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Sample records for a3 resonances

  1. Tunable Thin-Film Resonator Coupled to Two Qubits in a 3D Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballard, Cody; Dutta, S. K.; Budoyo, R. P.; Voigt, K. D.; Lobb, C. J.; Wellstood, F. C.

    We present preliminary results on using a tunable, thin-film lumped element LC resonator to couple two transmon qubits in a 3D microwave cavity. The cavity, which is used for readout, is made of aluminum and has a TE101 mode at 6.3 GHz. The LC resonator has a base frequency of about 5 GHz and the inductor contains two loops, each having a single Josephson junction. Applying magnetic flux to the loops modulates the overall inductance of the resonator allowing tuning over a 500 MHz range. Two Al/AlOx/Al transmon qubits are fabricated on the same sapphire substrate as the resonator, and are designed to have a charging energy of 200 MHz and a frequency that falls within the tuning range of the resonator. Observing the perturbations of the resonant frequencies of the qubits and the cavity as the LC resonator is tuned allows us to determine the coupling strengths between each qubit and the LC resonator and between the LC resonator and the cavity.

  2. Ferromagnetic movements of middle ear implants and stapes prostheses in a 3-T magnetic resonance field.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, Michael H; Gutt, Jason J

    2005-03-01

    A 3-T magnetic resonance field may cause motion or displacement of middle ear implants not seen in studies with 1.5-T magnets. Previous publications have described the safety limitations of some otologic implants in 1.5-T magnetic resonance fields. Several company-wide recalls of implants were issued. No studies to date have been reported for otologic implants within a 3-T magnetic resonance field, nor have there been comparisons with a 1.5-T field strength. Eighteen commonly used middle ear implants and prostheses were selected. In Part 1, the prostheses were placed in Petri dishes and exposed to a 3-T magnetic resonance field. In Part 2, the particular prostheses that showed movement in Part 1 were placed into their intended use positions within temporal bone laboratory specimens and exposed to a 3-T field. Both parts were repeated in a 1.5-T field. In Part 1, three prostheses moved dramatically from their start positions when exposed to the 3-T magnetic resonance field. In Part 2, the three particular prostheses that showed movement in Part 1 showed no gross displacement or movement from their start positions within the temporal bone laboratory specimens. No implants moved in the 1.5-T field in either Part 1 or Part 2. Certain stapes prostheses move dramatically in Petri dishes in 3-T fields. When placed into temporal bone laboratory specimens, the same prostheses show no signs of movement from the surgical site in a 3-T field, and it appears that the surgical position holds the implants firmly in place. Results of published 1.5-T field studies should not be used directly for safety recommendations in a 3-T magnetic resonance. Heat, voltage induction, and vibration during exposure to the magnetic resonance fields should be considered as additional possible safety issues. Preference should be given to platinum and titanium implants in manufacturing processes and surgical selection.

  3. 4D Magnetic Resonance Velocimetry in a 3D printed brain aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amili, Omid; Schiavazzi, Daniele; Coletti, Filippo

    2016-11-01

    Cerebral aneurysms are of great clinical importance. It is believed that hemodynamics play a critical role in the development, growth, and rupture of brain arteries with such condition. The flow structure in the aneurysm sac is complex, unsteady, and three-dimensional. Therefore the time-resolved measurement of the three-dimensional three-component velocity field is crucial to predict the clinical outcome. In this study magnetic resonance velocimetry is used to assess the fluid dynamics inside a 3D printed model of a giant intracranial aneurysm. We reach sub-millimeter resolution while resolving sixteen instances within the cardiac cycle. The physiological flow waveform is imposed using an in-house built pump in a flow circuit where the cardiovascular impedance is matched. The flow evolution over time is reconstructed in detail. The complex flow structure is characterized by vortical and helical motions that reside in the aneurysm for most part of the cycle. The 4D pressured distribution is also reconstructed from the velocity field. The present case study was used in a previous CFD challenge, therefore these results may provide useful experimental comparison for simulations performed by other research groups.

  4. Characterization of low loss microstrip resonators as a building block for circuit QED in a 3D waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoepfl, D.; Muppalla, P. R.; Schneider, C. M. F.; Kasemann, S.; Partel, S.; Kirchmair, G.

    2017-08-01

    Here we present the microwave characterization of microstrip resonators, made from aluminum and niobium, inside a 3D microwave waveguide. In the low temperature, low power limit internal quality factors of up to one million were reached. We found a good agreement to models predicting conductive losses and losses to two level systems for increasing temperature. The setup presented here is appealing for testing materials and structures, as it is free of wire bonds and offers a well controlled microwave environment. In combination with transmon qubits, these resonators serve as a building block for a novel circuit QED architecture inside a rectangular waveguide.

  5. Collective strong coupling with homogeneous Rabi frequencies using a 3D lumped element microwave resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angerer, Andreas; Astner, Thomas; Wirtitsch, Daniel; Sumiya, Hitoshi; Onoda, Shinobu; Isoya, Junichi; Putz, Stefan; Majer, Johannes

    2016-07-01

    We design and implement 3D-lumped element microwave cavities that spatially focus magnetic fields to a small mode volume. They allow coherent and uniform coupling to electron spins hosted by nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond. We achieve large homogeneous single spin coupling rates, with an enhancement of more than one order of magnitude compared to standard 3D cavities with a fundamental resonance at 3 GHz. Finite element simulations confirm that the magnetic field distribution is homogeneous throughout the entire sample volume, with a root mean square deviation of 1.54%. With a sample containing 1017 nitrogen vacancy electron spins, we achieve a collective coupling strength of Ω = 12 MHz, a cooperativity factor C = 27, and clearly enter the strong coupling regime. This allows to interface a macroscopic spin ensemble with microwave circuits, and the homogeneous Rabi frequency paves the way to manipulate the full ensemble population in a coherent way.

  6. Electron capture dissociation of polypeptides using a 3 Tesla Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Polfer, Nicolas C; Haselmann, Kim F; Zubarev, Roman A; Langridge-Smith, Pat R R

    2002-01-01

    Electron capture dissociation (ECD) of polypeptides has been demonstrated using a commercially available 3 Tesla Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) instrument. A conventional rhenium filament, designed for high-energy electron impact ionisation, was used to effect ECD of substance P, bee venom melittin and bovine insulin, oxidised B chain. A retarding field analysis of the effective electron kinetic energy distribution entering the ICR cell suggests that one of the most important parameters governing ECD for this particular instrument is the need to employ low trapping plate voltages. This is shown to maximise the abundance of low-energy electrons. The demonstration of ECD at this relatively low magnetic field strength could offer the prospect of more routine ECD analysis for the wider research community, given the reduced cost of such magnets and (at least theoretically) the greater ease of electron/ion cloud overlap at lower field. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Collective strong coupling with homogeneous Rabi frequencies using a 3D lumped element microwave resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Angerer, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.angerer@tuwien.ac.at; Astner, Thomas; Wirtitsch, Daniel

    We design and implement 3D-lumped element microwave cavities that spatially focus magnetic fields to a small mode volume. They allow coherent and uniform coupling to electron spins hosted by nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond. We achieve large homogeneous single spin coupling rates, with an enhancement of more than one order of magnitude compared to standard 3D cavities with a fundamental resonance at 3 GHz. Finite element simulations confirm that the magnetic field distribution is homogeneous throughout the entire sample volume, with a root mean square deviation of 1.54%. With a sample containing 10{sup 17} nitrogen vacancy electron spins, we achieve amore » collective coupling strength of Ω = 12 MHz, a cooperativity factor C = 27, and clearly enter the strong coupling regime. This allows to interface a macroscopic spin ensemble with microwave circuits, and the homogeneous Rabi frequency paves the way to manipulate the full ensemble population in a coherent way.« less

  8. Advancement of 31P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Using GRAPPA Reconstruction on a 3D Volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clevenger, Tony

    The overall objective of this research is to improve currently available metabolic imaging techniques for clinical use in monitoring and predicting treatment response to radiation therapy in liver cancer. Liver metabolism correlates with inflammatory and neoplastic liver diseases, which alter the intracellular concentration of phosphorus- 31 (31P) metabolites [1]. It is assumed that such metabolic changes occur prior to physical changes of the tissue. Therefore, information on regional changes of 31P metabolites in the liver, obtained by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging (MRSI) [1,2], can help in diagnosis and follow-up of various liver diseases. Specifically, there appears to be an immediate need of this technology for both the assessment of tumor response in patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) treated with Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) [3--5], as well as assessment of radiation toxicity, which can result in worsening liver dysfunction [6]. Pilot data from our lab has shown that 31P MRSI has the potential to identify treatment response five months sooner than conventional methods [7], and to assess the biological response of liver tissue to radiation 24 hours post radiation therapy [8]. While this data is very promising, commonly occurring drawbacks for 31P MRSI are patient discomfort due to long scan times and prone positioning within the scanner, as well as reduced data quality due to patient motion and respiration. To further advance the full potential of 31P MRSI as a clinical diagnostic tool in the management of liver cancer, this PhD research project had the following aims: I) Reduce the long acquisition time of 3D 31P MRS by formulating and imple- menting an appropriate GRAPPA undersampling scheme and reconstruction on a clinical MRI scanner II) Testing and quantitative validation of GRAPPA reconstruction on 3D 31P MRSI on developmental phantoms and healthy volunteers At completion, this work should considerably advance 31P MRSI

  9. The safety of magnetic resonance imaging in patients with programmable implanted intrathecal drug delivery systems: a 3-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    De Andres, Jose; Villanueva, Vicente; Palmisani, Stefano; Cerda-Olmedo, German; Lopez-Alarcon, Maria Dolores; Monsalve, Vicente; Minguez, Ana; Martinez-Sanjuan, Vicente

    2011-05-01

    It is common clinical practice to perform magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with indwelling programmable intrathecal drug delivery (IDD) systems, although the safety of the procedure has never been documented. We performed a single-center, 3-year, prospective evaluation in patients with a programmable implanted IDD to assess patient discomfort, IDD technical failures, and adverse effects during and after exposure to MRI. Forty-three consecutive patients with an implanted programmable IDD system (SynchroMed® EL Implantable Infusion Pump, Model 8626L-18, and SynchroMed® II Model 8637-20, 8637-40; Medtronic, Inc., Minneapolis, MN) requiring a scheduled MRI evaluation were studied during a 3-year period. All MRI scans were performed with a 1.5-tesla clinical use magnet and a specific absorption rate of no more than 0.9 W/kg. Radiograph control was used to confirm postexposure pump rotor movement and detect system dislocations. IDD system failures, patient satisfaction, and discomfort were recorded. None of the patients experienced signs of drug overinfusion that could lead to hemodynamic, respiratory, or neurologic alterations. Radiologic evaluation after MRI revealed no spatial displacements of the intrathecal catheter tip or body pump, and programmer telemetry confirmed the infusion recovery. Patients' satisfaction after the procedure was high. Performing an MRI scan with the proposed protocol in patients with an implanted Medtronic programmable IDD system resulted in virtually no technical or medical complications. © 2011 International Anesthesia Research Society

  10. Image Guided Focal Therapy for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Visible Prostate Cancer: Defining a 3-Dimensional Treatment Margin Based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging Histology Co-Registration Analysis.

    PubMed

    Le Nobin, Julien; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Villers, Arnauld; Orczyk, Clément; Deng, Fang-Ming; Melamed, Jonathan; Mikheev, Artem; Rusinek, Henry; Taneja, Samir S

    2015-08-01

    We compared prostate tumor boundaries on magnetic resonance imaging and radical prostatectomy histological assessment using detailed software assisted co-registration to define an optimal treatment margin for achieving complete tumor destruction during image guided focal ablation. Included in study were 33 patients who underwent 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging before radical prostatectomy. A radiologist traced lesion borders on magnetic resonance imaging and assigned a suspicion score of 2 to 5. Three-dimensional reconstructions were created from high resolution digitalized slides of radical prostatectomy specimens and co-registered to imaging using advanced software. Tumors were compared between histology and imaging by the Hausdorff distance and stratified by the magnetic resonance imaging suspicion score, Gleason score and lesion diameter. Cylindrical volume estimates of treatment effects were used to define the optimal treatment margin. Three-dimensional software based registration with magnetic resonance imaging was done in 46 histologically confirmed cancers. Imaging underestimated tumor size with a maximal discrepancy between imaging and histological boundaries for a given tumor of an average ± SD of 1.99 ± 3.1 mm, representing 18.5% of the diameter on imaging. Boundary underestimation was larger for lesions with an imaging suspicion score 4 or greater (mean 3.49 ± 2.1 mm, p <0.001) and a Gleason score of 7 or greater (mean 2.48 ± 2.8 mm, p = 0.035). A simulated cylindrical treatment volume based on the imaging boundary missed an average 14.8% of tumor volume compared to that based on the histological boundary. A simulated treatment volume based on a 9 mm treatment margin achieved complete histological tumor destruction in 100% of patients. Magnetic resonance imaging underestimates histologically determined tumor boundaries, especially for lesions with a high imaging suspicion score and a high Gleason score. A 9 mm treatment margin around a lesion

  11. A Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Study in Autism Spectrum Disorder Using a 3-Tesla Clinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) System: The Anterior Cingulate Cortex and the Left Cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiromichi; Mori, Kenji; Harada, Masafumi; Hisaoka, Sonoka; Toda, Yoshihiro; Mori, Tatsuo; Goji, Aya; Abe, Yoko; Miyazaki, Masahito; Kagami, Shoji

    2017-07-01

    The pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is not fully understood. We used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate metabolite concentration ratios in the anterior cingulate cortex and left cerebellum in ASD. In the ACC and left cerebellum studies, the ASD group and intelligence quotient- and age-matched control group consisted of 112 and 114 subjects and 65 and 45 subjects, respectively. In the ASD group, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)+/ creatine/phosphocreatine (Cr) was significantly decreased in the anterior cingulate cortex, and glutamate (Glu)/Cr was significantly increased and GABA+/Cr was significantly decreased in the left cerebellum compared to those in the control group. In addition, both groups showed negative correlations between Glu/Cr and GABA+/Cr in the left cerebellum, and positive correlations between GABA+/Cr in the anterior cingulate cortex and left cerebellum. ASD subjects have hypoGABAergic alterations in the anterior cingulate cortex and hyperglutamatergic/hypoGABAergic alterations in the left cerebellum.

  12. Spectroscopic measurement of spin-dependent resonant tunneling through a 3D disorder: the case of MnAs/GaAs/MnAs junctions.

    PubMed

    Garcia, V; Jaffrès, H; George, J-M; Marangolo, M; Eddrief, M; Etgens, V H

    2006-12-15

    We propose an analytical model of spin-dependent resonant tunneling through a 3D assembly of localized states (spread out in energy and in space) in a barrier. An inhomogeneous distribution of localized states leads to resonant tunneling magnetoresistance inversion and asymmetric bias dependence as evidenced with a set of experiments with MnAs/GaAs(7-10 nm)/MnAs tunnel junctions. One of the key parameters of our theory is a dimensionless critical exponent beta scaling the typical extension of the localized states over the characteristic length scale of the spatial distribution function. Furthermore, we demonstrate, through experiments with localized states introduced preferentially in the middle of the barrier, the influence of an homogeneous distribution on the spin-dependent transport properties.

  13. [Renal arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging in normal adults: a study with a 3.0 T scanner].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Xuelin; Yang, Li; Shen, Jie; Gao, Wei

    2013-10-01

    To analyze the renal relative blood flow value (rBFV) and image quality in normal adults using single-shot fast spin echo, flow sensitive invention recovery (SSFSE-FAIR) magnetic resonance (MR) sequence and echo planar imaging, and flow sensitive invention recovery (EPI-FAIR) MR sequence, and assess its value for clinical application in routine renal examination. Forty volunteers (25 male and 15 female adults, aged 30 to 62 years) with normal renal function were included in this prospective study. All the subjects underwent 3.0 Tesla MR scanning using 3 MR scan modes, namely breath-holding EPI-FAIR, breath-holding SSFSE-FAIR and free breathing SSFSE-FAIR. SSFSE-FAIR without breath-holding was capable of differentiating the renal cortex and medulla with the corresponding rBFVs of 111.48∓9.23 and 94.98∓3.38, respectively. Breath-holding SSFSE-FAIR and EPI-FAIR failed to distinguish the borders of the renal cortex and medulla. The EPI-FAIR rBFV of mixed cortex and medulla value was 178.50∓17.17 (95%CI: 167.59, 189.41). Breath-holding SSFSE-FAIR and EPI-FAIR can not distinguish the renal cortex and medulla due to a poor spatial resolution but can be used for rough evaluation of renal blood perfusion. Free breathing SSFSE-FAIR with an improved spatial resolution allows evaluation of the status of renal perfusion of the cortex and medulla.

  14. Volume and Asymmetry Abnormalities of Insula in Antipsychotic-Naive Schizophrenia: A 3-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Virupaksha, Harve Shanmugam; Kalmady, Sunil V.; Shivakumar, Venkataram; Arasappa, Rashmi; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Gangadhar, Bangalore N.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Insula, which is a vital brain region for self-awareness, empathy, and sensory stimuli processing, is critically implicated in schizophrenia pathogenesis. Existing studies on insula volume abnormalities report inconsistent findings potentially due to the evaluation of ‘antipsychotic-treated’ schizophrenia patients as well as suboptimal methodology. Aim: To understand the role of insula in schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: In this first-time 3-T magnetic resonance imaging study, we examined antipsychotic-naive schizophrenic patients (N=30) and age-, sex-, handedness- and education-matched healthy controls (N=28). Positive and negative symptoms were scored with good interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)>0.9) by using the scales for negative and positive symptoms. Gray matter volume of insula and its anterior/posterior subregions were measured by using a three-dimensional, interactive, semiautomated software based on the valid method with good interrater reliability (ICC>0.85). Intracranial volume was automatically measured by using the FreeSurfer software. Results: Patients had significantly deficient gray matter volumes of left (F=33.4; P<0.00001) and right (F=11.9; P=0.001) insula after controlling for the effects of age, sex, and intracranial volume. Patients with predominantly negative symptoms had a significantly deficient right posterior insula volume than those with predominantly positive symptoms (F=6.3; P=0.02). Asymmetry index analysis revealed anterior insular asymmetry to be significantly reversed (right>left) in male patients in comparison with male controls (left>right) (t=2.7; P=0.01). Conclusions: Robust insular volume deficits in antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia support intrinsic role for insula in pathogenesis of this disorder. The first-time demonstration of a relationship between right posterior insular deficit and negative symptoms is in tune with the background neurobiological literature. Another

  15. Volume and asymmetry abnormalities of insula in antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia: a 3-tesla magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Virupaksha, Harve Shanmugam; Kalmady, Sunil V; Shivakumar, Venkataram; Arasappa, Rashmi; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2012-04-01

    Insula, which is a vital brain region for self-awareness, empathy, and sensory stimuli processing, is critically implicated in schizophrenia pathogenesis. Existing studies on insula volume abnormalities report inconsistent findings potentially due to the evaluation of 'antipsychotic-treated' schizophrenia patients as well as suboptimal methodology. To understand the role of insula in schizophrenia. In this first-time 3-T magnetic resonance imaging study, we examined antipsychotic-naive schizophrenic patients (N=30) and age-, sex-, handedness- and education-matched healthy controls (N=28). Positive and negative symptoms were scored with good interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)>0.9) by using the scales for negative and positive symptoms. Gray matter volume of insula and its anterior/posterior subregions were measured by using a three-dimensional, interactive, semiautomated software based on the valid method with good interrater reliability (ICC>0.85). Intracranial volume was automatically measured by using the FreeSurfer software. Patients had significantly deficient gray matter volumes of left (F=33.4; P<0.00001) and right (F=11.9; P=0.001) insula after controlling for the effects of age, sex, and intracranial volume. Patients with predominantly negative symptoms had a significantly deficient right posterior insula volume than those with predominantly positive symptoms (F=6.3; P=0.02). Asymmetry index analysis revealed anterior insular asymmetry to be significantly reversed (right>left) in male patients in comparison with male controls (left>right) (t=2.7; P=0.01). Robust insular volume deficits in antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia support intrinsic role for insula in pathogenesis of this disorder. The first-time demonstration of a relationship between right posterior insular deficit and negative symptoms is in tune with the background neurobiological literature. Another novel observation of sex-specific anterior insular asymmetry

  16. Resonance Raman study on photoreduction of cytochrome c oxidase: distinction of cytochromes a and a3 in the intermediate oxidation states.

    PubMed

    Ogura, T; Yoshikawa, S; Kitagawa, T

    1985-12-17

    Occurrence of photoreduction of bovine cytochrome c oxidase was confirmed with the difference absorption spectra and oxygen consumption measurements for the enzyme irradiated with laser light at 406.7, 441.6, and 590 nm. The resonance Raman spectra were obtained under the same experimental conditions as those adopted for the measurements of oxygen consumption and difference absorption spectra. The photoreduction was more effective upon irradiation at shorter wavelengths and was irreversible under anaerobic conditions. However, upon aeration into the cell, the original oxidized form was restored. It was found that aerobic laser irradiation produces a photo steady state of the catalytic dioxygen reduction and that the Raman scattering from this photo steady state probes cytochrome a2+ and cytochrome a3(3)+ separately upon excitations at 441.6 and 406.7 nm, respectively. The enzyme was apparently protected from the photoreduction in the spinning cell with the spinning speed between 1 and 1500 rpm. These results were explained satisfactorily with the reported rate constant for the electron transfer from cytochrome a to cytochrome a3 (0.58 s-1) and a comparable photoreduction rate of cytochrome a. The anaerobic photoreduction did give Raman lines at 1666 and 214 cm-1, which are characteristic of the ferrous high-spin cytochrome a3(2)+, but they were absent under aerobic photoreduction. The formyl CH = O stretching mode of the a3 heme was observed at 1671 cm-1 for a2+a3(2)+CO but at 1664 cm-1 for a2+a3(2)+CN-, indicating that the CH = O stretching frequency reflects the pi back-donation to the axial ligand similar to the oxidation state marker line (v4).

  17. Decreased activation along the dorsal visual pathway after a 3-month treatment with galantamine in mild Alzheimer disease: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Bokde, Arun L W; Karmann, Michaela; Teipel, Stefan J; Born, Christine; Lieb, Martin; Reiser, Maximilian F; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Hampel, Harald

    2009-04-01

    Visual perception has been shown to be altered in Alzheimer disease (AD) patients, and it is associated with decreased cognitive function. Galantamine is an active cholinergic agent, which has been shown to lead to improved cognition in mild to moderate AD patients. This study examined brain activation in a group of mild AD patients after a 3-month open-label treatment with galantamine. The objective was to examine the changes in brain activation due to treatment. There were 2 tasks to visual perception. The first task was a face-matching task to test the activation along the ventral visual pathway, and the second task was a location-matching task to test neuronal function along the dorsal pathway. Brain activation was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging. There were 5 mild AD patients in the study. There were no differences in the task performance and in the cognitive scores of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease battery before and after treatment. In the location-matching task, we found a statistically significant decrease in activation along the dorsal visual pathway after galantamine treatment. A previous study found that AD patients had higher activation in the location-matching task compared with healthy controls. There were no differences in activation for the face-matching task after treatment. Our data indicate that treatment with galantamine leads to more efficient visual processing of stimuli or changes the compensatory mechanism in the AD patients. A visual perception task recruiting the dorsal visual system may be useful as a biomarker of treatment effects.

  18. The Pan-Pacific Planet Search. IV. Two Super-Jupiters in a 3:5 Resonance Orbiting the Giant Star HD 33844

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Johnson, John Asher; Butler, R. P.; Horner, Jonathan; Wang, Liang; Robertson, Paul; Jones, M. I.; Jenkins, J. S.; Brahm, R.; Tinney, C. G.; Mengel, M. W.; Clark, J.

    2016-02-01

    We report the discovery of two giant planets orbiting the K giant HD 33844 based on radial velocity data from three independent campaigns. The planets move on nearly circular orbits with semimajor axes {a}b\\=1.60+/- 0.02 AU and {a}c=2.24+/- 0.05 AU, and have minimum masses (m sin I) of {M}b=1.96+/- 0.12 {M}{{Jup}} and {M}c=1.76+/- 0.18 {M}{{Jup}}. Detailed N-body dynamical simulations show that the two planets have remained on stable orbits for more than 106 years for low eccentricities and are most likely trapped in a mutual 3:5 mean motion resonance.

  19. Surface plasmon resonance-based molecular detection of Hb S [beta6(A3)Glu-->Val, GAG-->GTG] at the gene level.

    PubMed

    Atalay, Erol O; Ustel, Emre; Yildiz, Sanem; Atalay, Ayfer

    2006-01-01

    The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) approach, being a relatively novel biophysical method, is used to detect many different targets by biomolecular interaction. The SPR system uses optical and evanescent wave phenomenon. This approach does not need any labels, such as enzymes or isotopes, and the monitored interactions are in real time. In DNA-DNA interaction, the SPR approach is Tm-independent. Here we report our preliminary results for the molecular detection of the Hb S (GAG -->GTG) mutation at codon 6 of the human beta-globin gene. Our preliminary results show that the SPR approach could be applied as an inexpensive and fast routine test system for the molecular diagnosis of abnormal hemoglobins (Hbs), especially in premarital screening programs.

  20. Does T2 mapping of the posterior annulus fibrosus indicate the presence of lumbar intervertebral disc herniation? A 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance study.

    PubMed

    Messner, Alina; Stelzeneder, David; Trattnig, Stefan; Welsch, Götz H; Schinhan, Martina; Apprich, Sebastian; Brix, Martin; Windhager, Reinhard; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2017-03-01

    Indicating lumbar disc herniation via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2 mapping in the posterior annulus fibrosus (AF). Sagittal T2 maps of 313 lumbar discs of 64 patients with low back pain were acquired at 3.0 Tesla (3T). The discs were rated according to disc herniation and bulging. Region of interest (ROI) analysis was performed on median, sagittal T2 maps. T2 values of the AF, in the most posterior 10% (PAF-10) and 20% of the disc (PAF-20), were compared. A significant increase in the T2 values of discs with herniations affecting the imaged area, compared to bulging discs and discs with lateral herniation, was shown in the PAF-10, where no association to the NP was apparent. The PAF-20 exhibited a moderate correlation to the nucleus pulposus (NP). High T2 values in the PAF-10 suggest the presence of disc herniation (DH). The results indicate that T2 values in the PAF-20 correspond more to changes in the NP.

  1. The Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Investigation and Management of Invasive Lobular Carcinoma-A 3-Year Retrospective Study in Two District General Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Derias, Mina; Subramanian, Ashok; Allan, Simon; Shah, Elizabeth; Teraifi, Hassan El; Howlett, David

    2016-07-01

    Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) accounts for 5-15% of breast cancers. In comparison to other types of breast cancer, ILC is more likely to be associated with multifocal and contralateral breast involvement as well as a tendency to a diffuse infiltrative growth pattern which can represent a diagnostic challenge. The National Institute of Clinical Excellence guidelines in 2009 recommended the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the preoperative assessment of ILC. This study aims to assess compliance with the guidelines in two District General Hospitals and the utility of MRI in the investigation of ILC. All cases of ILC between 2011 and 2013 were retrospectively identified from the pathology database and their breast imaging findings, pathology report, and operative intervention were reviewed. A total of 126 patients were identified with ILC, of these 46 had MRI preoperatively (36.5%). MRI upgraded mammography/ultrasound diagnoses in 10 patients (21.7%). MRI showed multicentric unilateral disease in 17 patients (37.0%) occult on ultrasound/mammogram, with these patients undergoing mastectomy and 16/17 (94.1%) confirmed multifocality on pathology. MRI showed a contralateral lesion in 9 patients (19.6%), four (8.7%) of which were malignant and had bilateral surgery, and five (10.9%) were benign on further imaging/biopsy. MRI also downgraded three patients (6.5%) to unifocal disease with reported multifocal appearances on mammography/ultrasound, and these patients underwent breast-conserving surgery. MRI adds significant additional information to mammograms/ultrasound in ILC and should be undertaken in all such cases preoperatively assuming no contraindication. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Thirty Minutes of Running Exercise Decreases T2 Signal Intensity but Not Thickness of the Knee Joint Cartilage: A 3.0-T Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    PubMed

    Karanfil, Yiğitcan; Babayeva, Naila; Dönmez, Gürhan; Diren, H Barış; Eryılmaz, Muzaffer; Doral, Mahmut Nedim; Korkusuz, Feza

    2018-04-01

    Objective Recent studies showed a potential of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which can be used as an additional tool for diagnosing cartilage degeneration in the early stage. We designed a cross-sectional study in order to evaluate knee joint cartilage adaptation to running, using 3.0-T MRI equipped with the 3-dimensional turbo spin echo (VISTA = Volume ISotropic Turbo spin echo Acquisition) software. By this thickness (mm) and signal intensity (mean pixel value) can be quantified, which could be closely related to the fluid content of the knee joint cartilage, before and after running. Methods A total of 22 males, aged 18 to 35 years, dominant (right) and nondominant (left) knees were assessed before and after 30 minutes of running. Cartilage thickness and signal intensity of surfaces of the patella, medial and lateral femoral and tibial condyles were measured. Results Cartilage thickness of the lateral condyle decreased at the dominant knee, while it increased at the medial tibial plateau. Signal intensity decreased at all locations, except the lateral patella in both knees. The most obvious decrease in signal intensity (10.6%) was at the medial tibial plateau from 949.8 to 849.0 of the dominant knee. Conclusion There was an increase in thickness measurements and decrease in signal intensity in medial tibial plateau of the dominant knee after 30 minutes of running. This outcome could be related to fluid outflow from the tissue. Greater reductions in the medial tibial plateau cartilage indicate greater load sharing by these areas of the joint during a 30-minute running.

  3. Magnetic resonance cinematography of the fingers: a 3.0 Tesla feasibility study with comparison of incremental and continuous dynamic protocols.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Thomas; Adler, Werner; Janka, Rolf; Uder, Michael; Roemer, Frank

    2017-12-01

    To study the feasibility of magnetic resonance cinematography of the fingers (MRCF) with comparison of image quality of different protocols for depicting the finger anatomy during motion. MRCF was performed during a full flexion and extension movement in 14 healthy volunteers using a finger-gating device. Three real-time sequences (frame rates 17-59 images/min) and one proton density (PD) sequence (3 images/min) were acquired during incremental and continuous motion. Analyses were performed independently by three readers. Qualitative image analysis included Likert-scale grading from 0 (useless) to 5 (excellent) and specific visual analog scale (VAS) grading from 0 (insufficient) to 100 (excellent). Signal-to-noise calculation was performed. Overall percentage agreement and mean absolute disagreement were calculated. Within the real-time sequences a high frame-rate true fast imaging with steady-state free precession (TRUFI) yielded the best image quality with Likert and overall VAS scores of 3.0 ± 0.2 and 60.4 ± 25.3, respectively. The best sequence regarding image quality was an incremental PD with mean values of 4.8 ± 0.2 and 91.2 ± 9.4, respectively. Overall percentage agreement and mean absolute disagreement were 47.9 and 0.7, respectively. No statistically significant SNR differences were found between continuous and incremental motion for the real-time protocols. MRCF is feasible with appropriate image quality during continuous motion using a finger-gating device. Almost perfect image quality is achievable with incremental PD imaging, which represents a compromise for MRCF with the drawback of prolonged scanning time.

  4. Sympathetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virgin, Lawrence N.

    2018-06-01

    This short paper describes a useful teaching tool, ideal for demonstration purposes within the classroom or lab setting. It is based on the simple dynamic response of flexible cantilevers and evolves naturally from the underlying principles of a vibrating reed tachometer. Utilizing a 3D-printer, these ideas conveniently encompass the phenomenon of resonance in which all the cantilevers of a similar length respond in harmony when just one of their number is plucked.

  5. Prevalence of pathologic findings in asymptomatic knees of marathon runners before and after a competition in comparison with physically active subjects-a 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Robert; Luke, Anthony; Ma, C Benjamin; Krug, Roland; Steinbach, Lynne; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M

    2008-07-01

    To determine the prevalence of pathologic findings in asymptomatic knees of marathon runners before and after a competition in comparison with physically active subjects. To compare the diagnostic performance of cartilage-dedicated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences at 3.0 T. Ten marathon runners underwent 3.0 T MRI 2-3 days before and after competition. Twelve physically active asymptomatic subjects not performing long-distance running were examined as controls. Pathologic condition was assessed with the whole-organ magnetic resonance imaging score (WORMS). Cartilage abnormalities and bone marrow edema pattern (BMEP) were quantified. Visualization of cartilage pathology was assessed with intermediate-weighted fast spin-echo (IM-w FSE), fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) and T1-weighted three-dimensional (3D) high-spatial-resolution volumetric fat-suppressed spoiled gradient-echo (SPGR) MRI sequences. Eight of ten marathon runners and 7/12 controls showed knee abnormality. Slightly more and larger cartilage abnormalities, and BMEP, in marathon runners yielded higher but not significantly different WORMS (P > 0.05) than in controls. Running a single marathon did not alter MR findings substantially. Cartilage abnormalities were best visualized with IM-w FSE images (P < 0.05). A high prevalence of knee abnormalities was found in marathon runners and also in active subjects participating in other recreational sports. IM-w FSE sequences delineated more cartilage MR imaging abnormalities than did FIESTA and SPGR sequences.

  6. Optical resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taghavi-Larigani, Shervin (Inventor); Vanzyl, Jakob J. (Inventor); Yariv, Amnon (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The invention discloses a semi-ring Fabry-Perot (SRFP) optical resonator structure comprising a medium including an edge forming a reflective facet and a waveguide within the medium, the waveguide having opposing ends formed by the reflective facet. The performance of the SRFP resonator can be further enhanced by including a Mach-Zehnder interferometer in the waveguide on one side of the gain medium. The optical resonator can be employed in a variety of optical devices. Laser structures using at least one SRFP resonator are disclosed where the resonators are disposed on opposite sides of a gain medium. Other laser structures employing one or more resonators on one side of a gain region are also disclosed.

  7. Carotid artery thickness is associated with chronic use of highly active antiretroviral therapy in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: A 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    LaBounty, T M; Hardy, W D; Fan, Z; Yumul, R; Li, D; Dharmakumar, R; Conte, A Hernandez

    2016-08-01

    While patients with HIV infection have an elevated stroke risk, ultrasound studies of carotid artery wall thickness have reported variable results. We hypothesized that subjects with HIV infection on chronic highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) would have increased carotid artery wall thickness by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This cross-sectional study compared carotid artery wall thickness between 26 individuals infected with HIV on chronic HAART and 20 controls, without HIV infection but with similar cardiovascular risk factors, using 3.0-T noncontrast MRI. Inclusion criteria included male gender, age 35-55 years, and chronic HAART (≥ 3 years) among HIV-seropositive subjects; those with known cardiovascular disease or diabetes were excluded. Between subjects with HIV infection and controls, there were no differences in mean (±SD) age (47.8 ± 5.0 vs. 47.8 ± 4.7 years, respectively; P = 0.19) or cardiovascular risk factors (P > 0.05 for each). Mean (±SD) wall thickness was increased in those with HIV infection vs. controls for the left (0.88 ± 0.08 vs. 0.83 ± 0.08 mm, respectively; P = 0.03) and right (0.90 ± 0.10 vs. 0.85 ± 0.07 mm, respectively; P = 0.046) common carotid arteries. Among individuals with HIV infection, variables associated with increased mean carotid artery wall thickness included lipoaccumulation [+0.09 mm; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.03-0.14 mm; P = 0.003], Framingham risk score ≥ 5% (+0.07 mm; 95% CI 0.01-0.12; P = 0.02 mm), and increased duration of protease inhibitor therapy (+0.03 mm per 5 years; 95% CI 0.01-0.06 mm; P = 0.02). Individuals with HIV infection on chronic HAART had increased carotid artery wall thickness as compared to similar controls. In subjects with HIV infection, the presence of lipoaccumulation and longer duration of protease inhibitor therapy were associated with greater wall thickness. © 2015 British HIV Association.

  8. Isotopologue-selective excitation studied via optical-optical double resonance using the E3 Σ1+(63S1) ←A3Π0+(53P1) ←X1Σ0+(51S0) transitions in CdAr and CdKr van der Waals complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbańczyk, T.; Dudek, J.; Koperski, J.

    2018-06-01

    A method of experimental selection of molecular isotopologues using optical-optical double resonance (OODR) scheme and supersonic beam source of van der Waals (vdW) complexes is presented. Due to an appropriately large isotopic shift, the proper choice of a wavenumber of a sufficiently narrowband laser in the first transition of OODR scheme can lead to a selective isotopologue excitation to the intermediate state. Thanks to this approach, it is possible to select some of the isotopologues which subsequently give a contribution to laser induced fluorescence (LIF) signal originated from the final state of OODR. In this article, results of tests of the proposed method that employs the E3 Σ1+ ←A3Π0+ ←X1Σ0+ transitions in two vdW complexes, CdKr and CdAr, are presented and analysed.

  9. Multiquark resonances

    DOE PAGES

    Esposito, A.; Pilloni, A.; Polosa, Antonio D.

    2016-12-02

    Multiquark resonances are undoubtedly experimentally observed. The number of states and the amount of details on their properties have been growing over the years. It is very recent the discovery of two pentaquarks and the confirmation of four tetraquarks, two of which had not been observed before. We mainly review the theoretical understanding of this sector of particle physics phenomenology and present some considerations attempting a coherent description of the so called X and Z resonances. The prominent problems plaguing theoretical models, like the absence of selection rules limiting the number of states predicted, motivate new directions in model building.more » Lastly, data are reviewed going through all of the observed resonances with particular attention to their common features and the purpose of providing a starting point to further research.« less

  10. Laser Resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, L. L. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An optical resonator cavity configuration has a unitary mirror with oppositely directed convex and concave reflective surfaces disposed into one fold and concertedly reversing both ends of a beam propagating from a laser rod disposed between two total internal reflection prisms. The optical components are rigidly positioned with perpendicularly crossed virtual rooflines by a compact optical bed. The rooflines of the internal reflection prisms, are arranged perpendicularly to the axis of the laser beam and to the optical axes of the optical resonator components.

  11. If It's Resonance, What is Resonating?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Robert C.

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenon under the name "resonance," which, is based on the mathematical analogy between mechanical resonance and the behavior of wave functions in quantum mechanical exchange phenomena was described. The resonating system does not have a structure intermediate between those involved in the resonance, but instead a structure which is further…

  12. A-3 Test Stand

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-06-08

    A tethered Stennis Space Center employee climbs an A-3 Test Stand ladder June 8, 2012, against the backdrop of the A-2 and B-1/B-2 stands. The new A-3 Test Stand will enable simulated high-altitude testing of next-generation rocket engines.

  13. A-3 Test Stand

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-06-08

    A tethered Stennis Space Center employee climbs an A-3 Test Stand ladded June 8, 2012, against the backdrop of the A-2 and B-1/B-2 stands. The new A-3 Test Stand will enable simulated high-altitude testing of next-generation rocket engines.

  14. A-3 Test Stand

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-19

    The A-3 Test Stand under construction at Stennis Space Center is set for completion and activation in 2013. It will allow operators to conduct simulated high-altitude testing on the next-generation J-2X rocket engine.

  15. A-3 Groundbreaking Ceremony

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-08-23

    NASA officials and government leaders participated in a groundbreaking event for a new rocket engine test stand at NASA's Stennis Space Center, Miss. Pictured (left to right) are Deputy Associate Administrator for Exploration Systems Doug Cooke, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne President Jim Maser, Stennis Space Center Director Richard Gilbrech, NASA Associate Administrator for Exploration Systems Scott Horowitz, NASA Deputy Administrator Shana Dale, Mississippi Gov. Haley Barbour, Sen. Thad Cochran, Sen. Trent Lott, Rep. Gene Taylor, SSC's Deputy Director Gene Goldman, and SSC's A-3 Project Manager Lonnie Dutreix. Stennis' A-3 Test Stand will provide altitude testing for NASA's developing J-2X engine. That engine will power the upper stages of NASA's Ares I and Ares V rockets. A-3 is the first large test stand to be built at SSC since the site's inception in the 1960s.

  16. Experiments with Helmholtz Resonators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Presents experiments that use Helmholtz resonators and have been designed for a sophomore-level course in oscillations and waves. Discusses the theory of the Helmholtz resonator and resonance curves. (JRH)

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    MedlinePlus

    ... specific information about your own examination. What is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)? What is MRI used for? How safe ... What is the MRI examination like? What is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)? MRI, or magnetic resonance imaging, is a ...

  18. A-3 Cleared Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Work to clear the site for the A-3 Test Stand progresses quickly, as seen in this photo taken June 18 from atop the A-1 Test Stand. The next step in construction at 19-acre site will be the arrival of fill dirt in mid-July, followed by pilings and piling caps.

  19. A-3 Cleared Site

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-06-18

    Work to clear the site for the A-3 Test Stand progresses quickly, as seen in this photo taken June 18 from atop the A-1 Test Stand. The next step in construction at 19-acre site will be the arrival of fill dirt in mid-July, followed by pilings and piling caps.

  20. A-3 Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Workers erect the first beams of structural steel for the 235-foot tall A-3 Test Stand on Oct. 29, 2008. Ground work for the stand was broken in August 2008 and the final structural steel beam was placed on April 9, 2009.

  1. A 3 MV Pelletron at Fudan University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chuan-Chen; Lu, Cheng-Rong; Fe, Zhi-Yu; Yuan, Dao-Sheng; Yang, Fujia

    1989-04-01

    A 3 MV Pelletron tandem, model 9SDH-2, the fourth machine manufactured by NEC was installed and has been operating at Fudan University since 1987. The operating experiences obtained during the past year are described. Three beam lines have been established: one is for Auger-ESCA and RBS in an ultrahigh-vacuum chamber in which Al(100) clean surfaces have been studied; the second beam line is used as a mubeam analysis system using a 2 μ proton beam for resonant prefitting studies. The third is a general purpose beam line, for studies of the effect of nuclear resonance on K X-ray yield. At present, the third beam line is also used for ion beam analysis studies of 8.8 MeV He 2+ non-Rutherford scattering on high Tc superconductors.

  2. Integral resonator gyroscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor); Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Hayworth, Ken J. (Inventor); Wiberg, Dean V. (Inventor); Yee, Karl Y. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention discloses an inertial sensor having an integral resonator. A typical sensor comprises a planar mechanical resonator for sensing motion of the inertial sensor and a case for housing the resonator. The resonator and a wall of the case are defined through an etching process. A typical method of producing the resonator includes etching a baseplate, bonding a wafer to the etched baseplate, through etching the wafer to form a planar mechanical resonator and the wall of the case and bonding an end cap wafer to the wall to complete the case.

  3. Partially orthogonal resonators for magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacon-Caldera, Jorge; Malzacher, Matthias; Schad, Lothar R.

    2017-02-01

    Resonators for signal reception in magnetic resonance are traditionally planar to restrict coil material and avoid coil losses. Here, we present a novel concept to model resonators partially in a plane with maximum sensitivity to the magnetic resonance signal and partially in an orthogonal plane with reduced signal sensitivity. Thus, properties of individual elements in coil arrays can be modified to optimize physical planar space and increase the sensitivity of the overall array. A particular case of the concept is implemented to decrease H-field destructive interferences in planar concentric in-phase arrays. An increase in signal to noise ratio of approximately 20% was achieved with two resonators placed over approximately the same planar area compared to common approaches at a target depth of 10 cm at 3 Tesla. Improved parallel imaging performance of this configuration is also demonstrated. The concept can be further used to increase coil density.

  4. Nanomechanical resonance detector

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Jeffrey C; Zettl, Alexander K

    2013-10-29

    An embodiment of a nanomechanical frequency detector includes a support structure and a plurality of elongated nanostructures coupled to the support structure. Each of the elongated nanostructures has a particular resonant frequency. The plurality of elongated nanostructures has a range of resonant frequencies. An embodiment of a method of identifying an object includes introducing the object to the nanomechanical resonance detector. A resonant response by at least one of the elongated nanostructures of the nanomechanical resonance detector indicates a vibrational mode of the object. An embodiment of a method of identifying a molecular species of the present invention includes introducing the molecular species to the nanomechanical resonance detector. A resonant response by at least one of the elongated nanostructures of the nanomechanical resonance detector indicates a vibrational mode of the molecular species.

  5. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)

    MedlinePlus

    ... IV in the arm. MRI Research Programs at FDA Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Electromagnetic Modeling Related ... Resonance Imaging Equipment in Clinical Use (March 2015) FDA/CDER: Information on Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents Safety ...

  6. An Inexpensive Resonance Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dukes, Phillip

    2005-01-01

    The phenomenon of resonance is applicable to almost every branch of physics. Without resonance, there wouldn't be televisions or stereos, or even swings on the playground. However, resonance also has undesirable side effects such as irritating noises in the car and the catastrophic events such as helicopters flying apart. In this article, the…

  7. Atlas of Neutron Resonances

    Science.gov Websites

    Table Resonance Integrals & Thermal Cross Sections Book Review by J. Rowlands Nuclear Reaction Atlas of Neutron Resonances Preface: This book is the fifth edition of what was previously known as BNL extensive list of detailed individual resonance parameters for each nucleus, this book contains thermal

  8. Resonant fast dynamo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strauss, H. R.

    1986-01-01

    A resonant fast dynamo is found in chaotic shear flows. The dynamo effect is produced by resonant perturbations of the velocity field, similar to resonant diffusion in plasma physics. The dynamo is called fast because the flow produces an electric field independent of the fluid resistivity.

  9. Amplitude tests of direct channel resonances: The dibaryon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, G. R.; Moravosik, M. J.; Arash, F.

    1985-02-01

    A recently formulated polarization amplitude test for the existence of one-particle-exchange mechanisms is modified to deal with direct-channel resonances. The results are applied to proton-proton elastic scattering at and around 800 MeV to test the suggested existence of a dibaryon resonance. This test is sensitive to somewhat different circumstances and parameters than the methods used in the past to find dibaryon resonances. The evidence, on the basis of the SAID data set, is negative for a resonance in any singlet partial wave, but is tantalizingly subliminal for a 3F3 resonance.

  10. Ovenized microelectromechanical system (MEMS) resonator

    DOEpatents

    Olsson, Roy H; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kim, Bongsang

    2014-03-11

    An ovenized micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) resonator including: a substantially thermally isolated mechanical resonator cavity; a mechanical oscillator coupled to the mechanical resonator cavity; and a heating element formed on the mechanical resonator cavity.

  11. Secular resonances. [of asteroidal dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholl, H.; Froeschle, CH.; Kinoshita, H.; Yoshikawa, M.; Williams, J. G.

    1989-01-01

    Theories and numerical experiments regarding secular resonances are reviewed. The basic dynamics and the positions of secular resonances are discussed, and secular perturbation theories for the nu16 resonance case, the nu6 resonance, and the nu5 resonance are addressed. What numerical experiments have revealed about asteroids located in secular resonances, the stability of secular resonances, variations of eccentricities and inclinations, and chaotic orbits is considered. Resonant transport of meteorites is discussed.

