantage of FMO is that it can reveal information on the individual contribution and chemical nature of each residue and water molecule to the ligand binding that normally would be difficult to detect without QM. We illustrate how the combination of both techniques provides a practical and efficient approach that can be used to analyse the existing structure-function relationships (SAR) and to drive forward SBDD in a real-world example for which there is no crystal structure of the complex available.

  17. Self-administration of agonists selective for dopamine D2, D3, and D4 receptors by rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Collins, Gregory T; Rice, Kenner C; Chen, Jianyong; Woods, James H; Winger, Gail

    2012-08-01

    Dopamine receptor mechanisms are believed to play a role in the reinforcing effects of cocaine and other drugs of abuse. The lack of receptor-selective agonists has made it difficult to determine the role of the individual dopamine receptors in mediating these reinforcing effects. In this study, rhesus monkeys with a history of intravenous cocaine self-administration were tested for the reinforcing effects of several D(3)-preferring agonists, a D(2)-preferring agonist, and a D(4) agonist. The D(2)-preferring agonist did not maintain responding in any monkeys, and the D(4) agonist was self-administered at low rates, just above those maintained by saline, in one monkey. The D(3)-preferring agonists were self-administered by approximately half of the animals, although at lower rates than cocaine. These results indicate that the apparent limited reinforcing effectiveness of D(2)-like agonists requires activity at D(3) receptors. Previous data from this laboratory and others also suggest that these drugs may not serve as reinforcers directly; the behavior may be maintained by response-contingent delivery of stimuli previously paired with cocaine. The ability of drug-related stimuli to maintain responding apparently differs among monkeys and other organisms, and may be related to individual differences in drug-taking behavior in humans. PMID:22785383

  18. Therapeutic Effects of Melatonin Receptor Agonists on Sleep and Comorbid Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Laudon, Moshe; Frydman-Marom, Anat

    2014-01-01

    Several melatonin receptors agonists (ramelteon, prolonged-release melatonin, agomelatine and tasimelteon) have recently become available for the treatment of insomnia, depression and circadian rhythms sleep-wake disorders. The efficacy and safety profiles of these compounds in the treatment of the indicated disorders are reviewed. Accumulating evidence indicates that sleep-wake disorders and co-existing medical conditions are mutually exacerbating. This understanding has now been incorporated into the new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5). Therefore, when evaluating the risk/benefit ratio of sleep drugs, it is pertinent to also evaluate their effects on wake and comorbid condition. Beneficial effects of melatonin receptor agonists on comorbid neurological, psychiatric, cardiovascular and metabolic symptomatology beyond sleep regulation are also described. The review underlines the beneficial value of enhancing physiological sleep in comorbid conditions. PMID:25207602

  19. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and PPAR agonists: the 'future' in dermatology therapeutics?

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mrinal; Mahajan, Vikram K; Mehta, Karaninder S; Chauhan, Pushpinder S; Rawat, Ritu

    2015-11-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors and comprise three different isoforms namely PPARα, PPARγ, and PPARβ/δ with PPARβ/δ being the predominant subtype in human keratinocytes. After binding with specific ligands, PPARs regulate gene expression, cell growth and differentiation, apoptosis, inflammatory responses, and tumorogenesis. PPARs also modulate a wide variety of skin functions including keratinocyte proliferation, epidermal barrier formation, wound healing, melanocyte proliferation, and sebum production. Recent studies have shown the importance of PPARs in the pathogenesis of many dermatological disorders. Clinical trials have suggested possible role of PPAR agonists in the management of various dermatoses ranging from acne vulgaris, psoriasis, hirsutism, and lipodystrophy to cutaneous malignancies including melanoma. This article is intended to be a primer for dermatologists in their understanding of clinical relevance of PPARs and PPAR agonists in dermatology therapeutics.

  20. The peptide agonist-binding site of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor based on site-directed mutagenesis and knowledge-based modelling

    PubMed Central

    Dods, Rachel L.; Donnelly, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (7–36)amide (GLP-1) plays a central role in regulating blood sugar levels and its receptor, GLP-1R, is a target for anti-diabetic agents such as the peptide agonist drugs exenatide and liraglutide. In order to understand the molecular nature of the peptide–receptor interaction, we used site-directed mutagenesis and pharmacological profiling to highlight nine sites as being important for peptide agonist binding and/or activation. Using a knowledge-based approach, we constructed a 3D model of agonist-bound GLP-1R, basing the conformation of the N-terminal region on that of the receptor-bound NMR structure of the related peptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating protein (PACAP21). The relative position of the extracellular to the transmembrane (TM) domain, as well as the molecular details of the agonist-binding site itself, were found to be different from the model that was published alongside the crystal structure of the TM domain of the glucagon receptor, but were nevertheless more compatible with published mutagenesis data. Furthermore, the NMR-determined structure of a high-potency cyclic conformationally-constrained 11-residue analogue of GLP-1 was also docked into the receptor-binding site. Despite having a different main chain conformation to that seen in the PACAP21 structure, four conserved residues (equivalent to His-7, Glu-9, Ser-14 and Asp-15 in GLP-1) could be structurally aligned and made similar interactions with the receptor as their equivalents in the GLP-1-docked model, suggesting the basis of a pharmacophore for GLP-1R peptide agonists. In this way, the model not only explains current mutagenesis and molecular pharmacological data but also provides a basis for further experimental design. PMID:26598711

  1. Novel heterocyclic scaffolds of GW4064 as farnesoid X receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Smalley, Terrence L; Boggs, Sharon; Caravella, Justin A; Chen, Lihong; Creech, Katrina L; Deaton, David N; Kaldor, Istvan; Parks, Derek J

    2015-01-15

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) may play a crucial role in a number of metabolic diseases and, as such, could potentially serve as a target for the development of therapeutics as a treatment for those diseases. Previous work has described GW4064 as an FXR agonist with an interesting activity profile. This manuscript will describe the synthesis of novel analogs of GW4064 and the activity profile of those analogs.

  2. Effects of dopamine D2-like receptor agonists in mice trained to discriminate cocaine from saline: influence of feeding condition

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Gregory T.; Jackson, Jonathan A.; Koek, Wouter; France, Charles P.

    2014-01-01

    In rats, the discriminative stimulus effects of direct- and indirect-acting dopamine receptor agonists are mediated by multiple dopamine receptor subtypes and the relative contribution of dopamine D2 and D3 receptors to these effects varies as a function of feeding condition. In these studies, free-fed and food-restricted mice were trained to discriminate 10.0 mg/kg cocaine using a two-lever discrimination procedure in which responding was maintained by food. Both groups of mice acquired the discrimination; however, free-fed mice responded at lower rates than food-restricted mice. Dopamine D3 receptor agonists, pramipexole and quinpirole, increased cocaine-appropriate responding (>85%) in food-restricted, but not in free-fed mice. The dopamine D2 receptor agonist, sumanirole, and the nonselective dopamine receptor agonist, apomorphine, failed to increase cocaine-appropriate responding in either group. Free-fed mice were more sensitive than food-restricted mice to the rate-decreasing effects of dopamine receptor agonists and these effects could not be overcome by increasing the magnitude of reinforcement. Because feeding condition did not alter quinpirole-induced hypothermia, it is unlikely that differences in the discriminative stimulus or rate-decreasing effects of dopamine D2-like receptor agonists were due to differences in the pharmacokinetic properties of the drugs. Although these results suggest that the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine are mediated by both dopamine D2 and D3 receptors in food-restricted mice, the increased sensitivity of free-fed mice to the rate-decreasing effects of dopamine D2-like receptor agonists limited conclusions about the impact of feeding conditions on the relative contribution of dopamine D2 and D3 receptors to the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine. PMID:24561049

  3. Effects of adenosine receptor agonists on efferent renal nerve activity in anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Genovesi, S; Pieruzzi, F; Camisasca, P; Ragonesi, G; Protasoni, G; Golin, R; Zanchetti, A; Stella, A

    2000-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of A1 and A2 adenosine-receptor activation on the sympathetic nervous system. The effects on efferent renal nerve activity of selective A1 (CCPA; 2-chloro-N-6-cyclopentyladenosine) and A2 (2HE-NECA; 2-hexynyl-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine) adenosine-receptor agonists were studied in anesthetized rats either with intact baroreflexes (intact rats) or with bilateral sinoaortic denervation and vagotomy (denervated rats). After a control period of 5 min, A1 or A2 agonist or vehicle were intravenously infused for 8 min in separate groups of intact or denervated rats, in which arterial pressure and heart rate were continuously recorded. CCPA (5.0 microg/kg/min) and 2HE-NECA (0.7 microg/kg/min) were selected to obtain comparable blood pressure changes over the period of observation. Arterial pressure significantly and equally decreased during the A1 (-41 +/- 8%), and A2 (-35 +/- 5%) agonist administration. Heart rate significantly decreased during A1 agonist infusion, but it did not change during A2 agonist administration. Bilateral sinoaortic denervation and vagotomy did not modify the hemodynamic responses to both drugs. The A1 and A2 administration caused a large and significant increase in efferent renal nerve activity (+66 +/- 22% and +76 +/- 15%, respectively), and this effect was entirely abolished in denervated rats. A linear relation with a significant negative slope between changes in arterial pressure and changes in neural discharge was observed for each treatment. The comparison of the regression slopes showed that the reflex increase of efferent sympathetic activity caused by the administration of both agonists was significantly smaller than the increment induced by equipotent hypotensive dose of sodium nitroprusside (10 microg/kg). These data show that the selective activation of A1 and A2 receptors elicits a reflex increase in efferent renal nerve activity. This neural activation is smaller as compared

  4. Modulation of NMDA receptors by intrathecal administration of the sensory neuron-specific receptor agonist BAM8-22.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tingjun; Hu, Zhijing; Quirion, Rémi; Hong, Yanguo

    2008-04-01

    The sensory neuron-specific receptor (SNSR) is exclusively distributed in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells. We have demonstrated that intrathecal (i.t.) administration of SNSR agonists inhibits formalin-evoked responses and the development of morphine tolerance [Chen, T., Cai, Q., Hong, Y., 2006. Intrathecal sensory neuron-specific receptor agonists bovine adrenal medulla 8-22 and (tyr(6))-gamma2-msh-6-12 inhibit formalin-evoked nociception and neuronal fos-like immunoreactivity in the spinal cord of the rat. Neuroscience 141, 965-975]. The present study was undertaken to examine the possible impact of the activation of SNSR on NMDA receptors. I.t. administration of NMDA (6.8 nmol) induced nociceptive behaviors, including scratching, biting and lifting, followed by thermal hypoalgesia and hyperalgesia. These responses were associated with the expression of Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) throughout the spinal dorsal horn with highest effect seen in laminae I-II. I.t. NMDA also induced an increase in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in superficial layers of the dorsal horn, but not around the central canal, as revealed by NADPH diaphorase histochemistry. Pretreatment with the SNSR agonist bovine adrenal medulla 8-22 (3, 10 and 30 nmol) dose-dependently diminished NMDA-evoked nocifensive behaviors and hyperalgesia. This agonist also reduced NMDA-evoked expression of FLI and NADPH reactivity in the spinal dorsal horn. Taken together, these data suggest that the activation of SNSR induces spinal analgesia by suppressing NMDA receptor-mediated activation of spinal dorsal horn neurons and an increase in NOS activity.

  5. Molecular Mechanism of Action of Triazolobenzodiazepinone Agonists of the Type 1 Cholecystokinin Receptor. Possible Cooperativity across the Receptor Homodimeric Complex.

    PubMed

    Desai, Aditya J; Lam, Polo C H; Orry, Andrew; Abagyan, Ruben; Christopoulos, Arthur; Sexton, Patrick M; Miller, Laurence J

    2015-12-24

    The type 1 cholecystokinin receptor (CCK1R) has multiple physiologic roles relating to nutrient homeostasis, including mediation of postcibal satiety. This effect has been central in efforts to develop agonists of this receptor as part of a program to manage and/or prevent obesity. While a number of small molecule CCK1R agonists have been developed, none have yet been approved for clinical use, based on inadequate efficacy, side effects, or the potential for toxicity. Understanding the molecular details of docking and mechanism of action of these ligands can be helpful in the rational refinement and enhancement of small molecule drug candidates. In the current work, we have defined the mechanism of binding and activity of two triazolobenzodiazepinones, CE-326597 and PF-04756956, which are reported to be full agonist ligands. To achieve this, we utilized receptor binding with a series of allosteric and orthosteric radioligands at structurally related CCK1R and CCK2R, as well as chimeric CCK1R/CCK2R constructs exchanging residues in the allosteric pocket, and assessment of biological activity. These triazolobenzodiazepinones docked within the intramembranous small molecule allosteric ligand pocket, with higher affinity binding to CCK2R than CCK1R, yet with biological activity exclusive to or greatly enhanced at CCK1R. These ligands exhibited cooperativity with benzodiazepine binding across the CCK1R homodimeric complex, resulting in their ability to inhibit only a fraction of the saturable binding of a benzodiazepine radioligand, unlike other small molecule antagonists and agonists of this receptor. This may contribute to the understanding of the unique short duration and reversible gallbladder contraction observed in vivo upon administration of these drugs.

  6. Cholecystokinin receptor agonists block the jumping behaviour precipitated in morphine-dependent mice by naloxone.

    PubMed

    Bourin, M; Malinge, M; Colombel, M C; Vasar, E

    1999-01-01

    The aim of present study was to reveal the role of cholecystokinin (CCK) in the jumping behaviour induced by the opioid antagonist naloxone (30 mg/kg) after the acute administration of morphine (200 mg/kg) in mice. Treatment with caerulein (0.01-1 microg/kg), a nonselective agonist of CCK receptors, induced a large reduction of jumping frequency without parallel suppression of locomotor activity. The CCK(B) receptor agonist CCK tetrapeptide (CCK-4. 0.125-32 mg/kg) caused the same effect, but it happened at much higher doses (above 0.5 mg/kg). Devazepide (1 microg/kg), a preferential CCK(A) receptor antagonist, completely reversed the action of caerulein (0.1 gmg/kg) and CCK-4 (2 mg/kg). A preferential CCK(B) receptor antagonists LY 288,513 at a high dose (4 mg/kg) blocked the action of CCK-4, but not that of caerulein. Acetorphan (16-128 mg/kg), an inhibitor of enkephalin metabolism, did not block naloxone-precipitated jumping behaviour. However, the combination of subthreshold doses of caerulein (0.001 microg/kg) and CCK-4 (0.25 mg/kg) with acetorphan (64 mg/kg) potently antagonized the behaviour induced by naloxone. In conclusion, the antagonism of CCK agonists against naloxone-precipitated jumping behaviour is apparently mediated via the CCK(A) receptor subtype. The stimulation of CCK(A) receptors seems to increase the release of endogenous enkephalins.

  7. GABAA receptor partial agonists and antagonists: structure, binding mode, and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Krall, Jacob; Balle, Thomas; Krogsgaard-Larsen, Niels; Sørensen, Troels E; Krogsgaard-Larsen, Povl; Kristiansen, Uffe; Frølund, Bente

    2015-01-01

    A high degree of structural heterogeneity of the GABAA receptors (GABAARs) has been revealed and is reflected in multiple receptor subtypes. The subunit composition of GABAAR subtypes is believed to determine their localization relative to the synapses and adapt their functional properties to the local temporal pattern of GABA impact, enabling phasic or tonic inhibition. Specific GABAAR antagonists are essential tools for physiological and pharmacological elucidation of the different type of GABAAR inhibition. However, distinct selectivity among the receptor subtypes (populations) has been shown for only a few orthosteric ligands. Still, these examples show that it is indeed possible to obtain orthosteric subtype selectivity and they serve as models for further development in the orthosteric GABAAR ligand area. This review presents the very few existing structural classes of orthosteric GABAAR antagonists and describes the development of potent antagonists from partial agonists originally derived from the potent GABAAR agonist muscimol. In this process, several heterocyclic aromatic systems have been used in combination with structural models in order to map the orthosteric binding site and to reveal structural details to be used for obtaining potency and subtype selectivity. The challenges connected to functional characterization of orthosteric GABAAR partial agonists and antagonists, especially with regard to GABAAR stoichiometry and alternative binding sites are discussed. GABAAR antagonists have been essential in defining the tonic current but both remaining issues concerning the GABAARs involved and the therapeutic possibilities of modulating tonic inhibition underline the need for GABAAR antagonists with improved selectivity.

  8. Selective Human Estrogen Receptor Partial Agonists (ShERPAs) for Tamoxifen-Resistant Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Rui; Patel, Hitisha K; Gutgesell, Lauren M; Zhao, Jiong; Delgado-Rivera, Loruhama; Pham, Thao N D; Zhao, Huiping; Carlson, Kathryn; Martin, Teresa; Katzenellenbogen, John A; Moore, Terry W; Tonetti, Debra A; Thatcher, Gregory R J

    2016-01-14

    Almost 70% of breast cancers are estrogen receptor α (ERα) positive. Tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), represents the standard of care for many patients; however, 30-50% develop resistance, underlining the need for alternative therapeutics. Paradoxically, agonists at ERα such as estradiol (E2) have demonstrated clinical efficacy in patients with heavily treated breast cancer, although side effects in gynecological tissues are unacceptable. A drug that selectively mimics the actions of E2 in breast cancer therapy but minimizes estrogenic effects in other tissues is a novel, therapeutic alternative. We hypothesized that a selective human estrogen receptor partial agonist (ShERPA) at ERα would provide such an agent. Novel benzothiophene derivatives with nanomolar potency in breast cancer cell cultures were designed. Several showed partial agonist activity, with potency of 0.8-76 nM, mimicking E2 in inhibiting growth of tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cell lines. Three ShERPAs were tested and validated in xenograft models of endocrine-independent and tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer, and in contrast to E2, ShERPAs did not cause significant uterine growth.

  9. Selective Human Estrogen Receptor Partial Agonists (ShERPAs) for Tamoxifen-Resistant Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Rui; Patel, Hitisha K; Gutgesell, Lauren M; Zhao, Jiong; Delgado-Rivera, Loruhama; Pham, Thao N D; Zhao, Huiping; Carlson, Kathryn; Martin, Teresa; Katzenellenbogen, John A; Moore, Terry W; Tonetti, Debra A; Thatcher, Gregory R J

    2016-01-14

    Almost 70% of breast cancers are estrogen receptor α (ERα) positive. Tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), represents the standard of care for many patients; however, 30-50% develop resistance, underlining the need for alternative therapeutics. Paradoxically, agonists at ERα such as estradiol (E2) have demonstrated clinical efficacy in patients with heavily treated breast cancer, although side effects in gynecological tissues are unacceptable. A drug that selectively mimics the actions of E2 in breast cancer therapy but minimizes estrogenic effects in other tissues is a novel, therapeutic alternative. We hypothesized that a selective human estrogen receptor partial agonist (ShERPA) at ERα would provide such an agent. Novel benzothiophene derivatives with nanomolar potency in breast cancer cell cultures were designed. Several showed partial agonist activity, with potency of 0.8-76 nM, mimicking E2 in inhibiting growth of tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cell lines. Three ShERPAs were tested and validated in xenograft models of endocrine-independent and tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer, and in contrast to E2, ShERPAs did not cause significant uterine growth. PMID:26681208

  10. A clinical review of GLP-1 receptor agonists: efficacy and safety in diabetes and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Prasad-Reddy, Lalita; Isaacs, Diana

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing at an astounding rate. Many of the agents used to treat type 2 diabetes have undesirable adverse effects of hypoglycemia and weight gain. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists represent a unique approach to the treatment of diabetes, with benefits extending outside glucose control, including positive effects on weight, blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and beta-cell function. They mimic the effects of the incretin hormone GLP-1, which is released from the intestine in response to food intake. Their effects include increasing insulin secretion, decreasing glucagon release, increasing satiety, and slowing gastric emptying. There are currently four approved GLP-1 receptor agonists in the United States: exenatide, liraglutide, albiglutide, and dulaglutide. A fifth agent, lixisenatide, is available in Europe. There are important pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic, and clinical differences of each agent. The most common adverse effects seen with GLP-1 therapy include nausea, vomiting, and injection-site reactions. Other warnings and precautions include pancreatitis and thyroid cell carcinomas. GLP-1 receptor agonists are an innovative and effective option to improve blood glucose control, with other potential benefits of preserving beta-cell function, weight loss, and increasing insulin sensitivity. Once-weekly formulations may also improve patient adherence. Overall, these are effective agents for patients with type 2 diabetes, who are either uncontrolled on metformin or intolerant to metformin. PMID:26213556

  11. Discovery of a novel small molecule agonist scaffold for the APJ receptor.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Sanju; Maitra, Rangan; Deschamps, Jeffery R; Bortoff, Katherine; Thomas, James B; Zhang, Yanyan; Warner, Keith; Vasukuttan, Vineetha; Decker, Ann; Runyon, Scott P

    2016-08-15

    The apelinergic system includes a series of endogenous peptides apelin, ELABELA/TODDLER and their 7-transmembrane G-protein coupled apelin receptor (APJ, AGTRL-1, APLNR). The APJ receptor is an attractive therapeutic target because of its involvement in cardiovascular diseases and potentially other disorders including liver fibrosis, obesity, diabetes, and neuroprotection. To date, pharmacological characterization of the APJ receptor has been limited due to the lack of small molecule functional agonists or antagonists. Through focused screening we identified a drug-like small molecule agonist hit 1 with a functional EC50 value of 21.5±5μM and binding affinity (Ki) of 5.2±0.5μM. Initial structure-activity studies afforded compound 22 having a 27-fold enhancement in potency and the first sub-micromolar full agonist with an EC50 value of 800±0.1nM and Ki of 1.3±0.3μM. Preliminary SAR, synthetic methodology, and in vitro pharmacological characterization indicate this scaffold will serve as a favorable starting point for further refinement of APJ potency and selectivity. PMID:27369451

  12. The identification of GPR3 inverse agonist AF64394; the first small molecule inhibitor of GPR3 receptor function.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Thomas; Elster, Lisbeth; Nielsen, Søren Møller; Poda, Suresh Babu; Loechel, Frosty; Volbracht, Christiane; Klewe, Ib Vestergaard; David, Laurent; Watson, Stephen P

    2014-11-15

    The identification of the novel and selective GPR3 inverse agonist AF64394, the first small molecule inhibitor of GPR3 receptor function, is described. Structure activity relationships and syntheses based around AF64394 are reported.

  13. Selective D-1 dopamine receptor agonist effects in hyperkinetic extrapyramidal disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Braun, A; Mouradian, M M; Mohr, E; Fabbrini, G; Chase, T N

    1989-01-01

    The motor and cognitive effects of a selective D-1 dopamine receptor agonist, SKF 39393, were assessed in patients with Huntington's disease, Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome, tardive dyskinesia, and torsion dystonia, using a double-blind placebo-controlled design. Over daily doses ranging from 3.2 to 32 mg/kg and treatment intervals extending from one to seven weeks, no consistent changes could be discerned. The contribution of D-1 receptor mediated mechanisms to the pathophysiology of hyperkinetic extrapyramidal disorders remains uncertain. PMID:2567345

  14. New fluorinated agonists for targeting the sphingosin-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P(1)).

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Rizwan S; Keul, Petra; Schäfers, Michael; Levkau, Bodo; Haufe, Günter

    2015-11-15

    The sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor type 1 (S1P1) is involved in fundamental biological processes such as regulation of immune cell trafficking, vascular barrier function and angiogenesis. This Letter presents multistep syntheses of various fluorine substituted 12-aryl analogues of the drug fingolimod (FTY720) and a seven-steps route to 2-amino-17,17-difluoro-2-(hydroxymethyl)heptadecan-1-ol. In vitro and in vivo tests proved all these compounds as potent S1P1 receptor agonists.

  15. Diamine Derivatives as Novel Small-Molecule, Potent, and Subtype-Selective Somatostatin SST3 Receptor Agonists

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A novel class of small-molecule, highly potent, and subtype-selective somatostatin SST3 agonists was discovered through modification of a SST3 antagonist. As an example, (1R,2S)-9 demonstrated not only potent in vitro SST3 agonist activity but also in vivo SST3 agonist activity in a mouse oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). These agonists may be useful reagents for studying the physiological roles of the SST3 receptor and may potentially be useful as therapeutic agents. PMID:24944745

  16. Central administration of GPR55 receptor agonist and antagonist modulates anxiety-related behaviors in rats.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Abbasali; Hajizadeh Moghaddam, Akbar; Roohbakhsh, Ali

    2015-04-01

    G-protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) has been proposed as an atypical cannabinoid receptor, which is activated by lysophosphatidylinositols and some synthetic or endogenous cannabinoid molecules. The exact role of GPR55 receptors in the central nervous system especially in anxiety needs to be evaluated. In this study, the effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of agonist and antagonist of GPR55 receptor on anxiety-related behaviors in rats were investigated. Here, O-1602 (GPR55 agonist) at the doses of 0.2, 1, and 5 μg/rat increased %OAT and %OAE but not the locomotor activity, showing an anxiolytic response, whereas i.c.v. injection of ML193 (GPR55 antagonist) at the doses of 0.1 and 1 μg/rat increased anxiety-like behaviors while causing locomotor impairment. The antagonistic effect of ML193 on the anxiolytic-like effect of O-1602 was also evaluated. The results showed that ML193 decreased the anxiolytic-like effect of O-1602. Based on these results, it may be concluded that central GPR55 may have a role in modulation of anxiety-like behaviors in rats. Further experiments are needed to elucidate the exact role of these receptors in anxiety.

  17. Identification of a Synthetic Agonist for the Orphan Nuclear Receptors RORα and RORγ, SR1078

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongjun; Kumar, Naresh; Nuhant, Philippe; Cameron, Michael D.; Istrate, Monica A.; Roush, William R.; Griffin, Patrick R.; Burris, Thomas P.

    2010-01-01

    The retinoic acid receptor-related receptors (RORs) are members of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily of transcription factors. Several NRs are still characterized as orphan receptors since ligands have not yet been identified for these proteins. Here, we describe the identification of a synthetic RORα/RORγ ligand, SR1078. SR1078 modulates the conformation of RORγ in a biochemical assay and activates RORα and RORγ driven transcription. Furthermore, SR1078 stimulates expression of endogenous ROR target genes in HepG2 cells that express both RORα and RORγ. Pharmacokinetic studies indicate that SR1078 displays reasonable exposure following injection into mice and consistent with SR1078 functioning as a RORα/RORγ agonist, expression of two ROR target genes, glucose-6-phosphatase and fibroblast growth factor 21, were stimulated in the liver. Thus, we have identified the first synthetic RORα/γ agonist and this compound can be utilized as a chemical tool to probe the function of these receptors both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:20735016

  18. Stimulation of cholesterol excretion by the liver X receptor agonist requires ATP-binding cassette transporters G5 and G8.

    PubMed

    Yu, Liqing; York, Jennifer; von Bergmann, Klaus; Lutjohann, Dieter; Cohen, Jonathan C; Hobbs, Helen H

    2003-05-01

    Liver X receptor (LXR) is a nuclear receptor that plays a crucial role in orchestrating the trafficking of sterols between tissues. Treatment of mice with a potent and specific LXR agonist, T0901317, is associated with increased biliary cholesterol secretion, decreased fractional cholesterol absorption, and increased fecal neutral sterol excretion. Here we show that expression of two target genes of LXRalpha, the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters Abcg5 and Abcg8, is required for both the increase in sterol excretion and the decrease in fractional cholesterol absorption associated with LXR agonist treatment. Mice expressing no ABCG5 and ABCG8 (G5G8(-/-) mice) and their littermate controls were treated for 7 days with T0901317. In wild type animals, treatment with the LXR agonist resulted in a 3-fold increase in biliary cholesterol concentrations, a 25% reduction in fractional cholesterol absorption, and a 4-fold elevation in fecal neutral sterol excretion. In contrast, the LXR agonist did not significantly affect biliary cholesterol levels, fractional cholesterol absorption, or neutral fecal sterol excretion in the G5G8(-/-) mice. Thus Abcg5 and Abcg8 are required for LXR agonist-associated changes in dietary and biliary sterol trafficking. These results establish a central role for ABCG5 and ABCG8 in promoting cholesterol excretion in vivo. PMID:12601003

  19. High potency olfactory receptor agonists discovered by virtual high-throughput screening: molecular probes for receptor structure and olfactory function

    PubMed Central

    Triballeau, Nicolas; Van Name, Eric; Laslier, Guillaume; Cai, Diana; Paillard, Guillaume; Sorensen, Peter W.; Hoffmann, Rémy; Bertrand, Hugues-Olivier; Ngai, John; Acher, Francine C.

    2008-01-01

    The detection and discrimination of diverse chemical structures by the vertebrate olfactory system is accomplished by the recognition of odorous ligands by their cognate receptors. In the present study we used a computational high-throughput screening strategy to discover novel high affinity agonists of an olfactory G protein-coupled receptor tuned to recognize amino acid ligands. Functional testing of the top candidates validated several agonists with potencies higher than any of the receptor’s known natural ligands. Computational modeling revealed molecular interactions involved in ligand recognition by this receptor, and further highlighted interactions that have been conserved in evolutionarily divergent amino acid receptors. Significantly, the top compounds display robust activities as odorants in vivo, and include a natural product that may be used to signal the presence of bacteria in the aquatic environment. Our virtual screening approach should be applicable to the identification of new bioactive molecules for probing the structure of chemosensory receptors and the function of chemosensory systems in vivo. PMID:19081373

  20. A heterodimer-selective agonist shows in vivo relevance of G protein-coupled receptor dimers.

    PubMed

    Waldhoer, Maria; Fong, Jamie; Jones, Robert M; Lunzer, Mary M; Sharma, Shiv K; Kostenis, Evi; Portoghese, Philip S; Whistler, Jennifer L

    2005-06-21

    There has been much speculation regarding the functional relevance of G protein-coupled receptor heterodimers, primarily because demonstrating their existence in vivo has proven to be a considerable challenge. Here we show that the opioid agonist ligand 6'-guanidinonaltrindole (6'-GNTI) has the unique property of selectively activating only opioid receptor heterodimers but not homomers. Importantly, 6'-GNTI is an analgesic, thereby demonstrating that opioid receptor heterodimers are indeed functionally relevant in vivo. However, 6'-GNTI induces analgesia only when it is administered in the spinal cord but not in the brain, suggesting that the organization of heterodimers is tissue-specific. This study demonstrates a proof of concept for tissue-selective drug targeting based on G protein-coupled receptor heterodimerization. Importantly, targeting opioid heterodimers could provide an approach toward the design of analgesic drugs with reduced side effects.

  1. Desensitization of human CRF2(a) receptor signaling governed by agonist potency and βarrestin2 recruitment.

    PubMed

    Hauger, Richard L; Olivares-Reyes, J Alberto; Braun, Sandra; Hernandez-Aranda, Judith; Hudson, Christine C; Gutknecht, Eric; Dautzenberg, Frank M; Oakley, Robert H

    2013-09-10

    The primary goal was to determine agonist-specific regulation of CRF2(a) receptor function. Exposure of human retinoblastoma Y79 cells to selective (UCN2, UCN3 or stresscopins) and non-selective (UCN1 or sauvagine) agonists prominently desensitized CRF2(a) receptors in a rapid, concentration-dependent manner. A considerably slower rate and smaller magnitude of desensitization developed in response to the weak agonist CRF. CRF1 receptor desensitization stimulated by CRF, cortagine or stressin1-A had no effect on CRF2(a) receptor cyclic AMP signaling. Conversely, desensitization of CRF2(a) receptors by UCN2 or UCN3 did not cross-desensitize Gs-coupled CRF1 receptor signaling. In transfected HEK293 cells, activation of CRF2(a) receptors by UCN2, UCN3 or CRF resulted in receptor phosphorylation and internalization proportional to agonist potency. Neither protein kinase A nor casein kinases mediated CRF2(a) receptor phosphorylation or desensitization. Exposure of HEK293 or U2OS cells to UCN2 or UCN3 (100nM) produced strong βarrestin2 translocation and colocalization with membrane CRF2(a) receptors while CRF (1μM) generated only weak βarrestin2 recruitment. βarrestin2 did not internalize with the receptor, however, indicating that transient CRF2(a) receptor-arrestin complexes dissociate at or near the cell membrane. Since deletion of the βarrestin2 gene upregulated Gs-coupled CRF2(a) receptor signaling in MEF cells, a βarrestin2 mechanism restrains Gs-coupled CRF2(a) receptor signaling activated by urocortins. We further conclude that the rate and extent of homologous CRF2(a) receptor desensitization are governed by agonist-specific mechanisms affecting GRK phosphorylation, βarrestin2 recruitment, and internalization thereby producing unique signal transduction profiles that differentially affect the stress response. PMID:23820308

  2. Collybolide is a novel biased agonist of κ-opioid receptors with potent antipruritic activity.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Achla; Gomes, Ivone; Bobeck, Erin N; Fakira, Amanda K; Massaro, Nicholas P; Sharma, Indrajeet; Cavé, Adrien; Hamm, Heidi E; Parello, Joseph; Devi, Lakshmi A

    2016-05-24

    Among the opioid receptors, the κ-opioid receptor (κOR) has been gaining considerable attention as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of complex CNS disorders including depression, visceral pain, and cocaine addiction. With an interest in discovering novel ligands targeting κOR, we searched natural products for unusual scaffolds and identified collybolide (Colly), a nonnitrogenous sesquiterpene from the mushroom Collybia maculata. This compound has a furyl-δ-lactone core similar to that of Salvinorin A (Sal A), another natural product from the plant Salvia divinorum Characterization of the molecular pharmacological properties reveals that Colly, like Sal A, is a highly potent and selective κOR agonist. However, the two compounds differ in certain signaling and behavioral properties. Colly exhibits 10- to 50-fold higher potency in activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway compared with Sal A. Taken with the fact that the two compounds are equipotent for inhibiting adenylyl cyclase activity, these results suggest that Colly behaves as a biased agonist of κOR. Behavioral studies also support the biased agonistic activity of Colly in that it exhibits ∼10-fold higher potency in blocking non-histamine-mediated itch compared with Sal A, and this difference is not seen in pain attenuation by these two compounds. These results represent a rare example of functional selectivity by two natural products that act on the same receptor. The biased agonistic activity, along with an easily modifiable structure compared with Sal A, makes Colly an ideal candidate for the development of novel therapeutics targeting κOR with reduced side effects. PMID:27162327

  3. Nigramide J is a novel potent inverse agonist of the human constitutive androstane receptor.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Yuichiro; Tanuma, Nobuaki; Yatsu, Tomofumi; Li, Wei; Koike, Kazuo; Inouye, Yoshio

    2014-02-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) is very important for drug development and for understanding pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions. We screened by mammalian one hybrid assay among natural compounds to discover novel ligands of human constitutive androstane receptor (hCAR). hCAR transcriptional activity was measured by luciferase assay and mRNA levels of CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 in HepTR-hCAR cells and human primary hepatocytes were measured by real-time RT-PCR. Nigramide J (NJ) whose efficacy is comparable to those of hitherto known inverse agonists such as clotrimazole, PK11195, and ethinylestradiol. NJ is a naturally occurring cyclohexane-type amide alkaloid that was isolated from the roots of Piper nigrum. The suppressive effect of NJ on the CAR-dependent transcriptional activity was found to be species specific, in the descending order of hCAR, rat CAR, and mouse CAR. The unliganded hCAR-dependent transactivation of reporter and endogenous genes was suppressed by NJ at concentrations higher than 5 μmol/L. The ligand-binding cavity of hCAR was shared by NJ and CITCO, because they were competitive in the binding to hCAR. NJ interfered with the interaction of hCAR with coactivator SRC-1, but not with its interaction with the corepressor NCoR1. Furthermore, NJ is agonist of human pregnane X receptor (hPXR). NJ is a dual ligand of hCAR and hPXR, being an agonist of hPXR and an inverse agonist of hCAR. PMID:25505573

  4. Working memory span capacity improved by a D2 but not D1 receptor family agonist.

    PubMed

    Tarantino, Isadore S; Sharp, Richard F; Geyer, Mark A; Meves, Jessica M; Young, Jared W

    2011-06-01

    Patients with schizophrenia exhibit poor working memory (WM). Although several subcomponents of WM can be measured, evidence suggests the primary subcomponent affected in schizophrenia is span capacity (WMC). Indeed, the NIMH-funded MATRICS initiative recommended assaying the WMC when assessing the efficacy of a putative therapeutic for FDA approval. Although dopamine D1 receptor agonists improve delay-dependent memory in animals, evidence for improvements in WMC due to dopamine D1 receptor activation is limited. In contrast, the dopamine D2-family agonist bromocriptine improves WMC in humans. The radial arm maze (RAM) can be used to assess WMC, although complications due to ceiling effects or strategy confounds have limited its use. We describe a 12-arm RAM protocol designed to assess whether the dopamine D1-family agonist SKF 38393 (0, 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) or bromocriptine (0, 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) could improve WMC in C57BL/6N mice (n=12) in cross-over designs. WMC increased and strategy usage decreased with training. The dopamine D1 agonist SKF 38393 had no effect on WMC or long-term memory. Bromocriptine decreased WMC errors, without affecting long-term memory, consistent with human studies. These data confirm that WMC can be measured in mice and reveal drug effects that are consistent with reported effects in humans. Future research is warranted to identify the subtype of the D2-family of receptors responsible for the observed improvement in WMC. Finally, this RAM procedure may prove useful in developing animal models of deficient WMC to further assess putative treatments for the cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. PMID:21232557

  5. Structure-activity relationships of vanilloid receptor agonists for arteriolar TRPV1

    PubMed Central

    Czikora, Á; Lizanecz, E; Bakó, P; Rutkai, I; Ruzsnavszky, F; Magyar, J; Pórszász, R; Kark, T; Facskó, A; Papp, Z; Édes, I; Tóth, A

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) plays a role in the activation of sensory neurons by various painful stimuli and is a therapeutic target. However, functional TRPV1 that affect microvascular diameter are also expressed in peripheral arteries and we attempted to characterize this receptor. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Sensory TRPV1 activation was measured in rats by use of an eye wiping assay. Arteriolar TRPV1-mediated smooth muscle specific responses (arteriolar diameter, changes in intracellular Ca2+) were determined in isolated, pressurized skeletal muscle arterioles obtained from the rat and wild-type or TRPV1−/− mice and in canine isolated smooth muscle cells. The vascular pharmacology of the TRPV1 agonists (potency, efficacy, kinetics of action and receptor desensitization) was determined in rat isolated skeletal muscle arteries. KEY RESULTS Capsaicin evoked a constrictor response in isolated arteries similar to that mediated by noradrenaline, this was absent in arteries from TRPV1 knockout mice and competitively inhibited by TRPV1 antagonist AMG9810. Capsaicin increased intracellular Ca2+ in the arteriolar wall and in isolated smooth muscle cells. The TRPV1 agonists evoked similar vascular constrictions (MSK-195 and JYL-79) or were without effect (resiniferatoxin and JYL-273), although all increased the number of responses (sensory activation) in the eye wiping assay. Maximal doses of all agonists induced complete desensitization (tachyphylaxis) of arteriolar TRPV1 (with the exception of capsaicin). Responses to the partial agonist JYL-1511 suggested 10% TRPV1 activation is sufficient to evoke vascular tachyphylaxis without sensory activation. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Arteriolar TRPV1 have different pharmacological properties from those located on sensory neurons in the rat. PMID:21883148

  6. Agonist action of taurine on glycine receptors in rat supraoptic magnocellular neurones: possible role in osmoregulation.

