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Sample records for a3 subunit gene

  1. The gene for the alpha 1 subunit of the skeletal muscle dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channel (Cchl1a3) maps to mouse chromosome 1.

    PubMed

    Chin, H; Krall, M; Kim, H L; Kozak, C A; Mock, B

    1992-12-01

    Cchl1a3 encodes the dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channel alpha 1 subunit isoform predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle. mdg (muscular dysgenesis) has previously been implicated as a mutant allele of this gene. Hybridization of a rat brain cDNA probe for Cchl1a3 to Southern blots of DNAs from a panel of Chinese hamster x mouse somatic cell hybrids suggested that this gene maps to mouse Chromosome 1. Analysis of the progeny of an inbred strain cross-positioned Cchl1a3 1.3 cM proximal to the Pep-3 locus on Chr 1.

  2. Composition, variation, expression and evolution of low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit genes in Triticum urartu.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guangbin; Zhang, Xiaofei; Zhang, Yanlin; Yang, Wenlong; Li, Yiwen; Sun, Jiazhu; Zhan, Kehui; Zhang, Aimin; Liu, Dongcheng

    2015-02-28

    Wheat (AABBDD, 2n = 6x = 42) is a major dietary component for many populations across the world. Bread-making quality of wheat is mainly determined by glutenin subunits, but it remains challenging to elucidate the composition and variation of low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) genes, the major components for glutenin subunits in hexaploid wheat. This problem, however, can be greatly simplified by characterizing the LMW-GS genes in Triticum urartu, the A-genome donor of hexaploid wheat. In the present study, we exploited the high-throughput molecular marker system, gene cloning, proteomic methods and molecular evolutionary genetic analysis to reveal the composition, variation, expression and evolution of LMW-GS genes in a T. urartu population from the Fertile Crescent region. Eight LMW-GS genes, including four m-type, one s-type and three i-type, were characterized in the T. urartu population. Six or seven genes, the highest number at the Glu-A3 locus, were detected in each accession. Three i-type genes, each containing more than six allelic variants, were tightly linked because of their co-segregation in every accession. Only 2-3 allelic variants were detected for each m- and s-type gene. The m-type gene, TuA3-385, for which homologs were previously characterized only at Glu-D3 locus in common wheat and Aegilops tauschii, was detected at Glu-A3 locus in T. urartu. TuA3-460 was the first s-type gene identified at Glu-A3 locus. Proteomic analysis showed 1-4 genes, mainly i-type, expressed in individual accessions. About 62% accessions had three active i-type genes, rather than one or two in common wheat. Southeastern Turkey might be the center of origin and diversity for T. urartu due to its abundance of LMW-GS genes/genotypes. Phylogenetic reconstruction demonstrated that the characterized T. urartu might be the direct donor of the Glu-A3 locus in common wheat varieties. Compared with the Glu-A3 locus in common wheat, a large number of highly

  3. Characterization of the low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit gene family members using a PCR-based marker approach

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) are a class of seed storage proteins that play a major role in the determination of the processing quality of wheat flour. The LMW-GS are encoded by multi-gene families located on the short arms of the homoeologous group 1 chromosomes, at the Glu-A3, G...

  4. The cytochrome oxidase subunit I and subunit III genes in Oenothera mitochondria are transcribed from identical promoter sequences

    PubMed Central

    Hiesel, Rudolf; Schobel, Werner; Schuster, Wolfgang; Brennicke, Axel

    1987-01-01

    Two loci encoding subunit III of the cytochrome oxidase (COX) in Oenothera mitochondria have been identified from a cDNA library of mitochondrial transcripts. A 657-bp sequence block upstream from the open reading frame is also present in the two copies of the COX subunit I gene and is presumably involved in homologous sequence rearrangement. The proximal points of sequence rearrangements are located 3 bp upstream from the COX I and 1139 bp upstream from the COX III initiation codons. The 5'-termini of both COX I and COX III mRNAs have been mapped in this common sequence confining the promoter region for the Oenothera mitochondrial COX I and COX III genes to the homologous sequence block. ImagesFig. 5. PMID:15981332

  5. Recognition of chimeric small-subunit ribosomal DNAs composed of genes from uncultivated microorganisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopczynski, E. D.; Bateson, M. M.; Ward, D. M.

    1994-01-01

    When PCR was used to recover small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes from a hot spring cyanobacterial mat community, chimeric SSU rRNA sequences which exhibited little or no secondary structural abnormality were recovered. They were revealed as chimeras of SSU rRNA genes of uncultivated species through separate phylogenetic analysis of short sequence domains.

  6. Genome-Wide Identification and Comprehensive Expression Profiling of Ribosomal Protein Small Subunit (RPS) Genes and their Comparative Analysis with the Large Subunit (RPL) Genes in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Anusree; Das, Shubhajit; Moin, Mazahar; Dutta, Mouboni; Bakshi, Achala; Madhav, M. S.; Kirti, P. B.

    2017-01-01

    Ribosomal proteins (RPs) are indispensable in ribosome biogenesis and protein synthesis, and play a crucial role in diverse developmental processes. Our previous studies on Ribosomal Protein Large subunit (RPL) genes provided insights into their stress responsive roles in rice. In the present study, we have explored the developmental and stress regulated expression patterns of Ribosomal Protein Small (RPS) subunit genes for their differential expression in a spatiotemporal and stress dependent manner. We have also performed an in silico analysis of gene structure, cis-elements in upstream regulatory regions, protein properties and phylogeny. Expression studies of the 34 RPS genes in 13 different tissues of rice covering major growth and developmental stages revealed that their expression was substantially elevated, mostly in shoots and leaves indicating their possible involvement in the development of vegetative organs. The majority of the RPS genes have manifested significant expression under all abiotic stress treatments with ABA, PEG, NaCl, and H2O2. Infection with important rice pathogens, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) and Rhizoctonia solani also induced the up-regulation of several of the RPS genes. RPS4, 13a, 18a, and 4a have shown higher transcript levels under all the abiotic stresses, whereas, RPS4 is up-regulated in both the biotic stress treatments. The information obtained from the present investigation would be useful in appreciating the possible stress-regulatory attributes of the genes coding for rice ribosomal small subunit proteins apart from their functions as house-keeping proteins. A detailed functional analysis of independent genes is required to study their roles in stress tolerance and generating stress- tolerant crops. PMID:28966624

  7. Structural analysis of the α subunit of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase genes in invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Thabet, Rahma; Rouault, J-D; Ayadi, Habib; Leignel, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The Na(+)/K(+) ATPase is a ubiquitous pump coordinating the transport of Na(+) and K(+) across the membrane of cells and its role is fundamental to cellular functions. It is heteromer in eukaryotes including two or three subunits (α, β and γ which is specific to the vertebrates). The catalytic functions of the enzyme have been attributed to the α subunit. Several complete α protein sequences are available, but only few gene structures were characterized. We identified the genomic sequences coding the α-subunit of the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase, from the whole-genome shotgun contigs (WGS), NCBI Genomes (chromosome), Genomic Survey Sequences (GSS) and High Throughput Genomic Sequences (HTGS) databases across distinct phyla. One copy of the α subunit gene was found in Annelida, Arthropoda, Cnidaria, Echinodermata, Hemichordata, Mollusca, Placozoa, Porifera, Platyhelminthes, Urochordata, but the nematodes seem to possess 2 to 4 copies. The number of introns varied from 0 (Platyhelminthes) to 26 (Porifera); and their localization and length are also highly variable. Molecular phylogenies (Maximum Likelihood and Maximum Parsimony methods) showed some clusters constituted by (Chordata/(Echinodermata/Hemichordata)) or (Plathelminthes/(Annelida/Mollusca)) and a basal position for Porifera. These structural analyses increase our knowledge about the evolutionary events of the α subunit genes in the invertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene in mitochondria of Oenothera has no intron

    PubMed Central

    Hiesel, Rudolf; Brennicke, Axel

    1983-01-01

    The cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene has been localized in the mitochondrial genome of Oenothera berteriana and the nucleotide sequence has been determined. The coding sequence contains 777 bp and, unlike the corresponding gene in Zea mays, is not interrupted by an intron. No TGA codon is found within the open reading frame. The codon CGG, as in the maize gene, is used in place of tryptophan codons of corresponding genes in other organisms. At position 742 in the Oenothera sequence the TGG of maize is changed into a CGG codon, where Trp is conserved as the amino acid in other organisms. Homologous sequences occur more than once in the mitochondrial genome as several mitochondrial DNA species hybridize with DNA probes of the cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene. ImagesFig. 5. PMID:16453484

  9. The ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase variable subunit gene from Anacystis nidulans.

    PubMed

    Szekeres, M; Droux, M; Buchanan, B B

    1991-03-01

    The ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase variable subunit gene of Anacystis nidulans was cloned, and its nucleotide sequence was determined. A single-copy 219-bp open reading frame encoded a protein of 73 amino acid residues, with a calculated Mr of 8,400. The monocistronic transcripts were represented in a 400-base and a less abundant 300-base mRNA form.

  10. Expression of the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase large subunit gene and three small subunit genes in two cell types of maize leaves

    PubMed Central

    Sheen, Jenq-Yunn; Bogorad, Lawrence

    1986-01-01

    Transcripts of three distinct ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPC) small subunit (SS) genes account for ∼90% of the mRNA for this protein in maize leaves. Transcripts of two of them constitute >80% of the SS mRNA in 24-h greening maize leaves. The third gene contribute ∼10%. Transcripts of all three nuclear-encoded SS genes are detectable in bundle sheath (BSC) and mesophyll cells (MC) of etiolated maize leaves. The level of mRNA for each gene is different in etioplasts of MC but all drop during photoregulated development of chloroplasts in MC and follow a pattern of transitory rise and fall in BSC. The amounts of LS and SS proteins continue to increase steadily well after the mRNA levels reach their peaks in BSC. The molar ratio of mRNA for chloroplast-encoded RuBPC large subunit (LS) to the nuclear genome encoded SS is about 10:1 although LS and SS proteins are present in about equimolar amounts. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6. PMID:16453739

  11. Molecular cloning and expression of heteromeric ACCase subunit genes from Jatropha curcas.

    PubMed

    Gu, Keyu; Chiam, Huihui; Tian, Dongsheng; Yin, Zhongchao

    2011-04-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) catalyzes the biotin-dependent carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to produce malonyl-CoA, which is the essential first step in the biosynthesis of long-chain fatty acids. ACCase exists as a multi-subunit enzyme in most prokaryotes and the chloroplasts of most plants and algae, while it is present as a multi-domain enzyme in the endoplasmic reticulum of most eukaryotes. The heteromeric ACCase of higher plants consists of four subunits: an α-subunit of carboxyltransferase (α-CT, encoded by accA gene), a biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP, encoded by accB gene), a biotin carboxylase (BC, encoded by accC gene) and a β-subunit of carboxyltransferase (β-CT, encoded by accD gene). In this study, we cloned and characterized the genes accA, accB1, accC and accD that encode the subunits of heteromeric ACCase in Jatropha (Jatropha curcas), a potential biofuel plant. The full-length cDNAs of the four subunit genes were isolated from a Jatropha cDNA library and by using 5' RACE, whereas the genomic clones were obtained from a Jatropha BAC library. They encode a 771 amino acid (aa) α-CT, a 286-aa BCCP1, a 537-aa BC and a 494-aa β-CT, respectively. The single-copy accA, accB1 and accC genes are nuclear genes, while the accD gene is located in chloroplast genome. Jatropha α-CT, BCCP1, BC and β-CT show high identity to their homologues in other higher plants at amino acid level and contain all conserved domains for ACCase activity. The accA, accB1, accC and accD genes are temporally and spatially expressed in the leaves and endosperm of Jatropha plants, which are regulated by plant development and environmental factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A remarkably stable TipE gene cluster: evolution of insect Para sodium channel auxiliary subunits

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background First identified in fruit flies with temperature-sensitive paralysis phenotypes, the Drosophila melanogaster TipE locus encodes four voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channel auxiliary subunits. This cluster of TipE-like genes on chromosome 3L, and a fifth family member on chromosome 3R, are important for the optional expression and functionality of the Para NaV channel but appear quite distinct from auxiliary subunits in vertebrates. Here, we exploited available arthropod genomic resources to trace the origin of TipE-like genes by mapping their evolutionary histories and examining their genomic architectures. Results We identified a remarkably conserved synteny block of TipE-like orthologues with well-maintained local gene arrangements from 21 insect species. Homologues in the water flea, Daphnia pulex, suggest an ancestral pancrustacean repertoire of four TipE-like genes; a subsequent gene duplication may have generated functional redundancy allowing gene losses in the silk moth and mosquitoes. Intronic nesting of the insect TipE gene cluster probably occurred following the divergence from crustaceans, but in the flour beetle and silk moth genomes the clusters apparently escaped from nesting. Across Pancrustacea, TipE gene family members have experienced intronic nesting, escape from nesting, retrotransposition, translocation, and gene loss events while generally maintaining their local gene neighbourhoods. D. melanogaster TipE-like genes exhibit coordinated spatial and temporal regulation of expression distinct from their host gene but well-correlated with their regulatory target, the Para NaV channel, suggesting that functional constraints may preserve the TipE gene cluster. We identified homology between TipE-like NaV channel regulators and vertebrate Slo-beta auxiliary subunits of big-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BKCa) channels, which suggests that ion channel regulatory partners have evolved distinct lineage-specific characteristics

  13. Fine structure of OXI1, the mitochondrial gene coding for subunit II of yeast cytochrome c oxidase.

    PubMed

    Weiss-Brummer, B; Guba, R; Haid, A; Schweyen, R J

    1979-12-01

    Genetic and biochemical studies have been performed with 110 mutants which are defective in cytochrome a·a3 and map in the regions on mit DNA previously designated OXI1 and OXI2. With 88 mutations allocated to OXI1 fine structure mapping was achieved by the analysis of rho (-) deletions. The order of six groups of mutational sites (A 1, A2, B 1, B2, C 1, C2) thus determined was confirmed by oxi i x oxi j recombination analysis.Analysis of mitochondrially translated polypeptides of oxil mutants by SDS-polyacrylamide electrophoresis reveals three classes of mutant patterns: i) similar to wild-tpye (19 mutants); ii) lacking SU II of cytochrome c oxidase (53 mutants); iii) lacking this subunit and exhibiting a single new polypeptide of lower Mr (16 mutants). Mutations of each of these classes are scattered over the OXI1 region without any detectable clustering; this is consistent with the assumption that all oxil mutations studied are within the same gene.New polypeptides observed in oxil mutants of class iii) vary in Mr in the range from 10,500 to 33,000. Those of Mr 17,000 to 33,000 are shown to be antigenically related to subunit II of cytochrome c oxidase. Colinearity is established between the series of new polypeptides of Mr values increasing from 10,500 to 31,500 and the order of the respective mutational sites on the map, e.g. mutations mapping in A 1 generate the smallest and mutations mapping in C2 the largest mutant fragments.From these data we conclude that i) all mutations allocated to the OXI1 region are in the same gene; ii) this gene codes for subunit II of cytochrome c oxidase; iii) the direction of translation is from CAP to 0X12. Out of 19 mutants allocated to OXI2 three exhibit a new polypeptide; these and all the other oxi2 mutants lack subunit III of cytochrome oxidase. This result provides preliminary evidence that the OXI2 region harbours the structural gene for this subunit III.

  14. GABAA receptor subunit gene expression in human prefrontal cortex: comparison of schizophrenics and controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akbarian, S.; Huntsman, M. M.; Kim, J. J.; Tafazzoli, A.; Potkin, S. G.; Bunney, W. E. Jr; Jones, E. G.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics is hypoactive and displays changes related to inhibitory, GABAergic neurons, and GABAergic synapses. These changes include decreased levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the enzyme for GABA synthesis, upregulation of muscimol binding, and downregulation of benzodiazepine binding to GABAA receptors. Studies in the visual cortex of nonhuman primates have demonstrated that gene expression for GAD and for several GABAA receptor subunit polypeptides is under control of neuronal activity, raising the possibility that similar mechanisms in the hypoactive prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics may explain the abnormalities in GAD and in GABAA receptor regulation. In the present study, which is the first of its type on human cerebral cortex, levels of mRNAs for six GABAA receptor subunits (alpha 1, alpha 2, alpha 5, beta 1, beta 2, gamma 2) and their laminar expression patterns were analyzed in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics and matched controls, using in situ hybridization histochemistry and densitometry. Three types of laminar expression pattern were observed: mRNAs for the alpha 1, beta 2, and gamma 2 subunits, which are the predominant receptor subunits expressed in the mature cortex, were expressed at comparatively high levels by cells of all six cortical layers, but most intensely by cells in lower layer III and layer IV. mRNAs for the alpha 2, alpha 5, and beta 1 subunits were expressed at lower levels; alpha 2 and beta 1 were expressed predominantly by cells in layers II, III, and IV; alpha 5 was expressed predominantly in layers IV, V, and VI. There were no significant changes in overall mRNA levels for any of the receptor subunits in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics, and the laminar expression pattern of all six receptor subunit mRNAs did not differ between schizophrenics and controls. Because gene expression for GABAA receptor subunits is not consistently altered in the prefrontal cortex of

  15. New Insights into the Organization, Recombination, Expression and Functional Mechanism of Low Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunit Genes in Bread Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Huajie; Sun, Jiazhu; Zhang, Zhongjuan; Qin, Huanju; Li, Bin; Hao, Shanting; Li, Zhensheng; Wang, Daowen; Zhang, Aimin; Ling, Hong-Qing

    2010-01-01

    The bread-making quality of wheat is strongly influenced by multiple low molecular weight glutenin subunit (LMW-GS) proteins expressed in the seeds. However, the organization, recombination and expression of LMW-GS genes and their functional mechanism in bread-making are not well understood. Here we report a systematic molecular analysis of LMW-GS genes located at the orthologous Glu-3 loci (Glu-A3, B3 and D3) of bread wheat using complementary approaches (genome wide characterization of gene members, expression profiling, proteomic analysis). Fourteen unique LMW-GS genes were identified for Xiaoyan 54 (with superior bread-making quality). Molecular mapping and recombination analyses revealed that the three Glu-3 loci of Xiaoyan 54 harbored dissimilar numbers of LMW-GS genes and covered different genetic distances. The number of expressed LMW-GS in the seeds was higher in Xiaoyan 54 than in Jing 411 (with relatively poor bread-making quality). This correlated with the finding of higher numbers of active LMW-GS genes at the A3 and D3 loci in Xiaoyan 54. Association analysis using recombinant inbred lines suggested that positive interactions, conferred by genetic combinations of the Glu-3 locus alleles with more numerous active LMW-GS genes, were generally important for the recombinant progenies to attain high Zeleny sedimentation value (ZSV), an important indicator of bread-making quality. A higher number of active LMW-GS genes tended to lead to a more elevated ZSV, although this tendency was influenced by genetic background. This work provides substantial new insights into the genomic organization and expression of LMW-GS genes, and molecular genetic evidence suggesting that these genes contribute quantitatively to bread-making quality in hexaploid wheat. Our analysis also indicates that selection for high numbers of active LMW-GS genes can be used for improvement of bread-making quality in wheat breeding. PMID:20975830

  16. The chorionic gonadotropin alpha-subunit gene is on human chromosome 18 in JEG cells.

    PubMed Central

    Hardin, J W; Riser, M E; Trent, J M; Kohler, P O

    1983-01-01

    The gene for the alpha subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has been tentatively assigned to human chromosome 18. This localization was accomplished through the use of Southern blot analysis. A full-length cDNA probe for the hCG alpha subunit and DNA isolated from a series of somatic hybrids between mouse and human cells were utilized to make this assignment. In addition, in situ hybridization with normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes as a source of human chromosomes and with the same cDNA probe confirmed this result. The presence of human chromosome 18 was required for the detection of DNA fragments characteristic of the alpha-hCG gene. These results are consistent with our previous observation that human chromosomes 10 and 18 are required for the production of hCG in cultured cells. Images PMID:6578509

  17. The ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase variable subunit gene from Anacystis nidulans.

    PubMed Central

    Szekeres, M; Droux, M; Buchanan, B B

    1991-01-01

    The ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase variable subunit gene of Anacystis nidulans was cloned, and its nucleotide sequence was determined. A single-copy 219-bp open reading frame encoded a protein of 73 amino acid residues, with a calculated Mr of 8,400. The monocistronic transcripts were represented in a 400-base and a less abundant 300-base mRNA form. Images PMID:1705544

  18. A tolerance gene for prenylated flavonoid encodes a 26S proteasome regulatory subunit in Sophora flavescens.

    PubMed

    Shitan, Nobukazu; Kamimoto, Yoshihisa; Minami, Shota; Kubo, Mizuki; Ito, Kozue; Moriyasu, Masataka; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2011-01-01

    Yeast functional screening with a Sophora flavescens cDNA library was performed to identify the genes involved in the tolerant mechanism to the self-producing prenylated flavonoid sophoraflavanone G (SFG). One cDNA, which conferred SFG tolerance, encoded a regulatory particle triple-A ATPase 2 (SfRPT2), a member of the 26S proteasome subunit. The yeast transformant of SfRPT2 showed reduced SFG accumulation in the cells.

  19. Depletion of Mediator Kinase Module Subunits Represses Superenhancer-Associated Genes in Colon Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Kuuluvainen, Emilia; Domènech-Moreno, Eva; Niemelä, Elina H; Mäkelä, Tomi P

    2018-06-01

    In cancer, oncogene activation is partly mediated by acquired superenhancers, which therefore represent potential targets for inhibition. Superenhancers are enriched for BRD4 and Mediator, and both BRD4 and the Mediator MED12 subunit are disproportionally required for expression of superenhancer-associated genes in stem cells. Here we show that depletion of Mediator kinase module subunit MED12 or MED13 together with MED13L can be used to reduce expression of cancer-acquired superenhancer genes, such as the MYC gene, in colon cancer cells, with a concomitant decrease in proliferation. Whereas depletion of MED12 or MED13/MED13L caused a disproportional decrease of superenhancer gene expression, this was not seen with depletion of the kinases cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK8) and CDK19. MED12-MED13/MED13L-dependent superenhancer genes were coregulated by β-catenin, which has previously been shown to associate with MED12. Importantly, β-catenin depletion caused reduced binding of MED12 at the MYC superenhancer. The effect of MED12 or MED13/MED13L depletion on cancer-acquired superenhancer gene expression was more specific than and partially distinct from that of BRD4 depletion, with the most efficient inhibition seen with combined targeting. These results identify a requirement of MED12 and MED13/MED13L for expression of acquired superenhancer genes in colon cancer, implicating these Mediator subunits as potential therapeutic targets for colon cancer, alone or together with BRD4. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. Characterization of two genes encoding the Mycobacterium tuberculosis ribonucleotide reductase small subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, F; Curran, S C; Li, L S; Avarbock, D; Graf, J D; Chua, M M; Lu, G; Salem, J; Rubin, H

    1997-01-01

    Two nrdF genes, nrdF1 and nrdF2, encoding the small subunit (R2) of ribonucleotide reductase (RR) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis have 71% identity at the amino acid level and are both highly homologous with Salmonella typhimurium R2F. The calculated molecular masses of R2-1 and R2-2 are 36,588 (322 amino acids [aa]) and 36,957 (324 aa) Da, respectively. Western blot analysis of crude M. tuberculosis extracts indicates that both R2s are expressed in vivo. Recombinant R2-2 is enzymatically active when assayed with pure recombinant M. tuberculosis R1 subunit. Both ATP and dATP are activators for CDP reduction up to 2 and 1 mM, respectively. The gene encoding M. tuberculosis R2-1, nrdF1, is not linked to nrdF2, nor is either gene linked to the gene encoding the large subunit, M. tuberculosis nrdE. The gene encoding MTP64 was found downstream from nrdF1, and the gene encoding alcohol dehydrogenase was found downstream from nrdF2. A nrdA(Ts) strain of E. coli (E101) could be complemented by simultaneous transformation with M. tuberculosis nrdE and nrdF2. An M. tuberculosis nrdF2 variant in which the codon for the catalytically necessary tyrosine was replaced by the phenylalanine codon did not complement E101 when cotransformed with M. tuberculosis nrdE. Similarly, M. tuberculosis nrdF1 and nrdE did not complement E101. Activity of recombinant M. tuberculosis RR was inhibited by incubating the enzyme with a peptide corresponding to the 7 C-terminal amino acid residues of the R2-2 subunit. M. tuberculosis is a species in which a nrdEF system appears to encode the biologically active species of RR and also the only bacterial species identified so far in which class I RR subunits are not arranged on an operon. PMID:9335290

  1. Linkage of genes for laminin B1 and B2 subunits on chromosome 1 in mouse.

    PubMed

    Elliott, R W; Barlow, D; Hogan, B L

    1985-08-01

    We have used cDNA clones for the B1 and B2 subunits of laminin to find restriction fragment length DNA polymorphisms for the genes encoding these polypeptides in the mouse. Three alleles were found for LamB2 and two for LamB1 among the inbred mouse strains. The segregation of these polymorphisms among recombinant inbred strains showed that these genes are tightly linked in the central region of mouse Chromosome 1 between Sas-1 and Ly-m22, 7.4 +/- 3.2 cM distal to the Pep-3 locus. There is no evidence in the mouse for pseudogenes for these proteins.

  2. Rice Ribosomal Protein Large Subunit Genes and Their Spatio-temporal and Stress Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Moin, Mazahar; Bakshi, Achala; Saha, Anusree; Dutta, Mouboni; Madhav, Sheshu M.; Kirti, P. B.

    2016-01-01

    Ribosomal proteins (RPs) are well-known for their role in mediating protein synthesis and maintaining the stability of the ribosomal complex, which includes small and large subunits. In the present investigation, in a genome-wide survey, we predicted that the large subunit of rice ribosomes is encoded by at least 123 genes including individual gene copies, distributed throughout the 12 chromosomes. We selected 34 candidate genes, each having 2–3 identical copies, for a detailed characterization of their gene structures, protein properties, cis-regulatory elements and comprehensive expression analysis. RPL proteins appear to be involved in interactions with other RP and non-RP proteins and their encoded RNAs have a higher content of alpha-helices in their predicted secondary structures. The majority of RPs have binding sites for metal and non-metal ligands. Native expression profiling of 34 ribosomal protein large (RPL) subunit genes in tissues covering the major stages of rice growth shows that they are predominantly expressed in vegetative tissues and seedlings followed by meiotically active tissues like flowers. The putative promoter regions of these genes also carry cis-elements that respond specifically to stress and signaling molecules. All the 34 genes responded differentially to the abiotic stress treatments. Phytohormone and cold treatments induced significant up-regulation of several RPL genes, while heat and H2O2 treatments down-regulated a majority of them. Furthermore, infection with a bacterial pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae, which causes leaf blight also induced the expression of 80% of the RPL genes in leaves. Although the expression of RPL genes was detected in all the tissues studied, they are highly responsive to stress and signaling molecules indicating that their encoded proteins appear to have roles in stress amelioration besides house-keeping. This shows that the RPL gene family is a valuable resource for manipulation of stress tolerance in

  3. Pituitary transcription factor Prop-1 stimulates porcine pituitary glycoprotein hormone alpha subunit gene expression.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takanobu; Kitahara, Kousuke; Susa, Takao; Kato, Takako; Kato, Yukio

    2006-10-01

    Recently, we have reported that a Prophet of Pit-1 homeodomain factor, Prop-1, is a novel transcription factor for the porcine follicle-stimulating hormone beta subunit (FSHbeta) gene. This study subsequently aimed to examine the role of Prop-1 in the gene expression of two other porcine gonadotropin subunits, pituitary glycoprotein hormone alpha subunit (alphaGSU), and luteinizing hormone beta subunit (LHbeta). A series of deletion mutants of the porcine alphaGSU (up to -1059 bp) and LHbeta (up to -1277 bp) promoters were constructed in the reporter vector, fused with the secreted alkaline phosphatase gene (pSEAP2-Basic). Transient transfection studies using GH3 cells were carried out to estimate the activation of the porcine alphaGSU and LHbeta promoters by Prop-1, which was found to activate the alphaGSU promoter of -1059/+12 bp up to 11.7-fold but not the LHbeta promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and DNase I footprinting analysis revealed that Prop-1 binds to six positions, -1038/-1026, -942/-928, -495/-479, -338/-326, -153/-146, and -131/-124 bp, that comprise the A/T cluster. Oligonucleotides of six Prop-1 binding sites were directly connected to the minimum promoter of alphaGSU, fused in the pSEAP2-Basic vector, followed by transfecting GH3 cells to determine the cis-acting activity. Finally, we concluded that at least five Prop-1 binding sites are the cis-acting elements for alphaGSU gene expression. The present results revealed a notable feature of the proximal region, where three Prop-1-binding sites are close to and/or overlap the pituitary glycoprotein hormone basal element, GATA-binding element, and junctional regulatory element. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the role of Prop-1 in the regulation of alphaGSU gene expression. These results, taken together with our previous finding that Prop-1 is a transcription factor for FSHbeta gene, confirm that Prop-1 modulates the synthesis of FSH at the transcriptional level. On

  4. Immunochemical Proof that a Novel Rearranging Gene Encodes the T Cell Receptor δ Subunit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Band, Hamid; Hochstenbach, Frans; McLean, Joanne; Hata, Shingo; Krangel, Michael S.; Brenner, Michael B.

    1987-10-01

    The T cell receptor (TCR) δ protein is expressed as part of a heterodimer with TCR γ , in association with the CD3 polypeptides on a subset of functional peripheral blood T lymphocytes, thymocytes, and certain leukemic T cell lines. A monoclonal antibody directed against TCR δ was produced that binds specifically to the surface of several TCR γ δ cell lines and immunoprecipitates the TCR γ δ as a heterodimer from Triton X-100 detergent lysates and also immunoprecipitates the TCR δ subunit alone after chain separation. A candidate human TCR δ complementary DNA clone (IDP2 O-240/38), reported in a companion paper, was isolated by the subtractive library approach from a TCR γ δ cell line. This complementary DNA clone was used to direct the synthesis of a polypeptide that is specifically recognized by the monoclonal antibody to TCR δ . This complementary DNA clone thus corresponds to the gene that encodes the TCR δ subunit.

  5. Genetic differentiation of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase C subunit I gene in genus Paramecium (Protista, Ciliophora).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Gentekaki, Eleni; Yi, Zhenzhen; Lin, Xiaofeng

    2013-01-01

    The mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene is being used increasingly for evaluating inter- and intra-specific genetic diversity of ciliated protists. However, very few studies focus on assessing genetic divergence of the COI gene within individuals and how its presence might affect species identification and population structure analyses. We evaluated the genetic variation of the COI gene in five Paramecium species for a total of 147 clones derived from 21 individuals and 7 populations. We identified a total of 90 haplotypes with several individuals carrying more than one haplotype. Parsimony network and phylogenetic tree analyses revealed that intra-individual diversity had no effect in species identification and only a minor effect on population structure. Our results suggest that the COI gene is a suitable marker for resolving inter- and intra-specific relationships of Paramecium spp.

  6. Genetic Differentiation of the Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase c Subunit I Gene in Genus Paramecium (Protista, Ciliophora)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yan; Gentekaki, Eleni; Yi, Zhenzhen; Lin, Xiaofeng

    2013-01-01

    Background The mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene is being used increasingly for evaluating inter- and intra-specific genetic diversity of ciliated protists. However, very few studies focus on assessing genetic divergence of the COI gene within individuals and how its presence might affect species identification and population structure analyses. Methodology/Principal findings We evaluated the genetic variation of the COI gene in five Paramecium species for a total of 147 clones derived from 21 individuals and 7 populations. We identified a total of 90 haplotypes with several individuals carrying more than one haplotype. Parsimony network and phylogenetic tree analyses revealed that intra-individual diversity had no effect in species identification and only a minor effect on population structure. Conclusions Our results suggest that the COI gene is a suitable marker for resolving inter- and intra-specific relationships of Paramecium spp. PMID:24204730

  7. Silencing SlMED18, tomato Mediator subunit 18 gene, restricts internode elongation and leaf expansion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunshu; Hu, Zongli; Zhang, Jianling; Yu, XiaoHui; Guo, Jun-E; Liang, Honglian; Liao, Changguang; Chen, Guoping

    2018-02-19

    Mediator complex, a conserved multi-protein, is necessary for controlling RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription in eukaryotes. Given little is known about them in tomato, a tomato Mediator subunit 18 gene was isolated and named SlMED18. To further explore the function of SlMED18, the transgenic tomato plants targeting SlMED18 by RNAi-mediated gene silencing were generated. The SlMED18-RNAi lines exhibited multiple developmental defects, including smaller size and slower growth rate of plant and significantly smaller compound leaves. The contents of endogenous bioactive GA 3 in SlMED18 silenced lines were slightly less than that in wild type. Furthermore, qRT-PCR analysis indicated that expression of gibberellins biosynthesis genes such as SlGACPS and SlGA20x2, auxin transport genes (PIN1, PIN4, LAX1 and LAX2) and several key regulators, KNOX1, KNOX2, PHAN and LANCEOLATE(LA), which involved in the leaf morphogenesis were significantly down-regulated in SlMED18-RNAi lines. These results illustrated that SlMED18 plays an essential role in regulating plant internode elongation and leaf expansion in tomato plants and it acts as a key positive regulator of gibberellins biosynthesis and signal transduction as well as auxin proper transport signalling. These findings are the basis for understanding the function of the individual Mediator subunits in tomato.

  8. Mutations in the PCCA gene encoding the {alpha} subunit of propionyl-CoA carboxylase in patients with propionic acidemia

    SciTech Connect

    Campeau, E.; Leon-Del-Rio, A.; Gravel, R.A.

    Propionic acidemia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a deficiency of the mitochondrial biotin-dependent enzyme, propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC). PCC has the structure {alpha}{sub 4}{beta}{sub 4}, with the {alpha} subunit containing the biotin prosthetic group. This study is concerned with defining the spectrum of mutations occurring in the PCCA gene encoding the {alpha} subunit. Mutations were initially assigned to this gene through complementation experiments done after somatic fusion of patient fibroblasts. The analyses were performed on PCR-amplified reverse transcripts of fibroblast RNA. The mutations were identified by single strand conformational polymorphism analysis and direct sequencing of PCR products. Threemore » candidate disease-causing mutations and one DNA polymorphism were identified in the {alpha} subunit sequence in different patients: (1) a 3 bp deletion {triangle}CTG{sub 2058-2060}, which eliminates Cys687 near the biotin binding site (Lys669); (2) T{sub 611}{r_arrow}A which converts Met204 to Lys in a highly conserved region matching that of an ATP binding site; (3) An {approximately}50 bp deletion near the 3{prime} end of the cDNA which likely corresponds to the loss of an exon due to a splicing defect; and (4) a 3 bp insertion, +CAG{sub 2203}, located downstream of the stop codon, which is likely a DNA polymorphism. In order to determine the effect of the Cys687 deletion on the biotinylation of PCC, we expressed the mutation in a 67 amino acid C-terminal fragment of the PCC {alpha} subunit in E. coli in which biotinylation is directed by the bacterial biotin ligase. While the mutant peptide was expressed at about half-normal levels, the biotinylation of the peptide that was present was reduced to only {approximately}20% normal. We suggest, therefore, that the absence of PCC activity due to {triangle}Cys687 results at least in part from defective biotinylation of an unstable protein.« less

  9. Fragmentation of the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene in oyster mitochondrial genomes.

    PubMed

    Milbury, Coren A; Lee, Jung C; Cannone, Jamie J; Gaffney, Patrick M; Gutell, Robin R

    2010-09-02

    Discontinuous genes have been observed in bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotic nuclei, mitochondria and chloroplasts. Gene discontinuity occurs in multiple forms: the two most frequent forms result from introns that are spliced out of the RNA and the resulting exons are spliced together to form a single transcript, and fragmented gene transcripts that are not covalently attached post-transcriptionally. Within the past few years, fragmented ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes have been discovered in bilateral metazoan mitochondria, all within a group of related oysters. In this study, we have characterized this fragmentation with comparative analysis and experimentation. We present secondary structures, modeled using comparative sequence analysis of the discontinuous mitochondrial large subunit rRNA genes of the cupped oysters C. virginica, C. gigas, and C. hongkongensis. Comparative structure models for the large subunit rRNA in each of the three oyster species are generally similar to those for other bilateral metazoans. We also used RT-PCR and analyzed ESTs to determine if the two fragmented LSU rRNAs are spliced together. The two segments are transcribed separately, and not spliced together although they still form functional rRNAs and ribosomes. Although many examples of discontinuous ribosomal genes have been documented in bacteria and archaea, as well as the nuclei, chloroplasts, and mitochondria of eukaryotes, oysters are some of the first characterized examples of fragmented bilateral animal mitochondrial rRNA genes. The secondary structures of the oyster LSU rRNA fragments have been predicted on the basis of previous comparative metazoan mitochondrial LSU rRNA structure models.

  10. Expression of Chlamydophila psittaci MOMP heat-labile toxin B subunit fusion gene in transgenic rice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiuxiang; Yuan, Ziguo; Guo, Xuejun; Li, Jingwen; Li, Zhaonan; Wang, Qingyu

    2008-09-01

    A DNA fragment encoding the MOMP gene of Chlamydophila psittaci was fused to the heat-labile toxin B subunit gene (LTB-MOMP) and transferred into rice callus by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. The LTB-MOMP fusion gene was detected in genomic DNA from transformed rice leaves by Southern blot and RT-PCR amplification. Synthesis and assembly of the LTB-MOMP fusion protein into pentamers was detected in transformed leaf extracts by immunoblot analysis. Binding of the pentamers to intestinal epithelial cell membrane glycolipid receptors was quantified by GM1-ganglioside enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (GM1-ELISA). The ELISA results indicated that LTB-MOMP fusion protein made up 0.0033-0.0054% of the total soluble leaf protein. Meanwhile, this suggested that the fusion protein retained both its native antigenicity and the ability to form pentamers.

  11. Sucrose regulation of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase subunit genes transcript levels in leaves and fruits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Xiangyang; Xing, Jinpeng; Gianfagna, Thomas J.; Janes, Harry W.

    2002-01-01

    ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase, EC2.7.7.27) is a key regulatory enzyme in starch biosynthesis. The enzyme is a heterotetramer with two S and two B subunits. In tomato, there are three multiple forms of the S subunit gene. Agp S1, S2 and B are highly expressed in fruit from 10 to 25 days after anthesis. Agp S3 is only weakly expressed in fruit. Sucrose significantly elevates expression of Agp S1, S2 and B in both leaves and fruits. Agp S1 exhibits the highest degree of regulation by sucrose. In fact, sucrose may be required for Agp S1 expression. For excised leaves incubated in water, no transcripts for Agp S1 could be detected in the absence of sucrose, whereas it took up to 16 h in water before transcripts were no longer detectable for Agp S2 and B. Neither Agp S3 nor the tubulin gene is affected by sucrose, demonstrating that this response is specifically regulated by a carbohydrate metabolic signal, and is not due to a general increase in metabolism caused by sucrose treatment. Truncated versions of the promoter for Agp S1 indicate that a specific region 1.3-3.0 kb upstream from the transcription site is responsible for sucrose sensitivity. This region of the S1 promoter contains several cis-acting elements present in the promoters of other genes that are also regulated by sucrose. c2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Recognition deficits in mice carrying mutations of genes encoding BLOC-1 subunits pallidin or dysbindin.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, S; Chiu, A; James, A S; Jentsch, J D; Karlsgodt, K H

    2015-11-01

    Numerous studies have implicated DTNBP1, the gene encoding dystrobrevin-binding protein or dysbindin, as a candidate risk gene for schizophrenia, though this relationship remains somewhat controversial. Variation in dysbindin, and its location on chromosome 6p, has been associated with cognitive processes, including those relying on a complex system of glutamatergic and dopaminergic interactions. Dysbindin is one of the seven protein subunits that comprise the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex 1 (BLOC-1). Dysbindin protein levels are lower in mice with null mutations in pallidin, another gene in the BLOC-1, and pallidin levels are lower in mice with null mutations in the dysbindin gene, suggesting that multiple subunit proteins must be present to form a functional oligomeric complex. Furthermore, pallidin and dysbindin have similar distribution patterns in a mouse and human brain. Here, we investigated whether the apparent correspondence of pallid and dysbindin at the level of gene expression is also found at the level of behavior. Hypothesizing a mutation leading to underexpression of either of these proteins should show similar phenotypic effects, we studied recognition memory in both strains using the novel object recognition task (NORT) and social novelty recognition task (SNRT). We found that mice with a null mutation in either gene are impaired on SNRT and NORT when compared with wild-type controls. These results support the conclusion that deficits consistent with recognition memory impairment, a cognitive function that is impaired in schizophrenia, result from either pallidin or dysbindin mutations, possibly through degradation of BLOC-1 expression and/or function. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  13. Differential expression of the eight genes of the petunia ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit multi-gene family

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Caroline; Elzen, Peter van den; Tamaki, Stanley; Dunsmuir, Pamela; Bedbrook, John

    1985-01-01

    Of the eight nuclear genes in the plant multi-gene family which encodes the small subunit (rbcS) of Petunia (Mitchell) ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase, one rbcS gene accounts for 47% of the total rbcS gene expression in petunia leaf tissue. Expression of each of five other rbcS genes is detected at levels between 2 and 23% of the total rbcS expression in leaf tissue, while expression of the remaining two rbcS genes is not detected. There is considerable variation (500-fold) in the levels of total rbcS mRNA in six organs of petunia (leaves, sepals, petals, stems, roots and stigmas/anthers). One gene, SSU301, showed the highest levels of steady-state mRNA in each of the organs examined. We discuss the differences in the steady-state mRNA levels of the individual rbcS genes in relation to their gene structure, nucleotide sequence and genomic linkage. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 3. PMID:16453647

  14. Sequence analysis of dolphin ferritin H and L subunits and possible iron-dependent translational control of dolphin ferritin gene

    PubMed Central

    Takaesu, Azusa; Watanabe, Kiyotaka; Takai, Shinji; Sasaki, Yukako; Orino, Koichi

    2008-01-01

    Background Iron-storage protein, ferritin plays a central role in iron metabolism. Ferritin has dual function to store iron and segregate iron for protection of iron-catalyzed reactive oxygen species. Tissue ferritin is composed of two kinds of subunits (H: heavy chain or heart-type subunit; L: light chain or liver-type subunit). Ferritin gene expression is controlled at translational level in iron-dependent manner or at transcriptional level in iron-independent manner. However, sequencing analysis of marine mammalian ferritin subunits has not yet been performed fully. The purpose of this study is to reveal cDNA-derived amino acid sequences of cetacean ferritin H and L subunits, and demonstrate the possibility of expression of these subunits, especially H subunit, by iron. Methods Sequence analyses of cetacean ferritin H and L subunits were performed by direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fragments from cDNAs generated via reverse transcription-PCR of leukocyte total RNA prepared from blood samples of six different dolphin species (Pseudorca crassidens, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens, Grampus griseus, Globicephala macrorhynchus, Tursiops truncatus, and Delphinapterus leucas). The putative iron-responsive element sequence in the 5'-untranslated region of the six different dolphin species was revealed by direct sequencing of PCR fragments obtained using leukocyte genomic DNA. Results Dolphin H and L subunits consist of 182 and 174 amino acids, respectively, and amino acid sequence identities of ferritin subunits among these dolphins are highly conserved (H: 99–100%, (99→98) ; L: 98–100%). The conserved 28 bp IRE sequence was located -144 bp upstream from the initiation codon in the six different dolphin species. Conclusion These results indicate that six different dolphin species have conserved ferritin sequences, and suggest that these genes are iron-dependently expressed. PMID:18954429

  15. Mechanism of repression of the inhibin alpha-subunit gene by inducible 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate early repressor.

    PubMed

    Burkart, Anna D; Mukherjee, Abir; Mayo, Kelly E

    2006-03-01

    The rodent ovary is regulated throughout the reproductive cycle to maintain normal cyclicity. Ovarian follicular development is controlled by changes in gene expression in response to the gonadotropins FSH and LH. The inhibin alpha-subunit gene belongs to a group of genes that is positively regulated by FSH and negatively regulated by LH. Previous studies established an important role for inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER) in repression of alpha-inhibin. These current studies investigate the mechanisms of repression by ICER. It is not clear whether all four ICER isoforms expressed in the ovary can act as repressors of the inhibin alpha-subunit gene. EMSAs demonstrate binding of all isoforms to the inhibin alpha-subunit CRE (cAMP response element), and transfection studies demonstrate that all isoforms can repress the inhibin alpha-subunit gene. Repression by ICER is dependent on its binding to DNA as demonstrated by mutations to ICER's DNA-binding domain. These mutational studies also demonstrate that repression by ICER is not dependent on heterodimerization with CREB (CRE-binding protein). Competitive EMSAs show that ICER effectively competes with CREB for binding to the inhibin alpha CRE in vitro. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrate a replacement of CREB dimers bound to the inhibin alpha CRE by ICER dimers in ovarian granulosa cells in response to LH signaling. Thus, there is a temporal association of transcription factors bound to the inhibin alpha-CRE controlling inhibin alpha-subunit gene expression.

  16. Phylogeny of the Haplosporidia (Eukaryota: Alveolata) based on small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequence.

    PubMed

    Flores, B S; Siddall, M E; Burreson, E M

    1996-08-01

    The phylogenetic position of the phylum Haplosporidia was investigated with the complete small subunit rRNA gene sequences from 5 species in the phylum: Haplosporidium nelsoni and Haplosporidium costale, parasites of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica; Haplosporidium louisiana, a parasite of the mudcrab Panopeus herbstii; Minchinia teredinis, a parasite of shipworms (Teredo spp.) and Urosporidium crescens, a hyperparasite found in metacercariae of the trematode Megalophallus sp. in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. Multiple alignments of small subunit rRNA gene sequences included the 5 haplosporidian taxa and 14 taxa in the alveolate phyla Ciliophora, Dinoflagellida, and Apicomplexa. Maximum parsimony analysis placed the phylum Haplosporidia as a monophyletic group within the alveolate clade, as a taxon of equal rank with the other 3 alveolate phyla, and as a sister taxon to the clade composed of the phyla Dinoflagellida and Apicomplexa. Transversionally weighted parsimony placed the haplosporidians as a sister taxon to the ciliates. A separate analysis focused on the relationships of species in the genus Haplosporidium. Analyses were conducted with the haplosporidians as a functional ingroup, using each of the alveolate phyla individually as functional outgroups. The results indicated that species in the genus Haplosporidium do not form a monophyletic assemblage. As such, the present morphological criteria for distinguishing the genera Haplosporidium and Minchinia are insufficient.

  17. Deletion of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit gene Dα1 confers insecticide resistance, but at what cost?

    PubMed

    Somers, Jason; Luong, Hang Ngoc Bao; Batterham, Philip; Perry, Trent

    2018-01-02

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have vital functions in processes of neurotransmission that underpin key behaviors. These pentameric ligand-gated ion channels have been used as targets for insecticides that constitutively activate them, causing the death of insect pests. In examining a knockout of the Dα1 nAChR subunit gene, our study linked this one subunit with multiple traits. We were able to confirm previous work that had identified Dα1 as a target of the neonicotinoid class of insecticides. Further, we uncovered roles for the gene in influencing mating behavior and patterns of sleep. The knockout mutant was also observed to have a significant reduction in longevity. This study highlighted the severe fitness costs that appear to be associated with the loss of function of this gene in natural populations in the absence of insecticides targeting the Dα1 subunit. Such a fitness cost could explain why target site resistances to neonicotinoids in pest insect populations have been associated specific amino acid replacement mutations in nAChR subunits, rather than loss of function. That mutant phenotypes were observed for the two behaviors examined indicates that the functions of Dα1, and other nAChR subunits, need to be explored more broadly. It also remains to be established whether these phenotypes were due to loss of the Dα1 receptor and/or to compensatory changes in the expression levels of other nAChR subunits.

  18. The Varicella-zoster virus DNA encapsidation genes: Identification and characterization of the putative terminase subunits

    PubMed Central

    Visalli, Robert J.; Nicolosi, Denise M.; Irven, Karen L.; Goshorn, Bradley; Khan, Tamseel; Visalli, Melissa A.

    2007-01-01

    The putative DNA encapsidation genes encoded by open reading frames (ORFs) 25, 26, 30, 34, 43, 45/42 and 54 were cloned from Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) strain Ellen. Sequencing revealed that the Ellen ORFs were highly conserved at the amino acid level when compared to those of nineteen previously published VZV isolates. Additionally, RT-PCR provided the first evidence that ORF45/42 was expressed as a spliced transcript in VZV-infected cells. All seven ORFs were expressed in vitro and full length products were identified using a C-terminal V5 epitope tag. The in vitro products of the putative VZV terminase subunits encoded by ORFs 30 and 45/42 proved useful in protein-protein interaction assays. Previous studies have reported the formation of a heterodimeric terminase complex involved in DNA encapsidation for both herpes simplex virus-type 1 (HSV-1) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Here we report that the C-terminal portion of exon II of ORF45/42 (ORF42-C269) interacted in GST-pull down experiments with in vitro synthesized ORF30 and ORF45/42. The interactions were maintained in the presence of anionic detergents and in buffers of increasing ionic strength. Cells transiently transfected with epitope tagged ORF45/42 or ORF30 showed primarily cytoplasmic staining. In contrast, an antiserum directed to the N-terminal portion of ORF45 showed nearly exclusive nuclear localization of the ORF45/42 gene product in infected cells. An ORF30 specific antiserum detected an 87 kDa protein in both the cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions of VZV infected cells. The results were consistent with the localization and function of herpesviral terminase subunits. This is the first study aimed at the identification and characterization of the VZV DNA encapsidation gene products. PMID:17868947

  19. The gene coding for small ribosomal subunit RNA in the basidiomycete Ustilago maydis contains a group I intron.

    PubMed Central

    De Wachter, R; Neefs, J M; Goris, A; Van de Peer, Y

    1992-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the gene coding for small ribosomal subunit RNA in the basidiomycete Ustilago maydis was determined. It revealed the presence of a group I intron with a length of 411 nucleotides. This is the third occurrence of such an intron discovered in a small subunit rRNA gene encoded by a eukaryotic nuclear genome. The other two occurrences are in Pneumocystis carinii, a fungus of uncertain taxonomic status, and Ankistrodesmus stipitatus, a green alga. The nucleotides of the conserved core structure of 101 group I intron sequences present in different genes and genome types were aligned and their evolutionary relatedness was examined. This revealed a cluster including all group I introns hitherto found in eukaryotic nuclear genes coding for small and large subunit rRNAs. A secondary structure model was designed for the area of the Ustilago maydis small ribosomal subunit RNA precursor where the intron is situated. It shows that the internal guide sequence pairing with the intron boundaries fits between two helices of the small subunit rRNA, and that minimal rearrangement of base pairs suffices to achieve the definitive secondary structure of the 18S rRNA upon splicing. PMID:1561081

  20. Mitochondrial ATPase Subunit 6 and Cytochrome B Gene Variations in Obese Turkish Children

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Durkadın; Türkkahraman, Doğa; Samur, Anıl Aktaş; Lüleci, Güven; Akçurin, Sema; M. Alper, Özgül

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Due to the importance of energy metabolism in mitochondria, mitochondrial genome variations are evaluated in energy-related diseases such as obesity. To date, several nuclear genes were found to be related to obesity. Our aim in this study was to investigate the presence of polymorphisms in mitochondrial ATPase subunit 6 (mt-ATP6) and cytochrome b (mt-CytB) genes that may be associated with childhood obesity. Methods: The mt-ATP6 and mt-CytB genes were amplified and entirely sequenced in a series of 100 obese and in an equal number of healthy Turkish children aged between 6-14 years. Results: A total of 118 synonymous and nonsynonymous variations were detected in the obese and control groups. Only two previously reported synonymous substitutions (mt.8614T>C and mt.8994G>A) in the mt-ATP6 gene were found to be significantly higher in the obese group compared to the control group (p<0.05). In the mt-ATP6 gene, one novel nonsynonymous substitution (mt.8726C>T) and one novel synonymous substitution (mt.9108A>T) were found. In the mt-CytB gene, one nonsynonymous substitution (mt.14880T>C) and two synonymous substitutions (mt.14891C>T and mt.15091C>T) were novel substitutions. Conclusion: Two synonymous substitutions (mt.8614T>C and mt.8994G>A) in the mt-ATP6 gene may be associated with childhood obesity. Our study provides the first data about mitochondrial genome variations in a Turkish obese population and also the first in obese children. More cases should be screened in obese groups in order to understand the effects of mitochondrial polymorphisms in the development of obesity. PMID:25541891

  1. Analysis of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COX2) gene in giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca.

    PubMed

    Ling, S S; Zhu, Y; Lan, D; Li, D S; Pang, H Z; Wang, Y; Li, D Y; Wei, R P; Zhang, H M; Wang, C D; Hu, Y D

    2017-01-23

    The giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca (Ursidae), has a unique bamboo-based diet; however, this low-energy intake has been sufficient to maintain the metabolic processes of this species since the fourth ice age. As mitochondria are the main sites for energy metabolism in animals, the protein-coding genes involved in mitochondrial respiratory chains, particularly cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COX2), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in electron transfer, could play an important role in giant panda metabolism. Therefore, the present study aimed to isolate, sequence, and analyze the COX2 DNA from individuals kept at the Giant Panda Protection and Research Center, China, and compare these sequences with those of the other Ursidae family members. Multiple sequence alignment showed that the COX2 gene had three point mutations that defined three haplotypes, with 60% of the sequences corresponding to haplotype I. The neutrality tests revealed that the COX2 gene was conserved throughout evolution, and the maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis, using homologous sequences from other Ursidae species, showed clustering of the COX2 sequences of giant pandas, suggesting that this gene evolved differently in them.

  2. Mitochondrial Genes of Dinoflagellates Are Transcribed by a Nuclear-Encoded Single-Subunit RNA Polymerase.

    PubMed

    Teng, Chang Ying; Dang, Yunkun; Danne, Jillian C; Waller, Ross F; Green, Beverley R

    2013-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are a large group of algae that contribute significantly to marine productivity and are essential photosynthetic symbionts of corals. Although these algae have fully-functioning mitochondria and chloroplasts, both their organelle genomes have been highly reduced and the genes fragmented and rearranged, with many aberrant transcripts. However, nothing is known about their RNA polymerases. We cloned and sequenced the gene for the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial polymerase (RpoTm) of the dinoflagellate Heterocapsa triquetra and showed that the protein presequence targeted a GFP construct into yeast mitochondria. The gene belongs to a small gene family, which includes a variety of 3'-truncated copies that may have originated by retroposition. The catalytic C-terminal domain of the protein shares nine conserved sequence blocks with other single-subunit polymerases and is predicted to have the same fold as the human enzyme. However, the N-terminal (promoter binding/transcription initiation) domain is not well-conserved. In conjunction with the degenerate nature of the mitochondrial genome, this suggests a requirement for novel accessory factors to ensure the accurate production of functional mRNAs.

  3. Mutations in the Gene Encoding the Ancillary Pilin Subunit of the Streptococcus suis srtF Cluster Result in Pili Formed by the Major Subunit Only

    PubMed Central

    Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Takamatsu, Daisuke; Domínguez-Punaro, María de la Cruz; Lecours, Marie-Pier; Montpetit, Diane; Osaki, Makoto; Sekizaki, Tsutomu; Gottschalk, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    Pili have been shown to contribute to the virulence of different Gram-positive pathogenic species. Among other critical steps of bacterial pathogenesis, these structures participate in adherence to host cells, colonization and systemic virulence. Recently, the presence of at least four discrete gene clusters encoding putative pili has been revealed in the major swine pathogen and emerging zoonotic agent Streptococcus suis. However, pili production by this species has not yet been demonstrated. In this study, we investigated the functionality of one of these pili clusters, known as the srtF pilus cluster, by the construction of mutant strains for each of the four genes of the cluster as well as by the generation of antibodies against the putative pilin subunits. Results revealed that the S. suis serotype 2 strain P1/7, as well as several other highly virulent invasive S. suis serotype 2 isolates express pili from this cluster. However, in most cases tested, and as a result of nonsense mutations at the 5′ end of the gene encoding the minor pilin subunit (a putative adhesin), pili were formed by the major pilin subunit only. We then evaluated the role these pili play in S. suis virulence. Abolishment of the expression of srtF cluster-encoded pili did not result in impaired interactions of S. suis with porcine brain microvascular endothelial cells. Furthermore, non-piliated mutants were as virulent as the wild type strain when evaluated in a murine model of S. suis sepsis. Our results show that srtF cluster-encoded, S. suis pili are atypical compared to other Gram-positive pili. In addition, since the highly virulent strains under investigation are unlikely to produce other pili, our results suggest that pili might be dispensable for critical steps of the S. suis pathogenesis of infection. PMID:20052283

  4. Gene expression of ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits in the tectofugal pathway of the pigeon.

    PubMed

    Atoji, Y

    2016-03-01

    The tectofugal pathway in birds consists of four stations, the retina, optic tectum, rotundal nucleus, and entopallium, and it conveys visual information via three ascending pathways. These pathways consist of retino-tectal, tecto-rotundal and rotundo-entopallial cells, all of which are glutamatergic. The present study examined the localization of ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) to identify the target areas of glutamatergic projections in the tectofugal pathway in pigeons. Nine subunits of iGluRs were analyzed using in situ hybridization as follows: AMPA receptors (GluA1, GluA2, GluA3, and GluA4), kainate receptors (GluK1, GluK2, and GluK4), and NMDA receptors (GluN1 and GluN2A). Hybridization signals of subunits showed various intensities in different cells. In the optic tectum, a strong to moderate expression was observed in layer 10 (GluA2, GluA3, GluK4, and GluN1) and layer 13 (GluA2, GluK4, GluN1, and GluN2A). The rotundal nucleus intensely expressed GluA3, GluA4, GluK1, and GluK4. In the entopallium, an intense to moderate expression of GluK1 and GluK4, and a moderate to weak expression of AMPA and NMDA receptors were observed. Furthermore, the parvocellular and magnocellular parts of the isthmic nuclei showed a strong expression of GluA2, GluA3, GluK4, and GluN1. The present findings demonstrate the expression of iGluRs in glutamatergic projection targets of the tectofugal pathway in birds and suggest a diversity of iGluRs in the transmission of visual information. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Profiles of embryonic nuclear protein binding to the proximal promoter region of the soybean β-conglycinin α subunit gene.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, M; Tsutsumi, K; Kanazawa, A

    2015-01-01

    β-Conglycinin, a major component of seed storage protein in soybean, comprises three subunits: α, α' and β. The expression of genes for these subunits is strictly controlled during embryogenesis. The proximal promoter region up to 245 bp upstream of the transcription start site of the α subunit gene sufficiently confers spatial and temporal control of transcription in embryos. Here, the binding profile of nuclear proteins in the proximal promoter region of the α subunit gene was analysed. DNase I footprinting analysis indicated binding of proteins to the RY element and DNA regions including box I, a region conserved in cognate gene promoters. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) using different portions of box I as a probe revealed that multiple portions of box I bind to nuclear proteins. In addition, an EMSA using nuclear proteins extracted from embryos at different developmental stages indicated that the levels of major DNA-protein complexes on box I increased during embryo maturation. These results are consistent with the notion that box I is important for the transcriptional control of seed storage protein genes. Furthermore, the present data suggest that nuclear proteins bind to novel motifs in box I including 5'-TCAATT-3' rather than to predicted cis-regulatory elements. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  6. Targeting Activation of Specific NF-κB Subunits Prevents Stress-Dependent Atherothrombotic Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Djuric, Zdenka; Kashif, Muhammed; Fleming, Thomas; Muhammad, Sajjad; Piel, David; von Bauer, Rüdiger; Bea, Florian; Herzig, Stephan; Zeier, Martin; Pizzi, Marina; Isermann, Berend; Hecker, Markus; Schwaninger, Markus; Bierhaus, Angelika; Nawroth, Peter P

    2012-01-01

    Psychosocial stress has been shown to be a contributing factor in the development of atherosclerosis. Although the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated entirely, it has been shown previously that the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is an important component of stress-activated signaling pathway. In this study, we aimed to decipher the mechanisms of stress-induced NF-κB-mediated gene expression, using an in vitro and in vivo model of psychosocial stress. Induction of stress led to NF-κB-dependent expression of proinflammatory (tissue factor, intracellular adhesive molecule 1 [ICAM-1]) and protective genes (manganese superoxide dismutase [MnSOD]) via p50, p65 or cRel. Selective inhibition of the different subunits and the respective kinases showed that inhibition of cRel leads to the reduction of atherosclerotic lesions in apolipoprotein−/− (ApoE−/−) mice via suppression of proinflammatory gene expression. This observation may therefore provide a possible explanation for ineffectiveness of antioxidant therapies and suggests that selective targeting of cRel activation may provide a novel approach for the treatment of stress-related inflammatory vascular disease. PMID:23114885

  7. Utility of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis using PCR.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xue; Norose, Kazumi; Li, Kexin; Hikosaka, Kenji

    2017-10-01

    Toxoplasmosis is caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, which belongs to the phylum Apicomplexa. Since this parasite causes severe clinical symptoms in immunocompromised patients, early diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is essential. PCR is currently used for early diagnosis, but there is no consensus regarding the most effective method for amplifying Toxoplasma DNA. In this study, we considered the utility of the cytochrome c subunit I (cox1) gene, which is encoded in the mitochondrial DNA of this parasite, as a novel target of PCR for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. To do this, we compared its copy number per haploid nuclear genome and the detection sensitivity of cox1-PCR with the previously reported target genes B1 and 18S rRNA and the AF146527 repeat element. We found that the copy number of cox1 was high and that the PCR using cox1 primers was more efficient at amplifying Toxoplasma DNA than the other PCR targets examined. In addition, PCR using clinical samples indicated that the cox1 gene would be useful for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. These findings suggest that use of cox1-PCR would facilitate the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in clinical laboratories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Novel insights into the composition, variation, organization, and expression of the low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit gene family in common wheat

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaofei; Liu, Dongcheng; Zhang, Jianghua; Jiang, Wei; Luo, Guangbin; Yang, Wenlong; Sun, Jiazhu; Tong, Yiping; Cui, Dangqun; Zhang, Aimin

    2013-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS), encoded by a complex multigene family, play an important role in the processing quality of wheat flour. Although members of this gene family have been identified in several wheat varieties, the allelic variation and composition of LMW-GS genes in common wheat are not well understood. In the present study, using the LMW-GS gene molecular marker system and the full-length gene cloning method, a comprehensive molecular analysis of LMW-GS genes was conducted in a representative population, the micro-core collections (MCC) of Chinese wheat germplasm. Generally, >15 LMW-GS genes were identified from individual MCC accessions, of which 4–6 were located at the Glu-A3 locus, 3–5 at the Glu-B3 locus, and eight at the Glu-D3 locus. LMW-GS genes at the Glu-A3 locus showed the highest allelic diversity, followed by the Glu-B3 genes, while the Glu-D3 genes were extremely conserved among MCC accessions. Expression and sequence analysis showed that 9–13 active LMW-GS genes were present in each accession. Sequence identity analysis showed that all i-type genes present at the Glu-A3 locus formed a single group, the s-type genes located at Glu-B3 and Glu-D3 loci comprised a unique group, while high-diversity m-type genes were classified into four groups and detected in all Glu-3 loci. These results contribute to the functional analysis of LMW-GS genes and facilitate improvement of bread-making quality by wheat molecular breeding programmes. PMID:23536608

  9. Two nuclear life cycle-regulated genes encode interchangeable subunits c of mitochondrial ATP synthase in Podospora anserina.

    PubMed

    Déquard-Chablat, Michelle; Sellem, Carole H; Golik, Pawel; Bidard, Frédérique; Martos, Alexandre; Bietenhader, Maïlis; di Rago, Jean-Paul; Sainsard-Chanet, Annie; Hermann-Le Denmat, Sylvie; Contamine, Véronique

    2011-07-01

    An F(1)F(O) ATP synthase in the inner mitochondrial membrane catalyzes the late steps of ATP production via the process of oxidative phosphorylation. A small protein subunit (subunit c or ATP9) of this enzyme shows a substantial genetic diversity, and its gene can be found in both the mitochondrion and/or nucleus. In a representative set of 26 species of fungi for which the genomes have been entirely sequenced, we found five Atp9 gene repartitions. The phylogenetic distribution of nuclear and mitochondrial Atp9 genes suggests that their evolution has included two independent transfers to the nucleus followed by several independent episodes of the loss of the mitochondrial and/or nuclear gene. Interestingly, we found that in Podospora anserina, subunit c is exclusively produced from two nuclear genes (PaAtp9-5 and PaAtp9-7), which display different expression profiles through the life cycle of the fungus. The PaAtp9-5 gene is specifically and strongly expressed in germinating ascospores, whereas PaAtp9-7 is mostly transcribed during sexual reproduction. Consistent with these observations, deletion of PaAtp9-5 is lethal, whereas PaAtp9-7 deletion strongly impairs ascospore production. The P. anserina PaAtp9-5 and PaAtp9-7 genes are therefore nonredundant. By swapping the 5' and 3' flanking regions between genes we demonstrated, however, that the PaAtp9 coding sequences are functionally interchangeable. These findings show that after transfer to the nucleus, the subunit c gene in Podospora became a key target for the modulation of cellular energy metabolism according to the requirements of the life cycle.

  10. Arabidopsis cop8 and fus4 mutations define the same gene that encodes subunit 4 of the COP9 signalosome.

    PubMed Central

    Serino, G; Tsuge, T; Kwok, S; Matsui, M; Wei, N; Deng, X W

    1999-01-01

    The pleiotropic constitutive photomorphogenic/deetiolated/fusca (cop/det/fus) mutants of Arabidopsis exhibit features of light-grown seedlings when grown in the dark. Cloning and biochemical analysis of COP9 have revealed that it is a component of a multiprotein complex, the COP9 signalosome (previously known as the COP9 complex). Here, we compare the immunoaffinity and the biochemical purification of the COP9 signalosome from cauliflower and confirm its eight-subunit composition. Molecular cloning of subunit 4 of the complex revealed that it is a proteasome-COP9 complex-eIF3 domain protein encoded by a gene that maps to chromosome 5, near the chromosomal location of the cop8 and fus4 mutations. Genetic complementation tests showed that the cop8 and fus4 mutations define the same locus, now designated as COP8. Molecular analysis of the subunit 4-encoding gene in both cop8 and fus4 mutants identified specific molecular lesions, and overexpression of the subunit 4 cDNA in a cop8 mutant background resulted in complete rescue of the mutant phenotype. Thus, we conclude that COP8 encodes subunit 4 of the COP9 signalosome. Examination of possible molecular interactions by using the yeast two-hybrid assay indicated that COP8 is capable of strong self-association as well as interaction with COP9, FUS6/COP11, FUS5, and Arabidopsis JAB1 homolog 1, the latter four proteins being previously defined subunits of the Arabidopsis COP9 signalosome. A comparative sequence analysis indicated that COP8 is highly conserved among multicellular eukaryotes and is also similar to a subunit of the 19S regulatory particle of the 26S proteasome. PMID:10521526

  11. Amplification of TLO Mediator Subunit Genes Facilitate Filamentous Growth in Candida Spp.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhongle; Moran, Gary P; Sullivan, Derek J; MacCallum, Donna M; Myers, Lawrence C

    2016-10-01

    Filamentous growth is a hallmark of C. albicans pathogenicity compared to less-virulent ascomycetes. A multitude of transcription factors regulate filamentous growth in response to specific environmental cues. Our work, however, suggests the evolutionary history of C. albicans that resulted in its filamentous growth plasticity may be tied to a change in the general transcription machinery rather than transcription factors and their specific targets. A key genomic difference between C. albicans and its less-virulent relatives, including its closest relative C. dubliniensis, is the unique expansion of the TLO (TeLOmere-associated) gene family in C. albicans. Individual Tlo proteins are fungal-specific subunits of Mediator, a large multi-subunit eukaryotic transcriptional co-activator complex. This amplification results in a large pool of 'free,' non-Mediator associated, Tlo protein present in C. albicans, but not in C. dubliniensis or other ascomycetes with attenuated virulence. We show that engineering a large 'free' pool of the C. dubliniensis Tlo2 (CdTlo2) protein in C. dubliniensis, through overexpression, results in a number of filamentation phenotypes typically associated only with C. albicans. The amplitude of these phenotypes is proportional to the amount of overexpressed CdTlo2 protein. Overexpression of other C. dubliniensis and C. albicans Tlo proteins do result in these phenotypes. Tlo proteins and their orthologs contain a Mediator interaction domain, and a potent transcriptional activation domain. Nuclear localization of the CdTlo2 activation domain, facilitated naturally by the Tlo Mediator binding domain or artificially through an appended nuclear localization signal, is sufficient for the CdTlo2 overexpression phenotypes. A C. albicans med3 null mutant causes multiple defects including the inability to localize Tlo proteins to the nucleus and reduced virulence in a murine systemic infection model. Our data supports a model in which the activation

  12. Accurate, Rapid Taxonomic Classification of Fungal Large-Subunit rRNA Genes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kuan-Liang; Porras-Alfaro, Andrea; Eichorst, Stephanie A.

    2012-01-01

    Taxonomic and phylogenetic fingerprinting based on sequence analysis of gene fragments from the large-subunit rRNA (LSU) gene or the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region is becoming an integral part of fungal classification. The lack of an accurate and robust classification tool trained by a validated sequence database for taxonomic placement of fungal LSU genes is a severe limitation in taxonomic analysis of fungal isolates or large data sets obtained from environmental surveys. Using a hand-curated set of 8,506 fungal LSU gene fragments, we determined the performance characteristics of a naïve Bayesian classifier across multiple taxonomic levels and compared the classifier performance to that of a sequence similarity-based (BLASTN) approach. The naïve Bayesian classifier was computationally more rapid (>460-fold with our system) than the BLASTN approach, and it provided equal or superior classification accuracy. Classifier accuracies were compared using sequence fragments of 100 bp and 400 bp and two different PCR primer anchor points to mimic sequence read lengths commonly obtained using current high-throughput sequencing technologies. Accuracy was higher with 400-bp sequence reads than with 100-bp reads. It was also significantly affected by sequence location across the 1,400-bp test region. The highest accuracy was obtained across either the D1 or D2 variable region. The naïve Bayesian classifier provides an effective and rapid means to classify fungal LSU sequences from large environmental surveys. The training set and tool are publicly available through the Ribosomal Database Project (http://rdp.cme.msu.edu/classifier/classifier.jsp). PMID:22194300

  13. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphism in protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 11 gene in Murrah bulls

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Varsha; Patel, Brijesh; Umar, Farhat Paul; Ajithakumar, H. M.; Gurjar, Suraj K.; Gupta, I. D.; Verma, Archana

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted with the objective to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 11 (PPP1R11) gene in Murrah bulls. Materials and Methods: Genomic DNA was isolated by phenol–chloroform extraction method from the frozen semen samples of 65 Murrah bulls maintained at Artificial Breeding Research Centre, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal. The quality and concentration of DNA was checked by spectrophotometer reading and agarose gel electrophoresis. The target region of PPP1R11 gene was amplified using four sets of primer designed based on Bos taurus reference sequence. The amplified products were sequenced and aligned using Clustal Omega for identification of SNPs. Animals were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) using EcoNI restriction enzyme. Results: The sequences in the NCBI accession number NW_005785016.1 for Bubalus bubalis were compared and aligned with the edited sequences of Murrah bulls with Clustal Omega software. A total of 10 SNPs were found, out of which 1 at 5’UTR, 3 at intron 1, and 6 at intron 2 region. PCR-RFLP using restriction enzyme EcoNI revealed only AA genotype indicating monomorphism in PPP1R11 gene of all Murrah animals included in the study. Conclusion: A total of 10 SNPs were found. PCR-RFLP revealed only AA genotype indicating monomorphism in PPP1R11 gene of all Murrah animals included in the study, due to which association analysis with conception rate was not feasible. PMID:28344410

  14. Localization of a gene for a glutamate binding subunit of a NMDA receptor (GRINA) to 8q24

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, T.B.; DuPont, B.R.; Leach, R.

    1996-02-15

    This article reports on the localization of a gene for a glutamate binding subunit of an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, called GRINA, to human chromosome 8q24 using fluorescence in situ hybridization and radiation hybridization mapping. This gene mapped outside the critical region for benign familial neonatal convulsions (BFNC), a rare form of epilepsy; however, GRINA could be the causative genetic factor inducing idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Further studies need to be conducted. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Deletion of the low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit allele Glu-A3a of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) significantly reduces dough strength and breadmaking quality.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Shoumin; Han, Caixia; Ma, Chaoying; Gu, Aiqin; Zhang, Ming; Shen, Xixi; Li, Xiaohui; Yan, Yueming

    2014-12-19

    Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS), encoded by Glu-3 complex loci in hexaploid wheat, play important roles in the processing quality of wheat flour. To date, the molecular characteristics and effects on dough quality of individual Glu-3 alleles and their encoding proteins have been poorly studied. We used a Glu-A3 deletion line of the Chinese Spring (CS-n) wheat variety to conduct the first comprehensive study on the molecular characteristics and functional properties of the LMW-GS allele Glu-A3a. The Glu-A3a allele at the Glu-A3 locus in CS and its deletion in CS-n were identified and characterized by proteome and molecular marker methods. The deletion of Glu-A3a had no significant influence on plant morphological and yield traits, but significantly reduced the dough strength and breadmaking quality compared to CS. The complete sequence of the Glu-A3a allele was cloned and characterized, which was found to encode a B-subunit with longer repetitive domains and an increased number of α-helices. The Glu-A3a-encoded B-subunit showed a higher expression level and accumulation rate during grain development. These characteristics of the Glu-A3a allele could contribute to achieving superior gluten quality and demonstrate its potential application to wheat quality improvement. Furthermore, an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR) marker for the Glu-A3a allele was developed and validated using different bread wheat cultivars, including near-isogenic lines (NILs) and recombinant inbred lines (RILs), which could be used as an effective molecular marker for gluten quality improvement through marker-assisted selection. This work demonstrated that the LMW-GS allele Glu-A3a encodes a specific LMW-i type B-subunit that significantly affects wheat dough strength and breadmaking quality. The Glu-A3a-encoded B-subunit has a long repetitive domain and more α-helix structures as well as a higher expression level and accumulation rate during grain development

  16. Amplification of TLO Mediator Subunit Genes Facilitate Filamentous Growth in Candida Spp.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhongle; Moran, Gary P.; Myers, Lawrence C.