  12. Microstrip resonators for electron paramagnetic resonance experiments.

    PubMed

    Torrezan, A C; Mayer Alegre, T P; Medeiros-Ribeiro, G

    2009-07-01

    In this article we evaluate the performance of an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) setup using a microstrip resonator (MR). The design and characterization of the resonator are described and parameters of importance to EPR and spin manipulation are examined, including cavity quality factor, filling factor, and microwave magnetic field in the sample region. Simulated microwave electric and magnetic field distributions in the resonator are also presented and compared with qualitative measurements of the field distribution obtained by a perturbation technique. Based on EPR experiments carried out with a standard marker at room temperature and a MR resonating at 8.17 GHz, the minimum detectable number of spins was found to be 5 x 10(10) spins/GHz(1/2) despite the low MR unloaded quality factor Q0=60. The functionality of the EPR setup was further evaluated at low temperature, where the spin resonance of Cr dopants present in a GaAs wafer was detected at 2.3 K. The design and characterization of a more versatile MR targeting an improved EPR sensitivity and featuring an integrated biasing circuit for the study of samples that require an electrical contact are also discussed.

  13. Microstrip resonators for electron paramagnetic resonance experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrezan, A. C.; Mayer Alegre, T. P.; Medeiros-Ribeiro, G.

    2009-07-01

    In this article we evaluate the performance of an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) setup using a microstrip resonator (MR). The design and characterization of the resonator are described and parameters of importance to EPR and spin manipulation are examined, including cavity quality factor, filling factor, and microwave magnetic field in the sample region. Simulated microwave electric and magnetic field distributions in the resonator are also presented and compared with qualitative measurements of the field distribution obtained by a perturbation technique. Based on EPR experiments carried out with a standard marker at room temperature and a MR resonating at 8.17 GHz, the minimum detectable number of spins was found to be 5×1010 spins/GHz1/2 despite the low MR unloaded quality factor Q0=60. The functionality of the EPR setup was further evaluated at low temperature, where the spin resonance of Cr dopants present in a GaAs wafer was detected at 2.3 K. The design and characterization of a more versatile MR targeting an improved EPR sensitivity and featuring an integrated biasing circuit for the study of samples that require an electrical contact are also discussed.

  14. The resonant body transistor.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Dana; Bhave, Sunil A

    2010-04-14

    This paper introduces the resonant body transistor (RBT), a silicon-based dielectrically transduced nanoelectromechanical (NEM) resonator embedding a sense transistor directly into the resonator body. Combining the benefits of FET sensing with the frequency scaling capabilities and high quality factors (Q) of internal dielectrically transduced bar resonators, the resonant body transistor achieves >10 GHz frequencies and can be integrated into a standard CMOS process for on-chip clock generation, high-Q microwave circuits, fundamental quantum-state preparation and observation, and high-sensitivity measurements. An 11.7 GHz bulk-mode RBT is demonstrated with a quality factor Q of 1830, marking the highest frequency acoustic resonance measured to date on a silicon wafer.

  15. Acoustic Levitator Maintains Resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Gaspar, M. S.

    1986-01-01

    Transducer loading characteristics allow resonance tracked at high temperature. Acoustic-levitation chamber length automatically adjusted to maintain resonance at constant acoustic frequency as temperature changes. Developed for containerless processing of materials at high temperatures, system does not rely on microphones as resonance sensors, since microphones are difficult to fabricate for use at temperatures above 500 degrees C. Instead, system uses acoustic transducer itself as sensor.

  16. The Concept of Resonance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truhlar, Donald G.

    2007-01-01

    A general example of a delocalization system associated with a higher energy than the localized one, which suggests that it is wrong to consider delocalization as equivalent to resonance stabilization, is presented. The meaning of resonance energy as it appears in valence bond theory is described as the lowering of the calculated ground-state…

  17. The resonator handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Jerry D.; Zhou, Shiliang

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to extend resonator theory into the region in which the planar mirror is quite small. Results of the theoretical description are then extended to resonator design and experimental arrangements as discussed in further sections of this work. Finally, a discussion of dielectric measurements for small samples is included as a specific application of this work.

  18. A New Resonance Tube

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Alan

    2017-01-01

    The measurement of the speed of sound in air with the resonance tube is a popular experiment that often yields accurate results. One approach is to hold a vibrating tuning fork over an air column that is partially immersed in water. The column is raised and lowered in the water until the generated standing wave produces resonance: this occurs at…

  19. Narrowband resonant transmitter

    DOEpatents

    Hutchinson, Donald P.; Simpson, Marcus L.; Simpson, John T.

    2004-06-29

    A transverse-longitudinal integrated optical resonator (TLIR) is disclosed which includes a waveguide, a first and a second subwavelength resonant grating in the waveguide, and at least one photonic band gap resonant structure (PBG) in the waveguide. The PBG is positioned between the first and second subwavelength resonant gratings. An electro-optic waveguide material may be used to permit tuning the TLIR and to permit the TLIR to perform signal modulation and switching. The TLIR may be positioned on a bulk substrate die with one or more electronic and optical devices and may be communicably connected to the same. A method for fabricating a TLIR including fabricating a broadband reflective grating is disclosed. A method for tuning the TLIR's transmission resonance wavelength is also disclosed.

  20. Surface acoustic wave resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avitabile, Gianfranco; Roselli, Luca; Atzeni, Carlo; Manes, Gianfranco

    1991-10-01

    The development of surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators is reviewed with attention given to the design of a simulation package for CAD-assisted SAW resonator design. Basic design configurations and operation parameters are set forth for the SAW resonators including the phase of the reflection factor, evaluation of the stopband center frequency, stopband width, and the free propagation speed. The use of synchronous designs is shown to reduce device sensitivity to variations in the technological process but generate higher insertion losses. The existence of transverse modes and propagation losses is shown to affect the rejection of spurious modes and the achievement of low insertion losses. Several SAW resonators are designed and fabricated with the CAD process, and the resonators in the VHF-UHF bands perform in a manner predicted by simulated results.

  1. Resonant snubber inverter

    DOEpatents

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Young, Sr., Robert W.; Chen, Daoshen; Scudiere, Matthew B.; Ott, Jr., George W.; White, Clifford P.; McKeever, John W.

    1997-01-01

    A resonant, snubber-based, soft switching, inverter circuit achieves lossless switching during dc-to-ac power conversion and power conditioning with minimum component count and size. Current is supplied to the resonant snubber branches solely by the main inverter switches. Component count and size are reduced by use of a single semiconductor switch in the resonant snubber branches. Component count is also reduced by maximizing the use of stray capacitances of the main switches as parallel resonant capacitors. Resonance charging and discharging of the parallel capacitances allows lossless, zero voltage switching. In one embodiment, circuit component size and count are minimized while achieving lossless, zero voltage switching within a three-phase inverter.

  2. Resonant snubber inverter

    DOEpatents

    Lai, J.S.; Young, R.W. Sr.; Chen, D.; Scudiere, M.B.; Ott, G.W. Jr.; White, C.P.; McKeever, J.W.

    1997-06-24

    A resonant, snubber-based, soft switching, inverter circuit achieves lossless switching during dc-to-ac power conversion and power conditioning with minimum component count and size. Current is supplied to the resonant snubber branches solely by the main inverter switches. Component count and size are reduced by use of a single semiconductor switch in the resonant snubber branches. Component count is also reduced by maximizing the use of stray capacitances of the main switches as parallel resonant capacitors. Resonance charging and discharging of the parallel capacitances allows lossless, zero voltage switching. In one embodiment, circuit component size and count are minimized while achieving lossless, zero voltage switching within a three-phase inverter. 14 figs.

  3. Photonic Feshbach resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dazhi; Ian, Hou; Shi, Tao; Dong, Hui; Sun, Changpu

    2010-07-01

    Feshbach resonance is a resonance for two-atom scattering with two or more channels, in which a bound state is achieved in one channel. We show that this resonance phenomenon not only exists during the collisions of massive particles, but also emerges during the coherent transport of massless particles, that is, photons confined in the coupled resonator arrays linked by a separated cavity or a tunable two level system (TLS). When the TLS is coupled to one array to form a bound state in this setup, the vanishing transmission appears to display the photonic Feshbach resonance. This process can be realized through various experimentally feasible solid state systems, such as the couple defected cavities in photonic crystals and the superconducting qubit coupled to the transmission line. The numerical simulation based on the finite-different time-domain (FDTD) method confirms our assumption about the physical implementation.

  4. A-3 Test Stand work

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-29

    Stennis Space Center employees have installed liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen tanks atop the A-3 Test Stand, raising the structure to its full 300-foot height. The stand is being built to test next-generation rocket engines that could carry humans beyond low-Earth orbit into deep space. The A-3 Test Stand is scheduled for completion and activation in 2013.

  5. Resonances from lattice QCD

    DOE PAGES

    Briceno, Raul A.

    2018-03-26

    The spectrum of hadron is mainly composed as shortly-lived states (resonance) that decay onto two or more hadrons. These resonances play an important role in a variety of phenomenologically significant processes. In this talk, I give an overview on the present status of a rigorous program for studying of resonances and their properties using lattice QCD. I explain the formalism needed for extracting resonant amplitudes from the finite-volume spectra. From these one can extract the masses and widths of resonances. I present some recent examples that illustrate the power of these ideas. I then explain similar formalism that allows formore » the determination of resonant electroweak amplitudes from finite-volume matrix elements. I use the recent calculation of the πγ* → ππ amplitude as an example illustrating the power of this formalism. From such amplitudes one can determine transition form factors of resonances. I close by reviewing on-going efforts to generalize these ideas to increasingly complex reactions and I then give a outlook of the field.« less

  6. Resonances from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Briceno, Raul A.

    The spectrum of hadron is mainly composed as shortly-lived states (resonance) that decay onto two or more hadrons. These resonances play an important role in a variety of phenomenologically significant processes. In this talk, I give an overview on the present status of a rigorous program for studying of resonances and their properties using lattice QCD. I explain the formalism needed for extracting resonant amplitudes from the finite-volume spectra. From these one can extract the masses and widths of resonances. I present some recent examples that illustrate the power of these ideas. I then explain similar formalism that allows formore » the determination of resonant electroweak amplitudes from finite-volume matrix elements. I use the recent calculation of the πγ* → ππ amplitude as an example illustrating the power of this formalism. From such amplitudes one can determine transition form factors of resonances. I close by reviewing on-going efforts to generalize these ideas to increasingly complex reactions and I then give a outlook of the field.« less

  7. Dewar Testing of Coaxial Resonators at MSU

    SciTech Connect

    Popielarski, J; Facco, A; Hodek, M

    2012-07-01

    Michigan State University is currently testing prototype and production cavities for two accelerator projects. 80.5 MHz {beta} = 0.085 quarter wave resonators (QWR) are being produced as part of a cryomodule for ReA3. 322 MHz {beta} = 0.53 half wave resonators (HWR) are being prototyped for a driver linac for the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams. This paper will discuss test results and how different cavity preparations effect cavity performs. Also various diagnostics methods have been developed, such as second sound quench location determination, and temperature mapping to determine hot spots from defects and multipacting location.

  8. Resonant halide perovskite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiguntseva, Ekaterina Y.; Ishteev, Arthur R.; Komissarenko, Filipp E.; Zuev, Dmitry A.; Ushakova, Elena V.; Milichko, Valentin A.; Nesterov-Mueller, Alexander; Makarov, Sergey V.; Zakhidov, Anvar A.

    2017-09-01

    The hybrid halide perovskites is a prospective material for fabrication of cost-effective optical devices. Unique perovskites properties are used for solar cells and different photonic applications. Recently, perovskite-based nanophotonics has emerged. Here, we consider perovskite like a high-refractive index dielectric material, which can be considered to be a basis for nanoparticles fabrication with Mie resonances. As a result, we fabricate and study resonant perovskite nanoparticles with different sizes. We reveal, that spherical nanoparticles show enhanced photoluminescence signal. The achieved results lay a cornerstone in the field of novel types of organic-inorganic nanophotonics devices with optical properties improved by Mie resonances.

  9. Tunable multiwalled nanotube resonator

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, Kenneth J; Girit, Caglar O; Mickelson, William E; Zettl, Alexander K; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2013-11-05

    A tunable nanoscale resonator has potential applications in precise mass, force, position, and frequency measurement. One embodiment of this device consists of a specially prepared multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) suspended between a metal electrode and a mobile, piezoelectrically controlled contact. By harnessing a unique telescoping ability of MWNTs, one may controllably slide an inner nanotube core from its outer nanotube casing, effectively changing its length and thereby changing the tuning of its resonance frequency. Resonant energy transfer may be used with a nanoresonator to detect molecules at a specific target oscillation frequency, without the use of a chemical label, to provide label-free chemical species detection.

  10. Tunable multiwalled nanotube resonator

    DOEpatents

    Zettl, Alex K [Kensington, CA; Jensen, Kenneth J [Berkeley, CA; Girit, Caglar [Albany, CA; Mickelson, William E [San Francisco, CA; Grossman, Jeffrey C [Berkeley, CA

    2011-03-29

    A tunable nanoscale resonator has potential applications in precise mass, force, position, and frequency measurement. One embodiment of this device consists of a specially prepared multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) suspended between a metal electrode and a mobile, piezoelectrically controlled contact. By harnessing a unique telescoping ability of MWNTs, one may controllably slide an inner nanotube core from its outer nanotube casing, effectively changing its length and thereby changing the tuning of its resonance frequency. Resonant energy transfer may be used with a nanoresonator to detect molecules at a specific target oscillation frequency, without the use of a chemical label, to provide label-free chemical species detection.

  11. Thin film resonator technology.

    PubMed

    Lakin, Kenneth M

    2005-05-01

    Advances in wireless systems have placed increased demands on high performance frequency control devices for operation into the microwave range. With spectrum crowding, high bandwidth requirements, miniaturization, and low cost requirements as a background, the thin film resonator technology has evolved into the mainstream of applications. This technology has been under development for over 40 years in one form or another, but it required significant advances in integrated circuit processing to reach microwave frequencies and practical manufacturing for high-volume applications. This paper will survey the development of the thin film resonator technology and describe the core elements that give rise to resonators and filters for today's high performance wireless applications.

  12. A-3 Test Stand construction

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-10-01

    An 80,000-gallon liquid hydrogen tank is placed at the A-3 Test Stand construction site on Sept. 24, 2010. The tank will provide propellant for tests of next-generation rocket engines at the stand. It will be placed upright on top of the stand, helping to increase the overall height to 300 feet. Once completed, the A-3 Test Stand will enable operators to test rocket engines at simulated altitudes of up to 100,000 feet. The A-3 stand is the first large rocket engine test structure to be built at Stennis Space Center since the 1960s.

  13. A-3 Test Stand construction

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-24

    A 35,000-gallon liquid oxygen tank is placed at the A-3 Test Stand construction site on Sept. 24, 2010. The tank will provide propellant for tests of next-generation rocket engines at the stand. It will be placed upright on top of the stand, helping to increase the overall height to 300 feet. Once completed, the A-3 Test Stand will enable operators to test rocket engines at simulated altitudes of up to 100,000 feet. The A-3 stand is the first large rocket engine test structure to be built at Stennis Space Center since the 1960s.

  14. Seismic resonances of acoustic cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, F. M.; Esterhazy, S.; Perugia, I.; Bokelmann, G.

    2016-12-01

    The goal of an On-Site Inspection (OSI) is to clarify at a possible testsite whether a member state of the Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)has violated its rules by conducting a underground nuclear test. Compared toatmospheric and underwater tests underground nuclear explosions are the mostdifficult to detect.One primary structural target for the field team during an OSI is the detectionof an underground cavity, created by underground nuclear explosions. Theapplication of seismic-resonances of the cavity for its detection has beenproposed in the CTBT by mentioning "resonance seismometry" as possibletechnique during OSIs. We modeled the interaction of a seismic wave-field withan underground cavity by a sphere filled with an acoustic medium surrounded byan elastic full space. For this setting the solution of the seismic wave-fieldcan be computed analytically. Using this approach the appearance of acousticresonances can be predicted in the theoretical calculations. Resonance peaksappear in the spectrum derived for the elastic domain surrounding the acousticcavity, which scale in width with the density of the acoustic medium. For lowdensities in the acoustic medium as for an gas-filled cavity, the spectralpeaks become very narrow and therefore hard to resolve. The resonancefrequencies, however can be correlated to the discrete set of eigenmodes of theacoustic cavity and can thus be predicted if the dimension of the cavity isknown. Origin of the resonance peaks are internal reverberations of wavescoupling in the acoustic domain and causing an echoing signal that couples outto the elastic domain again. In the gas-filled case the amplitudes in timedomain are very low.Beside theoretical considerations we seek to find real data examples fromsimilar settings. As example we analyze a 3D active seismic data set fromFelsőpetény, Hungary that has been conducted between 2012 and 2014 on behalf ofthe CTBTO. In the subsurface of this area a former clay mine is

  15. Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Migliori, Albert

    1991-01-01

    A resonant ultrasound spectroscopy method provides a unique characterization of an object for use in distinguishing similar objects having physical differences greater than a predetermined tolerance. A resonant response spectrum is obtained for a reference object by placing excitation and detection transducers at any accessible location on the object. The spectrum is analyzed to determine the number of resonant response peaks in a predetermined frequency interval. The distribution of the resonance frequencies is then characterized in a manner effective to form a unique signature of the object. In one characterization, a small frequency interval is defined and stepped though the spectrum frequency range. Subsequent objects are similarly characterized where the characterizations serve as signatures effective to distinguish objects that differ from the reference object by more than the predetermined tolerance.

  16. Micro-machined resonator

    DOEpatents

    Godshall, Ned A.; Koehler, Dale R.; Liang, Alan Y.; Smith, Bradley K.

    1993-01-01

    A micro-machined resonator, typically quartz, with upper and lower micro-machinable support members, or covers, having etched wells which may be lined with conductive electrode material, between the support members is a quartz resonator having an energy trapping quartz mesa capacitively coupled to the electrode through a diaphragm; the quartz resonator is supported by either micro-machined cantilever springs or by thin layers extending over the surfaces of the support. If the diaphragm is rigid, clock applications are available, and if the diaphragm is resilient, then transducer applications can be achieved. Either the thin support layers or the conductive electrode material can be integral with the diaphragm. In any event, the covers are bonded to form a hermetic seal and the interior volume may be filled with a gas or may be evacuated. In addition, one or both of the covers may include oscillator and interface circuitry for the resonator.

  17. Resonances in Positronium Hydride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiRienzi, Joseph; Drachman, Richard J.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We re-examine the problem of calculating the positions and widths of the lowest-lying resonances in the Ps + H scattering system which consists of two electrons, one positron and one proton. The first of these resonances, for L=0, was found by the methods of complex rotation and stabilization, and later described as a Feshbach resonance lying close to a bound state in the closed-channel e (+) + H (-) system. Recently, results for the L=1 and 2 scattering states were published, and it was found, surprisingly, that there is a larae shift in the positions of these resonances. In this work we repeat the analysis for L=1 and find an unexpected explanation for the shift.

  18. Argonne - Ring Resonators

    Science.gov Websites

    -- Link6 -- Integrated Photonic Spectrographs for Astronomy Optical Multi-Mode Interference Devices Dual Guiding, Modulating, and Emitting Light on Silicon Scope1 -- Scope 2 -- Lamp1 -- optical Ring Resonators

  19. Micro-machined resonator

    DOEpatents

    Godshall, N.A.; Koehler, D.R.; Liang, A.Y.; Smith, B.K.

    1993-03-30

    A micro-machined resonator, typically quartz, with upper and lower micro-machinable support members, or covers, having etched wells which may be lined with conductive electrode material, between the support members is a quartz resonator having an energy trapping quartz mesa capacitively coupled to the electrode through a diaphragm; the quartz resonator is supported by either micro-machined cantilever springs or by thin layers extending over the surfaces of the support. If the diaphragm is rigid, clock applications are available, and if the diaphragm is resilient, then transducer applications can be achieved. Either the thin support layers or the conductive electrode material can be integral with the diaphragm. In any event, the covers are bonded to form a hermetic seal and the interior volume may be filled with a gas or may be evacuated. In addition, one or both of the covers may include oscillator and interface circuitry for the resonator.

  20. A-3 Construction Time Lapse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    A time lapse from start to finish of steel erection for the 235-foot tall A-3 Test Stand. Ground work for the stand was broken in August 2008 and the final structural steel beam was placed April 9, 2009.

  1. Resonant dielectric metamaterials

    DOEpatents

    Loui, Hung; Carroll, James; Clem, Paul G; Sinclair, Michael B

    2014-12-02

    A resonant dielectric metamaterial comprises a first and a second set of dielectric scattering particles (e.g., spheres) having different permittivities arranged in a cubic array. The array can be an ordered or randomized array of particles. The resonant dielectric metamaterials are low-loss 3D isotropic materials with negative permittivity and permeability. Such isotropic double negative materials offer polarization and direction independent electromagnetic wave propagation.

  2. Cylindrical laser resonator

    DOEpatents

    Casperson, Lee W.

    1976-02-24

    The properties of an improved class of lasers is presented. In one configuration of these lasers the radiation propagates radially within the amplifying medium, resulting in high fields and symmetric illumination at the resonator axis. Thus there is a strong focusing of energy at the axis of the resonator. In a second configuration the radiation propagates back and forth in a tubular region of space.

  3. Hexagonal quartz resonator

    DOEpatents

    Peters, Roswell D. M.

    1982-01-01

    A generally flat, relatively thin AT-cut piezoelectric resonator element structured to minimize the force-frequency effect when mounted and energized in a housing. The resonator is in the form of an equilateral hexagon with the X crystallographic axis of the crystal passing through one set of opposing corners with mounting being effected at an adjacent set of corners respectively .+-.60.degree. away from the X axis which thereby results in a substantially zero frequency shift of the operating frequency.

  4. Injector with integrated resonator

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; York, William David; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2014-07-29

    The system may include a turbine engine. The turbine engine may include a fuel nozzle. The fuel nozzle may include an air path. The fuel nozzle may also include a fuel path such that the fuel nozzle is in communication with a combustion zone of the turbine engine. Furthermore, the fuel nozzle may include a resonator. The resonator may be disposed in the fuel nozzle directly adjacent to the combustion zone.

  5. Resonant nonlinear ultrasound spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Paul A.; TenCate, James A.; Guyer, Robert A.; Van Den Abeele, Koen E. A.

    2001-01-01

    Components with defects are identified from the response to strains applied at acoustic and ultrasound frequencies. The relative resonance frequency shift .vertline..DELTA..function./.function..sub.0.vertline., is determined as a function of applied strain amplitude for an acceptable component, where .function..sub.0 is the frequency of the resonance peak at the lowest amplitude of applied strain and .DELTA..function. is the frequency shift of the resonance peak of a selected mode to determine a reference relationship. Then, the relative resonance frequency shift .vertline..DELTA..function./.function..sub.0 is determined as a function of applied strain for a component under test, where fo .function..sub.0 the frequency of the resonance peak at the lowest amplitude of applied strain and .DELTA..function. is the frequency shift of the resonance peak to determine a quality test relationship. The reference relationship is compared with the quality test relationship to determine the presence of defects in the component under test.

  6. Alfven wave cyclotron resonance heating

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.B.; Yosikawa, S.; Oberman, C.

    1981-02-01

    The resonance absorption of fast Alfven waves at the proton ctclotron resonance of a predominately deuterium plasma is investigated. An approximate dispersion relation is derived, valid in the vicinity of the resonance, which permits an exact calculation of transmission and reflection coefficients. For reasonable plasma parameters significant linear resonance absorption is found.

  7. A-3 First Tree Cutting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Tree clearing for the site of the new A-3 Test Stand at Stennis Space center began June 13. NASA's first new large rocket engine test stand to be built since the site's inception, A-3 construction begins a historic era for America's largest rocket engine test complex. The 300-foot-tall structure is scheduled for completion in August 2010. A-3 will perform altitude tests on the Constellation's J-2X engine that will power the upper stage of the Ares I crew launch vehicle and earth departure stage of the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. The Constellation Program, NASA's plan for carrying out the nation's Vision for Space Exploration, will return humans to the moon and eventually carry them to Mars and beyond.

  8. A-3 First Tree Cutting

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-06-13

    Tree clearing for the site of the new A-3 Test Stand at Stennis Space center began June 13. NASA's first new large rocket engine test stand to be built since the site's inception, A-3 construction begins a historic era for America's largest rocket engine test complex. The 300-foot-tall structure is scheduled for completion in August 2010. A-3 will perform altitude tests on the Constellation's J-2X engine that will power the upper stage of the Ares I crew launch vehicle and earth departure stage of the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. The Constellation Program, NASA's plan for carrying out the nation's Vision for Space Exploration, will return humans to the moon and eventually carry them to Mars and beyond.

  9. LABCOM resonator Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Keres, L.J.

    1990-11-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop quartz crystal resonator designs, production processes, and test capabilities for 5-MHz, 6.2-MHz, and 10-MHz resonators for Tactical Miniature Crystal Oscillator (TMXO) applications. GE Neutron Devices (GEND) established and demonstrated the capability to produce and test quartz crystal resonators for use in the TMXO developed by the US Army ERADCOM (now LABCOM). The goals in this project were based on the ERADCOM statement of work. The scope of work indicated that the resonator production facilities for this project would not be completely independent, but that they would be supported in part by equipmentmore » and processes in place at GEND used in US Department of Energy (DOE) work. In addition, provisions for production test equipment or or eventual technology transfer costs to a commercial supplier were clearly excluded from the scope of work. The demonstrated technical capability of the deep-etched blank design is feasible and practical. It can be manufactured in quantity with reasonable yield, and its performance is readily predictable. The ceramic flatpack is a very strong package with excellent hermeticity. The four-point mount supports the crystal to reasonable shock levels and does not perturb the resonator's natural frequency-temperature behavior. The package can be sealed with excellent yields. The high-temperature, high-vacuum processing developed for the TMXO resonator, including bonding the piezoid to its mount with conductive polyimide adhesive, is consistent with precision resonator fabrication. 1 fig., 6 tabs.« less

  10. Resonant enhancement in leptogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev, P. S. B.; Garny, M.; Klaric, J.; Millington, P.; Teresi, D.

    2018-02-01

    Vanilla leptogenesis within the type I seesaw framework requires the mass scale of the right-handed neutrinos to be above 109 GeV. This lower bound can be avoided if at least two of the sterile states are almost mass degenerate, which leads to an enhancement of the decay asymmetry. Leptogenesis models that can be tested in current and upcoming experiments often rely on this resonant enhancement, and a systematic and consistent description is therefore necessary for phenomenological applications. In this paper, we give an overview of different methods that have been used to study the saturation of the resonant enhancement when the mass difference becomes comparable to the characteristic width of the Majorana neutrinos. In this limit, coherent flavor transitions start to play a decisive role, and off-diagonal correlations in flavor space have to be taken into account. We compare various formalisms that have been used to describe the resonant regime and discuss under which circumstances the resonant enhancement can be captured by simplified expressions for the CP asymmetry. Finally, we briefly review some of the phenomenological aspects of resonant leptogenesis.

  11. Resonant ultrasound spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Migliori, Albert; Visscher, William M.; Fisk, Zachary

    1990-01-01

    An ultrasound resonant spectrometer determines the resonant frequency spectrum of a rectangular parallelepiped sample of a high dissipation material over an expected resonant response frequency range. A sample holder structure grips corners of the sample between piezoelectric drive and receive transducers. Each transducer is mounted on a membrane for only weakly coupling the transducer to the holder structure and operatively contacts a material effective to remove system resonant responses at the transducer from the expected response range. i.e., either a material such as diamond to move the response frequencies above the range or a damping powder to preclude response within the range. A square-law detector amplifier receives the response signal and retransmits the signal on an isolated shield of connecting cabling to remove cabling capacitive effects. The amplifier also provides a substantially frequency independently voltage divider with the receive transducer. The spectrometer is extremely sensitive to enable low amplitude resonance to be detected for use in calculating the elastic constants of the high dissipation sample.

  12. A3 TEST STAND CONSTRUCTION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    THIS IMAGE SHOWS THE DEVELOPMENT AND CONSTRUCTION OF THE A3 TEST STAND IN SUPPORT OF THE ARES/CLV UPPER STAGE ENGINE AT STENNIS SPACE CENTER, MISSISSIPPI. THIS IMAGE IS EXTRACTED FROM A HIGH DEFINITION VIDEO FILE AND IS THE HIGHEST RESOLUTION AVAILABLE.

  13. A-3 Test Stand work

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-29

    Rocket engine propellant tanks and cell dome top the A-3 Test Stand under construction at Stennis Space Center. The stand will test next-generation rocket engines that could carry humans beyond low-Earth orbit into deep space once more.

  14. A-3 Test Stand work

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-29

    Work continues on the A-3 Test Stand at Stennis Space Center. The new stand will allow operators to test next-generation rocket engines at simulated altitudes up to 100,000 feet. The test stand is scheduled for completion and activation in 2013.

  15. A-3 steel work completed

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-04-09

    Stennis Space Center engineers celebrated a key milestone in construction of the A-3 Test Stand on April 9 - completion of structural steel work. Workers with Lafayette (La.) Steel Erector Inc. placed the last structural steel beam atop the stand during a noon ceremony attended by more than 100 workers and guests.

  16. A-3 steel work completed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Stennis Space Center engineers celebrated a key milestone in construction of the A-3 Test Stand on April 9 - completion of structural steel work. Workers with Lafayette (La.) Steel Erector Inc. placed the last structural steel beam atop the stand during a noon ceremony attended by more than 100 workers and guests.

  17. Vessels installed at A-3

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-09-25

    Construction of the A-3 Test Stand approaches another milestone with delivery and installation of water, isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and liquid oxygen (LOX) tanks. The three LOX tanks shown on the left and the two IPA tanks shown on the right are all 35,000 gallons each. The four water tanks in the center are 39,000 gallons each.

  18. Spectroscopy of baryon resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Reinhard; Thoma, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Within project A.1 of the SFB/TR16 "Subnuclear Structure of Matter", a large amount of data on photoproduction reactions has been accumulated at the Bonn Electron Stretcher Accelerator ELSA with the CBELSA/TAPS detector and was analysed in detail. In particular, data have been taken with unpolarized or with linearly or circularly polarized photons and with unpolarized or with longitudinally or transversely polarized protons. Photoproduction off neutrons was studied to determine the helicity amplitudes for the excitation of resonances off neutrons. In a partial wave analysis of the data, new resonances have been found and the properties of new and of known resonances have been determined, including the measurement of partial widths of so far unmeasured decay modes.

  19. Quartz resonator processing system

    DOEpatents

    Peters, Roswell D. M.

    1983-01-01

    Disclosed is a single chamber ultra-high vacuum processing system for the oduction of hermetically sealed quartz resonators wherein electrode metallization and sealing are carried out along with cleaning and bake-out without any air exposure between the processing steps. The system includes a common vacuum chamber in which is located a rotatable wheel-like member which is adapted to move a plurality of individual component sets of a flat pack resonator unit past discretely located processing stations in said chamber whereupon electrode deposition takes place followed by the placement of ceramic covers over a frame containing a resonator element and then to a sealing stage where a pair of hydraulic rams including heating elements effect a metallized bonding of the covers to the frame.

  20. Fundamental properties of resonances

    PubMed Central

    Ceci, S.; Hadžimehmedović, M.; Osmanović, H.; Percan, A.; Zauner, B.

    2017-01-01

    All resonances, from hydrogen nuclei excited by the high-energy gamma rays in deep space to newly discovered particles produced in Large Hadron Collider, should be described by the same fundamental physical quantities. However, two distinct sets of properties are used to describe resonances: the pole parameters (complex pole position and residue) and the Breit-Wigner parameters (mass, width, and branching fractions). There is an ongoing decades-old debate on which one of them should be abandoned. In this study of nucleon resonances appearing in the elastic pion-nucleon scattering we discover an intricate interplay of the parameters from both sets, and realize that neither set is completely independent or fundamental on its own. PMID:28345595

  1. Magnetostrictive resonance excitation

    DOEpatents

    Schwarz, Ricardo B.; Kuokkala, Veli-Tapani

    1992-01-01

    The resonance frequency spectrum of a magnetostrictive sample is remotely determined by exciting the magnetostrictive property with an oscillating magnetic field. The permeability of a magnetostrictive material and concomitant coupling with a detection coil varies with the strain in the material whereby resonance responses of the sample can be readily detected. A suitable sample may be a magnetostrictive material or some other material having at least one side coated with a magnetostrictive material. When the sample is a suitable shape, i.e., a cube, rectangular parallelepiped, solid sphere or spherical shell, the elastic moduli or the material can be analytically determined from the measured resonance frequency spectrum. No mechanical transducers are required and the sample excitation is obtained without contact with the sample, leading to highly reproducible results and a measurement capability over a wide temperature range, e.g. from liquid nitrogen temperature to the Curie temperature of the magnetostrictive material.

  2. Higgs–photon resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Fox, Patrick J.; Kearney, John

    We study models that produce a Higgs boson plus photon (more » $$h^0 \\gamma$$) resonance at the LHC. When the resonance is a $Z'$ boson, decays to $$h^0 \\gamma$$ occur at one loop. If the $Z'$ boson couples at tree-level to quarks, then the $$h^0 \\gamma$$ branching fraction is typically of order $$10^{-5}$$ or smaller. Nevertheless, there are models that would allow the observation of $$Z' \\to h^0 \\gamma$$ at $$\\sqrt{s} = 13$$ TeV with a cross section times branching fraction larger than 1 fb for a $Z'$ mass in the 200--450 GeV range, and larger than 0.1 fb for a mass up to 800 GeV. The 1-loop decay of the $Z'$ into lepton pairs competes with $$h^0 \\gamma$$, even if the $Z'$ couplings to leptons vanish at tree level. We also present a model in which a $Z'$ boson decays into a Higgs boson and a pair of collimated photons, mimicking an $$h^0 \\gamma$$ resonance. In this model, the $$h^0 \\gamma$$ resonance search would be the discovery mode for a $Z'$ as heavy as 2 TeV. When the resonance is a scalar, although decay to $$h^0 \\gamma$$ is forbidden by angular momentum conservation, the $h^0$ plus collimated photons channel is allowed. Here, we comment on prospects of observing an $$h^0 \\gamma$$ resonance through different Higgs decays, on constraints from related searches, and on models where $h^0$ is replaced by a nonstandard Higgs boson.« less

  3. Higgs–photon resonances

    DOE PAGES

    Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Fox, Patrick J.; Kearney, John

    2017-10-24

    We study models that produce a Higgs boson plus photon (more » $$h^0 \\gamma$$) resonance at the LHC. When the resonance is a $Z'$ boson, decays to $$h^0 \\gamma$$ occur at one loop. If the $Z'$ boson couples at tree-level to quarks, then the $$h^0 \\gamma$$ branching fraction is typically of order $$10^{-5}$$ or smaller. Nevertheless, there are models that would allow the observation of $$Z' \\to h^0 \\gamma$$ at $$\\sqrt{s} = 13$$ TeV with a cross section times branching fraction larger than 1 fb for a $Z'$ mass in the 200--450 GeV range, and larger than 0.1 fb for a mass up to 800 GeV. The 1-loop decay of the $Z'$ into lepton pairs competes with $$h^0 \\gamma$$, even if the $Z'$ couplings to leptons vanish at tree level. We also present a model in which a $Z'$ boson decays into a Higgs boson and a pair of collimated photons, mimicking an $$h^0 \\gamma$$ resonance. In this model, the $$h^0 \\gamma$$ resonance search would be the discovery mode for a $Z'$ as heavy as 2 TeV. When the resonance is a scalar, although decay to $$h^0 \\gamma$$ is forbidden by angular momentum conservation, the $h^0$ plus collimated photons channel is allowed. Here, we comment on prospects of observing an $$h^0 \\gamma$$ resonance through different Higgs decays, on constraints from related searches, and on models where $h^0$ is replaced by a nonstandard Higgs boson.« less

  4. Method for resonant measurement

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, George W.; Migliori, Albert; Dixon, Raymond D.

    1996-01-01

    A method of measurement of objects to determine object flaws, Poisson's ratio (.sigma.) and shear modulus (.mu.) is shown and described. First, the frequency for expected degenerate responses is determined for one or more input frequencies and then splitting of degenerate resonant modes are observed to identify the presence of flaws in the object. Poisson's ratio and the shear modulus can be determined by identification of resonances dependent only on the shear modulus, and then using that shear modulus to find Poisson's ratio using other modes dependent on both the shear modulus and Poisson's ratio.

  5. Locally resonant sonic materials

    PubMed

    Liu; Zhang; Mao; Zhu; Yang; Chan; Sheng

    2000-09-08

    We have fabricated sonic crystals, based on the idea of localized resonant structures, that exhibit spectral gaps with a lattice constant two orders of magnitude smaller than the relevant wavelength. Disordered composites made from such localized resonant structures behave as a material with effective negative elastic constants and a total wave reflector within certain tunable sonic frequency ranges. A 2-centimeter slab of this composite material is shown to break the conventional mass-density law of sound transmission by one or more orders of magnitude at 400 hertz.

  6. Field resonance propulsion concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    A propulsion concept was developed based on a proposed resonance between coherent, pulsed electromagnetic wave forms, and gravitational wave forms (or space-time metrics). Using this concept a spacecraft propulsion system potentially capable of galactic and intergalactic travel without prohibitive travel times was designed. The propulsion system utilizes recent research associated with magnetic field line merging, hydromagnetic wave effects, free-electron lasers, laser generation of megagauss fields, and special structural and containment metals. The research required to determine potential, field resonance characteristics and to evaluate various aspects of the spacecraft propulsion design is described.

  7. Method for resonant measurement

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, G.W.; Migliori, A.; Dixon, R.D.

    1996-03-05

    A method of measurement of objects to determine object flaws, Poisson`s ratio ({sigma}) and shear modulus ({mu}) is shown and described. First, the frequency for expected degenerate responses is determined for one or more input frequencies and then splitting of degenerate resonant modes are observed to identify the presence of flaws in the object. Poisson`s ratio and the shear modulus can be determined by identification of resonances dependent only on the shear modulus, and then using that shear modulus to find Poisson`s ratio using other modes dependent on both the shear modulus and Poisson`s ratio. 1 fig.

  8. Hexagonal quartz resonator

    DOEpatents

    Peters, R.D.M.

    1982-11-02

    A generally flat, relatively thin AT-cut piezoelectric resonator element structured to minimize the force-frequency effect when mounted and energized in a housing. The resonator is in the form of an equilateral hexagon with the X crystallographic axis of the crystal passing through one set of opposing corners with mounting being effected at an adjacent set of corners respectively [+-]60[degree] away from the X axis which thereby results in a substantially zero frequency shift of the operating frequency. 3 figs.

  9. Physics of Sports: Resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, David

    2000-04-01

    When force is applied by an athlete to sports equipment resonances can occur. Just a few examples are: the ringing of a spiked volleyball, the strumming of a golf club shaft during a swing, and multiple modes induced in an aluminum baseball bat when striking a ball. Resonances produce acoustic waves which, if conditions are favorable, can be detected off the playing field. This can provide a means to evaluate athletic performance during game conditions. Results are given from the use of a simple hand-held acoustic detector - by a spectator sitting in the stands - to determine how hard volleyballs were spiked during college and high school games.

  10. Coupled-Resonator-Induced Transparency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David D.; Chang, Hong-Rok; Fuller, Kirk A.; Rosenberger, A. T.; Boyd, Robert W.

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate that a cancellation of absorption occurs on resonance for two (or any even number of) coupled optical resonators, due to mode splitting and classical destructive interference, particularly when the resonator finesse is large and the loss in the resonator furthest from the excitation waveguide is small. The linewidth and group velocity of a collection of such coupled-resonator structures may be decreased by using larger resonators of equal size, using larger resonators of unequal size where the optical path length of the larger resonator is an integer multiple of that of the smaller one, or by using a larger number of resonators per structure. We explore the analogy between these effects and electromagnetically induced transparency in an atomic system.

  11. A-3 scientific results - extragalactic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    The results of the HEAO A-3 experiment are summarized. Specific contributions of the experiment to extragalactic astronomy are emphasized. The discovery of relatively condensed X-ray emission in the cores of those clusters of galaxies which are dominated by a giant elliptical or cD galaxy, the discovery of extended X-ray emitting plasma in groups of galaxies, and the demonstration that BL Lac objects are a class of X-ray sources are among the topics discussed.

  12. Double resonator cantilever accelerometer

    DOEpatents

    Koehler, Dale R.

    1984-01-01

    A digital quartz accelerometer includes a pair of spaced double-ended tuning forks fastened at one end to a base and at the other end through a spacer mass. Transverse movement of the resonator members stresses one and compresses the other, providing a differential frequency output which is indicative of acceleration.

  13. Magnetostatic wave tunable resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castera, J.-P.; Hartemann, P.

    1983-06-01

    Theoretical principles and techniques for the implementation of magnetostatic surface wave and volume wave resonators in high frequency oscillators are discussed. Magnetostatic waves are magnetic waves that propagate in materials exposed to a polarized magnetic field. The propagation speed ranges from 3-300 km/sec for wavelengths between 1 micron and 10 mm, in the presence of lags from 10-1000 nsec/ cm. Tunable resonators in the 1-20 GHz frequency range have been manufactured with YIG using liquid phase epitaxy for deposition on gadolinium and gallium substrates. Distributed-mirror Fabry-Perot cavity resonators are described and performance tests results are reported, including losses of 8 dB, a quality coefficient under voltage of 450, and frequency rejection outside of resonance better than 10 dB. However, saturation occurs at low power levels at frequencies lower than 4.2 GHz, a feature overcome with forward volume magnetostatic wave generators, which have a quality factor of 500, an insertion loss of 22 dB, and rejection around 15 dB.

  14. RESONANT CAVITY EXCITATION SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Baker, W.R.

    1959-08-01

    A cavity excitation circuit is described for rapidly building up and maintaining high-level oscillations in a resonant cavity. The circuit overcomes oscillation buildup slowing effects such as ion locking in the cavity by providing for the selective application of an amplified accelerating drive signal to the main cavity exciting oscillator during oscillation buildup and a direct drive signal to the oscillator thereafter.

  15. Resonance Ionization, Mass Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, J. P.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is an analytical technique that uses photons from lasers to resonantly excite an electron from some initial state of a gaseous atom through various excited states of the atom or molecule. Described are the apparatus, some analytical applications, and the precision and accuracy of the technique. Lists 26 references. (CW)

  16. RESONATOR PARTICLE SEPARATOR

    DOEpatents

    Blewett, J.P.; Kiesling, J.D.

    1963-06-11

    A wave-guide resonator structure is designed for use in separating particles of equal momentum but differing in mass, having energies exceeding one billion eiectron volts. The particles referred to are those of sub-atomic size and are generally produced as a result of the bombardment of a target by a beam such as protons produced in a high energy accelerator. In the resonator a travelling electric wave is produced which travels at the same rate of speed as the unwanted particle which is thus deflected continuously over the length of the resonator. The wanted particle is slightly out of phase with the travelling wave so that over the whole length of the resonator it has a net deflection of substantially zero. The travelling wave is established in a wave guide of rectangular cross section in which stubs are provided to store magnetic wave energy leaving the electric wave energy in the main structure to obtain the desired travelling wave and deflection. The stubs are of such shape and spacing to establish a critical mathemitical relationship. (AEC)

  17. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voos, Avery; Pelphrey, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), with its excellent spatial resolution and ability to visualize networks of neuroanatomical structures involved in complex information processing, has become the dominant technique for the study of brain function and its development. The accessibility of in-vivo pediatric brain-imaging techniques…

  18. Improved ultraviolet resonance lamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bass, A. M.

    1970-01-01

    Removal of the seal area from the path of the lamp discharge eliminates the gradual deterioration of lithium fluoride window surfaces from condensation of products formed by interaction of a resonant rare-gas discharge with window sealing materials. The discharge is confined to the inner tube.

  19. Magnetic resonance fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dan; Gulani, Vikas; Seiberlich, Nicole; Liu, Kecheng; Sunshine, Jeffrey L; Duerk, Jeffrey L; Griswold, Mark A

    2013-03-14

    Magnetic resonance is an exceptionally powerful and versatile measurement technique. The basic structure of a magnetic resonance experiment has remained largely unchanged for almost 50 years, being mainly restricted to the qualitative probing of only a limited set of the properties that can in principle be accessed by this technique. Here we introduce an approach to data acquisition, post-processing and visualization--which we term 'magnetic resonance fingerprinting' (MRF)--that permits the simultaneous non-invasive quantification of multiple important properties of a material or tissue. MRF thus provides an alternative way to quantitatively detect and analyse complex changes that can represent physical alterations of a substance or early indicators of disease. MRF can also be used to identify the presence of a specific target material or tissue, which will increase the sensitivity, specificity and speed of a magnetic resonance study, and potentially lead to new diagnostic testing methodologies. When paired with an appropriate pattern-recognition algorithm, MRF inherently suppresses measurement errors and can thus improve measurement accuracy.

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety What is MRI and how does ... What is MRI and how does it work? Magnetic resonance imaging, or MRI, is a way of obtaining detailed ...

  1. Resonant torus-assisted tunneling.

    PubMed

    Yi, Chang-Hwan; Yu, Hyeon-Hye; Kim, Chil-Min

    2016-01-01

    We report a new type of dynamical tunneling, which is mediated by a resonant torus, i.e., a nonisolated periodic orbit. To elucidate the phenomenon, we take an open elliptic cavity and show that a pair of resonances localized on two classically disconnected tori tunnel through a resonant torus when they interact with each other. This so-called resonant torus-assisted tunneling is verified by using Husimi functions, corresponding actions, Husimi function distributions, and the standard deviations of the actions.

  2. Repetitive resonant railgun power supply

    DOEpatents

    Honig, E.M.; Nunnally, W.C.

    1985-06-19

    A repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. The supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles.

  3. Repetitive resonant railgun power supply

    DOEpatents

    Honig, Emanuel M.; Nunnally, William C.

    1988-01-01

    A repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. The supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles.

  4. Isolated post resonator mesogyroscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Challoner, Dorian; Peay, Chris; Wellman, Joanne; Shcheglov, Kirill; Hayworth, Ken; Wiberg, Dean; Yee, Karl; Sipppola, Clayton

    2004-01-01

    A new symmetric vibratory gyroscope principle has been devised in which a central post proof mass is counter-rocked against an outer sensing plate such that the motion is isolated from the gyroscope case. Prototype gyroscopes have been designed and fabricated with micromachined silicon at mesoscale (20-cm resonator width), vs. microscale (e.g., 2-mm resonator width) to achieve higher sensitivity and machined precision. This novel mesogyro design arose out of an ongoing technical cooperation between JPL and Boeing begun in 1997 to advance the design of micro-inertial sensors for low-cost space applications. This paper describes the theory of operation of the mesogyro and relationships with other vibratory gyroscopes, the mechanical design, closed loop electronics design, bulk silicon fabrication and packaged gyroscope assembly and test methods. The initial packaged prototype test results are reported for what is believed to be the first silicon mesogyroscope.

  5. A New Resonance Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Alan

    2017-12-01

    The measurement of the speed of sound in air with the resonance tube is a popular experiment that often yields accurate results. One approach is to hold a vibrating tuning fork over an air column that is partially immersed in water. The column is raised and lowered in the water until the generated standing wave produces resonance: this occurs at the point where sound is perceived to have maximum loudness, or at the point where the amplitude of the standing wave has maximum value, namely an antinode. An antinode coincides with the position of the tuning fork, beyond the end of the air column, which consequently introduces an end correction. One way to minimize this end correction is to measure the distance between consecutive antinodes.