    PubMed

    Hussy, N; Deleuze, C; Pantaloni, A; Desarménien, M G; Moos, F

    1997-08-01

    1. To evaluate the implication of taurine in the physiology of supraoptic neurones, we (i) investigated the agonist properties of taurine on glycine and GABAA receptors of supraoptic magnocellular neurones acutely dissociated from adult rats, using whole-cell voltage clamp, (ii) studied the effects of taurine and strychnine in vivo by extracellular recordings of supraoptic vasopressin neurones in anaesthetized rats, and (iii) measured the osmolarity-dependent release of endogenous taurine from isolated supraoptic nuclei by HPLC. 2. GABA, glycine and taurine evoked rapidly activating currents that all reversed close to the equilibrium potential for Cl-, indicating activation of Cl(-)-selective channels. Glycine-activated currents were reversibly blocked by strychnine (IC50 of 35 nM with 100 microM glycine), but were unaffected by the GABAA antagonist gabazine (1-3 microM). GABA-activated currents were reversibly antagonized by 3 microM gabazine, but not by strychnine (up to 1 microM). 3. Responses to 1 mM taurine were blocked by strychnine but not by gabazine and showed no additivity with glycine-induced currents, indicating selective activation of glycine receptors. Responses to 10 mM taurine were partially antagonized by gabazine, the residual current being blocked by strychnine. Thus, taurine is also a weak agonist of GABAA receptors. 4. In the presence of gabazine, taurine activated glycine receptors with an EC50 of 406 microM. Taurine activated at most 70% of maximal glycine currents, suggesting that it is a partial agonist of glycine receptors. 5. In vivo, locally applied strychnine (300 nM) increased and taurine (1 mM) decreased the basal electrical activity of vasopressin neurones in normally hydrated rats. The effect of strychnine was markedly more pronounced in water-loaded rats. 6. Taurine, which is concentrated in supraoptic glial cells, could be released from isolated supraoptic nuclei upon hyposmotic stimulation. Decreases in osmolarity of 15 and 30

  7. High-resolution structure of the human GPR40 receptor bound to allosteric agonist TAK-875.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Ankita; Yano, Jason; Hirozane, Yoshihiko; Kefala, Georgia; Gruswitz, Franz; Snell, Gyorgy; Lane, Weston; Ivetac, Anthony; Aertgeerts, Kathleen; Nguyen, Jasmine; Jennings, Andy; Okada, Kengo

    2014-09-01

    Human GPR40 receptor (hGPR40), also known as free fatty-acid receptor 1 (FFAR1), is a G-protein-coupled receptor that binds long-chain free fatty acids to enhance glucose-dependent insulin secretion. Novel treatments for type-2 diabetes mellitus are therefore possible by targeting hGPR40 with partial or full agonists. TAK-875, or fasiglifam, is an orally available, potent and selective partial agonist of hGPR40 receptor, which reached phase III clinical trials for the potential treatment of type-2 diabetes mellitus. Data from clinical studies indicate that TAK-875, which is an ago-allosteric modulator of hGPR40 (ref. 3), demonstrates improved glycaemic control and low hypoglycaemic risk in diabetic patients. Here we report the crystal structure of hGPR40 receptor bound to TAK-875 at 2.3 Å resolution. The co-complex structure reveals a unique binding mode of TAK-875 and suggests that entry to the non-canonical binding pocket most probably occurs via the lipid bilayer. The atomic details of the extensive charge network in the ligand binding pocket reveal additional interactions not identified in previous studies and contribute to a clear understanding of TAK-875 binding to the receptor. The hGPR40-TAK-875 structure also provides insights into the plausible binding of multiple ligands to the receptor, which has been observed in radioligand binding and Ca(2+) influx assay studies. Comparison of the transmembrane helix architecture with other G-protein-coupled receptors suggests that the crystallized TAK-875-bound hGPR40 complex is in an inactive-like state.

  8. A Robotic BG1Luc Reporter Assay to Detect Estrogen Receptor Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Stoner, Matthew A.; Yang, Chun Z.; Bittner, George D.

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals with estrogenic activity (EA) have been associated with various adverse health effects. US agencies (ICCVAM/NICEATM) tasked to assess in vitro transcription activation assays to detect estrogenic receptor (ER) agonists for EA have recently validated a BG1Luc assay in manual format, but prefer robotic formats. We have developed a robotic BG1Luc EA assay to detect EA that demonstrated 100% concordance with ICCVAM meta-analyses and ICCVAM BG1Luc results in manual format for 27 ICCVAM test substances, i.e. no false negatives or false positives. This robotic assay also consistently assessed other, more problematic ICCVAM test substances such as clomiphene citrate, L-thyroxin, and tamoxifen. Agonist responses using this robotic BG1Luc assay were consistently inhibited by the ER antagonist ICI 182,780, confirming that agonist responses were due to binding to ERs rather than to a non-specific agonist response. This robotic assay also detected EA in complex mixtures of substances such as extracts of personal care products, plastic resins or plastic consumer products. This robotic BG1Luc assay had at least as high accuracy and greater sensitivity and repeatability when compared to its manual version or to the other ICCVAM/OECD validated assays for EA (manual BG1Luc and CERI). PMID:24747293

  9. Incretin-like effects of small molecule trace amine-associated receptor 1 agonists

    PubMed Central

    Raab, Susanne; Wang, Haiyan; Uhles, Sabine; Cole, Nadine; Alvarez-Sanchez, Ruben; Künnecke, Basil; Ullmer, Christoph; Matile, Hugues; Bedoucha, Marc; Norcross, Roger D.; Ottaway-Parker, Nickki; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Conde Knape, Karin; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Hoener, Marius C.; Sewing, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Objective Type 2 diabetes and obesity are emerging pandemics in the 21st century creating worldwide urgency for the development of novel and safe therapies. We investigated trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) as a novel target contributing to the control of glucose homeostasis and body weight. Methods We investigated the peripheral human tissue distribution of TAAR1 by immunohistochemistry and tested the effect of a small molecule TAAR1 agonist on insulin secretion in vitro using INS1E cells and human islets and on glucose tolerance in C57Bl6, and db/db mice. Body weight effects were investigated in obese DIO mice. Results TAAR1 activation by a selective small molecule agonist increased glucose-dependent insulin secretion in INS1E cells and human islets and elevated plasma PYY and GLP-1 levels in mice. In diabetic db/db mice, the TAAR1 agonist normalized glucose excursion during an oral glucose tolerance test. Sub-chronic treatment of diet-induced obese (DIO) mice with the TAAR1 agonist resulted in reduced food intake and body weight. Furthermore insulin sensitivity was improved and plasma triglyceride levels and liver triglyceride content were lower than in controls. Conclusions We have identified TAAR1 as a novel integrator of metabolic control, which acts on gastrointestinal and pancreatic islet hormone secretion. Thus TAAR1 qualifies as a novel and promising target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. PMID:26844206

  10. The use of Toll-like receptor 7/8 agonists as vaccine adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Vasilakos, John P; Tomai, Mark A

    2013-07-01

    Small molecule Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/8 agonists have demonstrated potential as vaccine adjuvants, since they directly activate APCs and can enhance both humoral and cellular immune responses, especially Th1 responses. Although the natural ligands for TLR7 and TLR8 are ssRNA, the vast majority of vaccine studies performed thus far have been performed with synthetic small molecule imidazoquinolines, such as imiquimod and resiquimod. Despite the approved clinical use of the topical TLR7 agonist, imiquimod (Aldara(®) Imiquimod 5% cream; 3M, MN, USA), for external genital warts, superficial basal cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis, no vaccines using TLR7, TLR8 or TLR7/8 agonists have progressed beyond early-phase clinical studies thus far. This review will highlight the nonclinical and clinical studies that indicate promise for TLR7/8 ligands as vaccine adjuvants, reasons for inconsistent results thus far, problems with current technology and potential paths forward for TLR7/8 agonists as vaccine adjuvants.

  11. Novel Zn2+ Modulated GPR39 Receptor Agonists Do Not Drive Acute Insulin Secretion in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Shin-ichiro; Tsuchida, Takuma; Oguma, Takahiro; Marley, Anna; Wennberg-Huldt, Charlotte; Hovdal, Daniel; Fukuda, Hajime; Yoneyama, Yukimi; Sasaki, Kazuyo; Johansson, Anders; Lundqvist, Sara; Brengdahl, Johan; Isaacs, Richard J.; Brown, Daniel; Geschwindner, Stefan; Benthem, Lambertus; Priest, Claire; Turnbull, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) occurs when there is insufficient insulin release to control blood glucose, due to insulin resistance and impaired β-cell function. The GPR39 receptor is expressed in metabolic tissues including pancreatic β-cells and has been proposed as a T2D target. Specifically, GPR39 agonists might improve β-cell function leading to more adequate and sustained insulin release and glucose control. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that GPR39 agonism would improve glucose stimulated insulin secretion in vivo. A high throughput screen, followed by a medicinal chemistry program, identified three novel potent Zn2+ modulated GPR39 agonists. These agonists were evaluated in acute rodent glucose tolerance tests. The results showed a lack of glucose lowering and insulinotropic effects not only in lean mice, but also in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice and Zucker fatty rats. It is concluded that Zn2+ modulated GPR39 agonists do not acutely stimulate insulin release in rodents. PMID:26720709

  12. Effects of retinoic acid receptor-selective agonists on human nasal epithelial cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Million, K; Tournier, F; Houcine, O; Ancian, P; Reichert, U; Marano, F

    2001-12-01

    Retinoids play a critical role in the maintenance of the mucociliary phenotype of epithelial cells in the upper respiratory tract. To determine the role of retinoic acid receptors (RARs) in the regulation of epithelial differentiation, we tested the effect of the synthetic retinoids CD336, CD2019, and CD666, selective agonists for RARalpha, RARbeta, and RARgamma, respectively, during differentiation of human nasal epithelial (HNE) cells in vitro. Using glutamylated tubulin and transglutaminase I (Tg I) as markers of ciliated cell and squamous cell differentiation, respectively, we showed that retinoic acid (RA) stimulated mucociliary differentiation and, in parallel, inhibited squamous cell differentiation. The agonists of the three RARs independently induced ciliogenesis and inhibited squamous cell differentiation by downregulating Tg I expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Antagonists specific for the three RARs abolished the effects of the corresponding agonists, demonstrating an RAR-specific mediated effect. Moreover, treatment of retinoid-deficient cultures with RAR agonists induced conversion of the squamous-like phenotype into a ciliated phenotype. In conclusion, all three RARs are potentially involved in the differentiating effects of RA in respiratory epithelial cells.

  13. Effects of peripherally restricted κ opioid receptor agonists on pain-related stimulation and depression of behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Negus, S Stevens; O'Connell, Robert; Morrissey, Ember; Cheng, Kejun; Rice, Kenner C

    2012-03-01

    κ opioid receptor agonists that do not readily cross the blood-brain barrier are peripherally restricted and distribute poorly to the central nervous system after systemic administration. Peripherally restricted κ agonists have promise as candidate analgesics, because they may produce antinociception mediated by peripheral κ receptors more potently than they produce undesirable sedative and psychotomimetic effects mediated by central κ receptors. The present study used assays of pain-related stimulation and depression of behavior in rats to compare effects of 1) two peripherally restricted κ agonists [the tetrapeptide D-Phe-D-Phe-D-Ile-D-Arg-NH(2) (ffir) and the nonpeptidic compound ((R,S)-N-[2-(N-methyl-3,4-dichlorophenylacetamido)-2-(3-carboxyphenyl)-ethyl]pyrrolidine hydrochloride (ICI204448)], 2) a centrally penetrating κ agonist (salvinorin A), and 3) several reference drugs, including a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID; ketoprofen). Intraperitoneal injection of dilute lactic acid served as a noxious stimulus to stimulate a stretching response and depress intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) maintained by the delivery of electrical brain stimulation to the medial forebrain bundle. Acid-stimulated stretching was blocked by ketoprofen, the peripherally restricted κ agonists, and salvinorin A. However, acid-induced depression of ICSS was blocked only by ketoprofen. The peripherally restricted κ agonists had little effect, and salvinorin A exacerbated acid-induced depression of ICSS. These results suggest that peripherally restricted κ agonists may be safer than centrally penetrating κ agonists but less efficacious than NSAIDS or μ opioid receptor agonists to block pain-related depression of behavior; however, the peripheral selectivity of ffir and ICI204448 is limited, and future studies with κ agonists capable of greater peripheral selectivity are warranted.

  14. Quantitative phosphoproteomics unravels biased phosphorylation of serotonin 2A receptor at Ser280 by hallucinogenic versus nonhallucinogenic agonists.

    PubMed

    Karaki, Samah; Becamel, Carine; Murat, Samy; Mannoury la Cour, Clotilde; Millan, Mark J; Prézeau, Laurent; Bockaert, Joël; Marin, Philippe; Vandermoere, Franck

    2014-05-01

    The serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptor is a primary target of psychedelic hallucinogens such as lysergic acid diethylamine, mescaline, and psilocybin, which reproduce some of the core symptoms of schizophrenia. An incompletely resolved paradox is that only some 5-HT(2A) receptor agonists exhibit hallucinogenic activity, whereas structurally related agonists with comparable affinity and activity lack such a psychoactive activity. Using a strategy combining stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture with enrichment in phosphorylated peptides by means of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography followed by immobilized metal affinity chromatography, we compared the phosphoproteome in HEK-293 cells transiently expressing the 5-HT(2A) receptor and exposed to either vehicle or the synthetic hallucinogen 1-[2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl]-2-aminopropane (DOI) or the nonhallucinogenic 5-HT(2A) agonist lisuride. Among the 5995 identified phosphorylated peptides, 16 sites were differentially phosphorylated upon exposure of cells to DOI versus lisuride. These include a serine (Ser(280)) located in the third intracellular loop of the 5-HT(2A) receptor, a region important for its desensitization. The specific phosphorylation of Ser(280) by hallucinogens was further validated by quantitative mass spectrometry analysis of immunopurified receptor digests and by Western blotting using a phosphosite specific antibody. The administration of DOI, but not of lisuride, to mice, enhanced the phosphorylation of 5-HT(2A) receptors at Ser(280) in the prefrontal cortex. Moreover, hallucinogens induced a less pronounced desensitization of receptor-operated signaling in HEK-293 cells and neurons than did nonhallucinogenic agonists. The mutation of Ser(280) to aspartic acid (to mimic phosphorylation) reduced receptor desensitization by nonhallucinogenic agonists, whereas its mutation to alanine increased the ability of hallucinogens to desensitize the receptor. This study reveals a biased

  15. Quantitative Phosphoproteomics Unravels Biased Phosphorylation of Serotonin 2A Receptor at Ser280 by Hallucinogenic versus Nonhallucinogenic Agonists*

    PubMed Central

    Karaki, Samah; Becamel, Carine; Murat, Samy; Mannoury la Cour, Clotilde; Millan, Mark J.; Prézeau, Laurent; Bockaert, Joël; Marin, Philippe; Vandermoere, Franck

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin 5-HT2A receptor is a primary target of psychedelic hallucinogens such as lysergic acid diethylamine, mescaline, and psilocybin, which reproduce some of the core symptoms of schizophrenia. An incompletely resolved paradox is that only some 5-HT2A receptor agonists exhibit hallucinogenic activity, whereas structurally related agonists with comparable affinity and activity lack such a psychoactive activity. Using a strategy combining stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture with enrichment in phosphorylated peptides by means of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography followed by immobilized metal affinity chromatography, we compared the phosphoproteome in HEK-293 cells transiently expressing the 5-HT2A receptor and exposed to either vehicle or the synthetic hallucinogen 1-[2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl]-2-aminopropane (DOI) or the nonhallucinogenic 5-HT2A agonist lisuride. Among the 5995 identified phosphorylated peptides, 16 sites were differentially phosphorylated upon exposure of cells to DOI versus lisuride. These include a serine (Ser280) located in the third intracellular loop of the 5-HT2A receptor, a region important for its desensitization. The specific phosphorylation of Ser280 by hallucinogens was further validated by quantitative mass spectrometry analysis of immunopurified receptor digests and by Western blotting using a phosphosite specific antibody. The administration of DOI, but not of lisuride, to mice, enhanced the phosphorylation of 5-HT2A receptors at Ser280 in the prefrontal cortex. Moreover, hallucinogens induced a less pronounced desensitization of receptor-operated signaling in HEK-293 cells and neurons than did nonhallucinogenic agonists. The mutation of Ser280 to aspartic acid (to mimic phosphorylation) reduced receptor desensitization by nonhallucinogenic agonists, whereas its mutation to alanine increased the ability of hallucinogens to desensitize the receptor. This study reveals a biased phosphorylation of

  16. The CB2 cannabinoid receptor-selective agonist O-3223 reduces pain and inflammation without apparent cannabinoid behavioral effects.

    PubMed

    Kinsey, Steven G; Mahadevan, Anu; Zhao, Bingjun; Sun, Hang; Naidu, Pattipati S; Razdan, Raj K; Selley, Dana E; Imad Damaj, M; Lichtman, Aron H

    2011-01-01

    Although Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other mixed CB(1)/CB(2) receptor agonists are well established to elicit antinociceptive effects, their psychomimetic actions and potential for abuse have dampened enthusiasm for their therapeutic development. Conversely, CB(2) receptor-selective agonists have been shown to reduce pain and inflammation, without eliciting apparent cannabinoid behavioral effects. In the present study, we developed a novel ethyl sulfonamide THC analog, O-3223, and compared its pharmacological effects to those of the potent, mixed CB(1)/CB(2) receptor agonist, CP55,940, in a battery of preclinical pain models. Competitive cannabinoid receptor binding experiments revealed that O-3223 was approximately 80-fold more selective for CB(2) than CB(1) receptors. Additionally, O-3223 behaved as a full CB(2) receptor agonist in [(35)S]GTPγS binding. O-3223 reduced nociceptive behavior in both phases of the formalin test, reduced thermal hyperalgesia in the chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve (CCI) model, and reduced edema and thermal hyperalgesia elicited by intraplantar injection of LPS. These effects were blocked by pretreatment with the CB(2) receptor-selective antagonist SR144528, but not by the CB(1) receptor antagonist, rimonabant. Unlike CP55,940, O-3223 did not elicit acute antinociceptive effects in the hot-plate test, hypothermia, or motor disturbances, as assessed in the rotarod test. These data indicate that the CB(2) receptor-selective agonist, O-3223, reduces inflammatory and neuropathic nociception, without affecting basal nociception or eliciting overt behavioral effects. Moreover, this compound can serve as a template to develop new CB(2) receptor agonists with increased receptor selectivity and increased potency in treating inflammatory and neuropathic pain. PMID:20849866

  17. The CB2 cannabinoid receptor-selective agonist O-3223 reduces pain and inflammation without apparent cannabinoid behavioral effects

    PubMed Central

    Kinsey, Steven G.; Mahadevan, Anu; Zhao, Bingjun; Sun, Hang; Naidu, Pattipati S.; Razdan, Raj K.; Selley, Dana E.; Damaj, M. Imad; Lichtman, Aron H.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Although Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other mixed CB1/CB2 receptor agonists are well established to elicit antinociceptive effects, their psychomimetic actions and potential for abuse have dampened enthusiasm for their therapeutic development. Conversely, CB2 receptor-selective agonists have been shown to reduce pain and inflammation, without eliciting apparent cannabinoid behavioral effects. In the present study, we developed a novel ethyl sulfonamide THC analog, O-3223, and compared its pharmacological effects to those of the potent, mixed CB1/CB2 receptor agonist, CP55,940, in battery of preclinical pain models. Competitive cannabinoid receptor binding experiments revealed that O-3223 was approximately 80-fold more selective for CB2 than CB1 receptors. Additionally, O-3223 behaved as full CB2 receptor agonist in [35S]GTPγS binding. O-3223 reduced nociceptive behavior in both phases of the formalin test, reduced thermal hyperalgesia in the chronic constrictive injury of the sciatic nerve (CCI) model, and reduced edema and thermal hyperalgesia elicited by intraplantar injection of LPS. These effects were blocked by pretreatment with the CB2 receptor-selective antagonist SR144528, but not by the CB1 receptor antagonist, rimonabant. Unlike CP55,940, O-3223 did not elicit acute antinociceptive effects in the hot-plate test, hypothermia, or motor disturbances, as assessed in the rotarod test. These data indicate that the CB2 receptor-selective agonist, O-3223, reduces inflammatory and neuropathic nociception, without affecting basal nociception or eliciting overt behavioral effects. Moreover, this compound can serve as a template to develop new CB2 receptor agonists with increased receptor selectivity and increased potency in treating inflammatory and neuropathic pain. PMID:20849866

  18. Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulate matrix metalloproteinase 1-dependent invasion of human colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Raufman, Jean-Pierre; Cheng, Kunrong; Saxena, Neeraj; Chahdi, Ahmed; Belo, Angelica; Khurana, Sandeep; Xie, Guofeng

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulated robust human colon cancer cell invasion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anti-matrix metalloproteinase1 antibody pre-treatment blocks cell invasion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bile acids stimulate MMP1 expression, cell migration and MMP1-dependent invasion. -- Abstract: Mammalian matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which degrade extracellular matrix facilitate colon cancer cell invasion into the bloodstream and extra-colonic tissues; in particular, MMP1 expression correlates strongly with advanced colon cancer stage, hematogenous metastasis and poor prognosis. Likewise, muscarinic receptor signaling plays an important role in colon cancer; muscarinic receptors are over-expressed in colon cancer compared to normal colon epithelial cells. Muscarinic receptor activation stimulates proliferation, migration and invasion of human colon cancer cells. In mouse intestinal neoplasia models genetic ablation of muscarinic receptors attenuates carcinogenesis. In the present work, we sought to link these observations by showing that MMP1 expression and activation plays a mechanistic role in muscarinic receptor agonist-induced colon cancer cell invasion. We show that acetylcholine, which robustly increases MMP1 expression, stimulates invasion of HT29 and H508 human colon cancer cells into human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers - this was abolished by pre-incubation with atropine, a non-selective muscarinic receptor inhibitor, and by pre-incubation with anti-MMP1 neutralizing antibody. Similar results were obtained using a Matrigel chamber assay and deoxycholyltaurine (DCT), an amidated dihydroxy bile acid associated with colon neoplasia in animal models and humans, and previously shown to interact functionally with muscarinic receptors. DCT treatment of human colon cancer cells resulted in time-dependent, 10-fold increased MMP1 expression, and DCT-induced cell invasion was also blocked by pre

  19. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists as insulin sensitizers: from the discovery to recent progress.

    PubMed

    Cho, Nobuo; Momose, Yu

    2008-01-01

    An epidemic of metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes and obesity is undermining the health of people living in industrialized societies. There is an urgent need to develop innovative therapeutics. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is one of the ligand-activated transcription factors in the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily and a pivotal regulator of glucose and lipid homeostasis. The discovery of PPARgamma as a target of multimodal insulin sensitizers, represented by thiazolidinediones (TZDs), has attracted remarkable scientific interest and had a great impact on the pharmaceutical industry. With the clinical success of the PPARgamma agonists, pioglitazone (Actos) and rosiglitazone (Avandia), development of novel and potent insulin-sensitizing agents with diverse clinical profiles has been accelerated. Currently, a number of PPARgamma agonists from different chemical classes and with varying pharmacological profiles are being developed. Despite quite a few obstacles to the development of PPAR-related drugs, PPARgamma-targeted agents still hold promise. There are new concepts and encouraging evidence emerging that suggest this class can yield improved anti-diabetic agents. This review covers the discovery of TZDs, provides an overview of PPARgamma including the significance of PPARgamma as a drug target, describes the current status of a wide variety of novel PPARgamma ligands including PPAR dual and pan agonists and selective PPARgamma modulators (SPPARgammaMs), and highlights new approaches for identifying agents targeting PPARgamma in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:19075761

  20. A Novel Role of Serotonin Receptor 2B Agonist as an Anti-Melanogenesis Agent

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Eun Ju; Park, Jong Il; Lee, Ji Eun; Myung, Cheol Hwan; Kim, Su Yeon; Chang, Sung Eun; Hwang, Jae Sung

    2016-01-01

    BW723C86, a serotonin receptor 2B agonist, has been investigated as a potential therapeutic for various conditions such as anxiety, hyperphagia and hypertension. However, the functional role of BW723C86 against melanogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we investigate the effect of serotonin receptor 2B (5-HTR2B) agonist on melanogenesis and elucidate the mechanism involved. BW723C86 reduced melanin synthesis and intracellular tyrosinase activity in melan-A cells and normal human melanocytes. The expression of melanogenesis-related proteins (tyrosinase, TRP-1 and TRP-2) and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) in melan-A cells decreased after BW723C86 treatment. The promoter activity of MITF was also reduced by BW723C86 treatment. The reduced level of MITF was associated with inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) activation by BW723C86 treatment. These results suggest that the serotonin agonist BW723C86 could be a potential therapeutic agent for skin hyperpigmentation disorders. PMID:27077852

  1. Identification of Darmstoff analogs as selective agonists and antagonists of lysophosphatidic acid receptors.

    PubMed

    Gududuru, Veeresa; Zeng, Kui; Tsukahara, Ryoko; Makarova, Natalia; Fujiwara, Yuko; Pigg, Kathryn R; Baker, Daniel L; Tigyi, Gabor; Miller, Duane D

    2006-01-15

    Darmstoff describes a family of gut smooth muscle-stimulating acetal phosphatidic acids initially isolated and characterized from the bath fluid of stimulated gut over 50 years ago. Despite similar structural and biological profiles, Darmstoff analogs have not previously been examined as potential LPA mimetics. Here, we report a facile method for the synthesis of potassium salts of Darmstoff analogs. To understand the effect of stereochemistry on lysophosphatidic acid mimetic activity, synthesis of optically pure stereoisomers of selected Darmstoff analogs was achieved starting with chiral methyl glycerates. Each Darmstoff analog was evaluated for subtype-specific LPA receptor agonist/antagonist activity, PPARgamma activation, and autotaxin inhibition. From this study we identified compound 12 as a pan-antagonist and several pan-agonists for the LPA(1-3) receptors. Introduction of an aromatic ring in the lipid chain such as analog 22 produced a subtype-specific LPA(3) agonist with an EC(50) of 692 nM. Interestingly, regardless of their LPA(1/2/3) ligand properties all of the Darmstoff analogs tested activated PPARgamma. However, these compounds are weak inhibitors of autotaxin. The results indicate that Darmstoff analogs constitute a novel class of lysophosphatidic acid mimetics. PMID:16290140

  2. β2-Adrenergic receptor agonists activate CFTR in intestinal organoids and subjects with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Vijftigschild, Lodewijk A W; Berkers, Gitte; Dekkers, Johanna F; Zomer-van Ommen, Domenique D; Matthes, Elizabeth; Kruisselbrink, Evelien; Vonk, Annelotte; Hensen, Chantal E; Heida-Michel, Sabine; Geerdink, Margot; Janssens, Hettie M; van de Graaf, Eduard A; Bronsveld, Inez; de Winter-de Groot, Karin M; Majoor, Christof J; Heijerman, Harry G M; de Jonge, Hugo R; Hanrahan, John W; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Beekman, Jeffrey M

    2016-09-01

    We hypothesized that people with cystic fibrosis (CF) who express CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) gene mutations associated with residual function may benefit from G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-targeting drugs that can activate and enhance CFTR function.We used intestinal organoids to screen a GPCR-modulating compound library and identified β2-adrenergic receptor agonists as the most potent inducers of CFTR function.β2-Agonist-induced organoid swelling correlated with the CFTR genotype, and could be induced in homozygous CFTR-F508del organoids and highly differentiated primary CF airway epithelial cells after rescue of CFTR trafficking by small molecules. The in vivo response to treatment with an oral or inhaled β2-agonist (salbutamol) in CF patients with residual CFTR function was evaluated in a pilot study. 10 subjects with a R117H or A455E mutation were included and showed changes in the nasal potential difference measurement after treatment with oral salbutamol, including a significant improvement of the baseline potential difference of the nasal mucosa (+6.35 mV, p<0.05), suggesting that this treatment might be effective in vivo Furthermore, plasma that was collected after oral salbutamol treatment induced CFTR activation when administered ex vivo to organoids.This proof-of-concept study suggests that organoids can be used to identify drugs that activate CFTR function in vivo and to select route of administration. PMID:27471203

  3. Identification of Darmstoff analogs as selective agonists and antagonists of lysophosphatidic acid receptors.

    PubMed

    Gududuru, Veeresa; Zeng, Kui; Tsukahara, Ryoko; Makarova, Natalia; Fujiwara, Yuko; Pigg, Kathryn R; Baker, Daniel L; Tigyi, Gabor; Miller, Duane D

    2006-01-15

    Darmstoff describes a family of gut smooth muscle-stimulating acetal phosphatidic acids initially isolated and characterized from the bath fluid of stimulated gut over 50 years ago. Despite similar structural and biological profiles, Darmstoff analogs have not previously been examined as potential LPA mimetics. Here, we report a facile method for the synthesis of potassium salts of Darmstoff analogs. To understand the effect of stereochemistry on lysophosphatidic acid mimetic activity, synthesis of optically pure stereoisomers of selected Darmstoff analogs was achieved starting with chiral methyl glycerates. Each Darmstoff analog was evaluated for subtype-specific LPA receptor agonist/antagonist activity, PPARgamma activation, and autotaxin inhibition. From this study we identified compound 12 as a pan-antagonist and several pan-agonists for the LPA(1-3) receptors. Introduction of an aromatic ring in the lipid chain such as analog 22 produced a subtype-specific LPA(3) agonist with an EC(50) of 692 nM. Interestingly, regardless of their LPA(1/2/3) ligand properties all of the Darmstoff analogs tested activated PPARgamma. However, these compounds are weak inhibitors of autotaxin. The results indicate that Darmstoff analogs constitute a novel class of lysophosphatidic acid mimetics.

  4. Novel S1P(1) receptor agonists--part 3: from thiophenes to pyridines.

    PubMed

    Bolli, Martin H; Abele, Stefan; Birker, Magdalena; Bravo, Roberto; Bur, Daniel; de Kanter, Ruben; Kohl, Christopher; Grimont, Julien; Hess, Patrick; Lescop, Cyrille; Mathys, Boris; Müller, Claus; Nayler, Oliver; Rey, Markus; Scherz, Michael; Schmidt, Gunther; Seifert, Jürgen; Steiner, Beat; Velker, Jörg; Weller, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In preceding communications we summarized our medicinal chemistry efforts leading to the identification of potent, selective, and orally active S1P1 agonists such as the thiophene derivative 1. As a continuation of these efforts, we replaced the thiophene in 1 by a 2-, 3-, or 4-pyridine and obtained less lipophilic, potent, and selective S1P1 agonists (e.g., 2) efficiently reducing blood lymphocyte count in the rat. Structural features influencing the compounds' receptor affinity profile and pharmacokinetics are discussed. In addition, the ability to penetrate brain tissue has been studied for several compounds. As a typical example for these pyridine based S1P1 agonists, compound 53 showed EC50 values of 0.6 and 352 nM for the S1P1 and S1P3 receptor, respectively, displayed favorable PK properties, and penetrated well into brain tissue. In the rat, compound 53 maximally reduced the blood lymphocyte count for at least 24 h after oral dosing of 3 mg/kg. PMID:24367923

  5. Profound and rapid reduction in body temperature induced by the melanocortin receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuanzhong; Kim, Eun Ran; Fan, Shengjie; Xia, Yan; Xu, Yong; Huang, Cheng; Tong, Qingchun

    2014-08-22

    The melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) plays a major role in body weight regulation and its agonist MTII has been widely used to study the role of MC4Rs in energy expenditure promotion and feeding reduction. Unexpectedly, we observed that intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of MTII induced a rapid reduction in both body temperature and energy expenditure, which was independent of its effect on feeding and followed by a prolonged increase in energy expenditure. The rapid reduction was at least partly mediated by brain neurons since intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of alpha melanocyte-stimulating hormone, an endogenous melanocortin receptor agonist, produced a similar response. In addition, the body temperature-lowering effect of MTII was independent of the presence of MC4Rs, but in a similar fashion to the previously shown effect on body temperature by 5'AMP. Moreover, β-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) were required for the recovery from low body temperature induced by MTII and further pharmacological studies showed that the MTII's effect on body temperature may be partially mediated by the vasopressin V1a receptors. Collectively, our results reveal a previously unappreciated role for the melanocortin pathway in rapidly lowering body temperature.

  6. Monoclonal antibodies to purified muscarinic receptor display agonist-like activity.

    PubMed Central

    Leiber, D; Harbon, S; Guillet, J G; André, C; Strosberg, A D

    1984-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody M-35, which immunoprecipitates native calf brain acetylcholine muscarinic receptor, mimics agonist stimulation of the intact guinea pig myometrium: the antibody, just like carbamoylcholine hydrochloride, causes a rise in intracellular cyclic GMP content, an inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation due to prostacyclin, and induces uterine contractions. Another antibody, M-23, which reacts with the denatured muscarinic receptor, is devoid of agonist-like activity at the cyclic nucleotide level but is still able to induce contractions of both rat and guinea pig myometrium. The cyclic nucleotide changes caused by both carbamoylcholine and antibody M-35 are inhibited by atropine; this antagonist, which blocks carbamoylcholine-mediated contractions, fails however, to prevent contractions induced by antibodies M-35 and M-23. These results suggest that the information necessary to transmit muscarinic signals is entirely contained in the receptor and that ligands only act to trigger the biological response. The data also imply that the muscarinic receptors of the myometrium are coupled to multiple effector systems. PMID:6087318

  7. Estrogen receptor (ER) agonists and androgen receptor (AR) antagonists in effluents from Norwegian North Sea oil production platforms.

    PubMed

    Tollefsen, Knut-Erik; Harman, Christopher; Smith, Andy; Thomas, Kevin V

    2007-03-01

    The in vitro estrogen receptor (ER) agonist and androgen receptor (AR) antagonist potencies of offshore produced water effluents collected from the Norwegian Sector were determined using recombinant yeast estrogen and androgen screens. Solid phase extraction (SPE) concentrates of the effluents showed E2 agonist activities similar to those previously reported for the United Kingdom (UK) Continental Shelf (<0.1-4 ng E2 L(-1)). No activity was detected in the filtered oil droplets suggesting that produced water ER activity is primarily associated with the dissolved phase. Targeted analysis for methyl- to nonyl-substituted alkylphenol isomers show the occurrence of known ER agonists in the analysed samples. For the first time, AR antagonists were detected in both the dissolved and oil associated phase at concentrations of between 20 and 8000 microg of flutamide equivalents L(-1). The identity of the AR antagonists is unknown, however this represents a significant input into the marine environment of unknown compounds that exert a known biological effect. It is recommended that further analysis using techniques such as bioassay-directed analysis is performed to identify the compounds/groups of compounds that are responsible in order to improve the assessment of the risk posed by produced water discharges to the marine environment. PMID:17258235

  8. Agonist-induced functional desensitization of the mu-opioid receptor is mediated by loss of membrane receptors rather than uncoupling from G protein.

    PubMed

    Pak, Y; Kouvelas, A; Scheideler, M A; Rasmussen, J; O'Dowd, B F; George, S R

    1996-11-01

    The effects of acute exposure of the opioid peptide [D-Ala2,N-MePhe4, Gly-ol5]enkephalin (DAMGO) on the mu-opioid receptor were examined in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) K-1 and baby hamster kidney stable transfectants. In the CHO cell line, acute 1-hr treatment with DAMGO decreased the density of receptors without affecting the affinity or proportion of agonist-detected sites and attenuated the ability of the agonist to inhibit forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation. In contrast, similar 1-hr treatment of baby hamster kidney cells did not affect receptor density or agonist ability to inhibit cAMP accumulation, but longer duration of agonist exposure resulted in a reduction in membrane receptor, identical to the CHO cells. These results suggested that for the mu-opioid receptor, alteration in receptor density was the major determinant for the observed agonist-induced desensitization. Consistent with this notion, the ratio of the DAMGO concentration yielding half-maximal occupation of the mu receptor to that yielding half-maximal functional response was < 1. This suggests the necessity for a high mu receptor occupancy rate for maximal functional response, so that any loss of cell surface opioid-binding sites was a critical determinant in reducing the maximal response. This hypothesis was further supported by the observation that irreversible inactivation of fixed proportions of opioid-binding sites with beta-chlorn-altrexamine demonstrated that there were few spare receptors, which is in contrast to what has been reported for other G protein-coupled receptors, including the delta-opioid receptor. Taken together, these data suggest that the opioid agonist DAMGO has a high affinity for the mu receptor but must occupy > 70% of the available receptors to generate the maximal second messenger-linked response.

  9. Estradiol and Estrogen Receptor Agonists Oppose Oncogenic Actions of Leptin in HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Minqian; Shi, Haifei

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a significant risk factor for certain cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Leptin, a hormone secreted by white adipose tissue, precipitates HCC development. Epidemiology data show that men have a much higher incidence of HCC than women, suggesting that estrogens and its receptors may inhibit HCC development and progression. Whether estrogens antagonize oncogenic action of leptin is uncertain. To investigate potential inhibitory effects of estrogens on leptin-induced HCC development, HCC cell line HepG2 cells were treated with leptin in combination with 17 β-estradiol (E2), estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) selective agonist PPT, ER-β selective agonist DPN, or G protein-coupled ER (GPER) selective agonist G-1. Cell number, proliferation, and apoptosis were determined, and leptin- and estrogen-related intracellular signaling pathways were analyzed. HepG2 cells expressed a low level of ER-β mRNA, and leptin treatment increased ER-β expression. E2 suppressed leptin-induced HepG2 cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally E2 reversed leptin-induced STAT3 and leptin-suppressed SOCS3, which was mainly achieved by activation of ER-β. E2 also enhanced ERK via activating ER-α and GPER and activated p38/MAPK via activating ER-β. To conclude, E2 and its receptors antagonize the oncogenic actions of leptin in HepG2 cells by inhibiting cell proliferation and stimulating cell apoptosis, which was associated with reversing leptin-induced changes in SOCS3/STAT3 and increasing p38/MAPK by activating ER-β, and increasing ERK by activating ER-α and GPER. Identifying roles of different estrogen receptors would provide comprehensive understanding of estrogenic mechanisms in HCC development and shed light on potential treatment for HCC patients. PMID:26982332

  10. Selective agonists of retinoic acid receptors: comparative toxicokinetics and embryonic exposure.

    PubMed

    Arafa, H M; Elmazar, M M; Hamada, F M; Reichert, U; Shroot, B; Nau, H

    2000-01-01

    Three biologically active synthetic retinoids were investigated that bind selectively to retinoic acid receptors RARs (alpha, beta and gamma). The retinoids were previously demonstrated to have different teratogenic effects in the mouse in terms of potency and regioselectivity. The teratogenic potency rank order (alpha >beta >gamma) was found to be more or less compatible with the receptor binding affinities and transactivation potencies of the retinoid ligands to their respective receptors. The RARalpha agonist (Am580; CD336) induced a wide spectrum of malformations; CD2019 (RARbeta agonist) and especially CD437 (RARgamma agonist) produced more restricted defects. In the current study we tried to address whether the differences in teratogenic effects are solely related to binding affinity and transactivation differences or also due to differences in embryonic exposure. Therefore, transplacental kinetics of the ligands were assessed following administration of a single oral dose of 15 mg/kg of either retinoid given to NMRI mice on day 11 of gestation. Am580 was rapidly transferred to the embryo resulting in the highest embryonic exposure [embryo to maternal plasma area under the time vs concentration curve (AUC)(0-24 h )ratio (E/M) was 1.7], in accordance with its highest teratogenic potency. The low placental transfer of CD2019 (E/M of 0.3) was compatible with its lower teratogenic potential. Of major interest was the finding that the CD437, though being least teratogenic, exhibited considerable embryonic exposure (E/M of 0.6). These findings suggest that both the embryonic exposure and receptor binding transactivation selectivity are crucial determinants of the teratogenicity of these retinoid ligands.

  11. Estradiol and Estrogen Receptor Agonists Oppose Oncogenic Actions of Leptin in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Minqian; Shi, Haifei

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a significant risk factor for certain cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Leptin, a hormone secreted by white adipose tissue, precipitates HCC development. Epidemiology data show that men have a much higher incidence of HCC than women, suggesting that estrogens and its receptors may inhibit HCC development and progression. Whether estrogens antagonize oncogenic action of leptin is uncertain. To investigate potential inhibitory effects of estrogens on leptin-induced HCC development, HCC cell line HepG2 cells were treated with leptin in combination with 17 β-estradiol (E2), estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) selective agonist PPT, ER-β selective agonist DPN, or G protein-coupled ER (GPER) selective agonist G-1. Cell number, proliferation, and apoptosis were determined, and leptin- and estrogen-related intracellular signaling pathways were analyzed. HepG2 cells expressed a low level of ER-β mRNA, and leptin treatment increased ER-β expression. E2 suppressed leptin-induced HepG2 cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally E2 reversed leptin-induced STAT3 and leptin-suppressed SOCS3, which was mainly achieved by activation of ER-β. E2 also enhanced ERK via activating ER-α and GPER and activated p38/MAPK via activating ER-β. To conclude, E2 and its receptors antagonize the oncogenic actions of leptin in HepG2 cells by inhibiting cell proliferation and stimulating cell apoptosis, which was associated with reversing leptin-induced changes in SOCS3/STAT3 and increasing p38/MAPK by activating ER-β, and increasing ERK by activating ER-α and GPER. Identifying roles of different estrogen receptors would provide comprehensive understanding of estrogenic mechanisms in HCC development and shed light on potential treatment for HCC patients. PMID:26982332

  12. A peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist and other constituents from Chromolaena odorata.

    PubMed

    Dat, Nguyen Tien; Lee, Kyeong; Hong, Young-Soo; Kim, Young Ho; Minh, Chau Van; Lee, Jung Joon

    2009-06-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are key regulators of lipid and glucose metabolism and have become important therapeutic targets for various diseases. The phytochemical investigation of the chloroform-soluble extract of Chromolaena odorata led to the isolation of a PPAR-gamma agonist, (9 S,13 R)-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (1), together with 12 other compounds. The structures of chromomoric acid G (2), a new dehydrogenated derivative of 1, and chromolanone (3) were elucidated based on spectroscopic methods. Compound 1 showed a significant effect on PPAR-gamma activation in comparison with rosiglitazone. However, compound 2 was inactive, suggesting that the dehydrogenation of the prostaglandin-like structure in 1 abrogates its PPAR-gamma agonistic activity.

  13. The Effect of Glutamate Receptor Agonists on Mouse Retinal Astrocyte [Ca2+]i

    PubMed Central

    Blandford, Stephanie N.