    2016-01-01

    Filamentous growth is a hallmark of C. albicans pathogenicity compared to less-virulent ascomycetes. A multitude of transcription factors regulate filamentous growth in response to specific environmental cues. Our work, however, suggests the evolutionary history of C. albicans that resulted in its filamentous growth plasticity may be tied to a change in the general transcription machinery rather than transcription factors and their specific targets. A key genomic difference between C. albicans and its less-virulent relatives, including its closest relative C. dubliniensis, is the unique expansion of the TLO (TeLOmere-associated) gene family in C. albicans. Individual Tlo proteins are fungal-specific subunits of Mediator, a large multi-subunit eukaryotic transcriptional co-activator complex. This amplification results in a large pool of ‘free,’ non-Mediator associated, Tlo protein present in C. albicans, but not in C. dubliniensis or other ascomycetes with attenuated virulence. We show that engineering a large ‘free’ pool of the C. dubliniensis Tlo2 (CdTlo2) protein in C. dubliniensis, through overexpression, results in a number of filamentation phenotypes typically associated only with C. albicans. The amplitude of these phenotypes is proportional to the amount of overexpressed CdTlo2 protein. Overexpression of other C. dubliniensis and C. albicans Tlo proteins do result in these phenotypes. Tlo proteins and their orthologs contain a Mediator interaction domain, and a potent transcriptional activation domain. Nuclear localization of the CdTlo2 activation domain, facilitated naturally by the Tlo Mediator binding domain or artificially through an appended nuclear localization signal, is sufficient for the CdTlo2 overexpression phenotypes. A C. albicans med3 null mutant causes multiple defects including the inability to localize Tlo proteins to the nucleus and reduced virulence in a murine systemic infection model. Our data supports a model in which the

  17. Prevalence of the Prefoldin Subunit 5 Gene Deletion in Canine Mammary Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Bornemann-Kolatzki, Kirsten; Neumann, Stephan; Escobar, Hugo Murua; Nolte, Ingo; Hammer, Susanne Conradine; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion; Junginger, Johannes; Kaup, Franz-Josef; Brenig, Bertram; Schütz, Ekkehard

    2015-01-01

    Background A somatic deletion at the proximal end of canine chromosome 27 (CFA27) was recently reported in 50% of malignant mammary tumors. This region harbours the tumor suppressor gene prefoldin subunit 5 (PFDN5) and the deletion correlated with a higher Ki-67 score. PFDN5 has been described to repress c-MYC and is, therefore, a candidate tumor-suppressor and cancer-driver gene in canine mammary cancer. Aim of this study was to confirm the recurrent deletion in a larger number of tumors. Methods Droplet digital PCR for PFDN5 was performed in DNA from 102 malignant, 40 benign mammary tumors/dysplasias, 11 non-neoplastic mammary tissues and each corresponding genomic DNA from leukocytes. The copy number of PFDN5 was normalized to a reference amplicon on canine chromosome 32 (CFA32). Z-scores were calculated, based on Gaussian distributed normalized PFDN5 copy numbers of the leukocyte DNA. Z-scores ≤ -3.0 in tissue were considered as being indicative of the PFDN5 deletion and called as such. The Ki-67 proliferation index was assessed in a subset of 79 tissue samples by immunohistochemistry. Results The deletion was confirmed in 24% of all malignant tumors, detected in only 7.5% of the benign tumors and was not present in any normal mammary tissue sample. The subgroup of solid carcinomas (n = 9) showed the highest frequency of the deletion (67%) and those malignomas without microscopical high fraction of benign tissue (n = 71) had a 32% frequency (p<0.01 vs. benign samples). The Ki-67 score was found to be significantly higher (p<0.05) in the PFDN5-deleted group compared to malignant tumors without the deletion. Conclusions A somatic deletion of the PFDN5 gene is recurrently present in canine mammary cancer, supporting a potential role in carcinogenesis. The association of this deletion with higher Ki-67 indicates an increased proliferation rate and thus a link to tumor aggressiveness can be hypothesized. The confirmation of earlier results warrants further studies

  18. Increasing the starch content and grain weight of common wheat by overexpression of the cytosolic AGPase large subunit gene.

    PubMed

    Kang, Guozhang; Liu, Guoqin; Peng, Xiaoqi; Wei, Liting; Wang, Chenyang; Zhu, YunJi; Ma, Ying; Jiang, Yumei; Guo, Tiancai

    2013-12-01

    ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) catalyzes the first committed step of starch synthesis. AGPase is a heterotetramer composed of two large subunits and two small subunits, has cytosolic and plastidial isoforms, and is detected mainly in the cytosol of endosperm in cereal crops. To investigate the effects of AGPase cytosolic large subunit gene (LSU I) on starch biosynthesis in higher plant, in this study, a TaLSU I gene from wheat was overexpressed under the control of an endosperm-specific promoter in a wheat cultivar (Yumai 34). PCR, Southern blot, and real-time RT-PCR analyses indicated that the transgene was integrated into the genome of transgenic plants and was overexpressed in their progeny. The overexpression of the TaLSU I gene remarkably enhanced AGPase activity, endosperm starch weight, grain number per spike, and single grain weight. Therefore, we conclude that overexpression of the TaLSU I gene enhances the starch biosynthesis in endosperm of wheat grains, having potential applications in wheat breeding to develop a high-yield wheat cultivar with high starch weight and kernel weight. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. The Arabidopsis mediator complex subunits MED16, MED14, and MED2 regulate mediator and RNA polymerase II recruitment to CBF-responsive cold-regulated genes.

    PubMed

    Hemsley, Piers A; Hurst, Charlotte H; Kaliyadasa, Ewon; Lamb, Rebecca; Knight, Marc R; De Cothi, Elizabeth A; Steele, John F; Knight, Heather

    2014-01-01

    The Mediator16 (MED16; formerly termed SENSITIVE TO FREEZING6 [SFR6]) subunit of the plant Mediator transcriptional coactivator complex regulates cold-responsive gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana, acting downstream of the C-repeat binding factor (CBF) transcription factors to recruit the core Mediator complex to cold-regulated genes. Here, we use loss-of-function mutants to show that RNA polymerase II recruitment to CBF-responsive cold-regulated genes requires MED16, MED2, and MED14 subunits. Transcription of genes known to be regulated via CBFs binding to the C-repeat motif/drought-responsive element promoter motif requires all three Mediator subunits, as does cold acclimation-induced freezing tolerance. In addition, these three subunits are required for low temperature-induced expression of some other, but not all, cold-responsive genes, including genes that are not known targets of CBFs. Genes inducible by darkness also required MED16 but required a different combination of Mediator subunits for their expression than the genes induced by cold. Together, our data illustrate that plants control transcription of specific genes through the action of subsets of Mediator subunits; the specific combination defined by the nature of the stimulus but also by the identity of the gene induced.

  20. Transgenic Over Expression of Nicotinic Receptor Alpha 5, Alpha 3, and Beta 4 Subunit Genes Reduces Ethanol Intake in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gallego, Xavier; Ruiz, Jessica; Valverde, Olga; Molas, Susanna; Robles, Noemí; Sabrià, Josefa; Crabbe, John C.; Dierssen, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Abuse of alcohol and smoking are extensively co-morbid. Some studies suggest partial commonality of action of alcohol and nicotine mediated through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We tested mice with transgenic over expression of the alpha 5, alpha 3, beta 4 receptor subunit genes, which lie in a cluster on human chromosome 15, that were previously shown to have increased nicotine self-administration, for several responses to ethanol. Transgenic and wild-type mice did not differ in sensitivity to several acute behavioral responses to ethanol. However, transgenic mice drank less ethanol than wild-type in a two-bottle (ethanol vs. water) preference test. These results suggest a complex role for this receptor subunit gene cluster in the modulation of ethanol’s as well as nicotine’s effects. PMID:22459873

  1. Transgenic over expression of nicotinic receptor alpha 5, alpha 3, and beta 4 subunit genes reduces ethanol intake in mice.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Xavier; Ruiz-Medina, Jessica; Valverde, Olga; Molas, Susanna; Robles, Noemí; Sabrià, Josefa; Crabbe, John C; Dierssen, Mara

    2012-05-01

    Abuse of alcohol and smoking are extensively co-morbid. Some studies suggest partial commonality of action of alcohol and nicotine mediated through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We tested mice with transgenic over expression of the alpha 5, alpha 3, beta 4 receptor subunit genes, which lie in a cluster on human chromosome 15, that were previously shown to have increased nicotine self-administration, for several responses to ethanol. Transgenic and wild-type mice did not differ in sensitivity to several acute behavioral responses to ethanol. However, transgenic mice drank less ethanol than wild-type in a two-bottle (ethanol vs. water) preference test. These results suggest a complex role for this receptor subunit gene cluster in the modulation of ethanol's as well as nicotine's effects. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Organization and alternative splicing of the Caenorhabditis elegans cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic-subunit gene (kin-1).

    PubMed

    Tabish, M; Clegg, R A; Rees, H H; Fisher, M J

    1999-04-01

    The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A, PK-A) is multifunctional in nature, with key roles in the control of diverse aspects of eukaryotic cellular activity. In the case of the free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, a gene encoding the PK-A catalytic subunit has been identified and two isoforms of this subunit, arising from a C-terminal alternative-splicing event, have been characterized [Gross, Bagchi, Lu and Rubin (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 6896-6907]. Here we report the occurrence of N-terminal alternative-splicing events that, in addition to generating a multiplicity of non-myristoylatable isoforms, also generate the myristoylated variant(s) of the catalytic subunit that we have recently characterized [Aspbury, Fisher, Rees and Clegg (1997) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 238, 523-527]. The gene spans more than 36 kb and is divided into a total of 13 exons. Each of the mature transcripts contains only 7 exons. In addition to the already characterized exon 1, the 5'-untranslated region and first intron actually contain 5 other exons, any one of which may be alternatively spliced on to exon 2 at the 5' end of the pre-mRNA. This N-terminal alternative splicing occurs in combination with either of the already characterized C-terminal alternative exons. Thus, C. elegans expresses at least 12 different isoforms of the catalytic subunit of PK-A. The significance of this unprecedented structural diversity in the family of PK-A catalytic subunits is discussed.

  3. Biochemically Silent Abdominal Paragangliomas in Patients with Mutations in the Succinate Dehydrogenase Subunit B Gene

    PubMed Central

    Timmers, Henri J. L. M.; Pacak, Karel; Huynh, Thanh T.; Abu-Asab, Mones; Tsokos, Maria; Merino, Maria J.; Baysal, Bora E.; Adams, Karen T.; Eisenhofer, Graeme

    2008-01-01

    Context: Patients with adrenal and extra-adrenal abdominal paraganglioma (PGL) almost invariably have increased plasma and urine concentrations of metanephrines, the O-methylated metabolites of catecholamines. We report four cases of biochemically silent abdominal PGL, in which metanephrines were normal despite extensive disease. Objective: Our objective was to identify the mechanism underlying the lack of catecholamine hypersecretion and metabolism to metanephrines in biochemically silent PGL. Design: This is a descriptive study. Setting: The study was performed at a referral center. Patients: One index case and three additional patients with large abdominal PGL and metastases but with the lack of evidence of catecholamine production, six patients with metastatic catecholamine-producing PGL and a mutation of the succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) gene, and 136 random patients with catecholamine-producing PGL were included in the study. Main Outcome Measures: Plasma, urine, and tumor tissue concentrations of catecholamines and metabolites were calculated with electron microscopy and tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry. Results: All four patients with biochemically silent PGL had an underlying SDHB mutation. In the index case, the tumor tissue concentration of catecholamines (1.8 nmol/g) was less than 0.01% that of the median (20,410 nmol/g) for the 136 patients with catecholamine-producing tumors. Electron microscopy showed the presence of normal secretory granules in all four biochemically silent PGLs. Tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity was negligible in the four biochemically silent PGLs but abundant in catecholamine-producing PGLs. Conclusions: Patients with SDHB mutations may present with biochemically silent abdominal PGLs due to defective catecholamine synthesis resulting from the absence of tyrosine hydroxylase. Screening for tumors in patients with SDHB mutations should not be limited to biochemical tests of catecholamine excess. PMID

  4. Genes for cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, URF2, and three tRNAs in Drosophila mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Clary, D O; Wolstenholme, D R

    1983-01-01

    Genes for URF2, tRNAtrp, tRNAcys, tRNAtyr and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) have been identified within a sequenced segment of the Drosophila yakuba mtDNA molecule. The five genes are arranged in the order given. Transcription of the tRNAcys and tRNAtyr genes is in the same direction as replication, while transcription of the URF2, tRNAtrp and COI genes is in the opposite direction. A similar arrangement of these genes is found in mammalian mtDNA except that in the latter, the tRNAala and tRNAasn genes are located between the tRNAtrp and tRNAcys genes. Also, a sequence found between the tRNAasn and tRNAcys genes in mammalian mtDNA, which is associated with the initiation of second strand DNA synthesis, is not found in this region of the D. yakuba mtDNA molecule. As the D. yakuba COI gene lacks a standard translation initiation codon, we consider the possibility that the quadruplet ATAA may serve this function. As in other D. yakuba mitochondrial polypeptide genes, AGA codons in the URF2 and COI genes do not correspond in position to arginine-specifying codons in the equivalent genes of mouse and yeast mtDNAs, but do most frequently correspond to serine-specifying codons. PMID:6314262

  5. BAC-recombineering for studying plant gene regulation: developmental control and cellular localization of SnRK1 kinase subunits.

    PubMed

    Bitrián, Marta; Roodbarkelari, Farshad; Horváth, Mihály; Koncz, Csaba

    2011-03-01

    Recombineering, permitting precise modification of genes within bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) through homologous recombination mediated by lambda phage-encoded Red proteins, is a widely used powerful tool in mouse, Caenorhabditis and Drosophila genetics. As Agrobacterium-mediated transfer of large DNA inserts from binary BACs and TACs into plants occurs at low frequency, recombineering is so far seldom exploited in the analysis of plant gene functions. We have constructed binary plant transformation vectors, which are suitable for gap-repair cloning of genes from BACs using recombineering methods previously developed for other organisms. Here we show that recombineering facilitates PCR-based generation of precise translational fusions between coding sequences of fluorescent reporter and plant proteins using galK-based exchange recombination. The modified target genes alone or as part of a larger gene cluster can be transferred by high-frequency gap-repair into plant transformation vectors, stably maintained in Agrobacterium and transformed without alteration into plants. Versatile application of plant BAC-recombineering is illustrated by the analysis of developmental regulation and cellular localization of interacting AKIN10 catalytic and SNF4 activating subunits of Arabidopsis Snf1-related (SnRK1) protein kinase using in vivo imaging. To validate full functionality and in vivo interaction of tagged SnRK1 subunits, it is demonstrated that immunoprecipitated SNF4-YFP is bound to a kinase that phosphorylates SnRK1 candidate substrates, and that the GFP- and YFP-tagged kinase subunits co-immunoprecipitate with endogenous wild type AKIN10 and SNF4. © 2011 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Parafascicular thalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation decreases NMDA receptor GluN1 subunit gene expression in the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Cabrera, Mónica R; Selvas, Abraham; Miguéns, Miguel; Higuera-Matas, Alejandro; Vale-Martínez, Anna; Ambrosio, Emilio; Martí-Nicolovius, Margarita; Guillazo-Blanch, Gemma

    2017-04-21

    The rodent parafascicular nucleus (PFn) or the centromedian-parafascicular complex of primates is a posterior intralaminar nucleus of the thalamus related to cortical activation and maintenance of states of consciousness underlying attention, learning and memory. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the PFn has been proved to restore arousal and consciousness in humans and to enhance performance in learning and memory tasks in rats. The primary expected effect of PFn DBS is to induce plastic changes in target neurons of brain areas associated with cognitive function. In this study, Wistar rats were stimulated for 20mins in the PFn following a DBS protocol that had previously facilitated memory in rats. NMDA and GABA B receptor binding, and gene expression of the GluN1subunit of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) were assessed in regions related to cognitive functions, such as the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. The results showed that PFn DBS induced a decrease in NMDAR GluN1 subunit gene expression in the cingulate and prelimbic cortices, but no significant statistical differences were found in the density of NMDA or GABA B receptors in any of the analyzed regions. Taken together, our findings suggest a possible role for the NMDAR GluN1 subunit in the prefrontal cortex in the procognitive actions of the PFn DBS. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cognitive Function in Prepubertal Children with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Modifying Role for NADPH Oxidase p22 Subunit Gene Polymorphisms?

    PubMed Central

    Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Capdevila, Oscar Sans; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Khalyfa, Ahamed A.; Kim, Jinkwan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may lead to neurocognitive dysfunction, but not in everyone affected. The frequencies of NADPH oxidase (NOX) polymorphisms in the p22phox subunit were similar between children with OSA and controls, except for rs6520785 and rs4673, the latter being significantly more frequent among the OSA children without deficits than with deficits (p<0.02). Similarly, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanine urine levels and NOX activity were lower among children without cognitive deficits and particularly among those with the rs4673 polymorphism. Thus, polymorphisms within the NOX gene or its functional subunits may account for important components of the variance in cognitive function deficits associated with OSA in children. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 16, 171–177. PMID:21902598

  8. The Mediator Complex MED15 Subunit Mediates Activation of Downstream Lipid-Related Genes by the WRINKLED1 Transcription Factor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Jung; Jang, In-Cheol; Chua, Nam-Hai

    2016-07-01

    The Mediator complex is known to be a master coordinator of transcription by RNA polymerase II, and this complex is recruited by transcription factors (TFs) to target promoters for gene activation or repression. The plant-specific TF WRINKLED1 (WRI1) activates glycolysis-related and fatty acid biosynthetic genes during embryogenesis. However, no Mediator subunit has yet been identified that mediates WRI1 transcriptional activity. Promoter-β-glucuronidase fusion experiments showed that MEDIATOR15 (MED15) is expressed in the same cells in the embryo as WRI1. We found that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) MED15 subunit of the Mediator complex interacts directly with WRI1 in the nucleus. Overexpression of MED15 or WRI1 increased transcript levels of WRI1 target genes involved in glycolysis and fatty acid biosynthesis; these genes were down-regulated in wild-type or WRI1-overexpressing plants by silencing of MED15 However, overexpression of MED15 in the wri1 mutant also increased transcript levels of WRI1 target genes, suggesting that MED15 also may act with other TFs to activate downstream lipid-related genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed the association of MED15 with six WRI1 target gene promoters. Additionally, silencing of MED15 resulted in reduced fatty acid content in seedlings and mature seeds, whereas MED15 overexpression increased fatty acid content in both developmental stages. Similar results were found in wri1 mutant and WRI1 overexpression lines. Together, our results indicate that the WRI1/MED15 complex transcriptionally regulates glycolysis-related and fatty acid biosynthetic genes during embryogenesis. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  9. The absence of genes for cytochrome c oxidase and reductase subunits in maxicircle kinetoplast DNA of the respiration-deficient plant trypanosomatid Phytomonas serpens.

    PubMed

    Nawathean, P; Maslov, D A

    2000-08-01

    By completing the sequencing of the maxicircle conserved region in the kinetoplast DNA of Phytomonas serpens, we showed that the genes for subunits I and II (COI and COII) of cytochrome c oxidase in this organism were missing. We had previously shown that the genes for cytochrome c oxidase subunit III and apocytochrome b were also missing. These deletions did not affect the structure or expression of the remaining genes. Partial editing of the mRNA for NADH dehydrogenase subunit 8, previously found in strain IG from insects, was complete in two other strains isolated from plants. The appearance of a novel maxicircle gene for MURF2 block I gRNA, which substitutes for the gene missing due to the COII gene deletion, may illustrate a general mechanism for the origin of gRNAs.

  10. Step-wise and lineage-specific diversification of plant RNA polymerase genes and origin of the largest plant-specific subunits.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaqiong; Ma, Hong

    2015-09-01

    Proteins often function as complexes, yet little is known about the evolution of dissimilar subunits of complexes. DNA-directed RNA polymerases (RNAPs) are multisubunit complexes, with distinct eukaryotic types for different classes of transcripts. In addition to Pol I-III, common in eukaryotes, plants have Pol IV and V for epigenetic regulation. Some RNAP subunits are specific to one type, whereas other subunits are shared by multiple types. We have conducted extensive phylogenetic and sequence analyses, and have placed RNAP gene duplication events in land plant history, thereby reconstructing the subunit compositions of the novel RNAPs during land plant evolution. We found that Pol IV/V have experienced step-wise duplication and diversification of various subunits, with increasingly distinctive subunit compositions. Also, lineage-specific duplications have further increased RNAP complexity with distinct copies in different plant families and varying divergence for subunits of different RNAPs. Further, the largest subunits of Pol IV/V probably originated from a gene fusion in the ancestral land plants. We propose a framework of plant RNAP evolution, providing an excellent model for protein complex evolution. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Tripeptidyl peptidase I, the late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis gene product, initiates the lysosomal degradation of subunit c of ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Ezaki, J; Takeda-Ezaki, M; Kominami, E

    2000-09-01

    The specific accumulation of a hydrophobic protein, subunit c of ATP synthase, in lysosomes from the cells of patients with the late infantile form of NCL (LINCL) is caused by a defect in the CLN2 gene product, tripeptidyl peptidase I (TPP-I). The data here show that TPP-I is involved in the initial degradation of subunit c in lysosomes and suggest that its absence leads directly to the lysosomal accumulation of subunit c. The inclusion of a specific inhibitor of TPP-I, Ala-Ala-Phe-chloromethylketone (AAF-CMK), in the culture medium of normal fibroblasts induced the lysosomal accumulation of subunit c. In an in vitro incubation experiment the addition of AAF-CMK to mitochondrial-lysosomal fractions from normal cells inhibited the proteolysis of subunit c, but not the b-subunit of ATP synthase. The use of two antibodies that recognize the aminoterminal and the middle portion of subunit c revealed that the subunit underwent aminoterminal proteolysis, when TPP-I, purified from rat spleen, was added to the mitochondrial fractions. The addition of both purified TPP-I and the soluble lysosomal fractions, which contain various proteinases, to the mitochondrial fractions resulted in rapid degradation of the entire molecule of subunit c, whereas the degradation of subunit c was markedly delayed through the specific inhibition of TPP-I in lysosomal extracts by AAF-CMK. The stable subunit c in the mitochondrial-lysosomal fractions from cells of a patient with LINCL was degraded on incubation with purified TPP-I. The presence of TPP-I led to the sequential cleavage of tripeptides from the N-terminus of the peptide corresponding to the amino terminal sequence of subunit c.

  12. ChAy/Bx, a novel chimeric high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit gene apparently created by homoeologous recombination in Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-Hui; Bi, Zhe-Guang; Wu, Bi-Hua; Wang, Zhen-Zhen; Hu, Ji-Liang; Zheng, You-Liang; Liu, Deng-Cai

    2013-12-01

    High-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) are of considerable interest, because they play a crucial role in determining dough viscoelastic properties and end-use quality of wheat flour. In this paper, ChAy/Bx, a novel chimeric HMW-GS gene from Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides (AABB, 2n=4x=28) accession D129, was isolated and characterized. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis revealed that the electrophoretic mobility of the glutenin subunit encoded by ChAy/Bx was slightly faster than that of 1Dy12. The complete ORF of ChAy/Bx contained 1,671 bp encoding a deduced polypeptide of 555 amino acid residues (or 534 amino acid residues for the mature protein), making it the smallest HMW-GS gene known from Triticum species. Sequence analysis showed that ChAy/Bx was neither a conventional x-type nor a conventional y-type subunit gene, but a novel chimeric gene. Its first 1305 nt sequence was highly homologous with the corresponding sequence of 1Ay type genes, while its final 366 nt sequence was highly homologous with the corresponding sequence of 1Bx type genes. The mature ChAy/Bx protein consisted of the N-terminus of 1Ay type subunit (the first 414 amino acid residues) and the C-terminus of 1Bx type subunit (the final 120 amino acid residues). Secondary structure prediction showed that ChAy/Bx contained some domains of 1Ay subunit and some domains of 1Bx subunit. The special structure of this HMW glutenin chimera ChAy/Bx subunit might have unique effects on the end-use quality of wheat flour. Here we propose that homoeologous recombination might be a novel pathway for allelic variation or molecular evolution of HMW-GSs. © 2013.

  13. Multi site polyadenylation and transcriptional response to stress of a vacuolar type H+-ATPase subunit A gene in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Magnotta, Scot M; Gogarten, Johann Peter

    2002-01-01

    Background Vacuolar type H+-ATPases play a critical role in the maintenance of vacuolar homeostasis in plant cells. V-ATPases are also involved in plants' defense against environmental stress. This research examined the expression and regulation of the catalytic subunit of the vacuolar type H+-ATPase in Arabidopsis thaliana and the effect of environmental stress on multiple transcripts generated by this gene. Results Evidence suggests that subunit A of the vacuolar type H+-ATPase is encoded by a single gene in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genome blot analysis showed no indication of a second subunit A gene being present. The single gene identified was shown by whole RNA blot analysis to be transcribed in all organs of the plant. Subunit A was shown by sequencing the 3' end of multiple cDNA clones to exhibit multi site polyadenylation. Four different poly (A) tail attachment sites were revealed. Experiments were performed to determine the response of transcript levels for subunit A to environmental stress. A PCR based strategy was devised to amplify the four different transcripts from the subunit A gene. Conclusions Amplification of cDNA generated from seedlings exposed to cold, salt stress, and etiolation showed that transcript levels for subunit A of the vacuolar type H+-ATPase in Arabidopsis were responsive to stress conditions. Cold and salt stress resulted in a 2–4 fold increase in all four subunit A transcripts evaluated. Etiolation resulted in a slight increase in transcript levels. All four transcripts appeared to behave identically with respect to stress conditions tested with no significant differential regulation. PMID:11985780

  14. A gene duplication/loss event in the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate-carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco) small subunit gene family among accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Schwarte, Sandra; Tiedemann, Ralph

    2011-06-01

    Rubisco (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase; EC 4.1.1.39), the most abundant protein in nature, catalyzes the assimilation of CO(2) (worldwide about 10(11) t each year) by carboxylation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate. It is a hexadecamer consisting of eight large and eight small subunits. Although the Rubisco large subunit (rbcL) is encoded by a single gene on the multicopy chloroplast genome, the Rubisco small subunits (rbcS) are encoded by a family of nuclear genes. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the rbcS gene family comprises four members, that is, rbcS-1a, rbcS-1b, rbcS-2b, and rbcS-3b. We sequenced all Rubisco genes in 26 worldwide distributed A. thaliana accessions. In three of these accessions, we detected a gene duplication/loss event, where rbcS-1b was lost and substituted by a duplicate of rbcS-2b (called rbcS-2b*). By screening 74 additional accessions using a specific polymerase chain reaction assay, we detected five additional accessions with this duplication/loss event. In summary, we found the gene duplication/loss in 8 of 100 A. thaliana accessions, namely, Bch, Bu, Bur, Cvi, Fei, Lm, Sha, and Sorbo. We sequenced an about 1-kb promoter region for all Rubisco genes as well. This analysis revealed that the gene duplication/loss event was associated with promoter alterations (two insertions of 450 and 850 bp, one deletion of 730 bp) in rbcS-2b and a promoter deletion (2.3 kb) in rbcS-2b* in all eight affected accessions. The substitution of rbcS-1b by a duplicate of rbcS-2b (i.e., rbcS-2b*) might be caused by gene conversion. All four Rubisco genes evolve under purifying selection, as expected for central genes of the highly conserved photosystem of green plants. We inferred a single positive selected site, a tyrosine to aspartic acid substitution at position 72 in rbcS-1b. Exactly the same substitution compromises carboxylase activity in the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans. In A. thaliana, this substitution is associated with an inferred

  15. Systematic study of association of four GABAergic genes: glutamic acid decarboxylase 1 gene, glutamic acid decarboxylase 2 gene, GABA(B) receptor 1 gene and GABA(A) receptor subunit beta2 gene, with schizophrenia using a universal DNA microarray.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xu; Qin, Shengying; Shi, Yongyong; Zhang, Aiping; Zhang, Jing; Bian, Li; Wan, Chunling; Feng, Guoyin; Gu, Niufan; Zhang, Guangqi; He, Guang; He, Lin

    2007-07-01

    Several studies have suggested the dysfunction of the GABAergic system as a risk factor in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. In the present study, case-control association analysis was conducted in four GABAergic genes: two glutamic acid decarboxylase genes (GAD1 and GAD2), a GABA(A) receptor subunit beta2 gene (GABRB2) and a GABA(B) receptor 1 gene (GABBR1). Using a universal DNA microarray procedure we genotyped a total of 20 SNPs on the above four genes in a study involving 292 patients and 286 controls of Chinese descent. Statistically significant differences were observed in the allelic frequencies of the rs187269C/T polymorphism in the GABRB2 gene (P=0.0450, chi(2)=12.40, OR=1.65) and the -292A/C polymorphism in the GAD1 gene (P=0.0450, chi(2)=14.64 OR=1.77). In addition, using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), we discovered differences in the U251 nuclear protein binding to oligonucleotides representing the -292 SNP on the GAD1 gene, which suggests that the -292C allele has reduced transcription factor binding efficiency compared with the 292A allele. Using the multifactor-dimensionality reduction method (MDR), we found that the interactions among the rs187269C/T polymorphism in the GABRB2 gene, the -243A/G polymorphism in the GAD2 gene and the 27379C/T and 661C/T polymorphisms in the GAD1 gene revealed a significant association with schizophrenia (P<0.001). These findings suggest that the GABRB2 and GAD1 genes alone and the combined effects of the polymorphisms in the four GABAergic system genes may confer susceptibility to the development of schizophrenia in the Chinese population.

  16. LHX3 interacts with inhibitor of histone acetyltransferase complex subunits LANP and TAF-1β to modulate pituitary gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Chad S; Malik, Raleigh E; Witzmann, Frank A; Rhodes, Simon J

    2013-01-01

    LIM-homeodomain 3 (LHX3) is a transcription factor required for mammalian pituitary gland and nervous system development. Human patients and animal models with LHX3 gene mutations present with severe pediatric syndromes that feature hormone deficiencies and symptoms associated with nervous system dysfunction. The carboxyl terminus of the LHX3 protein is required for pituitary gene regulation, but the mechanism by which this domain operates is unknown. In order to better understand LHX3-dependent pituitary hormone gene transcription, we used biochemical and mass spectrometry approaches to identify and characterize proteins that interact with the LHX3 carboxyl terminus. This approach identified the LANP/pp32 and TAF-1β/SET proteins, which are components of the inhibitor of histone acetyltransferase (INHAT) multi-subunit complex that serves as a multifunctional repressor to inhibit histone acetylation and modulate chromatin structure. The protein domains of LANP and TAF-1β that interact with LHX3 were mapped using biochemical techniques. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that LANP and TAF-1β are associated with LHX3 target genes in pituitary cells, and experimental alterations of LANP and TAF-1β levels affected LHX3-mediated pituitary gene regulation. Together, these data suggest that transcriptional regulation of pituitary genes by LHX3 involves regulated interactions with the INHAT complex.

  17. LHX3 Interacts with Inhibitor of Histone Acetyltransferase Complex Subunits LANP and TAF-1β to Modulate Pituitary Gene Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Witzmann, Frank A.; Rhodes, Simon J.

    2013-01-01

    LIM-homeodomain 3 (LHX3) is a transcription factor required for mammalian pituitary gland and nervous system development. Human patients and animal models with LHX3 gene mutations present with severe pediatric syndromes that feature hormone deficiencies and symptoms associated with nervous system dysfunction. The carboxyl terminus of the LHX3 protein is required for pituitary gene regulation, but the mechanism by which this domain operates is unknown. In order to better understand LHX3-dependent pituitary hormone gene transcription, we used biochemical and mass spectrometry approaches to identify and characterize proteins that interact with the LHX3 carboxyl terminus. This approach identified the LANP/pp32 and TAF-1β/SET proteins, which are components of the inhibitor of histone acetyltransferase (INHAT) multi-subunit complex that serves as a multifunctional repressor to inhibit histone acetylation and modulate chromatin structure. The protein domains of LANP and TAF-1β that interact with LHX3 were mapped using biochemical techniques. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that LANP and TAF-1β are associated with LHX3 target genes in pituitary cells, and experimental alterations of LANP and TAF-1β levels affected LHX3-mediated pituitary gene regulation. Together, these data suggest that transcriptional regulation of pituitary genes by LHX3 involves regulated interactions with the INHAT complex. PMID:23861948

  18. Structural Characterization and Evolutionary Relationship of High-Molecular-Weight Glutenin Subunit Genes in Roegneria nakaii and Roegneria alashanica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lujun; Li, Zhixin; Fan, Renchun; Wei, Bo; Zhang, Xiangqi

    2016-07-19

    The Roegneria of Triticeae is a large genus including about 130 allopolyploid species. Little is known about its high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs). Here, we reported six novel HMW-GS genes from R. nakaii and R. alashanica. Sequencing indicated that Rny1, Rny3, and Ray1 possessed intact open reading frames (ORFs), whereas Rny2, Rny4, and Ray2 harbored in-frame stop codons. All of the six genes possessed a similar primary structure to known HMW-GS, while showing some unique characteristics. Their coding regions were significantly shorter than Glu-1 genes in wheat. The amino acid sequences revealed that all of the six genes were intermediate towards the y-type. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the HMW-GSs from species with St, StY, or StH genome(s) clustered in an independent clade, varying from the typical x- and y-type clusters. Thus, the Glu-1 locus in R. nakaii and R. alashanica is a very primitive glutenin locus across evolution. The six genes were phylogenetically split into two groups clustered to different clades, respectively, each of the two clades included the HMW-GSs from species with St (diploid and tetraploid species), StY, and StH genomes. Hence, it is concluded that the six Roegneria HMW-GS genes are from two St genomes undergoing slight differentiation.

  19. The SAGA/TREX-2 subunit Sus1 binds widely to transcribed genes and affects mRNA turnover globally.

    PubMed

    García-Molinero, Varinia; García-Martínez, José; Reja, Rohit; Furió-Tarí, Pedro; Antúnez, Oreto; Vinayachandran, Vinesh; Conesa, Ana; Pugh, B Franklin; Pérez-Ortín, José E; Rodríguez-Navarro, Susana

    2018-03-29

    Eukaryotic transcription is regulated through two complexes, the general transcription factor IID (TFIID) and the coactivator Spt-Ada-Gcn5 acetyltransferase (SAGA). Recent findings confirm that both TFIID and SAGA contribute to the synthesis of nearly all transcripts and are recruited genome-wide in yeast. However, how this broad recruitment confers selectivity under specific conditions remains an open question. Here we find that the SAGA/TREX-2 subunit Sus1 associates with upstream regulatory regions of many yeast genes and that heat shock drastically changes Sus1 binding. While Sus1 binding to TFIID-dominated genes is not affected by temperature, its recruitment to SAGA-dominated genes and RP genes is significantly disturbed under heat shock, with Sus1 relocated to environmental stress-responsive genes in these conditions. Moreover, in contrast to recent results showing that SAGA deubiquitinating enzyme Ubp8 is dispensable for RNA synthesis, genomic run-on experiments demonstrate that Sus1 contributes to synthesis and stability of a wide range of transcripts. Our study provides support for a model in which SAGA/TREX-2 factor Sus1 acts as a global transcriptional regulator in yeast but has differential activity at yeast genes as a function of their transcription rate or during stress conditions.

  20. Large subunit of the ribonucleotide reductase gene is a virulent factor and plays a critical role in Marek's disease virus pathogenesis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Marek’s disease virus (MDV) encodes a ribonucleotide reductase (RR) gene consisting of two subunits UL39 (RR1) and UL40 (RR2). Both RR1 and RR2 form an active holoenzyme and are necessary for enzyme activity. This gene was indentified by monoclonal antibody T81 in a gt11 MDV expression library and f...

  1. Linkage and homology analysis divides the eight genes for the small subunit of petunia ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase into three gene families

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Caroline; van den Elzen, Peter; Tamaki, Stanley; Dunsmuir, Pamela; Bedbrook, John

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-six λ phage clones with homology to coding sequences of the small subunit (SSU) of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase have been isolated from an EMBL3 λ phage bank of Petunia (Mitchell) DNA. Restriction mapping of the phage inserts shows that the clones were obtained from five nonoverlapping regions of petunia DNA that carry seven SSU genes. Comparison of the HindIII genomic fragments of petunia DNA with the HindIII restriction fragments of the isolated phage indicates that petunia nuclear DNA encodes eight SSU genes, seven of which are present in the phage clones. Two incomplete genes, which contain only the 3′ end of an SSU gene, were also found in the phage clones. We demonstrate that the eight SSU genes of petunia can be divided into three gene families based on homology to three petunia cDNA clones. Two gene families contain single SSU genes and the third contains six genes, four of which are closely linked within petunia nuclear DNA. Images PMID:16593584

  2. LIN9, a Subunit of the DREAM Complex, Regulates Mitotic Gene Expression and Proliferation of Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Esterlechner, Jasmina; Reichert, Nina; Iltzsche, Fabian; Krause, Michael; Finkernagel, Florian; Gaubatz, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The DREAM complex plays an important role in regulation of gene expression during the cell cycle. We have previously shown that the DREAM subunit LIN9 is required for early embryonic development and for the maintenance of the inner cell mass in vitro. In this study we examined the effect of knocking down LIN9 on ESCs. We demonstrate that depletion of LIN9 alters the cell cycle distribution of ESCs and results in an accumulation of cells in G2 and M and in an increase of polyploid cells. Genome-wide expression studies showed that the depletion of LIN9 results in downregulation of mitotic genes and in upregulation of differentiation-specific genes. ChIP-on chip experiments showed that mitotic genes are direct targets of LIN9 while lineage specific markers are regulated indirectly. Importantly, depletion of LIN9 does not alter the expression of pluripotency markers SOX2, OCT4 and Nanog and LIN9 depleted ESCs retain alkaline phosphatase activity. We conclude that LIN9 is essential for proliferation and genome stability of ESCs by activating genes with important functions in mitosis and cytokinesis. PMID:23667535

  3. The 32-Kilodalton Subunit of Replication Protein A Interacts with Menin, the Product of the MEN1 Tumor Suppressor Gene

    PubMed Central

    Sukhodolets, Karen E.; Hickman, Alison B.; Agarwal, Sunita K.; Sukhodolets, Maxim V.; Obungu, Victor H.; Novotny, Elizabeth A.; Crabtree, Judy S.; Chandrasekharappa, Settara C.; Collins, Francis S.; Spiegel, Allen M.; Burns, A. Lee; Marx, Stephen J.

    2003-01-01

    Menin is a 70-kDa protein encoded by MEN1, the tumor suppressor gene disrupted in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. In a yeast two-hybrid system based on reconstitution of Ras signaling, menin was found to interact with the 32-kDa subunit (RPA2) of replication protein A (RPA), a heterotrimeric protein required for DNA replication, recombination, and repair. The menin-RPA2 interaction was confirmed in a conventional yeast two-hybrid system and by direct interaction between purified proteins. Menin-RPA2 binding was inhibited by a number of menin missense mutations found in individuals with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, and the interacting regions were mapped to the N-terminal portion of menin and amino acids 43 to 171 of RPA2. This region of RPA2 contains a weak single-stranded DNA-binding domain, but menin had no detectable effect on RPA-DNA binding in vitro. Menin bound preferentially in vitro to free RPA2 rather than the RPA heterotrimer or a subcomplex consisting of RPA2 bound to the 14-kDa subunit (RPA3). However, the 70-kDa subunit (RPA1) was coprecipitated from HeLa cell extracts along with RPA2 by menin-specific antibodies, suggesting that menin binds to the RPA heterotrimer or a novel RPA1-RPA2-containing complex in vivo. This finding was consistent with the extensive overlap in the nuclear localization patterns of endogenous menin, RPA2, and RPA1 observed by immunofluorescence. PMID:12509449

  4. Isolation of a candidate human telomerase catalytic subunit gene, which reveals complex splicing patterns in different cell types.

    PubMed

    Kilian, A; Bowtell, D D; Abud, H E; Hime, G R; Venter, D J; Keese, P K; Duncan, E L; Reddel, R R; Jefferson, R A

    1997-11-01

    Telomerase is a multicomponent reverse transcriptase enzyme that adds DNA repeats to the ends of chromosomes using its RNA component as a template for synthesis. Telomerase activity is detected in the germline as well as the majority of tumors and immortal cell lines, and at low levels in several types of normal cells. We have cloned a human gene homologous to a protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Euplotes aediculatus that has reverse transcriptase motifs and is thought to be the catalytic subunit of telomerase in those species. This gene is present in the human genome as a single copy sequence with a dominant transcript of approximately 4 kb in a human colon cancer cell line, LIM1215. The cDNA sequence was determined using clones from a LIM1215 cDNA library and by RT-PCR, cRACE and 3'RACE on mRNA from the same source. We show that the gene is expressed in several normal tissues, telomerase-positive post-crisis (immortal) cell lines and various tumors but is not expressed in the majority of normal tissues analyzed, pre-crisis (non-immortal) cells and telomerase-negative immortal (ALT) cell lines. Multiple products were identified by RT-PCR using primers within the reverse transcriptase domain. Sequencing of these products suggests that they arise by alternative splicing. Strikingly, various tumors, cell lines and even normal tissues (colonic crypt and testis) showed considerable differences in the splicing patterns. Alternative splicing of the telomerase catalytic subunit transcript may be important for the regulation of telomerase activity and may give rise to proteins with different biochemical functions.

  5. Multi-target Parallel Processing Approach for Gene-to-structure Determination of the Influenza Polymerase PB2 Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Spencer O.; Smith, Eric; Raymond, Amy C.; Fairman, James W.; Stewart, Lance J.; Staker, Bart L.; Begley, Darren W.; Edwards, Thomas E.; Lorimer, Donald D.

    2013-01-01

    Pandemic outbreaks of highly virulent influenza strains can cause widespread morbidity and mortality in human populations worldwide. In the United States alone, an average of 41,400 deaths and 1.86 million hospitalizations are caused by influenza virus infection each year 1. Point mutations in the polymerase basic protein 2 subunit (PB2) have been linked to the adaptation of the viral infection in humans 2. Findings from such studies have revealed the biological significance of PB2 as a virulence factor, thus highlighting its potential as an antiviral drug target. The structural genomics program put forth by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID) provides funding to Emerald Bio and three other Pacific Northwest institutions that together make up the Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease (SSGCID). The SSGCID is dedicated to providing the scientific community with three-dimensional protein structures of NIAID category A-C pathogens. Making such structural information available to the scientific community serves to accelerate structure-based drug design. Structure-based drug design plays an important role in drug development. Pursuing multiple targets in parallel greatly increases the chance of success for new lead discovery by targeting a pathway or an entire protein family. Emerald Bio has developed a high-throughput, multi-target parallel processing pipeline (MTPP) for gene-to-structure determination to support the consortium. Here we describe the protocols used to determine the structure of the PB2 subunit from four different influenza A strains. PMID:23851357

  6. Multi-target parallel processing approach for gene-to-structure determination of the influenza polymerase PB2 subunit.

    PubMed

    Armour, Brianna L; Barnes, Steve R; Moen, Spencer O; Smith, Eric; Raymond, Amy C; Fairman, James W; Stewart, Lance J; Staker, Bart L; Begley, Darren W; Edwards, Thomas E; Lorimer, Donald D

    2013-06-28

    Pandemic outbreaks of highly virulent influenza strains can cause widespread morbidity and mortality in human populations worldwide. In the United States alone, an average of 41,400 deaths and 1.86 million hospitalizations are caused by influenza virus infection each year (1). Point mutations in the polymerase basic protein 2 subunit (PB2) have been linked to the adaptation of the viral infection in humans (2). Findings from such studies have revealed the biological significance of PB2 as a virulence factor, thus highlighting its potential as an antiviral drug target. The structural genomics program put forth by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID) provides funding to Emerald Bio and three other Pacific Northwest institutions that together make up the Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease (SSGCID). The SSGCID is dedicated to providing the scientific community with three-dimensional protein structures of NIAID category A-C pathogens. Making such structural information available to the scientific community serves to accelerate structure-based drug design. Structure-based drug design plays an important role in drug development. Pursuing multiple targets in parallel greatly increases the chance of success for new lead discovery by targeting a pathway or an entire protein family. Emerald Bio has developed a high-throughput, multi-target parallel processing pipeline (MTPP) for gene-to-structure determination to support the consortium. Here we describe the protocols used to determine the structure of the PB2 subunit from four different influenza A strains.

  7. [Molecular cloning and characterization of cDNA of the rpc10+ gene encoding the smallest subunit of nuclear RNA polymerases of Schizosaccharomyces pombe].

    PubMed

    Shpakovskiĭ, G V; Lebedenko, E N

    1997-05-01

    The full-length cDNA of the rpc10+ gene encoding mini-subunit Rpc10, which is common for all three nuclear RNA polymerases of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, was cloned and sequenced. The Rpc10 subunit of Sz. pombe and its homologs from S. cerevisiae and H. sapiens are positively charged proteins with a highly conserved C-terminal region and an invariant zinc-binding domain (Zn-finger) of a typical amino acid composition: YxCx2Cx12RCx2CGxR. Functional tests of heterospecific complementation, using tetrad analysis or plasmid shuffling, showed that the Rpc10 subunit of Sz. pombe can successfully replace the homologous ABC10 alpha subunit in nuclear RNA polymerases I-III of S. cerevisiae.

  8. Molecular cloning and characterization of two genes for the biotin carboxylase and carboxyltransferase subunits of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase in Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Y; Miyake, R; Tokumasu, Y; Sato, M

    2000-10-01

    We have cloned a DNA fragment from a genomic library of Myxococcus xanthus using an oligonucleotide probe representing conserved regions of biotin carboxylase subunits of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) carboxylases. The fragment contained two open reading frames (ORF1 and ORF2), designated the accB and accA genes, capable of encoding a 538-amino-acid protein of 58.1 kDa and a 573-amino-acid protein of 61.5 kDa, respectively. The protein (AccA) encoded by the accA gene was strikingly similar to biotin carboxylase subunits of acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA carboxylases and of pyruvate carboxylase. The putative motifs for ATP binding, CO(2) fixation, and biotin binding were found in AccA. The accB gene was located upstream of the accA gene, and they formed a two-gene operon. The protein (AccB) encoded by the accB gene showed high degrees of sequence similarity with carboxyltransferase subunits of acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA carboxylases and of methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase. Carboxybiotin-binding and acyl-CoA-binding domains, which are conserved in several carboxyltransferase subunits of acyl-CoA carboxylases, were found in AccB. An accA disruption mutant showed a reduced growth rate and reduced acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity compared with the wild-type strain. Western blot analysis indicated that the product of the accA gene was a biotinylated protein that was expressed during the exponential growth phase. Based on these results, we propose that this M. xanthus acetyl-CoA carboxylase consists of two subunits, which are encoded by the accB and accA genes, and occupies a position between prokaryotic and eukaryotic acetyl-CoA carboxylases in terms of evolution.

  9. [Molecular identification of human Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene sequence].

    PubMed

    Ono, Sayaka; Morimoto, Norihito; Korenaga, Masataka; Kumazawa, Hideo; Komatsu, Yutaka; Kuge, Itsu; Higashidani, Yoshihumi; Ogura, Katsumi; Sugiura, Tetsuro

    2010-11-01

    Identification of Diphyllobothrium species has been carried out based on their morphology, especially sexual organs. In addition to these criteria, PCR-based identification methods have been developed recently. A 20 year-old Japanese living in Kochi Prefecture passed tapeworm. He was successfully treated with single dose of gastrografin. We examined the morphologic features of the proglottids and eggs using histology and scanning electron microscope. We also analyzed mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of the proglottids. The causative tapeworm species was identified as D. nihonkaiense based on the results of morphologic features and genetic analysis. We discussed the advantage of PCR-based identification methods of Diphyllobothrium species using cox1 sequence in the clinical laboratory.

  10. Development of an oligonucleotide probe for Aureobasidium pullulans based on the small-subunit rRNA gene.

    PubMed Central

    Li, S; Cullen, D; Hjort, M; Spear, R; Andrews, J H

    1996-01-01

    Aureobasidium pullulans, a cosmopolitan yeast-like fungus, colonizes leaf surfaces and has potential as a biocontrol agent of pathogens. To assess the feasibility of rRNA as a target for A. pullulans-specific oligonucleotide probes, we compared the nucleotide sequences of the small-subunit rRNA (18S) genes of 12 geographically diverse A. pullulans strains. Extreme sequence conservation was observed. The consensus A. pullulans sequence was compared with other fungal sequences to identify potential probes. A 21-mer probe which hybridized to the 12 A. pullulans strains but not to 98 other fungi, including 82 isolates from the phylloplane, was identified. A 17-mer highly specific for Cladosporium herbarum was also identified. These probes have potential in monitoring and quantifying fungi in leaf surface and other microbial communities. PMID:8633850

  11. Cloning and characterization of indole synthase (INS) and a putative tryptophan synthase α-subunit (TSA) genes from Polygonum tinctorium.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhehao; Kim, Jin-Hee; Park, Sang Un; Kim, Soo-Un

    2016-12-01

    Two cDNAs for indole-3-glycerol phosphate lyase homolog were cloned from Polygonum tinctorium. One encoded cytosolic indole synthase possibly in indigoid synthesis, whereas the other encoded a putative tryptophan synthase α-subunit. Indigo is an old natural blue dye produced by plants such as Polygonum tinctorium. Key step in plant indigoid biosynthesis is production of indole by indole-3-glycerol phosphate lyase (IGL). Two tryptophan synthase α-subunit (TSA) homologs, PtIGL-short and -long, were isolated by RACE PCR from P. tinctorium. The genome of the plant contained two genes coding for IGL. The short and the long forms, respectively, encoded 273 and 316 amino acid residue-long proteins. The short form complemented E. coli ΔtnaA ΔtrpA mutant on tryptophan-depleted agar plate signifying production of free indole, and thus was named indole synthase gene (PtINS). The long form, either intact or without the transit peptide sequence, did not complement the mutant and was tentatively named PtTSA. PtTSA was delivered into chloroplast as predicted by 42-residue-long targeting sequence, whereas PtINS was localized in cytosol. Genomic structure analysis suggested that a TSA duplicate acquired splicing sites during the course of evolution toward PtINS so that the targeting sequence-containing pre-mRNA segment was deleted as an intron. PtINS had about two to fivefolds higher transcript level than that of PtTSA, and treatment of 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole caused the relative transcript level of PtINS over PtTSA was significantly enhanced in the plant. The results indicate participation of PtINS in indigoid production.

  12. The vacuolar ATPase from Entamoeba histolytica: molecular cloning of the gene encoding for the B subunit and subcellular localization of the protein.

    PubMed

    Meléndez-Hernández, Mayra Gisela; Barrios, María Luisa Labra; Orozco, Esther; Luna-Arias, Juan Pedro

    2008-12-23

    Entamoeba histolytica is a professional phagocytic cell where the vacuolar ATPase plays a key role. This enzyme is a multisubunit complex that regulates pH in many subcellular compartments, even in those that are not measurably acidic. It participates in a wide variety of cellular processes such as endocytosis, intracellular transport and membrane fusion. The presence of a vacuolar type H+-ATPase in E. histolytica trophozoites has been inferred previously from inhibition assays of its activity, the isolation of the Ehvma1 and Ehvma3 genes, and by proteomic analysis of purified phagosomes. We report the isolation and characterization of the Ehvma2 gene, which encodes for the subunit B of the vacuolar ATPase. This polypeptide is a 55.3 kDa highly conserved protein with 34 to 80% identity to orthologous proteins from other species. Particularly, in silico studies showed that EhV-ATPase subunit B displays 78% identity and 90% similarity to its Dictyostelium ortholog. A 462 bp DNA fragment of the Ehvma2 gene was expressed in bacteria and recombinant polypeptide was used to raise mouse polyclonal antibodies. EhV-ATPase subunit B antibodies detected a 55 kDa band in whole cell extracts and in an enriched fraction of DNA-containing organelles named EhkOs. The V-ATPase subunit B was located by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy in many vesicles, in phagosomes, plasma membrane and in EhkOs. We also identified the genes encoding for the majority of the V-ATPase subunits in the E. histolytica genome, and proposed a putative model for this proton pump. We have isolated the Ehvma2 gene which encodes for the V-ATPase subunit B from the E. histolytica clone A. This gene has a 154 bp intron and encodes for a highly conserved polypeptide. Specific antibodies localized EhV-ATPase subunit B in many vesicles, phagosomes, plasma membrane and in EhkOs. Most of the orthologous genes encoding for the EhV-ATPase subunits were found in the E. histolytica genome, indicating the

  13. Small subunit ribosomal RNA genes of tabanids and hippoboscids (Diptera: Brachycera): evolutionary relationships and comparison with other Diptera.

    PubMed

    Carreno, R A; Barta, J R

    1998-11-01

    The small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) genes of hippoboscid (Ornithoica vicina Walker) and tabanid (Chrysops niger Macquart) Diptera were sequenced to determine their phylogenetic position within the order and to determine whether or not extensive hypervariable regions in this gene are widespread in the Diptera. A parsimony analysis of an alignment containing 8 dipteran sequences produced a single most parsimonious tree that placed O. vicina as sister group to Drosophila melanogaster Meigen. The tabanid Chrysops niger was sister group to the asilomorphan taxa, and the sister group to the Brachycera was a Tipula sp. although this relationship was not supported by bootstrap analysis. The hippoboscid and tabanid sequences contain extensive hypervariable regions in the V2, V4, V6, and V7 regions as do other Diptera. When these regions of the alignment were excluded from the phylogenetic analysis, a single most parsimonious tree was found. This tree had an identical overall topology to the tree obtained from the total data set. The hypervariable regions in parts of the dipteran SSU rRNA genes were more extensive in the nematocerous dipteran sequences used in this study than in the other dipteran representatives; these hypervariable regions may be of more utility in inferring relationship among species and subspecies than at the suprageneric level.

  14. Detection of the enzymatically-active polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase subunit gene, phaC, in cyanobacteria via colony PCR.

    PubMed

    Lane, Courtney E; Benton, Michael G

    2015-12-01

    A colony PCR-based assay was developed to rapidly determine if a cyanobacterium of interest contains the requisite genetic material, the PHA synthase PhaC subunit, to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). The test is both high throughput and robust, owing to an extensive sequence analysis of cyanobacteria PHA synthases. The assay uses a single detection primer set and a single reaction condition across multiple cyanobacteria strains to produce an easily detectable positive result - amplification via PCR as evidenced by a band in electrophoresis. In order to demonstrate the potential of the presence of phaC as an indicator of a cyanobacteria's PHA accumulation capabilities, the ability to produce PHA was assessed for five cyanobacteria with a traditional in vivo PHA granule staining using an oxazine dye. The confirmed in vivo staining results were then compared to the PCR-based assay results and found to be in agreement. The colony PCR assay was capable of successfully detecting the phaC gene in all six of the diverse cyanobacteria tested which possessed the gene, while exhibiting no undesired product formation across the nine total cyanobacteria strains tested. The colony PCR quick prep provides sufficient usable DNA template such that this assay could be readily expanded to assess multiple genes of interest simultaneously. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The wheat cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene has an intron insert and three radical amino acid changes relative to maize

    PubMed Central

    Bonen, Linda; Boer, Poppo H.; Gray, Michael W.

    1984-01-01

    We have determined the sequence of the wheat mitochondrial gene for cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) and find that its derived protein sequence differs from that of maize at only three amino acid positions. Unexpectedly, all three replacements are non-conservative ones. The wheat COII gene has a highly-conserved intron at the same position as in maize, but the wheat intron is 1.5 times longer because of an insert relative to its maize counterpart. Hybridization analysis of mitochondrial DNA from rye, pea, broad bean and cucumber indicates strong sequence conservation of COII coding sequences among all these higher plants. However, only rye and maize mitochondrial DNA show homology with wheat COII intron sequences and rye alone with intron-insert sequences. We find that a sequence identical to the region of the 5' exon corresponding to the transmembrane domain of the COII protein is present at a second genomic location in wheat mitochondria. These variations in COII gene structure and size, as well as the presence of repeated COII sequences, illustrate at the DNA sequence level, factors which contribute to higher plant mitochondrial DNA diversity and complexity. ImagesFig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5. PMID:16453565

  16. Inefficiency in GM2 ganglioside elimination by human lysosomal beta-hexosaminidase beta-subunit gene transfer to fibroblastic cell line derived from Sandhoff disease model mice.

    PubMed

    Itakura, Tomohiro; Kuroki, Aya; Ishibashi, Yasuhiro; Tsuji, Daisuke; Kawashita, Eri; Higashine, Yukari; Sakuraba, Hitoshi; Yamanaka, Shoji; Itoh, Kohji

    2006-08-01

    Sandhoff disease (SD) is an autosomal recessive GM2 gangliosidosis caused by the defect of lysosomal beta-hexosaminidase (Hex) beta-subunit gene associated with neurosomatic manifestations. Therapeutic effects of Hex subunit gene transduction have been examined on Sandhoff disease model mice (SD mice) produced by the allelic disruption of Hexb gene encoding the murine beta-subunit. We demonstrate here that elimination of GM2 ganglioside (GM2) accumulated in the fibroblastic cell line derived from SD mice (FSD) did not occur when the HEXB gene only was transfected. In contrast, a significant increase in the HexB (betabeta homodimer) activity toward neutral substrates, including GA2 (asialo-GM2) and oligosaccharides carrying the terminal N-acetylglucosamine residues at their non-reducing ends (GlcNAc-oligosaccharides) was observed. Immunoblotting with anti-human HexA (alphabeta heterodimer) serum after native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Native-PAGE) revealed that the human HEXB gene product could hardly form the chimeric HexA through associating with the murine alpha-subunit. However, co-introduction of the HEXA encoding the human alpha-subunit and HEXB genes caused significant corrective effect on the GM2 degradation by producing the human HexA. These results indicate that the recombinant human HexA could interspeciesly associate with the murine GM2 activator protein to degrade GM2 accumulated in the FSD cells. Thus, therapeutic effects of the recombinant human HexA isozyme but not human HEXB gene product could be evaluated by using the SD mice.

  17. Glycine activated ion channel subunits encoded by ctenophore glutamate receptor genes

    DOE PAGES

    Alberstein, Robert; Grey, Richard; Zimmet, Austin; ...

    2015-10-12

    Recent genome projects for ctenophores have revealed the presence of numerous ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) in Mnemiopsis leidyi and Pleurobrachia bachei, among our earliest metazoan ancestors. Sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis show that these form a distinct clade from the well-characterized AMPA, kainate, and NMDA iGluR subtypes found in vertebrates. Although annotated as glutamate and kainate receptors, crystal structures of the ML032222a and PbiGluR3 ligand-binding domains (LBDs) reveal endogenous glycine in the binding pocket, whereas ligand-binding assays show that glycine binds with nanomolar affinity; biochemical assays and structural analysis establish that glutamate is occluded from the binding cavity. Further analysismore » reveals ctenophore-specific features, such as an interdomain Arg-Glu salt bridge, present only in subunits that bind glycine, but also a conserved disulfide in loop 1 of the LBD that is found in all vertebrate NMDA but not AMPA or kainate receptors. In this paper, we hypothesize that ctenophore iGluRs are related to an early ancestor of NMDA receptors, suggesting a common evolutionary path for ctenophores and bilaterian species, and finally suggest that future work should consider both glycine and glutamate as candidate neurotransmitters in ctenophore species.« less

  18. Theileria sp. Infections Associated with Bovine Fatalities in the United States Confirmed by Small-Subunit rRNA Gene Analyses of Blood and Tick Samples

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Joon-seok; Levy, Michael; Hunt, John; Schlater, Jack; Snider, Glen; Waghela, Suryakant D.; Holman, Patricia J.; Wagner, G. Gale

    1999-01-01

    Theileria sp.-specific small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene amplification confirmed the presence of the organism in cattle and in Amblyomma americanum and Dermacentor variabilis ticks collected from a cattle herd in Missouri. Blood from the index animal had type A and type D Theileria SSU rRNA genes. The type D gene was also found in blood from two cohort cattle and tick tissues. The type A SSU rRNA gene was previously reported from bovine Theileria isolates from Texas and North Carolina; the type D gene was reported from a Texas cow with theileriosis. PMID:10449501

  19. Mediator subunit MED1 is a T3-dependent and T3-independent coactivator on the thyrotropin β gene promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Matsui, Keiji; Oda, Kasumi; Mizuta, Shumpei

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •MED1 is a bona fide T3-dependent coactivator on TSHB promoter. •Mice with LxxLL-mutant MED1 have attenuated TSHβ mRNA and thyroid hormone levels. •MED1 activates TSHB promoter T3-dependently in cultured cells. •T3-dependent MED1 action is enhanced when SRC1/SRC2 or HDAC2 is downregulated. •MED1 is also a T3-independent GATA2/Pit1 coactivator on TSHB promoter. -- Abstract: The MED1 subunit of the Mediator transcriptional coregulator complex is a nuclear receptor-specific coactivator. A negative feedback mechanism of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, or thyrotropin) expression in the thyrotroph in the presence of triiodothyronine (T3) is employed by liganded thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ) on the TSHβmore » gene promoter, where conventional histone-modifying coactivators act as corepressors. We now provide evidence that MED1 is a ligand-dependent positive cofactor on this promoter. TSHβ gene transcription was attenuated in MED1 mutant mice in which the nuclear receptor-binding ability of MED1 was specifically disrupted. MED1 stimulated GATA2- and Pit1-mediated TSHβ gene promoter activity in a ligand-independent manner in cultured cells. MED1 also stimulated transcription from the TSHβ gene promoter in a T3-dependent manner. The transcription was further enhanced when the T3-dependent corepressors SRC1, SRC2, and HDAC2 were downregulated. Hence, MED1 is a T3-dependent and -independent coactivator on the TSHβ gene promoter.« less

  20. Identification of verotoxin type 2 variant B subunit genes in Escherichia coli by the polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, S D; Johnson, W M; Lior, H; Wang, G; Rozee, K R

    1991-01-01

    A set of synthetic oligonucleotide primers was designed for use in a polymerase chain reaction protocol to specifically detect the B subunit genes in vtx2ha and vtx2hb, which code for the production of the VT2 (Shiga-like toxin II) variant cytotoxins VT2v-a and VT2v-b, respectively. An additional set of primers amplified a fragment common to the B subunits of the VT2 and the VT2 variant genes. Subsequent restriction endonuclease digestion of this amplicon permitted prediction of specific VT2 and variant genotypes on the basis of predetermined restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Genotypes of 21 VT2-producing strains of Escherichia coli were determined using this polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism procedure. Four strains contained B subunit target sequences only for VT2 genes, 9 strains contained sequences only for VT2v-a genes, and 3 strains contained sequences only for VT2v-b. For genes in combination, one strain contained B subunit genes for both VT2 and VT2v-a and two strains contained B subunit genes for VT2 and VT2v-b. Two strains of E. coli O91:H21 contained both VT2v-a and VT2v-b B subunit genes. The VT2 reference strain of E. coli, E32511, was found to contain the targeted sequences from both VT2 and VT2v-a genes, whereas the recombinant E. coli, pEB1, possessed only that of the VT2 gene. The specific activities of extracellular VT2 determined in HeLa cells ranged from 0.3 to 41.7 TCD50 per microgram of protein in strains carrying the VT2 gene target and from 0 to 50.0 TCD50 per microgram of protein in strains carrying only the VT2 variant target (TCD50 is the tissue culture dose by which 50% of the cells were affected), suggesting that phenotypic expression does not correlate with genotype. Images PMID:1679436

  1. Genes encoding biotin carboxylase subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase from Brassica napus and parental species: cloning, expression patterns, and evolution

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Comparative genomics is a useful tool to investigate gene and genome evolution. Biotin carboxylase (BC), an important subunit of heteromeric ACCase that is a rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid biosynthesis in dicots, catalyzes ATP, biotin-carboxyl-carrier protein and CO2 to form carboxybiotin-carbo...

  2. Definition of the low molecular weight glutenin subunit gene family members in a set of standard bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) are a class of seed storage proteins that play a major role in the determination of the viscoelastic properties of wheat dough. Most of the LMW-GSs are encoded by a multi-gene family located on the short arms of the homoeologous group 1 chromosomes, at...

  3. Mutation in the epsilon subunit of the cytosolic chaperonin-containing t-complex peptide-1 (Cct5) gene causes autosomal recessive mutilating sensory neuropathy with spastic paraplegia.

    PubMed

    Bouhouche, A; Benomar, A; Bouslam, N; Chkili, T; Yahyaoui, M

    2006-05-01

    Mutilating sensory neuropathy with spastic paraplegia is a very rare disease with both autosomal dominant and recessive modes of inheritance. We previously mapped the locus of the autosomal recessive form to a 25 cM interval between markers D5S2048 and D5S648 on chromosome 5p. In this candidate interval, the Cct5 gene encoding the epsilon subunit of the cytosolic chaperonin-containing t-complex peptide-1 (CCT) was the most obvious candidate gene since mutation in the Cct4 gene encoding the CCT delta subunit has been reported to be associated with autosomal recessive mutilating sensory neuropathy in mutilated foot (mf) rat mutant. A consanguineous Moroccan family with four patients displaying mutilating sensory neuropathy associated with spastic paraplegia was investigated. To identify the disease causing gene, the 11 coding exons of the Cct5 gene were screened for mutations by direct sequencing in all family members including the four patients, parents, and six at risk relatives. Sequence analysis of the Cct5 gene revealed a missense A492G mutation in exon 4 that results in the substitution of a highly conserved histidine for arginine amino acid 147. Interestingly, R147 was absent in 384 control matched chromosomes tested. This is the first disease causing mutation that has been identified in the human CCT subunit genes; the mf rat mutant could serve as an animal model for studying these chaperonopathies.

  4. The number and distribution of AMPA receptor channels containing fast kinetic GluA3 and GluA4 subunits at auditory nerve synapses depend on the target cells.

    PubMed

    Rubio, María E; Matsui, Ko; Fukazawa, Yugo; Kamasawa, Naomi; Harada, Harumi; Itakura, Makoto; Molnár, Elek; Abe, Manabu; Sakimura, Kenji; Shigemoto, Ryuichi

    2017-11-01

    The neurotransmitter receptor subtype, number, density, and distribution relative to the location of transmitter release sites are key determinants of signal transmission. AMPA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPARs) containing GluA3 and GluA4 subunits are prominently expressed in subsets of neurons capable of firing action potentials at high frequencies, such as auditory relay neurons. The auditory nerve (AN) forms glutamatergic synapses on two types of relay neurons, bushy cells (BCs) and fusiform cells (FCs) of the cochlear nucleus. AN-BC and AN-FC synapses have distinct kinetics; thus, we investigated whether the number, density, and localization of GluA3 and GluA4 subunits in these synapses are differentially organized using quantitative freeze-fracture replica immunogold labeling. We identify a positive correlation between the number of AMPARs and the size of AN-BC and AN-FC synapses. Both types of AN synapses have similar numbers of AMPARs; however, the AN-BC have a higher density of AMPARs than AN-FC synapses, because the AN-BC synapses are smaller. A higher number and density of GluA3 subunits are observed at AN-BC synapses, whereas a higher number and density of GluA4 subunits are observed at AN-FC synapses. The intrasynaptic distribution of immunogold labeling revealed that AMPAR subunits, particularly GluA3, are concentrated at the center of the AN-BC synapses. The central distribution of AMPARs is absent in GluA3-knockout mice, and gold particles are evenly distributed along the postsynaptic density. GluA4 gold labeling was homogenously distributed along both synapse types. Thus, GluA3 and GluA4 subunits are distributed at AN synapses in a target-cell-dependent manner.

  5. Common variants in the G protein beta3 subunit gene and thyroid disorders in a formerly iodine-deficient population.

    PubMed

    Völzke, Henry; Bornhorst, Alexa; Rimmbach, Christian; Petersenn, Holger; Geissler, Ingrid; Nauck, Matthias; Wallaschofski, Henri; Kroemer, Heyo K; Rosskopf, Dieter

    2009-10-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins are key mediators of signals from membrane receptors-including the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor-to cellular effectors. Gain-of-function mutations in the TSH receptor and the Galpha(S) subunit occur frequently in hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid carcinomas, whereby the T allele of a common polymorphism (825C>T, rs5443) in the G protein beta3 subunit gene (GNB3) is associated with increased G protein-mediated signal transduction and a complex phenotype. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this common polymorphism affects key parameters of thyroid function and morphology and influences the pathogenesis of thyroid diseases in the general population. The population-based cross-sectional Study of Health in Pomerania is a general health survey with focus on thyroid diseases in northeast Germany, a formerly iodine-deficient area. Data from 3428 subjects (1800 men and 1628 women) were analyzed for an association of the GNB3 genotype with TSH, free triiodothyronine and thyroxine levels, urine iodine and thiocyanate excretion, and thyroid ultrasound morphology including thyroid volume, presence of goiter, and thyroid nodules. There was no association between GNB3 genotype status and the functional or morphological thyroid parameters investigated, neither in crude analyses nor upon multivariable analyses including known confounders of thyroid disorders. Based on the data from this large population-based survey, we conclude that the GNB3 825C>T polymorphism does not affect key parameters of thyroid function and morphology in the general population of a formerly iodine-deficient area.

  6. G-protein βγ subunits in vasorelaxing and anti-endothelinergic effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide.

    PubMed

    Meens, M J P M T; Mattheij, N J A; van Loenen, P B; Spijkers, L J A; Lemkens, P; Nelissen, J; Compeer, M G; Alewijnse, A E; De Mey, J G R

    2012-05-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has been proposed to relax vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) via cAMP and can promote dissociation of endothelin-1 (ET-1) from ET(A) receptors. The latter is not mimicked by other stimuli of adenylate cyclases. Therefore, we evaluated the involvement of G-protein βγ subunits (Gβγ) in the arterial effects of CGRP receptor stimulation. To test the hypothesis that instead of α subunits of G-proteins (Gαs), Gβγ mediates the effects of CGRP receptor activation, we used (i) rat isolated mesenteric resistance arteries (MRA), (ii) pharmacological modulators of cyclic nucleotides; and (iii) low molecular weight inhibitors of the functions of Gβγ, gallein and M119. To validate these tools with respect to CGRP receptor function, we performed organ bath studies with rat isolated MRA, radioligand binding on membranes from CHO cells expressing human CGRP receptors and cAMP production assays in rat cultured VSMC. In isolated arteries contracted with K(+) or ET-1, IBMX (PDE inhibitor) increased sodium nitroprusside (SNP)- and isoprenaline (ISO)- but not CGRP-induced relaxations. While fluorescein (negative control) was without effects, gallein increased binding of [(125) I]-CGRP in the absence and presence of GTPγS. Gallein also increased CGRP-induced cAMP production in VSMC. Despite these stimulating effects, gallein and M119 selectively inhibited the relaxing and anti-endothelinergic effects of CGRP in isolated arteries while not altering contractile responses to K(+) or ET-1 or relaxing responses to ISO or SNP. Activated CGRP receptors induce cyclic nucleotide-independent relaxation of VSMC and terminate arterial effects of ET-1 via Gβγ. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  7. Association between the GABA(A) receptor alpha5 subunit gene locus (GABRA5) and bipolar affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, G N; Dikeos, D G; Karadima, G; Avramopoulos, D; Daskalopoulou, E G; Vassilopoulos, D; Stefanis, C N

    1998-02-07

    Genetic factors seem to play an important role in the pathogenesis of affective disorder. The candidate gene strategies are being used, among others, to identify the genes conferring vulnerability to the disease. The genes coding for the receptors of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) have been proposed as candidates for affective disorder, since the GABA neurotransmitter system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of the illness. We examined the possible genetic association between the GABA(A) receptor alpha5 subunit gene locus (GABRA5) on chromosome 15 and affective disorder, in 48 bipolar patients (BP), 40 unipolar patients (UP), and 50 healthy individuals, age- and sex-matched to the patients. All patients and controls were unrelated Greeks. Diagnoses were made after direct interviews according to the DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria. For the genotyping, a dinucleotide (CA) repeat marker was used. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products found were nine alleles with lengths between 272 and 290 base pairs (bp). The distribution of allelic frequencies of the GABRA5 locus differed significantly between BP patients and controls with the 282-bp allele found to be associated with BP affective disorder, while no such difference was observed between the groups of UP patients and controls nor between the two patient groups. The presence or absence of the 282-bp allele in the genotype of BP patients was not shown to influence the age of onset and the overall clinical severity, but was found to be associated with a preponderance of manic over depressive episodes in the course of the illness.

  8. Association between GABA-A receptor alpha 5 subunit gene locus and schizophrenia of a later age of onset.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, G; Dikeos, D; Daskalopoulou, E; Karadima, G; Avramopoulos, D; Contis, C; Stefanis, C

    2001-01-01

    Heritability is considered to be a major etiologic factor for schizophrenia. Among the genes considered as candidates for the disease, are those related to GABAergic neurotransmission. Our aim was to test for a genetic association between GABA-A receptor alpha 5 subunit gene locus (GABRA(5)) and schizophrenia. Genotyping of the GABRA(5) locus was performed by the use of a dinucleotide (CA) repeat marker in 46 schizophrenic patients and 50 healthy individuals, all unrelated Greeks. Eight alleles were identified, 276-290 bp long. A nonsignificant excess of the 282-bp allele, which was found in a previous study in a Greek population to be associated with bipolar affective disorder, was observed in schizophrenic patients (33.8 vs. 23.9% in the controls). The frequency of this allele was 43.3% among patients with a later age of onset (over 25 years), differing at a statistically significant level from the controls (p < 0.05). These results suggest that common pathophysiological mechanisms may possibly underlie affective disorders and schizophrenia, at least in a subgroup of patients. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. A subunit of the dynein regulatory complex in Chlamydomonas is a homologue of a growth arrest–specific gene product

    PubMed Central

    Rupp, Gerald; Porter, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    The dynein regulatory complex (DRC) is an important intermediate in the pathway that regulates flagellar motility. To identify subunits of the DRC, we characterized a Chlamydomonas motility mutant obtained by insertional mutagenesis. The pf2-4 mutant displays an altered waveform that results in slow swimming cells. EM analysis reveals defects in DRC structure that can be rescued by reintroduction of the wild-type PF2 gene. Immunolocalization studies show that the PF2 protein is distributed along the length of the axoneme, where it is part of a discrete complex of polypeptides. PF2 is a coiled-coil protein that shares significant homology with a mammalian growth arrest–specific gene product (Gas11/Gas8) and a trypanosome protein known as trypanin. PF2 and its homologues appear to be universal components of motile axonemes that are required for DRC assembly and the regulation of flagellar motility. The expression of Gas8/Gas11 transcripts in a wide range of tissues may also indicate a potential role for PF2-related proteins in other microtubule-based structures. PMID:12847082

  10. Pituitary control of branchial NCC, NKCC and Na(+), K (+)-ATPase α-subunit gene expression in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Breves, Jason P; Seale, Andre P; Moorman, Benjamin P; Lerner, Darren T; Moriyama, Shunsuke; Hopkins, Kevin D; Grau, E Gordon

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated endocrine control of branchial ionoregulatory function in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by prolactin (Prl188 and Prl177), growth hormone (Gh) and cortisol. Branchial expression of Na(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter (ncc) and Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter (nkcc) genes were employed as specific markers for freshwater- and seawater-type ionocytes, respectively. We further investigated whether Prl, Gh and cortisol direct expression of two Na(+), K(+)-ATPase (nka)-α1 subunit genes, denoted nka-α1a and nka-α1b. Tilapia transferred to fresh water following hypophysectomy failed to adequately activate gill ncc expression; ncc expression was subsequently restored by Prl replacement. Prl188 and Prl177 stimulated ncc expression in cultured gill filaments in a concentration-related manner, suggesting that ncc is regulated by Prl in a gill-autonomous fashion. Tilapia transferred to brackish water (23 ‰) following hypophysectomy exhibited a reduced capacity to up-regulate nka-α1b expression. However, Gh and cortisol failed to affect nka-α1b expression in vivo. Similarly, we found no clear effects of Gh or cortisol on nkcc expression both in vivo and in vitro. When considered with patterns previously described in euryhaline Mozambique tilapia (O. mossambicus), the current study suggests that ncc is a conserved target of Prl in tilapiine cichlids. In addition, we revealed contrasting dependencies upon the pituitary to direct nka-α1b expression in hyperosmotic environments between Nile and Mozambique tilapia.