  6. RESONANT CAVITY EXCITATION SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Baker, W.R.; Kerns, Q.A.; Riedel, J.

    1959-01-13

    An apparatus is presented for exciting a cavity resonator with a minimum of difficulty and, more specifically describes a sub-exciter and an amplifier type pre-exciter for the high-frequency cxcitation of large cavities. Instead of applying full voltage to the main oscillator, a sub-excitation voltage is initially used to establish a base level of oscillation in the cavity. A portion of the cavity encrgy is coupled to the input of the pre-exciter where it is amplified and fed back into the cavity when the pre-exciter is energized. After the voltage in the cavity resonator has reached maximum value under excitation by the pre-exciter, full voltage is applied to the oscillator and the pre-exciter is tunned off. The cavity is then excited to the maximum high voltage value of radio frequency by the oscillator.

  7. Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Dan; Gulani, Vikas; Seiberlich, Nicole; Liu, Kecheng; Sunshine, Jeffrey L.; Duerk, Jeffrey L.; Griswold, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Magnetic Resonance (MR) is an exceptionally powerful and versatile measurement technique. The basic structure of an MR experiment has remained nearly constant for almost 50 years. Here we introduce a novel paradigm, Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) that permits the non-invasive quantification of multiple important properties of a material or tissue simultaneously through a new approach to data acquisition, post-processing and visualization. MRF provides a new mechanism to quantitatively detect and analyze complex changes that can represent physical alterations of a substance or early indicators of disease. MRF can also be used to specifically identify the presence of a target material or tissue, which will increase the sensitivity, specificity, and speed of an MR study, and potentially lead to new diagnostic testing methodologies. When paired with an appropriate pattern recognition algorithm, MRF inherently suppresses measurement errors and thus can improve accuracy compared to previous approaches. PMID:23486058

  8. Optomechanical trampoline resonators.

    PubMed

    Kleckner, Dustin; Pepper, Brian; Jeffrey, Evan; Sonin, Petro; Thon, Susanna M; Bouwmeester, Dirk

    2011-09-26

    We report on the development of optomechanical "trampoline" resonators composed of a tiny SiO(2)/Ta(2)O(5) dielectric mirror on a silicon nitride micro-resonator. We observe optical finesses of up to 4 × 10(4) and mechanical quality factors as high as 9 × 10(5) in relatively massive (~100 ng) and low frequency (10-200 kHz) devices. This results in a photon-phonon coupling efficiency considerably higher than previous Fabry-Perot-type optomechanical systems. These devices are well suited to ultra-sensitive force detection, ground-state optical cooling experiments, and demonstrations of quantum dynamics for such systems. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  9. Tandem resonator reflectance modulator

    DOEpatents

    Fritz, I.J.; Wendt, J.R.

    1994-09-06

    A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors. 8 figs.

  10. Resonant Enhanced Modulators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-01

    Lepore, M. H. Kwakernaak, H. Mohseni, G. A. Pajer, G. Griffel , D. Bechtle, A. F. Ulmer, Z. A. Shellenbarger, H. An, I. Adesida, S. Rommel, J-W...Advanced nanofabrication and advanced process development Giora Griffel – Ring resonator concept Daniel W. Bechtle – RF electrode design University of...conducted in glass microspheres by Giora Griffel (then at Polytechnic University) and other workers. Extremely high quality factors (Q’s) could be

  11. Off-resonance NOVEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Sheetal K.; Mathies, Guinevere; Griffin, Robert G.

    2017-10-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is theoretically able to enhance the signal in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments by a factor γe/γn, where γ 's are the gyromagnetic ratios of an electron and a nuclear spin. However, DNP enhancements currently achieved in high-field, high-resolution biomolecular magic-angle spinning NMR are well below this limit because the continuous-wave DNP mechanisms employed in these experiments scale as ω0-n where n ˜ 1-2. In pulsed DNP methods, such as nuclear orientation via electron spin-locking (NOVEL), the DNP efficiency is independent of the strength of the main magnetic field. Hence, these methods represent a viable alternative approach for enhancing nuclear signals. At 0.35 T, the NOVEL scheme was demonstrated to be efficient in samples doped with stable radicals, generating 1H NMR enhancements of ˜430. However, an impediment in the implementation of NOVEL at high fields is the requirement of sufficient microwave power to fulfill the on-resonance matching condition, ω0I = ω1S, where ω0I and ω1S are the nuclear Larmor and electron Rabi frequencies, respectively. Here, we exploit a generalized matching condition, which states that the effective Rabi frequency, ω1S e f f, matches ω0I. By using this generalized off-resonance matching condition, we generate 1H NMR signal enhancement factors of 266 (˜70% of the on-resonance NOVEL enhancement) with ω1S/2π = 5 MHz. We investigate experimentally the conditions for optimal transfer of polarization from electrons to 1H both for the NOVEL mechanism and the solid-effect mechanism and provide a unified theoretical description for these two historically distinct forms of DNP.

  12. Gravitational resonance: Saturn's rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Perhaps no one thought much more would need to be known about Saturn's rings 100 or so years ago, when Daniel Kirkwood explained the various features. The main rings, within the three so-called Cassini divisions, were due to gravitational resonance conditions between small orbiting particles and the satellite Mimas. Now, after several spacecraft—especially Voyager—have shown the rings' close-up characteristics, there has been a great deal of activity in the planetary geophysics community to try to explain the origin of the numerous features of the rings of solar system bodies that were far beyond the resolution of telescopes in Kirkwood s day. A pretty good sample of that activity was reported recently by R.A. Kerr (Science, Oct. 8, 1982), who stated ‘Resonance theory still stands after the onslaught of spacecraft observations, but its new applications have yielded a greater variety of ring features than Kirkwood ever dreamed.’ One has only to have an inkling of the levels of gravitational mechanics to appreciate the complexities of the theories that have yielded resonance variations such as spiral density waves and bending waves in the past few years. As theories unfold, however, and are tested against Voyager's results, it has become evident that most of the actually observed ring structure of the major planets remains unexplained.

  13. Relativistic Confinement Resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, David; Manson, Steven; Deshmukh, Pranawa

    2017-04-01

    Photoionization of confined atoms in a C60 fullerene have been under intense investigation in the recent years, in particular the confinement induced resonances, termed confinement resonances. The effects of the C60 potential are modeled by a static spherical well, with (in atomic units) inner radius r0 = 5.8, width Δ = 1.9, and depth U0 = -0.302, which is reasonable in the energy region well above the C60 plasmons. At very high Z, relativistic interactions become important contributors to even the qualitative nature of atomic properties; this is true for confined atomic properties as well. To explore the extent of these interactions, a theoretical study of several heavy atoms has been performed using the relativistic random phase approximation (RRPA) methodology. In order to determine which features in the photoionization cross section are due to relativity, calculations using the (nonrelativistic) random phase approximation with exchange method (RPAE) are performed for comparison. The existence of the second subshell of the spin-orbit-split doublets can induce new confinement resonances in the total cross section, which is the sum of the spin-orbit-split doublets, due to the shift in the doublet's threshold. Several examples for confined high-Z atoms are presented. Work supported by DOE and NSF.

  14. Resonant Tunneling Spin Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.

    2007-01-01

    The resonant tunneling spin pump is a proposed semiconductor device that would generate spin-polarized electron currents. The resonant tunneling spin pump would be a purely electrical device in the sense that it would not contain any magnetic material and would not rely on an applied magnetic field. Also, unlike prior sources of spin-polarized electron currents, the proposed device would not depend on a source of circularly polarized light. The proposed semiconductor electron-spin filters would exploit the Rashba effect, which can induce energy splitting in what would otherwise be degenerate quantum states, caused by a spin-orbit interaction in conjunction with a structural-inversion asymmetry in the presence of interfacial electric fields in a semiconductor heterostructure. The magnitude of the energy split is proportional to the electron wave number. Theoretical studies have suggested the possibility of devices in which electron energy states would be split by the Rashba effect and spin-polarized currents would be extracted by resonant quantum-mechanical tunneling.

  15. Quantum resonant activation.

    PubMed

    Magazzù, Luca; Hänggi, Peter; Spagnolo, Bernardo; Valenti, Davide

    2017-04-01

    Quantum resonant activation is investigated for the archetype setup of an externally driven two-state (spin-boson) system subjected to strong dissipation by means of both analytical and extensive numerical calculations. The phenomenon of resonant activation emerges in the presence of either randomly fluctuating or deterministic periodically varying driving fields. Addressing the incoherent regime, a characteristic minimum emerges in the mean first passage time to reach an absorbing neighboring state whenever the intrinsic time scale of the modulation matches the characteristic time scale of the system dynamics. For the case of deterministic periodic driving, the first passage time probability density function (pdf) displays a complex, multipeaked behavior, which depends crucially on the details of initial phase, frequency, and strength of the driving. As an interesting feature we find that the mean first passage time enters the resonant activation regime at a critical frequency ν^{*} which depends very weakly on the strength of the driving. Moreover, we provide the relation between the first passage time pdf and the statistics of residence times.

  16. Quantum resonant activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magazzó, Luca; Hänggi, Peter; Spagnolo, Bernardo; Valenti, Davide

    2017-04-01

    Quantum resonant activation is investigated for the archetype setup of an externally driven two-state (spin-boson) system subjected to strong dissipation by means of both analytical and extensive numerical calculations. The phenomenon of resonant activation emerges in the presence of either randomly fluctuating or deterministic periodically varying driving fields. Addressing the incoherent regime, a characteristic minimum emerges in the mean first passage time to reach an absorbing neighboring state whenever the intrinsic time scale of the modulation matches the characteristic time scale of the system dynamics. For the case of deterministic periodic driving, the first passage time probability density function (pdf) displays a complex, multipeaked behavior, which depends crucially on the details of initial phase, frequency, and strength of the driving. As an interesting feature we find that the mean first passage time enters the resonant activation regime at a critical frequency ν* which depends very weakly on the strength of the driving. Moreover, we provide the relation between the first passage time pdf and the statistics of residence times.

  17. RESONATOR PARTICLE SEPARATOR

    DOEpatents

    Blewett, J.P.

    1962-01-01

    A wave guide resonator structure is described for use in separating particles of equal momentum but differing in mass and having energies exceeding one billion electron volts. The particles are those of sub-atomic size and are generally produced as a result of the bombardment of a target by a beam such as protons produced in a high-energy accelerator. In this wave guide construction, the particles undergo preferential deflection as a result of the presence of an electric field. The boundary conditions established in the resonator are such as to eliminate an interfering magnetic component, and to otherwise phase the electric field to obtain a traveling wave such as one which moves at the same speed as the unwanted particle. The latter undergoes continuous deflection over the whole length of the device and is, therefore, eliminated while the wanted particle is deflected in opposite directions over the length of the resonator and is thus able to enter an exit aperture. (AEC)

  18. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    DOEpatents

    Chang, J.J.

    1995-07-18

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality. 5 figs.

  19. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Jim J.

    1995-07-18

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality.

  20. Persistence, resistance, resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsadka, Maayan

    Sound cannot travel in a vacuum, physically or socially. The ways in which sound operates are a result of acoustic properties, and the ways by which it is considered to be music are a result of social constructions. Therefore, music is always political, regardless of its content: the way it is performed and composed; the choice of instrumentation, notation, tuning; the medium of its distribution; its inherent hierarchy and power dynamics, and more. My compositional praxis makes me less interested in defining a relationship between music and politics than I am in erasing---or at least blurring---the borders between them. In this paper I discuss the aesthetics of resonance and echo in their metaphorical, physical, social, and musical manifestations. Also discussed is a political aesthetic of resonance, manifested through protest chants. I transcribe and analyze common protest chants from around the world, categorizing and unifying them as universal crowd-mobilizing rhythms. These ideas are explored musically in three pieces. Sumud: Rhetoric of Resistance in Three Movements, for two pianos and two percussion players, is a musical interpretation of the political/social concept of sumud, an Arabic word that literally means "steadfastness" and represents Palestinian non-violent resistance. The piece is based on common protest rhythms and uses the acoustic properties inherent to the instruments. The second piece, Three Piano Studies, extends some of the musical ideas and techniques used in Sumud, and explores the acoustic properties and resonance of the piano. The final set of pieces is part of my Critical Mess Music Project. These are site-specific musical works that attempt to blur the boundaries between audience, performers and composer, in part by including people without traditional musical training in the process of music making. These pieces use the natural structure and resonance of an environment, in this case, locations on the UCSC campus, and offer an active

  1. Resonant tunneling IR detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodall, Jerry M.; Smith, T. P., III

    1990-01-01

    Researchers propose a novel semiconductor heterojunction photodetector which would have a very low dark current and would be voltage tunable. A schematic diagram of the device and its band structure are shown. The two crucial components of the device are a cathode (InGaAs) whose condition band edge is below the conduction band edge of the quantum wells and a resonant tunneling filter (GaAs-AlGaAs). In a standard resonant tunneling device the electrodes are made of the same material as the quantum wells, and this device becomes highly conducting when the quantum levels in the wells are aligned with the Fermi level in the negatively biased electrode. In contrast, the researchers device is essentially non-conducting under the same bias conditions. This is because the Fermi Level of the cathode (InGaAs) is still well below the quantum levels so that no resonant transport occurs and the barriers (AlGaAs) effectively block current flow through the device. However, if light with the same photon energy as the conduction-band discontinuity between the cathode and the quantum wells, E sub c3-E sub c1, is shone on the sample, free carriers will be excited to an energy corresponding to the lowest quantum level in the well closest to the cathode (hv plue E sub c1 = E sub o). These electrons will resonantly tunnel through the quantum wells and be collected as a photocurrent in the anode (GaAs). To improve the quantum efficiency, the cathode (InGaAs) should be very heavily doped and capped with a highly reflective metal ohmic contact. The thickness of the device should be tailored to optimize thin film interference effects and afford the maximum absorption of light. Because the device relies on resonant tunneling, its response should be very fast, and the small voltages needed to change the responsivity should allow for very high frequency modulation of the photocurrent. In addition, the device is tuned to a specific photon energy so that it can be designed to detect a fairly

  2. Tunable resonant and non-resonant interactions between a phase qubit and LC resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allman, Michael Shane; Whittaker, Jed D.; Castellanos-Beltran, Manuel; Cicak, Katarina; da Silva, Fabio; Defeo, Michael; Lecocq, Florent; Sirois, Adam; Teufel, John; Aumentado, Jose; Simmonds, Raymond W.

    2014-03-01

    We use a flux-biased radio frequency superconducting quantum interference device (rf SQUID) with an embedded flux-biased direct current (dc) SQUID to generate strong resonant and non-resonant tunable interactions between a phase qubit and a lumped-element resonator. The rf-SQUID creates a tunable magnetic susceptibility between the qubit and resonator providing resonant coupling rates from zero to near the ultra-strong coupling regime. By modulating the magnetic susceptibility, non-resonant parametric coupling achieves rates > 100 MHz . Nonlinearity of the magnetic susceptibility also leads to parametric coupling at subharmonics of the qubit-resonator detuning. Controllable coupling is generically important for constructing coupled-mode systems ubiquitous in physics, useful for both, quantum information architectures and quantum simulators. This work supported by NIST and NSA grant EAO140639.

  3. Electroexcitation of nucleon resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Inna Aznauryan, Volker D. Burkert

    2012-01-01

    We review recent progress in the investigation of the electroexcitation of nucleon resonances, both in experiment and in theory. The most accurate results have been obtained for the electroexcitation amplitudes of the four lowest excited states, which have been measured in a range of Q2 up to 8 and 4.5 GeV2 for the Delta(1232)P33, N(1535)S11 and N(1440)P11, N(1520)D13, respectively. These results have been confronted with calculations based on lattice QCD, large-Nc relations, perturbative QCD (pQCD), and QCD-inspired models. The amplitudes for the Delta(1232) indicate large pion-cloud contributions at low Q2 and don't show any sign of approaching the pQCD regimemore » for Q2<7 GeV2. Measured for the first time, the electroexcitation amplitudes of the Roper resonance, N(1440)P11, provide strong evidence for this state as a predominantly radial excitation of a three-quark (3q) ground state, with additional non-3-quark contributions needed to describe the low Q2 behavior of the amplitudes. The longitudinal transition amplitude for the N(1535)S11 was determined and has become a challenge for quark models. Explanations may require large meson-cloud contributions or alternative representations of this state. The N(1520)D13 clearly shows the rapid changeover from helicity-3/2 dominance at the real photon point to helicity-1/2 dominance at Q2 > 0.5 GeV2, confirming a long-standing prediction of the constituent quark model. The interpretation of the moments of resonance transition form factors in terms of transition transverse charge distributions in infinite momentum frame is presented.« less

  4. Nanotube resonator devices

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, Kenneth J; Zettl, Alexander K; Weldon, Jeffrey A

    2014-05-06

    A fully-functional radio receiver fabricated from a single nanotube is being disclosed. Simultaneously, a single nanotube can perform the functions of all major components of a radio: antenna, tunable band-pass filter, amplifier, and demodulator. A DC voltage source, as supplied by a battery, can power the radio. Using carrier waves in the commercially relevant 40-400 MHz range and both frequency and amplitude modulation techniques, successful music and voice reception has been demonstrated. Also disclosed are a radio transmitter and a mass sensor using a nanotube resonator device.

  5. Apodized coupled resonator waveguides.

    PubMed

    Capmany, J; Muñoz, P; Domenech, J D; Muriel, M A

    2007-08-06

    In this paper we propose analyse the apodisation or windowing of the coupling coefficients in the unit cells of coupled resonator waveguide devices (CROWs) as a means to reduce the level of secondary sidelobes in the bandpass characteristic of their transfer functions. This technique is regularly employed in the design of digital filters and has been applied as well in the design of other photonic devices such as corrugated waveguide filters and fiber Bragg gratings. The apodisation of both Type-I and Type-II structures is discussed for several windowing functions.

  6. Resonance test system

    DOEpatents

    Musial, Walter [Boulder, CO; White, Darris [Superior, CO

    2011-05-31

    An apparatus (10) for applying at least one load to a specimen (12) according to one embodiment of the invention may comprise a mass (18). An actuator (20) mounted to the specimen (12) and operatively associated with the mass (18) moves the mass (18) along a linear displacement path (22) that is perpendicular to a longitudinal axis of the specimen (12). A control system (26) operatively associated with the actuator (20) operates the actuator (20) to reciprocate the mass (18) along the linear displacement path (22) at a reciprocating frequency, the reciprocating frequency being about equal to a resonance frequency of the specimen (12) in a test configuration.

  7. Dynamical Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Micron-scale Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sixta, Aimee; Choate, Alexandra; Maeker, Jake; Bogat, Sophia; Tennant, Daniel; Mozaffari, Shirin; Markert, John

    We report our efforts in the development of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy (NMRFM) for dynamical imaging of liquid media at the micron scale. Our probe contains microfluidic samples sealed in thin-walled (µm) quartz tubes, with a micro-oscillator sensor nearby in vacuum to maintain its high mechanical resonance quality factor. Using 10 µm spherical permalloy magnets at the oscillator tips, a 3D T1-resolved image of spin density can be obtained by reconstruction from our magnetostatics-modelled resonance slices; as part of this effort, we are exploring single-shot T1 measurements for faster dynamical imaging. We aim to further enhance imaging by using a 2 ω technique to eliminate artifact signals during the cyclic inversion of nuclear spins. The ultimate intent of these efforts is to perform magnetic resonance imaging of individual biological cells.

  8. Monolithic optofluidic ring resonator lasers created by femtosecond laser nanofabrication.

    PubMed

    Chandrahalim, Hengky; Chen, Qiushu; Said, Ali A; Dugan, Mark; Fan, Xudong

    2015-05-21

    We designed, fabricated, and characterized a monolithically integrated optofluidic ring resonator laser that is mechanically, thermally, and chemically robust. The entire device, including the ring resonator channel and sample delivery microfluidics, was created in a block of fused-silica glass using a 3-dimensional femtosecond laser writing process. The gain medium, composed of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) dissolved in quinoline, was flowed through the ring resonator. Lasing was achieved at a pump threshold of approximately 15 μJ mm(-2). Detailed analysis shows that the Q-factor of the optofluidic ring resonator is 3.3 × 10(4), which is limited by both solvent absorption and scattering loss. In particular, a Q-factor resulting from the scattering loss can be as high as 4.2 × 10(4), suggesting the feasibility of using a femtosecond laser to create high quality optical cavities.

  9. A new quadrature annular resonator for 3 T MRI based on artificial-dielectrics.

    PubMed

    Mikhailovskaya, Anna A; Shchelokova, Alena V; Dobrykh, Dmitry A; Sushkov, Ivan V; Slobozhanyuk, Alexey P; Webb, Andrew

    2018-06-01

    Dielectric resonators have previously been constructed for ultra-high frequency magnetic resonance imaging and microscopy. However, it is challenging to design these dielectric resonators at clinical field strengths due to their intrinsically large dimensions, especially when using materials with moderate permittivity. Here we propose and characterize a novel approach using artificial-dielectrics which reduces substantially the required outer diameter of the resonator. For a resonator designed to operate in a 3 Tesla scanner using water as the dielectric, a reduction in outer diameter of 37% was achieved. When used in an inductively-coupled wireless mode, the sensitivity of the artificial-dielectric resonator was measured to be slightly higher than that of a standard dielectric resonator operating in its degenerate circularly-polarized hybrid electromagnetic modes (HEM 11 ). This study demonstrates the first application of an artificial-dielectric approach to MR volume coil design. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A new quadrature annular resonator for 3 T MRI based on artificial-dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailovskaya, Anna A.; Shchelokova, Alena V.; Dobrykh, Dmitry A.; Sushkov, Ivan V.; Slobozhanyuk, Alexey P.; Webb, Andrew

    2018-06-01

    Dielectric resonators have previously been constructed for ultra-high frequency magnetic resonance imaging and microscopy. However, it is challenging to design these dielectric resonators at clinical field strengths due to their intrinsically large dimensions, especially when using materials with moderate permittivity. Here we propose and characterize a novel approach using artificial-dielectrics which reduces substantially the required outer diameter of the resonator. For a resonator designed to operate in a 3 Tesla scanner using water as the dielectric, a reduction in outer diameter of 37% was achieved. When used in an inductively-coupled wireless mode, the sensitivity of the artificial-dielectric resonator was measured to be slightly higher than that of a standard dielectric resonator operating in its degenerate circularly-polarized hybrid electromagnetic modes (HEM11). This study demonstrates the first application of an artificial-dielectric approach to MR volume coil design.

  11. Optical resonator and laser applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taghavi-Larigani, Shervin (Inventor); Vanzyl, Jakob J. (Inventor); Yariv, Amnon (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The invention discloses a semi-ring Fabry-Perot (SRFP) optical resonator structure comprising a medium including an edge forming a reflective facet and a waveguide within the medium, the waveguide having opposing ends formed by the reflective facet. The performance of the SRFP resonator can be further enhanced by including a Mach-Zehnder interferometer in the waveguide on one side of the gain medium. The optical resonator can be employed in a variety of optical devices. Laser structures using at least one SRFP resonator are disclosed where the resonators are disposed on opposite sides of a gain medium. Other laser structures employing one or more resonators on one side of a gain region are also disclosed.

  12. Ion cyclotron resonance cell

    DOEpatents

    Weller, R.R.

    1995-02-14

    An ion cyclotron resonance cell is disclosed having two adjacent sections separated by a center trapping plate. The first section is defined by the center trapping plate, a first end trapping plate, and excitation and detector electrodes. The second section includes a second end trapping plate spaced apart from the center plate, a mirror, and an analyzer. The analyzer includes a wavelength-selective light detector, such as a detector incorporating an acousto-optical device (AOD) and a photodetector. One or more ion guides, grounded plates with holes for the ion beam, are positioned within the vacuum chamber of the mass spectrometer between the ion source and the cell. After ions are trapped and analyzed by ion cyclotron resonance techniques in the first section, the ions of interest are selected according to their mass and passed into the second section for optical spectroscopic studies. The trapped ions are excited by light from a laser and caused thereby to fluoresce. The fluorescent light emitted by the excited ions is reflected by the mirror and directed onto the detector. The AOD is scanned, and the photodetector output is recorded and analyzed. The ions remain in the second section for an extended period, enabling multiple studies to be carried out on the same ensemble of ions. 5 figs.

  13. Ion cyclotron resonance cell

    DOEpatents

    Weller, Robert R.

    1995-01-01

    An ion cyclotron resonance cell having two adjacent sections separated by a center trapping plate. The first section is defined by the center trapping plate, a first end trapping plate, and excitation and detector electrodes. The second section includes a second end trapping plate spaced apart from the center plate, a mirror, and an analyzer. The analyzer includes a wavelength-selective light detector, such as a detector incorporating an acousto-optical device (AOD) and a photodetector. One or more ion guides, grounded plates with holes for the ion beam, are positioned within the vacuum chamber of the mass spectrometer between the ion source and the cell. After ions are trapped and analyzed by ion cyclotron resonance techniques in the first section, the ions of interest are selected according to their mass and passed into the second section for optical spectroscopic studies. The trapped ions are excited by light from a laser and caused thereby to fluoresce. The fluorescent light emitted by the excited ions is reflected by the mirror and directed onto the detector. The AOD is scanned, and the photodetector output is recorded and analyzed. The ions remain in the second section for an extended period, enabling multiple studies to be carried out on the same ensemble of ions.

  14. Magnetic Resonance Safety

    PubMed Central

    Sammet, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has a superior soft-tissue contrast compared to other radiological imaging modalities and its physiological and functional applications have led to a significant increase in MRI scans worldwide. A comprehensive MRI safety training to protect patients and other healthcare workers from potential bio-effects and risks of the magnetic fields in an MRI suite is therefore essential. The knowledge of the purpose of safety zones in an MRI suite as well as MRI appropriateness criteria is important for all healthcare professionals who will work in the MRI environment or refer patients for MRI scans. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of current magnetic resonance safety guidelines and discuss the safety risks of magnetic fields in an MRI suite including forces and torque of ferromagnetic objects, tissue heating, peripheral nerve stimulation and hearing damages. MRI safety and compatibility of implanted devices, MRI scans during pregnancy and the potential risks of MRI contrast agents will also be discussed and a comprehensive MRI safety training to avoid fatal accidents in an MRI suite will be presented. PMID:26940331

  15. Behavioral Stochastic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, Jan A.; Schimansky-Geier, Lutz; Beisner, Beatrix; Neiman, Alexander; Russell, David F.; Yakusheva, Tatyana; Moss, Frank

    2001-03-01

    Zooplankton emit weak electric fields into the surrounding water that originate from their own muscular activities associated with swimming and feeding. Juvenile paddlefish prey upon single zooplankton by detecting and tracking these weak electric signatures. The passive electric sense in the fish is provided by an elaborate array of electroreceptors, Ampullae Lorenzini, spread over the surface of an elongated rostrum. We have previously shown that the fish use stochastic resonance to enhance prey capture near the detection threshold of their sensory system. But stochastic resonance requires an external source of electrical noise in order to function. The required noise can be provided by a swarm of plankton, for example Daphnia. Thus juvenile paddlefish can detect and attack single Daphnia as outliers in the vicinity of the swarm by making use of noise from the swarm itself. From the power spectral density of the noise plus the weak signal from a single Daphnia we calculate the signal-to-noise ratio and the Fisher information at the surface of the paddlefish's rostrum. The results predict a specific attack pattern for the paddlefish that appears to be experimentally testable.

  16. Tunable Superconducting Split Ring Resonators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-19

    microwave field-strength distortion and quality- factor dependence on tuning. Feedback for changes in design and fabrication, (4) design and fabrication...elements. For many applications tuning of the resonance frequency of the SRR is needed. Classically this is done by varactor diodes. Their capacitance ... capacitance of the gap to form a resonator circuit. The advantage of such a circuit is its quite low resonance frequency compared to other structures

  17. GAUSSIAN BEAM LASER RESONATOR PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, P. L.

    1994-01-01

    In designing a laser cavity, the laser engineer is frequently concerned with more than the stability of the resonator. Other considerations include the size of the beam at various optical surfaces within the resonator or the performance of intracavity line-narrowing or other optical elements. Laser resonators obey the laws of Gaussian beam propagation, not geometric optics. The Gaussian Beam Laser Resonator Program models laser resonators using Gaussian ray trace techniques. It can be used to determine the propagation of radiation through laser resonators. The algorithm used in the Gaussian Beam Resonator program has three major components. First, the ray transfer matrix for the laser resonator must be calculated. Next calculations of the initial beam parameters, specifically, the beam stability, the beam waist size and location for the resonator input element, and the wavefront curvature and beam radius at the input surface to the first resonator element are performed. Finally the propagation of the beam through the optical elements is computed. The optical elements can be modeled as parallel plates, lenses, mirrors, dummy surfaces, or Gradient Index (GRIN) lenses. A Gradient Index lens is a good approximation of a laser rod operating under a thermal load. The optical system may contain up to 50 elements. In addition to the internal beam elements the optical system may contain elements external to the resonator. The Gaussian Beam Resonator program was written in Microsoft FORTRAN (Version 4.01). It was developed for the IBM PS/2 80-071 microcomputer and has been implemented on an IBM PC compatible under MS DOS 3.21. The program was developed in 1988 and requires approximately 95K bytes to operate.

  18. Interband Lateral Resonant Tunneling Transistor.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-11-14

    INTERBAND LATERAL RESONANT TUNNELING TRANSISTOR 10 BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Field of the Invention This invention pertains to a tunneling transistor...and in 15 particular to an interband lateral resonant tunneling transistor. Description of Related Art Conventional semiconductor technologies are... interband lateral resonant tunneling transistor along the cross-section B-B of Figure 2c. Figure 4 is another preferred embodiment cross-sectional 20

  19. Properties of resonance wave functions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    More, R. M.; Gerjuoy, E.

    1973-01-01

    Construction and study of resonance wave functions corresponding to poles of the Green's function for several illustrative models of theoretical interest. Resonance wave functions obtained from the Siegert and Kapur-Peierls definitions of the resonance energies are compared. The comparison especially clarifies the meaning of the normalization constant of the resonance wave functions. It is shown that the wave functions may be considered renormalized in a sense analogous to that of quantum field theory. However, this renormalization is entirely automatic, and the theory has neither ad hoc procedures nor infinite quantities.

  20. Strongly Coupled Nanotube Electromechanical Resonators.

    PubMed

    Deng, Guang-Wei; Zhu, Dong; Wang, Xin-He; Zou, Chang-Ling; Wang, Jiang-Tao; Li, Hai-Ou; Cao, Gang; Liu, Di; Li, Yan; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Jiang, Kai-Li; Dai, Xing-Can; Guo, Guo-Ping

    2016-09-14

    Coupling an electromechanical resonator with carbon-nanotube quantum dots is a significant method to control both the electronic charge and the spin quantum states. By exploiting a novel microtransfer technique, we fabricate two separate strongly coupled and electrically tunable mechanical resonators for the first time. The frequency of the two resonators can be individually tuned by the bottom gates, and in each resonator, the electron transport through the quantum dot can be strongly affected by the phonon mode and vice versa. Furthermore, the conductance of either resonator can be nonlocally modulated by the other resonator through phonon-phonon interaction between the two resonators. Strong coupling is observed between the phonon modes of the two resonators, where the coupling strength larger than 200 kHz can be reached. This strongly coupled nanotube electromechanical resonator array provides an experimental platform for future studies of the coherent electron-phonon interaction, the phonon-mediated long-distance electron interaction, and entanglement state generation.

  1. Orbital resonances around black holes.

    PubMed

    Brink, Jeandrew; Geyer, Marisa; Hinderer, Tanja

    2015-02-27

    We compute the length and time scales associated with resonant orbits around Kerr black holes for all orbital and spin parameters. Resonance-induced effects are potentially observable when the Event Horizon Telescope resolves the inner structure of Sgr A*, when space-based gravitational wave detectors record phase shifts in the waveform during the resonant passage of a compact object spiraling into the black hole, or in the frequencies of quasiperiodic oscillations for accreting black holes. The onset of geodesic chaos for non-Kerr spacetimes should occur at the resonance locations quantified here.

  2. Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Velopharyngeal Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Youkyung; Kuehn, David P.; Sutton, Bradley P.; Conway, Charles A.; Perry, Jamie L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To report the feasibility of using a 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol for examining velopharyngeal structures. Using collected 3D MRI data, the authors investigated the effect of sex on the midsagittal velopharyngeal structures and the levator veli palatini (levator) muscle configurations. Method: Ten Caucasian…

  3. Laser cooling at resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudkin, Yaakov; Khaykovich, Lev

    2018-05-01

    We show experimentally that three-dimensional laser cooling of lithium atoms on the D2 line is possible when the laser light is tuned exactly to resonance with the dominant atomic transition. Qualitatively, it can be understood by applying simple Doppler cooling arguments to the specific hyperfine structure of the excited state of lithium atoms, which is both dense and inverted. However, to build a quantitative theory, we must resolve to a full model which takes into account both the entire atomic structure of all 24 Zeeman sublevels and the laser light polarization. Moreover, by means of Monte Carlo simulations, we show that coherent processes play an important role in showing consistency between the theory and the experimental results.

  4. Silicon microring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Ying; Dai, Daoxin

    2018-05-01

    Silicon microring resonators (MRRs) are very popular for many applications because of the advantages of footprint compactness, easy scalability, and functional versatility. Ultra-compact silicon MRRs with box-like spectral responses are realized with a very large free-spectral range (FSR) by introducing bent directional couplers. The measured box-like spectral response has an FSR of >30 nm. The permanent wavelength-alignment techniques for MRRs are also presented, including the laser-induced local-oxidation technique as well as the local-etching technique. With these techniques, one can control finely the permanent wavelength shift, which is also large enough to compensate the random wavelength variation due to the random fabrication errors.

  5. Cascaded resonant bridge converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, Thomas A. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A converter for converting a low voltage direct current power source to a higher voltage, high frequency alternating current output for use in an electrical system where it is desired to use low weight cables and other circuit elements. The converter has a first stage series resonant (Schwarz) converter which converts the direct current power source to an alternating current by means of switching elements that are operated by a variable frequency voltage regulator, a transformer to step up the voltage of the alternating current, and a rectifier bridge to convert the alternating current to a direct current first stage output. The converter further has a second stage series resonant (Schwarz) converter which is connected in series to the first stage converter to receive its direct current output and convert it to a second stage high frequency alternating current output by means of switching elements that are operated by a fixed frequency oscillator. The voltage of the second stage output is controlled at a relatively constant value by controlling the first stage output voltage, which is accomplished by controlling the frequency of the first stage variable frequency voltage controller in response to second stage voltage. Fault tolerance in the event of a load short circuit is provided by making the operation of the first stage variable frequency voltage controller responsive to first and second stage current limiting devices. The second stage output is connected to a rectifier bridge whose output is connected to the input of the second stage to provide good regulation of output voltage wave form at low system loads.

  6. Whispering Gallery Mode Optomechanical Resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aveline, David C.; Strekalov, Dmitry V.; Yu, Nan; Yee, Karl Y.

    2012-01-01

    Great progress has been made in both micromechanical resonators and micro-optical resonators over the past decade, and a new field has recently emerged combining these mechanical and optical systems. In such optomechanical systems, the two resonators are strongly coupled with one influencing the other, and their interaction can yield detectable optical signals that are highly sensitive to the mechanical motion. A particularly high-Q optical system is the whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator, which has many applications ranging from stable oscillators to inertial sensor devices. There is, however, limited coupling between the optical mode and the resonator s external environment. In order to overcome this limitation, a novel type of optomechanical sensor has been developed, offering great potential for measurements of displacement, acceleration, and mass sensitivity. The proposed hybrid device combines the advantages of all-solid optical WGM resonators with high-quality micro-machined cantilevers. For direct access to the WGM inside the resonator, the idea is to radially cut precise gaps into the perimeter, fabricating a mechanical resonator within the WGM. Also, a strategy to reduce losses has been developed with optimized design of the cantilever geometry and positions of gap surfaces.

  7. Resonant Two-Photon Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apanasevich, P. A.; Timofeeva, G. I.

    2018-05-01

    We have developed a theory for a two-photon transition when the frequencies of the absorbed or emitted radiation are in resonance with transitions to the same intermediate level in the medium. We have determined the conditions under which such resonant two-photon transitions can play an important role.

  8. The N+CPT resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescimanno, Michael; Hohensee, Michael; Hancox, Cindy; Phillips, David; Walsworth, Ron

    2007-06-01

    Of relevance to compact atomic frequency standards, we investigate a model of the N+CPT joint optical resonance. We compare analytical solutions of a 4-state theory, as well as numerical solutions of the optical Bloch equations, to experimental investigations of N+CPT resonances in 87Rb. Our results inform the optimization of N+CPT based frequency standards.

  9. Simple and Inexpensive Classroom Demonstrations of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Joel A.; Nordell, Karen J.; Chesnik, Marla A.; Landis, Clark R.; Ellis, Arthur B.; Rzchowski, M. S.; Condren, S. Michael; Lisensky, George C.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a set of simple, inexpensive, classical demonstrations of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) principles that illustrate the resonance condition associated with magnetic dipoles and the dependence of the resonance frequency on environment. (WRM)

  10. Transverse-longitudinal integrated resonator

    DOEpatents

    Hutchinson, Donald P [Knoxville, TN; Simpson, Marcus L [Knoxville, TN; Simpson, John T [Knoxville, TN

    2003-03-11

    A transverse-longitudinal integrated optical resonator (TLIR) is disclosed which includes a waveguide, a first and a second subwavelength resonant grating in the waveguide, and at least one photonic band gap resonant structure (PBG) in the waveguide. The PBG is positioned between the first and second subwavelength resonant gratings. An electro-optic waveguide material may be used to permit tuning the TLIR and to permit the TLIR to perform signal modulation and switching. The TLIR may be positioned on a bulk substrate die with one or more electronic and optical devices and may be communicably connected to the same. A method for fabricating a TLIR including fabricating a broadband reflective grating is disclosed. A method for tuning the TLIR's transmission resonance wavelength is also disclosed.

  11. Hadronic Resonance production in ALICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markert, Christina; ALICE Collaboration

    2017-07-01

    In heavy ion collisions a fireball of hot and dense matter is created. Short lived hadronic resonances are sensitive to the medium properties, in particular to the temperature, density and system size. Resonance yields and momentum distributions are used to gain insight into the hadronic phase, its expansion velocity and time duration. The multiplicity dependent hadronic resonance production in p-p, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions will be discussed within the context of the possible extended hadronic and partonic phase. The experimental results will be compared to EPOS+UrQMD model calculations to discuss the system size dependent interactions of the hadronic medium on various resonances. Small systems such as p-p and p-Pb collisions will be discussed with respect to resonance and strange particle measurements.

  12. Integrated unaligned resonant modulator tuning

    SciTech Connect

    Zortman, William A.; Lentine, Anthony L.

    Methods and systems for tuning a resonant modulator are disclosed. One method includes receiving a carrier signal modulated by the resonant modulator with a stream of data having an approximately equal number of high and low bits, determining an average power of the modulated carrier signal, comparing the average power to a predetermined threshold, and operating a tuning device coupled to the resonant modulator based on the comparison of the average power and the predetermined threshold. One system includes an input structure, a plurality of processing elements, and a digital control element. The input structure is configured to receive, frommore » the resonant modulator, a modulated carrier signal. The plurality of processing elements are configured to determine an average power of the modulated carrier signal. The digital control element is configured to operate a tuning device coupled to the resonant modulator based on the average power of the modulated carrier signal.« less

  13. Delta connected resonant snubber circuit

    DOEpatents

    Lai, J.S.; Peng, F.Z.; Young, R.W. Sr.; Ott, G.W. Jr.

    1998-01-20

    A delta connected, resonant snubber-based, soft switching, inverter circuit achieves lossless switching during dc-to-ac power conversion and power conditioning with minimum component count and size. Current is supplied to the resonant snubber branches solely by the dc supply voltage through the main inverter switches and the auxiliary switches. Component count and size are reduced by use of a single semiconductor switch in the resonant snubber branches. Component count is also reduced by maximizing the use of stray capacitances of the main switches as parallel resonant capacitors. Resonance charging and discharging of the parallel capacitances allows lossless, zero voltage switching. In one embodiment, circuit component size and count are minimized while achieving lossless, zero voltage switching within a three-phase inverter. 36 figs.

  14. Delta connected resonant snubber circuit

    DOEpatents

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Peng, Fang Zheng; Young, Sr., Robert W.; Ott, Jr., George W.

    1998-01-01

    A delta connected, resonant snubber-based, soft switching, inverter circuit achieves lossless switching during dc-to-ac power conversion and power conditioning with minimum component count and size. Current is supplied to the resonant snubber branches solely by the dc supply voltage through the main inverter switches and the auxiliary switches. Component count and size are reduced by use of a single semiconductor switch in the resonant snubber branches. Component count is also reduced by maximizing the use of stray capacitances of the main switches as parallel resonant capacitors. Resonance charging and discharging of the parallel capacitances allows lossless, zero voltage switching. In one embodiment, circuit component size and count are minimized while achieving lossless, zero voltage switching within a three-phase inverter.

  15. Nonlinear elasticity in resonance experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xun; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph; Snieder, Roel

    2018-04-01

    Resonant bar experiments have revealed that dynamic deformation induces nonlinearity in rocks. These experiments produce resonance curves that represent the response amplitude as a function of the driving frequency. We propose a model to reproduce the resonance curves with observed features that include (a) the log-time recovery of the resonant frequency after the deformation ends (slow dynamics), (b) the asymmetry in the direction of the driving frequency, (c) the difference between resonance curves with the driving frequency that is swept upward and downward, and (d) the presence of a "cliff" segment to the left of the resonant peak under the condition of strong nonlinearity. The model is based on a feedback cycle where the effect of softening (nonlinearity) feeds back to the deformation. This model provides a unified interpretation of both the nonlinearity and slow dynamics in resonance experiments. We further show that the asymmetry of the resonance curve is caused by the softening, which is documented by the decrease of the resonant frequency during the deformation; the cliff segment of the resonance curve is linked to a bifurcation that involves a steep change of the response amplitude when the driving frequency is changed. With weak nonlinearity, the difference between the upward- and downward-sweeping curves depends on slow dynamics; a sufficiently slow frequency sweep eliminates this up-down difference. With strong nonlinearity, the up-down difference results from both the slow dynamics and bifurcation; however, the presence of the bifurcation maintains the respective part of the up-down difference, regardless of the sweep rate.

  16. Auxiliary resonant DC tank converter

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Fang Z.

    2000-01-01

    An auxiliary resonant dc tank (ARDCT) converter is provided for achieving soft-switching in a power converter. An ARDCT circuit is coupled directly across a dc bus to the inverter to generate a resonant dc bus voltage, including upper and lower resonant capacitors connected in series as a resonant leg, first and second dc tank capacitors connected in series as a tank leg, and an auxiliary resonant circuit comprising a series combination of a resonant inductor and a pair of auxiliary switching devices. The ARDCT circuit further includes first clamping means for holding the resonant dc bus voltage to the dc tank voltage of the tank leg, and second clamping means for clamping the resonant dc bus voltage to zero during a resonant period. The ARDCT circuit resonantly brings the dc bus voltage to zero in order to provide a zero-voltage switching opportunity for the inverter, then quickly rebounds the dc bus voltage back to the dc tank voltage after the inverter changes state. The auxiliary switching devices are turned on and off under zero-current conditions. The ARDCT circuit only absorbs ripples of the inverter dc bus current, thus having less current stress. In addition, since the ARDCT circuit is coupled in parallel with the dc power supply and the inverter for merely assisting soft-switching of the inverter without participating in real dc power transmission and power conversion, malfunction and failure of the tank circuit will not affect the functional operation of the inverter; thus a highly reliable converter system is expected.

  17. The Physics and Applications of a 3D Plasmonic Nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terranova, Brandon B.

    In this work, the dynamics of electromagnetic field interactions with free electrons in a 3D metallic nanostructure is evaluated theoretically. This dissertation starts by reviewing the relevant fundamentals of plasmonics and modern applications of plasmonic systems. Then, motivated by the need to have a simpler way of understanding the surface charge dynamics on complex plasmonic nanostructures, a new plasmon hybridization tree method is introduced. This method provides the plasmonicist with an intuitive way to determine the response of free electrons to incident light in complex nanostructures within the electrostatic regime. Next, a novel 3D plasmonic nanostructure utilizing reflective plasmonic coupling is designed to perform biosensing and plasmonic tweezing applications. By applying analytical and numerical methods, the effectiveness of this nanostructure at performing these applications is determined from the plasmonic response of the nanostructure to an excitation beam of coherent light. During this analysis, it was discovered that under certain conditions, this 3D nanostructure exhibits a plasmonic Fano resonance resulting from the interference of an in-plane dark mode and an out-of-plane bright mode. In evaluating this nanostructure for sensing changes in the local dielectric environment, a figure of merit of 68 is calculated, which is competitive with current localized surface plasmon resonance refractometric sensors. By evaluating the Maxwell stress tensor on a test particle in the vicinity of the nanostructure, it was found that under the right conditions, this plasmonic nanostructure design is capable of imparting forces greater than 10.5 nN on dielectric objects of nanoscale dimensions. The results obtained in these studies provides new routes to the design and engineering of 3D plasmonic nanostructures and Fano resonances in these systems. In addition, the nanostructure presented in this work and the design principles it utilizes have shown

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Dynamic Pelvic Floor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) – Dynamic Pelvic Floor Dynamic pelvic floor magnetic resonance imaging ( ... the limitations of pelvic floor MRI? What is dynamic pelvic floor MRI? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is ...

  19. Nonlinear optical whispering gallery mode resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilchenko, Vladimir (Inventor); Matsko, Andrey B. (Inventor); Savchenkov, Anatoliy (Inventor); Maleki, Lutfollah (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Whispering gallery mode (WGM) optical resonators comprising nonlinear optical materials, where the nonlinear optical material of a WGM resonator includes a plurality of sectors within the optical resonator and nonlinear coefficients of two adjacent sectors are oppositely poled.

  20. Quartz crystal and superconductive resonators and oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Besson, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    A general overview of piezoelectric resonators is given with emphasis on evolution of the resonator design. Superconducting cavities and crystals at low temperature and the use of resonant frequencies are also discussed.

  1. Wireless Actuation of Micromechanical Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateen, Farrukh; Maedler, Carsten; Erramilli, Shyamsunder; Mohanty, Pritiraj

    Wireless transfer of power is of fundamental and technical interest with applications ranging from remote operation of electronics, biomedical implants, and device actuation where hard-wired power sources are neither desirable nor practical. In particular, biomedical implants in the body or the brain need small footprint power receiving elements for wireless charging, which can be accomplished by micromechanical resonators. In contrast for fundamental experiments, ultra low-power wireless operation of micromechanical resonators in the microwave range makes low-temperature studies of mechanical systems in the quantum regime possible, where heat carried by the electrical wires in standard actuation techniques is detrimental to maintaining the resonator in a quantum state. We demonstrate successful actuation of micron-sized silicon-based piezoelectric resonators with resonance frequencies from 36 MHz to 120 MHz, at power levels of nanowatts and distances of about 3 feet, including polarization, distance and power dependence measurements. Our demonstration of wireless actuation of micromechanical resonators via electric-field coupling down to nanowatt levels enables a multitude of applications based on micromechanical resonators, inaccessible until now.