    2016-01-01

    Calcium-imaging techniques were used to determine if mouse retinal astrocytes in situ respond to agonists of ionotropic (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid, AMPA; N-methyl-D-aspartate, NMDA) and metabotropic (S-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine, DHPG; trans-1-amino-1,3-cyclopentanedicarboxylic acid, ACPD) glutamate receptors. In most cases we found no evidence that retinal astrocyte intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) increased in response to these glutamate agonists. The one exception was AMPA that increased [Ca2+]i in some, but not all, mouse retinal astrocytes in situ. However, AMPA did not increase [Ca2+]i in mouse retinal astrocytes in vitro, suggesting that the effect of AMPA in situ may be indirect. PMID:27413752

  14. Allosteric agonists of the calcium receptor (CaR): fluorine and SF5 analogues of cinacalcet.

    PubMed

    Chia, Poh Wai; Brennan, Sarah C; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Riccardi, Daniela; O'Hagan, David

    2012-10-21

    Three selectively fluorinated cinacalcet analogues are prepared and their activity as calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) agonists is assessed. Individual (2R,1'R)-2 and (2S,1'R)-3 fluorocinacalcet diastereoisomers were prepared using the MacMillan asymmetric fluorination reaction. Assays with the recombinant human CaR revealed that both diastereoisomers have a similar potency to each other although slightly lower (75-80%) than that of cinacalcet 1. The SF(5)-cinacalcet analogue 4 was prepared from meta-pentafluorosulfanyl benzyl alcohol and has ~75% agonist activity relative to cinacalcet 1 indicating that the SF(5) group can replace the CF(3) group and retain significant bioactivity.

  15. Highly Selective Salicylketoxime-Based Estrogen Receptor β Agonists Display Antiproliferative Activities in a Glioma Model

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen receptor β (ERβ) selective agonists are considered potential therapeutic agents for a variety of pathological conditions, including several types of cancer. Their development is particularly challenging, since differences in the ligand binding cavities of the two ER subtypes α and β are minimal. We have carried out a rational design of new salicylketoxime derivatives which display unprecedentedly high levels of ERβ selectivity for this class of compounds, both in binding affinity and in cell-based functional assays. An endogenous gene expression assay was used to further characterize the pharmacological action of these compounds. Finally, these ERβ-selective agonists were found to inhibit proliferation of a glioma cell line in vitro. Most importantly, one of these compounds also proved to be active in an in vivo xenograft model of human glioma, thus demonstrating the high potential of this type of compounds against this devastating disease. PMID:25559213

  16. Use of cannabinoid receptor agonists in cancer therapy as palliative and curative agents.

    PubMed

    Pisanti, Simona; Malfitano, Anna Maria; Grimaldi, Claudia; Santoro, Antonietta; Gazzerro, Patrizia; Laezza, Chiara; Bifulco, Maurizio

    2009-02-01

    Cannabinoids (the active components of Cannabis sativa) and their derivatives have received renewed interest in recent years due to their diverse pharmacological activities. In particular, cannabinoids offer potential applications as anti-tumour drugs, based on the ability of some members of this class of compounds to limit cell proliferation and to induce tumour-selective cell death. Although synthetic cannabinoids may have pro-tumour effects in vivo due to their immunosuppressive properties, predominantly inhibitory effects on tumour growth and migration, angiogenesis, metastasis, and also inflammation have been described. Emerging evidence suggests that agonists of cannabinoid receptors expressed by tumour cells may offer a novel strategy to treat cancer. In this chapter we review the more recent results generating interest in the field of cannabinoids and cancer, and provide novel suggestions for the development, exploration and use of cannabinoid agonists for cancer therapy, not only as palliative but also as curative drugs.

  17. CPG-7909 (PF-3512676, ProMune): toll-like receptor-9 agonist in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Murad, Yanal M; Clay, Timothy M; Lyerly, H Kim; Morse, Michael A

    2007-08-01

    Stimulation of toll-like receptor (TLR)9 activates human plasmacytoid dendritic cells and B cells, and induces potent innate immune responses in preclinical tumor models and in patients. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) are TLR9 agonists that show promising results as vaccine adjuvants and in the treatment of cancers, infections, asthma and allergy. PF-3512676 (ProMune) was developed as a TLR9 agonist for the treatment of cancer as monotherapy and as an adjuvant in combination with chemo- and immunotherapy. Phase I and II trials have tested this drug in several hematopoietic and solid tumors. Pfizer has initiated Phase III trials to test PF-3512676 in combination with standard chemotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer. PMID:17696823

  18. Contractile effect of TRPA1 receptor agonists in the isolated mouse intestine.

    PubMed

    Penuelas, Angelica; Tashima, Kimihito; Tsuchiya, Shizuko; Matsumoto, Kenjiro; Nakamura, Tomonori; Horie, Syunji; Yano, Shingo

    2007-12-01

    TRPA1 is a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel family expressed in sensory neurons. The present study focused on the effects of TRPA1 activation on contractile responses in isolated mouse intestine preparations. The jejunum, ileum, and proximal and distal colon were surgically isolated from male ddY mice. Intestinal motility was recorded as changes in isotonic tension. TRPA1, TRPM8, and TRPV1 expressions were examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A TRPA1 agonist allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) dose-dependently induced contractions in the proximal and distal colon, whereas in the jejunum and ileum, even 100 muM AITC caused very little contraction. Likewise, a TRPA1 and TRPM8 agonist icilin, a TRPA1 agonist allicin, and a TRPV1 agonist capsaicin induced contractions in the colon. However, a TRPM8 agonist menthol induced long-lasting relaxation in the colon. Repeated exposure to AITC produced desensitization of its own contraction in the colon. Moreover, contractions induced by AITC generate cross-desensitization with icilin and capsaicin. Tetrodotoxin completely abolished AITC-induced contractions in the colon, whereas atropine significantly attenuated AITC-induced contractions in the distal colon, but not in the proximal colon. Menthol-induced relaxation in the colon was not inhibited by tetrodotoxin and atropine. RT-PCR analysis revealed the expression of TRPA1 and TRPV1, but not TRPM8, throughout the mouse intestine. These results suggest that TRPA1, but not TRPM8, are functionally expressed in the enteric nervous system throughout the mouse intestine on neurons that may also co-express TRPV1, yet the contractile responses to TRPA1 activation differ depending on their location along the intestine.

  19. An Accessory Agonist Binding Site Promotes Activation of α4β2* Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyi; Kuryatov, Alexander; Sriram, Aarati; Jin, Zhuang; Kamenecka, Theodore M; Kenny, Paul J; Lindstrom, Jon

    2015-05-29

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing α4, β2, and sometimes other subunits (α4β2* nAChRs) regulate addictive and other behavioral effects of nicotine. These nAChRs exist in several stoichiometries, typically with two high affinity acetylcholine (ACh) binding sites at the interface of α4 and β2 subunits and a fifth accessory subunit. A third low affinity ACh binding site is formed when this accessory subunit is α4 but not if it is β2. Agonists selective for the accessory ACh site, such as 3-[3-(3-pyridyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]benzonitrile (NS9283), cannot alone activate a nAChR but can facilitate more efficient activation in combination with agonists at the canonical α4β2 sites. We therefore suggest categorizing agonists according to their site selectivity. NS9283 binds to the accessory ACh binding site; thus it is termed an accessory site-selective agonist. We expressed (α4β2)2 concatamers in Xenopus oocytes with free accessory subunits to obtain defined nAChR stoichiometries and α4/accessory subunit interfaces. We show that α2, α3, α4, and α6 accessory subunits can form binding sites for ACh and NS9283 at interfaces with α4 subunits, but β2 and β4 accessory subunits cannot. To permit selective blockage of the accessory site, α4 threonine 126 located on the minus side of α4 that contributes to the accessory site, but not the α4β2 sites, was mutated to cysteine. Alkylation of this cysteine with a thioreactive reagent blocked activity of ACh and NS9283 at the accessory site. Accessory agonist binding sites are promising drug targets.

  20. Misoprostol, an anti-ulcer agent and PGE2 receptor agonist, protects against cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Liang, Xibin; Wang, Qian; Breyer, Richard M.; McCullough, Louise; Andreasson, Katrin

    2008-01-01

    Induction of COX-2 activity in cerebral ischemia results in increased neuronal injury and infarct size. Recent studies investigating neurotoxic mechanisms of COX-2 demonstrate both toxic and paradoxically protective effects of downstream prostaglandin receptor signaling pathways. We tested whether misoprostol, a PGE2 receptor agonist that is utilized clinically as an anti-ulcer agent and signals through the protective PGE2 EP2, EP3, and EP4 receptors, would reduce brain injury in the murine middle cerebral artery occlusion–reperfusion (MCAO-RP) model. Administration of misoprostol, at the time of MCAO or 2 h after MCAO, resulted in significant rescue of infarct volume at 24 and 72 h. Immunocytochemistry demonstrated dynamic regulation of the EP2 and EP4 receptors during reperfusion in neurons and endothelial cells of cerebral cortex and striatum, with limited expression of EP3 receptor. EP3−/− mice had no significant changes in infarct volume compared to control littermates. Moreover, administration of misoprostol to EP3+/+ and EP3−/− mice showed similar levels of infarct rescue, indicating that misoprostol protection was not mediated through the EP3 receptor. Taken together, these findings suggest a novel function for misoprostol as a protective agent in cerebral ischemia acting via the PGE2 EP2 and/or EP4 receptors. PMID:18472336

  1. Fine-tuning somatostatin receptor signalling by agonist-selective phosphorylation and dephosphorylation: IUPHAR Review 5.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Stefan; Lehmann, Andreas; Kliewer, Andrea; Nagel, Falko

    2014-04-01

    The biological actions of somatostatin are mediated by a family of five GPCRs, named sst1 to sst5 . Somatostatin receptors exhibit equally high-binding affinities to their natural ligand somatostatin-14 and largely overlapping distributions. The overexpression of somatostatin receptors in human tumours is the molecular basis for diagnostic and therapeutic application of the stable somatostatin analogues octreotide, lanreotide and pasireotide. The efficiency of somatostatin receptor signalling is tightly regulated and ultimately limited by the coordinated phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of intracellular carboxyl-terminal serine and threonine residues. Here, we review and discuss recent progress in the generation and application of phosphosite-specific antibodies for human sst2 and sst5 receptors. These phosphosite-specific antibodies are unique tools to monitor the spatial and temporal dynamics of receptors phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Using a combined approach of phosphosite-specific antibodies and siRNA knock-down screening, relevant kinases and phosphatases were identified. Emerging evidence suggests distinct mechanisms of agonist-selective fine-tuning for individual somatostatin receptors. The recently uncovered differences in phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of these receptors may hence be of physiological significance in mediating responses to acute, persistent or repeated stimuli in a variety of target tissues.

  2. Revealing a steroid receptor ligand as a unique PPAR[gamma] agonist

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Shengchen; Han, Ying; Shi, Yuzhe; Rong, Hui; Zheng, Songyang; Jin, Shikan; Lin, Shu-Yong; Lin, Sheng-Cai; Li, Yong

    2012-06-28

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) regulates metabolic homeostasis and is a molecular target for anti-diabetic drugs. We report here the identification of a steroid receptor ligand, RU-486, as an unexpected PPAR{gamma} agonist, thereby uncovering a novel signaling route for this steroid drug. Similar to rosiglitazone, RU-486 modulates the expression of key PPAR{gamma} target genes and promotes adipocyte differentiation, but with a lower adipogenic activity. Structural and functional studies of receptor-ligand interactions reveal the molecular basis for a unique binding mode for RU-486 in the PPAR{gamma} ligand-binding pocket with distinctive properties and epitopes, providing the molecular mechanisms for the discrimination of RU-486 from thiazolidinediones (TZDs) drugs. Our findings together indicate that steroid compounds may represent an alternative approach for designing non-TZD PPAR{gamma} ligands in the treatment of insulin resistance.

  3. Exposure to D2-like dopamine receptor agonists inhibits swimming in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Barrozo, Enrico R; Fowler, David A; Beckman, Matthew L

    2015-10-01

    Daphnia are freshwater crustaceans that have been used for decades in ecotoxicology research. Despite the important role that Daphnia have played in environmental toxicology studies, very little is known about the neurobiology of Daphnia. Although many studies have investigated the swimming movements of these "water fleas", few studies have examined the underlying neurochemical basis for these movements. To characterize the locomotor effect of drugs in Daphnia, a two-dimensional video imaging tool was developed and animal tracking was performed with freely available software, CTRAX. Due to the central role that dopamine plays in the movement of animals, we sought to determine the role of dopamine receptor signaling in Daphnia movement by characterizing the effect of ten drugs that are agonists or antagonists of dopamine receptors. At 1, 2, and 6h of treatment with a 10μM drug, several dopamine receptor agonists with documented effects on the D2-like class of receptors decreased the movement. Further, we determined behavioral inhibition values (IC50) at 1h of treatment for (1R,3S)-1-(aminomethyl)-3-phenyl-3,4-dihydro-1H-isochromene-5,6-diol (A68930) to be 1.4μM and for bromocriptine to be 6.6μM. This study describes a new method to study Daphnia swimming and establishes this organism as a useful model for studies of dopaminergic signaling. Specifically, this study shows that a dopamine receptor signaling pathway, mediated by putative D2-like receptors, is involved in the control of Daphnia swimming behavior. Due to its ease of use and its rich motor program we propose that Daphnia should be considered for future studies of dopamine neuron toxicity and protection.

  4. β-Arrestin-Selective G Protein-Coupled Receptor Agonists Engender Unique Biological Efficacy in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gesty-Palmer, Diane; Yuan, Ling; Martin, Bronwen; Wood, William H.; Lee, Mi-Hye; Janech, Michael G.; Tsoi, Lam C.; Zheng, W. Jim; Maudsley, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Biased G protein-coupled receptor agonists are orthosteric ligands that possess pathway-selective efficacy, activating or inhibiting only a subset of the signaling repertoire of their cognate receptors. In vitro, d-Trp12,Tyr34-bPTH(7–34) [bPTH(7–34)], a biased agonist for the type 1 PTH receptor, antagonizes receptor-G protein coupling but activates arrestin-dependent signaling. In vivo, both bPTH(7–34) and the conventional agonist hPTH(1–34) stimulate anabolic bone formation. To understand how two PTH receptor ligands with markedly different in vitro efficacy could elicit similar in vivo responses, we analyzed transcriptional profiles from calvarial bone of mice treated for 8 wk with vehicle, bPTH(7–34) or hPTH(1–34). Treatment of wild-type mice with bPTH(7–34) primarily affected pathways that promote expansion of the osteoblast pool, notably cell cycle regulation, cell survival, and migration. These responses were absent in β-arrestin2-null mice, identifying them as downstream targets of β-arrestin2-mediated signaling. In contrast, hPTH(1–34) primarily affected pathways classically associated with enhanced bone formation, including collagen synthesis and matrix mineralization. hPTH(1–34) actions were less dependent on β-arrestin2, as might be expected of a ligand capable of G protein activation. In vitro, bPTH(7–34) slowed the rate of preosteoblast proliferation, enhanced osteoblast survival when exposed to an apoptotic stimulus, and stimulated cell migration in wild-type, but not β-arrestin2-null, calvarial osteoblasts. These results suggest that bPTH(7–34) and hPTH(1–34) affect bone mass in vivo through predominantly separate genomic mechanisms created by largely distinct receptor-signaling networks and demonstrate that functional selectivity can be exploited to change the quality of G protein-coupled receptor efficacy. PMID:23315939

  5. [Discovery of potential nicotinic acid receptor agonists from Chinese herbal medicines based on molecular simulation].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lu-Di; He, Yu-Su; Zhang, Yan-Ling

    2014-12-01

    Nicotinic acid could increase high density lipoprotein and reduce serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides in human bodies, thus is frequently applied in treating low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and hypertriglyceridemia in clinic. However, according to the findings, nicotinic acid could also cause adverse effects, such as skin flush, beside its curative effects. In this study, bioisosterism, fragment-based search and Lipinski's Rule of Five were used to preliminarily screen out potential TCM ingredients that may have similar pharmacological effects with nicotinic acid from Traditional Chinese medicine database (TCMD). Afterwards, homology modeling and flexible docking were used to further screen out potential nicotinic acid receptor agonists. As a result, eleven candidate compounds were derived from eight commonly used traditional Chinese medicines. Specifically, all of the candidate compounds' interaction with nicotinic acid receptor was similar to nicotinic acid, and their docking scores were all higher than that of nicotinic acid, but their druggability remained to be further studied. Some of the eight source traditional Chinese medicines were used to lower lipid according to literature studies, implying that they may show effect through above means. In summary, this study provides basis and reference for extracting new nicotinic acid receptor agonists from traditional Chinese medicines and improving the medication status of hyperlipidemia.

  6. Structural Determinants for the Binding of Morphinan Agonists to the μ-Opioid Receptor.

    PubMed

    Cong, Xiaojing; Campomanes, Pablo; Kless, Achim; Schapitz, Inga; Wagener, Markus; Koch, Thomas; Carloni, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Atomistic descriptions of the μ-opioid receptor (μOR) noncovalently binding with two of its prototypical morphinan agonists, morphine (MOP) and hydromorphone (HMP), are investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Subtle differences between the binding modes and hydration properties of MOP and HMP emerge from the calculations. Alchemical free energy perturbation calculations show qualitative agreement with in vitro experiments performed in this work: indeed, the binding free energy difference between MOP and HMP computed by forward and backward alchemical transformation is 1.2±1.1 and 0.8±0.8 kcal/mol, respectively, to be compared with 0.4±0.3 kcal/mol from experiment. Comparison with an MD simulation of μOR covalently bound with the antagonist β-funaltrexamine hints to agonist-induced conformational changes associated with an early event of the receptor's activation: a shift of the transmembrane helix 6 relative to the transmembrane helix 3 and a consequent loss of the key R165-T279 interhelical hydrogen bond. This finding is consistent with a previous proposal suggesting that the R165-T279 hydrogen bond between these two helices indicates an inactive receptor conformation. PMID:26280453

  7. Effects of the neurotensin NTS₁ receptor agonist PD149163 on visual signal detection in rats.

    PubMed

    Hillhouse, Todd M; Prus, Adam J

    2013-12-01

    Antipsychotic drugs provide limited efficacy for cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Recent studies have found that the neurotensin NTS1 receptor agonist and putative atypical antipsychotic drug PD149163 reverses deficits in sensory-gating and novel object recognition, suggesting that this compound may have the potential to improve cognitive functioning in schizophrenia. The present study sought to extend these investigations by evaluating the effects of PD149163 on sustained attention using a visual signal detection operant task in rats. PD149163, the atypical antipsychotic drug clozapine, and the dopamine D2/3 receptor antagonist raclopride all significantly decreased percent "hit" accuracy, while none of these compounds altered "correct rejections" (compared to vehicle control). Clozapine and raclopride significantly increased response latency, while high doses of PD149163 and raclopride significantly increased trial omissions. Nicotine, which was tested as a positive control, significantly improved overall performance in this task and did not affect response latency or trial omissions. The present findings suggest that neurotensin NTS1 receptor agonists, like antipsychotic drugs, may inhibit sustained attention in this task despite having different pharmacological mechanisms of action.

  8. The pain receptor TRPV1 displays agonist-dependent activation stoichiometry.

    PubMed

    Hazan, Adina; Kumar, Rakesh; Matzner, Henry; Priel, Avi

    2015-07-21

    The receptor channel TRPV1 (Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1) is expressed by primary afferent sensory neurons of the pain pathway, where it functions as a sensor of noxious heat and various chemicals, including eicosanoids, capsaicin, protons and peptide toxins. Comprised of four identical subunits that organize into a non-selective cationic permeable channel, this receptor has a variety of binding sites responsible for detecting their respective agonists. Although its physiological role as a chemosensor has been described in detail, the stoichiometry of TRPV1 activation by its different ligands remains unknown. Here, we combined the use of concatemeric constructs harboring mutated binding sites with patch-clamp recordings in order to determine the stoichiometry for TRPV1 activation through the vanilloid binding site and the outer-pore domain by capsaicin and protons, respectively. We show that, while a single capsaicin-bound subunit was sufficient to achieve a maximal open-channel lifetime, all four proton-binding sites were required. Thus, our results demonstrate a distinct stoichiometry of TRPV1 activation through two of its different agonist-binding domains.

  9. Agonist-induced desensitization of dopamine D1 receptor-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity is temporally and biochemically separated from D1 receptor internalization.

    PubMed Central

    Ng, G Y; Trogadis, J; Stevens, J; Bouvier, M; O'Dowd, B F; George, S R

    1995-01-01

    The regulation of the dopamine D1 receptor was investigated by using c-myc epitope-tagged D1 receptors expressed in Sf9 (fall armyworm ovary) cells. Treatment of D1 receptors with 10 microM dopamine for 15 min led to a loss of the dopamine-detected high-affinity state of the receptor accompanying a 40% reduction in the ability of the receptor to mediate maximal dopamine stimulation of adenylyl cyclase activity. After 60 min of agonist exposure, 45 min after the occurrence of desensitization, 28% of the cell surface receptors were internalized into an intracellular light vesicular membrane fraction as determined by radioligand binding and supported by photoaffinity labeling, immunocytochemical staining, and immunoblot analysis. Pretreatment of cells with concanavalin A or sucrose completely blocked agonist-induced D1 receptor internalization without preventing agonist-induced desensitization, indicating a biochemical separation of these processes. Collectively, these findings indicate that the desensitization of D1 receptor-coupled adenylyl cyclase activity and D1 receptor internalization are temporarily and biochemically distinct mechanisms regulating D1 receptor function following agonist activation. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7479745

  10. The atypical antidepressant and neurorestorative agent tianeptine is a μ-opioid receptor agonist.

    PubMed

    Gassaway, M M; Rives, M-L; Kruegel, A C; Javitch, J A; Sames, D

    2014-07-15

    Current pharmacological treatments of depression and related disorders suffer from major problems, such as a low rate of response, slow onset of therapeutic effects, loss of efficacy over time and serious side effects. Therefore, there is an urgent need to explore new therapeutic approaches that address these issues. Interestingly, the atypical antidepressant tianeptine already meets in part these clinical goals. However, in spite of three decades of basic and clinical investigations, the molecular target of tianeptine, as well as its mechanism of action, remains elusive. Herein, we report the characterization of tianeptine as a μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist. Using radioligand binding and cell-based functional assays, including bioluminescence resonance energy transfer-based assays for G-protein activation and cAMP accumulation, we identified tianeptine as an efficacious MOR agonist (K(i Human) of 383±183 nM and EC(50 Human) of 194±70 nM  and EC(50 Mouse) of 641±120 nM for G-protein activation). Tianeptine was also a full δ-opioid receptor (DOR) agonist, although with much lower potency (EC(50 Human) of 37.4±11.2 μM and EC(50 Mouse) of 14.5±6.6  μM for G-protein activation). In contrast, tianeptine was inactive at the κ-opioid receptor (KOR, both human and rat). On the basis of these pharmacological data, we propose that activation of MOR (or dual activation of MOR and DOR) could be the initial molecular event responsible for triggering many of the known acute and chronic effects of this agent, including its antidepressant and anxiolytic actions.

  11. The atypical antidepressant and neurorestorative agent tianeptine is a μ-opioid receptor agonist.

    PubMed

    Gassaway, M M; Rives, M-L; Kruegel, A C; Javitch, J A; Sames, D

    2014-01-01

    Current pharmacological treatments of depression and related disorders suffer from major problems, such as a low rate of response, slow onset of therapeutic effects, loss of efficacy over time and serious side effects. Therefore, there is an urgent need to explore new therapeutic approaches that address these issues. Interestingly, the atypical antidepressant tianeptine already meets in part these clinical goals. However, in spite of three decades of basic and clinical investigations, the molecular target of tianeptine, as well as its mechanism of action, remains elusive. Herein, we report the characterization of tianeptine as a μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist. Using radioligand binding and cell-based functional assays, including bioluminescence resonance energy transfer-based assays for G-protein activation and cAMP accumulation, we identified tianeptine as an efficacious MOR agonist (K(i Human) of 383±183 nM and EC(50 Human) of 194±70 nM  and EC(50 Mouse) of 641±120 nM for G-protein activation). Tianeptine was also a full δ-opioid receptor (DOR) agonist, although with much lower potency (EC(50 Human) of 37.4±11.2 μM and EC(50 Mouse) of 14.5±6.6  μM for G-protein activation). In contrast, tianeptine was inactive at the κ-opioid receptor (KOR, both human and rat). On the basis of these pharmacological data, we propose that activation of MOR (or dual activation of MOR and DOR) could be the initial molecular event responsible for triggering many of the known acute and chronic effects of this agent, including its antidepressant and anxiolytic actions. PMID:25026323

  12. The atypical antidepressant and neurorestorative agent tianeptine is a μ-opioid receptor agonist

    PubMed Central

    Gassaway, M M; Rives, M-L; Kruegel, A C; Javitch, J A; Sames, D

    2014-01-01

    Current pharmacological treatments of depression and related disorders suffer from major problems, such as a low rate of response, slow onset of therapeutic effects, loss of efficacy over time and serious side effects. Therefore, there is an urgent need to explore new therapeutic approaches that address these issues. Interestingly, the atypical antidepressant tianeptine already meets in part these clinical goals. However, in spite of three decades of basic and clinical investigations, the molecular target of tianeptine, as well as its mechanism of action, remains elusive. Herein, we report the characterization of tianeptine as a μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist. Using radioligand binding and cell-based functional assays, including bioluminescence resonance energy transfer-based assays for G-protein activation and cAMP accumulation, we identified tianeptine as an efficacious MOR agonist (Ki Human of 383±183 nM and EC50 Human of 194±70 nM  and EC50 Mouse of 641±120 nM for G-protein activation). Tianeptine was also a full δ-opioid receptor (DOR) agonist, although with much lower potency (EC50 Human of 37.4±11.2 μM and EC50 Mouse of 14.5±6.6  μM for G-protein activation). In contrast, tianeptine was inactive at the κ-opioid receptor (KOR, both human and rat). On the basis of these pharmacological data, we propose that activation of MOR (or dual activation of MOR and DOR) could be the initial molecular event responsible for triggering many of the known acute and chronic effects of this agent, including its antidepressant and anxiolytic actions. PMID:25026323

  13. A 7-phenyl substituted triazolopyridazine has inverse agonist activity at the benzodiazepine receptor site.

    PubMed Central

    Biziere, K.; Bourguignon, J. J.; Chambon, J. P.; Heaulme, M.; Perio, A.; Tebib, S.; Wermuth, C. G.

    1987-01-01

    To investigate further the structural requirements for benzodiazepine (BZD) receptor ligands, we synthesized SR 95195, [7-phenyl-3-methyl-1,2,4-triazolo-(4,3-b) pyridazine], a positional isomer of the 6-phenyl-triazolo-pyridazines, which were the first non-BZD derivatives to exhibit high affinity for the BZD receptor and BZD-like activity in vivo. In vitro, SR 95195 displaced specifically bound [3H]-flunitrazepam from rat cerebellar and hippocampal membranes with respective IC50 values of 4 and 8 microM. In vivo, SR 95195 lacked BZD-like activity. At high doses SR 95195 induced clonic seizures in mice (threshold convulsant dose: 150 mg kg-1; CD50: 160 mg kg-1 i.p.) which were antagonized by Ro 15-1788. At non-convulsant doses (25 mg kg-1 i.p. and 100 mg kg-1 i.p.) SR 95195 significantly decreased punished responding in an operant conflict procedure in the rat, suggesting SR 95195 has intrinsic anxiogenic activity. SR 95195, in mice, reversed the anticonvulsant and myorelaxant actions of diazepam 3 mg kg-1, orally (respective ED50 values: 45 mg kg-1 i.p. and 44 mg kg-1 i.p.). In an operant-conflict test in rats, SR 95195 at non-anxiogenic doses, antagonized the disinhibitory action of diazepam 4 mg kg-1, i.p. (ED50: 8.6 mg kg-1, i.p.), but not that of pentobarbitone 15 mg kg-1, i.p. It is concluded that SR 95195 has the pharmacological profile of an inverse BZD agonist and that displacing the phenyl from the 6- to the 7-position in the triazolopyridazine series causes a shift from agonist to inverse agonist type activity at the BZD receptor site. PMID:3028557

  14. [Extrapancreatic effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists: an open window towards new treatment goals in type 2 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Salvador, Javier; Andrada, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The wide ubiquity of GLP-1 receptors in the body has stimulated the search for different extrapancreatic actions of GLP-1 and its receptor agonists. Thus, severe cardioprotective effects directed on myocardial ischaemia and dysfunction as well as diverse antiaterogenic actions have been reported. Also, native and GLP-1 receptor agonists have demonstrated significant beneficial effects on liver steatosis and fibrosis and on neuronal protection in experimental models of Alzheimer, and Parkinson's disease as well as on cerebral ischaemia. Recent evidences suggest that these drugs may also be useful for prevention and treatment of diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy and peripheral neuropathy. Good results have also been reported in psoriasis. Despite we still need confirmation that these promising effects can be applied to clinical practice, they offer new interesting perspectives for treatment of type 2 diabetes associated complications and give to GLP-1 receptor agonists an even more integral position in diabetes therapy. PMID:25326841

  15. [Extrapancreatic effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists: an open window towards new treatment goals in type 2 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Salvador, Javier; Andrada, Patricia

    2014-09-01

    The wide ubiquity of GLP-1 receptors in the body has stimulated the search for different extrapancreatic actions of GLP-1 and its receptor agonists. Thus, severe cardioprotective effects directed on myocardial ischaemia and dysfunction as well as diverse antiaterogenic actions have been reported. Also, native and GLP-1 receptor agonists have demonstrated significant beneficial effects on liver steatosis and fibrosis and on neuronal protection in experimental models of Alzheimer, and Parkinson's disease as well as on cerebral ischaemia. Recent evidences suggest that these drugs may also be useful for prevention and treatment of diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy and peripheral neuropathy. Good results have also been reported in psoriasis. Despite we still need confirmation that these promising effects can be applied to clinical practice, they offer new interesting perspectives for treatment of type 2 diabetes associated complications and give to GLP-1 receptor agonists an even more integral position in diabetes therapy. PMID:25437463

  16. Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation of Tetrasubstituted Pyridines as Potent 5-HT2C Receptor Agonists

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A series of pyrido[3,4-d]azepines that are potent and selective 5-HT2C receptor agonists is disclosed. Compound 7 (PF-04781340) is identified as a suitable lead owing to good 5-HT2C potency, selectivity over 5-HT2B agonism, and in vitro ADME properties commensurate with an orally available and CNS penetrant profile. The synthesis of a novel bicyclic tetrasubstituted pyridine core template is outlined, including rationale to account for the unexpected formation of aminopyridine 13 resulting from an ammonia cascade cyclization. PMID:25815155

  17. The Melatonin Receptor Agonist Ramelteon Effectively Treats Insomnia and Behavioral Symptoms in Autistic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Oka, Yasunori

    2014-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), including autistic disorder, frequently suffer from comorbid sleep problems. An altered melatonin rhythm is considered to underlie the impairment in sleep onset and maintenance in ASD. We report three cases with autistic disorder in whom nocturnal symptoms improved with ramelteon, a selective melatonin receptor agonist. Insomnia and behavior, assessed using the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale, improved in two cases with 2 mg ramelteon and in the third case with 8 mg ramelteon. Our findings demonstrate that ramelteon is effective not only for insomnia, but for behavioral problems as well, in patients with autistic disorder. PMID:24955274

  18. Alpha-2 Adrenergic Receptor Agonists: A Review of Current Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Giovannitti, Joseph A.; Thoms, Sean M.; Crawford, James J.

    2015-01-01

    The α-2 adrenergic receptor agonists have been used for decades to treat common medical conditions such as hypertension; attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; various pain and panic disorders; symptoms of opioid, benzodiazepine, and alcohol withdrawal; and cigarette craving.1 However, in more recent years, these drugs have been used as adjuncts for sedation and to reduce anesthetic requirements. This review will provide an historical perspective of this drug class, an understanding of pharmacological mechanisms, and an insight into current applications in clinical anesthesiology. PMID:25849473

  19. A Cluster Headache Responsive to Ramelteon, a Selective Melatonin MT1/MT2 Receptor Agonist.

    PubMed

    Imai, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    Patients with cluster headaches occasionally fail to respond to conventional preventive treatments. We herein report a case of a patient with a cluster headache in which the symptoms were refractory to conventional preventive treatments except for high-dose glucocorticoids. The headache attacks occurred daily while sleeping, thus the patient suffered from insomnia. Ramelteon, a selective melatonin receptor agonist and a member of a new class of insomnia therapies, completely suppressed the attacks during sleep and provided rapid relief from insomnia. This is the first English case report to describe the efficacy of ramelteon as a preventive treatment for cluster headaches. PMID:27580554

  20. Muscarinic receptors in rat nasal mucosa are predominantly of the low affinity agonist type.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues de Miranda, J F; Scheres, H M; Salden, H J; Beld, A J; Klaassen, A B; Kuijpers, W

    1985-07-31

    Specific [3H]l-quinuclidinyl benzilate binding to rat nasal mucosa homogenates occurs to a homogeneous class of binding sites with Kd = 60 +/- 2 10(-12) M and Bmax = 8.1 +/- 2 pmol/g tissue. Binding is stereoselectively inhibited by benzetimide enantiomers. Pirenzepine inhibits [3H]l-quinuclidinyl benzilate binding with low affinity (Ki = 5.0 10(-7) M), classifying the binding sites as muscarinic M2-receptors. Methylfurtrethonium and methacholine inhibit [3H]l-quinuclidinyl benzilate binding following an almost sigmoid curve at high concentrations pointing to the presence of mainly low affinity agonist binding sites. PMID:3840092

  1. Discovery of acylurea isosteres of 2-acylaminothiadiazole in the azaxanthene series of glucocorticoid receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Gong, Hua; Yang, Michael; Xiao, Zili; Doweyko, Arthur M; Cunningham, Mark; Wang, Jinhong; Habte, Sium; Holloway, Deborah; Burke, Christine; Shuster, David; Gao, Ling; Carman, Julie; Somerville, John E; Nadler, Steven G; Salter-Cid, Luisa; Barrish, Joel C; Weinstein, David S

    2014-08-01

    Acylureas and acyclic imides are found to be excellent isosteres for 2-acylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazole in the azaxanthene-based series of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonists. The results reported herein show that primary acylureas maintain high affinity and selectivity for GR while providing improved CYP450 inhibition and pharmacokinetic profile over 2-acylamino-1,3,4-thiadiazoles. General methods for synthesis of a variety of acylureas and acyclic imides from a carboxylic acid were utilized and are described. PMID:24980053

  2. The liver X receptor agonist TO901317 protects mice against cisplatin-induced kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Meng; Wang, Rong; Sun, Jing; Yu, Kezhou; Chen, Bing; Xu, Liang; Zhao, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Liver X receptors are in the nuclear receptor superfamily and are contained in the regulation of lipid and cholesterol metabolism. Besides, liver X receptors are considered crucial regulators of the inflammatory response and innate immunity. The current study evaluates the in vivo effects that the synthetic liver X receptor agonist TO901317 protects against cisplatin-induced kidney injury in mice. Mice received cisplatin administration through a single intraperitoneal injection (20 mg/kg in saline). And then the mice were treated with the TO901317 by daily gavage (10 mg/kg/day) 12 h postcisplatin administration, and cisplatin nephrotoxicity was evaluated. At 72 h after cisplatin treatment, elevated plasma urea and creatinine levels (P < 0.05) were evidenced which indicates the renal dysfunction of the vehicle-treated mice, consistent with tubular necrosis, protein cast, dilation of renal tubules, and desquamation of epithelial cells in renal tubules. In contrast, the severity of renal dysfunction and histological damage was reduced in TO901317 treated mice (P < 0.05). In accordance, circulating tumor necrosis factor alpha levels, renal tumor necrosis factor alpha, p47phox, gp91phox, and protein expression levels and COX-2 mRNA, renal monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, VACAM-1 mRNA and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 contents, and renal prostaglandin E2 amounts, were higher in samples from cisplatin-treated mice in comparison with controls (P < 0.05) but attenuated in the TO901317 treatment group (P < 0.05). Taken together, treatment with the liver X receptor agonist TO901317 ameliorated the inflammatory response and oxidative stress in cisplatin-induced kidney injury in mice. PMID:26062799

  3. Evidence for Noncanonical Neurotransmitter Activation: Norepinephrine as a Dopamine D2-Like Receptor Agonist

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Soto, Marta; Bonifazi, Alessandro; Cai, Ning Sheng; Ellenberger, Michael P.; Newman, Amy Hauck

    2016-01-01

    The Gαi/o-coupled dopamine D2-like receptor family comprises three subtypes: the D2 receptor (D2R), with short and long isoform variants (D2SR and D2LR), D3 receptor (D3R), and D4 receptor (D4R), with several polymorphic variants. The common overlap of norepinephrine innervation and D2-like receptor expression patterns prompts the question of a possible noncanonical action by norepinephrine. In fact, previous studies have suggested that norepinephrine can functionally interact with D4R. To our knowledge, significant interactions between norepinephrine and D2R or D3R receptors have not been demonstrated. By using radioligand binding and bioluminescent resonance energy transfer (BRET) assays in transfected cells, the present study attempted a careful comparison between dopamine and norepinephrine in their possible activation of all D2-like receptors, including the two D2R isoforms and the most common D4R polymorphic variants. Functional BRET assays included activation of G proteins with all Gαi/o subunits, adenylyl cyclase inhibition, and β arrestin recruitment. Norepinephrine acted as a potent agonist for all D2-like receptor subtypes, with the general rank order of potency of D3R > D4R ≥ D2SR ≥ D2L. However, for both dopamine and norepinephrine, differences depended on the Gαi/o protein subunit involved. The most striking differences were observed with Gαi2, where the rank order of potencies for both dopamine and norepinephrine were D4R > D2SR = D2LR >> D3R. Furthermore the results do not support the existence of differences in the ability of dopamine and norepinephrine to activate different human D4R variants. The potency of norepinephrine for adrenergic α2A receptor was only about 20-fold higher compared with D3R and D4R across the three functional assays. PMID:26843180

  4. Attenuation of morphine antinociceptive tolerance by a CB1 receptor agonist and an NMDA receptor antagonist: interactive effects

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Bradford D.; Ward, Sara J.; Henry, Fredrick E.; Dykstra, Linda A.

    2009-01-01

    CB1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor agonists and N-Methyl-d-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists attenuate the development of morphine antinociceptive tolerance. The present study used dose-addition analysis to evaluate CB1/NMDA receptor interactions on this endpoint. Chronic morphine administration (5 days, 100 mg/kg, twice daily) resulted in a 2.8-fold rightward shift in the morphine dose-effect curve. Co-administration of either the CB1 receptor agonist CP-55940 (5-(1,1-Dimethylheptyl)-2-[5-hydroxy-2-(3-hydroxypropyl)cyclohexyl]phenol; 0.32-1.0 mg/kg) or the NMDA receptor antagonist (−)-6-phosphonomethyl-deca-hydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (LY235959; 1.0-3.2 mg/kg) with morphine dose-dependently attenuated morphine tolerance. The relative potency of each drug alone was quantified using a defined level of effect (one-quarter log shift in the morphine dose-effect curve), resulting in equieffective doses of 0.42 mg/kg and 1.1 mg/kg for CP-55940 and LY235959, respectively. Subsequent experiments assessed CP-55940/LY235959 interactions using a fixed-proportion design. Co-administration of CP-55940/LY235959 mixtures (1:1, 1:3.2, or 1:10 CP-55940/LY235959) with morphine dose-dependently attenuated morphine tolerance. Isobolographic and dose-addition analysis were used to statistically compare the experimentally determined potency for each mixture (zmix) with predicted additive potency (zadd). Mixtures of 1:1 and 1:3.2 CP-55940/LY235959 produced additive effects (zadd = zmix), while the mixture of 1:10 CP-55940/LY235959 produced a supra-additive effect (zadd > zmix). These results suggest that CP-55940 and LY235959 produce additive or supra-additive attenuation of morphine antinociceptive tolerance after repeated morphine administration, depending on their relative concentrations. PMID:19699755

  5. Selective ligands for rat A3 adenosine receptors: structure-activity relationships of 1,3-dialkylxanthine 7-riboside derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kim, H O; Ji, X D; Melman, N; Olah, M E; Stiles, G L; Jacobson, K A

    1994-11-11

    1,3-Dibutylxanthine 7-riboside has been found to be a partial agonist at A3 adenosine receptors (van Galen et al. Mol. Pharmacol. 1994, 45, 1101-1111). 1,3-Dialkylxanthine 7-riboside analogues modified at the 1-, 3-, and 8-purine positions and at the ribose 5'-position were synthesized. The nucleoside analogues were examined for affinity in radioligand binding assays at rat brain A3 adenosine receptors stably expressed in CHO cells, using the radioligand [[125I]-4-amino-3-iodobenzyl]adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide (AB-MECA). Affinity was assayed at rat brain A1 and A2a receptors using [3H]PIA and [3H]CGS 21680, respectively. The affinity of xanthine 7-ribosides at A3 receptors depended on the 1,3-dialkyl substituents in the order: Pent > or = Bu > Hx > Pr approximately Me. 1,3-Dipentylxanthine 7-riboside was slightly selective for A3 receptors (2-fold vs A1 and 10-fold vs A2a). 8-Methoxy substitution was tolerated at A3 receptors. 2-Thio vs 2-oxo substitution increased potency at all three subtypes and slightly increased A3 vs A1 selectivity. The 5'-uronamide modification, which was previously found to enhance A3 selectivity in N6-benzyladenosine derivatives, was also incorporated into the xanthine 7-ribosides, with similar results. The affinity of 1,3-dialkylxanthine 7-riboside 5'-uronamides at A3 receptors depended on the N-alkyluronamide substituent in the order: MeNH > EtNH > NH2 > Me2N. Affinity of the 5'-uronamides at A3 receptors was dependent on the 1,3-dialkyl substitution in the order: Bu > Pent > Hex. 1,3-Dibutylxanthine 7-riboside 5'-N-methylcarboxamide, with a Ki value of 229 nM at A3 receptors, was 160-fold selective for rat A3 vs A1 receptors and > 400-fold selective vs A2a receptors. This derivative acted as a full agonist in the A3 receptor-mediated inhibition of adenylate cyclase.