  11. New insight into the role of the β3 subunit of the GABAA-R in development, behavior, body weight regulation, and anesthesia revealed by conditional gene knockout

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Carolyn; Hardy, Steven L; Werner, David F; Hileman, Stanley M; DeLorey, Timothy M; Homanics, Gregg E

    2007-01-01

    Background The β3 subunit of the γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAA-R) has been reported to be important for palate formation, anesthetic action, and normal nervous system function. This subunit has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of Angelman syndrome and autism spectrum disorder. To further investigate involvement of this subunit, we previously produced mice with a global knockout of β3. However, developmental abnormalities, compensation, reduced viability, and numerous behavioral abnormalities limited the usefulness of that murine model. To overcome many of these limitations, a mouse line with a conditionally inactivated β3 gene was engineered. Results Gene targeting and embryonic stem cell technologies were used to create mice in which exon 3 of the β3 subunit was flanked by loxP sites (i.e., floxed). Crossing the floxed β3 mice to a cre general deleter mouse line reproduced the phenotype of the previously described global knockout. Pan-neuronal knockout of β3 was achieved by crossing floxed β3 mice to Synapsin I-cre transgenic mice. Palate development was normal in pan-neuronal β3 knockouts but ~61% died as neonates. Survivors were overtly normal, fertile, and were less sensitive to etomidate. Forebrain selective knockout of β3 was achieved using α CamKII-cre transgenic mice. Palate development was normal in forebrain selective β3 knockout mice. These knockouts survived the neonatal period, but ~30% died between 15–25 days of age. Survivors had reduced reproductive fitness, reduced sensitivity to etomidate, were hyperactive, and some became obese. Conclusion Conditional inactivation of the β3 gene revealed novel insight into the function of this GABAA-R subunit. The floxed β3 knockout mice described here will be very useful for conditional knockout studies to further investigate the role of the β3 subunit in development, ethanol and anesthetic action, normal physiology, and pathophysiologic processes. PMID:17927825

  12. Characterization of two trpE genes encoding anthranilate synthase {alpha}-subunit in Azospirillum brasilense

    SciTech Connect

    Ge Shimei; Xie Baoen; Chen Sanfeng

    2006-03-10

    The previous report from our laboratory has recently identified a new trpE gene (termed trpE {sub 2}) which exists independently in Azospirillum brasilense Yu62. In this study, amplification of trpE(G) (termed trpE {sub 1}(G) here) confirmed that there are two copies of trpE gene, one trpE being fused into trpG while the other trpE existed independently. This is First report to suggest that two copies of the trpE gene exist in this bacterium. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence demonstrated that putative leader peptide, terminator, and anti-terminator were found upstream of trpE {sub 1}(G) while these sequence features did not existmore » in front of trpE {sub 2}. The {beta}-galactosidase activity of an A. brasilense strain carrying a trpE {sub 2}-lacZ fusion remained constant at different tryptophan concentrations, but the {beta}-galactosidase activity of the same strain carrying a trpE {sub 1}(G)-lacZ fusion decreased as the tryptophan concentration increased. These data suggest that the expression of trpE {sub 1}(G) is regulated at the transcriptional level by attenuation while trpE {sub 2} is constantly expressed. The anthranilate synthase assays with trpE {sub 1}(G){sup -} and trpE {sub 2} {sup -} mutants demonstrated that TrpE{sub 1}(G) fusion protein is feedback inhibited by tryptophan while TrpE{sub 2} protein is not. We also found that both trpE {sub 1}(G) and trpE {sub 2} gene products were involved in IAA synthesis.« less

  13. E2F mediates induction of the Sp1-controlled promoter of the human DNA polymerase ɛ B-subunit gene POLE2

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Deqi; Jokela, Maarit; Tuusa, Jussi; Skog, Sven; Poikonen, Kari; Syväoja, Juhani E.

    2001-01-01

    The B-subunits of replicative DNA polymerases from Archaea to humans belong to the same protein family, suggesting that they share a common fundamental function. We report here the gene structure for the B-subunit of human DNA polymerase ɛ (POLE2), whose expression and transcriptional regulation is typical for replication proteins with some unique features. The 75 bp core promoter region, located within exon 1, contains an Sp1 element that is a critical determinant of promoter activity as shown by the luciferase reporter, electrophoretic mobility shift and DNase I footprinting assays. Two overlapping E2F elements adjacent to the Sp1 element are essential for full promoter activity and serum response. Binding sites for E2F1 and NF-1 reside immediately downstream from the core promoter region. Our results suggest that human POLE2 is regulated by two E2F–pocket protein complexes, one associated with Sp1 and the other with NF-1. So far, only one replicative DNA polymerase B-subunit gene promoter, POLA2 encoding the B-subunit of DNA polymerase α, has been characterized. Mitogenic activation of the POLE2 promoter by an E2F-mediated mechanism resembles that of POLA2, but the regulation of basal promoter activity is different between these two genes. PMID:11433027

  14. Transcripts of the NADH-dehydrogenase subunit 3 gene are differentially edited in Oenothera mitochondria.

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, W; Wissinger, B; Unseld, M; Brennicke, A

    1990-01-01

    A number of cytosines are altered to be recognized as uridines in transcripts of the nad3 locus in mitochondria of the higher plant Oenothera. Such nucleotide modifications can be found at 16 different sites within the nad3 coding region. Most of these alterations in the mRNA sequence change codon identities to specify amino acids better conserved in evolution. Individual cDNA clones differ in their degree of editing at five nucleotide positions, three of which are silent, while two lead to codon alterations specifying different amino acids. None of the cDNA clones analysed is maximally edited at all possible sites, suggesting slow processing or lowered stringency of editing at these nucleotides. Differentially edited transcripts could be editing intermediates or could code for differing polypeptides. Two edited nucleotides in an open reading frame located upstream of nad3 change two amino acids in the deduced polypeptide. Part of the well-conserved ribosomal protein gene rps12 also encoded downstream of nad3 in other plants, is lost in Oenothera mitochondria by recombination events. The functional rps12 protein must be imported from the cytoplasm since the deleted sequences of this gene are not found in the Oenothera mitochondrial genome. The pseudogene sequence is not edited at any nucleotide position. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 7. PMID:1688531

  15. Cloning and characterization of Sdga gene encoding alpha-subunit of heterotrimeric guanosine 5'-triphosphate-binding protein complex in Scoparia dulcis.

    PubMed

    Shite, Masato; Yamamura, Yoshimi; Hayashi, Toshimitsu; Kurosaki, Fumiya

    2008-11-01

    A homology-based cloning strategy yielded Sdga, a cDNA clone presumably encoding alpha-subunit of heterotrimeric guanosine 5'-triphosphate-binding protein complex, from leaf tissues of Scoparia dulcis. Phylogenetic tree analysis of G-protein alpha-subunits from various biological sources suggested that, unlike in animal cells, classification of Galpha-proteins into specific subfamilies could not be applicable to the proteins from higher plants. Restriction digests of genomic DNA of S. dulcis showed a single hybridized signal in Southern blot analysis, suggesting that Sdga is a sole gene encoding Galpha-subunit in this plant. The expression level of Sdga appeared to be maintained at almost constant level after exposure of the leaves to methyl jasmonate as analyzed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. These results suggest that Sdga plays roles in methyl jasmonate-induced responses of S. dulcis without a notable change in the transcriptional level.

  16. The human mitochondrial NADH: Ubiquinone oxidoreductase 51-kDa subunit oxidoreductase 51-kDa subunit maps adjacent to the glutathione S-transferase P1-1 gene on chromosome 11q13

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, S.R.; Taylor, J.B.; Cowell, I.G.

    The soluble glutathione transferases (GSTs) are a family of dimeric isoenymes catalyzing the conjugation of glutathione to hydrophobic electropiles. Their subunits can be grouped into four families, alpha, mu, pi, and theta, on the basis of their primary structures. In man, the pi class is represented by a single gene, GSTP1-1 (GST[pi]) localized to human chromosome 11, band q13. The oncogenes INT2, HSTF1, and PRAD1 are also localized at 11q13, and together with the GSTP1 locus and other gene loci mapped to 11q13, i.e., BCL1 and EMS1, they form a unit of DNA approximately 2000-2500 kb, known as the 11q13more » amplicon, which is often amplified in a range of solid tumors. Any gene locus at 11q13 is of interest because it may influence tumorigenesis. 14 refs., 1 fig.« less

  17. Regulation of Aerobic Energy Metabolism in Podospora anserina by Two Paralogous Genes Encoding Structurally Different c-Subunits of ATP Synthase.

    PubMed

    Sellem, Carole H; di Rago, Jean-Paul; Lasserre, Jean-Paul; Ackerman, Sharon H; Sainsard-Chanet, Annie

    2016-07-01

    Most of the ATP in living cells is produced by an F-type ATP synthase. This enzyme uses the energy of a transmembrane electrochemical proton gradient to synthesize ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate. Proton movements across the membrane domain (FO) of the ATP synthase drive the rotation of a ring of 8-15 c-subunits, which induces conformational changes in the catalytic part (F1) of the enzyme that ultimately promote ATP synthesis. Two paralogous nuclear genes, called Atp9-5 and Atp9-7, encode structurally different c-subunits in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina. We have in this study identified differences in the expression pattern for the two genes that correlate with the mitotic activity of cells in vegetative mycelia: Atp9-7 is transcriptionally active in non-proliferating (stationary) cells while Atp9-5 is expressed in the cells at the extremity (apex) of filaments that divide and are responsible for mycelium growth. When active, the Atp9-5 gene sustains a much higher rate of c-subunit synthesis than Atp9-7. We further show that the ATP9-7 and ATP9-5 proteins have antagonist effects on the longevity of P. anserina. Finally, we provide evidence that the ATP9-5 protein sustains a higher rate of mitochondrial ATP synthesis and yield in ATP molecules per electron transferred to oxygen than the c-subunit encoded by Atp9-7. These findings reveal that the c-subunit genes play a key role in the modulation of ATP synthase production and activity along the life cycle of P. anserina. Such a degree of sophistication for regulating aerobic energy metabolism has not been described before.

  18. Variation in GABA-A subunit gene copy number in an autistic patient with mosaic 4 p duplication (p12p16).

    PubMed

    Kakinuma, Hiroaki; Ozaki, Mamoru; Sato, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Hiroaki

    2008-09-05

    Autism has been associated with chromosomal aberrations, including duplications at chromosome 4, and the identification of genetic factors contributing to the etiology of this disease is the focus of much research. Here we report a Japanese girl with mosaic of chromosome 4p duplication, mos 46,XX,dup(4)(p12p16)[54]/46,XX[6], who was diagnosed with autism at 3 years of age. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with probes covering the region spanning a cluster of the gamma aminobutyric acid A (GABA-A) receptor subunit genes in the proximal short arm of chromosome 4 demonstrated total three signals for the GABRG1, GABRA4, and GABRA2 genes, but only two signals for GABRB1. This suggests that aberrant copy number of the GABA-A receptor subunit genes may contribute to the etiology of autism in this patient. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Differential roles of transcriptional mediator subunits in regulation of multidrug resistance gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Shahi, Puja; Gulshan, Kailash; Näär, Anders M; Moye-Rowley, W Scott

    2010-07-15

    The multiprotein transcriptional Mediator complex provides a key link between RNA polymerase II and upstream transcriptional activator proteins. Previous work has established that the multidrug resistance transcription factors Pdr1 and Pdr3 interact with the Mediator component Med15/Gal11 to drive normal levels of expression of the ATP-binding cassette transporter-encoding gene PDR5 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PDR5 transcription is induced upon loss of the mitochondrial genome (rho(0) cells) and here we provide evidence that this rho(0) induction is Med15 independent. A search through other known Mediator components determined that Med12/Srb8, a member of the CDK8 Mediator submodule, is required for rho(0) activation of PDR5 transcription. The CDK8 submodule contains the cyclin C homologue (CycC/Srb11), cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk8/Srb10, and the large Med13/Srb9 protein. Loss of these other proteins did not lead to the same block in PDR5 induction. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrated that Med15 is associated with the PDR5 promoter in both rho(+) and rho(0), whereas Med12 recruitment to this target promoter is highly responsive to loss of the mitochondrial genome. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed that association of Pdr3 with Med12 can only be detected in rho(0) cells. These experiments uncover the unique importance of Med12 in activated transcription of PDR5 seen in rho(0) cells.

  20. Repeated ketamine administration alters N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor subunit gene expression: Implication of genetic vulnerability for ketamine abuse and ketamine psychosis in humans

    PubMed Central

    Lipsky, Robert H

    2015-01-01

    For more than 40 years following its approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as an anesthetic, ketamine, a non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist, has been used as a tool of psychiatric research. As a psychedelic drug, ketamine induces psychotic symptoms, cognitive impairment, and mood elevation, which resemble some symptoms of schizophrenia. Recreational use of ketamine has been increasing in recent years. However, little is known of the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for ketamine-associated psychosis. Recent animal studies have shown that repeated ketamine administration significantly increases NMDA receptor subunit gene expression, in particular subunit 1 (NR1 or GluN1) levels. This results in neurodegeneration, supporting a potential mechanism where up-regulation of NMDA receptors could produce cognitive deficits in chronic ketamine abuse patients. In other studies, NMDA receptor gene variants are associated with addictive behavior. Here, we focus on the roles of NMDA receptor gene subunits in ketamine abuse and ketamine psychosis and propose that full sequencing of NMDA receptor genes may help explain individual vulnerability to ketamine abuse and ketamine-associated psychosis. PMID:25245072

  1. The Arabidopsis Mediator Complex Subunits MED16, MED14, and MED2 Regulate Mediator and RNA Polymerase II Recruitment to CBF-Responsive Cold-Regulated Genes[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hemsley, Piers A.; Hurst, Charlotte H.; Kaliyadasa, Ewon; Lamb, Rebecca; Knight, Marc R.; De Cothi, Elizabeth A.; Steele, John F.; Knight, Heather

    2014-01-01

    The Mediator16 (MED16; formerly termed SENSITIVE TO FREEZING6 [SFR6]) subunit of the plant Mediator transcriptional coactivator complex regulates cold-responsive gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana, acting downstream of the C-repeat binding factor (CBF) transcription factors to recruit the core Mediator complex to cold-regulated genes. Here, we use loss-of-function mutants to show that RNA polymerase II recruitment to CBF-responsive cold-regulated genes requires MED16, MED2, and MED14 subunits. Transcription of genes known to be regulated via CBFs binding to the C-repeat motif/drought-responsive element promoter motif requires all three Mediator subunits, as does cold acclimation–induced freezing tolerance. In addition, these three subunits are required for low temperature–induced expression of some other, but not all, cold-responsive genes, including genes that are not known targets of CBFs. Genes inducible by darkness also required MED16 but required a different combination of Mediator subunits for their expression than the genes induced by cold. Together, our data illustrate that plants control transcription of specific genes through the action of subsets of Mediator subunits; the specific combination defined by the nature of the stimulus but also by the identity of the gene induced. PMID:24415770

  2. Cytochrome oxidase subunit 2 gene allows simultaneous detection and typing of Trypanosoma rangeli and Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    de Sá, Amanda Regina Nichi; Steindel, Mário; Demeu, Lara Maria Kalempa; Lückemeyer, Débora Denardin; Grisard, Edmundo Carlos; Neto, Quirino Alves de Lima; de Araújo, Silvana Marques; Toledo, Max Jean de Ornelas; Gomes, Mônica Lúcia

    2013-12-23

    The parasites Trypanosoma rangeli and Trypanosoma cruzi share vectors and hosts over a wide geographical area in Latin America. In this study, we propose a single molecular approach for simultaneous detection and typing of T. rangeli and T. cruzi. A restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II gene (COII-RFLP) using enzyme AluI and different amounts of DNA from the major genetic groups of T. rangeli and T. cruzi (KP1+/KP1- and DTU-I/DTU-II) was carried out. The same marker was tested on the other T. cruzi DTUs (DTU-III to DTU-VI) and on DNA extracted from gut contents of experimentally infected triatomines. The COII PCR generates a ~400 bp fragment, which after digestion with AluI (COII-RFLP) can be used to distinguish T. rangeli from T. cruzi and simultaneously differentiate the major genetic groups of T. rangeli (KP1+ and KP1-) and T. cruzi (DTU-I and DTU-II). The COII-RFLP generated bands of ~120 bp and ~280 bp for KP1+, whereas for KP1- no amplicon cleavage was observed. For T. cruzi, digestion of COII revealed a ~300 bp band for DTU-I and a ~250 bp band for DTU-II. For DTU-III to DTU-VI, COII-RFLP generated bands ranging from ~310 to ~330 bp, but the differentiation of these DTUs was not as clear as the separation between DTU-I and DTU-II. After AluI digestion, a species-specific fragment of ~80 bp was observed for all DTUs of T. cruzi. No cross-amplification was observed for Leishmania spp., T. vivax or T. evansi. The COII-RFLP allowed simultaneous detection and typing of T. rangeli and T. cruzi strains according to their major genetic groups (KP1+/KP1- and DTU-I/DTU-II) in vitro and in vivo, providing a reliable and sensitive tool for epidemiological studies in areas where T. rangeli and T. cruzi coexist.

  3. Cytochrome oxidase subunit 2 gene allows simultaneous detection and typing of Trypanosoma rangeli and Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The parasites Trypanosoma rangeli and Trypanosoma cruzi share vectors and hosts over a wide geographical area in Latin America. In this study, we propose a single molecular approach for simultaneous detection and typing of T. rangeli and T. cruzi. Methods A restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II gene (COII-RFLP) using enzyme AluI and different amounts of DNA from the major genetic groups of T. rangeli and T. cruzi (KP1+/KP1- and DTU-I/DTU-II) was carried out. The same marker was tested on the other T. cruzi DTUs (DTU-III to DTU-VI) and on DNA extracted from gut contents of experimentally infected triatomines. Results The COII PCR generates a ~400 bp fragment, which after digestion with AluI (COII-RFLP) can be used to distinguish T. rangeli from T. cruzi and simultaneously differentiate the major genetic groups of T. rangeli (KP1+ and KP1-) and T. cruzi (DTU-I and DTU-II). The COII-RFLP generated bands of ~120 bp and ~280 bp for KP1+, whereas for KP1- no amplicon cleavage was observed. For T. cruzi, digestion of COII revealed a ~300 bp band for DTU-I and a ~250 bp band for DTU-II. For DTU-III to DTU-VI, COII-RFLP generated bands ranging from ~310 to ~330 bp, but the differentiation of these DTUs was not as clear as the separation between DTU-I and DTU-II. After AluI digestion, a species-specific fragment of ~80 bp was observed for all DTUs of T. cruzi. No cross-amplification was observed for Leishmania spp., T. vivax or T. evansi. Conclusions The COII-RFLP allowed simultaneous detection and typing of T. rangeli and T. cruzi strains according to their major genetic groups (KP1+/KP1- and DTU-I/DTU-II) in vitro and in vivo, providing a reliable and sensitive tool for epidemiological studies in areas where T. rangeli and T. cruzi coexist. PMID:24360167

  4. The search for mutations in the gene for the beta subunit of the cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDEB) in patients with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa

    SciTech Connect

    Riess, O.; Weber, B.; Hayden, M.R.

    1992-10-01

    The finding of a mutation in the beta subunit of the cyclic GMP (cGMP) phosphodiesterase gene causing retinal degeneration in mice (the Pdeb gene) prompted a search for disease-causing mutations in the human phosphodiesterase gene (PDEB gene) in patients with retinitis pigmentosa. All 22 exons including 196 bp of the 5[prime] region of the PDEB gene have been assessed for mutations by using single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis in 14 patients from 13 unrelated families with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (ARRP). No disease-causing mutations were found in this group of affected individuals of seven different ancestries. However, a frequent intronic andmore » two exonic polymorphisms (Leu[sup 489][yields]Gln and Gly[sup 842][yields]Gly) were identified. Segregation analysis using these polymorphic sites excludes linkage of ARRP to the PDEB gene in a family with two affected children. 43 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  5. A wheat (Triticum aestivum) protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit gene provides enhanced drought tolerance in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chongyi; Jing, Ruilian; Mao, Xinguo; Jia, Xiaoyun; Chang, Xiaoping

    2007-03-01

    Multiple copies of genes encoding the catalytic subunit (c) of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) are commonly found in plants. For some of these genes, expression is up-regulated under water stress. The aim of this study was to investigate expression and characterization of TaPP2Ac-1 from Triticum aestivum, and to evaluate the effects of TaPP2Ac-1 on Nicotiana benthamiana in response to water stress. TaPP2Ac-1 cDNA was isolated from wheat by in silico identification and RT-PCR amplification. Transcript levels of TaPP2Ac-1 were examined in wheat responding to water deficit. Copy numbers of TaPP2Ac-1 in wheat genomes and subcellular localization in onion epidermal cells were studied. Enzyme properties of the recombinant TaPP2Ac-1 protein were determined. In addition, studies were carried out in tobacco plants with pCAPE2-TaPP2Ac-1 under water-deficit conditions. TaPP2Ac-1 cDNA was cloned from wheat. Transcript levels of TaPP2Ac-1 in wheat seedlings were up-regulated under drought condition. One copy for this TaPP2Ac-1 was present in each of the three wheat genomes. TaPP2Ac-1 fused with GFP was located in the nucleus and cytoplasm of onion epidermis cells. The recombinant TaPP2Ac-1 gene was over-expressed in Escherichia coli and encoded a functional serine/threonine phosphatase. Transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing TaPP2Ac-1 exhibited stronger drought tolerance than non-transgenic tobacco plants. Tobacco plants with pCAPE2-TaPP2Ac-1 appeared to be resistant to water deficit, as shown by their higher capacity to maintain leaf relative water content, leaf cell-membrane stability index, water-retention ability and water use efficiency under water stress. The results suggest that the physiological role of TaPP2Ac-1 is related to drought stress response, possibly through its involvement in drought-responding signal transduction pathways.

  6. Correlation between protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha-1 gene rs13361707 polymorphism and gastric cancer susceptibility in asian populations

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Jianfeng; Shen, Nan; Tang, Jilei; Ren, Kewei

    2017-01-01

    A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha-1 gene (PRKAA1) that confers susceptibility to gastric cancer (GC) was identified by genome-wide association in several case-control studies. However, the results remained controversial and ambiguous. Therefore, we performed a larger meta-analysis to confirm this association. We searched the PubMed, Embase, WanFang, and CNKI databases, without any restriction on language, covering all papers published until Feb 22, 2017. Overall, 14 case-control studies with 14,485 cases and 14,792 controls were retrieved based on the search criteria. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to quantify the strength of the association. Publication bias was assessed by Egger’s and Begg’s tests. We found that the PRKAA1 rs13361707 C/T polymorphism had no association with GC risk in any of the pooled genetic models (for example, the T-allele vs. C-allele allelic contrast model yielded the following estimates: OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.73–1.05, Pheterogeneity = 0.000). Furthermore, in analyses stratified by either source of control or geographical origin of subjects, a statistically significant inverse relationship was detected between PRKAA1 rs13361707 C/T polymorphism and GC risk. No obvious evidence of publication bias was detected in the pooled meta-analysis. Furthermore, we observed that individuals carrying T-allele (TT or TC) genotypes had a lower expression of PRKAA1. Our present study indicated that PRKAA1 rs13361707 C/T was not significantly associated with GC risk, despite few positive results in the subgroups. PMID:28978122

  7. Seven novel mutations in the factor XIII A-subunit gene causing hereditary factor XIII deficiency in 10 unrelated families.

    PubMed

    Vysokovsky, A; Saxena, R; Landau, M; Zivelin, A; Eskaraev, R; Rosenberg, N; Seligsohn, U; Inbal, A

    2004-10-01

    Hereditary factor (F)XIII deficiency is a rare bleeding disorder mostly due to mutations in FXIII A subunit. We studied the molecular basis of FXIII deficiency in patients from 10 unrelated families originating from Israel, India and Tunisia. Exons 2-15 of genomic DNA consisting of coding regions and intron/exon boundaries were amplified and sequenced. Structural analysis of the mutations was undertaken by computer modeling. Seven novel mutations were identified in the FXIIIA gene. The propositus from the Ethiopian-Jewish family was found to be a compound heterozygote for two novel mutations: a 10-bp deletion in exon 12 at nucleotides 1652-1661 (followed by 22 altered amino acids and termination codon) and Ala318Val mutation. The propositus of the Tunisian family was homozygous for C insertion after nucleotide 863 within a stretch of six cytosines of exon 7. This insertion results in generation of eight altered amino acids followed by a termination codon downstream. The propositus from Indian-Jewish origin was found to be homozygous for G to T substitution at IVS 11 [+1] resulting in skipping of exons 10 and 11. In addition to the Ala318Val mutation, three of the novel mutations identified are missense mutations: Arg260Leu, Thr398Asn and Gly210Arg each occurring in a homozygous state in an Israeli-Arab and two Indian families, respectively. Structure-function correlation analysis by computer modeling of the new missense mutations predicted that Gly210Arg will cause protein misfolding, Ala318Val and Thr398Asn will interfere with the catalytic process or protein stability, and Arg260Leu will impair dimerization.

  8. Gene replacement in mice reveals that the heavily phosphorylated tail of neurofilament heavy subunit does not affect axonal caliber or the transit of cargoes in slow axonal transport

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Mala V.; Garcia, Michael L.; Miyazaki, Yukio; Gotow, Takahiro; Yuan, Aidong; Mattina, Salvatore; Ward, Chris M.; Calcutt, Nigel A.; Uchiyama, Yasuo; Nixon, Ralph A.; Cleveland, Don W.

    2002-01-01

    The COOH-terminal tail of mammalian neurofilament heavy subunit (NF-H), the largest neurofilament subunit, contains 44-51 lysine–serine–proline repeats that are nearly stoichiometrically phosphorylated after assembly into neurofilaments in axons. Phosphorylation of these repeats has been implicated in promotion of radial growth of axons, control of nearest neighbor distances between neurofilaments or from neurofilaments to other structural components in axons, and as a determinant of slow axonal transport. These roles have now been tested through analysis of mice in which the NF-H gene was replaced by one deleted in the NF-H tail. Loss of the NF-H tail and all of its phosphorylation sites does not affect the number of neurofilaments, alter the ratios of the three neurofilament subunits, or affect the number of microtubules in axons. Additionally, it does not reduce interfilament spacing of most neurofilaments, the speed of action potential propagation, or mature cross-sectional areas of large motor or sensory axons, although its absence slows the speed of acquisition of normal diameters. Most surprisingly, at least in optic nerve axons, loss of the NF-H tail does not affect the rate of transport of neurofilament subunits. PMID:12186852

  9. Neurodevelopmental disorders among individuals with duplication of 4p13 to 4p12 containing a GABAA receptor subunit gene cluster

    PubMed Central

    Polan, Michelle B; Pastore, Matthew T; Steingass, Katherine; Hashimoto, Sayaka; Thrush, Devon L; Pyatt, Robert; Reshmi, Shalini; Gastier-Foster, Julie M; Astbury, Caroline; McBride, Kim L

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that certain copy number variations (CNV) are associated with a wide range of neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASD), bipolar disorder and intellectual disabilities. Implicated regions and genes have comprised a variety of post synaptic complex proteins and neurotransmitter receptors, including gamma-amino butyric acid A (GABAA). Clusters of GABAA receptor subunit genes are found on chromosomes 4p12, 5q34, 6q15 and 15q11-13. Maternally inherited 15q11-13 duplications among individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders are well described, but few case reports exist for the other regions. We describe a family with a 2.42 Mb duplication at chromosome 4p13 to 4p12, identified in the index case and other family members by oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization, that contains 13 genes including a cluster of four GABAA receptor subunit genes. Fluorescent in-situ hybridization was used to confirm the duplication. The duplication segregates with a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders in this family, including ASD (index case), developmental delay, dyspraxia and ADHD (brother), global developmental delays (brother), learning disabilities (mother) and bipolar disorder (maternal grandmother). In addition, we identified and describe another individual unrelated to this family, with a similar duplication, who was diagnosed with ASD, ADHD and borderline intellectual disability. The 4p13 to 4p12 duplication appears to confer a susceptibility to a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders in these two families. We hypothesize that the duplication acts through a dosage effect of GABAA receptor subunit genes, adding evidence for alterations in the GABAergic system in the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:23695283

  10. Neuron-specific specificity protein 4 bigenomically regulates the transcription of all mitochondria- and nucleus-encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunit genes in neurons.

    PubMed

    Johar, Kaid; Priya, Anusha; Dhar, Shilpa; Liu, Qiuli; Wong-Riley, Margaret T T

    2013-11-01

    Neurons are highly dependent on oxidative metabolism for their energy supply, and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is a key energy-generating enzyme in the mitochondria. A unique feature of COX is that it is one of only four proteins in mammalian cells that are bigenomically regulated. Of its thirteen subunits, three are encoded in the mitochondrial genome and ten are nuclear-encoded on nine different chromosomes. The mechanism of regulating this multisubunit, bigenomic enzyme poses a distinct challenge. In recent years, we found that nuclear respiratory factors 1 and 2 (NRF-1 and NRF-2) mediate such bigenomic coordination. The latest candidate is the specificity factor (Sp) family of proteins. In N2a cells, we found that Sp1 regulates all 13 COX subunits. However, we discovered recently that in primary neurons, it is Sp4 and not Sp1 that regulates some of the key glutamatergic receptor subunit genes. The question naturally arises as to the role of Sp4 in regulating COX in primary neurons. The present study utilized multiple approaches, including chromatin immunoprecipitation, promoter mutational analysis, knockdown and over-expression of Sp4, as well as functional assays to document that Sp4 indeed functionally regulate all 13 subunits of COX as well as mitochondrial transcription factors A and B. The present study discovered that among the specificity family of transcription factors, it is the less known neuron-specific Sp4 that regulates the expression of all 13 subunits of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (COX) enzyme in primary neurons. Sp4 also regulates the three mitochondrial transcription factors (TFAM, TFB1M, and TFB2M) and a COX assembly protein SURF-1 in primary neurons. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  11. [Cloning and sequence analysis of recombinant fusion gene of Escherichia coli heat-liable enterotoxin B subunit and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans fimbria associative protein].

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Sun, Hong-chen; Guo, Xue-jun; Feng, Shu-zhang

    2005-02-01

    To clone the recombinant fusion gene of Escherichia coli heat-liable enterotoxin B subunit (Ltb) and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans fimbria associative protein (Fap). Two couples of primers were designed for PCR according to the known sequence of ltb and fap. The ltb and fap gene were obtained by amplification PCR technique from plasmid EWD299 of Escherichia coli and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans 310 DNA respectively, and fused them by PCR. The fusion gene ltb-fap were cloning into plasmid pET28a(+). The recombined plasmid pET28a ltb-fap was transformed into Escherichia coli DH5alpha. The recombinant was screened and identified by restriction enzyme and PCR. The cloned gene was sequenced. The ltb-fap about 531bp in size was obtained successfully, and identified by PCR, restrictive enzyme and sequence analysis. The vector of pET28a ltb-fap was obtained.

  12. Low molecular weight glutenin subunit gene Glu-B3h confers superior dough strength and breadmaking quality in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yaping; Zhen, Shoumin; Luo, Nana; Han, Caixia; Lu, Xiaobing; Li, Xiaohui; Xia, Xianchun; He, Zhonghu; Yan, Yueming

    2016-01-01

    Low molecular weight glutenin subunit is one of the important quality elements in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Although considerable allelic variation has been identified, the functional properties of individual alleles at Glu-3 loci are less studied. In this work, we performed the first comprehensive study on the molecular characteristics and functional properties of the Glu-B3h gene using the wheat cultivar CB037B and its Glu-B3 deletion line CB037C. The results showed that the Glu-B3h deletion had no significant effects on plant morphological or yield traits, but resulted in a clear reduction in protein body number and size and main quality parameters, including inferior mixing property, dough strength, loaf volume, and score. Molecular characterization showed that the Glu-B3h gene consists of 1179 bp, and its encoded B-subunit has a longer repetitive domain and an increased number of α-helices, as well as higher expression, which could contribute to superior flour quality. The SNP-based allele-specific PCR markers designed for the Glu-B3h gene were developed and validated with bread wheat holding various alleles at Glu-B3 locus, which could effectively distinguish the Glu-B3h gene from others at the Glu-B3 locus, and have potential applications for wheat quality improvement through marker-assisted selection. PMID:27273251

  13. The Chlamydomonas Dhc1 gene encodes a dynein heavy chain subunit required for assembly of the I1 inner arm complex.

    PubMed Central

    Myster, S H; Knott, J A; O'Toole, E; Porter, M E

    1997-01-01

    Multiple members of the dynein heavy chain (Dhc) gene family have been recovered in several organisms, but the relationships between these sequences and the Dhc isoforms that they encode are largely unknown. To identify Dhc loci and determine the specific functions of the individual Dhc isoforms, we have screened a collection of motility mutants generated by insertional mutagenesis in Chlamydomonas. In this report, we characterize one strain, pf9-3, in which the insertion event was accompanied by a deletion of approximately 13 kb of genomic DNA within the transcription unit of the Dhc1 gene. Northern blot analysis confirms that pf9-3 is a null mutation. Biochemical and structural studies of isolated axonemes demonstrate that the pf9-3 mutant fails to assemble the I1 inner arm complex, a two-headed dynein isoform composed of two Dhcs (1 alpha and 1 beta) and three intermediate chains. To determine if the Dhc1 gene product corresponds to one of the Dhcs of the I1 complex, antibodies were generated against a Dhc1-specific peptide sequence. Immunoblot analysis reveals that the Dhc1 gene encodes the 1 alpha Dhc subunit. These studies thus, identify the first inner arm Dhc locus to be described in any organism and further demonstrate that the 1 alpha Dhc subunit plays an essential role in the assembly of the I1 inner arm complex. Images PMID:9247642

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome of Zeugodacus tau (Insecta: Tephritidae) and differentiation of Z. tau species complex by mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Eamsobhana, Praphathip

    2017-01-01

    The tephritid fruit fly Zeugodacus tau (Walker) is a polyphagous fruit pest of economic importance in Asia. Studies based on genetic markers indicate that it forms a species complex. We report here (1) the complete mitogenome of Z. tau from Malaysia and comparison with that of China as well as the mitogenome of other congeners, and (2) the relationship of Z. tau taxa from different geographical regions based on sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. The complete mitogenome of Z. tau had a total length of 15631 bp for the Malaysian specimen (ZT3) and 15835 bp for the China specimen (ZT1), with similar gene order comprising 37 genes (13 protein-coding genes—PCGs, 2 rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes) and a non-coding A + T-rich control region (D-loop). Based on 13 PCGs and 15 mt-genes, Z. tau NC_027290 (China) and Z. tau ZT1 (China) formed a sister group in the lineage containing also Z. tau ZT3 (Malaysia). Phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequences of cox1 gene indicates that the taxa from China, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, and Z. tau sp. A from Thailand belong to Z. tau sensu stricto. A complete cox1 gene (or 13 PCGs or 15 mt-genes) instead of partial sequence is more appropriate for determining phylogenetic relationship. PMID:29216281

  15. Inactivation of Genes Encoding Subunits of the Peripheral and Membrane Arms of Neurospora Mitochondrial Complex I and Effects on Enzyme Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, M.; Sousa, R.; Videira, A.

    1995-01-01

    We have isolated and characterized the nuclear genes encoding the 12.3-kD subunit of the membrane arm and the 29.9-kD subunit of the peripheral arm of complex I from Neurospora crassa. The former gene was known to be located in linkage group I and the latter is now assigned to linkage group IV of the fungal genome. The genes were separately transformed into different N. crassa strains and transformants with duplicated DNA sequences were isolated. Selected transformants were then mated with other strains to generate repeat-induced point mutations in both copies of the genes present in the nucleus of the parental transformant. From the progeny of the crosses, we were then able to recover two individual mutants lacking the 12.3- and 29.9-kD proteins in their mitochondria, mutants nuo12.3 and nuo29.9, respectively. Several other subunits of complex I are present in the mutant organelles, although with altered stoichiometries as compared with those in the wild-type strain. Based on the analysis of Triton-solubilized mitochondrial complexes in sucrose gradients, neither mutant is able to fully assemble complex I. Our results indicate that mutant nuo12.3 separately assembles the peripheral arm and most of the membrane arm of the enzyme. Mutant nuo29.9 seems to accumulate the membrane arm of complex I and being devoid of the peripheral part. This implicates the 29.9-kD protein in an early step of complex I assembly. PMID:7768434

  16. GABRA2 Alcohol Dependence Risk Allele is Associated with Reduced Expression of Chromosome 4p12 GABAA Subunit Genes in Human Neural Cultures.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Richard; Kranzler, Henry R; Joshi, Pujan; Shin, Dong-Guk; Covault, Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    Genetic variation in a region of chromosome 4p12 that includes the GABAA subunit gene GABRA2 has been reproducibly associated with alcohol dependence (AD). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the association are unknown. This study examined correlates of in vitro gene expression of the AD-associated GABRA2 rs279858*C-allele in human neural cells using an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) model system. We examined mRNA expression of chromosome 4p12 GABAA subunit genes (GABRG1, GABRA2, GABRA4, and GABRB1) in 36 human neural cell lines differentiated from iPSCs using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and next-generation RNA sequencing. mRNA expression in adult human brain was examined using the BrainCloud and BRAINEAC data sets. We found significantly lower levels of GABRA2 mRNA in neural cell cultures derived from rs279858*C-allele carriers. Levels of GABRA2 RNA were correlated with those of the other 3 chromosome 4p12 GABAA genes, but not other neural genes. Cluster analysis based on the relative RNA levels of the 4 chromosome 4p12 GABAA genes identified 2 distinct clusters of cell lines, a low-expression cluster associated with rs279858*C-allele carriers and a high-expression cluster enriched for the rs279858*T/T genotype. In contrast, there was no association of genotype with chromosome 4p12 GABAA gene expression in postmortem adult cortex in either the BrainCloud or BRAINEAC data sets. AD-associated variation in GABRA2 is associated with differential expression of the entire cluster of GABAA subunit genes on chromosome 4p12 in human iPSC-derived neural cell cultures. The absence of a parallel effect in postmortem human adult brain samples suggests that AD-associated genotype effects on GABAA expression, although not present in mature cortex, could have effects on regulation of the chromosome 4p12 GABAA cluster during neural development. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  17. Heterotrimeric G-Protein γ Subunit CsGG3.2 Positively Regulates the Expression of CBF Genes and Chilling Tolerance in Cucumber

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Longqiang; Liu, Yumei; Mu, Ying; Anwar, Ali; He, Chaoxing; Yan, Yan; Li, Yansu; Yu, Xianchang

    2018-01-01

    Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) composed of alpha (Gα), beta (Gβ), and gamma (Gγ) subunits are central signal transducers mediating the cellular response to multiple stimuli, such as cold, in eukaryotes. Plant Gγ subunits, divided into A, B, and C three structurally distinct types, provide proper cellular localization and functional specificity to the heterotrimer complex. Here, we demonstrate that a type C Gγ subunit CsGG3.2 is involved in the regulation of the CBF regulon and plant tolerance to cold stresses in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We showed that CsGG3.2 transcript abundance was positively induced by cold treatments. Transgenic cucumber plants (T1) constitutively over-expressing CsGG3.2 exhibits tolerance to chilling conditions and increased expression of CBF genes and their regulon. Antioxidative enzymes, i.e., superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activities increased in cold-stressed transgenic plants. The reactive oxygen species, oxygen free radical and H2O2, production, as well as membrane lipid peroxidation (MDA) production decreased in transgenic plants, suggesting a better antioxidant system to cope the oxidative-damages caused by cold stress. These findings provide evidence for a critical role of CsGG3.2 in mediating cold signal transduction in plant cells. PMID:29719547

  18. CK2(beta)tes gene encodes a testis-specific isoform of the regulatory subunit of casein kinase 2 in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Kalmykova, Alla I; Shevelyov, Yuri Y; Polesskaya, Oksana O; Dobritsa, Anna A; Evstafieva, Alexandra G; Boldyreff, Brigitte; Issinger, Olaf-Georg; Gvozdev, Vladimir A

    2002-03-01

    An earlier described CK2(beta)tes gene of Drosophila melanogaster is shown to encode a male germline specific isoform of regulatory beta subunit of casein kinase 2. Western-analysis using anti-CK2(beta)tes Ig revealed CK2(beta)tes protein in Drosophila testes extract. Expression of a CK2(beta)tes-beta-galactosidase fusion protein driven by the CK2(beta)tes promoter was found in transgenic flies at postmitotic stages of spermatogenesis. Examination of biochemical characteristics of a recombinant CK2(beta)tes protein expressed in Escherichia coli revealed properties similar to those of CK2beta: (a) CK2(beta)tes protein stimulates CK2alpha catalytic activity toward synthetic peptide; (b) it inhibits phosphorylation of calmodulin and mediates stimulation of CK2alpha by polylysine; (c) it is able to form (CK2(beta)tes)2 dimers, as well as (CK2alpha)2(CK2(beta)tes)2 tetramers. Using the yeast two-hybrid system and coimmunoprecipitation analysis of protein extract from Drosophila testes, we demonstrated an association between CK2(beta)tes and CK2alpha. Northern-analysis has shown that another regulatory (beta') subunit found recently in D. melanogaster genome is also testis-specific. Thus, we describe the first example of two tissue-specific regulatory subunits of CK2 which might serve to provide CK2 substrate recognition during spermatogenesis.

  19. Characterization of the human SDHD gene encoding the small subunit of cytochrome b (cybS) in mitochondrial succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Hirawake, H; Taniwaki, M; Tamura, A; Amino, H; Tomitsuka, E; Kita, K

    1999-08-04

    We have mapped large (cybL) and small (cybS) subunits of cytochrome b in the succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex II) of human mitochondria to chromosome 1q21 and 11q23, respectively (H. Hirawake et al., Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 79 (1997) 132-138). In the present study, the human SDHD gene encoding cybS was cloned and characterized. The gene comprises four exons and three introns extending over 19 kb. Sequence analysis of the 5' promoter region showed several motifs for the binding of transcription factors including nuclear respiratory factors NRF-1 and NRF-2 at positions -137 and -104, respectively. In addition to this gene, six pseudogenes of cybS were isolated and mapped on the chromosome.

  20. Elevated breast cancer risk in irradiated BALB/c mice associates with unique functional polymorphism of the Prkdc (DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit) gene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Y.; Okayasu, R.; Weil, M. M.; Silver, A.; McCarthy, M.; Zabriskie, R.; Long, S.; Cox, R.; Ullrich, R. L.

    2001-01-01

    Female BALB/c mice are unusually radiosensitive and more susceptible than C57BL/6 and other tested inbred mice to ionizing radiation (IR)-induced mammary tumors. This breast cancer susceptibility is correlated with elevated susceptibility for mammary cell transformation and genomic instability following irradiation. In this study, we report the identification of two BALB/c strain-specific polymorphisms in the coding region of Prkdc, the gene encoding the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit, which is known to be involved in DNA double-stranded break repair and post-IR signal transduction. First, we identified an A --> G transition at base 11530 resulting in a Met --> Val conversion at codon 3844 (M3844V) in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase domain upstream of the scid mutation (Y4046X). Second, we identified a C --> T transition at base 6418 resulting in an Arg --> Cys conversion at codon 2140 (R2140C) downstream of the putative leucine zipper domain. This unique PrkdcBALB variant gene is shown to be associated with decreased DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit activity and with increased susceptibility to IR-induced genomic instability in primary mammary epithelial cells. The data provide the first evidence that naturally arising allelic variation in a mouse DNA damage response gene may associate with IR response and breast cancer risk.

  1. Nuclear-Cytoplasmic Conflict in Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Is Associated with Nuclear and Plastidic Candidate Genes Encoding Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase Subunits

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanova, Vera S.; Zaytseva, Olga O.; Mglinets, Anatoliy V.; Shatskaya, Natalia V.; Kosterin, Oleg E.; Vasiliev, Gennadiy V.

    2015-01-01

    In crosses of wild and cultivated peas (Pisum sativum L.), nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility frequently occurs manifested as decreased pollen fertility, male gametophyte lethality, sporophyte lethality. High-throughput sequencing of plastid genomes of one cultivated and four wild pea accessions differing in cross-compatibility was performed. Candidate genes for involvement in the nuclear-plastid conflict were searched in the reconstructed plastid genomes. In the annotated Medicago truncatula genome, nuclear candidate genes were searched in the portion syntenic to the pea chromosome region known to harbor a locus involved in the conflict. In the plastid genomes, a substantial variability of the accD locus represented by nucleotide substitutions and indels was found to correspond to the pattern of cross-compatibility among the accessions analyzed. Amino acid substitutions in the polypeptides encoded by the alleles of a nuclear locus, designated as Bccp3, with a complementary function to accD, fitted the compatibility pattern. The accD locus in the plastid genome encoding beta subunit of the carboxyltransferase of acetyl-coA carboxylase and the nuclear locus Bccp3 encoding biotin carboxyl carrier protein of the same multi-subunit enzyme were nominated as candidate genes for main contribution to nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility in peas. Existence of another nuclear locus involved in the accD-mediated conflict is hypothesized. PMID:25789472

  2. Nonsense mutation in the phosphofructokinase muscle subunit gene associated with retention of intron 10 in one of the isolated transcripts in Ashkenazi Jewish patients with Tarui disease.

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, O; Sivakumar, K; Dalakas, M C; Quezado, M; Nagle, J; Leon-Monzon, M; Dubnick, M; Gajdusek, D C; Goldfarb, L G

    1995-01-01

    Mutations in the human phosphofructokinase muscle subunit gene (PFKM) are known to cause myopathy classified as glycogenosis type VII (Tarui disease). Previously described molecular defects include base substitutions altering encoded amino acids or resulting in abnormal splicing. We report a mutation resulting in phosphofructokinase deficiency in three patients from an Ashkenazi Jewish family. Using a reverse transcription PCR assay, PFKM subunit transcripts differing by length were detected in skeletal muscle tissue of all three affected subjects. In the longer transcript, an insertion of 252 nucleotides totally homologous to the structure of the 10th intron of the PFKM gene was found separating exon 10 from exon 11. In addition, two single base transitions were identified by direct sequencing: [exon 6; codon 95; CGA (Arg) to TGA (stop)] and [exon 7; codon 172; ACC (Thr) to ACT (Thr)] in either transcript. Single-stranded conformational polymorphism and restriction enzyme analyses confirmed the presence of these point substitutions in genomic DNA and strongly suggested homozygosity for the pathogenic allele. The nonsense mutation at codon 95 appeared solely responsible for the phenotype in these patients, further expanding genetic heterogeneity of Tarui disease. Transcripts with and without intron 10 arising from identical mutant alleles probably resulted from differential pre-mRNA processing and may represent a novel message from the PFKM gene. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7479776

  3. Phylogenetic relationship of psychoactive fungi based on rRNA gene for a large subunit and their identification using the TaqMan assay (II).

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Takuro; Kawahara, Nobuo; Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Makino, Yukiko; Fukiharu, Toshimitsu; Goda, Yukihiro

    2006-11-10

    "Magic mushroom (MM)" is the name most commonly given to psychoactive fungi containing the hallucinogenic components: psilocin (1) and psilocybin (2). We investigated the rRNA gene (internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large subunit (LSU)) of two Panaeolus species and four Psilocybe species fungi (of these, two are non-psilocybin species). On the basis of sequence alignment, we improved the identification system developed in our previous study. In this paper, we describe the new system capable of distinguishing MMs from non-psilocybin Psilocybe species, its application data and the phylogeny of MM species.

  4. A New Primer Set to Amplify the Mitochondrial Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit I (COI) Gene in the DHA-Rich Microalgae, the Genus Aurantiochytrium.

    PubMed

    Nishitani, Goh; Yoshida, Masaki

    2018-06-01

    This study was performed in order to develop a primer set for mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) in the DHA-rich microalgae of the genus Aurantiochytrium. The performance of the primer set was tested using 12 Aurantiochytrium strains and other thraustochytrid species. There were no genetic polymorphisms in the mitochondrial sequences from the Aurantiochytrium strains, in contrast to the nuclear 18S rRNA gene sequence. This newly developed primer set amplified sequences from Aurantiochytrium and closely related genera, and may be useful for species identification and clarifying the genetic diversity of Aurantiochytrium in the field.

  5. The association between the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α4 subunit gene (CHRNA4) rs1044396 and Internet gaming disorder in Korean male adults

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Je-Keun; Kim, Tae-Min; Kwak, Su-Min; Bang, Sol-hee; Cho, Hyun; Cheon, Young-Hoon; Min, Jung Ah; Yoo, Gil Sang; Kim, Kyudong; Choi, Jung-Seok; Choi, Sam-Wook; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2017-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the genetic predisposition of Internet gaming disorder (IGD), and the secondary aim was to compare the results to those of alcohol dependence (AD). Two independent case-control studies were conducted. A total of 30 male participants with IGD, diagnosed according to the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria, and 30 sex-matched controls participated in study 1. We designed targeted exome sequencing (TES) to test for 72 candidate genes that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of addiction. The genes included seven neurotransmitter (dopamine, serotonin, glutamate, r-aminobutyric acid (GABA), norepinephrine, acetylcholine, and opioid) system genes. A total of 31 male in-patients with AD and 29 normal male controls (NC) were enrolled in study 2. The same 72 genes included in study 1 and ten additional genes related to alcohol-metabolic enzyme were selected as the target genes, and we identified the genetic variants using the same method (TES). The IGD group had a lower frequency of the T allele of rs1044396 in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 4 subunit (CHRNA4), and this variant represents a protective allele against IGD. However, we did not find a significant difference in the polymorphisms of the 72 genes that encode neurotransmitter systems between the AD and NC groups. This study demonstrated that rs1044396 of CHRNA4 was significantly associated with IGD. PMID:29240768

  6. The Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I Gene Occurs on a Minichromosome with Extensive Heteroplasmy in Two Species of Chewing Lice, Geomydoecus aurei and Thomomydoecus minor

    PubMed Central

    Pietan, Lucas L.; Spradling, Theresa A.

    2016-01-01

    In animals, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) typically occurs as a single circular chromosome with 13 protein-coding genes and 22 tRNA genes. The various species of lice examined previously, however, have shown mitochondrial genome rearrangements with a range of chromosome sizes and numbers. Our research demonstrates that the mitochondrial genomes of two species of chewing lice found on pocket gophers, Geomydoecus aurei and Thomomydoecus minor, are fragmented with the 1,536 base-pair (bp) cytochrome-oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene occurring as the only protein-coding gene on a 1,916–1,964 bp minicircular chromosome in the two species, respectively. The cox1 gene of T. minor begins with an atypical start codon, while that of G. aurei does not. Components of the non-protein coding sequence of G. aurei and T. minor include a tRNA (isoleucine) gene, inverted repeat sequences consistent with origins of replication, and an additional non-coding region that is smaller than the non-coding sequence of other lice with such fragmented mitochondrial genomes. Sequences of cox1 minichromosome clones for each species reveal extensive length and sequence heteroplasmy in both coding and noncoding regions. The highly variable non-gene regions of G. aurei and T. minor have little sequence similarity with one another except for a 19-bp region of phylogenetically conserved sequence with unknown function. PMID:27589589

  7. Sequence data for two large-subunit rRNA genes from an Asian strain of Alexandrium catenella.

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, P K; Kong, K F; Wong, F T; Wong, J T

    1996-01-01

    PCR generated two distinct products from a toxic isolate of Alexandrium catenella, which had been taken from Dai Ya Bay (southern China), by using primers for large-subunit rRNA. This pattern is distinct from published data for North American Alexandrium species. Sequences of the two products suggest that the smaller was generated by a deletion event. Single-cell PCR generated the same pattern, confirming that the two products were not the results from different individuals. PMID:8900010

  8. ScMED7, a sugarcane mediator subunit gene, acts as a regulator of plant immunity and is responsive to diverse stress and hormone treatments.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Yang, Yuting; Zou, Jiake; Chen, Yun; Wu, Qibin; Guo, Jinlong; Que, Youxiong; Xu, Liping

    2017-12-01

    The Mediator complex, is an essential component of the RNA polymerase II general transcriptional machinery in eukaryotes. Mediator subunit 7 (MED7), a key subunit in the central module of this complex, plays an important role in gene transcriptional regulation. The present study isolated the full-length cDNA of the MED7 gene of sugarcane, hereby designated as ScMED7, which was characterized to harbor a 525-bp open reading frame that is predicted to encode a 174-amino acid protein with a molecular mass of 19.9 kDa and was localized to the nucleus and cytoplasm. ScMED7 contains one typical conserved domain of MED7 proteins and shares 98% homology with that from Sorghum bicolor (XP_002447862.1). ScMED7 was constitutively expressed, yet significantly higher in bud tissues. ScMED7 transcription was obviously induced by heavy metal (CdCl 2 ), low temperature (4 °C), and hormone (SA and MeJA) treatments, while inhibited by osmotic stresses of NaCl and PEG. The role of ScMED7 in plant immunity was demonstrated by transient overexpression in tobacco, which in turn induces the expression of six out of nine defense-related marker genes, including all the three hypersensitive response genes. The responses of defense-related marker genes in the mock and in the ScMED7 transiently overexpressed leaves challenged by pathogenic Pseudomonas solanacearum and Fusarium solani var. coeruleum suggest that ScMED7 acts as a negative regulator during pathogen infections, whereas only fungal infection was clearly phenotypically expressed. In sum, ScMED7 plays an important role in modulating sugarcane responses to biotic and abiotic stresses, and may have dual roles in hypersensitive responses and basal defense against pathogens.

  9. Loss of the gene for the alpha subunit of ATP synthase (ATP5A1) from the W chromosome in the African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus).

    PubMed

    de Kloet, S R

    2001-08-01

    This study describes the results of an analysis using Southern blotting, the polymerase chain reaction, and sequencing which shows that the African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) lacks the W-chromosomal gene for the alpha subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase (ATP5A1W). Additional evidence shows that in other psittacines a fragment of the ATP5A1W gene contains five times as many nonsynonymous nucleotide replacements as the homologous fragment of the Z gene. Therefore, whereas in these other psittacines the corresponding ATP5A1Z protein fragment is highly conserved and varies by only a few, moderately conservative amino acid substitutions, the homologous ATP5A1W fragments contain a considerable number of, sometimes highly nonconservative, amino acid replacements. In one of these species, the ringneck parakeet (Psittacula krameri), the ATP5A1W gene is present in an inactive form because of the presence of a nonsense codon. Other changes, possibly leading to an inactive ATP5A1W gene product, involve the substitution of arginine residues by cysteine in the ATP5A1W protein of the mitred conure (Aratinga mitrata) and the blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna). The data suggest also that although the divergence of the psittacine ATP5A1W and ATP5A1Z genes preceded the origin of the psittacidae, this divergence occurred independently of a similar process in the myna (Gracula religiosa), the outgroup used in this study.

  10. Cyclin-dependent kinase 8 module expression profiling reveals requirement of mediator subunits 12 and 13 for transcription of Serpent-dependent innate immunity genes in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kuuluvainen, Emilia; Hakala, Heini; Havula, Essi; Sahal Estimé, Michelle; Rämet, Mika; Hietakangas, Ville; Mäkelä, Tomi P

    2014-06-06

    The Cdk8 (cyclin-dependent kinase 8) module of Mediator integrates regulatory cues from transcription factors to RNA polymerase II. It consists of four subunits where Med12 and Med13 link Cdk8 and cyclin C (CycC) to core Mediator. Here we have investigated the contributions of the Cdk8 module subunits to transcriptional regulation using RNA interference in Drosophila cells. Genome-wide expression profiling demonstrated separation of Cdk8-CycC and Med12-Med13 profiles. However, transcriptional regulation by Cdk8-CycC was dependent on Med12-Med13. This observation also revealed that Cdk8-CycC and Med12-Med13 often have opposite transcriptional effects. Interestingly, Med12 and Med13 profiles overlapped significantly with that of the GATA factor Serpent. Accordingly, mutational analyses indicated that GATA sites are required for Med12-Med13 regulation of Serpent-dependent genes. Med12 and Med13 were also found to be required for Serpent-activated innate immunity genes in defense to bacterial infection. The results reveal a novel role for the Cdk8 module in Serpent-dependent transcription and innate immunity. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Sequence Variation in the Small-Subunit rRNA Gene of Plasmodium malariae and Prevalence of Isolates with the Variant Sequence in Sichuan, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing; Zhu, Shenghua; Mizuno, Sahoko; Kimura, Masatsugu; Liu, Peina; Isomura, Shin; Wang, Xingzhen; Kawamoto, Fumihiko

    1998-01-01

    By two PCR-based diagnostic methods, Plasmodium malariae infections have been rediscovered at two foci in the Sichuan province of China, a region where no cases of P. malariae have been officially reported for the last 2 decades. In addition, a variant form of P. malariae which has a deletion of 19 bp and seven substitutions of base pairs in the target sequence of the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene was detected with high frequency. Alignment analysis of Plasmodium sp. SSU rRNA gene sequences revealed that the 5′ region of the variant sequence is identical to that of P. vivax or P. knowlesi and its 3′ region is identical to that of P. malariae. The same sequence variations were also found in P. malariae isolates collected along the Thai-Myanmar border, suggesting a wide distribution of this variant form from southern China to Southeast Asia. PMID:9774600

  12. Redescriptions of three trachelocercid ciliates (Protista, Ciliophora, Karyorelictea), with notes on their phylogeny based on small subunit rRNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ying; Xu, Yuan; Yi, Zhenzhen; Warren, Alan

    2013-09-01

    Three trachelocercid ciliates, Kovalevaia sulcata (Kovaleva, 1966) Foissner, 1997, Trachelocerca sagitta (Müller, 1786) Ehrenberg, 1840 and Trachelocerca ditis (Wright, 1982) Foissner, 1996, isolated from two coastal habitats at Qingdao, China, were investigated using live observation and silver impregnation methods. Data on their infraciliature and morphology are supplied. The small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) genes of K. sulcata and Trachelocerca sagitta were sequenced for the first time. Phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rRNA gene sequence data indicate that both organisms, and the previously sequenced Trachelocerca ditis, are located within the trachelocercid assemblage and that K. sulcata is sister to an unidentified taxon forming a clade that is basal to the core trachelocercids.

  13. HnRNP A3 genes and pseudogenes in the vertebrate genomes.

    PubMed

    Makeyev, Aleksandr V; Kim, Chang Bae; Ruddle, Frank H; Enkhmandakh, Badam; Erdenechimeg, Lkhamsuren; Bayarsaihan, Dashzeveg

    2005-04-01

    The hnRNP A/B type proteins are abundant nuclear factors that bind to Pol II transcripts and are involved in numerous RNA-related activities. To date most data on the hnRNP A/B family have been obtained with recombinant proteins and cell cultures. Further characterization can result from an examination of the impact of various modifications in intact functional loci; however, such characterization is hampered by the presence of numerous and widely dispersed hnRNP A/B-related sequences in the mammalian genome. We have found hnRNP A3, a poorly recognized member of the hnRNP A/B family, among candidate transcription factors that interact with the regulatory region of the Hoxc8 gene and screened the human and mouse genomes for genes that encode hnRNP A3. We demonstrate that the sequence reported previously as the human hnRNP A3 gene (Accession number S63912) and located on 10p11.1 belongs to a processed pseudogene of the functional intron-containing locus HNRPA3, which we have identified on 2q31.2. We have also identified its murine orthologs on mouse chromosome 2D and rat chromosome 3q23. Alternative splices were revealed at the N-terminus and in the middle of hnRNP A3. 14 and 28 additional loci in the human and mouse genome, respectively, were mapped and identified as hnRNP A3 processed pseudogenes. In addition, we have found and compared hnRNP A3 orthologous genes in Gallus gallus, Xenopus tropicalis, and Danio rerio. The present in silico analysis serves as a necessary step toward a further functional characterization of hnRNP A3. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Mediator Recruitment to Heat Shock Genes Requires Dual Hsf1 Activation Domains and Mediator Tail Subunits Med15 and Med16*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sunyoung; Gross, David S.

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved Mediator complex is central to the regulation of gene transcription in eukaryotes because it serves as a physical and functional interface between upstream regulators and the Pol II transcriptional machinery. Nonetheless, its role appears to be context-dependent, and the detailed mechanism by which it governs the expression of most genes remains unknown. Here we investigate Mediator involvement in HSP (heat shock protein) gene regulation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We find that in response to thermal upshift, subunits representative of each of the four Mediator modules (Head, Middle, Tail, and Kinase) are rapidly, robustly, and selectively recruited to the promoter regions of HSP genes. Their residence is transient, returning to near-background levels within 90 min. Hsf1 (heat shock factor 1) plays a central role in recruiting Mediator, as indicated by the fact that truncation of either its N- or C-terminal activation domain significantly reduces Mediator occupancy, whereas removal of both activation domains abolishes it. Likewise, ablation of either of two Mediator Tail subunits, Med15 or Med16, reduces Mediator recruitment to HSP promoters, whereas deletion of both abolishes it. Accompanying the loss of Mediator, recruitment of RNA polymerase II is substantially diminished. Interestingly, Mediator antagonizes Hsf1 occupancy of non-induced promoters yet facilitates enhanced Hsf1 association with activated ones. Collectively, our observations indicate that Hsf1, via its dual activation domains, recruits holo-Mediator to HSP promoters in response to acute heat stress through cooperative physical and/or functional interactions with the Tail module. PMID:23447536

  15. GABA-A receptor beta3 and alpha5 subunit gene cluster on chromosome 15q11-q13 and bipolar disorder: a genetic association study.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, G N; Dikeos, D G; Karadima, G; Avramopoulos, D; Daskalopoulou, E G; Stefanis, C N

    2001-05-08

    There is accumulated evidence that the genes coding for the receptor of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), the most important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS, may be involved in the pathogenesis of affective disorders. In a previous study, we have found a genetic association between the GABA-A receptor alpha5 subunit gene locus (GABRA5) on chromosome 15q11-of 13 and bipolar affective disorder. The aim of the present study was to examine the same subjects to see if there exists a genetic association between bipolar affective disorder and the GABA receptor beta3 subunit gene (GABRB3), which is located within 100 kb from GABRA5. The sample consisted of 48 bipolar patients compared to 44 controls (blood donors). All subjects were Greek, unrelated, and personally interviewed. Diagnosis was based on DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria. The marker used was a dinucleotide (CA) repeat polymorphism with 12 alleles 179 to 201 bp long; genotyping was successful in all patients and 43 controls. The distribution of GABRB3 genotypes among the controls did not deviate significantly from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. No differences in allelic frequencies between bipolar patients and controls were found for GABRB3, while this locus and GABRA5 did not seem to be in significant linkage disequilibrium. In conclusion, the GABRB3 CA-repeat polymorphism we investigated does not present the observed association between bipolar affective illness and GABRA5. This could be due to higher mutation rate in the GABRB3 CA-repeat polymorphism, but it might also signify that GABRA5 is the gene actually associated with the disease. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Association of polymorphisms in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 4 subunit gene (CHRNA4), mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1), and ethanol-metabolizing enzyme genes with alcoholism in Korean patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soon Ae; Kim, Jong-Woo; Song, Ji-Young; Park, Sunny; Lee, Hee Jae; Chung, Joo-Ho

    2004-01-01

    Findings obtained from several studies indicate that ethanol enhances the activity of alpha4beta2 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and support the possibility that a polymorphism of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha4 subunit gene (CHRNA4) modulates enhancement of nicotinic receptor function by ethanol. To identify the association between the CfoI polymorphism of the CHRNA4 and alcoholism, we examined distribution of genotypes and allele frequencies in Korean patients diagnosed with alcoholism (n = 127) and Korean control subjects without alcoholism (n = 185) with polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. We were able to detect the association between the CfoI polymorphism of the CHRNA4 and alcoholism in Korean patients (genotype P = .023; allele frequency P = .047). The genotypes and allele frequencies of known polymorphisms in other alcoholism candidate genes, such as alcohol metabolism-related genes [alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (ADH2), aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3), and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1)] and mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1), were studied. The polymorphisms of ADH2, ALDH2, and CYP2E1 were significantly different in Korean patients with alcoholism and Korean control subjects without alcoholism, but ADH3 and OPRM1 did not differ between the two groups.

  17. INCURVATA2 Encodes the Catalytic Subunit of DNA Polymerase α and Interacts with Genes Involved in Chromatin-Mediated Cellular Memory in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Barrero, José María; González-Bayón, Rebeca; del Pozo, Juan Carlos; Ponce, María Rosa; Micol, José Luis

    2007-01-01

    Cell type–specific gene expression patterns are maintained by the stable inheritance of transcriptional states through mitosis, requiring the action of multiprotein complexes that remodel chromatin structure. Genetic and molecular interactions between chromatin remodeling factors and components of the DNA replication machinery have been identified in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, indicating that some epigenetic marks are replicated simultaneously to DNA with the participation of the DNA replication complexes. This model of epigenetic inheritance might be extended to the plant kingdom, as we report here with the positional cloning and characterization of INCURVATA2 (ICU2), which encodes the putative catalytic subunit of the DNA polymerase α of Arabidopsis thaliana. The strong icu2-2 and icu2-3 insertional alleles caused fully penetrant zygotic lethality when homozygous and incompletely penetrant gametophytic lethality, probably because of loss of DNA polymerase activity. The weak icu2-1 allele carried a point mutation and caused early flowering, leaf incurvature, and homeotic transformations of sepals into carpels and of petals into stamens. Further genetic analyses indicated that ICU2 interacts with TERMINAL FLOWER2, the ortholog of HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1 of animals and yeasts, and with the Polycomb group (PcG) gene CURLY LEAF. Another PcG gene, EMBRYONIC FLOWER2, was found to be epistatic to ICU2. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses indicated that a number of regulatory genes were derepressed in the icu2-1 mutant, including genes associated with flowering time, floral meristem, and floral organ identity. PMID:17873092

  18. Intron loss from the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 gene of lettuce mitochondrial DNA: evidence for homologous recombination of a cDNA intermediate.

    PubMed

    Geiss, K T; Abbas, G M; Makaroff, C A

    1994-04-01

    The mitochondrial gene coding for subunit 4 of the NADH dehydrogenase complex I (nad4) has been isolated and characterized from lettuce, Lactuca sativa. Analysis of nad4 genes in a number of plants by Southern hybridization had previously suggested that the intron content varied between species. Characterization of the lettuce gene confirms this observation. Lettuce nad4 contains two exons and one group IIA intron, whereas previously sequenced nad4 genes from turnip and wheat contain three group IIA introns. Northern analysis identified a transcript of 1600 nucleotides, which represents the mature nad4 mRNA and a primary transcript of 3200 nucleotides. Sequence analysis of lettuce and turnip nad4 cDNAs was used to confirm the intron/exon border sequences and to examine RNA editing patterns. Editing is observed at the 5' and 3' ends of the lettuce transcript, but is absent from sequences that correspond to exons two, three and the 5' end of exon four in turnip and wheat. In contrast, turnip transcripts are highly edited in this region, suggesting that homologous recombination of an edited and spliced cDNA intermediate was involved in the loss of introns two and three from an ancestral lettuce nad4 gene.

  19. Analysis of the Type IV Fimbrial-Subunit Gene fimA of Xanthomonas hyacinthi: Application in PCR-Mediated Detection of Yellow Disease in Hyacinths

    PubMed Central

    van Doorn, J.; Hollinger, T. C.; Oudega, B.

    2001-01-01

    A sensitive and specific detection method was developed for Xanthomonas hyacinthi; this method was based on amplification of a subsequence of the type IV fimbrial-subunit gene fimA from strain S148. The fimA gene was amplified by PCR with degenerate DNA primers designed by using the N-terminal and C-terminal amino acid sequences of trypsin fragments of FimA. The nucleotide sequence of fimA was determined and compared with the nucleotide sequences coding for the fimbrial subunits in other type IV fimbria-producing bacteria, such as Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Moraxella bovis. In a PCR internal primers JAAN and JARA, designed by using the nucleotide sequences of the variable central and C-terminal region of fimA, amplified a 226-bp DNA fragment in all X. hyacinthi isolates. This PCR was shown to be pathovar specific, as assessed by testing 71 Xanthomonas pathovars and bacterial isolates belonging to other genera, such as Erwinia and Pseudomonas. Southern hybridization experiments performed with the labelled 226-bp DNA amplicon as a probe suggested that there is only one structural type IV fimbrial-gene cluster in X. hyacinthi. Only two Xanthomonas translucens pathovars cross-reacted weakly in PCR. Primers amplifying a subsequence of the fimA gene of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria (T. Ojanen-Reuhs, N. Kalkkinen, B. Westerlund-Wikström, J. van Doorn, K. Haahtela, E.-L. Nurmiaho-Lassila, K. Wengelink, U. Bonas, and T. K. Korhonen, J. Bacteriol. 179: 1280–1290, 1997) were shown to be pathovar specific, indicating that the fimbrial-subunit sequences are more generally applicable in xanthomonads for detection purposes. Under laboratory conditions, approximately 1,000 CFU of X. hyacinthi per ml could be detected. In inoculated leaves of hyacinths the threshold was 5,000 CFU/ml. The results indicated that infected hyacinths with early symptoms could be successfully screened for X. hyacinthi with PCR. PMID:11157222

  20. A novel chimeric low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit gene from the wild relatives of wheat Aegilops kotschyi and Ae. juvenalis: evolution at the Glu-3 loci.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohui; Ma, Wujun; Gao, Liyan; Zhang, Yanzhen; Wang, Aili; Ji, Kangmin; Wang, Ke; Appels, Rudi; Yan, Yueming

    2008-09-01

    Four LMW-m and one novel chimeric (between LMW-i and LMW-m types) low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (LMW-GS) genes from Aegilops neglecta (UUMM), Ae. kotschyi (UUSS), and Ae. juvenalis (DDMMUU) were isolated and characterized. Sequence structures showed that the 4 LMW-m-type genes, assigned to the M genome of Ae. neglecta, displayed a high homology with those from hexaploid common wheat. The novel chimeric gene, designed as AjkLMW-i, was isolated from both Ae. kotschyi and Ae. juvenalis and shown to be located on the U genome. Phylogentic analysis demonstrated that it had higher identity to the LMW-m-type than the LMW-i-type genes. A total of 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected among the 4 LMW-m genes, with 13 of these being nonsynonymous SNPs that resulted in amino acid substitutions in the deduced mature proteins. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that it had higher identity to the LMW-m-type than the LMW-i-type genes. The divergence time estimation showed that the M and D genomes were closely related and diverged at 5.42 million years ago (MYA) while the differentiation between the U and A genomes was 6.82 MYA. We propose that, in addition to homologous recombination, an illegitimate recombination event on the U genome may have occurred 6.38 MYA and resulted in the generation of the chimeric gene AjkLMW-i, which may be an important genetic mechanism for the origin and evolution of LMW-GS Glu-3 alleles as well as other prolamin genes.

  1. Hippocampal changes produced by overexpression of the human CHRNA5/A3/B4 gene cluster may underlie cognitive deficits rescued by nicotine in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Molas, Susanna; Gener, Thomas; Güell, Jofre; Martín, Mairena; Ballesteros-Yáñez, Inmaculada; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V; Dierssen, Mara

    2014-11-11

    Addiction involves long-lasting maladaptive changes including development of disruptive drug-stimuli associations. Nicotine-induced neuroplasticity underlies the development of tobacco addiction but also, in regions such as the hippocampus, the ability of this drug to enhance cognitive capabilities. Here, we propose that the genetic locus of susceptibility to nicotine addiction, the CHRNA5/A3/B4 gene cluster, encoding the α5, α3 and β4 subunits of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), may influence nicotine-induced neuroadaptations. We have used transgenic mice overexpressing the human cluster (TgCHRNA5/A3/B4) to investigate hippocampal structure and function in genetically susceptible individuals. TgCHRNA5/A3/B4 mice presented a marked reduction in the dendrite complexity of CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons along with an increased dendritic spine density. In addition, TgCHRNA5/A3/B4 exhibited increased VGLUT1/VGAT ratio in the CA1 region, suggesting an excitatory/inhibitory imbalance. These hippocampal alterations were accompanied by a significant impairment in short-term novelty recognition memory. Interestingly, chronic infusion of nicotine (3.25 mg/kg/d for 7 d) was able to rescue the reduced dendritic complexity, the excitatory/inhibitory imbalance and the cognitive impairment in TgCHRNA5/A3/B4. Our results suggest that chronic nicotine treatment may represent a compensatory strategy in individuals with altered expression of the CHRNA5/A3/B4 region.

  2. Mutations in a gene encoding the. cap alpha. subunit of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae G protein indicate a role in mating pheromone signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Jahng, K.Y.; Ferguson, J.; Reed, S.I.

    1988-06-01

    Mutations which allowed conjugation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking a mating pheromone receptor gene were selected. One of the genes defined by such mutations was isolated from a yeast genomic library by complementation of a temperature-sensitive mutation and is identically to the gene GPA1 (also known as SCG1), recently shown to be highly homologous to gene encoding the ..cap alpha.. subunits of mammalian G proteins. Physiological analysis of temperature-sensitive gpal mutations suggests that the encoded G protein is involved in signaling in response to mating pheromones. Mutational disruption of G-protein activity causes cell-cycle arrest in G/sub 1/, deposition of mating-specificmore » cell surface aggultinins, and induction of pheromone-specific mRNa, all of which are responses to pheromone in wild-type cells. In addition, mutants can conjugate without the benefit of mating pheromone or pheromone receptor. A model is presented where the activated G protein has a negative impact on a constitutive signal which normally keeps the pheromone response repressed.« less

  3. RuBisCO large-subunit gene primers for assessing the CO2-assimilating planktonic community structure in Jiaozhou Bay, China.

    PubMed

    Chi, Xiang-Qun; Wang, Long; Guo, Ruoyu; Zhao, Dexi; Li, Jia; Zhang, Yongyu; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2018-06-19

    The protein coding genes (rbcL/cbbL/cbbM) for RuBisCO large subunit, the most abundant protein on earth that drives biological CO2 fixation, were considered as useful marker genes in characterizing CO2-assimilating plankton. However, their community specificity has hindered comprehensive screening of genetic diversity. In this study, six different rbcL/cbbL/cbbM primers were employed to screen clone libraries to identify CO2-assimilating plankton in Jiaozhou Bay. The following community compositions were observed: the community components in Form I A/B rbcL/cbbL clone library mainly comprised Chlorophyta and Proteobacteria, Form ID2 and ID3 libraries consisted of Bacillariophyta, Form II cbbM library consisted of Proteobacteria and Alveolata, and both Form I green and red libraries included Proteobacteria, respectively. At the genus taxonomic level, no overlaps among these clone libraries were observed, except for ID2 and ID3. Overall, the phytoplankton in Jiaozhou Bay mainly consists of Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta, Cryptophyta, Haptophyceae, and Alveolata. The CO2-assimilating prokaryotes mainly consist of Proteobacteria. Considering the high sequence specificities of these marker genes, we propose that the joint use of multiple primers may be utilized in unveiling the diversity of CO2-assimilating organisms. In addition, designing novel RuBisCO gene primers that generate longer amplicons and have broader phylogenetic coverage may be necessary in the future.

  4. Hypogonadism in a patient with two novel mutations of the luteinizing hormone β-subunit gene expressed in a compound heterozygous form.

    PubMed

    Basciani, Sabrina; Watanabe, Mikiko; Mariani, Stefania; Passeri, Marina; Persichetti, Agnese; Fiore, Daniela; Scotto d'Abusco, Anna; Caprio, Massimiliano; Lenzi, Andrea; Fabbri, Andrea; Gnessi, Lucio

    2012-09-01

    LH gene mutations are rare; only four mutations have been described. The affected individuals are hypogonadal. We describe the clinical features of a 31-yr-old man who presented with delayed puberty and azoospermia and was found to have hypogonadism associated with an absence of circulating LH. The patient had a 12-bp deletion in exon 2 in the LH β-subunit gene and a mutation of the 5' splice site IVS2+1G→T in the same gene present in a compound heterozygous state. The first mutation predicts a deletion of four leucines of the hydrophobic core of the signal peptide. The second mutation disrupts the splicing of mRNA, generating a gross abnormality in the processing. The patient's heterozygous parents were clinically normal. The phenotype of a 16-yr-old sister of the proband, carrying the same mutations, was characterized by normal pubertal development and oligomenorrhea. This report unravels two novel mutations of the LH gene critical for synthesis and activity of the LH molecule. The insight gained from the study is that normal pubertal maturation in women can occur in a state of LH deficiency, whereas LH is essential for maturation of Leydig cells and thus steroidogenesis, puberty, and spermatogenesis in man. These mutations should be considered in girls and boys with selective deficiency of LH.

  5. Ribosomal proteins L7 and L8 function in concert with six A3 assembly factors to propagate assembly of domains I and II of 25S rRNA in yeast 60S ribosomal subunits

    PubMed Central

    Jakovljevic, Jelena; Ohmayer, Uli; Gamalinda, Michael; Talkish, Jason; Alexander, Lisa; Linnemann, Jan; Milkereit, Philipp; Woolford, John L.