  2. Tunable Micro- and Nanomechanical Resonators

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen-Ming; Hu, Kai-Ming; Peng, Zhi-Ke; Meng, Guang

    2015-01-01

    Advances in micro- and nanofabrication technologies have enabled the development of novel micro- and nanomechanical resonators which have attracted significant attention due to their fascinating physical properties and growing potential applications. In this review, we have presented a brief overview of the resonance behavior and frequency tuning principles by varying either the mass or the stiffness of resonators. The progress in micro- and nanomechanical resonators using the tuning electrode, tuning fork, and suspended channel structures and made of graphene have been reviewed. We have also highlighted some major influencing factors such as large-amplitude effect, surface effect and fluid effect on the performances of resonators. More specifically, we have addressed the effects of axial stress/strain, residual surface stress and adsorption-induced surface stress on the sensing and detection applications and discussed the current challenges. We have significantly focused on the active and passive frequency tuning methods and techniques for micro- and nanomechanical resonator applications. On one hand, we have comprehensively evaluated the advantages and disadvantages of each strategy, including active methods such as electrothermal, electrostatic, piezoelectrical, dielectric, magnetomotive, photothermal, mode-coupling as well as tension-based tuning mechanisms, and passive techniques such as post-fabrication and post-packaging tuning processes. On the other hand, the tuning capability and challenges to integrate reliable and customizable frequency tuning methods have been addressed. We have additionally concluded with a discussion of important future directions for further tunable micro- and nanomechanical resonators. PMID:26501294

  3. Noncontrast Magnetic Resonance Lymphography.

    PubMed

    Arrivé, Lionel; Derhy, Sarah; El Mouhadi, Sanaâ; Monnier-Cholley, Laurence; Menu, Yves; Becker, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    Different imaging techniques have been used for the investigation of the lymphatic channels and lymph glands. Noncontrast magnetic resonance (MR) lymphography has significant advantages in comparison with other imaging modalities. Noncontrast MR lymphography uses very heavily T2-weighted fast spin echo sequences which obtain a nearly complete signal loss in tissue background and specific display of lymphatic vessels with a long T2 relaxation time. The raw data can be processed with different algorithms such as maximum intensity projection algorithm to obtain an anatomic representation. Standard T2-weighted MR images easily demonstrate the location of edema. It appears as subcutaneous infiltration of soft tissue with a classical honeycomb pattern. True collection around the muscular area may be demonstrated in case of severe lymphedema. Lymph nodes may be normal in size, number, and signal intensity; in other cases, lymph nodes may be smaller in size or number of lymph nodes may be restricted. MR lymphography allows a classification of lymphedema in aplasia (no collecting vessels demonstrated); hypoplasia (a small number of lymphatic vessels), and numerical hyperplasia or hyperplasia (with an increased number of lymphatic vessels of greater and abnormal diameter). Noncontrast MR lymphography is a unique noninvasive imaging modality for the diagnosis of lymphedema. It can be used for positive diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and specific evaluation of lymphedema severity. It may also be used for follow-up evaluation after treatment. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  4. Functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Buchbinder, Bradley R

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) maps the spatiotemporal distribution of neural activity in the brain under varying cognitive conditions. Since its inception in 1991, blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI has rapidly become a vital methodology in basic and applied neuroscience research. In the clinical realm, it has become an established tool for presurgical functional brain mapping. This chapter has three principal aims. First, we review key physiologic, biophysical, and methodologic principles that underlie BOLD fMRI, regardless of its particular area of application. These principles inform a nuanced interpretation of the BOLD fMRI signal, along with its neurophysiologic significance and pitfalls. Second, we illustrate the clinical application of task-based fMRI to presurgical motor, language, and memory mapping in patients with lesions near eloquent brain areas. Integration of BOLD fMRI and diffusion tensor white-matter tractography provides a road map for presurgical planning and intraoperative navigation that helps to maximize the extent of lesion resection while minimizing the risk of postoperative neurologic deficits. Finally, we highlight several basic principles of resting-state fMRI and its emerging translational clinical applications. Resting-state fMRI represents an important paradigm shift, focusing attention on functional connectivity within intrinsic cognitive networks. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Accessible magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, L; Arakawa, M; Hale, J; Rothschild, P; Carlson, J; Hake, K; Kramer, D; Lu, W; Van Heteren, J

    1989-10-01

    The cost of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is driven by magnetic field strength. Misperceptions as to the impact of field strength on performance have led to systems that are more expensive than they need to be. Careful analysis of all the factors that affect diagnostic quality lead to the conclusion that field strength per se is not a strong determinant of system performance. Freed from the constraints imposed by high-field operation, it is possible to exploit a varied set of opportunities afforded by low-field operation. In addition to lower costs and easier siting, we can take advantage of shortened T1 times, higher contrast, reduced sensitivity to motion, and reduced radiofrequency power deposition. These conceptual advantages can be made to coalesce onto practical imaging systems. We describe a low-cost MRI system that utilizes a permanent magnet of open design. Careful optimization of receiving antennas and acquisition sequences permit performance levels consistent with those needed for an effective diagnostic unit. Ancillary advantages include easy access to the patient, reduced claustrophobia, quiet and comfortable operation, and absence of a missile effect. The system can be sited in 350 sq ft and consumes a modest amount of electricity. MRI equipment of this kind can widen the population base than can access this powerful and beneficial diagnostic modality.

  6. 32 CFR 168a.3 - Definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Definition. 168a.3 Section 168a.3 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING NATIONAL DEFENSE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.3 Definition. Sponsoring Agency. A DoD Component or an...

  7. 32 CFR 168a.3 - Definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definition. 168a.3 Section 168a.3 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING NATIONAL DEFENSE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.3 Definition. Sponsoring Agency. A DoD Component or an...

  8. 32 CFR 168a.3 - Definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definition. 168a.3 Section 168a.3 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING NATIONAL DEFENSE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.3 Definition. Sponsoring Agency. A DoD Component or an...

  9. 32 CFR 168a.3 - Definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definition. 168a.3 Section 168a.3 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING NATIONAL DEFENSE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.3 Definition. Sponsoring Agency. A DoD Component or an...

  10. 46 CFR 147A.3 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applicability. 147A.3 Section 147A.3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES INTERIM REGULATIONS FOR SHIPBOARD FUMIGATION General § 147A.3 Applicability. This part prescribes the rules for shipboard fumigation on vessels...

  11. 46 CFR 147A.3 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applicability. 147A.3 Section 147A.3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES INTERIM REGULATIONS FOR SHIPBOARD FUMIGATION General § 147A.3 Applicability. This part prescribes the rules for shipboard fumigation on vessels...

  12. 46 CFR 147A.3 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability. 147A.3 Section 147A.3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES INTERIM REGULATIONS FOR SHIPBOARD FUMIGATION General § 147A.3 Applicability. This part prescribes the rules for shipboard fumigation on vessels...

  13. 46 CFR 147A.3 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applicability. 147A.3 Section 147A.3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES INTERIM REGULATIONS FOR SHIPBOARD FUMIGATION General § 147A.3 Applicability. This part prescribes the rules for shipboard fumigation on vessels...

  14. 46 CFR 147A.3 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability. 147A.3 Section 147A.3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES INTERIM REGULATIONS FOR SHIPBOARD FUMIGATION General § 147A.3 Applicability. This part prescribes the rules for shipboard fumigation on vessels...

  15. 32 CFR 242a.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Open meetings. 242a.3 Section 242a.3 National... § 242a.3 Open meetings. (a) Members shall not jointly conduct or dispose of business of the Board of... Regents or any committee of the Board shall be open to public observation subject to the exceptions...

  16. 32 CFR 242a.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Open meetings. 242a.3 Section 242a.3 National... § 242a.3 Open meetings. (a) Members shall not jointly conduct or dispose of business of the Board of... Regents or any committee of the Board shall be open to public observation subject to the exceptions...

  17. 32 CFR 242a.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open meetings. 242a.3 Section 242a.3 National... § 242a.3 Open meetings. (a) Members shall not jointly conduct or dispose of business of the Board of... Regents or any committee of the Board shall be open to public observation subject to the exceptions...

  18. 32 CFR 242a.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Open meetings. 242a.3 Section 242a.3 National... § 242a.3 Open meetings. (a) Members shall not jointly conduct or dispose of business of the Board of... Regents or any committee of the Board shall be open to public observation subject to the exceptions...

  19. 32 CFR 242a.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Open meetings. 242a.3 Section 242a.3 National... § 242a.3 Open meetings. (a) Members shall not jointly conduct or dispose of business of the Board of... Regents or any committee of the Board shall be open to public observation subject to the exceptions...

  20. 32 CFR 168a.3 - Definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition. 168a.3 Section 168a.3 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING NATIONAL DEFENSE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.3 Definition. Sponsoring Agency. A DoD Component or an...

  1. Single-resonator double-negative metamaterial

    DOEpatents

    Warne, Larry K.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Langston, William L.; Johnson, William A.; Ihlefeld, Jon; Ginn, III, James C.; Clem, Paul G.; Sinclair, Michael B.

    2016-06-21

    Resonances can be tuned in dielectric resonators in order to construct single-resonator, negative-index metamaterials. For example, high-contrast inclusions in the form of metallic dipoles can be used to shift the first electric resonance down (in frequency) to the first magnetic resonance, or alternatively, air splits can be used to shift the first magnetic resonance up (in frequency) near the first electric resonance. Degenerate dielectric designs become especially useful in infrared- or visible-frequency applications where the resonator sizes associated with the lack of high-permittivity materials can become of sufficient size to enable propagation of higher-order lattice modes in the resulting medium.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging as a tool for extravehicular activity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickenson, R.; Lorenz, C.; Peterson, S.; Strauss, A.; Main, J.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a means of conducting kinematic studies of the hand for the purpose of EVA capability enhancement. After imaging the subject hand using a magnetic resonance scanner, the resulting 2D slices were reconstructed into a 3D model of the proximal phalanx of the left hand. Using the coordinates of several landmark positions, one is then able to decompose the motion of the rigid body. MRI offers highly accurate measurements due to its tomographic nature without the problems associated with other imaging modalities for in vivo studies.

  3. Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents

    DOEpatents

    Smith, P.H.; Brainard, J.R.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Ryan, R.R.

    1997-12-30

    A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC{sub 16}H{sub 14}N{sub 6}. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques. 10 figs.

  4. Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Paul H.; Brainard, James R.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ryan, Robert R.

    1997-01-01

    A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC.sub.16 H.sub.14 N.sub.6. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques.

  5. Multiple resonant railgun power supply

    DOEpatents

    Honig, E.M.; Nunnally, W.C.

    1985-06-19

    A multiple repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. A plurality of serially connected paired parallel rails are powered by similar power supplies. Each supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles. The multiple serial operation permits relatively small energy components to deliver overall relatively large amounts of energy to the projectiles being propelled.

  6. Multiple resonant railgun power supply

    DOEpatents

    Honig, Emanuel M.; Nunnally, William C.

    1988-01-01

    A multiple repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. A plurality of serially connected paired parallel rails are powered by similar power supplies. Each supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles. The multiple serial operation permits relatively small energy components to deliver overall relatively large amounts of energy to the projectiles being propelled.

  7. Calligraphic Poling for WGM Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohageg, Makan; Strekalov, Dmitry; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Ilchenko, Vladimir; Maleki, Lute

    2007-01-01

    By engineering the geometry of a nonlinear optical crystal, the effective efficiency of all nonlinear optical oscillations can be increased dramatically. Specifically, sphere and disk shaped crystal resonators have been used to demonstrate nonlinear optical oscillations at sub-milliwatt input power when cs light propagates in a Whispering Gallery Mode (WGM) of such a resonant cavity. in terms of both device production and experimentation in quantum optics, some nonlinear optical effects with naturally high efficiency can occult the desired nonlinear scattering process. the structure to the crystal resonator. In this paper, I will discuss a new method for generating poling structures in ferroelectric crystal resonators called calligraphic poling. The details of the poling apparatus, experimental results and speculation on future applications will be discussed.

  8. Resonant Mode-hopping Micromixing

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ling-Sheng; Chao, Shih-Hui; Holl, Mark R.; Meldrum, Deirdre R.

    2009-01-01

    A common micromixer design strategy is to generate interleaved flow topologies to enhance diffusion. However, problems with these designs include complicated structures and dead volumes within the flow fields. We present an active micromixer using a resonating piezoceramic/silicon composite diaphragm to generate acoustic streaming flow topologies. Circulation patterns are observed experimentally and correlate to the resonant mode shapes of the diaphragm. The dead volumes in the flow field are eliminated by rapidly switching from one discrete resonant mode to another (i.e., resonant mode-hop). Mixer performance is characterized by mixing buffer with a fluorescence tracer containing fluorescein. Movies of the mixing process are analyzed by converting fluorescent images to two-dimensional fluorescein concentration distributions. The results demonstrate that mode-hopping operation rapidly homogenized chamber contents, circumventing diffusion-isolated zones. PMID:19551159

  9. Resonance suppression from color reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acconcia, R.; Chinellato, D. D.; de Souza, R. Derradi; Takahashi, J.; Torrieri, G.; Markert, C.

    2018-02-01

    We present studies that show how multi-parton interaction and color reconnection affect the hadro-chemistry in proton-proton (pp) collisions with special focus on the production of resonances using the pythia8 event generator. We find that color reconnection suppresses the relative production of meson resonances such as ρ0 and K* , providing an alternative explanation for the K*/K decrease observed in proton-proton collisions as a function of multiplicity by the ALICE collaboration. Detailed studies of the underlying mechanism causing meson resonance suppression indicate that color reconnection leads to shorter, less energetic strings whose fragmentation is less likely to produce more massive hadrons for a given quark content, therefore reducing ratios such as K*/K and ρ0/π in high-multiplicity pp collisions. In addition, we have also studied the effects of allowing string junctions to form and found that these may also contribute to resonance suppression.

  10. Morphological resonances for multicomponent immunoassays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitten, W. B.; Shapiro, M. J.; Ramsey, J. M.; Bronk, B. V.

    1995-06-01

    An immunoassay technique capable of detecting and identifying a number of species of microorganisms in a single analysis is described. The method uses optical-resonance size discrimination of microspheres to identify antibodies to which stained microorganisms are bound.

  11. Dipole Resonances of 76Ge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilieva, R. S.; Cooper, N.; Werner, V.; Rusev, G.; Pietralla, N.; Kelly, J. H.; Tornow, W.; Yates, S. W.; Crider, B. P.; Peters, E.

    2013-10-01

    Dipole resonances in 76Ge have been studied using the method of Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF). The experiment was performed using the Free Electron Laser facility at HI γS/TUNL, which produced linearly polarised quasi-monoenergetic photons in the 4-9 MeV energy range. Photon strength, in particular dipole strength, is an important ingredient in nuclear reaction calculations, and recent interest in its study has been stimulated by observations of a pygmy dipole resonance near the neutron separation energy Sn of certain nuclei. Furthermore, 76Ge is a candidate for 0 ν 2 β -decay. The results are complimentary to a relevant experiment done at TU Darmstadt using Bremsstrahlung beams. Single-resonance parities and a preliminary estimate of the total photo-excitation cross section will be presented. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE under grant no. DE-FG02-91ER40609.

  12. Nested trampoline resonators for optomechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, M. J., E-mail: mweaver@physics.ucsb.edu; Pepper, B.; Luna, F.

    2016-01-18

    Two major challenges in the development of optomechanical devices are achieving a low mechanical and optical loss rate and vibration isolation from the environment. We address both issues by fabricating trampoline resonators made from low pressure chemical vapor deposition Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} with a distributed Bragg reflector mirror. We design a nested double resonator structure with 80 dB of mechanical isolation from the mounting surface at the inner resonator frequency, and we demonstrate up to 45 dB of isolation at lower frequencies in agreement with the design. We reliably fabricate devices with mechanical quality factors of around 400 000 at room temperature. Inmore » addition, these devices were used to form optical cavities with finesse up to 181 000 ± 1000. These promising parameters will enable experiments in the quantum regime with macroscopic mechanical resonators.« less

  13. Nested trampoline resonators for optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, M. J.; Pepper, B.; Luna, F.; Buters, F. M.; Eerkens, H. J.; Welker, G.; Perock, B.; Heeck, K.; de Man, S.; Bouwmeester, D.

    2016-01-01

    Two major challenges in the development of optomechanical devices are achieving a low mechanical and optical loss rate and vibration isolation from the environment. We address both issues by fabricating trampoline resonators made from low pressure chemical vapor deposition Si3N4 with a distributed Bragg reflector mirror. We design a nested double resonator structure with 80 dB of mechanical isolation from the mounting surface at the inner resonator frequency, and we demonstrate up to 45 dB of isolation at lower frequencies in agreement with the design. We reliably fabricate devices with mechanical quality factors of around 400 000 at room temperature. In addition, these devices were used to form optical cavities with finesse up to 181 000 ± 1000. These promising parameters will enable experiments in the quantum regime with macroscopic mechanical resonators.

  14. Electromagnetic properties of baryon resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiator, Lothar

    2013-10-01

    Longitudinal and transverse transition form factors for most of the four-star nucleon resonances have been obtained from high-quality cross section data and polarization observables measured at MAMI, ELSA, BATES, GRAAL and CEBAF. As an application, we further show how the transition form factors can be used to obtain empirical transverse charge densities. Contour plots of the thus derived densities are shown and compared for the Roper and S11 nucleon resonances.

  15. Injecting asteroid fragments into resonances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farinella, Paolo; Gonczi, R.; Froeschle, Christiane; Froeschle, Claude

    1992-01-01

    We have quantitatively modeled the chance insertion of asteroid collisional fragments into the 3:1 and g = g(sub 6) resonances, through which they can achieve Earth-approaching orbits. Although the results depend on some poorly known parameters, they indicate that most meteorites and near-earth asteroids probably come from a small and non-representative sample of asteroids, located in the neighborhood of the two resonances.

  16. Memory effects on stochastic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neiman, Alexander; Sung, Wokyung

    1996-02-01

    We study the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR) in a bistable system with internal colored noise. In this situation the system possesses time-dependent memory friction connected with noise via the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, so that in the absence of periodic driving the system approaches the thermodynamic equilibrium state. For this non-Markovian case we find that memory usually suppresses stochastic resonance. However, for a large memory time SR can be enhanced by the memory.

  17. Ring Laser Gyro Resonator Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-20

    vibration environment could cause errors in measured RLG rotation rates due to vibration (tilt) of the resonator mirrors . Vibration-induced mirror tilt...the RLG resonator design theoretically and calculated pertinent parameters such as the beam diameter at the aperture, cavity mirror alignment...sensitivities, and power loss due to aperture occlusion. The mirror vibration levels required to significantly affect the laser power were then calculated for

  18. Secular Resonances In Planetary Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, T.; Marinho, E. P.

    1999-09-01

    Due to the tides the orbits of Phobos and Triton are spiralling in towards their host planets. On the contrary, our Moon is being driven away from the Earth. Most probably, in the past many other particles experienced similar variations. During this evolution, the semimajor axis assumes several values which can cause significant resonances, involving the node, pericenter and the longitude of the Sun. Recently Touma and Wisdom showed the decisive effect played by evection and iviction resonances in the Earth-Moon system. In this work we derive the averaged equations of a satellite disturbed by the Sun and the oblateness of the planet. Neglecting higher order (third) in the ratio of the distances, all possible resonances are studied. In general we are used to small values of the ecliptic. However in the past, the obliquity of the inner planets could have attained very high values (Laskar et all). Then taking into account large values of the obliquity we find some significant variations in the inclinations, besides others in the eccentricities. If some empirical law of the variation of the semimajor axis is assumed, then with the averaged equations we can easily see the jumps in these elements when the satellite crosses some resonance. Finally we show the possible variations in the Phobos' eccentricity since it will cross the evection resonance in the future. We also show some possible and significant resonances faced by Triton in the past. For partial financial support we thank FAPESP.

  19. Empathy in schizophrenia: impaired resonance.

    PubMed

    Haker, Helene; Rössler, Wulf

    2009-09-01

    Resonance is the phenomenon of one person unconsciously mirroring the motor actions as basis of emotional expressions of another person. This shared representation serves as a basis for sharing physiological and emotional states of others and is an important component of empathy. Contagious laughing and contagious yawning are examples of resonance. In the interpersonal contact with individuals with schizophrenia we can often experience impaired empathic resonance. The aim of this study is to determine differences in empathic resonance-in terms of contagion by yawning and laughing-in individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls in the context of psychopathology and social functioning. We presented video sequences of yawning, laughing or neutral faces to 43 schizophrenia outpatients and 45 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Participants were video-taped during the stimulation and rated regarding contagion by yawning and laughing. In addition, we assessed self-rated empathic abilities (Interpersonal Reactivity Index), psychopathology (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale in the schizophrenia group resp. Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire in the control group), social dysfunction (Social Dysfunction Index) and executive functions (Stroop, Fluency). Individuals with schizophrenia showed lower contagion rates for yawning and laughing. Self-rated empathic concern showed no group difference and did not correlate with contagion. Low rate of contagion by laughing correlated with the schizophrenia negative syndrome and with social dysfunction. We conclude that impaired resonance is a handicap for individuals with schizophrenia in social life. Blunted observable resonance does not necessarily reflect reduced subjective empathic concern.

  20. Micro-machined resonator oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Koehler, Dale R.; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.; Bivens, Hugh M.; Wessendorf, Kurt O.

    1994-01-01

    A micro-miniature resonator-oscillator is disclosed. Due to the miniaturization of the resonator-oscillator, oscillation frequencies of one MHz and higher are utilized. A thickness-mode quartz resonator housed in a micro-machined silicon package and operated as a "telemetered sensor beacon" that is, a digital, self-powered, remote, parameter measuring-transmitter in the FM-band. The resonator design uses trapped energy principles and temperature dependence methodology through crystal orientation control, with operation in the 20-100 MHz range. High volume batch-processing manufacturing is utilized, with package and resonator assembly at the wafer level. Unique design features include squeeze-film damping for robust vibration and shock performance, capacitive coupling through micro-machined diaphragms allowing resonator excitation at the package exterior, circuit integration and extremely small (0.1 in. square) dimensioning. A family of micro-miniature sensor beacons is also disclosed with widespread applications as bio-medical sensors, vehicle status monitors and high-volume animal identification and health sensors. The sensor family allows measurement of temperatures, chemicals, acceleration and pressure. A microphone and clock realization is also available.

  1. Micro-machined resonator oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Koehler, D.R.; Sniegowski, J.J.; Bivens, H.M.; Wessendorf, K.O.

    1994-08-16

    A micro-miniature resonator-oscillator is disclosed. Due to the miniaturization of the resonator-oscillator, oscillation frequencies of one MHz and higher are utilized. A thickness-mode quartz resonator housed in a micro-machined silicon package and operated as a telemetered sensor beacon'' that is, a digital, self-powered, remote, parameter measuring-transmitter in the FM-band. The resonator design uses trapped energy principles and temperature dependence methodology through crystal orientation control, with operation in the 20--100 MHz range. High volume batch-processing manufacturing is utilized, with package and resonator assembly at the wafer level. Unique design features include squeeze-film damping for robust vibration and shock performance, capacitive coupling through micro-machined diaphragms allowing resonator excitation at the package exterior, circuit integration and extremely small (0.1 in. square) dimensioning. A family of micro-miniature sensor beacons is also disclosed with widespread applications as bio-medical sensors, vehicle status monitors and high-volume animal identification and health sensors. The sensor family allows measurement of temperatures, chemicals, acceleration and pressure. A microphone and clock realization is also available. 21 figs.

  2. A3 Subscale Diffuser Test Article Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, G. P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper gives a detailed description of the design of the A3 Subscale Diffuser Test (SDT) Article Design. The subscale diffuser is a geometrically accurate scale model of the A3 altitude rocket facility. It was designed and built to support the SDT risk mitigation project located at the E3 facility at Stennis Space Center, MS (SSC) supporting the design and construction of the A3 facility at SSC. The subscale test article is outfitted with a large array of instrumentation to support the design verification of the A3 facility. The mechanical design of the subscale diffuser and test instrumentation are described here

  3. Graded-index whispering gallery mode resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy (Inventor); Maleki, Lutfollah (Inventor); Ilchenko, Vladimir (Inventor); Matsko, Andrey B. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Whispering gallery mode optical resonators which have spatially-graded refractive indices. In one implementation, the refractive index spatially increases with a distance from an exterior surface of such a resonator towards an interior of the resonator to produce substantially equal spectral separations for different whispering gallery modes. An optical coupler may be used with such a resonator to provide proper optical coupling.

  4. Sound absorption by a Helmholtz resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komkin, A. I.; Mironov, M. A.; Bykov, A. I.

    2017-07-01

    Absorption characteristics of a Helmholtz resonator positioned at the end wall of a circular duct are considered. The absorption coefficient of the resonator is experimentally investigated as a function of the diameter and length of the resonator neck and the depth of the resonator cavity. Based on experimental data, the linear analytic model of a Helmholtz resonator is verified, and the results of verification are used to determine the dissipative attached length of the resonator neck so as to provide the agreement between experimental and calculated data. Dependences of sound absorption by a Helmholtz resonator on its geometric parameters are obtained.

  5. Microelectromechanical resonator and method for fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Wittwer, Jonathan W [Albuquerque, NM; Olsson, Roy H [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-11-10

    A method is disclosed for the robust fabrication of a microelectromechanical (MEM) resonator. In this method, a pattern of holes is formed in the resonator mass with the position, size and number of holes in the pattern being optimized to minimize an uncertainty .DELTA.f in the resonant frequency f.sub.0 of the MEM resonator due to manufacturing process variations (e.g. edge bias). A number of different types of MEM resonators are disclosed which can be formed using this method, including capacitively transduced Lame, wineglass and extensional resonators, and piezoelectric length-extensional resonators.

  6. Microelectromechanical resonator and method for fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Wittwer, Jonathan W [Albuquerque, NM; Olsson, Roy H [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-01-26

    A method is disclosed for the robust fabrication of a microelectromechanical (MEM) resonator. In this method, a pattern of holes is formed in the resonator mass with the position, size and number of holes in the pattern being optimized to minimize an uncertainty .DELTA.f in the resonant frequency f.sub.0 of the MEM resonator due to manufacturing process variations (e.g. edge bias). A number of different types of MEM resonators are disclosed which can be formed using this method, including capacitively transduced Lame, wineglass and extensional resonators, and piezoelectric length-extensional resonators.

  7. Neutral Pion Electroproduction in the Δ Resonance Region

    SciTech Connect

    Villano, Anthony

    2007-11-01

    The electroproduction of baryon resonances at high Q 2 is examined. Analysis focuses on the Δ(1232) resonance via exclusive pseudoscalar meson production of π 0 particles. Differential cross sections are extracted for exclusive π 0 electroproduction. In the central invariant mass (W) region the cross sections are used to extract resonant multipole amplitudes. In particular, the ratio of the electric quadrupole to magnetic dipole amplitudes (E2/M1) will be discussed for the Δ(1232) resonance. The transition to pQCD is discussed in terms of E2/M1 and other multipoles. The helicity amplitude A 3/2 can be used as a baryon helicity conservation meter in this context and will be discussed. The fast shrinking of the resonant contribution in the Δ region is observed at this high momentum transfer. Apart from the observables related to pQCD scaling, the transition form factor Gmore » $$*\\atop{M}$$ is extracted along with the scalar to magnetic dipole ratio C2/M1.« less

  8. 32 CFR 383a.3 - Mission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mission. 383a.3 Section 383a.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) ORGANIZATIONAL CHARTERS... wartime and, as circumstances dictate, troop issue subsistence support to military dining facilities...

  9. 42 CFR 2a.3 - Application; coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application; coordination. 2a.3 Section 2a.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF... Institute on Drug Abuse, the Office of the Director, National Institute of Mental Health, or the Office of...

  10. 42 CFR 2a.3 - Application; coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application; coordination. 2a.3 Section 2a.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF... Institute on Drug Abuse, the Office of the Director, National Institute of Mental Health, or the Office of...

  11. 42 CFR 2a.3 - Application; coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application; coordination. 2a.3 Section 2a.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF... Institute on Drug Abuse, the Office of the Director, National Institute of Mental Health, or the Office of...

  12. 38 CFR 8a.3 - Effective date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 8a.3... INSURANCE § 8a.3 Effective date. (a) Where the grant was approved prior to August 11, 1971, VMLI shall be effective August 11, 1971, if on that date, the eligible veteran was obligated under a mortgage loan, and...

  13. 38 CFR 8a.3 - Effective date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Effective date. 8a.3... INSURANCE § 8a.3 Effective date. (a) Where the grant was approved prior to August 11, 1971, VMLI shall be effective August 11, 1971, if on that date, the eligible veteran was obligated under a mortgage loan, and...

  14. 42 CFR 2a.3 - Application; coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application; coordination. 2a.3 Section 2a.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF... Institute on Drug Abuse, the Office of the Director, National Institute of Mental Health, or the Office of...

  15. 42 CFR 2a.3 - Application; coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application; coordination. 2a.3 Section 2a.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF... Institute on Drug Abuse, the Office of the Director, National Institute of Mental Health, or the Office of...

  16. 15 CFR 4a.3 - Classification levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification levels. 4a.3 Section 4a.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION... E.O. 12958. The levels established by E.O. 12958 (Top Secret, Secret, and Confidential) are the only...

  17. 15 CFR 4a.3 - Classification levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classification levels. 4a.3 Section 4a.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION... E.O. 12958. The levels established by E.O. 12958 (Top Secret, Secret, and Confidential) are the only...

  18. 15 CFR 4a.3 - Classification levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classification levels. 4a.3 Section 4a.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION... E.O. 12958. The levels established by E.O. 12958 (Top Secret, Secret, and Confidential) are the only...

  19. 15 CFR 4a.3 - Classification levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classification levels. 4a.3 Section 4a.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION... E.O. 12958. The levels established by E.O. 12958 (Top Secret, Secret, and Confidential) are the only...

  20. 15 CFR 4a.3 - Classification levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification levels. 4a.3 Section 4a.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION... E.O. 12958. The levels established by E.O. 12958 (Top Secret, Secret, and Confidential) are the only...

  1. Nonlinear Dynamics of Nanomechanical Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishnan, Subramanian; Gulak, Yuiry; Sundaram, Bala; Benaroya, Haym

    2007-03-01

    Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) offer great promise for many applications including motion and mass sensing. Recent experimental results suggest the importance of nonlinear effects in NEMS, an issue which has not been addressed fully in theory. We report on a nonlinear extension of a recent analytical model by Armour et al [1] for the dynamics of a single-electron transistor (SET) coupled to a nanomechanical resonator. We consider the nonlinear resonator motion in both (a) the Duffing and (b) nonlinear pendulum regimes. The corresponding master equations are derived and solved numerically and we consider moment approximations as well. In the Duffing case with hardening stiffness, we observe that the resonator is damped by the SET at a significantly higher rate. In the cases of softening stiffness and the pendulum, there exist regimes where the SET adds energy to the resonator. To our knowledge, this is the first instance of a single model displaying both negative and positive resonator damping in different dynamical regimes. The implications of the results for SET sensitivity as well as for, as yet unexplained, experimental results will be discussed. 1. Armour et al. Phys.Rev.B (69) 125313 (2004).

  2. Space charge in nanostructure resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Peter J.

    1996-10-01

    In quantum ballistic propagation of electrons through a variety of nanostructures, resonance in the energy-dependent transmission and reflection probabilities generically is associated with (1) a quasi-level with a decay lifetime, and (2) a bulge in electron density within the structure. It can be shown that, to a good approximation, a simple formula in all cases connects the density of states for the latter to the energy dependence of the phase angles of the eigen values of the S-matrix governing the propagation. For both the Lorentzian resonances (normal or inverted) and for the Fano-type resonances, as a consequence of this eigen value formula, the space charge due to filled states over the energy range of a resonance is just equal (for each spin state) to one electron charge. The Coulomb interaction within this space charge is known to 'distort' the electrical characteristics of resonant nanostructures. In these systems, however, the exchange effect should effectively cancel the interaction between states with parallel spins, leaving only the anti-parallel spin contribution.

  3. Lasing from active optomechanical resonators

    PubMed Central

    Czerniuk, T.; Brüggemann, C.; Tepper, J.; Brodbeck, S.; Schneider, C.; Kamp, M.; Höfling, S.; Glavin, B. A.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Akimov, A. V.; Bayer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Planar microcavities with distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) host, besides confined optical modes, also mechanical resonances due to stop bands in the phonon dispersion relation of the DBRs. These resonances have frequencies in the 10- to 100-GHz range, depending on the resonator’s optical wavelength, with quality factors exceeding 1,000. The interaction of photons and phonons in such optomechanical systems can be drastically enhanced, opening a new route towards the manipulation of light. Here we implemented active semiconducting layers into the microcavity to obtain a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). Thereby, three resonant excitations—photons, phonons and electrons—can interact strongly with each other providing modulation of the VCSEL laser emission: a picosecond strain pulse injected into the VCSEL excites long-living mechanical resonances therein. As a result, modulation of the lasing intensity at frequencies up to 40 GHz is observed. From these findings, prospective applications of active optomechanical resonators integrated into nanophotonic circuits may emerge. PMID:25008784

  4. A hyperpolarized equilibrium for magnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    Hövener, Jan-Bernd; Schwaderlapp, Niels; Lickert, Thomas; Duckett, Simon B.; Mewis, Ryan E.; Highton, Louise A. R.; Kenny, Stephen M.; Green, Gary G. R.; Leibfritz, Dieter; Korvink, Jan G.; Hennig, Jürgen; von Elverfeldt, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging (MRI) play an indispensable role in science and healthcare but use only a tiny fraction of their potential. No more than ≈10 p.p.m. of all 1H nuclei are effectively detected in a 3-Tesla clinical MRI system. Thus, a vast array of new applications lays dormant, awaiting improved sensitivity. Here we demonstrate the continuous polarization of small molecules in solution to a level that cannot be achieved in a viable magnet. The magnetization does not decay and is effectively reinitialized within seconds after being measured. This effect depends on the long-lived, entangled spin-order of parahydrogen and an exchange reaction in a low magnetic field of 10−3 Tesla. We demonstrate the potential of this method by fast MRI and envision the catalysis of new applications such as cancer screening or indeed low-field MRI for routine use and remote application. PMID:24336292

  5. A hyperpolarized equilibrium for magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Hövener, Jan-Bernd; Schwaderlapp, Niels; Lickert, Thomas; Duckett, Simon B; Mewis, Ryan E; Highton, Louise A R; Kenny, Stephen M; Green, Gary G R; Leibfritz, Dieter; Korvink, Jan G; Hennig, Jürgen; von Elverfeldt, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging (MRI) play an indispensable role in science and healthcare but use only a tiny fraction of their potential. No more than ≈10 p.p.m. of all ¹H nuclei are effectively detected in a 3-Tesla clinical MRI system. Thus, a vast array of new applications lays dormant, awaiting improved sensitivity. Here we demonstrate the continuous polarization of small molecules in solution to a level that cannot be achieved in a viable magnet. The magnetization does not decay and is effectively reinitialized within seconds after being measured. This effect depends on the long-lived, entangled spin-order of parahydrogen and an exchange reaction in a low magnetic field of 10⁻³ Tesla. We demonstrate the potential of this method by fast MRI and envision the catalysis of new applications such as cancer screening or indeed low-field MRI for routine use and remote application.

  6. Viscoelastic coupling of nanoelectromechanical resonators.

    SciTech Connect

    Simonson, Robert Joseph; Staton, Alan W.

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes work to date on a new collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) to utilize nanoelectromechanical resonators designed at Caltech as platforms to measure the mechanical properties of polymeric materials at length scales on the order of 10-50 nm. Caltech has succeeded in reproducibly building cantilever resonators having major dimensions on the order of 2-5 microns. These devices are fabricated in pairs, with free ends separated by reproducible gaps having dimensions on the order of 10-50 nm. By controlled placement of materials that bridge the very small gap between resonators, the mechanicalmore » devices become coupled through the test material, and the transmission of energy between the devices can be monitored. This should allow for measurements of viscoelastic properties of polymeric materials at high frequency over short distances. Our work to date has been directed toward establishing this measurement capability at Sandia.« less

  7. Charmonium resonances on the lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bali, Gunnar; Collins, Sara; Mohler, Daniel; Padmanath, M.; Piemonte, Stefano; Prelovsek, Sasa; Weishäupl, Simon

    2018-03-01

    The nature of resonances and excited states near decay thresholds is encoded in scattering amplitudes, which can be extracted from single-particle and multiparticle correlators in finite volumes. Lattice calculations have only recently reached the precision required for a reliable study of such correlators. The distillation method represents a significant improvement insofar as it simplifies quark contractions and allows one to easily extend the operator basis used to construct interpolators. We present preliminary results on charmonium bound states and resonances on the Nf = 2+1 CLS ensembles. The long term goal of our investigation is to understand the properties of the X resonances that do not fit into conventional models of quark-antiquark mesons. We tune various parameters of the distillation method and the charm quark mass. As a first result, we present the masses of the ground and excited states in the 0++ and 1- channels

  8. Magnetic Resonance with Squeezed Microwaves

    SciTech Connect

    Bienfait, A.; Campagne-Ibarcq, P.; Kiilerich, A. H.

    2017-10-17

    Vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field set a fundamental limit to the sensitivity of a variety of measurements, including magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We report the use of squeezed microwave fields, which are engineered quantum states of light for which fluctuations in one field quadrature are reduced below the vacuum level, to enhance the detection sensitivity of an ensemble of electronic spins at millikelvin temperatures. By shining a squeezed vacuum state on the input port of a microwave resonator containing the spins, we obtain a 1.2-dB noise reduction at the spectrometer output compared to the case of a vacuum input. Thismore » result constitutes a proof of principle of the application of quantum metrology to magnetic resonance spectroscopy.« less

  9. Optical resonators and neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Dana Z.

    1986-08-01

    It may be possible to implement neural network models using continuous field optical architectures. These devices offer the inherent parallelism of propagating waves and an information density in principle dictated by the wavelength of light and the quality of the bulk optical elements. Few components are needed to construct a relatively large equivalent network. Various associative memories based on optical resonators have been demonstrated in the literature, a ring resonator design is discussed in detail here. Information is stored in a holographic medium and recalled through a competitive processes in the gain medium supplying energy to the ring rsonator. The resonator memory is the first realized example of a neural network function implemented with this kind of architecture.

  10. Magnetic resonance for laryngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Maroldi, Roberto; Ravanelli, Marco; Farina, Davide

    2014-04-01

    This review summarizes the most recent experiences on the integration of magnetic resonance in assessing the local extent of laryngeal cancer and detecting submucosal recurrences. Advances in magnetic resonance have been characterized by the development of technical solutions that shorten the acquisition time, thereby reducing motion artifacts, and increase the spatial resolution. Phased-array surface coils, directly applied to the neck, enable the use of parallel-imaging techniques, which greatly reduce the acquisition time, and amplify the signal intensity, being closer to the larynx. One of the most important drawbacks of this technique is the small field-of-view, restricting the imaged area to the larynx. Furthermore, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has increased the set of magnetic resonance sequences. Differently from computed tomography (CT), which has only two variables (precontrast/postcontrast), magnetic resonance is based on a multiparameter analysis (T2-weighting and T1-weighting, DWI, and postcontrast acquisition). This multiparameter approach amplifies the contrast resolution. It has, also, permitted to differentiate scar tissue (after laser resection) from submucosal recurrent disease. In addition, DWI sequences have the potential of a more precise discrimination of peritumoral edema from neoplastic tissue, which may lead to improve the assessment of paraglottic space invasion. Magnetic resonance of the larynx is technically challenging. The use of surface coils and motion-reducing techniques is critical to achieve adequate image quality. The intrinsic high-contrast resolution is further increased by the integration of information from different sequences. When CT has not been conclusive, magnetic resonance is indicated in the pretreatment local assessment and in the suspicion of submucosal recurrence.

  11. Resonance vibrations of aircraft propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebers, Fritz

    1932-01-01

    On the basis of the consideration of various possible kinds of propeller vibrations, the resonance vibrations caused by unequal impacts of the propeller blades appear to be the most important. Their theoretical investigation is made by separate analysis of torsional and bending vibrations. This method is justified by the very great difference in the two natural frequencies of aircraft propeller blades. The calculated data are illustrated by practical examples. Thereby the observed vibration phenomenon in the given examples is explained by a bending resonance, for which the bending frequency of the propeller is equal to twice the revolution speed.

  12. Electro-Mechanical Resonance Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2018-03-01

    Recently I have been investigating the frequency response of galvanometers. These are direct-current devices used to measure small currents. By using a low-frequency function generator to supply the alternating-current signal and a stopwatch smartphone app to measure the period, I was able to take data to allow a resonance curve to be drawn. This is the sort of project that should provide a fascinating research experience for the introductory physics student. In this article I will discuss the galvanometers that I used in this work, and will show a resonance curve for one of them.

  13. Resonator coiling in thermoacoustic engines

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, J.R.; Swift, G.W.

    1995-11-01

    Coiling the resonator of a thermoacoustic engine is one way to try to minimize the engine`s size. However, flow in bent pipes is known to alter the fluid flow pattern because of centrifugal forces. Theory and measurements will be presented on the energy dissipation caused by oscillating flow in curved pipes. Measurements have been taken using free oscillations of liquids in U-tubes, and using a thermoacoustic engine with straight and bent resonators. [Work supported by the TTI program of the US Department of Energy, and by the Tektronix Corporation.

  14. Algorithm of resonance orders for the objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, YongGang; Zhang, JianXue

    2018-03-01

    In mechanical engineering, the object resonance phenomena often occur when the external incident wave frequency is close to object of the natural frequency. Object resonance phenomena get the maximum value when the external incident frequency is equal to object the natural frequency. Experiments found that resonance intension of the object is changed, different objects resonance phenomena present different characteristics of ladders. Based on object orders resonance characteristics, the calculation method of object orders resonance is put forward in the paper, and the application for the light and sound waves on the seven order resonance characteristics by people feel, the result error is less than 1%.Visible in this paper, the method has high accuracy and usability. The calculation method reveals that some object resonance occur present order characteristic only four types, namely the first-orders resonance characteristics, third-orders characteristics, five orders characteristic, and seven orders characteristic.

  15. A-3 Test Stand work continues

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-22

    Stennis Space Center employees continue work on the A-3 Test Stand test cell. The stand is being built to test next-generation rocket engines that could carry humans beyond low-Earth orbit into deep space.

  16. Steel erected at A-3 Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Workers erect the first fabricated steel girders to arrive at the A-3 Test Stand at Stennis Space Center. Steel work began at the construction site Oct. 29 and is scheduled to continue into next spring.

  17. Steel erected at A-3 Test Stand

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-29

    Workers erect the first fabricated steel girders to arrive at the A-3 Test Stand at Stennis Space Center. Steel work began at the construction site Oct. 29 and is scheduled to continue into next spring.

  18. Miniature Sapphire Acoustic Resonator - MSAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Rabi T.; Tjoelker, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    A room temperature sapphire acoustics resonator incorporated into an oscillator represents a possible opportunity to improve on quartz ultrastable oscillator (USO) performance, which has been a staple for NASA missions since the inception of spaceflight. Where quartz technology is very mature and shows a performance improvement of perhaps 1 dB/decade, these sapphire acoustic resonators when integrated with matured quartz electronics could achieve a frequency stability improvement of 10 dB or more. As quartz oscillators are an essential element of nearly all types of frequency standards and reference systems, the success of MSAR would advance the development of frequency standards and systems for both groundbased and flight-based projects. Current quartz oscillator technology is limited by quartz mechanical Q. With a possible improvement of more than x 10 Q with sapphire acoustic modes, the stability limit of current quartz oscillators may be improved tenfold, to 10(exp -14) at 1 second. The electromagnetic modes of sapphire that were previously developed at JPL require cryogenic temperatures to achieve the high Q levels needed to achieve this stability level. However sapphire fs acoustic modes, which have not been used before in a high-stability oscillator, indicate the required Q values (as high as Q = 10(exp 8)) may be achieved at room temperature in the kHz range. Even though sapphire is not piezoelectric, such a high Q should allow electrostatic excitation of the acoustic modes with a combination of DC and AC voltages across a small sapphire disk (approximately equal to l mm thick). The first evaluations under this task will test predictions of an estimated input impedance of 10 kilohms at Q = 10(exp 8), and explore the Q values that can be realized in a smaller resonator, which has not been previously tested for acoustic modes. This initial Q measurement and excitation demonstration can be viewed similar to a transducer converting electrical energy to

  19. Geometrical optics model of Mie resonances

    PubMed

    Roll; Schweiger

    2000-07-01

    The geometrical optics model of Mie resonances is presented. The ray path geometry is given and the resonance condition is discussed with special emphasis on the phase shift that the rays undergo at the surface of the dielectric sphere. On the basis of this model, approximate expressions for the positions of first-order resonances are given. Formulas for the cavity mode spacing are rederived in a simple manner. It is shown that the resonance linewidth can be calculated regarding the cavity losses. Formulas for the mode density of Mie resonances are given that account for the different width of resonances and thus may be adapted to specific experimental situations.

  20. Wavelength-tunable optical ring resonators

    DOEpatents

    Watts, Michael R [Albuquerque, NM; Trotter, Douglas C [Albuquerque, NM; Young, Ralph W [Albuquerque, NM; Nielson, Gregory N [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-11-10

    Optical ring resonator devices are disclosed that can be used for optical filtering, modulation or switching, or for use as photodetectors or sensors. These devices can be formed as microdisk ring resonators, or as open-ring resonators with an optical waveguide having a width that varies adiabatically. Electrical and mechanical connections to the open-ring resonators are made near a maximum width of the optical waveguide to minimize losses and thereby provide a high resonator Q. The ring resonators can be tuned using an integral electrical heater, or an integral semiconductor junction.

  1. Wavelength-tunable optical ring resonators

    DOEpatents

    Watts, Michael R [Albuquerque, NM; Trotter, Douglas C [Albuquerque, NM; Young, Ralph W [Albuquerque, NM; Nielson, Gregory N [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-07-19

    Optical ring resonator devices are disclosed that can be used for optical filtering, modulation or switching, or for use as photodetectors or sensors. These devices can be formed as microdisk ring resonators, or as open-ring resonators with an optical waveguide having a width that varies adiabatically. Electrical and mechanical connections to the open-ring resonators are made near a maximum width of the optical waveguide to minimize losses and thereby provide a high resonator Q. The ring resonators can be tuned using an integral electrical heater, or an integral semiconductor junction.

  2. Low field magnetic resonance imaging

    DOEpatents

    Pines, Alexander; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Meriles, Carlos A.; Trabesinger, Andreas H.

    2010-07-13

    A method and system of magnetic resonance imaging does not need a large homogenous field to truncate a gradient field. Spatial information is encoded into the spin magnetization by allowing the magnetization to evolve in a non-truncated gradient field and inducing a set of 180 degree rotations prior to signal acquisition.

  3. Electro-Mechanical Resonance Curves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2018-01-01

    Recently I have been investigating the frequency response of galvanometers. These are direct-current devices used to measure small currents. By using a low-frequency function generator to supply the alternating-current signal and a stopwatch smartphone app to measure the period, I was able to take data to allow a resonance curve to be drawn. This…

  4. Microfabricated teeter-totter resonator

    DOEpatents

    Adkins, Douglas Ray; Heller, Edwin J.; Shul, Randy J.