  6. Homology modeling, agonist binding site identification, and docking in octopamine receptor of Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Hirashima, Akinori; Huang, Hongwei

    2008-06-01

    AY333178 (from Periplaneta americana, 628 AAs) was selected as a target octopamine receptor (OAR) class OAR2 for this study using Discovery Studio (DS Modeling1.1/1.2, Accelrys Inc.). Blast similarity search was performed and identified that AY333178 contains N-terminal domain of GPCR. Based upon Blast and Pfam results, Rhodopsin 1U19 (protein data bank) was considered as an ideal homologue and used as a template for homology modeling due to its higher X-ray resolution at 2.2A. Sequence alignment between AY333178 and 1U19 was done using Align123 followed by a manual modification. The final alignment was carefully evaluated and evidenced to be matching the conserved residue data for class A GPCR fairly well. The 3D model of AY333178 was generated with MODELER, and further refined using CHARMm. Superimposition of the model was done over the template 1U19. Two fairly consistent profiles were observed demonstrating AY333178 model was reasonable and could be employed for the further docking study. Agonist docking into OAR2 model was done using LigandFit. The superimposition of two top poses of representative agonists was performed with a soft surface generated. Those models are considered to be used in designing new leads for hopefully more active compounds. Further research on the comparison of models for the agonists may elucidate the mechanisms of OAR2-ligand interactions.

  7. Topical Administration of GLP-1 Receptor Agonists Prevents Retinal Neurodegeneration in Experimental Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Cristina; Bogdanov, Patricia; Corraliza, Lidia; García-Ramírez, Marta; Solà-Adell, Cristina; Arranz, José A; Arroba, Ana I; Valverde, Angela M; Simó, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Retinal neurodegeneration is an early event in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Since glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) exerts neuroprotective effects in the central nervous system and the retina is ontogenically a brain-derived tissue, the aims of the current study were as follows: 1) to examine the expression and content of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) in human and db/db mice retinas; 2) to determine the retinal neuroprotective effects of systemic and topical administration (eye drops) of GLP-1R agonists in db/db mice; and 3) to examine the underlying neuroprotective mechanisms. We have found abundant expression of GLP-1R in the human retina and retinas from db/db mice. Moreover, we have demonstrated that systemic administration of a GLP-1R agonist (liraglutide) prevents retinal neurodegeneration (glial activation, neural apoptosis, and electroretinographical abnormalities). This effect can be attributed to a significant reduction of extracellular glutamate and an increase of prosurvival signaling pathways. We have found a similar neuroprotective effect using topical administration of native GLP-1 and several GLP-1R agonists (liraglutide, lixisenatide, and exenatide). Notably, this neuroprotective action was observed without any reduction in blood glucose levels. These results suggest that GLP-1R activation itself prevents retinal neurodegeneration. Our results should open up a new approach in the treatment of the early stages of DR.

  8. Selective Estrogen Receptor β Agonist LY500307 as a Novel Therapeutic Agent for Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Sareddy, Gangadhara R.; Li, Xiaonan; Liu, Jinyou; Viswanadhapalli, Suryavathi; Garcia, Lauren; Gruslova, Aleksandra; Cavazos, David; Garcia, Mike; Strom, Anders M.; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Tekmal, Rajeshwar Rao; Brenner, Andrew; Vadlamudi, Ratna K.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastomas (GBM), deadly brain tumors, have greater incidence in males than females. Epidemiological evidence supports a tumor suppressive role of estrogen; however, estrogen as a potential therapy for GBM is limited due to safety concerns. Since GBM express ERβ, a second receptor for estrogen, targeting ERβ with a selective agonist may be a potential novel GBM therapy. In the present study, we examined the therapeutic effect of the selective synthetic ERβ agonist LY500307 using in vitro and in vivo GBM models. Treatment with LY500307 significantly reduced the proliferation of GBM cells with no activity on normal astrocytes in vitro. ERβ agonists promoted apoptosis of GBM cells, and mechanistic studies using RNA sequencing revealed that LY500307 modulated several pathways related to apoptosis, cell cycle, and DNA damage response. Further, LY500307 sensitized GBM cells to several FDA-approved chemotherapeutic drugs including cisplatin, lomustine and temozolomide. LY500307 treatment significantly reduced the in vivo tumor growth and promoted apoptosis of GBM tumors in an orthotopic model and improved the overall survival of tumor-bearing mice in the GL26 syngeneic glioma model. Our results demonstrate that LY500307 has potential as a therapeutic agent for GBM. PMID:27126081

  9. Inhibitory effects of bile acids and synthetic farnesoid X receptor agonists on rotavirus replication.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yunjeong; Chang, Kyeong-Ok

    2011-12-01

    Rotaviruses (group A rotaviruses) are the most important cause of severe gastroenteritis in infants and children worldwide. Currently, an antiviral drug is not available and information on therapeutic targets for antiviral development is limited for rotavirus infection. Previously, it was shown that lipid homeostasis is important in rotavirus replication. Since farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and its natural ligands bile acids (such as chenodeoxycholic acid [CDCA]) play major roles in cholesterol and lipid homeostasis, we examined the effects of bile acids and synthetic FXR agonists on rotavirus replication in association with cellular lipid levels. In a mouse model of rotavirus infection, effects of oral administration of CDCA on fecal rotavirus shedding were investigated. The results demonstrate the following. First, the intracellular contents of triglycerides were significantly increased by rotavirus infection. Second, CDCA, deoxycholic acid (DCA), and other synthetic FXR agonists, such as GW4064, significantly reduced rotavirus replication in cell culture in a dose-dependent manner. The reduction of virus replication correlated positively with activation of the FXR pathway and reduction of cellular triglyceride contents (r(2) = 0.95). Third, oral administration of CDCA significantly reduced fecal virus shedding in mice (P < 0.05). We conclude that bile acids and FXR agonists play important roles in the suppression of rotavirus replication. The inhibition mechanism is proposed to be the downregulation of lipid synthesis induced by rotavirus infection.

  10. Activation of Human Brown Adipose Tissue by a β3-Adrenergic Receptor Agonist

    PubMed Central

    Cypess, Aaron M.; Weiner, Lauren S.; Roberts-Toler, Carla; Elía, Elisa Franquet; Kessler, Skyler H.; Kahn, Peter A.; English, Jeffrey; Chatman, Kelly; Trauger, Sunia A.; Doria, Alessandro; Kolodny, Gerald M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Increasing energy expenditure through activation of endogenous brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a potential approach to treat obesity and diabetes. The class of β3-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists stimulates rodent BAT, but this activity has never been demonstrated in humans. Here we determined the ability of 200 mg oral mirabegron (Myrbetriq, Astellas Pharma, Inc.), a β3-AR agonist currently approved to treat overactive bladder, to stimulate BAT as compared to placebo. Mirabegron led to higher BAT metabolic activity as measured via 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) using positron emission tomography (PET) combined with computed tomography (CT) in all twelve healthy male subjects (p = 0.001), and it increased resting metabolic rate (RMR) by 203 ± 40 kcal/day (+13%; p = 0.001). BAT metabolic activity was also a significant predictor of the changes in RMR (p = 0.006). Therefore, a β3-AR agonist can stimulate human BAT thermogenesis and may be a promising treatment for metabolic disease. PMID:25565203

  11. Pharmacological characterization of FE 201874, the first selective high affinity rat V1A vasopressin receptor agonist

    PubMed Central

    Marir, Rafik; Virsolvy, Anne; Wisniewski, Kazimierz; Mion, Julie; Haddou, Dominique; Galibert, Evelyne; Meraihi, Zahia; Desarménien, Michel G; Guillon, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Distinct vasopressin receptors are involved in different physiological and behavioural functions. Presently, no selective agonist is available to specifically elucidate the functional roles of the V1A receptor in the rat, one of the most widely used animal models. FE 201874 is a new derivative of the human selective V1A receptor agonist F180. In this study, we performed a multi-approach pharmacological and functional characterization of FE 201874 to determine whether it is selective for V1A receptors. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We modified an available human selective V1A receptor agonist (F180) and determined its pharmacological properties in cell lines expressing vasopressin/oxytocin receptors (affinity and coupling to second messenger cascades), in an ex vivo model (aorta ring contraction) and in vivo in rats (proliferation of adrenal cortex glomerulosa cells and lactation). KEY RESULTS FE 201874 exhibited nanomolar affinity for the rat V1A receptor; it was highly selective towards the rat V1B and V2 vasopressin receptors and behaved as a full V1A agonist in all the pharmacological tests performed. FE 201874 bound to the oxytocin receptor, but with moderate affinity, and behaved as an oxytocin antagonist in vitro, but not in vivo. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS On functional grounds, all the data demonstrate that FE 201874 is the first selective agonist of the rat V1A receptor isoform available. Hence, FE 201874 may have potential as a treatment for the vasodilator-induced hypotension occurring in conditions such as septic shock and could be the most suitable compound for discriminating between the behavioural effects of arginine vasopressin and oxytocin. PMID:23725319

  12. Synthesis and Evaluation of N6-Substituted Apioadenosines as Potential Adenosine A3 Receptor Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Toti, Kiran S.; Moss, Steven M.; Paoletta, Silvia; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Van Calenbergh, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine receptors (ARs) trigger signal transduction pathways inside the cell when activated by extracellular adenosine. Selective modulation of the A3AR subtype may be beneficial in controlling diseases such as colorectal cancer and rheumatoid arthritis. Here, we report the synthesis and evaluation of β-D-apio-D-furano- and α-D-apio-L-furanoadenosines and derivatives thereof. Introduction of a 2-methoxy-5-chlorobenzyl group at N6 of β-D-apio-D-furanoadenosine afforded an A3AR antagonist (10c, Ki = 0.98 μM), while a similar modification of an α-D-apio-L-furanoadenosine gave rise to a partial agonist (11c, Ki = 3.07 μM). The structural basis for this difference was examined by docking to an A3AR model; the antagonist lacked a crucial interaction with Thr94. PMID:24931275

  13. Amyloid-β Pathology and APOE Genotype Modulate Retinoid X Receptor Agonist Activity in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Leon M.; Koster, Kevin P.; Luo, Jia; Lee, Sue H.; Wang, Yue-ting; Collins, Nicole C.; Ben Aissa, Manel; Thatcher, Gregory R. J.; LaDu, Mary Jo

    2014-01-01

    Previous data demonstrate that bexarotene (Bex), retinoid X receptor (RXR) agonist, reduces soluble and insoluble amyloid-β (Aβ) in Alzheimer disease (AD)-transgenic mice either by increasing the levels of mouse apolipoprotein E (apoE) or increasing ABCA1/ABCG1-induced apoE lipoprotein association/lipidation. However, although the mechanism of action of RXR agonists remains unclear, a major concern for their use is human (h)-APOE4, the greatest AD genetic risk factor. If APOE4 imparts a toxic gain-of-function, then increasing apoE4 may increase soluble Aβ, likely the proximal AD neurotoxin. If the APOE4 loss-of-function is lipidation of apoE4, then induction of ABCA1/ABCG1 may be beneficial. In novel EFAD-Tg mice (overexpressing h-Aβ42 with h-APOE), levels of soluble Aβ (Aβ42 and oligomeric Aβ) are highest in E4FAD hippocampus (HP) > E3FAD-HP > E4FAD cortex (CX) > E3FAD-CX, whereas levels of lipoprotein-associated/lipidated apoE have the opposite pattern (6 months). In E4FAD-HP, short-term RXR agonist treatment (Bex or LG100268; 5.75–6 months) increased ABCA1, apoE4 lipoprotein-association/lipidation, and apoE4/Aβ complex, decreased soluble Aβ, and increased PSD95. In addition, hydrogel delivery, which mimics low sustained release, was equally effective as gavage for Bex and LG100268. RXR agonists induced no beneficial effects in the E4FAD-HP in a prevention protocol (5–6 months) and actually increased soluble Aβ levels in E3FAD-CX and E4FAD-CX with the short-term protocol, possibly the result of systemic hepatomegaly. Thus, RXR agonists address the loss-of-function associated with APOE4 and exacerbated by Aβ pathology, i.e. low levels of apoE4 lipoprotein association/lipidation. Further studies are vital to address whether RXR agonists are an APOE4-specific AD therapeutic and the systemic side effects that limit translational application. PMID:25217640

  14. Opioid agonist and antagonist treatment differentially regulates immunoreactive mu-opioid receptors and dynamin-2 in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yoburn, Byron C; Purohit, Vishal; Patel, Kaushal; Zhang, Qiuyu

    2004-09-13

    Opioid agonists and antagonists can regulate the density of mu-opioid receptors in whole animal and in cell culture. High intrinsic efficacy agonists (e.g., etorphine), but not lower intrinsic efficacy agonists (e.g., morphine), produce mu-opioid receptor down-regulation and can alter the abundance of mu-opioid receptor mRNA. Conversely, opioid antagonists substantially increase the density of mu-opioid receptors without changing its mRNA. Mu-opioid receptor up-regulation has been associated with decreases in the trafficking protein dynamin-2, whereas mu-opioid receptor down-regulation produces an increase in dynamin-2 abundance. To probe the differences between opioid agonist and antagonist-induced mu-opioid receptor regulation, the current study determined changes in mu-opioid receptor density using a combined radioligand binding ([3H] DAMGO) and quantitative Western blotting approach in mouse spinal cord. Furthermore, the differences between intermittent and continuous dosing protocols were evaluated. Continuous (7-8 days) s.c. infusions of naloxone (5 mg/kg/day) or naltrexone (15 mg s.c. implant pellet) increased mu-opioid receptor density in radioligand binding assays (approximately +80%) in mouse spinal cord and down-regulated dynamin-2 abundance (approximately -30%), but had no effect on the abundance of immunoreactive mu-opioid receptor. Continuous (7 days) s.c. infusion of etorphine (200 microg/kg/day) decreased immunoreactive mu-opioid receptor (approximately -35%) and [3H] DAMGO binding (approximately -30%), and concurrently increased dynamin-2 abundance (approximately +40%). Continuous (7 days) morphine infusion (40 mg/kg/day plus 25 mg s.c. implant pellet) had no effect on any outcome measure. Delivery of the same daily dose of etorphine or naloxone using intermittent (every 24 h for 7 days) s.c. administration had no effect on immunoreactive mu-opioid receptor, [3H] DAMGO binding or dynamin-2 abundance. These data indicate that mu-opioid receptor

  15. Group II mGlu receptor agonists fail to protect against various neurotoxic insults induced in murine cortical, striatal and cerebellar granular pure neuronal cultures.

    PubMed

    Moldrich, R X; Giardina, S F; Beart, P M

    2001-07-01

    Since group II metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors are a potential target for the amelioration of neuronal injury, we evaluated the ability of group II mGlu receptor agonists to attenuate toxicity induced by various insults in cortical, striatal and cerebellar granular (CGCs) pure neuronal cultures. The three cultures, when maintained under serum-free, anti-oxidant rich conditions for up to 13 days in vitro (div) were shown by immunocytochemistry to contain a maximum of 2-7% glia. At 6, 9 and 13 div a graded pattern of injury to cortical and striatal cultures was achieved with either hydrogen peroxide (60-110 microM), staurosporine (1 microM), N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA, 70 microM), alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA, 100 microM) or kainate (100 microM) over either 4, 24 or 48 h. CGCs were similarly exposed to low K(+) (5.4 mM KCl). Cell viability was examined via phase-contrast microscopy and assessed by a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Treatment with group II mGlu receptor agonists (1-300 microM), 2R,4R-4-aminopyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylate ((2R,4R)-APDC), (2S,1'S,2'S)-2-(carboxycyclopropyl)glycine (L-CCG-I), (2S,2'R,3'R)-2-(2',3'-dicarboxycyclopropyl)glycine (DCG-IV) and N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) failed to attenuate the toxicity. Pretreatment of cultures with the agonists and treatment following acute insult also failed to attenuate toxicity. Further investigations demonstrated the presence of second messenger activation whereby (2R,4R)-APDC reduced forskolin-stimulated production of cAMP in each culture. Thus, despite receptor coupling to intracellular signaling cascades, and regardless of culture development, agonist concentration, extent and mode of injury, group II mGlu receptor agonists were unable to protect against injury induced in cortical, striatal and cerebellar granular pure neuronal cultures. This result is in contrast to mixed cultures of neurones and glia and implies an

  16. Molecular Recognition of Agonist and Antagonist for Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-α Studied by Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mengyuan; Wang, Lushan; Zhao, Xian; Sun, Xun

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) is a ligand-activated transcription factor which plays important roles in lipid and glucose metabolism. The aim of this work is to find residues which selectively recognize PPAR-α agonists and antagonists. To achieve this aim, PPAR-α/13M and PPAR-α/471 complexes were subjected to perform molecular dynamics simulations. This research suggests that several key residues only participate in agonist recognition, while some other key residues only contribute to antagonist recognition. It is hoped that such work is useful for medicinal chemists to design novel PPAR-α agonists and antagonists. PMID:24837836

  17. Prediction of selective estrogen receptor beta agonist using open data and machine learning approach

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Ai-qin; Xie, Liang-jun; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Bing; Wang, Sheng-qi

    2016-01-01

    Background Estrogen receptors (ERs) are nuclear transcription factors that are involved in the regulation of many complex physiological processes in humans. ERs have been validated as important drug targets for the treatment of various diseases, including breast cancer, ovarian cancer, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease. ERs have two subtypes, ER-α and ER-β. Emerging data suggest that the development of subtype-selective ligands that specifically target ER-β could be a more optimal approach to elicit beneficial estrogen-like activities and reduce side effects. Methods Herein, we focused on ER-β and developed its in silico quantitative structure-activity relationship models using machine learning (ML) methods. Results The chemical structures and ER-β bioactivity data were extracted from public chemogenomics databases. Four types of popular fingerprint generation methods including MACCS fingerprint, PubChem fingerprint, 2D atom pairs, and Chemistry Development Kit extended fingerprint were used as descriptors. Four ML methods including Naïve Bayesian classifier, k-nearest neighbor, random forest, and support vector machine were used to train the models. The range of classification accuracies was 77.10% to 88.34%, and the range of area under the ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve values was 0.8151 to 0.9475, evaluated by the 5-fold cross-validation. Comparison analysis suggests that both the random forest and the support vector machine are superior for the classification of selective ER-β agonists. Chemistry Development Kit extended fingerprints and MACCS fingerprint performed better in structural representation between active and inactive agonists. Conclusion These results demonstrate that combining the fingerprint and ML approaches leads to robust ER-β agonist prediction models, which are potentially applicable to the identification of selective ER-β agonists. PMID:27486309

  18. Activation of Protease Activated Receptor 2 by Exogenous Agonist Exacerbates Early Radiation Injury in Rat Intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Junru; Boerma, Marjan; Kulkarni, Ashwini; Hollenberg, Morley D.; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR{sub 2}) is highly expressed throughout the gut and regulates the inflammatory, mitogenic, fibroproliferative, and nociceptive responses to injury. PAR{sub 2} is strikingly upregulated and exhibits increased activation in response to intestinal irradiation. We examined the mechanistic significance of radiation enteropathy development by assessing the effect of exogenous PAR{sub 2} activation. Methods and Materials: Rat small bowel was exposed to localized single-dose radiation (16.5 Gy). The PAR{sub 2} agonist (2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH{sub 2}) or vehicle was injected intraperitoneally daily for 3 days before irradiation (before), for 7 days after irradiation (after), or both 3 days before and 7 days after irradiation (before-after). Early and delayed radiation enteropathy was assessed at 2 and 26 weeks after irradiation using quantitative histologic examination, morphometry, and immunohistochemical analysis. Results: The PAR{sub 2} agonist did not elicit changes in the unirradiated (shielded) intestine. In contrast, in the irradiated intestine procured 2 weeks after irradiation, administration of the PAR{sub 2} agonist was associated with more severe mucosal injury and increased intestinal wall thickness in all three treatment groups (p <.05) compared with the vehicle-treated controls. The PAR{sub 2} agonist also exacerbated the radiation injury score, serosal thickening, and mucosal inflammation (p <.05) in the before and before-after groups. The short-term exogenous activation of PAR{sub 2} did not affect radiation-induced intestinal injury at 26 weeks. Conclusion: The results of the present study support a role for PAR{sub 2} activation in the pathogenesis of early radiation-induced intestinal injury. Pharmacologic PAR{sub 2} antagonists might have the potential to reduce the intestinal side effects of radiotherapy and/or as countermeasures in radiologic accidents or terrorism scenarios.

  19. Anti-radiation damage effect of polyethylenimine as a toll-like receptor 5 targeted agonist.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhiqiang; Xing, Yaling; Qian, Yuanyu; Chen, Xiaojuan; Tu, Jian; Ren, Lening; Wang, Kai; Chen, Zhongbin

    2013-03-01

    A number of agents are now available for use in protecting against ionizing radiation. These radiation-protective agents, however, have many adverse effects. Efforts have been made to develop new radiation-protective agents for medical application. Here, we investigated whether a compound, polyethylenimine (PEI), which activates Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5)-mediated NF-kB signaling pathways, could have an anti-radiation effect on a mouse model. First, a cell-based screening model for an agonist of TLR5-mediated NF-kB pathway was established and then validated by activation of TLR5-mediated NF-kB luciferase reporter activity with a known TLR5 agonist, flagellin. We found that PEI induced dose-dependent activation of the TLR5-mediated NF-kB pathway, indicating that PEI is indeed a TLR5 agonist. Furthermore, the anti-radiation effect of polyethylenimine was assessed using a γ-ray total body irradiation (TBI) mouse model. Compared with the irradiation control, both survival time and survival rate were significantly improved in mice that received either a low dose of polyethylenimine (P= 0.019) or a high dose of polyethylenimine (P< 0.001). We also observed a positive correlation between animal body weight and survival time in mice that received a low dose of polyethylenimine, a high dose of polyethylenimine and amifostine, over a period of 30 days, r= 0.42 (P< 0.02), 0.72 (P< 0.0001) and 0.95 (P< 0.0001), respectively, while a negative correlation between animal body weight and survival time was observed in the irradiation control (r= -0.89; P< 0.0001). These results indicate that polyethylenimine is a new TLR5 agonist with potential application in offering protection for patients receiving radiotherapy or in radiation-related accidents.

  20. Kinetic analysis of antagonist-occupied adenosine-A3 receptors within membrane microdomains of individual cells provides evidence of receptor dimerization and allosterism

    PubMed Central

    Corriden, Ross; Kilpatrick, Laura E.; Kellam, Barrie; Briddon, Stephen J.; Hill, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    In our previous work, using a fluorescent adenosine-A3 receptor (A3AR) agonist and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), we demonstrated high-affinity labeling of the active receptor (R*) conformation. In the current study, we used a fluorescent A3AR antagonist (CA200645) to study the binding characteristics of antagonist-occupied inactive receptor (R) conformations in membrane microdomains of individual cells. FCS analysis of CA200645-occupied A3ARs revealed 2 species, τD2 and τD3, that diffused at 2.29 ± 0.35 and 0.09 ± 0.03 μm2/s, respectively. FCS analysis of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged A3AR exhibited a single diffusing species (0.105 μm2/s). The binding of CA200645 to τD3 was antagonized by nanomolar concentrations of the A3 antagonist MRS 1220, but not by the agonist NECA (up to 300 nM), consistent with labeling of R. CA200645 normally dissociated slowly from the A3AR, but inclusion of xanthine amine congener (XAC) or VUF 5455 during washout markedly accelerated the reduction in the number of particles exhibiting τD3 characteristics. It is notable that this effect was accompanied by a significant increase in the number of particles with τD2 diffusion. These data show that FCS analysis of ligand-occupied receptors provides a unique means of monitoring ligand A3AR residence times that are significantly reduced as a consequence of allosteric interaction across the dimer interface.—Corriden, R., Kilpatrick, L. E., Kellam, B., Briddon, S. J., Hill, S. J. Kinetic analysis of antagonist-occupied adenosine-A3 receptors within membrane microdomains of individual cells provides evidence for receptor dimerization and allosterism. PMID:24970394

  1. Cardiovascular effects of the novel histamine H2 receptor agonist amthamine: interaction with the adrenergic system.

    PubMed

    Coruzzi, G; Gambarelli, E; Bertaccini, G; Timmerman, H

    1996-03-01

    The cardiovascular effects of the new histamine H2 receptor agonist amthamine were studied in the anaesthetized rat, with particular reference to a possible interaction with the adrenergic system. Amthamine (0.03-3 mumol/kg i.v.) caused vasodepressor responses which were antagonized by famotidine (3 mumol/kg i.v.). At higher doses (30-100 mumol/kg i.v.), amthamine induced a modest increase in the mean arterial pressure, which was significantly enhanced by the blockade of H2 receptors and significantly reduced by the alpha 2 adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine (1 mumol/kg i.v.). The vasopressor response to amthamine was not modified in rats pre-treated with reserpine or 6-hydroxydopamine, and was only minimally modified in adrenalectomized animals, thus suggesting a predominant interaction with postjunctional alpha 2 adrenoceptors in the vascular muscle. The H2 receptor agonist dimaprit (0.3-100 mumol/kg i.v.) caused a reduction in arterial pressure, which was antagonized by famotidine, no pressor response being unmasked. Dimaprit (0.1-30 mumol/kg i.v.) did not modify heart rate but caused a modest bradycardia at 100 mumol/kg i.v. Amthamine (1-100 mumol/kg i.v.) induced a dose-dependent tachycardia, which was only partially (approximately 20%) reduced by famotidine and was totally blocked by propranolol (0.3 mg/kg i.v.). This effect was significantly reduced in rats pre-treated with reserpine or 6-hydroxydopamine and was further reduced by cocaine, thus suggesting a tyramine-like action of amthamine. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that the H2 receptor agonist amthamine can also interact with the adrenergic system when used at doses higher than those necessary to activate H2 receptors. Whereas the increase in blood pressure induced by amthamine seems to be mainly mediated by a direct activation of postjunctional alpha 2 adrenoceptors, the increase in heart rate is predominantly due to neuronal release of catecholamines. These effects should be considered when

  2. IFN-alpha/beta-dependent cross-priming induced by specific toll-like receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Durand, Vanessa; Wong, Simon Y C; Tough, David F; Le Bon, Agnes

    2006-04-12

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are pattern recognition receptors that have been identified as crucial in the initiation of innate immune responses against pathogens. They are thought to be involved in shaping appropriate adaptive immune responses, although their precise contribution has not yet been fully characterised. Our aim was to investigate in vivo the effect of different TLR stimuli on cellular immune responses. We examined the ability of a range of TLR stimuli to induce CD8+ T cell responses against a model soluble protein antigen, ovalbumin (OVA). We found that TLR 3, TLR 4, and TLR 9 agonists induced functional cross-priming, and that this process was dependent on IFN-alpha/beta signalling pathway. PMID:16823911

  3. Melatonin receptor agonist agomelatine: a new drug for treating unipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Bourin, Michel; Prica, Corina

    2009-01-01

    Agomelatine markedly differs from other classes of antidepressant drugs: its primary molecular targets in vivo are the melatonin MT(1) and MT(2) receptors, where it acts as a potent agonist, and the 5-HT(2C) receptors, where it exerts clear-cut antagonist properties. Agomelatine across a wide range of clinical trials suggests that agomelatine offers an important alternative for the treatment of depression, combining efficacy, even in the most severely depressed patients, with a favorable side-effect profile. It will be of interest to see if agomelatine expands the spectrum of treatment for unipolar depression. It shows efficacy in acute phase and in of maintenance treatment compared to reference antidepressants as paroxetine and venlafaxine.

  4. Dendrite-selective redistribution of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 following agonist stimulation.

    PubMed

    Baudouin, Stéphane J; Pujol, Fabien; Nicot, Arnaud; Kitabgi, Patrick; Boudin, Hélène

    2006-10-01

    The chemokine SDF-1 is a secreted protein that plays a critical role in several aspects of neuron development through interaction with its unique receptor CXCR4. A key mechanism that controls neuron responsiveness to extracellular signals during neuronal growth is receptor endocytosis. Since we previously reported that SDF-1 regulates axon development without affecting the other neurites, we asked whether this could correlate with a compartment-selective trafficking of CXCR4. We thus studied CXCR4 behavior upon SDF-1 exposure in rat hippocampus slices and in transfected neuron cultures. A massive agonist-induced redistribution of CXCR4 in endosomes was observed in dendrites whereas no modification was evidenced in axons. Our data suggest that CXCR4 trafficking may play a role in mediating selective effects of SDF-1 on distinct neuronal membrane subdomains.

  5. Therapeutic role of bile acids and nuclear receptor agonists in fibrosing cholangiopathies.

    PubMed

    Trauner, Michael; Halilbasic, Emina; Kazemi-Shirazi, Lili; Kienbacher, Christian; Staufer, Katharina; Traussnigg, Stefan; Hofer, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory bile duct diseases such as primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) result in progressive fibrosis of the biliary tract and ultimately cirrhosis of the liver. Since the etiology and pathogenesis of these fibrosing cholangiopathies are still poorly understood, therapeutic options are rather limited at present. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is the paradigm therapeutic bile acid and established standard treatment for PBC, but its role for medical therapy of PSC is still under debate. Promising novel bile acid-based therapeutic options include 24-norursodeoxycholic acid, a side chain-shortened C23 homologue of UDCA, and bile acid receptor/farnesoid X receptor agonists (e.g., obeticholic acid) which currently undergo clinical development for fibrosing cholangiopathies such as PBC and PSC. Other nuclear receptors such as vitamin D receptor and fatty acid-activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors are also of considerable interest. This review article is a summary of an overview talk given at Falk Symposium 191 on Advances in Pathogenesis and Treatment of Liver Diseases held in London, October 3-4, 2013, and summarizes the recent progress with novel therapeutic bile acids and bile acid derivatives as novel therapies for fibrosing cholangiopathies such as PBC and PSC.

  6. The long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonist, indacaterol, enhances glucocorticoid receptor-mediated transcription in human airway epithelial cells in a gene- and agonist-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, T; Johnson, M; Newton, R; Giembycz, M A

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Inhaled glucocorticoid (ICS)/long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonist (LABA) combination therapy is a recommended treatment option for patients with moderate/severe asthma in whom adequate control cannot be achieved by an ICS alone. Previously, we discovered that LABAs can augment dexamethasone-inducible gene expression and proposed that this effect may explain how these two drugs interact to deliver superior clinical benefit. Herein, we extended that observation by analysing, pharmacodynamically, the effect of the LABA, indacaterol, on glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-mediated gene transcription induced by seven ligands with intrinsic activity values that span the spectrum of full agonism to antagonism. Experimental Approach BEAS-2B human airway epithelial cells stably transfected with a 2× glucocorticoid response element luciferase reporter were used to model gene transcription together with an analysis of several glucocorticoid-inducible genes. Key Results Indacaterol augmented glucocorticoid-induced reporter activation in a manner that was positively related to the intrinsic activity of the GR agonist. This effect was demonstrated by an increase in response maxima without a change in GR agonist affinity or efficacy. Indacaterol also enhanced glucocorticoid-inducible gene expression. However, the magnitude of this effect was dependent on both the GR agonist and the gene of interest. Conclusions and Implications These data suggest that indacaterol activates a molecular rheostat, which increases the transcriptional competency of GR in an agonist- and gene-dependent manner without apparently changing the relationship between fractional GR occupancy and response. These findings provide a platform to rationally design ICS/LABA combination therapy that is based on the generation of agonist-dependent gene expression profiles in target and off-target tissues. PMID:25598440

  7. Identification of Novel Small-Molecule Agonists for Human Formyl Peptide Receptors and Pharmacophore Models of Their RecognitionS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Kirpotina, Liliya N.; Khlebnikov, Andrei I.; Schepetkin, Igor A.; Ye, Richard D.; Rabiet, Marie-Josèphe; Jutila, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    N-formyl peptide receptor (FPR1) and N-formyl peptide receptor-like 1 (FPRL1, now known as FPR2) are G protein-coupled receptors involved in host defense and sensing cellular dysfunction. Because of the potential for FPR1/FPR2 as a therapeutic target, our recent high-throughput screening efforts have focused on the identification of unique nonpeptide agonists of FPR1/FPR2. In the present studies, we screened a chemolibrary of drug-like molecules for their ability to induce intracellular calcium mobilization in RBL-2H3 cells transfected with human FPR1 or FPR2. Screening of these compounds resulted in the identification of novel and potent agonists that activated both FPR1 and FPR2, as well as compounds that were specific for either FPR1 or FPR2 with EC50 values in the low micromolar range. Specificity of the compounds was supported by analysis of calcium mobilization in HL-60 cells transfected with human FPR1 and FPR2. In addition, all but one agonist activated intracellular calcium flux and chemotaxis in human neutrophils, irrespective of agonist specificity for FPR1 or FPR2. Molecular modeling of the group of FPR1 and FPR2 agonists using field point methodology allowed us to create pharmacophore models for ligand binding sites and formulate requirements for these specific N-formyl peptide receptor agonists. These studies further demonstrate that agonists of FPR1/FPR2 include compounds with wide chemical diversity and that analysis of such compounds can enhance our understanding of their ligand/receptor interaction. PMID:19903830

  8. Noribogaine is a G-protein biased κ-opioid receptor agonist.

    PubMed

    Maillet, Emeline L; Milon, Nicolas; Heghinian, Mari D; Fishback, James; Schürer, Stephan C; Garamszegi, Nandor; Mash, Deborah C

    2015-12-01

    Noribogaine is the long-lived human metabolite of the anti-addictive substance ibogaine. Noribogaine efficaciously reaches the brain with concentrations up to 20 μM after acute therapeutic dose of 40 mg/kg ibogaine in animals. Noribogaine displays atypical opioid-like components in vivo, anti-addictive effects and potent modulatory properties of the tolerance to opiates for which the mode of action remained uncharacterized thus far. Our binding experiments and computational simulations indicate that noribogaine may bind to the orthosteric morphinan binding site of the opioid receptors. Functional activities of noribogaine at G-protein and non G-protein pathways of the mu and kappa opioid receptors were characterized. Noribogaine was a weak mu antagonist with a functional inhibition constants (Ke) of 20 μM at the G-protein and β-arrestin signaling pathways. Conversely, noribogaine was a G-protein biased kappa agonist 75% as efficacious as dynorphin A at stimulating GDP-GTP exchange (EC50=9 μM) but only 12% as efficacious at recruiting β-arrestin, which could contribute to the lack of dysphoric effects of noribogaine. In turn, noribogaine functionally inhibited dynorphin-induced kappa β-arrestin recruitment and was more potent than its G-protein agonistic activity with an IC50 of 1 μM. This biased agonist/antagonist pharmacology is unique to noribogaine in comparison to various other ligands including ibogaine, 18-MC, nalmefene, and 6'-GNTI. We predict noribogaine to promote certain analgesic effects as well as anti-addictive effects at effective concentrations>1 μM in the brain. Because elevated levels of dynorphins are commonly observed and correlated with anxiety, dysphoric effects, and decreased dopaminergic tone, a therapeutically relevant functional inhibition bias to endogenously released dynorphins by noribogaine might be worthy of consideration for treating anxiety and substance related disorders. PMID:26302653

  9. Physicochemically and pharmacokinetically stable nonapeptide KISS1 receptor agonists with highly potent testosterone-suppressive activity.

    PubMed

    Asami, Taiji; Nishizawa, Naoki; Matsui, Hisanori; Takatsu, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Atsuko; Kiba, Atsushi; Terada, Michiko; Nishibori, Kimiko; Nakayama, Masaharu; Ban, Junko; Matsumoto, Shin-ichi; Tarui, Naoki; Ikeda, Yukihiro; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Kusaka, Masami; Ohtaki, Tetsuya; Kitada, Chieko

    2014-07-24

    Modifications of metastin(45-54) produced peptide analogues with higher metabolic stability than metastin(45-54). N-terminally truncated nonapeptide 4 ([D-Tyr46,D-Pya(4)47,azaGly51,Arg(Me)53]metastin(46-54)) is a representative compound with both potent agonistic activity and metabolic stability. Although 4 had more potent testosterone-suppressant activity than metastin, it possessed physicochemical instability at pH 7 and insufficient in vivo activity. Instability at pH 7 was dependent upon Asn48 and Ser49; substitution of Ser49 with Thr49 reduced this instability and maintained KISS1 receptor agonistic activity. Furthermore, [D-Tyr46,D-Trp47,Thr49,azaGly51,Arg(Me)53,Trp54]metastin(46-54) (14) showed 2-fold greater [Ca2+]i-mobilizing activity than metastin(45-54) and an apparent increase in physicochemical stability. N-terminal acetylation of 14 resulted in the most potent analogue, 22 (Ac-[D-Tyr46,D-Trp47,Thr49,azaGly51,Arg(Me)53,Trp54]metastin(46-54)). With continuous administration, 22 possessed 10-50-fold more potent testosterone-suppressive activity in rats than 4. These results suggested that a controlled release of short-length KISS1 receptor agonists can suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and reduce testosterone levels. Compound 22 was selected for further preclinical evaluation for hormone-dependent diseases.

  10. Noribogaine is a G-protein biased κ-opioid receptor agonist.

    PubMed

    Maillet, Emeline L; Milon, Nicolas; Heghinian, Mari D; Fishback, James; Schürer, Stephan C; Garamszegi, Nandor; Mash, Deborah C

    2015-12-01

    Noribogaine is the long-lived human metabolite of the anti-addictive substance ibogaine. Noribogaine efficaciously reaches the brain with concentrations up to 20 μM after acute therapeutic dose of 40 mg/kg ibogaine in animals. Noribogaine displays atypical opioid-like components in vivo, anti-addictive effects and potent modulatory properties of the tolerance to opiates for which the mode of action remained uncharacterized thus far. Our binding experiments and computational simulations indicate that noribogaine may bind to the orthosteric morphinan binding site of the opioid receptors. Functional activities of noribogaine at G-protein and non G-protein pathways of the mu and kappa opioid receptors were characterized. Noribogaine was a weak mu antagonist with a functional inhibition constants (Ke) of 20 μM at the G-protein and β-arrestin signaling pathways. Conversely, noribogaine was a G-protein biased kappa agonist 75% as efficacious as dynorphin A at stimulating GDP-GTP exchange (EC50=9 μM) but only 12% as efficacious at recruiting β-arrestin, which could contribute to the lack of dysphoric effects of noribogaine. In turn, noribogaine functionally inhibited dynorphin-induced kappa β-arrestin recruitment and was more potent than its G-protein agonistic activity with an IC50 of 1 μM. This biased agonist/antagonist pharmacology is unique to noribogaine in comparison to various other ligands including ibogaine, 18-MC, nalmefene, and 6'-GNTI. We predict noribogaine to promote certain analgesic effects as well as anti-addictive effects at effective concentrations>1 μM in the brain. Because elevated levels of dynorphins are commonly observed and correlated with anxiety, dysphoric effects, and decreased dopaminergic tone, a therapeutically relevant functional inhibition bias to endogenously released dynorphins by noribogaine might be worthy of consideration for treating anxiety and substance related disorders.