    2012-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is a complex multistep process that involves alternating steps of folding and processing of pre-rRNAs in concert with assembly of ribosomal proteins. Recently, there has been increased interest in the roles of ribosomal proteins in eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis in vivo, focusing primarily on their function in pre-rRNA processing. However, much less is known about participation of ribosomal proteins in the formation and rearrangement of preribosomal particles as they mature to functional subunits. We have studied ribosomal proteins L7 and L8, which are required for the same early steps in pre-rRNA processing during assembly of 60S subunits but are located in different domains within ribosomes. Depletion of either leads to defects in processing of 27SA3 to 27SB pre-rRNA and turnover of pre-rRNAs destined for large ribosomal subunits. A specific subset of proteins is diminished from these residual assembly intermediates: six assembly factors required for processing of 27SA3 pre-rRNA and four ribosomal proteins bound to domain I of 25S and 5.8S rRNAs surrounding the polypeptide exit tunnel. In addition, specific sets of ribosomal proteins are affected in each mutant: In the absence of L7, proteins bound to domain II, L6, L14, L20, and L33 are greatly diminished, while proteins L13, L15, and L36 that bind to domain I are affected in the absence of L8. Thus, L7 and L8 might establish RNP structures within assembling ribosomes necessary for the stable association and function of the A3 assembly factors and for proper assembly of the neighborhoods containing domains I and II. PMID:22893726

  6. The Mediator subunit SFR6/MED16 controls defence gene expression mediated by salicylic acid and jasmonate responsive pathways.

    PubMed

    Wathugala, Deepthi L; Hemsley, Piers A; Moffat, Caroline S; Cremelie, Pieter; Knight, Marc R; Knight, Heather

    2012-07-01

    • Arabidopsis SENSITIVE TO FREEZING6 (SFR6) controls cold- and drought-inducible gene expression and freezing- and osmotic-stress tolerance. Its identification as a component of the MEDIATOR transcriptional co-activator complex led us to address its involvement in other transcriptional responses. • Gene expression responses to Pseudomonas syringae, ultraviolet-C (UV-C) irradiation, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) were investigated in three sfr6 mutant alleles by quantitative real-time PCR and susceptibility to UV-C irradiation and Pseudomonas infection were assessed. • sfr6 mutants were more susceptible to both Pseudomonas syringae infection and UV-C irradiation. They exhibited correspondingly weaker PR (pathogenesis-related) gene expression than wild-type Arabidopsis following these treatments or after direct application of SA, involved in response to both UV-C and Pseudomonas infection. Other genes, however, were induced normally in the mutants by these treatments. sfr6 mutants were severely defective in expression of plant defensin genes in response to JA; ectopic expression of defensin genes was provoked in wild-type but not sfr6 by overexpression of ERF5. • SFR6/MED16 controls both SA- and JA-mediated defence gene expression and is necessary for tolerance of Pseudomonas syringae infection and UV-C irradiation. It is not, however, a universal regulator of stress gene transcription and is likely to mediate transcriptional activation of specific regulons only. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. The complete sequences and gene organisation of the mitochondrial genomes of the heterodont bivalves Acanthocardia tuberculata and Hiatella arctica – and the first record for a putative Atpase subunit 8 gene in marine bivalves

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, Hermann; Steiner, Gerhard

    2006-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial (mt) gene arrangement is highly variable among molluscs and especially among bivalves. Of the 30 complete molluscan mt-genomes published to date, only one is of a heterodont bivalve, although this is the most diverse taxon in terms of species numbers. We determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial genomes of Acanthocardia tuberculata and Hiatella arctica, (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Heterodonta) and describe their gene contents and genome organisations to assess the variability of these features among the Bivalvia and their value for phylogenetic inference. Results The size of the mt-genome in Acanthocardia tuberculata is 16.104 basepairs (bp), and in Hiatella arctica 18.244 bp. The Acanthocardia mt-genome contains 12 of the typical protein coding genes, lacking the Atpase subunit 8 (atp8) gene, as all published marine bivalves. In contrast, a complete atp8 gene is present in Hiatella arctica. In addition, we found a putative truncated atp8 gene when re-annotating the mt-genome of Venerupis philippinarum. Both mt-genomes reported here encode all genes on the same strand and have an additional trnM. In Acanthocardia several large non-coding regions are present. One of these contains 3.5 nearly identical copies of a 167 bp motive. In Hiatella, the 3' end of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit (nad)6 gene is duplicated together with the adjacent non-coding region. The gene arrangement of Hiatella is markedly different from all other known molluscan mt-genomes, that of Acanthocardia shows few identities with the Venerupis philippinarum. Phylogenetic analyses on amino acid and nucleotide levels robustly support the Heterodonta and the sister group relationship of Acanthocardia and Venerupis. Monophyletic Bivalvia are resolved only by a Bayesian inference of the nucleotide data set. In all other analyses the two unionid species, being to only ones with genes located on both strands, do not group with the remaining bivalves. Conclusion The two mt

  8. Development of multiplex PCR assay for authentication of Cornu Cervi Pantotrichum in traditional Chinese medicine based on cytochrome b and C oxidase subunit 1 genes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lijun; Xia, Wei; Ai, Jinxia; Li, Mingcheng; Yuan, Guanxin; Niu, Jiamu; Fu, Guilian; Zhang, Lihua

    2016-07-01

    This study describes a method for discriminating the true Cervus antlers from its counterfeits using multiplex PCR. Bioinformatics were carried out to design the specific alleles primers for mitochondrial (mt) cytochrome b (Cyt b) and cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (Cox 1) genes. The mt DNA and genomic DNA were extracted from Cervi Cornu Pantotrichum through the modified alkaline and the salt-extracting method in addition to its counterfeits, respectively. Sufficient DNA templates were extracted from all samples used in two methods, and joint fragments of 354 bp and 543 bp that were specifically amplified from both of true Cervus antlers served as a standard control. The data revealed that the multiplex PCR-based assays using two primer sets can be used for forensic and quantitative identification of original Cervus deer products from counterfeit antlers in a single step.

  9. SNP detection in Na/K ATP-ase gene α1 subunit of bisexual and parthenogenetic Artemia strains by RFLP screening.

    PubMed

    Manaffar, R; Zare, S; Agh, N; Abdolahzadeh, N; Soltanian, S; Sorgeloos, P; Bossier, P; Van Stappen, G

    2011-01-01

    In order to find a marker for differentiating between a bisexual and a parthenogenetic Artemia strain, Exon-7 of the Na/K ATPase α(1) subunit gene was screened by RFLP technique. The results revealed a constant synonymous SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) in digestion by the Tru1I enzyme that was consistent with these two types of Artemia. This SNP was identified as an accurate molecular marker for discrimination between bisexual and parthenogenetic Artemia. According to the Nei's genetic distance (1973), the lowest genetic distance was found between individuals from Artemia urmiana Günther 1890 and parthenogenetic populations, making the described marker the first marker to easily distinguish between these two cooccurring species. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. The G-protein alpha-subunit gene CGA1 is involved in regulation of resistance to heat and osmotic stress in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Lee, C S; Ahn, W; Choi, Y E

    2017-02-28

    In eukaryotic cells, many important functions of specific G-proteins have been identified, but microalgal G-proteins are poorly studied. In this work, we characterized a gene (CGA1) encoding the G-protein α-subunit in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Independent knockdown mutants of CGA1 were generated via RNA interference (RNAi). CGA1 expression levels were consistently and significantly reduced in both independent CGA1 mutant cell lines (cga1). Both cga1 mutants had a higher survival rate at 35°C in comparison with the wild type. This stronger resistance of the cga1 mutants became more evident during simultaneous exposure to heat and osmotic stress. The stronger resistance of the CGA1 knockdown mutants to the two stressors was accompanied with significant morphological alterations-both cell size and cell wall thickness were different from those of the wild type. This finding supports the roles of CGA1 in C. reinhardtii morphology in response to stressors. To further understand biochemical mechanisms of the CGA1-mediated resistance, we thoroughly analyzed the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the expression of several heat shock proteins or MAP kinase genes as possible downstream effectors of CGA1. Our data clearly indicated that CGA1 is implicated in the regulation of resistance to heat or osmotic stress in C. reinhardtii via HSP70A and MAPK6. Because the G-protein α-subunit is highly conserved across microalgal species, our results should facilitate future biotechnological applications of microalgae under extreme environmental conditions.

  11. Photocontrol of the expression of genes encoding chlorophyll a/b binding proteins and small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase in etiolated seedlings of Lycopersicon esculentum (L. ) and Nicotiana tabacum (L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Wehmeyer, B.; Cashmore, A.R.; Schaefer, E.

    Phytochrome and the blue ultraviolet-A photoreceptor control light-induced expression of genes encoding the chlorophyll a/b binding protein of photosystem II and photosystem I and the genes for the small subunit of the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase in etiolated seedlings of Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) and Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). A high irradiance response also controls the induction of these genes. Genes encoding photosystem II- and I-associated chlorophyll a/b binding proteins both exhibit a transient rapid increase in expression in response to light pulse or to continuous irradiation. In contrast, genes encoding the small subunit exhibit a continuous increase in expression in response to light.more » These distinct expression characteristics are shown to reflect differences at the level of transcription.« less

  12. The largest subunit of RNA polymerase II as a new marker gene to study assemblages of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the field.

    PubMed

    Stockinger, Herbert; Peyret-Guzzon, Marine; Koegel, Sally; Bouffaud, Marie-Lara; Redecker, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Due to the potential of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, Glomeromycota) to improve plant growth and soil quality, the influence of agricultural practice on their diversity continues to be an important research question. Up to now studies of community diversity in AMF have exclusively been based on nuclear ribosomal gene regions, which in AMF show high intra-organism polymorphism, seriously complicating interpretation of these data. We designed specific PCR primers for 454 sequencing of a region of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II gene, and established a new reference dataset comprising all major AMF lineages. This gene is known to be monomorphic within fungal isolates but shows an excellent barcode gap between species. We designed a primer set to amplify all known lineages of AMF and demonstrated its applicability in combination with high-throughput sequencing in a long-term tillage experiment. The PCR primers showed a specificity of 99.94% for glomeromycotan sequences. We found evidence of significant shifts of the AMF communities caused by soil management and showed that tillage effects on different AMF taxa are clearly more complex than previously thought. The high resolving power of high-throughput sequencing highlights the need for quantitative measurements to efficiently detect these effects.

  13. The gene for replication factor C subunit 2 (RFC2) is within the 7q11.23 Williams syndrome deletion

    SciTech Connect

    Peoples, R.; Perez-Jurado, L.; Francke, U.

    1996-06-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a developmental disorder with multiple system manifestations, including supraval var aortic stenosis (SVAS), peripheral pulmonic stenosis, connective tissue abnormalities, short stature, characteristic personality profile and cognitive deficits, and variable hypercalcemia in infancy. It is caused by heterozygosity for a chromosomal deletion of part of band 7q11.23 including the elastin locus (ELN). Since disruption of the ELN gene causes autosomal dominant SVAS, it is assumed that ELN haploinsufficiency is responsible for the cardiovascular features of WS. The deletion that extends from the ELN locus in both directions is {ge}200 kb in size, although estimates of {ge}2 Mbmore » are suggested by high-resolution chromosome banding and physical mapping studies. We have searched for additional dosage-sensitive genes within the deletion that may be responsible for the noncardiovascular features. We report here that the gene for replication factor C subunit 2 (RFC2) maps within the WS deletion region and was found to be deleted in all of 18 WS patients studied. The protein product of RFC2 is part of a multimeric complex involved in DNA elongation during replication. 14 refs., 3 figs.« less

  14. Multiple Taf subunits of TFIID interact with Ino2 activation domains and contribute to expression of genes required for yeast phospholipid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Hintze, Stefan; Engelhardt, Maike; van Diepen, Laura; Witt, Eric; Schüller, Hans-Joachim

    2017-12-01

    Expression of phospholipid biosynthetic genes in yeast requires activator protein Ino2 which can bind to the UAS element inositol/choline-responsive element (ICRE) and trigger activation of target genes, using two separate transcriptional activation domains, TAD1 and TAD2. However, it is still unknown which cofactors mediate activation by TADs of Ino2. Here, we show that multiple subunits of basal transcription factor TFIID (TBP-associated factors Taf1, Taf4, Taf6, Taf10 and Taf12) are able to interact in vitro with activation domains of Ino2. Interaction was no longer observed with activation-defective variants of TAD1. We were able to identify two nonoverlapping regions in the N-terminus of Taf1 (aa 1-100 and aa 182-250) each of which could interact with TAD1 of Ino2 as well as with TAD4 of activator Adr1. Specific missense mutations within Taf1 domain aa 182-250 affecting basic and hydrophobic residues prevented interaction with wild-type TAD1 and caused reduced expression of INO1. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation we demonstrated Ino2-dependent recruitment of Taf1 and Taf6 to ICRE-containing promoters INO1 and CHO2. Transcriptional derepression of INO1 was no longer possible with temperature-sensitive taf1 and taf6 mutants cultivated under nonpermissive conditions. This result supports the hypothesis of Taf-dependent expression of structural genes activated by Ino2. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Association of the 5′-upstream regulatory region of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit gene (CHRNA7) with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Sarah H.; Logel, Judith; Barton, Amanda; Franks, Alexis; Schultz, Jessica; Short, Margaret; Dickenson, Jane; James, Benjamin; Fingerlin, Tasha E.; Wagner, Brandie; Hodgkinson, Colin; Graw, Sharon; Ross, Randal G.; Freedman, Robert; Leonard, Sherry

    2009-01-01

    Background The α7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit gene (CHRNA7) is localized in a chromosomal region (15q14) linked to schizophrenia in multiple independent studies. CHRNA7 was selected as the best candidate gene in the region for a well-documented endophenotype of schizophrenia, the P50 sensory processing deficit, by genetic linkage and biochemical studies. Methods Subjects included Caucasian-Non Hispanic and African-American case-control subjects collected in Denver, and schizophrenic subjects from families in the NIMH Genetics Initiative on Schizophrenia. Thirty-five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 5′-upstream regulatory region of CHRNA7 were genotyped for association with schizophrenia, and for smoking in schizophrenia. Results The rs3087454 SNP, located at position −1831 bp in the upstream regulatory region of CHRNA7, was significantly associated with schizophrenia in the case-control samples after multiple-testing correction (P = 0.0009, African American; P = 0.013, Caucasian-Non Hispanic); the association was supported in family members. There was nominal association of this SNP with smoking in schizophrenia. Conclusions The data support association of regulatory region polymorphisms in the CHRNA7 gene with schizophrenia. PMID:19181484

  16. Highly conserved small subunit residues influence rubisco large subunit catalysis.

    PubMed

    Genkov, Todor; Spreitzer, Robert J

    2009-10-30

    The chloroplast enzyme ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of photosynthetic CO(2) fixation. With a deeper understanding of its structure-function relationships and competitive inhibition by O(2), it may be possible to engineer an increase in agricultural productivity and renewable energy. The chloroplast-encoded large subunits form the active site, but the nuclear-encoded small subunits can also influence catalytic efficiency and CO(2)/O(2) specificity. To further define the role of the small subunit in Rubisco function, the 10 most conserved residues in all small subunits were substituted with alanine by transformation of a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant that lacks the small subunit gene family. All the mutant strains were able to grow photosynthetically, indicating that none of the residues is essential for function. Three of the substitutions have little or no effect (S16A, P19A, and E92A), one primarily affects holoenzyme stability (L18A), and the remainder affect catalysis with or without some level of associated structural instability (Y32A, E43A, W73A, L78A, P79A, and F81A). Y32A and E43A cause decreases in CO(2)/O(2) specificity. Based on the x-ray crystal structure of Chlamydomonas Rubisco, all but one (Glu-92) of the conserved residues are in contact with large subunits and cluster near the amino- or carboxyl-terminal ends of large subunit alpha-helix 8, which is a structural element of the alpha/beta-barrel active site. Small subunit residues Glu-43 and Trp-73 identify a possible structural connection between active site alpha-helix 8 and the highly variable small subunit loop between beta-strands A and B, which can also influence Rubisco CO(2)/O(2) specificity.

  17. A Cyclin Dependent Kinase Regulatory Subunit (CKS) Gene of Pigeonpea Imparts Abiotic Stress Tolerance and Regulates Plant Growth and Development in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Tamirisa, Srinath; Vudem, Dashavantha R.; Khareedu, Venkateswara R.

    2017-01-01

    Frequent climatic changes in conjunction with other extreme environmental factors are known to affect growth, development and productivity of diverse crop plants. Pigeonpea, a major grain legume of the semiarid tropics, endowed with an excellent deep-root system, is known as one of the important drought tolerant crop plants. Cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) are core cell cycle regulators and play important role in different aspects of plant growth and development. The cyclin-dependent kinase regulatory subunit gene (CKS) was isolated from the cDNA library of pigeonpea plants subjected to drought stress. Pigeonpea CKS (CcCKS) gene expression was detected in both the root and leaf tissues of pigeonpea and was upregulated by polyethylene glycol (PEG), mannitol, NaCl and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments. The overexpression of CcCKS gene in Arabidopsis significantly enhanced tolerance of transgenics to drought and salt stresses as evidenced by different physiological parameters. Under stress conditions, transgenics showed higher biomass, decreased rate of water loss, decreased MDA levels, higher free proline contents, and glutathione levels. Moreover, under stress conditions transgenics exhibited lower stomatal conductance, lower transpiration, and higher photosynthetic rates. However, under normal conditions, CcCKS-transgenics displayed decreased plant growth rate, increased cell size and decreased stomatal number compared to those of wild-type plants. Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that CcCKS could regulate the expression of both ABA-dependent and ABA-independent genes associated with abiotic stress tolerance as well as plant growth and development. As such, the CcCKS seems promising and might serve as a potential candidate gene for enhancing the abiotic stress tolerance of crop plants. PMID:28239388

  18. A Cyclin Dependent Kinase Regulatory Subunit (CKS) Gene of Pigeonpea Imparts Abiotic Stress Tolerance and Regulates Plant Growth and Development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Tamirisa, Srinath; Vudem, Dashavantha R; Khareedu, Venkateswara R

    2017-01-01

    Frequent climatic changes in conjunction with other extreme environmental factors are known to affect growth, development and productivity of diverse crop plants. Pigeonpea, a major grain legume of the semiarid tropics, endowed with an excellent deep-root system, is known as one of the important drought tolerant crop plants. Cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) are core cell cycle regulators and play important role in different aspects of plant growth and development. The cyclin-dependent kinase regulatory subunit gene ( CKS ) was isolated from the cDNA library of pigeonpea plants subjected to drought stress. Pigeonpea CKS ( CcCKS ) gene expression was detected in both the root and leaf tissues of pigeonpea and was upregulated by polyethylene glycol (PEG), mannitol, NaCl and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments. The overexpression of CcCKS gene in Arabidopsis significantly enhanced tolerance of transgenics to drought and salt stresses as evidenced by different physiological parameters. Under stress conditions, transgenics showed higher biomass, decreased rate of water loss, decreased MDA levels, higher free proline contents, and glutathione levels. Moreover, under stress conditions transgenics exhibited lower stomatal conductance, lower transpiration, and higher photosynthetic rates. However, under normal conditions, CcCKS -transgenics displayed decreased plant growth rate, increased cell size and decreased stomatal number compared to those of wild-type plants. Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that Cc CKS could regulate the expression of both ABA-dependent and ABA-independent genes associated with abiotic stress tolerance as well as plant growth and development. As such, the CcCKS seems promising and might serve as a potential candidate gene for enhancing the abiotic stress tolerance of crop plants.

  19. New data on epizootiology and genetics of piroplasms based on sequences of small ribosomal subunit and cytochrome b genes.

    PubMed

    Criado, A; Martinez, J; Buling, A; Barba, J C; Merino, S; Jefferies, R; Irwin, P J

    2006-12-20

    As a continuation of our studies on molecular epizootiology of piroplasmosis in Spain and other countries, we present in this contribution the finding of new hosts for some piroplasms, as well as information on their 18S rRNA gene sequences. Genetic data were complemented with sequences of apocytochrome b gene (whenever possible). The following conclusions were drawn from these molecular studies: Theileria annulata is capable of infecting dogs, since it was diagnosed in a symptomatic animal. According to cytochrome b sequences, isolates from cows and dog present slight differences. The same isolates showed, however, identical sequence in the 18S rRNA gene. This exemplifies well the usefulness of the mitochondrial gene for examining infra-specific variation. Babesia bovis is an occasional parasite of equines, since it was detected in two symptomatic horses. We found evidence of genetic polymorphism occurring in the 18S rRNA gene of Spanish T. equi-like and B. ovis isolates. B. bennetti from Spanish seagull is loosely related to B. ovis, and might represent a genetically distinct branch of babesids. A partial sequence of a cytochrome b pseudogene was obtained for the first time in Babesia canis rossi from South Africa. The pseudogene is distantly related to B. bigemina cytochrome b gene. These new findings confirm the ability of some piroplasms to infect multiple hosts, as well as the existence of a relatively wide genetic polymorphisms with respect to the cytochrome b gene. On the other hand, the existence of mtDNA-like pseudogenes of possible nuclear location in piroplasms is interesting due to their possible impact on molecular phylogeny studies.

  20. Analysis of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COX1) gene reveals the unique evolution of the giant panda.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yao-Dong; Pang, Hui-Zhong; Li, De-Sheng; Ling, Shan-Shan; Lan, Dan; Wang, Ye; Zhu, Yun; Li, Di-Yan; Wei, Rong-Ping; Zhang, He-Min; Wang, Cheng-Dong

    2016-11-05

    As the rate-limiting enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, cytochrome c oxidase (COX) plays a crucial role in biological metabolism. "Living fossil" giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is well-known for its special bamboo diet. In an effort to explore functional variation of COX1 in the energy metabolism behind giant panda's low-energy bamboo diet, we looked at genetic variation of COX1 gene in giant panda, and tested for its selection effect. In 1545 base pairs of the gene from 15 samples, 9 positions were variable and 1 mutation leaded to an amino acid sequence change. COX1 gene produces six haplotypes, nucleotide (pi), haplotype diversity (Hd). In addition, the average number of nucleotide differences (k) is 0.001629±0.001036, 0.8083±0.0694 and 2.517, respectively. Also, dN/dS ratio is significantly below 1. These results indicated that giant panda had a low population genetic diversity, and an obvious purifying selection of the COX1 gene which reduces synthesis of ATP determines giant panda's low-energy bamboo diet. Phylogenetic trees based on the COX1 gene were constructed to demonstrate that giant panda is the sister group of other Ursidae. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of AMPK α subunit isoform genes from Scophthalmus maximus responding to salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lin; Liu, Bin; Wu, Chang-Wen; Lei, Ji-Lin; Xu, Mei-Ying; Zhu, Ai-Yi; Zhang, Jian-She; Hong, Wan-Shu

    2016-12-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a highly conserved and multi-functional protein kinase that plays important roles in both intracellular energy balance and cellular stress response. In the present study, molecular characterization, tissue distribution and gene expression levels of the AMPK α1 and α2 genes from turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) under salinity stress are described. The complete coding regions of the AMPK α1 and α2 genes were isolated from turbot through degenerate primers in combination with RACE using muscle cDNA. The complete coding regions of AMPK α1 (1722 bp) and α2 (1674 bp) encoded 573 and 557 amino acids peptides, respectively. Multiple alignments, structural analysis and phylogenetic tree construction indicated that S. maximus AMPK α1 and α2 shared a high amino acid identity with other species, especially fish. AMPK α1 and α2 genes could be detected in all tested tissues, indicating that they are constitutively expressed. Salinity challenges significantly altered the gene expression levels of AMPK α1 and α2 mRNA in a salinity- and time-dependent manners in S. maximus gill tissues, suggesting that AMPK α1 and α2 played important roles in mediating the salinity stress in S. maximus. The expression levels of AMPK α1 and α2 mRNA were a positive correlation with gill Na + , K + -ATPase activities. These findings will aid our understanding of the molecular mechanism of juvenile turbot in response to environmental salinity changes.

  2. Two alleles of the AtCesA3 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana display intragenic complementation.

    PubMed

    Pysh, Leonard D

    2015-09-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant biomolecule on the planet, yet the mechanism by which it is synthesized by higher plants remains largely unknown. In Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh, synthesis of cellulose in the primary cell wall requires three different cellulose synthase genes (AtCesA1, AtCesA3, and AtCesA6-related genes [AtCesA2, AtCesA5, and AtCesA6]). The multiple response expansion1 (mre1) mutant contains a hypomorphic AtCesA3 allele that results in significantly shorter, expanded roots. Crosses between mre1 and another allele of AtCesA3 (constitutive expression of VSP1, cev1) yielded an F1 with roots considerably longer and thinner than either parent, suggesting intragenic complementation. The F2 generation resulting from self-crossing these F1 showed three different root phenotypes: roots like mre1, roots like cev1, and roots like the F1. The segregation patterns of the three root phenotypes in multiple F2 and F3 generations were determined. Multiple characteristics of the roots and shoots were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively at different developmental stages, both on plates and on soil. The trans-heterozygous plants differed significantly from the parental mre1 and cev1 lines. The two alleles display intragenic complementation. A classic genetic interpretation of these results would suggest that cellulose synthesis requires homo-multimerization of cellulose synthase monomers. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  3. [Alternating hemiplegia of childhood: ATP1A3 gene analysis in 16 patients].

    PubMed

    Ulate-Campos, Adriana; Fons, Carmen; Campistol, Jaume; Martorell, Loreto; Cancho-Candela, Ramón; Eiris, Jesús; López-Laso, Eduardo; Pineda, Mercedes; Sans, Anna; Velázquez, Ramón

    2014-07-07

    Alternating hemiplegia in childhood (AHC) is a disease characterized by recurrent episodes of hemiplegia, tonic or dystonic crisis and abnormal ocular movements. Recently, mutations in the ATP1A3 gene have been identified as the causal mechanism of AHC. The objective is to describe a series of 16 patients with clinical and genetic diagnosis of AHC. It is a descriptive, retrospective, multicenter study of 16 patients with clinical diagnosis of AHC in whom mutations in ATP1A3 were identified. Six heterozygous, de novo mutations were found in the ATP1A3 gene. The most frequent mutation was G2401A in 8 patients (50%) followed by G2443A in 3 patients (18.75%), G2893A in 2 patients (12.50%) and C2781G, G2893C and C2411T in one patient, respectively (6.25% each). In the studied population with AHC, de novo mutations were detected in 100% of patients. The most frequent mutations were D801N y la E815K, as reported in other series. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. [Effect of electroacupuncture on expression of ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits and their genes in lumbar segments of spinal cord in rats with neuropathic pain].

    PubMed

    Ma, Cheng; Yu, Li; Yan, Li-ping

    2010-12-01

    To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on the expression of ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR) subunits and their mRNAs in the lumbar segments of spinal cord in rats with neuropathic pain, so as to explore its underlying mechanism in relieving spinal hyperalgesia. Thirty SD rats were randomly divided into control, model, and EA groups, with 10 rats in each. The spared nerve injury (SNI) model was established by ligature of the sural nerve after cutting off the common peroneal nerve and anterior tibial nerve. EA (2 Hz, 1 mA) was applied to "Huantiao" (GB 30) and "Weizhong" (BL 40) for 30 min, once daily for 7 days. Mechanical pain threshold was detected before and after modeling and before and after EA treatment. The expression levels of N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor subunits NR1 and NR 2 B,and AMPA receptor subunit GluR 1 of iGluR and their genes were assayed by Western blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) separately. In comparison with control group, the mechanical pain thresholds were decreased significantly on day 2, 7 and day 14 following modeling in the model group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). While compared with the model group, the pain threshold was increased considerably on day 14 in the EA group (P < 0.01). Compared with the control group, the expression levels of lumbar spinal cord NR 2 B and NR 2 B mRNA in the model group were increased significantly (P < 0.05), and those of lumbar spinal cord NR 1 and NR 1 mRNA, GluR 1 and GluR 1 mRNA in the model group increased slightly (P > 0.05). In comparison with the model group, the expression levels of lumbar spinal cord NR 2 B and NR 2 B mRNA in the EA group were downregulated remarkably (P < 0.05), and those of lumbar spinal cord NR 1 and NR 1 mRNA, GluR 1 and GluR 1 mRNA in the EA group down-regulated slightly (P > 0.05). EA can significantly suppress pain reaction in rats with neuropathic pain probably through down-regulating the expression of lumbar spinal cord

  5. Congenital Chloride Diarrhea - Novel Mutation in SLC26A3 Gene.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Swati; Pandit, Deepti; Sinha, Aditi; Hari, Pankaj; Cheong, Hae Il; Bagga, Arvind

    2016-08-01

    The authors report a case of congenital chloride diarrhea with molecular confirmation of diagnosis. A 10-mo-old boy presented with failure to thrive, voluminous diarrhea, dehydration, hyponatremia, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis and history of maternal polyhydramnios. The diagnosis of congenital chloride diarrhea was based on high fecal and low urinary chloride excretion, in addition to biochemical abnormalities. Genetic testing revealed a novel homozygous mutation in exon 4 of the SLC26A3 gene that encodes the protein regulating chloride bicarbonate absorption in distal ileum and colon. Therapy with oral fluids and electrolytes led to decrease in stool frequency and improvement in growth parameters.

  6. Impact of rs361072 in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase p110beta gene on whole-body glucose metabolism and subunit protein expression in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Poulsen, Pernille; Holmkvist, Johan; Mortensen, Brynjulf; Grarup, Niels; Friedrichsen, Martin; Jørgensen, Torben; Lauritzen, Torsten; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Vaag, Allan

    2010-04-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) is a major effector in insulin signaling. rs361072, located in the promoter of the gene (PIK3CB) for the p110beta subunit, has previously been found to be associated with homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in obese subjects. The aim was to investigate the influence of rs361072 on in vivo glucose metabolism, skeletal muscle PI3K subunit protein levels, and type 2 diabetes. The functional role of rs361072 was studied in 196 Danish healthy adult twins. Peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity was assessed by a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Basal and insulin-stimulated biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle, and tissue p110beta and p85alpha proteins were measured by Western blotting. The genetic association with type 2 diabetes and quantitative metabolic traits was investigated in 9,316 Danes with glucose tolerance ranging from normal to overt type 2 diabetes. While hepatic insulin resistance was similar in the fasting state, carriers of the minor G allele had lower hepatic glucose output (per-allele effect: -16%, P(add) = 0.004) during high physiological insulin infusion. rs361072 did not associate with insulin-stimulated peripheral glucose disposal despite a decreased muscle p85alpha:p110beta protein ratio (P(add) = 0.03) in G allele carriers. No association with HOMA-IR or type 2 diabetes (odds ratio 1.07, P = 0.5) was identified, and obesity did not interact with rs361072 on these traits. Our study suggests that the minor G allele of PIK3CB rs361072 associates with decreased muscle p85alpha:p110beta ratio and lower hepatic glucose production at high plasma insulin levels. However, no impact on type 2 diabetes prevalence was found.

  7. A nuclear gene for the iron-sulfur subunit of mitochondrial complex II is specifically expressed during Arabidopsis seed development and germination.

    PubMed

    Elorza, Alvaro; Roschzttardtz, Hannetz; Gómez, Isabel; Mouras, Armand; Holuigue, Loreto; Araya, Alejandro; Jordana, Xavier

    2006-01-01

    Three nuclear genes, SDH2-1, SDH2-2 and SDH2-3, encode the essential iron-sulfur subunit of mitochondrial complex II in Arabidopsis thaliana. SDH2-1 and SDH2-2 probably arose via a recent duplication event and we reported that both are expressed in all organs from adult plants. In contrast, transcripts from SDH2-3 were not detected. Here we present data demonstrating that SDH2-3 is specifically expressed during seed development. SDH2-3 transcripts appear during seed maturation, persist through desiccation, are abundant in dry seeds and markedly decline during germination. Analysis of transgenic Arabidopsis plants carrying the SDH2-3 promoter fused to the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene shows that the SDH2-3 promoter is activated in the embryo during maturation, from the bent-cotyledon stage. beta-Glucuronidase expression correlates with the appearance of endogenous SDH2-3 transcripts, suggesting that control of this nuclear gene is achieved through transcriptional regulation. Furthermore, progressive deletions of this promoter identified a 159 bp region (-223 to -65) important for SDH2-3 transcriptional activation in seeds. Interestingly, the SDH2-3 promoter remains active in embryonic tissues during germination and post-germinative growth, and is turned off in vegetative tissues (true leaves). In contrast to SDH2-3 transcripts, SDH2-1 and SDH2-2 transcripts are barely detected in dry seeds and increase during germination and post-germinative growth. The opposite expression patterns of SDH2 nuclear genes strongly suggest that during germination the embryo-specific SDH2-3 is replaced by SDH2-1 or SDH2-2 in mitochondrial complex II.

  8. Quantitative analyses of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) large-subunit genes (cbbL) in typical paddy soils.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ke-Qing; Bao, Peng; Bao, Qiong-Li; Jia, Yan; Huang, Fu-Yi; Su, Jian-Qiang; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2014-01-01

    The Calvin cycle is known to be the major pathway for CO2 fixation, but our current understanding of its occurrence and importance in paddy soils is poor. In this study, the diversity of three ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large-subunit genes (cbbLG, cbbLR, cbbM) was investigated by clone library, T-RFLP, qPCR, and enzyme assay in five paddy soils in China. The cbbLG sequences revealed a relatively low level of diversity and were mostly related to the sequences of species from Thiobacillus. In contrast, highly diverse cbbLR and cbbM sequences were dispersed on the phylogenetic trees, and most of them were distantly related to known sequences, even forming separate clusters. Abundances of three cbbL genes ranged from 10(6) to 10(9) copies g(-1) soil, and cbbLR outnumbered cbbM and cbbLG in all soil samples, indicating that cbbLR may play a more important role than other two cbbL genes. Soil properties significantly influenced cbbL diversity in five paddy soils, of which clay content, C/N ratio, CEC, pH, and SOC correlated well with variations in microbial composition and abundance. In summary, this study provided a comparison of three cbbL genes, advancing our understanding of their role in carbon sequestration and nutrient turnover in the paddy soil. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mapping of the human cone transducin {alpha} subunit (GNAT2) gene to 1p13 and mutation analysis in patients with Stargardt`s disease

    SciTech Connect

    Magovcevic, I.; Weremowicz, S.; Morton, C.C.

    Transducin {alpha} subunits are members of a large family of G-proteins and play an important role in phototransduction in rod and cone photoreceptors. We report the localization of the human cone {alpha} transducin (GNAT2) gene using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on chromosome 1 in band p13. The recent assignment of a gene for Stargardt`s disease to the same chromosomal region by linkage analysis prompted us to investigate the possible role of GNAT2 in the pathogenesis of this disease. Stargardt`s disease is characterized by degeneration in late childhood or early adulthood of the macula of the retina, a region richmore » in cones. We screened patients with Stargardt`s disease, with or without peripheral cone involvement as monitored by the full-field ERG, for mutations in this gene. We investigated 66 unrelated patients including 22 with peripheral cone dysfunction for mutations in the coding region of the GNAT2 gene using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP) and direct sequencing. One patient (034-16) was heterozygous for a silent change in exon VI, Asp238Asp (GAT to GAC). Two patients, one (035-005) with peripheral cone involvement and one (071-001) without peripheral cone involvement, were heterozygous for the missense change Val124Met (GTG to ATG) in exon IV. A subsequent screen of 96 unrelated, unaffected controls revealed one individual (N10) who was also heterozygous for the Val124Met alteration. We concluded that Asp238Asp and Val124Met are rare variants not causing Stargardt`s disease. Hence, no disease-specific mutations were found indicating that GNAT2 is probably not involved in the pathogenesis of most cases of Stargardt`s disease.« less

  10. Partial gene sequences for the A subunit of methyl-coenzyme M reductase (mcrI) as a phylogenetic tool for the family Methanosarcinaceae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, E.; Sachs, M. S.; Woese, C. R.; Boone, D. R.

    1995-01-01

    Representatives of the family Methanosarcinaceae were analyzed phylogenetically by comparing partial sequences of their methyl-coenzyme M reductase (mcrI) genes. A 490-bp fragment from the A subunit of the gene was selected, amplified by the PCR, cloned, and sequenced for each of 25 strains belonging to the Methanosarcinaceae. The sequences obtained were aligned with the corresponding portions of five previously published sequences, and all of the sequences were compared to determine phylogenetic distances by Fitch distance matrix methods. We prepared analogous trees based on 16S rRNA sequences; these trees corresponded closely to the mcrI trees, although the mcrI sequences of pairs of organisms had 3.01 +/- 0.541 times more changes than the respective pairs of 16S rRNA sequences, suggesting that the mcrI fragment evolved about three times more rapidly than the 16S rRNA gene. The qualitative similarity of the mcrI and 16S rRNA trees suggests that transfer of genetic information between dissimilar organisms has not significantly affected these sequences, although we found inconsistencies between some mcrI distances that we measured and and previously published DNA reassociation data. It is unlikely that multiple mcrI isogenes were present in the organisms that we examined, because we found no major discrepancies in multiple determinations of mcrI sequences from the same organism. Our primers for the PCR also match analogous sites in the previously published mcrII sequences, but all of the sequences that we obtained from members of the Methanosarcinaceae were more closely related to mcrI sequences than to mcrII sequences, suggesting that members of the Methanosarcinaceae do not have distinct mcrII genes.

  11. Gene expression of subunits of the IL-12 family cytokines in moDCs derived in vitro from the cord blood of children of healthy and allergic mothers.

    PubMed

    Hrdý, J; Novotná, O; Kocourková, I; Prokešová, L

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of allergic diseases is steadily increasing an urgent need to clarify the immunologic processes which occur early in life and signal an increased risk of possible future allergy development. The ratio and maturation state of DCs together with the cytokine environment are important in directing and modulating immune responses. The maturation state (presence of CD83) of cord blood monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) of 52 children of healthy mothers and 58 children of allergic mothers was estimated by flow cytometry. The capacity of moDCs to express genes for subunits of IL-12 family cytokines was monitored using real-time PCR and protein secretion in cell culture supernatants by ELISA. The percentage of CD83+ moDCs was significantly higher in the allergic group after LPS stimulation (43.11 ± 4.41) in comparison to the healthy group (24.85 ± 3.37). Significantly higher gene expression of subunits of IL-12 family members was observed in moDCs of children of allergic mothers, in comparison with children of healthy mothers. The differences were evident mainly after LPS stimulation of moDCs (healthy group: p19: 3.05 ± 1.24; p28: 14.8 ± 6.8; p35: 1.8 ± 0.6; p40: 8.0 ± 3.5; EBI3: 3.0 ± 1.2; allergic group: p19: 6.1 ± 2.7; p28: 61.4 ± 22.2; p35: 14.9 ± 6.5; p40: 36.4 ± 18.8; EBI3: 11.3 ± 3.2), with the exception of p28, whose expression was significantly higher in the allergic group even without stimulation (healthy group: 0.28 ± 0.12, allergic group: 0.87 ± 0.62). No significant difference between the healthy and allergic groups was found at the protein level. The observation of both increased presence of cell surface activation marker on moDCs and higher IL-12 family gene expression in LPS-stimulated moDCs of children of allergic mothers indicates a higher reactivity of these cells.

  12. Expression of TaCYP78A3, a gene encoding cytochrome P450 CYP78A3 protein in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), affects seed size.

    PubMed

    Ma, Meng; Wang, Qian; Li, Zhanjie; Cheng, Huihui; Li, Zhaojie; Liu, Xiangli; Song, Weining; Appels, Rudi; Zhao, Huixian

    2015-07-01

    Several studies have described quantitative trait loci (QTL) for seed size in wheat, but the relevant genes and molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we report the functional characterization of the wheat TaCYP78A3 gene and its effect on seed size. TaCYP78A3 encoded wheat cytochrome P450 CYP78A3, and was specifically expressed in wheat reproductive organs. TaCYP78A3 activity was positively correlated with the final seed size. Its silencing caused a reduction of cell number in the seed coat, resulting in an 11% decrease in wheat seed size, whereas TaCYP78A3 over-expression induced production of more cells in the seed coat, leading to an 11-48% increase in Arabidopsis seed size. In addition, the cell number in the final seed coat was determined by the TaCYP78A3 expression level, which affected the extent of integument cell proliferation in the developing ovule and seed. Unfortunately, TaCYP78A3 over-expression in Arabidopsis caused a reduced seed set due to an ovule developmental defect. Moreover, TaCYP78A3 over-expression affected embryo development by promoting embryo integument cell proliferation during seed development, which also ultimately affected the final seed size in Arabidopsis. In summary, our results indicated that TaCYP78A3 plays critical roles in influencing seed size by affecting the extent of integument cell proliferation. The present study provides direct evidence that TaCYP78A3 affects seed size in wheat, and contributes to an understanding of the cellular basis of the gene influencing seed development. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. PRDM16 enhances nuclear receptor-dependent transcription of the brown fat-specific Ucp1 gene through interactions with Mediator subunit MED1.

    PubMed

    Iida, Satoshi; Chen, Wei; Nakadai, Tomoyoshi; Ohkuma, Yoshiaki; Roeder, Robert G

    2015-02-01

    PR domain-containing 16 (PRDM16) induces expression of brown fat-specific genes in brown and beige adipocytes, although the underlying transcription-related mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, in vitro studies show that PRDM16, through its zinc finger domains, directly interacts with the MED1 subunit of the Mediator complex, is recruited to the enhancer of the brown fat-specific uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) gene through this interaction, and enhances thyroid hormone receptor (TR)-driven transcription in a biochemically defined system in a Mediator-dependent manner, thus providing a direct link to the general transcription machinery. Complementary cell-based studies show that upon forskolin treatment, PRDM16 induces Ucp1 expression in undifferentiated murine embryonic fibroblasts, that this induction depends on MED1 and TR, and, consistent with a direct effect, that PRDM16 is recruited to the Ucp1 enhancer. Related studies have defined MED1 and PRDM16 interaction domains important for Ucp1 versus Ppargc1a induction by PRDM16. These results reveal novel mechanisms for PRDM16 function through the Mediator complex. © 2015 Iida et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  14. CCAAT-binding factor regulates expression of the beta1 subunit of soluble guanylyl cyclase gene in the BE2 human neuroblastoma cell line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharina, Iraida G.; Martin, Emil; Thomas, Anthony; Uray, Karen L.; Murad, Ferid

    2003-01-01

    Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is a cytosolic enzyme producing the intracellular messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) on activation with nitric oxide (NO). sGC is an obligatory heterodimer composed of alpha and beta subunits. We investigated human beta1 sGC transcriptional regulation in BE2 human neuroblastoma cells. The 5' upstream region of the beta1 sGC gene was isolated and analyzed for promoter activity by using luciferase reporter constructs. The transcriptional start site of the beta1 sGC gene in BE2 cells was identified. The functional significance of consensus transcriptional factor binding sites proximal to the transcriptional start site was investigated by site deletions in the 800-bp promoter fragment. The elimination of CCAAT-binding factor (CBF) and growth factor independence 1 (GFI1) binding cores significantly diminished whereas deletion of the NF1 core elevated the transcription. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assay (EMSA) and Western analysis of proteins bound to biotinated EMSA probes confirmed the interaction of GFI1, CBF, and NF1 factors with the beta1 sGC promoter. Treatment of BE2 cells with genistein, known to inhibit the CBF binding to DNA, significantly reduced protein levels of beta1 sGC by inhibiting transcription. In summary, our study represents an analysis of the human beta1 sGC promoter regulation in human neuroblastoma BE2 cells and identifies CBF as a critically important factor in beta1 sGC expression.

  15. Polymorphism of follicle stimulating hormone beta (FSHβ) subunit gene and its association with litter traits in giant panda.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoyu; Li, Desheng; Wang, Jiwen; Huang, Yan; Han, Chunchun; Zhang, Guiquan; Huang, Zhi; Wu, Honglin; Wei, Ming; Wang, Guosong; Hu, Haiping; Deng, Tao; He, Tao; Zhou, Yingming; Song, Shixian; Luo, Bo; Zhang, Heming

    2013-11-01

    The different SSCP patterns of the follicle stimulating hormone beta (FSHβ) gene amplified by three pairs of primers were sequenced. Comparisons among the three nucleotide sequences of three genotypes indicated that three base substitutions (A213T, A91G, and A89C) were detected in FSHβ gene, which A213T substitution led to one amino acids mutation (Lys > Met), and the other two substitutions were synonymous mutations. The AA, AB and BB genotypes patterns obtained by FSHβ primer1 had evident relation with the litter traits, but the SSCP genotypes patterns obtained by FSHβ primer2 and primer3 had no evident relation with the litter traits in giant panda. The giant panda with AA and AB genotype had the largest litter size and multiparity rate compared with the BB genotypes (P < 0.05). We speculated that the giant pandas with the A allele have better litter traits than those with the B allele.

  16. Rice gene SDL/RNRS1, encoding the small subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, is required for chlorophyll synthesis and plant growth development.

    PubMed

    Qin, Ran; Zeng, Dongdong; Liang, Rong; Yang, Chengcong; Akhter, Delara; Alamin, Md; Jin, Xiaoli; Shi, Chunhai

    2017-09-05

    A new mutant named sdl (stripe and drooping leaf) was characterized from indica cultivar Zhenong 34 by ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis. The mutant sdl exhibited development defects including stripe and drooping leaf, dwarfism and deformed floral organs. The gene SDL was found allelic to RNRS1 by map-based cloning, which was homologous to Arabidopsis TSO2 encoding the small subunit of ribonucleotide reductase. The gDNA sequencing results of sdl in mutant showed that there was a repetitive sequence insertion of 138-bp at the 475 th bp in the exon. The redundant sequence was conserved in SDL homologous proteins, which contained the active site (tyrosine), as well as two amino acids glutamate and histidine involved in the binding of iron. There were fewer chloroplasts and grana lamellas in sdl leaf compared with those of wild-type. Additionally, the stripe leaves of sdl seedlings were highly sensitive to temperature, since the chlorophyll content was increased with the temperature rising. The drooping leaf of sdl might be resulted from the disappearance of vascular bundles and mesophyll cells in both leaf midrib and lateral veins. Fittingly to the phenotypes of mutant sdl, the expression levels of genes associated with photosynthesis and chlorophyll synthesis were found to be down- or up-regulated at different temperatures in mutant sdl. Also, the transcriptional levels of genes related to plant height and floral organ formation showed obvious differences between wild-type and sdl. The "SDL/RNRS1" was, hence, required for the chlorophyll biosynthesis and also played pleiotropic roles in the regulation of plant development. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Lack of association between temporal lobe epilepsy and a novel polymorphism in the alpha 2 subunit gene (ATP1A2) of the sodium potassium transporting ATPase.

    PubMed

    Buono, R J; Ferraro, T N; O'Connor, M J; Sperling, M R; Abbey, M; Finanger, E; Lohoff, F; Mulholland, N; Berrettini, W H

    2000-02-07

    Genetic linkage studies in rodents and humans have identified specific chromosomal regions harboring seizure susceptibility genes. We have identified a novel polymorphism in the human alpha 2 subunit gene (ATP1A2) of the sodium potassium transporting ATPase (NaK-pump), a candidate gene for human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) based on its chromosomal location and function in ion homeostasis. The polymorphism consists of a four base pair insertion 12 base pairs upstream of the start of exon 2. We performed an association study between this polymorphism and TLE. Our study did not find a significant difference in the frequency of this polymorphism between TLE patients and controls, indicating that this variation is not a major susceptibility factor. However, since the number of patients studied so far is small and the functional consequence of the polymorphism is unknown, the variation may yet be found to play a minor role in increased risk for seizure susceptibility. In contrast to the findings in TLE patients and controls, we did find a significant difference in the frequency of the variation between African Americans and persons of European descent. This finding demonstrates the potential effect of population stratification on studies of this type and supports the growing use of parental and familial samples for controls in association studies. Further study of this polymorphism is warranted as it may be involved in other disease processes for which there are known ethnic-specific susceptibilities. Am. J. Med. Genet. (Neuropsychiatr. Genet.) 96:79-83, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. A multilevel prediction of physiological response to challenge: Interactions among child maltreatment, neighborhood crime, endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (eNOS), and GABA(A) receptor subunit alpha-6 gene (GABRA6).

    PubMed

    Lynch, Michael; Manly, Jody Todd; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-11-01

    Physiological response to stress has been linked to a variety of healthy and pathological conditions. The current study conducted a multilevel examination of interactions among environmental toxins (i.e., neighborhood crime and child maltreatment) and specific genetic polymorphisms of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (eNOS) and GABA(A) receptor subunit alpha-6 gene (GABRA6). One hundred eighty-six children were recruited at age 4. The presence or absence of child maltreatment as well as the amount of crime that occurred in their neighborhood during the previous year were determined at that time. At age 9, the children were brought to the lab, where their physiological response to a cognitive challenge (i.e., change in the amplitude of the respiratory sinus arrhythmia) was assessed and DNA samples were collected for subsequent genotyping. The results confirmed that complex Gene × Gene, Environment × Environment, and Gene × Environment interactions were associated with different patterns of respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity. The implications for future research and evidence-based intervention are discussed.

  19. Nuclear respiratory factor 2 regulates the expression of the same NMDA receptor subunit genes as NRF-1: both factors act by a concurrent and parallel mechanism to couple energy metabolism and synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Priya, Anusha; Johar, Kaid; Wong-Riley, Margaret T T

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal activity and energy metabolism are tightly coupled processes. Previously, we found that nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) transcriptionally co-regulates energy metabolism and neuronal activity by regulating all 13 subunits of the critical energy generating enzyme, cytochrome c oxidase (COX), as well as N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits 1 and 2B, GluN1 (Grin1) and GluN2B (Grin2b). We also found that another transcription factor, nuclear respiratory factor 2 (NRF-2 or GA-binding protein) regulates all subunits of COX as well. The goal of the present study was to test our hypothesis that NRF-2 also regulates specific subunits of NMDA receptors, and that it functions with NRF-1 via one of three mechanisms: complementary, concurrent and parallel, or a combination of complementary and concurrent/parallel. By means of multiple approaches, including in silico analysis, electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays, in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation of mouse neuroblastoma cells and rat visual cortical tissue, promoter mutations, real-time quantitative PCR, and western blot analysis, NRF-2 was found to functionally regulate Grin1 and Grin2b genes, but not any other NMDA subunit genes. Grin1 and Grin2b transcripts were up-regulated by depolarizing KCl, but silencing of NRF-2 prevented this up-regulation. On the other hand, over-expression of NRF-2 rescued the down-regulation of these subunits by the impulse blocker TTX. NRF-2 binding sites on Grin1 and Grin2b are conserved among species. Our data indicate that NRF-2 and NRF-1 operate in a concurrent and parallel manner in mediating the tight coupling between energy metabolism and neuronal activity at the molecular level. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Genetic Diversity among Clostridium botulinum Strains Harboring bont/A2 and bont/A3 Genes

    PubMed Central

    Raphael, Brian H.; Joseph, Lavin A.; Meno, Sarah R.; Fernández, Rafael A.; Maslanka, Susan E.

    2012-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum type A strains are known to be genetically diverse and widespread throughout the world. Genetic diversity studies have focused mainly on strains harboring one type A botulinum toxin gene, bont/A1, although all reported bont/A gene variants have been associated with botulism cases. Our study provides insight into the genetic diversity of C. botulinum type A strains, which contain bont/A2 (n = 42) and bont/A3 (n = 4) genes, isolated from diverse samples and geographic origins. Genetic diversity was assessed by using bont nucleotide sequencing, content analysis of the bont gene clusters, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Sequences of bont genes obtained in this study showed 99.9 to 100% identity with other bont/A2 or bont/A3 gene sequences available in public databases. The neurotoxin gene clusters of the subtype A2 and A3 strains analyzed in this study were similar in gene content. C. botulinum strains harboring bont/A2 and bont/A3 genes were divided into six and two MLST profiles, respectively. Four groups of strains shared a similarity of at least 95% by PFGE; the largest group included 21 out of 46 strains. The strains analyzed in this study showed relatively limited genetic diversity using either MLST or PFGE. PMID:23042179

  1. Cholera toxin B-subunit gene enhances mucosal immunoglobulin A, Th1-type, and CD8+ cytotoxic responses when coadministered intradermally with a DNA vaccine.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Alba E; Aquino, Guillermo; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Laclette, Juan P; Rocha-Zavaleta, Leticia

    2004-07-01

    A plasmid vector encoding the cholera toxin B subunit (pCtB) was evaluated as an intradermal genetic adjuvant for a model DNA vaccine expressing the human papillomavirus type 16 L1 capsid gene (p16L1) in mice. p16L1 was coadministered with plasmid pCtB or commercial polypeptide CtB as a positive control. Coadministration of pCtB induced a significant increment of specific anti-L1 immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies in cervical secretions (P < 0.05) and fecal extracts (P < 0.005). Additionally, coadministration of pCtB enhanced the production of interleukin-2 and gamma interferon by spleen cells but did not affect the production of interleukin-4, suggesting a Th1-type helper response. Furthermore, improved CD8+ T-cell-mediated cytotoxic activity was observed in mice vaccinated with the DNA vaccine with pCtB as an adjuvant. This adjuvant effect was comparable to that induced by the CtB polypeptide. These results indicate that intradermal coadministration of pCtB is an adequate means to enhance the mucosa-, Th1-, and CD8(+)-mediated cytotoxic responses induced by a DNA vaccine.

  2. Genetic structure of the snakehead murrel, Channa striata (channidae) based on the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene: Influence of historical and geomorphological factors.

    PubMed

    Jamsari, Amirul Firdaus Jamaluddin; Jamaluddin, Jamsari Amirul Firdaus; Pau, Tan Min; Siti-Azizah, Mohd Nor

    2011-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences of a partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene were used to assess the manner in which historical processes and geomorphological effects may have influenced genetic structuring and phylogeographic patterns in Channa striata. Assaying was based on individuals from twelve populations in four river systems, which were separated into two regions, the eastern and western, of the biodiversely rich state of Perak in central Peninsular Malaysia. In 238 specimens, a total of 368-bp sequences with ten polymorphic sites and eleven unique haplotypes were detected. Data on all the twelve populations revealed incomplete divergence due to past historical coalescence and the short period of separation. Nevertheless, SAMOVA and F(ST) revealed geographical structuring existed to a certain extent in both regions. For the eastern region, the data also showed that the upstream populations were genetically significantly different compared to the mid- and downstream ones. It is inferred that physical barriers and historical processes played a dominant role in structuring the genetic dispersal of the species. A further inference is that the Grik, Tanjung Rambutan and Sungkai are potential candidates for conservation and aquaculture programmes since they contained most of the total diversity in this area.

  3. Genetic structure of the snakehead murrel, Channa striata (channidae) based on the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene: Influence of historical and geomorphological factors

    PubMed Central

    Jamaluddin, Jamsari Amirul Firdaus; Pau, Tan Min; Siti-Azizah, Mohd Nor

    2011-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences of a partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene were used to assess the manner in which historical processes and geomorphological effects may have influenced genetic structuring and phylogeographic patterns in Channa striata. Assaying was based on individuals from twelve populations in four river systems, which were separated into two regions, the eastern and western, of the biodiversely rich state of Perak in central Peninsular Malaysia. In 238 specimens, a total of 368-bp sequences with ten polymorphic sites and eleven unique haplotypes were detected. Data on all the twelve populations revealed incomplete divergence due to past historical coalescence and the short period of separation. Nevertheless, SAMOVA and FST revealed geographical structuring existed to a certain extent in both regions. For the eastern region, the data also showed that the upstream populations were genetically significantly different compared to the mid- and downstream ones. It is inferred that physical barriers and historical processes played a dominant role in structuring the genetic dispersal of the species. A further inference is that the Grik, Tanjung Rambutan and Sungkai are potential candidates for conservation and aquaculture programmes since they contained most of the total diversity in this area. PMID:21637559

  4. Further consideration of the phylogeny of some "traditional" heterotrichs (Protista, Ciliophora) of uncertain affinities, based on new sequences of the small subunit rRNA gene.

    PubMed

    Miao, Miao; Song, Weibo; Clamp, John C; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Al-Arifi, Saud

    2009-01-01

    The systematic relationships and taxonomic positions of the traditional heterotrich genera Condylostentor, Climacostomum, Fabrea, Folliculina, Peritromus, and Condylostoma, as well as the licnophorid genus Licnophora, were re-examined using new data from sequences of the gene coding for small subunit ribosomal RNA. Trees constructed using distance-matrix, Bayesian inference, and maximum-parsimony methods all showed the following relationships: (1) the "traditional" heterotrichs consist of several paraphyletic groups, including the current classes Heterotrichea, Armophorea and part of the Spirotrichea; (2) the class Heterotrichea was confirmed as a monophyletic assemblage based on our analyses of 31 taxa, and the genus Peritromus was demonstrated to be a peripheral group; (3) the genus Licnophora occupied an isolated branch on one side of the deepest divergence in the subphylum Intramacronucleata and was closely affiliated with spirotrichs, armophoreans, and clevelandellids; (4) Condylostentor, a recently defined genus with several truly unique morphological features, is more closely related to Condylostoma than to Stentor; (5) Folliculina, Eufolliculina, and Maristentor always clustered together with high bootstrap support; and (6) Climacostomum occupied a paraphyletic position distant from Fabrea, showing a close relationship with Condylostomatidae and Chattonidiidae despite of modest support.

  5. Is the c.3G>C mutation in the succinate dehydrogenase subunit D (SDHD) gene due to a founder effect in Chinese head and neck paraganglioma patients?

    PubMed

    Zha, Yang; Chen, Xing-ming; Lam, Ching-wan; Lee, Soo-chin; Tong, Sui-fan; Gao, Zhi-qiang

    2011-08-01

    Three Chinese patients with head and neck paragangliomas have been reported to carry the c.3G>C mutation in the succinate dehydrogenase subunit D (SDHD) gene. In addition, in our hospital, two further patients were identified who have the same mutation. It is unclear whether the c.3G>C mutation in Chinese patients is a recurrent mutation or if it is due to a founder effect. We conducted haplotype analysis on these patients to answer this question. Individual case-control study. Germ-line mutations were confirmed in the patients and their families examined in this study using direct sequencing. We also constructed and analyzed haplotypes in four Chinese families. Genotype frequencies were compared to the control group. Three of four families shared the same haplotype, which rarely occurred in the control group. The last family shared a very short area on the physical map with the other three families. There is a founder effect in Chinese head and neck paraganglioma patients carrying the SDHD c.3G>C mutation. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Extensive frameshift at all AGG and CCC codons in the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene of Perkinsus marinus (Alveolata; Dinoflagellata).

    PubMed

    Masuda, Isao; Matsuzaki, Motomichi; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2010-10-01

    Diverse mitochondrial (mt) genetic systems have evolved independently of the more uniform nuclear system and often employ modified genetic codes. The organization and genetic system of dinoflagellate mt genomes are particularly unusual and remain an evolutionary enigma. We determined the sequence of full-length cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) mRNA of the earliest diverging dinoflagellate Perkinsus and show that this gene resides in the mt genome. Apparently, this mRNA is not translated in a single reading frame with standard codon usage. Our examination of the nucleotide sequence and three-frame translation of the mRNA suggest that the reading frame must be shifted 10 times, at every AGG and CCC codon, to yield a consensus COX1 protein. We suggest two possible mechanisms for these translational frameshifts: a ribosomal frameshift in which stalled ribosomes skip the first bases of these codons or specialized tRNAs recognizing non-triplet codons, AGGY and CCCCU. Regardless of the mechanism, active and efficient machinery would be required to tolerate the frameshifts predicted in Perkinsus mitochondria. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of translational frameshifts in protist mitochondria and, by far, is the most extensive case in mitochondria.

  7. RNA polymerase beta-subunit gene (rpoB) sequence analysis for the identification of Bacteroides spp.

    PubMed

    Ko, K S; Kuwahara, T; Haehwa, L; Yoon, Y-J; Kim, B-J; Lee, K-H; Ohnishi, Y; Kook, Y-H

    2007-01-01

    Partial rpoB sequences (317 bp) of 11 species of Bacteroides, two Porphyromonas spp. and two Prevotella spp. were compared to delineate the genetic relationships among Bacteroides and closely related anaerobic species. The high level of inter-species sequence dissimilarities (7.6-20.8%) allowed the various Bacteroides spp. to be distinguished. The position of the Bacteroides distasonis and Bacteriodes merdae cluster in the rpoB tree was different from the position in the 16S rRNA gene tree. Based on rpoB sequence similarity and clustering in the rpoB tree, it was possible to correctly re-identify 80 clinical isolates of Bacteroides. In addition to two subgroups, cfiA-negative (division I) and cfiA-positive (division II), of Bacteroides fragilis isolates, two distinct subgroups were also found among Bacteroides ovatus and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron isolates. Bacteroides genus-specific rpoB PCR and B. fragilis species-specific rpoB PCR allowed Bacteroides spp. to be differentiated from Porphyromonas and Prevotella spp., and also allowed B. fragilis to be differentiated from other non-fragilisBacteroides spp. included in the present study.

  8. Induced expression of hepatic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2C subunit gene during liver enlargement induced by lead nitrate, a hepatocellular mitogen.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Kiyomitsu; Ikeda, Ayaka; Hikida, Tokihiro; Kojima, Misaki; Degawa, Masakuni

    2013-02-01

    We previously demonstrated the super-induced expression of the Grin2c gene encoding the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2C subunit during the development of liver enlargement with hepatocellular hypertrophy induced by phenobarbital, clofibrate, or piperonyl butoxide. In the present study, we assessed whether or not Grin2c gene expression was induced during the development of chemically induced liver enlargement with hyperplasia. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSPs), and SHRSP's normotensive control, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, were administered lead nitrate (LN) (0.1 mmol/kg, single i.v.), a direct inducer of liver hyperplasia, and changes in the level of Grin2c mRNA in the liver were assessed by real-time RT-PCR. The level of hepatic Grin2c mRNA was significantly higher 6-48 hr after the injection in SD rats (about 30~40- and 70-fold over the control at 6~24 hr and 48 hr, respectively) and in WKY rats (about 20-fold over the control only at 12 hr), but was not significantly higher in SHRSPs. Such differences in LN-induced levels of Grin2c mRNA among SD rats, WKY rats, and SHRSPs were closely correlated with those in the previously reported increase in liver weight 48 hr after LN administration. The present findings suggest that the increase in the level of hepatic Grin2c mRNA relates to development of chemically induced liver enlargement with hyperplasia.

  9. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic relationships among microsporidian isolates infecting silkworm, Bombyx mori using small subunit rRNA (SSU-rRNA) gene sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Nath, B Surendra; Gupta, S K; Bajpai, A K

    2012-12-01

    The life cycle, spore morphology, pathogenicity, tissue specificity, mode of transmission and small subunit rRNA (SSU-rRNA) gene sequence analysis of the five new microsporidian isolates viz., NIWB-11bp, NIWB-12n, NIWB-13md, NIWB-14b and NIWB-15mb identified from the silkworm, Bombyx mori have been studied along with type species, NIK-1s_mys. The life cycle of the microsporidians identified exhibited the sequential developmental cycles that are similar to the general developmental cycle of the genus, Nosema. The spores showed considerable variations in their shape, length and width. The pathogenicity observed was dose-dependent and differed from each of the microsporidian isolates; the NIWB-15mb was found to be more virulent than other isolates. All of the microsporidians were found to infect most of the tissues examined and showed gonadal infection and transovarial transmission in the infected silkworms. SSU-rRNA sequence based phylogenetic tree placed NIWB-14b, NIWB-12n and NIWB-11bp in a separate branch along with other Nosema species and Nosema bombycis; while NIWB-15mb and NIWB-13md together formed another cluster along with other Nosema species. NIK-1s_mys revealed a signature sequence similar to standard type species, N. bombycis, indicating that NIK-1s_mys is similar to N. bombycis. Based on phylogenetic relationships, branch length information based on genetic distance and nucleotide differences, we conclude that the microsporidian isolates identified are distinctly different from the other known species and belonging to the genus, Nosema. This SSU-rRNA gene sequence analysis method is found to be more useful approach in detecting different and closely related microsporidians of this economically important domestic insect.

  10. Differential Expression of P450 Genes and nAChR Subunits Associated With Imidacloprid Resistance in Laodelphax striatellus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yueliang; Liu, Baosheng; Zhang, Zhichun; Wang, Lihua; Guo, Huifang; Li, Zhong; He, Peng; Liu, Zewen; Fang, Jichao

    2018-05-28

    Imidacloprid is a key insecticide used for controlling sucking insect pests, including the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus, Fallén) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), an important agricultural pest of rice. A strain of L. striatellus (YN-ILR) developed 21-fold resistance when selected with imidacloprid on a susceptible YN strain. An in vitro study on piperonyl butoxide synergism indicated that enhanced detoxification mediated by cytochrome P450s contributed to imidacloprid resistance to some extent, and multiple P450 genes showed altered expression in the imidacloprid-resistant YN-ILR strain compared with the susceptible YN strain (CYP425B1-CYP6BD10 had 1.51- to 11.45-fold higher expression, CYP4CE2-CYP4DD1V2 had 0.12- to 0.57-fold lower expression). While there were no mutations in target nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) genes, subunits of Lsα1, Lsβ1, and Lsβ3 in the YN-ILR strain showed 3.86-, 4.39-, and 2.59-fold higher expression and Lsa8 displayed 0.38-fold lower expression than the YN strain. Moreover, 21-fold moderate imidacloprid resistance in individuals of L. striatellus did not produce a fitness cost. The findings suggest that L. striatellus has the capacity to develop resistance to imidacloprid through P450 detoxification and potential target nAChR expression changes, and moderate imidacloprid resistance was not associated with a fitness cost.

  11. The Mitochondrial Genome of the Prasinophyte Prasinoderma coloniale Reveals Two Trans-Spliced Group I Introns in the Large Subunit rRNA Gene

    PubMed Central

    Pombert, Jean-François; Otis, Christian; Turmel, Monique; Lemieux, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Organelle genes are often interrupted by group I and or group II introns. Splicing of these mobile genetic occurs at the RNA level via serial transesterification steps catalyzed by the introns'own tertiary structures and, sometimes, with the help of external factors. These catalytic ribozymes can be found in cis or trans configuration, and although trans-arrayed group II introns have been known for decades, trans-spliced group I introns have been reported only recently. In the course of sequencing the complete mitochondrial genome of the prasinophyte picoplanktonic green alga Prasinoderma coloniale CCMP 1220 (Prasinococcales, clade VI), we uncovered two additional cases of trans-spliced group I introns. Here, we describe these introns and compare the 54,546 bp-long mitochondrial genome of Prasinoderma with those of four other prasinophytes (clades II, III and V). This comparison underscores the highly variable mitochondrial genome architecture in these ancient chlorophyte lineages. Both Prasinoderma trans-spliced introns reside within the large subunit rRNA gene (rnl) at positions where cis-spliced relatives, often containing homing endonuclease genes, have been found in other organelles. In contrast, all previously reported trans-spliced group I introns occur in different mitochondrial genes (rns or coxI). Each Prasinoderma intron is fragmented into two pieces, forming at the RNA level a secondary structure that resembles those of its cis-spliced counterparts. As observed for other trans-spliced group I introns, the breakpoint of the first intron maps to the variable loop L8, whereas that of the second is uniquely located downstream of P9.1. The breakpoint In each Prasinoderma intron corresponds to the same region where the open reading frame (ORF) occurs when present in cis-spliced orthologs. This correlation between the intron breakpoint and the ORF location in cis-spliced orthologs also holds for other trans-spliced introns; we discuss the possible implications

  12. Mutations in the PP2A regulatory subunit B family genes PPP2R5B, PPP2R5C and PPP2R5D cause human overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Loveday, Chey; Tatton-Brown, Katrina; Clarke, Matthew; Westwood, Isaac; Renwick, Anthony; Ramsay, Emma; Nemeth, Andrea; Campbell, Jennifer; Joss, Shelagh; Gardner, McKinlay; Zachariou, Anna; Elliott, Anna; Ruark, Elise; van Montfort, Rob; Rahman, Nazneen

    2015-09-01

    Overgrowth syndromes comprise a group of heterogeneous disorders characterised by excessive growth parameters, often in association with intellectual disability. To identify new causes of human overgrowth, we have been undertaking trio-based exome sequencing studies in overgrowth patients and their unaffected parents. Prioritisation of functionally relevant genes with multiple unique de novo mutations revealed four mutations in protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) regulatory subunit B family genes protein phosphatase 2, regulatory Subunit B', beta (PPP2R5B); protein phosphatase 2, regulatory Subunit B', gamma (PPP2R5C); and protein phosphatase 2, regulatory Subunit B', delta (PPP2R5D). This observation in 3 related genes in 111 individuals with a similar phenotype is greatly in excess of the expected number, as determined from gene-specific de novo mutation rates (P = 1.43 × 10(-10)). Analysis of exome-sequencing data from a follow-up series of overgrowth probands identified a further pathogenic mutation, bringing the total number of affected individuals to 5. Heterozygotes shared similar phenotypic features including increased height, increased head circumference and intellectual disability. The mutations clustered within a region of nine amino acid residues in the aligned protein sequences (P = 1.6 × 10(-5)). We mapped the mutations onto the crystal structure of the PP2A holoenzyme complex to predict their molecular and functional consequences. These studies suggest that the mutations may affect substrate binding, thus perturbing the ability of PP2A to dephosphorylate particular protein substrates. PP2A is a major negative regulator of v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (AKT). Thus, our data further expand the list of genes encoding components of the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signalling cascade that are disrupted in human overgrowth conditions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. [Molecular cloning of the DNA sequence of activin beta A subunit gene mature peptides from panda and related species and its application in the research of phylogeny and taxonomy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Jing; Wang, Xiao-Xing; Wang, Ya-Jun; Wang, Xi-Zhong; He, Guang-Xin; Chen, Hong-Wei; Fei, Li-Song

    2002-09-01

    Activin, which is included in the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF beta) superfamily of proteins and receptors, is known to have broad-ranging effects in the creatures. The mature peptide of beta A subunit of this gene, one of the most highly conserved sequence, can elevate the basal secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in the pituitary and FSH is pivotal to organism's reproduction. Reproduction block is one of the main reasons which cause giant panda to extinct. The sequence of Activin beta A subunit gene mature peptides has been successfully amplified from giant panda, red panda and malayan sun bear's genomic DNA by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with a pair of degenerate primers. The PCR products were cloned into the vector pBlueScript+ of Esherichia coli. Sequence analysis of Activin beta A subunit gene mature peptides shows that the length of this gene segment is the same (359 bp) and there is no intron in all three species. The sequence encodes a peptide of 119 amino acid residues. The homology comparison demonstrates 93.9% DNA homology and 99% homology in amino acid among these three species. Both GenBank blast search result and restriction enzyme map reveal that the sequences of Activin beta A subunit gene mature peptides of different species are highly conserved during the evolution process. Phylogeny analysis is performed with PHYLIP software package. A consistent phylogeny tree has been drawn with three different methods. The software analysis outcome accords with the academic view that giant panda has a closer relationship to the malayan sun bear than the red panda. Giant panda should be grouped into the bear family (Uersidae) with the malayan sun bear. As to the red panda, it would be better that this animal be grouped into the unique family (red panda family) because of great difference between the red panda and the bears (Uersidae).

  14. Tumour risks and genotype-phenotype correlations associated with germline variants in succinate dehydrogenase subunit genes SDHB, SDHC and SDHD.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Katrina A; Ascher, David B; Pires, Douglas Eduardo Valente; Barnes, Daniel R; Vialard, Lindsey; Casey, Ruth T; Bradshaw, Nicola; Adlard, Julian; Aylwin, Simon; Brennan, Paul; Brewer, Carole; Cole, Trevor; Cook, Jackie A; Davidson, Rosemarie; Donaldson, Alan; Fryer, Alan; Greenhalgh, Lynn; Hodgson, Shirley V; Irving, Richard; Lalloo, Fiona; McConachie, Michelle; McConnell, Vivienne P M; Morrison, Patrick J; Murday, Victoria; Park, Soo-Mi; Simpson, Helen L; Snape, Katie; Stewart, Susan; Tomkins, Susan E; Wallis, Yvonne; Izatt, Louise; Goudie, David; Lindsay, Robert S; Perry, Colin G; Woodward, Emma R; Antoniou, Antonis C; Maher, Eamonn R

    2018-06-01

    Germline pathogenic variants in SDHB/SDHC / SDHD are the most frequent causes of inherited phaeochromocytomas/paragangliomas. Insufficient information regarding penetrance and phenotypic variability hinders optimum management of mutation carriers. We estimate penetrance for symptomatic tumours and elucidate genotype-phenotype correlations in a large cohort of SDHB/SDHC / SDHD mutation carriers. A retrospective survey of 1832 individuals referred for genetic testing due to a personal or family history of phaeochromocytoma/paraganglioma. 876 patients (401 previously reported) had a germline mutation in SDHB/SDHC / SDHD (n=673/43/160). Tumour risks were correlated with in silico structural prediction analyses. Tumour risks analysis provided novel penetrance estimates and genotype-phenotype correlations. In addition to tumour type susceptibility differences for individual genes, we confirmed that the SDHD: p.Pro81Leu mutation has a distinct phenotype and identified increased age-related tumour risks with highly destabilising SDHB missense mutations. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, the penetrance (cumulative risk of clinically apparent tumours) in SDHB and (paternally inherited) SDHD mutation-positive non-probands (n=371/67 with detailed clinical information) by age 60 years was 21.8% (95% CI 15.2% to 27.9%) and 43.2% (95% CI 25.4% to 56.7%), respectively. Risk of malignant disease at age 60 years in non-proband SDHB mutation carriers was 4.2%(95% CI 1.1% to 7.2%). With retrospective cohort analysis to adjust for ascertainment, cumulative tumour risks for SDHB mutation carriers at ages 60 years and 80 years were 23.9% (95% CI 20.9% to 27.4%) and 30.6% (95% CI 26.8% to 34.7%). Overall risks of clinically apparent tumours for SDHB mutation carriers are substantially lower than initially estimated and will improve counselling of affected families. Specific genotype-tumour risk associations provides a basis for novel investigative strategies into succinate dehydrogenase

  15. Human Cytomegalovirus Resistance to Deoxyribosylindole Nucleosides Maps to a Transversion Mutation in the Terminase Subunit-Encoding Gene UL89

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Quang; Hall, Ellie D.; Breitenbach, Julie M.; Borysko, Katherine Z.; Kamil, Jeremy P.; Townsend, Leroy B.; Drach, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection can cause severe illnesses, including encephalopathy and mental retardation, in immunocompromised and immunologically immature patients. Current pharmacotherapies for treating systemic HCMV infections include ganciclovir, cidofovir, and foscarnet. However, long-term administration of these agents can result in serious adverse effects (myelosuppression and/or nephrotoxicity) and the development of viral strains with reduced susceptibility to drugs. The deoxyribosylindole (indole) nucleosides demonstrate a 20-fold greater activity in vitro (the drug concentration at which 50% of the number of plaques was reduced with the presence of drug compared to the number in the absence of drug [EC50] = 0.34 μM) than ganciclovir (EC50 = 7.4 μM) without any observed increase in cytotoxicity. Based on structural similarity to the benzimidazole nucleosides, we hypothesize that the indole nucleosides target the HCMV terminase, an enzyme responsible for packaging viral DNA into capsids and cleaving the DNA into genome-length units. To test this hypothesis, an indole nucleoside-resistant HCMV strain was isolated, the open reading frames of the genes that encode the viral terminase were sequenced, and a G766C mutation in exon 1 of UL89 was identified; this mutation resulted in an E256Q change in the amino acid sequence of the corresponding protein. An HCMV wild-type strain, engineered with this mutation to confirm resistance, demonstrated an 18-fold decrease in susceptibility to the indole nucleosides (EC50 = 3.1 ± 0.7 μM) compared to that of wild-type virus (EC50 = 0.17 ± 0.04 μM). Interestingly, this mutation did not confer resistance to the benzimidazole nucleosides (EC50 for wild-type HCMV = 0.25 ± 0.04 μM, EC50 for HCMV pUL89 E256Q = 0.23 ± 0.04 μM). We conclude, therefore, that the G766C mutation that results in the E256Q substitution is unique for indole nucleoside resistance and distinct from previously discovered substitutions

  16. The BAF60 Subunit of the SWI/SNF Chromatin-Remodeling Complex Directly Controls the Formation of a Gene Loop at FLOWERING LOCUS C in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Jégu, Teddy; Latrasse, David; Delarue, Marianne; Hirt, Heribert; Domenichini, Séverine; Ariel, Federico; Crespi, Martin; Bergounioux, Catherine; Raynaud, Cécile; Benhamed, Moussa

    2014-01-01

    SWI/SNF complexes mediate ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling to regulate gene expression. Many components of these complexes are evolutionarily conserved, and several subunits of Arabidopsis thaliana SWI/SNF complexes are involved in the control of flowering, a process that depends on the floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). BAF60 is a SWI/SNF subunit, and in this work, we show that BAF60, via a direct targeting of the floral repressor FLC, induces a change at the high-order chromatin level and represses the photoperiod flowering pathway in Arabidopsis. BAF60 accumulates in the nucleus and controls the formation of the FLC gene loop by modulation of histone density, composition, and posttranslational modification. Physiological analysis of BAF60 RNA interference mutant lines allowed us to propose that this chromatin-remodeling protein creates a repressive chromatin configuration at the FLC locus. PMID:24510722

  17. A deep intronic mutation in the SLC12A3 gene leads to Gitelman syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nozu, Kandai; Iijima, Kazumoto; Nozu, Yoshimi; Ikegami, Ei; Imai, Takehide; Fu, Xue Jun; Kaito, Hiroshi; Nakanishi, Koichi; Yoshikawa, Norishige; Matsuo, Masafumi

    2009-11-01

    Many mutations have been detected in the SLC12A3 gene of Gitelman syndrome (GS, OMIM 263800) patients. In previous studies, only one mutant allele was detected in approximately 20 to 41% of patients with GS; however, the exact reason for the nonidentification has not been established. In this study, we used RT-PCR using mRNA to investigate for the first time transcript abnormalities caused by deep intronic mutation. Direct sequencing analysis of leukocyte DNA identified one base insertion in exon 6 (c.818_819insG), but no mutation was detected in another allele. We analyzed RNA extracted from leukocytes and urine sediments and detected unknown sequence containing 238bp between exons 13 and 14. The genomic DNA analysis of intron 13 revealed a single-base substitution (c.1670-191C>T) that creates a new donor splice site within the intron resulting in the inclusion of a novel cryptic exon in mRNA. This is the first report of creation of a splice site by a deep intronic single-nucleotide change in GS and the first report to detect the onset mechanism in a patient with GS and missing mutation in one allele. This molecular onset mechanism may partly explain the poor success rate of mutation detection in both alleles of patients with GS.