    2004-11-23

    A microfabricated teeter-totter resonator comprises a frame, a paddle pivotably anchored to the frame by pivot arms that define an axis of rotation, a current conductor line on a surface of the paddle, means for applying a static magnetic field substantially perpendicular to the rotational axis and in the plane of the paddle, and means for energizing the current conductor line with an alternating current. A Lorentz force is generated by the interaction of the magnetic field with the current flowing in the conductor line, causing the paddle to oscillate about the axis of rotation. The teeter-totter resonator can be fabricated with micromachining techniques with materials used in the integrated circuits manufacturing industry. The microfabricated teeter-totter resonator has many varied applications, both as an actuation device and as a sensor. When used as a chemical sensor, a chemically sensitive coating can be disposed on one or both surfaces of the paddle to enhance the absorption of chemical analytes from a fluid stream. The resulting mass change can be detected as a change in the resonant frequency or phase of the oscillatory motion of the paddle.

  5. Duffing's Equation and Nonlinear Resonance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.

    2003-01-01

    The phenomenon of nonlinear resonance (sometimes called the "jump phenomenon") is examined and second-order van der Pol plane analysis is employed to indicate that this phenomenon is not a feature of the equation, but rather the result of accumulated round-off error, truncation error and algorithm error that distorts the true bounded solution onto…

  6. Q-Boosted Optomechanical Resonators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-18

    Devices ( ORCHID ) Lead Organization: University of California at Berkeley Project Title: Q-Boosted Optomechanical Resonators Technical...be a PDF. Please do not password protect or secure the PDF . The maximum file size for the Report Document is 50MB. 150915 UCB Nguyen ORCHID

  7. Biosensing by WGM Microspherical Resonators

    PubMed Central

    Righini, Giancarlo C.; Soria, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Whispering gallery mode (WGM) microresonators, thanks to their unique properties, have allowed researchers to achieve important results in both fundamental research and engineering applications. Among the various geometries, microspheres are the simplest 3D WGM resonators; the total optical loss in such resonators can be extremely low, and the resulting extraordinarily high Q values of 108–109 lead to high energy density, narrow resonant-wavelength lines and a lengthy cavity ringdown. They can also be coated in order to better control their properties or to increase their functionality. Their very high sensitivity to changes in the surrounding medium has been exploited for several sensing applications: protein adsorption, trace gas detection, impurity detection in liquids, structural health monitoring of composite materials, detection of electric fields, pressure sensing, and so on. In the present paper, after a general introduction to WGM resonators, attention is focused on spherical microresonators, either in bulk or in bubble format, to their fabrication, characterization and functionalization. The state of the art in the area of biosensing is presented, and the perspectives of further developments are discussed. PMID:27322282

  8. Resonant cavity enhanced photonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ünlü, M. Selim; Strite, Samuel

    1995-07-01

    We review the family of optoelectronic devices whose performance is enhanced by placing the active device structure inside a Fabry-Perot resonant microcavity. Such resonant cavity enhanced (RCE) devices benefit from the wavelength selectivity and the large increase of the resonant optical field introduced by the cavity. The increased optical field allows RCE photodetector structures to be thinner and therefore faster, while simultaneously increasing the quantum efficiency at the resonant wavelengths. Off-resonance wavelengths are rejected by the cavity making RCE photodetectors promising for low crosstalk wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) applications. RCE optical modulators require fewer quantum wells so are capable of reduced voltage operation. The spontaneous emission spectrum of RCE light emitting diodes (LED) is drastically altered, improving the spectral purity and directivity. RCE devices are also highly suitable for integrated detectors and emitters with applications as in optical logic and in communication networks. This review attempts an encyclopedic overview of RCE photonic devices and systems. Considerable attention is devoted to the theoretical formulation and calculation of important RCE device parameters. Materials criteria are outlined and the suitability of common heteroepitaxial systems for RCE devices is examined. Arguments for the improved bandwidth in RCE detectors are presented intuitively, and results from advanced numerical simulations confirming the simple model are provided. An overview of experimental results on discrete RCE photodiodes, phototransistors, modulators, and LEDs is given. Work aimed at integrated RCE devices, optical logic and WDM systems is also covered. We conclude by speculating what remains to be accomplished to implement a practical RCE WDM system.

  9. Parameters Design of Series Resonant Inverter Circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Xingkun; Peng, Yonglong; Li, Yabin

    This paper analyzes the main circuit structure of series resonant inverter, and designs the components parameters of the main circuit.That provides a theoretical method for the design of series resonant inverter.

  10. M60A3 Tank Procedure Guides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    no longer needed. Pleai do not return it to the U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciencis . NOTE, This Research Product Is not...B. L., Vaughan, J. J., Jr., and Schaefer, R. H. Development of M1 Abrams Tank Sustainment Training Material . ARI Research Report 1334, June 1982. .5...place of the M60A3 Operator’s Manual or M60A3 training materials . The guides will aid you in remembering long or difficult sets of procedures. In

  11. A-3 Test Stand construction moves forward

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-13

    Work on the A-3 Test Stand at Stennis Space Center took a step forward in July with delivery of the first-stage steam ejector July 13. Stennis employees are shown preparing the ejector to be lifted into place on the test stand. When activated in 2012, the A-3 Test Stand will allow operators to test rocket engines at simulated altitudes of 100,000 feet, a critical feature for next-generation engines that will take humans beyond low-Earth orbit once more.

  12. Gaussian-Beam Laser-Resonator Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, Patricia L.; Bair, Clayton H.; Barnes, Norman

    1989-01-01

    Gaussian Beam Laser Resonator Program models laser resonators by use of Gaussian-beam-propagation techniques. Used to determine radii of beams as functions of position in laser resonators. Algorithm used in program has three major components. First, ray-transfer matrix for laser resonator must be calculated. Next, initial parameters of beam calculated. Finally, propagation of beam through optical elements computed. Written in Microsoft FORTRAN (Version 4.01).

  13. An energy-efficient readout circuit for resonant sensors based on ring-down measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Z.; Pertijs, M. A. P.; Karabacak, D. M.

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents an energy-efficient readout circuit for resonant sensors that operates based on a transient measurement method. The resonant sensor is driven at a frequency close to its resonance frequency by an excitation source that can be intermittently disconnected, causing the sensor to oscillate at its resonance frequency with exponentially decaying amplitude. By counting the zero crossings of this ring-down response, the interface circuit can detect the resonance frequency. In contrast with oscillator-based readout, the presented readout circuit is readily able to detect quality factor (Q) of the resonator from the envelope of the ring-down response, and can be used even in the presence of large parasitic capacitors. A prototype of the readout circuit has been integrated in 0.35 μm CMOS technology, and consumes only 36 μA from a 3.3 V supply during a measurement time of 2 ms. The resonance frequency and quality factor of a micro-machined SiN resonator obtained using this prototype are in good agreement with results obtained using impedance analysis. Furthermore, a clear transient response is observed to ethanol flow using the presented readout, demonstrating the use of this technique in sensing applications.

  14. Noise in nonlinear nanoelectromechanical resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra Vidal, Diego N.

    Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems (NEMS), due to their nanometer scale size, possess a number of desirable attributes: high sensitivity to applied forces, fast response times, high resonance frequencies and low power consumption. However, ultra small size and low power handling result in unwanted consequences: smaller signal size and higher dissipation, making the NEMS devices more susceptible to external and intrinsic noise. The simplest version of a NEMS, a suspended nanomechanical structure with two distinct excitation states, can be used as an archetypal two state system to study a plethora of fundamental phenomena such as Duffing nonlinearity, stochastic resonance, and macroscopic quantum tunneling at low temperatures. From a technical perspective, there are numerous applications such nanomechanical memory elements, microwave switches and nanomechanical computation. The control and manipulation of the mechanical response of these two state systems can be realized by exploiting a (seemingly) counterintuitive physical phenomenon, Stochastic Resonance: in a noisy nonlinear mechanical system, the presence of noise can enhance the system response to an external stimulus. This Thesis is mainly dedicated to study possible applications of Stochastic Resonance in two-state nanomechanical systems. First, on chip signal amplification by 1/falpha is observed. The effectiveness of the noise assisted amplification is observed to decrease with increasing a. Experimental evidence shows an increase in asymmetry between the two states with increasing noise color. Considering the prevalence of 1/f alpha noise in the materials in integrated circuits, the signal enhancement demonstrated here, suggests beneficial use of the otherwise detrimental noise. Finally, a nanomechanical device, operating as a reprogrammable logic gate, and performing fundamental logic functions such as AND/OR and NAND/NOR is presented. The logic function can be programmed (from AND to OR) dynamically, by

  15. The inverse resonance problem for CMV operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weikard, Rudi; Zinchenko, Maxim

    2010-05-01

    We consider the class of CMV operators with super-exponentially decaying Verblunsky coefficients. For these we define the concept of a resonance. Then we prove the existence of Jost solutions and a uniqueness theorem for the inverse resonance problem: given the location of all resonances, taking multiplicities into account, the Verblunsky coefficients are uniquely determined.

  16. Mean motion resonances. [of asteroid belt structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froeschle, CL.; Greenberg, R.

    1989-01-01

    Recent research on the resonant structure of the asteroid belt is reviewed. The resonant mechanism is discussed, and analytical models for the study of mean motion resonances are examined. Numerical averaging methods and mapping methods are considered. It is shown how fresh insight can be obtained by means of a new semianalytical approach.

  17. 22 CFR 9a.3 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO CERTAIN INTERNATIONAL ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.3 Scope. These regulations apply to all information and material classified... “Classification of Certain Information and Material Obtained From Advisory Bodies Created To Implement The...

  18. 22 CFR 9a.3 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO CERTAIN INTERNATIONAL ENERGY PROGRAMS; RELATED MATERIAL § 9a.3 Scope. These regulations apply to all information and material classified... “Classification of Certain Information and Material Obtained From Advisory Bodies Created To Implement The...

  19. A3 Subscale Rocket Hot Fire Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, G. P.; Yen, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper gives a description of the methodology and results of J2-X Subscale Simulator (JSS) hot fire testing supporting the A3 Subscale Diffuser Test (SDT) project at the E3 test facility at Stennis Space Center, MS (SSC). The A3 subscale diffuser is a geometrically accurate scale model of the A3 altitude simulating rocket test facility. This paper focuses on the methods used to operate the facility and obtain the data to support the aerodynamic verification of the A3 rocket diffuser design and experimental data quantifying the heat flux throughout the facility. The JSS was operated at both 80% and 100% power levels and at gimbal angle from 0 to 7 degrees to verify the simulated altitude produced by the rocket-rocket diffuser combination. This was done with various secondary GN purge loads to quantify the pumping performance of the rocket diffuser. Also, special tests were conducted to obtain detailed heat flux measurements in the rocket diffuser at various gimbal angles and in the facility elbow where the flow turns from vertical to horizontal upstream of the 2nd stage steam ejector.

  20. A3 TEST STAND DEVELOPMENT AND CONSTRUCTION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    THIS IMAGE DOCUMENTS THE DEVELOPMENT AND CONSTRUCTION OF THE A3 TEST STAND IN SUPPORT OF THE ARES/CLV UPPER STAGE ENGINE DEVELOPMENT AT STENNIS SPACE CENTER, MISSIPPI IN SUPPORT OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONSTELLATION/ARES PROJECT. THIS IMAGE IS EXTRACTED FROM A HIGH DEFINITION VIDEO FILE AND IS THE HIGHEST RESOLUTION AVAILABLE

  1. Steel erected at A-3 Test Stand

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-24

    Fabricated steel began arriving by truck Oct. 24 for construction of the A-3 Test Stand that will be used to test the engine for the nation's next generation of moon rockets. Within days workers from Lafayette Steel Erector Inc. began assembling the 16 steel stages needed on the foundation and footings poured in the previous year.

  2. Steel erected at A-3 Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Fabricated steel began arriving by truck Oct. 24 for construction of the A-3 Test Stand that will be used to test the engine for the nation's next generation of moon rockets. Within days workers from Lafayette Steel Erector Inc. began assembling the 16 steel stages needed on the foundation and footings poured in the previous year.

  3. Reactive Resonances in N+N2 Exchange Reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Dunyou; Huo, Winifred M.; Dateo, Christopher E.; Schwenke, David W.; Stallcop, James R.

    2003-01-01

    Rich reactive resonances are found in a 3D quantum dynamics study of the N + N2 exchange reaction using a recently developed ab initio potential energy surface. This surface is characterized by a feature in the interaction region called Lake Eyring , that is, two symmetric transition states with a shallow minimum between them. An L2 analysis of the quasibound states associated with the shallow minimum confirms that the quasibound states associated with oscillations in all three degrees of freedom in Lake Eyring are responsible for the reactive resonances in the state-to-state reaction probabilities. The quasibound states, mostly the bending motions, give rise to strong reasonance peaks, whereas other motions contribute to the bumps and shoulders in the resonance structure. The initial state reaction probability further proves that the bending motions are the dominating factors of the reaction probability and have longer life times than the stretching motions. This is the first observation of reactive resonances from a "Lake Eyring" feature in a potential energy surface.

  4. A multiple degree of freedom electromechanical Helmholtz resonator.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Horowitz, Stephen; Nishida, Toshikazu; Cattafesta, Louis; Sheplak, Mark

    2007-07-01

    The development of a tunable, multiple degree of freedom (MDOF) electromechanical Helmholtz resonator (EMHR) is presented. An EMHR consists of an orifice, backing cavity, and a compliant piezoelectric composite diaphragm. Electromechanical tuning of the acoustic impedance is achieved via passive electrical networks shunted across the piezoceramic. For resistive and capacitive loads, the EMHR is a 2DOF system possessing one acoustic and one mechanical DOF. When inductive ladder networks are employed, multiple electrical DOF are added. The dynamics of the multi-energy domain system are modeled using lumped elements and are represented in an equivalent electrical circuit, which is used to analyze the tunable acoustic input impedance of the EMHR. The two-microphone method is used to measure the acoustic impedance of two EMHR designs with a variety of resistive, capacitive, and inductive shunts. For the first design, the data demonstrate that the tuning range of the second resonant frequency for an EMHR with non-inductive shunts is limited by short- and open-circuit conditions, while an inductive shunt results in a 3DOF system possessing an enhanced tuning range. The second design achieves stronger coupling between the Helmholtz resonator and the piezoelectric backplate, and both resonant frequencies can be tuned with different non-inductive loads.

  5. Multiple-Barrier Resonant Tunneling Structures for Application in a Microwave Generator Stabilized by Microstrip Resonator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-23

    conductivity ( NDC ) effects in double barrier resonant tunneling structures (DBRTS) prove the extremely fast frequency response of charge transport (less...UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP013131 TITLE: Multiple-Barrier Resonant Tunneling Structures for...Institute Multiple-barrier resonant tunneling structures for application in a microwave generator stabilized by microstrip resonator S. V. Evstigneev, A. L

  6. Structural Basis of Transcription Inhibition by Fidaxomicin (Lipiarmycin A3).

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei; Das, Kalyan; Degen, David; Mazumder, Abhishek; Duchi, Diego; Wang, Dongye; Ebright, Yon W; Ebright, Richard Y; Sineva, Elena; Gigliotti, Matthew; Srivastava, Aashish; Mandal, Sukhendu; Jiang, Yi; Liu, Yu; Yin, Ruiheng; Zhang, Zhening; Eng, Edward T; Thomas, Dennis; Donadio, Stefano; Zhang, Haibo; Zhang, Changsheng; Kapanidis, Achillefs N; Ebright, Richard H

    2018-04-05

    Fidaxomicin is an antibacterial drug in clinical use for treatment of Clostridium difficile diarrhea. The active ingredient of fidaxomicin, lipiarmycin A3 (Lpm), functions by inhibiting bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP). Here we report a cryo-EM structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis RNAP holoenzyme in complex with Lpm at 3.5-Å resolution. The structure shows that Lpm binds at the base of the RNAP "clamp." The structure exhibits an open conformation of the RNAP clamp, suggesting that Lpm traps an open-clamp state. Single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments confirm that Lpm traps an open-clamp state and define effects of Lpm on clamp dynamics. We suggest that Lpm inhibits transcription by trapping an open-clamp state, preventing simultaneous interaction with promoter -10 and -35 elements. The results account for the absence of cross-resistance between Lpm and other RNAP inhibitors, account for structure-activity relationships of Lpm derivatives, and enable structure-based design of improved Lpm derivatives. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Acoustic noise during functional magnetic resonance imaginga)

    PubMed Central

    Ravicz, Michael E.; Melcher, Jennifer R.; Kiang, Nelson Y.-S.

    2007-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) enables sites of brain activation to be localized in human subjects. For studies of the auditory system, acoustic noise generated during fMRI can interfere with assessments of this activation by introducing uncontrolled extraneous sounds. As a first step toward reducing the noise during fMRI, this paper describes the temporal and spectral characteristics of the noise present under typical fMRI study conditions for two imagers with different static magnetic field strengths. Peak noise levels were 123 and 138 dB re 20 μPa in a 1.5-tesla (T) and a 3-T imager, respectively. The noise spectrum (calculated over a 10-ms window coinciding with the highest-amplitude noise) showed a prominent maximum at 1 kHz for the 1.5-T imager (115 dB SPL) and at 1.4 kHz for the 3-T imager (131 dB SPL). The frequency content and timing of the most intense noise components indicated that the noise was primarily attributable to the readout gradients in the imaging pulse sequence. The noise persisted above background levels for 300-500 ms after gradient activity ceased, indicating that resonating structures in the imager or noise reverberating in the imager room were also factors. The gradient noise waveform was highly repeatable. In addition, the coolant pump for the imager’s permanent magnet and the room air handling system were sources of ongoing noise lower in both level and frequency than gradient coil noise. Knowledge of the sources and characteristics of the noise enabled the examination of general approaches to noise control that could be applied to reduce the unwanted noise during fMRI sessions. PMID:11051496

  8. Harmonic multiplication using resonant tunneling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sollner, T. C. L. G.; Brown, E. R.; Goodhue, W. D.; Correa, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of resonant-tunneling diodes as varistors for harmonic multiplication. It is shown that efficient odd-harmonic conversion is possible and that even harmonics do not appear because of the antisymmetry of the current-voltage (I-V) curve. It is also shown that, with the proper choice of resonant-tunneling structure and pump amplitude, most of the harmonic output power can be confined to a single odd-harmonic frequency. Fifth-harmonic multiplication was demonstrated with an output at 21.75 GHz and a power conversion efficiency of 0.5 percent, and a fifth-harmonic efficiency of 2.7 percent was achieved in a circuit simulation using an improved I-V curve.

  9. Limits to magnetic resonance microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, Paul; Mansfield, Peter, Sir

    2002-10-01

    The last quarter of the twentieth century saw the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) grow from a laboratory demonstration to a multi-billion dollar worldwide industry. There is a clinical body scanner in almost every hospital of the developed nations. The field of magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM), after mostly being abandoned by researchers in the first decade of MRI, has become an established branch of the science. This paper reviews the development of MRM over the last decade with an emphasis on the current state of the art. The fundamental principles of imaging and signal detection are examined to determine the physical principles which limit the available resolution. The limits are discussed with reference to liquid, solid and gas phase microscopy. In each area, the novel approaches employed by researchers to push back the limits of resolution are discussed. Although the limits to resolution are well known, the developments and applications of MRM have not reached their limit.

  10. Resonant activation of population extinctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalding, Christopher; Doering, Charles R.; Flierl, Glenn R.

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the mechanisms governing population extinctions is of key importance to many problems in ecology and evolution. Stochastic factors are known to play a central role in extinction, but the interactions between a population's demographic stochasticity and environmental noise remain poorly understood. Here we model environmental forcing as a stochastic fluctuation between two states, one with a higher death rate than the other. We find that, in general, there exists a rate of fluctuations that minimizes the mean time to extinction, a phenomenon previously dubbed "resonant activation." We develop a heuristic description of the phenomenon, together with a criterion for the existence of resonant activation. Specifically, the minimum extinction time arises as a result of the system approaching a scenario wherein the severity of rare events is balanced by the time interval between them. We discuss our findings within the context of more general forms of environmental noise and suggest potential applications to evolutionary models.

  11. AK-cut crystal resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahan, A.; Euler, F. K.

    1983-01-01

    Calculations have predicted the existence of crystallographically doubly rotated quartz orientations with turnover temperatures which are considerably less sensitive to angular misorientation then comparable AT- or BT-cuts. These crystals are arbitrarily designated as the AK-cut. Experimental data is given for seven orientations, phi-angle variations between 30-46 deg and theta-angle variations between 21-28 deg measured on 3.3-3.4 MHz fundamental mode resonators vibrating in the thickness shear c-mode. The experimental turnover temperatures of these resonators are between 80 C and 150 C, in general agreement with calculated values. The normalized frequency change as a function of temperature has been fitted with a cubic equation.

  12. Silicon photonic resonator sensors and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrostowski, Lukas; Grist, Samantha; Flueckiger, Jonas; Shi, Wei; Wang, Xu; Ouellet, Eric; Yun, Han; Webb, Mitch; Nie, Ben; Liang, Zhen; Cheung, Karen C.; Schmidt, Shon A.; Ratner, Daniel M.; Jaeger, Nicolas A. F.

    2012-02-01

    Silicon photonic resonators, implemented using silicon-on-insulator substrates, are promising for numerous applications. The most commonly studied resonators are ring/racetrack resonators. We have fabricated these and other resonators including disk resonators, waveguide-grating resonators, ring resonator reflectors, contra-directional grating-coupler ring resonators, and racetrack-based multiplexer/demultiplexers. While numerous resonators have been demonstrated for sensing purposes, it remains unclear as to which structures provide the highest sensitivity and best limit of detection; for example, disc resonators and slot-waveguide-based ring resonators have been conjectured to provide an improved limit of detection. Here, we compare various resonators in terms of sensor metrics for label-free bio-sensing in a micro-fluidic environment. We have integrated resonator arrays with PDMS micro-fluidics for real-time detection of biomolecules in experiments such as antigen-antibody binding reaction experiments using Human Factor IX proteins. Numerous resonators are fabricated on the same wafer and experimentally compared. We identify that, while evanescent-field sensors all operate on the principle that the analyte's refractive index shifts the resonant frequency, there are important differences between implementations that lie in the relationship between the optical field overlap with the analyte and the relative contributions of the various loss mechanisms. The chips were fabricated in the context of the CMC-UBC Silicon Nanophotonics Fabrication course and workshop. This yearlong, design-based, graduate training program is offered to students from across Canada and, over the last four years, has attracted participants from nearly every Canadian university involved in photonics research. The course takes students through a full design cycle of a photonic circuit, including theory, modelling, design, and experimentation.

  13. Resonance ionization for analytical spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Hurst, George S.; Payne, Marvin G.; Wagner, Edward B.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for the sensitive and selective analysis of an atomic or molecular component of a gas. According to this method, the desired neutral component is ionized by one or more resonance photon absorptions, and the resultant ions are measured in a sensitive counter. Numerous energy pathways are described for accomplishing the ionization including the use of one or two tunable pulsed dye lasers.

  14. Ring resonant cavities for spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Zare, R.N.; Martin, J.; Paldus, B.A.; Xie, J.

    1999-06-15

    Ring-shaped resonant cavities for spectroscopy allow a reduction in optical feedback to the light source, and provide information on the interaction of both s- and p-polarized light with samples. A laser light source is locked to a single cavity mode. An intracavity acousto-optic modulator may be used to couple light into the cavity. The cavity geometry is particularly useful for Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS). 6 figs.

  15. Ring resonant cavities for spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Zare, Richard N.; Martin, Juergen; Paldus, Barbara A.; Xie, Jinchun

    1999-01-01

    Ring-shaped resonant cavities for spectroscopy allow a reduction in optical feedback to the light source, and provide information on the interaction of both s- and p-polarized light with samples. A laser light source is locked to a single cavity mode. An intracavity acousto-optic modulator may be used to couple light into the cavity. The cavity geometry is particularly useful for Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS).

  16. Electromagnetic Resonances of Metallic Bodies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-01

    complex objects. MOM creates a discrete model of the object by dividing the object into electrically small charge and current segments referred to as the...distribution is unlimited ELECROMAGNETIC RESONANCES OF METALLIC BODIES William A. Lintz Lieutenant, United States Navy B.E.E., Villanova University, 1992...Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL June

  17. Transient resonances in the inspirals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinderer, Tanja; Flanagan, Eanna

    2009-05-01

    We show that the two body problem in general relativity in the highly relativistic regime has a qualitatively new feature: the occurence of transient resonances. The resonances occur when the ratio of polar and radial orbital frequencies, which is slowly evolving under the influence of gravitational radiation reaction, passes through a low order rational number. The resonances make the orbit more sensitive to changes in the initial data (though not quite chaotic), and are genuine non-perturbative effects that are not seen at any order in the standard post-Newtonian expansion used for two body systems at large separation. Our results directly apply to an important potential source of gravitational waves, namely the gradual inspiral of compact objects into much more massive black holes. Exploiting observations of these gravitational waves to map the spacetime geometry of black holes is contingent upon accurate theoretical models (templates) of the binary dynamics. At present, only the leading order in the mass ratio gravitational waveforms can be computed. Corrections to the waveform's phase due to resonance effects scale as the square root of the inverse of the mass ratio and are characterized by sudden jumps in the time derivatives of the phase. We numerically estimate the net size of these corrections and find indications that the phase error is of order a few cycles for mass ratios ˜10^- 3 but will be significant (of order tens of cycles) for mass ratios ˜10-6. Computations of these corrections will require the computation of pieces of the forcing terms in the equations of motion which are currently unknown.

  18. Nonlinear resonances in the ABC-flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didov, A. A.; Uleysky, M. Yu.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we study resonances of the ABC-flow in the near integrable case ( C ≪1 ). This is an interesting example of a Hamiltonian system with 3/2 degrees of freedom in which simultaneous existence of two resonances of the same order is possible. Analytical conditions of the resonance existence are received. It is shown numerically that the largest n :1 (n = 1, 2, 3) resonances exist, and their energies are equal to theoretical energies in the near integrable case. We provide analytical and numerical evidences for existence of two branches of the two largest n :1 (n = 1, 2) resonances in the region of finite motion.

  19. TMS delivered for A-3 Test Stand

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-17

    A state-of-the-art thrust measurement system for the A-3 Test Stand under construction at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center was delivered March 17. Once completed, the A-3 stand (seen in background) will allow simulated high-altitude testing on the next generation of rocket engines for America's space program. Work on the stand began in 2007, with activation scheduled for 2012. The stand is the first major test structure to be built at Stennis since the 1960s. The recently delivered TMS was fabricated by Thrust Measurement Systems in Illinois. It is an advanced calibration system capable of measuring vertical and horizontal thrust loads with an accuracy within 0.15 percent at 225,000 pounds.

  20. Extraordinary acoustic transmission mediated by Helmholtz resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Koju, Vijay; Rowe, Ebony; Robertson, William M., E-mail: William.Robertson@mtsu.edu

    2014-07-15

    We demonstrate perfect transmission of sound through a rigid barrier embedded with Helmholtz resonators. The resonators are confined within a waveguide and they are oriented such that one neck protrudes onto each side of the barrier. Perfect sound transmission occurs even though the open area of the necks is less than 3% of the barrier area. Maximum transmission occurs at the resonant frequency of the Helmholtz resonator. Because the dimensions of the Helmholtz resonators are much smaller than the resonant wavelength, the transmission is independent of the direction of sound on the barrier and of the relative placement of themore » necks. Further, we show that the transmitted sound experiences a continuous phase transition of π radians as a function of frequency through resonance. In simulations of adjacent resonators with slightly offset resonance frequencies, the phase difference leads to destructive interference. By expanding the simulation to a linear array of tuned Helmholtz resonators we show that it is possible to create an acoustic lens. The ability of Helmholtz resonator arrays to manipulate the phase of a plane acoustic wave enables a new class of sonic beam-forming devices analogous to diffractive optics.« less

  1. Broadband electron spin resonance at low frequency without resonant cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Z.; Suh, B.; Corti, M.

    2008-04-09

    We have developed a nonconventional broadband electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer operating continuously in the frequency range from 0.5 to 9 GHz. Dual antenna structure and the microwave absorbing environment differentiate the setup from the conventional one and enable broadband operation with any combination of frequency or magnetic field modulation and frequency or magnetic field sweeping. Its performance has been tested with the measurements on a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) sample and with the measurements on the single molecular magnet, V6, in solid state at low temperature.

  2. A-3 Test Stand construction update

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-12-18

    The concrete foundation placed Dec. 18 (foreground) for Stennis Space Center's future A-3 Test Stand has almost completely cured by early January, according to Bo Clarke, NASA's contracting officer technical representative for the foundation contract. By late December, construction on foundations for many of the test stand's support structures - diffuser, liquid oxygen, isopropyl alcohol and water tanks and gaseous nitrogen bottle battery - had begun with the installation of (background) `mud slabs.' The slabs provide a working surface for the reinforcing steel and foundation forms.

  3. A-3 Test Stand construction update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The concrete foundation placed Dec. 18 (foreground) for Stennis Space Center's future A-3 Test Stand has almost completely cured by early January, according to Bo Clarke, NASA's contracting officer technical representative for the foundation contract. By late December, construction on foundations for many of the test stand's support structures - diffuser, liquid oxygen, isopropyl alcohol and water tanks and gaseous nitrogen bottle battery - had begun with the installation of (background) `mud slabs.' The slabs provide a working surface for the reinforcing steel and foundation forms.

  4. Atmospheric nonequilibrium mini-plasma jet created by a 3D printer

    SciTech Connect

    Takamatsu, Toshihiro, E-mail: toshihiro@plasma.es.titech.ac.jp; Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Energy Sciences, J2-32, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama, 226-8502; Kawano, Hiroaki

    2015-07-15

    In this study, a small-sized plasma jet source with a 3.7 mm head diameter was created via a 3D printer. The jet’s emission properties and OH radical concentrations (generated by argon, helium, and nitrogen plasmas) were investigated using optical emission spectrometry (OES) and electron spin resonance (ESR). As such, for OES, each individual gas plasma propagates emission lines that derive from gases and ambient air inserted into the measurement system. For the case of ESR, a spin adduct of the OH radical is typically observed for all gas plasma treatment scenarios with a 10 s treatment by helium plasma generatingmore » the largest amount of OH radicals at 110 μM. Therefore, it was confirmed that a plasma jet source made by a 3D printer can generate stable plasmas using each of the aforementioned three gases.« less

  5. Magnetic field detection using magnetorheological optical resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubino, Edoardo; Ioppolo, Tindaro

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of a magnetic field sensor that is based on a magnetorheological micro-optical resonator. The optical resonator has a spherical shape and a diameter of a few hundred micrometers. The resonator is fabricated by using a polymeric matrix made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastisol with embedded magnetically polarizable micro-particles. When the optical resonator is subjected to an external magnetic field, the morphology (radius and refractive index) of the resonator is perturbed by the magnetic forces acting on it, leading to a shift of the optical resonances also known as whispering gallery modes (WGM). In this study, the effect of a static and harmonic magnetic field, as well as the concentration of the magnetic micro-particles on the optical mode shift is investigated. The optical resonances obtained with the PVC plastisol resonator showed a quality factor of 106 . The dynamical behavior of the optical resonator is investigated in the range between 0 and 200 Hz. The sensitivity of the optical resonator reaches a maximum value for a ratio between micro-particles and the polymeric matrix of 2:1 in weight. Experimental results indicate a sensitivity of 0.297 pm/mT leading to a resolution of 336 μT.

  6. Electron Shell as a Resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpeshin, F. F.

    2002-11-01

    Main principles of the resonance effect arising in the electron shells in interaction of the nuclei with electromagnetic radiation are analyzed and presented in the historical aspect. Principles of NEET are considered from a more general position, as compared to how this is usually presented. Characteristic features of NEET and its reverse, TEEN, as internal conversion processes are analyzed, and ways are offered of inducing them by laser radiation. The ambivalent role of the Pauli exclusion principles in NEET and TEEN processes is investigated.

  7. Modeling noisy resonant system response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Patrick Thomas; Walrath, David Edwin

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, a theory-based model replicating empirical acoustic resonant signals is presented and studied to understand sources of noise present in acoustic signals. Statistical properties of empirical signals are quantified and a noise amplitude parameter, which models frequency and amplitude-based noise, is created, defined, and presented. This theory-driven model isolates each phenomenon and allows for parameters to be independently studied. Using seven independent degrees of freedom, this model will accurately reproduce qualitative and quantitative properties measured from laboratory data. Results are presented and demonstrate success in replicating qualitative and quantitative properties of experimental data.

  8. Pitch sensation involves stochastic resonance

    PubMed Central

    Martignoli, Stefan; Gomez, Florian; Stoop, Ruedi

    2013-01-01

    Pitch is a complex hearing phenomenon that results from elicited and self-generated cochlear vibrations. Read-off vibrational information is relayed higher up the auditory pathway, where it is then condensed into pitch sensation. How this can adequately be described in terms of physics has largely remained an open question. We have developed a peripheral hearing system (in hardware and software) that reproduces with great accuracy all salient pitch features known from biophysical and psychoacoustic experiments. At the level of the auditory nerve, the system exploits stochastic resonance to achieve this performance, which may explain the large amount of noise observed in the working auditory nerve. PMID:24045830

  9. Clar theory and resonance energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutman, Ivan; Gojak, Sabina; Furtula, Boris

    2005-09-01

    A mathematical model, referred here as the Zhang-Zhang polynomial ζ( x), that embraces all the main concepts encountered in the Clar aromatic sextet theory of benzenoid hydrocarbons, was recently put forward by Zhang and Zhang. We now show that ζ( x) is related to resonance energy, and that ln ζ( x) and RE are best correlated when x ≈ 1. This indicates that ζ(1) could be viewed as a (novel) structure-descriptor, playing a role analogous to the Kekulé structure count in Kekulé-structure-based theories. Some basic properties of ζ(1) are established.

  10. Pharmacological Stress Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Chotenimitkhun, Runyawan; Hundley, W. Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has evolved into a cardiac stress testing modality that can be used to diagnose myocardial ischemia using intravenous dobutamine or vasodilator perfusion agents such as adenosine or dipyridamole. Because CMR produces high-resolution tomographic images of the human heart in multiple imaging planes, it has become a highly attractive noninvasive testing modality for those suspected of having myocardial ischemia. The purpose of this article is to review the clinical, diagnostic, and prognostic utility of stress CMR testing for patients with (or suspected of having) coronary artery disease. PMID:21566427

  11. Hadron scattering, resonances, and QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briceño, R. A.

    2016-11-01

    The non-perturbative nature of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) has historically left a gap in our understanding of the connection between the fundamental theory of the strong interactions and the rich structure of experimentally observed phenomena. For the simplest properties of stable hadrons, this is now circumvented with the use of lattice QCD (LQCD). In this talk I discuss a path towards a rigorous determination of few-hadron observables from LQCD. I illustrate the power of the methodology by presenting recently determined scattering amplitudes in the light-meson sector and their resonance content.

  12. Micro-optomechanical trampoline resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepper, Brian; Kleckner, Dustin; Sonin, Petro; Jeffrey, Evan; Bouwmeester, Dirk

    2011-03-01

    Recently, micro-optomechanical devices have been proposed for implementation of experiments ranging from non-demolition measurements of phonon number to creation of macroscopic quantum superpositions. All have strenuous requirements on optical finesse, mechanical quality factor, and temperature. We present a set of devices composed of dielectric mirrors on Si 3 N4 trampoline resonators. We describe the fabrication process and present data on finesse and quality factor. The authors gratefully acknowledge support from NSF PHY-0804177 and Marie Curie EXT-CT-2006-042580.

  13. Multiscale Reconstruction for Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    Pierre, Eric Y.; Ma, Dan; Chen, Yong; Badve, Chaitra; Griswold, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To reduce acquisition time needed to obtain reliable parametric maps with Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting. Methods An iterative-denoising algorithm is initialized by reconstructing the MRF image series at low image resolution. For subsequent iterations, the method enforces pixel-wise fidelity to the best-matching dictionary template then enforces fidelity to the acquired data at slightly higher spatial resolution. After convergence, parametric maps with desirable spatial resolution are obtained through template matching of the final image series. The proposed method was evaluated on phantom and in-vivo data using the highly-undersampled, variable-density spiral trajectory and compared with the original MRF method. The benefits of additional sparsity constraints were also evaluated. When available, gold standard parameter maps were used to quantify the performance of each method. Results The proposed approach allowed convergence to accurate parametric maps with as few as 300 time points of acquisition, as compared to 1000 in the original MRF work. Simultaneous quantification of T1, T2, proton density (PD) and B0 field variations in the brain was achieved in vivo for a 256×256 matrix for a total acquisition time of 10.2s, representing a 3-fold reduction in acquisition time. Conclusions The proposed iterative multiscale reconstruction reliably increases MRF acquisition speed and accuracy. PMID:26132462

  14. Sphericity determination using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Dixon, Raymond D.; Migliori, Albert; Visscher, William M.

    1994-01-01

    A method is provided for grading production quantities of spherical objects, such as roller balls for bearings. A resonant ultrasound spectrum (RUS) is generated for each spherical object and a set of degenerate sphere-resonance frequencies is identified. From the degenerate sphere-resonance frequencies and known relationships between degenerate sphere-resonance frequencies and Poisson's ratio, a Poisson's ratio can be determined, along with a "best" spherical diameter, to form spherical parameters for the sphere. From the RUS, fine-structure resonant frequency spectra are identified for each degenerate sphere-resonance frequency previously selected. From each fine-structure spectrum and associated sphere parameter values an asphericity value is determined. The asphericity value can then be compared with predetermined values to provide a measure for accepting or rejecting the sphere.

  15. Secular resonances with Ceres and Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsirvoulis, Georgios; Novaković, Bojan

    2016-12-01

    In this work we explore dynamical perturbations induced by the massive asteroids Ceres and Vesta on main-belt asteroids through secular resonances. First we determine the location of the linear secular resonances with Ceres and Vesta in the main belt, using a purely numerical technique. Then we use a set of numerical simulations of fictitious asteroids to investigate the importance of these secular resonances in the orbital evolution of main-belt asteroids. We found, evaluating the magnitude of the perturbations in the proper elements of the test particles, that in some cases the strength of these secular resonances is comparable to that of known non-linear secular resonances with the giant planets. Finally we explore the asteroid families that are crossed by the secular resonances we studied, and identified several cases where the latter seem to play an important role in their post-impact evolution.

  16. A multimode electromechanical parametric resonator array

    PubMed Central

    Mahboob, I.; Mounaix, M.; Nishiguchi, K.; Fujiwara, A.; Yamaguchi, H.

    2014-01-01

    Electromechanical resonators have emerged as a versatile platform in which detectors with unprecedented sensitivities and quantum mechanics in a macroscopic context can be developed. These schemes invariably utilise a single resonator but increasingly the concept of an array of electromechanical resonators is promising a wealth of new possibilities. In spite of this, experimental realisations of such arrays have remained scarce due to the formidable challenges involved in their fabrication. In a variation to this approach, we identify 75 harmonic vibration modes in a single electromechanical resonator of which 7 can also be parametrically excited. The parametrically resonating modes exhibit vibrations with only 2 oscillation phases which are used to build a binary information array. We exploit this array to execute a mechanical byte memory, a shift-register and a controlled-NOT gate thus vividly illustrating the availability and functionality of an electromechanical resonator array by simply utilising higher order vibration modes. PMID:24658349

  17. Sphericity determination using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Dixon, R.D.; Migliori, A.; Visscher, W.M.

    1994-10-18

    A method is provided for grading production quantities of spherical objects, such as roller balls for bearings. A resonant ultrasound spectrum (RUS) is generated for each spherical object and a set of degenerate sphere-resonance frequencies is identified. From the degenerate sphere-resonance frequencies and known relationships between degenerate sphere-resonance frequencies and Poisson's ratio, a Poisson's ratio can be determined, along with a 'best' spherical diameter, to form spherical parameters for the sphere. From the RUS, fine-structure resonant frequency spectra are identified for each degenerate sphere-resonance frequency previously selected. From each fine-structure spectrum and associated sphere parameter values an asphericity value is determined. The asphericity value can then be compared with predetermined values to provide a measure for accepting or rejecting the sphere. 14 figs.

  18. All-metal superconducting planar microwave resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsley, Matt; Pereverzev, Sergey; Dubois, Jonathon; Friedrich, Stephan; Qu, Dongxia; Libby, Steve; Lordi, Vincenzo; Carosi, Gianpaolo; Stoeffl, Wolfgang; Chapline, George; Drury, Owen; Quantum Noise in Superconducting Devices Team

    There is common agreement that noise and resonance frequency jitter in superconducting microwave planar resonators are caused by presence of two-level systems, or fluctuators, in resonator materials- in dielectric substrate, in superconducting and dielectric layers and on the boundaries and interfaces. Scaling of noise with device dimensions indicate that fluctuators are likely concentrated around boundaries; physical nature of those fluctuators remains unclear. The presence of dielectrics is not necessary for the superconducting device functionality, and one can ask question about properties of all-metal device, where dielectric substrate and oxide films on metal are absent. Resonator made from of thin conducting layer with cuts in it is usually called slot line resonator. We report on the design, fabrication and initial testing of multiple split rings slot line resonator made out of thin molybdenum plate. This work is being funded as part of a three year strategic initiative (LDRD 16-SI-004) to better understand noise in superconducting devices.

  19. System and method for regulating resonant inverters

    DOEpatents

    Stevanovic, Ljubisa Dragoljub [Clifton Park, NY; Zane, Regan Andrew [Superior, CO

    2007-08-28

    A technique is provided for direct digital phase control of resonant inverters based on sensing of one or more parameters of the resonant inverter. The resonant inverter control system includes a switching circuit for applying power signals to the resonant inverter and a sensor for sensing one or more parameters of the resonant inverter. The one or more parameters are representative of a phase angle. The resonant inverter control system also includes a comparator for comparing the one or more parameters to a reference value and a digital controller for determining timing of the one or more parameters and for regulating operation of the switching circuit based upon the timing of the one or more parameters.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of chemistry.

    PubMed

    Britton, Melanie M

    2010-11-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has long been recognized as one of the most important tools in medical diagnosis and research. However, MRI is also well placed to image chemical reactions and processes, determine the concentration of chemical species, and look at how chemistry couples with environmental factors, such as flow and heterogeneous media. This tutorial review will explain how magnetic resonance imaging works, reviewing its application in chemistry and its ability to directly visualise chemical processes. It will give information on what resolution and contrast are possible, and what chemical and physical parameters can be measured. It will provide examples of the use of MRI to study chemical systems, its application in chemical engineering and the identification of contrast agents for non-clinical applications. A number of studies are presented including investigation of chemical conversion and selectivity in fixed-bed reactors, temperature probes for catalyst pellets, ion mobility during tablet dissolution, solvent dynamics and ion transport in Nafion polymers and the formation of chemical waves and patterns.

  1. Nonlinear THz Plamonic Disk Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seren, Huseyin; Zhang, Jingdi; Keiser, George; Maddox, Scott; Fan, Kebin; Cao, Lingyue; Bank, Seth; Zhang, Xin; Averitt, Richard

    2013-03-01

    Particle surface plasmons (PPSs) at visible wavelengths continue to be actively investigated with the goal of nanoscale control of light. In contrast, terahertz (THz) surface plasmon experiments are at a nascent stage of investigation. Doped semiconductors with proper carrier density and mobility support THz PSPs. One approach is to utilize thick doped films etched into subwavelength disks. Given the ease of tuning the semiconductor carrier density, THz PSPs are tunable and exhibit interesting nonlinear THz plasmonic effects. We created THz PSP structures using MBE grown 2um thick InAs films with a doping concentration of 1e17cm-3 on 500um thick semi-insulating GaAs substrate. We patterned 40um diameter disks with a 60um period by reactive ion etching. Our THz time-domain measurements reveal a resonance at 1.1THz which agrees well with simulation results using a Drude model. A nonlinear response occurs at high THz electric field strengths (>50kV/cm). In particular, we observed a redshift and quenching of the resonance due to impact ionization which resulted in changes in the carrier density and effective mass due to inter-valley scattering.

  2. Magnetic Resonance Mediated Radiofrequency Ablation.

    PubMed

    Hue, Yik-Kiong; Guimaraes, Alexander R; Cohen, Ouri; Nevo, Erez; Roth, Abraham; Ackerman, Jerome L

    2018-02-01

    To introduce magnetic resonance mediated radiofrequency ablation (MR-RFA), in which the MRI scanner uniquely serves both diagnostic and therapeutic roles. In MR-RFA scanner-induced RF heating is channeled to the ablation site via a Larmor frequency RF pickup device and needle system, and controlled via the pulse sequence. MR-RFA was evaluated with simulation of electric and magnetic fields to predict the increase in local specific-absorption-rate (SAR). Temperature-time profiles were measured for different configurations of the device in agar phantoms and ex vivo bovine liver in a 1.5 T scanner. Temperature rise in MR-RFA was imaged using the proton resonance frequency method validated with fiber-optic thermometry. MR-RFA was performed on the livers of two healthy live pigs. Simulations indicated a near tenfold increase in SAR at the RFA needle tip. Temperature-time profiles depended significantly on the physical parameters of the device although both configurations tested yielded temperature increases sufficient for ablation. Resected livers from live ablations exhibited clear thermal lesions. MR-RFA holds potential for integrating RF ablation tumor therapy with MRI scanning. MR-RFA may add value to MRI with the addition of a potentially disposable ablation device, while retaining MRI's ability to provide real time procedure guidance and measurement of tissue temperature, perfusion, and coagulation.

  3. Acoustic resonance frequency locked photoacoustic spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Bomse, David S.; Silver, Joel A.

    2003-09-09

    A photoacoustic spectroscopy method and apparatus for maintaining an acoustic source frequency on a sample cell resonance frequency comprising: providing an acoustic source to the sample cell, the acoustic source having a source frequency; repeatedly and continuously sweeping the source frequency across the resonance frequency at a sweep rate; and employing an odd-harmonic of the source frequency sweep rate to maintain the source frequency sweep centered on the resonance frequency.

  4. Analysis of Alternative Ring Resonator Designs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    the ring strip of the antenna as in the case of the original design. Both the alternative dielectric laminate and the increased thickness laminate...adjustments to the geometry parameters. 2. Ring Resonator Antenna Design The ring resonator is a two port antenna consisting of a ring strip and two...for various soil sample depths indicates that most of the measureable response is from within 2 mm of the resonator antenna strip surface. For the

  5. Resonant power processors. I - State plane analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oruganti, R.; Lee, F. C.

    1984-01-01

    State-plane techniques in conjunction with piecewise-linear analysis is employed to study the steady-state and transient characteristics of a series resonant converter. With the direct viewing of the resonant tank energy and the device switching instants, the state portrayal provides unique insights into the complex behavior of the converter. Operation of the converter under both continuous and discontinuous current modes and at frequencies both below and above resonant frequency are discussed.

  6. Resonant power processors. II - Methods of control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oruganti, R.; Lee, F. C.

    1984-01-01

    The nature of resonant converter control is discussed. Employing the state-portrait, different control methods for series resonant converter are identified and their performance evaluated based on their stability, response to control and load changes and range of operation. A new control method, optimal-trajectory control, is proposed which, by utilizing the state trajectories as control laws, continuously monitors the energy level of the resonant tank. The method is shown to have superior control properties especially under transient operation.

  7. Radio frequency quadrupole resonator for linear accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Moretti, Alfred

    1985-01-01

    An RFQ resonator for a linear accelerator having a reduced level of interfering modes and producing a quadrupole mode for focusing, bunching and accelerating beams of heavy charged particles, with the construction being characterized by four elongated resonating rods within a cylinder with the rods being alternately shorted and open electrically to the shell at common ends of the rods to provide an LC parallel resonant circuit when activated by a magnetic field transverse to the longitudinal axis.