  11. Effects of Trace Amine-associated Receptor 1 Agonists on the Expression, Reconsolidation, and Extinction of Cocaine Reward Memory

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian-Feng; Thorn, David A; Zhang, Yanan

    2016-01-01

    Background: As a modulator of dopaminergic system, trace amine-associated receptor 1 has been shown to play a critical role in regulating the rewarding properties of additive drugs. It has been demonstrated that activation of trace amine-associated receptor 1 decreased the abuse-related behaviors of cocaine in rats. However, the role of trace amine-associated receptor 1 in specific stages of cocaine reward memory is still unclear. Methods: Here, using a cocaine-induced conditioned place preference model, we tested the effects of a selective trace amine-associated receptor 1 agonist RO5166017 on the expression, reconsolidation, and extinction of cocaine reward memory. Results: We found that RO5166017 inhibited the expression but not retention of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference. RO5166017 had no effect on the reconsolidation of cocaine reward memory. Pretreatment with RO5166017 before extinction hindered the formation of extinction long-term memory. RO5166017 did not affect the movement during the conditioned place preference test, indicating the inhibitory effect of RO5166017 on the expression of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference was not caused by locomotion inhibition. Using a cocaine i.v. self-administration model, we found that the combined trace amine-associated receptor 1 partial agonist RO5263397 with extinction had no effect on the following cue- and drug-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. Repeated administration of the trace amine-associated receptor 1 agonist during extinction showed a continually inhibitory effect on the expression of cocaine reward memory both in cocaine-induced conditioned place preference and cocaine self-administration models. Conclusions: Taken together, these results indicate that activation of trace amine-associated receptor 1 specifically inhibited the expression of cocaine reward memory. The inhibitory effect of trace amine-associated receptor 1 agonists on cocaine reward memory suggests

  12. β-adrenergic receptor agonist, Compound 49b, inhibits TLR4 signaling pathway in diabetic retina

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Elizabeth A.; Carion, Thomas W.; Jiang, Youde; Liu, Li; Chahine, Adam; Walker, Robert Jason; Steinle, Jena J.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy has recently become associated with complications similar to chronic inflammatory diseases. While it is clear that tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-α) is increased in diabetes, the role of innate immunity is only recently being investigated. As such, we hypothesized that diabetes would increase toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling, which could be inhibited by a β-adrenergic receptor agonist (Compound 49b) previously shown to have anti-inflammatory actions. In order to investigate β-adrenergic receptor signaling and TLR4 in the diabetic retina, streptozotocin-injected diabetic mice, as well as human primary retinal endothelial cells (REC) and rat retinal Müller cells (rMC-1) exposed to high glucose (25mM), were treated with a novel β-adrenergic receptor agonist, Compound 49b (50nM), or PBS (control). TLR4 and its downstream signaling partners (MyD88, IRAK1, TRAF6, total and phosphorylated NF-κB) were examined. In addition, we assessed high mobility box group 1 (HMGB1) protein levels. Our data showed that diabetes or high glucose culture conditions significantly increased TLR4 and downstream signaling partners. Compound 49b was able to significantly reduce TLR4 and related molecules in the diabetic animal and retinal cells. HMGB1 was significantly increased in REC and Müller cells grown in high glucose, which was subsequently reduced with Compound 49b treatment. Our findings suggest that high glucose may increase HMGB1 levels that lead to increased TLR4 signaling. Compound 49b significantly inhibited this pathway providing a potential mechanism for its protective actions. PMID:26888251

  13. Docking and molecular dynamics simulations of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors interacting with pan agonist sodelglitazar.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu-Yuan; Wang, Run-Ling; Xu, Wei-Ren; Tang, Li-Da; Wang, Shu-Qing; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2011-10-01

    PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor) pan agonists play a critical role in treating metabolic diseases, especially the Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). GlaxoSmithKline's sodelglitazar (GW677954) is one of the potent PPAR pan agonists, which is currently being investigated in Phase II clinical trials for the treatment of T2DM and its complications. The present study was aimed at investigation into the effect of sodelglitazar at the binding pockets of PPARs. The Schrodinger Suite program (2009) was used for the molecular docking, while the GROMACS program used for the molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The results thus obtained showed that sodelglitazar being docked well in the active site of PPARs. It was revealed by the MD simulations that the structures of the receptors remained quite stable during the simulations and that the important AF-2 helix showed less flexibility after binding with sodelglitazar. Also, it was observed that sodelglitazar could periodically form hydrogen bonds with the AF-2 helix of PPARs to stabilize the AF-2 helix in an active conformation. Our findings have confirmed that GlaxoSmithKline's sodelglitazar can activate the PPARs, which is quite consistent with the previous biological studies. PMID:21592078

  14. Discriminating agonist and antagonist ligands of the nuclear receptors using 3D-pharmacophores.

    PubMed

    Lagarde, Nathalie; Delahaye, Solenne; Zagury, Jean-François; Montes, Matthieu

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) constitute an important class of therapeutic targets. We evaluated the performance of 3D structure-based and ligand-based pharmacophore models in predicting the pharmacological profile of NRs ligands using the NRLiSt BDB database. We could generate selective pharmacophores for agonist and antagonist ligands and we found that the best performances were obtained by combining the structure-based and the ligand-based approaches. The combination of pharmacophores that were generated allowed to cover most of the chemical space of the NRLiSt BDB datasets. By screening the whole NRLiSt BDB on our 3D pharmacophores, we demonstrated their selectivity towards their dedicated NRs ligands. The 3D pharmacophores herein presented can thus be used as a predictor of the pharmacological activity of NRs ligands.Graphical AbstractUsing a combination of structure-based and ligand-based pharmacophores, agonist and antagonist ligands of the Nuclear Receptors included in the NRLiSt BDB database could be separated.

  15. Microbiome-Derived Tryptophan Metabolites and Their Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Dependent Agonist and Antagonist Activities

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Un-Ho; Lee, Syng-Ook; Sridharan, Gautham; Lee, Kyongbum; Davidson, Laurie A.; Jayaraman, Arul; Chapkin, Robert S.; Alaniz, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The tryptophan metabolites indole, indole-3-acetate, and tryptamine were identified in mouse cecal extracts and fecal pellets by mass spectrometry. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonist and antagonist activities of these microbiota-derived compounds were investigated in CaCo-2 intestinal cells as a model for understanding their interactions with colonic tissue, which is highly aryl hydrocarbon (Ah)–responsive. Activation of Ah-responsive genes demonstrated that tryptamine and indole 3-acetate were AHR agonists, whereas indole was an AHR antagonist that inhibited TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin)–induced CYP1A1 expression. In contrast, the tryptophan metabolites exhibited minimal anti-inflammatory activities, whereas TCDD decreased phorbol ester-induced CXCR4 [chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4] gene expression, and this response was AHR dependent. These results demonstrate that the tryptophan metabolites indole, tryptamine, and indole-3-acetate modulate AHR-mediated responses in CaCo-2 cells, and concentrations of indole that exhibit AHR antagonist activity (100–250 μM) are detected in the intestinal microbiome. PMID:24563545

  16. [Albiglutide (Eperzan): a new once-weekly agonist of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors].

    PubMed

    Scheen, A J

    2015-04-01

    Albiglutide (Eperzan) is a new once-weekly agonist of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors that is indicated in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Two doses are available, 30 mg and 50 mg, to be injected subcutaneously once a week. It has been extensively evaluated in the HARMONY programme of eight large randomised controlled trials that were performed at different stages of type 2 diabetes, in comparison with placebo or an active comparator. The endocrine and metabolic effects of albiglutide are similar to those of other GLP-1 receptor agonists: stimulation of insulin secretion (incretin effect) and inhibition of glucagon secretion, both in a glucose-dependent manner, retardation of gastric emptying and increase of satiety. These effects lead to a reduction in glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) levels, combined with a weight reduction. The overall tolerance profile is good. Albiglutide is currently reimbursed in Belgium after failure (HbA(1c) > 7.5%) of and in combination with a dual therapy with metformin and a sulfonylurea as well as in combination with a basal insulin (with or without oral antidiabetic drugs). To avoid hypoglycaemia, a reduction in the dose of sulfonylurea or insulin may be recommended. A once-weekly administration should increase patient's acceptance of injectable therapy and improve compliance.

  17. Structural Determinants for the Binding of Morphinan Agonists to the μ-Opioid Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kless, Achim; Schapitz, Inga; Wagener, Markus; Koch, Thomas; Carloni, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Atomistic descriptions of the μ-opioid receptor (μOR) noncovalently binding with two of its prototypical morphinan agonists, morphine (MOP) and hydromorphone (HMP), are investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Subtle differences between the binding modes and hydration properties of MOP and HMP emerge from the calculations. Alchemical free energy perturbation calculations show qualitative agreement with in vitro experiments performed in this work: indeed, the binding free energy difference between MOP and HMP computed by forward and backward alchemical transformation is 1.2±1.1 and 0.8±0.8 kcal/mol, respectively, to be compared with 0.4±0.3 kcal/mol from experiment. Comparison with an MD simulation of μOR covalently bound with the antagonist β-funaltrexamine hints to agonist-induced conformational changes associated with an early event of the receptor’s activation: a shift of the transmembrane helix 6 relative to the transmembrane helix 3 and a consequent loss of the key R165-T279 interhelical hydrogen bond. This finding is consistent with a previous proposal suggesting that the R165-T279 hydrogen bond between these two helices indicates an inactive receptor conformation. PMID:26280453

  18. Muscarinic and Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonists and Allosteric Modulators for the Treatment of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Carrie K; Byun, Nellie; Bubser, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (mAChRs and nAChRs) are emerging as important targets for the development of novel treatments for the symptoms associated with schizophrenia. Preclinical and early proof-of-concept clinical studies have provided strong evidence that activators of specific mAChR (M1 and M4) and nAChR (α7 and α2β4) subtypes are effective in animal models of antipsychotic-like activity and/or cognitive enhancement, and in the treatment of positive and cognitive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. While early attempts to develop selective mAChR and nAChR agonists provided important preliminary findings, these compounds have ultimately failed in clinical development due to a lack of true subtype selectivity and subsequent dose-limiting adverse effects. In recent years, there have been major advances in the discovery of highly selective activators for the different mAChR and nAChR subtypes with suitable properties for optimization as potential candidates for clinical trials. One novel strategy has been to identify ligands that activate a specific receptor subtype through actions at sites that are distinct from the highly conserved ACh-binding site, termed allosteric sites. These allosteric activators, both allosteric agonists and positive allosteric modulators, of mAChR and nAChR subtypes demonstrate unique mechanisms of action and high selectivity in vivo, and may provide innovative treatment strategies for schizophrenia. PMID:21956443

  19. Farnesoid X receptor agonist reduces serum asymmetric dimethylarginine levels through hepatic dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase-1 gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tonghuan; Chouinard, Michael; Cox, Amy L; Sipes, Philip; Marcelo, Marialuisa; Ficorilli, James; Li, Shuyu; Gao, Hong; Ryan, Timothy P; Michael, M Dodson; Michael, Laura F

    2006-12-29

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR, NR1H4) is a bile acid-responsive nuclear receptor that plays critical roles in the transcriptional regulation genes involved in cholesterol, bile acid, triglyceride, and carbohydrate metabolism. By microarray analysis of hepatic genes from female Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats treated with the FXR agonist GW4064, we have identified dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase-1 (DDAH1) as an FXR target gene. DDAH1 is a key catabolic enzyme of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), a major endogenous nitric-oxide synthase inhibitor. Sequence analysis of the DDAH1 gene reveals the presence of an FXR response element (FXRE) located 90 kb downstream of the transcription initiation site and within the first intron. Functional analysis of the putative FXRE demonstrated GW4064 dose-dependent transcriptional activation from the element, and we have demonstrated that the FXRE sequence binds the FXR-RXR heterodimer. In vivo administration of GW4064 to female ZDF rats promoted a dose-dependent and >6-fold increase in hepatic DDAH1 gene expression. The level of serum ADMA was reduced concomitantly. These findings provide a mechanism by which FXR may increase endothelium-derived nitric oxide levels through modulation of serum ADMA levels via direct regulation of hepatic DDAH1 gene expression. Thus, beneficial clinical outcomes of FXR agonist therapy may include prevention of atherosclerosis and improvement of the metabolic syndrome.

  20. [N-allyl-Dmt1]-endomorphins are micro-opioid receptor antagonists lacking inverse agonist properties.

    PubMed

    Marczak, Ewa D; Jinsmaa, Yunden; Li, Tingyou; Bryant, Sharon D; Tsuda, Yuko; Okada, Yoshio; Lazarus, Lawrence H

    2007-10-01

    [N-allyl-Dmt1]-endomorphin-1 and -2 ([N-allyl-Dmt1]-EM-1 and -2) are new selective micro-opioid receptor antagonists obtained by N-alkylation with an allyl group on the amino terminus of 2',6'-dimethyl-L-tyrosine (Dmt) derivatives. To further characterize properties of these compounds, their intrinsic activities were assessed by functional guanosine 5'-O-(3-[35S]thiotriphosphate) binding assays and forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in cell membranes obtained from vehicle, morphine, and ethanol-treated SK-N-SH cells and brain membranes isolated from naive and morphine-dependent mice; their mode of action was compared with naloxone or naltrexone, which both are standard nonspecific opioid-receptor antagonists. [N-allyl-Dmt1]-EM-1 and -2 were neutral antagonists under all of the experimental conditions examined, in contrast to naloxone and naltrexone, which behave as neutral antagonists only in membranes from vehicle-treated cells and mice but act as inverse agonists in membranes from morphine- and ethanol-treated cells as well as morphine-treated mice. Both endomorphin analogs inhibited the naloxone- and naltrexone-elicited withdrawal syndromes from acute morphine dependence in mice. This suggests their potential therapeutic application in the treatment of drug addiction and alcohol abuse without the adverse effects observed with inverse agonist alkaloid-derived compounds that produce severe withdrawal symptoms.

  1. KR-62980: a novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist with weak adipogenic effects.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Rok; Lee, Jeong Hyung; Kim, Seung Jun; Rhee, Sang Dal; Jung, Won Hoon; Yang, Sung-Don; Kim, Sung Soo; Ahn, Jin Hee; Cheon, Hyae Gyeong

    2006-08-14

    The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is the target for the anti-diabetic drugs including thiazolidinediones. We report here the identification and characterization of a novel PPARgamma agonist KR-62980. KR-62980 acted as a selective PPARgamma agonist in transactivation assay with an EC50 of 15 nM. In fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, KR-62980 induced [3H]-deoxyglucose uptake in a concentration-dependent manner in the presence of insulin. KR-62980 was weakly adipogenic with little induction of aP2 mRNA, and was able to antagonize the adipogenic effects of rosiglitazone in C3H10T1/2 cells. In vivo pharmacokinetic profile of KR-62980 revealed that the compound exhibited good oral bioavailability of 65% with a terminal elimination half-life of 2.5 h in the rat. Treatment of high fat diet-induced C57BL/6J mice with KR-62980 for 14 days reduced plasma glucose levels with little side effects with regard to weight gain, cardiac hypertrophy and hepatotoxicity. These results suggest that KR-62980 acts as a selective PPARgamma modulator with anti-hyperglycemic activity, and that the mechanism of actions of KR-62980 appears to be different from that of rosiglitazone with improved side effect profiles.

  2. Discriminating agonist and antagonist ligands of the nuclear receptors using 3D-pharmacophores.

    PubMed

    Lagarde, Nathalie; Delahaye, Solenne; Zagury, Jean-François; Montes, Matthieu

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) constitute an important class of therapeutic targets. We evaluated the performance of 3D structure-based and ligand-based pharmacophore models in predicting the pharmacological profile of NRs ligands using the NRLiSt BDB database. We could generate selective pharmacophores for agonist and antagonist ligands and we found that the best performances were obtained by combining the structure-based and the ligand-based approaches. The combination of pharmacophores that were generated allowed to cover most of the chemical space of the NRLiSt BDB datasets. By screening the whole NRLiSt BDB on our 3D pharmacophores, we demonstrated their selectivity towards their dedicated NRs ligands. The 3D pharmacophores herein presented can thus be used as a predictor of the pharmacological activity of NRs ligands.Graphical AbstractUsing a combination of structure-based and ligand-based pharmacophores, agonist and antagonist ligands of the Nuclear Receptors included in the NRLiSt BDB database could be separated. PMID:27602059

  3. Novel Retinoic Acid Receptor Alpha Agonists for Treatment of Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ruijie; Li, Zhengzhe; Chen, Yibang; Evans, Todd; Chuang, Peter; Das, Bhaskar; He, John Cijiang

    2011-01-01

    Development of pharmacologic agents that protect podocytes from injury is a critical strategy for the treatment of kidney glomerular diseases. Retinoic acid reduces proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis in multiple animal models of kidney diseases. However, clinical studies are limited because of significant side effects of retinoic acid. Animal studies suggest that all trans retinoic acid (ATRA) attenuates proteinuria by protecting podocytes from injury. The physiological actions of ATRA are mediated by binding to all three isoforms of the nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RARs): RARα, RARβ, and RARγ. We have previously shown that ATRA exerts its renal protective effects mainly through the agonism of RARα. Here, we designed and synthesized a novel boron-containing derivative of the RARα-specific agonist Am580. This new derivative, BD4, binds to RARα receptor specifically and is predicted to have less toxicity based on its structure. We confirmed experimentally that BD4 binds to RARα with a higher affinity and exhibits less cellular toxicity than Am580 and ATRA. BD4 induces the expression of podocyte differentiation markers (synaptopodin, nephrin, and WT-1) in cultured podocytes. Finally, we confirmed that BD4 reduces proteinuria and improves kidney injury in HIV-1 transgenic mice, a model for HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). Mice treated with BD4 did not develop any obvious toxicity or side effect. Our data suggest that BD4 is a novel RARα agonist, which could be used as a potential therapy for patients with kidney disease such as HIVAN. PMID:22125642

  4. Novel retinoic acid receptor alpha agonists for treatment of kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yifei; Wu, Yingwei; Liu, Ruijie; Li, Zhengzhe; Chen, Yibang; Evans, Todd; Chuang, Peter; Das, Bhaskar; He, John Cijiang

    2011-01-01

    Development of pharmacologic agents that protect podocytes from injury is a critical strategy for the treatment of kidney glomerular diseases. Retinoic acid reduces proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis in multiple animal models of kidney diseases. However, clinical studies are limited because of significant side effects of retinoic acid. Animal studies suggest that all trans retinoic acid (ATRA) attenuates proteinuria by protecting podocytes from injury. The physiological actions of ATRA are mediated by binding to all three isoforms of the nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RARs): RARα, RARβ, and RARγ. We have previously shown that ATRA exerts its renal protective effects mainly through the agonism of RARα. Here, we designed and synthesized a novel boron-containing derivative of the RARα-specific agonist Am580. This new derivative, BD4, binds to RARα receptor specifically and is predicted to have less toxicity based on its structure. We confirmed experimentally that BD4 binds to RARα with a higher affinity and exhibits less cellular toxicity than Am580 and ATRA. BD4 induces the expression of podocyte differentiation markers (synaptopodin, nephrin, and WT-1) in cultured podocytes. Finally, we confirmed that BD4 reduces proteinuria and improves kidney injury in HIV-1 transgenic mice, a model for HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). Mice treated with BD4 did not develop any obvious toxicity or side effect. Our data suggest that BD4 is a novel RARα agonist, which could be used as a potential therapy for patients with kidney disease such as HIVAN.

  5. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists increase pancreatic mass by induction of protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Jacqueline A; Baggio, Laurie L; Cao, Xiemin; Abdulla, Tahmid; Campbell, Jonathan E; Secher, Thomas; Jelsing, Jacob; Larsen, Brett; Drucker, Daniel J

    2015-03-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) controls glucose homeostasis by regulating secretion of insulin and glucagon through a single GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R). GLP-1R agonists also increase pancreatic weight in some preclinical studies through poorly understood mechanisms. Here we demonstrate that the increase in pancreatic weight following activation of GLP-1R signaling in mice reflects an increase in acinar cell mass, without changes in ductal compartments or β-cell mass. GLP-1R agonists did not increase pancreatic DNA content or the number of Ki67(+) cells in the exocrine compartment; however, pancreatic protein content was increased in mice treated with exendin-4 or liraglutide. The increased pancreatic mass and protein content was independent of cholecystokinin receptors, associated with a rapid increase in S6 phosphorylation, and mediated through the GLP-1R. Rapamycin abrogated the GLP-1R-dependent increase in pancreatic mass but had no effect on the robust induction of Reg3α and Reg3β gene expression. Mass spectrometry analysis identified GLP-1R-dependent upregulation of Reg family members, as well as proteins important for translation and export, including Fam129a, eIF4a1, Wars, and Dmbt1. Hence, pharmacological GLP-1R activation induces protein synthesis, leading to increased pancreatic mass, independent of changes in DNA content or cell proliferation in mice.

  6. AVE 0991, a non-peptide Mas-receptor agonist, facilitates penile erection.

    PubMed

    da Costa Gonçalves, Andrey C; Fraga-Silva, Rodrigo A; Leite, Romulo; Santos, Robson A S

    2013-03-01

    The renin-angiotensin system plays a crucial role in erectile function. It has been shown that elevated levels of angiotensin II contribute to the development of erectile dysfunction both in humans and in aminals. On the contrary, the heptapeptide angiotensin-(1-7) appears to mediate penile erection by activation of the Mas receptor. Recently, we have shown that the erectile function of Mas gene-deleted mice was substantially reduced, which was associated with a marked increase in fibrous tissue in the corpus cavernosum. We have hypothesized that the synthetic non-peptide Mas agonist, AVE 0991, would potentiate penile erectile function. We showed that intracavernosal injection of AVE 0991 potentiated the erectile response of anaesthetized Wistar rats, measured as the ratio between corpus cavernosum pressure and mean arterial pressure, upon electrical stimulation of the major pelvic ganglion. The facilitatory effect of AVE 0991 on erectile function was dose dependent and completely blunted by the nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor, l-NAME. Importantly, concomitant intracavernosal infusion of the specific Mas receptor blocker, A-779, abolished the effect of AVE 0991. We demonstrated that AVE 0991 potentiates the penile erectile response through Mas in an NO-dependent manner. Importantly, these results suggest that Mas agonists, such as AVE 0991, might have significant therapeutic benefits for the treatment of erectile dysfunction.

  7. The acute anorexic effect of liraglutide, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, does not require functional leptin receptor, serotonin, and hypothalamic POMC and CART activities in mice.

    PubMed

    Nonogaki, Katsunori; Kaji, Takao

    2016-10-01

    The acute anorexic effect of liraglutide, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, did not require functional leptin receptor, serotonin, and hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin and cocaine amphetamine regulated transcript activities in mice, although decrease in functional hypothalamic orexin activity might be involved in the acute anorexic effect of liraglutide. PMID:27585115

  8. Opioid agonist efficacy predicts the magnitude of tolerance and the regulation of mu-opioid receptors and dynamin-2.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Mohit; Kumar, Priyank; Sunkaraneni, Soujanya; Sirohi, Sunil; Walker, Ellen A; Yoburn, Byron C

    2007-06-01

    It has been proposed that opioid agonist efficacy may play a role in tolerance and the regulation of opioid receptor density. To address this issue, the present studies estimated the in vivo efficacy of three opioid agonists and then examined changes in spinal mu-opioid receptor density following chronic treatment in the mouse. In addition, tolerance and regulation of the trafficking protein dynamin-2 were determined. To evaluate efficacy, the method of irreversible receptor alkylation was employed and the efficacy parameter tau estimated. Mice were injected with the irreversible mu-opioid receptor antagonist clocinnamox (0.32-25.6 mg/kg, i.p), and 24 h later, the analgesic potency of s.c. morphine, oxycodone and etorphine were determined. Clocinnamox dose-dependently antagonized the analgesic effects of morphine, etorphine and oxycodone. The shift to the right of the dose-response curves was greater for morphine and oxycodone compared to etorphine and the highest dose of clocinnamox reduced the maximal effect of morphine and oxycodone, but not etorphine. The order of efficacy calculated from these results was etorphine>morphine>oxycodone. Other mice were infused for 7 days with oxycodone (10-150 mg/kg/day, s.c.) or etorphine (50-250 microg/kg/day, s.c.) and the analgesic potency of s.c. morphine determined. The low efficacy agonist (oxycodone) produced more tolerance than the high efficacy agonist (etorphine) at equi-effective infusion doses. In saturation binding experiments, the low efficacy opioid agonists (morphine, oxycodone) did not regulate the density of spinal mu-opioid receptors, while etorphine produced approximately 40% reduction in mu-opioid receptor density. Furthermore, etorphine increased spinal dynamin-2 abundance, while oxycodone did not produce any significant change in dynamin-2 abundance. Overall, these data indicate that high efficacy agonists produce less tolerance at equi-effective doses. Furthermore, increased efficacy was associated with

  9. Optically Pure, Structural, and Fluorescent Analogues of a Dimeric Y4 Receptor Agonist Derived by an Olefin Metathesis Approach.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mengjie; Mountford, Simon J; Richardson, Rachel R; Groenen, Marleen; Holliday, Nicholas D; Thompson, Philip E

    2016-07-14

    The dimeric peptide 1 (BVD-74D, as a diastereomeric mixture) is a potent and selective neuropeptide Y Y4 receptor agonist. It represents a valuable candidate in developing traceable ligands for pharmacological studies of Y4 receptors and as a lead compound for antiobesity drugs. Its optically pure stereoisomers along with analogues and fluorescently labeled variants were prepared by exploiting alkene metathesis reactions. The (2R,7R)-diaminosuberoyl containing peptide, (R,R)-1, had markedly higher affinity and agonist efficacy than its (S,S)-counterpart. Furthermore, the sulfo-Cy5 labeled (R,R)-14 retained high agonist potency as a novel fluorescent ligand for imaging Y4 receptors.

  10. Optically Pure, Structural, and Fluorescent Analogues of a Dimeric Y4 Receptor Agonist Derived by an Olefin Metathesis Approach.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mengjie; Mountford, Simon J; Richardson, Rachel R; Groenen, Marleen; Holliday, Nicholas D; Thompson, Philip E

    2016-07-14

    The dimeric peptide 1 (BVD-74D, as a diastereomeric mixture) is a potent and selective neuropeptide Y Y4 receptor agonist. It represents a valuable candidate in developing traceable ligands for pharmacological studies of Y4 receptors and as a lead compound for antiobesity drugs. Its optically pure stereoisomers along with analogues and fluorescently labeled variants were prepared by exploiting alkene metathesis reactions. The (2R,7R)-diaminosuberoyl containing peptide, (R,R)-1, had markedly higher affinity and agonist efficacy than its (S,S)-counterpart. Furthermore, the sulfo-Cy5 labeled (R,R)-14 retained high agonist potency as a novel fluorescent ligand for imaging Y4 receptors. PMID:27295337

  11. Selective serotonin 5-HT1A receptor biased agonists elicitdistinct brain activation patterns: a pharmacoMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Becker, G.; Bolbos, R.; Costes, N.; Redouté, J.; Newman-Tancredi, A.; Zimmer, L.

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) receptors are involved in several physiological and pathological processes and constitute therefore an important therapeutic target. The recent pharmacological concept of biased agonism asserts that highly selective agonists can preferentially direct receptor signaling to specific intracellular responses, opening the possibility of drugs targeting a receptor subtype in specific brain regions. The present study brings additional support to this concept thanks to functional magnetic resonance imaging (7 Tesla-fMRI) in anaesthetized rats. Three 5-HT1A receptor agonists (8-OH-DPAT, F13714 and F15599) and one 5-HT1A receptor antagonist (MPPF) were compared in terms of influence on the brain blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal. Our study revealed for the first time contrasting BOLD signal patterns of biased agonists in comparison to a classical agonist and a silent antagonist. By providing functional information on the influence of pharmacological activation of 5-HT1A receptors in specific brain regions, this neuroimaging approach, translatable to the clinic, promises to be useful in exploring the new concept of biased agonism in neuropsychopharmacology. PMID:27211078

  12. The pharmacological stimulation of NMDA receptors via co-agonist site: an fMRI study in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Panizzutti, Rogério; Rausch, Martin; Zurbrügg, Stefan; Baumann, Diana; Beckmann, Nicolau; Rudin, Markus

    d-Serine has been proposed as an endogenous modulator at the co-agonist glycine-binding site of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. There is still some debate as to whether this site is saturated in vivo, but it seems likely that this depends on regional differences in local glycine or d-serine concentrations. In order to identify areas where the co-agonist site was not fully activated in vivo, we studied the effect of intraperitoneal d-serine administration in the rat brain using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Using contrast agent injection, the variations in the relative cerebral blood volume (CBVrel) in several regions of interest were evaluated. d-Serine (50 mg/kg) elicited a significant statistical increase in the CBVrel in the hippocampus. This effect was inhibited by the specific full antagonist of the co-agonist glycine site L-701,324 indicating that the hippocampal activation occurred through the binding of the agonist d-serine to the glycine-binding site of NMDA receptors. This result demonstrates that in the hippocampus, the co-agonist sites of NMDA receptors are not endogenously saturated under our experimental conditions, suggesting an important role of d-serine in the modulation of receptor function in the hippocampus.

  13. Synthetic FXR agonist GW4064 is a modulator of multiple G protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nidhi; Yadav, Manisha; Singh, Abhishek Kumar; Kumar, Harish; Dwivedi, Shailendra Kumar Dhar; Mishra, Jay Sharan; Gurjar, Anagha; Manhas, Amit; Chandra, Sharat; Yadav, Prem Narayan; Jagavelu, Kumaravelu; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Trivedi, Arun Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Sanyal, Sabyasachi

    2014-05-01

    The synthetic nuclear bile acid receptor (farnesoid X receptor [FXR]) agonist GW4064 is extensively used as a specific pharmacological tool to illustrate FXR functions. We noticed that GW4064 activated empty luciferase reporters in FXR-deficient HEK-293T cells. We postulated that this activity of GW4064 might be routed through as yet unknown cellular targets and undertook an unbiased exploratory approach to identify these targets. Investigations revealed that GW4064 activated cAMP and nuclear factor for activated T-cell response elements (CRE and NFAT-RE, respectively) present on these empty reporters. Whereas GW4064-induced NFAT-RE activation involved rapid intracellular Ca(2+) accumulation and NFAT nuclear translocation, CRE activation involved soluble adenylyl cyclase-dependent cAMP accumulation and Ca(2+)-calcineurin-dependent nuclear translocation of transducers of regulated CRE-binding protein 2. Use of dominant negative heterotrimeric G-protein minigenes revealed that GW4064 caused activation of Gαi/o and Gq/11 G proteins. Sequential pharmacological inhibitor-based screening and radioligand-binding studies revealed that GW4064 interacted with multiple G protein-coupled receptors. Functional studies demonstrated that GW4064 robustly activated H1 and H4 and inhibited H2 histamine receptor signaling events. We also found that MCF-7 breast cancer cells, reported to undergo GW4064-induced apoptosis in an FXR-dependent manner, did not express FXR, and the GW4064-mediated apoptosis, also apparent in HEK-293T cells, could be blocked by selective histamine receptor regulators. Taken together, our results demonstrate identification of histamine receptors as alternate targets for GW4064, which not only necessitates cautious interpretation of the biological functions attributed to FXR using GW4064 as a pharmacological tool but also provides a basis for the rational designing of new pharmacophores for histamine receptor modulation.

  14. Characterization of a new peptide agonist of the protease-activated receptor-1.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yingying; Jin, Jianguo; Kunapuli, Satya P

    2008-01-15

    A new peptide (TFRRRLSRATR), derived from the c-terminal of human platelet P2Y(1) receptor, was synthesized and its biological function was evaluated. This peptide activated platelets in a concentration-dependent manner, causing shape change, aggregation, secretion and calcium mobilization. Of the several receptor antagonists tested, only BMS200261, a protease activated receptor 1 (PAR-1) specific antagonist, totally abolished the peptide-induced platelet aggregation, secretion and calcium mobilization. The TFRRR-peptide-pretreated washed platelets failed to aggregate in response to SFLLRN (10 microM) but not to AYPGKF (500 microM). In addition, in mouse platelets, peptide concentrations up to 600 microM failed to cause platelet activation, indicating that the TFRRR-peptide activated platelets through the PAR-1 receptor, rather than through the PAR-4 receptor. The shape change induced by 10 microM peptide was totally abolished by Y-27632, an inhibitor of p160(ROCK) which is a downstream mediator of G12/13 pathways. The TFRRR-peptide, YFLLRNP, and the physiological agonist thrombin selectively activated G12/13 pathways at low concentrations and began to activate both Gq and G12/13 pathways with increasing concentrations. Similar to SFLLRN, the TFRRR-peptide caused phosphorylation of Akt and Erk in a P2Y(12) receptor-dependent manner, and p-38 MAP kinase activation in a P2Y(12)-independent manner. The effects of this peptide are elicited by the first six amino acids (TFRRRL) whereas the remaining peptide (LSRATR), TFERRN, or TFEERN had no effects on platelets. We conclude that TFRRRL activates human platelets through PAR-1 receptors. PMID:17950254

  15. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptor-1 Selective Agonist Enhances Collateral Growth and Protects against Subsequent Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ichijo, Masahiko; Ishibashi, Satoru; Li, Fuying; Yui, Daishi; Miki, Kazunori; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Yokota, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Collateral growth after acute occlusion of an intracranial artery is triggered by increasing shear stress in preexisting collateral pathways. Recently, sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1PR1) on endothelial cells was reported to be essential in sensing fluid shear stress. Here, we evaluated the expression of S1PR1 in the hypoperfused mouse brain and investigated the effect of a selective S1PR1 agonist on leptomeningeal collateral growth and subsequent ischemic damage after focal ischemia. Methods In C57Bl/6 mice (n = 133) subjected to unilateral common carotid occlusion (CCAO) and sham surgery. The first series examined the time course of collateral growth, cell proliferation, and S1PR1 expression in the leptomeningeal arteries after CCAO. The second series examined the relationship between pharmacological regulation of S1PR1 and collateral growth of leptomeningeal anastomoses. Animals were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: LtCCAO and daily intraperitoneal (ip) injection for 7 days of an S1PR1 selective agonist (SEW2871, 5 mg/kg/day); sham surgery and daily ip injection for 7 days of SEW2871 after surgery; LtCCAO and daily ip injection for 7 days of SEW2871 and an S1PR1 inverse agonist (VPC23019, 0.5 mg/kg); LtCCAO and daily ip injection of DMSO for 7 days after surgery; and sham surgery and daily ip injection of DMSO for 7 days. Leptomeningeal anastomoses were visualized 14 days after LtCCAO by latex perfusion method, and a set of animals underwent subsequent permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) 7days after the treatment termination. Neurological functions 1hour, 1, 4, and 7days and infarction volume 7days after pMCAO were evaluated. Results In parallel with the increase in S1PR1 mRNA levels, S1PR1 expression colocalized with endothelial cell markers in the leptomeningeal arteries, increased markedly on the side of the CCAO, and peaked 7 days after CCAO. Mitotic cell numbers in the leptomeningeal arteries

  16. Novel fluorescent antagonist as a molecular probe in A(3) adenosine receptor binding assays using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Eszter; Kumar, T Santhosh; Federico, Stephanie; Phan, Khai; Balasubramanian, Ramachandran; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Paoletta, Silvia; Moro, Stefano; Spalluto, Giampiero; Jacobson, Kenneth A

    2012-06-01

    The physiological role of the A(3) adenosine receptor (AR) was explored in cardiac ischaemia, inflammatory diseases and cancer. We report a new fluorophore-conjugated human (h) A(3)AR antagonist for application to cell-based assays in ligand discovery and for receptor imaging. Fluorescent pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidin-5-ylamine (pyrazolo-triazolo-pyrimidine, PTP) and triazolo[1,5-c]quinazolin-5-yl)amine (triazolo-quinazoline, TQ) AR antagonists were compared. A chain-extended and click-conjugated Alexa Fluor-488 TQ derivative (MRS5449) displayed a radioligand binding K(i) value of 6.4±2.5nM in hA(3)AR-expressing CHO cell membranes. MRS5449 antagonized hA(3)AR agonist-induced inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner (K(B)=4.8nM). Using flow cytometry (FCM), MRS5449 saturated hA(3)ARs with very high specific-to-nonspecific binding ratio with an equilibrium binding constant 5.15nM, comparable to the K(d) value of 6.65nM calculated from kinetic experiments. K(i) values of known AR antagonists in inhibition of MRS5449 binding in whole cell FCM were consistent with radioligand binding in membranes, but agonist binding was 5-20 fold weaker than obtained with agonist radioligand [(125)I]I-AB-MECA. Further binding analysis of MRS5549 suggested multiple agonist binding states of the A(3)AR. Molecular docking predicted binding modes of these fluorescent antagonists. Thus, MRS5449 is a useful tool for hA(3)AR characterization.

  17. Novel Fluorescent Antagonist as a Molecular Probe in A3 Adenosine Receptor Binding Assays Using Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Kozma, Eszter; Kumar, T. Santhosh; Federico, Stephanie; Phan, Khai; Balasubramanian, Ramachandran; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Paoletta, Silvia; Moro, Stefano; Spalluto, Giampiero; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    The physiological role of the A3 adenosine receptor (AR) was explored in cardiac ischaemia, inflammatory diseases and cancer. We report a new fluorophore-conjugated human (h) A3AR antagonist for application to cell-based assays in ligand discovery and for receptor imaging. Fluorescent pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidin-5-ylamine (pyrazolo-triazolo-pyrimidine, PTP) and triazolo[1,5-c]quinazolin-5-yl)amine (triazolo-quinazoline, TQ) AR antagonists were compared. A chain-extended and click-conjugated Alexa Fluor-488 TQ derivative (MRS5449) displayed a radioligand binding Ki value of 6.4 ± 2.5 nM in hA3AR-expressing CHO cell membranes. MRS5449 antagonized hA3AR agonist-induced inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner (KB 4.8 nM). Using flow cytometry (FCM), MRS5449 saturated hA3ARs with very high specific-to-nonspecific binding ratio with an equilibrium binding constant 5.15 nM, comparable to the Kd value of 6.65 nM calculated from kinetic experiments. Ki values of known AR antagonists in inhibition of MRS5449 binding in whole cell FCM were consistent with radioligand binding in membranes, but agonist binding was 5–20 fold weaker than obtained with agonist radioligand [125I]I-AB-MECA. Further binding analysis of MRS5549 suggested multiple agonist binding states of the A3AR. Molecular docking predicted binding modes of these fluorescent antagonists. Thus, MRS5449 is a useful tool for hA3AR characterization. PMID:22402302

  18. Exploring amino acids derivatives as potent, selective, and direct agonists of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor subtype-1.

    PubMed

    Evindar, Ghotas; Deng, Hongfeng; Bernier, Sylvie G; Doyle, Elisabeth; Lorusso, Jeanine; Morgan, Barry A; Westlin, William F

    2013-01-15

    In the quest to discover a potent and selective class of direct agonists to the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor, we explored the carboxylate functional group as a replacement to previously reported lead phosphates. This has led to the discovery of potent and selective direct agonists with moderate to substantial in vivo lymphopenia. The previously reported selectivity enhancing moiety (SEM) and selectivity enhancing orientation (SEO) in the phenylamide and phenylimidazole scaffolds were crucial to obtaining selectivity for S1P receptor subtype 1 over 3. PMID:23245510

  19. Agonist-dependent modulation of cell surface expression of the cold receptor TRPM8.

    PubMed

    Toro, Carlos A; Eger, Stephanie; Veliz, Luis; Sotelo-Hitschfeld, Pamela; Cabezas, Deny; Castro, Maite A; Zimmermann, Katharina; Brauchi, Sebastian

    2015-01-14

    The spatial and temporal distribution of receptors constitutes an important mechanism for controlling the magnitude of cellular responses. Several members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel family can regulate their function by modulating their expression at the plasma membrane (PM) through rapid vesicular translocation and fusion. The mechanisms underlying this regulation are not completely understood, and the contribution of vesicular trafficking to physiological function is unknown. TRPM8 receptors are expressed in mammalian peripheral sensory neurons and are essential for the detection of cold temperatures. Previously, we showed that TRPM8-containing vesicles are segregated into three main pools, immobile at the PM, simple diffusive and corralled-hopping. Here, we show that channel expression at the PM is modulated by TRPM8 agonists in F11 and HEK293T cells. Our results support a model in which the activation of TRPM8 channels, located at the PM, induces a short-lived recruitment of a TRPM8-containing vesicular pool to the cell surface causing a transitory increase in the number of functional channels, affecting intrinsic properties of cold receptor responses. We further demonstrate the requirement of intact vesicular trafficking to support sustained cold responses in the skin of mice. PMID:25589752

  20. Peripheral Administration of a Long-Acting Peptide Oxytocin Receptor Agonist Inhibits Fear-Induced Freezing

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Meera E.; Majchrzak, Mark J.; Fonseca, Kari R.; Doran, Angela; Osgood, Sarah; Vanase-Frawley, Michelle; Feyfant, Eric; McInnes, Heather; Darvari, Ramin; Buhl, Derek L.

    2016-01-01

    Oxytocin (OT) modulates the expression of social and emotional behaviors and consequently has been proposed as a pharmacologic treatment of psychiatric diseases, including autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia; however, endogenous OT has a short half-life in plasma and poor permeability across the blood-brain barrier. Recent efforts have focused on the development of novel drug delivery methods to enhance brain penetration, but few efforts have aimed at improving its half-life. To explore the behavioral efficacy of an OT analog with enhanced plasma stability, we developed PF-06655075 (PF1), a novel non–brain-penetrant OT receptor agonist with increased selectivity for the OT receptor and significantly increased pharmacokinetic stability. PF-06478939 was generated with only increased stability to disambiguate changes to selectivity versus stability. The efficacy of these compounds in evoking behavioral effects was tested in a conditioned fear paradigm. Both central and peripheral administration of PF1 inhibited freezing in response to a conditioned fear stimulus. Peripheral administration of PF1 resulted in a sustained level of plasma concentrations for greater than 20 hours but no detectable accumulation in brain tissue, suggesting that plasma or cerebrospinal fluid exposure was sufficient to evoke behavioral effects. Behavioral efficacy of peripherally administered OT receptor agonists on conditioned fear response opens the door to potential peripheral mechanisms in other behavioral paradigms, whether they are mediated by direct peripheral activation or feed-forward responses. Compound PF1 is freely available as a tool compound to further explore the role of peripheral OT in behavioral response. PMID:27217590

  1. Exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, reduces intimal thickening after vascular injury

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, Hiromasa; Nomiyama, Takashi; Mita, Tomoya; Yasunari, Eisuke; Azuma, Kosuke; Komiya, Koji; Arakawa, Masayuki; Jin, Wen Long; Kanazawa, Akio; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Fujitani, Yoshio; Hirose, Takahisa; Watada, Hirotaka

    2011-02-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Exendin-4 reduces neointimal formation after vascular injury in a mouse model. {yields} Exendin-4 dose not alter metabolic parameters in non-diabetic, non-obese mouse model. {yields} Exendin-4 reduces PDGF-induced cell proliferation in cultured SMCs. {yields} Exendin-4 may reduces neointimal formation after vascular injury at least in part through its direct action on SMCs. -- Abstract: Glucagon-like peptide-1 is a hormone secreted by L cells of the small intestine and stimulates glucose-dependent insulin response. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists such as exendin-4 are currently used in type 2 diabetes, and considered to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. To further elucidate the effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists on cardiovascular diseases, we investigated the effects of exendin-4 on intimal thickening after endothelial injury. Under continuous infusion of exendin-4 at 24 nmol/kg/day, C57BL/6 mice were subjected to endothelial denudation injury of the femoral artery. Treatment of mice with exendin-4 reduced neointimal formation at 4 weeks after arterial injury without altering body weight or various metabolic parameters. In addition, in vitro studies of isolated murine, rat and human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells showed the expression of GLP-1 receptor. The addition of 10 nM exendin-4 to cultured smooth muscle cells significantly reduced their proliferation induced by platelet-derived growth factor. Our results suggested that exendin-4 reduced intimal thickening after vascular injury at least in part by the suppression of platelet-derived growth factor-induced smooth muscle cells proliferation.