  18. The efficacy of a nested PCR in detecting cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene of Sarcoptes scabiei var. Hominis for diagnosing scabies.

    PubMed

    Hahm, J E; Kim, C W; Kim, S S

    2018-04-06

    A widespread scabies infestation, associated to long-term residence in nursing homes, is becoming a serious issue in developed countries. Mineral oil examination is regarded as the gold standard in diagnosing scabies, but the sensitivity of this method is generally low-approximately 50%. Molecular tests may contribute to enhance the sensitivity of current tests for laboratory diagnosis of human scabies. In this study, we developed new primers for a nested PCR for the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis to increase the sensitivity of a previously developed conventional PCR. Clinically suspected scabies patients underwent dermoscopy-guided skin scraping with microscopic examination. The diagnosis was positive for scabies when mites or eggs were found under the microscope, and patients were then designated as 'microscopy-positive'. Patients in the 'microscopy-negative' group presented with negative microscopic results. Skin scrapings were collected from both groups for PCR. Of the total 63 samples, 28 were microscopy-positive and 35 were negative with no differences in sex and age between the two groups. All microscopically proven scabies cases were positive with the cox1 nested PCR. Among microscopy-negative ones, S. scabiei DNA was detected in 9 samples. If sensitivity of the cox1 nested PCR is considered 100% (95% CI, 90.51-100), then sensitivity of microscopy is 75.68% (95% CI, 58.80-88.23; P = 0.004). Nested PCR can be successfully used as an alternative method for diagnosing suspected scabies patient. Therefore, infection control measures and treatments can be initiated before significant transmission occurs, minimizing the risk of outbreaks. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of Forensically Important Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae Species Collected in Korea Using SNaPshot Multiplex System Targeting the Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit I Gene

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji Hye

    2018-01-01

    Estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) is paramount in modern forensic investigation. After the disappearance of the early postmortem phenomena conventionally used to estimate PMI, entomologic evidence provides important indicators for PMI estimation. The age of the oldest fly larvae or pupae can be estimated to pinpoint the time of oviposition, which is considered the minimum PMI (PMImin). The development rate of insects is usually temperature dependent and species specific. Therefore, species identification is mandatory for PMImin estimation using entomological evidence. The classical morphological identification method cannot be applied when specimens are damaged or have not yet matured. To overcome this limitation, some investigators employ molecular identification using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) nucleotide sequences. The molecular identification method commonly uses Sanger's nucleotide sequencing and molecular phylogeny, which are complex and time consuming and constitute another obstacle for forensic investigators. In this study, instead of using conventional Sanger's nucleotide sequencing, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the COI gene region, which are unique between fly species, were selected and targeted for single-base extension (SBE) technology. These SNPs were genotyped using a SNaPshot® kit. Eleven Calliphoridae and seven Sarcophagidae species were covered. To validate this genotyping, fly DNA samples (103 adults, 84 larvae, and 4 pupae) previously confirmed by DNA barcoding were used. This method worked quickly with minimal DNA, providing a potential alternative to conventional DNA barcoding. Consisting of only a few simple electropherogram peaks, the results were more straightforward compared with those of the conventional DNA barcoding produced by Sanger's nucleotide sequencing. PMID:29682531

  20. G-protein beta3 subunit gene variant is unlikely to have a significant influence on serum uric acid level in Japanese workers.

    PubMed

    Suwazono, Yasushi; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Uetani, Mirei; Miura, Katsuyuki; Morikawa, Yuko; Ishizaki, Masao; Kido, Teruhiko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Nogawa, Koji

    2006-06-01

    The C825T variant of the G-protein beta3 subunit (GNB3) gene has attracted renewed attention as a candidate gene for obesity, hypertension and hyperuricemia. The main role of G-protein is to translate signals from the cell surface into a cellular response. The 825T allele is associated with a splice variant of GNB3 protein and enhanced G-protein activation. We examined the relationship between this variant and the risk of hyperuricemia in Japanese workers. The study subjects were 1,452 men and 1,169 women selected from 3,834 men and 2,591 women in 1997. On the basis of common clinical criteria, hyperuricemia I was defined as serum uric acid >or= 7.0 mg/dl in men and 6.0 mg/dl in women or taking antihyperuricemic medication. The hyperuricemia I group consisted of 186 men and 20 women and its control of 1,266 men and 1,149 women. Hyperuricemia II was defined as serum uric acid > 5.7 mg/dl (median) in men and 3.9 mg/dl (median) in women or taking antihyperuricemic medication. The hyperuricemic II group consisted of 684 men and 570 women and its control of 768 men and 599 women. To replicate previous significant results in young Caucasian men, we selected these criteria because the authors of the study in young Caucasian men adopted the median in their subjects as a cut-off. The statistical power was estimated as 99% based on the significant results in Caucasians. Genotype and allele distributions in men and women with hyperuricemia I and II were not significantly different from those in the corresponding control groups. Logistic regression analysis on hyperuricemia I and II, and multiple regression on serum uric acid level demonstrated no significant effect of the C825T genotype. Despite the sufficient statistical power, this study could not demonstrate the significant influence of C825T on hyperuricemia or serum uric acid. The targeting of this polymorphism is unlikely to be beneficial in the prevention of hyperuricemia in the general Japanese population.

  1. The CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 nicotinic receptor subunit gene cluster affects risk for nicotine dependence in African-Americans and in European-Americans.

    PubMed

    Saccone, Nancy L; Wang, Jen C; Breslau, Naomi; Johnson, Eric O; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Saccone, Scott F; Grucza, Richard A; Sun, Lingwei; Duan, Weimin; Budde, John; Culverhouse, Robert C; Fox, Louis; Hinrichs, Anthony L; Steinbach, Joseph Henry; Wu, Meng; Rice, John P; Goate, Alison M; Bierut, Laura J

    2009-09-01

    Genetic association studies have shown the importance of variants in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 cholinergic nicotinic receptor subunit gene cluster on chromosome 15q24-25.1 for the risk of nicotine dependence, smoking, and lung cancer in populations of European descent. We have carried out a detailed study of this region using dense genotyping in both European-Americans and African-Americans. We genotyped 75 known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one sequencing-discovered SNP in an African-American sample (N = 710) and in a European-American sample (N = 2,062). Cases were nicotine-dependent and controls were nondependent smokers. The nonsynonymous CHRNA5 SNP rs16969968 is the most significant SNP associated with nicotine dependence in the full sample of 2,772 subjects [P = 4.49 x 10(-8); odds ratio (OR), 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.61] as well as in African-Americans only (P = 0.015; OR, 2.04; 1.15-3.62) and in European-Americans only (P = 4.14 x 10(-7); OR, 1.40; 1.23-1.59). Other SNPs that have been shown to affect the mRNA levels of CHRNA5 in European-Americans are associated with nicotine dependence in African-Americans but not in European-Americans. The CHRNA3 SNP rs578776, which has a low correlation with rs16969968, is associated with nicotine dependence in European-Americans but not in African-Americans. Less common SNPs (frequency gene cluster contribute to nicotine dependence risk, and some are also associated with functional effects on CHRNA5. The nonsynonymous SNP rs16969968, a known risk variant in populations of European-descent, is also significantly associated with risk in African-Americans. Additional SNPs contribute to risk in distinct ways in these two populations.

  2. Boric acid increases the expression levels of human anion exchanger genes SLC4A2 and SLC4A3.

    PubMed

    Akbas, F; Aydin, Z

    2012-04-03

    Boron is an important micronutrient in plants and animals. The role of boron in living systems includes coordinated regulation of gene expression, growth and proliferation of higher plants and animals. There are several well-defined genes associated with boron transportation and tolerance in plants and these genes show close homology with human anion exchanger genes. Mutation of these genes also characterizes some genetic disorders. We investigated the toxic effects of boric acid on HEK293 cells and mRNA expression of anion exchanger (SLC4A1, SLC4A2 and SLC4A3) genes. Cytotoxicity of boric acid at different concentrations was tested by using the methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay. Gene expression profiles were examined using quantitative real-time PCR. In the HEK293 cells, the nontoxic upper concentration of boric acid was 250 μM; more than 500 μM caused cytotoxicity. The 250 μM boric acid concentration increased gene expression level of SLC4A2 up to 8.6-fold and SLC4A3 up to 2.6-fold, after 36-h incubation. There was no significant effect of boric acid on SLC4A1 mRNA expression levels.

  3. Frequency of 3' VNTR Polymorphism in the Dopamine Transporter Gene SLC6A3 in Humans Predisposed to Antisocial Behavior.

    PubMed

    Cherepkova, E V; Aftanas, L I; Maksimov, N; Menshanov, P N

    2016-11-01

    Predisposition to antisocial behavior can be related to the presence of certain polymorphic variants of genes encoding dopaminergic system proteins. We studied the frequencies of allele variants and genotypes of variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in 3' untranslated region (3' VTNR) of the dopaminergic transporter SLC6A3 gene in Caucasian men committed socially dangerous violent and non-violent crimes. Alleles with 9 and 10 repeats were most frequent in both the control group and group of men predisposed to antisocial behavior. At the same time, the 10/10 genotype was more frequently observed in the group of men prone to antisocial non-violent behavior. Hence, the presence of certain variants of 3' VTNR polymorphism of SLC6A3 gene in men is associated with predisposition to certain forms of antisocial behavior.

  4. African swine fever virus encodes two genes which share significant homology with the two largest subunits of DNA-dependent RNA polymerases.

    PubMed Central

    Yáñez, R J; Boursnell, M; Nogal, M L; Yuste, L; Viñuela, E

    1993-01-01

    A random sequencing strategy applied to two large SalI restriction fragments (SB and SD) of the African swine fever virus (ASFV) genome revealed that they might encode proteins similar to the two largest RNA polymerase subunits of eukaryotes, poxviruses and Escherichia coli. After further mapping by dot-blot hybridization, two large open reading frames (ORFs) were completely sequenced. The first ORF (NP1450L) encodes a protein of 1450 amino acids with extensive similarity to the largest subunit of RNA polymerases. The second one (EP1242L) codes for a protein of 1242 amino acids similar to the second largest RNA polymerase subunit. Proteins NP1450L and EP1242L are more similar to the corresponding subunits of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II than to those of vaccinia virus, the prototype poxvirus, which shares many functional characteristics with ASFV. ORFs NP1450L and EP1242L are mainly expressed late in ASFV infection, after the onset of DNA replication. Images PMID:8506138

  5. Creating Knock-outs of Conserved Oligomeric Golgi complex subunits using CRISPR-mediated gene editing paired with a selection strategy based on glycosylation defects associated with impaired COG complex function

    PubMed Central

    Blackburn, Jessica Bailey; Lupashin, Vladimir V.

    2017-01-01

    Summary The Conserved Oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex is a key evolutionally conserved multisubunit protein machinery that regulates tethering and fusion of intra-Golgi transport vesicles. The Golgi apparatus specifically promotes sorting and complex glycosylation of glycoconjugates. Without proper glycosylation and processing, proteins and lipids will be mislocalized and/or have impaired function. The Golgi glycosylation machinery is kept in homeostasis by a careful balance of anterograde and retrograde trafficking to ensure proper localization of the glycosylation enzymes and their substrates. This balance, like other steps of membrane trafficking, is maintained by vesicle trafficking machinery that includes COPI vesicular coat proteins, SNAREs, Rabs, and both coiled-coil and multi-subunit vesicular tethers. COG complex interacts with other membrane trafficking components and is essential for proper localization of Golgi glycosylation machinery. Here we describe using CRISPR-mediated gene editing coupled with a phenotype-based selection strategy directly linked to the COG complex’s role in glycosylation homeostasis to obtain COG complex subunit knock-outs (KOs). This has resulted in clonal KOs for each COG subunit in HEK293T cells and gives the ability to further probe the role of the COG complex in Golgi homeostasis. PMID:27632008

  6. Isolation and characterization of cbbL and cbbS genes encoding form I ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large and small subunits in Nitrosomonas sp. strain ENI-11.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Ryuichi; Kato, Junichi; Morita, Hiromu; Kuroda, Akio; Ikeda, Tsukasa; Takiguchi, Noboru; Ohtake, Hisao

    2002-03-01

    The cbbL and cbbS genes encoding form I ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) large and small subunits in the ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas sp. strain ENI-11 were cloned and sequenced. The deduced gene products, CbbL and CbbS, had 93 and 87% identity with Thiobacillus intermedius CbbL and Nitrobacter winogradskyi CbbS, respectively. Expression of cbbL and cbbS in Escherichia coli led to the detection of RubisCO activity in the presence of 0.1 mM isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). To our knowledge, this is the first paper to report the genes involved in the carbon fixation reaction in chemolithotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria.

  7. Role of regulatory subunits and protein kinase inhibitor (PKI) in determining nuclear localization and activity of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A.

    PubMed

    Wiley, J C; Wailes, L A; Idzerda, R L; McKnight, G S

    1999-03-05

    Regulation of protein kinase A by subcellular localization may be critical to target catalytic subunits to specific substrates. We employed epitope-tagged catalytic subunit to correlate subcellular localization and gene-inducing activity in the presence of regulatory subunit or protein kinase inhibitor (PKI). Transiently expressed catalytic subunit distributed throughout the cell and induced gene expression. Co-expression of regulatory subunit or PKI blocked gene induction and prevented nuclear accumulation. A mutant PKI lacking the nuclear export signal blocked gene induction but not nuclear accumulation, demonstrating that nuclear export is not essential to inhibit gene induction. When the catalytic subunit was targeted to the nucleus with a nuclear localization signal, it was not sequestered in the cytoplasm by regulatory subunit, although its activity was completely inhibited. PKI redistributed the nuclear catalytic subunit to the cytoplasm and blocked gene induction, demonstrating that the nuclear export signal of PKI can override a strong nuclear localization signal. With increasing PKI, the export process appeared to saturate, resulting in the return of catalytic subunit to the nucleus. These results demonstrate that both the regulatory subunit and PKI are able to completely inhibit the gene-inducing activity of the catalytic subunit even when the catalytic subunit is forced to concentrate in the nuclear compartment.

  8. NR4A3 Suppresses Lymphomagenesis through Induction of Proapoptotic Genes.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Alexander J A; Rinner, Beate; Pichler, Martin; Prochazka, Katharina; Pansy, Katrin; Bischof, Marco; Fechter, Karoline; Hatzl, Stefan; Feichtinger, Julia; Wenzl, Kerstin; Frisch, Marie-Therese; Stiegelbauer, Verena; Prokesch, Andreas; Krogsdam, Anne; Sill, Heinz; Thallinger, Gerhard G; Greinix, Hildegard T; Wang, Chenguang; Beham-Schmid, Christine; Neumeister, Peter

    2017-05-01

    Nuclear orphan receptor NR4A1 exerts an essential tumor suppressor function in aggressive lymphomas. In this study, we investigated the hypothesized contribution of the related NR4A family member NR4A3 to lymphomagenesis. In aggressive lymphoma patients, low expression of NR4A3 was associated with poor survival. Ectopic expression or pharmacological activation of NR4A3 in lymphoma cell lines led to a significantly higher proportion of apoptotic cells. In a mouse NSG xenograft model of lymphoma (stably transduced SuDHL4 cells), NR4A3 expression abrogated tumor growth, compared with vector control and uninduced cells that formed massive tumors. Transcript analysis of four different aggressive lymphoma cell lines overexpressing either NR4A3 or NR4A1 revealed that apoptosis was driven similarly by induction of BAK, Puma, BIK, BIM, BID, and Trail. Overall, our results showed that NR4A3 possesses robust tumor suppressor functions of similar impact to NR4A1 in aggressive lymphomas. Cancer Res; 77(9); 2375-86. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Phenotype variability in a large Spanish family with Alport syndrome associated with novel mutations in COL4A3 gene.

    PubMed

    Cervera-Acedo, C; Coloma, A; Huarte-Loza, E; Sierra-Carpio, M; Domínguez-Garrido, E

    2017-10-31

    Alport syndrome is an inherited renal disorder characterized by glomerular basement membrane lesions with hematuria, proteinuria and frequent hearing defects and ocular abnormalities. The disease is associated with mutations in genes encoding α3, α4, or α5 chains of type IV collagen, namely COL4A3 and COL4A4 in chromosome 2 and COL4A5 in chromosome X. In contrast to the well-known X-linked and autosomal recessive phenotypes, there is very little information about the autosomal dominant. In view of the wide spectrum of phenotypes, an exact diagnosis is sometimes difficult to achieve. We investigated a Spanish family with variable phenotype of autosomal dominant Alport syndrome using clinical, histological, and genetic analysis. Mutational analysis of COL4A3 and COL4A4 genes showed a novel heterozygous mutation (c. 998G > A; p.G333E) in exon 18 of the COL4A3 gene. Among relatives carrying the novel mutation, the clinical phenotype was variable. Two additional COL4A3 mutations were found, a Pro-Leu substitution in exon 48 (p.P1461L) and a Ser-Cys substitution in exon 49 (p.S1492C), non-pathogenics alone. Carriers of p.G333E and p.P1461L or p.S1492C mutations in COL4A3 gene appear to be more severely affected than carriers of only p.G333E mutation, and the clinical findings has an earlier onset. In this way, we could speculate on a synergistic effect of compound heterozygosity that could explain the different phenotype observed in this family.

  10. Potential Functional Replacement of the Plastidic Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase Subunit (accD) Gene by Recent Transfers to the Nucleus in Some Angiosperm Lineages1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Rousseau-Gueutin, Mathieu; Huang, Xun; Higginson, Emily; Ayliffe, Michael; Day, Anil; Timmis, Jeremy N.

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells originated when an ancestor of the nucleated cell engulfed bacterial endosymbionts that gradually evolved into the mitochondrion and the chloroplast. Soon after these endosymbiotic events, thousands of ancestral prokaryotic genes were functionally transferred from the endosymbionts to the nucleus. This process of functional gene relocation, now rare in eukaryotes, continues in angiosperms. In this article, we show that the chloroplastic acetyl-CoA carboxylase subunit (accD) gene that is present in the plastome of most angiosperms has been functionally relocated to the nucleus in the Campanulaceae. Surprisingly, the nucleus-encoded accD transcript is considerably smaller than the plastidic version, consisting of little more than the carboxylase domain of the plastidic accD gene fused to a coding region encoding a plastid targeting peptide. We verified experimentally the presence of a chloroplastic transit peptide by showing that the product of the nuclear accD fused to green fluorescent protein was imported in the chloroplasts. The nuclear gene regulatory elements that enabled the erstwhile plastidic gene to become functional in the nuclear genome were identified, and the evolution of the intronic and exonic sequences in the nucleus is described. Relocation and truncation of the accD gene is a remarkable example of the processes underpinning endosymbiotic evolution. PMID:23435694

  11. BRCC36, A Novel Subunit of a BRCA1/2 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Complex: Candidate Breast Cancer Susceptibility Gene

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    Variation. In Molecular Diagnostics (Ed. G. Patrinos and W Ansorge) in press 2004. 7 Godwin, A.K., Ph.D. E-CONCLUSIONS: E.1. "BRCC36, a Novel Subunit...R.G.H. Cotton, L. Hancock, A.K. Godwin, And Anthony T. Yeung. Enzymatic and Chemical Cleavage Methods to Identify Genetic Variation. In Molecular Diagnostics (Ed. G. Patrinos and W Ansorge) in press 2004 9

  12. Meta-Analyses of Dehalococcoides mccartyi Strain 195 Transcriptomic Profiles Identify a Respiration Rate-Related Gene Expression Transition Point and Interoperon Recruitment of a Key Oxidoreductase Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Mansfeldt, Cresten B.; Rowe, Annette R.; Heavner, Gretchen L. W.; Zinder, Stephen H.

    2014-01-01

    A cDNA-microarray was designed and used to monitor the transcriptomic profile of Dehalococcoides mccartyi strain 195 (in a mixed community) respiring various chlorinated organics, including chloroethenes and 2,3-dichlorophenol. The cultures were continuously fed in order to establish steady-state respiration rates and substrate levels. The organization of array data into a clustered heat map revealed two major experimental partitions. This partitioning in the data set was further explored through principal component analysis. The first two principal components separated the experiments into those with slow (1.6 ± 0.6 μM Cl−/h)- and fast (22.9 ± 9.6 μM Cl−/h)-respiring cultures. Additionally, the transcripts with the highest loadings in these principal components were identified, suggesting that those transcripts were responsible for the partitioning of the experiments. By analyzing the transcriptomes (n = 53) across experiments, relationships among transcripts were identified, and hypotheses about the relationships between electron transport chain members were proposed. One hypothesis, that the hydrogenases Hup and Hym and the formate dehydrogenase-like oxidoreductase (DET0186-DET0187) form a complex (as displayed by their tight clustering in the heat map analysis), was explored using a nondenaturing protein separation technique combined with proteomic sequencing. Although these proteins did not migrate as a single complex, DET0112 (an FdhB-like protein encoded in the Hup operon) was found to comigrate with DET0187 rather than with the catalytic Hup subunit DET0110. On closer inspection of the genome annotations of all Dehalococcoides strains, the DET0185-to-DET0187 operon was found to lack a key subunit, an FdhB-like protein. Therefore, on the basis of the transcriptomic, genomic, and proteomic evidence, the place of the missing subunit in the DET0185-to-DET0187 operon is likely filled by recruiting a subunit expressed from the Hup operon (DET0112). PMID

  13. Lack of complex I activity in human cells carrying a mutation in MtDNA-encoded ND4 subunit is corrected by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae NADH-quinone oxidoreductase (NDI1) gene.

    PubMed

    Bai, Y; Hájek, P; Chomyn, A; Chan, E; Seo, B B; Matsuno-Yagi, A; Yagi, T; Attardi, G

    2001-10-19

    The gene for the single subunit, rotenone-insensitive, and flavone-sensitive internal NADH-quinone oxidoreductase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (NDI1) can completely restore the NADH dehydrogenase activity in mutant human cells that lack the essential mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded subunit ND4. In particular, the NDI1 gene was introduced into the nuclear genome of the human 143B.TK(-) cell line derivative C4T, which carries a homoplasmic frameshift mutation in the ND4 gene. Two transformants with a low or high level of expression of the exogenous gene were chosen for a detailed analysis. In these cells the corresponding protein is localized in mitochondria, its NADH-binding site faces the matrix compartment as in yeast mitochondria, and in perfect correlation with its abundance restores partially or fully NADH-dependent respiration that is rotenone-insensitive, flavone-sensitive, and antimycin A-sensitive. Thus the yeast enzyme has become coupled to the downstream portion of the human respiratory chain. Furthermore, the P:O ratio with malate/glutamate-dependent respiration in the transformants is approximately two-thirds of that of the wild-type 143B.TK(-) cells, as expected from the lack of proton pumping activity in the yeast enzyme. Finally, whereas the original mutant cell line C4T fails to grow in medium containing galactose instead of glucose, the high NDI1-expressing transformant has a fully restored capacity to grow in galactose medium. The present observations substantially expand the potential of the yeast NDI1 gene for the therapy of mitochondrial diseases involving complex I deficiency.

  14. Impact of Ancillary Subunits on Ventricular Repolarization

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Geoffrey W.; Xu, Xianghua; Roepke, Torsten K.

    2007-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels generate the outward K+ ion currents that constitute the primary force in ventricular repolarization. Kv channels comprise tetramers of pore-forming α subunits and, in probably the majority of cases in vivo, ancillary or β subunits that help define the properties of the Kv current generated. Ancillary subunits can be broadly categorized as cytoplasmic or transmembrane, and can modify Kv channel trafficking, conductance, gating, ion selectivity, regulation and pharmacology. Because of their often profound effects on Kv channel function, studies of the molecular correlates of ventricular repolarization must take into account ancillary subunits as well as α subunits. Cytoplasmic ancillary subunits include the Kvβ subunits, which regulate a range of Kv channels and may link channel gating to redox potential; and the KChIPs, which appear most often associated with Kv4 subfamily channels that generate the ventricular Ito current. Transmembrane ancillary subunits include the MinK-related proteins (MiRPs) encoded by KCNE genes, which modulate members of most Kv α subunit subfamilies; and the putative 12-transmembrane domain KCR1 protein which modulates hERG. In some cases, such as the ventricular IKs channel complex, it is well-established that the KCNQ1 α subunit must co-assemble with the MinK (KCNE1) single transmembrane domain ancillary subunit for recapitulation of the characteristic, unusually slowly-activating IKs current. In other cases it is not so clear-cut, and in particular the roles of the other MinK-related proteins (MiRPs 1–4) in regulating cardiac Kv channels such as KCNQ1 and hERG in vivo are under debate. MiRP1 alters hERG function and pharmacology, and inherited MiRP1 mutations are associated with inherited and acquired arrhythmias, but controversy exists over the native role of MiRP1 in regulating hERG (and therefore ventricular IKr) in vivo. Some ancillary subunits may exhibit varied expression to shape

  15. From Gene to Protein: A 3-Week Intensive Course in Molecular Biology for Physical Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadeau, Jay L.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a 3-week intensive molecular biology methods course based upon fluorescent proteins, which is successfully taught at the McGill University to advanced undergraduates and graduates in physics, chemical engineering, biomedical engineering, and medicine. No previous knowledge of biological terminology or methods is expected, so…

  16. Investigation of the fatty acid transporter-encoding genes SLC27A3 and SLC27A4 in autism.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Motoko; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Ohnishi, Tetsuo; Toyoshima, Manabu; Shimamoto, Chie; Hisano, Yasuko; Toyota, Tomoko; Balan, Shabeesh; Matsuzaki, Hideo; Iwata, Yasuhide; Takagai, Shu; Yamada, Kohei; Ota, Motonori; Fukuchi, Satoshi; Okada, Yohei; Akamatsu, Wado; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Kojima, Nobuhiko; Owada, Yuji; Okano, Hideyuki; Mori, Norio; Yoshikawa, Takeo

    2015-11-09

    The solute carrier 27A (SLC27A) gene family encodes fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs) and includes 6 members. During fetal and postnatal periods of development, the growing brain requires a reliable supply of fatty acids. Because autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are now recognized as disorders caused by impaired early brain development, it is possible that functional abnormalities of SLC27A genes may contribute to the pathogenesis of ASD. Here, we confirmed the expression of SLC27A3 and SLC27A4 in human neural stem cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells, which suggested their involvement in the developmental stage of the central nervous system. Additionally, we resequenced the SLC27A3 and SLC27A4 genes using 267 ASD patient and 1140 control samples and detected 47 (44 novel and 29 nonsynonymous) and 30 (17 novel and 14 nonsynonymous) variants for the SLC27A3 and SLC27A4, respectively, revealing that they are highly polymorphic with multiple rare variants. The SLC27A4 Ser209 allele was more frequently represented in ASD samples. Furthermore, we showed that a SLC27A4 Ser209 mutant resulted in significantly higher fluorescently-labeled fatty acid uptake into bEnd3 cells, a mouse brain capillary-derived endothelial cell line, compared with SLC27A4 Gly209, suggesting that the functional change may contribute to ASD pathophysiology.

  17. Investigation of the fatty acid transporter-encoding genes SLC27A3 and SLC27A4 in autism

    PubMed Central

    Maekawa, Motoko; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Ohnishi, Tetsuo; Toyoshima, Manabu; Shimamoto, Chie; Hisano, Yasuko; Toyota, Tomoko; Balan, Shabeesh; Matsuzaki, Hideo; Iwata, Yasuhide; Takagai, Shu; Yamada, Kohei; Ota, Motonori; Fukuchi, Satoshi; Okada, Yohei; Akamatsu, Wado; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Kojima, Nobuhiko; Owada, Yuji; Okano, Hideyuki; Mori, Norio; Yoshikawa, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    The solute carrier 27A (SLC27A) gene family encodes fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs) and includes 6 members. During fetal and postnatal periods of development, the growing brain requires a reliable supply of fatty acids. Because autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are now recognized as disorders caused by impaired early brain development, it is possible that functional abnormalities of SLC27A genes may contribute to the pathogenesis of ASD. Here, we confirmed the expression of SLC27A3 and SLC27A4 in human neural stem cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells, which suggested their involvement in the developmental stage of the central nervous system. Additionally, we resequenced the SLC27A3 and SLC27A4 genes using 267 ASD patient and 1140 control samples and detected 47 (44 novel and 29 nonsynonymous) and 30 (17 novel and 14 nonsynonymous) variants for the SLC27A3 and SLC27A4, respectively, revealing that they are highly polymorphic with multiple rare variants. The SLC27A4 Ser209 allele was more frequently represented in ASD samples. Furthermore, we showed that a SLC27A4 Ser209 mutant resulted in significantly higher fluorescently-labeled fatty acid uptake into bEnd3 cells, a mouse brain capillary-derived endothelial cell line, compared with SLC27A4 Gly209, suggesting that the functional change may contribute to ASD pathophysiology. PMID:26548558

  18. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene and nuclear rDNA regions of Enterobius vermicularis parasitic in captive chimpanzees with special reference to its relationship with pinworms in humans.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Tadao; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ikeda, Yatsukaho; Hasegawa, Hideo

    2006-12-01

    Sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene, nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of ribosomal DNA (rDNA), and 5S rDNA of Enterobius vermicularis from captive chimpanzees in five zoos/institutions in Japan were analyzed and compared with those of pinworm eggs from humans in Japan. Three major types of variants appearing in both CO1 and ITS2 sequences, but showing no apparent connection, were observed among materials collected from the chimpanzees. Each one of them was also observed in pinworms in humans. Sequences of 5S rDNA were identical in the materials from chimpanzees and humans. Phylogenetic analysis of CO1 gene revealed three clusters with high bootstrap value, suggesting considerable divergence, presumably correlated with human evolution, has occurred in the human pinworms. The synonymy of E. gregorii with E. vermicularis is supported by the molecular evidence.

  19. Concordance between isolated cleft palate in mice and alterations within a region including the gene encoding the [beta][sub 3] subunit of the type A [gamma]-aminobutyric acid receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Culiat, C.T.; Stubbs, L.; Nicholls, R.D.

    1993-06-01

    Genetic and molecular analyses of a number of radiation-induced deletion mutations of the pink-eyed dilution (p) locus in mouse chromosome 7 have identified a specific interval on the genetic map associated with a neonatally lethal mutation that results in cleft palate. This interval, closely linked and distal to p, and bracketed by the genes encoding the [alpha][sub 5] and [beta][sub 3] subunits of the type A [gamma]-aminobutyric acid receptor (Gabra5 and Gabrb3, respectively), contains a gene(s) (cp1; cleft palate 1) necessary for normal palate development. The cp1 interval extends from the distal breakpoint of the prenatally lethal p[sup 83FBFo] deletionmore » to the Gabrb3 locus. Among 20 p deletions tested, there was complete concordance between alterations at the Gabrb3 transcription unit and inability to complement the cleft-palate defect. These mapping data, along with previously described in vivo and in vitro teratological effects of [gamma]-aminobutyric acid or its agonists on palate development, suggest the possibility that a particular type A [gamma]-aminobutyric acid receptor that includes the [beta][sub 3] subunit may be necessary for normal palate development. The placement of the cp1 gene within a defined segment of the larger D15S12h (p)-D15S9h-1 interval in the mouse suggests that the highly homologous region of the human genome, 15q11-q13, be evaluated for a role(s) in human fetal facial development. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.« less

  20. BRCC36, A Novel Subunit of a BRCA1/2 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Complex: Candidate Breast Cancer Susceptibility Gene

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    Hancock, A.K. Godwin, And Anthony T. Yeung. Enzymatic and Chemical Cleavage Methods to Identify Genetic Variation. In Molecular Diagnostics (Ed. G...R.G.H. Cotton, L. Hancock, A.K. Godwin, And Anthony T. Yeung. Enzymatic and Chemical Cleavage Methods to Identify Genetic Variation. In Molecular ... Diagnostics (Ed. G. Patrinos and W Ansorge) in press 2005. 9 Godwin, A.K., Ph.D. E-CONCLUSIONS: E.1. "BRCC36, a Novel Subunit of a BRCA1/2 E3 Ubiquitin

  1. The NMDA Receptor Subunit NR2b: Effects on LH Release and GnRH Gene Expression in Young and Middle-aged Female Rats, with Modulation by Estradiol

    PubMed Central

    Maffucci, Jacqueline A.; Walker, Deena M.; Ikegami, Aiko; Woller, Michael J.; Gore, Andrea C.

    2008-01-01

    The loss of reproductive capacity during aging involves changes in the neural regulation of the hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons controlling reproduction. This neuronal circuitry includes glutamate receptors on GnRH neurons. Previously, we reported an increase in the expression of the NR2b subunit protein of the NMDA receptor on GnRH neurons in middle-aged compared to young female rats. Here, we examined the functional implications of the NR2b subunit on the onset of reproductive aging, using an NR2b-specific antagonist ifenprodil. Young (3–5 mos.) and middle-aged (10–13 mos.) female rats were ovariectomized (OVX), 17β-estradiol (E2) or vehicle (cholesterol) treated, and implanted with a jugular catheter. Serial blood sampling was undertaken every 10 minutes for 4 hours, with ifenprodil (10mg/kg) or vehicle injected (i.p.) after one hour of baseline sampling. The pulsatile release of pituitary LH and levels of GnRH mRNA in hypothalamus were quantified as indices of the reproductive axis. Our results showed effects of ifenprodil on both endpoints. In OVX rats given cholesterol, neither age nor ifenprodil had any effects on LH release. In E2-treated rats, aging was associated with significant decreases in pulsatile LH release. Additionally, ifenprodil stimulated parameters of pulsatile LH release in both young and middle-aged animals. Ifenprodil had few effects on GnRH mRNA; the only significant effect of ifenprodil was found in the middle-aged, cholesterol group. Together, these findings support a role for the NR2b subunit of the NMDAR in GnRH/LH regulation. Because most of these effects were exhibited on pituitary LH release in the absence of a concomitant change in GnRH gene expression, it is likely that NMDA receptors containing the NR2b subunit plays a role in GnRH-induced LH release, independent of de novo GnRH gene expression. PMID:18025808

  2. The presence of both negative and positive elements in the 5'-flanking sequence of the rat Na,K-ATPase alpha 3 subunit gene are required for brain expression in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, B G; Neumann, J C; Croyle, M L; Lingrel, J B

    1994-01-01

    The Na,K-ATPase is an integral plasma membrane protein consisting of alpha and beta subunits, each of which has discrete isoforms expressed in a tissue-specific manner. Of the three functional alpha isoform genes, the one encoding the alpha 3 isoform is the most tissue-restricted in its expression, being found primarily in the brain. To identify regions of the alpha 3 isoform gene that are involved in directing expression in the brain, a 1.6 kb 5'-flanking sequence was attached to a reporter gene, chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT). The alpha 3-CAT chimeric gene construct was microinjected into fertilized mouse eggs, and transgenic mice were produced. Analysis of adult transgenic mice from different lines revealed that the transgene is expressed primarily in the brain. To further delineate regions that are needed for conferring expression in this tissue, systematic deletions of the 5'-flanking sequence of the alpha 3-CAT fusion constructs were made and analyzed, again using transgenic mice. The results from these analyses indicate that DNA sequences required for mediating brain-specific expression of the alpha 3 isoform gene are present within 210 bp upstream of the transcription initiation site. alpha 3-CAT promoter constructs containing scanning mutations in this region were also assayed in transgenic mice. These studies have identified both a functional neural-restrictive silencer element as well as a positively acting cis element. Images PMID:7984427

  3. Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 7 Regulates Cellular Response to DNA Damage by Methylating Promoter Histones H2A and H4 of the Polymerase δ Catalytic Subunit Gene, POLD1*

    PubMed Central

    Karkhanis, Vrajesh; Wang, Li; Tae, Sookil; Hu, Yu-Jie; Imbalzano, Anthony N.; Sif, Saïd

    2012-01-01

    Covalent modification of histones by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) impacts genome organization and gene expression. In this report, we show that PRMT7 interacts with the BRG1-based hSWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex and specifically methylates histone H2A Arg-3 (H2AR3) and histone H4 Arg-3 (H4R3). To elucidate the biological function of PRMT7, we knocked down its expression in NIH 3T3 cells and analyzed global gene expression. Our findings show that PRMT7 negatively regulates expression of genes involved in DNA repair, including ALKBH5, APEX2, POLD1, and POLD2. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) revealed that PRMT7 and dimethylated H2AR3 and H4R3 are enriched at target DNA repair genes in parental cells, whereas PRMT7 knockdown caused a significant decrease in PRMT7 recruitment and H2AR3/H4R3 methylation. Decreased PRMT7 expression also resulted in derepression of target DNA repair genes and enhanced cell resistance to DNA-damaging agents. Furthermore, we show that BRG1 co-localizes with PRMT7 on target promoters and that expression of a catalytically inactive form of BRG1 results in derepression of PRMT7 target DNA repair genes. Remarkably, reducing expression of individual PRMT7 target DNA repair genes showed that only the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase, POLD1, was able to resensitize PRMT7 knock-down cells to DNA-damaging agents. These results provide evidence for the important role played by PRMT7 in epigenetic regulation of DNA repair genes and cellular response to DNA damage. PMID:22761421

  4. Protein arginine methyltransferase 7 regulates cellular response to DNA damage by methylating promoter histones H2A and H4 of the polymerase δ catalytic subunit gene, POLD1.

    PubMed

    Karkhanis, Vrajesh; Wang, Li; Tae, Sookil; Hu, Yu-Jie; Imbalzano, Anthony N; Sif, Saïd

    2012-08-24

    Covalent modification of histones by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) impacts genome organization and gene expression. In this report, we show that PRMT7 interacts with the BRG1-based hSWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex and specifically methylates histone H2A Arg-3 (H2AR3) and histone H4 Arg-3 (H4R3). To elucidate the biological function of PRMT7, we knocked down its expression in NIH 3T3 cells and analyzed global gene expression. Our findings show that PRMT7 negatively regulates expression of genes involved in DNA repair, including ALKBH5, APEX2, POLD1, and POLD2. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) revealed that PRMT7 and dimethylated H2AR3 and H4R3 are enriched at target DNA repair genes in parental cells, whereas PRMT7 knockdown caused a significant decrease in PRMT7 recruitment and H2AR3/H4R3 methylation. Decreased PRMT7 expression also resulted in derepression of target DNA repair genes and enhanced cell resistance to DNA-damaging agents. Furthermore, we show that BRG1 co-localizes with PRMT7 on target promoters and that expression of a catalytically inactive form of BRG1 results in derepression of PRMT7 target DNA repair genes. Remarkably, reducing expression of individual PRMT7 target DNA repair genes showed that only the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase, POLD1, was able to resensitize PRMT7 knock-down cells to DNA-damaging agents. These results provide evidence for the important role played by PRMT7 in epigenetic regulation of DNA repair genes and cellular response to DNA damage.

  5. Anthranilate synthase subunit organization in Chromobacterium violaceum.

    PubMed

    Carminatti, C A; Oliveira, I L; Recouvreux, D O S; Antônio, R V; Porto, L M

    2008-09-16

    Tryptophan is an aromatic amino acid used for protein synthesis and cellular growth. Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472 uses two tryptophan molecules to synthesize violacein, a secondary metabolite of pharmacological interest. The genome analysis of this bacterium revealed that the genes trpA-F and pabA-B encode the enzymes of the tryptophan pathway in which the first reaction is the conversion of chorismate to anthranilate by anthranilate synthase (AS), an enzyme complex. In the present study, the organization and structure of AS protein subunits from C. violaceum were analyzed using bioinformatics tools available on the Web. We showed by calculating molecular masses that AS in C. violaceum is composed of alpha (TrpE) and beta (PabA) subunits. This is in agreement with values determined experimentally. Catalytic and regulatory sites of the AS subunits were identified. The TrpE and PabA subunits contribute to the catalytic site while the TrpE subunit is involved in the allosteric site. Protein models for the TrpE and PabA subunits were built by restraint-based homology modeling using AS enzyme, chains A and B, from Salmonella typhimurium (PDB ID 1I1Q).

  6. Insulators to improve expression of a 3(')IgH LCR-driven reporter gene in transgenic mouse models.

    PubMed

    Guglielmi, Laurence; Le Bert, Marc; Truffinet, Véronique; Cogné, Michel; Denizot, Yves

    2003-08-01

    A locus control region (LCR) containing four transcriptional enhancers lies downstream of the IgH chain locus. We studied transgenes carrying a 3(')IgH LCR-driven GFP reporter gene for expression and B cell differentiation stage specificity. We also compared transgenes that were or were not flanked by two copies of the beta-globin HS4 insulator, an element defined by its ability to protect transgenes from the influences of surrounding genes at the insertion site. Results indicate that insulators are instrumental in sustaining GFP expression in GFP-3(')LCR transgenic mice when they were included. Flow cytometry experiments reported a strictly B cell specific GFP expression from pre-B cells in bone marrow to mature B cells in spleen. Despite addition of 5(')HS4 insulators to the GFP-3(')LCR construct, complete transgene silencing occurred in some transgenic lines and was systematically observed in ageing animals from all lines.

  7. From gene to protein: A 3-week intensive course in molecular biology for physical scientists.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, Jay L

    2009-07-01

    This article describes a 3-week intensive molecular biology methods course based upon fluorescent proteins, which is successfully taught at the McGill University to advanced undergraduates and graduates in physics, chemical engineering, biomedical engineering, and medicine. No previous knowledge of biological terminology or methods is expected, so the material could readily be adapted to earlier undergraduates or students in other fields. The course emphasizes hands-on experience with one half-hour of lecture and 3 and a half hours of laboratory 4 days per week, for a total of 39 hours. The materials are simple and low in cost and all software used is free, making the budget accessible to small universities and community colleges that possess basic teaching wet labs. Conceptual understanding is reinforced with lab reports and an independent final paper on a subject of the student's choice. The final paper describes a possible thesis project, not necessarily the student's own, with assessment based upon grasping of key concepts and methods of molecular biology. Copyright © 2009 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Ca2+–calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II represses cardiac transcription of the L-type calcium channel α1C-subunit gene (Cacna1c) by DREAM translocation

    PubMed Central

    Ronkainen, Jarkko J; Hänninen, Sandra L; Korhonen, Topi; Koivumäki, Jussi T; Skoumal, Reka; Rautio, Sini; Ronkainen, Veli-Pekka; Tavi, Pasi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies have demonstrated that changes in the activity of calcium–calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) induce a unique cardiomyocyte phenotype through the regulation of specific genes involved in excitation–contraction (E–C)-coupling. To explain the transcriptional effects of CaMKII we identified a novel CaMKII-dependent pathway for controlling the expression of the pore-forming α-subunit (Cav1.2) of the L-type calcium channel (LTCC) in cardiac myocytes. We show that overexpression of either cytosolic (δC) or nuclear (δB) CaMKII isoforms selectively downregulate the expression of the Cav1.2. Pharmacological inhibition of CaMKII activity induced measurable changes in LTCC current density and subsequent changes in cardiomyocyte calcium signalling in less than 24 h. The effect of CaMKII on the α1C-subunit gene (Cacna1c) promoter was abolished by deletion of the downstream regulatory element (DRE), which binds transcriptional repressor DREAM/calsenilin/KChIP3. Imaging DREAM–GFP (green fluorescent protein)-expressing cardiomyocytes showed that CaMKII potentiates the calcium-induced nuclear translocation of DREAM. Thereby CaMKII increases DREAM binding to the DRE consensus sequence of the endogenous Cacna1c gene. By mathematical modelling we demonstrate that the LTCC downregulation through the Ca2+–CaMKII–DREAM cascade constitutes a physiological feedback mechanism enabling cardiomyocytes to adjust the calcium intrusion through LTCCs to the amount of intracellular calcium detected by CaMKII. PMID:21486818

  9. Toward a 3D model of human brain development for studying gene/environment interactions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This project aims to establish and characterize an in vitro model of the developing human brain for the purpose of testing drugs and chemicals. To accurately assess risk, a model needs to recapitulate the complex interactions between different types of glial cells and neurons in a three-dimensional platform. Moreover, human cells are preferred over cells from rodents to eliminate cross-species differences in sensitivity to chemicals. Previously, we established conditions to culture rat primary cells as three-dimensional aggregates, which will be humanized and evaluated here with induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). The use of iPSCs allows us to address gene/environment interactions as well as the potential of chemicals to interfere with epigenetic mechanisms. Additionally, iPSCs afford us the opportunity to study the effect of chemicals during very early stages of brain development. It is well recognized that assays for testing toxicity in the developing brain must consider differences in sensitivity and susceptibility that arise depending on the time of exposure. This model will reflect critical developmental processes such as proliferation, differentiation, lineage specification, migration, axonal growth, dendritic arborization and synaptogenesis, which will probably display differences in sensitivity to different types of chemicals. Functional endpoints will evaluate the complex cell-to-cell interactions that are affected in neurodevelopment through chemical perturbation, and the efficacy of drug intervention to prevent or reverse phenotypes. The model described is designed to assess developmental neurotoxicity effects on unique processes occurring during human brain development by leveraging human iPSCs from diverse genetic backgrounds, which can be differentiated into different cell types of the central nervous system. Our goal is to demonstrate the feasibility of the personalized model using iPSCs derived from individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders

  10. The gene for human U2 snRNP auxiliary factor small 35-kDa subunit (U2AF1) maps to the progressive myoclonus epilepsy (EPM1) critical region on chromosome 21q22.3

    SciTech Connect

    Lalioti, M.D.; Rossier, C.; Antonarakis, S.E.

    1996-04-15

    We used targeted exon trapping to clone portions of genes from human chromosome 21q22.3. One trapped sequence showed complete homology with the cDNA of human U2AF{sup 35} (M96982; HGM-approved nomenclature U2AF1), which encodes for the small 35-kDa subunit of the U2 snRNP auxiliary factor. Using the U2AF1 cDNA as a probe, we mapped this gene to cosmid Q15D2, a P1, and YAC 350F7 of the Chumakov et al. contig, close to the cystathionine-{beta}-synthase gene (CBS) on 21q22.3. This localization was confirmed by PCR using oligonucleotides from the 3{prime} UTR and by FISH. As U2AF1 associated with a number of differentmore » factors during mRNA splicing, overexpression in trisomy 21 individuals could contribute to some Down syndrome phenotypes by interfering with the splicing process. Furthermore, because this gene maps in the critical region for the progressive myoclonus epilepsy I locus (EPM1), mutation analysis will be carried out in patients to evaluate the potential role of U2AF1 as a candidate for EPM1. 24 refs., 1 fig.« less

  11. Transcriptional regulation of the cytosolic chaperonin theta subunit gene, Cctq, by Ets domain transcription factors Elk-1, Sap-1a, and Net in the absence of serum response factor.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Yuji; Kubota, Hiroshi; Nozaki, Masami; Nagata, Kazuhiro

    2003-08-15

    The chaperonin-containing t-complex polypeptide 1 (CCT) is a molecular chaperone that facilitates protein folding in eukaryotic cytosol, and the expression of CCT is highly dependent on cell growth. We show here that transcription of the gene encoding the theta subunit of mouse CCT, Cctq, is regulated by the ternary complex factors (TCFs), Elk-1, Sap-1a, and Net (Sap-2). Reporter gene assay using HeLa cells indicated that the Cctq gene promoter contains a cis-acting element of the CCGGAAGT sequence (CQE1) at -36 bp. The major CQE1-binding proteins in HeLa cell nuclear extract was recognized by anti-Elk-1 or anti-Sap-1a antibodies in electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and recombinant Elk-1, Sap-1a, or Net specifically recognized CQE1. The CQE1-dependent transcriptional activity in HeLa cells was virtually abolished by overexpression of the DNA binding domains of TCFs. Overexpression of full-length TCFs with Ras indicated that exogenous TCFs can regulate the CQE1-dependent transcription in a Ras-dependent manner. PD98059, an inhibitor of MAPK, significantly repressed the CQE1-dependent transcription. However, no serum response factor was detected by electrophoretic mobility shift assay using the CQE1 element. These results indicate that transcription of the Cctq gene is regulated by TCFs under the control of the Ras/MAPK pathway, probably independently of serum response factor.

  12. Genotypic to expression profiling of bovine calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha-2/delta subunit 1 gene, and their association with bovine mastitis among Frieswal (HFX Sahiwal) crossbred cattle of Indian origin.

    PubMed

    Deb, Rajib; Singh, Umesh; Kumar, Sushil; Kumar, Arun; Singh, Rani; Sengar, Gyanendra; Mann, Sandeep; Sharma, Arjava

    2014-04-03

    Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha-2/delta subunit 1 (CACNA2D1) gene is considered to be an important noncytokine candidate gene influencing mastitis. Scanty of reports are available until today regarding the role play of CACNA2D1 gene on the susceptibility of bovine mastitis. We interrogated the CACNA2D1 G519663A [A>G] SNP by PCR-RFLP among two hundreds Frieswal (HF X Sahiwal) crossbred cattle of Indian origin. Genotypic frequency of AA (51.5, n=101) was comparatively higher than AG (35, n=70) and GG (14.5, n=29). Association of Somatic cell score (SCS) with genotypes revealed that, GG genotypes showing lesser count (less susceptible to mastitis) compare to AA and AG. Relative expression of CACNA2D1 transcript (in milk samples) was significantly higher among GG than AG and AA. Further we have also isolated blood sample from the all groups and PBMCs were cultured from each blood sample as per the standard protocol. They were treated with Calcium channel blocker and the expression level of the CACNA2D1 gene was evaluated by Real Time PCR. Results show that expression level decline in each genotypic group after treatment and expression level of GG are again significantly higher than AA and AG. Thus, it may be concluded that GG genotypic animals are favorable for selecting disease resistant breeds.

  13. Mutational Analysis of the Adaptor Protein 2 Sigma Subunit (AP2S1) Gene: Search for Autosomal Dominant Hypocalcemia Type 3 (ADH3)

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Angela; Nesbit, M. Andrew; Hannan, Fadil M.; Howles, Sarah A.; Gorvin, Caroline M.; Cranston, Treena; Allgrove, Jeremy; Bevan, John S.; Bano, Gul; Brain, Caroline; Datta, Vipan; Grossman, Ashley B.; Hodgson, Shirley V.; Izatt, Louise; Millar-Jones, Lynne; Pearce, Simon H.; Robertson, Lisa; Selby, Peter L.; Shine, Brian; Snape, Katie; Warner, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Context: Autosomal dominant hypocalcemia (ADH) types 1 and 2 are due to calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) and G-protein subunit-α11 (GNA11) gain-of-function mutations, respectively, whereas CASR and GNA11 loss-of-function mutations result in familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) types 1 and 2, respectively. Loss-of-function mutations of adaptor protein-2 sigma subunit (AP2σ 2), encoded by AP2S1, cause FHH3, and we therefore sought for gain-of-function AP2S1 mutations that may cause an additional form of ADH, which we designated ADH3. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the hypothesis that gain-of-function AP2S1 mutations may cause ADH3. Design: The sample size required for the detection of at least one mutation with a greater than 95% likelihood was determined by binomial probability analysis. Nineteen patients (including six familial cases) with hypocalcemia in association with low or normal serum PTH concentrations, consistent with ADH, but who did not have CASR or GNA11 mutations, were ascertained. Leukocyte DNA was used for sequence and copy number variation analysis of AP2S1. Results: Binomial probability analysis, using the assumption that AP2S1 mutations would occur in hypocalcemic patients at a prevalence of 20%, which is observed in FHH patients without CASR or GNA11 mutations, indicated that the likelihood of detecting at least one AP2S1 mutation was greater than 95% and greater than 98% in sample sizes of 14 and 19 hypocalcemic patients, respectively. AP2S1 mutations and copy number variations were not detected in the 19 hypocalcemic patients. Conclusion: The absence of AP2S1 abnormalities in hypocalcemic patients, suggests that ADH3 may not occur or otherwise represents a rare hypocalcemic disorder. PMID:24708097

  14. A Case of Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere Syndrome Due To a Novel Mutation in SLC52A3 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Thulasi, Venkatraman; Veerapandiyan, Aravindhan; Pletcher, Beth A.; Tong, Chun M.

    2017-01-01

    Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by motor, sensory, and cranial neuronopathies, associated with mutations in SLC52A2 and SLC52A3 genes that code for human riboflavin transporters RFVT2 and RFVT3, respectively. The authors describe the clinical course of a 6-year-old girl with Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome and a novel homozygous mutation c.1156T>C in the SLC52A3 gene, who presented at the age of 2.5 years with progressive brain stem dysfunction including ptosis, facial weakness, hearing loss, dysphagia, anarthria with bilateral vocal cord paralysis, and ataxic gait. She subsequently developed respiratory failure requiring tracheostomy and worsening dysphagia necessitating a gastrostomy. Following riboflavin supplementation, resolution of facial diplegia and ataxia, improvements in ptosis, and bulbar function including vocalization and respiration were noted. However, her sensorineural hearing loss remained unchanged. Similar to other cases of Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome, our patient responded favorably to early riboflavin supplementation with significant but not complete neurologic recovery. PMID:28856173

  15. Influence of the SLC6A3-DAT1 Gene on Multifaceted Measures of Self-regulation in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Cómbita, Lina M.; Voelker, Pascale; Abundis-Gutiérrez, Alicia; Pozuelos, Joan P.; Rueda, M. Rosario

    2017-01-01

    Development of self-regulation, the capacity to voluntarily modulate thoughts, emotions and actions is strongly related to the maturation of the dopamine-mediated executive attention network (EAN). The attention control processes associated with the EAN greatly overlap with efficiency of the executive functions and are correlated with measures of effortful control. Regulation of dopamine levels within the EAN, particularly in the basal ganglia is carried out by the action of dopamine transporters. In humans, the SLC6A3/DAT1 gene carries out the synthesis of the DAT protein. The 10-repeat allele has been associated with an enhanced expression of the gene and has been related to ADHD symptoms. Little is known about the impact of DAT1 variations on children's capacity to self-regulate in contexts that impose particular demands of regulatory control such as the school or home. This study defines a multi-domain phenotype of self-regulation and examines whether variations of the DAT1 gene accounts for individual differences in performance in 4–5 year old children. Results show that presence of the 10r allele is related to a diminished ability to exert voluntary regulation of reactivity. These findings shed light on the neurobiological mechanisms underlying individual differences in self-regulation during childhood. PMID:28154545

  16. Novel splice-site and missense mutations in the ALDH1A3 gene underlying autosomal recessive anophthalmia/microphthalmia.

    PubMed

    Semerci, C Nur; Kalay, Ersan; Yıldırım, Cem; Dinçer, Tuba; Olmez, Akgün; Toraman, Bayram; Koçyiğit, Ali; Bulgu, Yunus; Okur, Volkan; Satıroğlu-Tufan, Lale; Akarsu, Nurten A

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to identify the underlying genetic defect responsible for anophthalmia/microphthalmia. In total, two Turkish families with a total of nine affected individuals were included in the study. Affymetrix 250 K single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping and homozygosity mapping were used to identify the localisation of the genetic defect in question. Coding region of the ALDH1A3 gene was screened via direct sequencing. cDNA samples were generated from primary fibroblast cell cultures for expression analysis. Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) analysis was performed using direct sequencing of the obtained fragments. The causative genetic defect was mapped to chromosome 15q26.3. A homozygous G>A substitution (c.666G>A) at the last nucleotide of exon 6 in the ALDH1A3 gene was identified in the first family. Further cDNA sequencing of ALDH1A3 showed that the c.666G>A mutation caused skipping of exon 6, which predicted in-frame loss of 43 amino acids (p.Trp180_Glu222del). A novel missense c.1398C>A mutation in exon 12 of ALDH1A3 that causes the substitution of a conserved asparagine by lysine at amino acid position 466 (p.Asn466Lys) was observed in the second family. No extraocular findings-except for nevus flammeus in one affected individual and a variant of Dandy-Walker malformation in another affected individual-were observed. Autistic-like behaviour and mental retardation were observed in three cases. In conclusion, novel ALDH1A3 mutations identified in the present study confirm the pivotal role of ALDH1A3 in human eye development. Autistic features, previously reported as an associated finding, were considered to be the result of social deprivation and inadequate parenting during early infancy in the presented families. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Diagnosis of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma in the thigh using EWSR1-NR4A3 gene fusion: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hiroki; Kikuta, Kazutaka; Sekita, Tetsuya; Susa, Michiro; Nishimoto, Kazumasa; Sasaki, Aya; Kameyama, Kaori; Sugita, Shintaro; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Nakamura, Masaya; Matsumoto, Morio; Morioka, Hideo

    2016-11-10

    Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma is a rare soft tissue sarcoma that has unusual ultrastructural and molecular features. However, unlike other soft tissue sarcomas, it does not have specific clinical symptoms or radiological features, which can make its diagnosis difficult. Nevertheless, extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma has a rare gene fusion (EWSR1-NR4A3) that is useful for making a differential diagnosis. A 43-year-old Japanese man presented with a soft tissue mass in his right thigh. A physical examination and radiography revealed a large soft tissue mass. During magnetic resonance imaging, the mass exhibited isointensity on T1-weighted images and high intensity on T2-weighted images, as well as gadolinium enhancement at the side edge of the partition structure. Thus, we considered a possible diagnosis of a malignant myxoid soft tissue tumor, such as myxoid liposarcoma, myxofibrosarcoma, or metastatic carcinomas, including myoepithelial tumor and neuroendocrine tumor, and performed an incisional biopsy to make a definitive diagnosis. The pathological findings revealed a lobulated tumor with a myxoid structure and atypical spindle-shaped cells that created eosinophilic cord-like forms. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the tumor was positive for S-100 and negative for synaptophysin, chromogranin A, and pan keratin (AE1/AE3). The percentage of Ki-67 was 10 % in the hot spot area. Based on these clinicopathological findings, we initially considered the possibility of a myxoid liposarcoma, although we did not observe any lipoblasts. Therefore, we considered the possibility of an extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. As this tumor is very rare, we searched for the EWSR1-NR4A3 gene fusion using fluorescence in situ hybridization, which confirmed the diagnosis of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography did not identify any obvious metastases, and we performed radical resection of our patient's vastus medialis and

  18. [A novel gene (Aa-accA ) encoding acetyl-CoA carboxyltransferase alpha-subunit of Alkalimonas amylolytica N10 enhances salt and alkali tolerance of Escherichia coli and tobacco BY-2 cells].

    PubMed

    Xian, Mingjie; Zhai, Lei; Zhong, Naiqin; Ma, Yiwei; Xue, Yanfen; Ma, Yanhe

    2013-08-04

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) catalyzes the first step of fatty acid synthesis. In most bacteria, ACC is composed of four subunits encoded by accA, accB, accC, and accD. Of them, accA encodes acetyl-CoA carboxyltransferase alpha-subunit. Our prior work on proteomics of Alkalimonas amylolytica N10 showed that the expression of the Aa-accA has a remarkable response to salt and alkali stress. This research aimed to find out the Aa-accA gene contributing to salt and alkali tolerance. The Aa-accA was amplified by PCR from A. amylolytica N10 and expressed in E. coli K12 host. The effects of Aa-accA expression on the growth of transgenic strains were examined under different NaCl concentration and pH conditions. Transgenic tobacco BY-2 cells harboring Aa-accA were also generated via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The viability of BY-2 cells was determined with FDA staining method after salt and alkali shock. The Aa-accA gene product has 318 amino acids and is homologous to the carboxyl transferase domain of acyl-CoA carboxylases. It showed 76% identity with AccA (acetyl-CoA carboxylase carboxyltransferase subunit alpha) from E. coli. Compared to the wild-type strains, transgenic E. coli K12 strain containing Aa-accA showed remarkable growth superiority when grown in increased NaCl concentrations and pH levels. The final cell density of the transgenic strains was 2.6 and 3.5 times higher than that of the control type when they were cultivated in LB medium containing 6% (W/V) NaCl and at pH 9, respectively. Complementary expression of Aa-accA in an accA-depletion E. coli can recover the tolerance of K12 delta accA to salt and alkali stresses to some extent. Similar to the transgenic E. coli, transgenic tobacco BY-2 cells showed higher percentages of viability compared to the wild BY-2 cells under the salt or alkali stress condition. We found that Aa-accA from A. amylolytica N10 overexpression enhances the tolerance of both transgenic E. coli and tobacco BY-2 cells to

  19. INTRINSIC REGULATION OF HEMOGLOBIN EXPRESSION BY VARIABLE SUBUNIT INTERFACE STRENGTHS

    PubMed Central

    Manning, James M.; Popowicz, Anthony M.; Padovan, Julio C.; Chait, Brian T.; Manning, Lois R.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The expression of the six types of human hemoglobin subunits over time is currently considered to be regulated mainly by transcription factors that bind to upstream control regions of the gene (the “extrinsic” component of regulation). Here we describe how subunit pairing and further assembly to tetramers in the liganded state is influenced by the affinity of subunits for one another (the “intrinsic” component of regulation). The adult hemoglobin dimers have the strongest subunit interfaces and the embryonic hemoglobins are the weakest with fetal hemoglobins of intermediate strength, corresponding to the temporal order of their expression. These variable subunit binding strengths and the attenuating effects of acetylation contribute to the differences with which these hemoglobin types form functional O2-binding tetramers consistent with gene switching. PMID:22129306

  20. A novel deletion in the thyrotropin Beta-subunit gene identified by array comparative genomic hybridization analysis causes central congenital hypothyroidism in a boy originating from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Hermanns, Pia; Couch, Robert; Leonard, Norma; Klotz, Cherise; Pohlenz, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Isolated central congenital hypothyroidism (ICCH) is rare but important. Most ICCH patients are diagnosed later, which results in severe growth failure and intellectual disability. We describe a boy with ICCH due to a large homozygous TSHβ gene deletion. A 51-day-old male Turkish infant, whose parents were first cousins, was admitted for evaluation of prolonged jaundice. His clinical appearance was compatible with hypothyroidism. Venous thyrotropin (TSH) was undetectably low, with a subsequent low free T4 and a low free T3, suggestive of central hypothyroidism. Using different PCR protocols, we could not amplify both coding exons of the boy's TSHβ gene, which suggested a deletion. An array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) using specific probes around the TSHβ gene locus showed him to be homozygous for a 6-kb deletion spanning all exons and parts of the 5' untranslated region of the gene. Infants who are clinically suspected of having hypothyroidism should be evaluated thoroughly, even if their TSH-based screening result is normal. In cases with ICCH and undetectably low TSH serum concentrations, a TSHβ gene deletion should be considered; aCGH should be performed when gene deletions are suspected. In such cases, PCR-based sequencing techniques give negative results.

  1. Multiple interactions between RNA polymerase I, TIF-IA and TAF(I) subunits regulate preinitiation complex assembly at the ribosomal gene promoter.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xuejun; Zhao, Jian; Zentgraf, Hanswalter; Hoffmann-Rohrer, Urs; Grummt, Ingrid

    2002-11-01

    In mammals, growth-dependent regulation of rRNA synthesis is brought about by the transcription initiation factor TIF-IA. TIF-IA is associated with a fraction of the TBP-containing factor TIF-IB/SL1 and the initiation-competent form of RNA polymerase I (Pol I). We investigated the mechanisms that down-regulate cellular pre-rRNA synthesis and demonstrate that nutrient starvation, density arrest and protein synthesis inhibitors inactivate TIF-IA and impair the association of TIF-IA with Pol I. Moreover, we used a panel of TIF-IA deletion mutants to map the domains that mediate the interaction of TIF-IA with Pol I and TIF-IB/SL1. We found that amino acids 512-609 interact with two subunits of Pol I, RPA43 and PAF67, whereas a short, conserved motif (LARAK, amino acids 411-415) is required for the association of TIF-IA with TAF(I)95 and TAF(I)68. The results uncover an interphase for essential protein-protein interactions that facilitate Pol I preinitiation complex formation.

  2. Genetic characterization of the partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (cox 1) gene of the zoonotic parasitic nematode, Ancylostoma ceylanicum from humans, dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Ngui, Romano; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Chua, Kek Heng; Traub, Rebecca; Lim, Yvonne A L

    2013-10-01

    Ancylostoma ceylanicum is the only zoonotic hookworm species that is able to produce patent infections in humans with the majority of cases reported in South East Asia. Over the past few years, there have been an increasing number of studies investigating the prevalence of this parasitic zoonosis using molecular diagnostic tools and a single genetic locus as marker for species identification. As there can be limitations in using a single genetic locus for epidemiological studies and genetic discrimination, the complementary use of a more variable locus will provide additional evidence to support the zoonotic exchange of hookworm species between humans and animals. In the present study, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) sequence of A. ceylanicum from positive human and animal fecal samples were determined and compared with published reference sequences. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that isolates of A. ceylanicum were divided into two clusters, one consisting 3 human isolates and the other comprising 19 isolates of human and animal origin from different geographical locations within Malaysia. The two groups of A. ceylanicum could be distinguished from one another through five fixed nucleotide differences at locations 891, 966, 1008, 1077 and 1083. The detection of genetically distinct groups and considerable level of genetic variation within the cox 1 sequence of A. ceylanicum might suggest potential haplotype-linked differences in zoonotic, epidemiological and pathobiological characteristics, a hypothesis that still needs further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The equine LH/CGβ subunit combines divergent intracellular traits of the human LHβ and CGβ subunits

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Limor; Bousfield, George R; Ben-Menahem, David

    2017-01-01

    The pituitary LHβ and placental CGβ subunits are products of different genes in primates. The major structural difference between the two subunits is in the carboxy-terminal region, where the short carboxyl sequence of hLHβ is replaced by a longer O-glycosylated carboxy-terminal peptide (CTP) in hCGβ. In association with this structural deviation, there are marked differences in the secretion kinetics and polarized routing of the two subunits. In equids, however, the CGβ and LHβ subunits are products of the same gene expressed in the placenta and pituitary (eLH/CGβ), and both contain a CTP. This unusual expression pattern intrigued us and led to our study of eLH/CGβ subunit secretion by transfected CHO and MDCK cells. In continuous labeling and pulse chase experiments, the secretion of the eLH/CGβ subunit from the transfected CHO cells was inefficient (medium recovery of 16–25%) and slow (t1/2 >6.5 hrs). This indicated that, the secretion of the eLH/CGβ subunit resembles that of hLHβ rather than hCGβ. In MDCK cells grown on Transwell filters, the eLH/CGβ subunit was preferentially secreted from the apical side, similar to the hCGβ subunit secretory route (~65% of the total protein secreted). Taken together, these data suggested that secretion of the eLH/CGβ subunit integrates features of both hLHβ and hCGβ subunits. We propose that the evolution of this intracellular behavior may fulfill the physiological demands for biosynthesis of the eLH/CGβ subunit in the pituitary as well as in the placenta. PMID:25796287

  4. FBI-1 enhances transcription of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)-responsive E-selectin gene by nuclear localization of the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Kee; Kang, Jae-Eun; Park, Hye-Jin; Kim, Myung-Hwa; Yim, Tae-Hee; Kim, Jung-Min; Heo, Min-Kyu; Kim, Kyu-Yeun; Kwon, Ho Jeong; Hur, Man-Wook

    2005-07-29

    The POZ domain is a highly conserved protein-protein interaction motif found in many regulatory proteins. Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) plays a key role in the expression of a variety of genes in response to infection, inflammation, and stressful conditions. We found that the POZ domain of FBI-1 (factor that binds to the inducer of short transcripts of human immunodeficiency virus-1) interacted with the Rel homology domain of the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB in both in vivo and in vitro protein-protein interaction assays. FBI-1 enhanced NF-kappaB-mediated transcription of E-selectin genes in HeLa cells upon phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate stimulation and overcame gene repression by IkappaB alpha or IkappaB beta. In contrast, the POZ domain of FBI-1, which is a dominant-negative form of FBI-1, repressed NF-kappaB-mediated transcription, and the repression was cooperative with IkappaB alpha or IkappaB beta. In contrast, the POZ domain tagged with a nuclear localization sequence polypeptide of FBI-1 enhanced NF-kappaB-responsive gene transcription, suggesting that the molecular interaction between the POZ domain and the Rel homology domain of p65 and the nuclear localization by the nuclear localization sequence are important in the transcription enhancement mediated by FBI-1. Confocal microscopy showed that FBI-1 increased NF-kappaB movement into the nucleus and increased the stability of NF-kappaB in the nucleus, which enhanced NF-kappaB-mediated transcription of the E-selectin gene. FBI-1 also interacted with IkappaB alpha and IkappaB beta.

  5. Reconsideration of systematic relationships within the order Euplotida (Protista, Ciliophora) using new sequences of the gene coding for small-subunit rRNA and testing the use of combined data sets to construct phylogenies of the Diophrys-complex.

    PubMed

    Yi, Zhenzhen; Song, Weibo; Clamp, John C; Chen, Zigui; Gao, Shan; Zhang, Qianqian

    2009-03-01

    Comprehensive molecular analyses of phylogenetic relationships within euplotid ciliates are relatively rare, and the relationships among some families remain questionable. We performed phylogenetic analyses of the order Euplotida based on new sequences of the gene coding for small-subunit RNA (SSrRNA) from a variety of taxa across the entire order as well as sequences from some of these taxa of other genes (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and histone H4) that have not been included in previous analyses. Phylogenetic trees based on SSrRNA gene sequences constructed with four different methods had a consistent branching pattern that included the following features: (1) the "typical" euplotids comprised a paraphyletic assemblage composed of two divergent clades (family Uronychiidae and families Euplotidae-Certesiidae-Aspidiscidae-Gastrocirrhidae), (2) in the family Uronychiidae, the genera Uronychia and Paradiophrys formed a clearly outlined, well-supported clade that seemed to be rather divergent from Diophrys and Diophryopsis, suggesting that the Diophrys-complex may have had a longer and more separate evolutionary history than previously supposed, (3) inclusion of 12 new SSrRNA sequences in analyses of Euplotidae revealed two new clades of species within the family and cast additional doubt on the present classification of genera within the family, and (4) the intraspecific divergence among five species of Aspidisca was far greater than those of closely related genera. The ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 coding regions and partial histone H4 genes of six morphospecies in the Diophrys-complex were sequenced along with their SSrRNA genes and used to compare phylogenies constructed from single data sets to those constructed from combined sets. Results indicated that combined analyses could be used to construct more reliable, less ambiguous phylogenies of complex groups like the order Euplotida, because they provide a greater amount and diversity of information.

  6. A 3-day-old neonate with severe hypertriglyceridemia from novel mutations of the GPIHBP1 gene.

    PubMed

    Buonuomo, Paola Sabrina; Bartuli, Andrea; Rabacchi, Claudio; Bertolini, Stefano; Calandra, Sebastiano

    2015-01-01

    Familial chylomicronemia is a genetic defect of the intravascular lipolysis of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins. Intravascular lipolysis involves the TG-hydrolase lipoprotein lipase (LPL) as well as other factors such as apolipoprotein CII and apolipoprotein AV (activators of LPL), GPIHBP1 (the molecular platform required for LPL activity on endothelial surface), and LMF1 (a factor required for intracellular formation of active LPL). We sequenced the familial chylomicronemia candidate genes in a neonate with chylomicronemia. A 3-day-old newborn was found to have chylomicronemia (plasma TG 18.8 mmol/L, 1.667 mg/dL). The discontinuation of breastfeeding for 24 hours reduced plasma TG to 2.3 mmol/L (201 mg/dL), whereas its resumption induced a sharp TG increase (7.9 mmol/L, 690 mg/dL). The child was switched to a low-fat diet, which was effective in maintaining TG level below 3.5 mmol/L (294 mg/dL) during the first months of life. The child was found to be a compound heterozygous for 2 novel mutations in GPIHBP1 gene. The first mutation was a 9-bp deletion and 4-bp insertion in exon 2, causing a frameshift that abolished the canonical termination codon TGA. The predicted translation product of the mutant messenger RNA is a peptide that contains 51 amino acids of the N-terminal end of the wild-type protein followed by 252 novel amino acids. The second mutation was a nucleotide change (c.319T>C), causing an amino acid substitution p.(Ser107Pro) predicted in silico to be damaging. GPIHBP1 mutations should be considered in neonates with chylomicronemia negative for mutations in LPL gene. Copyright © 2015 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The gene product of a Trypanosoma equiperdum ortholog of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit is a monomeric protein that is not capable of binding cyclic nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Bubis, José; Martínez, Juan Carlos; Calabokis, Maritza; Ferreira, Joilyneth; Sanz-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Navas, Victoria; Escalona, José Leonardo; Guo, Yurong; Taylor, Susan S

    2018-03-01

    The full gene sequence encoding for the Trypanosoma equiperdum ortholog of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) regulatory (R) subunits was cloned. A poly-His tagged construct was generated [TeqR-like(His) 8 ], and the protein was expressed in bacteria and purified to homogeneity. The size of the purified TeqR-like(His) 8 was determined to be ∼57,000 Da by molecular exclusion chromatography indicating that the parasite protein is a monomer. Limited proteolysis with various proteases showed that the T. equiperdum R-like protein possesses a hinge region very susceptible to proteolysis. The recombinant TeqR-like(His) 8 did not bind either [ 3 H] cAMP or [ 3 H] cGMP up to concentrations of 0.40 and 0.65 μM, respectively, and neither the parasite protein nor its proteolytically generated carboxy-terminal large fragments were capable of binding to a cAMP-Sepharose affinity column. Bioinformatics analyses predicted that the carboxy-terminal region of the trypanosomal R-like protein appears to fold similarly to the analogous region of all known PKA R subunits. However, the protein amino-terminal portion seems to be unrelated and shows homology with proteins that contained Leu-rich repeats, a folding motif that is particularly appropriate for protein-protein interactions. In addition, the three-dimensional structure of the T. equiperdum protein was modeled using the crystal structure of the bovine PKA R I α subunit as template. Molecular docking experiments predicted critical changes in the environment of the two putative nucleotide binding clefts of the parasite protein, and the resulting binding energy differences support the lack of cyclic nucleotide binding in the trypanosomal R-like protein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  8. Gene structure and mutations of glutaryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase: Impaired association of enzyme subunits that is due to an A421V substitution causes glutaric acidemia type I in the Amish

    SciTech Connect

    Biery, B.J.; Stein, D.E.; Goodman, S.I.