  8. Polarization effects in recoil-induced resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Lazebnyi, D. B., E-mail: becks.ddf@gmail.com; Brazhnikov, D. V.; Taichenachev, A. V.

    2017-01-15

    The effect of the field polarization on the amplitude of recoil-induced resonances (RIRs) is considered for laser-cooled free atoms and for atoms in a working magneto-optical trap (MOT). For all closed dipole transitions, explicit analytical expressions are obtained for the polarization dependence of the resonance amplitudes within a perturbation theory. Optimal polarization conditions are found for the observation of resonances.

  9. Ultrasonic signal enhancement by resonator techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, J. S.

    1973-01-01

    Ultrasonic resonators increase experimental sensitivity to acoustic dispersion and changes in attenuation. Experimental sensitivity enhancement line shapes are presented which were obtained by modulating the acoustic properties of a CdS resonator with a light beam. Small changes in light level are made to produce almost pure absorptive or dispersive changes in the resonator signal. This effect is due to the coupling of the ultrasonic wave to the CdS conductivity which is proportional to incident light intensity. The resonator conductivity is adjusted in this manner to obtain both dispersive and absorptive sensitivity enhancement line shapes. The data presented verify previous thoretical calculations based on a propagating wave model.

  10. Fano resonances in bilayer phosphorene nanoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Wu, Zhenhua; Li, X. J.; Li, L. L.; Chen, Qiao; Li, Yun-Mei; Peeters, F. M.

    2018-05-01

    Tunable transport properties and Fano resonances are predicted in a circular bilayer phosphorene nanoring. The conductance exhibits Fano resonances with varying incident energy and applied perpendicular magnetic field. These Fano resonance peaks can be accurately fitted with the well known Fano curves. When a magnetic field is applied to the nanoring, the conductance oscillates periodically with magnetic field which is reminiscent of the Aharonov–Bohm effect. Fano resonances are tightly related to the discrete states in the central nanoring, some of which are tunable by the magnetic field.

  11. Bolometer detection of magnetic resonances in nanoscaled objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rod, Irina; Meckenstock, Ralf; Zähres, Horst; Derricks, Christian; Mushenok, Fedor; Reckers, Nathalie; Kijamnajsuk, Puchong; Wiedwald, Ulf; Farle, Michael

    2014-10-01

    We report on a nanoscaled thermocouple (ThC) as a temperature sensor of a highly sensitive bolometer for probing the dissipative damping of spin dynamics in nanosized Permalloy (Py) stripes. The Au-Pd ThC based device is fabricated by standard electron beam lithography on a 200 nm silicon nitride membrane to minimize heat dissipation through the substrate. We show that this thermal sensor allows not only measurements of the temperature change on the order of a few mK due to the uniform resonant microwave (MW) absorption by the Py stripe but also detection of standing spin waves of different mode numbers. Using a 3D finite element method, we estimate the absorbed MW power by the stripe in resonance and prove the necessity of using substrates with an extremely low heat dissipation like a silicon nitride membrane for successful thermal detection. The voltage responsivity and the noise equivalent power for the ThC-based bolometer are equal to 15 V W-1 and 3 nW Hz-1/2, respectively. The ThC device offers a magnetic resonance response of 1 nV/(μB W) corresponding to a sensitivity of 109 spins and a temperature resolution of 300 μK under vacuum conditions.

  12. A New Look at an Old Activity: Resonance Tubes Used to Teach Resonance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jim; Nelson, Jane

    2017-01-01

    There are several variations of resonance laboratory activities used to determine the speed of sound. This is "not" one of them. This activity uses the resonance tube idea to teach "resonance," not to verify the speed of sound. Prior to this activity, the speed of sound has already been measured using computer sound-sensors and…

  13. The Stability of Resonant Chains of Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimlinger, Thomas; Hamilton, Douglas

    2018-04-01

    Unlike other giant planets, Saturn has a satellite system that is dominated by a single massive body, Titan, which features an unusually large inclination and eccentricity. Its origin has yet to be satisfactorily explained; neither in situ formation nor capture from heliocentric orbit can easily produce all of its measured properties. We argue that dynamical instability and subsequent mergers within a resonant chain of satellites analogous to the Galilean moons could be responsible for Titan’s unusual features.To explore this idea, we perform simulations in which we vary a wide range of parameters, including the number of satellites, their masses, their spacings, and their tidal migration and eccentricity damping rates. In our preliminary modeling, we initialize our simulations with three moons in the 1:2:4 mean-motion resonance (currently occupied by Io, Europa, and Ganymede at Jupiter) and study how varying each parameter affects the resonant stability. We find that in some cases, the satellites do indeed escape from this three-body resonance, while in others, the bodies’ period ratios remain locked. We study the evolution of these systems and seek a deeper understanding of the competing mechanisms responsible for resonant capture and escape.Accordingly, we investigate the role that specific two-body eccentricity and inclination resonances play in determining stability conditions. For three satellites in a 1:2:4 resonance, there exist four nearby first-order eccentricity resonances along with many other weaker eccentricity and inclination resonances. In our simulations, we track entrance into and exit from these resonances to provide a more cohesive picture of how the system evolves and find that this evolution depends sensitively on the masses and damping rates. We will report further details of our findings and will discuss their implications for the stability of resonant chains of moons.

  14. Magnetic Earth Ionosphere Resonant Frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaniol, Craig

    1994-01-01

    The Community College Division is pleased to report progress of NASA funded research at West Virginia State College. During this reporting period, the project research group has continued with activities to develop instrumentation capability designed to monitor resonant cavity frequencies in the atmospheric region between the Earth's surface and the ionosphere. In addition, the project's principal investigator, Dr. Craig Spaniol, and NASA technical officer, Dr. John Sutton, have written and published technical papers intended to expand the scientific and technical framework needed for project research. This research continues to provide an excellent example of government and education working together to provide significant research in the college environment. This cooperative effort has provided many students with technical project work which compliments their education.

  15. Cyclotron resonance in bilayer graphene.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, E A; Jiang, Z; Tung, L-C; Schwartz, M E; Takita, M; Wang, Y-J; Kim, P; Stormer, H L

    2008-02-29

    We present the first measurements of cyclotron resonance of electrons and holes in bilayer graphene. In magnetic fields up to B=18 T, we observe four distinct intraband transitions in both the conduction and valence bands. The transition energies are roughly linear in B between the lowest Landau levels, whereas they follow square root[B] for the higher transitions. This highly unusual behavior represents a change from a parabolic to a linear energy dispersion. The density of states derived from our data generally agrees with the existing lowest order tight binding calculation for bilayer graphene. However, in comparing data to theory, a single set of fitting parameters fails to describe the experimental results.

  16. Piezoelectric Resonator with Two Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephanou, Philip J. (Inventor); Black, Justin P. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A piezoelectric resonator device includes: a top electrode layer with a patterned structure, a top piezoelectric layer adjacent to the top layer, a middle metal layer adjacent to the top piezoelectric layer opposite the top layer, a bottom piezoelectric layer adjacent to the middle layer opposite the top piezoelectric layer, and a bottom electrode layer with a patterned structure and adjacent to the bottom piezoelectric layer opposite the middle layer. The top layer includes a first plurality of electrodes inter-digitated with a second plurality of electrodes. A first one of the electrodes in the top layer and a first one of the electrodes in the bottom layer are coupled to a first contact, and a second one of the electrodes in the top layer and a second one of the electrodes in the bottom layer are coupled to a second contact.

  17. Stochastic resonance in attention control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitajo, K.; Yamanaka, K.; Ward, L. M.; Yamamoto, Y.

    2006-12-01

    We investigated the beneficial role of noise in a human higher brain function, namely visual attention control. We asked subjects to detect a weak gray-level target inside a marker box either in the left or the right visual field. Signal detection performance was optimized by presenting a low level of randomly flickering gray-level noise between and outside the two possible target locations. Further, we found that an increase in eye movement (saccade) rate helped to compensate for the usual deterioration in detection performance at higher noise levels. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence that noise can optimize a higher brain function which involves distinct brain regions above the level of primary sensory systems -- switching behavior between multi-stable attention states -- via the mechanism of stochastic resonance.

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Electrolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Meir, Arie; Hjouj, Mohammad; Rubinsky, Liel; Rubinsky, Boris

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the hypothesis that Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can image the process of electrolysis by detecting pH fronts. The study has relevance to real time control of cell ablation with electrolysis. To investigate the hypothesis we compare the following MR imaging sequences: T1 weighted, T2 weighted and Proton Density (PD), with optical images acquired using pH-sensitive dyes embedded in a physiological saline agar solution phantom treated with electrolysis and discrete measurements with a pH microprobe. We further demonstrate the biological relevance of our work using a bacterial E. Coli model, grown on the phantom. The results demonstrate the ability of MRI to image electrolysis produced pH changes in a physiological saline phantom and show that these changes correlate with cell death in the E. Coli model grown on the phantom. The results are promising and invite further experimental research. PMID:25659942

  19. Lattice QCD and nucleon resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, R. G.; Fiebig, H. R.; Fleming, G.; Richards, D. G.; LHP Collaboration

    2004-06-01

    Lattice calculations provide an ab initio means for the study of QCD. Recent progress at understanding the spectrum and structure of nucleons from lattice QCD studies is reviewed. Measurements of the masses of the lightest particles for the lowest spin values are described and related to predictions of the quark model. Measurements of the mass of the first radial excitation of the nucleon, the so-called Roper resonance, obtained using Bayesian statistical analyses, are detailed. The need to perform calculations at realistically light values of the pion mass is emphasised, and the exciting progress at attaining such masses is outlined. The talk concludes with future prospects, emphasising the importance of constructing a basis of interpolating operators that is sensitive to three-quark states, to multi-quark states, and to excited glue.

  20. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Methods

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jingyuan E.; Glover, Gary H.

    2015-01-01

    Since its inception in 1992, Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has become an indispensible tool for studying cognition in both the healthy and dysfunctional brain. FMRI monitors changes in the oxygenation of brain tissue resulting from altered metabolism consequent to a task-based evoked neural response or from spontaneous fluctuations in neural activity in the absence of conscious mentation (the “resting state”). Task-based studies have revealed neural correlates of a large number of important cognitive processes, while fMRI studies performed in the resting state have demonstrated brain-wide networks that result from brain regions with synchronized, apparently spontaneous activity. In this article, we review the methods used to acquire and analyze fMRI signals. PMID:26248581

  1. Trapped atoms along nanophotonic resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fields, Brian; Kim, May; Chang, Tzu-Han; Hung, Chen-Lung

    2017-04-01

    Many-body systems subject to long-range interactions have remained a very challenging topic experimentally. Ultracold atoms trapped in extreme proximity to the surface of nanophotonic structures provides a dynamic system combining the strong atom-atom interactions mediated by guided mode photons with the exquisite control implemented with trapped atom systems. The hybrid system promises pair-wise tunability of long-range interactions between atomic pseudo spins, allowing studies of quantum magnetism extending far beyond nearest neighbor interactions. In this talk, we will discuss our current status developing high quality nanophotonic ring resonators, engineered on CMOS compatible optical chips with integrated nanostructures that, in combination with a side illuminating beam, can realize stable atom traps approximately 100nm above the surface. We will report on our progress towards loading arrays of cold atoms near the surface of these structures and studying atom-atom interaction mediated by photons with high cooperativity.

  2. Regular Motions of Resonant Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraz-Mello, S.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Se revisan resultados analiticos relativos a soluciones regulares del problema asteroidal eliptico promediados en la vecindad de una resonancia con jupiten Mencionamos Ia ley de estructura para libradores de alta excentricidad, la estabilidad de los centros de liberaci6n, las perturbaciones forzadas por la excentricidad de jupiter y las 6rbitas de corotaci6n. ABSTRAC This paper reviews analytical results concerning the regular solutions of the elliptic asteroidal problem averaged in the neighbourhood of a resonance with jupiter. We mention the law of structure for high-eccentricity librators, the stability of the libration centers, the perturbations forced by the eccentricity ofjupiter and the corotation orbits. Key words: ASThROIDS

  3. Introduction to Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manatt, Stanley L.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to try to give a short overview of what the status is on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). It's a subject where one really has to spend some time to look at the physics in detail to develop a proper working understanding. I feel it's not appropriate to present to you density matrices, Hamiltonians of all sorts, and differential equations representing the motion of spins. I'm really going to present some history and status, and show a few very simple concepts involved in NMR. It is a form of radio frequency spectroscopy and there are a great number of nuclei that can be studied very usefully with the technique. NMR requires a magnet, a r.f. transmitter/receiver system, and a data acquisition system.

  4. Singular reduction of resonant Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Kenneth R.; Palacián, Jesús F.; Yanguas, Patricia

    2018-06-01

    We investigate the dynamics of resonant Hamiltonians with n degrees of freedom to which we attach a small perturbation. Our study is based on the geometric interpretation of singular reduction theory. The flow of the Hamiltonian vector field is reconstructed from the cross sections corresponding to an approximation of this vector field in an energy surface. This approximate system is also built using normal forms and applying reduction theory obtaining the reduced Hamiltonian that is defined on the orbit space. Generically, the reduction is of singular character and we classify the singularities in the orbit space, getting three different types of singular points. A critical point of the reduced Hamiltonian corresponds to a family of periodic solutions in the full system whose characteristic multipliers are approximated accordingly to the nature of the critical point.

  5. Coupling induced logical stochastic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravind, Manaoj; Murali, K.; Sinha, Sudeshna

    2018-06-01

    In this work we will demonstrate the following result: when we have two coupled bistable sub-systems, each driven separately by an external logic input signal, the coupled system yields outputs that can be mapped to specific logic gate operations in a robust manner, in an optimal window of noise. So, though the individual systems receive only one logic input each, due to the interplay of coupling, nonlinearity and noise, they cooperatively respond to give a logic output that is a function of both inputs. Thus the emergent collective response of the system, due to the inherent coupling, in the presence of a noise floor, maps consistently to that of logic outputs of the two inputs, a phenomenon we term coupling induced Logical Stochastic Resonance. Lastly, we demonstrate our idea in proof of principle circuit experiments.

  6. Isolated resonator gyroscope with isolation trimming using a secondary element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The present invention discloses a resonator gyroscope including an isolated resonator. One or more flexures support the isolated resonator and a baseplate is affixed to the resonator by the flexures. Drive and sense elements are affixed to the baseplate and used to excite the resonator and sense movement of the gyroscope. In addition, at least one secondary element (e.g., another electrode) is affixed to the baseplate and used for trimming isolation of the resonator. The resonator operates such that it transfers substantially no net momentum to the baseplate when the resonator is excited. Typically, the isolated resonator comprises a proof mass and a counterbalancing plate.

  7. Aromatic Bagels: An Edible Resonance Analogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shirley

    2007-01-01

    Two Lewis structures, resonance contributors, are used to describe benzene (the Kekule structure) in order to explain resonance theory to chemistry students. The students could create two bagel halves representing the Kekule structures of benzene in which the numbered toothpicks corresponds to the carbon atoms in the two structures and the x…

  8. Resonances for Symmetric Two-Barrier Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Francisco M.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a method for the accurate calculation of bound-state and resonance energies for one-dimensional potentials. We calculate the shape resonances for symmetric two-barrier potentials and compare them with those coming from the Siegert approximation, the complex scaling method and the box-stabilization method. A comparison of the…

  9. Parametric nonfeedback resonance in period doubling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisarchik, A. N.; Corbalán, R.

    1999-02-01

    Slow periodic modulation of a control parameter in a period doubling system leads to an interaction between stable and unstable periodic orbits. This causes a resonance in the system response at the modulation frequency. The conditions for this resonance are studied through numerical simulations of quadratic map and laser equations. The results are confirmed by experiments in a CO2 laser with modulated losses.

  10. Resonance scattering in quantum wave guides

    SciTech Connect

    Arsen'ev, A A

    2003-02-28

    The interaction of a quantum wave guide with a resonator is studied within the frame of the Birman-Kato scattering theory. The existence of poles of the scattering matrix is proved and the jump of the scattering amplitude near a resonance is calculated.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of glenohumeral joint instability.

    PubMed

    Steinbach, Lynne S

    2005-03-01

    Shoulder instability is common, especially anterior subluxation and dislocation. The sequelae are well seen on magnetic resonance imaging and include tears of the labrum, glenohumeral ligaments, capsule, tendons, and muscles. This article seeks to discuss and illustrate common pitfalls and lesions associated with instability. Anatomic and technical considerations, including the use of magnetic resonance arthrography, are also addressed.

  12. Resonant tunneling in frustrated total internal reflection.

    PubMed

    Longhi, Stefano

    2005-10-15

    Anomalous light transmission and resonant tunneling in frustrated total internal reflection (FTIR) are theoretically predicted to occur at periodically curved interfaces. For a low-contrast index and for grazing incidence, it is shown that FTIR resonant tunneling provides an optical realization of field-induced barrier transparency in quantum tunneling.

  13. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Pediatric Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Daniel S.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Leibenluft, Ellen; Peterson, Bradley S.; Gerber, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The use of functional magnetic resonance imaging in investigating pediatric anxiety disorders is studied. Functional magnetic resonance imaging can be utilized in demonstrating parallels between the neural architecture of difference in anxiety of humans and the neural architecture of attention-orienting behavior in nonhuman primates or rodents.…

  14. Wide-range nuclear magnetic resonance detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturman, J. C.; Jirberg, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Compact and easy to use solid state nuclear magnetic resonance detector is designed for measuring field strength to 20 teslas in cryogenically cooled magnets. Extremely low noise and high sensitivity make detector applicable to nearly all types of analytical nuclear magnetic resonance measurements and can be used in high temperature and radiation environments.

  15. Method for fabricating a microelectromechanical resonator

    DOEpatents

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E; Olsson, III, Roy H

    2013-02-05

    A method is disclosed which calculates dimensions for a MEM resonator in terms of integer multiples of a grid width G for reticles used to fabricate the resonator, including an actual sub-width L.sub.a=NG and an effective electrode width W.sub.e=MG where N and M are integers which minimize a frequency error f.sub.e=f.sub.d-f.sub.a between a desired resonant frequency f.sub.d and an actual resonant frequency f.sub.a. The method can also be used to calculate an overall width W.sub.o for the MEM resonator, and an effective electrode length L.sub.e which provides a desired motional impedance for the MEM resonator. The MEM resonator can then be fabricated using these values for L.sub.a, W.sub.e, W.sub.o and L.sub.e. The method can also be applied to a number j of MEM resonators formed on a common substrate.

  16. 14 CFR 27.241 - Ground resonance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground resonance. 27.241 Section 27.241... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Ground and Water Handling Characteristics § 27.241 Ground resonance. The rotorcraft may have no dangerous tendency to oscillate on the ground with the rotor turning...

  17. 14 CFR 29.241 - Ground resonance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground resonance. 29.241 Section 29.241... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Ground and Water Handling Characteristics § 29.241 Ground resonance. The rotorcraft may have no dangerous tendency to oscillate on the ground with the rotor turning...

  18. 14 CFR 27.241 - Ground resonance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ground resonance. 27.241 Section 27.241... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Ground and Water Handling Characteristics § 27.241 Ground resonance. The rotorcraft may have no dangerous tendency to oscillate on the ground with the rotor turning...

  19. 14 CFR 29.241 - Ground resonance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ground resonance. 29.241 Section 29.241... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Ground and Water Handling Characteristics § 29.241 Ground resonance. The rotorcraft may have no dangerous tendency to oscillate on the ground with the rotor turning...

  20. Chemical Principles Revisited. Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuarrie, Donald A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses how to interpret nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and how to use them to determine molecular structures. This discussion is limited to spectra that are a result of observation of only the protons in a molecule. This type is called proton magnetic resonance (PMR) spectra. (CW)

  1. 12 -μ m -Pitch Electromechanical Resonator for Thermal Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Ludovic; Yon, Jean-Jacques; Moulet, Jean-Sébastien; Roukes, Michael; Duraffourg, Laurent

    2018-02-01

    We provide here a demonstration of 12 -μ m -pitch nanoelectromechanical resonant infrared sensors with fully integrated capacitive transduction. A low-temperature fabrication process is used to manufacture torsional resonator arrays. An H -shaped pixel with 9 -μ m -long nanorods and (250 ×30 )-nm2 cross section is designed to provide high thermal response whose experimental measurements reach up to 1024 Hz /nW . A mechanical dynamic range of over 113 dB is obtained, which leads to an Allan deviation of σA=3 ×10-7 at room temperature and 50-Hz noise bandwidth (σA=1.5 ×10-7 over 10 Hz). These features allow us to reach a sensitivity of (8 - 12 )-μ m radiation of 27 pW / √{Hz } leading to a noise-equivalent temperature difference (NETD) of 2 K for a 50-Hz noise bandwidth (NETD =1.5 K at 10 Hz). We demonstrate that the resolution is no more set by the phonon noise but by the anomalous phase noise already encountered in flexural nanoresonators. By both improving the temperature coefficient of frequency of a factor 10 and using a readout electronics at the pixel level, these resonators will lead to a breakthrough for uncooled infrared detectors. We expect that the NETD will rapidly drop to 180 mK with electronics close to the pixel. As a result of the features of our torsional resonators, an alternative readout scheme of pixels is suggested.

  2. Thermally actuated resonant silicon crystal nanobalances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajjam, Arash

    As the potential emerging technology for next generation integrated resonant sensors and frequency references as well as electronic filters, micro-electro-mechanical resonators have attracted a lot of attention over the past decade. As a result, a wide variety of high frequency micro/nanoscale electromechanical resonators have recently been presented. MEMS resonators, as low-cost highly integrated and ultra-sensitive mass sensors, can potentially provide new opportunities and unprecedented capabilities in the area of mass sensing. Such devices can provide orders of magnitude higher mass sensitivity and resolution compared to Film Bulk Acoustic resonators (FBAR) or the conventional quartz and Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) resonators due to their much smaller sizes and can be batch-fabricated and utilized in highly integrated large arrays at a very low cost. In this research, comprehensive experimental studies on the performance and durability of thermally actuated micromechanical resonant sensors with frequencies up to tens of MHz have been performed. The suitability and robustness of the devices have been demonstrated for mass sensing applications related to air-borne particles and organic gases. In addition, due to the internal thermo-electro-mechanical interactions, the active resonators can turn some of the consumed electronic power back into the mechanical structure and compensate for the mechanical losses. Therefore, such resonators can provide self-sustained-oscillation without the need for any electronic circuitry. This unique property has been deployed to demonstrate a prototype self-sustained sensor for air-borne particle monitoring. I have managed to overcome one of the obstacles for MEMS resonators, which is their relatively poor temperature stability. This is a major drawback when compared with the conventional quartz crystals. A significant decrease of the large negative TCF for the resonators has been attained by doping the devices with a high

  3. Resonance magnetoplasticity in ultralow magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alshits, V. I.; Darinskaya, E. V.; Koldaeva, M. V.; Petrzhik, E. A.

    2016-09-01

    Resonance relaxation displacements of dislocations in NaCl crystals placed in crossed static and alternating ultralow magnetic fields in the electron paramagnetic resonance scheme are discussed. The Earth's magnetic field B Earth ≈ 50μT and other fields in the range of 26-261 μT are used as the static field. New strongly anisotropic properties of the effect have been revealed. Frequency spectra including numerous peaks of paths at low pump frequencies beginning with 10 kHz, as well as the quartet of equidistant peaks at high frequencies ( 1.4 MHz at B= B Earth), have been measured. The effect is also observed in the pulsed pump field with a resonance duration of 0.5 μs. Resonance changes have been detected in the microhardness of ZnO, triglycine sulfate, and potassium hydrogen phthalate crystals after their exposure in the Earth's magnetic field in the same electron paramagnetic resonance scheme.

  4. Stagnancy of the pygmy dipole resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xu-Wei; Chen, Jing; Lu, Ding-Hui

    2018-01-01

    The pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) of nickel isotopes is studied using the deformed random phase approximation method. The isoscalar character of the pygmy resonance is confirmed, and the correlation between the pygmy resonance and neutron skin thickness is discussed. Our investigation shows a linear correlation between PDR integral cross section and neutron skin thickness when the excess neutrons lie in pf orbits, with a correlation rate of about 0.27 fm-1. However, in more neutron-rich nickel isotopes, the growth of the pygmy dipole resonance is stagnant. Although the neutron skin thickness increases, the whole skin is not active. There is an inertial part in the nuclei 70-78Ni which does not participate in the pygmy resonance actively and as a result, contributes little to the photo-absorption cross section. Supported by National Science Foundation of China

  5. Linear spreading speeds from nonlinear resonant interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faye, Grégory; Holzer, Matt; Scheel, Arnd

    2017-06-01

    We identify a new mechanism for propagation into unstable states in spatially extended systems, that is based on resonant interaction in the leading edge of invasion fronts. Such resonant invasion speeds can be determined solely based on the complex linear dispersion relation at the unstable equilibrium, but rely on the presence of a nonlinear term that facilitates the resonant coupling. We prove that these resonant speeds give the correct invasion speed in a simple example, we show that fronts with speeds slower than the resonant speed are unstable, and corroborate our speed criterion numerically in a variety of model equations, including a nonlocal scalar neural field model. GF received support from the project NONLOCAL (ANR-14-CE25-0013) funded by the French National Research Agency. MH was partially supported by the National Science Foundation through grant NSF-DMS-1516155. AS was partially supported by the National Science Foundation through grant NSF-DMS-1311740 and through a DAAD Fellowship.

  6. Thermal response of chalcogenide microsphere resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, H; Aryanfar, I; Lim, K S

    2012-05-31

    A chalcogenide microsphere resonator (CMR) used for temperature sensing is proposed and demonstrated. The CMR is fabricated using a simple technique of heating chalcogenide glass and allowing the molten glass to form a microsphere on the waist of a tapered silica fibre. The thermal responses of the CMR is investigated and compared to that of a single-mode-fibre (SMF) based microsphere resonator. It is observed that the CMR sensitivity to ambient temperature changes is 8 times higher than that of the SMF-based microsphere resonator. Heating the chalcogenide microsphere with a laser beam periodically turned on and off shows periodic shifts inmore » the transmission spectrum of the resonator. By injecting an intensity-modulated cw signal through the resonator a thermal relaxation time of 55 ms is estimated.« less

  7. Low noise cryogenic dielectric resonator oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, G. John (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A microwave oscillator is provided which can operate at a temperature of many degrees above absolute zero while providing very low phase noise that has heretofore generally required temperatures within a few degrees K. The oscillator includes a ring-shaped resonant element of ruby (sapphire plus chromium) or iron sapphire crystal, lying adjacent to a resonator element of sapphire, so that the regenerator element lies directly in the magnetic field of the resonator element. The resonator element is substantially devoid of contact with electrically conductive material. Microwave energy of a pump frequency (e.g., 31 GHz) is outputted from the regenerator element, while signal energy (e.g., 10 GHz) is outputted from the resonator element.

  8. Subphotospheric Resonator and Local Oscillations in Sunspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhugzhda, Yu. D.

    2018-05-01

    The conditions under which the subphotospheric slow-wave resonator can be responsible for the local oscillations in a sunspot have been determined. A rich spectrum of local 3-min oscillations can be produced by the subphotospheric resonator only if the magnetic field in the resonator magnetic flux tube is much weaker than the surrounding sunspot magnetic field. Convective upflows of hot plasma in the sunspot magnetic field satisfy this condition. Consequently, there must be a correlation between the local oscillations and umbral dots, because the latter are produced by convective flows. Various modes of operation of the subphotospheric resonator give rise to wave packets of 3-min oscillations and umbral flashes. It is shown that giant local umbral flashes can emerge under certain conditions for the excitation of oscillations in the subphotospheric resonator.

  9. Tunable Magnetic Resonance in Microwave Spintronics Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yunpeng; Fan, Xin; Xie, Yunsong; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Tao; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Simons, Rainee N.; Chui, Sui-Tat; Xiao, John Q.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance is one of the key properties of magnetic materials for the application of microwave spintronics devices. The conventional method for tuning magnetic resonance is to use an electromagnet, which provides very limited tuning range. Hence, the quest for enhancing the magnetic resonance tuning range without using an electromagnet has attracted tremendous attention. In this paper, we exploit the huge exchange coupling field between magnetic interlayers, which is on the order of 4000 Oe and also the high frequency modes of coupled oscillators to enhance the tuning range. Furthermore, we demonstrate a new scheme to control the magnetic resonance frequency. Moreover, we report a shift in the magnetic resonance frequency as high as 20 GHz in CoFe based tunable microwave spintronics devices, which is 10X higher than conventional methods.

  10. Contour mode resonators with acoustic reflectors

    DOEpatents

    Olsson, Roy H [Albuquerque, NM; Fleming, James G [Albuquerque, NM; Tuck, Melanie R [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-06-10

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) resonator is disclosed which has a linear or ring-shaped acoustic resonator suspended above a substrate by an acoustic reflector. The acoustic resonator can be formed with a piezoelectric material (e.g. aluminum nitride, zinc oxide or PZT), or using an electrostatically-actuated material. The acoustic reflector (also termed an acoustic mirror) uses alternating sections of a relatively low acoustic impedance Z.sub.L material and a relatively high acoustic impedance Z.sub.H material to isolate the acoustic resonator from the substrate. The MEM resonator, which can be formed on a silicon substrate with conventional CMOS circuitry, has applications for forming oscillators, rf filters, and acoustic sensors.

  11. Tunable Magnetic Resonance in Microwave Spintronics Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yunpeng; Fan, Xin; Xie, Yungsong; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Tao; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Simons, Rainee N.; Chui, Sui-Tat; Xiao, John Q.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance is one of the key properties of magnetic materials for the application of microwave spintronics devices. The conventional method for tuning magnetic resonance is to use an electromagnet, which provides very limited tuning range. Hence, the quest for enhancing the magnetic resonance tuning range without using an electromagnet has attracted tremendous attention. In this paper, we exploit the huge exchange coupling field between magnetic interlayers, which is on the order of 4000 Oe and also the high frequency modes of coupled oscillators to enhance the tuning range. Furthermore, we demonstrate a new scheme to control the magnetic resonance frequency. Moreover, we report a shift in the magnetic resonance frequency as high as 20 GHz in CoFe-based tunable microwave spintronics devices, which is 10X higher than conventional methods.

  12. A 3-D shape model of Interamnia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Isao

    2015-08-01

    A 3-D shape model of the sixth largest of the main belt asteroids, (704) Interamnia, is presented. The model is reproduced from its two stellar occultation observations and six lightcurves between 1969 and 2011. The first stellar occultation was the occultation of TYC 234500183 on 1996 December 17 observed from 13 sites in the USA. An elliptical cross section of (344.6±9.6km)×(306.2±9.1km), for position angle P=73.4±12.5 was fitted. The lightcurve around the occultation shows that the peak-to-peak amplitude was 0.04 mag. and the occultation phase was just before the minimum. The second stellar occultation was the occultation of HIP 036189 on 2003 March 23 observed from 39 sites in Japan and Hawaii. An elliptical cross section of (349.8±0.9km)×(303.7±1.7km), for position angle P=86.0±1.1 was fitted. A companion of 8.5 mag. of the occulted star was discovered whose separation is 12±2 mas (milli-arcseconds), P=148±11 . A combined analysis of rotational lightcurves and occultation chords can return more information than can be obtained with either technique alone. From follow-up photometric observations of the asteroid between 2003 and 2011, its rotation period is determined to be 8.728967167±0.00000007 hours, which is accurate enough to fix the rotation phases at other occultation events. The derived north pole is λ2000=259±8, β2000=-50±5 (retrograde rotation); the lengths of the three principal axes are 2a=361.8±2.8km, 2b=324.4±5.0km, 2c=297.3±3.5km, and the mean diameter is D=326.8±3.0km. Supposing the mass of Interamnia as (3.5±0.9)×10-11 solar masses, the density is then ρ=3.8±1.0 g cm-3.

  13. Electric-optic resonant phase modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Chien-Chung (Inventor); Robinson, Deborah L. (Inventor); Hemmati, Hamid (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An electro-optic resonant cavity is used to achieve phase modulation with lower driving voltages. Laser damage thresholds are inherently higher than with previously used integrated optics due to the utilization of bulk optics. Phase modulation is achieved at higher speeds with lower driving voltages than previously obtained with non-resonant electro-optic phase modulators. The instant scheme uses a data locking dither approach as opposed to the conventional sinusoidal locking schemes. In accordance with a disclosed embodiment, a resonant cavity modulator has been designed to operate at a data rate in excess of 100 Mbps. By carefully choosing the cavity finesse and its dimension, it is possible to control the pulse switching time to within 4 ns and to limit the required switching voltage to within 10 V. Experimentally, the resonant cavity can be maintained on resonance with respect to the input laser signal by monitoring the fluctuation of output intensity as the cavity is switched. This cavity locking scheme can be applied by using only the random data sequence, and without the need of additional dithering of the cavity. Compared to waveguide modulators, the resonant cavity has a comparable modulating voltage requirement. Because of its bulk geometry, resonant cavity modulator has the potential of accommodating higher throughput power. Furthermore, mode matching into a bulk device is easier and typically can be achieved with higher efficiency. On the other hand, unlike waveguide modulators which are essentially traveling wave devices, the resonant cavity modulator requires that the cavity be maintained in resonance with respect to the incoming laser signal. An additional control loop is incorporated into the modulator to maintain the cavity on resonance.

  14. 3C-SiC microdisk mechanical resonators with multimode resonances at radio frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaesung; Zamani, Hamidrera; Rajgopal, Srihari; Zorman, Christian A.; X-L Feng, Philip

    2017-07-01

    We report on the design, modeling, fabrication and measurement of single-crystal 3C-silicon carbide (SiC) microdisk mechanical resonators with multimode resonances operating at radio frequencies (RF). These microdisk resonators (center-clamped on a vertical stem pedestal) offer multiple flexural-mode resonances with frequencies dependent on both disk and anchor dimensions. The resonators are made using a novel fabrication method comprised of focused ion beam nanomachining and hydroflouic : nitric : acetic (HNA) acid etching. Resonance peaks (in the frequency spectrum) are detected through laser-interferometry measurements. Resonators with different dimensions are tested, and multimode resonances, mode splitting, energy dissipation (in the form of quality factor measurement) are investigated. Further, we demonstrate a feedback oscillator based on a passive 3C-SiC resonator. This investigation provides important guidelines for microdisk resonator development, ranging from an analytical prediction of frequency scaling law to fabrication, suggesting RF microdisk resonators can be good candidates for future sensing applications in harsh environments.

  15. Theoretical investigation of resonant frequencies of unstrapped magnetron with arbitrary side resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Song, E-mail: yuessd@163.com; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049; Zhang, Zhao-chuan

    In this paper, a sector steps approximation method is proposed to investigate the resonant frequencies of magnetrons with arbitrary side resonators. The arbitrary side resonator is substituted with a series of sector steps, in which the spatial harmonics of electromagnetic field are also considered. By using the method of admittance matching between adjacent steps, as well as field continuity conditions between side resonators and interaction regions, the dispersion equation of magnetron with arbitrary side resonators is derived. Resonant frequencies of magnetrons with five common kinds of side resonators are calculated with sector steps approximation method and computer simulation softwares, inmore » which the results have a good agreement. The relative error is less than 2%, which verifies the validity of sector steps approximation method.« less

  16. Lateral acoustic wave resonator comprising a suspended membrane of low damping resonator material

    DOEpatents

    Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady; , Ihab F.; Ziaei-Moayyed, Maryam; Branch; , Darren W.; Su; Mehmet F.,; Reinke; Charles M.,

    2013-09-03

    A very high-Q, low insertion loss resonator can be achieved by storing many overtone cycles of a lateral acoustic wave (i.e., Lamb wave) in a lithographically defined suspended membrane comprising a low damping resonator material, such as silicon carbide. The high-Q resonator can sets up a Fabry-Perot cavity in a low-damping resonator material using high-reflectivity acoustic end mirrors, which can comprise phononic crystals. The lateral overtone acoustic wave resonator can be electrically transduced by piezoelectric couplers. The resonator Q can be increased without increasing the impedance or insertion loss by storing many cycles or wavelengths in the high-Q resonator material, with much lower damping than the piezoelectric transducer material.

  17. Erbium-doped fiber ring resonator for resonant fiber optical gyro applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunming; Zhao, Rui; Tang, Jun; Xia, Meijing; Guo, Huiting; Xie, Chengfeng; Wang, Lei; Liu, Jun

    2018-04-01

    This paper reports a fiber ring resonator with erbium-doped fiber (EDF) for resonant fiber optical gyro (RFOG). To analyze compensation mechanism of the EDF on resonator, a mathematical model of the erbium-doped fiber ring resonator (EDFRR) is established based on Jones matrix to be followed by the design and fabrication of a tunable EDFRR. The performances of the fabricated EDFRR were measured and the experimental Q-factor of 2 . 47 × 108 and resonant depth of 109% were acquired separately. Compared with the resonator without the EDF, the resonant depth and Q-factor of the proposed device are increased by 2.5 times and 14 times, respectively. A potential optimum shot noise limited resolution of 0 . 042∘ / h can be obtained for the RFOG, which is promising for low-cost and high precise detection.

  18. Electron Spin Resonance at the Level of 1 04 Spins Using Low Impedance Superconducting Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichler, C.; Sigillito, A. J.; Lyon, S. A.; Petta, J. R.

    2017-01-01

    We report on electron spin resonance measurements of phosphorus donors localized in a 200 μ m2 area below the inductive wire of a lumped element superconducting resonator. By combining quantum limited parametric amplification with a low impedance microwave resonator design, we are able to detect around 2 ×1 04 spins with a signal-to-noise ratio of 1 in a single shot. The 150 Hz coupling strength between the resonator field and individual spins is significantly larger than the 1-10 Hz coupling rates obtained with typical coplanar waveguide resonator designs. Because of the larger coupling rate, we find that spin relaxation is dominated by radiative decay into the resonator and dependent upon the spin-resonator detuning, as predicted by Purcell.

  19. Study of resonance light scattering for remote optical probing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penney, C. M.; Morey, W. W.; St. Peters, R. L.; Silverstein, S. D.; Lapp, M.; White, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    Enhanced scattering and fluorescence processes in the visible and UV were investigated which will enable improved remote measurements of gas properties. The theoretical relationship between scattering and fluorescence from an isolated molecule in the approach to resonance is examined through analysis of the time dependence of re-emitted light following excitation of pulsed incident light. Quantitative estimates are developed for the relative and absolute intensities of fluorescence and resonance scattering. New results are obtained for depolarization of scattering excited by light at wavelengths within a dissociative continuum. The experimental work was performed in two separate facilities. One of these utilizes argon and krypton lasers, single moded by a tilted etalon, and a 3/4 meter double monochromator. This facility was used to determine properties of the re-emission from NO2, I2 and O3 excited by visible light. The second facility involves a narrow-line dye laser, and a 3/4 meter single monochromator. The dye laser produces pulsed light with 5 nsec pulse duration and 0.005 nm spectral width.

  20. Three-Body Nature of N* and Δ* Resonances from Sequential Decay Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiel, A.; Sokhoyan, V.; Gutz, E.; van Pee, H.; Anisovich, A. V.; Bacelar, J. C. S.; Bantes, B.; Bartholomy, O.; Bayadilov, D.; Beck, R.; Beloglazov, Yu.; Castelijns, R.; Crede, V.; Dutz, H.; Elsner, D.; Ewald, R.; Frommberger, F.; Fuchs, M.; Funke, Ch.; Gregor, R.; Gridnev, A.; Hillert, W.; Hoffmeister, Ph.; Horn, I.; Jaegle, I.; Junkersfeld, J.; Kalinowsky, H.; Kammer, S.; Kleber, V.; Klein, Frank; Klein, Friedrich; Klempt, E.; Kotulla, M.; Krusche, B.; Lang, M.; Löhner, H.; Lopatin, I.; Lugert, S.; Mertens, T.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Metag, V.; Metsch, B.; Nanova, M.; Nikonov, V.; Novinski, D.; Novotny, R.; Ostrick, M.; Pant, L.; Pfeiffer, M.; Piontek, D.; Roy, A.; Sarantsev, A. V.; Schmidt, Ch.; Schmieden, H.; Shende, S.; Süle, A.; Sumachev, V. V.; Szczepanek, T.; Thoma, U.; Trnka, D.; Varma, R.; Walther, D.; Wendel, Ch.; Wilson, A.; Cbelsa/Taps Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    The N π0π0 decays of positive-parity N* and Δ* resonances at about 2 GeV are studied at ELSA by photoproduction of two neutral pions off protons. The data reveal clear evidence for several intermediate resonances: Δ (1232 ) , N (1520 )3 /2- , and N (1680 )5 /2+ , with spin parities JP=3 /2+ , 3 /2- , and 5 /2+. The partial wave analysis (within the Bonn-Gatchina approach) identifies N (1440 )1 /2+ and the N (π π )S wave (abbreviated as N σ here) as further isobars and assigns the final states to the formation of nucleon and Δ resonances and to nonresonant contributions. We observe the known Δ (1232 )π decays of Δ (1910 )1 /2+ , Δ (1920 )3 /2+, Δ (1905 )5 /2+, Δ (1950 )7 /2+, and of the corresponding spin-parity series in the nucleon sector, N (1880 )1 /2+, N (1900 )3 /2+, N (2000 )5 /2+, and N (1990 )7 /2+ . For the nucleon resonances, these decay modes are reported here for the first time. Further new decay modes proceed via N (1440 )1 /2+π , N (1520 )3 /2-π , N (1680 )5 /2+π , and N σ . The latter decay modes are observed in the decay of N* resonances and at most weakly in Δ* decays. It is argued that these decay modes provide evidence for a 3-quark nature of N* resonances rather than a quark-diquark structure.

  1. Analytical model of multi-planetary resonant chains and constraints on migration scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delisle, J.-B.

    2017-09-01

    Resonant chains are groups of planets for which each pair is in resonance, with an orbital period ratio locked at a rational value (2/1, 3/2, etc.). Such chains naturally form as a result of convergent migration of the planets in the proto-planetary disk. In this article, I present an analytical model of resonant chains of any number of planets. Using this model, I show that a system captured in a resonant chain can librate around several possible equilibrium configurations. The probability of capture around each equilibrium depends on how the chain formed, and especially on the order in which the planets have been captured in the chain. Therefore, for an observed resonant chain, knowing around which equilibrium the chain is librating allows for constraints to be put on the formation and migration scenario of the system. I apply this reasoning to the four planets orbiting Kepler-223 in a 3:4:6:8 resonant chain. I show that the system is observed around one of the six equilibria predicted by the analytical model. Using N-body integrations, I show that the most favorable scenario to reproduce the observed configuration is to first capture the two intermediate planets, then the outermost, and finally the innermost.

  2. Fast 3D magnetic resonance fingerprinting for a whole-brain coverage.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dan; Jiang, Yun; Chen, Yong; McGivney, Debra; Mehta, Bhairav; Gulani, Vikas; Griswold, Mark

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to accelerate the acquisition and reconstruction time of 3D magnetic resonance fingerprinting scans. A 3D magnetic resonance fingerprinting scan was accelerated by using a single-shot spiral trajectory with an undersampling factor of 48 in the x-y plane, and an interleaved sampling pattern with an undersampling factor of 3 through plane. Further acceleration came from reducing the waiting time between neighboring partitions. The reconstruction time was accelerated by applying singular value decomposition compression in k-space. Finally, a 3D premeasured B 1 map was used to correct for the B 1 inhomogeneity. The T 1 and T 2 values of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine/National Institute of Standards and Technology MRI phantom showed a good agreement with the standard values, with an average concordance correlation coefficient of 0.99, and coefficient of variation of 7% in the repeatability scans. The results from in vivo scans also showed high image quality in both transverse and coronal views. This study applied a fast acquisition scheme for a fully quantitative 3D magnetic resonance fingerprinting scan with a total acceleration factor of 144 as compared with the Nyquist rate, such that 3D T 1 , T 2 , and proton density maps can be acquired with whole-brain coverage at clinical resolution in less than 5 min. Magn Reson Med 79:2190-2197, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  3. 3D polymer gel dosimetry using a 3D (DESS) and a 2D MultiEcho SE (MESE) sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maris, Thomas G.; Pappas, Evangelos; Karolemeas, Kostantinos; Papadakis, Antonios E.; Zacharopoulou, Fotini; Papanikolaou, Nickolas; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas

    2006-12-01

    The utilization of 3D techniques in Magnetic Resonance Imaging data aquisition and post-processing analysis is a prerequisite especially when modern radiotherapy techniques (conformal RT, IMRT, Stereotactic RT) are to be used. The aim of this work is to compare a 3D Double Echo Steady State (DESS) and a 2D Multiple Echo Spin Echo (MESE) sequence in 3D MRI radiation dosimetry using two different MRI scanners and utilising N-VInylPyrrolidone (VIPAR) based polymer gels.

  4. Memory Applications Using Resonant Tunneling Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shieh, Ming-Huei

    Resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) producing unique folding current-voltage (I-V) characteristics have attracted considerable research attention due to their promising application in signal processing and multi-valued logic. The negative differential resistance of RTDs renders the operating points self-latching and stable. We have proposed a multiple -dimensional multiple-state RTD-based static random-access memory (SRAM) cell in which the number of stable states can significantly be increased to (N + 1)^ m or more for m number of N-peak RTDs connected in series. The proposed cells take advantage of the hysteresis and folding I-V characteristics of RTD. Several cell designs are presented and evaluated. A two-dimensional nine-state memory cell has been implemented and demonstrated by a breadboard circuit using two 2-peak RTDs. The hysteresis phenomenon in a series of RTDs is also further analyzed. The switch model provided in SPICE 3 can be utilized to simulate the hysteretic I-V characteristics of RTDs. A simple macro-circuit is described to model the hysteretic I-V characteristic of RTD for circuit simulation. A new scheme for storing word-wide multiple-bit information very efficiently in a single memory cell using RTDs is proposed. An efficient and inexpensive periphery circuit to read from and write into the cell is also described. Simulation results on the design of a 3-bit memory cell scheme using one-peak RTDs are also presented. Finally, a binary transistor-less memory cell which is only composed of a pair of RTDs and an ordinary rectifier diode is presented and investigated. A simple means for reading and writing information from or into the memory cell is also discussed.

  5. Theory and Applications of Surface Plasmon Resonance, Resonant Mirror, Resonant Waveguide Grating, and Dual Polarization Interferometry Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Daghestani, Hikmat N.; Day, Billy W.