  2. Biophysical properties and responses to glutamate receptor agonists of identified subpopulations of rat geniculate ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    King, M S; Bradley, R M

    2000-06-01

    The goal of the current study was to evaluate the electrophysiological properties and responses to glutamate receptor agonists of rat geniculate ganglion (GG) neurons innervating the tongue. Subpopulations of GG neurons were labeled by injecting Fluoro-Gold (FG) or True Blue chloride into the anterior tongue and soft palate (AT and SP neurons) and applying FG crystals to the posterior auricular branch of the facial nerve (PA neurons). Three to 12 days later, the GG neurons were acutely isolated and patch clamped. Although many biophysical properties of the AT, SP and PA neurons were similar, significant differences were found among these groups in properties related to cell excitability. For example, the average amount of current necessary to elicit an action potential was 61 pA in AT neurons (n=55), 90 pA in SP neurons (n=41) and 189 pA in PA neurons (n=35, P<0.001). In addition, AT neurons tended to fire significantly more action potentials during depolarization as well as following hyperpolarizing pulses than SP or PA neuron types. Most GG neurons responded to application of glutamate receptor agonists. The neurons responded with a depolarization accompanied by a reduction in input resistance. These results suggest that subpopulations of neurons in the geniculate ganglion have distinct biophysical properties and express functional glutamate receptors. The differing biophysical properties of GG neurons is possibly related to their functional heterogeneity and glutaminergic neurotransmission may function in the processing of gustatory, and other sensory information, within the geniculate ganglion and its projections. PMID:10825499

  3. D(3) and D(2) dopamine receptor agonists differentially modulate isolation-induced social-emotional reactivity in mice.

    PubMed

    Gendreau, P L; Petitto, J M; Petrova, A; Gariépy, J; Lewis, M H

    2000-09-01

    Following isolation housing, mice typically exhibit heightened emotional reactivity to mild social stimulation. Aggression, social avoidance and a variety of defensive behaviors that differ in terms of motor activation (e.g. freezing, escape) can be observed depending on strain. Previous studies suggested that D(2)-like dopamine (DA) receptors play an important, albeit strain specific, role in the mediation of particular forms of defensive behavior. D(3) receptors are subtypes of D(2)-like receptors that are highly expressed in limbic areas of the brain and, therefore, they have been hypothesized to mediate emotional behavior. This study examined the effects of the putative D(3) receptor agonists 7-OH-DPAT and PD128907 on social-emotional behavior in isolated C57BL/6J and A/J mice. These effects were compared with those of the selective D(2) receptor agonist PNU91356A. All three DA agonists increased non-locomotor forms of defensive behavior (e.g. freezing, upright defensive posture). These effects were observed at low doses in C57BL/6J and at higher doses in A/J mice. Only the D(3) receptor agonists were effective in increasing locomotor forms of defensive behavior (i.e. escape, jump) at higher doses. These effects were more pronounced in C57BL/6J mice than A/J mice. The increases in stationary and locomotor defensive behavior were accompanied by marked reduction in social investigation in both the strains. Aggressive behavior was also abolished in the aggressive C57BL/6J strain. These results support previous findings and suggest that DA agonists potentiate defensive behavior and/or social fearfulness. They also suggest that D(3) and D(2) DA receptors differentially modulate the expression of social-emotional reactivity and indicate the importance of strain in examining the effects of DA ligands on emotional behavior.

  4. Activation of Cyclic AMP Synthesis by Full and Partial Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Agonists in Chicken Skeletal Muscle Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. B.; Bridge, K. Y.

    2003-01-01

    Several beta-adrenergic receptor (bAR) agonists are known to cause hypertrophy of skeletal muscle tissue. Accordingly, five bAR agonists encompassing a range in activity from strong to weak were evaluated for their ability to stimulate CAMP accumulation in embryonic chicken skeletal muscle cells in culture. Two strong agonists (epinephrine and isoproterenol), one moderate agonist (albuterol), and two weak agonists known to cause hypertrophy in animals (clenbuterol and cimaterol) were studied. Dose response curves were determined over six orders of magnitude in concentration for each agonist, and values were determined for their maximum stimulation of CAMP synthesis rate (Bmax) and the agonist concentration at which 50% stimulation of CAMP synthesis (EC50) occurred. Bmax values decreased in the following order: isoproterenol, epinephrine, albuterol, cimaterol, clenbuterol. Cimaterol and clenbuterol at their Bmax concentrations were approximately 15-fold weaker than isoproterenol in stimulating the rate of CAMP synthesis. When cimaterol and clenbuterol were added to culture media at concentrations known to cause significant muscle hypertrophy in animals, there was no detectable effect on stimulation of CAMP synthesis. Finally, these same levels of cimaterol and clenbuterol did not antagonize the stimulation of CAMP by either epinephrine or isoproterenol.

  5. Activation of Cyclic AMP Synthesis by Full and Partial Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Agonists in Chicken Skeletal Muscle Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. B.; Bridge, K. Y.; Cureri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Several beta-adrenergic receptor (bAR) agonists are known to cause hypertrophy of skeletal muscle tissue. Accordingly, five bAR agonists encompassing a range in activity from strong to weak were evaluated for their ability to stimulate cAMP accumulation in embryonic chicken skeletal muscle cells in culture. Two strong agonists (epinephrine and isoproterenol), one moderate agonist (albuterol), and two weak agonists known to cause hypertrophy in animals (clenbuterol and cimaterol) were studied. Dose response curves were determined over six orders of magnitude in concentration for each agonist, and values were determined for their maximum stimulation of cAMP synthesis rate (Bmax) and the agonist concentration at which 50% stimulation of cAMP synthesis (EC50) occurred. Bmax values decreased in the following order: isoproterenol, epinephrine, albuterol, cimaterol, clenbuterol. Cimaterol and clenbuterol at their Bmax concentrations were approximately 15-fold weaker than isoproterenol in stimulating the rate of cAMP synthesis. When cimaterol and clenbuterol were added to culture media at concentrations known to cause significant muscle hypertrophy in animals, there was no detectable effect on stimulation of cAMP synthesis. Finally, these same levels of cimaterol and clenbuterol did not antagonize the stimulation of cAMP by either epinephrine or isoproterenol.

  6. Letter: Iatrogenic lipomatosis: a rare manifestation of treatment with a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist.

    PubMed

    Femia, Alisa; Klein, Peter A

    2010-04-15

    Lipomas are common benign neoplasms of adipose tissue. Lipomatosis, the progressive appearance of multiple lipomas, is most often associated with specific congenital, familial, or idiopathic syndromes. In one reported case, the development of multiple lipomas occurred as a result of treatment with rosiglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma agonist. We report a second case of lipomatosis occurring as a result of treatment with a PPAR gamma agonist. This case occurred in a 77-year-old woman who developed multiple lipomas two years after beginning treatment with pioglitazone, a PPAR gamma agonist. Histopathologic examination confirmed these lesions to be lipomas. Within four weeks of discontinuation of pioglitazone, regression of the lipomas began. We describe a case of PPAR agonist-induced lipoma formation, review relevant literature, and provide a molecular mechanism for this side effect.

  7. Fragmentation of GW4064 led to a highly potent partial farnesoid X receptor agonist with improved drug-like properties.

    PubMed

    Flesch, Daniel; Gabler, Matthias; Lill, Andreas; Gomez, Roberto Carrasco; Steri, Ramona; Schneider, Gisbert; Stark, Holger; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Merk, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The ligand activated transcription factor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a crucial regulator of several metabolic and inflammatory pathways and its activation by agonistic ligands seems a valuable therapeutic approach for many disorders. Most known non-steroidal FXR agonists however, have limitations that hinder their clinical development and novel FXR ligands are required. Evaluation of the co-crystal structures of the widely used FXR agonist GW4064 and related compounds in complex with the FXR ligand binding domain indicated that their disubstituted isoxazole moiety is especially relevant for FXR activation. By investigation of GW4064-fragments missing the aromatic tail, we discovered a highly potent and soluble partial FXR agonist (14, ST-1892) as well as a fluorescent FXR ligand (15) as potential pharmacological tool.

  8. Effect of α₇ nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists and antagonists on motor function in mice.

    PubMed

    Welch, Kevin D; Pfister, James A; Lima, Flavia G; Green, Benedict T; Gardner, Dale R

    2013-02-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated cation channels found throughout the body, and serve to mediate diverse physiological functions. Muscle-type nAChRs located in the motor endplate region of muscle fibers play an integral role in muscle contraction and thus motor function. The toxicity and teratogenicity of many plants (which results in millions of dollars in losses annually to the livestock industry) are due to various toxins that bind to nAChRs including deltaline and methyllycaconitine (MLA) from larkspur (Delphinium) species, and nicotine and anabasine from tobacco (Nicotiana) species. The primary result of the actions of these alkaloids at nAChRs is neuromuscular paralysis and respiratory failure. The objective of this study was to further characterize the motor coordination deficiencies that occur upon exposure to a non-lethal dose of nAChR antagonists MLA and deltaline as well as nAChR agonists nicotine and anabasine. We evaluated the effect of nAChR agonists and antagonists on the motor function and coordination in mice using a balance beam, grip strength meter, rotarod, open field analysis and tremor monitor. These analyses demonstrated that within seconds after treatment the mice had significant loss of motor function and coordination that lasted up to 1 min, followed by a short period of quiescence. Recovery to normal muscle coordination was rapid, typically within approximately 10 min post-dosing. However, mice treated with the nAChR agonist nicotine and anabasine required a slightly longer time to recover some aspects of normal muscle function in comparison to mice treated with the nAChR antagonist MLA or deltaline.

  9. Effects of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated ReceptorAgonist on Cardiac Healing after Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Rang; Ahn, Jong Hwa; Jung, Myeong Hee; Koh, Jin-Sin; Park, Yongwhi; Hwang, Seok-Jae; Jeong, Young-Hoon; Kwak, Choong Hwan; Lee, Young Soo; Seo, Han Geuk; Kim, Jin Hyun; Hwang, Jin-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta (PPAR-δ)-dependent signaling is associated with rapid wound healing in the skin. Here, we investigated the therapeutic effects of PPAR-δ-agonist treatment on cardiac healing in post-myocardial infarction (MI) rats. Animals were assigned to the following groups: sham-operated control group, left anterior descending coronary artery ligation (MI) group, or MI with administration of the PPAR-δ agonist GW610742 group. GW610742 (1 mg/kg) was administrated intraperitoneally after the operation and repeated every 3 days. Echocardiographic data showed no differences between the two groups in terms of cardiac function and remodeling until 4 weeks. However, the degrees of angiogenesis and fibrosis after MI were significantly higher in the GW610742-treated rats than in the untreated MI rats at 1 week following MI, which changes were not different at 2 weeks after MI. Naturally, PPAR-δ expression in infarcted myocardium was highest increased in 3 day after MI and then disappeared in 14 day after MI. GW610742 increased myofibroblast differentiation and transforming growth factor-beta 2 expression in the infarct zone at 7 days after MI. GW610742 also increased bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) recruitment in whole myocardium, and increased serum platelet-derived growth factor B, stromal-derived factor-1 alpha, and matrix metallopeptidase 9 levels at day 3 after MI. PPAR-δ agonists treatment have the temporal effect on early fibrosis of infarcted myocardium, which might not sustain the functional and structural beneficial effect. PMID:26862756

  10. NEURONAL NICOTINIC RECEPTOR AGONISTS FOR THE TREATMENT OF ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER: FOCUS ON COGNITION

    PubMed Central

    Wilens, Timothy E.; Decker, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed neurobehavioral disorder in children and adolescents, and in about half of these patients, significant symptomology continues into adulthood. Although impulsivity and hyperactivity are the most salient features of ADHD, cognitive deficits, particularly impairments in attention and executive function, are an important component, particularly in adolescents and adults, with over 90% of adults seeking treatment for ADHD manifesting cognitive dysfunction. Currently available medications treat the core ADHD symptoms but typically do not adequately address cognitive aspects of ADHD, underscoring the need for new therapeutics. Dopamine and norepinephrine are hypothesized to be particularly important in ADHD, but there is emerging evidence that cholinergic neurotransmission, particularly involving neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), may play a role in the pathophysiology of ADHD. Nicotine has demonstrated procognitive effects in both humans and experimental animals and has produced signals of efficacy in small proof-of-concept adult ADHD trials. Although adverse effects associated with nicotine preclude its development as a therapeutic, a number of novel nAChR agonists with improved safety/tolerability profiles have been discovered. Of these, ABT-418 and ABT-089 have both demonstrated signals of efficacy in adults with ADHD. Notably, tolerability issues that might be expected of a nAChR agonist, such as nausea and emesis, were not observed at efficacious doses of ABT-089. Further understanding of the effects of novel neuronal nAChR agonists on specific aspects of cognitive functioning in ADHD is required to assess the full potential of this approach. PMID:17689498

  11. Novel Small Molecule Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist Stimulates Insulin Secretion in Rodents and From Human Islets

    PubMed Central

    Sloop, Kyle W.; Willard, Francis S.; Brenner, Martin B.; Ficorilli, James; Valasek, Kathleen; Showalter, Aaron D.; Farb, Thomas B.; Cao, Julia X.C.; Cox, Amy L.; Michael, M. Dodson; Gutierrez Sanfeliciano, Sonia Maria; Tebbe, Mark J.; Coghlan, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The clinical effectiveness of parenterally-administered glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mimetics to improve glucose control in patients suffering from type 2 diabetes strongly supports discovery pursuits aimed at identifying and developing orally active, small molecule GLP-1 receptor agonists. The purpose of these studies was to identify and characterize novel nonpeptide agonists of the GLP-1 receptor. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Screening using cells expressing the GLP-1 receptor and insulin secretion assays with rodent and human islets were used to identify novel molecules. The intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and hyperglycemic clamp characterized the insulinotropic effects of compounds in vivo. RESULTS Novel low molecular weight pyrimidine-based compounds that activate the GLP-1 receptor and stimulate glucose-dependent insulin secretion are described. These molecules induce GLP-1 receptor-mediated cAMP signaling in HEK293 cells expressing the GLP-1 receptor and increase insulin secretion from rodent islets in a dose-dependent manner. The compounds activate GLP-1 receptor signaling, both alone or in an additive fashion when combined with the endogenous GLP-1 peptide; however, these agonists do not compete with radiolabeled GLP-1 in receptor-binding assays. In vivo studies using the IVGTT and the hyperglycemic clamp in Sprague Dawley rats demonstrate increased insulin secretion in compound-treated animals. Further, perifusion assays with human islets isolated from a donor with type 2 diabetes show near-normalization of insulin secretion upon compound treatment. CONCLUSIONS These studies characterize the insulinotropic effects of an early-stage, small molecule GLP-1 receptor agonist and provide compelling evidence to support pharmaceutical optimization. PMID:20823098

  12. 5-Hydroxytryptamine(1F) receptors do not participate in vasoconstriction: lack of vasoconstriction to LY344864, a selective serotonin(1F) receptor agonist in rabbit saphenous vein.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M L; Schenck, K

    1999-09-01

    Recently, several novel approaches to the treatment of migraine have been advanced, including selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (or serotonin) 1B/1D (5-HT(1B/1D)) receptor agonists such as sumatriptan and 5-HT(1F) receptor agonists such as LY344864. Many 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor agonists have been identified based on their ability to produce cerebral vascular contraction, whereas LY344864 was identified as an inhibitor of trigeminal nerve-mediated dural extravasation. In our study, several triptan derivatives were compared with LY344864 for their ability to contract the rabbit saphenous vein, a tissue used in the preclinical identification of sumatriptan-related agonists. Sumatriptan, zolmitriptan, rizatriptan, and naratriptan all contracted the rabbit saphenous vein from baseline tone, whereas LY344864 in concentrations up to 10(-4) M did not contract the rabbit saphenous vein. Furthermore, vascular contractions to sumatriptan were markedly augmented in the presence of prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)). However, even in the presence of PGF(2alpha) (3 x 10(-7) M), LY344864 did not contract the rabbit saphenous vein in concentrations well in excess of its 5-HT(1F) receptor affinity (pK(i) = 8.2). Only when concentrations exceeded those likely to activate 5-HT(1B) and 5-HT(1D) receptors (>10(-5) M) did modest contractile responses occur in the presence of PGF(2alpha). Use of these serotonergic agonists revealed a significant correlation between the contractile potency in the rabbit saphenous vein and the affinities of these agonists at 5-HT(1B) and 5-HT(1D) receptors, although contractile agonist potencies were not quantitatively similar to 5-HT(1B) or 5-HT(1D) receptor affinities. In contrast, no significant correlation existed between the contractile potencies of these serotonergic agonists in the rabbit saphenous vein and their affinity at 5-HT(1F) receptors. These data support the contention that activation of 5-HT(1F) receptors will not result in vascular

  13. (+)Lysergic acid diethylamide, but not its nonhallucinogenic congeners, is a potent serotonin 5HT1C receptor agonist

    SciTech Connect

    Burris, K.D.; Breeding, M.; Sanders-Bush, E. )

    1991-09-01

    Activation of central serotonin 5HT2 receptors is believed to be the primary mechanism whereby lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and other hallucinogens induce psychoactive effects. This hypothesis is based on extensive radioligand binding and electrophysiological and behavioral studies in laboratory animals. However, the pharmacological profiles of 5HT2 and 5HT1C receptors are similar, making it difficult to distinguish between effects due to activation of one or the other receptor. For this reason, it was of interest to investigate the interaction of LSD with 5HT1C receptors. Agonist-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis in rat choroid plexus was used as a direct measure of 5HT1C receptor activation. (+)LSD potently stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis in intact choroid plexus and in cultures of choroid plexus epithelial cells, with EC50 values of 9 and 26 nM, respectively. The effect of (+)LSD in both systems was blocked by 5HT receptor antagonists with an order of activity consistent with interaction at 5HT1C receptors. Neither (+)-2-bromo-LSD nor lisuride, two nonhallucinogenic congeners of LSD, were able to stimulate 5HT1C receptors in cultured cells or intact choroid plexus. In contrast, lisuride, like (+)LSD, is a partial agonist at 5HT2 receptors in cerebral cortex slices and in NIH 3T3 cells transfected with 5HT2 receptor cDNA. The present finding that (+)LSD, but not its nonhallucinogenic congeners, is a 5HT1C receptor agonist suggests a possible role for these receptors in mediating the psychoactive effects of LSD.

  14. Berberine is a potent agonist of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huarong; Li, Changqing; Yang, Junqing; Zhang, Tao; Zhou, Qixin

    2016-01-01

    Although berberine has hypolipidemic effects with a high affinity to nuclear proteins, the underlying molecular mechanism for this effect remains unclear. Here, we determine whether berberine is an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), with a lipid-lowering effect. The cell-based reporter gene analysis showed that berberine selectively activates PPARalpha (EC50 =0.58 mM, Emax =102.4). The radioligand binding assay shows that berberine binds directly to the ligand-binding domain of PPARalpha (Ki=0.73 mM) with similar affinity to fenofibrate. The mRNA and protein levels of CPT-Ialpha gene from HepG2 cells and hyperlipidemic rat liver are remarkably up-regulated by berberine, and this effect can be blocked by MK886, a non-competitive antagonist of PPARalpha. A comparison assay in which berberine and fenofibrate were used to treat hyperlipidaemic rats for three months shows that these drugs produce similar lipid-lowering effects, except that berberine increases high-density lipoprotein cholesterol more effectively than fenofibrate. These findings provide the first evidence that berberine is a potent agonist of PPARalpha and seems to be superior to fenofibrate for treating hyperlipidemia. PMID:27100490

  15. Potential Use of Nicotinic Receptor Agonists for the Treatment of Chemotherapy-Induced Cognitive Deficits.

    PubMed

    Philpot, Rex M

    2015-10-01

    Over the past several decades, research in both humans and animals has established the existence of persistent cognitive deficits resulting from exposure to chemotherapeutic agents. Nevertheless, there has been very little research addressing the treatment of chemotherapy-induced cognitive deficits and there is currently no approved treatment for this condition, often referred to as 'chemo-brain.' Several drugs that enhance cholinergic function and/or increase nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) activity have been demonstrated to improve cognitive performance and/or reverse cognitive deficits in animals, findings that have led to the use of these compounds to treat the cognitive deficits present in a variety of disorders including attention deficit disorder, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. Although nAChR agonists have not been assessed for their efficacy in treating chemotherapy-induced cognitive deficits, these drugs have been shown to produce measureable increases in performance on several behavioral tasks known to be disrupted by exposure to chemotherapeutic agents. While the processes underlying chemotherapy-induced cognitive deficits may differ from those underlying other disorders, there appears to be a broad spectrum of application for the use of nAChR agonists to improve cognitive function. Therefore, studies examining the use of these drugs in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced cognitive deficits should be conducted as they may be of benefit for the treatment of 'chemo-brain.' PMID:25652578

  16. Procaine rapidly inactivates acetylcholine receptors from Torpedo and competes with agonist for inhibition sites

    SciTech Connect

    Forman, S.A.; Miller, K.W. )

    1989-02-21

    The relationship between the high-affinity procaine channel inhibition site and the agonist self-inhibition site on acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) from Torpedo electroplaque was investigated by using rapid {sup 86}Rb{sup +} quenched-flux assays at 4 {degree}C in native AChR-rich vesicles on which 50-60% of ACh activation sites were blocked with {alpha}-bungarotoxin ({alpha}-BTX). In the presence of channel-activating acetylcholine (ACh) concentrations alone, AChR undergoes one phase of inactivation in under a second. Addition of procaine produces two-phase inactivation similar to that seen with self-inhibiting ACh concentrations rapid inactivation complete in 30-75 ms is followed by fast desensitization at the same k{sub d} observed without procaine. The dependence of k{sub r} on (procaine) is consistent with a bimolecular association between procaine and its AChR site. Inhibition of AChR function by mixtures of procaine plus self-inhibiting concentrations of ACh or suberyldicholine was studied by reducing the level of {alpha}-BTX block in vesicles. The data support a mechanism where procaine binds preferentially to the open-channel AChR state, since no procaine-induced inactivation is observed without agonist and k{sub r}'s dependence on (ACh) in channel-activating range closely parallels that of {sup 86}Rb{sup +} flux response to ACh.

  17. Insight into the Binding Mode of Agonists of the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor from Calculated Electron Densities

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Michael E; Gutbrod, Oliver; Matthiesen, Svend

    2015-01-01

    Insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are among the most prominent and most economically important insecticide targets. Thus, an understanding of the modes of binding of respective agonists is important for the design of specific compounds with favorable vertebrate profiles. In the case of nAChRs, the lack of available high-resolution X-ray structures leaves theoretical considerations as the only viable option. Starting from classical homology and docking approaches, binding mode hypotheses are created for five agonists of the nAChR, covering insecticides in the main group 4 of the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) mode of action (MoA) classification, namely, neonicotinoids, nicotine, sulfoxaflor, and butenolides. To better understand these binding modes, the topologies of calculated electron densities of small-model systems are analyzed in the framework of the quantum theory of atoms in molecules. The theoretically obtained modes of binding are very much in line with the biology-driven IRAC MoA classification of the investigated ligands. PMID:26175091

  18. Neuronal nicotinic receptor agonists: a multi-approach development of the pharmacophore.

    PubMed

    Nicolotti, O; Pellegrini-Calace, M; Carrieri, A; Altomare, C; Centeno, N B; Sanz, F; Carotti, A

    2001-09-01

    Based on the results obtained with different automated computational approaches as applied to the study of eleven high-affinity agonists of the neuronal nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), belonging to different chemical classes, new relevant features were detected which complement the existing pharmacophores. Convergent results from DISCO (Distance Comparison), QXP (Quick Explore), Catalyst/HipHop, and MIPSIM (Molecular Interaction Potential Similarity) allowed us to identify and locate, in a well defined spatial arrangement, three geometrically independent key structural features: (i) a positively charged nitrogen atom for ionic or hydrogen bond interactions, (ii) a lone pair of the pyridine nitrogen or a specific lone pair of a carbonyl oxygen, as a hydrogen bond acceptor, and (iii) a centre of a hydrophobic area generally occupied by aliphatic cycles. The pharmacophore presented herein, along with predictive 2D and 3D QSAR models recently developed in our group, could represent valuable computational tools for the design of new nAChR agonists having therapeutical potential. PMID:11776295

  19. Neuronal nicotinic receptor agonists: a multi-approach development of the pharmacophore.

    PubMed

    Nicolotti, O; Pellegrini-Calace, M; Carrieri, A; Altomare, C; Centeno, N B; Sanz, F; Carotti, A

    2001-09-01

    Based on the results obtained with different automated computational approaches as applied to the study of eleven high-affinity agonists of the neuronal nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), belonging to different chemical classes, new relevant features were detected which complement the existing pharmacophores. Convergent results from DISCO (Distance Comparison), QXP (Quick Explore), Catalyst/HipHop, and MIPSIM (Molecular Interaction Potential Similarity) allowed us to identify and locate, in a well defined spatial arrangement, three geometrically independent key structural features: (i) a positively charged nitrogen atom for ionic or hydrogen bond interactions, (ii) a lone pair of the pyridine nitrogen or a specific lone pair of a carbonyl oxygen, as a hydrogen bond acceptor, and (iii) a centre of a hydrophobic area generally occupied by aliphatic cycles. The pharmacophore presented herein, along with predictive 2D and 3D QSAR models recently developed in our group, could represent valuable computational tools for the design of new nAChR agonists having therapeutical potential.

  20. The selective metabotropic glutamate 2/3 receptor agonist MGS0028 reverses isolation rearing-induced abnormal behaviors in mice.

    PubMed

    Ago, Yukio; Araki, Ryota; Yano, Koji; Kawasaki, Toshiyuki; Chaki, Shigeyuki; Nakazato, Atsuro; Onoe, Hirotaka; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Baba, Akemichi; Takuma, Kazuhiro; Matsuda, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    Isolation-induced abnormal behaviors are useful animal models for assessing potential anti-psychotic drugs. This study examined the effect of MGS0028, a selective metabotropic glutamate 2/3 receptor agonist, on abnormal behaviors such as hyperactivity, aggression, and deficits of prepulse inhibition in isolation-reared mice. MGS0028 attenuated hyperactivity and aggressive behaviors in isolation-reared mice. The agonist also reversed isolation rearing-induced deficits of prepulse inhibition. On the other hand, MGS0028 did not affect locomotor activity and prepulse inhibition in group-reared mice. These results suggest that the metabotropic glutamate 2/3 receptor agonist, MGS0028, is a potential compound for the treatment of psychiatric disorders.

  1. [Impact of anti-diabetic therapy based on glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists on the cardiovascular risk of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Camafort-Babkowski, Miguel

    2013-08-17

    Anti-diabetic drugs have, in addition to their well-known glucose lowering-effect, different effects in the rest of cardiovascular factors that are associated with diabetes mellitus. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists have recently been incorporated to the therapeutic arsenal of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The objective of this review is to summarize the available evidence on the effect of the GLP-1 receptor agonists on different cardiovascular risk factors, mediated by the effect of GLP-1 receptor agonists on the control of hyperglycaemia and the GLP-1 receptor agonists effect on other cardiovascular risk factors (weight control, blood pressure control, lipid profile and all other cardiovascular risk biomarkers). In addition, we present the emerging evidence with regards to the impact that GLP-1 receptor agonists therapy could have in the reduction of cardiovascular events and the currently ongoing studies addressing this issue.

  2. [Impact of anti-diabetic therapy based on glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists on the cardiovascular risk of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Camafort-Babkowski, Miguel

    2013-08-17

    Anti-diabetic drugs have, in addition to their well-known glucose lowering-effect, different effects in the rest of cardiovascular factors that are associated with diabetes mellitus. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists have recently been incorporated to the therapeutic arsenal of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The objective of this review is to summarize the available evidence on the effect of the GLP-1 receptor agonists on different cardiovascular risk factors, mediated by the effect of GLP-1 receptor agonists on the control of hyperglycaemia and the GLP-1 receptor agonists effect on other cardiovascular risk factors (weight control, blood pressure control, lipid profile and all other cardiovascular risk biomarkers). In addition, we present the emerging evidence with regards to the impact that GLP-1 receptor agonists therapy could have in the reduction of cardiovascular events and the currently ongoing studies addressing this issue. PMID:23332622

  3. Dopamine D3 receptor-preferring agonist enhances the subjective effects of cocaine in humans.

    PubMed

    Newton, Thomas F; Haile, Colin N; Mahoney, James J; Shah, Ravi; Verrico, Christopher D; De La Garza, Richard; Kosten, Thomas R

    2015-11-30

    Pramipexole is a D3 dopamine receptor-preferring agonist indicated for the treatment of Parkinson disease. Studies associate pramipexole with pathological gambling and impulse control disorders suggesting a role for D3 receptors in reinforcement processes. Clinical studies showed pramipexole decreased cocaine craving and reversed central deficits in individuals with cocaine use disorder. Preclinical studies have shown acute administration of pramipexole increases cocaine's reinforcing effects whereas other reports suggest chronic pramipexole produces tolerance to cocaine. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study we examined the impact of pramipexole treatment on the subjective effects produced by cocaine in volunteers with cocaine use disorder. Volunteers received pramipexole titrated up to 3.0mg/d or placebo over 15 days. Participants then received intravenous cocaine (0, 20 and 40mg) on day 15. Cardiovascular and subjective effects were obtained with visual analog scales at time points across the session. Pramipexole alone increased peak heart rate following saline and diastolic blood pressure following cocaine. Pramipexole produced upwards of two-fold increases in positive subjective effects ratings following cocaine. These results indicate that chronic D3 receptor activation increases the subjective effects of cocaine in humans. Caution should be used when prescribing pramipexole to patients that may also use cocaine. PMID:26239766

  4. Allopregnanolone, a GABAA receptor agonist, decreases gonadotropin levels in women. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Timby, Erika; Hedström, Helena; Bäckström, Torbjörn; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger; Nyberg, Sigrid; Bixo, Marie

    2011-12-01

    Animal studies suggest regulatory effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad axis by allopregnanolone, an endogenous gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA(A)) receptor agonist. Elevated levels of allopregnanolone in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea have been seen. Isoallopregnanolone is an isomer to allopregnanolone, but without GABA(A) receptor effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of allopregnanolone and isoallopregnanolone on gonadotropin levels in healthy women of fertile age. Ten women were given allopregnanolone and five women isoallopregnanolone intravenously in follicular phase. Repeated blood samples were drawn during the test day. Main outcomes were changes in serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH), oestradiol, and progesterone. Serum-FSH decreased between 5 and 105 min after the allopregnanolone injection (F(16,144)=2.18, p=0.008). Serum-LH was reduced between 5 and 35 min following the allopregnanolone injection (F(16,144)=2.63, p=0.001). Serum-oestradiol and -progesterone were not significantly changed after allopregnanolone injections. No effect on gonadotropin levels were seen after administration of isoallopregnanolone. Allopregnanolone reduces FSH and LH levels in women and the effect might be mediated via a specific GABA(A) receptor activation since isoallopregnanolone lacked this effect. Although the number of women was small, the results suggest a regulatory mechanism on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis by allopregnanolon.

  5. Dopamine D3 receptor-preferring agonist enhances the subjective effects of cocaine in humans.

    PubMed

    Newton, Thomas F; Haile, Colin N; Mahoney, James J; Shah, Ravi; Verrico, Christopher D; De La Garza, Richard; Kosten, Thomas R

    2015-11-30

    Pramipexole is a D3 dopamine receptor-preferring agonist indicated for the treatment of Parkinson disease. Studies associate pramipexole with pathological gambling and impulse control disorders suggesting a role for D3 receptors in reinforcement processes. Clinical studies showed pramipexole decreased cocaine craving and reversed central deficits in individuals with cocaine use disorder. Preclinical studies have shown acute administration of pramipexole increases cocaine's reinforcing effects whereas other reports suggest chronic pramipexole produces tolerance to cocaine. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study we examined the impact of pramipexole treatment on the subjective effects produced by cocaine in volunteers with cocaine use disorder. Volunteers received pramipexole titrated up to 3.0mg/d or placebo over 15 days. Participants then received intravenous cocaine (0, 20 and 40mg) on day 15. Cardiovascular and subjective effects were obtained with visual analog scales at time points across the session. Pramipexole alone increased peak heart rate following saline and diastolic blood pressure following cocaine. Pramipexole produced upwards of two-fold increases in positive subjective effects ratings following cocaine. These results indicate that chronic D3 receptor activation increases the subjective effects of cocaine in humans. Caution should be used when prescribing pramipexole to patients that may also use cocaine.

  6. Agonist ligands mediate the transcriptional response of nuclear receptor heterodimers through distinct stoichiometric assemblies with coactivators.

    PubMed

    Pavlin, Mark Remec; Brunzelle, Joseph S; Fernandez, Elias J

    2014-09-01

    The constitutive androstane (CAR) and retinoid X receptors (RXR) are ligand-mediated transcription factors of the nuclear receptor protein superfamily. Functional CAR:RXR heterodimers recruit coactivator proteins, such as the steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC1). Here, we show that agonist ligands can potentiate transactivation through both coactivator binding sites on CAR:RXR, which distinctly bind two SRC1 molecules. We also observe that SRC1 transitions from a structurally plastic to a compact form upon binding CAR:RXR. Using small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) we show that the CAR(tcp):RXR(9c)·SRC1 complex can encompass two SRC1 molecules compared with the CAR(tcp):RXR·SRC1, which binds only a single SRC1. Moreover, sedimentation coefficients and molecular weights determined by analytical ultracentrifugation confirm the SAXS model. Cell-based transcription assays show that disrupting the SRC1 binding site on RXR alters the transactivation by CAR:RXR. These data suggest a broader role for RXR within heterodimers, whereas offering multiple strategies for the assembly of the transcription complex.

  7. Inverse Agonist of Nuclear Receptor ERRγ Mediates Antidiabetic Effect Through Inhibition of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Don-Kyu; Gang, Gil-Tae; Ryu, Dongryeol; Koh, Minseob; Kim, Yo-Na; Kim, Su Sung; Park, Jinyoung; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Sim, Taebo; Lee, In-Kyu; Choi, Cheol Soo; Park, Seung Bum; Lee, Chul-Ho; Koo, Seung-Hoi; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a progressive metabolic disorder with diverse pathological manifestations and is often associated with abnormal regulation of hepatic glucose production. Many nuclear receptors known to control the hepatic gluconeogenic program are potential targets for the treatment of T2DM and its complications. Nevertheless, the therapeutic potential of the estrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) in T2DM remains unknown. In this study, we show that the nuclear receptor ERRγ is a major contributor to hyperglycemia under diabetic conditions by controlling hepatic glucose production. Hepatic ERRγ expression induced by fasting and diabetic conditions resulted in elevated levels of gluconeogenic gene expression and blood glucose in wild-type mice. Conversely, ablation of hepatic ERRγ gene expression reduced the expression of gluconeogenic genes and normalized blood glucose levels in mouse models of T2DM: db/db and diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice. In addition, a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp study and long-term studies of the antidiabetic effects of GSK5182, the ERRγ-specific inverse agonist, in db/db and DIO mice demonstrated that GSK5182 normalizes hyperglycemia mainly through inhibition of hepatic glucose production. Our findings suggest that the ability of GSK5182 to control hepatic glucose production can be used as a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of T2DM. PMID:23775767

  8. Mechanisms of action of the 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Tepper, Stewart J; Rapoport, Alan M; Sheftell, Fred D

    2002-07-01

    Recent studies of the pathophysiology of migraine provide evidence that the headache phase is associated with multiple physiologic actions. These actions include the release of vasoactive neuropeptides by the trigeminovascular system, vasodilation of intracranial extracerebral vessels, and increased nociceptive neurotransmission within the central trigeminocervical complex. The 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor agonists, collectively known as triptans, are a major advance in the treatment of migraine. The beneficial effects of the triptans in patients with migraine are related to their multiple mechanisms of action at sites implicated in the pathophysiology of migraine. These mechanisms are mediated by 5-HT(1B/1D) receptors and include vasoconstriction of painfully dilated cerebral blood vessels, inhibition of the release of vasoactive neuropeptides by trigeminal nerves, and inhibition of nociceptive neurotransmission. The high affinity of the triptans for 5-HT(1B/1D) receptors and their favorable pharmacologic properties contribute to the beneficial effects of these drugs, including rapid onset of action, effective relief of headache and associated symptoms, and low incidence of adverse effects. PMID:12117355

  9. Qualification of LSP1-2111 as a Brain Penetrant Group III Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Orthosteric Agonist

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    LSP1-2111 is a group III metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist with preference toward the mGlu4 receptor subtype. This compound has been extensively used as a tool to explore the pharmacology of mGlu4 receptor activation in preclinical animal behavioral models. However, the blood–brain barrier penetration of this amino acid derivative has never been studied. We report studies on the central nervous system (CNS) disposition of LSP1-2111 using quantitative microdialysis in rat. Significant unbound concentrations of the drug relative to its in vitro binding affinity and functional potency were established in extracellular fluid (ECF). These findings support the use of LSP1-2111 to study the CNS pharmacology of mGlu4 receptor activation through orthosteric agonist mechanisms. PMID:24900783

  10. Cabergoline, Dopamine D2 Receptor Agonist, Prevents Neuronal Cell Death under Oxidative Stress via Reducing Excitotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Odaka, Haruki; Numakawa, Tadahiro; Adachi, Naoki; Ooshima, Yoshiko; Nakajima, Shingo; Katanuma, Yusuke; Inoue, Takafumi; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Several lines of evidence demonstrate that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease. Potent antioxidants may therefore be effective in the treatment of such diseases. Cabergoline, a dopamine D2 receptor agonist and antiparkinson drug, has been studied using several cell types including mesencephalic neurons, and is recognized as a potent radical scavenger. Here, we examined whether cabergoline exerts neuroprotective effects against oxidative stress through a receptor-mediated mechanism in cultured cortical neurons. We found that neuronal death induced by H2O2 exposure was inhibited by pretreatment with cabergoline, while this protective effect was eliminated in the presence of a dopamine D2 receptor inhibitor, spiperone. Activation of ERK1/2 by H2O2 was suppressed by cabergoline, and an ERK signaling pathway inhibitor, U0126, similarly protected cortical neurons from cell death. This suggested the ERK signaling pathway has a critical role in cabergoline-mediated neuroprotection. Furthermore, increased extracellular levels of glutamate induced by H2O2, which might contribute to ERK activation, were reduced by cabergoline, while inhibitors for NMDA receptor or L-type Ca2+ channel demonstrated a survival effect against H2O2. Interestingly, we found that cabergoline increased expression levels of glutamate transporters such as EAAC1. Taken together, these results suggest that cabergoline has a protective effect on cortical neurons via a receptor-mediated mechanism including repression of ERK1/2 activation and extracellular glutamate accumulation induced by H2O2. PMID:24914776

  11. The pharmacological properties of the imidazobenzodiazepine, FG 8205, a novel partial agonist at the benzodiazepine receptor

    PubMed Central

    Tricklebank, M.D.; Honoré, T.; Iversen, S.D.; Kemp, J.A.; Knight, A.R.; Marshall, G.R.; Rupniak, N.M.J.; Singh, L.; Tye, S.; Watjen, F.; Wong, E.H.F.