    The structure of the human glutaryl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (GCD) gene was determined to contain 11 exons and to span {approximately}7 kb. Fibroblast DNA from 64 unrelated glutaric academia type I (GA1) patients was screened for mutations by PCR amplification and analysis of SSCP. Fragments with altered electrophoretic mobility were subcloned and sequenced to detect mutations that caused GA1. This report describes the structure of the GCD gene, as well as point mutations and polymorphisms found in 7 of its 11 exons. Several mutations were found in more than one patient, but no one prevalent mutation was detected in themore » general population. As expected from pedigree analysis, a single mutant allele causes GA1 in the Old Order Amish of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Several mutations have been expressed in Escherichia coli, and all produce diminished enzyme activity. Reduced activity in GCD encoded by the A421V mutation in the Amish may be due to impaired association of enzyme subunits. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  9. The genes for the {alpha}-type HC3 (PMSA2) and {beta}-type HC5 (PMSB1) subunits of human proteasomes map to chromosomes 6q27 and 7p12-p13 by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Okumura, Katsuzumi; Nogami, Masahiro; Taguchi, Hiroshi

    1995-05-20

    The authors have determined the locations of the genes for the two subunits, HC3 and HC5, by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Chromosome spreads were obtained from phytohemagglutinin-stimulated blood lymphocytes of a healthy donor after thymidine synchronization and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation by the method of Takahashi et al. Genomic DNA fragments of HC3 (4.3 kb, including exons 3, 4, and 5) and HC5 (7.5 kb including exons 1 and 2) (11) were labeled with biotin-16-dUTP by nick-translation. In situ hybridization was performed according to Lichter et al. in the presence of COT-1 DNA as a competitor. Hybridized probe was detected withmore » FITC-conjugated avidin without further signal amplification. Comparison of the fluorescence signals and the banding patterns of the chromosomes indicated that the HC3 and HC5 genes were located on chromosome band 6q27 and 7p12-p13, respectively.« less

  10. Characterisation of the canine rod-cone dysplasia type one gene (rod photoreceptor cGMP phosphodiesterase beta subunit (PDEB)) - a model for human retinitis pigmentosa

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, P.J.M.; Gregory, C.Y.; Petersen-Jones, S.M.

    1994-09-01

    Rod-cone dysplasia type one (rod-1) is an early onset, autosomal recessive retinal dystrophy segregating in the Irish setter breed. It is a model for certain forms of human autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP) caused by mutations in the same gene, PDEB. We confirmed the codon 807 Trp to Stop mutation and were the first to show cosegregation of the mutant allele with disease in a pedigree. We believe that this currently represents the best animal model available for some aspects of arRP, since canine tissues are relatively easy to access compared to human and yet the canine eye is ofmore » comparable size, unlike that of the rd mouse. This facilitates therapeutic intervention particularly at the subretinal level. In order to more fully investigate this model we have been characterizing the PDEB gene in the normal dog. Using PCR we have partially mapped the intron/exon structure, demonstrating a very high degree of evolutionary conservation with the mouse and human genes. RT-PCR has been used to reveal expression in a variety of neural and non-neural tissues. A PCR product spanning exons 19 to 22 (which also contains the site for the rcd-1 mutation) is detected in retina but also in tissues such as visual cortex, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, lateral geniculate nucleus, adrenal gland, lung, kidney and ovary. All of these tissues gave a negative result with primers for rds/peripherin, a gene which is expressed in rods and cones. This raises interesting questions about the regulation of PDEB transcripts which is initially being investigated by Northern analysis. In addition, anchored PCR techniques have generated upstream genomic sequences and we are currently mapping the 5{prime} extent of the mRNA transcript in the retina. This will facilitate the analysis of potential upstream promoter elements involved in directing expression.« less

  11. Actinomyces naeslundii Displays Variant fimP and fimA Fimbrial Subunit Genes Corresponding to Different Types of Acidic Proline-Rich Protein and β-Linked Galactosamine Binding Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Hallberg, K.; Holm, C.; Öhman, U.; Strömberg, N.

    1998-01-01

    Actinomyces naeslundii genospecies 1 and 2 bind to acidic proline-rich proteins (APRPs) and statherin via type 1 fimbriae and to β-linked galactosamine (GalNAcβ) structures via type 2 fimbriae. In addition, A. naeslundii displays two types of binding specificity for both APRPs-statherin and GalNAcβ, while Actinomyces odontolyticus binds to unknown structures. To study the molecular basis for these binding specificities, DNA fragments spanning the entire or central portions of fimP (type 1) and fimA (type 2) fimbrial subunit genes were amplified by PCR from strains of genospecies 1 and 2 and hybridized with DNA from two independent collections of oral Actinomyces isolates. Isolates of genospecies 1 and 2 and A. odontolyticus, but no other Actinomyces species, were positive for hybridization with fimP and fimA full-length probes irrespective of binding to APRPs and statherin, GalNAcβ, or unknown structures. Isolates of genospecies 1 and 2, with deviating patterns of GalNAcβ1-3Galα-O-ethyl-inhibitable coaggregation with Streptococcus oralis Ss34 and MPB1, were distinguished by a fimA central probe from genospecies 1 and 2, respectively. Furthermore, isolates of genospecies 1 and 2 displaying preferential binding to APRPs over statherin were positive with a fimP central probe, while a genospecies 2 strain with the opposite binding preference was not. The sequences of fimP and fimA central gene segments were highly conserved among isolates with the same, but diversified between those with a variant, binding specificity. In conclusion, A. naeslundii exhibits variant fimP and fimA genes corresponding to diverse APRP and GalNAcβ specificities, respectively, while A. odontolyticus has a genetically related but distinct adhesin binding specificity. PMID:9712794

  12. Mutation in cpsf6/CFIm68 (Cleavage and Polyadenylation Specificity Factor Subunit 6) causes short 3'UTRs and disturbs gene expression in developing embryos, as revealed by an analysis of primordial germ cell migration using the medaka mutant naruto.

    PubMed

    Sasado, Takao; Kondoh, Hisato; Furutani-Seiki, Makoto; Naruse, Kiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Our previous studies analyzing medaka mutants defective in primordial germ cell (PGC) migration identified cxcr4b and cxcr7, which are both receptors of the chemokine sdf1/cxcl12, as key regulators of PGC migration. Among PGC migration mutants, naruto (nar) is unique in that the mutant phenotype includes gross morphological abnormalities of embryos, suggesting that the mutation affects a broader range of processes. A fine genetic linkage mapping and genome sequencing showed the nar gene encodes Cleavage and Polyadenylation Specificity Factor subunit 6 (CPSF6/CFIm68). CPSF6 is a component of the Cleavage Factor Im complex (CFIm) which plays a key role in pre-mRNA 3'-cleavage and polyadenylation. 3'RACE of sdf1a/b and cxcr7 transcripts in the mutant embryos indicated shorter 3'UTRs with poly A additions occurring at more upstream positions than wild-type embryos, suggesting CPSF6 functions to prevent premature 3'UTR cleavage. In addition, expression of the coding region sequences of sdf1a/b in nar mutants was more anteriorly extended in somites than wild-type embryos, accounting for the abnormally extended distribution of PGCs in nar mutants. An expected consequence of shortening 3'UTR is the escape from the degradation mechanism mediated by microRNAs interacting with distal 3'UTR sequence. The abnormal expression pattern of sdf1a coding sequence may be at least partially accounted for by this mechanism. Given the pleiotropic effects of nar mutation, further analysis using the nar mutant will reveal processes in which CPSF6 plays essential regulatory roles in poly A site selection and involvement of 3'UTRs in posttranscriptional gene regulation in various genes in vivo.

  13. Mutation in cpsf6/CFIm68 (Cleavage and Polyadenylation Specificity Factor Subunit 6) causes short 3'UTRs and disturbs gene expression in developing embryos, as revealed by an analysis of primordial germ cell migration using the medaka mutant naruto

    PubMed Central

    Kondoh, Hisato; Furutani-Seiki, Makoto; Naruse, Kiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Our previous studies analyzing medaka mutants defective in primordial germ cell (PGC) migration identified cxcr4b and cxcr7, which are both receptors of the chemokine sdf1/cxcl12, as key regulators of PGC migration. Among PGC migration mutants, naruto (nar) is unique in that the mutant phenotype includes gross morphological abnormalities of embryos, suggesting that the mutation affects a broader range of processes. A fine genetic linkage mapping and genome sequencing showed the nar gene encodes Cleavage and Polyadenylation Specificity Factor subunit 6 (CPSF6/CFIm68). CPSF6 is a component of the Cleavage Factor Im complex (CFIm) which plays a key role in pre-mRNA 3'-cleavage and polyadenylation. 3'RACE of sdf1a/b and cxcr7 transcripts in the mutant embryos indicated shorter 3’UTRs with poly A additions occurring at more upstream positions than wild-type embryos, suggesting CPSF6 functions to prevent premature 3’UTR cleavage. In addition, expression of the coding region sequences of sdf1a/b in nar mutants was more anteriorly extended in somites than wild-type embryos, accounting for the abnormally extended distribution of PGCs in nar mutants. An expected consequence of shortening 3'UTR is the escape from the degradation mechanism mediated by microRNAs interacting with distal 3’UTR sequence. The abnormal expression pattern of sdf1a coding sequence may be at least partially accounted for by this mechanism. Given the pleiotropic effects of nar mutation, further analysis using the nar mutant will reveal processes in which CPSF6 plays essential regulatory roles in poly A site selection and involvement of 3'UTRs in posttranscriptional gene regulation in various genes in vivo. PMID:28253363

  14. Hepatic expression of proteasome subunit alpha type-6 is upregulated during viral hepatitis and putatively regulates the expression of ISG15 ubiquitin-like modifier, a proviral host gene in hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Broering, R; Trippler, M; Werner, M; Real, C I; Megger, D A; Bracht, T; Schweinsberg, V; Sitek, B; Eisenacher, M; Meyer, H E; Baba, H A; Weber, F; Hoffmann, A-C; Gerken, G; Schlaak, J F

    2016-05-01

    The interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. ISG15-regulated proteins have previously been identified that putatively affect this proviral interaction. The present observational study aimed to elucidate the relation between ISG15 and these host factors during HCV infection. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses were performed using liver samples of HCV-infected (n = 54) and uninfected (n = 10) or HBV-infected controls (n = 23). Primary human hepatocytes (PHH) were treated with Toll-like receptor ligands, interferons and kinase inhibitors. Expression of ISG15 and proteasome subunit alpha type-6 (PSMA6) was suppressed in subgenomic HCV replicon cell lines using specific siRNAs. Comparison of hepatic expression patterns revealed significantly increased signals for ISG15, IFIT1, HNRNPK and PSMA6 on the protein level as well as ISG15, IFIT1 and PSMA6 on the mRNA level in HCV-infected patients. In contrast to interferon-stimulated genes, PSMA6 expression occurred independent of HCV load and genotype. In PHH, the expression of ISG15 and PSMA6 was distinctly induced by poly(I:C), depending on IRF3 activation or PI3K/AKT signalling, respectively. Suppression of PSMA6 in HCV replicon cells led to significant induction of ISG15 expression, thus combined knock-down of both genes abrogated the antiviral effect induced by the separate suppression of ISG15. These data indicate that hepatic expression of PSMA6, which is upregulated during viral hepatitis, likely depends on TLR3 activation. PSMA6 affects the expression of immunoregulatory ISG15, a proviral factor in the pathogenesis of HCV infection. Therefore, the proteasome might be involved in the enigmatic interaction between ISG15 and HCV. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Rubisco small subunit, chlorophyll a/b-binding protein and sucrose:fructan-6-fructosyl transferase gene expression and sugar status in single barley leaf cells in situ. Cell type specificity and induction by light.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chungui; Koroleva, Olga A; Farrar, John F; Gallagher, Joe; Pollock, Chris J; Tomos, A Deri

    2002-11-01

    We describe a highly efficient two-step single-cell reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction technique for analyzing gene expression at the single-cell level. Good reproducibility and a linear dose response indicated that the technique has high specificity and sensitivity for detection and quantification of rare RNA. Actin could be used as an internal standard. The expression of message for Rubisco small subunit (RbcS), chlorophyll a/b-binding protein (Cab), sucrose (Suc):fructan-6-fructosyl transferase (6-SFT), and Actin were measured in individual photosynthetic cells of the barley (Hordeum vulgare) leaf. Only Actin was found in the non-photosynthetic epidermal cells. Cab, RbcS, and 6-SFT genes were expressed at a low level in mesophyll and parenchymatous bundle sheath (BS) cells when sampled from plants held in dark for 40 h. Expression increased considerably after illumination. The amount of 6-SFT, Cab, and RbcS transcript increased more in mesophyll cells than in the parenchymatous BS cells. The difference may be caused by different chloroplast structure and posttranscriptional control in mesophyll and BS cells. When similar single-cell samples were assayed for Suc, glucose, and fructan, there was high correlation between 6-SFT gene expression and Suc and glucose concentrations. This is consistent with Suc concentration being the trigger for transcription. Together with earlier demonstrations that the mesophyll cells have a higher sugar threshold for fructan polymerization, our data may indicate separate control of transcription and enzyme activity. Values for the sugar concentrations of the individual cell types are reported.

  16. Molecular characterization of a gene POLR2H encoded an essential subunit for RNA polymerase II from the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda Melanoleuca).

    PubMed

    Du, Yu-Jie; Hou, Yi-Ling; Hou, Wan-Ru

    2013-02-01

    The Giant Panda is an endangered and valuable gene pool in genetic, its important functional gene POLR2H encodes an essential shared peptide H of RNA polymerases. The genomic DNA and cDNA sequences were cloned successfully for the first time from the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) adopting touchdown-PCR and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. The length of the genomic sequence of the Giant Panda is 3,285 bp, including five exons and four introns. The cDNA fragment cloned is 509 bp in length, containing an open reading frame of 453 bp encoding 150 amino acids. Alignment analysis indicated that both the cDNA and its deduced amino acid sequence were highly conserved. Protein structure prediction showed that there was one protein kinase C phosphorylation site, four casein kinase II phosphorylation sites and one amidation site in the POLR2H protein, further shaping advanced protein structure. The cDNA cloned was expressed in Escherichia coli, which indicated that POLR2H fusion with the N-terminally His-tagged form brought about the accumulation of an expected 20.5 kDa polypeptide in line with the predicted protein. On the basis of what has already been achieved in this study, further deep-in research will be conducted, which has great value in theory and practical significance.

  17. Epigenetic silencing of Na,K-ATPase β1 subunit gene ATP1B1 by methylation in clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Selvakumar, Ponniah; Owens, Tori A; David, Justin M; Petrelli, Nicholas J; Christensen, Brock C; Lakshmikuttyamma, Ashakumary; Rajasekaran, Ayyappan K

    2014-01-01

    The Na,K-ATPase or sodium pump carries out the coupled extrusion of Na+ and uptake of K+ across the plasma membranes of cells of most higher eukaryotes. We have shown earlier that Na,K-ATPase-β1 (NaK-β) protein levels are highly reduced in poorly differentiated kidney carcinoma cells in culture and in patients' tumor samples. The mechanism(s) regulating the expression of NaK-β in tumor tissues has yet to be explored. We hypothesized that DNA methylation plays a role in silencing the NaK-β gene (ATP1B1) expression in kidney cancers. In this study, to the best of our knowledge we provide the first evidence that ATP1B1 is epigenetically silenced by promoter methylation in both renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients’ tissues and cell lines. We also show that knockdown of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene in RCC cell lines results in enhanced ATP1B1 promoter AT hypermethylation, which is accompanied by reduced expression of NaK-β. Furthermore, treatment with 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine rescued the expression of ATP1B1 mRNA as well as NaK-β protein in these cells. These data demonstrate that promoter hypermethylation is associated with reduced NaK-β expression, which might contribute to RCC initiation and/or disease progression. PMID:24452105

  18. Epigenetic silencing of Na,K-ATPase β 1 subunit gene ATP1B1 by methylation in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, Ponniah; Owens, Tori A; David, Justin M; Petrelli, Nicholas J; Christensen, Brock C; Lakshmikuttyamma, Ashakumary; Rajasekaran, Ayyappan K

    2014-04-01

    The Na,K-ATPase or sodium pump carries out the coupled extrusion of Na(+) and uptake of K(+) across the plasma membranes of cells of most higher eukaryotes. We have shown earlier that Na,K-ATPase-β 1 (NaK-β) protein levels are highly reduced in poorly differentiated kidney carcinoma cells in culture and in patients' tumor samples. The mechanism(s) regulating the expression of NaK-β in tumor tissues has yet to be explored. We hypothesized that DNA methylation plays a role in silencing the NaK-β gene (ATP1B1) expression in kidney cancers. In this study, to the best of our knowledge we provide the first evidence that ATP1B1 is epigenetically silenced by promoter methylation in both renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients' tissues and cell lines. We also show that knockdown of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene in RCC cell lines results in enhanced ATP1B1 promoter AT hypermethylation, which is accompanied by reduced expression of NaK-β. Furthermore, treatment with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine rescued the expression of ATP1B1 mRNA as well as NaK-β protein in these cells. These data demonstrate that promoter hypermethylation is associated with reduced NaK-β expression, which might contribute to RCC initiation and/or disease progression.

  19. Mutations in the gene encoding the Sigma 2 subunit of the adaptor protein 1 complex, AP1S2, cause X-linked mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Tarpey, Patrick S; Stevens, Claire; Teague, Jon; Edkins, Sarah; O'Meara, Sarah; Avis, Tim; Barthorpe, Syd; Buck, Gemma; Butler, Adam; Cole, Jennifer; Dicks, Ed; Gray, Kristian; Halliday, Kelly; Harrison, Rachel; Hills, Katy; Hinton, Jonathon; Jones, David; Menzies, Andrew; Mironenko, Tatiana; Perry, Janet; Raine, Keiran; Richardson, David; Shepherd, Rebecca; Small, Alexandra; Tofts, Calli; Varian, Jennifer; West, Sofie; Widaa, Sara; Yates, Andy; Catford, Rachael; Butler, Julia; Mallya, Uma; Moon, Jenny; Luo, Ying; Dorkins, Huw; Thompson, Deborah; Easton, Douglas F; Wooster, Richard; Bobrow, Martin; Carpenter, Nancy; Simensen, Richard J; Schwartz, Charles E; Stevenson, Roger E; Turner, Gillian; Partington, Michael; Gecz, Jozef; Stratton, Michael R; Futreal, P Andrew; Raymond, F Lucy

    2006-12-01

    In a systematic sequencing screen of the coding exons of the X chromosome in 250 families with X-linked mental retardation (XLMR), we identified two nonsense mutations and one consensus splice-site mutation in the AP1S2 gene on Xp22 in three families. Affected individuals in these families showed mild-to-profound mental retardation. Other features included hypotonia early in life and delay in walking. AP1S2 encodes an adaptin protein that constitutes part of the adaptor protein complex found at the cytoplasmic face of coated vesicles located at the Golgi complex. The complex mediates the recruitment of clathrin to the vesicle membrane. Aberrant endocytic processing through disruption of adaptor protein complexes is likely to result from the AP1S2 mutations identified in the three XLMR-affected families, and such defects may plausibly cause abnormal synaptic development and function. AP1S2 is the first reported XLMR gene that encodes a protein directly involved in the assembly of endocytic vesicles.

  20. Molecular Identification of Unusual Pathogenic Yeast Isolates by Large Ribosomal Subunit Gene Sequencing: 2 Years of Experience at the United Kingdom Mycology Reference Laboratory▿

    PubMed Central

    Linton, Christopher J.; Borman, Andrew M.; Cheung, Grace; Holmes, Ann D.; Szekely, Adrien; Palmer, Michael D.; Bridge, Paul D.; Campbell, Colin K.; Johnson, Elizabeth M.

    2007-01-01

    Rapid identification of yeast isolates from clinical samples is particularly important given their innately variable antifungal susceptibility profiles. We present here an analysis of the utility of PCR amplification and sequence analysis of the hypervariable D1/D2 region of the 26S rRNA gene for the identification of yeast species submitted to the United Kingdom Mycology Reference Laboratory over a 2-year period. A total of 3,033 clinical isolates were received from 2004 to 2006 encompassing 50 different yeast species. While more than 90% of the isolates, corresponding to the most common Candida species, could be identified by using the AUXACOLOR2 yeast identification kit, 153 isolates (5%), comprised of 47 species, could not be identified by using this system and were subjected to molecular identification via 26S rRNA gene sequencing. These isolates included some common species that exhibited atypical biochemical and phenotypic profiles and also many rarer yeast species that are infrequently encountered in the clinical setting. All 47 species requiring molecular identification were unambiguously identified on the basis of D1/D2 sequences, and the molecular identities correlated well with the observed biochemical profiles of the various organisms. Together, our data underscore the utility of molecular techniques as a reference adjunct to conventional methods of yeast identification. Further, we show that PCR amplification and sequencing of the D1/D2 region reliably identifies more than 45 species of clinically significant yeasts and can also potentially identify new pathogenic yeast species. PMID:17251397

  1. Loss of the flagellum happened only once in the fungal lineage: phylogenetic structure of kingdom Fungi inferred from RNA polymerase II subunit genes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yajuan J; Hodson, Matthew C; Hall, Benjamin D

    2006-09-29

    At present, there is not a widely accepted consensus view regarding the phylogenetic structure of kingdom Fungi although two major phyla, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, are clearly delineated. Regarding the lower fungi, Zygomycota and Chytridiomycota, a variety of proposals have been advanced. Microsporidia may or may not be fungi; the Glomales (vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi) may or may not constitute a fifth fungal phylum, and the loss of the flagellum may have occurred either once or multiple times during fungal evolution. All of these issues are capable of being resolved by a molecular phylogenetic analysis which achieves strong statistical support for major branches. To date, no fungal phylogeny based upon molecular characters has satisfied this criterion. Using the translated amino acid sequences of the RPB1 and RPB2 genes, we have inferred a fungal phylogeny that consists largely of well-supported monophyletic phyla. Our major results, each with significant statistical support, are: (1) Microsporidia are sister to kingdom Fungi and are not members of Zygomycota; that is, Microsporidia and fungi originated from a common ancestor. (2) Chytridiomycota, the only fungal phylum having a developmental stage with a flagellum, is paraphyletic and is the basal lineage. (3) Zygomycota is monophyletic based upon sampling of Trichomycetes, Zygomycetes, and Glomales. (4) Zygomycota, Basidiomycota, and Ascomycota form a monophyletic group separate from Chytridiomycota. (5) Basidiomycota and Ascomycota are monophyletic sister groups. In general, this paper highlights the evolutionary position and significance of the lower fungi (Zygomycota and Chytridiomycota). Our results suggest that loss of the flagellum happened only once during early stages of fungal evolution; consequently, the majority of fungi, unlike plants and animals, are nonflagellated. The phylogeny we infer from gene sequences is the first one that is congruent with the widely accepted morphology

  2. Cytochrome b in human complex II (succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase): cDNA cloning of the components in liver mitochondria and chromosome assignment of the genes for the large (SDHC) and small (SDHD) subunits to 1q21 and 11q23.

    PubMed

    Hirawake, H; Taniwaki, M; Tamura, A; Kojima, S; Kita, K

    1997-01-01

    Complex II (succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is an important enzyme complex in both the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the aerobic respiratory chains of mitochondria in eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic organisms. In this study, the amino acid sequences of the large (cybL) and small (cybS) subunits of cytochrome b in human liver complex II were deduced from cDNAs isolated by homology probing with mixed primers for the polymerase chain reaction. The mature cybL and cybS contain 140 and 103 amino acids, respectively, and show little similarity to the amino acid sequences of the subunits from other species in contrast to the highly conserved features of the flavoprotein (Fp) subunit and iron-sulfur protein (Ip) subunit. From hydrophobicity analysis, both cybL and cybS appear to have three transmembrane segments, indicating their role as membrane-anchors for the enzyme complex. Histidine residues, which are possible heme axial ligands in cytochrome b of complex II, were found in the second transmembrane segment of each subunit. The genes for cybL (SDHC) and cybS (SDHD) were mapped to chromosome 1q21 and 11q23, respectively by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH).

  3. Genetic analysis of the cytoplasmic dynein subunit families.

    PubMed

    Pfister, K Kevin; Shah, Paresh R; Hummerich, Holger; Russ, Andreas; Cotton, James; Annuar, Azlina Ahmad; King, Stephen M; Fisher, Elizabeth M C

    2006-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dyneins, the principal microtubule minus-end-directed motor proteins of the cell, are involved in many essential cellular processes. The major form of this enzyme is a complex of at least six protein subunits, and in mammals all but one of the subunits are encoded by at least two genes. Here we review current knowledge concerning the subunits, their interactions, and their functional roles as derived from biochemical and genetic analyses. We also carried out extensive database searches to look for new genes and to clarify anomalies in the databases. Our analysis documents evolutionary relationships among the dynein subunits of mammals and other model organisms, and sheds new light on the role of this diverse group of proteins, highlighting the existence of two cytoplasmic dynein complexes with distinct cellular roles.

  4. Genetic Analysis of the Cytoplasmic Dynein Subunit Families

    PubMed Central

    Pfister, K. Kevin; Shah, Paresh R; Hummerich, Holger; Russ, Andreas; Cotton, James; Annuar, Azlina Ahmad; King, Stephen M; Fisher, Elizabeth M. C

    2006-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dyneins, the principal microtubule minus-end-directed motor proteins of the cell, are involved in many essential cellular processes. The major form of this enzyme is a complex of at least six protein subunits, and in mammals all but one of the subunits are encoded by at least two genes. Here we review current knowledge concerning the subunits, their interactions, and their functional roles as derived from biochemical and genetic analyses. We also carried out extensive database searches to look for new genes and to clarify anomalies in the databases. Our analysis documents evolutionary relationships among the dynein subunits of mammals and other model organisms, and sheds new light on the role of this diverse group of proteins, highlighting the existence of two cytoplasmic dynein complexes with distinct cellular roles. PMID:16440056

  5. Description of Eurystomatella sinica n. gen., n. sp., with establishment of a new family Eurystomatellidae n. fam. (Protista, Ciliophora, Scuticociliatia) and analyses of its phylogeny inferred from sequences of the small-subunit rRNA gene.

    PubMed

    Miao, Miao; Wang, Yangang; Song, Weibo; Clamp, John C; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S

    2010-02-01

    Recently, an undescribed marine ciliate was isolated from China. Investigation of its morphology and infraciliature revealed it as an undescribed species representing a new genus, Eurystomatella n. gen., the type of the new family Eurystomatellidae n. fam. The new family is defined by close-set, apically positioned oral membranelles and a dominant buccal field that is surrounded by an almost completely circular paroral membrane. The new genus is defined by having a small oral membranelle 1 (M1), bipartite M2 and well-developed M3, a body surface faintly sculptured with a silverline system in a quadrangular, reticulate pattern and a cytostome located at the anterior third of a large buccal field. The type species of the new genus, Eurystomatella sinica n. sp., is a morphologically unique form that is defined mainly by the combination of a conspicuously flattened body, several caudal cilia, extremely long cilia associated with the buccal apparatus and a contractile vacuole located subcaudally. According to phylogenetic analyses of small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences, Eurystomatella clusters with the genus Cyclidium, as a sister group to the family Pleuronematidae. The great divergence in both buccal and somatic ciliature between Eurystomatella and all other known scuticociliates supports the establishment of a new family for Eurystomatella.

  6. Diversity of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonizing Clintonia borealis from a mixed-wood boreal forest.

    PubMed

    DeBellis, Tonia; Widden, Paul

    2006-11-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) communities in Clintonia borealis roots from a boreal mixed forests in northwestern Québec were investigated. Roots were sampled from 100 m2 plots whose overstory was dominated by either trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.), or mixed white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.). Part of the 18S ribosomal gene of the AMF was amplified and the resulting PCR products were cloned. Restriction analysis of the 576 resulting clones yielded 92 different restriction patterns which were then sequenced. Fifty-two sequences closely matched other Glomus sequences from Genbank. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 10 different AMF sequence types, most of which clustered with other uncultured AM sequences from plant roots from various field sites. Compared with other AMF communities from comparable studies, richness and diversity were higher than observed in an arable field, but lower than seen in a tropical forest and a temperate wetland. The AMF communities from Clintonia roots under the different canopy types did not differ significantly and the dominant sequence type, which clustered with AM sequences from a variety of environments and hosts at distant geographical locations, represented 66.9% of all the clones analyzed.

  7. Eight novel F13A1 gene missense mutations in patients with mild FXIII deficiency: in silico analysis suggests changes in FXIII-A subunit structure/function.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Arijit; Ivaskevicius, Vytautas; Thomas, Anne; Varvenne, Michael; Brand, Brigitte; Rott, Hannelore; Haussels, Iris; Ruehl, Heiko; Scholz, Ute; Klamroth, Robert; Oldenburg, Johannes

    2014-10-01

    Mild FXIII deficiency is an under-diagnosed disorder because the carriers of this deficiency are often asymptomatic and reveal a phenotype only under special circumstances like surgery or induced trauma. Mutational reports from this type of deficiency have been rare. In this study, we present the phenotypic and genotypic data of nine patients showing mild FXIII-A deficiency caused by eight novel heterozygous missense mutations (Pro166Leu, Arg171Gln, His342Tyr, Gln415Arg, Leu529Pro, Gln601Lys, Arg703Gln and Arg715Gly) in the F13A1 gene. None of these variants were seen in 200 healthy controls. In silico structural analysis of the local wild-type protein structures (activated and non-activated) from X-ray crystallographic models downloaded from the protein databank identified potential structural/functional effects for the identified mutations. The missense mutations in the core domain are suggested to be directly influencing the catalytic triad. Mutations on other domains might influence other critical factors such as activation peptide cleavage or the barrel domain integrity. In vitro expression and subsequent biochemical studies in the future will be able to confirm the pathophysiological mechanisms proposed for the mutations in this article.

  8. Absence of population genetic structure in Heterakis gallinarum of chicken from Sichuan, inferred from mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiaobin; Zhu, Jun-Yang; Jian, Ke-Ling; Wang, Bao-Jian; Peng, Xue-Rong; Yang, Guang-You; Wang, Tao; Zhong, Zhi-Jun; Peng, Ke-Yun

    2016-09-01

    Population genetics information provides a foundation for understanding the transmission and epidemiology of parasite and, therefore, may be used to assist in the control of parasitosis. However, limited available sequence information in Heterakis gallinarum has greatly impeded the study in this area. In this study, we first investigated the genetic variability and genetic structure of H. gallinarum. The 1325 bp fragments of the mitochondrial COX1 gene were amplified in 56 isolates of H. gallinarum from seven different geographical regions in Sichuan province, China. The 56 sequences were classified into 22 haplotypes (H1-H22). The values of haplotype diversity (0.712) and nucleotide diversity (0.00158) in Sichuan population indicate a rapid expansion occurred from a relatively small, short-term effective population in the past. The haplotype network formed a distribution around H1 in a star-like topology, and the haplotypes did not cluster according to their geographical location. Similar conclusions could be made from MP phylogenetic tree. The Fst value (Fst<0.16965) and AMOVA analysis revealed that no significant genetic differentiation was observed among the seven different geographical populations. Neutrality tests (Tajima's D and Fu's Fs) and mismatch analysis indicated that H. gallinarum experienced a population expansion in the past. Our results indicated that H. gallinarum experienced a rapid population expansion in the past, and there was a low genetic diversity and an absence of population structure across the population.

  9. Na+, K+-ATPase β1 subunit associates with α1 subunit modulating a "higher-NKA-in-hyposmotic media" response in gills of euryhaline milkfish, Chanos chanos.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yau-Chung; Chu, Keng-Fu; Yang, Wen-Kai; Lee, Tsung-Han

    2017-10-01

    The euryhaline milkfish (Chanos chanos) is a popular aquaculture species that can be cultured in fresh water, brackish water, or seawater in Southeast Asia. In gills of the milkfish, Na + , K + -ATPase (i.e., NKA; sodium pump) responds to salinity challenges including changes in mRNA abundance, protein amount, and activity. The functional pump is composed of a heterodimeric protein complex composed of α- and β-subunits. Among the NKA genes, α1-β1 isozyme comprises the major form of NKA subunits in mammalian osmoregulatory organs; however, most studies on fish gills have focused on the α1 subunit and did not verify the α1-β1 isozyme. Based on the sequenced milkfish transcriptome, an NKA β1 subunit gene was identified that had the highest amino acid homology to β233, a NKA β1 subunit paralog originally identified in the eel. Despite this high level of homology to β233, phylogenetic analysis and the fact that only a single NKA β1 subunit gene exists in the milkfish suggest that the milkfish gene should be referred to as the NKA β1 subunit gene. The results of accurate domain prediction of the β1 subunit, co-localization of α1 and β1 subunits in epithelial ionocytes, and co-immunoprecipitation of α1 and β1 subunits, indicated the formation of a α1-β1 complex in milkfish gills. Moreover, when transferred to hyposmotic media (fresh water) from seawater, parallel increases in branchial mRNA and protein expression of NKA α1 and β1 subunits suggested their roles in hypo-osmoregulation of euryhaline milkfish. This study molecularly characterized the NKA β1 subunit and provided the first evidence for an NKA α1-β1 association in gill ionocytes of euryhaline teleosts.

  10. Overexpression of PP2A-C5 that encodes the catalytic subunit 5 of protein phosphatase 2A in Arabidopsis confers better root and shoot development under salt conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is an enzyme consisting of three subunits: a scaffolding A subunit, a regulatory B subunit and a catalytic C subunit. PP2As were shown to play diverse roles in eukaryotes. In this study, the function of the Arabidopsis PP2A-C5 gene that encodes the catalytic subunit 5 o...

  11. Overexpression of the protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit a gene ZmPP2AA1 improves low phosphate tolerance by remodeling the root system architecture of maize

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiemin; Pei, Laming; Jin, Zhe; Zhang, Kewei; Zhang, Juren

    2017-01-01

    Phosphate (Pi) limitation is a constraint for plant growth and development in many natural and agricultural ecosystems. In this study, a gene encoding Zea mays L. protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit A, designated ZmPP2AA1, was induced in roots by low Pi availability. The function of the ZmPP2AA1 gene in maize was analyzed using overexpression and RNA interference. ZmPP2AA1 modulated root gravitropism, negatively regulated primary root (PR) growth, and stimulated the development of lateral roots (LRs). A detailed characterization of the root system architecture (RSA) in response to different Pi concentrations with or without indole-3-acetic acid and 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid revealed that auxin was involved in the RSA response to low Pi availability. Overexpression of ZmPP2AA1 enhanced tolerance to Pi starvation in transgenic maize in hydroponic and soil pot experiments. An increased dry weight (DW), root-to-shoot ratio, and total P content and concentration, along with a delayed and reduced accumulation of anthocyanin in overexpressing transgenic maize plants coincided with their highly branched root system and increased Pi uptake capability under low Pi conditions. Inflorescence development of the ZmPP2AA1 overexpressing line was less affected by low Pi stress, resulting in higher grain yield per plant under Pi deprivation. These data reveal the biological function of ZmPP2AA1, provide insights into a linkage between auxin and low Pi responses, and drive new strategies for the efficient utilization of Pi by maize. PMID:28448624

  12. NF-κB p65 Subunit Mediates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Na+/I− Symporter Gene Expression by Involving Functional Interaction with the Paired Domain Transcription Factor Pax8

    PubMed Central

    Nicola, Juan Pablo; Nazar, Magalí; Mascanfroni, Iván Darío; Pellizas, Claudia Gabriela; Masini-Repiso, Ana María

    2010-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) elicits a variety of biological responses. Na+/I− symporter (NIS)-mediated iodide uptake is the main rate-limiting step in thyroid hormonogenesis. We have recently reported that LPS stimulates TSH-induced iodide uptake. Here, we further analyzed the molecular mechanism involved in the LPS-induced NIS expression in Fisher rat thyroid cell line 5 (FRTL-5) thyroid cells. We observed an increase in TSH-induced NIS mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner upon LPS treatment. LPS enhanced the TSH-stimulated NIS promoter activity denoting the NIS-upstream enhancer region (NUE) as responsible for the stimulatory effects. We characterized a novel putative conserved κB site for the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) within the NUE region. NUE contains two binding sites for the transcription factor paired box 8 (Pax8), main regulator of NIS transcription. A physical interaction was observed between the NF-κB p65 subunit and paired box 8 (Pax8), which appears to be responsible for the synergic effect displayed by these transcription factors on NIS gene transcription. Moreover, functional blockage of NF-κB signaling and site-directed mutagenesis of the κB cis-acting element abrogated LPS stimulation. Silencing expression of p65 confirmed its participation as an effector of LPS-induced NIS stimulation. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation corroborated that NIS is a novel target gene for p65 transactivation in response to LPS. Moreover, we were able to corroborate the LPS-stimulatory effect on thyroid cells in vivo in LPS-treated rats, supporting that thyrocytes are capable of responding to systemic infections. In conclusion, our results reveal a new mechanism involving p65 in the LPS-induced NIS expression, denoting a novel aspect in thyroid cell differentiation. PMID:20667985

  13. Caryotricha minuta (Xu et al., 2008) nov. comb., a unique marine ciliate (Protista, Ciliophora, Spirotrichea), with phylogenetic analysis of the ambiguous genus Caryotricha inferred from the small-subunit rRNA gene sequence.

    PubMed

    Miao, Miao; Shao, Chen; Jiang, Jiamei; Li, Liqiong; Stoeck, Thorsten; Song, Weibo

    2009-02-01

    A population of Kiitricha minuta Xu et al., 2008, a small kiitrichid ciliate, was isolated from a brackish water sample in Jiaozhou Bay, Qingdao, northern China. After comparison of its morphology and infraciliature, it is believed that this morphotype should be assigned to the genus Caryotricha; hence, a new combination is suggested, Caryotricha minuta (Xu et al., 2008) nov. comb. The small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequence was determined in order to elucidate the phylogenetic position of this poorly known, ambiguous genus. The organism can be clearly separated from its congener, Caryotricha convexa Kahl, 1932, by the extremely shortened ventral cirral rows in the posterior ends. Based on the data available, an improved diagnosis is given for the genus: marine Kiitrichidae with prominent buccal field; two highly developed undulating membranes; non-grouped, uniform cirral rows on both ventral and dorsal sides; enlarged transverse cirri present, which are the only differentiated cirri; marginal cirri not present; one short migratory row located posterior to buccal field; structure of dorsal kineties generally in Kiitricha pattern. The sequence of the SSU rRNA gene of C. minuta differs by 13 % from that of Kiitricha marina. Molecular phylogenetic analyses (Bayesian inference, least squares, neighbour joining, maximum parsimony) indicate that Caryotricha, together with Kiitricha, diverges at a deep level from all other spirotrichs. Its branching position is between Phacodiniidia and Licnophoridia. The results strongly support the distinct separation of the Kiitricha-Caryotricha clade, which always branches basal to the Stichotrichia-Hypotrichia-Oligotrichia-Choreotrichia assemblage. These results also confirm the previous hypothesis that the Kiitricha-Caryotricha group, long assumed to be a close relation to the euplotids, represents a taxon at subclass level within the spirotrichs.

  14. Molecular Characterization of the α-Subunit of Na+/K+ ATPase from the Euryhaline Barnacle Balanus improvisus Reveals Multiple Genes and Differential Expression of Alternative Splice Variants

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Ulrika; Alm Rosenblad, Magnus; Wrange, Anna-Lisa; Sundell, Kristina S.; Jonsson, Per R.; André, Carl; Havenhand, Jonathan; Blomberg, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The euryhaline bay barnacle Balanus improvisus has one of the broadest salinity tolerances of any barnacle species. It is able to complete its life cycle in salinities close to freshwater (3 PSU) up to fully marine conditions (35 PSU) and is regarded as one of few truly brackish-water species. Na+/K+ ATPase (NAK) has been shown to be important for osmoregulation when marine organisms are challenged by changing salinities, and we therefore cloned and examined the expression of different NAKs from B. improvisus. We found two main gene variants, NAK1 and NAK2, which were approximately 70% identical at the protein level. The NAK1 mRNA existed in a long and short variant with the encoded proteins differing only by 27 N-terminal amino acids. This N-terminal stretch was coded for by a separate exon, and the two variants of NAK1 mRNAs appeared to be created by alternative splicing. We furthermore showed that the two NAK1 isoforms were differentially expressed in different life stages and in various tissues of adult barnacle, i.e the long isoform was predominant in cyprids and in adult cirri. In barnacle cyprid larvae that were exposed to a combination of different salinities and pCO2 levels, the expression of the long NAK1 mRNA increased relative to the short in low salinities. We suggest that the alternatively spliced long variant of the Nak1 protein might be of importance for osmoregulation in B. improvisus in low salinity conditions. PMID:24130836

  15. Comparison of sequencing the D2 region of the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene (MicroSEQ®) versus the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions using two public databases for identification of common and uncommon clinically relevant fungal species.

    PubMed

    Arbefeville, S; Harris, A; Ferrieri, P

    2017-09-01

    Fungal infections cause considerable morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Rapid and accurate identification of fungi is essential to guide accurately targeted antifungal therapy. With the advent of molecular methods, clinical laboratories can use new technologies to supplement traditional phenotypic identification of fungi. The aims of the study were to evaluate the sole commercially available MicroSEQ® D2 LSU rDNA Fungal Identification Kit compared to the in-house developed internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions assay in identifying moulds, using two well-known online public databases to analyze sequenced data. 85 common and uncommon clinically relevant fungi isolated from clinical specimens were sequenced for the D2 region of the large subunit (LSU) of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene with the MicroSEQ® Kit and the ITS regions with the in house developed assay. The generated sequenced data were analyzed with the online GenBank and MycoBank public databases. The D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene identified 89.4% or 92.9% of the 85 isolates to the genus level and the full ITS region (f-ITS) 96.5% or 100%, using GenBank or MycoBank, respectively, when compared to the consensus ID. When comparing species-level designations to the consensus ID, D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene aligned with 44.7% (38/85) or 52.9% (45/85) of these isolates in GenBank or MycoBank, respectively. By comparison, f-ITS possessed greater specificity, followed by ITS1, then ITS2 regions using GenBank or MycoBank. Using GenBank or MycoBank, D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene outperformed phenotypic based ID at the genus level. Comparing rates of ID between D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene and the ITS regions in GenBank or MycoBank at the species level against the consensus ID, f-ITS and ITS2 exceeded performance of the D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene, but ITS1 had similar performance to the D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene using MycoBank. Our results indicated that the MicroSEQ® D2 LSU r

  16. Safety and immunogenicity of MAGE-A3 cancer immunotherapeutic with dacarbazine in patients with MAGE-A3-positive metastatic cutaneous melanoma: an open phase I/II study with a first assessment of a predictive gene signature

    PubMed Central

    Grob, Jean-Jacques; Mortier, Laurent; D’Hondt, Lionel; Grange, Florent; Baurain, Jean Francois; Dréno, Brigitte; Lebbe, Céleste; Robert, Caroline; Dompmartin, Anne; Neyns, Bart; Gillet, Marc; Louahed, Jamila; Jarnjak, Silvija; Lehmann, Frédéric F

    2017-01-01

    Background We assessed safety, immunogenicity and clinical activity of recombinant MAGE-A3 antigen combined with AS15 immunostimulant (MAGE-A3 immunotherapeutic) in association with dacarbazine in patients with metastatic melanoma. Methods In this open-label, phase I/II, uncontrolled multicentre trial conducted in Belgium and France, patients with MAGE-A3-positive melanoma received up to 24 doses of MAGE-A3 immunotherapeutic (four cycles) coadministered with eight doses of dacarbazine. Adverse events (AE) were recorded until 31 days postvaccination, and serious AEs (SAE), until 30 days following the last dose. MAGE-A3-specific antibodies were measured by ELISA. Clinical activity of MAGE-A3 immunotherapeutic was assessed in patients positive/negative for previously identified gene signature (GS) associated with clinical outcome. Results Forty-eight patients were enrolled and treated (32 GS+, 15 GS−, 1 unknown GS status); two patients completed the study. All patients reported AEs, the most common were ‘general disorders and administration site conditions’ (94%). Treatment-related AEs were reported by 85% of patients; the most common was pain at injection site (38%). Sixteen SAEs were reported by 21% of patients; two were considered as treatment related (neutropenia and thrombocytopenia; grade 4). Postdose 4, all patients were seropositive for MAGE-A3-specific antibodies, with a geometric mean titre of 2778.7 ELISA units (EU)/mL (95% CI 1638.3 to 4712.8). One complete and three partial responses were reported (only in GS+ patients). Median overall survival was 11.4 months for GS+ and 5.3 months for GS− patients. Conclusion Although this trial shows poor results compared with the new results with checkpoint inhibitors, it gives an interesting insight in rapidly developing fields like combinations of immunotherapy and chemotherapy, new generation vaccines and the use of gene profile as a predictive marker. Trial registration number NCT00849875. PMID:29177094

  17. Safety and immunogenicity of MAGE-A3 cancer immunotherapeutic with dacarbazine in patients with MAGE-A3-positive metastatic cutaneous melanoma: an open phase I/II study with a first assessment of a predictive gene signature.

    PubMed

    Grob, Jean-Jacques; Mortier, Laurent; D'Hondt, Lionel; Grange, Florent; Baurain, Jean Francois; Dréno, Brigitte; Lebbe, Céleste; Robert, Caroline; Dompmartin, Anne; Neyns, Bart; Gillet, Marc; Louahed, Jamila; Jarnjak, Silvija; Lehmann, Frédéric F

    2017-01-01

    We assessed safety, immunogenicity and clinical activity of recombinant MAGE-A3 antigen combined with AS15 immunostimulant (MAGE-A3 immunotherapeutic) in association with dacarbazine in patients with metastatic melanoma. In this open-label, phase I/II, uncontrolled multicentre trial conducted in Belgium and France, patients with MAGE-A3-positive melanoma received up to 24 doses of MAGE-A3 immunotherapeutic (four cycles) coadministered with eight doses of dacarbazine. Adverse events (AE) were recorded until 31 days postvaccination, and serious AEs (SAE), until 30 days following the last dose. MAGE-A3-specific antibodies were measured by ELISA. Clinical activity of MAGE-A3 immunotherapeutic was assessed in patients positive/negative for previously identified gene signature (GS) associated with clinical outcome. Forty-eight patients were enrolled and treated (32 GS+, 15 GS-, 1 unknown GS status); two patients completed the study. All patients reported AEs, the most common were 'general disorders and administration site conditions' (94%). Treatment-related AEs were reported by 85% of patients; the most common was pain at injection site (38%). Sixteen SAEs were reported by 21% of patients; two were considered as treatment related (neutropenia and thrombocytopenia; grade 4). Postdose 4, all patients were seropositive for MAGE-A3-specific antibodies, with a geometric mean titre of 2778.7 ELISA units (EU)/mL (95% CI 1638.3 to 4712.8). One complete and three partial responses were reported (only in GS+ patients). Median overall survival was 11.4 months for GS+ and 5.3 months for GS- patients. Although this trial shows poor results compared with the new results with checkpoint inhibitors, it gives an interesting insight in rapidly developing fields like combinations of immunotherapy and chemotherapy, new generation vaccines and the use of gene profile as a predictive marker. NCT00849875.

  18. Phylogenetic relationships in the mushroom genus Coprinus and dark-spored allies based on sequence data from the nuclear gene coding for the large ribosomal subunit RNA: divergent domains, outgroups, and monophyly.

    PubMed

    Hopple, J S; Vilgalys, R

    1999-10-01

    Phylogenetic relationships were investigated in the mushroom genus Coprinus based on sequence data from the nuclear encoded large-subunit rDNA gene. Forty-seven species of Coprinus and 19 additional species from the families Coprinaceae, Strophariaceae, Bolbitiaceae, Agaricaceae, Podaxaceae, and Montagneaceae were studied. A total of 1360 sites was sequenced across seven divergent domains and intervening sequences. A total of 302 phylogenetically informative characters was found. Ninety-eight percent of the average divergence between taxa was located within the divergent domains, with domains D2 and D8 being most divergent and domains D7 and D10 the least divergent. An empirical test of phylogenetic signal among divergent domains also showed that domains D2 and D3 had the lowest levels of homoplasy. Two equally most parsimonious trees were resolved using Wagner parsimony. A character-state weighted analysis produced 12 equally most parsimonious trees similar to those generated by Wagner parsimony. Phylogenetic analyses employing topological constraints suggest that none of the major taxonomic systems proposed for subgeneric classification is able to completely reflect phylogenetic relationships in Coprinus. A strict consensus integration of the two Wagner trees demonstrates the problematic nature of choosing outgroups within dark-spored mushrooms. The genus Coprinus is found to be polyphyletic and is separated into three distinct clades. Most Coprinus taxa belong to the first two clades, which together form a larger monophyletic group with Lacrymaria and Psathyrella in basal positions. A third clade contains members of Coprinus section Comati as well as the genus Leucocoprinus, Podaxis pistillaris, Montagnea arenaria, and Agaricus pocillator. This third clade is separated from the other species of Coprinus by members of the families Strophariaceae and Bolbitiaceae and the genus Panaeolus. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  19. Impaired degradation of inhibitory subunit of NF-κB (IκB) and β-catenin as a result of targeted disruption of the β-TrCP1 gene

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Keiko; Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu; Maruyama, Shun-ichiro; Kikuchi, Akira; Onoé, Kazunori; Good, Robert A.; Nakayama, Keiichi I.

    2003-01-01

    β-TrCP1 (also known as Fbw1a or FWD1) is the F-box protein component of an Skp1/Cul1/F-box (SCF)-type ubiquitin ligase complex. Although biochemical studies have suggested that β-TrCP1 targets inhibitory subunit of NF-κB(IκB) proteins and β-catenin for ubiquitylation, the physiological role of β-TrCP1 in mammals has remained unclear. We have now generated mice deficient in β-TrCP1 and shown that the degradation of IκBα and IκBβ is reproducibly, but not completely, impaired in the cells of these animals. The nuclear translocation and DNA-binding activity of NF-κB as well as the ability of this transcription factor to activate a luciferase reporter gene were also inhibited in β-TrCP1–/– cells compared with those apparent in wild-type cells. The subcellular localization of β-catenin was altered markedly in β-TrCP1–/– cells. Furthermore, the rate of proliferation was reduced and both cell size and the percentage of polyploid cells were increased in embryonic fibroblasts derived from β-TrCP1–/– mice pared with the corresponding wild-type cells. These results suggest that β-TrCP1 contributes to, but is not absolutely required for, the degradation of IκB and β-catenin and the consequent regulation of the NF-κB and Wnt signaling pathways, respectively. In addition, they implicate β-TrCP1 in the maintenance of ploidy during cell-cycle progression. PMID:12843402

  20. Molecular Identification of Sibling Species of Sclerodermus (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) That Parasitize Buprestid and Cerambycid Beetles by Using Partial Sequences of Mitochondrial DNA Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit 1 and 28S Ribosomal RNA Gene

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuan; Yang, Zhongqi; Wang, Xiaoyi; Hou, Yuxia

    2015-01-01

    The species belonging to Sclerodermus (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) are currently the most important insect natural enemies of wood borer pests, mainly buprestid and cerambycid beetles, in China. However, some sibling species of this genus are very difficult to distinguish because of their similar morphological features. To address this issue, we conducted phylogenetic and genetic analyses of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and 28S RNA gene sequences from eight species of Sclerodermus reared from different wood borer pests. The eight sibling species were as follows: S. guani Xiao et Wu, S. sichuanensis Xiao, S. pupariae Yang et Yao, and Sclerodermus spp. (Nos. 1–5). A 594-bp fragment of COI and 750-bp fragment of 28S were subsequently sequenced. For COI, the G-C content was found to be low in all the species, averaging to about 30.0%. Sequence divergences (Kimura-2-parameter distances) between congeneric species averaged to 4.5%, and intraspecific divergences averaged to about 0.09%. Further, the maximum sequence divergences between congeneric species and Sclerodermus sp. (No. 5) averaged to about 16.5%. All 136 samples analyzed were included in six reciprocally monophyletic clades in the COI neighbor-joining (NJ) tree. The NJ tree inferred from the 28S rRNA sequence yielded almost identical results, but the samples from S. guani, S. sichuanensis, S. pupariae, and Sclerodermus spp. (Nos. 1–4) clustered together and only Sclerodermus sp. (No. 5) clustered separately. Our findings indicate that the standard barcode region of COI can be efficiently used to distinguish morphologically similar Sclerodermus species. Further, we speculate that Sclerodermus sp. (No. 5) might be a new species of Sclerodermus. PMID:25782000

  1. Morphology and small-subunit rRNA gene sequences of two novel marine ciliates, Metanophrys orientalis spec. nov. and Uronemella sinensis spec. nov. (Protista, Ciliophora, Scuticociliatia), with an improved diagnosis of the genus Uronemella.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xuming; Zhu, Mingzhuang; Ma, Honggang; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Hu, Xiaozhong

    2013-09-01

    The morphology and infraciliature of two novel marine scuticociliates, Metanophrys orientalis spec. nov. and Uronemella sinensis spec. nov., collected from sandy beaches at Qingdao, China, were investigated using live observation and protargol-staining methods. Metanophrys orientalis spec. nov. is distinguished by the following characteristics: marine habitat and a slender to elongate oval body with pointed anterior end and rounded caudal end, in vivo about 25-50 µm long; buccal field about a quarter to a third of body length; nine or ten somatic kineties with dikinetids approximately in anterior half of body, monokinetids in posterior half; membranelles 1 and 2 almost equal in length and composed of two and three longitudinal rows of kinetids respectively; paroral membrane with zigzag structure extending anteriorly to middle portion of membranelle 2; contractile vacuole pore located at posterior end of somatic kinety 1. The genus Uronemella is redefined as follows: marine form with an elongate-elliptical or inverted pear-shaped body; apical plate conspicuous; buccal field about two-thirds of body length, cytostome subequatorially located; oral apparatus Uronema-like; somatic kineties comprising a mixture of dikinetids and monokinetids. Uronemella sinensis spec. nov. is recognized by having an elongate-elliptical body with truncated apical frontal plate, size in vivo about 25-35 × 15-20 µm, nine or ten somatic kineties, membranelle 1 consisting of two or three basal bodies, contractile vacuole pore at posterior end of somatic kinety 1. This study also compared the small-subunit rRNA gene sequences of these two species with other closely related species to show the sequence divergence, which ranged from 3.53 to 9.60%. Phylogenetic analyses support the contention that the genus Uronemella is monophyletic, while Metanophrys is non-monophyletic.

  2. Electrophysiology and Beyond: Multiple roles of Na+ channel β subunits in development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Patino, Gustavo A.; Isom, Lori L.

    2010-01-01

    Voltage-gated Na+ channel (VGSC) β subunits are not “auxiliary.” These multifunctional molecules not only modulate Na+ current (INa), but also function as cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) – playing roles in aggregation, migration, invasion, neurite outgrowth, and axonal fasciculation. β subunits are integral members of VGSC signaling complexes at nodes of Ranvier, axon initial segments, and cardiac intercalated disks, regulating action potential propagation through critical intermolecular and cell-cell communication events. At least in vitro, many β subunit cell adhesive functions occur both in the presence and absence of pore-forming VGSC α subunits, and in vivo β subunits are expressed in excitable as well as non-excitable cells, thus β subunits may play important functional roles on their own, in the absence of α subunits. VGSC β1 subunits are essential for life and appear to be especially important during brain development. Mutations in β subunit genes result in a variety of human neurological and cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, some cancer cells exhibit alterations in β subunit expression during metastasis. In short, these proteins, originally thought of as merely accessory to α subunits, are critical players in their own right in human health and disease. Here we discuss the role of VGSC β subunits in the nervous system. PMID:20600605

  3. Mutation analysis of COL4A3 and COL4A4 genes in a Chinese autosomal-dominant Alport syndrome family.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liwei; Li, Duan; Dong, Shuangshuang; Wan, Donghao; Yang, Baosheng; Huang, Yanmei

    2017-06-01

    Autosomal dominant Alport syndrome (ADAS) accounts for 5% of all cases of Alport syndrome (AS), a primary basement membrane disorder arising from mutations in genes encoding the type IV collagen protein family.Mutations in COL4A3 and COL4A4 genes were reported to be associated with ADAS. In this study, clinical data in a large consanguineous family with seven affected members were reviewed, and genomic DNA was extracted. For mutation screening, all exons of COL4A3 and COL4A4 genes were polymerase chain reaction-amplified and direct sequenced from genomic DNA, and the mutations were analyzed by comparing with members in this family, 100 ethnicitymatched controls and the sequence of COL4A3 and COL4A4 genes from GenBank. A novel mutation determining a nucleotide change was found, i.e. c.4195 A>T (p.Met1399Leu) at 44th exon of COL4A4 gene, and this mutation showed heterozygous in all patients of this family. Also a novel intron mutation (c.4127+11 C>T) was observed at COL4A4 gene. Thus the novel missense mutation c.4195 A>T (p.Met1399Leu) and the intron mutation (c.4127+11 C>T) at COL4A4 gene might be responsible for ADAS of this family. Our results broadened the spectrum of mutations in COL4A4 and had important implications in the diagnosis, prognosis, and genetic counselling of ADAS.

  4. SLC52A3, A Brown–Vialetto–van Laere syndrome candidate gene is essential for mouse development, but dispensable for motor neuron differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Intoh, Atsushi; Suzuki, Naoki; Koszka, Kathryn; Eggan, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, is essential for cellular reduction-oxidation reactions, but is not readily synthesized by mammalian cells. It has been proposed that riboflavin absorption occurs through solute carrier family 52 members (SLC52) A1, A2 and A3. These transporters are also candidate genes for the childhood onset-neural degenerative syndrome Brown–Vialetto–Van Laere (BVVL). Although riboflavin is an essential nutrient, why mutations in its transporters result in a neural cell-specific disorder remains unclear. Here, we provide evidence that Slc52a3 is the mouse ortholog of SLC52A3 and show that Slc52a3 deficiency results in early embryonic lethality. Loss of mutant embryos was associated with both defects in placental formation and increased rates of apoptosis in embryonic cells. In contrast, Slc52a3 −/− embryonic stem cell lines could be readily established and differentiated into motor neurons, suggesting that this transporter is dispensable for neural differentiation and short-term maintenance. Consistent with this finding, examination of Slc52a3 gene products in adult tissues revealed expression in the testis and intestine but little or none in the brain and spinal cord. Our results suggest that BVVL patients with SCL52A3 mutations may be good candidates for riboflavin replacement therapy and suggests that either the mutations these individuals carry are hypomorphic, or that in these cases alternative transporters act during human embryogenesis to allow full-term development. PMID:26976849

  5. The p40 Subunit of Interleukin (IL)-12 Promotes Stabilization and Export of the p35 Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Jalah, Rashmi; Rosati, Margherita; Ganneru, Brunda; Pilkington, Guy R.; Valentin, Antonio; Kulkarni, Viraj; Bergamaschi, Cristina; Chowdhury, Bhabadeb; Zhang, Gen-Mu; Beach, Rachel Kelly; Alicea, Candido; Broderick, Kate E.; Sardesai, Niranjan Y.; Pavlakis, George N.; Felber, Barbara K.

    2013-01-01

    IL-12 is a 70-kDa heterodimeric cytokine composed of the p35 and p40 subunits. To maximize cytokine production from plasmid DNA, molecular steps controlling IL-12p70 biosynthesis at the posttranscriptional and posttranslational levels were investigated. We show that the combination of RNA/codon-optimized gene sequences and fine-tuning of the relative expression levels of the two subunits within a cell resulted in increased production of the IL-12p70 heterodimer. We found that the p40 subunit plays a critical role in enhancing the stability, intracellular trafficking, and export of the p35 subunit. This posttranslational regulation mediated by the p40 subunit is conserved in mammals. Based on these findings, dual gene expression vectors were generated, producing an optimal ratio of the two subunits, resulting in a ∼1 log increase in human, rhesus, and murine IL-12p70 production compared with vectors expressing the wild type sequences. Such optimized DNA plasmids also produced significantly higher levels of systemic bioactive IL-12 upon in vivo DNA delivery in mice compared with plasmids expressing the wild type sequences. A single therapeutic injection of an optimized murine IL-12 DNA plasmid showed significantly more potent control of tumor development in the B16 melanoma cancer model in mice. Therefore, the improved IL-12p70 DNA vectors have promising potential for in vivo use as molecular vaccine adjuvants and in cancer immunotherapy. PMID:23297419

  6. Molecular gene organisation and secondary structure of the mitochondrial large subunit ribosomal RNA from the cultivated Basidiomycota Agrocybe aegerita: a 13 kb gene possessing six unusual nucleotide extensions and eight introns.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, P; Barroso, G; Labarère, J

    1999-04-01

    The complete gene sequence and secondary structure of the mitochondrial LSU rRNA from the cultivated Basidiomycota Agrocybe aegerita was derived by chromosome walking. The A.aegerita LSU rRNA gene (13 526 nt) represents, to date, the longest described, due to the highest number of introns (eight) and the occurrence of six long nucleotidic extensions. Seven introns belong to group I, while the intronic sequence i5 constitutes the first typical group II intron reported in a fungal mitochondrial LSU rDNA. As with most fungal LSU rDNA introns reported to date, four introns (i5-i8) are distributed in domain V associated with the peptidyl-transferase activity. One intron (i1) is located in domain I, and three (i2-i4) in domain II. The introns i2-i8 possess homologies with other fungal, algal or protozoan introns located at the same position in LSU rDNAs. One of them (i6) is located at the same insertion site as most Ascomycota or algae LSU introns, suggesting a possible inheritance from a common ancestor. On the contrary, intron i1 is located at a so-far unreported insertion site. Among the six unusual nucleotide extensions, five are located in domain I and one in domain V. This is the first report of a mitochondrial LSU rRNA gene sequence and secondary structure for the whole Basidiomycota division.

  7. Identification of fifteen novel mutations in the SLC12A3 gene encoding the Na-Cl Co-transporter in Italian patients with Gitelman syndrome.

    PubMed

    Syrén, Marie-Louise; Tedeschi, Silvana; Cesareo, Laila; Bellantuono, Rosa; Colussi, Giacomo; Procaccio, Mirella; Alì, Anna; Domenici, Raffaele; Malberti, Fabio; Sprocati, Monica; Sacco, Michele; Miglietti, Nunzia; Edefonti, Alberto; Sereni, Fabio; Casari, Giorgio; Coviello, Domenico A; Bettinelli, Alberto

    2002-07-01

    The SLC12A3 gene encodes the thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl co-transporter (NCCT) expressed in the apical membrane of the distal convoluted tubule of the kidney. Inactivating mutations of this gene are responsible for Gitelman syndrome (GS), a disorder inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. We searched for SLC12A3 gene mutations in 21 Italian patients with the clinical and biochemical features of GS (hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, metabolic alkalosis, hypocalciuria, and the absence of nephrocalcinosis). All coding regions with their intron-exon boundaries were analyzed using PCR and SSCP techniques followed by sequencing analysis. We identified 21 different mutations evenly distributed throughout the gene without any mutation hot-spot. Fifteen are novel variants, including 12 missense mutations, one deletion, one deletion-insertion and one splice site mutation: R158Q, T163M, W172R, G316V, G374V, G463E, A464T, S615W, V677M, R852S, R958G, C985Y, 2114-2120delACCAAGT, 2144-2158delGCCTTCTACTCGGATinsTG, and 531-2A>G. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Combined application of plasma mutagenesis and gene engineering leads to 5-oxomilbemycins A3/A4 as main components from Streptomyces bingchenggensis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Ji; Zhang, Yue-Jing; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Chong-Xi; He, Hai-Rong; Wang, Xiang-Jing; Xiang, Wen-Sheng

    2014-12-01

    Milbemycin oxime has been commercialized as effective anthelmintics in the fields of animal health, agriculture, and human infections. Currently, milbemycin oxime is synthesized by a two-step chemical reaction, which involves the ketonization of milbemycins A3/A4 to yield the intermediates 5-oxomilbemycins A3/A4 using CrO3 as catalyst. Due to the low efficiency and environmental unfriendliness of the ketonization of milbemycins A3/A4, it is imperative to develop alternative strategies to produce 5-oxomilbemycins A3/A4. In this study, the atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) mutation system was first employed to treat milbemycin-producing strain Streptomyces bingchenggensis, and a mutant strain BC-120-4 producing milbemycins A3, A4, B2, and B3 as main components was obtained, which favors the construction of genetically engineered strains producing 5-oxomilbemycins. Importantly, the milbemycins A3/A4 yield of BC-120-4 reached 3,890 ± 52 g/l, which was approximately two times higher than that of the initial strain BC-109-6 (1,326 ± 37 g/l). The subsequent interruption of the gene milF encoding a C5-ketoreductase responsible for the ketonization of milbemycins led to strain BCJ60 (∆milF) with the production of 5-oxomilbemycins A3/A4 and the elimination of milbemycins A3, A4, B2, and B3. The high 5-oxomilbemycins A3/A4 yield (3,470 ± 147 g/l) and genetic stability of BCJ60 implied the potential use in industry to prepare 5-oxomilbemycins A3/A4 for the semisynthesis of milbemycins oxime.

  9. No Association of BDNF, COMT, MAOA, SLC6A3, and SLC6A4 Genes and Depressive Symptoms in a Sample of Healthy Colombian Subjects.

    PubMed

    González-Giraldo, Yeimy; Camargo, Andrés; López-León, Sandra; Forero, Diego A

    2015-01-01

    Background. Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the second cause of years lived with disability around the world. A large number of studies have been carried out to identify genetic risk factors for MDD and related endophenotypes, mainly in populations of European and Asian descent, with conflicting results. The main aim of the current study was to analyze the possible association of five candidate genes and depressive symptoms in a Colombian sample of healthy subjects. Methods and Materials. The Spanish adaptation of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was applied to one hundred eighty-eight healthy Colombian subjects. Five functional polymorphisms were genotyped using PCR-based assays: BDNF-Val66Met (rs6265), COMT-Val158Met (rs4680), SLC6A4-HTTLPR (rs4795541), MAOA-uVNTR, and SLC6A3-VNTR (rs28363170). Result. We did not find significant associations with scores of depressive symptoms, derived from the HADS, for any of the five candidate genes (nominal p values >0.05). In addition, we did not find evidence of significant gene-gene interactions. Conclusion. This work is one of the first studies of candidate genes for depressive symptoms in a Latin American sample. Study of additional genetic and epigenetic variants, taking into account other pathophysiological theories, will help to identify novel candidates for MDD in populations around the world.

  10. Expression of accessory colonization factor subunit A (ACFA) of Vibrio cholerae and ACFA fused to cholera toxin B subunit in transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Jani, Dewal; Thungapathra, M; Gautam, J K; Meena, L S; Singh, Yogendra; Ghosh, Amit; Tyagi, Akhilesh Kumar; Sharma, Arun Kumar

    2008-05-20

    In earlier study from our group, cholera toxin B subunit had been expressed in tomato for developing a plant-based vaccine against cholera. In the present investigation, gene for accessory colonization factor (acf) subunit A, earlier reported to be essential for efficient colonization in the intestine, has been expressed in Escherichia coli as well as tomato plants. Gene encoding for a chimeric protein having a fusion of cholera toxin B subunit and accessory colonization factor A was also expressed in tomato to generate more potent combinatorial antigen. CaMV35S promoter with a duplicated enhancer sequence was used for expression of these genes in tomato. Integration of transgenes into tomato genome was confirmed by PCR and Southern hybridization. Expression of the genes was confirmed at transcript and protein levels. Accessory colonization factor A and cholera toxin B subunit fused to this protein accumulated up to 0.25% and 0.08% of total soluble protein, respectively, in the fruits of transgenic plants. Whereas protein purified from E. coli, in combination with cholera toxin B subunit can be used for development of conventional subunit vaccine, tomato fruits expressing these proteins can be used together with tomato plants expressing cholera toxin B subunit for development of oral vaccine against cholera.

  11. Therapeutic potential of Mediator complex subunits in metabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Amol; Ansari, Suraiya A

    2018-01-01

    The multisubunit Mediator is an evolutionary conserved transcriptional coregulatory complex in eukaryotes. It is needed for the transcriptional regulation of gene expression in general as well as in a gene specific manner. Mediator complex subunits interact with different transcription factors as well as components of RNA Pol II transcription initiation complex and in doing so act as a bridge between gene specific transcription factors and general Pol II transcription machinery. Specific interaction of various Mediator subunits with nuclear receptors (NRs) and other transcription factors involved in metabolism has been reported in different studies. Evidences indicate that ligand-activated NRs recruit Mediator complex for RNA Pol II-dependent gene transcription. These NRs have been explored as therapeutic targets in different metabolic diseases; however, they show side-effects as targets due to their overlapping involvement in different signaling pathways. Here we discuss the interaction of various Mediator subunits with transcription factors involved in metabolism and whether specific interaction of these transcription factors with Mediator subunits could be potentially utilized as therapeutic strategy in a variety of metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  12. The cellulose synthase 3 (CesA3) gene of oomycetes: structure, phylogeny and influence on sensitivity to carboxylic acid amide (CAA) fungicides.

    PubMed

    Blum, Mathias; Gamper, Hannes A; Waldner, Maya; Sierotzki, Helge; Gisi, Ulrich

    2012-04-01

    Proper disease control is very important to minimize yield losses caused by oomycetes in many crops. Today, oomycete control is partially achieved by breeding for resistance, but mainly by application of single-site mode of action fungicides including the carboxylic acid amides (CAAs). Despite having mostly specific targets, fungicidal activity can differ even in species belonging to the same phylum but the underlying mechanisms are often poorly understood. In an attempt to elucidate the phylogenetic basis and underlying molecular mechanism of sensitivity and tolerance to CAAs, the cellulose synthase 3 (CesA3) gene was isolated and characterized, encoding the target site of this fungicide class. The CesA3 gene was present in all 25 species included in this study representing the orders Albuginales, Leptomitales, Peronosporales, Pythiales, Rhipidiales and Saprolegniales, and based on phylogenetic analyses, enabled good resolution of all the different taxonomic orders. Sensitivity assays using the CAA fungicide mandipropamid (MPD) demonstrated that only species belonging to the Peronosporales were inhibited by the fungicide. Molecular data provided evidence, that the observed difference in sensitivity to CAAs between Peronosporales and CAA tolerant species is most likely caused by an inherent amino acid configuration at position 1109 in CesA3 possibly affecting fungicide binding. The present study not only succeeded in linking CAA sensitivity of various oomycetes to the inherent CesA3 target site configuration, but could also relate it to the broader phylogenetic context. Copyright © 2012 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin potentially attenuates the gene expression of pituitary gonadotropin β-subunits in a fetal age-specific fashion: a comparative study using cultured pituitaries.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Tomoki; Yamamoto, Midori; Himeno, Masaru; Takechi, Shinji; Yamaguchi, Tadatoshi; Ishida, Takumi; Ishii, Yuji; Yamada, Hideyuki

    2011-04-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that maternal exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) causes a reduction in gonadotropin biosynthesis in the fetal pituitary, resulting in the attenuated expression of steroidogenic proteins in the fetal gonads and the impairment of sexual behaviors in adulthood. However, the mechanism of the attenuation remains unknown. To address this issue, we investigated whether TCDD affects the pituitary production of gonadotropins, using cultured pituitary. In the absence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), a regulator of gonadotropin biosynthesis, TCDD did not affect the expression of gonadotropin mRNAs both in fetal and postnatal pituitaries. On the other hand, in the presence of GnRH, TCDD interfered with the synthesis of gonadotropin β-subunit mRNAs only in the fetal pituitary. A protein kinase C (PKC) activator (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) and a PKA activator (8-bromoadenosine-3' 5'-cyclic monophosphate) induced the expression of gonadotropin mRNAs in the fetal pituitary. Among the subunits, only the induction of β-subunit was reduced by TCDD treatment. These results suggest that TCDD reduces gonadotropin biosynthesis via damage to GnRH-stimulated PKC and PKA signaling in a β-subunit- and fetal age-specific manner.

  14. Enhanced salt stress tolerance of rice plants expressing a vacuolar H+-ATPase subunit c1 (SaVHAc1) gene from the halophyte grass Spartina alterniflora Löisel

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The physiological role of a vacuolar ATPase subunit c1 (SaVHAc1) from a halophyte grass Spartina alterniflora was studied through its expression in rice. The SaVHAc1– expressing plants showed enhanced tolerance to salt stress than the wild-type plants, mainly through adjustments in early stage and p...

  15. Canine GM2-Gangliosidosis Sandhoff Disease Associated with a 3-Base Pair Deletion in the HEXB Gene.

    PubMed

    Wang, P; Henthorn, P S; Galban, E; Lin, G; Takedai, T; Casal, M

    2018-01-01

    GM2-gangliosidosis is a fatal neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease (LSD) caused by deficiency of either β-hexosaminidase A (Hex-A) and β-hexosaminidase B (Hex-B) together, or the GM2 activator protein. Clinical signs can be variable and are not pathognomonic for the specific, causal deficiency. To characterize the phenotype and genotype of GM2-gangliosidosis disease in an affected dog. One affected Shiba Inu and a clinically healthy dog. Clinical and neurologic evaluation, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), assays of lysosomal enzyme activities, and sequencing of all coding regions of HEXA, HEXB, and GM2A genes. A 14-month-old, female Shiba Inu presented with clinical signs resembling GM2-gangliosidosis in humans and GM1-gangliosidosis in the Shiba Inu. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the dog's brain indicated neurodegenerative disease, and evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) identified storage granules in leukocytes. Lysosomal enzyme assays of plasma and leukocytes showed deficiencies of Hex-A and Hex-B activities in both tissues. Genetic analysis identified a homozygous, 3-base pair deletion in the HEXB gene (c.618-620delCCT). Clinical, biochemical, and molecular features are characterized in a Shiba Inu with GM2-gangliosidosis. The deletion of 3 adjacent base pairs in HEXB predicts the loss of a leucine residue at amino acid position 207 (p.Leu207del) supporting the hypothesis that GM2-gangliosidosis seen in this dog is the Sandhoff type. Because GM1-gangliosidosis also exists in this breed with almost identical clinical signs, genetic testing for both GM1- and GM2-gangliosidosis should be considered to make a definitive diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  16. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone for the complete protein coding region of the delta subunit of the mouse acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed Central

    LaPolla, R J; Mayne, K M; Davidson, N

    1984-01-01

    A mouse cDNA clone has been isolated that contains the complete coding region of a protein highly homologous to the delta subunit of the Torpedo acetylcholine receptor (AcChoR). The cDNA library was constructed in the vector lambda 10 from membrane-associated poly(A)+ RNA from BC3H-1 mouse cells. Surprisingly, the delta clone was selected by hybridization with cDNA encoding the gamma subunit of the Torpedo AcChoR. The nucleotide sequence of the mouse cDNA clone contains an open reading frame of 520 amino acids. This amino acid sequence exhibits 59% and 50% sequence homology to the Torpedo AcChoR delta and gamma subunits, respectively. However, the mouse nucleotide sequence has several stretches of high homology with the Torpedo gamma subunit cDNA, but not with delta. The mouse protein has the same general structural features as do the Torpedo subunits. It is encoded by a 3.3-kilobase mRNA. There is probably only one, but at most two, chromosomal genes coding for this or closely related sequences. Images PMID:6096870

  17. Aromatic Polyketide GTRI-02 is a Previously Unidentified Product of the act Gene Cluster in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2).