    2010-01-01

    Biosensors have been used extensively in the scientific community for several purposes, most notably to determine association and dissociation kinetics, protein-ligand, protein-protein, or nucleic acid hybridization interactions. A number of different types of biosensors are available in the field, each with real or perceived benefits over the others. This review discusses the basic theory and operational arrangements of four commercially available types of optical biosensors: surface plasmon resonance, resonant mirror, resonance waveguide grating, and dual polarization interferometry. The different applications these techniques offer are discussed from experiments and results reported in recently published literature. Additionally, recent advancements or modifications to the current techniques are also discussed. PMID:22163431

  6. Functional cardiac magnetic resonance microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brau, Anja Christina Sophie

    2003-07-01

    The study of small animal models of human cardiovascular disease is critical to our understanding of the origin, progression, and treatment of this pervasive disease. Complete analysis of disease pathophysiology in these animal models requires measuring structural and functional changes at the level of the whole heart---a task for which an appropriate non-invasive imaging method is needed. The purpose of this work was thus to develop an imaging technique to support in vivo characterization of cardiac structure and function in rat and mouse models of cardiovascular disease. Whereas clinical cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides accurate assessment of the human heart, the extension of cardiac MRI from humans to rodents presents several formidable scaling challenges. Acquiring images of the mouse heart with organ definition and fluidity of contraction comparable to that achieved in humans requires an increase in spatial resolution by a factor of 3000 and an increase in temporal resolution by a factor of ten. No single technical innovation can meet the demanding imaging requirements imposed by the small animal. A functional cardiac magnetic resonance microscopy technique was developed by integrating improvements in physiological control, imaging hardware, biological synchronization of imaging, and pulse sequence design to achieve high-quality images of the murine heart with high spatial and temporal resolution. The specific methods and results from three different sets of imaging experiments are presented: (1) 2D functional imaging in the rat with spatial resolution of 175 mum2 x 1 mm and temporal resolution of 10 ms; (2) 3D functional imaging in the rat with spatial resolution of 100 mum 2 x 500 mum and temporal resolution of 30 ms; and (3) 2D functional imaging in the mouse with spatial resolution down to 100 mum2 x 1 mm and temporal resolution of 10 ms. The cardiac microscopy technique presented here represents a novel collection of technologies capable

  7. Coupling influence on the sensitivity of microfiber resonator sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei; Chen, Ye; Kou, Jun-long; Xu, Fei; Lu, Yan-qing

    2011-12-01

    By modifying the resonant condition of microfiber resonator sensors while taking the coupling effect into account, we theoretically investigate coupling influence on the resonant wavelength and sensitivity. Numerical calculation shows significant difference in resonant wavelength and sensitivity with different coupling strength. Tuning the coupling can shift the resonant position as far as several nanometers and change the sensitivity as large as 30 nm/RIU in an all-coupling microfiber coil resonator.

  8. Scattering Resonances in the Simplest Chemical Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Alonso, Felix; Zare, Richard N.

    2002-10-01

    Recent studies of state-resolved angular distributions show the participation of reactive scattering resonances in the simplest chemical reaction. This review is intended for those who wish to learn about the state-of-the-art in the study of the H + H2 reaction family that has made this breakthrough possible. This review is also intended for those who wish to gain insight into the nature of reactive scattering resonances. Following a tour across several fields of physics and chemistry where the concept of resonance has been crucial for the understanding of new phenomena, we offer an operational definition and taxonomy of reactive scattering resonances. We introduce simple intuitive models to illustrate each resonance type. We focus next on the last decade of H + H2 reaction dynamics. Emphasis is placed on the various experimental approaches that have been applied to the search for resonance behavior in the H + H2 reaction family. We conclude by sketching the road ahead in the study of H + H2 reactive scattering resonances.

  9. Wave energy extraction by coupled resonant absorbers.

    PubMed

    Evans, D V; Porter, R

    2012-01-28

    In this article, a range of problems and theories will be introduced that will build towards a new wave energy converter (WEC) concept, with the acronym 'ROTA' standing for resonant over-topping absorber. First, classical results for wave power absorption for WECs constrained to operate in a single degree of freedom will be reviewed and the role of resonance in their operation highlighted. Emphasis will then be placed on how the introduction of further resonances can improve power take-off characteristics by extending the range of frequencies over which the efficiency is close to a theoretical maximum. Methods for doing this in different types of WECs will be demonstrated. Coupled resonant absorbers achieve this by connecting a WEC device equipped with its own resonance (determined from a hydrodynamic analysis) to a new system having separate mass/spring/damper characteristics. It is shown that a coupled resonant effect can be realized by inserting a water tank into a WEC, and this idea forms the basis of the ROTA device. In essence, the idea is to exploit the coupling between the natural sloshing frequencies of the water in the internal tank and the natural resonance of a submerged buoyant circular cylinder device that is tethered to the sea floor, allowing a rotary motion about its axis of attachment.

  10. Fano resonances in bilayer graphene superlattices.

    PubMed

    Briones-Torres, J A; Rodríguez-Vargas, I

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we address the ubiquitous phenomenon of Fano resonances in bilayer graphene. We consider that this phenomenon is as exotic as other phenomena in graphene because it can arise without an external extended states source or elaborate nano designs. However, there are not theoretical and/or experimental studies that report the impact of Fano resonances on the transport properties. Here, we carry out a systematic assessment of the contribution of the Fano resonances on the transport properties of bilayer graphene superlattices. Specifically, we find that by changing the number of periods, adjusting the barriers height as well as modifying the barriers and wells width it is possible to identify the contribution of Fano resonances on the conductance. Particularly, the coupling of Fano resonances with the intrinsic minibands of the superlattice gives rise to specific and identifiable changes in the conductance. Moreover, by reducing the angular range for the computation of the transport properties it is possible to obtain conductance curves with line-shapes quite similar to the Fano profile and the coupling profile between Fano resonance and miniband states. In fact, these conductance features could serve as unequivocal characteristic of the existence of Fano resonances in bilayer graphene.

  11. Biosensing Using Microring Resonator Interferograms

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Shih-Hsiang; Yang, Yung-Chia; Su, Yu-Hou; Wang, Sheng-Min; Huang, Shih-An; Lin, Ching-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Optical low-coherence interferometry (OLCI) takes advantage of the variation in refractive index in silicon-wire microring resonator (MRR) effective lengths to perform glucose biosensing using MRR interferograms. The MRR quality factor (Q), proportional to the effective length, could be improved using the silicon-wire propagation loss and coupling ratio from the MRR coupler. Our study showed that multimode interference (MMI) performed well in broad band response, but the splitting ratio drifted to 75/25 due to the stress issue. The glucose sensing sensitivity demonstrated 0.00279 meter per refractive-index-unit (RIU) with a Q factor of ∼30,000 under transverse electric polarization. The 1,310 nm DFB laser was built in the OLCI system as the optical ruler achieving 655 nm characterization accuracy. The lowest sensing limitation was therefore 2 × 10−4 RIU. Moreover, the MRR effective length from the glucose sensitivity could be utilized to experimentally demonstrate the silicon wire effective refractive index with a width of 0.45 μm and height of 0.26 μm. PMID:24434876

  12. Endometrial cancer: magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Manfredi, R; Gui, B; Maresca, G; Fanfani, F; Bonomo, L

    2005-01-01

    Carcinoma of the endometrium is the most common invasive gynecologic malignancy of the female genital tract. Clinically, patients with endometrial carcinoma present with abnormal uterine bleeding. The role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in endometrial carcinoma is disease staging and treatment planning. MRI has been shown to be the most valuable imaging mod-ality in this task, compared with endovaginal ultrasound and computed tomography, because of its intrinsic contrast resolution and multiplanar capability. MRI protocol includes axial T1-weighted images; axial, sagittal, and coronal T2-weighted images; and dynamic gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted imaging. MR examination is usually performed in the supine position with a phased array multicoil using a four-coil configuration. Endometrial carcinoma is isointense with the normal endometrium and myometrium on noncontrast T1-weighted images and has a variable appearance on T2-weighted images demonstrating heterogeneous signal intensity. The appearance of noninvasive endometrial carcinoma on MRI is characterized by a normal or thickened endometrium, with an intact junctional zone and a sharp tumor-myometrium interface. Invasive endometrial carcinoma is characterized disruption or irregularity of the junctional zone by intermediate signal intensity mass on T2-weighted images. Invasion of the cervical stroma is diagnosed when the low signal intensity cervical stroma is disrupted by the higher signal intensity endometrial carcinoma. MRI in endometrial carcinoma performs better than other imaging modalities in disease staging and treatment planning. Further, the accuracy and the cost of MRI are equivalent to those of surgical staging.

  13. Voltage control of ferromagnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ziyao; Peng, Bin; Zhu, Mingmin; Liu, Ming

    2016-05-01

    Voltage control of magnetism in multiferroics, where the ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity are simultaneously exhibiting, is of great importance to achieve compact, fast and energy efficient voltage controllable magnetic/microwave devices. Particularly, these devices are widely used in radar, aircraft, cell phones and satellites, where volume, response time and energy consumption is critical. Researchers realized electric field tuning of magnetic properties like magnetization, magnetic anisotropy and permeability in varied multiferroic heterostructures such as bulk, thin films and nanostructure by different magnetoelectric (ME) coupling mechanism: strain/stress, interfacial charge, spin-electromagnetic (EM) coupling and exchange coupling, etc. In this review, we focus on voltage control of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) in multiferroics. ME coupling-induced FMR change is critical in microwave devices, where the electric field tuning of magnetic effective anisotropic field determines the tunability of the performance of microwave devices. Experimentally, FMR measurement technique is also an important method to determine the small effective magnetic field change in small amount of magnetic material precisely due to its high sensitivity and to reveal the deep science of multiferroics, especially, voltage control of magnetism in novel mechanisms like interfacial charge, spin-EM coupling and exchange coupling.

  14. Multidimensionally encoded magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2013-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) typically achieves spatial encoding by measuring the projection of a q-dimensional object over q-dimensional spatial bases created by linear spatial encoding magnetic fields (SEMs). Recently, imaging strategies using nonlinear SEMs have demonstrated potential advantages for reconstructing images with higher spatiotemporal resolution and reducing peripheral nerve stimulation. In practice, nonlinear SEMs and linear SEMs can be used jointly to further improve the image reconstruction performance. Here, we propose the multidimensionally encoded (MDE) MRI to map a q-dimensional object onto a p-dimensional encoding space where p > q. MDE MRI is a theoretical framework linking imaging strategies using linear and nonlinear SEMs. Using a system of eight surface SEM coils with an eight-channel radiofrequency coil array, we demonstrate the five-dimensional MDE MRI for a two-dimensional object as a further generalization of PatLoc imaging and O-space imaging. We also present a method of optimizing spatial bases in MDE MRI. Results show that MDE MRI with a higher dimensional encoding space can reconstruct images more efficiently and with a smaller reconstruction error when the k-space sampling distribution and the number of samples are controlled. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Stochastic Resonance In Visual Perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonotto, Enrico

    1996-03-01

    Stochastic resonance (SR) is a well established physical phenomenon wherein some measure of the coherence of a weak signal can be optimized by random fluctuations, or "noise" (K. Wiesenfeld and F. Moss, Nature), 373, 33 (1995). In all experiments to date the coherence has been measured using numerical analysis of the data, for example, signal-to-noise ratios obtained from power spectra. But, can this analysis be replaced by a perceptive task? Previously we had demonstrated this possibility with a numerical model of perceptual bistability applied to the interpretation of ambiguous figures(M. Riani and E. Simonotto, Phys. Rev. Lett.), 72, 3120 (1994). Here I describe an experiment wherein SR is detected in visual perception. A recognizible grayscale photograph was digitized and presented. The picture was then placed beneath a threshold. Every pixel for which the grayscale exceeded the threshold was painted white, and all others black. For large enough threshold, the picture is unrecognizable, but the addition of a random number to every pixel renders it interpretable(C. Seife and M. Roberts, The Economist), 336, 59, July 29 (1995). However the addition of dynamical noise to the pixels much enhances an observer's ability to interpret the picture. Here I report the results of psychophysics experiments wherein the effects of both the intensity of the noise and its correlation time were studied.

  16. Low rank magnetic resonance fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Mazor, Gal; Weizman, Lior; Tal, Assaf; Eldar, Yonina C

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) is a relatively new approach that provides quantitative MRI using randomized acquisition. Extraction of physical quantitative tissue values is preformed off-line, based on acquisition with varying parameters and a dictionary generated according to the Bloch equations. MRF uses hundreds of radio frequency (RF) excitation pulses for acquisition, and therefore high under-sampling ratio in the sampling domain (k-space) is required. This under-sampling causes spatial artifacts that hamper the ability to accurately estimate the quantitative tissue values. In this work, we introduce a new approach for quantitative MRI using MRF, called Low Rank MRF. We exploit the low rank property of the temporal domain, on top of the well-known sparsity of the MRF signal in the generated dictionary domain. We present an iterative scheme that consists of a gradient step followed by a low rank projection using the singular value decomposition. Experiments on real MRI data demonstrate superior results compared to conventional implementation of compressed sensing for MRF at 15% sampling ratio.

  17. Microwave amplification with nanomechanical resonators.

    PubMed

    Massel, F; Heikkilä, T T; Pirkkalainen, J-M; Cho, S U; Saloniemi, H; Hakonen, P J; Sillanpää, M A

    2011-12-14

    The sensitive measurement of electrical signals is at the heart of modern technology. According to the principles of quantum mechanics, any detector or amplifier necessarily adds a certain amount of noise to the signal, equal to at least the noise added by quantum fluctuations. This quantum limit of added noise has nearly been reached in superconducting devices that take advantage of nonlinearities in Josephson junctions. Here we introduce the concept of the amplification of microwave signals using mechanical oscillation, which seems likely to enable quantum-limited operation. We drive a nanomechanical resonator with a radiation pressure force, and provide an experimental demonstration and an analytical description of how a signal input to a microwave cavity induces coherent stimulated emission and, consequently, signal amplification. This generic scheme, which is based on two linear oscillators, has the advantage of being conceptually and practically simpler than the Josephson junction devices. In our device, we achieve signal amplification of 25 decibels with the addition of 20 quanta of noise, which is consistent with the expected amount of added noise. The generality of the model allows for realization in other physical systems as well, and we anticipate that near-quantum-limited mechanical microwave amplification will soon be feasible in various applications involving integrated electrical circuits.

  18. Damping Resonant Current in a Spark-Gap Trigger Circuit to Reduce Noise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    DAMPING RESONANT CURRENT IN A SPARK- GAP TRIGGER CIRCUIT TO REDUCE NOISE E. L. Ruden Air Force Research Laboratory, Directed Energy Directorate, AFRL...REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Damping Resonant Current In A Spark- Gap Trigger Circuit To Reduce Noise 5a...thereby triggering 2 after delay 0, is 1. Each of the two rail- gaps (represented by 2) is trig- gered to close after the spark- gap (1) in the

  19. Midbrain and spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes in poliomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Anita; Sharma, Suvasini; Sankhyan, Naveen; Gulati, Sheffali; Kalra, Veena; Banerjee, Bidisha; Kumar, Atin

    2010-04-01

    Poliomyelitis, though eradicated from most parts of the world, continues to occur in India. There is paucity of data on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes in poliomyelitis. We report a 3(1/2)-year-old boy who presented with subacute onset flaccid paralysis and altered sensorium. Stool culture was positive for wild polio virus type 3. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed signal changes in bilateral substantia nigra and anterior horns of the spinal cord. These MRI changes may be of potential diagnostic significance in a child with poliomyelitis.

  20. Asteroid proper elements and secular resonances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knezevic, Zoran; Milani, Andrea

    1992-01-01

    In a series of papers (e.g., Knezevic, 1991; Milani and Knezevic, 1990; 1991) we reported on the progress we were making in computing asteroid proper elements, both as regards their accuracy and long-term stability. Additionally, we reported on the efficiency and 'intelligence' of our software. At the same time, we studied the associated problems of resonance effects, and we introduced the new class of 'nonlinear' secular resonances; we determined the locations of these secular resonances in proper-element phase space and analyzed their impact on the asteroid family classification. Here we would like to summarize the current status of our work and possible further developments.

  1. Acoustic resonator and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Kline, G.R.; Lakin, K.M.

    1983-10-13

    A method of fabricating an acoustic wave resonator wherein all processing steps are accomplished from a single side of said substrate. The method involves deposition of a multi-layered Al/AlN structure on a GaAs substrate followed by a series of fabrication steps to define a resonator from said composite. The resulting resonator comprises an AlN layer between two Al layers and another layer of AlN on an exterior of one of said Al layers.

  2. Opto-electronic oscillators having optical resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, Xiaotian Steve (Inventor); Maleki, Lutfollah (Inventor); Ilchenko, Vladimir (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Systems and techniques of incorporating an optical resonator in an optical part of a feedback loop in opto-electronic oscillators. This optical resonator provides a sufficiently long energy storage time and hence to produce an oscillation of a narrow linewidth and low phase noise. Certain mode matching conditions are required. For example, the mode spacing of the optical resonator is equal to one mode spacing, or a multiplicity of the mode spacing, of an opto-electronic feedback loop that receives a modulated optical signal and to produce an electrical oscillating signal.

  3. Chiral symmetry constraints on resonant amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruns, Peter C.; Mai, Maxim

    2018-03-01

    We discuss the impact of chiral symmetry constraints on the quark-mass dependence of meson resonance pole positions, which are encoded in non-perturbative parametrizations of meson scattering amplitudes. Model-independent conditions on such parametrizations are derived, which are shown to guarantee the correct functional form of the leading quark-mass corrections to the resonance pole positions. Some model amplitudes for ππ scattering, widely used for the determination of ρ and σ resonance properties from results of lattice simulations, are tested explicitly with respect to these conditions.

  4. Mie resonances to tailor random lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, P. D.; Ibisate, M.; Sapienza, R.; Wiersma, D. S.; López, C.

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, we present an optical characterization of photonic glass-based random lasers. We show how the resonant behavior of diffuse light transport through such systems can tailor the lasing emission when a gain medium is added to the glass. A DNA-based organic dye is used as gain medium. The resonances in the transport mean-free path influence the lasing wavelength of the random laser. The laser wavelength is therefore controlled by the sphere diameter. Furthermore, the existence of Mie resonances reduces the necessary pump energy to reach the lasing threshold.

  5. Acoustic resonator and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Kline, Gerald R.; Lakin, Kenneth M.

    1985-03-05

    A method of fabricating an acoustic wave resonator wherein all processing steps are accomplished from a single side of said substrate. The method involves deposition of a multi-layered Al/AlN structure on a GaAs substrate followed by a series of fabrication steps to define a resonator from said composite. The resulting resonator comprises an AlN layer between two Al layers and another layer of AlN on an exterior of one of said Al layers.

  6. Acoustic resonator and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Kline, G.R.; Lakin, K.M.

    1985-03-05

    A method is disclosed of fabricating an acoustic wave resonator wherein all processing steps are accomplished from a single side of said substrate. The method involves deposition of a multi-layered Al/AlN structure on a GaAs substrate followed by a series of fabrication steps to define a resonator from said composite. The resulting resonator comprises an AlN layer between two Al layers and another layer of AlN on an exterior of one of said Al layers. 4 figs.

  7. Neutron cross sections. Volume I. Resonance parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Mughabghab, S.F.; Garber, D.I.

    1973-06-01

    In contrast to earlier editions, which presented in compact form a summary of the complete store of the neutron data files, this edition aims to provide those portions of neutron data considered to be of prime importance and best suited for inclusion in ready reference form. This volume contains thermal cross sections, resonance properties, resonance parameters, and bibliography for nuclides from H to /sup 257/Fm. Notation and nomenclature, considerations involved in the recommendations, and a table of energyordered resonances are also included. (RWR)

  8. Development of optical WGM resonators for biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brice, I.; Pirktina, A.; Ubele, A.; Grundsteins, K.; Atvars, A.; Viter, R.; Alnis, J.

    2017-12-01

    Whispering Gallery Mode (WGM) resonators are very sensitive to nanoparticles attaching to the surface. We simulate this process using COMSOL Wave Optics module. Our spherical WGM resonators are produced by melting a tip of an optical fiber and we measure optical Q factors in the 105 range. Molecular oxygen lines of the air in the 760 nm region are used as reference markers when looking for the shifts of the WGM resonance lines. We demonstrate WGM microresonator surface coating with a layer of ZnO nanorods as well as with polystyrene microspheres. Coatings produce increased contact surface. Additional layer of antigens/antibodies will be coated to make high-specificity biosensors.

  9. MSW-resonant fermion mixing during reheating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanai, Tsuneto; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2003-10-01

    We study the dynamics of reheating in which an inflaton field couples two flavor fermions through Yukawa-couplings. When two fermions have a mixing term with a constant coupling, we show that the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW)-type resonance emerges due to a time-dependent background in addition to the standard fermion creation via parametric resonance. This MSW resonance not only alters the number densities of fermions generated by a preheating process but also can lead to the larger energy transfer from the inflaton to fermions. Our mechanism can provide additional source terms for the creation of superheavy fermions which may be relevant for the leptogenesis scenario.

  10. Trampoline metamaterial: Local resonance enhancement by springboards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilal, Osama R.; Hussein, Mahmoud I.

    2013-09-01

    We investigate the dispersion characteristics of locally resonant elastic metamaterials formed by the erection of pillars on the solid regions in a plate patterned by a periodic array of holes. We show that these solid regions effectively act as springboards leading to an enhanced resonance behavior by the pillars when compared to the nominal case of pillars with no holes. This local resonance amplification phenomenon, which we define as the trampoline effect, is shown to cause subwavelength bandgaps to increase in size by up to a factor of 4. This outcome facilitates the utilization of subwavelength metamaterial properties over exceedingly broad frequency ranges.

  11. Microwave Oscillators Based on Nonlinear WGM Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maleki, Lute; Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Strekalov, Dmitry

    2006-01-01

    Optical oscillators that exploit resonantly enhanced four-wave mixing in nonlinear whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) resonators are under investigation for potential utility as low-power, ultra-miniature sources of stable, spectrally pure microwave signals. There are numerous potential uses for such oscillators in radar systems, communication systems, and scientific instrumentation. The resonator in an oscillator of this type is made of a crystalline material that exhibits cubic Kerr nonlinearity, which supports the four-photon parametric process also known as four-wave mixing. The oscillator can be characterized as all-optical in the sense that the entire process of generation of the microwave signal takes place within the WGM resonator. The resonantly enhanced four-wave mixing yields coherent, phase-modulated optical signals at frequencies governed by the resonator structure. The frequency of the phase-modulation signal, which is in the microwave range, equals the difference between the frequencies of the optical signals; hence, this frequency is also governed by the resonator structure. Hence, further, the microwave signal is stable and can be used as a reference signal. The figure schematically depicts the apparatus used in a proof-of-principle experiment. Linearly polarized pump light was generated by an yttrium aluminum garnet laser at a wavelength of 1.32 microns. By use of a 90:10 fiber-optic splitter and optical fibers, some of the laser light was sent into a delay line and some was transmitted to one face of glass coupling prism, that, in turn, coupled the laser light into a crystalline CaF2 WGM disk resonator that had a resonance quality factor (Q) of 6x10(exp 9). The output light of the resonator was collected via another face of the coupling prism and a single-mode optical fiber, which transmitted the light to a 50:50 fiber-optic splitter. One output of this splitter was sent to a slow photodiode to obtain a DC signal for locking the laser to a particular

  12. Mitigating Thermoelastic Dissipation of Flexural Micromechanical Resonators by Decoupling Resonant Frequency from Thermal Relaxation Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xin; Xiao, Dingbang; Wu, Xuezhong; Li, Qingsong; Hou, Zhanqiang; He, Kaixuan; Wu, Yulie

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports an alternative design strategy to reduce thermoelastic dissipation (TED) for isothermal-mode micromechanical resonators. This involves hanging lumped masses on a frame structure to decouple the resonant frequency and the effective beamwidth of the resonators, which enables the separation of the thermal relaxation rate and frequency of vibration. This approach is validated using silicon-based micromechanical disklike resonators engineered to isolate TED. A threefold improvement in the quality factor and a tenfold improvement in the decay-time constant is demonstrated. This work proposes a solution for isothermal-mode (flexural) micromechanical resonators to effectively mitigate TED. Specifically, this approach is ideal for designing high-performance gyroscope resonators based on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. It may pave the way for the next generation inertial-grade MEMS gyroscope, which remains a great challenge and is very appealing.

  13. Resonance coupling and polarization conversion in terahertz metasurfaces with twisted split-ring resonator pairs

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Chenyu; Chang, Chun-Chieh; Zhou, Qingli; ...

    2017-10-10

    Here, we investigate edge-coupling of twisted split-ring resonator (SRR) pairs in the terahertz (THz) frequency range. By using a simple coupled-resonator model we show that such a system exhibits resonance splitting and cross-polarization conversion. Numerical simulations and experimental measurements agree well with theoretical calculations, verifying the resonance splitting as a function of the coupling strength given by the SRR separation. We further show that a metal ground plane can be integrated to significantly enhance the resonance coupling, which enables the effective control of resonance splitting and the efficiency and bandwidth of the cross-polarization conversion. Our findings improve the fundamental understandingmore » of metamaterials with a view of accomplishing metamaterial functionalities with enhanced performance, which is of great interest in realizing THz functional devices required in a variety of applications.« less

  14. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... mild sedative prior to the examination. For more information about Magnetic Resonance Angiography of MRA or any ... Inc. (RSNA). To help ensure current and accurate information, we do not permit copying but encourage linking ...

  15. Superconducting Resonators with Parasitic Electromagnetic Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornibrook, John; Mitchell, Emma; Reilly, David

    2012-02-01

    Microwave losses in niobium superconducting resonators are investigated at milli-Kelvin temperatures and with low drive power. In addition to the well-known suppression of Q-factor that arises from coupling between the resonator and two-level defects in the dielectric substrate [1-4], we report strong dependence of the loaded Q-factor and resonance line-shape on the electromagnetic environment. Methods to suppress parasitic coupling between the resonator and its environment are demonstrated.[4pt] [1] Day, P.K. et al., Nature 425, 817-821 (2003).[0pt] [2] Wallraff, A. et. al., Nature 451, 162-167 (2004).[0pt] [3] Macha, P. et. al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 96, 062503 (2010).[0pt] [4] O'Connell, A.D. et. al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 92, 112903 (2008).

  16. A silicon micromachined resonant pressure sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhangyang; Fan, Shangchun; Cai, Chenguang

    2009-09-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication and test of a silicon micromachined resonant pressure sensor. A square membrane and a doubly clamped resonant beam constitute a compound structure. The former senses the pressure directly, while the latter changes its resonant frequency according to deformation of the membrane. The final output relation between the resonant frequency and the applied pressure is deducted according to the structure mechanical properties. Sensors are fabricated by micromachining technology, and then sealed in vaccum. These sensors are tested by open-loop and close-loop system designed on purpose. The experiment results demonstrate that the sensor has a sensitivity of 49.8Hz/kPa and repeatability of 0.08%.

  17. Microcavity surface plasmon resonance bio-sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosavian, Nazanin

    This work discusses a miniature surface plasmon biosensor which uses a dielectric sub- micron diameter core with gold spherical shell. The shell has a subwavelength nanoaperture believed to excite stationary plasmon resonances at the biosensor's surface. The sub-micron cavity enhances the measurement sensitivity of molecules binding to the sensor surface. We used visible-range optical spectroscopy to study the wavelength shift as bio-molecules absorbed-desorbed at the shell surface. We also used Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Focused Ion Beam (FIB) ablation to study the characteristics of microcavity surface plasmon resonance sensor (MSPRS) and the inner structure formed with metal deposition and its spectrum. We found that resonances at 580 nm and 670 nm responded to bound test agents and that Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) sensor intensity could be used to differentiate between D-glucose and L-glucose. The responsiveness of the system depended upon the mechanical integrity of the metallic surface coating.

  18. Exploring Nurse Faculty Incivility and Resonant Leadership.

    PubMed

    Casale, Katherine R

    The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to explore the relationship between the frequency of interfaculty incivility among nurses in academia and observed levels of resonant leadership of immediate supervisors. Despite mandates to address incivility in health care, nurse faculty report high levels of horizontal incivility among their peers. No known quantitative research has measured the relationship between nurse faculty-to-faculty incivility and resonant leadership traits of leaders. Nursing faculty from 17 universities (n = 260) were emailed an anonymous link to answer survey questions about horizontal peer incivility and leaders' management styles. There was a significant inverse relationship (Pearson's r, -.560) between the frequency of experienced faculty-to-faculty incivility and the level of observed resonant leadership behaviors of participants' immediate supervisors. Resonant supervisory behaviors inversely correlated with nurse faculty peer incivility, with potential to impact satisfaction, recruitment, and retention.

  19. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence of U-235

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Glen A.; Caggiano, Joseph A.; Hensley, Walter K.

    Nuclear resonance fluorescence is a physical process that provides an isotopic-specific signature that could be used for the identification and characterization of materials. The technique involves the detection of prompt discrete-energy photons emitted from a sample which is exposed to photons in the MeV energy range. Potential applications of the technique range from detection of high explosives to characterization of special nuclear materials. One isotope of significant interest is 235U. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Passport Systems have collaborated to conduct measurements to search for a nuclear resonance fluorescence response of 235U below 3 MeV using a 200 g samplemore » of highly enriched uranium. Nine 235U resonances between 1650 and 2010 keV were identified in the preliminary analysis. Analysis of the measurement data to determine the integrated cross sections of the resonances is in progress.« less

  20. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Trackbed Moisture Sensor System

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2018-02-01

    In this initial phase, conducted from March 2015 through December 2016, Vista Clara and its subcontractor Zetica Rail successfully developed and tested a man-portable, non-invasive spot-check nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) moisture sensor that dire...

  1. Miniature Magnet for Electron Spin Resonance Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupp, L. W.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Describes commercially available permanent magnets that have been incorporated in a compact and inexpensive structure providing both field sweep and modulation suitable for electron spin resonance at microwave frequencies. (MLH)

  2. Subwavelength total acoustic absorption with degenerate resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Min; Meng, Chong; Fu, Caixing; Li, Yong; Yang, Zhiyu; Sheng, Ping

    2015-09-01

    We report the experimental realization of perfect sound absorption by sub-wavelength monopole and dipole resonators that exhibit degenerate resonant frequencies. This is achieved through the destructive interference of two resonators' transmission responses, while the matching of their averaged impedances to that of air implies no backscattering, thereby leading to total absorption. Two examples, both using decorated membrane resonators (DMRs) as the basic units, are presented. The first is a flat panel comprising a DMR and a pair of coupled DMRs, while the second one is a ventilated short tube containing a DMR in conjunction with a sidewall DMR backed by a cavity. In both examples, near perfect absorption, up to 99.7%, has been observed with the airborne wavelength up to 1.2 m, which is at least an order of magnitude larger than the composite absorber. Excellent agreement between theory and experiment is obtained.

  3. Dental materials and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Hubálková, Hana; Hora, Karel; Seidl, Zdenek; Krásenský, Jan

    2002-09-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the reaction of selected dental materials in the magnetic field of a magnetic resonance imaging device to determine a possible health risk. The following dental materials were tested in vitro during magnetic resonance imaging: 15 dental alloys, four dental implants, one surgical splint and two wires for fixation of maxillofacial fractures. Possible artefacts (corresponding with magnetic properties), heating and force effects were tested. Results concerning movement and heating were in agreement with the literature. The artefacts seen were significant: for the surgical splint, a spherical artefact with a diameter of 55 mm; for the wires, up to 22 mm; and for the dental blade implant, an artefact of 28 x 20 mm. The results of our tests of selected dental appliances indicate that their presence in the human organism is safe for patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging procedures. The presence of artefacts can substantially influence the magnetic resonance imaging results.

  4. Dust grain resonant capture: A statistical study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzari, F.; Vanzani, V.; Weidenschilling, S. J.

    1993-01-01

    A statistical approach, based on a large number of simultaneous numerical integrations, is adopted to study the capture in external mean motion resonances with the Earth of micron size dust grains perturbed by solar radiation and wind forces. We explore the dependence of the resonant capture phenomenon on the initial eccentricity e(sub 0) and perihelion argument w(sub 0) of the dust particle orbit. The intensity of both the resonant and dissipative (Poynting-Robertson and wind drag) perturbations strongly depends on the eccentricity of the particle while the perihelion argument determines, for low inclination, the mutual geometrical configuration of the particle's orbit with respect to the Earth's orbit. We present results for three j:j+1 commensurabilities (2:3, 4:5 and 6:7) and also for particle sizes s = 15, 30 microns. This study extends our previous work on the long term orbital evolution of single dust particles trapped into resonances with the Earth.

  5. Influence of SLC6A3 and COMT Variation on Neural Activation During Response Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Congdon, Eliza; Constable, R. Todd; Lesch, Klaus Peter; Canli, Turhan

    2009-01-01

    There is evidence concerning the neural and genetic correlates of inhibitory control, but there have been limited attempts to combine this information. This study tested the hypothesis that two dopaminergic polymorphisms, SLC6A3 and COMT, influence neural activation during response inhibition. Healthy adults were genotyped for these polymorphisms and performed a measure of response inhibition while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Results support the role of key frontostriatal regions underlying response inhibition. Furthermore, results support a significant influence of SLC6A3 and COMT variants on neural activity during inhibition, with greater activation during inhibition in carriers of the SLC6A3 9-allele or the COMT met-allele as compared to carriers of the SLC6A3 10/10 genotype or the COMT val/val genotype. These results add to a growing literature suggesting that inhibitory control is sensitive to variation in dopamine function, and suggest that this variation may be detectable at the level of individuals’ genotypes. PMID:19482231

  6. SS-HORSE method for studying resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Blokhintsev, L. D.; Mazur, A. I.; Mazur, I. A., E-mail: 008043@pnu.edu.ru

    A new method for analyzing resonance states based on the Harmonic-Oscillator Representation of Scattering Equations (HORSE) formalism and analytic properties of partial-wave scattering amplitudes is proposed. The method is tested by applying it to the model problem of neutral-particle scattering and can be used to study resonance states on the basis of microscopic calculations performed within various versions of the shell model.

  7. Dissipation in graphene and nanotube resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seoánez, C.; Guinea, F.; Castro Neto, A. H.

    2007-09-01

    Different damping mechanisms in graphene nanoresonators are studied: charges in the substrate, ohmic losses in the substrate and the graphene sheet, breaking and healing of surface bonds (Velcro effect), two level systems, attachment losses, and thermoelastic losses. We find that, for realistic structures and contrary to semiconductor resonators, dissipation is dominated by ohmic losses in the graphene layer and metallic gate. An extension of this study to carbon nanotube-based resonators is presented.

  8. Acoustic resonance phase locked photoacoustic spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Bomse, David S.; Silver, Joel A.

    2003-08-19

    A photoacoustic spectroscopy method and apparatus for maintaining an acoustic source frequency on a sample cell resonance frequency comprising: providing an acoustic source to the sample cell to generate a photoacoustic signal, the acoustic source having a source frequency; continuously measuring detection phase of the photoacoustic signal with respect to source frequency or a harmonic thereof; and employing the measured detection phase to provide magnitude and direction for correcting the source frequency to the resonance frequency.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of appendicular musculoskeletal infection.

    PubMed

    Lalam, Radhesh K; Cassar-Pullicino, Victor N; Tins, Bernhard J

    2007-06-01

    Appendicular skeletal infection includes osseous and extraosseous infections. Skeletal infection needs early diagnosis and appropriate management to prevent long-term morbidity. Magnetic resonance imaging is the best imaging modality to diagnose skeletal infection early in most circumstances. This article describes the role of magnetic resonance imaging in relation to the other available imaging modalities in the diagnosis of skeletal infection. Special circumstances such as diabetic foot, postoperative infection, and chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis are discussed separately.

  10. Ring-Resonator/Sol-Gel Interferometric Immunosensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bearman, Gregory; Cohen, David

    2007-01-01

    A proposed biosensing system would be based on a combination of (1) a sensing volume containing antibodies immobilized in a sol-gel matrix and (2) an optical interferometer having a ring resonator configuration. The antibodies would be specific to an antigen species that one seeks to detect. In the ring resonator of the proposed system, light would make multiple passes through the sensing volume, affording greater interaction length and, hence, greater antibody- detection sensitivity.

  11. Parametric amplification in a resonant sensing array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yie, Zi; Miller, Nicholas J.; Shaw, Steven W.; Turner, Kimberly L.

    2012-03-01

    We demonstrate parametric amplification of a multidegree of freedom resonant mass sensing array via an applied base motion containing the appropriate frequency content and phases. Applying parametric forcing in this manner is simple and aligns naturally with the vibrational properties of the sensing structure. Using this technique, we observe an increase in the quality factors of the coupled array resonances, which provides an effective means of improving device sensitivity.

  12. Resonant quantum transitions in trapped antihydrogen atoms.

    PubMed

    Amole, C; Ashkezari, M D; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Bowe, P D; Butler, E; Capra, A; Cesar, C L; Charlton, M; Deller, A; Donnan, P H; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Isaac, C A; Jonsell, S; Kurchaninov, L; Little, A; Madsen, N; McKenna, J T K; Menary, S; Napoli, S C; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Pusa, P; Rasmussen, C Ø; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Shields, C R; Silveira, D M; Stracka, S; So, C; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S

    2012-03-07

    The hydrogen atom is one of the most important and influential model systems in modern physics. Attempts to understand its spectrum are inextricably linked to the early history and development of quantum mechanics. The hydrogen atom's stature lies in its simplicity and in the accuracy with which its spectrum can be measured and compared to theory. Today its spectrum remains a valuable tool for determining the values of fundamental constants and for challenging the limits of modern physics, including the validity of quantum electrodynamics and--by comparison with measurements on its antimatter counterpart, antihydrogen--the validity of CPT (charge conjugation, parity and time reversal) symmetry. Here we report spectroscopy of a pure antimatter atom, demonstrating resonant quantum transitions in antihydrogen. We have manipulated the internal spin state of antihydrogen atoms so as to induce magnetic resonance transitions between hyperfine levels of the positronic ground state. We used resonant microwave radiation to flip the spin of the positron in antihydrogen atoms that were magnetically trapped in the ALPHA apparatus. The spin flip causes trapped anti-atoms to be ejected from the trap. We look for evidence of resonant interaction by comparing the survival rate of trapped atoms irradiated with microwaves on-resonance to that of atoms subjected to microwaves that are off-resonance. In one variant of the experiment, we detect 23 atoms that survive in 110 trapping attempts with microwaves off-resonance (0.21 per attempt), and only two atoms that survive in 103 attempts with microwaves on-resonance (0.02 per attempt). We also describe the direct detection of the annihilation of antihydrogen atoms ejected by the microwaves.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage repair.

    PubMed

    Potter, Hollis G; Chong, Le Roy; Sneag, Darryl B

    2008-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is an important noninvasive modality in characterizing cartilage morphology, biochemistry, and function. It serves as a valuable objective outcome measure in diagnosing pathology at the time of initial injury, guiding surgical planning, and evaluating postsurgical repair. This article reviews the current literature addressing the recent advances in qualitative and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging techniques in the preoperative setting, and in patients who have undergone cartilage repair techniques such as microfracture, autologous cartilage transplantation, or osteochondral transplantation.

  14. Unstable Resonator Retrofitted Handheld Laser Designator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-01

    retrofitted with a negative-branch unstable resona- tor laser and hybrid pump cavity in place of the conventional plane-mirror/ porro prism resonator and...directed by prism B to an expanding telescope, shared with the viewing system of the designator. The actual, unfolded resonator length is approxi...was performed based on using a plane- parallel cavity consisting of a 47% reflectivity output coupler, porro - prism reflector, and the same LiNb03

  15. The Geometric Theory of Roof Reflector Resonators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-01

    reflector, if properly oriented, (The terms "roof-top prism ," "right-angle prism ," and - incorrectly - " Porro prism " are encountered in .the literature...Q-switch prisms ) in laser resonators have been infrequent compared to the attention given spherical mirrors. This chapter summarizes the relevant...designator (Refs 42 and 43). In one experiment, a 900 roof prism was tested in a resonator with a 70% reflecting filat mirror. Thus, in Fig. 2, the right roof

  16. Method of making a quartz resonator

    DOEpatents

    Vig, John R.; Filler, Raymond L.; Peters, R. Donald; Frank, James M.

    1981-01-01

    A quartz resonator is made from a chemically polished quartz plate. The plate is placed in an enclosure fitted with at least three mounting clips to receive the plate. The plate is secured to the clips with an electrically conductive adhesive capable of withstanding operation at 350 degrees C. The assembly is cleaned and a metallic electrode deposited onto the plate until the desired frequency is reached. The enclosure is then hermetically sealed. The resulting resonator can consistently withstand extremely high shocks.

  17. Resonant-cavity antenna for plasma heating

    DOEpatents

    Perkins, F.W. Jr.; Chiu, S.C.; Parks, P.; Rawls, J.M.

    1984-01-10

    This invention relates generally to a method and apparatus for transferring energy to a plasma immersed in a magnetic field, and relates particularly to an apparatus for heating a plasma of low atomic number ions to high temperatures by transfer of energy to plasma resonances, particularly the fundamental and harmonics of the ion cyclotron frequency of the plasma ions. This invention transfers energy from an oscillating radio-frequency field to a plasma resonance of a plasma immersed in a magnetic field.

  18. Prediction for a Four-Neutron Resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Shirokov, A. M.; Papadimitriou, G.; Mazur, A. I.

    Here, we utilize various ab initio approaches to search for a low-lying resonance in the four-neutron (4n) system using the JISP16 realistic NN interaction. Our most accurate prediction is obtained using a J-matrix extension of the no-core shell model and suggests a 4n resonant state at an energy near E r = 0.8 MeV with a width of approximately Γ = 1.4 MeV.

  19. Resonance controlled transport in phase space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leoncini, Xavier; Vasiliev, Alexei; Artemyev, Anton

    2018-02-01

    We consider the mechanism of controlling particle transport in phase space by means of resonances in an adiabatic setting. Using a model problem describing nonlinear wave-particle interaction, we show that captures into resonances can be used to control transport in momentum space as well as in physical space. We design the model system to provide creation of a narrow peak in the distribution function, thus producing effective cooling of a sub-ensemble of the particles.

  20. Prediction for a Four-Neutron Resonance

    DOE PAGES

    Shirokov, A. M.; Papadimitriou, G.; Mazur, A. I.; ...

    2016-10-28

    Here, we utilize various ab initio approaches to search for a low-lying resonance in the four-neutron (4n) system using the JISP16 realistic NN interaction. Our most accurate prediction is obtained using a J-matrix extension of the no-core shell model and suggests a 4n resonant state at an energy near E r = 0.8 MeV with a width of approximately Γ = 1.4 MeV.

  1. Probing plasmon resonances of individual aluminum nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhongxia; Mao, Peng; Cao, Lu; Song, Fengqi

    2018-01-01

    The plasmon resonances of individual aluminum nanoparticles are investigated by electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). Surface plasmon mode and bulk plasmon mode of Al nanoparticles are clearly characterized in the EEL spectra. Discrete dipole approximation (DDA) calculations show that as the particle diameter increases from 20 nm to 100 nm, the plasmon resonance shifts to lower energy and higher mode of surface plasmon arises when the diameter reaches 60 nm and larger.

  2. Thermal Properties of Whispering Gallery Mode Resonators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-22

    in a vacuum chamber, to lower the noise floor and increase the SNR. To study the frequency response of the IR detector , we varied the modulation...performance at a fixed IR modulation (chopping) frequency. Finally, we estimated the noise equivalent power (NEP) of our IR detector . Note that the...the thennal relaxation time of the resonator to estimate the response time of the resonator based infrared (IR) detector . We found that, depending on

  3. Resonant-cavity antenna for plasma heating

    DOEpatents

    Perkins, Jr., Francis W.; Chiu, Shiu-Chu; Parks, Paul; Rawls, John M.

    1987-01-01

    Disclosed is a resonant coil cavity wave launcher for energizing a plasma immersed in a magnetic field. Energization includes launching fast Alfven waves to excite ion cyclotron frequency resonances in the plasma. The cavity includes inductive and capacitive reactive members spaced no further than one-quarter wavelength from a first wall confinement chamber of the plasma. The cavity wave launcher is energized by connection to a waveguide or transmission line carrying forward power from a remote radio frequency energy source.

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE RESONANT CAUSTIC PERTURBATION

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Sun-Ju, E-mail: sjchung@kasi.re.k

    Four of nine exoplanets found by microlensing were detected by the resonant caustic, which represents the merging of the planetary and central caustics at the position when the projected separation of a host star and a bounded planet is s approx 1. One of the resonant caustic lensing events, OGLE-2005-BLG-169, was a caustic-crossing high-magnification event with A {sub max}approx 800 and the source star was much smaller than the caustic, nevertheless the perturbation was not obviously apparent on the light curve of the event. In this paper, we investigate the perturbation pattern of the resonant caustic to understand why themore » perturbations induced by the caustic do not leave strong traces on the light curves of high-magnification events despite a small source/caustic size ratio. From this study, we find that the regions with small magnification excess around the center of the resonant caustic are rather widely formed, and the event passing the small-excess region produces a high-magnification event with a weak perturbation that is small relative to the amplification caused by the star and thus does not noticeably appear on the light curve of the event. We also find that the positive excess of the inside edge of the resonant caustic and the negative excess inside the caustic become stronger and wider as q increases, and thus the resonant caustic-crossing high-magnification events with the weak perturbation occur in the range of q <= 10{sup -4}. We determine the probability of the occurrence of events with the small excess |epsilon| <= 3% in high-magnification events induced by a resonant caustic. As a result, we find that for Earth-mass planets with a separation of approx2.5 AU the resonant caustic high-magnification events with the weak perturbation can occur with a significant frequency.« less

  5. Optimum resonance control knobs for sextupoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ögren, J.; Ziemann, V.

    2018-06-01

    We discuss the placement of extra sextupoles in a magnet lattice that allows to correct third-order geometric resonances, driven by the chromaticity-compensating sextupoles, in a way that requires the least excitation of the correction sextupoles. We consider a simplified case, without momentum-dependent effects or other imperfections, where suitably chosen phase advances between the correction sextupoles leads to orthogonal knobs with equal treatment of the different resonance driving terms.

  6. Electro-optic resonant phase modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Chien-Chung (Inventor); Hemmati, Hamid (Inventor); Robinson, Deborah L. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An electro-optic resonant cavity is used to achieve phase modulation with lower driving voltages. Laser damage thresholds are inherently higher than with previously used integrated optics due to the utilization of bulk optics. Phase modulation is achieved at higher speeds with lower driving voltages than previously obtained with non-resonant electro-optic phase modulators. The instant scheme uses a data locking dither approach as opposed to the conventional sinusoidal locking schemes. In accordance with a disclosed embodiment, a resonant cavity modulator has been designed to operate at a data rate in excess of 100 megabits per sec. By carefully choosing the cavity finesse and its dimension, it is possible to control the pulse switching time to within 4 nano-sec. and to limit the required switching voltage to within 10 V. This cavity locking scheme can be applied by using only the random data sequence, and without the need of dithering of the cavity. Compared to waveguide modulators, the resonant cavity has a comparable modulating voltage requirement. Because of its bulk geometry, the resonant cavity modulator has the potential of accommodating higher throughput power. Mode matching into the bulk device is easier and typically can be achieved with higher efficiency. An additional control loop is incorporated into the modulator to maintain the cavity on resonance.

  7. Resonator memories and optical novelty filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Dana Z.; Erle, Marie C.

    Optical resonators having holographic elements are potential candidates for storing information that can be accessed through content addressable or associative recall. Closely related to the resonator memory is the optical novelty filter, which can detect the differences between a test object and a set of reference objects. We discuss implementations of these devices using continuous optical media such as photorefractive materials. The discussion is framed in the context of neural network models. There are both formal and qualitative similarities between the resonator memory and optical novelty filter and network models. Mode competition arises in the theory of the resonator memory, much as it does in some network models. We show that the role of the phenomena of "daydreaming" in the real-time programmable optical resonator is very much akin to the role of "unlearning" in neural network memories. The theory of programming the real-time memory for a single mode is given in detail. This leads to a discussion of the optical novelty filter. Experimental results for the resonator memory, the real-time programmable memory, and the optical tracking novelty filter are reviewed. We also point to several issues that need to be addressed in order to implement more formal models of neural networks.