    1990-01-01

    1 The pharmacological properties of the benzodiazepine receptor ligand, FG 8205 (7-chloro-5,6-dihydro-5-methyl-6-oxo-3-(5-isopropyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)-4H- imidazol[1,5a][1,4]benzodiazepine) have been examined. 2 FG 8205 potently displaced [3H]-flumazenil binding in rat cortical membranes with a K1 of 3.3 nM, but was inactive at 13 neurotransmitter recognition sites. 3 Consistent with a partial agonist profile, the affinity of FG 8205 for the benzodiazepine recognition site was increased in the presence of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, 300μM) by a degree (—log [IC50 in the presence of GABA/IC50 alone] = 0.34) significantly less than found for diazepam (0.46). FG 8205 also potentiated the inhibitory potency of the GABAA-receptor agonist, isoguvacine, on the hippocampal CA1 population spike and, again, the maximum shift (—log dose-ratio = 0.2) was significantly less than that seen with diazepam (0.4). 4 In anticonvulsant studies, the ED50 doses of FG 8205 and diazepam needed to antagonize seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) or by sound in audiogenic seizure prone mice were similar with values of 0.2–0.3 mgkg-1, i.p. However, even high doses of FG 8205 (50 mgkg-1) did not protect against seizures induced by electroshock. 5 FG 8205 released responding suppressed by footshock in a rat operant conditioned emotional response task over the dose range 0.5–50 mgkg-1 (i.p.). Similar doses of FG 8205 had a marked taming effect in cynomolgus monkeys. However, measures of sedation and ataxia (as measured by rotarod in the mouse, climbing behaviour in the rat, and by scoring arousal and co-ordination in primates) were slight and only transiently affected by FG 8205, and FG 8205 significantly antagonized the rotarod performance deficit induced by diazepam in the mouse. 6 While the potentiation by FG 8205 of the response to isoguvacine in the rat hippocampal slice and the anxiolytic-like effects of the compound in both rats and primates were reversed by the

  12. Discovery of a Potent and Orally Efficacious TGR5 Receptor Agonist.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Sameer; Patil, Amit; Aware, Umesh; Deshmukh, Prashant; Darji, Brijesh; Sasane, Santosh; Sairam, Kalapatapu V V M; Priyadarsiny, Priyanka; Giri, Poonam; Patel, Harilal; Giri, Suresh; Jain, Mukul; Desai, Ranjit C

    2016-01-14

    TGR5 is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), activation of which promotes secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and modulates insulin secretion. The 2-thio-imidazole derivative 6g was identified as a novel, potent, and selective TGR5 agonist (hTGR5 EC50 = 57 pM, mTGR5 = 62 pM) with a favorable pharmacokinetic profile. The compound 6g was found to have potent glucose lowering effects in vivo during an oral glucose tolerance test in DIO C57 mice with ED50 of 7.9 mg/kg and ED90 of 29.2 mg/kg. PMID:26819665

  13. P2Y2 receptor agonists for the treatment of dry eye disease: a review

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Oliver C F; Samarawickrama, Chameen; Skalicky, Simon E

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of dry eye disease (DED) have revealed previously unexplored targets for drug therapy. One of these drugs is diquafosol, a uridine nucleotide analog that is an agonist of the P2Y2 receptor. Several randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that the application of topical diquafosol significantly improves objective markers of DED such as corneal and conjunctival fluorescein staining and, in some studies, tear film break-up time and Schirmer test scores. However, this has been accompanied by only partial improvement in patient symptoms. Although evidence from the literature is still relatively limited, early studies have suggested that diquafosol has a role in the management of DED. Additional studies would be helpful to delineate how different subgroups of DED respond to diquafosol. The therapeutic combination of diquafosol with other topical agents also warrants further investigation. PMID:24511227

  14. Treatment with retinoid X receptor agonist IRX4204 ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Chandraratna, Roshantha As; Noelle, Randolph J; Nowak, Elizabeth C

    2016-01-01

    Retinoid x receptors (RXRs) are master regulators that control cell growth, differentiation, and survival and form heterodimers with many other family members. Here we show that treatment with the RXR agonist IRX4204 enhances the differentiation of CD4(+) T cells into inducible regulatory T cells (iTreg) and suppresses the development of T helper (Th) 17 cells in vitro. Furthermore in a murine model of multiple sclerosis (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)), treatment with IRX4204 profoundly attenuates both active and Th17-mediated passive disease. In the periphery, treatment with IRX4204 is associated with decreased numbers of CD4(+) T cells that produce pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, CD4(+) T cells express decreased levels of Ki-67 and increased expression of CTLA-4. Our findings demonstrate IRX4204 treatment during EAE results in immune modulation and profound attenuation of disease severity. PMID:27158387

  15. [Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus--which role do GLP-1 receptor agonists play?].

    PubMed

    Lüdemann, J

    2011-07-21

    The results of the ACCORD-, ADVANCE- and VADT- and further recent studies raised doubts regarding whether the guidelined therapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus, which aims at achieving HbA1c values of < 6.5%, is always beneficial. The higher rate of severe hypoglycemia and weight gain under intensive glycemic control has raised debates of whether the current guidelines should be adopted accordingly. Modern state-of-the-art treatment should consider: a) early treatment start, b) sustained blood sugar decrease, and c) simultaneously prevention of hypoglycemia and weight gain, d) prevention of little investigated multiple glucose-lowering agents, e) easy handling and easy to be integrated into daily schedules. The present work reviews current options with regard to these requirements with special focus on the new GLP-1 receptor agonists. PMID:23964469

  16. Improvement in Aqueous Solubility of Retinoic Acid Receptor (RAR) Agonists by Bending the Molecular Structure.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Michiaki; Ichikawa, Yuki; Tomoshige, Shusuke; Makishima, Makoto; Muranaka, Atsuya; Uchiyama, Masanobu; Yamaguchi, Takao; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Ishikawa, Minoru

    2016-08-01

    Aqueous solubility is a key requirement for many functional molecules, e. g., drug candidates. Decrease of the partition coefficient (log P) by chemical modification, i.e., introduction of hydrophilic group(s) into molecules, is a classical strategy for improving aqueous solubility. We have been investigating alternative strategies for improving the aqueous solubility of pharmaceutical compounds by disrupting intermolecular interactions. Here, we show that introducing a bend into the molecular structure of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) agonists by changing the substitution pattern from para to meta or ortho dramatically enhances aqueous solubility by up to 890-fold. We found that meta analogs exhibit similar hydrophobicity to the parent para compound, and have lower melting points, supporting the idea that the increase of aqueous solubility was due to decreased intermolecular interactions in the solid state as a result of the structural changes.

  17. [Synthetic Cannabinoid Receptor Agonist-Associated Psychotic Disorder: A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Sönmez, İpek; Köşger, Ferdi

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRA) has become one of the most abused substances, recently. JWH-018 street name known as Bonzai is one of the most abused substances in Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. The most common symptoms in cases reported with synthetic cannabis use are agitation, angry, paranoia and reference delusions, disorientation, seizure and nausea. Although the effects are very similar to cannabis, stimulant effects are more likely in SCRA use. In preparations containing SCRA do not contain cannabinidol agent which is reported to reduce the psychotic effects of the cannabis. This may explain the relationship between SCRA and psychotic disorders. We aimed to discuss a brief psychotic disorder associated with SCRA use and treatment which is less reported in the literature in this case report. PMID:27369687

  18. Slow to fast alterations in skeletal muscle fibers caused by clenbuterol, a beta(2)-receptor agonist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeman, Richard J.; Ludemann, Robert; Easton, Thomas G.; Etlinger, Joseph D.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of a beta(2)-receptor agonist, clenbuterol, and a beta(2) antagonist, butoxamine, on the skeletal muscle fibers of rats were investigated. It was found that chronic treatment of rats with clenbuterol caused hypertrophy of histochemically identified fast-twitch, but not slow-twitch, fibers within the soleus, while in the extensor digitorum longus the mean areas of both fiber types were increased; in both muscles, the ratio of the number of fast-twitch to slow-twitch fibers was increased. In contrast, a treatment with butoxamine caused a reduction of the fast-twitch fiber size in both muscles, and the ratio of the fast-twitch to slow-twitch fibers was decreased.

  19. Improvement in Aqueous Solubility of Retinoic Acid Receptor (RAR) Agonists by Bending the Molecular Structure.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Michiaki; Ichikawa, Yuki; Tomoshige, Shusuke; Makishima, Makoto; Muranaka, Atsuya; Uchiyama, Masanobu; Yamaguchi, Takao; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Ishikawa, Minoru

    2016-08-01

    Aqueous solubility is a key requirement for many functional molecules, e. g., drug candidates. Decrease of the partition coefficient (log P) by chemical modification, i.e., introduction of hydrophilic group(s) into molecules, is a classical strategy for improving aqueous solubility. We have been investigating alternative strategies for improving the aqueous solubility of pharmaceutical compounds by disrupting intermolecular interactions. Here, we show that introducing a bend into the molecular structure of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) agonists by changing the substitution pattern from para to meta or ortho dramatically enhances aqueous solubility by up to 890-fold. We found that meta analogs exhibit similar hydrophobicity to the parent para compound, and have lower melting points, supporting the idea that the increase of aqueous solubility was due to decreased intermolecular interactions in the solid state as a result of the structural changes. PMID:27378357

  20. Treatment with retinoid X receptor agonist IRX4204 ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Chandraratna, Roshantha AS; Noelle, Randolph J; Nowak, Elizabeth C

    2016-01-01

    Retinoid x receptors (RXRs) are master regulators that control cell growth, differentiation, and survival and form heterodimers with many other family members. Here we show that treatment with the RXR agonist IRX4204 enhances the differentiation of CD4+ T cells into inducible regulatory T cells (iTreg) and suppresses the development of T helper (Th) 17 cells in vitro. Furthermore in a murine model of multiple sclerosis (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)), treatment with IRX4204 profoundly attenuates both active and Th17-mediated passive disease. In the periphery, treatment with IRX4204 is associated with decreased numbers of CD4+ T cells that produce pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, CD4+ T cells express decreased levels of Ki-67 and increased expression of CTLA-4. Our findings demonstrate IRX4204 treatment during EAE results in immune modulation and profound attenuation of disease severity. PMID:27158387

  1. Differential expression of adenosine A3 receptors controls adenosine A2A receptor-mediated inhibition of TLR responses in microglia.

    PubMed

    van der Putten, Céline; Zuiderwijk-Sick, Ella A; van Straalen, Linda; de Geus, Eveline D; Boven, Leonie A; Kondova, Ivanela; IJzerman, Ad P; Bajramovic, Jeffrey J

    2009-06-15

    Microglia activation is a prominent feature in many neuroinflammatory disorders. Unrestrained activation can generate a chronic inflammatory environment that might lead to neurodegeneration and autoimmunity. Extracellular adenosine modulates cellular activation through adenosine receptor (ADORA)-mediated signaling. There are four ADORA subtypes that can either increase (A(2A) and A(2B) receptors) or decrease (A(1) and A(3) receptors) intracellular cyclic AMP levels. The expression pattern of the subtypes thus orchestrates the cellular response to extracellular adenosine. We have investigated the expression of ADORA subtypes in unstimulated and TLR-activated primary rhesus monkey microglia. Activation induced an up-regulation of A(2A) and a down-regulation of A(3) receptor (A(3)R) levels. The altered ADORA-expression pattern sensitized microglia to A(2A) receptor (A(2A)R)-mediated inhibition of subsequent TLR-induced cytokine responses. By using combinations of subtype-specific agonists and antagonists, we revealed that in unstimulated microglia, A(2A)R-mediated inhibitory signaling was effectively counteracted by A(3)R-mediated signaling. In activated microglia, the decrease in A(3)R-mediated signaling sensitized them to A(2A)R-mediated inhibitory signaling. We report a differential, activation state-specific expression of ADORA in microglia and uncover a role for A(3)R as dynamically regulated suppressors of A(2A)R-mediated inhibition of TLR-induced responses. This would suggest exploration of combinations of A(2A)R agonists and A(3)R antagonists to dampen microglial activation during chronic neuroinflammatory conditions.

  2. NJK14013, a novel synthetic estrogen receptoragonist, exhibits estrogen receptor-independent, tumor cell-specific cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-In; Kim, Taelim; Kim, Ji-Eun; Lee, Jun; Heo, Jinyuk; Lee, Na-Rae; Kim, Nam-Jung; Inn, Kyung-Soo

    2015-07-01

    Estrogens act through interactions with estrogen receptors (ERs) to play diverse roles in various pathophysiological conditions. A number of synthetic selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), such as tamoxifen and raloxifene, have been developed and used to treat ER-related diseases, including breast cancer and osteoporosis. Here, we identified a novel compound, bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)methanone-O-isopentyl oxime, designated NJK14013, as an ER agonist. NJK14013 activated ER-dependent transcription in a concentration-dependent manner, while suppressing androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional activity. It induced the activation-related phosphorylation of ER and enhanced the transcription of growth regulation by estrogen in breast cancer 1 (GREB1), further supporting its ER-stimulating activity. NJK14013 exerted anti-proliferative effects on various cancer cell lines, including an ER-negative breast cancer cell line, suggesting that it is capable of suppressing the growth of cancer cells independent of its ER-modulating activity. In addition, NJK14013 treatment resulted in significant apoptotic death of MCF7 and Ishikawa cancer cells, but did not induce apoptosis in non-cancer human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that NJK14013 is a novel SERM that can activate ER-mediated transcription in MCF7 cells and suppress the proliferation of various cancer cells, including breast cancer cells and endometrial cancer cells. These results suggest that NJK14013 has potential as a novel SERM for anticancer or hormone-replacement therapy with reduced risk of carcinogenesis.

  3. Pharmacological properties of AC-3933, a novel benzodiazepine receptor partial inverse agonist.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, T; Kiyoshi, T; Kohayakawa, H; Iwamura, Y; Yoshida, N

    2014-01-01

    We investigated in this study the pharmacological properties of AC-3933 (5-(3-methoxyphenyl)-3-(5-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)-1,6-naphthyridin-2(1H)-one), a novel benzodiazepine receptor (BzR) partial inverse agonist. AC-3933 potently inhibited [3H]-flumazenil binding to rat whole brain membrane with a Ki value of 5.15 ± 0.39 nM and a GABA ratio of 0.84 ± 0.03. AC-3933 exhibited almost no affinity for the other receptors, transporters and ion channels used in this study. In addition, AC-3933, in the presence of GABA (1 μM), gradually but significantly increased [³⁵S] tert-butylbicyclophosphorothionate binding to rat cortical membrane to 117.1% of the control (maximum increase ratio) at 3000 nM. However, this increase reached a plateau at 30 nM with hardly any change at a concentration range of 100-3000 nM (from 115.2% to 117.1%). AC-3933 (0.1-10 μM) significantly enhanced KCl-evoked acetylcholine (ACh) release from rat hippocampal slices in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, in vivo brain microdialysis showed that intragastric administration of AC-3933 at the dose of 10 mg/kg significantly increased extracellular ACh levels in the hippocampus of freely moving rats (area under the curve (AUC₀₋₂ h) of ACh level; 288.3% of baseline). These results indicate that AC-3933, a potent and selective BzR inverse agonist with low intrinsic activity, might be useful in the treatment of cognitive disorders associated with degeneration of the cholinergic system.

  4. Protective Effects of Adenosine Receptor Agonist in a Cirrhotic Liver Resection Model

    PubMed Central

    Iskandarov, Emil; Kadaba Srinivasan, Pramod; Xin, Wang; Bleilevens, Christian; Afify, Mamdouh; Hamza, Astrit; Wei, Lai; Hata, Koichiro; Agayev, Boyukkishi; Tolba, Rene

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the role of CGS21680, a selective adenosine A2A receptor agonist, on a bile-duct-ligated cirrhotic liver resection model in rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were allotted into 3 groups (n = 7 per time-point): the control group, the bile duct ligation + CGS21680 group (BDL + CGS), and the bile duct ligation group (BDL). Biliary cirrhosis had been previously induced by ligature of the common bile duct in the BDL + CGS and BDL groups. After 2 weeks, the animals underwent partial hepatectomy (50%). The BDL + CGS group received a single dose of CGS21680 15 minutes prior to hepatectomy. Blood samples were collected and analyzed. Results Aspartate transaminase levels were found to be lower in the control vs BDL groups (1, 3, and 24 h) (P < 0.01) and the BDL + CGS (1 and 3 hours) (P < 0.01) and BDL + CGS vs BDL (24 hours) (P < 0.05) groups. Hepatic flow was measured and BDL showed significantly lower values at the 3, 24, and 168 h time-points compared to the control (P < 0.01) and BDL + CGS groups (P < 0.05 at 3 and 168 hours; P < 0.01 at 24 h). O2C velocity was reduced in the BDL compared to the control group (P < 0.001 at 3 hours; P < 0.01 at 24 and 168 hours) and the BDL + CGS group (P < 0.01 at 24 hours). Interleukin-6 levels were abrogated in the BDL + CGS (P < 0.05) and control (P < 0.01) groups versus BDL. Histone-bound low-molecular-weight DNA fragments in the BDL + CGS (P < 0.01) and control (P < 0.05) groups were low compared to the BDL group. Conclusions Administration of CGS21680, an adenosine receptor agonist, after the resection of bile-duct-ligated cirrhotic livers led to improved liver function, regeneration, and microcirculation. PMID:27799962

  5. Catalposide is a natural agonistic ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ji Hae; Jun, Hee-jin; Hoang, Minh-Hien; Jia, Yaoyao; Han, Xiang Hua; Lee, Dong-Ho; Lee, Hak-Ju; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Lee, Sung-Joon

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalposide is a novel ligand for PPAR{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell stimulated with catalposide improved fatty acid uptake, regulated target genes in fatty acid {beta}-oxidation and synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalposdie reduces hepatic triacylglycerides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Theses demonstrate catalposide could ameliorate hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR{alpha}) is a nuclear receptor that regulates the expression of genes related to cellular lipid uptake and oxidation. Thus, PPAR{alpha} agonists may be important in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis. In this study, we demonstrated that catalposide is a novel natural PPAR{alpha} agonist, identified from reporter gene assay-based activity screening with approximately 900 natural plant and seaweed extracts. Results of time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer analyses suggested that the compound interacted directly with the ligand-binding domain of PPAR{alpha}. Cultured hepatocytes stimulated with catalposide exhibited significantly reduced cellular triglyceride concentrations, by 21%, while cellular uptake of fatty acids was increased, by 70% (P < 0.05). Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the increase in cellular fatty acid uptake was due to upregulation of fatty acid transporter protein-4 (+19% vs. the control) in cells stimulated with catalposide. Additionally, expression of genes related to fatty acid oxidation and high-density lipoprotein metabolism were upregulated, while that of genes related to fatty acid synthesis were suppressed. In conclusion, catalposide is hypolipidemic by activation of PPAR{alpha} via a ligand-mediated mechanism that modulates the expression of in lipid metabolism genes in hepatocytes.

  6. Peripheral endothelin B receptor agonist-induced antinociception involves endogenous opioids in mice.

    PubMed

    Quang, Phuong N; Schmidt, Brian L

    2010-05-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) produced by various cancers is known to be responsible for inducing pain. While ET-1 binding to ETAR on peripheral nerves clearly mediates nociception, effects from binding to ETBR are less clear. The present study assessed the effects of ETBR activation and the role of endogenous opioid analgesia in carcinoma pain using an orthotopic cancer pain mouse model. mRNA expression analysis showed that ET-1 was nearly doubled while ETBR was significantly down-regulated in a human oral SCC cell line compared to normal oral keratinocytes (NOK). Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell culture treated with an ETBR agonist (10(-4)M, 10(-5)M, and 10(-6) M BQ-3020) significantly increased the production of beta-endorphin without any effects on leu-enkephalin or dynorphin. Cancer inoculated in the hind paw of athymic mice with SCC induced significant pain, as indicated by reduction of paw withdrawal thresholds in response to mechanical stimulation, compared to sham-injected and NOK-injected groups. Intratumor administration of 3mg/kg BQ-3020 attenuated cancer pain by approximately 50% up to 3h post-injection compared to PBS-vehicle and contralateral injection, while intratumor ETBR antagonist BQ-788 treatment (100 and 300microg/kg and 3mg/kg) had no effects. Local naloxone methiodide (500microg/kg) or selective mu-opioid receptor antagonist (CTOP, 500microg/kg) injection reversed ETBR agonist-induced antinociception in cancer animals. We propose that these results demonstrate that peripheral ETBR agonism attenuates carcinoma pain by modulating beta-endorphins released from the SCC to act on peripheral opioid receptors found in the cancer microenvironment.

  7. Obeticholic acid, a synthetic bile acid agonist of the farnesoid X receptor, attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Peggy P.; Steinman, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids are ligands for the nuclear hormone receptor, farnesoid X receptor (FXR). The bile acid–FXR interaction regulates bile acid synthesis, transport, and cholesterol metabolism. Recently, bile acid–FXR regulation has been reported to play an integral role in both hepatic and intestinal inflammation, and in atherosclerosis. In this study, we found that FXR knockout mice had more disease severity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Obeticholic acid (6α-ethyl-chenodeoxycholic acid, 6-ECDCA), a synthetic FXR agonist, is an orally available drug that is currently in clinical trials for the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as alcoholic hepatitis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and primary biliary cirrhosis. When we treated mice exhibiting established EAE with 6-ECDCA, or the natural FXR ligand chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), clinical disease was ameliorated by (i) suppressing lymphocyte activation and proinflammatory cytokine production; (ii) reducing CD4+ T cells and CD19+ B cell populations and their expression of negative checkpoint regulators programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1), programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), and B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA); (iii) increasing CD8+ T cells and PD1, PDl-1, and BTLA expression; and (iv) reducing VLA-4 expression in both the T- and B-cell populations. Moreover, adoptive transfer of 6-ECDCA– or CDCA-treated donor cells failed to transfer disease in naive recipients. Thus, we show that FXR functions as a negative regulator in neuroinflammation and we highlight that FXR agonists represent a potential previously unidentified therapy for MS. PMID:26811456

  8. Evolutionary Conservation of 3-Iodothyronamine as an Agonist at the Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1

    PubMed Central

    Cöster, Maxi; Biebermann, Heike; Schöneberg, Torsten; Stäubert, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The trace amine-associated receptor 1 (Taar1) is a Gs protein-coupled receptor activated by trace amines, such as β-phenylethylamine (β-PEA) and 3-iodothyronamine (T1AM). T1AM is an endogenous biogenic amine and thyroid hormone derivative that exerts several biological functions. However, the physiological relevance of T1AM acting via Taar1 is still under discussion. Therefore, we studied the structural and functional evolution of Taar1 in vertebrates to provide evidence for a conserved Taar1-mediated T1AM function. Study Design We searched public sequence databases to retrieve Taar1 sequence information from vertebrates. We cloned and functionally characterized Taar1 from selected vertebrate species using cAMP assays to determine the evolutionary conservation of T1AM action at Taar1. Results We found intact open reading frames of Taar1 in more than 100 vertebrate species, including mammals, sauropsids and amphibians. Evolutionary conservation analyses of Taar1 protein sequences revealed a high variation in amino acid residues proposed to be involved in agonist binding, especially in rodent Taar1 orthologs. Functional characterization showed that T1AM, β-PEA and p-tyramine (p-Tyr) act as agonists at all tested orthologs, but EC50 values of T1AM at rat Taar1 differed significantly when compared to all other tested vertebrate Taar1. Conclusions The high structural conservation of Taar1 throughout vertebrate evolution highlights the physiological relevance of Taar1, but species-specific differences in T1AM potency at Taar1 orthologs suggest a specialization of rat Taar1 for T1AM recognition. In contrast, β-PEA and p-Tyr potencies were rather conserved throughout all tested Taar1 orthologs. We provide evidence that the observed differences in potency are related to differences in constraint during Taar1 evolution. PMID:26601069

  9. Subunit rotation models activation of serotonin 5-HT3AB receptors by agonists.

    PubMed

    Maksay, Gábor; Simonyi, Miklós; Bikádi, Zsolt

    2004-10-01

    The N-terminal extracellular regions of heterooligomeric 3AB-type human 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors (5-HT3ABR) were modelled based on the crystal structure of snail acetylcholine binding protein AChBP. Stepwise rotation of subunit A by 5 degrees was performed between -10 degrees and 15 degrees to mimic agonist binding and receptor activation. Anticlockwise rotation reduced the size of the binding cavity in interface AB and reorganised the network of hydrogen bonds along the interface. AB subunit dimers with different rotations were applied for docking of ligands with different efficacies: 5-HT, m-chlorophenylbiguanide, SR 57227, quinolinyl piperazine and lerisetron derivatives. All ligands were docked into the dimer with -10 degrees rotation representing ligand-free, open binding cavities similarly, without pharmacological discrimination. Their ammonium ions were in hydrogen bonding distance to the backbone carbonyl of W183. Anticlockwise rotation and contraction of the binding cavity led to distinctive docking interactions of agonists with E129 and cation-pi interactions of their ammonium ions. Side chains of several further amino acids participating in docking (Y143, Y153, Y234 and E236) are in agreement with the effects of point mutations in the binding loops. Our model postulates that 5-HT binds to W183 in a hydrophobic cleft as well as to E236 in a hydrophilic vestibule. Then it elicits anticlockwise rotation to draw in loop C via pi-cation-pi interactions of its ammonium ion with W183 and Y234. Finally, closure of the binding cavity might end in rebinding of 5-HT to E129 in the hydrophilic vestibule.

  10. Fermented Ginseng Contains an Agonist of Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors α and γ.

    PubMed

    Igami, Kentaro; Shimojo, Yosuke; Ito, Hisatomi; Miyazaki, Toshitsugu; Nakano, Fusako; Kashiwada, Yoshiki

    2016-09-01

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) is a nuclear receptor that is one of the transcription factors regulating lipid and glucose metabolism. Fermented ginseng (FG) is a ginseng fermented by Lactobacillus paracasei A221 containing minor ginsenosides and metabolites of fermentation. DNA microarray analysis of rat liver treated with FG indicated that FG affects on lipid metabolism are mediated by PPAR-α. To identify a PPAR-α agonist in FG, PPAR-α transcription reporter assay-guided fractionation was performed. The fraction obtained from the MeOH extract of FG, which showed potent transcription activity of PPAR-α, was fractionated by silica gel column chromatography into 16 subfractions, and further separation and crystallization gave compound 1 together with four known constituents of ginseng, including 20(R)- and 20(S)-protopanaxadiol, and 20(R)- and 20(S)-ginsenoside Rh1. The structure of compound 1 was identified as 10-hydroxy-octadecanoic acid by (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectra and by EI-MS analysis of the methyl ester of 1. Compound 1 demonstrated much higher transcription activity of PPAR-α than the other isolated compounds. In addition, compound 1 also showed 5.5-fold higher transcription activity of PPAR-γ than vehicle at the dose of 20 μg/mL. In the present study, we identified 10-hydroxy-octadecanoic acid as a dual PPAR-α/γ agonist in FG. Our study suggested that metabolites of fermentation, in addition to ginsenosides, contribute to the health benefits of FG. PMID:27627700

  11. G protein-coupled receptors: signalling and regulation by lipid agonists for improved glucose homoeostasis.

    PubMed

    Moran, Brian M; Flatt, Peter R; McKillop, Aine M

    2016-04-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play a pivotal role in cell signalling, controlling many processes such as immunity, growth, cellular differentiation, neurological pathways and hormone secretions. Fatty acid agonists are increasingly recognised as having a key role in the regulation of glucose homoeostasis via stimulation of islet and gastrointestinal GPCRs. Downstream cell signalling results in modulation of the biosynthesis, secretion, proliferation and anti-apoptotic pathways of islet and enteroendocrine cells. GPR40 and GPR120 are activated by long-chain fatty acids (>C12) with both receptors coupling to the Gαq subunit that activates the Ca(2+)-dependent pathway. GPR41 and GPR43 are stimulated by short-chain fatty acids (C2-C5), and activation results in binding to Gαi that inhibits the adenylyl cyclase pathway attenuating cAMP production. In addition, GPR43 also couples to the Gαq subunit augmenting intracellular Ca(2+) and activating phospholipase C. GPR55 is specific for cannabinoid endogenous agonists (endocannabinoids) and non-cannabinoid fatty acids, which couples to Gα12/13 and Gαq proteins, leading to enhancing intracellular Ca(2+), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK) phosphorylation and Rho kinase. GPR119 is activated by fatty acid ethanolamides and binds to Gαs utilising the adenylate cyclase pathway, which is dependent upon protein kinase A. Current research indicates that GPCR therapies may be approved for clinical use in the near future. This review focuses on the recent advances in preclinical diabetes research in the signalling and regulation of GPCRs on islet and enteroendocrine cells involved in glucose homoeostasis.

  12. Monoamine receptor agonists, acting preferentially at presynaptic autoreceptors and heteroreceptors, downregulate the cell fate adaptor FADD in rat brain cortex.

    PubMed

    García-Fuster, M Julia; García-Sevilla, Jesús A

    2015-02-01

    FADD is a crucial adaptor of death receptors that can engage apoptosis or survival actions (e.g. neuroplasticity) through its phosphorylated form (p-FADD). Although FADD was shown to participate in receptor mechanisms related to drugs of abuse, little is known on its role in the signaling of classic neurotransmitters (dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin) in brain. This study assessed the modulation of FADD (and p-FADD/FADD ratio, as an index of neuroplasticity) and FLIP-L (a neuroprotective FADD interacting partner), as well as the role of MEK-ERK signaling, after activation of monoamine auto/heteroreceptors by selective agonists in rat cortex. Acute depletion of monoamines with reserpine, but not with AMPT or PCPA, reduced FADD (28%) and increased p-FADD/FADD ratio (1.34-fold). Activation of presynaptic α2A-adrenoceptors (UK-14304 and clonidine), 5-HT1A receptors (8-OH-DPAT), and D2 dopamine receptor (bromocriptine) dose-dependently decreased FADD (up to 54%) and increased p-FADD (up to 29%) and p-FADD/FADD ratios (up to 2.93-fold), through specific receptor mechanisms. Activation of rat 5-HT1B autoreceptor in axon terminals by CP-94253 did not modulate FADD forms. Activation of postsynaptic D1 dopamine receptor by SKF-81297 also reduced FADD (25%) and increased p-FADD (32%). Disruption of MEK-ERK activation with SL327 did not modify clonidine (α2A-adrenoceptor)-induced FADD inhibition, indicating that agonist effect was not dependent on ERK signaling. The various monoamine receptor agonists and antagonists did not alter FLIP-L content, or the activation of executioner caspase-3 and PARP-1 cleavage, indicating that the agonists attenuated apoptotic signals and promoted neuroplasticity through FADD regulation. These novel results indicate that inhibition of pro-apoptotic FADD adaptor could function as a common signaling step in the initial activation of monoamine receptors in the brain.

  13. Monoamine receptor agonists, acting preferentially at presynaptic autoreceptors and heteroreceptors, downregulate the cell fate adaptor FADD in rat brain cortex.

    PubMed

    García-Fuster, M Julia; García-Sevilla, Jesús A

    2015-02-01

    FADD is a crucial adaptor of death receptors that can engage apoptosis or survival actions (e.g. neuroplasticity) through its phosphorylated form (p-FADD). Although FADD was shown to participate in receptor mechanisms related to drugs of abuse, little is known on its role in the signaling of classic neurotransmitters (dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin) in brain. This study assessed the modulation of FADD (and p-FADD/FADD ratio, as an index of neuroplasticity) and FLIP-L (a neuroprotective FADD interacting partner), as well as the role of MEK-ERK signaling, after activation of monoamine auto/heteroreceptors by selective agonists in rat cortex. Acute depletion of monoamines with reserpine, but not with AMPT or PCPA, reduced FADD (28%) and increased p-FADD/FADD ratio (1.34-fold). Activation of presynaptic α2A-adrenoceptors (UK-14304 and clonidine), 5-HT1A receptors (8-OH-DPAT), and D2 dopamine receptor (bromocriptine) dose-dependently decreased FADD (up to 54%) and increased p-FADD (up to 29%) and p-FADD/FADD ratios (up to 2.93-fold), through specific receptor mechanisms. Activation of rat 5-HT1B autoreceptor in axon terminals by CP-94253 did not modulate FADD forms. Activation of postsynaptic D1 dopamine receptor by SKF-81297 also reduced FADD (25%) and increased p-FADD (32%). Disruption of MEK-ERK activation with SL327 did not modify clonidine (α2A-adrenoceptor)-induced FADD inhibition, indicating that agonist effect was not dependent on ERK signaling. The various monoamine receptor agonists and antagonists did not alter FLIP-L content, or the activation of executioner caspase-3 and PARP-1 cleavage, indicating that the agonists attenuated apoptotic signals and promoted neuroplasticity through FADD regulation. These novel results indicate that inhibition of pro-apoptotic FADD adaptor could function as a common signaling step in the initial activation of monoamine receptors in the brain. PMID:25286119

  14. Differential pathway coupling efficiency of the activated insulin receptor drives signaling selectivity by xmeta, an allosteric partial agonist antibody

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    XMetA, an anti-insulin receptor (IR) monoclonal antibody, is an allosteric partial agonist of the IR. We have previously reported that XMetA activates the “metabolic-biased” Akt kinase signaling pathway while having little or no effect on the “mitogenic” MAPK signaling pathwayof ERK 1/2. To inves...

  15. 2-Aryl(pyrrolidin-4-yl)acetic acids are potent agonists of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lin; Budhu, Richard; Huo, Pei; Lynch, Christopher L; Hale, Jeffrey J; Mills, Sander G; Hajdu, Richard; Keohane, Carol A; Rosenbach, Mark J; Milligan, James A; Shei, Gan-Ju; Chrebet, Gary; Bergstrom, James; Card, Deborah; Mandala, Suzanne M

    2006-07-01

    A series of 2-aryl(pyrrolidin-4-yl)acetic acids were synthesized and their biological activities were evaluated as agonists of S1P receptors. These analogs were able to induce lowering of lymphocyte counts in the peripheral blood of mice and were found to have good overall pharmacokinetic properties in rat.

  16. 2,5-Disubstituted pyrrolidine carboxylates as potent, orally active sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Colandrea, Vincent J; Legiec, Irene E; Huo, Pei; Yan, Lin; Hale, Jeffrey J; Mills, Sander G; Bergstrom, James; Card, Deborah; Chebret, Gary; Hajdu, Richard; Keohane, Carol Ann; Milligan, James A; Rosenbach, Mark J; Shei, Gan-Ju; Mandala, Suzanne M

    2006-06-01

    A series of 2,5-cis-disubstituted pyrrolidines were synthesized and evaluated as S1P receptor agonists. Compounds 15-21 were identified with good selectivity over S1P3 which lowered circulating lymphocytes after oral administration in mice.

  17. Interactions of the Melanocortin-4 Receptor with the Peptide Agonist NDP-MSH

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Kathryn L.; Kinsella, Gemma K.; Cox, Alan; Donnelly, Dan; Findlay, John B.C.

    2010-01-01

    Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) has an important regulatory role in energy homeostasis and food intake. Peptide agonists of the MC4R are characterized by the conserved sequence His6-Phe7-Arg8-Trp9, which is crucial for their interaction with the receptor. This investigation utilized the covalent attachment approach to identify receptor residues in close proximity to the bound ligand [Nle4,d-Phe7]melanocyte-stimulating hormone (NDP-MSH), thereby differentiating between residues directly involved in ligand binding and those mutations that compromise ligand binding by inducing conformational changes in the receptor. Also, recent X-ray structures of G-protein-coupled receptors were utilized to refine a model of human MC4R in the active state (R⁎), which was used to generate a better understanding of the binding mode of the ligand NDP-MSH at the atomic level. The mutation of residues in the human MC4R—such as Leu106 of extracellular loop 1, and Asp122, Ile125, and Asp126 of transmembrane (TM) helix 3, His264 (TM6), and Met292 (TM7)—to Cys residues produced definitive indications of proximity to the side chains of residues in the core region of the peptide ligand. Of particular interest was the contact between d-Phe7 on the ligand and Ile125 of TM3 on the MC4R. Additionally, Met292 (TM7) equivalent to Lys(7.45) (Ballesteros numbering scheme) involved in covalently attaching retinal in rhodopsin is shown to be in close proximity to Trp9. For the first time, the interactions between the terminal regions of NDP-MSH and the receptor are described. The amino-terminus appears to be adjacent to a series of hydrophilic residues with novel interactions at Cys196 (TM5) and Asp189 (extracellular loop 2). These interactions are reminiscent of sequential ligand binding exhibited by the β2-adrenergic receptor, with the former interaction being equivalent to the known interaction involving Ser204 of the β2-adrenergic receptor. PMID:20600126

  18. Benzodiazepine receptor agonists affect both binding and gating of recombinant alpha1beta2gamma2 gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptors.

    PubMed

    Mercik, Katarzyna; Piast, Michał; Mozrzymas, Jerzy W

    2007-05-28

    Benzodiazepines are known to act by enhancing the effect of gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptor agonists. Positive modulation by benzodiazepines is typically ascribed to upregulation of agonist binding affinity but their effect on gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptor gating remain unclear. In this work, we have used the ultrafast application system to examine the impact of flurazepam and zolpidem on recombinant alpha1beta2gamma2 gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptors. As expected, both drugs strongly enhanced currents evoked by low [gamma-aminobutyric acid]. These compounds, however, also affected currents elicited by saturating agonist concentration. In particular, flurazepam and zolpidem reduced current amplitudes and slowed down the recovery process in paired-pulse experiments. Moreover, flurazepam accelerated the current rise time and zolpidem enhanced the rate and extent of desensitization. We propose that flurazepam and zolpidem modulate gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptors by strong enhancement of agonist binding with a superimposed limited effect on the receptor gating.

  19. Dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are favourable to glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists: yes.

    PubMed

    Scheen, André J

    2012-03-01

    The pharmacological treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is becoming increasingly complex, especially since the availability of incretin-based therapies. Compared with other glucose-lowering strategies, these novel drugs offer some advantages such as an absence of weight gain and a negligible risk of hypoglycaemia and, possibly, better cardiovascular and β-cell protection. The physician has now multiple choices to manage his/her patient after secondary failure of metformin, and the question whether it is preferable to add an oral dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor (gliptin) or an injectable glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist will emerge. Obviously, DPP-4 inhibitors offer several advantages compared with GLP-1 receptor agonists, especially regarding easiness of use, tolerance profile and cost. However, because they can only increase endogenous GLP-1 concentrations to physiological (rather than pharmacological) levels, they are less potent to improve glucose control, promote weight reduction ("weight neutrality") and reduce blood pressure compared to GLP-1 receptor agonists. Of note, none of the two classes have proven long-term safety and positive impact on diabetic complications yet. The role of DPP-4 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists in the therapeutic armamentarium of T2DM is rapidly evolving, but their respective potential strengths and weaknesses should be better defined in long-term head-to-head comparative controlled trials. Instead of trying to answer the question whether DPP-4 inhibitors are favourable to GLP-1 receptor agonists (or vice versa), it is probably more clinically relevant to look at which T2DM patient will benefit more from one or the other therapy considering all his/her individual clinical characteristics ("personalized medicine").

  20. Dopamine D1 receptors: efficacy of full (dihydrexidine) vs. partial (SKF38393) agonists in primates vs. rodents.

    PubMed

    Watts, V J; Lawler, C P; Gilmore, J H; Southerland, S B; Nichols, D E; Mailman, R B

    1993-09-28

    Although partial efficacy dopamine D1 receptor agonists have little therapeutic benefit in parkinsonism, the first high potency, full efficacy dopamine D1 receptor agonist dihydrexidine recently has been shown to have profound antiparkinsonian effects. One reason for the greater antiparkinsonian effects of dihydrexidine vs. SKF38393 might be that SKF38393, while a partial dopamine D1 receptor agonist in rodent striatal preparations, has virtually no agonist activity in monkey striatum (Pifl et al., 1991, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 202, 273). To explore this hypothesis, we compared the dopamine D1 receptor affinity and efficacy of dihydrexidine and SKF38393 in striatum from rat and monkey. In vitro binding studies using membranes from putamen of adult rhesus monkeys demonstrated that dihydrexidine competed for dopamine D1 receptors (labeled with [3H]SCH23390) with high potency (IC50 = 20 nM vs. ca. 10 nM in rat brain). SKF38393 was about 4-fold less potent than dihydrexidine in both monkey and rat brain. The in vitro functional activity of these drugs was assessed by their ability to stimulate adenylate cyclase activity in tissue homogenates. Dihydrexidine was of full efficacy (relative to dopamine) in stimulating cAMP synthesis in both monkey and rat. SKF38393 was only a partial efficacy agonist in both rat striatum and monkey putamen, but contrary to the original hypothesis, it had the same efficacy (ca. 40% relative to dihydrexidine) in membranes from both species. Interestingly, greater between-subject variation was found in the stimulation produced by SKF38393 in primate compared to rat brain, although the basis for this variation is unclear.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Differential behavioral reinforcement effects of dopamine receptor agonists in the rat with bilateral lesion of the posterior ventral tegmental area.

    PubMed

    Ouachikh, Omar; Dieb, Wisam; Durif, Franck; Hafidi, Aziz

    2013-09-01

    Dopamine dysregulation syndrome in Parkinson's disease has been attributed to dopamine replacement therapies and/or a lesion of the dopaminergic system. The dopaminergic neuronal loss targets the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area (VTA). We hypothesize that dopamine replacement therapy is responsible for the potential reinforcement effect in Parkinson's disease by acting on the neuronal reward circuitry. Therefore this study was designed to explore the potential motivational effect of dopamine replacement therapy in bilateral VTA-lesioned animals. The posterior (p)VTA, which project to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) constitutes the major dopamine neuronal circuitry implicated in addictive disorders. Using the conditioned place preference (CPP) behavioral paradigm, we investigated the motivational effects of dopamine receptor agonists, and cocaine in rat with a 6-OHDA bilateral lesion of the pVTA. Amongst the dopamine receptor agonists used in this study only the D2R and D3R agonists (bromocriptine, PD128907 and pramipexole), induced a significant CPP in pVTA-lesioned animals. Dopamine receptor agonists did not induce behavioral sensitization in sham animals. Moreover, confocal D2R immunostaining analysis showed a significant increase in the number of D2R per cell body in the NAc shell of pVTA lesioned rats compared to sham. This result correlated, for the first time, the dopamine receptor agonists effect with DR2 overexpression in the NAc shell of pVTA-lesioned rats. In addition, cocaine, which is known to increase dopamine release, induced behavioral sensitization in sham group but not in dopamine deprived group. Thus, the later result highlighted the importance of pVTA-NAc dopaminergic pathway in positive reinforcements. Altogether these data suggested that the implication of the dopamine replacement therapy in the appearance of dopamine dysregulation syndrome in Parkinson's disease is probably due to both neuronal degeneration in the posterior VTA and

  2. 5-Hydroxytryptamine 4(a) receptor expressed in Sf9 cells is palmitoylated in an agonist-dependent manner.