    PubMed

    Wu, Changsheng; Ichinose, Koji; Choi, Young Hae; van Wezel, Gilles P

    2017-07-18

    The biosynthesis of aromatic polyketides derived from type II polyketide synthases (PKSs) is complex, and it is not uncommon that highly similar gene clusters give rise to diverse structural architectures. The act biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC) of the model actinomycete Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) is an archetypal type II PKS. Here we show that the act BGC also specifies the aromatic polyketide GTRI-02 (1) and propose a mechanism for the biogenesis of its 3,4-dihydronaphthalen-1(2H)-one backbone. Polyketide 1 was also produced by Streptomyces sp. MBT76 after activation of the act-like qin gene cluster by overexpression of the pathway-specific activator. Mining of this strain also identified dehydroxy-GTRI-02 (2), which most likely originated from dehydration of 1 during the isolation process. This work shows that even extensively studied model gene clusters such as act of S. coelicolor can still produce new chemistry, offering new perspectives for drug discovery. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Prospective assessment of a gene signature potentially predictive of clinical benefit in metastatic melanoma patients following MAGE-A3 immunotherapeutic (PREDICT).

    PubMed

    Saiag, P; Gutzmer, R; Ascierto, P A; Maio, M; Grob, J-J; Murawa, P; Dreno, B; Ross, M; Weber, J; Hauschild, A; Rutkowski, P; Testori, A; Levchenko, E; Enk, A; Misery, L; Vanden Abeele, C; Vojtek, I; Peeters, O; Brichard, V G; Therasse, P

    2016-10-01

    Genomic profiling of tumor tissue may aid in identifying predictive or prognostic gene signatures (GS) in some cancers. Retrospective gene expression profiling of melanoma and non-small-cell lung cancer led to the characterization of a GS associated with clinical benefit, including improved overall survival (OS), following immunization with the MAGE-A3 immunotherapeutic. The goal of the present study was to prospectively evaluate the predictive value of the previously characterized GS. An open-label prospective phase II trial ('PREDICT') in patients with MAGE-A3-positive unresectable stage IIIB-C/IV-M1a melanoma. Of 123 subjects who received the MAGE-A3 immunotherapeutic, 71 (58.7%) displayed the predictive GS (GS+). The 1-year OS rate was 83.1%/83.3% in the GS+/GS- populations. The rate of progression-free survival at 12 months was 5.8%/4.1% in GS+/GS- patients. The median time-to-treatment failure was 2.7/2.4 months (GS+/GS-). There was one complete response (GS-) and two partial responses (GS+). The MAGE-A3 immunotherapeutic was similarly immunogenic in both populations and had a clinically acceptable safety profile. Treatment of patients with MAGE-A3-positive unresectable stage IIIB-C/IV-M1a melanoma with the MAGE-A3 immunotherapeutic demonstrated an overall 1-year OS rate of 83.5%. GS- and GS+ patients had similar 1-year OS rates, indicating that in this study, GS was not predictive of outcome. Unexpectedly, the objective response rate was lower in this study than in other studies carried out in the same setting with the MAGE-A3 immunotherapeutic. Investigation of a GS to predict clinical benefit to adjuvant MAGE-A3 immunotherapeutic treatment is ongoing in another melanoma study.This study is registered at www.clinicatrials.gov NCT00942162. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology.

  19. Pea chloroplast DNA encodes homologues of Escherichia coli ribosomal subunit S2 and the beta'-subunit of RNA polymerase.

    PubMed Central

    Cozens, A L; Walker, J E

    1986-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence has been determined of a segment of 4680 bases of the pea chloroplast genome. It adjoins a sequence described elsewhere that encodes subunits of the F0 membrane domain of the ATP-synthase complex. The sequence contains a potential gene encoding a protein which is strongly related to the S2 polypeptide of Escherichia coli ribosomes. It also encodes an incomplete protein which contains segments that are homologous to the beta'-subunit of E. coli RNA polymerase and to yeast RNA polymerases II and III. PMID:3530249

  20. Probiotic Bifidobacterium species stimulate human SLC26A3 gene function and expression in intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anoop; Hecht, Cameron; Priyamvada, Shubha; Anbazhagan, Arivarasu N.; Alakkam, Anas; Borthakur, Alip; Alrefai, Waddah A.; Gill, Ravinder K.

    2014-01-01

    SLC26A3, or downregulated in adenoma (DRA), plays a major role in mediating Cl− absorption in the mammalian intestine. Disturbances in DRA function and expression have been implicated in intestinal disorders such as congenital Cl− diarrhea and gut inflammation. We previously showed that an increase in DRA function and expression by Lactobacillus acidophilus and its culture supernatant (CS) might underlie antidiarrheal effects of this probiotic strain. However, the effects of Bifidobacterium species, important inhabitants of the human colon, on intestinal Cl−/HCO3− exchange activity are not known. Our current results demonstrate that CS derived from Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium infantis, and Bifidobacterium bifidum increased anion exchange activity in Caco-2 cells (∼1.8- to 2.4-fold). Consistent with the increase in DRA function, CS also increased the protein, as well as the mRNA, level of DRA (but not putative anion transporter 1). CS of all three Bifidobacterium sp. increased DRA promoter activity (−1,183/+114 bp) in Caco-2 cells (1.5- to 1.8-fold). Furthermore, the increase in DRA mRNA expression by CS of B. breve and B. infantis was blocked in the presence of the transcription inhibitor actinomycin D (5 μM) and the ERK1/2 MAPK pathway inhibitor U0126 (10 μM). Administration of live B. breve, B. infantis, and B. bifidum by oral gavage to mice for 24 h increased DRA mRNA and protein levels in the colon. These data demonstrate an upregulation of DRA via activation of the ERK1/2 pathway that may underlie potential antidiarrheal effects of Bifidobacterium sp. PMID:25143346

  1. Purification of subunits of Escherichia coli DNA gyrase and reconstitution of enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Higgins, N P; Peebles, C L; Sugino, A; Cozzarelli, N R

    1978-04-01

    Extensively purified DNA gyrase from Escherichia coli is inhibited by nalidixic acid and by novobiocin. The enzyme is composed of two subunits, A and B, which were purified as separate components. Subunit A is the product of the gene controlling sensitivity to nalidixic acid (nalA) because: (i) the electrophoretic mobility of subunit A in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate is identical to that of the 105,000-dalton nalA gene product; (ii) mutants that are resistant to nalidixic acid (nalA(r)) produce a drug-resistant subunit A; and (iii) wild-type subunit A confers drug sensitivity to in vitro synthesis of varphiX174 DNA directed by nalA(r) mutants. Subunit B contains a 95,000-dalton polypeptide and is controlled by the gene specifying sensitivity to novobiocin (cou) because cou(r) mutants produce a novobiocin-resistant subunit B and novobiocin-resitant gyrase is made drug sensitive by wild-type subunit B. Subunits A and B associate, so that gyrase was also purified as a complex containing 105,000- and 95,000-dalton polypeptides. This enzyme and gyrase reconstructed from subunits have the same drug sensitivity, K(m) for ATP, and catalytic properties. The same ratio of subunits gives efficient reconstitution of the reactions intrinsic to DNA gyrase, including catalysis of supercoiling of closed duplex DNA, relaxation of supercoiled DNA in the absence of ATP, and site-specific cleavage of DNA induced by sodium dodecyl sulfate.

  2. The ribosomal subunit assembly line

    PubMed Central

    Dlakić, Mensur

    2005-01-01

    Recent proteomic studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have identified nearly 200 proteins, other than the structural ribosomal proteins, that participate in the assembly of ribosomal subunits and their transport from the nucleus. In a separate line of research, proteomic studies of mature plant ribosomes have revealed considerable variability in the protein composition of individual ribosomes. PMID:16207363

  3. MspA Nanopores from Subunit Dimers

    PubMed Central

    Pavlenok, Mikhail; Derrington, Ian M.; Gundlach, Jens H.; Niederweis, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium smegmatis porin A (MspA) forms an octameric channel and represents the founding member of a new family of pore proteins. Control of subunit stoichiometry is important to tailor MspA for nanotechnological applications. In this study, two MspA monomers were connected by linkers ranging from 17 to 62 amino acids in length. The oligomeric pore proteins were purified from M. smegmatis and were shown to form functional channels in lipid bilayer experiments. These results indicated that the peptide linkers did not prohibit correct folding and localization of MspA. However, expression levels were reduced by 10-fold compared to wild-type MspA. MspA is ideal for nanopore sequencing due to its unique pore geometry and its robustness. To assess the usefulness of MspA made from dimeric subunits for DNA sequencing, we linked two M1-MspA monomers, whose constriction zones were modified to enable DNA translocation. Lipid bilayer experiments demonstrated that this construct also formed functional channels. Voltage gating of MspA pores made from M1 monomers and M1-M1 dimers was identical indicating similar structural and dynamic channel properties. Glucose uptake in M. smegmatis cells lacking porins was restored by expressing the dimeric mspA M1 gene indicating correct folding and localization of M1-M1 pores in their native membrane. Single-stranded DNA hairpins produced identical ionic current blockades in pores made from monomers and subunit dimers demonstrating that M1-M1 pores are suitable for DNA sequencing. This study provides the proof of principle that production of single-chain MspA pores in M. smegmatis is feasible and paves the way for generating MspA pores with altered stoichiometries. Subunit dimers enable better control of the chemical and physical properties of the constriction zone of MspA. This approach will be valuable both in understanding transport across the outer membrane in mycobacteria and in tailoring MspA for nanopore sequencing of DNA. PMID

  4. A Case of Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere Syndrome Due To a Novel Mutation in SLC52A3 Gene: Clinical Course and Response to Riboflavin.

    PubMed

    Thulasi, Venkatraman; Veerapandiyan, Aravindhan; Pletcher, Beth A; Tong, Chun M; Ming, Xue

    2017-01-01

    Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by motor, sensory, and cranial neuronopathies, associated with mutations in SLC52A2 and SLC52A3 genes that code for human riboflavin transporters RFVT2 and RFVT3, respectively. The authors describe the clinical course of a 6-year-old girl with Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome and a novel homozygous mutation c.1156T>C in the SLC52A3 gene, who presented at the age of 2.5 years with progressive brain stem dysfunction including ptosis, facial weakness, hearing loss, dysphagia, anarthria with bilateral vocal cord paralysis, and ataxic gait. She subsequently developed respiratory failure requiring tracheostomy and worsening dysphagia necessitating a gastrostomy. Following riboflavin supplementation, resolution of facial diplegia and ataxia, improvements in ptosis, and bulbar function including vocalization and respiration were noted. However, her sensorineural hearing loss remained unchanged. Similar to other cases of Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome, our patient responded favorably to early riboflavin supplementation with significant but not complete neurologic recovery.

  5. Genetic mapping of a caffeoyl-coenzyme A 3-O-methyltransferase gene in coffee trees. Impact on chlorogenic acid content.

    PubMed

    Campa, C; Noirot, M; Bourgeois, M; Pervent, M; Ky, C L; Chrestin, H; Hamon, S; de Kochko, A

    2003-08-01

    Chlorogenic acids (CGA) are involved in the bitterness of coffee due to their decomposition in phenolic compounds during roasting. CGA mainly include caffeoyl-quinic acids (CQA), dicaffeoyl-quinic acids (diCQA) and feruloyl-quinic acids (FQA), while CQA and diCQA constitute CGA sensu stricto (CGA s.s.). In the two cultivated species Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica, CGA s.s. represents 88% and 95% of total CGA, respectively. Among all enzymes involved in CGA biosynthesis, caffeoyl-coenzyme A 3-O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT) is not directly involved in the CGA s.s. pathway, but rather in an upstream branch leading to FQA through feruloyl-CoA. We describe how a partial cDNA corresponding to a CCoAOMT encoding gene was obtained and sequenced. Specific primers were designed and used for studying polymorphism and locating the corresponding gene on a genetic map obtained from an interspecific backcross between Coffea liberica var. Dewevrei and Coffea pseudozanguebariae. Offspring of this backcross were also evaluated for the chlorogenic acid content in their green beans. A 10% decrease was observed in backcross progenies that possess one C. pseudozanguebariae allele of the CCoAOMT gene. This suggests that CGA s.s. accumulation is dependent on the CCoAMT allele present and consequently on the activity of the encoded isoform, whereby CGA accumulation increases as the isoform activity decreases. Possible implications in coffee breeding are discussed.

  6. Identification of cornifelin and early growth response-1 gene as novel biomarkers for in vitro eye irritation using a 3D reconstructed human cornea model MCTT HCE™.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seunghye; Lee, Miri; Lee, Su-Hyon; Jung, Haeng-Sun; Kim, Seol-Yeong; Chung, Tae-Young; Choe, Tae-boo; Chun, Young-Jin; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2015-09-01

    Evaluation of the eye irritation is essential in the development of new cosmetic products. Draize rabbit eye irritation test has been widely used in which chemicals are directly applied to rabbit eye, and the symptoms and signs of eyes are scored. However, due to the invasive procedure, it causes substantial pain and discomfort to animals. Recently, we reported in vitro eye irritation test method using a 3D human corneal epithelial model (MCTT HCE™) which is reconstructed from remaining human tissues after a corneal transplantation. This model exhibited an excellent predictive capacity for 25 reference chemicals (sensitivity 100%, specificity 77% and accuracy 88% vs. GHS). To improve the test performance, we explored new biomarkers for the eye irritation through transcriptomic approach. Three surfactants were selected as model eye irritants that include sodium lauryl sulfate, benzalkonium chloride and triton X-100. After test chemicals were treated, we investigated differentially expressed genes through a whole-gene microarray (Affymetrix GeneChip(®) Human Gene 2.0 ST Array, 48,000 probes). As a result, we identified that mRNAs of cornifelin (CNFN), a constituent of the insoluble cornified cell envelope of stratified squamous epithelia, and early growth response-1 (EGR1), a nuclear transcriptional regulator, were significantly up-regulated by all three irritants. Up-regulation of CNFN and EGR1 was further confirmed by Q-RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry revealed increased level of CNFN in irritant-treated tissues, supporting the relevance of CNFN and EGR1 as new biomarkers for eye irritation.

  7. Bacterial cellulose biosynthesis: diversity of operons, subunits, products, and functions.

    PubMed

    Römling, Ute; Galperin, Michael Y

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies of bacterial cellulose biosynthesis, including structural characterization of a functional cellulose synthase complex, provided the first mechanistic insight into this fascinating process. In most studied bacteria, just two subunits, BcsA and BcsB, are necessary and sufficient for the formation of the polysaccharide chain in vitro. Other subunits - which differ among various taxa - affect the enzymatic activity and product yield in vivo by modulating (i) the expression of the biosynthesis apparatus, (ii) the export of the nascent β-D-glucan polymer to the cell surface, and (iii) the organization of cellulose fibers into a higher-order structure. These auxiliary subunits play key roles in determining the quantity and structure of resulting biofilms, which is particularly important for the interactions of bacteria with higher organisms - leading to rhizosphere colonization and modulating the virulence of cellulose-producing bacterial pathogens inside and outside of host cells. We review the organization of four principal types of cellulose synthase operon found in various bacterial genomes, identify additional bcs genes that encode components of the cellulose biosynthesis and secretion machinery, and propose a unified nomenclature for these genes and subunits. We also discuss the role of cellulose as a key component of biofilms and in the choice between acute infection and persistence in the host. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bacterial cellulose biosynthesis: diversity of operons, subunits, products and functions

    PubMed Central

    Römling, Ute; Galperin, Michael Y.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recent studies of bacterial cellulose biosynthesis, including structural characterization of a functional cellulose synthase complex, provided the first mechanistic insight into this fascinating process. In most studied bacteria, just two subunits, BcsA and BcsB, are necessary and sufficient for the formation of the polysaccharide chain in vitro. Other subunits – which differ among various taxa – affect the enzymatic activity and product yield in vivo by modulating expression of biosynthesis apparatus, export of the nascent β-D-glucan polymer to the cell surface, and the organization of cellulose fibers into a higher-order structure. These auxiliary subunits play key roles in determining the quantity and structure of the resulting biofilm, which is particularly important for interactions of bacteria with higher organisms that lead to rhizosphere colonization and modulate virulence of cellulose-producing bacterial pathogens inside and outside of host cells. Here we review the organization of four principal types of cellulose synthase operons found in various bacterial genomes, identify additional bcs genes that encode likely components of the cellulose biosynthesis and secretion machinery, and propose a unified nomenclature for these genes and subunits. We also discuss the role of cellulose as a key component of biofilms formed by a variety of free-living and pathogenic bacteria and, for the latter, in the choice between acute infection and persistence in the host. PMID:26077867

  9. The NMDA receptor NR2A subunit regulates proliferation of MKN45 human gastric cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Kanako; Department of Anesthesiology, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya 663-8501; Kanno, Takeshi

    2008-03-07

    The present study investigated proliferation of MKN28 and MKN45 human gastric cancer cells regulated by the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit. The NMDA receptor antagonist DL-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (AP5) inhibited proliferation of MKN45 cells, but not MKN28 cells. Of the NMDA subunits such as NR1, NR2 (2A, 2B, 2C, and 2D), and NR3 (3A and 3B), all the NMDA subunit mRNAs except for the NR2B subunit mRNA were expressed in both MKN28 and MKN45 cells. MKN45 cells were characterized by higher expression of the NR2A subunit mRNA and lower expression of the NR1 subunit mRNA, but MKN28 otherwise by higher expression ofmore » the NR1 subunit mRNA and lower expression of the NR2A subunit mRNA. MKN45 cell proliferation was also inhibited by silencing the NR2A subunit-targeted gene. For MKN45 cells, AP5 or knocking-down the NR2A subunit increased the proportion of cells in the G{sub 1} phase of cell cycling and decreased the proportion in the S/G{sub 2} phase. The results of the present study, thus, suggest that blockage of NMDA receptors including the NR2A subunit suppresses MKN45 cell proliferation due to cell cycle arrest at the G{sub 1} phase; in other words, the NR2A subunit promotes MKN45 cell proliferation by accelerating cell cycling.« less

  10. The Role of Auxiliary Subunits for the Functional Diversity of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Campiglio, Marta; Flucher, Bernhard E

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) represent the sole mechanism to convert membrane depolarization into cellular functions like secretion, contraction, or gene regulation. VGCCs consist of a pore-forming α1 subunit and several auxiliary channel subunits. These subunits come in multiple isoforms and splice-variants giving rise to a stunning molecular diversity of possible subunit combinations. It is generally believed that specific auxiliary subunits differentially regulate the channels and thereby contribute to the great functional diversity of VGCCs. If auxiliary subunits can associate and dissociate from pre-existing channel complexes, this would allow dynamic regulation of channel properties. However, most auxiliary subunits modulate current properties very similarly, and proof that any cellular calcium channel function is indeed modulated by the physiological exchange of auxiliary subunits is still lacking. In this review we summarize available information supporting a differential modulation of calcium channel functions by exchange of auxiliary subunits, as well as experimental evidence in support of alternative functions of the auxiliary subunits. At the heart of the discussion is the concept that, in their native environment, VGCCs function in the context of macromolecular signaling complexes and that the auxiliary subunits help to orchestrate the diverse protein–protein interactions found in these calcium channel signalosomes. Thus, in addition to a putative differential modulation of current properties, differential subcellular targeting properties and differential protein–protein interactions of the auxiliary subunits may explain the need for their vast molecular diversity. J. Cell. Physiol. 999: 00–00, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Cell. Physiol. 230: 2019–2031, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25820299

  11. Epistatic effects between pairs of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a, growth hormone, growth hormone receptor, non-SMC condensin I complex, subunit G and stearoyl-CoA desaturase genes on carcass, price-related and fatty acid composition traits in Japanese Black cattle.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Masanori; Nishino, Kagetomo; Fujimori, Yuki; Haga, Yasutoshi; Iwama, Nagako; Arakawa, Aisaku; Aihara, Yoshito; Takeda, Hisato; Takahashi, Hideaki

    2018-02-01

    Growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR1a), growth hormone (GH), growth hormone receptor (GHR), non-SMC condensin I complex, subunit G (NCAPG) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), are known to play important roles in growth and lipid metabolisms. Single and epistatic effects of the five genes on carcass, price-related and fatty acid (FA) composition traits were analyzed in a commercial Japanese Black cattle population of Ibaraki Prefecture. A total of 650 steers and 116 heifers for carcass and price-related traits, and 158 steers for FA composition traits were used in this study. Epistatic effects between pairs of the five genes were found in several traits. Alleles showing strain-specific differences in the five genes had significant single and epistatic effects in some traits. The data suggest that a TG-repeat polymorphism of the GHSR1a.5'UTR-(TG) n locus plays a central role in gene-gene epistatic interaction of FA composition traits in the adipose tissue of Japanese Black cattle. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. Effect of Dopamine Transporter Gene (SLC6A3) Variation on Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Function in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ariel B.; Biederman, Joseph; Valera, Eve M.; Doyle, Alysa E.; Bush, George; Spencer, Thomas; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Mick, Eric; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Makris, Nikos; LaViolette, Peter S.; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Faraone, Stephen V.; Seidman, Larry J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective - Although Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated both with brain alterations in attention and executive function (EF) circuitry and with genetic variations within the dopamine system (including the dopamine transporter gene [SLC6A3]), few studies have directly investigated how genetic variations are linked to brain alterations. We sought to examine how a polymorphism in the 3’ untranslated region (UTR) of SLC6A3, associated with ADHD in meta-analysis, might contribute to variation in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) function in subjects with ADHD. Method - We collected fMRI scans of 42 individuals with ADHD, all of European descent and over the age of 17, while they performed the Multi-Source Interference Task (MSIT), a cognitive task shown to activate dACC. SLC6A3 3’ UTR variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphisms were genotyped and brain activity was compared for groups based on allele status. Results - ADHD individuals homozygous for the 10R allele showed significant hypoactivation in the left dACC compared to 9R-carriers. Exploratory analysis also showed trends toward hypoactivation in the 10R homozygotes in left cerebellar vermis and right lateral prefrontal cortex. Further breakdown of genotype groups showed similar activation in individuals heterozygous and homozygous for the 9R allele. Conclusions - Alterations in activation of attention and EF networks found previously to be involved in ADHD are likely influenced by SLC6A3 genotype. This genotype may contribute to heterogeneity of brain alterations found within ADHD samples. PMID:19676101

  13. A new mutation in the COL4A3 gene responsible for autosomal dominant Alport syndrome, which only generates hearing loss in some carriers.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Consolación; Bueno, Elena; Fraile, Pilar; García-Cosmes, Pedro; González-Sarmiento, Rogelio

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral sensorineural hearing loss is a characteristic feature of Alport syndrome, which is always linked to renal manifestations so they have a parallel evolution and prognosis, and deafness helps to identify the renal disease. We report a family that suffers an autosomal dominant Alport syndrome caused by a previously undescribed mutation in the COL4A3 gene, in which several members have hearing impairment as the only clinical manifestation, suggesting that in this family deafness can occur independent of renal disease. This mutation is also present in a patient with anterior lenticonus, an observation only found in families with recessive and sex-linked Alport disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Intronic deletions in the SLC34A3 gene: A cautionary tale for mutation analysis of hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria

    PubMed Central

    Ichikawa, Shoji; Tuchman, Shamir; Padgett, Leah R.; Gray, Amie K.; Baluarte, H. Jorge; Econs, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria (HHRH) is a rare metabolic disorder, characterized by hypophosphatemia, variable degrees of rickets/osteomalacia, and hypercalciuria secondary to increased serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] levels. HHRH is caused by mutations in the SLC34A3 gene, which encodes sodium-phosphate co-transporter type IIc. A 6 ½-year-old female presented with a history of nephrolithiasis. Her metabolic evaluation revealed increased 24- hour urine calcium excretion with high serum calcium, low intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels, and elevated 1,25(OH)2D level. In addition, the patient had low to low-normal serum phosphorus with high urine phosphorus. The patient had normal stature; without rachitic or boney deformities or a history of fractures. Genetic analysis of SLC34A3 revealed the patient to be a compound heterozygote for a novel single base pair deletion in exon 12 (c.1304delG) and 30-base pair deletion in intron 6 (g.1440–1469del). The single-base pair mutation causes a frameshift, which results in premature stop codon. The intronic deletion is likely caused by misalignment of the 4-basepair homologous repeats and results in the truncation of an already small intron to 63 bp, which would impair proper RNA splicing of the intron. This is the fourth unique intronic deletion identified in patients with HHRH, suggesting the frequent occurrence of sequence misalignments in SLC34A3 and the importance of screening introns in patients with HHRH. PMID:24176905

  15. Intronic deletions in the SLC34A3 gene: a cautionary tale for mutation analysis of hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Shoji; Tuchman, Shamir; Padgett, Leah R; Gray, Amie K; Baluarte, H Jorge; Econs, Michael J

    2014-02-01

    Hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria (HHRH) is a rare metabolic disorder, characterized by hypophosphatemia, variable degrees of rickets/osteomalacia, and hypercalciuria secondary to increased serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] levels. HHRH is caused by mutations in the SLC34A3 gene, which encodes sodium-phosphate co-transporter type IIc. A 6-1/2-year-old female presented with a history of nephrolithiasis. Her metabolic evaluation revealed increased 24-hour urine calcium excretion with high serum calcium, low intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), and elevated 1,25(OH)2D. In addition, the patient had low to low-normal serum phosphorus with high urine phosphorus. The patient had normal stature; without rachitic or boney deformities or a history of fractures. Genetic analysis of SLC34A3 revealed the patient to be a compound heterozygote for a novel single base pair deletion in exon 12 (c.1304delG) and 30-base pair deletion in intron 6 (g.1440-1469del). The single-base pair mutation causes a frameshift, which results in premature stop codon. The intronic deletion is likely caused by misalignment of the 4-basepair homologous repeats and results in the truncation of an already small intron to 63bp, which would impair proper RNA splicing of the intron. This is the fourth unique intronic deletion identified in patients with HHRH, suggesting the frequent occurrence of sequence misalignments in SLC34A3 and the importance of screening introns in patients with HHRH. © 2013.

  16. Targeted deletion of the GABRA2 gene encoding alpha2-subunits of GABA(A) receptors facilitates performance of a conditioned emotional response, and abolishes anxiolytic effects of benzodiazepines and barbiturates.

    PubMed

    Dixon, C I; Rosahl, T W; Stephens, D N

    2008-07-01

    Mice with point-mutated alpha2 GABA(A) receptor subunits (rendering them diazepam insensitive) are resistant to the anxiolytic-like effects of benzodiazepines (BZs) in the conditioned emotional response (CER) test, but show normal anxiolytic effects of a barbiturate. We investigated the consequence of deleting the alpha2-subunit on acquisition of the CER with increasing intensity of footshock, and on the anxiolytic efficacy of a benzodiazepine, diazepam, and a barbiturate, pentobarbital. alpha2 knockout (KO) and wildtype (WT) mice were trained in a conditioned emotional response (CER) task, in which lever pressing for food on a variable interval (VI) schedule was suppressed during the presentation of a compound light/tone conditioned stimulus (CS+) that predicted footshock. The ability of diazepam and of pentobarbital to reduce suppression during the CS+ was interpreted as an anxiolytic response. There were no differences between the genotypes in shock sensitivity, as assessed by their flinch responses to increasing levels of shock. However, alpha2 KO mice showed a greater suppression of lever pressing than WT littermates in the presence of a compound cue signalling footshock. Diazepam (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg) induced a dose-dependent anxiolytic-like effect in WT mice but no such effect was seen in KO mice. Similarly, although pentobarbital (20 mg/kg) reduced the ability of the CS+ to reduce lever pressing rates in WT mice, this effect was not seen in the KO. These findings suggest that alpha2-containing GABA(A) receptors mediate the anxiolytic effects of barbiturates, as well as benzodiazepines, and that they may be involved in neuronal circuits underlying conditioned anxiety.

  17. A 3,000-loci transcription map of chromosome 3B unravels the structural and functional features of gene islands in hexaploid wheat.

    PubMed

    Rustenholz, Camille; Choulet, Frédéric; Laugier, Christel; Safár, Jan; Simková, Hana; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Magni, Federica; Scalabrin, Simone; Cattonaro, Federica; Vautrin, Sonia; Bellec, Arnaud; Bergès, Hélène; Feuillet, Catherine; Paux, Etienne

    2011-12-01

    To improve our understanding of the organization and regulation of the wheat (Triticum aestivum) gene space, we established a transcription map of a wheat chromosome (3B) by hybridizing a newly developed wheat expression microarray with bacterial artificial chromosome pools from a new version of the 3B physical map as well as with cDNA probes derived from 15 RNA samples. Mapping data for almost 3,000 genes showed that the gene space spans the whole chromosome 3B with a 2-fold increase of gene density toward the telomeres due to an increase in the number of genes in islands. Comparative analyses with rice (Oryza sativa) and Brachypodium distachyon revealed that these gene islands are composed mainly of genes likely originating from interchromosomal gene duplications. Gene Ontology and expression profile analyses for the 3,000 genes located along the chromosome revealed that the gene islands are enriched significantly in genes sharing the same function or expression profile, thereby suggesting that genes in islands acquired shared regulation during evolution. Only a small fraction of these clusters of cofunctional and coexpressed genes was conserved with rice and B. distachyon, indicating a recent origin. Finally, genes with the same expression profiles in remote islands (coregulation islands) were identified suggesting long-distance regulation of gene expression along the chromosomes in wheat.

  18. Genetically based location from triploid populations and gene ontology of a 3.3-mb genome region linked to Alternaria brown spot resistance in citrus reveal clusters of resistance genes.

    PubMed

    Cuenca, José; Aleza, Pablo; Vicent, Antonio; Brunel, Dominique; Ollitrault, Patrick; Navarro, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Genetic analysis of phenotypical traits and marker-trait association in polyploid species is generally considered as a challenge. In the present work, different approaches were combined taking advantage of the particular genetic structures of 2n gametes resulting from second division restitution (SDR) to map a genome region linked to Alternaria brown spot (ABS) resistance in triploid citrus progeny. ABS in citrus is a serious disease caused by the tangerine pathotype of the fungus Alternaria alternata. This pathogen produces ACT-toxin, which induces necrotic lesions on fruit and young leaves, defoliation and fruit drop in susceptible genotypes. It is a strong concern for triploid breeding programs aiming to produce seedless mandarin cultivars. The monolocus dominant inheritance of susceptibility, proposed on the basis of diploid population studies, was corroborated in triploid progeny. Bulk segregant analysis coupled with genome scan using a large set of genetically mapped SNP markers and targeted genetic mapping by half tetrad analysis, using SSR and SNP markers, allowed locating a 3.3 Mb genomic region linked to ABS resistance near the centromere of chromosome III. Clusters of resistance genes were identified by gene ontology analysis of this genomic region. Some of these genes are good candidates to control the dominant susceptibility to the ACT-toxin. SSR and SNP markers were developed for efficient early marker-assisted selection of ABS resistant hybrids.

  19. Genetically Based Location from Triploid Populations and Gene Ontology of a 3.3-Mb Genome Region Linked to Alternaria Brown Spot Resistance in Citrus Reveal Clusters of Resistance Genes

    PubMed Central

    Cuenca, José; Aleza, Pablo; Vicent, Antonio; Brunel, Dominique; Ollitrault, Patrick; Navarro, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Genetic analysis of phenotypical traits and marker-trait association in polyploid species is generally considered as a challenge. In the present work, different approaches were combined taking advantage of the particular genetic structures of 2n gametes resulting from second division restitution (SDR) to map a genome region linked to Alternaria brown spot (ABS) resistance in triploid citrus progeny. ABS in citrus is a serious disease caused by the tangerine pathotype of the fungus Alternaria alternata. This pathogen produces ACT-toxin, which induces necrotic lesions on fruit and young leaves, defoliation and fruit drop in susceptible genotypes. It is a strong concern for triploid breeding programs aiming to produce seedless mandarin cultivars. The monolocus dominant inheritance of susceptibility, proposed on the basis of diploid population studies, was corroborated in triploid progeny. Bulk segregant analysis coupled with genome scan using a large set of genetically mapped SNP markers and targeted genetic mapping by half tetrad analysis, using SSR and SNP markers, allowed locating a 3.3 Mb genomic region linked to ABS resistance near the centromere of chromosome III. Clusters of resistance genes were identified by gene ontology analysis of this genomic region. Some of these genes are good candidates to control the dominant susceptibility to the ACT-toxin. SSR and SNP markers were developed for efficient early marker-assisted selection of ABS resistant hybrids. PMID:24116149

  20. Subunit association of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, W; Suzuki, H; Nohara, S; Tachi, H; Yamamoto, K; Kumagai, H

    1995-12-01

    gamma-Glutamyltranspeptidase [EC 2.3.2.2] of Escherichia coli K-12 consists of one large subunit and one small subunit, which can be separated from each other by high-performance liquid chromatography. Using ion spray mass spectrometry, the masses of the large and the small subunit were determined to be 39,207 and 20,015, respectively. The large subunit exhibited no gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase activity and the small subunit had little enzymatic activity, but a mixture of the two subunits showed partial recovery of the enzymatic activity. The results of native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis suggested that they could partially recombine, and that the recombined dimer exhibited enzymatic activity. The gene of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase encoded a signal peptide, and the large and small subunits in a single open reading frame in that order. Two kinds of plasmid were constructed encoding the signal peptide and either the large or the small subunit. A gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase-less mutant of E. coli K-12 was transformed with each plasmid or with both of them. The strain harboring the plasmid encoding each subunit produced a small amount of the corresponding subunit protein in the periplasmic space but exhibited no enzymatic activity. The strain transformed with both plasmids together exhibited the enzymatic activity, but its specific activity was approximately 3% of that of a strain harboring a plasmid encoding the intact structural gene. These results indicate that a portion of the separated large and small subunits can be reconstituted in vitro and exhibit the enzymatic activity, and that the expressed large and small subunits independently are able to associate in vivo and be folded into an active structure, though the specific activity of the associated subunits was much lower than that of native enzyme. This suggests that the synthesis of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase in a single precursor polypeptide and subsequent processing are more effective to construct

  1. Construction of a hybrid β-hexosaminidase subunit capable of forming stable homodimers that hydrolyze GM2 ganglioside in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tropak, Michael B; Yonekawa, Sayuri; Karumuthil-Melethil, Subha; Thompson, Patrick; Wakarchuk, Warren; Gray, Steven J; Walia, Jagdeep S; Mark, Brian L; Mahuran, Don

    2016-01-01

    Tay-Sachs or Sandhoff disease result from mutations in either the evolutionarily related HEXA or HEXB genes encoding respectively, the α- or β-subunits of β-hexosaminidase A (HexA). Of the three Hex isozymes, only HexA can interact with its cofactor, the GM2 activator protein (GM2AP), and hydrolyze GM2 ganglioside. A major impediment to establishing gene or enzyme replacement therapy based on HexA is the need to synthesize both subunits. Thus, we combined the critical features of both α- and β-subunits into a single hybrid µ-subunit that contains the α-subunit active site, the stable β-subunit interface and unique areas in each subunit needed to interact with GM2AP. To facilitate intracellular analysis and the purification of the µ-homodimer (HexM), CRISPR-based genome editing was used to disrupt the HEXA and HEXB genes in a Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cell line stably expressing the µ-subunit. In association with GM2AP, HexM was shown to hydrolyze a fluorescent GM2 ganglioside derivative both in cellulo and in vitro. Gene transfer studies in both Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff mouse models demonstrated that HexM expression reduced brain GM2 ganglioside levels.

  2. Construction of a hybrid β-hexosaminidase subunit capable of forming stable homodimers that hydrolyze GM2 ganglioside in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tropak, Michael B; Yonekawa, Sayuri; Karumuthil-Melethil, Subha; Thompson, Patrick; Wakarchuk, Warren; Gray, Steven J; Walia, Jagdeep S; Mark, Brian L; Mahuran, Don

    2016-01-01

    Tay-Sachs or Sandhoff disease result from mutations in either the evolutionarily related HEXA or HEXB genes encoding respectively, the α- or β-subunits of β-hexosaminidase A (HexA). Of the three Hex isozymes, only HexA can interact with its cofactor, the GM2 activator protein (GM2AP), and hydrolyze GM2 ganglioside. A major impediment to establishing gene or enzyme replacement therapy based on HexA is the need to synthesize both subunits. Thus, we combined the critical features of both α- and β-subunits into a single hybrid µ-subunit that contains the α-subunit active site, the stable β-subunit interface and unique areas in each subunit needed to interact with GM2AP. To facilitate intracellular analysis and the purification of the µ-homodimer (HexM), CRISPR-based genome editing was used to disrupt the HEXA and HEXB genes in a Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cell line stably expressing the µ-subunit. In association with GM2AP, HexM was shown to hydrolyze a fluorescent GM2 ganglioside derivative both in cellulo and in vitro. Gene transfer studies in both Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff mouse models demonstrated that HexM expression reduced brain GM2 ganglioside levels. PMID:26966698

  3. Purification of an eight subunit RNA polymerase I complex in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tu N; Schimanski, Bernd; Zahn, André; Klumpp, Birgit; Günzl, Arthur

    2006-09-01

    Trypanosoma brucei harbors a unique multifunctional RNA polymerase (pol) I which transcribes, in addition to ribosomal RNA genes, the gene units encoding the major cell surface antigens variant surface glycoprotein and procyclin. In consequence, this RNA pol I is recruited to three structurally different types of promoters and sequestered to two distinct nuclear locations, namely the nucleolus and the expression site body. This versatility may require parasite-specific protein-protein interactions, subunits or subunit domains. Thus far, data mining of trypanosomatid genomes have revealed 13 potential RNA pol I subunits which include two paralogous sets of RPB5, RPB6, and RPB10. Here, we analyzed a cDNA library prepared from procyclic insect form T. brucei and found that all 13 candidate subunits are co-expressed. Moreover, we PTP-tagged the largest subunit TbRPA1, tandem affinity-purified the enzyme complex to homogeneity, and determined its subunit composition. In addition to the already known subunits RPA1, RPA2, RPC40, 1RPB5, and RPA12, the complex contained RPC19, RPB8, and 1RPB10. Finally, to evaluate the absence of RPB6 in our purifications, we used a combination of epitope-tagging and reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation to demonstrate that 1RPB6 but not 2RPB6 binds to RNA pol I albeit in an unstable manner. Collectively, our data strongly suggest that T. brucei RNA pol I binds a distinct set of the RPB5, RPB6, and RPB10 paralogs.

  4. Recent advances in the production of recombinant subunit vaccines in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Man; Jiang, Shuai; Wang, Yefu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recombinant protein subunit vaccines are formulated using defined protein antigens that can be produced in heterologous expression systems. The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris has become an important host system for the production of recombinant subunit vaccines. Although many basic elements of P. pastoris expression system are now well developed, there is still room for further optimization of protein production. Codon bias, gene dosage, endoplasmic reticulum protein folding and culture condition are important considerations for improved production of recombinant vaccine antigens. Here we comment on current advances in the application of P. pastoris for the synthesis of recombinant subunit vaccines. PMID:27246656

  5. COP9 signalosome subunit 7 from Arabidopsis interacts with and regulates the small subunit of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR2).

    PubMed

    Halimi, Yair; Dessau, Moshe; Pollak, Shaul; Ast, Tslil; Erez, Tamir; Livnat-Levanon, Nurit; Karniol, Baruch; Hirsch, Joel A; Chamovitz, Daniel A

    2011-09-01

    The COP9 Signalosome protein complex (CSN) is a pleiotropic regulator of plant development and contains eight-subunits. Six of these subunits contain the PCI motif which mediates specific protein interactions necessary for the integrity of the complex. COP9 complex subunit 7 (CSN7) contains an N-terminal PCI motif followed by a C-terminal extension which is also necessary for CSN function. A yeast-interaction trap assay identified the small subunit of ribonucelotide reductase (RNR2) from Arabidopsis as interacting with the C-terminal section of CSN7. This interaction was confirmed in planta by both bimolecular fluorescence complementation and immuoprecipitation assays with endogenous proteins. The subcellular localization of RNR2 was primarily nuclear in meristematic regions, and cytoplasmic in adult cells. RNR2 was constitutively nuclear in csn7 mutant seedlings, and was also primarily nuclear in wild type seedlings following exposure to UV-C. These two results correlate with constitutive expression of several DNA-damage response genes in csn7 mutants, and to increased tolerance of csn7 seedlings to UV-C treatment. We propose that the CSN is a negative regulator of RNR activity in Arabidopsis.

  6. A Frameshift Mutation in Golden Retriever Dogs with Progressive Retinal Atrophy Endorses SLC4A3 as a Candidate Gene for Human Retinal Degenerations

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Louise M.; Wallin-Håkansson, Berit; Boursnell, Mike; Marklund, Stefan; Hedhammar, Åke; Truvé, Katarina; Hübinette, Louise; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Bergström, Tomas; Mellersh, Cathryn S.

    2011-01-01

    Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) in dogs, the canine equivalent of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in humans, is characterised by vision loss due to degeneration of the photoreceptor cells in the retina, eventually leading to complete blindness. It affects more than 100 dog breeds, and is caused by numerous mutations. RP affects 1 in 4000 people in the Western world and 70% of causal mutations remain unknown. Canine diseases are natural models for the study of human diseases and are becoming increasingly useful for the development of therapies in humans. One variant, prcd-PRA, only accounts for a small proportion of PRA cases in the Golden Retriever (GR) breed. Using genome-wide association with 27 cases and 19 controls we identified a novel PRA locus on CFA37 (praw = 1.94×10−10, pgenome = 1.0×10−5), where a 644 kb region was homozygous within cases. A frameshift mutation was identified in a solute carrier anion exchanger gene (SLC4A3) located within this region. This variant was present in 56% of PRA cases and 87% of obligate carriers, and displayed a recessive mode of inheritance with full penetrance within those lineages in which it segregated. Allele frequencies are approximately 4% in the UK, 6% in Sweden and 2% in France, but the variant has not been found in GRs from the US. A large proportion of cases (approximately 44%) remain unexplained, indicating that PRA in this breed is genetically heterogeneous and caused by at least three mutations. SLC4A3 is important for retinal function and has not previously been associated with spontaneously occurring retinal degenerations in any other species, including humans. PMID:21738669

  7. Monitoring and Source Tracking of Tetracycline Resistance Genes in Lagoons and Groundwater Adjacent to Swine Production Facilities over a 3-Year Period▿

    PubMed Central

    Koike, S.; Krapac, I. G.; Oliver, H. D.; Yannarell, A. C.; Chee-Sanford, J. C.; Aminov, R. I.; Mackie, R. I.

    2007-01-01

    To monitor the dissemination of resistance genes into the environment, we determined the occurrence of tetracycline resistance (Tcr) genes in groundwater underlying two swine confinement operations. Monitoring well networks (16 wells at site A and 6 wells at site C) were established around the lagoons at each facility. Groundwater (n = 124) and lagoon (n = 12) samples were collected from the two sites at six sampling times from 2000 through 2003. Total DNA was extracted, and PCR was used to detect seven Tcr genes [tet(M), tet(O), tet(Q), tet(W), tet(C), tet(H), and tet(Z)]. The concentration of Tcr genes was quantified by real-time quantitative PCR. To confirm the Tcr gene source in groundwater, comparative analysis of tet(W) gene sequences was performed on groundwater and lagoon samples. All seven Tcr genes were continually detected in groundwater during the 3-year monitoring period at both sites. At site A, elevated detection frequency and concentration of Tcr genes were observed in the wells located down-gradient of the lagoon. Comparative analysis of tet(W) sequences revealed that the impacted groundwater contained gene sequences almost identical (99.8% identity) to those in the lagoon, but these genes were not found in background libraries. Novel sequence clusters and unique indigenous resistance gene pools were also found in the groundwater. Thus, antibiotic resistance genes in groundwater are affected by swine manure, but they are also part of the indigenous gene pool. PMID:17545324

  8. Specific roles for the Ccr4-Not complex subunits in expression of the genome

    PubMed Central

    Azzouz, Nowel; Panasenko, Olesya O.; Deluen, Cécile; Hsieh, Julien; Theiler, Grégory; Collart, Martine A.

    2009-01-01

    In this work we used micro-array experiments to determine the role of each nonessential subunit of the conserved Ccr4-Not complex in the control of gene expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The study was performed with cells growing exponentially in high glucose and with cells grown to glucose depletion. Specific patterns of gene deregulation were observed upon deletion of any given subunit, revealing the specificity of each subunit's function. Consistently, the purification of the Ccr4-Not complex through Caf40p by tandem affinity purification from wild-type cells or cells lacking individual subunits of the Ccr4-Not complex revealed that each subunit had a particular impact on complex integrity. Furthermore, the micro-arrays revealed that the role of each subunit was specific to the growth conditions. From the study of only two different growth conditions, revealing an impact of the Ccr4-Not complex on more than 85% of all studied genes, we can infer that the Ccr4-Not complex is important for expression of most of the yeast genome. PMID:19155328

  9. Expression of cholera toxin B subunit in transgenic tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Jani, Dewal; Meena, Laxman Singh; Rizwan-ul-Haq, Quazi Mohammad; Singh, Yogendra; Sharma, Arun K; Tyagi, Akhilesh K

    2002-10-01

    Cholera toxin, secreted by Vibrio cholerae, consists of A and B subunits. The latter binds to G(M1)-ganglioside receptors as a pentamer (approximately 55 kDa). Tomato plants were transformed with the gene encoding cholera toxin B subunit (ctxB) along with an endoplasmic reticulum retention signal (SEKDEL) under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. PCR and Southern analysis confirmed the presence of the ctxB gene in transformed tomato plants. Northern analysis showed the presence of the ctxB-specific transcript. Immunoblot assays of the plant-derived protein extract showed the presence of cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) with mobility similar to purified CTB from V. cholerae. Both tomato leaves and fruits expressed CTB at levels up to 0.02 and 0.04% of total soluble protein, respectively. The G(M1)-ELISA showed that the plant-derived CTB bound specifically to G(M1)-ganglioside receptor, suggesting that it retained its native pentameric form. This study forms a basis for exploring the utility of CTB to develop tomato-based edible vaccines against cholera.

  10. Mining Protein Evolution for Insights into Mechanisms of Voltage-Dependent Sodium Channel Auxiliary Subunits.

    PubMed

    Molinarolo, Steven; Granata, Daniele; Carnevale, Vincenzo; Ahern, Christopher A

    2018-02-21

    Voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) beta (β) subunits have been called the "overachieving" auxiliary ion channel subunit. Indeed, these subunits regulate the trafficking of the sodium channel complex at the plasma membrane and simultaneously tune the voltage-dependent properties of the pore-forming alpha-subunit. It is now known that VGSC β-subunits are capable of similar modulation of multiple isoforms of related voltage-gated potassium channels, suggesting that their abilities extend into the broader voltage-gated channels. The gene family for these single transmembrane immunoglobulin beta-fold proteins extends well beyond the traditional VGSC β1-β4 subunit designation, with deep roots into the cell adhesion protein family and myelin-related proteins - where inherited mutations result in a myriad of electrical signaling disorders. Yet, very little is known about how VGSC β-subunits support protein trafficking pathways, the basis for their modulation of voltage-dependent gating, and, ultimately, their role in shaping neuronal excitability. An evolutionary approach can be useful in yielding new clues to such functions as it provides an unbiased assessment of protein residues, folds, and functions. An approach is described here which indicates the greater emergence of the modern β-subunits roughly 400 million years ago in the early neurons of Bilateria and bony fish, and the unexpected presence of distant homologues in bacteriophages. Recent structural breakthroughs containing α and β eukaryotic sodium channels containing subunits suggest a novel role for a highly conserved polar contact that occurs within the transmembrane segments. Overall, a mixture of approaches will ultimately advance our understanding of the mechanism for β-subunit interactions with voltage-sensor containing ion channels and membrane proteins.

  11. Structural and molecular characterization of the prefoldin beta subunit from Thermococcus strain KS-1.

    PubMed

    Kida, Hiroshi; Sugano, Yuri; Iizuka, Ryo; Fujihashi, Masahiro; Yohda, Masafumi; Miki, Kunio

    2008-11-14

    Prefoldin (PFD) is a heterohexameric molecular chaperone that is found in eukaryotic cytosol and archaea. PFD is composed of alpha and beta subunits and forms a "jellyfish-like" structure. PFD binds and stabilizes nascent polypeptide chains and transfers them to group II chaperonins for completion of their folding. Recently, the whole genome of Thermococcus kodakaraensis KOD1 was reported and shown to contain the genes of two alpha and two beta subunits of PFD. The genome of Thermococcus strain KS-1 also possesses two sets of alpha (alpha1 and alpha2) and beta subunits (beta1 and beta2) of PFD (TsPFD). However, the functions and roles of each of these PFD subunits have not been investigated in detail. Here, we report the crystal structure of the TsPFD beta1 subunit at 1.9 A resolution and its functional analysis. TsPFD beta1 subunits form a tetramer with four coiled-coil tentacles resembling the jellyfish-like structure of heterohexameric PFD. The beta hairpin linkers of beta1 subunits assemble to form a beta barrel "body" around a central fourfold axis. Size-exclusion chromatography and multi-angle light-scattering analyses show that the beta1 subunits form a tetramer at pH 8.0 and a dimer of tetramers at pH 6.8. The tetrameric beta1 subunits can protect against aggregation of relatively small proteins, insulin or lysozyme. The structural and biochemical analyses imply that PFD beta1 subunits act as molecular chaperones in living cells of some archaea.

  12. Subunit compositions of Arabidopsis RNA polymerases I and III reveal Pol I- and Pol III-specific forms of the AC40 subunit and alternative forms of the C53 subunit

    DOE PAGES

    Ream, Thomas S.; Haag, Jeremy R.; Pontvianne, Frederic; ...

    2015-05-02

    Using affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we identified the subunits of Arabidopsis thaliana multisubunit RNA Polymerases I and III (abbreviated as Pol I and Pol III), providing the first description of their physical compositions in plants. AC40 and AC19 subunits are typically common to Pol I (a.k.a. Pol A) and Pol III (a.k.a. Pol C) and are encoded by single genes whose mutation, in humans, is a cause of the craniofacial disorder, Treacher-Collins Syndrome. Surprisingly, A. thaliana, and related species, express two distinct AC40 paralogs, one of which assembles into Pol I and the other of which assembles into Polmore » III. Changes at eight amino acid positions correlate with this functional divergence of Pol I and Pol III-specific AC40 paralogs. Two genes encode homologs of the yeast C53 subunit, and either variant can assemble into Pol III. By contrast, only one of two potential C17 variants, and one of two potential C31 variants were detected in Pol III. We introduce a new nomenclature system for plant Pol I and Pol III subunits in which the twelve subunits that are structurally and functionally homologous among Pols I through V are assigned equivalent numbers.« less

  13. Subunit compositions of Arabidopsis RNA polymerases I and III reveal Pol I- and Pol III-specific forms of the AC40 subunit and alternative forms of the C53 subunit

    SciTech Connect

    Ream, Thomas S.; Haag, Jeremy R.; Pontvianne, Frederic

    Using affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we identified the subunits of Arabidopsis thaliana multisubunit RNA Polymerases I and III (abbreviated as Pol I and Pol III), providing the first description of their physical compositions in plants. AC40 and AC19 subunits are typically common to Pol I (a.k.a. Pol A) and Pol III (a.k.a. Pol C) and are encoded by single genes whose mutation, in humans, is a cause of the craniofacial disorder, Treacher-Collins Syndrome. Surprisingly, A. thaliana, and related species, express two distinct AC40 paralogs, one of which assembles into Pol I and the other of which assembles into Polmore » III. Changes at eight amino acid positions correlate with this functional divergence of Pol I and Pol III-specific AC40 paralogs. Two genes encode homologs of the yeast C53 subunit, and either variant can assemble into Pol III. By contrast, only one of two potential C17 variants, and one of two potential C31 variants were detected in Pol III. We introduce a new nomenclature system for plant Pol I and Pol III subunits in which the twelve subunits that are structurally and functionally homologous among Pols I through V are assigned equivalent numbers.« less

  14. Subunit compositions of Arabidopsis RNA polymerases I and III reveal Pol I- and Pol III-specific forms of the AC40 subunit and alternative forms of the C53 subunit

    PubMed Central

    Ream, Thomas S.; Haag, Jeremy R.; Pontvianne, Frederic; Nicora, Carrie D.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Pikaard, Craig S.

    2015-01-01

    Using affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we identified the subunits of Arabidopsis thaliana multisubunit RNA polymerases I and III (abbreviated as Pol I and Pol III), the first analysis of their physical compositions in plants. In all eukaryotes examined to date, AC40 and AC19 subunits are common to Pol I (a.k.a. Pol A) and Pol III (a.k.a. Pol C) and are encoded by single genes. Surprisingly, A. thaliana and related species express two distinct AC40 paralogs, one of which assembles into Pol I and the other of which assembles into Pol III. Changes at eight amino acid positions correlate with the functional divergence of Pol I- and Pol III-specific AC40 paralogs. Two genes encode homologs of the yeast C53 subunit and either protein can assemble into Pol III. By contrast, only one of two potential C17 variants, and one of two potential C31 variants were detected in Pol III. We introduce a new nomenclature system for plant Pol I and Pol III subunits in which the 12 subunits that are structurally and functionally homologous among Pols I through V are assigned equivalent numbers. PMID:25813043

  15. Chromosomal location of the fosA3 and blaCTX-M genes in Proteus mirabilis and clonal spread of Escherichia coli ST117 carrying fosA3-positive IncHI2/ST3 or F2:A-:B- plasmids in a chicken farm.

    PubMed

    He, Dandan; Liu, Lanping; Guo, Baowei; Wu, Shengjun; Chen, Xiaojie; Wang, Jing; Zeng, Zhenling; Liu, Jian-Hua

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the spread and location of the fosA3 gene among Enterobacteriaceae from diseased broiler chickens. Twenty-nine Escherichia coli and seven Proteus mirabilis isolates recovered from one chicken farm were screened for the presence of plasmid-mediated fosfomycin resistance genes by PCR. The clonal relatedness of fosA3-positive isolates, the transferability and location of fosA3, and the genetic context of the fosA3 gene were determined. Seven P. mirabilis isolates with three different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns and five E. coli isolates belonging to sequence type 117 (ST117) and phylogenetic group D were positive for fosA3 and all carried the bla CTX-M gene. In E. coli, the genetic structures IS26-ISEcp1-bla CTX-M-65 -IS26-fosA3-1758 bp-IS26 and IS26-ISEcp1-bla CTX-M-3 -bla TEM-1 -IS26-fosA3-1758 bp-IS26 were present on transferable IncHI2/ST3 and F2:A-:B- plasmids, respectively. However, fosA3 was located on the chromosome of the seven P. mirabilis isolates. IS26-ISEcp1-bla CTX-M-65 -IS26-fosA3-1758 bp-IS26 and IS26-bla CTX-M-14 -611 bp-fosA3-1222 bp-IS26 were detected in three and four P. mirabilis isolates, respectively. Minicircles that contained both fosA3 and bla CTX-M-65 were shared between E. coli and P. mirabilis. This is the first report of the fosA3 gene integrated into the chromosome of P. mirabilis isolates with the bla CTX-M gene. The emergence and clonal spread of avian pathogenic E. coli ST117 with the feature of multidrug resistance and high virulence are a serious problem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  16. 28 CFR 51.6 - Political subunits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Political subunits. 51.6 Section 51.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED General Provisions § 51.6 Political subunits. All political...

  17. Subunit mass fingerprinting of mitochondrial complex I.

    PubMed

    Morgner, Nina; Zickermann, Volker; Kerscher, Stefan; Wittig, Ilka; Abdrakhmanova, Albina; Barth, Hans-Dieter; Brutschy, Bernhard; Brandt, Ulrich

    2008-10-01

    We have employed laser induced liquid bead ion desorption (LILBID) mass spectrometry to determine the total mass and to study the subunit composition of respiratory chain complex I from Yarrowia lipolytica. Using 5-10 pmol of purified complex I, we could assign all 40 known subunits of this membrane bound multiprotein complex to peaks in LILBID subunit fingerprint spectra by comparing predicted protein masses to observed ion masses. Notably, even the highly hydrophobic subunits encoded by the mitochondrial genome were easily detectable. Moreover, the LILBID approach allowed us to spot and correct several errors in the genome-derived protein sequences of complex I subunits. Typically, the masses of the individual subunits as determined by LILBID mass spectrometry were within 100 Da of the predicted values. For the first time, we demonstrate that LILBID spectrometry can be successfully applied to a complex I band eluted from a blue-native polyacrylamide gel, making small amounts of large multiprotein complexes accessible for subunit mass fingerprint analysis even if they are membrane bound. Thus, the LILBID subunit mass fingerprint method will be of great value for efficient proteomic analysis of complex I and its assembly intermediates, as well as of other water soluble and membrane bound multiprotein complexes.

  18. Subunit arrangement in P2X receptors.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lin-Hua; Kim, Miran; Spelta, Valeria; Bo, Xuenong; Surprenant, Annmarie; North, R Alan

    2003-10-01

    ATP-gated ionotropic receptors (P2X receptors) are distributed widely in the nervous system. For example, a hetero-oligomeric receptor containing both P2X2 and P2X3 subunits is involved in primary afferent sensation. Each subunit has two membrane-spanning domains. We have used disulfide bond formation between engineered cysteines to demonstrate close proximity between the outer ends of the first transmembrane domain of one subunit and the second transmembrane domain of another. After expression in HEK 293 cells of such modified P2X2 or P2X4 subunits, the disulfide bond formation is evident because an ATP-evoked channel opening requires previous reduction with dithiothreitol. In the hetero-oligomeric P2X2/3 receptor the coexpression of doubly substituted subunits with wild-type partners allows us to deduce that the hetero-oligomeric channel contains adjacent P2X3 subunits but does not contain adjacent P2X2 subunits. The results suggest a "head-to-tail" subunit arrangement in the quaternary structure of P2X receptors and show that a trimeric P2X2/3 receptor would have the composition P2X2(P2X3)2.

  19. The inner mantle of the giant clam, Tridacna squamosa, expresses a basolateral Na+/K+-ATPase α-subunit, which displays light-dependent gene and protein expression along the shell-facing epithelium.

    PubMed

    Boo, Mel V; Hiong, Kum C; Choo, Celine Y L; Cao-Pham, Anh H; Wong, Wai P; Chew, Shit F; Ip, Yuen K

    2017-01-01

    Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) is essential for maintaining the Na+ and K+ gradients, and supporting the secondary active transport of certain ions/molecules, across the plasma membrane of animal cells. This study aimed to clone the NKA α-subunit (NKAα) from the inner mantle adjacent to the extrapallial fluid of Tridacna squamosa, to determine its subcellular localization, and to examine the effects of light exposure on its transcript level and protein abundance. The cDNA coding sequence of NKAα from T. squamosa comprised 3105 bp, encoding 1034 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 114 kDa. NKAα had a basolateral localization along the shell-facing epithelium of the inner mantle. Exposure to 12 h of light led to a significantly stronger basolateral NKAα-immunofluorescence at the shell-facing epithelium, indicating that NKA might play a role in light-enhanced calcification in T. squamosa. After 3 h of light exposure, the transcript level of NKAα decreased transiently in the inner mantle, but returned to the control level thereafter. In comparison, the protein abundance of NKAα remained unchanged at hour 3, but became significantly higher than the control after 12 h of light exposure. Hence, the expression of NKAα in the inner mantle of T. squamosa was light-dependent. It is probable that a higher expression level of NKA was needed in the shell-facing epithelial cells of the inner mantle to cope with a rise in Na+ influx, possibly caused by increases in activities of some Na+-dependent ion transporters/channels involved in light-enhanced calcification.

  20. Monitoring and source tracking of tetracycline resistance genes in lagoons and groundwater adjacent to swine production facilities over a 3-year period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koike, S.; Krapac, I.G.; Oliver, H.D.; Yannarell, A.C.; Chee-Sanford, J. C.; Aminov, R.I.; Mackie, R.I.

    2007-01-01

    To monitor the dissemination of resistance genes into the environment, we determined the occurrence of tetracycline resistance (Tcr) genes in groundwater underlying two swine confinement operations. Monitoring well networks (16 wells at site A and 6 wells at site C) were established around the lagoons at each facility. Groundwater (n = 124) and lagoon (n = 12) samples were collected from the two sites at six sampling times from 2000 through 2003. Total DNA was extracted, and PCR was used to detect seven Tcr genes [tet(M), tet(O), tet(Q), tet(W), tet(C), tet(H), and tet(Z)]. The concentration of Tcr genes was quantified by real-time quantitative PCR. To confirm the Tcr gene source in groundwater, comparative analysis of tet(W) gene sequences was performed on groundwater and lagoon samples. All seven Tcr genes were continually detected in groundwater during the 3-year monitoring period at both sites. At site A, elevated detection frequency and concentration of Tcr genes were observed in the wells located down-gradient of the lagoon. Comparative analysis of tet(W) sequences revealed that the impacted groundwater contained gene sequences almost identical (99.8% identity) to those in the lagoon, but these genes were not found in background libraries. Novel sequence clusters and unique indigenous resistance gene pools were also found in the groundwater. Thus, antibiotic resistance genes in groundwater are affected by swine manure, but they are also part of the indigenous gene pool. Copyright ?? 2007, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Energetic Differences at The Subunit Interfaces of Normal Human Hemoglobins Correlate with Their Developmental Profile†

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Lois R.; Russell, J. Eric; Popowicz, Anthony M.; Manning, Robert S.; Padovan, Julio C.; Manning, James M.

    2013-01-01

    A previously unrecognized function of normal human hemoglobins occurring during protein assembly is described - - self-regulation of subunit pairings and their durations arising from the variable strengths of their subunit interactions. Although it is known that many mutant human hemoglobins have altered subunit interface strengths, those of the normal embryonic, fetal, and adult human hemoglobins have not been considered to differ significantly. However, in a comprehensive study of both types of subunit interfaces of seven of the eight normal oxy human hemoglobins, we found that the strength, i.e. the free energies of the tetramer-dimer interfaces, contrary to previous reports, differ by 3-orders of magnitude and display an undulating profile similar to the transitions (“switches”) of various globin subunit types over time. The dimer interface strengths are also variable and correlate linearly with their developmental profile; embryonic hemoglobins are the weakest, fetal hemoglobin is of intermediate strength, and adult hemoglobins are the strongest. The pattern also correlates generally with their different O2 affinities and responses to allosteric regulatory molecules. Acetylation of fetal hemoglobin weakens its unusually strong subunit interactions and occurs progressively as its expression diminishes and adult hemoglobin A formations begins; a causal relationship is suggested. The relative contributions of globin gene order and competition among subunits due to differences in their interface strengths were found to be complementary and establish a connection between genetics, thermodynamics, and development. PMID:19583196

  2. Cell- and subunit-specific mechanisms of CNG channel ciliary trafficking and localization in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Wojtyniak, Martin; Brear, Andrea G; O'Halloran, Damien M; Sengupta, Piali

    2013-10-01

    Primary cilia are ubiquitous sensory organelles that concentrate transmembrane signaling proteins essential for sensing environmental cues. Mislocalization of crucial ciliary signaling proteins, such as the tetrameric cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels, can lead to cellular dysfunction and disease. Although several cis- and trans-acting factors required for ciliary protein trafficking and localization have been identified, whether these mechanisms act in a protein- and cell-specific manner is largely unknown. Here, we show that CNG channel subunits can be localized to discrete ciliary compartments in individual sensory neurons in C. elegans, suggesting that channel composition is heterogeneous across the cilium. We demonstrate that ciliary localization of CNG channel subunits is interdependent on different channel subunits in specific cells, and identify sequences required for efficient ciliary targeting and localization of the TAX-2 CNGB and TAX-4 CNGA subunits. Using a candidate gene approach, we show that Inversin, transition zone proteins, intraflagellar transport motors and a MYND-domain protein are required to traffic and/or localize CNG channel subunits in both a cell- and channel subunit-specific manner. We further find that TAX-2 and TAX-4 are relatively immobile in specific sensory cilia subcompartments, suggesting that these proteins undergo minimal turnover in these domains in mature cilia. Our results uncover unexpected diversity in the mechanisms that traffic and localize CNG channel subunits to cilia both within and across cell types, highlighting the essential contribution of this process to cellular functions.

  3. Cell- and subunit-specific mechanisms of CNG channel ciliary trafficking and localization in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Wojtyniak, Martin; Brear, Andrea G.; O'Halloran, Damien M.; Sengupta, Piali

    2013-01-01

    Summary Primary cilia are ubiquitous sensory organelles that concentrate transmembrane signaling proteins essential for sensing environmental cues. Mislocalization of crucial ciliary signaling proteins, such as the tetrameric cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels, can lead to cellular dysfunction and disease. Although several cis- and trans-acting factors required for ciliary protein trafficking and localization have been identified, whether these mechanisms act in a protein- and cell-specific manner is largely unknown. Here, we show that CNG channel subunits can be localized to discrete ciliary compartments in individual sensory neurons in C. elegans, suggesting that channel composition is heterogeneous across the cilium. We demonstrate that ciliary localization of CNG channel subunits is interdependent on different channel subunits in specific cells, and identify sequences required for efficient ciliary targeting and localization of the TAX-2 CNGB and TAX-4 CNGA subunits. Using a candidate gene approach, we show that Inversin, transition zone proteins, intraflagellar transport motors and a MYND-domain protein are required to traffic and/or localize CNG channel subunits in both a cell- and channel subunit-specific manner. We further find that TAX-2 and TAX-4 are relatively immobile in specific sensory cilia subcompartments, suggesting that these proteins undergo minimal turnover in these domains in mature cilia. Our results uncover unexpected diversity in the mechanisms that traffic and localize CNG channel subunits to cilia both within and across cell types, highlighting the essential contribution of this process to cellular functions. PMID:23886944

  4. Subunit rotation of ATP synthase embedded in membranes: a or β subunit rotation relative to the c subunit ring

    PubMed Central

    Nishio, Kazuaki; Iwamoto-Kihara, Atsuko; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Wada, Yoh; Futai, Masamitsu

    2002-01-01

    ATP synthase FoF1 (α3β3γδɛab2c10–14) couples an electrochemical proton gradient and a chemical reaction through the rotation of its subunit assembly. In this study, we engineered FoF1 to examine the rotation of the catalytic F1 β or membrane sector Fo a subunit when the Fo c subunit ring was immobilized; a biotin-tag was introduced onto the β or a subunit, and a His-tag onto the c subunit ring. Membrane fragments were obtained from Escherichia coli cells carrying the recombinant plasmid for the engineered FoF1 and were immobilized on a glass surface. An actin filament connected to the β or a subunit rotated counterclockwise on the addition of ATP, and generated essentially the same torque as one connected to the c ring of FoF1 immobilized through a His-tag linked to the α or β subunit. These results established that the γɛc10–14 and α3β3δab2 complexes are mechanical units of the membrane-embedded enzyme involved in rotational catalysis. PMID:12357031

  5. Subunit architecture and functional modular rearrangements of the transcriptional Mediator complex

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Kuang-Lei; Tomomori-Sato, Chieri; Sato, Shigeo; Conaway, Ronald C.; Conaway, Joan W.; Asturias, Francisco J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The multisubunit Mediator comprising ~30 distinct proteins, plays an essential role in gene expression regulation by acting as a bridge between DNA binding transcription factors and the RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) transcription machinery. Efforts to uncover the Mediator mechanism have been hindered by a poor understanding of its structure, subunit organization, and conformational rearrangements. By overcoming biochemical and image analysis hurdles, we obtained accurate EM structures of yeast and human Mediators. Subunit localization experiments, docking of partial X-ray structures, and biochemical analyses resulted in comprehensive mapping of yeast Mediator subunits and a complete reinterpretation of our previous Mediator organization model. Large-scale Mediator rearrangements depend on changes at the interfaces between previously described Mediator modules, which appear to be facilitated by factors conducive to transcription initiation. Conservation across eukaryotes of Mediator structure, subunit organization, and RNA polymerase II interaction suggest conservation of fundamental aspects of the Mediator mechanism. PMID:24882805

  6. Developmental expression of human hemoglobins mediated by maturation of their subunit interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Lois R; Popowicz, Anthony M; Padovan, Julio; Chait, Brian T; Russell, J Eric; Manning, James M

    2010-01-01

    Different types of human hemoglobins (Hbs) consisting of various combinations of the embryonic, fetal, and adult Hb subunits are present at certain times during development representing a major paradigm of developmental biology that is still not understood and one which we address here. We show that the subunit interfaces of these Hbs have increasing bonding strengths as demonstrated by their distinct distribution of tetramers, dimers, and monomers during gel filtration at very low-Hb concentration. This maturation is mediated by competition between subunits for more favorable partners with stronger subunit interactions. Thus, the protein products of gene expression can themselves have a role in the developmental process due to their intrinsic properties. PMID:20572018

  7. Subunit architecture and functional modular rearrangements of the transcriptional mediator complex.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Kuang-Lei; Tomomori-Sato, Chieri; Sato, Shigeo; Conaway, Ronald C; Conaway, Joan W; Asturias, Francisco J

    2014-06-05

    The multisubunit Mediator, comprising ∼30 distinct proteins, plays an essential role in gene expression regulation by acting as a bridge between DNA-binding transcription factors and the RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) transcription machinery. Efforts to uncover the Mediator mechanism have been hindered by a poor understanding of its structure, subunit organization, and conformational rearrangements. By overcoming biochemical and image analysis hurdles, we obtained accurate EM structures of yeast and human Mediators. Subunit localization experiments, docking of partial X-ray structures, and biochemical analyses resulted in comprehensive mapping of yeast Mediator subunits and a complete reinterpretation of our previous Mediator organization model. Large-scale Mediator rearrangements depend on changes at the interfaces between previously described Mediator modules, which appear to be facilitated by factors conducive to transcription initiation. Conservation across eukaryotes of Mediator structure, subunit organization, and RNA polymerase II interaction suggest conservation of fundamental aspects of the Mediator mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The herpes zoster subunit vaccine.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Anthony L

    2016-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) causes severe pain and rash in older people and may be complicated by prolonged pain (postherpetic neuralgia; PHN). HZ results from reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection, often associated with age related or other causes of decreased T cell immunity. A concentrated live attenuated vaccine boosts this immunity and provides partial protection against HZ, but this decreases with age and declines over 5-8 years. The new HZ subunit (HZ/su or Shingrix) vaccine combines a key surface VZV glycoprotein (E) with T cell boosting adjuvant (AS01B). It is highly efficacious in protection (97%) against HZ in immunocompetent subjects, with no decline in advancing age and protection maintained for >3 years. Phase I-II trials showed safety and similar immunogenicity in severely immunocompromised patients. Local injection site pain and swelling can be severe in a minority (9.5%) but is transient (2 days). The HZ/su vaccine appears very promising in immunocompetent patients in the ZoE-50 controlled trial. The unblinding of the current ZoE-50 trial and publication of results from the accompanying ZoE-70 trial will reveal more about its mechanism of action and its efficacy against PHN, particularly in subjects >70 years. Phase III trial results in immunocompromised patients are eagerly awaited.

  9. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Maxence S.; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS. PMID:27630829

  10. Subunit mass analysis for monitoring antibody oxidation.

    PubMed

    Sokolowska, Izabela; Mo, Jingjie; Dong, Jia; Lewis, Michael J; Hu, Ping

    2017-04-01

    Methionine oxidation is a common posttranslational modification (PTM) of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Oxidation can reduce the in-vivo half-life, efficacy and stability of the product. Peptide mapping is commonly used to monitor the levels of oxidation, but this is a relatively time-consuming method. A high-throughput, automated subunit mass analysis method was developed to monitor antibody methionine oxidation. In this method, samples were treated with IdeS, EndoS and dithiothreitol to generate three individual IgG subunits (light chain, Fd' and single chain Fc). These subunits were analyzed by reversed phase-ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with an online quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer and the levels of oxidation on each subunit were quantitated based on the deconvoluted mass spectra using the UNIFI software. The oxidation results obtained by subunit mass analysis correlated well with the results obtained by peptide mapping. Method qualification demonstrated that this subunit method had excellent repeatability and intermediate precision. In addition, UNIFI software used in this application allows automated data acquisition and processing, which makes this method suitable for high-throughput process monitoring and product characterization. Finally, subunit mass analysis revealed the different patterns of Fc methionine oxidation induced by chemical and photo stress, which makes it attractive for investigating the root cause of oxidation.

  11. The PA influenza virus polymerase subunit is a phosphorylated protein.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Ezquerro, J J; Fernández Santarén, J; Sierra, T; Aragón, T; Ortega, J; Ortín, J; Smith, G L; Nieto, A

    1998-03-01

    The induction of proteolysis by expression of the influenza virus PA polymerase subunit is the only biochemical activity ascribed to this protein. In the course of studying viral protein synthesis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we observed the existence of several PA isoforms with different isoelectric points. These isoforms were also present when the PA gene was singly expressed in three different expression systems, indicating that a cellular activity is responsible for its post-translational modification. In vivo labelling with [32P]orthophosphate, followed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, clearly demonstrated the incorporation of phosphate into the PA molecule. Phosphoserine and phosphothreonine epitopes were present in PA, while phosphotyrosine residues were absent, as tested by immunoblotting with specific antibodies. These facts, as well as the presence of multiple consensus sites for casein kinase II (CKII) phosphorylation, prompted us to test the involvement of this kinase in PA covalent modification. PA protein purified by immunoprecipitation could be specifically labelled by the catalytic alpha subunit of human CKII, which was expressed and purified from bacteria. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the PA subunit of the influenza virus RNA polymerase is a phosphoprotein.

  12. 28 CFR 51.6 - Political subunits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED General Provisions § 51.6 Political subunits. All political... coverage by obtaining the declaratory judgment described in section 4(a) of the Act are subject to the...

  13. Subunit stoichiometry of human muscle chloride channels.

    PubMed

    Fahlke, C; Knittle, T; Gurnett, C A; Campbell, K P; George, A L

    1997-01-01

    Voltage-gated Cl- channels belonging to the ClC family appear to function as homomultimers, but the number of subunits needed to form a functional channel is controversial. To determine subunit stoichiometry, we constructed dimeric human skeletal muscle Cl- channels in which one subunit was tagged by a mutation (D136G) that causes profound changes in voltage-dependent gating. Sucrose-density gradient centrifugation experiments indicate that both monomeric and dimeric hClC-1 channels in their native configurations exhibit similar sedimentation properties consistent with a multimeric complex having a molecular mass of a dimer. Expression of the heterodimeric channel in a mammalian cell line results in a homogenous population of Cl- channels exhibiting novel gating properties that are best explained by the formation of heteromultimeric channels with an even number of subunits. Heteromultimeric channels were not evident in cells cotransfected with homodimeric WT-WT and D136G-D136G constructs excluding the possibility that functional hClC-1 channels are assembled from more than two subunits. These results demonstrate that the functional hClC-1 unit consists of two subunits.

  14. The carboxyl-terminal region is a determinant for the intracellular behavior of the chorionic gonadotropin beta subunit: effects on the processing of the Asn-linked oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Muyan, M; Boime, I

    1998-05-01

    The placental hormone human CG (hCG) consists of two noncovalently linked alpha- and beta-subunits similar to the other glycoprotein hormones LH, FSH, and TSH. These heterodimers share a common alpha subunit but differ in their structurally distinct beta subunits. The CGbeta subunit is distinguished among the beta subunits by the presence of a C-terminal extension with four serine-linked oligosaccharides (carboxyl terminal peptide or CTP). In previous studies we observed that deleting this sequence decreased assembly of the truncated CGbeta subunit (CGbeta114) with the alpha-subunit and increased the heterogeneity of the secreted forms of the uncombined subunit synthesized in transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The latter result was attributed to alterations in the processing of the two N-linked oligosaccharides. To examine at what step this heterogeneity occurs, the CGbeta and CGbeta114 genes were transfected into wild-type and mutant CHO cell lines that are defective in the late steps of the N-linked carbohydrate-processing pathway. We show here that removal of the CTP alters the processing of the core mannosyl unit of the subunit to complex forms at both glycosylation sites and that the oligosaccharides contain polylactosamine. Although it has been presumed that there is little intramolecular interaction between the CTP and the proximal domains of the subunit, our data suggest that the CTP sequence participates in the folding of the newly synthesized subunit, which is manifest by the posttranslational changes observed here.