  8. Resonator Memories And Optical Novelty Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Dana Z.; Erie, Marie C.

    1987-05-01

    Optical resonators having holographic elements are potential candidates for storing information that can be accessed through content-addressable or associative recall. Closely related to the resonator memory is the optical novelty filter, which can detect the differences between a test object and a set of reference objects. We discuss implementations of these devices using continuous optical media such as photorefractive ma-terials. The discussion is framed in the context of neural network models. There are both formal and qualitative similarities between the resonator memory and optical novelty filter and network models. Mode competition arises in the theory of the resonator memory, much as it does in some network models. We show that the role of the phenomena of "daydream-ing" in the real-time programmable optical resonator is very much akin to the role of "unlearning" in neural network memories. The theory of programming the real-time memory for a single mode is given in detail. This leads to a discussion of the optical novelty filter. Experimental results for the resonator memory, the real-time programmable memory, and the optical tracking novelty filter are reviewed. We also point to several issues that need to be addressed in order to implement more formal models of neural networks.

  9. Invited Paper Optical Resonators For Associative Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Dana Z.

    1986-06-01

    One can construct a memory having associative characteristics using optical resonators with an internal gain medium. The device operates on the principle that an optical resonator employing a holographic grating can have user prescribed eigenmodes. Information that is to be recalled is contained in the hologram. Each information entity (e.g. an image of a cat) defines an eigenmode of the resonator. The stored information is accessed by injecting partial information (e.g. an image of the cat's ear) into the resonator. The appropriate eigenmode is selected through a competitive process in a gain medium placed inside the resonator. With a net gain greater than one, the gain amplifies the field belonging to the eigenmode that most resembles the injected field; the other eigenmodes are suppressed via the competition for the gain. One can expect this device to display several intriguing features such as recall transitions and creativity. I will discuss some of the general properties of this class of devices and present the results from a series of experiments with a simple holographic resonator employing photorefractive gain.

  10. Scattering processes and resonances from lattice QCD

    DOE PAGES

    Briceno, Raul A.; Dudek, Jozef J.; Young, Ross D.

    2018-04-18

    The vast majority of hadrons observed in nature are not stable under the strong interaction; rather they are resonances whose existence is deduced from enhancements in the energy dependence of scattering amplitudes. The study of hadron resonances offers a window into the workings of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) in the low-energy nonperturbative region, and in addition many probes of the limits of the electroweak sector of the standard model consider processes which feature hadron resonances. From a theoretical standpoint, this is a challenging field: the same dynamics that binds quarks and gluons into hadron resonances also controls their decay into lightermore » hadrons, so a complete approach to QCD is required. Presently, lattice QCD is the only available tool that provides the required nonperturbative evaluation of hadron observables. This paper reviews progress in the study of few-hadron reactions in which resonances and bound states appear using lattice QCD techniques. The leading approach is described that takes advantage of the periodic finite spatial volume used in lattice QCD calculations to extract scattering amplitudes from the discrete spectrum of QCD eigenstates in a box. An explanation is given of how from explicit lattice QCD calculations one can rigorously garner information about a variety of resonance properties, including their masses, widths, decay couplings, and form factors. Finally, the challenges which currently limit the field are discussed along with the steps being taken to resolve them.« less

  11. Scattering processes and resonances from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Briceno, Raul A.; Dudek, Jozef J.; Young, Ross D.

    The vast majority of hadrons observed in nature are not stable under the strong interaction; rather they are resonances whose existence is deduced from enhancements in the energy dependence of scattering amplitudes. The study of hadron resonances offers a window into the workings of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) in the low-energy nonperturbative region, and in addition many probes of the limits of the electroweak sector of the standard model consider processes which feature hadron resonances. From a theoretical standpoint, this is a challenging field: the same dynamics that binds quarks and gluons into hadron resonances also controls their decay into lightermore » hadrons, so a complete approach to QCD is required. Presently, lattice QCD is the only available tool that provides the required nonperturbative evaluation of hadron observables. This paper reviews progress in the study of few-hadron reactions in which resonances and bound states appear using lattice QCD techniques. The leading approach is described that takes advantage of the periodic finite spatial volume used in lattice QCD calculations to extract scattering amplitudes from the discrete spectrum of QCD eigenstates in a box. An explanation is given of how from explicit lattice QCD calculations one can rigorously garner information about a variety of resonance properties, including their masses, widths, decay couplings, and form factors. Finally, the challenges which currently limit the field are discussed along with the steps being taken to resolve them.« less

  12. Scattering processes and resonances from lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briceño, Raúl A.; Dudek, Jozef J.; Young, Ross D.

    2018-04-01

    The vast majority of hadrons observed in nature are not stable under the strong interaction; rather they are resonances whose existence is deduced from enhancements in the energy dependence of scattering amplitudes. The study of hadron resonances offers a window into the workings of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) in the low-energy nonperturbative region, and in addition many probes of the limits of the electroweak sector of the standard model consider processes which feature hadron resonances. From a theoretical standpoint, this is a challenging field: the same dynamics that binds quarks and gluons into hadron resonances also controls their decay into lighter hadrons, so a complete approach to QCD is required. Presently, lattice QCD is the only available tool that provides the required nonperturbative evaluation of hadron observables. This article reviews progress in the study of few-hadron reactions in which resonances and bound states appear using lattice QCD techniques. The leading approach is described that takes advantage of the periodic finite spatial volume used in lattice QCD calculations to extract scattering amplitudes from the discrete spectrum of QCD eigenstates in a box. An explanation is given of how from explicit lattice QCD calculations one can rigorously garner information about a variety of resonance properties, including their masses, widths, decay couplings, and form factors. The challenges which currently limit the field are discussed along with the steps being taken to resolve them.

  13. Observing Resonant Entanglement Dynamics in Circuit QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlynek, J. A.; Abdumalikov, A. A.; Fink, J. M.; Steffen, L.; Lang, C.; van Loo, A. F.; Wallraff, A.

    2012-02-01

    We study the resonant interaction of up to three two-level systems and a single mode of an electromagnetic field in a circuit QED setup. Our investigation is focused on how a single excitation is dynamically shared in this fourpartite system. The underlying theory of the experiment is governed by the Tavis-Cummings-model, which on resonance predicts dynamics known as vacuum Rabi oscillations. The resonant situation has already been studied spectroscopically with three qubits [1] and time resolved measurements have been carried out in a tripartite system [2]. Here we are able to observe the coherent oscillations and their √N- enhancement by tracking the populations of all three qubits and the resonator. Full quantum state tomography is used to verify that the dynamics generates the maximally entangled 3-qubit W-state when the cavity state factorizes. The √N-speed-up offers the possibility to create W-states within a few ns with a fidelity of 75%. We compare the resonant collective method to an approach, which achieves entanglement by sequentially tuning qubits into resonance with the cavity.[4pt] [1] J. M. Fink, Physical Review Letters 103, 083601 (2009)[0pt] [2] F. Altomare, Nature Physics 6, 777--781 (2010)

  14. Resonant oscillations in open axisymmetric tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amundsen, D. E.; Mortell, M. P.; Seymour, B. R.

    2017-12-01

    We study the behaviour of the isentropic flow of a gas in both a straight tube of constant cross section and a cone, open at one end and forced at or near resonance at the other. A continuous transition between these configurations is provided through the introduction of a geometric parameter k associated with the opening angle of the cone where the tube corresponds to k=0. The primary objective is to find long-time resonant and near-resonant approximate solutions for the open tube, i.e. k→ 0. Detailed analysis for both the tube and cone in the limit of small forcing (O(ɛ 3)) is carried out, where ɛ 3 is the Mach number of the forcing function and the resulting flow has Mach number O(ɛ ). The resulting approximate solutions are compared with full numerical simulations. Interesting distinctions between the cone and the tube emerge. Depending on the damping and detuning, the responses for the tube are continuous and of O(ɛ ). In the case of the cone, the resonant response involves an amplification of the fundamental resonant mode, usually called the dominant first-mode approximation. However, higher modes must be included for the tube to account for the nonlinear generation of higher-order resonances. Bridging these distinct solution behaviours is a transition layer of O(ɛ 2) in k. It is found that an appropriately truncated set of modes provides the requisite modal approximation, again comparing well to numerical simulations.

  15. Resonances in odd-odd 182Ta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brits, C. P.; Wiedeking, M.; Bello Garrote, F. L.; Bleuel, D. L.; Giacoppo, F.; Görgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Hadynska-Klek, K.; Hagen, T. W.; Ingeberg, V. W.; Kheswa, B. V.; Klintefjord, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Malatji, K. L.; Nyhus, H. T.; Papka, P.; Renstrøm, T.; Rose, S.; Sahin, E.; Siem, S.; Tveten, G. M.; Zeiser, F.

    2017-09-01

    Enhanced γ-decay on the tail of the giant electric dipole resonance, such as the scissors or pygmy resonances, can have significant impact on (n,γ) reaction rates. These rates are important input for modeling processes that take place in astrophysical environments and nuclear reactors. Recent results from the University of Oslo indicate the existence of a significant enhancement in the photon strength function for nuclei in the actinide region due to the scissors resonance. Further, the M1 strength distribution of the scissors resonances in rare earth nuclei has been studied extensively over the years. To investigate the evolution and persistence of the scissor resonance in other mass regions, an experiment was performed utilizing the NaI(Tl) γ-ray detector array (CACTUS) and silicon particle telescopes (SiRi) at the University of Oslo Cyclotron laboratory. Particle-γ coincidences from the 181Ta(d,p)182Ta and 181Ta(d,d')181Ta reactions were used to measure the nuclear level density and photon strength function of the well-deformed 181Ta and 182Ta systems, to investigate the existence of resonances below the neutron separation energy. Note to the reader: the title of this article has been corrected on September 19, 2017.

  16. Fluid mechanical model of the Helmholtz resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hersh, A. S.; Walker, B.

    1977-01-01

    A semi-empirical fluid mechanical model of the acoustic behavior of Helmholtz resonators is presented which predicts impedance as a function of the amplitude and frequency of the incident sound pressure field and resonator geometry. The model assumes that the particle velocity approaches the orifice in a spherical manner. The incident and cavity sound fields are connected by solving the governing oscillating mass and momentum conservation equations. The model is in agreement with the Rayleigh slug-mass model at low values of incident sound pressure level. At high values, resistance is predicted to be independent of frequency, proportional to the square root of the amplitude of the incident sound pressure field, and virtually independent of resonator geometry. Reactance is predicted to depend in a very complicated way upon resonator geometry, incident sound pressure level, and frequency. Nondimensional parameters are defined that divide resonator impedance into three categories corresponding to low, moderately low, and intense incident sound pressure amplitudes. The two-microphone method was used to measure the impedance of a variety of resonators. The data were used to refine and verify the model.

  17. Resonant enhancement of Raman scattering in metamaterials with hybrid electromagnetic and plasmonic resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guddala, Sriram; Narayana Rao, D.; Ramakrishna, S. Anantha

    2016-06-01

    A tri-layer metamaterial perfect absorber of light, consisting of (Al/ZnS/Al) films with the top aluminum layer patterned as an array of circular disk nanoantennas, is investigated for resonantly enhancing Raman scattering from C60 fullerene molecules deposited on the metamaterial. The metamaterial is designed to have resonant bands due to plasmonic and electromagnetic resonances at the Raman pump frequency (725 nm) as well as Stokes emission bands. The Raman scattering from C60 on the metamaterial with resonantly matched bands is measured to be enhanced by an order of magnitude more than C60 on metamaterials with off-resonant absorption bands peaking at 1090 nm. The Raman pump is significantly enhanced due to the resonance with a propagating surface plasmon band, while the highly impedance-matched electromagnetic resonance is expected to couple out the Raman emission efficiently. The nature and hybridization of the plasmonic and electromagnetic resonances to form compound resonances are investigated by numerical simulations.

  18. Nonlinear dynamics under varying temperature conditions of the resonating beams of a differential resonant accelerometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Yagang; Zega, Valentina; Su, Yan; Corigliano, Alberto

    2018-07-01

    In this work the nonlinear dynamic behaviour under varying temperature conditions of the resonating beams of a differential resonant accelerometer is studied from the theoretical, numerical and experimental points of view. A complete analytical model based on the Hamilton’s principle is proposed to describe the nonlinear behaviour of the resonators under varying temperature conditions and numerical solutions are presented in comparison with experimental data. This provides a novel perspective to examine the relationship between temperature and nonlinearity, which helps predicting the dynamic behaviour of resonant devices and can guide their optimal design.

  19. Design of a dielectric resonator receive array at 7 Tesla using detunable ceramic resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruytenberg, Thomas; Webb, Andrew G.

    2017-11-01

    Ceramic-based dielectric resonators can be used for high frequency magnetic resonance imaging and microscopy. When used as elements in a transmit array, the intrinsically low inter-element coupling allows flexibility in designing different geometric arrangements for different regions-of-interest. However, without being able to detune such resonators, they cannot be used as elements in a receive-only array. Here, we propose and implement a method, based on mode-disruption, for detuning ceramic-based dielectric resonators to enable them to be used as receive-only elements.

  20. Scanning Tunneling Optical Resonance Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila; Wilt, Dave; Raffaelle, Ryne; Gennett, Tom; Tin, Padetha; Lau, Janice; Castro, Stephanie; Jenkins, Philip; Scheiman, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Scanning tunneling optical resonance microscopy (STORM) is a method, now undergoing development, for measuring optoelectronic properties of materials and devices on the nanoscale by means of a combination of (1) traditional scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) with (2) tunable laser spectroscopy. In STORM, an STM tip probing a semiconductor is illuminated with modulated light at a wavelength in the visible-to-near-infrared range and the resulting photoenhancement of the tunneling current is measured as a function of the illuminating wavelength. The photoenhancement of tunneling current occurs when the laser photon energy is sufficient to excite charge carriers into the conduction band of the semiconductor. Figure 1 schematically depicts a proposed STORM apparatus. The light for illuminating the semiconductor specimen at the STM would be generated by a ring laser that would be tunable across the wavelength range of interest. The laser beam would be chopped by an achromatic liquid-crystal modulator. A polarization-maintaining optical fiber would couple the light to the tip/sample junction of a commercial STM. An STM can be operated in one of two modes: constant height or constant current. A STORM apparatus would be operated in the constant-current mode, in which the height of the tip relative to the specimen would be varied in order to keep the tunneling current constant. In this mode, a feedback control circuit adjusts the voltage applied to a piezoelectric actuator in the STM that adjusts the height of the STM tip to keep the tunneling current constant. The exponential relationship between the tunneling current and tip-to-sample distance makes it relatively easy to implement this mode of operation. The choice of method by which the photoenhanced portion of the tunneling current would be measured depends on choice of the frequency at which the input illumination would be modulated (chopped). If the frequency of modulation were low enough (typically < 10 Hz) that the

  1. Detecting light in whispering-gallery-mode resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy (Inventor); Maleki, Lutfollah (Inventor); Mohageg, Makan (Inventor); Le, Thanh M. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An optical device including a whispering gallery mode (WGM) optical resonator configured to support one or more whispering gallery modes; and a photodetector optically coupled to an exterior surface of the optical resonator to receive evanescent light from the optical resonator to detect light inside the optical resonator.

  2. Single crystal micromechanical resonator and fabrication methods thereof

    DOEpatents

    Olsson, Roy H.; Friedmann, Thomas A.; Homeijer, Sara Jensen; Wiwi, Michael; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel; Clark, Blythe; Bauer, Todd; Van Deusen, Stuart B.

    2016-12-20

    The present invention relates to a single crystal micromechanical resonator. In particular, the resonator includes a lithium niobate or lithium tantalate suspended plate. Also provided are improved microfabrication methods of making resonators, which does not rely on complicated wafer bonding, layer fracturing, and mechanical polishing steps. Rather, the methods allow the resonator and its components to be formed from a single crystal.

  3. An Electromagnetic Resonance Circuit for Liquid Level Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauge, B. L.; Helseth, L. E.

    2012-01-01

    Electromagnetic resonators are often used to detect foreign materials. Here we present a simple experiment for the measurement of liquid level. The resonator, consisting of a coil and a capacitor, is brought to resonance by an external magnetic field source, and the corresponding resonance frequency is determined using Fourier analysis combined…

  4. 14 CFR 29.663 - Ground resonance prevention means.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ground resonance prevention means. 29.663... Ground resonance prevention means. (a) The reliability of the means for preventing ground resonance must... or tests that malfunction or failure of a single means will not cause ground resonance. (b) The...

  5. 14 CFR 29.663 - Ground resonance prevention means.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground resonance prevention means. 29.663... Ground resonance prevention means. (a) The reliability of the means for preventing ground resonance must... or tests that malfunction or failure of a single means will not cause ground resonance. (b) The...

  6. Transverse Mode Multi-Resonant Single Crystal Transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snook, Kevin A. (Inventor); Liang, Yu (Inventor); Luo, Jun (Inventor); Hackenberger, Wesley S. (Inventor); Sahul, Raffi (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A transducer is disclosed that includes a multiply resonant composite, the composite having a resonator bar of a piezoelectric single crystal configured in a d(sub 32) transverse length-extensional resonance mode having a crystallographic orientation set such that the thickness axis is in the (110) family and resonance direction is the (001) family.

  7. Two objects in Neptune's 9:1 resonance -- implications for resonance sticking in the scattering population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volk, Kathryn; Murray-Clay, Ruth; Gladman, Brett; Lawler, Samantha; Yu, Tze Yeung Mathew; Alexandersen, Mike; Bannister, Michele; Chen, Ying-Yung; Dawson, Rebekah; Greenstreet, Sarah; Gwyn, Stephen; Kavelaars, J. J.; Lin, Hsing Wen; Lykawka, Patryk; Petit, Jean-Marc

    2018-04-01

    We discuss the detection in the Outer Solar System Origins Survey (OSSOS) of two objects in Neptune's distant 9:1 mean motion resonance at semimajor axis a≈130 au. Both objects are securely resonant on 10 Myr timescales, with one securely in the 9:1 resonance's leading asymmetric libration island and the other in either the symmetric or trailing asymmetric island. These two objects are the largest semimajor axis objects known with secure resonant classifications, and their detection in a carefully characterized survey allows for the first robust population estimate for a resonance beyond 100 au. The detection of these two objects implies a population in the 9:1 resonance of 1.1×104 objects with Hr<8.66 (D > 100 km) on similar orbits, with 95% confidence range of ∼0.4‑3×104. Integrations over 4 Gyr of an ensemble of clones chosen from within the orbit fit uncertainties for these objects reveal that they both have median resonance occupation timescales of ∼1 Gyr. These timescales are consistent with the hypothesis that these two objects originate in the scattering population but became transiently stuck to Neptune's 9:1 resonance within the last ∼1 Gyr of solar system evolution. Based on simulations of a model of the current scattering population, we estimate the expected resonance sticking population in the 9:1 resonance to be 1000--5000 objects with Hr<8.66 this is marginally consistent with the OSSOS 9:1 population estimate. We conclude that resonance sticking is a plausible explanation for the observed 9:1 population, but we also discuss the possibility of a primordial 9:1 population, which would have interesting implications for the Kuiper belt's dynamical history.

  8. Piezoelectric shear wave resonator and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Wang, J.S.; Lakin, K.M.; Landin, A.R.

    1985-05-20

    An acoustic shear wave resonator comprising a piezoelectric film having its C-axis substantially inclined from the film normal such that the shear wave coupling coefficient significantly exceeds the longitudinal wave coupling coefficient, whereby the film is capable of shear wave resonance, and means for exciting said film to resonate. The film is prepared by deposition in a dc planar magnetron sputtering system to which a supplemental electric field is applied. The resonator structure may also include a semiconductor material having a positive temperature coefficient of resonance such that the resonator has a temperature coefficient of resonance approaching 0 ppM//sup 0/C.

  9. Piezoelectric shear wave resonator and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Wang, J.S.; Lakin, K.M.; Landin, A.R.

    1983-10-25

    An acoustic shear wave resonator comprising a piezoelectric film having its C-axis substantially inclined from the film normal such that the shear wave coupling coefficient significantly exceeds the longitudinal wave coupling coefficient, whereby the film is capable of shear wave resonance, and means for exciting said film to resonate. The film is prepared by deposition in a dc planar magnetron sputtering system to which a supplemental electric field is applied. The resonator structure may also include a semiconductor material having a positive temperature coefficient of resonance such that the resonator has a temperature coefficient of resonance approaching 0 ppM//sup 0/C.

  10. Piezoelectric shear wave resonator and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Jin S.; Lakin, Kenneth M.; Landin, Allen R.

    1988-01-01

    An acoustic shear wave resonator comprising a piezoelectric film having its C-axis substantially inclined from the film normal such that the shear wave coupling coefficient significantly exceeds the longitudinal wave coupling coefficient, whereby the film is capable of shear wave resonance, and means for exciting said film to resonate. The film is prepared by deposition in a dc planar magnetron sputtering system to which a supplemental electric field is applied. The resonator structure may also include a semiconductor material having a positive temperature coefficient of resonance such that the resonator has a temperature coefficient of resonance approaching 0 ppm/.degree.C.

  11. Method of making a piezoelectric shear wave resonator

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Jin S.; Lakin, Kenneth M.; Landin, Allen R.

    1987-02-03

    An acoustic shear wave resonator comprising a piezoelectric film having its C-axis substantially inclined from the film normal such that the shear wave coupling coefficient significantly exceeds the longitudinal wave coupling coefficient, whereby the film is capable of shear wave resonance, and means for exciting said film to resonate. The film is prepared by deposition in a dc planar magnetron sputtering system to which a supplemental electric field is applied. The resonator structure may also include a semiconductor material having a positive temperature coefficient of resonance such that the resonator has a temperature coefficient of resonance approaching 0 ppm/.degree.C.

  12. The effect of whole-body resonance vibration in a porcine model of spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Streijger, Femke; Lee, Jae H T; Chak, Jason; Dressler, Dan; Manouchehri, Neda; Okon, Elena B; Anderson, Lisa M; Melnyk, Angela D; Cripton, Peter A; Kwon, Brian K

    2015-06-15

    Whole-body vibration has been identified as a potential stressor to spinal cord injury (SCI) patients during pre-hospital transportation. However, the effect that such vibration has on the acutely injured spinal cord is largely unknown, particularly in the frequency domain of 5 Hz in which resonance of the spine occurs. The objective of the study was to investigate the consequences of resonance vibration on the injured spinal cord. Using our previously characterized porcine model of SCI, we subjected animals to resonance vibration (5.7±0.46 Hz) or no vibration for a period of 1.5 or 3.0 h. Locomotor function was assessed weekly and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected to assess different inflammatory and injury severity markers. Spinal cords were evaluated histologically to quantify preserved white and gray matter. No significant differences were found between groups for CSF levels of monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin 6 (IL-6) and lL-8. Glial fibrillary acidic protein levels were lower in the resonance vibration group, compared with the non-vibrated control group. Spared white matter tissue was increased within the vibrated group at 7 d post-injury but this difference was not apparent at the 12-week time-point. No significant difference was observed in locomotor recovery following resonance vibration of the spine. Here, we demonstrate that exposure to resonance vibration for 1.5 or 3 h following SCI in our porcine model is not detrimental to the functional or histological outcomes. Our observation that a 3.0-h period of vibration at resonance frequency induces modest histological improvement at one week post-injury warrants further study.

  13. Proximal Bright Vessel Sign on Arterial Spin Labeling Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute Cardioembolic Cerebral Infarction.

    PubMed

    Kato, Ayumi; Shinohara, Yuki; Kuya, Keita; Sakamoto, Makoto; Kowa, Hisanori; Ogawa, Toshihide

    2017-07-01

    The congestion of spin-labeled blood at large-vessel occlusion can present as hyperintense signals on perfusion magnetic resonance imaging with 3-dimensional pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (proximal bright vessel sign). The purpose of this study was to clarify the difference between proximal bright vessel sign and susceptibility vessel sign in acute cardioembolic cerebral infarction. Forty-two patients with cardioembolic cerebral infarction in the anterior circulation territory underwent magnetic resonance imaging including diffusion-weighted imaging, 3-dimensional pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling perfusion magnetic resonance imaging, T2*-weighted imaging, and 3-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography using a 3-T magnetic resonance scanner. Visual assessments of proximal bright vessel sign and the susceptibility vessel sign were performed by consensus of 2 experienced neuroradiologists. The relationship between these signs and the occlusion site of magnetic resonance angiography was also investigated. Among 42 patients with cardioembolic cerebral infarction, 24 patients showed proximal bright vessel sign (57.1%) and 25 showed susceptibility vessel sign (59.5%). There were 19 cases of proximal bright vessel sign and susceptibility vessel sign-clear, 12 cases of proximal bright vessel sign and susceptibility vessel sign-unclear, and 11 mismatched cases. Four out of 6 patients with proximal bright vessel sign-unclear and susceptibility vessel sign-clear showed distal middle cerebral artery occlusion, and 2 out of 5 patients with proximal bright vessel sign-clear and susceptibility vessel sign-unclear showed no occlusion on magnetic resonance angiography. Proximal bright vessel sign is almost compatible with susceptibility vessel sign in patients with cardioembolic cerebral infarction. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Resonance region measurements of dysprosium and rhenium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinweber, Gregory; Block, Robert C.; Epping, Brian E.; Barry, Devin P.; Rapp, Michael J.; Danon, Yaron; Donovan, Timothy J.; Landsberger, Sheldon; Burke, John A.; Bishop, Mary C.; Youmans, Amanda; Kim, Guinyun N.; Kang, yeong-rok; Lee, Man Woo; Drindak, Noel J.

    2017-09-01

    Neutron capture and transmission measurements have been performed, and resonance parameter analysis has been completed for dysprosium, Dy, and rhenium, Re. The 60 MeV electron accelerator at RPI Gaerttner LINAC Center produced neutrons in the thermal and epithermal energy regions for these measurements. Transmission measurements were made using 6Li glass scintillation detectors. The neutron capture measurements were made with a 16-segment NaI multiplicity detector. The detectors for all experiments were located at ≈25 m except for thermal transmission, which was done at ≈15 m. The dysprosium samples included one highly enriched 164Dy metal, 6 liquid solutions of enriched 164Dy, two natural Dy metals. The Re samples were natural metals. Their capture yield normalizations were corrected for their high gamma attenuation. The multi-level R-matrix Bayesian computer code SAMMY was used to extract the resonance parameters from the data. 164Dy resonance data were analyzed up to 550 eV, other Dy isotopes up to 17 eV, and Re resonance data up to 1 keV. Uncertainties due to resolution function, flight path, burst width, sample thickness, normalization, background, and zero time were estimated and propagated using SAMMY. An additional check of sample-to-sample consistency is presented as an estimate of uncertainty. The thermal total cross sections and neutron capture resonance integrals of 164Dy and Re were determined from the resonance parameters. The NJOY and INTER codes were used to process and integrate the cross sections. Plots of the data, fits, and calculations using ENDF/B-VII.1 resonance parameters are presented.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal brain.

    PubMed

    Tee, L Mf; Kan, E Yl; Cheung, J Cy; Leung, W C

    2016-06-01

    This review covers the recent literature on fetal brain magnetic resonance imaging, with emphasis on techniques, advances, common indications, and safety. We conducted a search of MEDLINE for articles published after 2010. The search terms used were "(fetal OR foetal OR fetus OR foetus) AND (MR OR MRI OR [magnetic resonance]) AND (brain OR cerebral)". Consensus statements from major authorities were also included. As a result, 44 relevant articles were included and formed the basis of this review. One major challenge is fetal motion that is largely overcome by ultra-fast sequences. Currently, single-shot fast spin-echo T2-weighted imaging remains the mainstay for motion resistance and anatomical delineation. Recently, a snap-shot inversion recovery sequence has enabled robust T1-weighted images to be obtained, which is previously a challenge for standard gradient-echo acquisitions. Fetal diffusion-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy are also being developed. With multiplanar capabilities, superior contrast resolution and field of view, magnetic resonance imaging does not have the limitations of sonography, and can provide additional important information. Common indications include ventriculomegaly, callosum and posterior fossa abnormalities, and twin complications. There are safety concerns about magnetic resonance-induced heating and acoustic damage but current literature showed no conclusive evidence of deleterious fetal effects. The American College of Radiology guideline states that pregnant patients can be accepted to undergo magnetic resonance imaging at any stage of pregnancy if risk-benefit ratio to patients warrants that the study be performed. Magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal brain is a safe and powerful adjunct to sonography in prenatal diagnosis. It can provide additional information that aids clinical management, prognostication, and counselling.

  16. Unstable Resonator Optical Parametric Oscillator Based on Quasi-Phase-Matched RbTiOAsO(4).

    PubMed

    Hansson, G; Karlsson, H; Laurell, F

    2001-10-20

    We demonstrate improved signal and idler-beam quality of a 3-mm-aperture quasi-phase-matched RbTiOAsO(4) optical parametric oscillator through use of a confocal unstable resonator as compared with a plane-parallel resonator. Both oscillators were singly resonant, and the periodically poled RbTiOAsO(4) crystal generated a signal at 1.56 mum and an idler at 3.33 mum when pumped at 1.064 mum. We compared the beam quality produced by the 1.2-magnification confocal unstable resonator with the beam quality produced by the plane-parallel resonator by measuring the signal and the idler beam M(2) value. We also investigated the effect of pump-beam intensity distribution by comparing the result of a Gaussian and a top-hat intensity profile pump beam. We generated a signal beam of M(2) approximately 7 and an idler beam of M(2) approximately 2.5 through use of an unstable resonator and a Gaussian intensity profile pump beam. This corresponds to an increase of a factor of approximately 2 in beam quality for the signal and a factor of 3 for the idler, compared with the beam quality of the plane-parallel resonator optical parametric oscillator.

  17. Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy for materials with high damping and samples of arbitrary geometry

    DOE PAGES

    Remillieux, Marcel C.; Ulrich, T. J.; Payan, Cédric; ...

    2015-07-23

    This paper describes resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) as a powerful and established technique for measuring elastic constants of a material with general anisotropy. The first step of this technique consists of extracting resonance frequencies and damping from the vibrational frequency spectrum measured on a sample with free boundary conditions. An inversion technique is then used to retrieve the elastic tensor from the measured resonance frequencies. As originally developed, RUS has been mostly applicable to (i) materials with small damping such that the resonances of the sample are well separated and (ii) samples with simple geometries for which analytical solutions exist.more » In this paper, these limitations are addressed with a new RUS approach adapted to materials with high damping and samples of arbitrary geometry. Resonances are extracted by fitting a sum of exponentially damped sinusoids to the measured frequency spectrum. The inversion of the elastic tensor is achieved with a genetic algorithm, which allows searching for a global minimum within a discrete and relatively wide solution space. First, the accuracy of the proposed approach is evaluated against numerical data simulated for samples with isotropic symmetry and transversely isotropic symmetry. Subsequently, the applicability of the approach is demonstrated using experimental data collected on a composite structure consisting of a cylindrical sample of Berea sandstone glued to a large piezoelectric disk. In the proposed experiments, RUS is further enhanced by the use of a 3-D laser vibrometer allowing the visualization of most of the modes in the frequency band studied.« less

  18. Constraints on the design of core-shell resonators of locally resonant acoustic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, Lionel; Lukyanova, Lyubov; Wunenburger, Régis

    2012-11-01

    We perform a parametric study of the analytic model of Liu [Z. Liu , Phys. Rev. B10.1103/PhysRevB.71.014103 71, 014103 (2005)] describing the mechanical response of a core-shell particle to an acoustic excitation in order to help in selecting the constitutive materials and in designing innovative processes of fabrication of downsized core-shell resonators, which are key constituents of locally resonant acoustic metamaterials. We show that the value of the first Lamé coefficient of the material constituting the shell has no marked influence on the value of the resonance frequency of the core-shell resonator, that is, it does not necessarily need to be small for satisfying the condition of subwavelength resonator dimension at resonance. Moreover, we show that the larger the density contrast between the core and the shell and the thinner the shell, the broader is the frequency band over which the effective density of the resonator suspension is negative, but that it is practically useless to decrease the dimensionless shell thickness below 0.6. Finally, we show that the dissipation is also less perceptible the thinner is the shell and the larger is the density contrast. The effect of the density contrast between the core and the shell and of the dissipation on the resonance width are explained by comparing with the harmonic oscillator and the mass-in-mass 1D lattice.

  19. Constraints on Resonant Dark Matter Annihilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backovic, Mihailo

    Resonant dark matter annihilation drew much attention in the light of recent measurements of charged cosmic ray fluxes. Interpreting the anomalous signal in the positron fraction as a sign of dark matter annihilation in the galactic halo requires cross sections orders of magnitudes higher than the estimates coming from thermal relic abundance. Resonant dark matter annihilation provides a mechanism to bridge the apparent contradiction between thermal relic abundance and the positron data measured by PAMELA and FERMI satellites. In this thesis, we analyze a class of models which allow for dark matter to annihilate through an s-channel resonance. Our analysis takes into account constraints from thermal relic abundance and the recent measurements of charged lepton cosmic ray fluxes, first separately and then simultaneously. Consistency of resonant dark matter annihilation models with thermal relic abundance as measured by WMAP serves to construct a relationship between the full set of masses, couplings and widths involved. Extensive numerical analysis of the full four dimensional parameter space is summarized by simple analytic approximations. The expressions are robust enough to be generalized to models including additional annihilation channels. We provide a separate treatment of resonant annihilation of dark matter in the galac- tic halo. We find model-independent upper limits on halo dark matter annihilation rates and show that the most efficient annihilation mechanism involves s-channel resonances. Widths that are large compared to the energy spread in the galactic halo are capable of saturating unitarity bounds without much difficulty. Partial wave unitarity prevents the so called Sommerfeld factors from producing large changes in cross sections. In addition, the approximations made in Sommerfeld factors break down in the kinematic regions where large cross section enhancements are often cited. Simultaneous constraints from thermal relic abundance and halo

  20. Simplified limits on resonances at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chivukula, R. Sekhar; Ittisamai, Pawin; Mohan, Kirtimaan; Simmons, Elizabeth H.

    2016-11-01

    In the earliest stages of evaluating new collider data, especially if a small excess may be present, it would be useful to have a method for comparing the data with entire classes of models, to get an immediate sense of which classes could conceivably be relevant. In this paper, we propose a method that applies when the new physics invoked to explain the excess corresponds to the production and decay of a single, relatively narrow, s -channel resonance. A simplifed model of the resonance allows us to convert an estimated signal cross section into general bounds on the product of the branching ratios corresponding to the dominant production and decay modes. This quickly reveals whether a given class of models could possibly produce a signal of the required size at the LHC. Our work sets up a general framework, outlines how it operates for resonances with different numbers of production and decay modes, and analyzes cases of current experimental interest, including resonances decaying to dibosons, diphotons, dileptons, or dijets. If the LHC experiments were to report their searches for new resonances beyond the standard model in the simplified limits variable ζ defined in this paper, that would make it far easier to avoid blind alleys and home in on the most likely candidate models to explain any observed excesses.

  1. Fabrication and Characterization of Superconducting Resonators

    PubMed Central

    Cataldo, Giuseppe; Barrentine, Emily M.; Brown, Ari D.; Moseley, Samuel H.; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    Superconducting microwave resonators are of interest for a wide range of applications, including for their use as microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) for the detection of faint astrophysical signatures, as well as for quantum computing applications and materials characterization. In this paper, procedures are presented for the fabrication and characterization of thin-film superconducting microwave resonators. The fabrication methodology allows for the realization of superconducting transmission-line resonators with features on both sides of an atomically smooth single-crystal silicon dielectric. This work describes the procedure for the installation of resonator devices into a cryogenic microwave testbed and for cool-down below the superconducting transition temperature. The set-up of the cryogenic microwave testbed allows one to do careful measurements of the complex microwave transmission of these resonator devices, enabling the extraction of the properties of the superconducting lines and dielectric substrate (e.g., internal quality factors, loss and kinetic inductance fractions), which are important for device design and performance. PMID:27284966

  2. Electrodynamic study of YIG filters and resonators

    PubMed Central

    Krupka, Jerzy; Salski, Bartlomiej; Kopyt, Pawel; Gwarek, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Numerical solutions of coupled Maxwell and Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equations for a magnetized yttrium iron garnet (YIG) sphere acting as a one-stage filter are presented. The filter is analysed using finite-difference time-domain technique. Contrary to the state of the art, the study shows that the maximum electromagnetic power transmission through the YIG filter occurs at the frequency of the magnetic plasmon resonance with the effective permeability of the gyromagnetic medium μr ≈ −2, and not at a ferromagnetic resonance frequency. Such a new understanding of the YIG filter operation, makes it one of the most commonly used single-negative plasmonic metamaterials. The frequency of maximum transmission is also found to weakly depend on the size of the YIG sphere. An analytic electromagnetic analysis of resonances in a YIG sphere is performed for circularly polarized electromagnetic fields. The YIG sphere is situated in a free space and in a large spherical cavity. The study demonstrates that both volume resonances and magnetic plasmon resonances can be solutions of the same transcendental equations. PMID:27698467

  3. Terahertz molecular resonance of cancer DNA.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Hwayeong; Yang, Hee-Jin; Lee, Sang-Hun; Kim, Young A; Son, Joo-Hiuk

    2016-11-15

    Carcinogenesis involves the chemical and structural alteration of biomolecules in cells. Aberrant methylation of DNA is a well-known carcinogenic mechanism and a common chemical modification of DNA. Terahertz waves can directly observe changes in DNA because the characteristic energies lie in the same frequency region. In addition, terahertz energy levels are not high enough to damage DNA by ionization. Here, we present terahertz molecular resonance fingerprints of DNA methylation in cancer DNA. Methylated cytidine, a nucleoside, has terahertz characteristic energies that give rise to the molecular resonance of methylation in DNA. Molecular resonance is monitored in aqueous solutions of genomic DNA from cancer cell lines using a terahertz time-domain spectroscopic technique. Resonance signals can be quantified to identify the types of cancer cells with a certain degree of DNA methylation. These measurements reveal the existence of molecular resonance fingerprints of cancer DNAs in the terahertz region, which can be utilized for the early diagnosis of cancer cells at the molecular level.

  4. Terahertz molecular resonance of cancer DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheon, Hwayeong; Yang, Hee-Jin; Lee, Sang-Hun; Kim, Young A.; Son, Joo-Hiuk

    2016-11-01

    Carcinogenesis involves the chemical and structural alteration of biomolecules in cells. Aberrant methylation of DNA is a well-known carcinogenic mechanism and a common chemical modification of DNA. Terahertz waves can directly observe changes in DNA because the characteristic energies lie in the same frequency region. In addition, terahertz energy levels are not high enough to damage DNA by ionization. Here, we present terahertz molecular resonance fingerprints of DNA methylation in cancer DNA. Methylated cytidine, a nucleoside, has terahertz characteristic energies that give rise to the molecular resonance of methylation in DNA. Molecular resonance is monitored in aqueous solutions of genomic DNA from cancer cell lines using a terahertz time-domain spectroscopic technique. Resonance signals can be quantified to identify the types of cancer cells with a certain degree of DNA methylation. These measurements reveal the existence of molecular resonance fingerprints of cancer DNAs in the terahertz region, which can be utilized for the early diagnosis of cancer cells at the molecular level.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging measurement of iron overload

    PubMed Central

    Wood, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review To highlight recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging estimation of somatic iron overload. This review will discuss the need and principles of magnetic resonance imaging-based iron measurements, the validation of liver and cardiac iron measurements, and the key institutional requirements for implementation. Recent findings Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of liver and cardiac iron has achieved critical levels of availability, utility, and validity to serve as the primary endpoint of clinical trials. Calibration curves for the magnetic resonance imaging parameters R2 and R2* (or their reciprocals, T2 and T2*) have been developed for the liver and the heart. Interscanner variability for these techniques has proven to be on the order of 5–7%. Summary Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of tissue iron is becoming increasingly important in the management of transfusional iron load because it is noninvasive, relatively widely available and offers a window into presymptomatic organ dysfunction. The techniques are highly reproducible within and across machines and have been chemically validated in the liver and the heart. These techniques will become the standard of care as industry begins to support the acquisition and postprocessing software. PMID:17414205

  6. Resonant vibration control of rotating beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svendsen, Martin Nymann; Krenk, Steen; Høgsberg, Jan

    2011-04-01

    Rotating structures, like e.g. wind turbine blades, may be prone to vibrations associated with particular modes of vibration. It is demonstrated, how this type of vibrations can be reduced by using a collocated sensor-actuator system, governed by a resonant controller. The theory is here demonstrated by an active strut, connecting two cross-sections of a rotating beam. The structure is modeled by beam elements in a rotating frame of reference following the beam. The geometric stiffness is derived in a compact form from an initial stress formulation in terms of section forces and moments. The stiffness, and thereby the natural frequencies, of the beam depend on the rotation speed and the controller is tuned to current rotation speed to match the resonance frequency of the selected mode. It is demonstrated that resonant control leads to introduction of the intended level of damping in the selected mode and, with good modal connectivity, only very limited modal spill-over is generated. The controller acts by resonance and therefore has only a moderate energy consumption, and successfully reduces modal vibrations at the resonance frequency.

  7. Multi-tunable microelectromechanical system (MEMS) resonators

    DOEpatents

    Stalford, Harold L [Norman, OK; Butler, Michael A [Andover, MA; Schubert, W Kent [Albuquerque, NM

    2006-08-22

    A method for tuning a vibratory device including a cantilevered resonator comprising the steps of increasing a voltage V.sub.0 supplied to the vibratory device to thereby increase the bandwidth of the vibratory device; and keeping the resonant frequency of the vibratory device at substantially that natural frequency of the cantilevered resonator, wherein the vibratory device comprises: a capacitor including a movable plate and a fixed plate spaced from each other, the movable plate being part of the cantilevered resonator; a voltage source connected to the capacitor for providing voltage V.sub.0 across the capacitor to produce an attractive force between movable plate and fixed plate; a circuit connecting the voltage source to the capacitor; and a load resistor in said circuit having a resistance R.sub.L satisfying the following equation: .mu..omega..times..times..lamda. ##EQU00001## where: .mu. is at least 10; .omega..sub.0 is the beam constant for the cantilevered resonator; c.sub.0 is the capacitance for the capacitor; and .lamda. is the voltage dependent coupling parameter for voltage V.sub.0.

  8. Super-contrast photoacoustic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fei; Zhang, Ruochong; Feng, Xiaohua; Liu, Siyu; Zheng, Yuanjin

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a new imaging modality, named photoacoustic resonance imaging (PARI), is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Being distinct from conventional single nanosecond laser pulse induced wideband PA signal, the proposed PARI method utilizes multi-burst modulated laser source to induce PA resonant signal with enhanced signal strength and narrower bandwidth. Moreover, imaging contrast could be clearly improved than conventional single-pulse laser based PA imaging by selecting optimum modulation frequency of the laser source, which originates from physical properties of different materials beyond the optical absorption coefficient. Specifically, the imaging steps is as follows: 1: Perform conventional PA imaging by modulating the laser source as a short pulse to identify the location of the target and the background. 2: Shine modulated laser beam on the background and target respectively to characterize their individual resonance frequency by sweeping the modulation frequency of the CW laser source. 3: Select the resonance frequency of the target as the modulation frequency of the laser source, perform imaging and get the first PARI image. Then choose the resonance frequency of the background as the modulation frequency of the laser source, perform imaging and get the second PARI image. 4: subtract the first PARI image from the second PARI image, then we get the contrast-enhanced PARI results over the conventional PA imaging in step 1. Experimental validation on phantoms have been performed to show the merits of the proposed PARI method with much improved image contrast.

  9. Effect of resonance decay on conserved number fluctuations in a hadron resonance gas model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, D. K.; Garg, P.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Mohanty, A. K.

    2016-07-01

    We study the effect of charged secondaries coming from resonance decay on the net-baryon, net-charge, and net-strangeness fluctuations in high-energy heavy-ion collisions within the hadron resonance gas (HRG) model. We emphasize the importance of including weak decays along with other resonance decays in the HRG, while comparing with the experimental observables. The effect of kinematic cuts on resonances and primordial particles on the conserved number fluctuations are also studied. The HRG model calculations with the inclusion of resonance decays and kinematical cuts are compared with the recent experimental data from STAR and PHENIX experiments. We find good agreement between our model calculations and the experimental measurements for both net-proton and net-charge distributions.

  10. Multi-resonant scatterers in sonic crystals: Locally multi-resonant acoustic metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-García, V.; Krynkin, A.; Garcia-Raffi, L. M.; Umnova, O.; Sánchez-Pérez, J. V.

    2013-01-01

    An acoustic metamaterial made of a two-dimensional (2D) periodic array of multi-resonant acoustic scatterers is analyzed both experimentally and theoretically. The building blocks consist of a combination of elastic beams of low-density polyethylene foam (LDPF) with cavities of known area. Elastic resonances of the beams and acoustic resonances of the cavities can be excited by sound producing several attenuation peaks in the low frequency range. Due to this behavior the periodic array with long wavelength multi-resonant structural units can be classified as a locally multi-resonant acoustic metamaterial (LMRAM) with strong dispersion of its effective properties.The results presented in this paper could be used to design effective tunable acoustic filters for the low frequency range.

  11. Scalable high-precision tuning of photonic resonators by resonant cavity-enhanced photoelectrochemical etching

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Santos, Eduardo; Baker, Christopher; Lemaître, Aristide; Gomez, Carmen; Leo, Giuseppe; Favero, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Photonic lattices of mutually interacting indistinguishable cavities represent a cornerstone of collective phenomena in optics and could become important in advanced sensing or communication devices. The disorder induced by fabrication technologies has so far hindered the development of such resonant cavity architectures, while post-fabrication tuning methods have been limited by complexity and poor scalability. Here we present a new simple and scalable tuning method for ensembles of microphotonic and nanophotonic resonators, which enables their permanent collective spectral alignment. The method introduces an approach of cavity-enhanced photoelectrochemical etching in a fluid, a resonant process triggered by sub-bandgap light that allows for high selectivity and precision. The technique is presented on a gallium arsenide nanophotonic platform and illustrated by finely tuning one, two and up to five resonators. It opens the way to applications requiring large networks of identical resonators and their spectral referencing to external etalons. PMID:28117394

  12. 26 CFR 1.512(a)-3 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true [Reserved] 1.512(a)-3 Section 1.512(a)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.512(a)-3 [Reserved] ...

  13. 32 CFR 352a.3 - Organization and management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

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  14. 32 CFR 237a.3 - Objective and policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

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  15. 8 CFR 274a.3 - Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens. 274a.3 Section 274a.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL OF EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS Employer Requirements § 274a.3 Continuing employment of...

  16. 8 CFR 274a.3 - Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens. 274a.3 Section 274a.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL OF EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS Employer Requirements § 274a.3 Continuing employment of...

  17. 8 CFR 274a.3 - Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens. 274a.3 Section 274a.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL OF EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS Employer Requirements § 274a.3 Continuing employment of...

  18. 8 CFR 274a.3 - Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens. 274a.3 Section 274a.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL OF EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS Employer Requirements § 274a.3 Continuing employment of...

  19. 8 CFR 274a.3 - Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Continuing employment of unauthorized aliens. 274a.3 Section 274a.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL OF EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS Employer Requirements § 274a.3 Continuing employment of...

  20. 42 CFR 52a.3 - Who is eligible to apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Who is eligible to apply? 52a.3 Section 52a.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CENTER GRANTS § 52a.3 Who is eligible to apply? (a) Any public or private nonprofit agency...