    PubMed Central

    Ponimaskin, E G; Schmidt, M F; Heine, M; Bickmeyer, U; Richter, D W

    2001-01-01

    The mouse 5-hydroxytryptamine 4(a) receptor [5-HT(4(a))] was expressed with a baculovirus system in insect cells and analysed for acylation. [(3)H]Palmitic acid was effectively incorporated into 5-HT(4(a)) and label was sensitive to the treatment with reducing agents indicating a thioester-type bond. Analysis of protein-bound fatty acids revealed that 5-HT(4(a)) contains predominantly palmitic acid. Treatment of infected Sf9 (Spodoptera frugiperda) cells with BIMU8 [(endo-N-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-yl)-2,3-dehydro-2-oxo-3-(prop-2-yl)-1H-benzimid-azole-1-carboxamide], a 5-HT(4) receptor-selective agonist, generated a dose-dependent increase in [(3)H]palmitate incorporation into 5-HT(4(a)) with an EC(50) of approx. 10 nM. The change in receptor labelling after stimulation with agonist was receptor-specific and did not result from general metabolic effects. We also used both pulse labelling and pulse-chase labelling to address the dynamics of 5-HT(4(a)) palmitoylation. Incorporation studies revealed that the rate of palmitate incorporation was increased approx. 3-fold after stimulation with agonist. Results of pulse-chase experiments show that activation with BIMU8 promoted the release of radiolabel from 5-HT(4(a)), thereby reducing the levels of receptor-bound palmitate to approximately one-half. Taken together, our results demonstrate that palmitoylation of 5-HT(4(a)) is a reversible process and that stimulation of 5-HT(4(a)) with agonist increases the turnover rate for receptor-bound palmitate. This provides evidence for a regulated cycling of receptor-bound palmitate and suggests a functional role for palmitoylation/depalmitoylation in 5-hydroxytryptamine-mediated signalling. PMID:11171060

  3. Parallel functional activity profiling reveals valvulopathogens are potent 5-hydroxytryptamine(2B) receptor agonists: implications for drug safety assessment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xi-Ping; Setola, Vincent; Yadav, Prem N; Allen, John A; Rogan, Sarah C; Hanson, Bonnie J; Revankar, Chetana; Robers, Matt; Doucette, Chris; Roth, Bryan L

    2009-10-01

    Drug-induced valvular heart disease (VHD) is a serious side effect of a few medications, including some that are on the market. Pharmacological studies of VHD-associated medications (e.g., fenfluramine, pergolide, methysergide, and cabergoline) have revealed that they and/or their metabolites are potent 5-hydroxytryptamine(2B) (5-HT(2B)) receptor agonists. We have shown that activation of 5-HT(2B) receptors on human heart valve interstitial cells in vitro induces a proliferative response reminiscent of the fibrosis that typifies VHD. To identify current or future drugs that might induce VHD, we screened approximately 2200 U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved or investigational medications to identify 5-HT(2B) receptor agonists, using calcium-based high-throughput screening. Of these 2200 compounds, 27 were 5-HT(2B) receptor agonists (hits); 14 of these had previously been identified as 5-HT(2B) receptor agonists, including seven bona fide valvulopathogens. Six of the hits (guanfacine, quinidine, xylometazoline, oxymetazoline, fenoldopam, and ropinirole) are approved medications. Twenty-three of the hits were then "functionally profiled" (i.e., assayed in parallel for 5-HT(2B) receptor agonism using multiple readouts to test for functional selectivity). In these assays, the known valvulopathogens were efficacious at concentrations as low as 30 nM, whereas the other compounds were less so. Hierarchical clustering analysis of the pEC(50) data revealed that ropinirole (which is not associated with valvulopathy) was clearly segregated from known valvulopathogens. Taken together, our data demonstrate that patterns of 5-HT(2B) receptor functional selectivity might be useful for identifying compounds likely to induce valvular heart disease. PMID:19570945

  4. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists in the prevention and treatment of murine systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Aprahamian, Tamar R; Bonegio, Ramon G; Weitzner, Zachary; Gharakhanian, Raffi; Rifkin, Ian R

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists are known to have many immunomodulatory effects. We have previously shown that the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone is beneficial when used early in prevention of disease in murine models of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and SLE-related atherosclerosis. In this report, we demonstrate that another PPARγ agonist, pioglitazone is also beneficial as a treatment for early murine lupus, indicating that this is a class effect and not agent-specific. We further attempt to define the ability of PPARγ agonists to ameliorate established or severe autoimmune disease using two mouse models: the MRL.lpr SLE model and the gld.apoE−/− model of accelerated atherosclerosis and SLE. We demonstrate that, in contrast to the marked amelioration of disease seen when PPARγ agonist treatment was started before disease onset, treatment with rosiglitazone after disease onset in MRL.lpr or gld.apoE−/− mice had minimal beneficial effect on the development of the autoimmune phenotype; however, rosiglitazone treatment remained highly effective at reducing lupus-associated atherosclerosis in gld.apoE−/− mice after disease onset or when mice were maintained on a high cholesterol Western diet. These results suggest that beneficial effects of PPARγ agonists on the development of autoimmunity might be limited to the early stages of disease, but that atherosclerosis, a major cause of death in SLE patients, may be ameliorated even in established or severe disease. PMID:24456224

  5. Simultaneous identification and quantification of 20 β-receptor agonists in feed using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jie; Wang, Shi; Su, Xiao-Ou

    2013-01-01

    "Lean meat powder" is a class of toxic chemicals that have structures similar to that of β-adrenergic receptor agonists. At least 16 chemicals from this class have been specifically banned by the 176(th) bulletin of the Chinese Department of Agriculture on breeding animals, and methods for monitoring the illicit use of β-agonists in animal feed are required. Herein, a method to quantify 20 β-agonists in feed, via analyte derivatization followed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, has been developed. The optimized method has a good linear correlation (calibration coefficient > 0.99) between the quantitative ion peak area and the concentration of β-agonists over a large working range (0.05-1 mg/kg). The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.01 mg/kg, the recoveries for three β-agonists spikes (0.05, 0.1, and 1 µg/g) in feed ranged from 75.6 to 102.4%, repeatability ranged from 1.2 to 9.4% for all of the compounds, and intermediate precisions were lower than 13.8%. This precise, accurate method was applied to quantify 20 β-agonists in actual feed samples and represents an excellent complement to existing quantification methods.

  6. Simultaneous Identification and Quantification of 20 β-Receptor Agonists in Feed Using Gas Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jie; Wang, Shi; Su, Xiao-Ou

    2013-01-01

    “Lean meat powder” is a class of toxic chemicals that have structures similar to that of β-adrenergic receptor agonists. At least 16 chemicals from this class have been specifically banned by the 176th bulletin of the Chinese Department of Agriculture on breeding animals, and methods for monitoring the illicit use of β-agonists in animal feed are required. Herein, a method to quantify 20 β-agonists in feed, via analyte derivatization followed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, has been developed. The optimized method has a good linear correlation (calibration coefficient > 0.99) between the quantitative ion peak area and the concentration of β-agonists over a large working range (0.05–1 mg/kg). The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.01 mg/kg, the recoveries for three β-agonists spikes (0.05, 0.1, and 1 µg/g) in feed ranged from 75.6 to 102.4%, repeatability ranged from 1.2 to 9.4% for all of the compounds, and intermediate precisions were lower than 13.8%. This precise, accurate method was applied to quantify 20 β-agonists in actual feed samples and represents an excellent complement to existing quantification methods. PMID:24098489

  7. [Pathophysiological relevance of peroxisome proliferators activated receptors (PPAR) to joint diseases - the pro and con of agonists].

    PubMed

    Jouzeau, Jean-Yves; Moulin, David; Koufany, Meriem; Sebillaud, Sylvie; Bianchi, Arnaud; Netter, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferators activated receptors (PPAR) are ligand-inducible nuclear transacting factors comprising three subtypes, PPARalpha, PPARbeta/delta and PPARgamma, which play a key role in lipids and glucose homeostasis. All PPAR subtypes have been identified in joint or inflammatory cells and their activation resulted in a transcriptional repression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, TNFalpha), early inflammatory genes (NOS(2), COX-2, mPGES-1) or matrix metalloproteases (MMP-1, MMP-13), at least for the gamma subtype. PPAR full agonists were also shown to stimulate IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) production by cytokine-stimulated articular cells in a subtype-dependent manner. These anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic properties were confirmed in animal models of joint diseases where PPAR agonists reduced synovial inflammation while preventing cartilage destruction or inflammatory bone loss, although many effects required much higher doses than needed to restore insulin sensitivity or to lower circulating lipid levels. However, these promising effects of PPAR full agonists were hampered by their ability to reduce the growth factor-dependent synthesis of extracellular matrix components or to induce chondrocyte apoptosis, by the possible contribution of immunosuppressive properties to their anti-arthritic effects, by the increased adipocyte differentiation secondary to prolonged stimulation of PPARgamma, and by a variable contribution of PPAR subtypes depending on the system. Clinical data are scarce in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients whereas thousands of patients worldwilde, treated with PPAR agonists for type 2 diabetes or dyslipidemia, are paradoxically prone to suffer from osteoarthritis (OA). Whereas high dosage of full agonists may expose RA patients to cardiovascular adverse effects, the proof of concept that PPAR agonists have therapeutical relevance to OA may benefit from an epidemiological follow-up of joint lesions in diabetic or

  8. Functional expression of adenosine A2A and A3 receptors in the mouse dendritic cell line XS-106.

    PubMed

    Dickenson, John M; Reeder, Steve; Rees, Bob; Alexander, Steve; Kendall, Dave

    2003-08-01

    There is increasing evidence to suggest that adenosine receptors can modulate the function of cells involved in the immune system. For example, human dendritic cells derived from blood monocytes have recently been described to express functional adenosine A1, A2A and A3 receptors. Therefore, in the present study, we have investigated whether the recently established murine dendritic cell line XS-106 expresses functional adenosine receptors. The selective adenosine A3 receptor agonist 1-[2-chloro-6[[(3-iodophenyl)methyl]amino]-9H-purin-9-yl]-1-deoxy-N-methyl-beta-D-ribofuranuronamide (2-Cl-IB-MECA) inhibited forskolin-mediated [3H]cyclic AMP accumulation and stimulated concentration-dependent increases in p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation. The selective adenosine A2A receptor agonist 4-[2-[[-6-amino-9-(N-ethyl-beta-D-ribofuranuronamidosyl)-9H-purin-2-yl]amino]ethyl]benzene-propanoic acid (CGS 21680) stimulated a robust increase in [3H]cyclic AMP accumulation and p42/p44 MAPK phosphorylation. In contrast, the selective adenosine A1 receptor agonist CPA (N6-cyclopentyladenosine) did not inhibit forskolin-mediated [3H]cyclic AMP accumulation or stimulate increases in p42/p44 MAPK phosphorylation. These observations suggest that XS-106 cells express functional adenosine A2A and A3 receptors. The non-selective adenosine receptor agonist 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) release from XS-106 cells in a concentration-dependent fashion. Furthermore, treatment with Cl-IB-MECA (1 microM) or CGS 21680 (1 microM) alone produced a partial inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha release (when compared to NECA), whereas a combination of both agonists resulted in the inhibition of TNF-alpha release comparable to that observed with NECA alone. Treatment of cells with the adenosine A2A receptor selective antagonists 4-(2-[7-amino-2-(2-furyl)[1,2,4]triazolo[2,3-a

  9. Adaptability and selectivity of human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) pan agonists revealed from crystal structures

    SciTech Connect

    Oyama, Takuji; Toyota, Kenji; Waku, Tsuyoshi; Hirakawa, Yuko; Nagasawa, Naoko; Kasuga, Jun-ichi; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Miyachi, Hiroyuki; Morikawa, Kosuke

    2009-08-01

    The structures of the ligand-binding domains (LBDs) of human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARα, PPARγ and PPARδ) in complexes with a pan agonist, an α/δ dual agonist and a PPARδ-specific agonist were determined. The results explain how each ligand is recognized by the PPAR LBDs at an atomic level. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) belong to the nuclear hormone receptor family, which is defined as transcriptional factors that are activated by the binding of ligands to their ligand-binding domains (LBDs). Although the three PPAR subtypes display different tissue distribution patterns and distinct pharmacological profiles, they all are essentially related to fatty-acid and glucose metabolism. Since the PPARs share similar three-dimensional structures within the LBDs, synthetic ligands which simultaneously activate two or all of the PPARs could be potent candidates in terms of drugs for the treatment of abnormal metabolic homeostasis. The structures of several PPAR LBDs were determined in complex with synthetic ligands, derivatives of 3-(4-alkoxyphenyl)propanoic acid, which exhibit unique agonistic activities. The PPARα and PPARγ LBDs were complexed with the same pan agonist, TIPP-703, which activates all three PPARs and their crystal structures were determined. The two LBD–ligand complex structures revealed how the pan agonist is adapted to the similar, but significantly different, ligand-binding pockets of the PPARs. The structures of the PPARδ LBD in complex with an α/δ-selective ligand, TIPP-401, and with a related δ-specific ligand, TIPP-204, were also determined. The comparison between the two PPARδ complexes revealed how each ligand exhibits either a ‘dual selective’ or ‘single specific’ binding mode.

  10. Nipecotic acid ethyl ester: a cholinergic agonist that may differentiate muscarinic receptor subtypes

    SciTech Connect

    Zorn, S.H.; Duman, R.S.; Enna, S.J.; Krogsgaard-Larsen, P.; Micheletti, R.; Giraldo, E.; Giachetti, A.

    1986-03-05

    Reports indicate that nipecotic acid ethyl ester (NAEE) displays cholinomimetic properties in vivo. In the present study a series of physiological and biochemical tests were conducted to characterize this action. NAEE had a negative inotropic effect on the guinea pig atrium, and stimulated contraction of the guinea pig ileum and isolated mouse stomach strip at concentrations similar to bethanechol (BCH). The atrial and ilial effects were reversed by atropine. Unlike BCH, NAEE had no effect on basal acid secretion in the isolated mouse stomach at concentrations < 100 ..mu..M. NAEE was more potent than carbachol (CCH) in displacing /sup 3/H-ONB binding from rat brain membranes. The potency of NAEE to inhibit antagonist binding in rat heart membranes was enhanced by Mg/sup + +/ (Hill coefficient < 1.0) and reduced by Gpp(NH)p. Like CCH, NAEE inhibited GTP-stimulated adenylate cyclase in rat brain striatal membranes. As compared to CCH, NAEE had little effect (< 5%) as a stimulator of inositol phosphate (IP) production in rat brain slices. The results indicate that NAEE is a direct-acting muscarinic receptor agonist. Moreover, its differential effects on acid secretion, IP accumulation, and adenylate cyclase suggest that it may be useful for defining cholinergic receptor subclasses.

  11. Characterizing novel metabolic pathways of melatonin receptor agonist agomelatine using metabolomic approaches.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing; Lu, Yuan-Fu; Guan, Xinfu; Zhao, Mingkun; Wang, Jin; Li, Feng

    2016-06-01

    Agomelatine (AGM), an analog of melatonin, is a potential agonist at melatonin receptors 1/2 and a selective antagonist at 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C receptors. AGM is widely used for the treatment of major depressive episodes in adults. However, multiple adverse effects associated with AGM have been reported in clinical practice. It is little known about AGM metabolism in vitro and in vivo, although metabolism plays a pivotal role in its efficacy and safety. To elucidate metabolic pathways of AGM, we systemically investigated AGM metabolism and its bioactivation in human liver microsomes (HLM) and mice using metabolomic approaches. We identified thirty-eight AGM metabolites and adducts, among which thirty-two are novel. In HLM, we uncovered five GSH-trapped adducts and two semicarbazide-trapped aldehydes. Moreover, we characterized three N-acetyl cysteine conjugated-AGM adducts in mouse urine and feces, which were formed from the degradation of AGM_GSH adducts. Using recombinant CYP450 isoenzymes and chemical inhibitors, we demonstrated that CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 are primary enzymes contributing to the formation of AGM_GSH adducts and AGM_hydrazones. This study provided a global view of AGM metabolism and identified the novel pathways of AGM bioactivation, which could be utilized for further understanding the mechanism of adverse effects related to AGM and possible drug-drug interactions. PMID:27021842

  12. [Characteristics and types of GLP-1 receptor agonists. An opportunity for individualized therapy].

    PubMed

    Jódar, Esteban

    2014-09-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is secreted from enteroendocrine L-cells in response to oral nutrient intake and elicits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion while suppressing glucagon secretion. Moreover slows gastric emptying -reducing postprandial glycemic excursions-, reduces body weight, systolic blood pressure and has beneficial effects in the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. Since the 1990s, the efficacy of GLP-1 in reducing blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetes (DM2) was well known. However, GLP-1 should be administered by chronic subcutaneous infusion because of the rapid cleavage by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4). Hence, DPP-4 inhibitors -which increase pseudo-physiologically endogenous GLP-1 levels- were developed. In addition, several GLP-1 receptor agonists have been designed to avoid DPP-4-breakdown and/or rapid renal elimination and, therefore, induce a pharmacologic effect in the GLP-1 receptor: short-acting, long-acting, and prolonged-acting GLP-1 analogs. Each class has different structural, pharmacodynamic and clinical properties and could be administered in different therapeutical regimens giving us the opportunity to individualize the therapy of DM2.

  13. [Characteristics and types of GLP-1 receptor agonists. An opportunity for individualized therapy].

    PubMed

    Jódar, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is secreted from enteroendocrine L-cells in response to oral nutrient intake and elicits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion while suppressing glucagon secretion. Moreover slows gastric emptying -reducing postprandial glycemic excursions-, reduces body weight, systolic blood pressure and has beneficial effects in the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. Since the 1990s, the efficacy of GLP-1 in reducing blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetes (DM2) was well known. However, GLP-1 should be administered by chronic subcutaneous infusion because of the rapid cleavage by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4). Hence, DPP-4 inhibitors -which increase pseudo-physiologically endogenous GLP-1 levels- were developed. In addition, several GLP-1 receptor agonists have been designed to avoid DPP-4-breakdown and/or rapid renal elimination and, therefore, induce a pharmacologic effect in the GLP-1 receptor: short-acting, long-acting, and prolonged-acting GLP-1 analogs. Each class has different structural, pharmacodynamic and clinical properties and could be administered in different therapeutical regimens giving us the opportunity to individualize the therapy of DM2.

  14. Central Administration of Galanin Receptor 1 Agonist Boosted Insulin Sensitivity in Adipose Cells of Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenwen; Fang, Penghua; He, Biao; Guo, Lili; Runesson, Johan; Langel, Ülo; Shi, Mingyi; Zhu, Yan; Bo, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies testified the beneficial effect of central galanin on insulin sensitivity of type 2 diabetic rats. The aim of the study was further to investigate whether central M617, a galanin receptor 1 agonist, can benefit insulin sensitivity. The effects of intracerebroventricular administration of M617 on insulin sensitivity and insulin signaling were evaluated in adipose tissues of type 2 diabetic rats. The results showed that central injection of M617 significantly increased plasma adiponectin contents, glucose infusion rates in hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp tests, GLUT4 mRNA expression levels, GLUT4 contents in plasma membranes, and total cell membranes of the adipose cells but reduced the plasma C-reactive protein concentration in nondiabetic and diabetic rats. The ratios of GLUT4 contents were higher in plasma membranes to total cell membranes in both nondiabetic and diabetic M617 groups than each control. In addition, the central administration of M617 enhanced the ratios of pAkt/Akt and pAS160/AS160, but not phosphorylative cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB)/CREB in the adipose cells of nondiabetic and diabetic rats. These results suggest that excitation of central galanin receptor 1 facilitates insulin sensitivity via activation of the Akt/AS160 signaling pathway in the fat cells of type 2 diabetic rats. PMID:27127795

  15. Liver X receptor agonist prevents LPS-induced mastitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yunhe; Tian, Yuan; Wei, Zhengkai; Liu, Hui; Song, Xiaojing; Liu, Wenbo; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Wei; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Naisheng

    2014-10-01

    Liver X receptor-α (LXR-α) which belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily, is a ligand-activated transcription factor. Best known for its ability to regulate lipid metabolism and transport, LXRs have recently also been implicated in regulation of inflammatory response. The aim of this study was to investigate the preventive effects of synthetic LXR-α agonist T0901317 on LPS-induced mastitis in mice. The mouse model of mastitis was induced by injection of LPS through the duct of mammary gland. T0901317 was injected 1h before and 12h after induction of LPS intraperitoneally. The results showed that T0901317 significantly attenuated the infiltration of neutrophilic granulocytes, and the activation of myeloperoxidase (MPO); down-regulated the level of pro-inflammatory mediators including TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, COX-2 and PEG2; inhibited the phosphorylation of IκB-α and NF-κB p65, caused by LPS. Moreover, we report for the first time that LXR-α activation impaired LPS-induced mastitis. Taken together, these data indicated that T0901317 had protective effect on mastitis and the anti-inflammatory mechanism of T0901317 on LPS induced mastitis in mice may be due to its ability to inhibit NF-κB signaling pathway. LXR-α activation can be used as a therapeutic approach to treat mastitis.

  16. Liver X receptor agonists decrease ENaC-mediated sodium transport in collecting duct cells.

    PubMed

    Soodvilai, Sunhapas; Jia, Zhanjun; Fongsupa, Somsak; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj; Yang, Tianxin

    2012-12-15

    Liver X receptors (LXRs) are nuclear receptors that regulate cholesterol, fatty acid, and glucose metabolism in various tissues. However, the renal action of LXRs is not well understood. Here we investigated the effects of LXR-activating ligands on modulation of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC)-mediated sodium transport in collecting duct cells. Exposure of the M1 cells to the synthetic LXR agonists T0901317 and GW3965 or the natural ligand 22R-hydroxycholesterol for 24 h decreased amiloride-sensitive sodium transport, corresponding with an increase of transepithelial resistance. The inhibition of amiloride-sensitive sodium transport after incubation with T0901317 or GW3965 was not mediated by a reduction of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase-mediated basolateral sodium transport. On the other hand, T0901317 and GW3965 decreased mRNA abundance and membrane expression of ENaC. Preincubation the monolayer with GW3965 attenuated aldosterone-induced stimulation sodium transport. In primary cultures of collecting duct cells, T0901317 and GW3965 similarly inhibited ENaC transport function as in M1 cells. This is the first evidence showing LXR-activating ligands modulate ENaC-mediated sodium transport in collecting duct cells. These results suggest that LXRs may represent a novel therapeutic target for treatment of conditions with dysregulation of ENaC such as hypertension.

  17. The sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor agonist FTY720 is neuroprotective after cuprizone-induced CNS demyelination

    PubMed Central

    Slowik, A; Schmidt, T; Beyer, C; Amor, S; Clarner, T; Kipp, M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Modulation of the sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor is an approved treatment for relapsing multiple sclerosis because of its anti-inflammatory effect of retaining lymphocytes within the lymph nodes. Here, we evaluated the potential of an agonist at this receptor, FTY720 (fingolimod), to activate the promyelinating pathways within the brain to encourage remyelination and neuroprotection. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH In this study, we used the cuprizone model in male C57BL/6 mice and tested the promyelinating and neuroprotective effects of FTY720 after acute and chronic toxin-induced experimental demyelination. We used histological, immunohistochemical and gene expression methods. KEY RESULTS The midline of the corpus callosum was severely demyelinated after acute and chronic cuprizone-induced demyelination. Robust endogenous remyelination was evident after acute, but impaired after chronic, demyelination. FTY720 treatment modestly accelerated myelin recovery after acute but not chronic cuprizone exposure. Markers of gliosis (astrocyte and microglia activation) were not affected by FTY720 treatment. Remarkably, the accumulation of amyloid precursor protein-positive spheroids in axons was less distinct in FTY720-treated animals, indicating that this compound alleviated ongoing axonal damage. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS We show that even during endogenous remyelination, axonal degeneration continued at a low level, accumulating over time. This continuous neurodegenerative process was ameliorated by FTY720 treatment. FTY720 preserved CNS integrity by direct interaction with brain resident cells, the actions of which are still to be defined. PMID:25220526

  18. Effects of α-2A adrenergic receptor agonist on time and risk preference in primates

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soyoun; Bobeica, Irina; Gamo, Nao J.; Arnsten, Amy F. T.; Lee, Daeyeol

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Subjective values of actions are influenced by the uncertainty and immediacy of expected rewards. Multiple brain areas, including the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia, are implicated in selecting actions according to their subjective values. Alterations in these neural circuits therefore might contribute to symptoms of impulsive choice behaviors in disorders such as substance abuse and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In particular, the α-2A noradrenergic system is known to have a key influence on prefrontal cortical circuits, and medications that stimulate this receptor are currently in use for the treatment of ADHD. Objective We tested whether the preference of rhesus monkeys for delayed and uncertain reward is influenced by the α-2A adrenergic receptor agonist, guanfacine. Methods In each trial, the animal chose between a small, certain and immediate reward and another larger, more delayed reward. In half of the trials, the larger reward was certain, whereas in the remaining trials, the larger reward was uncertain. Results Guanfacine increased the tendency for the animal to choose the larger and more delayed reward only when it was certain. By applying an econometric model to the animal’s choice behavior, we found that guanfacine selectively reduced the animal’s time preference, increasing their choice of delayed, larger rewards, without significantly affecting their risk preference. Conclusions In combination with previous findings that guanfacine improves the efficiency of working memory and other prefrontal functions, these results suggest that impulsive choice behaviors may also be ameliorated by strengthening prefrontal functions. PMID:21979441

  19. Adhesion G protein-coupled receptors are activated by exposure of a cryptic tethered agonist

    PubMed Central

    Stoveken, Hannah M.; Hajduczok, Alexander G.; Xu, Lei; Tall, Gregory G.

    2015-01-01

    The large class of adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (aGPCRs) bind extracellular matrix or neighboring cell-surface ligands to regulate organ and tissue development through an unknown activation mechanism. We examined aGPCR activation using two prototypical aGPCRs, GPR56 and GPR110. Active dissociation of the noncovalently bound GPR56 or GPR110 extracellular domains (ECDs) from the respective seven-transmembrane (7TM) domains relieved an inhibitory influence and permitted both receptors to activate defined G protein subtypes. After ECD displacement, the newly revealed short N-terminal stalk regions of the 7TM domains were found to be essential for G protein activation. Synthetic peptides comprising these stalks potently activated GPR56 or GPR110 in vitro or in cells, demonstrating that the stalks comprise a tethered agonist that was encrypted within the ECD. Establishment of an aGPCR activation mechanism provides a rational platform for the development of aGPCR synthetic modulators that could find clinical utility toward aGPCR-directed disease. PMID:25918380

  20. Choosing between GLP-1 Receptor Agonists and DPP-4 Inhibitors: A Pharmacological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Dominique Xavier; Evans, Marc

    2012-01-01

    In recent years the incretin therapies have provided a new treatment option for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The incretin therapies focus on the increasing levels of the two incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). This results in increased glucose dependent insulin synthesis and release. GLP-1 receptor agonists such as liraglutide and exenatide exert an intrinsic biological effect on GLP-1 receptors directly stimulating the release of insulin from pancreatic beta cells. DPP-4 inhibitors such as sitagliptin and linagliptin prevent the inactivation of endogenous GLP-1 and GIP through competitive inhibition of the DPP-4 enzyme. Both incretin therapies have good safety and tolerability profiles and interact minimally with a number of medications commonly prescribed in T2DM. This paper focuses on the pharmacological basis by which the incretin therapies function and how this knowledge can inform and benefit clinical decisions. Each individual incretin agent has benefits and pitfalls relating to aspects such as glycaemic and nonglycaemic efficacy, safety and tolerability, ease of administration, and cost. Overall, a personalized medicine approach has been found to be favourable, tailoring the incretin agent to benefit and suit patient's needs such as renal impairment (RI) or hepatic impairment (HI). PMID:23125920

  1. Mechanisms of anorexia-cachexia syndrome and rational for treatment with selective ghrelin receptor agonist.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Angela; Criscitiello, Carmen; Gelao, Lucia; Pravettoni, Gabriella; Locatelli, Marzia; Minchella, Ida; Di Leo, Maria; Liuzzi, Rita; Milani, Alessandra; Massaro, Mariangela; Curigliano, Giuseppe

    2015-11-01

    Cancer cachexia is a multi-organ, multifactorial and often irreversible syndrome affecting many patients with cancer. Cancer cachexia is invariably associated with weight loss, mainly from loss of skeletal muscle and body fat, conditioning a reduced quality of life due to asthenia, anorexia, anaemia and fatigue. Treatment options for treating cancer cachexia are limited. The approach is multimodal and may include: treatment of secondary gastrointestinal symptoms, nutritional treatments, drug, and non-drug treatments. Nutritional counselling and physical training may be beneficial in delaying or preventing the development of anorexia-cachexia. However, these interventions are limited in their effect, and no definitive pharmacological treatment is available to address the relevant components of the syndrome. Anamorelin is a first-in-class, orally active ghrelin receptor agonist that binds and stimulates the growth hormone secretagogue receptor centrally, thereby mimicking the appetite-enhancing and anabolic effects of ghrelin. It represents a new class of drug and an additional treatment option for this patient group, whose therapeutic options are currently limited. In this review we examine the mechanisms of anamorelin by which it contrasts catabolic states, its role in regulation of metabolism and energy homeostasis, the data of recent trials in the setting of cancer cachexia and its safety profile.

  2. PPAR modulators and PPAR pan agonists for metabolic diseases: the next generation of drugs targeting peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors?

    PubMed

    Feldman, P L; Lambert, M H; Henke, B R

    2008-01-01

    The Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors-PPAR alpha, PPAR gamma, and PPAR delta--are members of the nuclear receptor gene family that have emerged as therapeutic targets for the development of drugs to treat human metabolic diseases. The discovery of high affinity, subtype-selective agonists for each of the three PPAR subtypes has allowed elucidation of the pharmacology of these receptors and development of first-generation therapeutic agents for the treatment of diabetes and dyslipidemia. However, despite proven therapeutic benefits of selective PPAR agonists, safety concerns and dose-limiting side effects have been observed, and a number of late-stage development failures have been reported. Scientists have continued to explore ligand-based activation of PPARs in hopes of developing safer and more effective drugs. This review highlights recent efforts on two newer approaches, the simultaneous activation of all three PPAR receptors with a single ligand (PPAR pan agonists) and the selective modulation of a single PPAR receptor in a cell or tissue specific manner (selective PPAR modulator or SPPARM) in order to induce a subset of target genes and affect a restricted number of metabolic pathways. PMID:18537685

  3. An in vitro investigation of the cardiovascular effects of the 5-HT(4) receptor selective agonists, velusetrag and TD-8954.

    PubMed

    Beattie, D T; Higgins, D L; Ero, M P; Amagasu, S M; Vickery, R G; Kersey, K; Hopkins, A; Smith, J A M

    2013-01-01

    The 5-HT(4) receptor agonists, and gastrointestinal (GI) prokinetic agents, cisapride and tegaserod, lack selectivity for the 5-HT(4) receptor. Cisapride is a potent human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) potassium channel inhibitor while cisapride and tegaserod have significant affinity for 5-HT(1) and 5-HT(2) receptor subtypes. Marketing of both compounds was discontinued due to cardiovascular concerns (cardiac arrhythmias with cisapride and ischemic events with tegaserod). The reported association of tegaserod with ischemia has been postulated to involve coronary artery constriction or augmentation of platelet aggregation. This in vitro study investigated the effects of two of the new generation of highly selective 5-HT(4) receptor agonists, velusetrag and TD-8954, on canine, porcine and human coronary artery tone, human platelet aggregation and hERG potassium channel conductance. No significant off-target actions of velusetrag or TD-8954 were identified in these, and prior, studies. While cisapride inhibited potently the hERG channel currents, tegaserod failed to affect platelet aggregation, and had only a small contractile effect on the canine coronary artery at high concentrations. Tegaserod inhibited the 5-HT-induced contractile response in the porcine coronary artery. New generation 5-HT(4) receptor agonists hold promise for the treatment of patients suffering from GI motility disorders with a reduced cardiovascular risk. PMID:23201772

  4. Modulation of breast cancer cell viability by a cannabinoid receptor 2 agonist, JWH-015, is calcium dependent

    PubMed Central

    Hanlon, Katherine E; Lozano-Ondoua, Alysia N; Umaretiya, Puja J; Symons-Liguori, Ashley M; Chandramouli, Anupama; Moy, Jamie K; Kwass, William K; Mantyh, Patrick W; Nelson, Mark A; Vanderah, Todd W

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cannabinoid compounds, both nonspecific as well as agonists selective for either cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) or cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), have been shown to modulate the tumor microenvironment by inducing apoptosis in tumor cells in several model systems. The mechanism of this modulation remains only partially delineated, and activity induced via the CB1 and CB2 receptors may be distinct despite significant sequence homology and structural similarity of ligands. Methods The CB2-selective agonist JWH-015 was used to investigate mechanisms downstream of CB2 activation in mouse and human breast cancer cell lines in vitro and in a murine mammary tumor model. Results JWH-015 treatment significantly reduced primary tumor burden and metastasis of luciferase-tagged murine mammary carcinoma 4T1 cells in immunocompetent mice in vivo. Furthermore, JWH-015 reduced the viability of murine 4T1 and human MCF7 mammary carcinoma cells in vitro by inducing apoptosis. JWH-015-mediated reduction of breast cancer cell viability was not dependent on Gαi signaling in vitro or modified by classical pharmacological blockade of CB1, GPR55, TRPV1, or TRPA1 receptors. JWH-015 effects were calcium dependent and induced changes in MAPK/ERK signaling. Conclusion The results of this work characterize the actions of a CB2-selective agonist on breast cancer cells in a syngeneic murine model representing how a clinical presentation of cancer progression and metastasis may be significantly modulated by a G-protein-coupled receptor. PMID:27186076

  5. Discovery of Potent and Selective Agonists of δ Opioid Receptor by Revisiting the "Message-Address" Concept.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qing; Qian, Yuanyuan; Huang, Xiaoqin; Xu, Xuejun; Li, Wei; Liu, Jinggen; Fu, Wei

    2016-04-14

    The classic "message-address" concept was proposed to address the binding of endogenous peptides to the opioid receptors and was later successfully applied in the discovery of the first nonpeptide δ opioid receptor (DOR) antagonist naltrindole. By revisiting this concept, and based on the structure of tramadol, we designed a series of novel compounds that act as highly potent and selective agonists of DOR among which (-)-6j showed the highest affinity (K i = 2.7 nM), best agonistic activity (EC50 = 2.6 nM), and DOR selectivity (more than 1000-fold over the other two subtype opioid receptors). Molecular docking studies suggest that the "message" part of (-)-6j interacts with residue Asp128(3.32) and a neighboring water molecule, and the "address" part of (-)-6j packs with hydrophobic residues Leu300(7.35), Val281(6.55), and Trp284(6.58), rendering DOR selectivity. The discovery of novel compound (-)-6j, and the obtained insights into DOR-agonist binding will help us design more potent and selective DOR agonists.

  6. Discovery of Spiro[cyclohexane-dihydropyrano[3,4-b]indole]-amines as Potent NOP and Opioid Receptor Agonists.

    PubMed

    Schunk, Stefan; Linz, Klaus; Frormann, Sven; Hinze, Claudia; Oberbörsch, Stefan; Sundermann, Bernd; Zemolka, Saskia; Englberger, Werner; Germann, Tieno; Christoph, Thomas; Kögel, Babette-Y; Schröder, Wolfgang; Harlfinger, Stephanie; Saunders, Derek; Kless, Achim; Schick, Hans; Sonnenschein, Helmut

    2014-08-14

    We report the discovery of spiro[cyclohexane-pyrano[3,4-b]indole]-amines, as functional nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) and opioid receptor agonists with strong efficacy in preclinical models of acute and neuropathic pain. Utilizing 4-(dimethylamino)-4-phenylcyclo-hexanone 1 and tryptophol in an oxa-Pictet-Spengler reaction led to the formation of spiroether 2, representing a novel NOP and opioid peptide receptor agonistic chemotype. This finding initially stems from the systematic derivatization of 1, which resulted in alcohols 3-5, ethers 6 and 7, amines 8-10, 22-24, and 26-28, amides 11 and 25, and urea 12, many with low nanomolar binding affinities at the NOP and mu opioid peptide (MOP) receptors. PMID:25147602

  7. Actions of Xanthurenic acid, a putative endogenous Group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, on sensory transmission in the thalamus.

    PubMed

    Copeland, C S; Neale, S A; Salt, T E

    2013-03-01

    Xanthurenic acid (XA), a molecule arising from tryptophan metabolism by transamination of 3-hydroxykynurenine, has recently been identified as an endogenous Group II (mGlu2 and mGlu3) metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptor ligand in vitro. Impairments in Group II mGlu receptor expression and function have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, as have multiple steps in the kynurenine metabolism pathway. Therefore, we examined XA in vivo to further investigate its potential as a Group II mGlu receptor ligand using a preparation that has been previously demonstrated to efficiently reveal the action of other Group II mGlu receptor ligands in vivo. Extracellular single-neurone recordings were made in the rat ventrobasal thalamus (VB) in conjunction with iontophoresis of agonists, an antagonist and a positive allosteric modulator and/or intravenous (i.v.) injection of XA. We found the XA effect on sensory inhibition, when applied iontophoretically and i.v., was similar to that of other Group II mGlu receptor agonists in reducing inhibition evoked in the VB from the thalamic reticular nucleus upon physiological sensory stimulation. Furthermore, we postulate that XA may be the first potential endogenous allosteric agonist (termed 'endocoid') for the mGlu receptors. As the Group II receptors and kynurenine metabolism pathway have both been heavily implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, XA could play a pivotal role in antipsychotic research as this potential endocoid represents both a convergence within these two biological parameters and a novel class of Group II mGlu receptor ligand. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors'. PMID:22491023

  8. A pharmacological profile of the novel, peripherally-selective κ-opioid receptor agonist, EMD 61753

    PubMed Central

    Barber, A.; Bartoszyk, G.D.; Bender, H.M.; Gottschlich, R.; Greiner, H.E.; Harting, J.; Mauler, F.; Minck, K.-O.; Murray, R.D.; Simon, M.; Seyfried, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    1 The pharmacological properties of the novel diarylacetamide κ-opioid receptor agonist, EMD 61753, have been compared with those of ICI 197067 (a centrally-acting κ agonist) and ICI 204448 (a peripherally-selective κ agonist). 2 EMD 61753 binds with high affinity (IC50 5.6 nM) and selectivity (κ:μ:δ:σ binding ratio 1:536:125:>1,786) to κ-opioid receptors and is a full and potent (IC50 54.5 nM) agonist in an in vitro assay for κ-opioid receptors (rabbit vas deferens preparation). 3 Systemically-applied [14C]-EMD 61753 is found in high concentrations in the lungs, liver, adrenal glands and kidneys. Considerably less radioactivity is detected in the whole brain, and this radioactivity is concentrated in the region of the cerebral ventricles in the choroid plexuses. EMD 61753 penetrates only poorly into the CNS. 4 EMD 61753 was weakly effective in pharmacological tests of central activity. This compound reversed haloperidolol-induced DOPA accumulation in the nucleus accumbens of the rat only at a dose of 30 mg kg-1, s.c., (doses of 0.1, 1.0 and 10 mg kg-1, s.c., and 1.0, 10 and 100 mg kg-1, p.o., were inactive). Hexobarbitone-induced sleeping in mice was prolonged by EMD 61753 at threshold doses of 10 mg kg-1, s.c., and 100 mg kg-1, p.o., whereas the motor performance of rats in the rotarod test was impaired by EMD 61753 with an ID50 value of 453 mg kg-1, s.c. 5 EMD 61753 produced dose-dependent, naloxone-reversible antinociception in the mouse formalin test (1st phase ID50 1.9 mg kg-1, s.c., and 10.4 mg kg-1, p.o.; 2nd phase ID50 0.26 mg kg-1, s.c., and 3.5 mg kg-1, p.o.) and rodent abdominal constriction test (ID50 mouse 1.75 mg kg-1, s.c., and 8.4 mg kg-1, p.o.; ID50 rat 3.2 mg kg-1, s.c., and 250 mg kg-1, p.o.). EMD 61753 was inactive, or only weakly effective, in the rat pressure test under normalgesic conditions. After the induction of hyperalgesia with carrageenin, however, this compound elicited potent, dose-dependent (ID50 0.08 mg kg-1, s.c., and 6