  15. A-3 Groundbreaking Ceremony

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-08-23

    NASA officials and government leaders participated in a groundbreaking event for a new rocket engine test stand at NASA's Stennis Space Center, Miss. Pictured (left to right) are Deputy Associate Administrator for Exploration Systems Doug Cooke, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne President Jim Maser, Stennis Space Center Director Richard Gilbrech, NASA Associate Administrator for Exploration Systems Scott Horowitz, NASA Deputy Administrator Shana Dale, Mississippi Gov. Haley Barbour, Sen. Thad Cochran, Sen. Trent Lott, Rep. Gene Taylor, SSC's Deputy Director Gene Goldman, and SSC's A-3 Project Manager Lonnie Dutreix. Stennis' A-3 Test Stand will provide altitude testing for NASA's developing J-2X engine. That engine will power the upper stages of NASA's Ares I and Ares V rockets. A-3 is the first large test stand to be built at SSC since the site's inception in the 1960s.

  16. Cloning and characterization of two novel zebrafish P2X receptor subunits.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Hernandez, Miguel; Cox, Jane A; Migita, Keisuke; Haines, William; Egan, Terrance M; Voigt, Mark M

    2002-07-26

    In this report we describe the cloning and characterization of two P2X receptor subunits cloned from the zebrafish (Danio rerio). Primary sequence analysis suggests that one cDNA encodes an ortholog of the mammalian P2X(4) subunit and the second cDNA encodes the ortholog of the mammalian P2X(5) subunit. The zP2X(4) subunit forms a homo-oligomeric receptor that displays a low affinity for ATP (EC(50)=274+/-48 microM) and very low affinity (EC(50)>500 microM) for other purinergic ligands such as alphabetameATP, suramin, and PPADS. As seen with the mammalian orthologs, the zP2X(5) subunit forms a homo-oligomeric receptor that yields very small whole-cell currents (<20pA), making determination of an EC(50) problematic. Both subunit genes were physically mapped onto the zebrafish genome using radiation hybrid analysis of the T51 panel, with the zp2x4 localized to LG21 and zp2x5 to LG5.

  17. Modulatory mechanisms and multiple functions of somatodendritic A-type K+ channel auxiliary subunits

    PubMed Central

    Jerng, Henry H.; Pfaffinger, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Auxiliary subunits are non-conducting, modulatory components of the multi-protein ion channel complexes that underlie normal neuronal signaling. They interact with the pore-forming α-subunits to modulate surface distribution, ion conductance, and channel gating properties. For the somatodendritic subthreshold A-type potassium (ISA) channel based on Kv4 α-subunits, two types of auxiliary subunits have been extensively studied: Kv channel-interacting proteins (KChIPs) and dipeptidyl peptidase-like proteins (DPLPs). KChIPs are cytoplasmic calcium-binding proteins that interact with intracellular portions of the Kv4 subunits, whereas DPLPs are type II transmembrane proteins that associate with the Kv4 channel core. Both KChIPs and DPLPs genes contain multiple start sites that are used by various neuronal populations to drive the differential expression of functionally distinct N-terminal variants. In turn, these N-terminal variants generate tremendous functional diversity across the nervous system. Here, we focus our review on (1) the molecular mechanism underlying the unique properties of different N-terminal variants, (2) the shaping of native ISA properties by the concerted actions of KChIPs and DPLP variants, and (3) the surprising ways that KChIPs and DPLPs coordinate the activity of multiple channels to fine-tune neuronal excitability. Unlocking the unique contributions of different auxiliary subunit N-terminal variants may provide an important opportunity to develop novel targeted therapeutics to treat numerous neurological disorders. PMID:24723849

  18. Modulatory mechanisms and multiple functions of somatodendritic A-type K (+) channel auxiliary subunits.

    PubMed

    Jerng, Henry H; Pfaffinger, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Auxiliary subunits are non-conducting, modulatory components of the multi-protein ion channel complexes that underlie normal neuronal signaling. They interact with the pore-forming α-subunits to modulate surface distribution, ion conductance, and channel gating properties. For the somatodendritic subthreshold A-type potassium (ISA) channel based on Kv4 α-subunits, two types of auxiliary subunits have been extensively studied: Kv channel-interacting proteins (KChIPs) and dipeptidyl peptidase-like proteins (DPLPs). KChIPs are cytoplasmic calcium-binding proteins that interact with intracellular portions of the Kv4 subunits, whereas DPLPs are type II transmembrane proteins that associate with the Kv4 channel core. Both KChIPs and DPLPs genes contain multiple start sites that are used by various neuronal populations to drive the differential expression of functionally distinct N-terminal variants. In turn, these N-terminal variants generate tremendous functional diversity across the nervous system. Here, we focus our review on (1) the molecular mechanism underlying the unique properties of different N-terminal variants, (2) the shaping of native ISA properties by the concerted actions of KChIPs and DPLP variants, and (3) the surprising ways that KChIPs and DPLPs coordinate the activity of multiple channels to fine-tune neuronal excitability. Unlocking the unique contributions of different auxiliary subunit N-terminal variants may provide an important opportunity to develop novel targeted therapeutics to treat numerous neurological disorders.

  19. Use of novel species-specific PCR primers targeted to DNA gyrase subunit B (gyrB) gene for species identification of the Cronobacter sakazakii and Cronobacter dublinensis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chien-Hsun; Chang, Mu-Tzu; Huang, Lina

    2013-02-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii and its phylogenetically closest species are considered to be an opportunistic pathogens associated with food-borne disease in neonates and infants. Neither phenotypic nor genotypic (16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis) techniques can provide sufficient resolutions for accurately and rapidly identification of these species. The objective of this study was to develop species-specific PCR based on the gyrB gene sequence for direct species identification of the C. sakazakii and Cronobacter dublinensis within the C. sakazakii group. Two pair of species-specific primers were designed and used to specifically identify C. sakazakii and C. dublinensis, but none of the other C. sakazakii group strains. Our data indicate that the novel species-specific primers could be used to rapidly and accurately identify the species of C. sakazakii and C. dublinensis from C. sakazakii group by the PCR based assays. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. DiGeorge-like syndrome in a child with a 3p12.3 deletion involving MIR4273 gene born to a mother with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, Emilia; Giardino, Giuliana; Gallo, Vera; Galasso, Giovanni; Romano, Roberta; D'Assante, Roberta; Scalia, Giulia; Del Vecchio, Luigi; Nitsch, Lucio; Genesio, Rita; Pignata, Claudio

    2017-04-24

    Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion is the most common chromosomal alteration associated with DiGeorge syndrome (DGS), even though this is not the only underlying cause of DGS. In rare patients, mutations in a single gene, TBX1, have been described resulting in a DGS phenotype. Recently, it has been reported that at least part of the TBX1 mutant phenotype is due to excessive bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) signaling. Evidence suggests that miRNA may modulate the expression of critical T-box transcriptional regulators during midface development and Bmp-signaling. We report on a 7-year-old Caucasian male born to a mother affected with gestational diabetes (GDM) who had a 371Kb-interstitial deletion of 3p12.3 identified by array CGH, involving the ZNF717, MIR1243, and 4273 genes. The child presented with a DiGeorge anomaly (DGA) associated with unilateral renal agenesis and language delay. The immunological evaluation revealed a severe reduction and impairment of T lymphocytes. FISH analysis and TBX1 sequencing were negative. Among the miRNA-4273 predicted target genes, we found BMP3, which is involved in several steps of embryogenesis including kidney and lung organogenesis and in insulin gene expression. Since, DGA is not commonly found in newborns of diabetic mothers, we hypothesize that the pathogenesis of DGA associated with GDM is multifactorial, involving both genetic and/or epigenetic cofactors. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Fungal mediator tail subunits contain classical transcriptional activation domains.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhongle; Myers, Lawrence C

    2015-04-01

    Classical activation domains within DNA-bound eukaryotic transcription factors make weak interactions with coactivator complexes, such as Mediator, to stimulate transcription. How these interactions stimulate transcription, however, is unknown. The activation of reporter genes by artificial fusion of Mediator subunits to DNA binding domains that bind to their promoters has been cited as evidence that the primary role of activators is simply to recruit Mediator. We have identified potent classical transcriptional activation domains in the C termini of several tail module subunits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, and Candida dubliniensis Mediator, while their N-terminal domains are necessary and sufficient for their incorporation into Mediator but do not possess the ability to activate transcription when fused to a DNA binding domain. This suggests that Mediator fusion proteins actually are functioning in a manner similar to that of a classical DNA-bound activator rather than just recruiting Mediator. Our finding that deletion of the activation domains of S. cerevisiae Med2 and Med3, as well as C. dubliniensis Tlo1 (a Med2 ortholog), impairs the induction of certain genes shows these domains function at native promoters. Activation domains within coactivators are likely an important feature of these complexes and one that may have been uniquely leveraged by a common fungal pathogen. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Pharmacological consequences of the coexpression of BK channel α and auxiliary β subunits

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Yolima P.; Granados, Sara T.; Latorre, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    Coded by a single gene (Slo1, KCM) and activated by depolarizing potentials and by a rise in intracellular Ca2+ concentration, the large conductance voltage- and Ca2+-activated K+ channel (BK) is unique among the superfamily of K+ channels. BK channels are tetramers characterized by a pore-forming α subunit containing seven transmembrane segments (instead of the six found in voltage-dependent K+ channels) and a large C terminus composed of two regulators of K+ conductance domains (RCK domains), where the Ca2+-binding sites reside. BK channels can be associated with accessory β subunits and, although different BK modulatory mechanisms have been described, greater interest has recently been placed on the role that the β subunits may play in the modulation of BK channel gating due to its physiological importance. Four β subunits have currently been identified (i.e., β1, β2, β3, and β4) and despite the fact that they all share the same topology, it has been shown that every β subunit has a specific tissue distribution and that they modify channel kinetics as well as their pharmacological properties and the apparent Ca2+ sensitivity of the α subunit in different ways. Additionally, different studies have shown that natural, endogenous, and synthetic compounds can modulate BK channels through β subunits. Considering the importance of these channels in different pathological conditions, such as hypertension and neurological disorders, this review focuses on the mechanisms by which these compounds modulate the biophysical properties of BK channels through the regulation of β subunits, as well as their potential therapeutic uses for diseases such as those mentioned above. PMID:25346693

  3. Pharmacological consequences of the coexpression of BK channel α and auxiliary β subunits.

    PubMed

    Torres, Yolima P; Granados, Sara T; Latorre, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    Coded by a single gene (Slo1, KCM) and activated by depolarizing potentials and by a rise in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, the large conductance voltage- and Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel (BK) is unique among the superfamily of K(+) channels. BK channels are tetramers characterized by a pore-forming α subunit containing seven transmembrane segments (instead of the six found in voltage-dependent K(+) channels) and a large C terminus composed of two regulators of K(+) conductance domains (RCK domains), where the Ca(2+)-binding sites reside. BK channels can be associated with accessory β subunits and, although different BK modulatory mechanisms have been described, greater interest has recently been placed on the role that the β subunits may play in the modulation of BK channel gating due to its physiological importance. Four β subunits have currently been identified (i.e., β1, β2, β3, and β4) and despite the fact that they all share the same topology, it has been shown that every β subunit has a specific tissue distribution and that they modify channel kinetics as well as their pharmacological properties and the apparent Ca(2+) sensitivity of the α subunit in different ways. Additionally, different studies have shown that natural, endogenous, and synthetic compounds can modulate BK channels through β subunits. Considering the importance of these channels in different pathological conditions, such as hypertension and neurological disorders, this review focuses on the mechanisms by which these compounds modulate the biophysical properties of BK channels through the regulation of β subunits, as well as their potential therapeutic uses for diseases such as those mentioned above.

  4. Crystal structure of Agaricus bisporus mushroom tyrosinase: identity of the tetramer subunits and interaction with tropolone.

    PubMed

    Ismaya, Wangsa T; Rozeboom, Henriëtte J; Weijn, Amrah; Mes, Jurriaan J; Fusetti, Fabrizia; Wichers, Harry J; Dijkstra, Bauke W

    2011-06-21

    Tyrosinase catalyzes the conversion of phenolic compounds into their quinone derivatives, which are precursors for the formation of melanin, a ubiquitous pigment in living organisms. Because of its importance for browning reactions in the food industry, the tyrosinase from the mushroom Agaricus bisporus has been investigated in depth. In previous studies the tyrosinase enzyme complex was shown to be a H(2)L(2) tetramer, but no clues were obtained of the identities of the subunits, their mode of association, and the 3D structure of the complex. Here we unravel this tetramer at the molecular level. Its 2.3 Å resolution crystal structure is the first structure of the full fungal tyrosinase complex. The complex comprises two H subunits of ∼392 residues and two L subunits of ∼150 residues. The H subunit originates from the ppo3 gene and has a fold similar to other tyrosinases, but it is ∼100 residues larger. The L subunit appeared to be the product of orf239342 and has a lectin-like fold. The H subunit contains a binuclear copper-binding site in the deoxy-state, in which three histidine residues coordinate each copper ion. The side chains of these histidines have their orientation fixed by hydrogen bonds or, in the case of His85, by a thioether bridge with the side chain of Cys83. The specific tyrosinase inhibitor tropolone forms a pre-Michaelis complex with the enzyme. It binds near the binuclear copper site without directly coordinating the copper ions. The function of the ORF239342 subunits is not known. Carbohydrate binding sites identified in other lectins are not conserved in ORF239342, and the subunits are over 25 Å away from the active site, making a role in activity unlikely. The structures explain how calcium ions stabilize the tetrameric state of the enzyme.

  5. Replication protein A subunit 3 and the iron efficiency response in soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], iron deficiency results in interveinal chlorosis and decreased photosynthetic capacity, leading to stunting and yield loss. In this study, gene expression analyses investigated the role of soybean replication protein A (RPA) subunits during iron stress. Nine RP...

  6. Glycine Receptors Containing α2 or α3 Subunits Regulate Specific Ethanol-Mediated Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Blednov, Yuri A.; Benavidez, Jillian M.; Black, Mendy; Leiter, Courtney R.; Osterndorff-Kahanek, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Glycine receptors (GlyRs) are broadly expressed in the central nervous system. Ethanol enhances the function of brain GlyRs, and the GlyRα1 subunit is associated with some of the behavioral actions of ethanol, such as loss of righting reflex. The in vivo role of GlyRα2 and α3 subunits in alcohol responses has not been characterized despite high expression levels in the nucleus accumbens and amygdala, areas that are important for the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse. We used an extensive panel of behavioral tests to examine ethanol actions in mice lacking Glra2 (the gene encoding the glycine receptor alpha 2 subunit) or Glra3 (the gene encoding the glycine receptor alpha 3 subunit). Deletion of Glra2 or Glra3 alters specific ethanol-induced behaviors. Glra2 knockout mice demonstrate reduced ethanol intake and preference in the 24-hour two-bottle choice test and increased initial aversive responses to ethanol and lithium chloride. In contrast, Glra3 knockout mice show increased ethanol intake and preference in the 24-hour intermittent access test and increased development of conditioned taste aversion to ethanol. Mutants and wild-type mice consumed similar amounts of ethanol in the limited access drinking in the dark test. Other ethanol effects, such as anxiolysis, motor incoordination, loss of righting reflex, and acoustic startle response, were not altered in the mutants. The behavioral changes in mice lacking GlyRα2 or α3 subunits were distinct from effects previously observed in mice with knock-in mutations in the α1 subunit. We provide evidence that GlyRα2 and α3 subunits may regulate ethanol consumption and the aversive response to ethanol. PMID:25678534

  7. Subunit interface dynamics in hexadecameric rubisco.

    PubMed

    van Lun, Michiel; van der Spoel, David; Andersson, Inger

    2011-09-02

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) plays an important role in the global carbon cycle as a hub for biomass. Rubisco catalyzes not only the carboxylation of RuBP with carbon dioxide but also a competing oxygenation reaction of RuBP with a negative impact on photosynthetic yield. The functional active site is built from two large (L) subunits that form a dimer. The octameric core of four L(2) dimers is held at each end by a cluster of four small (S) subunits, forming a hexadecamer. Each large subunit contacts more than one S subunit. These interactions exploit the dynamic flexibility of Rubisco, which we address in this study. Here, we describe seven different types of interfaces of hexadecameric Rubisco. We have analyzed these interfaces with respect to the size of the interface area and the number of polar interactions, including salt bridges and hydrogen bonds in a variety of Rubisco enzymes from different organisms and different kingdoms of life, including the Rubisco-like proteins. We have also performed molecular dynamics simulations of Rubisco from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and mutants thereof. From our computational analyses, we propose structural checkpoints of the S subunit to ensure the functionality and/or assembly of the Rubisco holoenzyme. These checkpoints appear to fine-tune the dynamics of the enzyme in a way that could influence enzyme performance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Subunit Principle in Scar Face Revision.

    PubMed

    Elshahat, Ahmed; Lashin, Riham

    2017-06-01

    Facial scaring is considered one of the most difficult cosmetic problems for any plastic surgeon to solve. The condition is more difficult if the direction of the scar is not parallel to relaxed skin tension lines. Attempts to manage this difficult situation included revisions using geometric designs, Z plasties or W plasties to camouflage the straight line visible scaring. The use of long-lasting resorbable sutures was tried too. Recently, the use of botulinum toxin during revision improved the results. Fractional CO2 lasers, microfat grafts, and platelet-rich plasma were added to the armamentarium. The scar is least visible if placed in the junction between the facial subunits. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of the subunit principle to improve the results of scar revision. Four patients were included in this study. Tissue expansion of the intact part of the subunit allowed shifting the scar to the junction between the affected subunit and the adjacent one. Tissue expansion, delivery of the expanders, and advancement of the flaps were successful in all patients. The fact that this is a 2-stage procedure and sacrifices some of the intact skin from the affected facial subunit, makes this technique reserved to patients with ugly facial scars who are ambitious to improve their appearance.

  9. Roles of putative sodium-hydrogen antiporter (SHA) genes in S. coelicolor A3(2) culture with pH variation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon Jung; Moon, Myung Hee; Lee, Jae Sun; Hong, Soon-Kwang; Chang, Yong Keun

    2011-09-01

    Culture pH change has some important roles in signal transduction and secondary metabolism. We have already reported that acidic pH shock enhanced actinorhodin production in Streptomyces coelicolor. Among many potential governing factors on pH variation, the putative Na(+)/H(+) antiporter (sha) genes in S. coelicolor have been investigated in this study to elucidate the association of the sha on pH variation and secondary metabolism. Through the transcriptional analysis and overexpression experiments on 8 sha genes, we observed that most of the sha expressions were promoted by pH shock, and in the opposite way the pH changes and actinorhodin production were enhanced by the overexpression of each sha. We also confirmed that sha8 especially has a main role in maintaining cell viability and pH homeostasis through Na(+) extrusion, in salt effect experiment under the alkaline medium condition by deleting sha8. Moreover, this gene was observed to have a function of pH recovery after pH variation such as the pH shock, being able to cause the sporulation. However, actinorhodin production was not induced by the only pH recovery. The sha8 gene could confer on the host cell the ability to recover pH to the neutral level after pH variation like a pH drop. Sporulation was closely associated with this pH recovery caused by the action of sha8, whereas actinorhodin production was not due to such pH variation patterns alone.

  10. Novel Mutation in the ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A3 (ABCA3) Encoding Gene Causes Respiratory Distress Syndrome in A Term Newborn in Southwest Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Farideh; Shafiei, Mohammad; Shariati, Gholamreza; Dehdashtian, Ali; Mohebbi, Maryam; Galehdari, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction ABCA3 glycoprotein belongs to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of transporters, which utilize the energy derived from hydrolysis of ATP for the translocation of a wide variety of substrates across the plasma membrane. Mutations in the ABCA3 gene are knowingly causative for fatal surfactant deficiency, particularly respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in term babies. Case Presentation In this study, Sanger sequencing of the whole ABCA3 gene (NCBI NM_001089) was performed in a neonatal boy with severe RDS. A homozygous mutation has been identified in the patient. Parents were heterozygous for the same missense mutation GGA > AGA at position 202 in exon 6 of the ABCA3 gene (c.604G > A; p.G202R). Furthermore, 70 normal individuals have been analyzed for the mentioned change with negative results. Conclusions Regarding Human Genome Mutation Database (HGMD) and other literature recherche, the detected change is a novel mutation and has not been reported before. Bioinformatics mutation predicting tools prefer it as pathogenic. PMID:27437095

  11. An Indel Polymorphism in the MtnA 3' Untranslated Region Is Associated with Gene Expression Variation and Local Adaptation in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Glaser-Schmitt, Amanda; Duchen, Pablo; Parsch, John

    2016-01-01

    Insertions and deletions (indels) are a major source of genetic variation within species and may result in functional changes to coding or regulatory sequences. In this study we report that an indel polymorphism in the 3’ untranslated region (UTR) of the metallothionein gene MtnA is associated with gene expression variation in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster. A derived allele of MtnA with a 49-bp deletion in the 3' UTR segregates at high frequency in populations outside of sub-Saharan Africa. The frequency of the deletion increases with latitude across multiple continents and approaches 100% in northern Europe. Flies with the deletion have more than 4-fold higher MtnA expression than flies with the ancestral sequence. Using reporter gene constructs in transgenic flies, we show that the 3' UTR deletion significantly contributes to the observed expression difference. Population genetic analyses uncovered signatures of a selective sweep in the MtnA region within populations from northern Europe. We also find that the 3’ UTR deletion is associated with increased oxidative stress tolerance. These results suggest that the 3' UTR deletion has been a target of selection for its ability to confer increased levels of MtnA expression in northern European populations, likely due to a local adaptive advantage of increased oxidative stress tolerance. PMID:27120580

  12. Adaptation of the Mitochondrial Genome in Cephalopods: Enhancing Proton Translocation Channels and the Subunit Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Daniela; Maldonado, Emanuel; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Antunes, Agostinho

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial protein-coding genes (mt genes) encode subunits forming complexes of crucial cellular pathways, including those involved in the vital process of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Despite the vital role of the mitochondrial genome (mt genome) in the survival of organisms, little is known with respect to its adaptive implications within marine invertebrates. The molluscan Class Cephalopoda is represented by a marine group of species known to occupy contrasting environments ranging from the intertidal to the deep sea, having distinct metabolic requirements, varied body shapes and highly advanced visual and nervous systems that make them highly competitive and successful worldwide predators. Thus, cephalopods are valuable models for testing natural selection acting on their mitochondrial subunits (mt subunits). Here, we used concatenated mt genes from 17 fully sequenced mt genomes of diverse cephalopod species to generate a robust mitochondrial phylogeny for the Class Cephalopoda. We followed an integrative approach considering several branches of interest–covering cephalopods with distinct morphologies, metabolic rates and habitats–to identify sites under positive selection and localize them in the respective protein alignment and/or tridimensional structure of the mt subunits. Our results revealed significant adaptive variation in several mt subunits involved in the energy production pathway of cephalopods: ND5 and ND6 from Complex I, CYTB from Complex III, COX2 and COX3 from Complex IV, and in ATP8 from Complex V. Furthermore, we identified relevant sites involved in protein-interactions, lining proton translocation channels, as well as disease/deficiencies related sites in the aforementioned complexes. A particular case, revealed by this study, is the involvement of some positively selected sites, found in Octopoda lineage in lining proton translocation channels (site 74 from ND5) and in interactions between subunits (site 507 from ND5) of

  13. Rat chromosome 1: regional localization of seven genes (Slc9a3, Srd5a1, Esr, Tcp1, Grik5, Tnnt3, Jak2) and anchoring of the genetic linkage map to the cytogenetic map.

    PubMed

    Szpirer, C; Szpirer, J; Tissir, F; Stephanova, E; Vanvooren, P; Kurtz, T W; Iwai, N; Inagami, T; Pravenec, M; Kren, V; Klinga-Levan, K; Levan, G

    1997-09-01

    Seven genes were regionally localized on rat Chromosome (Chr) 1, from 1p11 to 1q42, and two of these genes were also included in a linkage map. This mapping work integrates the genetic linkage map and the cytogenetic map, and allows us to orient the linkage map with respect to the centromere, and to deduce the approximate position of the centromere in the linkage map. These mapping data also indicate that the Slc9a3 gene, encoding the Na+/H+ exchanger 3, is an unlikely candidate for the blood pressure loci assigned to rat Chr 1. These new localizations expand comparative mapping between rat Chr 1 and mouse or human chromosomes.

  14. Upregulated expression of La ribonucleoprotein domain family member 6 and collagen type I gene following water-filtered broad-spectrum near-infrared irradiation in a 3-dimensional human epidermal tissue culture model as revealed by microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yohei; Nakayama, Jun

    2018-05-01

    Water-filtered broad-spectrum near-infrared irradiation can induce various biological effects, as our previous clinical, histological, and biochemical investigations have shown. However, few studies that examined the changes thus induced in gene expression. The aim was to investigate the changes in gene expression in a 3-dimensional reconstructed epidermal tissue culture exposed to water-filtered broad-spectrum near-infrared irradiation. DNA microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was used to assess gene expression levels in a 3-dimensional reconstructed epidermal model composed of normal human epidermal cells exposed to water-filtered broad-spectrum near-infrared irradiation. The water filter allowed 1000-1800 nm wavelengths and excluded 1400-1500 nm wavelengths, and cells were exposed to 5 or 10 rounds of near-infrared irradiation at 10 J/cm 2 . A DNA microarray with over 50 000 different probes showed 18 genes that were upregulated or downregulated by at least twofold after irradiation. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that, relative to control cells, the gene encoding La ribonucleoprotein domain family member 6 (LARP6), which regulates collagen expression, was significantly and dose-dependently upregulated (P < 0.05) by water-filtered broad-spectrum near-infrared exposure. Gene encoding transcripts of collagen type I were significantly upregulated compared with controls (P < 0.05). This study demonstrates the ability of water-filtered broad-spectrum near-infrared irradiation to stimulate the production of type I collagen. © 2017 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  15. Heteromeric assembly of P2X subunits

    PubMed Central

    Saul, Anika; Hausmann, Ralf; Kless, Achim; Nicke, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Transcripts and/or proteins of P2X receptor (P2XR) subunits have been found in virtually all mammalian tissues. Generally more than one of the seven known P2X subunits have been identified in a given cell type. Six of the seven cloned P2X subunits can efficiently form functional homotrimeric ion channels in recombinant expression systems. This is in contrast to other ligand-gated ion channel families, such as the Cys-loop or glutamate receptors, where homomeric assemblies seem to represent the exception rather than the rule. P2XR mediated responses recorded from native tissues rarely match exactly the biophysical and pharmacological properties of heterologously expressed homomeric P2XRs. Heterotrimerization of P2X subunits is likely to account for this observed diversity. While the existence of heterotrimeric P2X2/3Rs and their role in physiological processes is well established, the composition of most other P2XR heteromers and/or the interplay between distinct trimeric receptor complexes in native tissues is not clear. After a description of P2XR assembly and the structure of the intersubunit ATP-binding site, this review summarizes the distribution of P2XR subunits in selected mammalian cell types and the biochemically and/or functionally characterized heteromeric P2XRs that have been observed upon heterologous co-expression of P2XR subunits. We further provide examples where the postulated heteromeric P2XRs have been suggested to occur in native tissues and an overview of the currently available pharmacological tools that have been used to discriminate between homo- and heteromeric P2XRs. PMID:24391538

  16. Subunit Compositions of the RNA-Silencing Enzymes Pol IV and Pol V Reveal Their Origins as Specialized Forms of RNA Polymerase II

    SciTech Connect

    Ream, Thomas S.; Haag, J. R.; Wierzbicki, A. T.

    2009-01-30

    In addition to RNA polymerases I, II, and III, the essential RNA polymerases present in all eukaryotes, plants have two additional nuclear RNA polymerases, abbreviated as Pol IV and Pol V, that play nonredundant roles in siRNA-directed DNA methylation and gene silencing. We show that Arabidopsis Pol IV and Pol V are composed of subunits that are paralogous or identical to the 12 subunits of Pol II. Four subunits of Pol IV are distinct from their Pol II paralogs, six subunits of Pol V are distinct from their Pol II paralogs, and four subunits differ between Pol IV and Polmore » V. Importantly, the subunit differences occur in key positions relative to the template entry and RNA exit paths. Our findings support the hypothesis that Pol IV and Pol V are Pol II-like enzymes that evolved specialized roles in the production of noncoding transcripts for RNA silencing and genome defense.« less

  17. A dynamic alpha-beta inter-subunit agonist signaling complex is a novel feedback mechanism for regulating L-type Ca2+ channel opening.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rong; Dzhura, Igor; Grueter, Chad E; Thiel, William; Colbran, Roger J; Anderson, Mark E

    2005-09-01

    L-type Ca2+ channels are macromolecular protein complexes in neurons and myocytes that open in response to cell membrane depolarization to supply Ca2+ for regulating gene transcription and vesicle secretion and triggering cell contraction. L-type Ca2+ channels include a pore-forming alpha and an auxiliary beta subunit, and alpha subunit openings are regulated by cellular Ca2+ through a mechanism involving the Ca2+-sensing protein calmodulin (CaM) and CaM binding motifs in the alpha subunit cytoplasmic C terminus. Here we show that these CaM binding motifs are "auto-agonists" that increase alpha subunit openings by binding the beta subunit. The CaM binding domains are necessary and sufficient for the alpha subunit C terminus to bind the beta subunit in vitro, and excess CaM blocks this interaction. Addition of CaM binding domains to native cardiac L-type Ca2+ channels in excised cell membrane patches increases openings, and this agonist effect is prevented by excess CaM. Recombinant LTCC openings are also increased by exogenous CaM binding domains by a mechanism requiring the beta subunit, and excess CaM blocks this effect. Thus, the bifunctional ability of the alpha subunit CaM binding motifs to competitively associate with the beta subunit or CaM provides a novel paradigm for feedback control of cellular Ca2+ entry.

  18. Changes in gene expression, protein content and morphology of chondrocytes cultured on a 3D Random Positioning Machine and 2D rotating clinostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleshcheva, Ganna; Hauslage, Jens; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Infanger, Manfred; Bauer, Johann; Grimm, Daniela; Sahana, Jayashree

    Chondrocytes are the only cell type found in human cartilage consisting of proteoglycans and type II collagen. Several studies on chondrocytes cultured either in Space or on a ground-based facility for simulation of microgravity revealed that these cells are very resistant to adverse effects and stress induced by altered gravity. Tissue engineering of chondrocytes is a new strategy for cartilage regeneration. Using a three-dimensional Random Positioning Machine and a 2D rotating clinostat, devices designed to simulate microgravity on Earth, we investigated the early effects of microgravity exposure on human chondrocytes of six different donors after 30 min, 2 h, 4 h, 16 h, and 24 h and compared the results with the corresponding static controls cultured under normal gravity conditions. As little as 30 min of exposure resulted in increased expression of several genes responsible for cell motility, structure and integrity (beta-actin); control of cell growth, cell proliferation, cell differentiation and apoptosis; and cytoskeletal components such as microtubules (beta-tubulin) and intermediate filaments (vimentin). After 4 hours disruptions in the vimentin network were detected. These changes were less dramatic after 16 hours, when human chondrocytes appeared to reorganize their cytoskeleton. However, the gene expression and protein content of TGF-β1 was enhanced for 24 h. Based on the results achieved, we suggest that chondrocytes exposed to simulated microgravity seem to change their extracellular matrix production behavior while they rearrange their cytoskeletal proteins prior to forming three-dimensional aggregates.

  19. Estrogen-dependent downregulation of hairy and enhancer of split homolog-1 gene expression in breast cancer cells is mediated via a 3' distal element.

    PubMed

    Müller, Patrick; Merrell, Kenneth W; Crofts, Justin D; Rönnlund, Caroline; Lin, Chin-Yo; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Ström, Anders

    2009-03-01

    Regulation of hairy and enhancer of split homologue-1 (HES-1) by estradiol and all-trans retinoic acid affects proliferation of human breast cancer cells. Here, we identify and characterize cis-regulatory elements involved in HES-1 regulation. In the distal 5' promoter of the HES-1 gene, we found a retinoic acid response element and in the distal 3' region, an estrogen receptor alpha(ER)alpha binding site. The ERalpha binding site, composed of an estrogen response element (ERE) and an ERE half-site, is important for both ERalpha binding and transcriptional regulation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that ERalpha is recruited to the ERE and associates with the HES-1 promoter. We also show recruitment of nuclear receptor co-regulators to the ERE in response to estradiol, followed by a decrease in histone acetylation and RNA polymerase II docking in the HES-1 promoter region. Our findings are consistent with a novel type of repressive estrogen response element in the distal 3' region of the HES-1 gene.

  20. An Fe-S cluster in the conserved Cys-rich region in the catalytic subunit of FAD-dependent dehydrogenase complexes.

    PubMed

    Shiota, Masaki; Yamazaki, Tomohiko; Yoshimatsu, Keiichi; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Tsugawa, Wakako; Ferri, Stefano; Sode, Koji

    2016-12-01

    Several bacterial flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-harboring dehydrogenase complexes comprise three distinct subunits: a catalytic subunit with FAD, a cytochrome c subunit containing three hemes, and a small subunit. Owing to the cytochrome c subunit, these dehydrogenase complexes have the potential to transfer electrons directly to an electrode. Despite various electrochemical applications and engineering studies of FAD-dependent dehydrogenase complexes, the intra/inter-molecular electron transfer pathway has not yet been revealed. In this study, we focused on the conserved Cys-rich region in the catalytic subunits using the catalytic subunit of FAD dependent glucose dehydrogenase complex (FADGDH) as a model, and site-directed mutagenesis and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) were performed. By co-expressing a hitch-hiker protein (γ-subunit) and a catalytic subunit (α-subunit), FADGDH γα complexes were prepared, and the properties of the catalytic subunit of both wild type and mutant FADGDHs were investigated. Substitution of the conserved Cys residues with Ser resulted in the loss of dye-mediated glucose dehydrogenase activity. ICP-AEM and EPR analyses of the wild-type FADGDH catalytic subunit revealed the presence of a 3Fe-4S-type iron-sulfur cluster, whereas none of the Ser-substituted mutants showed the EPR spectrum characteristic for this cluster. The results suggested that three Cys residues in the Cys-rich region constitute an iron-sulfur cluster that may play an important role in the electron transfer from FAD (intra-molecular) to the multi-heme cytochrome c subunit (inter-molecular) electron transfer pathway. These features appear to be conserved in the other three-subunit dehydrogenases having an FAD cofactor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Copy-Number Variation of the Glucose Transporter Gene SLC2A3 and Congenital Heart Defects in the 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mlynarski, Elisabeth E; Sheridan, Molly B; Xie, Michael; Guo, Tingwei; Racedo, Silvia E; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Gai, Xiaowu; Chow, Eva W C; Vorstman, Jacob; Swillen, Ann; Devriendt, Koen; Breckpot, Jeroen; Digilio, Maria Cristina; Marino, Bruno; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Philip, Nicole; Simon, Tony J; Roberts, Amy E; Piotrowicz, Małgorzata; Bearden, Carrie E; Eliez, Stephan; Gothelf, Doron; Coleman, Karlene; Kates, Wendy R; Devoto, Marcella; Zackai, Elaine; Heine-Suñer, Damian; Shaikh, Tamim H; Bassett, Anne S; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth; Morrow, Bernice E; Emanuel, Beverly S

    2015-05-07

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS; velocardiofacial/DiGeorge syndrome; VCFS/DGS) is the most common microdeletion syndrome and the phenotypic presentation is highly variable. Approximately 65% of individuals with 22q11DS have a congenital heart defect (CHD), mostly of the conotruncal type, and/or an aortic arch defect. The etiology of this phenotypic variability is not currently known. We hypothesized that copy-number variants (CNVs) outside the 22q11.2 deleted region might increase the risk of being born with a CHD in this sensitized population. Genotyping with Affymetrix SNP Array 6.0 was performed on two groups of subjects with 22q11DS separated by time of ascertainment and processing. CNV analysis was completed on a total of 949 subjects (cohort 1, n = 562; cohort 2, n = 387), 603 with CHDs (cohort 1, n = 363; cohort 2, n = 240) and 346 with normal cardiac anatomy (cohort 1, n = 199; cohort 2, n = 147). Our analysis revealed that a duplication of SLC2A3 was the most frequent CNV identified in the first cohort. It was present in 18 subjects with CHDs and 1 subject without (p = 3.12 × 10(-3), two-tailed Fisher's exact test). In the second cohort, the SLC2A3 duplication was also significantly enriched in subjects with CHDs (p = 3.30 × 10(-2), two-tailed Fisher's exact test). The SLC2A3 duplication was the most frequent CNV detected and the only significant finding in our combined analysis (p = 2.68 × 10(-4), two-tailed Fisher's exact test), indicating that the SLC2A3 duplication might serve as a genetic modifier of CHDs and/or aortic arch anomalies in individuals with 22q11DS. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Purification and characterization of the glycoprotein hormone. cap alpha. -subunit-like material secreted by HeLa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, G.S.; Rimerman, R.A.

    1988-08-23

    The protein secreted by HeLa cells that cross-reacts with antiserum developed against the ..cap alpha..-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has been purified approximately 30,000-fold from concentrated culture medium by organic solvent fractionation followed by ion exchange, gel filtration, and lectin affinity chromatography. The final preparation had a specific activity (by RIA) of 6.8 x 10/sup 5/ ng of ..cap alpha../mg of protein and appeared homogeneous by electrophoresis on reducing/denaturing polyacrylamide gels (SDS-PAGE). Amino acid analysis indicated that HeLa-..cap alpha.. had a composition very similar to that of the urinary hCG ..cap alpha..-subunit. However, comparison of hCG-..cap alpha.. and HeLa-..capmore » alpha.. demonstrated that the tumor-associated subunit was not identical with its normal counterpart. The purified tumor protein had an apparent molecular weight greater than that of the urinary ..cap alpha..-subunit when analyzed by SDS-PAGE, and this difference was even greater when a partially purified preparation was examined by an immunoblot technique (Western). Isoelectric focusing of the HeLa and hCG subunits demonstrated that the tumor protein had a lower pI. Immunoprecipitation and electrophoresis of ..cap alpha..-subunit from HeLa cultures labeled with (/sup 3/H)fucose indicated that the tumor subunit was fucosylated, whereas analysis of hCG-..cap alpha.. hydrosylates by HPLC confirmed previous reports that the placental subunit does not contain fucose. The results indicate that, regardless of whether or not a single ..cap alpha..-subunit gene is being expressed in both normal and neoplastic tissues, posttranslational modifications lead to a highly altered subunit in the tumor. The differences observed may be useful in diagnosing neoplastic vs hyperplastic conditions and may lend insight into the mechanism of ectopic hormone production by tumors.« less

  3. Overexpressing wild-type γ2 subunits rescued the seizure phenotype in Gabrg2+/Q390X Dravet syndrome mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuan; Zhou, Chengwen; Tian, Mengnan; Kang, Jing-Qiong; Shen, Wangzhen; Verdier, Kelienne; Pimenta, Aurea; MacDonald, Robert L

    2017-08-01

    The mutant γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA A ) receptor γ2(Q390X) subunit (Q351X in the mature peptide) has been associated with the epileptic encephalopathy, Dravet syndrome, and the epilepsy syndrome genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+). The mutation generates a premature stop codon that results in translation of a stable truncated and misfolded γ2 subunit that accumulates in neurons, forms intracellular aggregates, disrupts incorporation of γ2 subunits into GABA A receptors, and affects trafficking of partnering α and β subunits. Heterozygous Gabrg2 +/Q390X knock-in (KI) mice had reduced cortical inhibition, spike wave discharges on electroencephalography (EEG), a lower seizure threshold to the convulsant drug pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), and spontaneous generalized tonic-clonic seizures. In this proof-of-principal study, we attempted to rescue these deficits in KI mice using a γ2 subunit gene (GABRG2) replacement therapy. We introduced the GABRG2 allele by crossing Gabrg2 +/Q390X KI mice with bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic mice overexpressing HA (hemagglutinin)-tagged human γ2 HA subunits, and compared GABA A receptor subunit expression by Western blot and immunohistochemical staining, seizure threshold by monitoring mouse behavior after PTZ-injection, and thalamocortical inhibition and network oscillation by slice recording. Compared to KI mice, adult mice carrying both mutant allele and transgene had increased wild-type γ2 and partnering α1 and β2/3 subunits, increased miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current (mIPSC) amplitudes recorded from layer VI cortical neurons, reduced thalamocortical network oscillations, and higher PTZ seizure threshold. Based on these results we suggest that seizures in a genetic epilepsy syndrome caused by epilepsy mutant γ2(Q390X) subunits with dominant negative effects could be rescued potentially by overexpression of wild-type γ2 subunits. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International

  4. Surface plasmon resonance-based molecular detection of Hb S [beta6(A3)Glu-->Val, GAG-->GTG] at the gene level.

    PubMed

    Atalay, Erol O; Ustel, Emre; Yildiz, Sanem; Atalay, Ayfer

    2006-01-01

    The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) approach, being a relatively novel biophysical method, is used to detect many different targets by biomolecular interaction. The SPR system uses optical and evanescent wave phenomenon. This approach does not need any labels, such as enzymes or isotopes, and the monitored interactions are in real time. In DNA-DNA interaction, the SPR approach is Tm-independent. Here we report our preliminary results for the molecular detection of the Hb S (GAG -->GTG) mutation at codon 6 of the human beta-globin gene. Our preliminary results show that the SPR approach could be applied as an inexpensive and fast routine test system for the molecular diagnosis of abnormal hemoglobins (Hbs), especially in premarital screening programs.

  5. The rs9939609 gene variant in FTO modified the metabolic response of weight loss after a 3-month intervention with a hypocaloric diet.

    PubMed

    de Luis, Daniel Antonio; Aller, Rocío; Conde, Rosa; Izaola, Olatz; Gonzalez Sagrado, Manuel; Castrodeza Sanz, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Common polymorphisms in the fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) have been linked to obesity in some populations. Nevertheless, the role of FTO variants on body weight response after dietary intervention remains equivocal. We decided to analyze the effects of the rs9939609 FTO gene polymorphism on body weight changes and metabolic parameters after 3 months of a hypocaloric diet. Before and after 3 months on a low-fat hypocaloric diet, a white population of 106 subjects with obesity was analyzed. Of the study subjects, 35 (33%) had the genotype TT and 71 (67%) had the next genotypes; TA (46 study subjects, 43.4%) or AA (25 study subjects, 23.6%). After dietary treatment and in TT group, weight, waist circumference, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment decreases were less than subjects carrying the A allele [-3.1 (3.6) vs -2.4 (4.1) kg: P < 0.05], waist circumference [-5.4 (6.4) vs -2.6 (4.8) cm; P < 0.05], total cholesterol [-12.3 (35.3) vs -6.4 (4.7) mg/dL; P < 0.05], LDL-cholesterol [-22.3 (30.5) vs -10.7 (30.5) mg/dL; P < 0.05], insulin [-1.89 (5.5) vs +0.94 (8.2) mUI/L; P < 0.05], and homeostasis model assessment [-0.46 (1.11) vs -0.01 (2.4); P < 0.05]. Our study confirmed a higher weight loss in A carriers of FTO rs9939609 polymorphism than in TT genotype study subjects.

  6. Diversity in genomic organisation, developmental regulation and distribution of the murine PR72/B" subunits of protein phosphatase 2A

    PubMed Central

    Zwaenepoel, Karen; Louis, Justin V; Goris, Jozef; Janssens, Veerle

    2008-01-01

    Background Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a serine/threonine-specific phosphatase displaying vital functions in growth and development through its role in various signalling pathways. PP2A holoenzymes comprise a core dimer composed of a catalytic C and a structural A subunit, which can associate with a variable B-type subunit. The importance of the B-type subunits for PP2A regulation cannot be overestimated as they determine holoenzyme localisation, activity and substrate specificity. Three B-type subunit families have been identified: PR55/B, PR61/B' and PR72/B", of which the latter is currently the least characterised. Results We deduced the sequences and genomic organisation of the different murine PR72/B" isoforms: three genes encode nine isoforms, five of which are abundantly expressed and give rise to genuine PP2A subunits. Thereby, one novel subunit was identified. Using Northern blotting, we examined the tissue-specific and developmental expression of these subunits. All subunits are highly expressed in heart, suggesting an important cardiac function. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a striated expression pattern of PR72 and PR130 in heart and skeletal muscle, but not in bladder smooth muscle. The subcellular localisation and cell cycle regulatory ability of several PR72/B" isoforms were determined, demonstrating differences as well as similarities. Conclusion In contrast to PR55/B and PR61/B', the PR72/B" family seems evolutionary more divergent, as only two of the murine genes have a human orthologue. We have integrated these results in a more consistent nomenclature of both human and murine PR72/B" genes and their transcripts/proteins. Our results provide a platform for the future generation of PR72/B" knockout mice. PMID:18715506

  7. Suppression of 19S proteasome subunits marks emergence of an altered cell state in diverse cancers.

    PubMed

    Tsvetkov, Peter; Sokol, Ethan; Jin, Dexter; Brune, Zarina; Thiru, Prathapan; Ghandi, Mahmoud; Garraway, Levi A; Gupta, Piyush B; Santagata, Sandro; Whitesell, Luke; Lindquist, Susan

    2017-01-10

    The use of proteasome inhibitors to target cancer's dependence on altered protein homeostasis has been greatly limited by intrinsic and acquired resistance. Analyzing data from thousands of cancer lines and tumors, we find that those with suppressed expression of one or more 19S proteasome subunits show intrinsic proteasome inhibitor resistance. Moreover, such proteasome subunit suppression is associated with poor outcome in myeloma patients, where proteasome inhibitors are a mainstay of treatment. Beyond conferring resistance to proteasome inhibitors, proteasome subunit suppression also serves as a sentinel of a more global remodeling of the transcriptome. This remodeling produces a distinct gene signature and new vulnerabilities to the proapoptotic drug, ABT-263. This frequent, naturally arising imbalance in 19S regulatory complex composition is achieved through a variety of mechanisms, including DNA methylation, and marks the emergence of a heritably altered and therapeutically relevant state in diverse cancers.

  8. Suppression of 19S proteasome subunits marks emergence of an altered cell state in diverse cancers

    PubMed Central

    Tsvetkov, Peter; Sokol, Ethan; Jin, Dexter; Brune, Zarina; Thiru, Prathapan; Ghandi, Mahmoud; Garraway, Levi A.; Gupta, Piyush B.; Santagata, Sandro; Whitesell, Luke; Lindquist, Susan

    2017-01-01

    The use of proteasome inhibitors to target cancer’s dependence on altered protein homeostasis has been greatly limited by intrinsic and acquired resistance. Analyzing data from thousands of cancer lines and tumors, we find that those with suppressed expression of one or more 19S proteasome subunits show intrinsic proteasome inhibitor resistance. Moreover, such proteasome subunit suppression is associated with poor outcome in myeloma patients, where proteasome inhibitors are a mainstay of treatment. Beyond conferring resistance to proteasome inhibitors, proteasome subunit suppression also serves as a sentinel of a more global remodeling of the transcriptome. This remodeling produces a distinct gene signature and new vulnerabilities to the proapoptotic drug, ABT-263. This frequent, naturally arising imbalance in 19S regulatory complex composition is achieved through a variety of mechanisms, including DNA methylation, and marks the emergence of a heritably altered and therapeutically relevant state in diverse cancers. PMID:28028240

  9. Effect of Cavβ Subunits on Structural Organization of Cav1.2 Calcium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Duong, Son Q.; Thomas, Sam; Harry, Jo Beth; Patel, Chirag; Lao, Qi Zong; Soldatov, Nikolai M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Voltage-gated Cav1.2 calcium channels play a crucial role in Ca2+ signaling. The pore-forming α1C subunit is regulated by accessory Cavβ subunits, cytoplasmic proteins of various size encoded by four different genes (Cavβ1 - β4) and expressed in a tissue-specific manner. Methods and Results Here we investigated the effect of three major Cavβ types, β1b, β2d and β3, on the structure of Cav1.2 in the plasma membrane of live cells. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy showed that the tendency of Cav1.2 to form clusters depends on the type of the Cavβ subunit present. The highest density of Cav1.2 clusters in the plasma membrane and the smallest cluster size were observed with neuronal/cardiac β1b present. Cav1.2 channels containing β3, the predominant Cavβ subunit of vascular smooth muscle cells, were organized in a significantly smaller number of larger clusters. The inter- and intramolecular distances between α1C and Cavβ in the plasma membrane of live cells were measured by three-color FRET microscopy. The results confirm that the proximity of Cav1.2 channels in the plasma membrane depends on the Cavβ type. The presence of different Cavβ subunits does not result in significant differences in the intramolecular distance between the termini of α1C, but significantly affects the distance between the termini of neighbor α1C subunits, which varies from 67 Å with β1b to 79 Å with β3. Conclusions Thus, our results show that the structural organization of Cav1.2 channels in the plasma membrane depends on the type of Cavβ subunits present. PMID:19492014

  10. High affinity kainate receptor subunits are necessary for ionotropic but not metabotropic signaling

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Herman B.; Catches, Justin S.; Petralia, Ronald S.; Copits, Bryan A.; Xu, Jian; Russell, Theron A.; Swanson, Geoffrey T.; Contractor, Anis

    2009-01-01

    Summary Kainate receptors are atypical members of the glutamate receptor family which are able to signal through both ionotropic and metabotropic pathways. Of the five individual kainate receptor subunits the high-affinity subunits, GluK4 (KA1) and GluK5 (KA2), are unique in that they do not form functional homomeric receptors in recombinant expression systems, but combine with the primary subunits GluK1-3 (GluR5-7) to form heteromeric assemblies. Here we generated a GluK4 mutant mouse by disrupting the Grik4 gene locus. We found that loss of the GluK4 subunit leads to a significant reduction in synaptic kainate receptor currents. Moreover, ablation of both high-affinity subunits in GluK4/GluK5 double knockout mice leads to a complete loss of pre- and postsynaptic ionotropic function of synaptic kainate receptors. The principal subunits remain at the synaptic plasma membrane, but are distributed away from postsynaptic densities and presynaptic active zones. There is also an alteration in the properties of the remaining kainate receptors, as kainic acid application fails to elicit responses in GluK4/GluK5 knockout neurons. Despite the lack of detectable ionotropic synaptic receptors, the kainate receptor-mediated inhibition of the slow afterhyperpolarization current (IsAHP), which is dependent on metabotropic pathways, was intact in GluK4/GluK5 knockout mice. These results uncover a previously unknown critical role for the high-affinity kainate receptor subunits as obligatory components of ionotropic kainate receptor function, and further, demonstrate that kainate receptor participation in metabotropic signaling pathways does not require their classic role as ion channels. PMID:19778510

  11. The gamma subunit of transducin is farnesylated.

    PubMed Central

    Lai, R K; Perez-Sala, D; Cañada, F J; Rando, R R

    1990-01-01

    Protein prenylation with farnesyl or geranylgeranyl moieties is an important posttranslational modification that affects the activity of such diverse proteins as the nuclear lamins, the yeast mating factor mata, and the ras oncogene products. In this article, we show that whole retinal cultures incorporate radioactive mevalonic acid into proteins of 23-26 kDa and one of 8 kDa. The former proteins are probably the "small" guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins) and the 8-kDa protein is the gamma subunit of the well-studied retinal heterotrimeric G protein (transducin). After deprenylating purified transducin and its subunits with Raney nickel or methyl iodide/base, the adducted prenyl group can be identified as an all-trans-farnesyl moiety covalently linked to a cysteine residue. Thus far, prenylation reactions have been found to occur at cysteine in a carboxyl-terminal consensus CAAX sequence, where C is the cysteine, A is an aliphatic amino acid, and X is undefined. Both the alpha and gamma subunits of transducin have this consensus sequence, but only the gamma subunit is prenylated. Therefore, the CAAX motif is not necessary and sufficient to direct prenylation. Finally, since transducin is the best understood G protein, both structurally and mechanistically, the discovery that it is farnesylated should allow for a quantitative understanding of this post-translational modification. Images PMID:2217200

  12. The depletion of F1 subunit ε in yeast leads to an uncoupled respiratory phenotype that is rescued by mutations in the proton-translocating subunits of F0

    PubMed Central

    Tetaud, Emmanuel; Godard, François; Giraud, Marie-France; Ackerman, Sharon H.; di Rago, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    The central stalk of the ATP synthase is an elongated hetero-oligomeric structure providing a physical connection between the catalytic sites in F1 and the proton translocation channel in F0 for energy transduction between the two subdomains. The shape of the central stalk and relevance to energy coupling are essentially the same in ATP synthases from all forms of life, yet the protein composition of this domain changed during evolution of the mitochondrial enzyme from a two- to a three-subunit structure (γ, δ, ε). Whereas the mitochondrial γ- and δ-subunits are homologues of the bacterial central stalk proteins, the deliberate addition of subunit ε is poorly understood. Here we report that down-regulation of the gene (ATP15) encoding the ε-subunit rapidly leads to lethal F0-mediated proton leaks through the membrane because of the loss of stability of the ATP synthase. The ε-subunit is thus essential for oxidative phosphorylation. Moreover, mutations in F0 subunits a and c, which slow the proton translocation rate, are identified that prevent ε-deficient ATP synthases from dissipating the electrochemical potential. Cumulatively our data lead us to propose that the ε-subunit evolved to permit operation of the central stalk under the torque imposed at the normal speed of proton movement through mitochondrial F0. PMID:24451261

  13. RNA editing of the GABAA receptor α3 subunit alters the functional properties of recombinant receptors

    PubMed Central

    Nimmich, Mitchell L.; Heidelberg, Laura S.; Fisher, Janet L.

    2009-01-01

    RNA editing provides a post-transcriptional mechanism to increase structural heterogeneity of gene products. Recently, the α3 subunit of the GABAA receptors has been shown to undergo RNA editing. As a result, a highly conserved isoleucine residue in the third transmembrane domain is replaced with a methionine. To determine the effect of this structural change on receptor function, we compared the GABA sensitivity, pharmacological properties and macroscopic kinetics of recombinant receptors containing either the edited or unedited forms of the α3 subunit along with β3 and γ2L. Editing substantially altered the GABA sensitivity and deactivation rate of the receptors, with the unedited form showing a lower GABA EC50 and slower decay. Comparable effects were observed with a mutation at the homologous location in the α1 subunit, suggesting a common role for this site in regulation of channel gating. Except for the response to GABA, the pharmacological properties of the receptor were unaffected by editing, with similar enhancement by a variety of modulators. Since RNA editing of the α3 subunit increases through development, our findings suggest that GABAergic neurotransmission may be more effective early in development, with greater GABA sensitivity and slower decay rates conferred by the unedited α3 subunit. PMID:19367790

  14. Functional Analysis of a Wheat AGPase Plastidial Small Subunit with a Truncated Transit Peptide.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Gao, Tian; Xu, Mengjun; Dong, Jie; Li, Hanxiao; Wang, Pengfei; Li, Gezi; Guo, Tiancai; Kang, Guozhang; Wang, Yonghua

    2017-03-01

    ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), the key enzyme in starch synthesis, consists of two small subunits and two large subunits with cytosolic and plastidial isoforms. In our previous study, a cDNA sequence encoding the plastidial small subunit (TaAGPS1b) of AGPase in grains of bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) was isolated and the protein subunit encoded by this gene was characterized as a truncated transit peptide (about 50% shorter than those of other plant AGPS1bs). In the present study, TaAGPS1b was fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP) in rice protoplast cells, and confocal fluorescence microscopy observations revealed that like other AGPS1b containing the normal transit peptide, TaAGPS1b-GFP was localized in chloroplasts. TaAGPS1b was further overexpressed in a Chinese bread wheat cultivar, and the transgenic wheat lines exhibited a significant increase in endosperm AGPase activities, starch contents, and grain weights. These suggested that TaAGPS1b subunit was targeted into plastids by its truncated transit peptide and it could play an important role in starch synthesis in bread wheat grains.

  15. 5-Fluoroindole Resistance Identifies Tryptophan Synthase Beta Subunit Mutants in Arabidopsis Thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Barczak, A. J.; Zhao, J.; Pruitt, K. D.; Last, R. L.

    1995-01-01

    A study of the biochemical genetics of the Arabidopsis thaliana tryptophan synthase beta subunit was initiated by characterization of mutants resistant to the inhibitor 5-fluoroindole. Thirteen recessive mutations were recovered that are allelic to trp2-1, a mutation in the more highly expressed of duplicate tryptophan synthase beta subunit genes (TSB1). Ten of these mutations (trp2-2 through trp2-11) cause a tryptophan requirement (auxotrophs), whereas three (trp2-100 through trp2-102) remain tryptophan prototrophs. The mutations cause a variety of changes in tryptophan synthase beta expression. For example, two mutations (trp2-5 and trp2-8) cause dramatically reduced accumulation of TSB mRNA and immunologically detectable protein, whereas trp2-10 is associated with increased mRNA and protein. A correlation exists between the quantity of mutant beta and wild-type alpha subunit levels in the trp2 mutant plants, suggesting that the synthesis of these proteins is coordinated or that the quantity or structure of the beta subunit influences the stability of the alpha protein. The level of immunologically detectable anthranilate synthase alpha subunit protein is increased in the trp2 mutants, suggesting the possibility of regulation of anthranilate synthase levels in response to tryptophan limitation. PMID:7635295

  16. A 3' untranslated region polymorphism rs2304277 in the DNA repair pathway gene OGG1 is a novel risk modulator for urothelial bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Tayyaba; Nawaz, Saira; Noreen, Rabia; Bangash, Kashif Sardar; Rauf, Abdur; Younis, Muhammad; Anwar, Khursheed; Khawaja, Muhammad Athar; Azam, Maleeha; Qureshi, Abid Ali; Akhter, Saeed; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Qamar, Raheel; Ali, Syeda Hafiza Benish

    2018-03-01

    Altered DNA repair capacity may affect an individual's susceptibility to cancers due to compromised genomic integrity. This study was designed to elucidate the association of selected polymorphisms in DNA repair genes with urothelial bladder carcinoma (UBC). OGG1 rs1052133 and rs2304277, XRCC1 rs1799782 and rs25487, XRCC3 rs861539, XPC rs2228001, and XPD rs13181 were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) in 200 UBC cases and 200 controls. We found association of OGG1 rs2304277 [odds ratio (OR) GG = 3.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.79-7.06] and XPC rs2228001 (OR AC = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.43-3.94) with UBC. In stratified analysis with respect to smoking status, OGG1 rs2304277 and XPC rs2228001 exhibited increased risk in smokers [(rs2304277 OR GG = 4.96, 95% CI = 1.51-16.30) (rs2228001 OR AC = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.02-4.72)] as well as nonsmokers [(rs2304277 OR GG = 2.95, 95% CI = 1.26-6.90) (rs2228001 OR AC = 2.57, 95% CI = 1.31-5.04)]. These polymorphisms were also associated with both low-grade [(rs2304277 OR GG = 3.73, 95% CI = 1.72-8.09) (rs2228001 OR AC = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.21-3.92)] and high-grade tumors [(rs2304277 OR GG = 3.45, 95% CI = 1.52-7.80) (rs2228001 OR AC = 2.81, 95% CI = 1.48-5.33)] as well as with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer [(rs2304277 OR GG = 4.03, 95% CI = 1.87-8.67) (rs2228001 OR AC = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.20-3.81)] and muscle-invasive bladder cancer [(rs2304277 OR GG = 3.06, 95%CI = 1.31-7.13) (rs2228001 OR AC = 2.95, 95%CI = 1.51-5.75)]. This is the first study on DNA repair gene polymorphisms and UBC in the Pakistani population. It identifies OGG1 rs2304277 and replicates XPC rs2228001 as significant modulators of UBC susceptibility. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.

  17. Development of haplotype-specific molecular markers for the low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GSs) are one of the major components of gluten and their allelic variation has been widely associated with numerous wheat end-use quality parameters. These proteins are encoded by multigene families located at the orthologous Glu-3 loci (Glu-A3, Glu-B3 and...

  18. GmCYP82A3, a Soybean Cytochrome P450 Family Gene Involved in the Jasmonic Acid and Ethylene Signaling Pathway, Enhances Plant Resistance to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Qiang; Cui, Xiaoxia; Lin, Shuai; Gan, Shuping; Xing, Han; Dou, Daolong

    2016-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) represent a large and important enzyme superfamily in plants. They catalyze numerous monooxygenation/hydroxylation reactions in biochemical pathways, P450s are involved in a variety of metabolic pathways and participate in the homeostasis of phytohormones. The CYP82 family genes specifically reside in dicots and are usually induced by distinct environmental stresses. However, their functions are largely unknown, especially in soybean (Glycine max L.). Here, we report the function of GmCYP82A3, a gene from soybean CYP82 family. Its expression was induced by Phytophthora sojae infection, salinity and drought stresses, and treatment with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) or ethephon (ETH). Its expression levels were consistently high in resistant cultivars. Transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants overexpressing GmCYP82A3 exhibited strong resistance to Botrytis cinerea and Phytophthora parasitica, and enhanced tolerance to salinity and drought stresses. Furthermore, transgenic plants were less sensitive to jasmonic acid (JA), and the enhanced resistance was accompanied with increased expression of the JA/ET signaling pathway-related genes. PMID:27588421

  19. Effect of rs6923761 gene variant of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor on metabolic response and weight loss after a 3-month intervention with a hypocaloric diet.

    PubMed

    de Luis, Daniel Antonio; Aller, Rocío; Izaola, Olatz; Lopez, J J; Gomez, E; Torres, B; Soto, G Diaz

    2014-10-01

    Studies of the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1 R) have been directed at identifying polymorphisms in the GLP-1 R gene that may be a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of obesity and cardiovascular risk factors. Nevertheless, the role of GLP-1 R variants on body weight response after dietary intervention has not been evaluated. We decided to analyze the effects of the rs6923761 GLP-1 R polymorphism on body weight changes and metabolic parameters after 3 months of a hypocaloric diet. A sample of 91 obese subjects was analyzed in a prospective way. The hypocaloric diet had 1,520 calories per day; 52 % of carbohydrates, 25 % of lipids and 23 % of proteins. Distribution of fats was: 50.7 % of monounsaturated fats, 38.5 % of saturated fats and 11.8 % of polyunsaturated fats. In both genotype groups (GG vs. GA + AA), weight, body mass index, fat mass, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, leptin, insulin and HOMA levels decreased. No statistical differences were detected in these changes between genotypes. In wild group (GG genotype) (pretreatment and posttreatment), BMI, weight, fat mass, waist circumference and triglyceride levels were higher than (GA + AA) group. Our data showed better anthropometric parameters and triglyceride levels in obese subjects with the mutant allele (A) of rs6923761 GLP-1R polymorphism. A lack of association of this polymorphism with weight loss or biochemical changes after a hypocaloric diet was observed.

  20. Hb S [β6(A3)Glu→Val, GAG>GTG] and β-globin gene cluster haplotype distribution in Mauritania.

    PubMed

    Veten, Fatimetou M; Abdelhamid, Isselmou O; Meiloud, Ghlana M; Ghaber, Sidi M; Salem, Mohamed L; Abbes, Salem; Houmeida, Ahmed O

    2012-01-01

    Of 1050 Mauritanian blood donors screened from the two main racial groups, i.e., the Moors and Black Africans, 60 were found to carry Hb S [β6(A3)Glu→Val, GAG>GTG], giving a global frequency of 5.71%. The prevalence observed in the Black African Mauritanians (10.69%) is almost five times that found in the Moor group (2.25%). Four of the five main β(S) haplotypes were detected in this study: Senegal (77.8%), Benin (8.8%), Arab-Indian (5.5%) and Bantu (4.4%). These data showed that Hb S is a serious public health problem in Mauritania. They also confirm the ethnic heterogeneity of the Mauritanian population.

  1. Succinate dehydrogenase subunit D and succinate dehydrogenase subunit B mutation analysis in canine phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Holt, D E; Henthorn, P; Howell, V M; Robinson, B G; Benn, D E

    2014-07-01

    Phaeochromocytomas (PCs) are tumours of the adrenal medulla chromaffin cells. Paragangliomas (PGLs) arise in sympathetic ganglia (previously called extra-adrenal PCs) or in non-chromaffin parasympathetic ganglia cells that are usually non-secretory. Parenchymal cells from these tumours have a common embryological origin from neural crest ectoderm. Several case series of canine PCs and PGLs have been published and a link between the increased incidence of chemoreceptor neoplasia in brachycephalic dog breeds and chronic hypoxia has been postulated. A similar link to hypoxia in man led to the identification of germline heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding succinate dehydrogenase subunit D (SDHD) and subsequently SDHA, SDHB and SDHC in similar tumours. We investigated canine PCs (n = 6) and PGLs (n = 2) for SDHD and SDHB mutations and in one PGL found a somatic SDHD mutation c.365A>G (p.Lys122Arg) in exon 4, which was not present in normal tissue from this brachycephalic dog. Two PCs were heterozygous for both c.365A>G (p.Lys122Arg) mutation and an exon 3 silent variant c.291G>A. We also identified the heterozygous SDHB exon 2 mutation c.113G>A (p.Arg38Gln) in a PC. These results illustrate that genetic mutations may underlie tumourigenesis in canine PCs and PGLs. The spontaneous nature of these canine diseases and possible association of PGLs with hypoxia in brachycephalic breeds may make them an attractive model for studying the corresponding human tumours. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. AP-1 subunits: quarrel and harmony among siblings.

    PubMed

    Hess, Jochen; Angel, Peter; Schorpp-Kistner, Marina

    2004-12-01

    The AP-1 transcription factor is mainly composed of Jun, Fos and ATF protein dimers. It mediates gene regulation in response to a plethora of physiological and pathological stimuli, including cytokines, growth factors, stress signals, bacterial and viral infections, as well as oncogenic stimuli. Studies in genetically modified mice and cells have highlighted a crucial role for AP-1 in a variety of cellular events involved in normal development or neoplastic transformation causing cancer. However, emerging evidence indicates that the contribution of AP-1 to determination of cell fates critically depends on the relative abundance of AP-1 subunits, the composition of AP-1 dimers, the quality of stimulus, the cell type and the cellular environment. Therefore, AP-1-mediated regulation of processes such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and transformation should be considered within the context of a complex dynamic network of signalling pathways and other nuclear factors that respond simultaneously.

  3. Immunodominant role of CCHA subunit of Concholepas hemocyanin is associated with unique biochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Becker, María Inés; Fuentes, Alejandra; Del Campo, Miguel; Manubens, Augusto; Nova, Esteban; Oliva, Harold; Faunes, Fernando; Valenzuela, María Antonieta; Campos-Vallette, Marcelo; Aliaga, Alvaro; Ferreira, Jorge; De Ioannes, Alfredo E; De Ioannes, Pablo; Moltedo, Bruno

    2009-03-01

    Hemocyanin, the oxygen transporter metallo-glycoprotein from mollusks, shows strong relationship between its notable structural features and intrinsic immunomodulatory effects. Here we investigated the individual contribution of CCHA and CCHB subunits from Concholepas hemocyanin (CCH) to in vivo humoral immune response and their pre-clinical evaluation as immunotherapeutic agent in a mice bladder cancer model, in relation to their biochemical properties. To this end, subunits were purified and well characterized. Homogeneous subunits were obtained by anionic exchange chromatography, and its purity assessed by electrophoretic and immunochemical methods. While each CCH subunit contains eight functional units showing partial cross reaction, the vibrational spectral analysis showed several spectral differences, suggesting structural differences between them. In addition, we demonstrated differences in the carbohydrate content: CCHA had a 3.6% w/w sugar with both N- and O-linked moieties. In turn, CCHB had a 2.5% w/w sugar with N-linked, while O-linked moieties were nearly absent. Considering these differences, it was not possible to predict a priori whether the immunogenic and immunotherapeutic properties of subunits might be similar. Surprisingly, both subunits by itself induced a humoral response, and showed an antitumor effect in the bladder carcinoma cell line MBT-2. However, when immunologic parameters were analyzed, CCHA showed better efficiency than CCHB. No allergic reactions or any toxic effects were observed in mice treated with CCHA, sustaining its potential therapeutic use. Our study supports that CCHA subunit accounts for the most important features involved in the immunogenicity of CCH, such as better hydrophilicity and higher content of carbohydrates.

  4. Cellular Localization of Wheat High Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunits in Transgenic Rice Grain

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Yeong-Min; Cho, Kyoungwon; Lee, Hye-Jung; Lim, Sun-Hyung; Kim, Jin Sun; Kim, Young-Mi; Lee, Jong-Yeol

    2017-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a primary global food cereal. However, when compared to wheat, rice has poor food processing qualities. Dough that is made from rice flour has low viscoelasticity because rice seed lacks storage proteins that are comparable to gluten protein from wheat. Thus, current research efforts aim to improve rice flour processing qualities through the transgenic expression of viscoelastic proteins in rice seeds. In this study, we characterized the transgenic expression of wheat glutenin subunits in rice seeds. The two genes 1Dx5_KK and 1Dy10_JK, which both encode wheat high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits that confer high dough elasticity, were cloned from Korean wheat cultivars KeumKang and JoKyung, respectively. These genes were inserted into binary vectors under the control of the rice endosperm-specific Glu-B1 promoter and were expressed in the high-amylose Korean rice cultivar Koami (Oryza sativa L.). Individual expression of both glutenin subunits was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and immunoblot analyses performed using T3 generation of transgenic rice seeds. The subcellular localization of 1Dx5_KK and 1Dy10_JK in the rice seed endosperm was confirmed by immunofluorescence analysis, indicating that the wheat glutenin subunits accumulate in protein body-II and novel protein body types in the rice seed. These results contribute to our understanding of engineered seed storage proteins in rice. PMID:29156580

  5. Mutant POLG2 Disrupts DNA Polymerase γ Subunits and Causes Progressive External Ophthalmoplegia

    PubMed Central

    Longley, Matthew J.; Clark, Susanna; Yu Wai Man, Cynthia; Hudson, Gavin; Durham, Steve E.; Taylor, Robert W.; Nightingale, Simon; Turnbull, Douglass M.; Copeland, William C.; Chinnery, Patrick F.

    2006-01-01

    DNA polymerase γ (pol γ) is required to maintain the genetic integrity of the 16,569-bp human mitochondrial genome (mtDNA). Mutation of the nuclear gene for the catalytic subunit of pol γ (POLG) has been linked to a wide range of mitochondrial diseases involving mutation, deletion, and depletion of mtDNA. We describe a heterozygous dominant mutation (c.1352G→A/p.G451E) in POLG2, the gene encoding the p55 accessory subunit of pol γ, that causes progressive external ophthalmoplegia with multiple mtDNA deletions and cytochrome c oxidase (COX)–deficient muscle fibers. Biochemical characterization of purified, recombinant G451E-substituted p55 protein in vitro revealed incomplete stimulation of the catalytic subunit due to compromised subunit interaction. Although G451E p55 retains a wild-type ability to bind DNA, it fails to enhance the DNA-binding strength of the p140-p55 complex. In vivo, the disease most likely arises through haplotype insufficiency or heterodimerization of the mutated and wild-type proteins, which promote mtDNA deletions by stalling the DNA replication fork. The progressive accumulation of mtDNA deletions causes COX deficiency in muscle fibers and results in the clinical phenotype. PMID:16685652

  6. The δ Subunit of RNA Polymerase Guides Promoter Selectivity and Virulence in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Andy; Ibarra, J. Antonio; Paoletti, Jessica; Carroll, Ronan K.

    2014-01-01

    In Gram-positive bacteria, and particularly the Firmicutes, the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP) complex contains an additional subunit, termed the δ factor, or RpoE. This enigmatic protein has been studied for more than 30 years for various organisms, but its function is still not well understood. In this study, we investigated its role in the major human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. We showed conservation of important structural regions of RpoE in S. aureus and other species and demonstrated binding to core RNAP that is mediated by the β and/or β′ subunits. To identify the impact of the δ subunit on transcription, we performed transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis and observed 191 differentially expressed genes in the rpoE mutant. Ontological analysis revealed, quite strikingly, that many of the downregulated genes were known virulence factors, while several mobile genetic elements (SaPI5 and prophage ϕSA3usa) were strongly upregulated. Phenotypically, the rpoE mutant had decreased accumulation and/or activity of a number of key virulence factors, including alpha toxin, secreted proteases, and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). We further observed significantly decreased survival of the mutant in whole human blood, increased phagocytosis by human leukocytes, and impaired virulence in a murine model of infection. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the δ subunit of RNAP is a critical component of the S. aureus transcription machinery and plays an important role during infection. PMID:24491578

  7. The δ subunit of RNA polymerase guides promoter selectivity and virulence in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Andy; Ibarra, J Antonio; Paoletti, Jessica; Carroll, Ronan K; Shaw, Lindsey N

    2014-04-01

    In Gram-positive bacteria, and particularly the Firmicutes, the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP) complex contains an additional subunit, termed the δ factor, or RpoE. This enigmatic protein has been studied for more than 30 years for various organisms, but its function is still not well understood. In this study, we investigated its role in the major human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. We showed conservation of important structural regions of RpoE in S. aureus and other species and demonstrated binding to core RNAP that is mediated by the β and/or β' subunits. To identify the impact of the δ subunit on transcription, we performed transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis and observed 191 differentially expressed genes in the rpoE mutant. Ontological analysis revealed, quite strikingly, that many of the downregulated genes were known virulence factors, while several mobile genetic elements (SaPI5 and prophage SA3usa) were strongly upregulated. Phenotypically, the rpoE mutant had decreased accumulation and/or activity of a number of key virulence factors, including alpha toxin, secreted proteases, and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). We further observed significantly decreased survival of the mutant in whole human blood, increased phagocytosis by human leukocytes, and impaired virulence in a murine model of infection. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the δ subunit of RNAP is a critical component of the S. aureus transcription machinery and plays an important role during infection.

  8. Recent Advances in Subunit Vaccine Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Vartak, Abhishek; Sucheck, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    The lower immunogenicity of synthetic subunit antigens, compared to live attenuated vaccines, is being addressed with improved vaccine carriers. Recent reports indicate that the physio-chemical properties of these carriers can be altered to achieve optimal antigen presentation, endosomal escape, particle bio-distribution, and cellular trafficking. The carriers can be modified with various antigens and ligands for dendritic cells targeting. They can also be modified with adjuvants, either covalently or entrapped in the matrix, to improve cellular and humoral immune responses against the antigen. As a result, these multi-functional carrier systems are being explored for use in active immunotherapy against cancer and infectious diseases. Advancing technology, improved analytical methods, and use of computational methodology have also contributed to the development of subunit vaccine carriers. This review details recent breakthroughs in the design of nano-particulate vaccine carriers, including liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, and inorganic nanoparticles. PMID:27104575

  9. Serum Leukocyte Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor A3 (LILRA3) Is Increased in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Is a Strong Independent Indicator of Disease Severity; 6.7kbp LILRA3 Gene Deletion Is Not Associated with Diseases Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    An, Hongyan; Lim, Chai; Guillemin, Gilles J; Vollmer-Conna, Ute; Rawlinson, William; Bryant, Katherine; Tedla, Nicodemus

    2016-01-01

    Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor A3 (LILRA3) is a soluble immune regulatory molecule primarily expressed by monocytes and macrophages. A homozygous 6.7kbp LILRA3 gene deletion that removes the first seven of its eight exons is predicted to lead to lack of LILRA3 protein, although this has not been experiment